Experimental Monte Carlo Quantum Process Certification
Steffen, L; Fedorov, A; Baur, M; Wallraff, A
2012-01-01
Experimental implementations of quantum information processing have now reached a level of sophistication where quantum process tomography is impractical. The number of experimental settings as well as the computational cost of the data post-processing now translates to days of effort to characterize even experiments with as few as 8 qubits. Recently a more practical approach to determine the fidelity of an experimental quantum process has been proposed, where the experimental data is compared directly to an ideal process using Monte Carlo sampling. Here we present an experimental implementation of this scheme in a circuit quantum electrodynamics setup to determine the fidelity of two qubit gates, such as the cphase and the cnot gate, and three qubit gates, such as the Toffoli gate and two sequential cphase gates.
Bayesian Optimal Experimental Design Using Multilevel Monte Carlo
Issaid, Chaouki Ben
2015-01-07
Experimental design is very important since experiments are often resource-exhaustive and time-consuming. We carry out experimental design in the Bayesian framework. To measure the amount of information, which can be extracted from the data in an experiment, we use the expected information gain as the utility function, which specifically is the expected logarithmic ratio between the posterior and prior distributions. Optimizing this utility function enables us to design experiments that yield the most informative data for our purpose. One of the major difficulties in evaluating the expected information gain is that the integral is nested and can be high dimensional. We propose using Multilevel Monte Carlo techniques to accelerate the computation of the nested high dimensional integral. The advantages are twofold. First, the Multilevel Monte Carlo can significantly reduce the cost of the nested integral for a given tolerance, by using an optimal sample distribution among different sample averages of the inner integrals. Second, the Multilevel Monte Carlo method imposes less assumptions, such as the concentration of measures, required by Laplace method. We test our Multilevel Monte Carlo technique using a numerical example on the design of sensor deployment for a Darcy flow problem governed by one dimensional Laplace equation. We also compare the performance of the Multilevel Monte Carlo, Laplace approximation and direct double loop Monte Carlo.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baeza, J. A.; Ureba, A.; Jimenez-Ortega, E.; Pereira-Barbeiro, A. R.; Leal, A.
2013-07-01
A new platform for the full Monte Carlo planning and an independent experimental evaluation that it can be integrated into clinical practice. The tool has proved its usefulness and efficiency and now forms part of the flow of work of our research group, the tool used for the generation of results, which are to be suitably revised and are being published. This software is an effort of integration of numerous algorithms of image processing, along with planning optimization algorithms, allowing the process of MCTP planning from a single interface. In addition, becomes a flexible and accurate tool for the evaluation of experimental dosimetric data for the quality control of actual treatments. (Author)
Bayesian Optimal Experimental Design Using Multilevel Monte Carlo
Ben Issaid, Chaouki
2015-05-12
Experimental design can be vital when experiments are resource-exhaustive and time-consuming. In this work, we carry out experimental design in the Bayesian framework. To measure the amount of information that can be extracted from the data in an experiment, we use the expected information gain as the utility function, which specifically is the expected logarithmic ratio between the posterior and prior distributions. Optimizing this utility function enables us to design experiments that yield the most informative data about the model parameters. One of the major difficulties in evaluating the expected information gain is that it naturally involves nested integration over a possibly high dimensional domain. We use the Multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) method to accelerate the computation of the nested high dimensional integral. The advantages are twofold. First, MLMC can significantly reduce the cost of the nested integral for a given tolerance, by using an optimal sample distribution among different sample averages of the inner integrals. Second, the MLMC method imposes fewer assumptions, such as the asymptotic concentration of posterior measures, required for instance by the Laplace approximation (LA). We test the MLMC method using two numerical examples. The first example is the design of sensor deployment for a Darcy flow problem governed by a one-dimensional Poisson equation. We place the sensors in the locations where the pressure is measured, and we model the conductivity field as a piecewise constant random vector with two parameters. The second one is chemical Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) core flooding experiment assuming homogeneous permeability. We measure the cumulative oil recovery, from a horizontal core flooded by water, surfactant and polymer, for different injection rates. The model parameters consist of the endpoint relative permeabilities, the residual saturations and the relative permeability exponents for the three phases: water, oil and
Monte Carlo Simulation and Experimental Characterization of a Dual Head Gamma Camera
Rodrigues, S; Abreu, M C; Santos, N; Rato-Mendes, P; Peralta, L
2007-01-01
The GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulation and experimental characterization of the Siemens E.Cam Dual Head gamma camera hosted in the Particular Hospital of Algarve have been done. Imaging tests of thyroid and other phantoms have been made "in situ" and compared with the results obtained with the Monte Carlo simulation.
Bakshi, A K; Chatterjee, S; Palani Selvam, T; Dhabekar, B S
2010-07-01
In the present study, the energy dependence of response of some popular thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs) have been investigated such as LiF:Mg,Ti, LiF:Mg,Cu,P and CaSO(4):Dy to synchrotron radiation in the energy range of 10-34 keV. The study utilised experimental, Monte Carlo and analytical methods. The Monte Carlo calculations were based on the EGSnrc and FLUKA codes. The calculated energy response of all the TLDs using the EGSnrc and FLUKA codes shows excellent agreement with each other. The analytically calculated response shows good agreement with the Monte Carlo calculated response in the low-energy region. In the case of CaSO(4):Dy, the Monte Carlo-calculated energy response is smaller by a factor of 3 at all energies in comparison with the experimental response when polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) (75 % by wt) is included in the Monte Carlo calculations. When PTFE is ignored in the Monte Carlo calculations, the difference between the calculated and experimental response decreases (both responses are comparable >25 keV). For the LiF-based TLDs, the Monte Carlo-based response shows reasonable agreement with the experimental response.
Iba, Yukito
2000-01-01
``Extended Ensemble Monte Carlo''is a generic term that indicates a set of algorithms which are now popular in a variety of fields in physics and statistical information processing. Exchange Monte Carlo (Metropolis-Coupled Chain, Parallel Tempering), Simulated Tempering (Expanded Ensemble Monte Carlo), and Multicanonical Monte Carlo (Adaptive Umbrella Sampling) are typical members of this family. Here we give a cross-disciplinary survey of these algorithms with special emphasis on the great f...
Combined experimental and Monte Carlo verification of brachytherapy plans for vaginal applicators
Sloboda, Ron S.; Wang, Ruqing
1998-12-01
Dose rates in a phantom around a shielded and an unshielded vaginal applicator containing Selectron low-dose-rate sources were determined by experiment and Monte Carlo simulation. Measurements were performed with thermoluminescent dosimeters in a white polystyrene phantom using an experimental protocol geared for precision. Calculations for the same set-up were done using a version of the EGS4 Monte Carlo code system modified for brachytherapy applications into which a new combinatorial geometry package developed by Bielajew was recently incorporated. Measured dose rates agree with Monte Carlo estimates to within 5% (1 SD) for the unshielded applicator, while highlighting some experimental uncertainties for the shielded applicator. Monte Carlo calculations were also done to determine a value for the effective transmission of the shield required for clinical treatment planning, and to estimate the dose rate in water at points in axial and sagittal planes transecting the shielded applicator. Comparison with dose rates generated by the planning system indicates that agreement is better than 5% (1 SD) at most positions. The precision thermoluminescent dosimetry protocol and modified Monte Carlo code are effective complementary tools for brachytherapy applicator dosimetry.
Meric, N; Bor, D
1999-01-01
Scatter fractions have been determined experimentally for lucite, polyethylene, polypropylene, aluminium and copper of varying thicknesses using a polyenergetic broad X-ray beam of 67 kVp. Simulation of the experiment has been carried out by the Monte Carlo technique under the same input conditions. Comparison of the measured and predicted data with each other and with the previously reported values has been given. The Monte Carlo calculations have also been carried out for water, bakelite and bone to examine the dependence of scatter fraction on the density of the scatterer.
Monte Carlo simulation - a powerful tool to support experimental activities in structure reliability
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yuritzinn, T. [CEA Saclay, Dept. de Mecanique et de Technologie (DRN/DMT/SEMT/LISN), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Chapuliot, S. [CEA Saclay, Dept. Modelisation de Systemes et Structures (DM2S/SEMT), 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Eid, M. [CEA Saclay, Dept. de Mecanique et de Technologie (DRN/DMT/SERMA/LCA), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Masson, R.; Dahl, A.; Moinereau, D. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)
2003-07-01
Monte-Carlo Simulation (MCS) can have different uses in supporting structure reliability investigations and assessments. In this paper we focus our interest on the use of MCS as a numerical tool to support the fitting of the experimental data related to toughness experiments. (authors)
Ainscow, E K; Brand, M D
1998-09-21
The errors associated with experimental application of metabolic control analysis are difficult to assess. In this paper, we give examples where Monte-Carlo simulations of published experimental data are used in error analysis. Data was simulated according to the mean and error obtained from experimental measurements and the simulated data was used to calculate control coefficients. Repeating the simulation 500 times allowed an estimate to be made of the error implicit in the calculated control coefficients. In the first example, state 4 respiration of isolated mitochondria, Monte-Carlo simulations based on the system elasticities were performed. The simulations gave error estimates similar to the values reported within the original paper and those derived from a sensitivity analysis of the elasticities. This demonstrated the validity of the method. In the second example, state 3 respiration of isolated mitochondria, Monte-Carlo simulations were based on measurements of intermediates and fluxes. A key feature of this simulation was that the distribution of the simulated control coefficients did not follow a normal distribution, despite simulation of the original data being based on normal distributions. Consequently, the error calculated using simulation was greater and more realistic than the error calculated directly by averaging the original results. The Monte-Carlo simulations are also demonstrated to be useful in experimental design. The individual data points that should be repeated in order to reduce the error in the control coefficients can be highlighted.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brown, F.B.; Sutton, T.M.
1996-02-01
This report is composed of the lecture notes from the first half of a 32-hour graduate-level course on Monte Carlo methods offered at KAPL. These notes, prepared by two of the principle developers of KAPL`s RACER Monte Carlo code, cover the fundamental theory, concepts, and practices for Monte Carlo analysis. In particular, a thorough grounding in the basic fundamentals of Monte Carlo methods is presented, including random number generation, random sampling, the Monte Carlo approach to solving transport problems, computational geometry, collision physics, tallies, and eigenvalue calculations. Furthermore, modern computational algorithms for vector and parallel approaches to Monte Carlo calculations are covered in detail, including fundamental parallel and vector concepts, the event-based algorithm, master/slave schemes, parallel scaling laws, and portability issues.
Bardenet, R.
2012-01-01
ISBN:978-2-7598-1032-1; International audience; Bayesian inference often requires integrating some function with respect to a posterior distribution. Monte Carlo methods are sampling algorithms that allow to compute these integrals numerically when they are not analytically tractable. We review here the basic principles and the most common Monte Carlo algorithms, among which rejection sampling, importance sampling and Monte Carlo Markov chain (MCMC) methods. We give intuition on the theoretic...
Dunn, William L
2012-01-01
Exploring Monte Carlo Methods is a basic text that describes the numerical methods that have come to be known as "Monte Carlo." The book treats the subject generically through the first eight chapters and, thus, should be of use to anyone who wants to learn to use Monte Carlo. The next two chapters focus on applications in nuclear engineering, which are illustrative of uses in other fields. Five appendices are included, which provide useful information on probability distributions, general-purpose Monte Carlo codes for radiation transport, and other matters. The famous "Buffon's needle proble
Uncertainties in Monte Carlo-based absorbed dose calculations for an experimental benchmark.
Renner, F; Wulff, J; Kapsch, R-P; Zink, K
2015-10-01
There is a need to verify the accuracy of general purpose Monte Carlo codes like EGSnrc, which are commonly employed for investigations of dosimetric problems in radiation therapy. A number of experimental benchmarks have been published to compare calculated values of absorbed dose to experimentally determined values. However, there is a lack of absolute benchmarks, i.e. benchmarks without involved normalization which may cause some quantities to be cancelled. Therefore, at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt a benchmark experiment was performed, which aimed at the absolute verification of radiation transport calculations for dosimetry in radiation therapy. A thimble-type ionization chamber in a solid phantom was irradiated by high-energy bremsstrahlung and the mean absorbed dose in the sensitive volume was measured per incident electron of the target. The characteristics of the accelerator and experimental setup were precisely determined and the results of a corresponding Monte Carlo simulation with EGSnrc are presented within this study. For a meaningful comparison, an analysis of the uncertainty of the Monte Carlo simulation is necessary. In this study uncertainties with regard to the simulation geometry, the radiation source, transport options of the Monte Carlo code and specific interaction cross sections are investigated, applying the general methodology of the Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement. Besides studying the general influence of changes in transport options of the EGSnrc code, uncertainties are analyzed by estimating the sensitivity coefficients of various input quantities in a first step. Secondly, standard uncertainties are assigned to each quantity which are known from the experiment, e.g. uncertainties for geometric dimensions. Data for more fundamental quantities such as photon cross sections and the I-value of electron stopping powers are taken from literature. The significant uncertainty contributions are identified as
Lectures on Monte Carlo methods
Madras, Neal
2001-01-01
Monte Carlo methods form an experimental branch of mathematics that employs simulations driven by random number generators. These methods are often used when others fail, since they are much less sensitive to the "curse of dimensionality", which plagues deterministic methods in problems with a large number of variables. Monte Carlo methods are used in many fields: mathematics, statistics, physics, chemistry, finance, computer science, and biology, for instance. This book is an introduction to Monte Carlo methods for anyone who would like to use these methods to study various kinds of mathemati
Experimental and Monte Carlo evaluation of an ionization chamber in a 60Co beam
Perini, A. P.; Neves, L. P.; Santos, W. S.; Caldas, L. V. E.
2016-07-01
Recently a special parallel-plate ionization chamber was developed and characterized at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares. The operational tests presented results within the recommended limits. In order to determine the influence of some components of the ionization chamber on its response, Monte Carlo simulations were carried out. The experimental and simulation results pointed out that the dosimeter evaluated in the present work has favorable properties to be applied to 60Co dosimetry at calibration laboratories.
Experimental and Monte Carlo evaluation of an ionization chamber in a {sup 60}Co beam
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Perini, Ana P.; Neves, Lucio Pereira, E-mail: anapaula.perini@ufu.br [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (INFIS/UFU), MG (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica; Santos, William S.; Caldas, Linda V.E. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleres (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)
2015-07-01
Recently a special parallel-plate ionization chamber was developed and characterized at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares. The operational tests presented results within the recommended limits. In order to determine the influence of some components of the ionization chamber on its response, Monte Carlo simulations were carried out. The experimental and simulation results pointed out that the dosimeter evaluated in the present work has favorable properties to be applied to {sup 60}Co dosimetry at calibration laboratories. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cramer, S.N.
1984-01-01
The MORSE code is a large general-use multigroup Monte Carlo code system. Although no claims can be made regarding its superiority in either theoretical details or Monte Carlo techniques, MORSE has been, since its inception at ORNL in the late 1960s, the most widely used Monte Carlo radiation transport code. The principal reason for this popularity is that MORSE is relatively easy to use, independent of any installation or distribution center, and it can be easily customized to fit almost any specific need. Features of the MORSE code are described.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zevallos-Chavez, Juan Y.; Pires, Carlos Augusto; Zahn, Guilherme Soares [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: juan@if.usp.br; Genezini, Frederico Antonio [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN), Recife, PE (Brazil)). E-mail: Cruz, Manoel Tiago F. da (Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica
2005-07-01
The detection efficiency of a Germanium detector was measured in the energy range of 80 keV up to 1 MeV. A model function to fit the efficiency data was used, containing an absorbing window factor. The results were compared with a Monte Carlo simulation of the photon interactions where, the nominal dimensions were varied in order to check the low-energy behavior of the efficiency curve. The Monte Carlo results showed to be in good agreement with the experimental ones when the nominal dimensions of the crystal, except for its dead layer thickness, were used. This difference in the dead layer was attributed to its non-uniformity. (author)
Quantum Monte Carlo simulation
Wang, Yazhen
2011-01-01
Contemporary scientific studies often rely on the understanding of complex quantum systems via computer simulation. This paper initiates the statistical study of quantum simulation and proposes a Monte Carlo method for estimating analytically intractable quantities. We derive the bias and variance for the proposed Monte Carlo quantum simulation estimator and establish the asymptotic theory for the estimator. The theory is used to design a computational scheme for minimizing the mean square er...
Monte Carlo transition probabilities
Lucy, L. B.
2001-01-01
Transition probabilities governing the interaction of energy packets and matter are derived that allow Monte Carlo NLTE transfer codes to be constructed without simplifying the treatment of line formation. These probabilities are such that the Monte Carlo calculation asymptotically recovers the local emissivity of a gas in statistical equilibrium. Numerical experiments with one-point statistical equilibrium problems for Fe II and Hydrogen confirm this asymptotic behaviour. In addition, the re...
Sadeghi, Mahdi; Raisali, Gholamreza; Hosseini, S Hamed; Shavar, Arzhang
2008-04-01
This article presents a brachytherapy source having 103Pd adsorbed onto a cylindrical silver rod that has been developed by the Agricultural, Medical, and Industrial Research School for permanent implant applications. Dosimetric characteristics (radial dose function, anisotropy function, and anisotropy factor) of this source were experimentally and theoretically determined in terms of the updated AAPM Task group 43 (TG-43U1) recommendations. Monte Carlo simulations were used to calculate the dose rate constant. Measurements were performed using TLD-GR200A circular chip dosimeters using standard methods employing thermoluminescent dosimeters in a Perspex phantom. Precision machined bores in the phantom located the dosimeters and the source in a reproducible fixed geometry, providing for transverse-axis and angular dose profiles over a range of distances from 0.5 to 5 cm. The Monte Carlo N-particle (MCNP) code, version 4C simulation techniques have been used to evaluate the dose-rate distributions around this model 103Pd source in water and Perspex phantoms. The Monte Carlo calculated dose rate constant of the IRA-103Pd source in water was found to be 0.678 cGy h(-1) U(-1) with an approximate uncertainty of +/-0.1%. The anisotropy function, F(r, theta), and the radial dose function, g(r), of the IRA- 103Pd source were also measured in a Perspex phantom and calculated in both Perspex and liquid water phantoms.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Actis, S. [Paul-Scherrer-Institute Wuerenlingen and Villigen, Villigen (Switzerland); Arbuzov, A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation). Bogoliubov Lab. of Theoretical Physics; Balossini, G. [Pavia Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica; INFN, Pavia (IT)] (and others)
2009-12-15
We present the achievements of the last years of the experimental and theoretical groups working on hadronic cross section measurements at the low energy e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders in Beijing, Frascati, Ithaca, Novosibirsk, Stanford and Tsukuba and on {tau} decays. We sketch the prospects in these fields for the years to come. We emphasise the status and the precision of the Monte Carlo generators used to analyse the hadronic cross section measurements obtained as well with energy scans as with radiative return, to determine luminosities and {tau} decays. The radiative corrections fully or approximately implemented in the various codes and the contribution of the vacuum polarisation are discussed. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Actis, S. [Paul Scherrer Inst., Wuerenlingen and Villigen, Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Arbuzov, A.; Kuraev, E.A. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Bogoliubov Lab. of Theoretical Physics, Dubna (Russian Federation); Balossini, G.; Bignamini, C.; Montagna, G. [Univ. di Pavia, Dipt. di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica, Pavia (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Beltrame, P. [CERN, Physics Dept., Geneve (Switzerland); Bonciani, R. [Univ. Joseph Fourier/CNRS-IN2P3/INPG, Lab. de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Grenoble (France); Carloni Calame, C.M. [Univ. of Southampton, School of Physics and Astronomy, Southampton (United Kingdom); Cherepanov, V.; Eidelman, S.; Fedotovich, G.V. [Budker Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State Univ., Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Czakon, M. [RWTH Aachen Univ., Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik E, Aachen (Germany); Czyz, H.; Gluza, J.; Gunia, M. [Univ. of Silesia, Inst. of Physics, Katowice (Poland); Denig, A.; Hafner, A.; Mueller, S.E. [Johannes Gutenberg-Univ. Mainz, Inst. fuer Kernphysik, Mainz (Germany); Ferroglia, A. [Johannes Gutenberg-Univ., Inst. fuer Physik, THEP, Mainz (Germany); Grzelinska, A.; Jadach, S.; Was, Z. [Inst. of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences, Cracow (Poland); Ignatov, F.; Lukin, P.; Sibidanov, A.L. [Budker Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Jegerlehner, F. [Inst. fuer Physik Humboldt-Univ. zu Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Univ. of Silesia, Inst. of Physics, Katowice (Poland); Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Kalinowski, A. [LLR-Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France); Kluge, W. [Univ. Karlsruhe, Inst. fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Korchin, A. [National Science Center ' Kharkov Inst. of Physics and Technology' , Kharkov (Ukraine); Kuehn, J.H. [Univ. Karlsruhe, Inst. fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany)] [and others
2010-04-15
We present the achievements of the last years of the experimental and theoretical groups working on hadronic cross section measurements at the low-energy e {sup +} e {sup -} colliders in Beijing, Frascati, Ithaca, Novosibirsk, Stanford and Tsukuba and on {tau} decays. We sketch the prospects in these fields for the years to come. We emphasise the status and the precision of the Monte Carlo generators used to analyse the hadronic cross section measurements obtained as well with energy scans as with radiative return, to determine luminosities and {tau} decays. The radiative corrections fully or approximately implemented in the various codes and the contribution of the vacuum polarisation are discussed. (orig.)
Actis, S; Arbuzov, A; Balossini, G; Beltrame, P; Bignamini, C; Bonciani, R; Carloni Calame, C M; Cherepanov, V; Czakon, M; Czyz, H; Denig, A; Eidelman, S; Fedotovich, G V; Ferroglia, A; Gluza, J; Grzeli nska, A; Gunia, M; Hafner, A; Ignatov, F; Jadach, S; Jegerlehner, F; Kalinowski, A; Kluge, W; Korchin, A; Kuhn, J H; Kuraev, E A; Lukin, P; Mastrolia, P; Montagna, G; Muller, S E; Nguyen, F; Nicrosini, O; Nomura, D; Pakhlova, G; Pancheri, G; Passera, M; Penin, A; Piccinini, F; Placzek, W; Przedzinski, T; Remiddi, E; Riemann, T; Rodrigo, G; Roig, P; Shekhovtsova, O; Shen, C P; Sibidanov, A L; Teubner, T; Trentadue, L; Venanzoni, G; van der Bij, J J; Wang, P; Ward, B F L; Was, Z; Worek, M; Yuan, C Z
2010-01-01
We present the achievements of the last years of the experimental and theoretical groups working on hadronic cross section measurements at the low energy e+e- colliders in Beijing, Frascati, Ithaca, Novosibirsk, Stanford and Tsukuba and on tau decays. We sketch the prospects in these fields for the years to come. We emphasise the status and the precision of the Monte Carlo generators used to analyse the hadronic cross section measurements obtained as well with energy scans as with radiative return, to determine luminosities and tau decays. The radiative corrections fully or approximately implemented in the various codes and the contribution of the vacuum polarisation are discussed.
Hrivnacova, I; Berejnov, V V; Brun, R; Carminati, F; Fassò, A; Futo, E; Gheata, A; Caballero, I G; Morsch, Andreas
2003-01-01
The concept of Virtual Monte Carlo (VMC) has been developed by the ALICE Software Project to allow different Monte Carlo simulation programs to run without changing the user code, such as the geometry definition, the detector response simulation or input and output formats. Recently, the VMC classes have been integrated into the ROOT framework, and the other relevant packages have been separated from the AliRoot framework and can be used individually by any other HEP project. The general concept of the VMC and its set of base classes provided in ROOT will be presented. Existing implementations for Geant3, Geant4 and FLUKA and simple examples of usage will be described.
A new cubic phantom for PET/CT dosimetry: Experimental and Monte Carlo characterization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Belinato, Walmir [Departamento de Ensino, Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia da Bahia, Campus Vitoria da Conquista, Zabele, Av. Amazonas 3150, 45030-220 Vitoria da Conquista, BA (Brazil); Silva, Rogerio M.V.; Souza, Divanizia N. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sergipe-UFS, Sao Cristovao, Sergipe (Brazil); Santos, William S.; Caldas, Linda V.E. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-000 Sao Paulo SP (Brazil); Perini, Ana P.; Neves, Lucio P. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-000 Sao Paulo SP (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Uberlandia, Caixa Postal 593, 38400-902, Uberlandia, MG (Brazil)
2015-07-01
In recent years, positron emission tomography (PET) associated with multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) has become a diagnostic technique widely disseminated to evaluate various malignant tumors and other diseases. However, during PET/CT examinations, the doses of ionizing radiation experienced by the internal organs of patients may be substantial. To study the doses involved in PET/CT procedures, a new cubic phantom of overlapping acrylic plates was developed and characterized. This phantom has a deposit for the placement of the fluorine-18 fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) solution. There are also small holes near the faces for the insertion of optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLD). The holes for OSLD are positioned at different distances from the {sup 18}F-FDG deposit. The experimental results were obtained in two PET/CT devices operating with different parameters. Differences in the absorbed doses were observed in OSLD measurements due to the non-orthogonal positioning of the detectors inside the phantom. This phantom was also evaluated using Monte Carlo simulations, with the MCNPX code. The phantom and the geometrical characteristics of the equipment were carefully modeled in the MCNPX code, in order to develop a new methodology form comparison of experimental and simulated results, as well as to allow the characterization of PET/CT equipments in Monte Carlo simulations. All results showed good agreement, proving that this new phantom may be applied for these experiments. (authors)
Yuan, Jiankui; Zheng, Yiran; Wessels, Barry; Lo, Simon S; Ellis, Rodney; Machtay, Mitchell; Yao, Min
2016-12-01
A virtual source model for Monte Carlo simulations of helical TomoTherapy has been developed previously by the authors. The purpose of this work is to perform experiments in an anthropomorphic (RANDO) phantom with the same order of complexity as in clinical treatments to validate the virtual source model to be used for quality assurance secondary check on TomoTherapy patient planning dose. Helical TomoTherapy involves complex delivery pattern with irregular beam apertures and couch movement during irradiation. Monte Carlo simulation, as the most accurate dose algorithm, is desirable in radiation dosimetry. Current Monte Carlo simulations for helical TomoTherapy adopt the full Monte Carlo model, which includes detailed modeling of individual machine component, and thus, large phase space files are required at different scoring planes. As an alternative approach, we developed a virtual source model without using the large phase space files for the patient dose calculations previously. In this work, we apply the simulation system to recompute the patient doses, which were generated by the treatment planning system in an anthropomorphic phantom to mimic the real patient treatments. We performed thermoluminescence dosimeter point dose and film measurements to compare with Monte Carlo results. Thermoluminescence dosimeter measurements show that the relative difference in both Monte Carlo and treatment planning system is within 3%, with the largest difference less than 5% for both the test plans. The film measurements demonstrated 85.7% and 98.4% passing rate using the 3 mm/3% acceptance criterion for the head and neck and lung cases, respectively. Over 95% passing rate is achieved if 4 mm/4% criterion is applied. For the dose-volume histograms, very good agreement is obtained between the Monte Carlo and treatment planning system method for both cases. The experimental results demonstrate that the virtual source model Monte Carlo system can be a viable option for the
Scates, W.; Hartwell, J. K.; Aryaeinejad, R.; McIlwain, M. E.
2006-01-01
Recent developments associated with room temperature semiconductor detectors and inorganic scintillators suggest that these detectors may be viable alternatives for the primary detector in a Compton suppression spectrometer (CSS). The room temperature operation of these detectors allows removal of a substantial amount of material from between primary and secondary detectors, if properly designed and should afford substantially better suppression factors than can be achieved by germanium-based spectrometers. We have chosen to study the optimum properties of a CSS with a LaX 3:Ce scintillator (where X is chloride or bromide) as the primary gamma-ray detector. A Monte Carlo photon transport model is used to determine the optimum geometric properties of this spectrometer. To validate the assumptions and basic design of the Monte Carlo simulations, the energy distribution of a 137Cs point source is measured and simulated for two experimental systems. Comparison of the suppression factors for the measured and simulated data validates the model accuracy. A range of CSS physical parameters are studied to determine optimal detector geometry and to maximize the Compton suppression factor. These physical parameters and their optimum values are discussed.
A Monte-Carlo based model of the AX-PET demonstrator and its experimental validation.
Solevi, P; Oliver, J F; Gillam, J E; Bolle, E; Casella, C; Chesi, E; De Leo, R; Dissertori, G; Fanti, V; Heller, M; Lai, M; Lustermann, W; Nappi, E; Pauss, F; Rudge, A; Ruotsalainen, U; Schinzel, D; Schneider, T; Séguinot, J; Stapnes, S; Weilhammer, P; Tuna, U; Joram, C; Rafecas, M
2013-08-21
AX-PET is a novel PET detector based on axially oriented crystals and orthogonal wavelength shifter (WLS) strips, both individually read out by silicon photo-multipliers. Its design decouples sensitivity and spatial resolution, by reducing the parallax error due to the layered arrangement of the crystals. Additionally the granularity of AX-PET enhances the capability to track photons within the detector yielding a large fraction of inter-crystal scatter events. These events, if properly processed, can be included in the reconstruction stage further increasing the sensitivity. Its unique features require dedicated Monte-Carlo simulations, enabling the development of the device, interpreting data and allowing the development of reconstruction codes. At the same time the non-conventional design of AX-PET poses several challenges to the simulation and modeling tasks, mostly related to the light transport and distribution within the crystals and WLS strips, as well as the electronics readout. In this work we present a hybrid simulation tool based on an analytical model and a Monte-Carlo based description of the AX-PET demonstrator. It was extensively validated against experimental data, providing excellent agreement.
A Monte Carlo investigation of experimental data requirements for fitting polynomial functions
Canavos, G. C.
1974-01-01
This report examines the extent to which sample size affects the accuracy of a low order polynomial approximation of an experimentally observed quantity and establishes a trend toward improvement in the accuracy of the approximation as a function of sample size. The task is made possible through a simulated analysis carried out by the Monte Carlo method, in which data are generated by using several transcendental or algebraic functions as models. Contaminated data of varying amounts are fitted to linear quadratic or cubic polynomials, and the behavior of the mean-squared error of the residual variance is determined as a function of sample size. Results indicate that the effect of the size of the sample is significant only for relatively small sample sizes and diminishes drastically for moderate and large amounts of experimental data.
Farah, J; Martinetti, F; Sayah, R; Lacoste, V; Donadille, L; Trompier, F; Nauraye, C; De Marzi, L; Vabre, I; Delacroix, S; Hérault, J; Clairand, I
2014-06-07
Monte Carlo calculations are increasingly used to assess stray radiation dose to healthy organs of proton therapy patients and estimate the risk of secondary cancer. Among the secondary particles, neutrons are of primary concern due to their high relative biological effectiveness. The validation of Monte Carlo simulations for out-of-field neutron doses remains however a major challenge to the community. Therefore this work focused on developing a global experimental approach to test the reliability of the MCNPX models of two proton therapy installations operating at 75 and 178 MeV for ocular and intracranial tumor treatments, respectively. The method consists of comparing Monte Carlo calculations against experimental measurements of: (a) neutron spectrometry inside the treatment room, (b) neutron ambient dose equivalent at several points within the treatment room, (c) secondary organ-specific neutron doses inside the Rando-Alderson anthropomorphic phantom. Results have proven that Monte Carlo models correctly reproduce secondary neutrons within the two proton therapy treatment rooms. Sensitive differences between experimental measurements and simulations were nonetheless observed especially with the highest beam energy. The study demonstrated the need for improved measurement tools, especially at the high neutron energy range, and more accurate physical models and cross sections within the Monte Carlo code to correctly assess secondary neutron doses in proton therapy applications.
Farah, J.; Martinetti, F.; Sayah, R.; Lacoste, V.; Donadille, L.; Trompier, F.; Nauraye, C.; De Marzi, L.; Vabre, I.; Delacroix, S.; Hérault, J.; Clairand, I.
2014-06-01
Monte Carlo calculations are increasingly used to assess stray radiation dose to healthy organs of proton therapy patients and estimate the risk of secondary cancer. Among the secondary particles, neutrons are of primary concern due to their high relative biological effectiveness. The validation of Monte Carlo simulations for out-of-field neutron doses remains however a major challenge to the community. Therefore this work focused on developing a global experimental approach to test the reliability of the MCNPX models of two proton therapy installations operating at 75 and 178 MeV for ocular and intracranial tumor treatments, respectively. The method consists of comparing Monte Carlo calculations against experimental measurements of: (a) neutron spectrometry inside the treatment room, (b) neutron ambient dose equivalent at several points within the treatment room, (c) secondary organ-specific neutron doses inside the Rando-Alderson anthropomorphic phantom. Results have proven that Monte Carlo models correctly reproduce secondary neutrons within the two proton therapy treatment rooms. Sensitive differences between experimental measurements and simulations were nonetheless observed especially with the highest beam energy. The study demonstrated the need for improved measurement tools, especially at the high neutron energy range, and more accurate physical models and cross sections within the Monte Carlo code to correctly assess secondary neutron doses in proton therapy applications.
Approaching Chemical Accuracy with Quantum Monte Carlo
Petruzielo, Frank R.; Toulouse, Julien; Umrigar, C. J.
2012-01-01
International audience; A quantum Monte Carlo study of the atomization energies for the G2 set of molecules is presented. Basis size dependence of diffusion Monte Carlo atomization energies is studied with a single determinant Slater-Jastrow trial wavefunction formed from Hartree-Fock orbitals. With the largest basis set, the mean absolute deviation from experimental atomization energies for the G2 set is 3.0 kcal/mol. Optimizing the orbitals within variational Monte Carlo improves the agreem...
Structure of krypton gas: Monte Carlo results, virial expansions, and real experimental data
Egelstaff, P. A.; Teitsma, Albert; Wang, S. S.
1980-10-01
We have made Monte Carlo calculations of the pair correlation function g(r) of a dense gas along the 297 K isotherm using a published pair potential for krypton. Eleven states were simulated, and then, using the pair potential plus the Axilrod-Teller triple-dipole potential, seven states were simulated. The effect of the triplet potential was very small except near the principal peak of g(r). We compare, in real and Fourier space, these results to the virial expansion of g(r) at low densities to test its range of validity. This work provided the background for the interpretation of the experimental data of Teitsma and Egelstaff on real krypton gas, and examples are given involving the extraction of the pair- and triplet-potential terms.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Granero, D.; Blasco, J. M.; Sanchis, E.; Gonzalez, V.; Martin, J. D.; Ballester, F.; Sanchis, E.
2013-07-01
The purpose of this work is to test the response of a system composed of 21 scintillators radiation fibres and its electronics as proof of the validity of the System. For this it has radiated test system with a source of verification of Sr-90. In addition, performed Monte Carlo simulations of the system by comparing the results of the simulations with those obtained experimentally. Moreover taken an approximation to the behavior of a hodoscopic composed of 100 scintillators, transverse fibers between if, in proton therapy, conducting different Monte Carlo simulations. (Author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cecilia Maya
2004-12-01
Full Text Available El método Monte Carlo se aplica a varios casos de valoración de opciones financieras. El método genera una buena aproximación al comparar su precisión con la de otros métodos numéricos. La estimación que produce la versión Cruda de Monte Carlo puede ser aún más exacta si se recurre a metodologías de reducción de la varianza entre las cuales se sugieren la variable antitética y de la variable de control. Sin embargo, dichas metodologías requieren un esfuerzo computacional mayor por lo cual las mismas deben ser evaluadas en términos no sólo de su precisión sino también de su eficiencia.
Monte Carlo and nonlinearities
Dauchet, Jérémi; Blanco, Stéphane; Caliot, Cyril; Charon, Julien; Coustet, Christophe; Hafi, Mouna El; Eymet, Vincent; Farges, Olivier; Forest, Vincent; Fournier, Richard; Galtier, Mathieu; Gautrais, Jacques; Khuong, Anaïs; Pelissier, Lionel; Piaud, Benjamin; Roger, Maxime; Terrée, Guillaume; Weitz, Sebastian
2016-01-01
The Monte Carlo method is widely used to numerically predict systems behaviour. However, its powerful incremental design assumes a strong premise which has severely limited application so far: the estimation process must combine linearly over dimensions. Here we show that this premise can be alleviated by projecting nonlinearities on a polynomial basis and increasing the configuration-space dimension. Considering phytoplankton growth in light-limited environments, radiative transfer in planetary atmospheres, electromagnetic scattering by particles and concentrated-solar-power-plant productions, we prove the real world usability of this advance on four test-cases that were so far regarded as impracticable by Monte Carlo approaches. We also illustrate an outstanding feature of our method when applied to sharp problems with interacting particles: handling rare events is now straightforward. Overall, our extension preserves the features that made the method popular: addressing nonlinearities does not compromise o...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wollaber, Allan Benton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2016-06-16
This is a powerpoint presentation which serves as lecture material for the Parallel Computing summer school. It goes over the fundamentals of the Monte Carlo calculation method. The material is presented according to the following outline: Introduction (background, a simple example: estimating π), Why does this even work? (The Law of Large Numbers, The Central Limit Theorem), How to sample (inverse transform sampling, rejection), and An example from particle transport.
LMC: Logarithmantic Monte Carlo
Mantz, Adam B.
2017-06-01
LMC is a Markov Chain Monte Carlo engine in Python that implements adaptive Metropolis-Hastings and slice sampling, as well as the affine-invariant method of Goodman & Weare, in a flexible framework. It can be used for simple problems, but the main use case is problems where expensive likelihood evaluations are provided by less flexible third-party software, which benefit from parallelization across many nodes at the sampling level. The parallel/adaptive methods use communication through MPI, or alternatively by writing/reading files, and mostly follow the approaches pioneered by CosmoMC (ascl:1106.025).
Gamma irradiator dose mapping: a Monte Carlo simulation and experimental measurements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rodrigues, Rogerio R.; Ribeiro, Mariana A.; Grynberg, Suely E.; Ferreira, Andrea V.; Meira-Belo, Luiz Claudio, E-mail: rrr@cdtn.b, E-mail: marianaalmeida@ufmg.b, E-mail: seg@cdtn.b, E-mail: avf@cdtn.b, E-mail: lcmb@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Sousa, Romulo V.; Sebastiao, Rita de C.O., E-mail: romuloverdolin@yahoo.com.b, E-mail: ritacos@ufmg.b [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Exatas. Dept. de Quimica
2009-07-01
Gamma irradiator facilities can be used in a wide range of applications such as biological and chemical researches, food treatment and sterilization of medical devices and products. Dose mapping must be performed in these equipment in order to establish plant operational parameters, as dose uniformity, source utilization efficiency and maximum and minimum dose positions. The isodoses curves are generally measured using dosimeters distributed throughout the device, and this procedure often consume a large amount of dosimeters, irradiation time and manpower. However, a detailed curve doses identification of the irradiation facility can be performed using Monte Carlo simulation, which reduces significantly the monitoring with dosimeters. The present work evaluates the absorbed dose in the CDTN/CNEN Gammacell Irradiation Facility, using the Monte Carlo N-particles (MCNP) code. The Gammacell 220, serial number 39, was produced by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited and was loaded with sources of {sup 60}Co. Dose measurements using TLD and Fricke dosimeters were also performed to validate the calculations. The good agreement of the results shows that Monte Carlo simulations can be used as a predictive tool of irradiation planning for the CDTN/CNEN Gamma Cell Irradiator. (author)
Attenuation properties of cement composites: Experimental measurements and Monte Carlo calculations
Florez Meza, Raul Fernando
Developing new cement based materials with excellent mechanical and attenuation properties is critically important for both medical and nuclear power industries. Concrete continues to be the primary choice material for the shielding of gamma and neutron radiation in facilities such as nuclear reactors, nuclear waste repositories, spent nuclear fuel pools, heavy particle radiotherapy rooms, particles accelerators, among others. The purpose of this research was to manufacture cement pastes modified with magnetite and samarium oxide and evaluate the feasibility of utilizing them for shielding of gamma and neutron radiation. Two different experiments were conducted to accomplish these goals. In the first one, Portland cement pastes modified with different loading of fine magnetite were fabricated and investigated for application in gamma radiation shielding. The experimental results were verified theoretically through XCOM and the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) transport code. Scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction tests were used to investigate the microstructure of the samples. Mechanical characterization was also perfornmed by compression testing. The results suggest that fine magnetite is a suitable aggregate for increasing the compressive and flexural strength of white Portland cement pastes; however, there is no improvement of the attenuation at intermediate energy (662 keV). For the second experiment, cement pastes with different concentrations of samarium oxide were fabricated and tested for shielding against thermal neutrons. MCNP simulations were used to validate the experimental work. The result shows that samarium oxide increases the effective thermal cross section of Portland cement and has the potential to replace boron bearing compounds currently used in neutron shielding.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marcus, Ryan C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2012-07-25
MCMini is a proof of concept that demonstrates the possibility for Monte Carlo neutron transport using OpenCL with a focus on performance. This implementation, written in C, shows that tracing particles and calculating reactions on a 3D mesh can be done in a highly scalable fashion. These results demonstrate a potential path forward for MCNP or other Monte Carlo codes.
Monte Carlo methods for electromagnetics
Sadiku, Matthew NO
2009-01-01
Until now, novices had to painstakingly dig through the literature to discover how to use Monte Carlo techniques for solving electromagnetic problems. Written by one of the foremost researchers in the field, Monte Carlo Methods for Electromagnetics provides a solid understanding of these methods and their applications in electromagnetic computation. Including much of his own work, the author brings together essential information from several different publications.Using a simple, clear writing style, the author begins with a historical background and review of electromagnetic theory. After addressing probability and statistics, he introduces the finite difference method as well as the fixed and floating random walk Monte Carlo methods. The text then applies the Exodus method to Laplace's and Poisson's equations and presents Monte Carlo techniques for handing Neumann problems. It also deals with whole field computation using the Markov chain, applies Monte Carlo methods to time-varying diffusion problems, and ...
Monte Carlo approaches to light nuclei
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carlson, J.
1990-01-01
Significant progress has been made recently in the application of Monte Carlo methods to the study of light nuclei. We review new Green's function Monte Carlo results for the alpha particle, Variational Monte Carlo studies of {sup 16}O, and methods for low-energy scattering and transitions. Through these calculations, a coherent picture of the structure and electromagnetic properties of light nuclei has arisen. In particular, we examine the effect of the three-nucleon interaction and the importance of exchange currents in a variety of experimentally measured properties, including form factors and capture cross sections. 29 refs., 7 figs.
Metropolis Methods for Quantum Monte Carlo Simulations
Ceperley, D. M.
2003-01-01
Since its first description fifty years ago, the Metropolis Monte Carlo method has been used in a variety of different ways for the simulation of continuum quantum many-body systems. This paper will consider some of the generalizations of the Metropolis algorithm employed in quantum Monte Carlo: Variational Monte Carlo, dynamical methods for projector monte carlo ({\\it i.e.} diffusion Monte Carlo with rejection), multilevel sampling in path integral Monte Carlo, the sampling of permutations, ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Datema, C.P. E-mail: c.datema@iri.tudelft.nl; Bom, V.R.; Eijk, C.W.E. van
2002-08-01
Experiments were carried out to investigate the possible use of neutron backscattering for the detection of landmines buried in the soil. Several landmines, buried in a sand-pit, were positively identified. A series of Monte Carlo simulations were performed to study the complexity of the neutron backscattering process and to optimize the geometry of a future prototype. The results of these simulations indicate that this method shows great potential for the detection of non-metallic landmines (with a plastic casing), for which so far no reliable method has been found.
Datema, C P; Eijk, C W E
2002-01-01
Experiments were carried out to investigate the possible use of neutron backscattering for the detection of landmines buried in the soil. Several landmines, buried in a sand-pit, were positively identified. A series of Monte Carlo simulations were performed to study the complexity of the neutron backscattering process and to optimize the geometry of a future prototype. The results of these simulations indicate that this method shows great potential for the detection of non-metallic landmines (with a plastic casing), for which so far no reliable method has been found.
Bartalini, P.; Kryukov, A.; Selyuzhenkov, Ilya V.; Sherstnev, A.; Vologdin, A.
2004-01-01
We present the Monte-Carlo events Data Base (MCDB) project and its development plans. MCDB facilitates communication between authors of Monte-Carlo generators and experimental users. It also provides a convenient book-keeping and an easy access to generator level samples. The first release of MCDB is now operational for the CMS collaboration. In this paper we review the main ideas behind MCDB and discuss future plans to develop this Data Base further within the CERN LCG framework.
Kumar, Sudhir; Srinivasan, P; Sharma, S D; Saxena, Sanjay Kumar; Bakshi, A K; Dash, Ashutosh; Babu, D A R; Sharma, D N
2015-09-01
Isotope production and Application Division of Bhabha Atomic Research Center developed (32)P patch sources for treatment of superficial tumors. Surface dose rate of a newly developed (32)P patch source of nominal diameter 25 mm was measured experimentally using standard extrapolation ionization chamber and Gafchromic EBT film. Monte Carlo model of the (32)P patch source along with the extrapolation chamber was also developed to estimate the surface dose rates from these sources. The surface dose rates to tissue (cGy/min) measured using extrapolation chamber and radiochromic films are 82.03±4.18 (k=2) and 79.13±2.53 (k=2) respectively. The two values of the surface dose rates measured using the two independent experimental methods are in good agreement to each other within a variation of 3.5%. The surface dose rate to tissue (cGy/min) estimated using the MCNP Monte Carlo code works out to be 77.78±1.16 (k=2). The maximum deviation between the surface dose rates to tissue obtained by Monte Carlo and the extrapolation chamber method is 5.2% whereas the difference between the surface dose rates obtained by radiochromic film measurement and the Monte Carlo simulation is 1.7%. The three values of the surface dose rates of the (32)P patch source obtained by three independent methods are in good agreement to one another within the uncertainties associated with their measurements and calculation. This work has demonstrated that MCNP based electron transport simulations are accurate enough for determining the dosimetry parameters of the indigenously developed (32)P patch sources for contact brachytherapy applications.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luis Vazquez Quino
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate a novel reference chamber (Stealth Chamber by IBA through experimental data and Monte Carlo simulations for 6 and 15 MV photon energies. Methods: Monte Carlo simulations in a water phantom for field sizes ranging from 3×3 and 25×25 cm2 were performed for both energies with and without the Monte Carlo model of the Stealth Chamber in the beam path, and compared to commissioning beam data. Percent depth doses (PDDs, profiles, and gamma analysis of the simulations were performed along with an energy spectrum analysis of the phase-space files generated during the simulation. Experimental data were acquired in water with IBA three-dimensional (3D blue phantom in a set-up identical to the one used in the Monte Carlo simulations. PDD comparisons for fields ranging from 1×1 to 25×25 cm2 were performed for photon energies. Profile comparison for fields ranging from 1×1 to 25×25 cm2 were executed for the depths of dmax, 5, 10 and 20 cm. Criteria of 1%, 1 mm to compare PDDs and profiles were used. Transmission measurements with the Stealth Chamber and a Matrixx detector from IBA were investigated. Measurements for 6 and 15 MV with fields ranging from 3×3 to 25×25 cm2 dimensions were acquired in an open field with and without the Stealth Chamber in the path of the beam. Profiles and gamma analysis with a 1%, 1 mm gamma analysis criterion were performed. Results: Monte Carlo simulations of the PDDs and profiles demonstrate the agreement between both simulations. Furthermore, the gamma analysis (1%, 1 mm result of the comparison of both planes has 100% of the points passing the criteria. The spectral distribution analysis of the phase spaces for an open field with and without the chamber reveals the agreement between both simulations. Experimental measurements of PDDs and profiles have been conducted and reveal the comparability of relative dosimetric data acquired with the Stealth Chamber and our gold standard the CC13 chamber
Chetty, Indrin J.; Moran, Jean M.; Nurushev, Teamor S.; McShan, Daniel L.; Fraass, Benedick A.; Wilderman, Scott J.; Bielajew, Alex F.
2002-06-01
A comprehensive set of measurements and calculations has been conducted to investigate the accuracy of the Dose Planning Method (DPM) Monte Carlo code for electron beam dose calculations in heterogeneous media. Measurements were made using 10 MeV and 50 MeV minimally scattered, uncollimated electron beams from a racetrack microtron. Source distributions for the Monte Carlo calculations were reconstructed from in-air ion chamber scans and then benchmarked against measurements in a homogeneous water phantom. The in-air spatial distributions were found to have FWHM of 4.7 cm and 1.3 cm, at 100 cm from the source, for the 10 MeV and 50 MeV beams respectively. Energy spectra for the electron beams were determined by simulating the components of the microtron treatment head using the code MCNP4B. Profile measurements were made using an ion chamber in a water phantom with slabs of lung or bone-equivalent materials submerged at various depths. DPM calculations are, on average, within 2% agreement with measurement for all geometries except for the 50 MeV incident on a 6 cm lung-equivalent slab. Measurements using approximately monoenergetic, 50 MeV, 'pencil-beam'-type electrons in heterogeneous media provide conditions for maximum electronic disequilibrium and hence present a stringent test of the code's electron transport physics; the agreement noted between calculation and measurement illustrates that the DPM code is capable of accurate dose calculation even under such conditions.
Monte Carlo simulations for plasma physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Okamoto, M.; Murakami, S.; Nakajima, N.; Wang, W.X. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)
2000-07-01
Plasma behaviours are very complicated and the analyses are generally difficult. However, when the collisional processes play an important role in the plasma behaviour, the Monte Carlo method is often employed as a useful tool. For examples, in neutral particle injection heating (NBI heating), electron or ion cyclotron heating, and alpha heating, Coulomb collisions slow down high energetic particles and pitch angle scatter them. These processes are often studied by the Monte Carlo technique and good agreements can be obtained with the experimental results. Recently, Monte Carlo Method has been developed to study fast particle transports associated with heating and generating the radial electric field. Further it is applied to investigating the neoclassical transport in the plasma with steep gradients of density and temperatures which is beyong the conventional neoclassical theory. In this report, we briefly summarize the researches done by the present authors utilizing the Monte Carlo method. (author)
Analytical, experimental, and Monte Carlo system response matrix for pinhole SPECT reconstruction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aguiar, Pablo, E-mail: pablo.aguiar.fernandez@sergas.es [Fundación Ramón Domínguez, Medicina Nuclear, CHUS, Spain and Grupo de Imaxe Molecular, IDIS, Santiago de Compostela 15706 (Spain); Pino, Francisco [Unitat de Biofísica, Facultat de Medicina, Universitat de Barcelona, Spain and Servei de Física Médica i Protecció Radiológica, Institut Catalá d' Oncologia, Barcelona 08036 (Spain); Silva-Rodríguez, Jesús [Fundación Ramón Domínguez, Medicina Nuclear, CHUS, Santiago de Compostela 15706 (Spain); Pavía, Javier [Servei de Medicina Nuclear, Hospital Clínic, Barcelona (Spain); Institut d' Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pí i Sunyer (IDIBAPS) (Spain); CIBER en Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN), Barcelona 08036 (Spain); Ros, Doménec [Unitat de Biofísica, Facultat de Medicina, Casanova 143 (Spain); Institut d' Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pí i Sunyer (IDIBAPS) (Spain); CIBER en Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN), Barcelona 08036 (Spain); Ruibal, Álvaro [Servicio Medicina Nuclear, CHUS (Spain); Grupo de Imaxe Molecular, Facultade de Medicina (USC), IDIS, Santiago de Compostela 15706 (Spain); Fundación Tejerina, Madrid (Spain); and others
2014-03-15
Purpose: To assess the performance of two approaches to the system response matrix (SRM) calculation in pinhole single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) reconstruction. Methods: Evaluation was performed using experimental data from a low magnification pinhole SPECT system that consisted of a rotating flat detector with a monolithic scintillator crystal. The SRM was computed following two approaches, which were based on Monte Carlo simulations (MC-SRM) and analytical techniques in combination with an experimental characterization (AE-SRM). The spatial response of the system, obtained by using the two approaches, was compared with experimental data. The effect of the MC-SRM and AE-SRM approaches on the reconstructed image was assessed in terms of image contrast, signal-to-noise ratio, image quality, and spatial resolution. To this end, acquisitions were carried out using a hot cylinder phantom (consisting of five fillable rods with diameters of 5, 4, 3, 2, and 1 mm and a uniform cylindrical chamber) and a custom-made Derenzo phantom, with center-to-center distances between adjacent rods of 1.5, 2.0, and 3.0 mm. Results: Good agreement was found for the spatial response of the system between measured data and results derived from MC-SRM and AE-SRM. Only minor differences for point sources at distances smaller than the radius of rotation and large incidence angles were found. Assessment of the effect on the reconstructed image showed a similar contrast for both approaches, with values higher than 0.9 for rod diameters greater than 1 mm and higher than 0.8 for rod diameter of 1 mm. The comparison in terms of image quality showed that all rods in the different sections of a custom-made Derenzo phantom could be distinguished. The spatial resolution (FWHM) was 0.7 mm at iteration 100 using both approaches. The SNR was lower for reconstructed images using MC-SRM than for those reconstructed using AE-SRM, indicating that AE-SRM deals better with the
Monte Carlo integration on GPU
Kanzaki, J.
2010-01-01
We use a graphics processing unit (GPU) for fast computations of Monte Carlo integrations. Two widely used Monte Carlo integration programs, VEGAS and BASES, are parallelized on GPU. By using $W^{+}$ plus multi-gluon production processes at LHC, we test integrated cross sections and execution time for programs in FORTRAN and C on CPU and those on GPU. Integrated results agree with each other within statistical errors. Execution time of programs on GPU run about 50 times faster than those in C...
Experimental validation of a rapid Monte Carlo based micro-CT simulator
Colijn, A. P.; Zbijewski, W.; Sasov, A.; Beekman, F. J.
2004-09-01
We describe a newly developed, accelerated Monte Carlo simulator of a small animal micro-CT scanner. Transmission measurements using aluminium slabs are employed to estimate the spectrum of the x-ray source. The simulator incorporating this spectrum is validated with micro-CT scans of physical water phantoms of various diameters, some containing stainless steel and Teflon rods. Good agreement is found between simulated and real data: normalized error of simulated projections, as compared to the real ones, is typically smaller than 0.05. Also the reconstructions obtained from simulated and real data are found to be similar. Thereafter, effects of scatter are studied using a voxelized software phantom representing a rat body. It is shown that the scatter fraction can reach tens of per cents in specific areas of the body and therefore scatter can significantly affect quantitative accuracy in small animal CT imaging.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chetty, Indrin J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)]. E-mail: indrin@med.umich.edu; Moran, Jean M.; Nurushev, Teamor S.; McShan, Daniel L.; Fraass, Benedick A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Wilderman, Scott J.; Bielajew, Alex F. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)
2002-06-07
A comprehensive set of measurements and calculations has been conducted to investigate the accuracy of the Dose Planning Method (DPM) Monte Carlo code for electron beam dose calculations in heterogeneous media. Measurements were made using 10 MeV and 50 MeV minimally scattered, uncollimated electron beams from a racetrack microtron. Source distributions for the Monte Carlo calculations were reconstructed from in-air ion chamber scans and then benchmarked against measurements in a homogeneous water phantom. The in-air spatial distributions were found to have FWHM of 4.7 cm and 1.3 cm, at 100 cm from the source, for the 10 MeV and 50 MeV beams respectively. Energy spectra for the electron beams were determined by simulating the components of the microtron treatment head using the code MCNP4B. Profile measurements were made using an ion chamber in a water phantom with slabs of lung or bone-equivalent materials submerged at various depths. DPM calculations are, on average, within 2% agreement with measurement for all geometries except for the 50 MeV incident on a 6 cm lung-equivalent slab. Measurements using approximately monoenergetic, 50 MeV, 'pencil-beam'-type electrons in heterogeneous media provide conditions for maximum electronic disequilibrium and hence present a stringent test of the code's electron transport physics; the agreement noted between calculation and measurement illustrates that the DPM code is capable of accurate dose calculation even under such conditions. (author)
Use of Monte Carlo Methods in brachytherapy; Uso del metodo de Monte Carlo en braquiterapia
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Granero Cabanero, D.
2015-07-01
The Monte Carlo method has become a fundamental tool for brachytherapy dosimetry mainly because no difficulties associated with experimental dosimetry. In brachytherapy the main handicap of experimental dosimetry is the high dose gradient near the present sources making small uncertainties in the positioning of the detectors lead to large uncertainties in the dose. This presentation will review mainly the procedure for calculating dose distributions around a fountain using the Monte Carlo method showing the difficulties inherent in these calculations. In addition we will briefly review other applications of the method of Monte Carlo in brachytherapy dosimetry, as its use in advanced calculation algorithms, calculating barriers or obtaining dose applicators around. (Author)
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
M E MEDHAT; S P SHIRMARDI; V P SINGH
2017-03-01
Monte Carlo N-particle (MCNP) code has been used to simulate the transport of gamma photon rays of different energies (22, 31, 59.5 and 81 keV) to estimate the iron content in solutions. In this study, MCNP simulation results are compared with experiment and XCOM theoretical data. The simulation shows that theobtained results are in good agreement with experimental data, and better than the theoretical XCOM values. The study indicates that MCNP simulation is an excellent tool to estimate the iron concentration in the blood samples. The MCNP code can also be utilized to estimate other trace elements in the blood samples.
Medhat, M. E.; Shirmardi, S. P.; Singh, V. P.
2017-03-01
Monte Carlo N-particle (MCNP) code has been used to simulate the transport of gamma photon rays of different energies (22, 31, 59.5 and 81 keV) to estimate the iron content in solutions. In this study, MCNP simulation results are compared with experiment and XCOM theoretical data. The simulation shows that the obtained results are in good agreement with experimental data, and better than the theoretical XCOM values. The study indicates that MCNP simulation is an excellent tool to estimate the iron concentration in the blood samples. The MCNP code can also be utilized to estimate other trace elements in the blood samples.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
David, Mariano G.; Pires, Evandro J.; Magalhaes, Luis A.; Almeida, Carlos E. de; Alves, Carlos F.E., E-mail: marianogd08@gmail.com [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. Ciencias Radiologicas; Albuquerque, Marcos A. [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto Alberto Luiz Coimbra; Bernal, Mario A. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin; Peixoto, Jose G. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
2012-08-15
This paper focuses on the obtainment, using experimental and Monte Carlo-simulated (MMC) methods, of the photon spectra at various depths and depth-dose deposition curves for x-rays beams used in mammography, obtained on a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) breast phantom. Spectra were obtained for 28 and 30 kV quality-beams and the corresponding average energy values (Emed) were calculated. For the experimental acquisition was used a Si-PIN photodiode spectrometer and for the MMC simulations the PENELOPE code was employed. The simulated and the experimental spectra show a very good agreement, which was corroborated by the low differences found between the Emed values. An increase in the Emed values and a strong attenuation of the beam through the depth of the PMMA phantom was also observed. (author)
Multilevel sequential Monte Carlo samplers
Beskos, Alexandros
2016-08-29
In this article we consider the approximation of expectations w.r.t. probability distributions associated to the solution of partial differential equations (PDEs); this scenario appears routinely in Bayesian inverse problems. In practice, one often has to solve the associated PDE numerically, using, for instance finite element methods which depend on the step-size level . hL. In addition, the expectation cannot be computed analytically and one often resorts to Monte Carlo methods. In the context of this problem, it is known that the introduction of the multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) method can reduce the amount of computational effort to estimate expectations, for a given level of error. This is achieved via a telescoping identity associated to a Monte Carlo approximation of a sequence of probability distributions with discretization levels . âˆž>h0>h1â‹¯>hL. In many practical problems of interest, one cannot achieve an i.i.d. sampling of the associated sequence and a sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) version of the MLMC method is introduced to deal with this problem. It is shown that under appropriate assumptions, the attractive property of a reduction of the amount of computational effort to estimate expectations, for a given level of error, can be maintained within the SMC context. That is, relative to exact sampling and Monte Carlo for the distribution at the finest level . hL. The approach is numerically illustrated on a Bayesian inverse problem. Â© 2016 Elsevier B.V.
Approaching Chemical Accuracy with Quantum Monte Carlo
Petruzielo, F R; Umrigar, C J
2012-01-01
A quantum Monte Carlo study of the atomization energies for the G2 set of molecules is presented. Basis size dependence of diffusion Monte Carlo atomization energies is studied with a single determinant Slater-Jastrow trial wavefunction formed from Hartree-Fock orbitals. With the largest basis set, the mean absolute deviation from experimental atomization energies for the G2 set is 3.0 kcal/mol. Optimizing the orbitals within variational Monte Carlo improves the agreement between diffusion Monte Carlo and experiment, reducing the mean absolute deviation to 2.1 kcal/mol. Moving beyond a single determinant Slater-Jastrow trial wavefunction, diffusion Monte Carlo with a small complete active space Slater-Jastrow trial wavefunction results in near chemical accuracy. In this case, the mean absolute deviation from experimental atomization energies is 1.2 kcal/mol. It is shown from calculations on systems containing phosphorus that the accuracy can be further improved by employing a larger active space.
Equilibrium Statistics: Monte Carlo Methods
Kröger, Martin
Monte Carlo methods use random numbers, or ‘random’ sequences, to sample from a known shape of a distribution, or to extract distribution by other means. and, in the context of this book, to (i) generate representative equilibrated samples prior being subjected to external fields, or (ii) evaluate high-dimensional integrals. Recipes for both topics, and some more general methods, are summarized in this chapter. It is important to realize, that Monte Carlo should be as artificial as possible to be efficient and elegant. Advanced Monte Carlo ‘moves’, required to optimize the speed of algorithms for a particular problem at hand, are outside the scope of this brief introduction. One particular modern example is the wavelet-accelerated MC sampling of polymer chains [406].
Monte Carlo Hamiltonian: Linear Potentials
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LUO Xiang-Qian; LIU Jin-Jiang; HUANG Chun-Qing; JIANG Jun-Qin; Helmut KROGER
2002-01-01
We further study the validity of the Monte Carlo Hamiltonian method. The advantage of the method,in comparison with the standard Monte Carlo Lagrangian approach, is its capability to study the excited states. Weconsider two quantum mechanical models: a symmetric one V(x) = |x|/2; and an asymmetric one V(x) = ∞, forx ＜ 0 and V(x) = x, for x ≥ 0. The results for the spectrum, wave functions and thermodynamical observables are inagreement with the analytical or Runge-Kutta calculations.
Proton Upset Monte Carlo Simulation
O'Neill, Patrick M.; Kouba, Coy K.; Foster, Charles C.
2009-01-01
The Proton Upset Monte Carlo Simulation (PROPSET) program calculates the frequency of on-orbit upsets in computer chips (for given orbits such as Low Earth Orbit, Lunar Orbit, and the like) from proton bombardment based on the results of heavy ion testing alone. The software simulates the bombardment of modern microelectronic components (computer chips) with high-energy (.200 MeV) protons. The nuclear interaction of the proton with the silicon of the chip is modeled and nuclear fragments from this interaction are tracked using Monte Carlo techniques to produce statistically accurate predictions.
Berg, Eric; Roncali, Emilie; Cherry, Simon R
2015-06-01
Achieving excellent timing resolution in gamma ray detectors is crucial in several applications such as medical imaging with time-of-flight positron emission tomography (TOF-PET). Although many factors impact the overall system timing resolution, the statistical nature of scintillation light, including photon production and transport in the crystal to the photodetector, is typically the limiting factor for modern scintillation detectors. In this study, we investigated the impact of surface treatment, in particular, roughening select areas of otherwise polished crystals, on light transport and timing resolution. A custom Monte Carlo photon tracking tool was used to gain insight into changes in light collection and timing resolution that were observed experimentally: select roughening configurations increased the light collection up to 25% and improved timing resolution by 15% compared to crystals with all polished surfaces. Simulations showed that partial surface roughening caused a greater number of photons to be reflected towards the photodetector and increased the initial rate of photoelectron production. This study provides a simple method to improve timing resolution and light collection in scintillator-based gamma ray detectors, a topic of high importance in the field of TOF-PET. Additionally, we demonstrated utility of our Monte Carlo simulation tool to accurately predict the effect of altering crystal surfaces on light collection and timing resolution.
Simeonov, Yuri; Weber, Uli; Penchev, Petar; Printz Ringbæk, Toke; Schuy, Christoph; Brons, Stephan; Engenhart-Cabillic, Rita; Bliedtner, Jens; Zink, Klemens
2017-09-01
The purpose of this work was to design and manufacture a 3D range-modulator for scanned particle therapy. The modulator is intended to create a highly conformal dose distribution with only one fixed energy, simultaneously reducing considerably the treatment time. As a proof of concept, a 3D range-modulator was developed for a spherical target volume with a diameter of 5 cm, placed at a depth of 25 cm in a water phantom. It consists of a large number of thin pins with a well-defined shape and different lengths to modulate the necessary shift of the Bragg peak. The 3D range-modulator was manufactured with a rapid prototyping technique. The FLUKA Monte Carlo package was used to simulate the modulating effect of the 3D range-modulator and the resulting dose distribution. For that purpose, a special user routine was implemented to handle its complex geometrical contour. Additionally, FLUKA was extended with the capability of intensity modulated scanning. To validate the simulation results, dose measurements were carried out at the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center with a 400.41 MeV/u 12C beam. The high resolution dosimetric measurements show a good agreement between simulated and measured dose distributions. Irradiation of the monoenergetic raster plan took 3 s, which is approximately 20 times shorter than a comparable plan with 16 different energies. The combination of only one energy and a 3D range-modulator leads to a tremendous decrease in irradiation time. ‘Interplay effects’, typical for moving targets and pencil beam scanning, can be immensely reduced or disappear completely, making the delivery of a homogeneous dose to moving targets more reliable. Combining high dose conformity, very good homogeneity and extremely short irradiation times, the 3D range-modulator is considered to become a clinically applicable method for very fast treatment of lung tumours.
Adiabatic optimization versus diffusion Monte Carlo methods
Jarret, Michael; Jordan, Stephen P.; Lackey, Brad
2016-10-01
Most experimental and theoretical studies of adiabatic optimization use stoquastic Hamiltonians, whose ground states are expressible using only real nonnegative amplitudes. This raises a question as to whether classical Monte Carlo methods can simulate stoquastic adiabatic algorithms with polynomial overhead. Here we analyze diffusion Monte Carlo algorithms. We argue that, based on differences between L1 and L2 normalized states, these algorithms suffer from certain obstructions preventing them from efficiently simulating stoquastic adiabatic evolution in generality. In practice however, we obtain good performance by introducing a method that we call Substochastic Monte Carlo. In fact, our simulations are good classical optimization algorithms in their own right, competitive with the best previously known heuristic solvers for MAX-k -SAT at k =2 ,3 ,4 .
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Infantino, Angelo, E-mail: angelo.infantino@unibo.it [Department of Industrial Engineering, Montecuccolino Laboratory, University of Bologna, Via dei Colli 16, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Oehlke, Elisabeth [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, V6T 2A3 Vancouver, BC (Canada); Department of Radiation Science & Technology, Delft University of Technology, Postbus 5, 2600 AA Delft (Netherlands); Mostacci, Domiziano [Department of Industrial Engineering, Montecuccolino Laboratory, University of Bologna, Via dei Colli 16, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Schaffer, Paul; Trinczek, Michael; Hoehr, Cornelia [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, V6T 2A3 Vancouver, BC (Canada)
2016-01-01
The Monte Carlo code FLUKA is used to simulate the production of a number of positron emitting radionuclides, {sup 18}F, {sup 13}N, {sup 94}Tc, {sup 44}Sc, {sup 68}Ga, {sup 86}Y, {sup 89}Zr, {sup 52}Mn, {sup 61}Cu and {sup 55}Co, on a small medical cyclotron with a proton beam energy of 13 MeV. Experimental data collected at the TR13 cyclotron at TRIUMF agree within a factor of 0.6 ± 0.4 with the directly simulated data, except for the production of {sup 55}Co, where the simulation underestimates the experiment by a factor of 3.4 ± 0.4. The experimental data also agree within a factor of 0.8 ± 0.6 with the convolution of simulated proton fluence and cross sections from literature. Overall, this confirms the applicability of FLUKA to simulate radionuclide production at 13 MeV proton beam energy.
Monte Carlo Particle Lists: MCPL
Kittelmann, Thomas; Knudsen, Erik B; Willendrup, Peter; Cai, Xiao Xiao; Kanaki, Kalliopi
2016-01-01
A binary format with lists of particle state information, for interchanging particles between various Monte Carlo simulation applications, is presented. Portable C code for file manipulation is made available to the scientific community, along with converters and plugins for several popular simulation packages.
Juste, Belén; Miró, Rafael; Monasor, Paula; Verdú, Gumersindo
2015-11-01
Phosphor screens are commonly used in many X-ray imaging applications. The design and optimization of these detectors can be achieved using Monte Carlo codes to simulate radiation transport in scintillation materials and to improve the spatial response. This work presents an exhaustive procedure to measure the spatial resolution of a scintillation flat panel image and to evaluate the agreement with data obtained by simulation. To evaluate the spatial response we have used the Modulated Transfer Function (MTF) parameter. According to this, we have obtained the Line Spread Function (LSF) of the system since the Fourier Transform (FT) of the LSF gives the MTF. The experimental images were carried out using a medical X-ray tube (Toshiba E7299X) and a flat panel (Hammamatsu C9312SK). Measurements were based on the slit methodology experimental implementation, which measures the response of the system to a line. LSF measurements have been performed using a 0.2 mm wide lead slit superimposed over the flat panel. The detector screen was modelled with MCNP (version 6) Monte Carlo simulation code in order to analyze the effect of the acquisition setup configuration and to compare the response of scintillator screens with the experimental results. MCNP6 offers the possibility of studying the optical physics parameters (optical scattering and absorption coefficients) that occur in the phosphor screen. The study has been tested for different X-ray tube voltages, from 100 to 140 kV. An acceptable convergence between the MTF results obtained with MCNP6 and the experimental measurements have been obtained.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lourenco, A [University College London, London (United Kingdom); National Physical Laboratory, Teddington (United Kingdom); Thomas, R [National Physical Laboratory, Teddington (United Kingdom); Bouchard, H [University of Montreal, Montreal (Canada); Kacperek, A [National Eye Proton therapy Centre, Clatterbridge Cancer Centre, Wirral (United Kingdom); Vondracek, V [Proton Therapy Center, Prague (Czech Republic); Royle, G [University College London, London (United Kingdom); Palmans, H [National Physical Laboratory, Teddington (United Kingdom); EBG MedAustron GmbH, Wiener Neustadt (Austria)
2016-06-15
Purpose: For photon and electron beams, the standard device used to measure absorbed dose is a calorimeter. Standards laboratories are currently working on the establishment of graphite calorimeters as a primary standard for proton beams. To provide a practical method for graphite calorimetry, it is necessary to convert dose to graphite to dose to water, requiring knowledge of the water-to-graphite stopping-power ratio and the fluence correction factor. This study aims to present a novel method to determine fluence corrections experimentally, and to apply this methodology to low- and high-energy proton beams. Methods: Measurements were performed in 60 MeV and 180 MeV proton beams. Experimental information was obtained from depth-dose ionization chamber measurements performed in a water phantom. This was repeated with different thicknesses of graphite plates in front of the water phantom. One distinct advantage of this method is that only ionization chamber perturbation factors for water are required. Fluence corrections were also obtained through Monte Carlo simulations for comparison with the experiments. Results: The experimental observations made in this study confirm the Monte Carlo results. Overall, fluence corrections between water and graphite increased with depth, with a maximum correction of 1% for the low-energy beam and 4% for the high-energy beam. The results also showed that a fraction of the secondary particles generated in proton therapy beams do not have enough energy to cross the ionization chamber wall; thus, their contribution is not accounted for in the measured fluence corrections. This effect shows up as a discrepancy in fluence corrections of 1% and has been confirmed by simulations of the experimental setup. Conclusion: Fluence corrections derived by experiment do not account for low-energy secondary particles that are stopped in the ion chamber wall. This work will contribute to a practical graphite calorimetry technique for determining
Applications of Monte Carlo Methods in Calculus.
Gordon, Sheldon P.; Gordon, Florence S.
1990-01-01
Discusses the application of probabilistic ideas, especially Monte Carlo simulation, to calculus. Describes some applications using the Monte Carlo method: Riemann sums; maximizing and minimizing a function; mean value theorems; and testing conjectures. (YP)
Validation of Compton Scattering Monte Carlo Simulation Models
Weidenspointner, Georg; Hauf, Steffen; Hoff, Gabriela; Kuster, Markus; Pia, Maria Grazia; Saracco, Paolo
2014-01-01
Several models for the Monte Carlo simulation of Compton scattering on electrons are quantitatively evaluated with respect to a large collection of experimental data retrieved from the literature. Some of these models are currently implemented in general purpose Monte Carlo systems; some have been implemented and evaluated for possible use in Monte Carlo particle transport for the first time in this study. Here we present first and preliminary results concerning total and differential Compton scattering cross sections.
(U) Introduction to Monte Carlo Methods
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hungerford, Aimee L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2017-03-20
Monte Carlo methods are very valuable for representing solutions to particle transport problems. Here we describe a “cook book” approach to handling the terms in a transport equation using Monte Carlo methods. Focus is on the mechanics of a numerical Monte Carlo code, rather than the mathematical foundations of the method.
Virgilli, E; Rosati, P; Bonnini, E; Buffagni, E; Ferrari, C; Stephen, J B; Caroli, E; Auricchio, N; Basili, A; Silvestri, S
2015-01-01
We report on results of observation of the focusing effect from the planes (220) of Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) crystals. We have compared the experimental results with the simulations of the focusing capability of GaAs tiles through a developed Monte Carlo. The GaAs tiles were bent using a lapping process developed at the cnr/imem - Parma (Italy) in the framework of the laue project, funded by ASI, dedicated to build a broad band Laue lens prototype for astrophysical applications in the hard X-/soft gamma-ray energy range (80-600 keV). We present and discuss the results obtained from their characterization, mainly in terms of focusing capability. Bent crystals will significantly increase the signal to noise ratio of a telescope based on a Laue lens, consequently leading to an unprecedented enhancement of sensitivity with respect to the present non focusing instrumentation.
Density matrix quantum Monte Carlo
Blunt, N S; Spencer, J S; Foulkes, W M C
2013-01-01
This paper describes a quantum Monte Carlo method capable of sampling the full density matrix of a many-particle system, thus granting access to arbitrary reduced density matrices and allowing expectation values of complicated non-local operators to be evaluated easily. The direct sampling of the density matrix also raises the possibility of calculating previously inaccessible entanglement measures. The algorithm closely resembles the recently introduced full configuration interaction quantum Monte Carlo method, but works all the way from infinite to zero temperature. We explain the theory underlying the method, describe the algorithm, and introduce an importance-sampling procedure to improve the stochastic efficiency. To demonstrate the potential of our approach, the energy and staggered magnetization of the isotropic antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model on small lattices and the concurrence of one-dimensional spin rings are compared to exact or well-established results. Finally, the nature of the sign problem...
Efficient kinetic Monte Carlo simulation
Schulze, Tim P.
2008-02-01
This paper concerns kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) algorithms that have a single-event execution time independent of the system size. Two methods are presented—one that combines the use of inverted-list data structures with rejection Monte Carlo and a second that combines inverted lists with the Marsaglia-Norman-Cannon algorithm. The resulting algorithms apply to models with rates that are determined by the local environment but are otherwise arbitrary, time-dependent and spatially heterogeneous. While especially useful for crystal growth simulation, the algorithms are presented from the point of view that KMC is the numerical task of simulating a single realization of a Markov process, allowing application to a broad range of areas where heterogeneous random walks are the dominate simulation cost.
Adaptive Multilevel Monte Carlo Simulation
Hoel, H
2011-08-23
This work generalizes a multilevel forward Euler Monte Carlo method introduced in Michael B. Giles. (Michael Giles. Oper. Res. 56(3):607–617, 2008.) for the approximation of expected values depending on the solution to an Itô stochastic differential equation. The work (Michael Giles. Oper. Res. 56(3):607– 617, 2008.) proposed and analyzed a forward Euler multilevelMonte Carlo method based on a hierarchy of uniform time discretizations and control variates to reduce the computational effort required by a standard, single level, Forward Euler Monte Carlo method. This work introduces an adaptive hierarchy of non uniform time discretizations, generated by an adaptive algorithmintroduced in (AnnaDzougoutov et al. Raùl Tempone. Adaptive Monte Carlo algorithms for stopped diffusion. In Multiscale methods in science and engineering, volume 44 of Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. Eng., pages 59–88. Springer, Berlin, 2005; Kyoung-Sook Moon et al. Stoch. Anal. Appl. 23(3):511–558, 2005; Kyoung-Sook Moon et al. An adaptive algorithm for ordinary, stochastic and partial differential equations. In Recent advances in adaptive computation, volume 383 of Contemp. Math., pages 325–343. Amer. Math. Soc., Providence, RI, 2005.). This form of the adaptive algorithm generates stochastic, path dependent, time steps and is based on a posteriori error expansions first developed in (Anders Szepessy et al. Comm. Pure Appl. Math. 54(10):1169– 1214, 2001). Our numerical results for a stopped diffusion problem, exhibit savings in the computational cost to achieve an accuracy of ϑ(TOL),from(TOL−3), from using a single level version of the adaptive algorithm to ϑ(((TOL−1)log(TOL))2).
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Lymperopoulou, G. [Nuclear and Particle Physics Section, Physics Department, University of Athens, Panepistimioupolis, Ilisia, 157 71 Athens (Greece)], E-mail: glymper@phys.uoa.gr; Petrokokkinos, L.; Papagiannis, P. [Nuclear and Particle Physics Section, Physics Department, University of Athens, Panepistimioupolis, Ilisia, 157 71 Athens (Greece); Steiner, M.; Spevacek, V.; Semnicka, J.; Dvorak, P. [Czech Technical University, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Department of Dosimetry and Application of Ionizing Radiation, Brehova 7 115 19, Prague 1 (Czech Republic); Seimenis, I. [Nuclear and Particle Physics Section, Physics Department, University of Athens, Panepistimioupolis, Ilisia, 157 71 Athens (Greece)
2007-09-21
The Leksell Gamma Knife is a stereotactic radio-surgery unit for the treatment of small volumes (on the order of 25 mm{sup 3}) that employs a hemispherical configuration of 201 {sup 60}Co sources and appropriate configurations of collimation to form beams of 4, 8, 14 and 18 mm nominal diameter at the Unit Center Point (UCP). Although Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is well suited for narrow-beam dosimetry, experimental dosimetry is required at least for acceptance testing and quality assurance purposes. Besides other drawbacks of conventional point dosimeters, the main problems associated with narrow-beam dosimetry in stereotactic applications are accurate positioning and volume averaging. In this work, MCNPX and EGSnrc MC simulation dosimetry results for a Gamma Knife unit are benchmarked through their comparison to treatment planning software calculations based on radio-chromic film measurements. Then, MC dosimetry results are utilized to optimize the only three-dimensional experimental dosimetry method available; the polymer gel-Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) method. MC results are used to select the spatial resolution in the imaging session of the irradiated gels and validate a mathematical tool for the localization of the UCP in the three-dimensional experimental dosimetry data acquired. Experimental results are compared with corresponding MC calculations and shown capable to provide accurate dosimetry, free of volume averaging and positioning uncertainties.
Zeidman, Benjamin D.; Lu, Ning; Wu, David T.
2016-05-01
The effects of path-dependent wetting and drying manifest themselves in many types of physical systems, including nanomaterials, biological systems, and porous media such as soil. It is desirable to better understand how these hysteretic macroscopic properties result from a complex interplay between gasses, liquids, and solids at the pore scale. Coarse-Grained Monte Carlo (CGMC) is an appealing approach to model these phenomena in complex pore spaces, including ones determined experimentally. We present two-dimensional CGMC simulations of wetting and drying in two systems with pore spaces determined by sections from micro X-ray computed tomography: a system of randomly distributed spheres and a system of Ottawa sand. Results for the phase distribution, water uptake, and matric suction when corrected for extending to three dimensions show excellent agreement with experimental measurements on the same systems. This supports the hypothesis that CGMC can generate metastable configurations representative of experimental hysteresis and can also be used to predict hysteretic constitutive properties of particular experimental systems, given pore space images.
Sjöstrand, Torbjörn
2009-01-01
Given the current landscape in experimental high-energy physics, these lectures are focused on applications of event generators for hadron colliders like the Tevatron and LHC. Section 2 contains a first overview of the physics picture and the generator landscape. Thereafter section 3 describes the usage of matrix elements, section 4 the important topics of initial- and final-state showers, and section 5 how showers can be matched to different hard processes. The issue of multiparton interactions and their role in mimimum-bias and underlying-event physics is introduced in section 6, followed by some comments on hadronization in section 7. The article concludes with an outlook on the ongoing generator-development work in section 8.
Ilnicka, Agnieszka
The aim of this thesis is the comparison of the particle production in proton-proton interactions simulated by Monte Carlo (MC) models used in NA61/SHINE collaboration: EPOS and VENUS with the available experimental data. The analysis of total multiplic- ities of strange particles (, , K 0 s , K + and K
Monte Carlo Simulation for Particle Detectors
Pia, Maria Grazia
2012-01-01
Monte Carlo simulation is an essential component of experimental particle physics in all the phases of its life-cycle: the investigation of the physics reach of detector concepts, the design of facilities and detectors, the development and optimization of data reconstruction software, the data analysis for the production of physics results. This note briefly outlines some research topics related to Monte Carlo simulation, that are relevant to future experimental perspectives in particle physics. The focus is on physics aspects: conceptual progress beyond current particle transport schemes, the incorporation of materials science knowledge relevant to novel detection technologies, functionality to model radiation damage, the capability for multi-scale simulation, quantitative validation and uncertainty quantification to determine the predictive power of simulation. The R&D on simulation for future detectors would profit from cooperation within various components of the particle physics community, and synerg...
Mowla, Alireza; Taimre, Thomas; Lim, Yah Leng; Bertling, Karl; Wilson, Stephen J.; Prow, Tarl W.; Soyer, H. Peter; Rakić, Aleksandar D.
2016-01-01
Optical interrogation of suspicious skin lesions is standard care in the management of skin cancer worldwide. Morphological and functional markers of malignancy are often combined to improve expert human diagnostic power. We propose the evaluation of the combination of two independent optical biomarkers of skin tumours concurrently. The morphological modality of reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is combined with the functional modality of laser Doppler flowmetry, which is capable of quantifying tissue perfusion. To realize the idea, we propose laser feedback interferometry as an implementation of RCM, which is able to detect the Doppler signal in addition to the confocal reflectance signal. Based on the proposed technique, we study numerical models of skin tissue incorporating two optical biomarkers of malignancy: (i) abnormal red blood cell velocities and concentrations and (ii) anomalous optical properties manifested through tissue confocal reflectance, using Monte Carlo simulation. We also conduct a laboratory experiment on a microfluidic channel containing a dynamic turbid medium, to validate the efficacy of the technique. We quantify the performance of the technique by examining a signal to background ratio (SBR) in both the numerical and experimental models, and it is shown that both simulated and experimental SBRs improve consistently using this technique. This work indicates the feasibility of an optical instrument, which may have a role in enhanced imaging of skin malignancies. PMID:27598157
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alireza Mowla
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Optical interrogation of suspicious skin lesions is standard care in the management of skin cancer worldwide. Morphological and functional markers of malignancy are often combined to improve expert human diagnostic power. We propose the evaluation of the combination of two independent optical biomarkers of skin tumours concurrently. The morphological modality of reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM is combined with the functional modality of laser Doppler flowmetry, which is capable of quantifying tissue perfusion. To realize the idea, we propose laser feedback interferometry as an implementation of RCM, which is able to detect the Doppler signal in addition to the confocal reflectance signal. Based on the proposed technique, we study numerical models of skin tissue incorporating two optical biomarkers of malignancy: (i abnormal red blood cell velocities and concentrations and (ii anomalous optical properties manifested through tissue confocal reflectance, using Monte Carlo simulation. We also conduct a laboratory experiment on a microfluidic channel containing a dynamic turbid medium, to validate the efficacy of the technique. We quantify the performance of the technique by examining a signal to background ratio (SBR in both the numerical and experimental models, and it is shown that both simulated and experimental SBRs improve consistently using this technique. This work indicates the feasibility of an optical instrument, which may have a role in enhanced imaging of skin malignancies.
Mowla, Alireza; Taimre, Thomas; Lim, Yah Leng; Bertling, Karl; Wilson, Stephen J; Prow, Tarl W; Soyer, H Peter; Rakić, Aleksandar D
2016-09-01
Optical interrogation of suspicious skin lesions is standard care in the management of skin cancer worldwide. Morphological and functional markers of malignancy are often combined to improve expert human diagnostic power. We propose the evaluation of the combination of two independent optical biomarkers of skin tumours concurrently. The morphological modality of reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is combined with the functional modality of laser Doppler flowmetry, which is capable of quantifying tissue perfusion. To realize the idea, we propose laser feedback interferometry as an implementation of RCM, which is able to detect the Doppler signal in addition to the confocal reflectance signal. Based on the proposed technique, we study numerical models of skin tissue incorporating two optical biomarkers of malignancy: (i) abnormal red blood cell velocities and concentrations and (ii) anomalous optical properties manifested through tissue confocal reflectance, using Monte Carlo simulation. We also conduct a laboratory experiment on a microfluidic channel containing a dynamic turbid medium, to validate the efficacy of the technique. We quantify the performance of the technique by examining a signal to background ratio (SBR) in both the numerical and experimental models, and it is shown that both simulated and experimental SBRs improve consistently using this technique. This work indicates the feasibility of an optical instrument, which may have a role in enhanced imaging of skin malignancies.
Monte Carlo approach to turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dueben, P.; Homeier, D.; Muenster, G. [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Jansen, K. [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Mesterhazy, D. [Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik
2009-11-15
The behavior of the one-dimensional random-force-driven Burgers equation is investigated in the path integral formalism on a discrete space-time lattice. We show that by means of Monte Carlo methods one may evaluate observables, such as structure functions, as ensemble averages over different field realizations. The regularization of shock solutions to the zero-viscosity limit (Hopf-equation) eventually leads to constraints on lattice parameters required for the stability of the simulations. Insight into the formation of localized structures (shocks) and their dynamics is obtained. (orig.)
Monte Carlo techniques in radiation therapy
Verhaegen, Frank
2013-01-01
Modern cancer treatment relies on Monte Carlo simulations to help radiotherapists and clinical physicists better understand and compute radiation dose from imaging devices as well as exploit four-dimensional imaging data. With Monte Carlo-based treatment planning tools now available from commercial vendors, a complete transition to Monte Carlo-based dose calculation methods in radiotherapy could likely take place in the next decade. Monte Carlo Techniques in Radiation Therapy explores the use of Monte Carlo methods for modeling various features of internal and external radiation sources, including light ion beams. The book-the first of its kind-addresses applications of the Monte Carlo particle transport simulation technique in radiation therapy, mainly focusing on external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy. It presents the mathematical and technical aspects of the methods in particle transport simulations. The book also discusses the modeling of medical linacs and other irradiation devices; issues specific...
Mean field simulation for Monte Carlo integration
Del Moral, Pierre
2013-01-01
In the last three decades, there has been a dramatic increase in the use of interacting particle methods as a powerful tool in real-world applications of Monte Carlo simulation in computational physics, population biology, computer sciences, and statistical machine learning. Ideally suited to parallel and distributed computation, these advanced particle algorithms include nonlinear interacting jump diffusions; quantum, diffusion, and resampled Monte Carlo methods; Feynman-Kac particle models; genetic and evolutionary algorithms; sequential Monte Carlo methods; adaptive and interacting Marko
Paudel, Moti R; Kim, Anthony; Sarfehnia, Arman; Ahmad, Sayed B; Beachey, David J; Sahgal, Arjun; Keller, Brian M
2016-11-01
A new GPU-based Monte Carlo dose calculation algorithm (GPUMCD), developed by the vendor Elekta for the Monaco treatment planning system (TPS), is capable of modeling dose for both a standard linear accelerator and an Elekta MRI linear accelerator. We have experimentally evaluated this algorithm for a standard Elekta Agility linear accelerator. A beam model was developed in the Monaco TPS (research version 5.09.06) using the commissioned beam data for a 6 MV Agility linac. A heterogeneous phantom representing several scenarios - tumor-in-lung, lung, and bone-in-tissue - was designed and built. Dose calculations in Monaco were done using both the current clinical Monte Carlo algorithm, XVMC, and the new GPUMCD algorithm. Dose calculations in a Pinnacle TPS were also produced using the collapsed cone convolution (CCC) algorithm with heterogeneity correction. Calculations were compared with the measured doses using an ionization chamber (A1SL) and Gafchromic EBT3 films for 2×2 cm2,5×5 cm2, and 10×2 cm2 field sizes. The percentage depth doses (PDDs) calculated by XVMC and GPUMCD in a homogeneous solid water phantom were within 2%/2 mm of film measurements and within 1% of ion chamber measurements. For the tumor-in-lung phantom, the calculated doses were within 2.5%/2.5 mm of film measurements for GPUMCD. For the lung phantom, doses calculated by all of the algorithms were within 3%/3 mm of film measurements, except for the 2×2 cm2 field size where the CCC algorithm underestimated the depth dose by ∼5% in a larger extent of the lung region. For the bone phantom, all of the algorithms were equivalent and calculated dose to within 2%/2 mm of film measurements, except at the interfaces. Both GPUMCD and XVMC showed interface effects, which were more pronounced for GPUMCD and were comparable to film measurements, whereas the CCC algorithm showed these effects poorly. PACS number(s): 87.53.Bn, 87.55.dh, 87.55.km. © 2016 The Authors.
Tadvani, Jalil Khajepour; Falamaki, Cavus
2008-07-23
It is demonstrated for the first time that mesoporous PS structures obtained by the electrochemical etching of p(+)(100) oriented silicon wafers might assume the peculiarity of invariance of the first peak positions in their pore size distribution curves, albeit for current densities far from the electropolishing region and at constant electrolyte composition. A new Monte Carlo-based simulation model is presented that predicts reasonably the pore size distribution of the PS layers and the observed invariance of peak position with respect to changes in current density. The main highlight of the new model is the introduction of a 'light avalanche breakdown' process in a mathematical fashion. The model is also able to predict an absolute value of 4.23 Å for the smallest pore created experimentally. It is discussed that the latter value has an exact physical meaning: it corresponds with great accuracy to the width of a void created on the surface due to the exclusion of one Si atom.
Foulkes, Stephen
2013-04-01
Monte Carlo simulations of the Freedman-Clauser experiment are used to test the Copenhagen interpretation and a local realistic interpretation of Quantum Mechanics. The simulated results are compared to the actual results of the experiment which confirmed the quantum mechanical calculation for nine different relative angles between the two polarization analyzers. For each simulation 5x10^7 total simulated photon pairs were generated at each relative angle. The Copenhagen interpretation model closely followed the general shape of the theoretical calculation but differed from the calculated values by 2.5% to 3.3% for angles less than or equal to π/8 and differed by 15.0% to 52.5% for angles greater than or equal to 3π/8. The local realistic interpretation model did not replicate the experimental results but was generally within 1% of a classical calculation for all analyzer angles. An alternative, ``fuzzy polarization'' interpretation wherein the photon polarization is not assumed to have a fixed value, yielded values within 1% of the quantum mechanical calculation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tadvani, Jalil Khajepour [Ceramics Department, Materials and Energy Research Center, PO Box 14155-4777, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Falamaki, Cavus [Chemical Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Hafez Avenue, PO Box 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2008-07-23
It is demonstrated for the first time that mesoporous PS structures obtained by the electrochemical etching of p{sup +}(100) oriented silicon wafers might assume the peculiarity of invariance of the first peak positions in their pore size distribution curves, albeit for current densities far from the electropolishing region and at constant electrolyte composition. A new Monte Carlo-based simulation model is presented that predicts reasonably the pore size distribution of the PS layers and the observed invariance of peak position with respect to changes in current density. The main highlight of the new model is the introduction of a 'light avalanche breakdown' process in a mathematical fashion. The model is also able to predict an absolute value of 4.23 A for the smallest pore created experimentally. It is discussed that the latter value has an exact physical meaning: it corresponds with great accuracy to the width of a void created on the surface due to the exclusion of one Si atom.
Monte Carlo Treatment Planning for Advanced Radiotherapy
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cronholm, Rickard
and validation of a Monte Carlo model of a medical linear accelerator (i), converting a CT scan of a patient to a Monte Carlo compliant phantom (ii) and translating the treatment plan parameters (including beam energy, angles of incidence, collimator settings etc) to a Monte Carlo input file (iii). A protocol...... previous algorithms since it uses delineations of structures in order to include and/or exclude certain media in various anatomical regions. This method has the potential to reduce anatomically irrelevant media assignment. In house MATLAB scripts translating the treatment plan parameters to Monte Carlo...
1-D EQUILIBRIUM DISCRETE DIFFUSION MONTE CARLO
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
T. EVANS; ET AL
2000-08-01
We present a new hybrid Monte Carlo method for 1-D equilibrium diffusion problems in which the radiation field coexists with matter in local thermodynamic equilibrium. This method, the Equilibrium Discrete Diffusion Monte Carlo (EqDDMC) method, combines Monte Carlo particles with spatially discrete diffusion solutions. We verify the EqDDMC method with computational results from three slab problems. The EqDDMC method represents an incremental step toward applying this hybrid methodology to non-equilibrium diffusion, where it could be simultaneously coupled to Monte Carlo transport.
Error in Monte Carlo, quasi-error in Quasi-Monte Carlo
Kleiss, R. H. P.; Lazopoulos, A.
2006-01-01
While the Quasi-Monte Carlo method of numerical integration achieves smaller integration error than standard Monte Carlo, its use in particle physics phenomenology has been hindered by the abscence of a reliable way to estimate that error. The standard Monte Carlo error estimator relies on the assumption that the points are generated independently of each other and, therefore, fails to account for the error improvement advertised by the Quasi-Monte Carlo method. We advocate the construction o...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Çatlı, Serap, E-mail: serapcatli@hotmail.com [Gazi University, Faculty of Sciences, 06500 Teknikokullar, Ankara (Turkey); Tanır, Güneş [Gazi University, Faculty of Sciences, 06500 Teknikokullar, Ankara (Turkey)
2013-10-01
The present study aimed to investigate the effects of titanium, titanium alloy, and stainless steel hip prostheses on dose distribution based on the Monte Carlo simulation method, as well as the accuracy of the Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS) at 6 and 18 MV photon energies. In the present study the pencil beam convolution (PBC) method implemented in the Eclipse TPS was compared to the Monte Carlo method and ionization chamber measurements. The present findings show that if high-Z material is used in prosthesis, large dose changes can occur due to scattering. The variance in dose observed in the present study was dependent on material type, density, and atomic number, as well as photon energy; as photon energy increased back scattering decreased. The dose perturbation effect of hip prostheses was significant and could not be predicted accurately by the PBC method for hip prostheses. The findings show that for accurate dose calculation the Monte Carlo-based TPS should be used in patients with hip prostheses.
Catlı, Serap; Tanır, Güneş
2013-01-01
The present study aimed to investigate the effects of titanium, titanium alloy, and stainless steel hip prostheses on dose distribution based on the Monte Carlo simulation method, as well as the accuracy of the Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS) at 6 and 18MV photon energies. In the present study the pencil beam convolution (PBC) method implemented in the Eclipse TPS was compared to the Monte Carlo method and ionization chamber measurements. The present findings show that if high-Z material is used in prosthesis, large dose changes can occur due to scattering. The variance in dose observed in the present study was dependent on material type, density, and atomic number, as well as photon energy; as photon energy increased back scattering decreased. The dose perturbation effect of hip prostheses was significant and could not be predicted accurately by the PBC method for hip prostheses. The findings show that for accurate dose calculation the Monte Carlo-based TPS should be used in patients with hip prostheses.
Electron emission at very low electron impact energy: experimental and Monte-Carlo results
Belhaj, M.; Jbara, O.; Puech, J.; Balcon, N.; Payan, D.
2013-04-22
The behaviour of electron emission under electron impact at very low energy is of great importance in many applications such as high energy physics, satellites, nuclear reactors, etc. However the question of the total electron reflectivity is still in discussion. Our experimental and theoretical studies show that the total reflectivity at very low energy is far from being an obvious fact. Moreover, our results show that the yield is close to zero and not equal to one for low energy incident electron.
Barbeiro, A. R.; Ureba, A.; Baeza, J. A.; Linares, R.; Perucha, M.; Jiménez-Ortega, E.; Velázquez, S.; Mateos, J. C.
2016-01-01
A model based on a specific phantom, called QuAArC, has been designed for the evaluation of planning and verification systems of complex radiotherapy treatments, such as volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). This model uses the high accuracy provided by the Monte Carlo (MC) simulation of log files and allows the experimental feedback from the high spatial resolution of films hosted in QuAArC. This cylindrical phantom was specifically designed to host films rolled at different radial distances able to take into account the entrance fluence and the 3D dose distribution. Ionization chamber measurements are also included in the feedback process for absolute dose considerations. In this way, automated MC simulation of treatment log files is implemented to calculate the actual delivery geometries, while the monitor units are experimentally adjusted to reconstruct the dose-volume histogram (DVH) on the patient CT. Prostate and head and neck clinical cases, previously planned with Monaco and Pinnacle treatment planning systems and verified with two different commercial systems (Delta4 and COMPASS), were selected in order to test operational feasibility of the proposed model. The proper operation of the feedback procedure was proved through the achieved high agreement between reconstructed dose distributions and the film measurements (global gamma passing rates > 90% for the 2%/2 mm criteria). The necessary discretization level of the log file for dose calculation and the potential mismatching between calculated control points and detection grid in the verification process were discussed. Besides the effect of dose calculation accuracy of the analytic algorithm implemented in treatment planning systems for a dynamic technique, it was discussed the importance of the detection density level and its location in VMAT specific phantom to obtain a more reliable DVH in the patient CT. The proposed model also showed enough robustness and efficiency to be considered as a pre
Langevin Monte Carlo filtering for target tracking
Iglesias Garcia, Fernando; Bocquel, Melanie; Driessen, Hans
2015-01-01
This paper introduces the Langevin Monte Carlo Filter (LMCF), a particle filter with a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm which draws proposals by simulating Hamiltonian dynamics. This approach is well suited to non-linear filtering problems in high dimensional state spaces where the bootstrap filte
An introduction to Monte Carlo methods
Walter, J. -C.; Barkema, G. T.
2015-01-01
Monte Carlo simulations are methods for simulating statistical systems. The aim is to generate a representative ensemble of configurations to access thermodynamical quantities without the need to solve the system analytically or to perform an exact enumeration. The main principles of Monte Carlo sim
An introduction to Monte Carlo methods
Walter, J. -C.; Barkema, G. T.
2015-01-01
Monte Carlo simulations are methods for simulating statistical systems. The aim is to generate a representative ensemble of configurations to access thermodynamical quantities without the need to solve the system analytically or to perform an exact enumeration. The main principles of Monte Carlo sim
Challenges of Monte Carlo Transport
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Long, Alex Roberts [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2016-06-10
These are slides from a presentation for Parallel Summer School at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Solving discretized partial differential equations (PDEs) of interest can require a large number of computations. We can identify concurrency to allow parallel solution of discrete PDEs. Simulated particles histories can be used to solve the Boltzmann transport equation. Particle histories are independent in neutral particle transport, making them amenable to parallel computation. Physical parameters and method type determine the data dependencies of particle histories. Data requirements shape parallel algorithms for Monte Carlo. Then, Parallel Computational Physics and Parallel Monte Carlo are discussed and, finally, the results are given. The mesh passing method greatly simplifies the IMC implementation and allows simple load-balancing. Using MPI windows and passive, one-sided RMA further simplifies the implementation by removing target synchronization. The author is very interested in implementations of PGAS that may allow further optimization for one-sided, read-only memory access (e.g. Open SHMEM). The MPICH_RMA_OVER_DMAPP option and library is required to make one-sided messaging scale on Trinitite - Moonlight scales poorly. Interconnect specific libraries or functions are likely necessary to ensure performance. BRANSON has been used to directly compare the current standard method to a proposed method on idealized problems. The mesh passing algorithm performs well on problems that are designed to show the scalability of the particle passing method. BRANSON can now run load-imbalanced, dynamic problems. Potential avenues of improvement in the mesh passing algorithm will be implemented and explored. A suite of test problems that stress DD methods will elucidate a possible path forward for production codes.
The MC21 Monte Carlo Transport Code
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sutton TM, Donovan TJ, Trumbull TH, Dobreff PS, Caro E, Griesheimer DP, Tyburski LJ, Carpenter DC, Joo H
2007-01-09
MC21 is a new Monte Carlo neutron and photon transport code currently under joint development at the Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory and the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory. MC21 is the Monte Carlo transport kernel of the broader Common Monte Carlo Design Tool (CMCDT), which is also currently under development. The vision for CMCDT is to provide an automated, computer-aided modeling and post-processing environment integrated with a Monte Carlo solver that is optimized for reactor analysis. CMCDT represents a strategy to push the Monte Carlo method beyond its traditional role as a benchmarking tool or ''tool of last resort'' and into a dominant design role. This paper describes various aspects of the code, including the neutron physics and nuclear data treatments, the geometry representation, and the tally and depletion capabilities.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Banafsheh Zeinali Rafsanjani
2011-06-01
Full Text Available Introduction: Among different kinds of oral cavity cancers, the frequency of tongue cancer occurrence is more significant. Brachytherapy is the most common method to cure tongue cancers. Long sources are used in different techniques of tongue brachytherapy. The objective of this study is to asses the dose distribution around long sources, comparing different radioisotopes as brachytherapy sources, measuring the homogeneity of delivered dose to treatment volume and also comparing mandible dose and dose of tongue in the regions near the mandible with and without using shield. Material and Method: The Monte Carlo code MCNP4C was used for simulation. The accuracy of simulation was verified by comparing the results with experimental data. The sources like Ir-192, Cs-137, Ra-226, Au-198, In-111 and Ba-131 were simulated and the position of sources was determined by Paris system. Results: The percentage of mandible dose reduction with use of 2 mm Pb shield for the sources mentioned above were: 35.4%, 20.1%, 86.6%, 32.24%, 75.6%, and 36.8%. The tongue dose near the mandible with use of shied did not change significantly. The dose homogeneity from the most to least was obtained from these sources: Cs-137, Au-198, Ir-192, Ba-131, In-111 and Ra-226. Discussion and Conclusion: Ir-192 and Cs-137 were the best sources for tongue brachytherapy treatment but In-111 and Ra-226 were not suitable choices for tongue brachytherapy. The sources like Au-198 and Ba-131 had rather the same performance as Ir-192
Monte Carlo simulation for the transport beamline
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Romano, F.; Cuttone, G.; Jia, S. B.; Varisano, A. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania (Italy); Attili, A.; Marchetto, F.; Russo, G. [INFN, Sezione di Torino, Via P.Giuria, 1 10125 Torino (Italy); Cirrone, G. A. P.; Schillaci, F.; Scuderi, V. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania, Italy and Institute of Physics Czech Academy of Science, ELI-Beamlines project, Na Slovance 2, Prague (Czech Republic); Carpinelli, M. [INFN Sezione di Cagliari, c/o Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Cagliari, Cagliari (Italy); Tramontana, A. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania, Italy and Università di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Via S. Sofia 64, Catania (Italy)
2013-07-26
In the framework of the ELIMED project, Monte Carlo (MC) simulations are widely used to study the physical transport of charged particles generated by laser-target interactions and to preliminarily evaluate fluence and dose distributions. An energy selection system and the experimental setup for the TARANIS laser facility in Belfast (UK) have been already simulated with the GEANT4 (GEometry ANd Tracking) MC toolkit. Preliminary results are reported here. Future developments are planned to implement a MC based 3D treatment planning in order to optimize shots number and dose delivery.
Mosaic crystal algorithm for Monte Carlo simulations
Seeger, P A
2002-01-01
An algorithm is presented for calculating reflectivity, absorption, and scattering of mosaic crystals in Monte Carlo simulations of neutron instruments. The algorithm uses multi-step transport through the crystal with an exact solution of the Darwin equations at each step. It relies on the kinematical model for Bragg reflection (with parameters adjusted to reproduce experimental data). For computation of thermal effects (the Debye-Waller factor and coherent inelastic scattering), an expansion of the Debye integral as a rapidly converging series of exponential terms is also presented. Any crystal geometry and plane orientation may be treated. The algorithm has been incorporated into the neutron instrument simulation package NISP. (orig.)
Spike Inference from Calcium Imaging using Sequential Monte Carlo Methods
NeuroData; Paninski, L
2015-01-01
Vogelstein JT, Paninski L. Spike Inference from Calcium Imaging using Sequential Monte Carlo Methods. Statistical and Applied Mathematical Sciences Institute (SAMSI) Program on Sequential Monte Carlo Methods, 2008
Monte carlo simulation for soot dynamics
Zhou, Kun
2012-01-01
A new Monte Carlo method termed Comb-like frame Monte Carlo is developed to simulate the soot dynamics. Detailed stochastic error analysis is provided. Comb-like frame Monte Carlo is coupled with the gas phase solver Chemkin II to simulate soot formation in a 1-D premixed burner stabilized flame. The simulated soot number density, volume fraction, and particle size distribution all agree well with the measurement available in literature. The origin of the bimodal distribution of particle size distribution is revealed with quantitative proof.
Lattice gauge theories and Monte Carlo simulations
Rebbi, Claudio
1983-01-01
This volume is the most up-to-date review on Lattice Gauge Theories and Monte Carlo Simulations. It consists of two parts. Part one is an introductory lecture on the lattice gauge theories in general, Monte Carlo techniques and on the results to date. Part two consists of important original papers in this field. These selected reprints involve the following: Lattice Gauge Theories, General Formalism and Expansion Techniques, Monte Carlo Simulations. Phase Structures, Observables in Pure Gauge Theories, Systems with Bosonic Matter Fields, Simulation of Systems with Fermions.
Quantum Monte Carlo for minimum energy structures
Wagner, Lucas K
2010-01-01
We present an efficient method to find minimum energy structures using energy estimates from accurate quantum Monte Carlo calculations. This method involves a stochastic process formed from the stochastic energy estimates from Monte Carlo that can be averaged to find precise structural minima while using inexpensive calculations with moderate statistical uncertainty. We demonstrate the applicability of the algorithm by minimizing the energy of the H2O-OH- complex and showing that the structural minima from quantum Monte Carlo calculations affect the qualitative behavior of the potential energy surface substantially.
Fast quantum Monte Carlo on a GPU
Lutsyshyn, Y
2013-01-01
We present a scheme for the parallelization of quantum Monte Carlo on graphical processing units, focusing on bosonic systems and variational Monte Carlo. We use asynchronous execution schemes with shared memory persistence, and obtain an excellent acceleration. Comparing with single core execution, GPU-accelerated code runs over x100 faster. The CUDA code is provided along with the package that is necessary to execute variational Monte Carlo for a system representing liquid helium-4. The program was benchmarked on several models of Nvidia GPU, including Fermi GTX560 and M2090, and the latest Kepler architecture K20 GPU. Kepler-specific optimization is discussed.
11th International Conference on Monte Carlo and Quasi-Monte Carlo Methods in Scientific Computing
Nuyens, Dirk
2016-01-01
This book presents the refereed proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Monte Carlo and Quasi-Monte Carlo Methods in Scientific Computing that was held at the University of Leuven (Belgium) in April 2014. These biennial conferences are major events for Monte Carlo and quasi-Monte Carlo researchers. The proceedings include articles based on invited lectures as well as carefully selected contributed papers on all theoretical aspects and applications of Monte Carlo and quasi-Monte Carlo methods. Offering information on the latest developments in these very active areas, this book is an excellent reference resource for theoreticians and practitioners interested in solving high-dimensional computational problems, arising, in particular, in finance, statistics and computer graphics.
Simulation and the Monte Carlo method
Rubinstein, Reuven Y
2016-01-01
Simulation and the Monte Carlo Method, Third Edition reflects the latest developments in the field and presents a fully updated and comprehensive account of the major topics that have emerged in Monte Carlo simulation since the publication of the classic First Edition over more than a quarter of a century ago. While maintaining its accessible and intuitive approach, this revised edition features a wealth of up-to-date information that facilitates a deeper understanding of problem solving across a wide array of subject areas, such as engineering, statistics, computer science, mathematics, and the physical and life sciences. The book begins with a modernized introduction that addresses the basic concepts of probability, Markov processes, and convex optimization. Subsequent chapters discuss the dramatic changes that have occurred in the field of the Monte Carlo method, with coverage of many modern topics including: Markov Chain Monte Carlo, variance reduction techniques such as the transform likelihood ratio...
Quantum Monte Carlo Calculations of Light Nuclei
Pieper, Steven C
2007-01-01
During the last 15 years, there has been much progress in defining the nuclear Hamiltonian and applying quantum Monte Carlo methods to the calculation of light nuclei. I describe both aspects of this work and some recent results.
Improved Monte Carlo Renormalization Group Method
Gupta, R.; Wilson, K. G.; Umrigar, C.
1985-01-01
An extensive program to analyze critical systems using an Improved Monte Carlo Renormalization Group Method (IMCRG) being undertaken at LANL and Cornell is described. Here we first briefly review the method and then list some of the topics being investigated.
Monte Carlo methods for particle transport
Haghighat, Alireza
2015-01-01
The Monte Carlo method has become the de facto standard in radiation transport. Although powerful, if not understood and used appropriately, the method can give misleading results. Monte Carlo Methods for Particle Transport teaches appropriate use of the Monte Carlo method, explaining the method's fundamental concepts as well as its limitations. Concise yet comprehensive, this well-organized text: * Introduces the particle importance equation and its use for variance reduction * Describes general and particle-transport-specific variance reduction techniques * Presents particle transport eigenvalue issues and methodologies to address these issues * Explores advanced formulations based on the author's research activities * Discusses parallel processing concepts and factors affecting parallel performance Featuring illustrative examples, mathematical derivations, computer algorithms, and homework problems, Monte Carlo Methods for Particle Transport provides nuclear engineers and scientists with a practical guide ...
Smart detectors for Monte Carlo radiative transfer
Baes, Maarten
2008-01-01
Many optimization techniques have been invented to reduce the noise that is inherent in Monte Carlo radiative transfer simulations. As the typical detectors used in Monte Carlo simulations do not take into account all the information contained in the impacting photon packages, there is still room to optimize this detection process and the corresponding estimate of the surface brightness distributions. We want to investigate how all the information contained in the distribution of impacting photon packages can be optimally used to decrease the noise in the surface brightness distributions and hence to increase the efficiency of Monte Carlo radiative transfer simulations. We demonstrate that the estimate of the surface brightness distribution in a Monte Carlo radiative transfer simulation is similar to the estimate of the density distribution in an SPH simulation. Based on this similarity, a recipe is constructed for smart detectors that take full advantage of the exact location of the impact of the photon pack...
Quantum Monte Carlo approaches for correlated systems
Becca, Federico
2017-01-01
Over the past several decades, computational approaches to studying strongly-interacting systems have become increasingly varied and sophisticated. This book provides a comprehensive introduction to state-of-the-art quantum Monte Carlo techniques relevant for applications in correlated systems. Providing a clear overview of variational wave functions, and featuring a detailed presentation of stochastic samplings including Markov chains and Langevin dynamics, which are developed into a discussion of Monte Carlo methods. The variational technique is described, from foundations to a detailed description of its algorithms. Further topics discussed include optimisation techniques, real-time dynamics and projection methods, including Green's function, reptation and auxiliary-field Monte Carlo, from basic definitions to advanced algorithms for efficient codes, and the book concludes with recent developments on the continuum space. Quantum Monte Carlo Approaches for Correlated Systems provides an extensive reference ...
Monte Carlo Algorithms for Linear Problems
DIMOV, Ivan
2000-01-01
MSC Subject Classification: 65C05, 65U05. Monte Carlo methods are a powerful tool in many fields of mathematics, physics and engineering. It is known, that these methods give statistical estimates for the functional of the solution by performing random sampling of a certain chance variable whose mathematical expectation is the desired functional. Monte Carlo methods are methods for solving problems using random variables. In the book [16] edited by Yu. A. Shreider one can find the followin...
The Feynman Path Goes Monte Carlo
Sauer, Tilman
2001-01-01
Path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) simulations have become an important tool for the investigation of the statistical mechanics of quantum systems. I discuss some of the history of applying the Monte Carlo method to non-relativistic quantum systems in path-integral representation. The principle feasibility of the method was well established by the early eighties, a number of algorithmic improvements have been introduced in the last two decades.
Monte Carlo Hamiltonian:Inverse Potential
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LUO Xiang-Qian; CHENG Xiao-Ni; Helmut KR(O)GER
2004-01-01
The Monte Carlo Hamiltonian method developed recently allows to investigate the ground state and low-lying excited states of a quantum system,using Monte Carlo(MC)algorithm with importance sampling.However,conventional MC algorithm has some difficulties when applied to inverse potentials.We propose to use effective potential and extrapolation method to solve the problem.We present examples from the hydrogen system.
Self-consistent kinetic lattice Monte Carlo
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Horsfield, A.; Dunham, S.; Fujitani, Hideaki
1999-07-01
The authors present a brief description of a formalism for modeling point defect diffusion in crystalline systems using a Monte Carlo technique. The main approximations required to construct a practical scheme are briefly discussed, with special emphasis on the proper treatment of charged dopants and defects. This is followed by tight binding calculations of the diffusion barrier heights for charged vacancies. Finally, an application of the kinetic lattice Monte Carlo method to vacancy diffusion is presented.
Error in Monte Carlo, quasi-error in Quasi-Monte Carlo
Kleiss, R H
2006-01-01
While the Quasi-Monte Carlo method of numerical integration achieves smaller integration error than standard Monte Carlo, its use in particle physics phenomenology has been hindered by the abscence of a reliable way to estimate that error. The standard Monte Carlo error estimator relies on the assumption that the points are generated independently of each other and, therefore, fails to account for the error improvement advertised by the Quasi-Monte Carlo method. We advocate the construction of an estimator of stochastic nature, based on the ensemble of pointsets with a particular discrepancy value. We investigate the consequences of this choice and give some first empirical results on the suggested estimators.
Ruzic, David N.; Juliano, Daniel R.; Hayden, Douglas B.; Allain, Monica M. C.
1998-10-01
A code has been developed to model the transport of sputtered material in a modified industrial-scale magnetron. The device has a target diameter of 355 mm and was designed for 200 mm substrates. The chamber has been retrofitted with an auxilliary RF inductive plasma source located between the target and substrate. The source consists of a water-cooled copper coil immersed in the plasma, but with a diameter large enough to prevent shadowing of the substrate. The RF plasma, target sputter flux distribution, background gas conditions, and geometry are all inputs to the code. The plasma is characterized via a combination of a Langmuir probe apparatus and the results of a simple analytic model of the ICP system. The source of sputtered atoms from the target is found through measurements of the depth of the sputter track in an eroded target and the distribution of the sputter flux is calculated via VFTRIM. A Monte Carlo routine tracks high energy atoms emerging from the target as they move through the chamber and undergo collisions with the electrons and background gas. The sputtered atoms are tracked by this routine whatever their electronic state (neutral, excited, or ion). If the energy of a sputtered atom decreases to near-thermal levels, then it exits the Monte Carlo routine as is tracked with a simple diffusion model. In this way, all sputtered atoms are followed until they hit and stick to a surface, and the velocity distribution of the sputtered atom population (including electronic state information) at each surface is calculated, especially the substrate. Through the use of this simulation the coil parameters and geometry can be tailored to maximize deposition rate and sputter flux uniformity.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Meireles, Ramiro Conceicao
2016-07-01
The shielding calculation methodology for radiotherapy services adopted in Brazil and in several countries is that described in publication 151 of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP 151). This methodology however, markedly employs several approaches that can impact both in the construction cost and in the radiological safety of the facility. Although this methodology is currently well established by the high level of use, some parameters employed in the calculation methodology did not undergo to a detailed assessment to evaluate the impact of the various approaches considered. In this work the MCNP5 Monte Carlo code was used with the purpose of evaluating the above mentioned approaches. TVLs values were obtained for photons in conventional concrete (2.35g / cm{sup 3}), considering the energies of 6, 10 and 25 MeV, respectively, first considering an isotropic radiation source impinging perpendicular to the barriers, and subsequently a lead head shielding emitting a shaped beam, in the format of a pyramid trunk. Primary barriers safety margins, taking in account the head shielding emitting photon beam pyramid-shaped in the energies of 6, 10, 15 and 18 MeV were assessed. A study was conducted considering the attenuation provided by the patient's body in the energies of 6,10, 15 and 18 MeV, leading to new attenuation factors. Experimental measurements were performed in a real radiotherapy room, in order to map the leakage radiation emitted by the accelerator head shielding and the results obtained were employed in the Monte Carlo simulation, as well as to validate the entire study. The study results indicate that the TVLs values provided by (NCRP, 2005) show discrepancies in comparison with the values obtained by simulation and that there may be some barriers that are calculated with insufficient thickness. Furthermore, the simulation results show that the additional safety margins considered when calculating the width of the
THE MCNPX MONTE CARLO RADIATION TRANSPORT CODE
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
WATERS, LAURIE S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; MCKINNEY, GREGG W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; DURKEE, JOE W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; FENSIN, MICHAEL L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; JAMES, MICHAEL R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; JOHNS, RUSSELL C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; PELOWITZ, DENISE B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2007-01-10
MCNPX (Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended) is a general-purpose Monte Carlo radiation transport code with three-dimensional geometry and continuous-energy transport of 34 particles and light ions. It contains flexible source and tally options, interactive graphics, and support for both sequential and multi-processing computer platforms. MCNPX is based on MCNP4B, and has been upgraded to most MCNP5 capabilities. MCNP is a highly stable code tracking neutrons, photons and electrons, and using evaluated nuclear data libraries for low-energy interaction probabilities. MCNPX has extended this base to a comprehensive set of particles and light ions, with heavy ion transport in development. Models have been included to calculate interaction probabilities when libraries are not available. Recent additions focus on the time evolution of residual nuclei decay, allowing calculation of transmutation and delayed particle emission. MCNPX is now a code of great dynamic range, and the excellent neutronics capabilities allow new opportunities to simulate devices of interest to experimental particle physics; particularly calorimetry. This paper describes the capabilities of the current MCNPX version 2.6.C, and also discusses ongoing code development.
Monte Carlo scatter correction for SPECT
Liu, Zemei
The goal of this dissertation is to present a quantitatively accurate and computationally fast scatter correction method that is robust and easily accessible for routine applications in SPECT imaging. A Monte Carlo based scatter estimation method is investigated and developed further. The Monte Carlo simulation program SIMIND (Simulating Medical Imaging Nuclear Detectors), was specifically developed to simulate clinical SPECT systems. The SIMIND scatter estimation (SSE) method was developed further using a multithreading technique to distribute the scatter estimation task across multiple threads running concurrently on multi-core CPU's to accelerate the scatter estimation process. An analytical collimator that ensures less noise was used during SSE. The research includes the addition to SIMIND of charge transport modeling in cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detectors. Phenomena associated with radiation-induced charge transport including charge trapping, charge diffusion, charge sharing between neighboring detector pixels, as well as uncertainties in the detection process are addressed. Experimental measurements and simulation studies were designed for scintillation crystal based SPECT and CZT based SPECT systems to verify and evaluate the expanded SSE method. Jaszczak Deluxe and Anthropomorphic Torso Phantoms (Data Spectrum Corporation, Hillsborough, NC, USA) were used for experimental measurements and digital versions of the same phantoms employed during simulations to mimic experimental acquisitions. This study design enabled easy comparison of experimental and simulated data. The results have consistently shown that the SSE method performed similarly or better than the triple energy window (TEW) and effective scatter source estimation (ESSE) methods for experiments on all the clinical SPECT systems. The SSE method is proven to be a viable method for scatter estimation for routine clinical use.
Atomistic Monte Carlo simulation of lipid membranes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wüstner, Daniel; Sklenar, Heinz
2014-01-01
, as assessed by calculation of molecular energies and entropies. We also show transition from a crystalline-like to a fluid DPPC bilayer by the CBC local-move MC method, as indicated by the electron density profile, head group orientation, area per lipid, and whole-lipid displacements. We discuss the potential......Biological membranes are complex assemblies of many different molecules of which analysis demands a variety of experimental and computational approaches. In this article, we explain challenges and advantages of atomistic Monte Carlo (MC) simulation of lipid membranes. We provide an introduction...... into the various move sets that are implemented in current MC methods for efficient conformational sampling of lipids and other molecules. In the second part, we demonstrate for a concrete example, how an atomistic local-move set can be implemented for MC simulations of phospholipid monomers and bilayer patches...
Atomistic Monte Carlo simulation of lipid membranes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wüstner, Daniel; Sklenar, Heinz
2014-01-01
Biological membranes are complex assemblies of many different molecules of which analysis demands a variety of experimental and computational approaches. In this article, we explain challenges and advantages of atomistic Monte Carlo (MC) simulation of lipid membranes. We provide an introduction......, as assessed by calculation of molecular energies and entropies. We also show transition from a crystalline-like to a fluid DPPC bilayer by the CBC local-move MC method, as indicated by the electron density profile, head group orientation, area per lipid, and whole-lipid displacements. We discuss the potential...... of local-move MC methods in combination with molecular dynamics simulations, for example, for studying multi-component lipid membranes containing cholesterol....
Monte Carlo EM加速算法%Acceleration of Monte Carlo EM Algorithm
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
罗季
2008-01-01
EM算法是近年来常用的求后验众数的估计的一种数据增广算法,但由于求出其E步中积分的显示表达式有时很困难,甚至不可能,限制了其应用的广泛性.而Monte Carlo EM算法很好地解决了这个问题,将EM算法中E步的积分用Monte Carlo模拟来有效实现,使其适用性大大增强.但无论是EM算法,还是Monte Carlo EM算法,其收敛速度都是线性的,被缺损信息的倒数所控制,当缺损数据的比例很高时,收敛速度就非常缓慢.而Newton-Raphson算法在后验众数的附近具有二次收敛速率.本文提出Monte Carlo EM加速算法,将Monte Carlo EM算法与Newton-Raphson算法结合,既使得EM算法中的E步用Monte Carlo模拟得以实现,又证明了该算法在后验众数附近具有二次收敛速度.从而使其保留了Monte Carlo EM算法的优点,并改进了Monte Carlo EM算法的收敛速度.本文通过数值例子,将Monte Carlo EM加速算法的结果与EM算法、Monte Carlo EM算法的结果进行比较,进一步说明了Monte Carlo EM加速算法的优良性.
Heinrich, Josué Miguel; Niizawa, Ignacio; Botta, Fausto Adrián; Trombert, Alejandro Raúl; Irazoqui, Horacio Antonio
2012-01-01
In a previous study, we developed a methodology to assess the intrinsic optical properties governing the radiation field in algae suspensions. With these properties at our disposal, a Monte Carlo simulation program is developed and used in this study as a predictive autonomous program applied to the simulation of experiments that reproduce the common illumination conditions that are found in processes of large scale production of microalgae, especially when using open ponds such as raceway ponds. The simulation module is validated by comparing the results of experimental measurements made on artificially illuminated algal suspension with those predicted by the Monte Carlo program. This experiment deals with a situation that resembles that of an open pond or that of a raceway pond, except for the fact that for convenience, the experimental arrangement appears as if those reactors were turned upside down. It serves the purpose of assessing to what extent the scattering phenomena are important for the prediction of the spatial distribution of the radiant energy density. The simulation module developed can be applied to compute the local energy density inside photobioreactors with the goal to optimize its design and their operating conditions.
Random Numbers and Monte Carlo Methods
Scherer, Philipp O. J.
Many-body problems often involve the calculation of integrals of very high dimension which cannot be treated by standard methods. For the calculation of thermodynamic averages Monte Carlo methods are very useful which sample the integration volume at randomly chosen points. After summarizing some basic statistics, we discuss algorithms for the generation of pseudo-random numbers with given probability distribution which are essential for all Monte Carlo methods. We show how the efficiency of Monte Carlo integration can be improved by sampling preferentially the important configurations. Finally the famous Metropolis algorithm is applied to classical many-particle systems. Computer experiments visualize the central limit theorem and apply the Metropolis method to the traveling salesman problem.
SMCTC: Sequential Monte Carlo in C++
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adam M. Johansen
2009-04-01
Full Text Available Sequential Monte Carlo methods are a very general class of Monte Carlo methodsfor sampling from sequences of distributions. Simple examples of these algorithms areused very widely in the tracking and signal processing literature. Recent developmentsillustrate that these techniques have much more general applicability, and can be appliedvery eectively to statistical inference problems. Unfortunately, these methods are oftenperceived as being computationally expensive and dicult to implement. This articleseeks to address both of these problems.A C++ template class library for the ecient and convenient implementation of verygeneral Sequential Monte Carlo algorithms is presented. Two example applications areprovided: a simple particle lter for illustrative purposes and a state-of-the-art algorithmfor rare event estimation.
Shell model the Monte Carlo way
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ormand, W.E.
1995-03-01
The formalism for the auxiliary-field Monte Carlo approach to the nuclear shell model is presented. The method is based on a linearization of the two-body part of the Hamiltonian in an imaginary-time propagator using the Hubbard-Stratonovich transformation. The foundation of the method, as applied to the nuclear many-body problem, is discussed. Topics presented in detail include: (1) the density-density formulation of the method, (2) computation of the overlaps, (3) the sign of the Monte Carlo weight function, (4) techniques for performing Monte Carlo sampling, and (5) the reconstruction of response functions from an imaginary-time auto-correlation function using MaxEnt techniques. Results obtained using schematic interactions, which have no sign problem, are presented to demonstrate the feasibility of the method, while an extrapolation method for realistic Hamiltonians is presented. In addition, applications at finite temperature are outlined.
Quantum Monte Carlo with variable spins.
Melton, Cody A; Bennett, M Chandler; Mitas, Lubos
2016-06-28
We investigate the inclusion of variable spins in electronic structure quantum Monte Carlo, with a focus on diffusion Monte Carlo with Hamiltonians that include spin-orbit interactions. Following our previous introduction of fixed-phase spin-orbit diffusion Monte Carlo, we thoroughly discuss the details of the method and elaborate upon its technicalities. We present a proof for an upper-bound property for complex nonlocal operators, which allows for the implementation of T-moves to ensure the variational property. We discuss the time step biases associated with our particular choice of spin representation. Applications of the method are also presented for atomic and molecular systems. We calculate the binding energies and geometry of the PbH and Sn2 molecules, as well as the electron affinities of the 6p row elements in close agreement with experiments.
A brief introduction to Monte Carlo simulation.
Bonate, P L
2001-01-01
Simulation affects our life every day through our interactions with the automobile, airline and entertainment industries, just to name a few. The use of simulation in drug development is relatively new, but its use is increasing in relation to the speed at which modern computers run. One well known example of simulation in drug development is molecular modelling. Another use of simulation that is being seen recently in drug development is Monte Carlo simulation of clinical trials. Monte Carlo simulation differs from traditional simulation in that the model parameters are treated as stochastic or random variables, rather than as fixed values. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief introduction to Monte Carlo simulation methods.
Quantum Monte Carlo with Variable Spins
Melton, Cody A; Mitas, Lubos
2016-01-01
We investigate the inclusion of variable spins in electronic structure quantum Monte Carlo, with a focus on diffusion Monte Carlo with Hamiltonians that include spin-orbit interactions. Following our previous introduction of fixed-phase spin-orbit diffusion Monte Carlo (FPSODMC), we thoroughly discuss the details of the method and elaborate upon its technicalities. We present a proof for an upper-bound property for complex nonlocal operators, which allows for the implementation of T-moves to ensure the variational property. We discuss the time step biases associated with our particular choice of spin representation. Applications of the method are also presented for atomic and molecular systems. We calculate the binding energies and geometry of the PbH and Sn$_2$ molecules, as well as the electron affinities of the 6$p$ row elements in close agreement with experiments.
CosmoPMC: Cosmology Population Monte Carlo
Kilbinger, Martin; Cappe, Olivier; Cardoso, Jean-Francois; Fort, Gersende; Prunet, Simon; Robert, Christian P; Wraith, Darren
2011-01-01
We present the public release of the Bayesian sampling algorithm for cosmology, CosmoPMC (Cosmology Population Monte Carlo). CosmoPMC explores the parameter space of various cosmological probes, and also provides a robust estimate of the Bayesian evidence. CosmoPMC is based on an adaptive importance sampling method called Population Monte Carlo (PMC). Various cosmology likelihood modules are implemented, and new modules can be added easily. The importance-sampling algorithm is written in C, and fully parallelised using the Message Passing Interface (MPI). Due to very little overhead, the wall-clock time required for sampling scales approximately with the number of CPUs. The CosmoPMC package contains post-processing and plotting programs, and in addition a Monte-Carlo Markov chain (MCMC) algorithm. The sampling engine is implemented in the library pmclib, and can be used independently. The software is available for download at http://www.cosmopmc.info.
Quantum speedup of Monte Carlo methods.
Montanaro, Ashley
2015-09-08
Monte Carlo methods use random sampling to estimate numerical quantities which are hard to compute deterministically. One important example is the use in statistical physics of rapidly mixing Markov chains to approximately compute partition functions. In this work, we describe a quantum algorithm which can accelerate Monte Carlo methods in a very general setting. The algorithm estimates the expected output value of an arbitrary randomized or quantum subroutine with bounded variance, achieving a near-quadratic speedup over the best possible classical algorithm. Combining the algorithm with the use of quantum walks gives a quantum speedup of the fastest known classical algorithms with rigorous performance bounds for computing partition functions, which use multiple-stage Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques. The quantum algorithm can also be used to estimate the total variation distance between probability distributions efficiently.
Self-learning Monte Carlo method
Liu, Junwei; Qi, Yang; Meng, Zi Yang; Fu, Liang
2017-01-01
Monte Carlo simulation is an unbiased numerical tool for studying classical and quantum many-body systems. One of its bottlenecks is the lack of a general and efficient update algorithm for large size systems close to the phase transition, for which local updates perform badly. In this Rapid Communication, we propose a general-purpose Monte Carlo method, dubbed self-learning Monte Carlo (SLMC), in which an efficient update algorithm is first learned from the training data generated in trial simulations and then used to speed up the actual simulation. We demonstrate the efficiency of SLMC in a spin model at the phase transition point, achieving a 10-20 times speedup.
Monte Carlo strategies in scientific computing
Liu, Jun S
2008-01-01
This paperback edition is a reprint of the 2001 Springer edition This book provides a self-contained and up-to-date treatment of the Monte Carlo method and develops a common framework under which various Monte Carlo techniques can be "standardized" and compared Given the interdisciplinary nature of the topics and a moderate prerequisite for the reader, this book should be of interest to a broad audience of quantitative researchers such as computational biologists, computer scientists, econometricians, engineers, probabilists, and statisticians It can also be used as the textbook for a graduate-level course on Monte Carlo methods Many problems discussed in the alter chapters can be potential thesis topics for masters’ or PhD students in statistics or computer science departments Jun Liu is Professor of Statistics at Harvard University, with a courtesy Professor appointment at Harvard Biostatistics Department Professor Liu was the recipient of the 2002 COPSS Presidents' Award, the most prestigious one for sta...
Parallel Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations.
Ren, Ruichao; Orkoulas, G
2007-06-07
With strict detailed balance, parallel Monte Carlo simulation through domain decomposition cannot be validated with conventional Markov chain theory, which describes an intrinsically serial stochastic process. In this work, the parallel version of Markov chain theory and its role in accelerating Monte Carlo simulations via cluster computing is explored. It is shown that sequential updating is the key to improving efficiency in parallel simulations through domain decomposition. A parallel scheme is proposed to reduce interprocessor communication or synchronization, which slows down parallel simulation with increasing number of processors. Parallel simulation results for the two-dimensional lattice gas model show substantial reduction of simulation time for systems of moderate and large size.
Monte Carlo Hamiltonian：Linear Potentials
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LUOXiang－Qian; HelmutKROEGER; 等
2002-01-01
We further study the validity of the Monte Carlo Hamiltonian method .The advantage of the method,in comparison with the standard Monte Carlo Lagrangian approach,is its capability to study the excited states.We consider two quantum mechanical models:a symmetric one V(x)=/x/2;and an asymmetric one V(x)==∞,for x<0 and V(x)=2,for x≥0.The results for the spectrum,wave functions and thermodynamical observables are in agreement with the analytical or Runge-Kutta calculations.
Monte Carlo dose distributions for radiosurgery
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Perucha, M.; Leal, A.; Rincon, M.; Carrasco, E. [Sevilla Univ. (Spain). Dept. Fisiologia Medica y Biofisica; Sanchez-Doblado, F. [Sevilla Univ. (Spain). Dept. Fisiologia Medica y Biofisica]|[Hospital Univ. Virgen Macarena, Sevilla (Spain). Servicio de Oncologia Radioterapica; Nunez, L. [Clinica Puerta de Hierro, Madrid (Spain). Servicio de Radiofisica; Arrans, R.; Sanchez-Calzado, J.A.; Errazquin, L. [Hospital Univ. Virgen Macarena, Sevilla (Spain). Servicio de Oncologia Radioterapica; Sanchez-Nieto, B. [Royal Marsden NHS Trust (United Kingdom). Joint Dept. of Physics]|[Inst. of Cancer Research, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom)
2001-07-01
The precision of Radiosurgery Treatment planning systems is limited by the approximations of their algorithms and by their dosimetrical input data. This fact is especially important in small fields. However, the Monte Carlo methods is an accurate alternative as it considers every aspect of particle transport. In this work an acoustic neurinoma is studied by comparing the dose distribution of both a planning system and Monte Carlo. Relative shifts have been measured and furthermore, Dose-Volume Histograms have been calculated for target and adjacent organs at risk. (orig.)
Monte carlo simulations of organic photovoltaics.
Groves, Chris; Greenham, Neil C
2014-01-01
Monte Carlo simulations are a valuable tool to model the generation, separation, and collection of charges in organic photovoltaics where charges move by hopping in a complex nanostructure and Coulomb interactions between charge carriers are important. We review the Monte Carlo techniques that have been applied to this problem, and describe the results of simulations of the various recombination processes that limit device performance. We show how these processes are influenced by the local physical and energetic structure of the material, providing information that is useful for design of efficient photovoltaic systems.
Monte Carlo simulation of neutron scattering instruments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Seeger, P.A.
1995-12-31
A library of Monte Carlo subroutines has been developed for the purpose of design of neutron scattering instruments. Using small-angle scattering as an example, the philosophy and structure of the library are described and the programs are used to compare instruments at continuous wave (CW) and long-pulse spallation source (LPSS) neutron facilities. The Monte Carlo results give a count-rate gain of a factor between 2 and 4 using time-of-flight analysis. This is comparable to scaling arguments based on the ratio of wavelength bandwidth to resolution width.
The Rational Hybrid Monte Carlo Algorithm
Clark, M A
2006-01-01
The past few years have seen considerable progress in algorithmic development for the generation of gauge fields including the effects of dynamical fermions. The Rational Hybrid Monte Carlo (RHMC) algorithm, where Hybrid Monte Carlo is performed using a rational approximation in place the usual inverse quark matrix kernel is one of these developments. This algorithm has been found to be extremely beneficial in many areas of lattice QCD (chiral fermions, finite temperature, Wilson fermions etc.). We review the algorithm and some of these benefits, and we compare against other recent algorithm developements. We conclude with an update of the Berlin wall plot comparing costs of all popular fermion formulations.
The Rational Hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm
Clark, Michael
2006-12-01
The past few years have seen considerable progress in algorithmic development for the generation of gauge fields including the effects of dynamical fermions. The Rational Hybrid Monte Carlo (RHMC) algorithm, where Hybrid Monte Carlo is performed using a rational approximation in place the usual inverse quark matrix kernel is one of these developments. This algorithm has been found to be extremely beneficial in many areas of lattice QCD (chiral fermions, finite temperature, Wilson fermions etc.). We review the algorithm and some of these benefits, and we compare against other recent algorithm developements. We conclude with an update of the Berlin wall plot comparing costs of all popular fermion formulations.
Monte Carlo modelling of TRIGA research reactor
El Bakkari, B.; Nacir, B.; El Bardouni, T.; El Younoussi, C.; Merroun, O.; Htet, A.; Boulaich, Y.; Zoubair, M.; Boukhal, H.; Chakir, M.
2010-10-01
The Moroccan 2 MW TRIGA MARK II research reactor at Centre des Etudes Nucléaires de la Maâmora (CENM) achieved initial criticality on May 2, 2007. The reactor is designed to effectively implement the various fields of basic nuclear research, manpower training, and production of radioisotopes for their use in agriculture, industry, and medicine. This study deals with the neutronic analysis of the 2-MW TRIGA MARK II research reactor at CENM and validation of the results by comparisons with the experimental, operational, and available final safety analysis report (FSAR) values. The study was prepared in collaboration between the Laboratory of Radiation and Nuclear Systems (ERSN-LMR) from Faculty of Sciences of Tetuan (Morocco) and CENM. The 3-D continuous energy Monte Carlo code MCNP (version 5) was used to develop a versatile and accurate full model of the TRIGA core. The model represents in detailed all components of the core with literally no physical approximation. Continuous energy cross-section data from the more recent nuclear data evaluations (ENDF/B-VI.8, ENDF/B-VII.0, JEFF-3.1, and JENDL-3.3) as well as S( α, β) thermal neutron scattering functions distributed with the MCNP code were used. The cross-section libraries were generated by using the NJOY99 system updated to its more recent patch file "up259". The consistency and accuracy of both the Monte Carlo simulation and neutron transport physics were established by benchmarking the TRIGA experiments. Core excess reactivity, total and integral control rods worth as well as power peaking factors were used in the validation process. Results of calculations are analysed and discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hespeels, F., E-mail: felicien.hespeels@unamur.be [University of Namur, PMR, 61 rue de Bruxelles, 5000 Namur (Belgium); Tonneau, R. [University of Namur, PMR, 61 rue de Bruxelles, 5000 Namur (Belgium); Ikeda, T. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Lucas, S. [University of Namur, PMR, 61 rue de Bruxelles, 5000 Namur (Belgium)
2015-11-01
Highlights: • Monte-Carlo simulation for beam transportation through collimations devices. • We confirm the focusing effect of tapered glass capillary. • We confirm the feasibility of using passive collimation devices for ion beam analysis application. - Abstract: This study compares the capabilities of three different passive collimation devices to produce micrometer-sized beams for proton and alpha particle beams (1.7 MeV and 5.3 MeV respectively): classical platinum TEM-like collimators, straight glass capillaries and tapered glass capillaries. In addition, we developed a Monte-Carlo code, based on the Rutherford scattering theory, which simulates particle transportation through collimating devices. The simulation results match the experimental observations of beam transportation through collimators both in air and vacuum. This research shows the focusing effects of tapered capillaries which clearly enable higher transmission flux. Nevertheless, the capillaries alignment with an incident beam is a prerequisite but is tedious, which makes the TEM collimator the easiest way to produce a 50 μm microbeam.
Fast sequential Monte Carlo methods for counting and optimization
Rubinstein, Reuven Y; Vaisman, Radislav
2013-01-01
A comprehensive account of the theory and application of Monte Carlo methods Based on years of research in efficient Monte Carlo methods for estimation of rare-event probabilities, counting problems, and combinatorial optimization, Fast Sequential Monte Carlo Methods for Counting and Optimization is a complete illustration of fast sequential Monte Carlo techniques. The book provides an accessible overview of current work in the field of Monte Carlo methods, specifically sequential Monte Carlo techniques, for solving abstract counting and optimization problems. Written by authorities in the
Monte Carlo evaluation of kerma in an HDR brachytherapy bunker
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Perez-Calatayud, J [Department of Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics, and IFIC, CSIC-University of Valencia, Burjassot (Spain); Granero, D [Department of Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics, and IFIC, CSIC-University of Valencia, Burjassot (Spain); Ballester, F [Department of Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics, and IFIC, CSIC-University of Valencia, Burjassot (Spain); Casal, E [Department of Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics, and IFIC, CSIC-University of Valencia, Burjassot (Spain); Crispin, V [FIVO, Fundacion Instituto Valenciano De OncologIa, Valencia (Spain); Puchades, V [Grupo IMO-SFA, Madrid (Spain); Leon, A [Department of Chemistry and Nuclear Engineering, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Verdu, G [Department of Chemistry and Nuclear Engineering, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain)
2004-12-21
In recent years, the use of high dose rate (HDR) after-loader machines has greatly increased due to the shift from traditional Cs-137/Ir-192 low dose rate (LDR) to HDR brachytherapy. The method used to calculate the required concrete and, where appropriate, lead shielding in the door is based on analytical methods provided by documents published by the ICRP, the IAEA and the NCRP. The purpose of this study is to perform a more realistic kerma evaluation at the entrance maze door of an HDR bunker using the Monte Carlo code GEANT4. The Monte Carlo results were validated experimentally. The spectrum at the maze entrance door, obtained with Monte Carlo, has an average energy of about 110 keV, maintaining a similar value along the length of the maze. The comparison of results from the aforementioned values with the Monte Carlo ones shows that results obtained using the albedo coefficient from the ICRP document more closely match those given by the Monte Carlo method, although the maximum value given by MC calculations is 30% greater. (note)
Monte Carlo methods in AB initio quantum chemistry quantum Monte Carlo for molecules
Lester, William A; Reynolds, PJ
1994-01-01
This book presents the basic theory and application of the Monte Carlo method to the electronic structure of atoms and molecules. It assumes no previous knowledge of the subject, only a knowledge of molecular quantum mechanics at the first-year graduate level. A working knowledge of traditional ab initio quantum chemistry is helpful, but not essential.Some distinguishing features of this book are: Clear exposition of the basic theory at a level to facilitate independent study. Discussion of the various versions of the theory: diffusion Monte Carlo, Green's function Monte Carlo, and release n
On the use of stochastic approximation Monte Carlo for Monte Carlo integration
Liang, Faming
2009-03-01
The stochastic approximation Monte Carlo (SAMC) algorithm has recently been proposed as a dynamic optimization algorithm in the literature. In this paper, we show in theory that the samples generated by SAMC can be used for Monte Carlo integration via a dynamically weighted estimator by calling some results from the literature of nonhomogeneous Markov chains. Our numerical results indicate that SAMC can yield significant savings over conventional Monte Carlo algorithms, such as the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm, for the problems for which the energy landscape is rugged. © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Calibration and Monte Carlo modelling of neutron long counters
Tagziria, H
2000-01-01
The Monte Carlo technique has become a very powerful tool in radiation transport as full advantage is taken of enhanced cross-section data, more powerful computers and statistical techniques, together with better characterisation of neutron and photon source spectra. At the National Physical Laboratory, calculations using the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNP-4B have been combined with accurate measurements to characterise two long counters routinely used to standardise monoenergetic neutron fields. New and more accurate response function curves have been produced for both long counters. A novel approach using Monte Carlo methods has been developed, validated and used to model the response function of the counters and determine more accurately their effective centres, which have always been difficult to establish experimentally. Calculations and measurements agree well, especially for the De Pangher long counter for which details of the design and constructional material are well known. The sensitivit...
Data libraries as a collaborative tool across Monte Carlo codes
Augelli, Mauro; Han, Mincheol; Hauf, Steffen; Kim, Chan-Hyeung; Kuster, Markus; Pia, Maria Grazia; Quintieri, Lina; Saracco, Paolo; Seo, Hee; Sudhakar, Manju; Eidenspointner, Georg; Zoglauer, Andreas
2010-01-01
The role of data libraries in Monte Carlo simulation is discussed. A number of data libraries currently in preparation are reviewed; their data are critically examined with respect to the state-of-the-art in the respective fields. Extensive tests with respect to experimental data have been performed for the validation of their content.
Improved Monte Carlo model for multiple scattering calculations
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Weiwei Cai; Lin Ma
2012-01-01
The coupling between the Monte Carlo (MC) method and geometrical optics to improve accuracy is investigated.The results obtained show improved agreement with previous experimental data,demonstrating that the MC method,when coupled with simple geometrical optics,can simulate multiple scattering with enhanced fidelity.
An Overview of the Monte Carlo Methods, Codes, & Applications Group
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Trahan, Travis John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2016-08-30
This report sketches the work of the Group to deliver first-principle Monte Carlo methods, production quality codes, and radiation transport-based computational and experimental assessments using the codes MCNP and MCATK for such applications as criticality safety, non-proliferation, nuclear energy, nuclear threat reduction and response, radiation detection and measurement, radiation health protection, and stockpile stewardship.
A comparison of Monte Carlo generators
Golan, Tomasz
2014-01-01
A comparison of GENIE, NEUT, NUANCE, and NuWro Monte Carlo neutrino event generators is presented using a set of four observables: protons multiplicity, total visible energy, most energetic proton momentum, and $\\pi^+$ two-dimensional energy vs cosine distribution.
Monte Carlo Tools for Jet Quenching
Zapp, Korinna
2011-01-01
A thorough understanding of jet quenching on the basis of multi-particle final states and jet observables requires new theoretical tools. This talk summarises the status and propects of the theoretical description of jet quenching in terms of Monte Carlo generators.
An Introduction to Monte Carlo Methods
Raeside, D. E.
1974-01-01
Reviews the principles of Monte Carlo calculation and random number generation in an attempt to introduce the direct and the rejection method of sampling techniques as well as the variance-reduction procedures. Indicates that the increasing availability of computers makes it possible for a wider audience to learn about these powerful methods. (CC)
Variance Reduction Techniques in Monte Carlo Methods
Kleijnen, Jack P.C.; Ridder, A.A.N.; Rubinstein, R.Y.
2010-01-01
Monte Carlo methods are simulation algorithms to estimate a numerical quantity in a statistical model of a real system. These algorithms are executed by computer programs. Variance reduction techniques (VRT) are needed, even though computer speed has been increasing dramatically, ever since the intr
Scalable Domain Decomposed Monte Carlo Particle Transport
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
O' Brien, Matthew Joseph [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)
2013-12-05
In this dissertation, we present the parallel algorithms necessary to run domain decomposed Monte Carlo particle transport on large numbers of processors (millions of processors). Previous algorithms were not scalable, and the parallel overhead became more computationally costly than the numerical simulation.
Monte Carlo methods beyond detailed balance
Schram, Raoul D.; Barkema, Gerard T.
2015-01-01
Monte Carlo algorithms are nearly always based on the concept of detailed balance and ergodicity. In this paper we focus on algorithms that do not satisfy detailed balance. We introduce a general method for designing non-detailed balance algorithms, starting from a conventional algorithm satisfying
Variance Reduction Techniques in Monte Carlo Methods
Kleijnen, Jack P.C.; Ridder, A.A.N.; Rubinstein, R.Y.
2010-01-01
Monte Carlo methods are simulation algorithms to estimate a numerical quantity in a statistical model of a real system. These algorithms are executed by computer programs. Variance reduction techniques (VRT) are needed, even though computer speed has been increasing dramatically, ever since the intr
An analysis of Monte Carlo tree search
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
James, S
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Monte Carlo Tree Search (MCTS) is a family of directed search algorithms that has gained widespread attention in recent years. Despite the vast amount of research into MCTS, the effect of modifications on the algorithm, as well as the manner...
Monte Carlo Simulation of Counting Experiments.
Ogden, Philip M.
A computer program to perform a Monte Carlo simulation of counting experiments was written. The program was based on a mathematical derivation which started with counts in a time interval. The time interval was subdivided to form a binomial distribution with no two counts in the same subinterval. Then the number of subintervals was extended to…
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Belosi, Maria F.; Fogliata, Antonella, E-mail: antonella.fogliata-cozzi@eoc.ch, E-mail: afc@iosi.ch; Cozzi, Luca; Clivio, Alessandro; Nicolini, Giorgia; Vanetti, Eugenio [Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Medical Physics Unit, Bellinzona CH-6500 (Switzerland); Rodriguez, Miguel [Institut de Tècniques Energètiques, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona E-08028 (Spain); Sempau, Josep [Institut de Tècniques Energètiques, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona E-08028, Spain and Spanish Networking Research Center CIBER-BBN, Barcelona E-08028 (Spain); Krauss, Harald [Kaiser-Franz-Josef-Spital, Institut für Radioonkologie, Vienna A-1100 (Austria); Khamphan, Catherine [Institut Sainte Catherine, Medical Physics Unit, Avignon F-84000 (France); Fenoglietto, Pascal [Départment de Cancérologie Radiothérapie, CRLC Val d’Aurelle-Paul Lamarque, Montpellier F-34090 (France); Puxeu, Josep [Medical Physics Department, Institut Català d’Oncologia, Barcelona E-08028 (Spain); Fedele, David [Radio-Oncology Department, Casa di Cura San Rossore, Pisa I-56100 (Italy); Mancosu, Pietro [Radiation Oncology Department, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Rozzano-Milan I-20089 (Italy); Brualla, Lorenzo [NCTeam, Strahlenklinik, Universitätsklinikum Essen, Essen D-45122 (Germany)
2014-05-15
Purpose: Phase-space files for Monte Carlo simulation of the Varian TrueBeam beams have been made available by Varian. The aim of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of the distributed phase-space files for flattening filter free (FFF) beams, against experimental measurements from ten TrueBeam Linacs. Methods: The phase-space files have been used as input in PRIMO, a recently released Monte Carlo program based on thePENELOPE code. Simulations of 6 and 10 MV FFF were computed in a virtual water phantom for field sizes 3 × 3, 6 × 6, and 10 × 10 cm{sup 2} using 1 × 1 × 1 mm{sup 3} voxels and for 20 × 20 and 40 × 40 cm{sup 2} with 2 × 2 × 2 mm{sup 3} voxels. The particles contained in the initial phase-space files were transported downstream to a plane just above the phantom surface, where a subsequent phase-space file was tallied. Particles were transported downstream this second phase-space file to the water phantom. Experimental data consisted of depth doses and profiles at five different depths acquired at SSD = 100 cm (seven datasets) and SSD = 90 cm (three datasets). Simulations and experimental data were compared in terms of dose difference. Gamma analysis was also performed using 1%, 1 mm and 2%, 2 mm criteria of dose-difference and distance-to-agreement, respectively. Additionally, the parameters characterizing the dose profiles of unflattened beams were evaluated for both measurements and simulations. Results: Analysis of depth dose curves showed that dose differences increased with increasing field size and depth; this effect might be partly motivated due to an underestimation of the primary beam energy used to compute the phase-space files. Average dose differences reached 1% for the largest field size. Lateral profiles presented dose differences well within 1% for fields up to 20 × 20 cm{sup 2}, while the discrepancy increased toward 2% in the 40 × 40 cm{sup 2} cases. Gamma analysis resulted in an agreement of 100% when a 2%, 2 mm criterion
Xie, Huamu; Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Rao, Triveni; Xin, Tianmu; Wang, Erdong
2016-10-01
High-average-current, high-brightness electron sources have important applications, such as in high-repetition-rate free-electron lasers, or in the electron cooling of hadrons. Bialkali photocathodes are promising high-quantum-efficiency (QE) cathode materials, while superconducting rf (SRF) electron guns offer continuous-mode operation at high acceleration, as is needed for high-brightness electron sources. Thus, we must have a comprehensive understanding of the performance of bialkali photocathode at cryogenic temperatures when they are to be used in SRF guns. To remove the heat produced by the radio-frequency field in these guns, the cathode should be cooled to cryogenic temperatures. We recorded an 80% reduction of the QE upon cooling the K2CsSb cathode from room temperature down to the temperature of liquid nitrogen in Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL)'s 704 MHz SRF gun. We conducted several experiments to identify the underlying mechanism in this reduction. The change in the spectral response of the bialkali photocathode, when cooled from room temperature (300 K) to 166 K, suggests that a change in the ionization energy (defined as the energy gap from the top of the valence band to vacuum level) is the main reason for this reduction. We developed an analytical model of the process, based on Spicer's three-step model. The change in ionization energy, with falling temperature, gives a simplified description of the QE's temperature dependence. We also developed a 2D Monte Carlo code to simulate photoemission that accounts for the wavelength-dependent photon absorption in the first step, the scattering and diffusion in the second step, and the momentum conservation in the emission step. From this simulation, we established a correlation between ionization energy and reduction in the QE. The simulation yielded results comparable to those from the analytical model. The simulation offers us additional capabilities such as calculation of the intrinsic emittance
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Incerti, S., E-mail: sebastien.incerti@tdt.edu.vn [Division of Nuclear Physics, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Faculty of Applied Sciences, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Univ. Bordeaux, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); CNRS, IN2P3, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); Barberet, Ph.; Dévès, G.; Michelet, C. [Univ. Bordeaux, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); CNRS, IN2P3, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); Francis, Z. [Université Saint Joseph, Science Faculty, Department of Physics, Beirut (Lebanon); Ivantchenko, V. [Ecoanalytica, Moscow (Russian Federation); Geant4 Associates International Ltd, Hebden Bridge (United Kingdom); Mantero, A. [SWHARD srl, via Greto di Cornigliano 6r, 16152 Genova (Italy); El Bitar, Z. [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, CNRS/IN2P3, 67037 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Bernal, M.A. [Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil); Tran, H.N. [Division of Nuclear Physics, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Faculty of Applied Sciences, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Karamitros, M.; Seznec, H. [Univ. Bordeaux, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); CNRS, IN2P3, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France)
2015-09-01
The general purpose Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation toolkit is able to simulate radiative and non-radiative atomic de-excitation processes such as fluorescence and Auger electron emission, occurring after interaction of incident ionising radiation with target atomic electrons. In this paper, we evaluate the Geant4 modelling capability for the simulation of fluorescence spectra induced by 1.5 MeV proton irradiation of thin high-Z foils (Fe, GdF{sub 3}, Pt, Au) with potential interest for nanotechnologies and life sciences. Simulation results are compared to measurements performed at the Centre d’Etudes Nucléaires de Bordeaux-Gradignan AIFIRA nanobeam line irradiation facility in France. Simulation and experimental conditions are described and the influence of Geant4 electromagnetic physics models is discussed.
Mallory, Joel
2015-01-01
The Diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) method is applied to compute the ground state energies of the water monomer and dimer and their D 2 O isotopomers using MB-pol; the most recent and most accurate ab inito- based potential energy surface (PES). MB-pol has already demonstrated excellent agreement with high level electronic structure data, as well as agreement with some experimental, spectroscopic, and thermodynamic data. Here, the DMC binding energies of (H 2 O) 2 and (D 2 O) 2 agree with the corresponding values obtained from velocity map imaging within, respectively, 0.01 and 0.02 kcal/mol. This work adds two more valuable data points that highlight the accuracy of the MB-pol PES.
Monte Carlo radiation transport in external beam radiotherapy
Çeçen, Yiğit
2013-01-01
The use of Monte Carlo in radiation transport is an effective way to predict absorbed dose distributions. Monte Carlo modeling has contributed to a better understanding of photon and electron transport by radiotherapy physicists. The aim of this review is to introduce Monte Carlo as a powerful radiation transport tool. In this review, photon and electron transport algorithms for Monte Carlo techniques are investigated and a clinical linear accelerator model is studied for external beam radiot...
Monte Carlo simulations for heavy ion dosimetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Geithner, O.
2006-07-26
Water-to-air stopping power ratio (s{sub w,air}) calculations for the ionization chamber dosimetry of clinically relevant ion beams with initial energies from 50 to 450 MeV/u have been performed using the Monte Carlo technique. To simulate the transport of a particle in water the computer code SHIELD-HIT v2 was used which is a substantially modified version of its predecessor SHIELD-HIT v1. The code was partially rewritten, replacing formerly used single precision variables with double precision variables. The lowest particle transport specific energy was decreased from 1 MeV/u down to 10 keV/u by modifying the Bethe- Bloch formula, thus widening its range for medical dosimetry applications. Optional MSTAR and ICRU-73 stopping power data were included. The fragmentation model was verified using all available experimental data and some parameters were adjusted. The present code version shows excellent agreement with experimental data. Additional to the calculations of stopping power ratios, s{sub w,air}, the influence of fragments and I-values on s{sub w,air} for carbon ion beams was investigated. The value of s{sub w,air} deviates as much as 2.3% at the Bragg peak from the recommended by TRS-398 constant value of 1.130 for an energy of 50 MeV/u. (orig.)
Lazos, Dimitrios; Pokhrel, Damodar; Su, Zhong; Lu, Jun; Williamson, Jeffrey F.
2008-03-01
Fast and accurate modeling of cone-beam CT (CBCT) x-ray projection data can improve CBCT image quality either by linearizing projection data for each patient prior to image reconstruction (thereby mitigating detector blur/lag, spectral hardening, and scatter artifacts) or indirectly by supporting rigorous comparative simulation studies of competing image reconstruction and processing algorithms. In this study, we compare Monte Carlo-computed x-ray projections with projections experimentally acquired from our Varian Trilogy CBCT imaging system for phantoms of known design. Our recently developed Monte Carlo photon-transport code, PTRAN, was used to compute primary and scatter projections for cylindrical phantom of known diameter (NA model 76-410) with and without bow-tie filter and antiscatter grid for both full- and half-fan geometries. These simulations were based upon measured 120 kVp spectra, beam profiles, and flat-panel detector (4030CB) point-spread function. Compound Poisson- process noise was simulated based upon measured beam output. Computed projections were compared to flat- and dark-field corrected 4030CB images where scatter profiles were estimated by subtracting narrow axial-from full axial width 4030CB profiles. In agreement with the literature, the difference between simulated and measured projection data is of the order of 6-8%. The measurement of the scatter profiles is affected by the long tails of the detector PSF. Higher accuracy can be achieved mainly by improving the beam modeling and correcting the non linearities induced by the detector PSF.
Atomistic Monte Carlo simulation of lipid membranes.
Wüstner, Daniel; Sklenar, Heinz
2014-01-24
Biological membranes are complex assemblies of many different molecules of which analysis demands a variety of experimental and computational approaches. In this article, we explain challenges and advantages of atomistic Monte Carlo (MC) simulation of lipid membranes. We provide an introduction into the various move sets that are implemented in current MC methods for efficient conformational sampling of lipids and other molecules. In the second part, we demonstrate for a concrete example, how an atomistic local-move set can be implemented for MC simulations of phospholipid monomers and bilayer patches. We use our recently devised chain breakage/closure (CBC) local move set in the bond-/torsion angle space with the constant-bond-length approximation (CBLA) for the phospholipid dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC). We demonstrate rapid conformational equilibration for a single DPPC molecule, as assessed by calculation of molecular energies and entropies. We also show transition from a crystalline-like to a fluid DPPC bilayer by the CBC local-move MC method, as indicated by the electron density profile, head group orientation, area per lipid, and whole-lipid displacements. We discuss the potential of local-move MC methods in combination with molecular dynamics simulations, for example, for studying multi-component lipid membranes containing cholesterol.
Monte Carlo simulations of Protein Adsorption
Sharma, Sumit; Kumar, Sanat K.; Belfort, Georges
2008-03-01
Amyloidogenic diseases, such as, Alzheimer's are caused by adsorption and aggregation of partially unfolded proteins. Adsorption of proteins is a concern in design of biomedical devices, such as dialysis membranes. Protein adsorption is often accompanied by conformational rearrangements in protein molecules. Such conformational rearrangements are thought to affect many properties of adsorbed protein molecules such as their adhesion strength to the surface, biological activity, and aggregation tendency. It has been experimentally shown that many naturally occurring proteins, upon adsorption to hydrophobic surfaces, undergo a helix to sheet or random coil secondary structural rearrangement. However, to better understand the equilibrium structural complexities of this phenomenon, we have performed Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of adsorption of a four helix bundle, modeled as a lattice protein, and studied the adsorption behavior and equilibrium protein conformations at different temperatures and degrees of surface hydrophobicity. To study the free energy and entropic effects on adsorption, Canonical ensemble MC simulations have been combined with Weighted Histogram Analysis Method(WHAM). Conformational transitions of proteins on surfaces will be discussed as a function of surface hydrophobicity and compared to analogous bulk transitions.
Monte Carlo Simulation of River Meander Modelling
Posner, A. J.; Duan, J. G.
2010-12-01
This study first compares the first order analytical solutions for flow field by Ikeda et. al. (1981) and Johanesson and Parker (1989b). Ikeda et. al.’s (1981) linear bank erosion model was implemented to predict the rate of bank erosion in which the bank erosion coefficient is treated as a stochastic variable that varies with physical properties of the bank (e.g. cohesiveness, stratigraphy, vegetation density). The developed model was used to predict the evolution of meandering planforms. Then, the modeling results were analyzed and compared to the observed data. Since the migration of meandering channel consists of downstream translation, lateral expansion, and downstream or upstream rotations. Several measures are formulated in order to determine which of the resulting planform is closest to the experimental measured one. Results from the deterministic model highly depend on the calibrated erosion coefficient. Since field measurements are always limited, the stochastic model yielded more realistic predictions of meandering planform evolutions. Due to the random nature of bank erosion coefficient, the meandering planform evolution is a stochastic process that can only be accurately predicted by a stochastic model. Quasi-2D Ikeda (1989) flow solution with Monte Carlo Simulation of Bank Erosion Coefficient.
Atomistic Monte Carlo Simulation of Lipid Membranes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel Wüstner
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Biological membranes are complex assemblies of many different molecules of which analysis demands a variety of experimental and computational approaches. In this article, we explain challenges and advantages of atomistic Monte Carlo (MC simulation of lipid membranes. We provide an introduction into the various move sets that are implemented in current MC methods for efficient conformational sampling of lipids and other molecules. In the second part, we demonstrate for a concrete example, how an atomistic local-move set can be implemented for MC simulations of phospholipid monomers and bilayer patches. We use our recently devised chain breakage/closure (CBC local move set in the bond-/torsion angle space with the constant-bond-length approximation (CBLA for the phospholipid dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC. We demonstrate rapid conformational equilibration for a single DPPC molecule, as assessed by calculation of molecular energies and entropies. We also show transition from a crystalline-like to a fluid DPPC bilayer by the CBC local-move MC method, as indicated by the electron density profile, head group orientation, area per lipid, and whole-lipid displacements. We discuss the potential of local-move MC methods in combination with molecular dynamics simulations, for example, for studying multi-component lipid membranes containing cholesterol.
Hybrid Monte Carlo with Chaotic Mixing
Kadakia, Nirag
2016-01-01
We propose a hybrid Monte Carlo (HMC) technique applicable to high-dimensional multivariate normal distributions that effectively samples along chaotic trajectories. The method is predicated on the freedom of choice of the HMC momentum distribution, and due to its mixing properties, exhibits sample-to-sample autocorrelations that decay far faster than those in the traditional hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm. We test the methods on distributions of varying correlation structure, finding that the proposed technique produces superior covariance estimates, is less reliant on step-size tuning, and can even function with sparse or no momentum re-sampling. The method presented here is promising for more general distributions, such as those that arise in Bayesian learning of artificial neural networks and in the state and parameter estimation of dynamical systems.
Monte Carlo study of real time dynamics
Alexandru, Andrei; Bedaque, Paulo F; Vartak, Sohan; Warrington, Neill C
2016-01-01
Monte Carlo studies involving real time dynamics are severely restricted by the sign problem that emerges from highly oscillatory phase of the path integral. In this letter, we present a new method to compute real time quantities on the lattice using the Schwinger-Keldysh formalism via Monte Carlo simulations. The key idea is to deform the path integration domain to a complex manifold where the phase oscillations are mild and the sign problem is manageable. We use the previously introduced "contraction algorithm" to create a Markov chain on this alternative manifold. We substantiate our approach by analyzing the quantum mechanical anharmonic oscillator. Our results are in agreement with the exact ones obtained by diagonalization of the Hamiltonian. The method we introduce is generic and in principle applicable to quantum field theory albeit very slow. We discuss some possible improvements that should speed up the algorithm.
Multilevel sequential Monte-Carlo samplers
Jasra, Ajay
2016-01-05
Multilevel Monte-Carlo methods provide a powerful computational technique for reducing the computational cost of estimating expectations for a given computational effort. They are particularly relevant for computational problems when approximate distributions are determined via a resolution parameter h, with h=0 giving the theoretical exact distribution (e.g. SDEs or inverse problems with PDEs). The method provides a benefit by coupling samples from successive resolutions, and estimating differences of successive expectations. We develop a methodology that brings Sequential Monte-Carlo (SMC) algorithms within the framework of the Multilevel idea, as SMC provides a natural set-up for coupling samples over different resolutions. We prove that the new algorithm indeed preserves the benefits of the multilevel principle, even if samples at all resolutions are now correlated.
An enhanced Monte Carlo outlier detection method.
Zhang, Liangxiao; Li, Peiwu; Mao, Jin; Ma, Fei; Ding, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Qi
2015-09-30
Outlier detection is crucial in building a highly predictive model. In this study, we proposed an enhanced Monte Carlo outlier detection method by establishing cross-prediction models based on determinate normal samples and analyzing the distribution of prediction errors individually for dubious samples. One simulated and three real datasets were used to illustrate and validate the performance of our method, and the results indicated that this method outperformed Monte Carlo outlier detection in outlier diagnosis. After these outliers were removed, the value of validation by Kovats retention indices and the root mean square error of prediction decreased from 3.195 to 1.655, and the average cross-validation prediction error decreased from 2.0341 to 1.2780. This method helps establish a good model by eliminating outliers. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Composite biasing in Monte Carlo radiative transfer
Baes, Maarten; Lunttila, Tuomas; Bianchi, Simone; Camps, Peter; Juvela, Mika; Kuiper, Rolf
2016-01-01
Biasing or importance sampling is a powerful technique in Monte Carlo radiative transfer, and can be applied in different forms to increase the accuracy and efficiency of simulations. One of the drawbacks of the use of biasing is the potential introduction of large weight factors. We discuss a general strategy, composite biasing, to suppress the appearance of large weight factors. We use this composite biasing approach for two different problems faced by current state-of-the-art Monte Carlo radiative transfer codes: the generation of photon packages from multiple components, and the penetration of radiation through high optical depth barriers. In both cases, the implementation of the relevant algorithms is trivial and does not interfere with any other optimisation techniques. Through simple test models, we demonstrate the general applicability, accuracy and efficiency of the composite biasing approach. In particular, for the penetration of high optical depths, the gain in efficiency is spectacular for the spe...
Multilevel Monte Carlo Approaches for Numerical Homogenization
Efendiev, Yalchin R.
2015-10-01
In this article, we study the application of multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) approaches to numerical random homogenization. Our objective is to compute the expectation of some functionals of the homogenized coefficients, or of the homogenized solutions. This is accomplished within MLMC by considering different sizes of representative volumes (RVEs). Many inexpensive computations with the smallest RVE size are combined with fewer expensive computations performed on larger RVEs. Likewise, when it comes to homogenized solutions, different levels of coarse-grid meshes are used to solve the homogenized equation. We show that, by carefully selecting the number of realizations at each level, we can achieve a speed-up in the computations in comparison to a standard Monte Carlo method. Numerical results are presented for both one-dimensional and two-dimensional test-cases that illustrate the efficiency of the approach.
Monte Carlo simulations on SIMD computer architectures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Burmester, C.P.; Gronsky, R. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Wille, L.T. [Florida Atlantic Univ., Boca Raton, FL (United States). Dept. of Physics
1992-03-01
Algorithmic considerations regarding the implementation of various materials science applications of the Monte Carlo technique to single instruction multiple data (SMM) computer architectures are presented. In particular, implementation of the Ising model with nearest, next nearest, and long range screened Coulomb interactions on the SIMD architecture MasPar MP-1 (DEC mpp-12000) series of massively parallel computers is demonstrated. Methods of code development which optimize processor array use and minimize inter-processor communication are presented including lattice partitioning and the use of processor array spanning tree structures for data reduction. Both geometric and algorithmic parallel approaches are utilized. Benchmarks in terms of Monte Carlo updates per second for the MasPar architecture are presented and compared to values reported in the literature from comparable studies on other architectures.
Inhomogeneous Monte Carlo simulations of dermoscopic spectroscopy
Gareau, Daniel S.; Li, Ting; Jacques, Steven; Krueger, James
2012-03-01
Clinical skin-lesion diagnosis uses dermoscopy: 10X epiluminescence microscopy. Skin appearance ranges from black to white with shades of blue, red, gray and orange. Color is an important diagnostic criteria for diseases including melanoma. Melanin and blood content and distribution impact the diffuse spectral remittance (300-1000nm). Skin layers: immersion medium, stratum corneum, spinous epidermis, basal epidermis and dermis as well as laterally asymmetric features (eg. melanocytic invasion) were modeled in an inhomogeneous Monte Carlo model.
Handbook of Markov chain Monte Carlo
Brooks, Steve
2011-01-01
""Handbook of Markov Chain Monte Carlo"" brings together the major advances that have occurred in recent years while incorporating enough introductory material for new users of MCMC. Along with thorough coverage of the theoretical foundations and algorithmic and computational methodology, this comprehensive handbook includes substantial realistic case studies from a variety of disciplines. These case studies demonstrate the application of MCMC methods and serve as a series of templates for the construction, implementation, and choice of MCMC methodology.
Accelerated Monte Carlo by Embedded Cluster Dynamics
Brower, R. C.; Gross, N. A.; Moriarty, K. J. M.
1991-07-01
We present an overview of the new methods for embedding Ising spins in continuous fields to achieve accelerated cluster Monte Carlo algorithms. The methods of Brower and Tamayo and Wolff are summarized and variations are suggested for the O( N) models based on multiple embedded Z2 spin components and/or correlated projections. Topological features are discussed for the XY model and numerical simulations presented for d=2, d=3 and mean field theory lattices.
An introduction to Monte Carlo methods
Walter, J.-C.; Barkema, G. T.
2015-01-01
Monte Carlo simulations are methods for simulating statistical systems. The aim is to generate a representative ensemble of configurations to access thermodynamical quantities without the need to solve the system analytically or to perform an exact enumeration. The main principles of Monte Carlo simulations are ergodicity and detailed balance. The Ising model is a lattice spin system with nearest neighbor interactions that is appropriate to illustrate different examples of Monte Carlo simulations. It displays a second order phase transition between disordered (high temperature) and ordered (low temperature) phases, leading to different strategies of simulations. The Metropolis algorithm and the Glauber dynamics are efficient at high temperature. Close to the critical temperature, where the spins display long range correlations, cluster algorithms are more efficient. We introduce the rejection free (or continuous time) algorithm and describe in details an interesting alternative representation of the Ising model using graphs instead of spins with the so-called Worm algorithm. We conclude with an important discussion of the dynamical effects such as thermalization and correlation time.
Bayesian Monte Carlo method for nuclear data evaluation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koning, A.J. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group NRG, P.O. Box 25, ZG Petten (Netherlands)
2015-12-15
A Bayesian Monte Carlo method is outlined which allows a systematic evaluation of nuclear reactions using the nuclear model code TALYS and the experimental nuclear reaction database EXFOR. The method is applied to all nuclides at the same time. First, the global predictive power of TALYS is numerically assessed, which enables to set the prior space of nuclear model solutions. Next, the method gradually zooms in on particular experimental data per nuclide, until for each specific target nuclide its existing experimental data can be used for weighted Monte Carlo sampling. To connect to the various different schools of uncertainty propagation in applied nuclear science, the result will be either an EXFOR-weighted covariance matrix or a collection of random files, each accompanied by the EXFOR-based weight. (orig.)
Bayesian Monte Carlo method for nuclear data evaluation
Koning, A. J.
2015-12-01
A Bayesian Monte Carlo method is outlined which allows a systematic evaluation of nuclear reactions using the nuclear model code TALYS and the experimental nuclear reaction database EXFOR. The method is applied to all nuclides at the same time. First, the global predictive power of TALYS is numerically assessed, which enables to set the prior space of nuclear model solutions. Next, the method gradually zooms in on particular experimental data per nuclide, until for each specific target nuclide its existing experimental data can be used for weighted Monte Carlo sampling. To connect to the various different schools of uncertainty propagation in applied nuclear science, the result will be either an EXFOR-weighted covariance matrix or a collection of random files, each accompanied by the EXFOR-based weight.
Bauer, J.; Unholtz, D.; Kurz, C.; Parodi, K.
2013-08-01
We report on the experimental campaign carried out at the Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center (HIT) to optimize the Monte Carlo (MC) modelling of proton-induced positron-emitter production. The presented experimental strategy constitutes a pragmatic inverse approach to overcome the known uncertainties in the modelling of positron-emitter production due to the lack of reliable cross-section data for the relevant therapeutic energy range. This work is motivated by the clinical implementation of offline PET/CT-based treatment verification at our facility. Here, the irradiation induced tissue activation in the patient is monitored shortly after the treatment delivery by means of a commercial PET/CT scanner and compared to a MC simulated activity expectation, derived under the assumption of a correct treatment delivery. At HIT, the MC particle transport and interaction code FLUKA is used for the simulation of the expected positron-emitter yield. For this particular application, the code is coupled to externally provided cross-section data of several proton-induced reactions. Studying experimentally the positron-emitting radionuclide yield in homogeneous phantoms provides access to the fundamental production channels. Therefore, five different materials have been irradiated by monoenergetic proton pencil beams at various energies and the induced β+ activity subsequently acquired with a commercial full-ring PET/CT scanner. With the analysis of dynamically reconstructed PET images, we are able to determine separately the spatial distribution of different radionuclide concentrations at the starting time of the PET scan. The laterally integrated radionuclide yields in depth are used to tune the input cross-section data such that the impact of both the physical production and the imaging process on the various positron-emitter yields is reproduced. The resulting cross-section data sets allow to model the absolute level of measured β+ activity induced in the investigated
Guideline of Monte Carlo calculation. Neutron/gamma ray transport simulation by Monte Carlo method
2002-01-01
This report condenses basic theories and advanced applications of neutron/gamma ray transport calculations in many fields of nuclear energy research. Chapters 1 through 5 treat historical progress of Monte Carlo methods, general issues of variance reduction technique, cross section libraries used in continuous energy Monte Carlo codes. In chapter 6, the following issues are discussed: fusion benchmark experiments, design of ITER, experiment analyses of fast critical assembly, core analyses of JMTR, simulation of pulsed neutron experiment, core analyses of HTTR, duct streaming calculations, bulk shielding calculations, neutron/gamma ray transport calculations of the Hiroshima atomic bomb. Chapters 8 and 9 treat function enhancements of MCNP and MVP codes, and a parallel processing of Monte Carlo calculation, respectively. An important references are attached at the end of this report.
Díez, A; Largo, J; Solana, J R
2006-08-21
Computer simulations have been performed for fluids with van der Waals potential, that is, hard spheres with attractive inverse power tails, to determine the equation of state and the excess energy. On the other hand, the first- and second-order perturbative contributions to the energy and the zero- and first-order perturbative contributions to the compressibility factor have been determined too from Monte Carlo simulations performed on the reference hard-sphere system. The aim was to test the reliability of this "exact" perturbation theory. It has been found that the results obtained from the Monte Carlo perturbation theory for these two thermodynamic properties agree well with the direct Monte Carlo simulations. Moreover, it has been found that results from the Barker-Henderson [J. Chem. Phys. 47, 2856 (1967)] perturbation theory are in good agreement with those from the exact perturbation theory.
Kinetic Monte Carlo Studies of Hydrogen Abstraction from Graphite
Cuppen, H M
2008-01-01
We present Monte Carlo simulations on Eley-Rideal abstraction reactions of atomic hydrogen chemisorbed on graphite. The results are obtained via a hybrid approach where energy barriers derived from density functional theory calculations are used as input to Monte Carlo simulations. By comparing with experimental data, we discriminate between contributions from different Eley-Rideal mechanisms. A combination of two different mechanisms yields good quantitative and qualitative agreement between the experimentally derived and the simulated Eley-Rideal abstraction cross sections and surface configurations. These two mechanisms include a direct Eley-Rideal reaction with fast diffusing H atoms and a dimer mediated Eley-Rideal mechanism with increased cross section at low coverage. Such a dimer mediated Eley-Rideal mechanism has not previously been proposed and serves as an alternative explanation to the steering behavior often given as the cause of the coverage dependence observed in Eley-Rideal reaction cross sect...
Monte Carlo simulation of large electron fields
Faddegon, Bruce A.; Perl, Joseph; Asai, Makoto
2008-03-01
Two Monte Carlo systems, EGSnrc and Geant4, the latter with two different 'physics lists,' were used to calculate dose distributions in large electron fields used in radiotherapy. Source and geometry parameters were adjusted to match calculated results to measurement. Both codes were capable of accurately reproducing the measured dose distributions of the six electron beams available on the accelerator. Depth penetration matched the average measured with a diode and parallel-plate chamber to 0.04 cm or better. Calculated depth dose curves agreed to 2% with diode measurements in the build-up region, although for the lower beam energies there was a discrepancy of up to 5% in this region when calculated results are compared to parallel-plate measurements. Dose profiles at the depth of maximum dose matched to 2-3% in the central 25 cm of the field, corresponding to the field size of the largest applicator. A 4% match was obtained outside the central region. The discrepancy observed in the bremsstrahlung tail in published results that used EGS4 is no longer evident. Simulations with the different codes and physics lists used different source energies, incident beam angles, thicknesses of the primary foils, and distance between the primary and secondary foil. The true source and geometry parameters were not known with sufficient accuracy to determine which parameter set, including the energy of the source, was closest to the truth. These results underscore the requirement for experimental benchmarks of depth penetration and electron scatter for beam energies and foils relevant to radiotherapy.
Dosimetry applications in GATE Monte Carlo toolkit.
Papadimitroulas, Panagiotis
2017-02-21
Monte Carlo (MC) simulations are a well-established method for studying physical processes in medical physics. The purpose of this review is to present GATE dosimetry applications on diagnostic and therapeutic simulated protocols. There is a significant need for accurate quantification of the absorbed dose in several specific applications such as preclinical and pediatric studies. GATE is an open-source MC toolkit for simulating imaging, radiotherapy (RT) and dosimetry applications in a user-friendly environment, which is well validated and widely accepted by the scientific community. In RT applications, during treatment planning, it is essential to accurately assess the deposited energy and the absorbed dose per tissue/organ of interest, as well as the local statistical uncertainty. Several types of realistic dosimetric applications are described including: molecular imaging, radio-immunotherapy, radiotherapy and brachytherapy. GATE has been efficiently used in several applications, such as Dose Point Kernels, S-values, Brachytherapy parameters, and has been compared against various MC codes which are considered as standard tools for decades. Furthermore, the presented studies show reliable modeling of particle beams when comparing experimental with simulated data. Examples of different dosimetric protocols are reported for individualized dosimetry and simulations combining imaging and therapy dose monitoring, with the use of modern computational phantoms. Personalization of medical protocols can be achieved by combining GATE MC simulations with anthropomorphic computational models and clinical anatomical data. This is a review study, covering several dosimetric applications of GATE, and the different tools used for modeling realistic clinical acquisitions with accurate dose assessment. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Instantaneous GNSS attitude determination: A Monte Carlo sampling approach
Sun, Xiucong; Han, Chao; Chen, Pei
2017-04-01
A novel instantaneous GNSS ambiguity resolution approach which makes use of only single-frequency carrier phase measurements for ultra-short baseline attitude determination is proposed. The Monte Carlo sampling method is employed to obtain the probability density function of ambiguities from a quaternion-based GNSS-attitude model and the LAMBDA method strengthened with a screening mechanism is then utilized to fix the integer values. Experimental results show that 100% success rate could be achieved for ultra-short baselines.
Conceptual design and Monte Carlo simulations of the AGATA array
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Farnea, E., E-mail: Enrico.Farnea@pd.infn.i [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy); Recchia, F.; Bazzacco, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy); Kroell, Th. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany); Podolyak, Zs. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford (United Kingdom); Quintana, B. [Departamento de Fisica Fundamental, Universidad de Salamanca, Salamanca (Spain); Gadea, A. [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, Valencia (Spain)
2010-09-21
The aim of the Advanced GAmma Tracking Array (AGATA) project is the construction of an array based on the novel concepts of pulse shape analysis and {gamma}-ray tracking with highly segmented Ge semiconductor detectors. The conceptual design of AGATA and its performance evaluation under different experimental conditions has required the development of a suitable Monte Carlo code. In this article, the description of the code as well as simulation results relevant for AGATA, are presented.
Status of Monte-Carlo Event Generators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hoeche, Stefan; /SLAC
2011-08-11
Recent progress on general-purpose Monte-Carlo event generators is reviewed with emphasis on the simulation of hard QCD processes and subsequent parton cascades. Describing full final states of high-energy particle collisions in contemporary experiments is an intricate task. Hundreds of particles are typically produced, and the reactions involve both large and small momentum transfer. The high-dimensional phase space makes an exact solution of the problem impossible. Instead, one typically resorts to regarding events as factorized into different steps, ordered descending in the mass scales or invariant momentum transfers which are involved. In this picture, a hard interaction, described through fixed-order perturbation theory, is followed by multiple Bremsstrahlung emissions off initial- and final-state and, finally, by the hadronization process, which binds QCD partons into color-neutral hadrons. Each of these steps can be treated independently, which is the basic concept inherent to general-purpose event generators. Their development is nowadays often focused on an improved description of radiative corrections to hard processes through perturbative QCD. In this context, the concept of jets is introduced, which allows to relate sprays of hadronic particles in detectors to the partons in perturbation theory. In this talk, we briefly review recent progress on perturbative QCD in event generation. The main focus lies on the general-purpose Monte-Carlo programs HERWIG, PYTHIA and SHERPA, which will be the workhorses for LHC phenomenology. A detailed description of the physics models included in these generators can be found in [8]. We also discuss matrix-element generators, which provide the parton-level input for general-purpose Monte Carlo.
Quantum Monte Carlo for vibrating molecules
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brown, W.R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Chemistry Dept.]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Chemical Sciences Div.
1996-08-01
Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) has successfully computed the total electronic energies of atoms and molecules. The main goal of this work is to use correlation function quantum Monte Carlo (CFQMC) to compute the vibrational state energies of molecules given a potential energy surface (PES). In CFQMC, an ensemble of random walkers simulate the diffusion and branching processes of the imaginary-time time dependent Schroedinger equation in order to evaluate the matrix elements. The program QMCVIB was written to perform multi-state VMC and CFQMC calculations and employed for several calculations of the H{sub 2}O and C{sub 3} vibrational states, using 7 PES`s, 3 trial wavefunction forms, two methods of non-linear basis function parameter optimization, and on both serial and parallel computers. In order to construct accurate trial wavefunctions different wavefunctions forms were required for H{sub 2}O and C{sub 3}. In order to construct accurate trial wavefunctions for C{sub 3}, the non-linear parameters were optimized with respect to the sum of the energies of several low-lying vibrational states. In order to stabilize the statistical error estimates for C{sub 3} the Monte Carlo data was collected into blocks. Accurate vibrational state energies were computed using both serial and parallel QMCVIB programs. Comparison of vibrational state energies computed from the three C{sub 3} PES`s suggested that a non-linear equilibrium geometry PES is the most accurate and that discrete potential representations may be used to conveniently determine vibrational state energies.
A Monte Carlo algorithm for degenerate plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Turrell, A.E., E-mail: a.turrell09@imperial.ac.uk; Sherlock, M.; Rose, S.J.
2013-09-15
A procedure for performing Monte Carlo calculations of plasmas with an arbitrary level of degeneracy is outlined. It has possible applications in inertial confinement fusion and astrophysics. Degenerate particles are initialised according to the Fermi–Dirac distribution function, and scattering is via a Pauli blocked binary collision approximation. The algorithm is tested against degenerate electron–ion equilibration, and the degenerate resistivity transport coefficient from unmagnetised first order transport theory. The code is applied to the cold fuel shell and alpha particle equilibration problem of inertial confinement fusion.
A note on simultaneous Monte Carlo tests
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hahn, Ute
In this short note, Monte Carlo tests of goodness of fit for data of the form X(t), t ∈ I are considered, that reject the null hypothesis if X(t) leaves an acceptance region bounded by an upper and lower curve for some t in I. A construction of the acceptance region is proposed that complies to a...... to a given target level of rejection, and yields exact p-values. The construction is based on pointwise quantiles, estimated from simulated realizations of X(t) under the null hypothesis....
Archimedes, the Free Monte Carlo simulator
Sellier, Jean Michel D
2012-01-01
Archimedes is the GNU package for Monte Carlo simulations of electron transport in semiconductor devices. The first release appeared in 2004 and since then it has been improved with many new features like quantum corrections, magnetic fields, new materials, GUI, etc. This document represents the first attempt to have a complete manual. Many of the Physics models implemented are described and a detailed description is presented to make the user able to write his/her own input deck. Please, feel free to contact the author if you want to contribute to the project.
Cluster hybrid Monte Carlo simulation algorithms
Plascak, J. A.; Ferrenberg, Alan M.; Landau, D. P.
2002-06-01
We show that addition of Metropolis single spin flips to the Wolff cluster-flipping Monte Carlo procedure leads to a dramatic increase in performance for the spin-1/2 Ising model. We also show that adding Wolff cluster flipping to the Metropolis or heat bath algorithms in systems where just cluster flipping is not immediately obvious (such as the spin-3/2 Ising model) can substantially reduce the statistical errors of the simulations. A further advantage of these methods is that systematic errors introduced by the use of imperfect random-number generation may be largely healed by hybridizing single spin flips with cluster flipping.
Introduction to Cluster Monte Carlo Algorithms
Luijten, E.
This chapter provides an introduction to cluster Monte Carlo algorithms for classical statistical-mechanical systems. A brief review of the conventional Metropolis algorithm is given, followed by a detailed discussion of the lattice cluster algorithm developed by Swendsen and Wang and the single-cluster variant introduced by Wolff. For continuum systems, the geometric cluster algorithm of Dress and Krauth is described. It is shown how their geometric approach can be generalized to incorporate particle interactions beyond hardcore repulsions, thus forging a connection between the lattice and continuum approaches. Several illustrative examples are discussed.
Diffusion quantum Monte Carlo for molecules
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lester, W.A. Jr.
1986-07-01
A quantum mechanical Monte Carlo method has been used for the treatment of molecular problems. The imaginary-time Schroedinger equation written with a shift in zero energy (E/sub T/ - V(R)) can be interpreted as a generalized diffusion equation with a position-dependent rate or branching term. Since diffusion is the continuum limit of a random walk, one may simulate the Schroedinger equation with a function psi (note, not psi/sup 2/) as a density of ''walks.'' The walks undergo an exponential birth and death as given by the rate term. 16 refs., 2 tabs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marcus, Ryan C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2012-07-24
Overview of this presentation is (1) Exascale computing - different technologies, getting there; (2) high-performance proof-of-concept MCMini - features and results; and (3) OpenCL toolkit - Oatmeal (OpenCL Automatic Memory Allocation Library) - purpose and features. Despite driver issues, OpenCL seems like a good, hardware agnostic tool. MCMini demonstrates the possibility for GPGPU-based Monte Carlo methods - it shows great scaling for HPC application and algorithmic equivalence. Oatmeal provides a flexible framework to aid in the development of scientific OpenCL codes.
State-of-the-art Monte Carlo 1988
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Soran, P.D.
1988-06-28
Particle transport calculations in highly dimensional and physically complex geometries, such as detector calibration, radiation shielding, space reactors, and oil-well logging, generally require Monte Carlo transport techniques. Monte Carlo particle transport can be performed on a variety of computers ranging from APOLLOs to VAXs. Some of the hardware and software developments, which now permit Monte Carlo methods to be routinely used, are reviewed in this paper. The development of inexpensive, large, fast computer memory, coupled with fast central processing units, permits Monte Carlo calculations to be performed on workstations, minicomputers, and supercomputers. The Monte Carlo renaissance is further aided by innovations in computer architecture and software development. Advances in vectorization and parallelization architecture have resulted in the development of new algorithms which have greatly reduced processing times. Finally, the renewed interest in Monte Carlo has spawned new variance reduction techniques which are being implemented in large computer codes. 45 refs.
Magro, G.; Molinelli, S.; Mairani, A.; Mirandola, A.; Panizza, D.; Russo, S.; Ferrari, A.; Valvo, F.; Fossati, P.; Ciocca, M.
2015-09-01
This study was performed to evaluate the accuracy of a commercial treatment planning system (TPS), in optimising proton pencil beam dose distributions for small targets of different sizes (5-30 mm side) located at increasing depths in water. The TPS analytical algorithm was benchmarked against experimental data and the FLUKA Monte Carlo (MC) code, previously validated for the selected beam-line. We tested the Siemens syngo® TPS plan optimisation module for water cubes fixing the configurable parameters at clinical standards, with homogeneous target coverage to a 2 Gy (RBE) dose prescription as unique goal. Plans were delivered and the dose at each volume centre was measured in water with a calibrated PTW Advanced Markus® chamber. An EBT3® film was also positioned at the phantom entrance window for the acquisition of 2D dose maps. Discrepancies between TPS calculated and MC simulated values were mainly due to the different lateral spread modeling and resulted in being related to the field-to-spot size ratio. The accuracy of the TPS was proved to be clinically acceptable in all cases but very small and shallow volumes. In this contest, the use of MC to validate TPS results proved to be a reliable procedure for pre-treatment plan verification.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. Berkemeier
2017-06-01
Full Text Available We present a Monte Carlo genetic algorithm (MCGA for efficient, automated, and unbiased global optimization of model input parameters by simultaneous fitting to multiple experimental data sets. The algorithm was developed to address the inverse modelling problems associated with fitting large sets of model input parameters encountered in state-of-the-art kinetic models for heterogeneous and multiphase atmospheric chemistry. The MCGA approach utilizes a sequence of optimization methods to find and characterize the solution of an optimization problem. It addresses an issue inherent to complex models whose extensive input parameter sets may not be uniquely determined from limited input data. Such ambiguity in the derived parameter values can be reliably detected using this new set of tools, allowing users to design experiments that should be particularly useful for constraining model parameters. We show that the MCGA has been used successfully to constrain parameters such as chemical reaction rate coefficients, diffusion coefficients, and Henry's law solubility coefficients in kinetic models of gas uptake and chemical transformation of aerosol particles as well as multiphase chemistry at the atmosphere–biosphere interface. While this study focuses on the processes outlined above, the MCGA approach should be portable to any numerical process model with similar computational expense and extent of the fitting parameter space.
Berkemeier, Thomas; Ammann, Markus; Krieger, Ulrich K.; Peter, Thomas; Spichtinger, Peter; Pöschl, Ulrich; Shiraiwa, Manabu; Huisman, Andrew J.
2017-06-01
We present a Monte Carlo genetic algorithm (MCGA) for efficient, automated, and unbiased global optimization of model input parameters by simultaneous fitting to multiple experimental data sets. The algorithm was developed to address the inverse modelling problems associated with fitting large sets of model input parameters encountered in state-of-the-art kinetic models for heterogeneous and multiphase atmospheric chemistry. The MCGA approach utilizes a sequence of optimization methods to find and characterize the solution of an optimization problem. It addresses an issue inherent to complex models whose extensive input parameter sets may not be uniquely determined from limited input data. Such ambiguity in the derived parameter values can be reliably detected using this new set of tools, allowing users to design experiments that should be particularly useful for constraining model parameters. We show that the MCGA has been used successfully to constrain parameters such as chemical reaction rate coefficients, diffusion coefficients, and Henry's law solubility coefficients in kinetic models of gas uptake and chemical transformation of aerosol particles as well as multiphase chemistry at the atmosphere-biosphere interface. While this study focuses on the processes outlined above, the MCGA approach should be portable to any numerical process model with similar computational expense and extent of the fitting parameter space.
Pethes, Ildikó; Stoica, Mihai; Beuneu, Brigitte; Jóvári, Pál
2016-01-01
Pd$_{81}$Ge$_{19}$ metallic glass was investigated by neutron diffraction, X-ray diffraction and extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) at the Ge K-edge. Large scale structural models were obtained by fitting the three measurements simultaneously in the framework of the reverse Monte Carlo simulation technique. It was found that the experimental data sets can be adequately fitted without Ge-Ge nearest neighbours. Mean Pd-Pd and Pd-Ge distances are 2.80$\\pm$0.02 {\\AA} and 2.50$\\pm$0.02 {\\AA}, respectively. The total average coordination number of Pd is 12.1$\\pm$0.5 while Ge is surrounded by 10.6$\\pm$1.1 Pd atoms. The coordination numbers calculated from partial pair correlation functions were compared to those obtained by Voronoi tessellation method. It was found that the latter technique overestimates the number of nearest neighbours by about 20% due to the significant contribution of distant pairs.
Magro, G; Mairani, A; Mirandola, A; Panizza, D; Russo, S; Ferrari, A; Valvo, F; Fossati, P; Ciocca, M
2015-01-01
This study was performed to evaluate the accuracy of a commercial treatment planning system (TPS), in optimising proton pencil beam dose distributions for small targets of different sizes (5–30 mm side) located at increasing depths in water. The TPS analytical algorithm was benchmarked against experimental data and the FLUKA Monte Carlo (MC) code, previously validated for the selected beam-line. We tested the Siemens syngo® TPS plan optimisation module for water cubes fixing the configurable parameters at clinical standards, with homogeneous target coverage to a 2 Gy (RBE) dose prescription as unique goal. Plans were delivered and the dose at each volume centre was measured in water with a calibrated PTW Advanced Markus® chamber. An EBT3® film was also positioned at the phantom entrance window for the acquisition of 2D dose maps. Discrepancies between TPS calculated and MC simulated values were mainly due to the different lateral spread modeling and resulted in being related to the field-to-spot size r...
Pethes, Ildikó; Kaban, Ivan; Stoica, Mihai; Beuneu, Brigitte; Jóvári, Pál
2016-10-01
Pd81Ge19 metallic glass was investigated by neutron diffraction, x-ray diffraction and extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy at the Ge K-edge. Large scale structural models were obtained by fitting the three measurements simultaneously in the framework of the reverse Monte Carlo simulation technique. It was found that the experimental data sets can be adequately fitted without Ge-Ge nearest neighbours. Mean Pd-Pd and Pd-Ge distances are 2.80 ± 0.02 Å and 2.50 ± 0.02 Å, respectively. The total average coordination number of Pd is 12.1 ± 0.5 while Ge is surrounded by 10.6 ± 1.1 Pd atoms. The coordination numbers calculated from partial pair correlation functions were compared to those obtained by Voronoi tessellation method. It was found that the latter technique overestimates the number of nearest neighbours by about 20% due to the significant contribution of distant pairs.
Monte Carlo Simulations: Number of Iterations and Accuracy
2015-07-01
Jessica Schultheis for her editorial review. vi INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK. 1 1. Introduction Monte Carlo (MC) methods1 are often used...ARL-TN-0684 ● JULY 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Monte Carlo Simulations: Number of Iterations and Accuracy by William...needed. Do not return it to the originator. ARL-TN-0684 ● JULY 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Monte Carlo Simulations: Number
Discrete diffusion Monte Carlo for frequency-dependent radiative transfer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Densmore, Jeffrey D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kelly, Thompson G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Urbatish, Todd J [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2010-11-17
Discrete Diffusion Monte Carlo (DDMC) is a technique for increasing the efficiency of Implicit Monte Carlo radiative-transfer simulations. In this paper, we develop an extension of DDMC for frequency-dependent radiative transfer. We base our new DDMC method on a frequency-integrated diffusion equation for frequencies below a specified threshold. Above this threshold we employ standard Monte Carlo. With a frequency-dependent test problem, we confirm the increased efficiency of our new DDMC technique.
Alternative Monte Carlo Approach for General Global Illumination
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
徐庆; 李朋; 徐源; 孙济洲
2004-01-01
An alternative Monte Carlo strategy for the computation of global illumination problem was presented.The proposed approach provided a new and optimal way for solving Monte Carlo global illumination based on the zero variance importance sampling procedure. A new importance driven Monte Carlo global illumination algorithm in the framework of the new computing scheme was developed and implemented. Results, which were obtained by rendering test scenes, show that this new framework and the newly derived algorithm are effective and promising.
JEWEL - a Monte Carlo Model for Jet Quenching
Zapp, Korinna; Wiedemann, Urs Achim
2009-01-01
The Monte Carlo model JEWEL 1.0 (Jet Evolution With Energy Loss) simulates parton shower evolution in the presence of a dense QCD medium. In its current form medium interactions are modelled as elastic scattering based on perturbative matrix elements and a simple prescription for medium induced gluon radiation. The parton shower is interfaced with a hadronisation model. In the absence of medium effects JEWEL is shown to reproduce jet measurements at LEP. The collisional energy loss is consistent with analytic calculations, but with JEWEL we can go a step further and characterise also jet-induced modifications of the medium. Elastic and inelastic medium interactions are shown to lead to distinctive modifications of the jet fragmentation pattern, which should allow to experimentally distinguish between collisional and radiative energy loss mechanisms. In these proceedings the main JEWEL results are summarised and a Monte Carlo algorithm is outlined that allows to include the Landau-Pomerantschuk-Migdal effect i...
Fixed-Node Diffusion Monte Carlo of Lithium Systems
Rasch, Kevin
2015-01-01
We study lithium systems over a range of number of atoms, e.g., atomic anion, dimer, metallic cluster, and body-centered cubic crystal by the diffusion Monte Carlo method. The calculations include both core and valence electrons in order to avoid any possible impact by pseudo potentials. The focus of the study is the fixed-node errors, and for that purpose we test several orbital sets in order to provide the most accurate nodal hyper surfaces. We compare our results to other high accuracy calculations wherever available and to experimental results so as to quantify the the fixed-node errors. The results for these Li systems show that fixed-node quantum Monte Carlo achieves remarkably high accuracy total energies and recovers 97-99 % of the correlation energy.
Multiple Monte Carlo Testing with Applications in Spatial Point Processes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mrkvička, Tomáš; Myllymäki, Mari; Hahn, Ute
with a function as the test statistic, 3) several Monte Carlo tests with functions as test statistics. The rank test has correct (global) type I error in each case and it is accompanied with a p-value and with a graphical interpretation which shows which subtest or which distances of the used test function......The rank envelope test (Myllym\\"aki et al., Global envelope tests for spatial processes, arXiv:1307.0239 [stat.ME]) is proposed as a solution to multiple testing problem for Monte Carlo tests. Three different situations are recognized: 1) a few univariate Monte Carlo tests, 2) a Monte Carlo test...
Multi-Index Monte Carlo (MIMC)
Haji Ali, Abdul Lateef
2015-01-07
We propose and analyze a novel Multi-Index Monte Carlo (MIMC) method for weak approximation of stochastic models that are described in terms of differential equations either driven by random measures or with random coefficients. The MIMC method is both a stochastic version of the combination technique introduced by Zenger, Griebel and collaborators and an extension of the Multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) method first described by Heinrich and Giles. Inspired by Giles’s seminal work, instead of using first-order differences as in MLMC, we use in MIMC high-order mixed differences to reduce the variance of the hierarchical differences dramatically. Under standard assumptions on the convergence rates of the weak error, variance and work per sample, the optimal index set turns out to be of Total Degree (TD) type. When using such sets, MIMC yields new and improved complexity results, which are natural generalizations of Giles’s MLMC analysis, and which increase the domain of problem parameters for which we achieve the optimal convergence.
Chemical application of diffusion quantum Monte Carlo
Reynolds, P. J.; Lester, W. A., Jr.
1983-10-01
The diffusion quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) method gives a stochastic solution to the Schroedinger equation. As an example the singlet-triplet splitting of the energy of the methylene molecule CH2 is given. The QMC algorithm was implemented on the CYBER 205, first as a direct transcription of the algorithm running on our VAX 11/780, and second by explicitly writing vector code for all loops longer than a crossover length C. The speed of the codes relative to one another as a function of C, and relative to the VAX is discussed. Since CH2 has only eight electrons, most of the loops in this application are fairly short. The longest inner loops run over the set of atomic basis functions. The CPU time dependence obtained versus the number of basis functions is discussed and compared with that obtained from traditional quantum chemistry codes and that obtained from traditional computer architectures. Finally, preliminary work on restructuring the algorithm to compute the separate Monte Carlo realizations in parallel is discussed.
Multi-Index Monte Carlo (MIMC)
Haji Ali, Abdul Lateef
2016-01-06
We propose and analyze a novel Multi-Index Monte Carlo (MIMC) method for weak approximation of stochastic models that are described in terms of differential equations either driven by random measures or with random coefficients. The MIMC method is both a stochastic version of the combination technique introduced by Zenger, Griebel and collaborators and an extension of the Multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) method first described by Heinrich and Giles. Inspired by Giles s seminal work, instead of using first-order differences as in MLMC, we use in MIMC high-order mixed differences to reduce the variance of the hierarchical differences dramatically. Under standard assumptions on the convergence rates of the weak error, variance and work per sample, the optimal index set turns out to be of Total Degree (TD) type. When using such sets, MIMC yields new and improved complexity results, which are natural generalizations of Giles s MLMC analysis, and which increase the domain of problem parameters for which we achieve the optimal convergence, O(TOL-2).
Discrete range clustering using Monte Carlo methods
Chatterji, G. B.; Sridhar, B.
1993-01-01
For automatic obstacle avoidance guidance during rotorcraft low altitude flight, a reliable model of the nearby environment is needed. Such a model may be constructed by applying surface fitting techniques to the dense range map obtained by active sensing using radars. However, for covertness, passive sensing techniques using electro-optic sensors are desirable. As opposed to the dense range map obtained via active sensing, passive sensing algorithms produce reliable range at sparse locations, and therefore, surface fitting techniques to fill the gaps in the range measurement are not directly applicable. Both for automatic guidance and as a display for aiding the pilot, these discrete ranges need to be grouped into sets which correspond to objects in the nearby environment. The focus of this paper is on using Monte Carlo methods for clustering range points into meaningful groups. One of the aims of the paper is to explore whether simulated annealing methods offer significant advantage over the basic Monte Carlo method for this class of problems. We compare three different approaches and present application results of these algorithms to a laboratory image sequence and a helicopter flight sequence.
Quantum Monte Carlo Calculations of Neutron Matter
Carlson, J; Ravenhall, D G
2003-01-01
Uniform neutron matter is approximated by a cubic box containing a finite number of neutrons, with periodic boundary conditions. We report variational and Green's function Monte Carlo calculations of the ground state of fourteen neutrons in a periodic box using the Argonne $\\vep $ two-nucleon interaction at densities up to one and half times the nuclear matter density. The effects of the finite box size are estimated using variational wave functions together with cluster expansion and chain summation techniques. They are small at subnuclear densities. We discuss the expansion of the energy of low-density neutron gas in powers of its Fermi momentum. This expansion is strongly modified by the large nn scattering length, and does not begin with the Fermi-gas kinetic energy as assumed in both Skyrme and relativistic mean field theories. The leading term of neutron gas energy is ~ half the Fermi-gas kinetic energy. The quantum Monte Carlo results are also used to calibrate the accuracy of variational calculations ...
Information Geometry and Sequential Monte Carlo
Sim, Aaron; Stumpf, Michael P H
2012-01-01
This paper explores the application of methods from information geometry to the sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) sampler. In particular the Riemannian manifold Metropolis-adjusted Langevin algorithm (mMALA) is adapted for the transition kernels in SMC. Similar to its function in Markov chain Monte Carlo methods, the mMALA is a fully adaptable kernel which allows for efficient sampling of high-dimensional and highly correlated parameter spaces. We set up the theoretical framework for its use in SMC with a focus on the application to the problem of sequential Bayesian inference for dynamical systems as modelled by sets of ordinary differential equations. In addition, we argue that defining the sequence of distributions on geodesics optimises the effective sample sizes in the SMC run. We illustrate the application of the methodology by inferring the parameters of simulated Lotka-Volterra and Fitzhugh-Nagumo models. In particular we demonstrate that compared to employing a standard adaptive random walk kernel, the SM...
Quantum Monte Carlo Endstation for Petascale Computing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lubos Mitas
2011-01-26
NCSU research group has been focused on accomplising the key goals of this initiative: establishing new generation of quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) computational tools as a part of Endstation petaflop initiative for use at the DOE ORNL computational facilities and for use by computational electronic structure community at large; carrying out high accuracy quantum Monte Carlo demonstration projects in application of these tools to the forefront electronic structure problems in molecular and solid systems; expanding the impact of QMC methods and approaches; explaining and enhancing the impact of these advanced computational approaches. In particular, we have developed quantum Monte Carlo code (QWalk, www.qwalk.org) which was significantly expanded and optimized using funds from this support and at present became an actively used tool in the petascale regime by ORNL researchers and beyond. These developments have been built upon efforts undertaken by the PI's group and collaborators over the period of the last decade. The code was optimized and tested extensively on a number of parallel architectures including petaflop ORNL Jaguar machine. We have developed and redesigned a number of code modules such as evaluation of wave functions and orbitals, calculations of pfaffians and introduction of backflow coordinates together with overall organization of the code and random walker distribution over multicore architectures. We have addressed several bottlenecks such as load balancing and verified efficiency and accuracy of the calculations with the other groups of the Endstation team. The QWalk package contains about 50,000 lines of high quality object-oriented C++ and includes also interfaces to data files from other conventional electronic structure codes such as Gamess, Gaussian, Crystal and others. This grant supported PI for one month during summers, a full-time postdoc and partially three graduate students over the period of the grant duration, it has resulted in 13
Burrows, John
2013-04-01
An introduction to the use of the mathematical technique of Monte Carlo simulations to evaluate least squares regression calibration is described. Monte Carlo techniques involve the repeated sampling of data from a population that may be derived from real (experimental) data, but is more conveniently generated by a computer using a model of the analytical system and a randomization process to produce a large database. Datasets are selected from this population and fed into the calibration algorithms under test, thus providing a facile way of producing a sufficiently large number of assessments of the algorithm to enable a statically valid appraisal of the calibration process to be made. This communication provides a description of the technique that forms the basis of the results presented in Parts II and III of this series, which follow in this issue, and also highlights the issues arising from the use of small data populations in bioanalysis.
Monte Carlo modelling of positron transport in real world applications
Marjanović, S.; Banković, A.; Šuvakov, M.; Petrović, Z. Lj
2014-05-01
Due to the unstable nature of positrons and their short lifetime, it is difficult to obtain high positron particle densities. This is why the Monte Carlo simulation technique, as a swarm method, is very suitable for modelling most of the current positron applications involving gaseous and liquid media. The ongoing work on the measurements of cross-sections for positron interactions with atoms and molecules and swarm calculations for positrons in gasses led to the establishment of good cross-section sets for positron interaction with gasses commonly used in real-world applications. Using the standard Monte Carlo technique and codes that can follow both low- (down to thermal energy) and high- (up to keV) energy particles, we are able to model different systems directly applicable to existing experimental setups and techniques. This paper reviews the results on modelling Surko-type positron buffer gas traps, application of the rotating wall technique and simulation of positron tracks in water vapor as a substitute for human tissue, and pinpoints the challenges in and advantages of applying Monte Carlo simulations to these systems.
Müller, H; Bouassoule, T; Fernández, F; Pochat, J L; Tomas, M; Van Ryckeghem, L
2002-01-01
The experimental results on neutron energy spectra, integral fluences and equivalent dose measurements performed by means of a Bonner sphere system placed inside the containment building of the Vandellos II Nuclear Power Plant (Tarragona, Spain) are presented. The equivalent dose results obtained with this system are compared to those measured with different neutron area detectors (Berthold, Dineutron, Harwell). A realistic geometry model of the Bonner sphere system with a new cylindrical counter type 'F' (0,5NH1/1KI--Eurisys Mesures) and with a set of eight polyethylene moderating spheres is described in detail. The response function in fluence of this new device, to mono-energetic neutrons from thermal energy to 20 MeV, is calculated by the MCNP-4B code for each moderator sphere. The system has been calibrated at IPSN Cadarache facility for ISO Am-Be calibrated source and thermal neutron field, then the response functions were confirmed by measurements at PTB (Germany) for ISO recommended energies of mono-e...
Muller, H.; Fernández, F.; Van Ryckeghem, L.; Alexandre, P.; Bouassoule, T.; Pochat, J.-L.; Tomas, M.
2002-01-01
The experimental results on neutron energy spectra, integral fluences and equivalent dose measurements performed by means of a Bonner sphere system placed inside the containment building of the Vandellòs II Nuclear Power Plant (Tarragona, Spain) are presented. The equivalent dose results obtained with this system are compared to those measured with different neutron area detectors (Berthold, Dineutron, Harwell). A realistic geometry model of the Bonner sphere system with a new cylindrical counter type "F" (0,5NH1/1KI—Eurisys Mesures) and with a set of eight polyethylene moderating spheres is described in detail. The response function in fluence of this new device, to mono-energetic neutrons from thermal energy to 20 MeV, is calculated by the MCNP-4B code for each moderator sphere. The system has been calibrated at IPSN Cadarache facility for ISO Am-Be calibrated source and thermal neutron field, then the response functions were confirmed by measurements at PTB (Germany) for ISO recommended energies of mono-energetic neutrons and with the CANEL IPSN facility which simulates realistic fields.
A new proposal on the operational quantity H{sub p}(3): Monte Carlo and experimental results
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mariotti, F., E-mail: francesca.mariotti@bologna.enea.i [ENEA Radiation Protection Institute, Via dei Colli 16, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Gualdrini, G.; Fantuzzi, E.; Ferrari, P.; Monteventi, F. [ENEA Radiation Protection Institute, Via dei Colli 16, 40136 Bologna (Italy)
2011-04-15
The European Union is funding the ORAMED Contract (Optimization of RAdiation protection for MEDical staff) project that aims at developing methodologies for better assessing and reducing exposures to medical staff for procedures resulting in potentially large doses or complex radiation fields, such as interventional radiology, nuclear medicine and new developments. One of the ORAMED Working Tasks is addressed to the discussion and implementation in the radiation protection practice of the eye lens equivalent dose. The aim of this task group is to develop a personal dosemeter characterized in term of H{sub p}(3). Until now H{sub p}(3) conversion coefficients were not reported in the official recommendations and the available data were calculated for a 30 x 30 x 15 cm{sup 3} slab phantom that is far away to represent the head. A reduced slab phantom, for both calculating the quantities and type testing personal dosemeter in terms of the operational quantity, was previously proposed by ENEA Bologna team. The study demonstrated that a reduced slab phantom is better representative of a real situation, but the angular dependence of H{sub p}(3,{alpha}) due to the edges of the slab reduces its applicability. Therefore a better-suited phantom is proposed here. The dosimetric assessment in terms of this quantity is seldom performed in the various workplaces (e.g. hospitals) and therefore a question rises about its usefulness and practical implementation. The present work tries to introduce new elements in the discussion on the quantity H{sub p}(3) and to propose a more suitable theoretical cylindrical phantom (and a corresponding experimental one for the calibration procedures) to better approximate the head in which the eyes are placed.
Eigenvalue analysis using a full-core Monte Carlo method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Okafor, K.C.; Zino, J.F. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States))
1992-01-01
The reactor physics codes used at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to predict reactor behavior have been continually benchmarked against experimental and operational data. A particular benchmark variable is the observed initial critical control rod position. Historically, there has been some difficulty predicting this position because of the difficulties inherent in using computer codes to model experimental or operational data. The Monte Carlo method is applied in this paper to study the initial critical control rod positions for the SRS K Reactor. A three-dimensional, full-core MCNP model of the reactor was developed for this analysis.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kolbun, N.; Leveque, Ph.; Abboud, F.; Bol, A.; Vynckier, S.; Gallez, B. [Biomedical Magnetic Resonance Unit, Louvain Drug Research Institute, Universite catholique de Louvain, Avenue Mounier 73.40, B-1200 Brussels (Belgium); Molecular Imaging and Experimental Radiotherapy Unit, Institute of Experimental and Clinical Research, Universite catholique de Louvain, Avenue Hippocrate 55, B-1200 Brussels (Belgium); Biomedical Magnetic Resonance Unit, Louvain Drug Research Institute, Universite catholique de Louvain, Avenue Mounier 73.40, B-1200 Brussels (Belgium)
2010-10-15
Purpose: The experimental determination of doses at proximal distances from radioactive sources is difficult because of the steepness of the dose gradient. The goal of this study was to determine the relative radial dose distribution for a low dose rate {sup 192}Ir wire source using electron paramagnetic resonance imaging (EPRI) and to compare the results to those obtained using Gafchromic EBT film dosimetry and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. Methods: Lithium formate and ammonium formate were chosen as the EPR dosimetric materials and were used to form cylindrical phantoms. The dose distribution of the stable radiation-induced free radicals in the lithium formate and ammonium formate phantoms was assessed by EPRI. EBT films were also inserted inside in ammonium formate phantoms for comparison. MC simulation was performed using the MCNP4C2 software code. Results: The radical signal in irradiated ammonium formate is contained in a single narrow EPR line, with an EPR peak-to-peak linewidth narrower than that of lithium formate ({approx}0.64 and 1.4 mT, respectively). The spatial resolution of EPR images was enhanced by a factor of 2.3 using ammonium formate compared to lithium formate because its linewidth is about 0.75 mT narrower than that of lithium formate. The EPRI results were consistent to within 1% with those of Gafchromic EBT films and MC simulations at distances from 1.0 to 2.9 mm. The radial dose values obtained by EPRI were about 4% lower at distances from 2.9 to 4.0 mm than those determined by MC simulation and EBT film dosimetry. Conclusions: Ammonium formate is a suitable material under certain conditions for use in brachytherapy dosimetry using EPRI. In this study, the authors demonstrated that the EPRI technique allows the estimation of the relative radial dose distribution at short distances for a {sup 192}Ir wire source.
Morse Monte Carlo Radiation Transport Code System
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Emmett, M.B.
1975-02-01
The report contains sections containing descriptions of the MORSE and PICTURE codes, input descriptions, sample problems, deviations of the physical equations and explanations of the various error messages. The MORSE code is a multipurpose neutron and gamma-ray transport Monte Carlo code. Time dependence for both shielding and criticality problems is provided. General three-dimensional geometry may be used with an albedo option available at any material surface. The PICTURE code provide aid in preparing correct input data for the combinatorial geometry package CG. It provides a printed view of arbitrary two-dimensional slices through the geometry. By inspecting these pictures one may determine if the geometry specified by the input cards is indeed the desired geometry. 23 refs. (WRF)
Variational Monte Carlo study of pentaquark states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mark W. Paris
2005-07-01
Accurate numerical solution of the five-body Schrodinger equation is effected via variational Monte Carlo. The spectrum is assumed to exhibit a narrow resonance with strangeness S=+1. A fully antisymmetrized and pair-correlated five-quark wave function is obtained for the assumed non-relativistic Hamiltonian which has spin, isospin, and color dependent pair interactions and many-body confining terms which are fixed by the non-exotic spectra. Gauge field dynamics are modeled via flux tube exchange factors. The energy determined for the ground states with J=1/2 and negative (positive) parity is 2.22 GeV (2.50 GeV). A lower energy negative parity state is consistent with recent lattice results. The short-range structure of the state is analyzed via its diquark content.
Monte Carlo simulation of neutron scattering instruments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Seeger, P.A.; Daemen, L.L.; Hjelm, R.P. Jr.
1998-12-01
A code package consisting of the Monte Carlo Library MCLIB, the executing code MC{_}RUN, the web application MC{_}Web, and various ancillary codes is proposed as an open standard for simulation of neutron scattering instruments. The architecture of the package includes structures to define surfaces, regions, and optical elements contained in regions. A particle is defined by its vector position and velocity, its time of flight, its mass and charge, and a polarization vector. The MC{_}RUN code handles neutron transport and bookkeeping, while the action on the neutron within any region is computed using algorithms that may be deterministic, probabilistic, or a combination. Complete versatility is possible because the existing library may be supplemented by any procedures a user is able to code. Some examples are shown.
Gas discharges modeling by Monte Carlo technique
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Savić Marija
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The basic assumption of the Townsend theory - that ions produce secondary electrons - is valid only in a very narrow range of the reduced electric field E/N. In accordance with the revised Townsend theory that was suggested by Phelps and Petrović, secondary electrons are produced in collisions of ions, fast neutrals, metastable atoms or photons with the cathode, or in gas phase ionizations by fast neutrals. In this paper we tried to build up a Monte Carlo code that can be used to calculate secondary electron yields for different types of particles. The obtained results are in good agreement with the analytical results of Phelps and. Petrović [Plasma Sourc. Sci. Technol. 8 (1999 R1].
On nonlinear Markov chain Monte Carlo
Andrieu, Christophe; Doucet, Arnaud; Del Moral, Pierre; 10.3150/10-BEJ307
2011-01-01
Let $\\mathscr{P}(E)$ be the space of probability measures on a measurable space $(E,\\mathcal{E})$. In this paper we introduce a class of nonlinear Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods for simulating from a probability measure $\\pi\\in\\mathscr{P}(E)$. Nonlinear Markov kernels (see [Feynman--Kac Formulae: Genealogical and Interacting Particle Systems with Applications (2004) Springer]) $K:\\mathscr{P}(E)\\times E\\rightarrow\\mathscr{P}(E)$ can be constructed to, in some sense, improve over MCMC methods. However, such nonlinear kernels cannot be simulated exactly, so approximations of the nonlinear kernels are constructed using auxiliary or potentially self-interacting chains. Several nonlinear kernels are presented and it is demonstrated that, under some conditions, the associated approximations exhibit a strong law of large numbers; our proof technique is via the Poisson equation and Foster--Lyapunov conditions. We investigate the performance of our approximations with some simulations.
Monte Carlo exploration of warped Higgsless models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hewett, JoAnne L.; Lillie, Benjamin; Rizzo, Thomas Gerard [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, 2575 Sand Hill Rd., Menlo Park, CA, 94025 (United States)]. E-mail: rizzo@slac.stanford.edu
2004-10-01
We have performed a detailed Monte Carlo exploration of the parameter space for a warped Higgsless model of electroweak symmetry breaking in 5 dimensions. This model is based on the SU(2){sub L} x SU(2){sub R} x U(1){sub B-L} gauge group in an AdS{sub 5} bulk with arbitrary gauge kinetic terms on both the Planck and TeV branes. Constraints arising from precision electroweak measurements and collider data are found to be relatively easy to satisfy. We show, however, that the additional requirement of perturbative unitarity up to the cut-off, {approx_equal} 10 TeV, in W{sub L}{sup +}W{sub L}{sup -} elastic scattering in the absence of dangerous tachyons eliminates all models. If successful models of this class exist, they must be highly fine-tuned. (author)
Monte Carlo Exploration of Warped Higgsless Models
Hewett, J L; Rizzo, T G
2004-01-01
We have performed a detailed Monte Carlo exploration of the parameter space for a warped Higgsless model of electroweak symmetry breaking in 5 dimensions. This model is based on the $SU(2)_L\\times SU(2)_R\\times U(1)_{B-L}$ gauge group in an AdS$_5$ bulk with arbitrary gauge kinetic terms on both the Planck and TeV branes. Constraints arising from precision electroweak measurements and collider data are found to be relatively easy to satisfy. We show, however, that the additional requirement of perturbative unitarity up to the cut-off, $\\simeq 10$ TeV, in $W_L^+W_L^-$ elastic scattering in the absence of dangerous tachyons eliminates all models. If successful models of this class exist, they must be highly fine-tuned.
Monte Carlo Implementation of Polarized Hadronization
Matevosyan, Hrayr H; Thomas, Anthony W
2016-01-01
We study the polarized quark hadronization in a Monte Carlo (MC) framework based on the recent extension of the quark-jet framework, where a self-consistent treatment of the quark polarization transfer in a sequential hadronization picture has been presented. Here, we first adopt this approach for MC simulations of hadronization process with finite number of produced hadrons, expressing the relevant probabilities in terms of the eight leading twist quark-to-quark transverse momentum dependent (TMD) splitting functions (SFs) for elementary $q \\to q'+h$ transition. We present explicit expressions for the unpolarized and Collins fragmentation functions (FFs) of unpolarized hadrons emitted at rank two. Further, we demonstrate that all the current spectator-type model calculations of the leading twist quark-to-quark TMD SFs violate the positivity constraints, and propose quark model based ansatz for these input functions that circumvents the problem. We validate our MC framework by explicitly proving the absence o...
Commensurabilities between ETNOs: a Monte Carlo survey
Marcos, C de la Fuente
2016-01-01
Many asteroids in the main and trans-Neptunian belts are trapped in mean motion resonances with Jupiter and Neptune, respectively. As a side effect, they experience accidental commensurabilities among themselves. These commensurabilities define characteristic patterns that can be used to trace the source of the observed resonant behaviour. Here, we explore systematically the existence of commensurabilities between the known ETNOs using their heliocentric and barycentric semimajor axes, their uncertainties, and Monte Carlo techniques. We find that the commensurability patterns present in the known ETNO population resemble those found in the main and trans-Neptunian belts. Although based on small number statistics, such patterns can only be properly explained if most, if not all, of the known ETNOs are subjected to the resonant gravitational perturbations of yet undetected trans-Plutonian planets. We show explicitly that some of the statistically significant commensurabilities are compatible with the Planet Nin...
Variable length trajectory compressible hybrid Monte Carlo
Nishimura, Akihiko
2016-01-01
Hybrid Monte Carlo (HMC) generates samples from a prescribed probability distribution in a configuration space by simulating Hamiltonian dynamics, followed by the Metropolis (-Hastings) acceptance/rejection step. Compressible HMC (CHMC) generalizes HMC to a situation in which the dynamics is reversible but not necessarily Hamiltonian. This article presents a framework to further extend the algorithm. Within the existing framework, each trajectory of the dynamics must be integrated for the same amount of (random) time to generate a valid Metropolis proposal. Our generalized acceptance/rejection mechanism allows a more deliberate choice of the integration time for each trajectory. The proposed algorithm in particular enables an effective application of variable step size integrators to HMC-type sampling algorithms based on reversible dynamics. The potential of our framework is further demonstrated by another extension of HMC which reduces the wasted computations due to unstable numerical approximations and corr...
Lunar Regolith Albedos Using Monte Carlos
Wilson, T. L.; Andersen, V.; Pinsky, L. S.
2003-01-01
The analysis of planetary regoliths for their backscatter albedos produced by cosmic rays (CRs) is important for space exploration and its potential contributions to science investigations in fundamental physics and astrophysics. Albedos affect all such experiments and the personnel that operate them. Groups have analyzed the production rates of various particles and elemental species by planetary surfaces when bombarded with Galactic CR fluxes, both theoretically and by means of various transport codes, some of which have emphasized neutrons. Here we report on the preliminary results of our current Monte Carlo investigation into the production of charged particles, neutrons, and neutrinos by the lunar surface using FLUKA. In contrast to previous work, the effects of charm are now included.
Nuclear reactions in Monte Carlo codes.
Ferrari, A; Sala, P R
2002-01-01
The physics foundations of hadronic interactions as implemented in most Monte Carlo codes are presented together with a few practical examples. The description of the relevant physics is presented schematically split into the major steps in order to stress the different approaches required for the full understanding of nuclear reactions at intermediate and high energies. Due to the complexity of the problem, only a few semi-qualitative arguments are developed in this paper. The description will be necessarily schematic and somewhat incomplete, but hopefully it will be useful for a first introduction into this topic. Examples are shown mostly for the high energy regime, where all mechanisms mentioned in the paper are at work and to which perhaps most of the readers are less accustomed. Examples for lower energies can be found in the references.
Geometric Monte Carlo and Black Janus Geometries
Bak, Dongsu; Kim, Kyung Kiu; Min, Hyunsoo; Song, Jeong-Pil
2016-01-01
We describe an application of the Monte Carlo method to the Janus deformation of the black brane background. We present numerical results for three and five dimensional black Janus geometries with planar and spherical interfaces. In particular, we argue that the 5D geometry with a spherical interface has an application in understanding the finite temperature bag-like QCD model via the AdS/CFT correspondence. The accuracy and convergence of the algorithm are evaluated with respect to the grid spacing. The systematic errors of the method are determined using an exact solution of 3D black Janus. This numerical approach for solving linear problems is unaffected initial guess of a trial solution and can handle an arbitrary geometry under various boundary conditions in the presence of source fields.
Modeling neutron guides using Monte Carlo simulations
Wang, D Q; Crow, M L; Wang, X L; Lee, W T; Hubbard, C R
2002-01-01
Four neutron guide geometries, straight, converging, diverging and curved, were characterized using Monte Carlo ray-tracing simulations. The main areas of interest are the transmission of the guides at various neutron energies and the intrinsic time-of-flight (TOF) peak broadening. Use of a delta-function time pulse from a uniform Lambert neutron source allows one to quantitatively simulate the effect of guides' geometry on the TOF peak broadening. With a converging guide, the intensity and the beam divergence increases while the TOF peak width decreases compared with that of a straight guide. By contrast, use of a diverging guide decreases the intensity and the beam divergence, and broadens the width (in TOF) of the transmitted neutron pulse.
Accurate barrier heights using diffusion Monte Carlo
Krongchon, Kittithat; Wagner, Lucas K
2016-01-01
Fixed node diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) has been performed on a test set of forward and reverse barrier heights for 19 non-hydrogen-transfer reactions, and the nodal error has been assessed. The DMC results are robust to changes in the nodal surface, as assessed by using different mean-field techniques to generate single determinant wave functions. Using these single determinant nodal surfaces, DMC results in errors of 1.5(5) kcal/mol on barrier heights. Using the large data set of DMC energies, we attempted to find good descriptors of the fixed node error. It does not correlate with a number of descriptors including change in density, but does correlate with the gap between the highest occupied and lowest unoccupied orbital energies in the mean-field calculation.
Recent Developments in Quantum Monte Carlo: Methods and Applications
Aspuru-Guzik, Alan; Austin, Brian; Domin, Dominik; Galek, Peter T. A.; Handy, Nicholas; Prasad, Rajendra; Salomon-Ferrer, Romelia; Umezawa, Naoto; Lester, William A.
2007-12-01
The quantum Monte Carlo method in the diffusion Monte Carlo form has become recognized for its capability of describing the electronic structure of atomic, molecular and condensed matter systems to high accuracy. This talk will briefly outline the method with emphasis on recent developments connected with trial function construction, linear scaling, and applications to selected systems.
QUANTUM MONTE-CARLO SIMULATIONS - ALGORITHMS, LIMITATIONS AND APPLICATIONS
DERAEDT, H
1992-01-01
A survey is given of Quantum Monte Carlo methods currently used to simulate quantum lattice models. The formalisms employed to construct the simulation algorithms are sketched. The origin of fundamental (minus sign) problems which limit the applicability of the Quantum Monte Carlo approach is shown
QWalk: A Quantum Monte Carlo Program for Electronic Structure
Wagner, Lucas K; Mitas, Lubos
2007-01-01
We describe QWalk, a new computational package capable of performing Quantum Monte Carlo electronic structure calculations for molecules and solids with many electrons. We describe the structure of the program and its implementation of Quantum Monte Carlo methods. It is open-source, licensed under the GPL, and available at the web site http://www.qwalk.org
Quantum Monte Carlo Simulations : Algorithms, Limitations and Applications
Raedt, H. De
1992-01-01
A survey is given of Quantum Monte Carlo methods currently used to simulate quantum lattice models. The formalisms employed to construct the simulation algorithms are sketched. The origin of fundamental (minus sign) problems which limit the applicability of the Quantum Monte Carlo approach is shown
Reporting Monte Carlo Studies in Structural Equation Modeling
Boomsma, Anne
2013-01-01
In structural equation modeling, Monte Carlo simulations have been used increasingly over the last two decades, as an inventory from the journal Structural Equation Modeling illustrates. Reaching out to a broad audience, this article provides guidelines for reporting Monte Carlo studies in that fiel
Practical schemes for accurate forces in quantum Monte Carlo
Moroni, S.; Saccani, S.; Filippi, Claudia
2014-01-01
While the computation of interatomic forces has become a well-established practice within variational Monte Carlo (VMC), the use of the more accurate Fixed-Node Diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) method is still largely limited to the computation of total energies on structures obtained at a lower level of
Efficiency and accuracy of Monte Carlo (importance) sampling
Waarts, P.H.
2003-01-01
Monte Carlo Analysis is often regarded as the most simple and accurate reliability method. Be-sides it is the most transparent method. The only problem is the accuracy in correlation with the efficiency. Monte Carlo gets less efficient or less accurate when very low probabilities are to be computed
The Monte Carlo Method. Popular Lectures in Mathematics.
Sobol', I. M.
The Monte Carlo Method is a method of approximately solving mathematical and physical problems by the simulation of random quantities. The principal goal of this booklet is to suggest to specialists in all areas that they will encounter problems which can be solved by the Monte Carlo Method. Part I of the booklet discusses the simulation of random…
Forest canopy BRDF simulation using Monte Carlo method
Huang, J.; Wu, B.; Zeng, Y.; Tian, Y.
2006-01-01
Monte Carlo method is a random statistic method, which has been widely used to simulate the Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) of vegetation canopy in the field of visible remote sensing. The random process between photons and forest canopy was designed using Monte Carlo method.
Sensitivity of Monte Carlo simulations to input distributions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
RamoRao, B. S.; Srikanta Mishra, S.; McNeish, J.; Andrews, R. W.
2001-07-01
The sensitivity of the results of a Monte Carlo simulation to the shapes and moments of the probability distributions of the input variables is studied. An economical computational scheme is presented as an alternative to the replicate Monte Carlo simulations and is explained with an illustrative example. (Author) 4 refs.
Quantum Monte Carlo using a Stochastic Poisson Solver
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Das, D; Martin, R M; Kalos, M H
2005-05-06
Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) is an extremely powerful method to treat many-body systems. Usually quantum Monte Carlo has been applied in cases where the interaction potential has a simple analytic form, like the 1/r Coulomb potential. However, in a complicated environment as in a semiconductor heterostructure, the evaluation of the interaction itself becomes a non-trivial problem. Obtaining the potential from any grid-based finite-difference method, for every walker and every step is unfeasible. We demonstrate an alternative approach of solving the Poisson equation by a classical Monte Carlo within the overall quantum Monte Carlo scheme. We have developed a modified ''Walk On Spheres'' algorithm using Green's function techniques, which can efficiently account for the interaction energy of walker configurations, typical of quantum Monte Carlo algorithms. This stochastically obtained potential can be easily incorporated within popular quantum Monte Carlo techniques like variational Monte Carlo (VMC) or diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC). We demonstrate the validity of this method by studying a simple problem, the polarization of a helium atom in the electric field of an infinite capacitor.
Further experience in Bayesian analysis using Monte Carlo Integration
H.K. van Dijk (Herman); T. Kloek (Teun)
1980-01-01
textabstractAn earlier paper [Kloek and Van Dijk (1978)] is extended in three ways. First, Monte Carlo integration is performed in a nine-dimensional parameter space of Klein's model I [Klein (1950)]. Second, Monte Carlo is used as a tool for the elicitation of a uniform prior on a finite region by
New Approaches and Applications for Monte Carlo Perturbation Theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aufiero, Manuele; Bidaud, Adrien; Kotlyar, Dan; Leppänen, Jaakko; Palmiotti, Giuseppe; Salvatores, Massimo; Sen, Sonat; Shwageraus, Eugene; Fratoni, Massimiliano
2017-02-01
This paper presents some of the recent and new advancements in the extension of Monte Carlo Perturbation Theory methodologies and application. In particular, the discussed problems involve Brunup calculation, perturbation calculation based on continuous energy functions, and Monte Carlo Perturbation Theory in loosely coupled systems.
Forest canopy BRDF simulation using Monte Carlo method
Huang, J.; Wu, B.; Zeng, Y.; Tian, Y.
2006-01-01
Monte Carlo method is a random statistic method, which has been widely used to simulate the Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) of vegetation canopy in the field of visible remote sensing. The random process between photons and forest canopy was designed using Monte Carlo method.
Practical schemes for accurate forces in quantum Monte Carlo
Moroni, S.; Saccani, S.; Filippi, C.
2014-01-01
While the computation of interatomic forces has become a well-established practice within variational Monte Carlo (VMC), the use of the more accurate Fixed-Node Diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) method is still largely limited to the computation of total energies on structures obtained at a lower level of
CERN Summer Student Report 2016 Monte Carlo Data Base Improvement
Caciulescu, Alexandru Razvan
2016-01-01
During my Summer Student project I worked on improving the Monte Carlo Data Base and MonALISA services for the ALICE Collaboration. The project included learning the infrastructure for tracking and monitoring of the Monte Carlo productions as well as developing a new RESTful API for seamless integration with the JIRA issue tracking framework.
Accelerated GPU based SPECT Monte Carlo simulations
Garcia, Marie-Paule; Bert, Julien; Benoit, Didier; Bardiès, Manuel; Visvikis, Dimitris
2016-06-01
Monte Carlo (MC) modelling is widely used in the field of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) as it is a reliable technique to simulate very high quality scans. This technique provides very accurate modelling of the radiation transport and particle interactions in a heterogeneous medium. Various MC codes exist for nuclear medicine imaging simulations. Recently, new strategies exploiting the computing capabilities of graphical processing units (GPU) have been proposed. This work aims at evaluating the accuracy of such GPU implementation strategies in comparison to standard MC codes in the context of SPECT imaging. GATE was considered the reference MC toolkit and used to evaluate the performance of newly developed GPU Geant4-based Monte Carlo simulation (GGEMS) modules for SPECT imaging. Radioisotopes with different photon energies were used with these various CPU and GPU Geant4-based MC codes in order to assess the best strategy for each configuration. Three different isotopes were considered: 99m Tc, 111In and 131I, using a low energy high resolution (LEHR) collimator, a medium energy general purpose (MEGP) collimator and a high energy general purpose (HEGP) collimator respectively. Point source, uniform source, cylindrical phantom and anthropomorphic phantom acquisitions were simulated using a model of the GE infinia II 3/8" gamma camera. Both simulation platforms yielded a similar system sensitivity and image statistical quality for the various combinations. The overall acceleration factor between GATE and GGEMS platform derived from the same cylindrical phantom acquisition was between 18 and 27 for the different radioisotopes. Besides, a full MC simulation using an anthropomorphic phantom showed the full potential of the GGEMS platform, with a resulting acceleration factor up to 71. The good agreement with reference codes and the acceleration factors obtained support the use of GPU implementation strategies for improving computational efficiency
Accelerated GPU based SPECT Monte Carlo simulations.
Garcia, Marie-Paule; Bert, Julien; Benoit, Didier; Bardiès, Manuel; Visvikis, Dimitris
2016-06-07
Monte Carlo (MC) modelling is widely used in the field of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) as it is a reliable technique to simulate very high quality scans. This technique provides very accurate modelling of the radiation transport and particle interactions in a heterogeneous medium. Various MC codes exist for nuclear medicine imaging simulations. Recently, new strategies exploiting the computing capabilities of graphical processing units (GPU) have been proposed. This work aims at evaluating the accuracy of such GPU implementation strategies in comparison to standard MC codes in the context of SPECT imaging. GATE was considered the reference MC toolkit and used to evaluate the performance of newly developed GPU Geant4-based Monte Carlo simulation (GGEMS) modules for SPECT imaging. Radioisotopes with different photon energies were used with these various CPU and GPU Geant4-based MC codes in order to assess the best strategy for each configuration. Three different isotopes were considered: (99m) Tc, (111)In and (131)I, using a low energy high resolution (LEHR) collimator, a medium energy general purpose (MEGP) collimator and a high energy general purpose (HEGP) collimator respectively. Point source, uniform source, cylindrical phantom and anthropomorphic phantom acquisitions were simulated using a model of the GE infinia II 3/8" gamma camera. Both simulation platforms yielded a similar system sensitivity and image statistical quality for the various combinations. The overall acceleration factor between GATE and GGEMS platform derived from the same cylindrical phantom acquisition was between 18 and 27 for the different radioisotopes. Besides, a full MC simulation using an anthropomorphic phantom showed the full potential of the GGEMS platform, with a resulting acceleration factor up to 71. The good agreement with reference codes and the acceleration factors obtained support the use of GPU implementation strategies for improving computational
Fission Matrix Capability for MCNP Monte Carlo
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carney, Sean E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brown, Forrest B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kiedrowski, Brian C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martin, William R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2012-09-05
In a Monte Carlo criticality calculation, before the tallying of quantities can begin, a converged fission source (the fundamental eigenvector of the fission kernel) is required. Tallies of interest may include powers, absorption rates, leakage rates, or the multiplication factor (the fundamental eigenvalue of the fission kernel, k{sub eff}). Just as in the power iteration method of linear algebra, if the dominance ratio (the ratio of the first and zeroth eigenvalues) is high, many iterations of neutron history simulations are required to isolate the fundamental mode of the problem. Optically large systems have large dominance ratios, and systems containing poor neutron communication between regions are also slow to converge. The fission matrix method, implemented into MCNP[1], addresses these problems. When Monte Carlo random walk from a source is executed, the fission kernel is stochastically applied to the source. Random numbers are used for: distances to collision, reaction types, scattering physics, fission reactions, etc. This method is used because the fission kernel is a complex, 7-dimensional operator that is not explicitly known. Deterministic methods use approximations/discretization in energy, space, and direction to the kernel. Consequently, they are faster. Monte Carlo directly simulates the physics, which necessitates the use of random sampling. Because of this statistical noise, common convergence acceleration methods used in deterministic methods do not work. In the fission matrix method, we are using the random walk information not only to build the next-iteration fission source, but also a spatially-averaged fission kernel. Just like in deterministic methods, this involves approximation and discretization. The approximation is the tallying of the spatially-discretized fission kernel with an incorrect fission source. We address this by making the spatial mesh fine enough that this error is negligible. As a consequence of discretization we get a
Evaluation of atomic electron binding energies for Monte Carlo particle transport
Pia, Maria Grazia; Batic, Matej; Begalli, Marcia; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Quintieri, Lina; Saracco, Paolo
2011-01-01
A survey of atomic binding energies used by general purpose Monte Carlo systems is reported. Various compilations of these parameters have been evaluated; their accuracy is estimated with respect to experimental data. Their effects on physics quantities relevant to Monte Carlo particle transport are highlighted: X-ray fluorescence emission, electron and proton ionization cross sections, and Doppler broadening in Compton scattering. The effects due to different binding energies are quantified with respect to experimental data. The results of the analysis provide quantitative ground for the selection of binding energies to optimize the accuracy of Monte Carlo simulation in experimental use cases. Recommendations on software design dealing with these parameters and on the improvement of data libraries for Monte Carlo simulation are discussed.
Vectorized Monte Carlo methods for reactor lattice analysis
Brown, F. B.
1984-01-01
Some of the new computational methods and equivalent mathematical representations of physics models used in the MCV code, a vectorized continuous-enery Monte Carlo code for use on the CYBER-205 computer are discussed. While the principal application of MCV is the neutronics analysis of repeating reactor lattices, the new methods used in MCV should be generally useful for vectorizing Monte Carlo for other applications. For background, a brief overview of the vector processing features of the CYBER-205 is included, followed by a discussion of the fundamentals of Monte Carlo vectorization. The physics models used in the MCV vectorized Monte Carlo code are then summarized. The new methods used in scattering analysis are presented along with details of several key, highly specialized computational routines. Finally, speedups relative to CDC-7600 scalar Monte Carlo are discussed.
Quantum Monte Carlo methods algorithms for lattice models
Gubernatis, James; Werner, Philipp
2016-01-01
Featuring detailed explanations of the major algorithms used in quantum Monte Carlo simulations, this is the first textbook of its kind to provide a pedagogical overview of the field and its applications. The book provides a comprehensive introduction to the Monte Carlo method, its use, and its foundations, and examines algorithms for the simulation of quantum many-body lattice problems at finite and zero temperature. These algorithms include continuous-time loop and cluster algorithms for quantum spins, determinant methods for simulating fermions, power methods for computing ground and excited states, and the variational Monte Carlo method. Also discussed are continuous-time algorithms for quantum impurity models and their use within dynamical mean-field theory, along with algorithms for analytically continuing imaginary-time quantum Monte Carlo data. The parallelization of Monte Carlo simulations is also addressed. This is an essential resource for graduate students, teachers, and researchers interested in ...
Baräo, Fernando; Nakagawa, Masayuki; Távora, Luis; Vaz, Pedro
2001-01-01
This book focusses on the state of the art of Monte Carlo methods in radiation physics and particle transport simulation and applications, the latter involving in particular, the use and development of electron--gamma, neutron--gamma and hadronic codes. Besides the basic theory and the methods employed, special attention is paid to algorithm development for modeling, and the analysis of experiments and measurements in a variety of fields ranging from particle to medical physics.
Monte Carlo studies of model Langmuir monolayers.
Opps, S B; Yang, B; Gray, C G; Sullivan, D E
2001-04-01
This paper examines some of the basic properties of a model Langmuir monolayer, consisting of surfactant molecules deposited onto a water subphase. The surfactants are modeled as rigid rods composed of a head and tail segment of diameters sigma(hh) and sigma(tt), respectively. The tails consist of n(t) approximately 4-7 effective monomers representing methylene groups. These rigid rods interact via site-site Lennard-Jones potentials with different interaction parameters for the tail-tail, head-tail, and head-head interactions. In a previous paper, we studied the ground-state properties of this system using a Landau approach. In the present paper, Monte Carlo simulations were performed in the canonical ensemble to elucidate the finite-temperature behavior of this system. Simulation techniques, incorporating a system of dynamic filters, allow us to decrease CPU time with negligible statistical error. This paper focuses on several of the key parameters, such as density, head-tail diameter mismatch, and chain length, responsible for driving transitions from uniformly tilted to untilted phases and between different tilt-ordered phases. Upon varying the density of the system, with sigma(hh)=sigma(tt), we observe a transition from a tilted (NNN)-condensed phase to an untilted-liquid phase and, upon comparison with recent experiments with fatty acid-alcohol and fatty acid-ester mixtures [M. C. Shih, M. K. Durbin, A. Malik, P. Zschack, and P. Dutta, J. Chem. Phys. 101, 9132 (1994); E. Teer, C. M. Knobler, C. Lautz, S. Wurlitzer, J. Kildae, and T. M. Fischer, J. Chem. Phys. 106, 1913 (1997)], we identify this as the L'(2)/Ov-L1 phase boundary. By varying the head-tail diameter ratio, we observe a decrease in T(c) with increasing mismatch. However, as the chain length was increased we observed that the transition temperatures increased and differences in T(c) due to head-tail diameter mismatch were diminished. In most of the present research, the water was treated as a hard
MCNP{trademark} Monte Carlo: A precis of MCNP
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Adams, K.J.
1996-06-01
MCNP{trademark} is a general purpose three-dimensional time-dependent neutron, photon, and electron transport code. It is highly portable and user-oriented, and backed by stringent software quality assurance practices and extensive experimental benchmarks. The cross section database is based upon the best evaluations available. MCNP incorporates state-of-the-art analog and adaptive Monte Carlo techniques. The code is documented in a 600 page manual which is augmented by numerous Los Alamos technical reports which detail various aspects of the code. MCNP represents over a megahour of development and refinement over the past 50 years and an ongoing commitment to excellence.
Monte Carlo Simulation of Kinesin Movement with a Lattice Model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Hong; DOU Shuo-Xing; WANG Peng-Ye
2005-01-01
@@ Kinesin is a processive double-headed molecular motor that moves along a microtubule by taking about 8nm steps. It generally hydrolyzes one ATP molecule for taking each forward step. The processive movement of the kinesin molecular motors is numerically simulated with a lattice model. The motors are considered as Brownian particles and the ATPase processes of both heads are taken into account. The Monte Carlo simulation results agree well with recent experimental observations, especially on the relation of velocity versus ATP and ADP concentrations.
Computed radiography simulation using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Correa, S.C.A. [Programa de Engenharia Nuclear/COPPE, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ilha do Fundao, Caixa Postal 68509, 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Centro Universitario Estadual da Zona Oeste (CCMAT)/UEZO, Av. Manuel Caldeira de Alvarenga, 1203, Campo Grande, 23070-200, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Souza, E.M. [Programa de Engenharia Nuclear/COPPE, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ilha do Fundao, Caixa Postal 68509, 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, A.X., E-mail: ademir@con.ufrj.b [PEN/COPPE-DNC/Poli CT, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ilha do Fundao, Caixa Postal 68509, 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Cassiano, D.H. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria/CNEN Av. Salvador Allende, s/n, Recreio, 22780-160, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Lopes, R.T. [Programa de Engenharia Nuclear/COPPE, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ilha do Fundao, Caixa Postal 68509, 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
2010-09-15
Simulating X-ray images has been of great interest in recent years as it makes possible an analysis of how X-ray images are affected owing to relevant operating parameters. In this paper, a procedure for simulating computed radiographic images using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX is proposed. The sensitivity curve of the BaFBr image plate detector as well as the characteristic noise of a 16-bit computed radiography system were considered during the methodology's development. The results obtained confirm that the proposed procedure for simulating computed radiographic images is satisfactory, as it allows obtaining results comparable with experimental data.
Communication: Water on hexagonal boron nitride from diffusion Monte Carlo
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Al-Hamdani, Yasmine S.; Ma, Ming; Michaelides, Angelos, E-mail: angelos.michaelides@ucl.ac.uk [Thomas Young Centre and London Centre for Nanotechnology, 17–19 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AH (United Kingdom); Department of Chemistry, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom); Alfè, Dario [Thomas Young Centre and London Centre for Nanotechnology, 17–19 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AH (United Kingdom); Department of Earth Sciences, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Lilienfeld, O. Anatole von [Institute of Physical Chemistry and National Center for Computational Design and Discovery of Novel Materials, Department of Chemistry, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 80, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Argonne Leadership Computing Facility, Argonne National Laboratories, 9700 S. Cass Avenue Argonne, Lemont, Illinois 60439 (United States)
2015-05-14
Despite a recent flurry of experimental and simulation studies, an accurate estimate of the interaction strength of water molecules with hexagonal boron nitride is lacking. Here, we report quantum Monte Carlo results for the adsorption of a water monomer on a periodic hexagonal boron nitride sheet, which yield a water monomer interaction energy of −84 ± 5 meV. We use the results to evaluate the performance of several widely used density functional theory (DFT) exchange correlation functionals and find that they all deviate substantially. Differences in interaction energies between different adsorption sites are however better reproduced by DFT.
Monte Carlo conformal treatment planning as an independent assessment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rincon, M.; Leal, A.; Perucha, M.; Carrasco, E. [Sevilla Univ. (Spain). Dept. Fisiologia Medica y Biofisica; Sanchez-Doblado, F. [Sevilla Univ. (Spain). Dept. Fisiologia Medica y Biofisica]|[Hospital Univ. Virgen Macarena, Sevilla (Spain). Servicio de Oncologia Radioterapica; Arrans, R.; Sanchez-Calzado, J.A.; Errazquin, L. [Hospital Univ. Virgen Macarena, Sevilla (Spain). Servicio de Oncologia Radioterapica; Medrano, J.C. [Clinica Puerta de Hierro, Madrid (Spain). Servicio de Radiofisica
2001-07-01
The wide range of possibilities available in Radiotherapy with conformal fields cannot be covered experimentally. For this reason, dosimetrical and planning procedures are based on approximate algorithms or systematic measurements. Dose distribution calculations based on Monte Carlo (MC) simulations can be used to check results. In this work, two examples of conformal field treatments are shown: A prostate carcinoma and an ocular lymphoma. The dose distributions obtained with a conventional Planning System and with MC have been compared. Some significant differences have been found. (orig.)
Monte Carlo simulation of charge mediated magnetoelectricity in multiferroic bilayers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ortiz-Álvarez, H.H. [Universidad de Caldas, Manizales (Colombia); Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Manizales, Manizales, Caldas (Colombia); Bedoya-Hincapié, C.M. [Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Manizales, Manizales, Caldas (Colombia); Universidad Santo Tomás, Bogotá (Colombia); Restrepo-Parra, E., E-mail: erestrepopa@unal.edu.co [Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Manizales, Manizales, Caldas (Colombia)
2014-12-01
Simulations of a bilayer ferroelectric/ferromagnetic multiferroic system were carried out, based on the Monte Carlo method and Metropolis dynamics. A generic model was implemented with a Janssen-like Hamiltonian, taking into account magnetoelectric interactions due to charge accumulation at the interface. Two different magnetic exchange constants were considered for accumulation and depletion states. Several screening lengths were also included. Simulations exhibit considerable magnetoelectric effects not only at low temperature, but also at temperature near to the transition point of the ferromagnetic layer. The results match experimental observations for this kind of structure and mechanism.
Geometric frustration in gadolinium gallium garnet: a Monte Carlo study
Petrenko, Oleg A.; Paul, Don McK.
1999-06-01
We have studied the magnetic properties of the frustrated triangular antiferromagnet Gd3Ga5O12 (GGG) by means of classical Monte Carlo simulations. Low-temperature specific heat, magnetization, susceptibility, autocorrelation function and neutron scattering function have been calculated for several models including different types of magnetic interactions and with the presence of an external magnetic field. In order to reproduce the experimentally observed properties of GGG, the simulation model must include nearest neighbor exchange interactions and also dipolar forces. In zero field there is a tendency to form incommensurate short-range magnetic order around positions in reciprocal space where antiferromagnetic Bragg peaks appear in an applied magnetic field.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Drost, M.K. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Welty, J.R. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States))
1992-08-01
Radiation heat transfer in an array of fixed discrete surfaces is an important problem that is particularly difficult to analyze because of the nonhomogeneous and anisotropic optical properties involved. This article presents an efficient Monte Carlo method for evaluating radiation heat transfer in arrays of fixed discrete surfaces. This Monte Carlo model has been optimized to take advantage of the regular arrangement of surfaces often encountered in these arrays. Monte Carlo model predictions have been compared with analytical and experimental results.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Drost, M.K. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Welty, J.R. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)
1992-08-01
Radiation heat transfer in an array of fixed discrete surfaces is an important problem that is particularly difficult to analyze because of the nonhomogeneous and anisotropic optical properties involved. This article presents an efficient Monte Carlo method for evaluating radiation heat transfer in arrays of fixed discrete surfaces. This Monte Carlo model has been optimized to take advantage of the regular arrangement of surfaces often encountered in these arrays. Monte Carlo model predictions have been compared with analytical and experimental results.
Iterative acceleration methods for Monte Carlo and deterministic criticality calculations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Urbatsch, T.J.
1995-11-01
If you have ever given up on a nuclear criticality calculation and terminated it because it took so long to converge, you might find this thesis of interest. The author develops three methods for improving the fission source convergence in nuclear criticality calculations for physical systems with high dominance ratios for which convergence is slow. The Fission Matrix Acceleration Method and the Fission Diffusion Synthetic Acceleration (FDSA) Method are acceleration methods that speed fission source convergence for both Monte Carlo and deterministic methods. The third method is a hybrid Monte Carlo method that also converges for difficult problems where the unaccelerated Monte Carlo method fails. The author tested the feasibility of all three methods in a test bed consisting of idealized problems. He has successfully accelerated fission source convergence in both deterministic and Monte Carlo criticality calculations. By filtering statistical noise, he has incorporated deterministic attributes into the Monte Carlo calculations in order to speed their source convergence. He has used both the fission matrix and a diffusion approximation to perform unbiased accelerations. The Fission Matrix Acceleration method has been implemented in the production code MCNP and successfully applied to a real problem. When the unaccelerated calculations are unable to converge to the correct solution, they cannot be accelerated in an unbiased fashion. A Hybrid Monte Carlo method weds Monte Carlo and a modified diffusion calculation to overcome these deficiencies. The Hybrid method additionally possesses reduced statistical errors.
A Monte Carlo reflectance model for soil surfaces with three-dimensional structure
Cooper, K. D.; Smith, J. A.
1985-01-01
A Monte Carlo soil reflectance model has been developed to study the effect of macroscopic surface irregularities larger than the wavelength of incident flux. The model treats incoherent multiple scattering from Lambertian facets distributed on a periodic surface. Resulting bidirectional reflectance distribution functions are non-Lambertian and compare well with experimental trends reported in the literature. Examples showing the coupling of the Monte Carlo soil model to an adding bidirectional canopy of reflectance model are also given.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barrera, C A; Moran, M J
2007-08-21
The Neutron Imaging System (NIS) is one of seven ignition target diagnostics under development for the National Ignition Facility. The NIS is required to record hot-spot (13-15 MeV) and downscattered (6-10 MeV) images with a resolution of 10 microns and a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 10 at the 20% contour. The NIS is a valuable diagnostic since the downscattered neutrons reveal the spatial distribution of the cold fuel during an ignition attempt, providing important information in the case of a failed implosion. The present study explores the parameter space of several line-of-sight (LOS) configurations that could serve as the basis for the final design. Six commercially available organic scintillators were experimentally characterized for their light emission decay profile and neutron sensitivity. The samples showed a long lived decay component that makes direct recording of a downscattered image impossible. The two best candidates for the NIS detector material are: EJ232 (BC422) plastic fibers or capillaries filled with EJ399B. A Monte Carlo-based end-to-end model of the NIS was developed to study the imaging capabilities of several LOS configurations and verify that the recovered sources meet the design requirements. The model includes accurate neutron source distributions, aperture geometries (square pinhole, triangular wedge, mini-penumbral, annular and penumbral), their point spread functions, and a pixelated scintillator detector. The modeling results show that a useful downscattered image can be obtained by recording the primary peak and the downscattered images, and then subtracting a decayed version of the former from the latter. The difference images need to be deconvolved in order to obtain accurate source distributions. The images are processed using a frequency-space modified-regularization algorithm and low-pass filtering. The resolution and SNR of these sources are quantified by using two surrogate sources. The simulations show that all LOS
Ficaro, Edward Patrick
The ^{252}Cf -source-driven noise analysis (CSDNA) requires the measurement of the cross power spectral density (CPSD) G_ {23}(omega), between a pair of neutron detectors (subscripts 2 and 3) located in or near the fissile assembly, and the CPSDs, G_{12}( omega) and G_{13}( omega), between the neutron detectors and an ionization chamber 1 containing ^{252}Cf also located in or near the fissile assembly. The key advantage of this method is that the subcriticality of the assembly can be obtained from the ratio of spectral densities,{G _sp{12}{*}(omega)G_ {13}(omega)over G_{11 }(omega)G_{23}(omega) },using a point kinetic model formulation which is independent of the detector's properties and a reference measurement. The multigroup, Monte Carlo code, KENO-NR, was developed to eliminate the dependence of the measurement on the point kinetic formulation. This code utilizes time dependent, analog neutron tracking to simulate the experimental method, in addition to the underlying nuclear physics, as closely as possible. From a direct comparison of simulated and measured data, the calculational model and cross sections are validated for the calculation, and KENO-NR can then be rerun to provide a distributed source k_ {eff} calculation. Depending on the fissile assembly, a few hours to a couple of days of computation time are needed for a typical simulation executed on a desktop workstation. In this work, KENO-NR demonstrated the ability to accurately estimate the measured ratio of spectral densities from experiments using capture detectors performed on uranium metal cylinders, a cylindrical tank filled with aqueous uranyl nitrate, and arrays of safe storage bottles filled with uranyl nitrate. Good agreement was also seen between simulated and measured values of the prompt neutron decay constant from the fitted CPSDs. Poor agreement was seen between simulated and measured results using composite ^6Li-glass-plastic scintillators at large subcriticalities for the tank of
Information-Geometric Markov Chain Monte Carlo Methods Using Diffusions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Samuel Livingstone
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Recent work incorporating geometric ideas in Markov chain Monte Carlo is reviewed in order to highlight these advances and their possible application in a range of domains beyond statistics. A full exposition of Markov chains and their use in Monte Carlo simulation for statistical inference and molecular dynamics is provided, with particular emphasis on methods based on Langevin diffusions. After this, geometric concepts in Markov chain Monte Carlo are introduced. A full derivation of the Langevin diffusion on a Riemannian manifold is given, together with a discussion of the appropriate Riemannian metric choice for different problems. A survey of applications is provided, and some open questions are discussed.
The Monte Carlo method the method of statistical trials
Shreider, YuA
1966-01-01
The Monte Carlo Method: The Method of Statistical Trials is a systematic account of the fundamental concepts and techniques of the Monte Carlo method, together with its range of applications. Some of these applications include the computation of definite integrals, neutron physics, and in the investigation of servicing processes. This volume is comprised of seven chapters and begins with an overview of the basic features of the Monte Carlo method and typical examples of its application to simple problems in computational mathematics. The next chapter examines the computation of multi-dimensio
Rare event simulation using Monte Carlo methods
Rubino, Gerardo
2009-01-01
In a probabilistic model, a rare event is an event with a very small probability of occurrence. The forecasting of rare events is a formidable task but is important in many areas. For instance a catastrophic failure in a transport system or in a nuclear power plant, the failure of an information processing system in a bank, or in the communication network of a group of banks, leading to financial losses. Being able to evaluate the probability of rare events is therefore a critical issue. Monte Carlo Methods, the simulation of corresponding models, are used to analyze rare events. This book sets out to present the mathematical tools available for the efficient simulation of rare events. Importance sampling and splitting are presented along with an exposition of how to apply these tools to a variety of fields ranging from performance and dependability evaluation of complex systems, typically in computer science or in telecommunications, to chemical reaction analysis in biology or particle transport in physics. ...
A continuation multilevel Monte Carlo algorithm
Collier, Nathan
2014-09-05
We propose a novel Continuation Multi Level Monte Carlo (CMLMC) algorithm for weak approximation of stochastic models. The CMLMC algorithm solves the given approximation problem for a sequence of decreasing tolerances, ending when the required error tolerance is satisfied. CMLMC assumes discretization hierarchies that are defined a priori for each level and are geometrically refined across levels. The actual choice of computational work across levels is based on parametric models for the average cost per sample and the corresponding variance and weak error. These parameters are calibrated using Bayesian estimation, taking particular notice of the deepest levels of the discretization hierarchy, where only few realizations are available to produce the estimates. The resulting CMLMC estimator exhibits a non-trivial splitting between bias and statistical contributions. We also show the asymptotic normality of the statistical error in the MLMC estimator and justify in this way our error estimate that allows prescribing both required accuracy and confidence in the final result. Numerical results substantiate the above results and illustrate the corresponding computational savings in examples that are described in terms of differential equations either driven by random measures or with random coefficients. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.
Monte Carlo Simulations of the Photospheric Process
Santana, Rodolfo; Hernandez, Roberto A; Kumar, Pawan
2015-01-01
We present a Monte Carlo (MC) code we wrote to simulate the photospheric process and to study the photospheric spectrum above the peak energy. Our simulations were performed with a photon to electron ratio $N_{\\gamma}/N_{e} = 10^{5}$, as determined by observations of the GRB prompt emission. We searched an exhaustive parameter space to determine if the photospheric process can match the observed high-energy spectrum of the prompt emission. If we do not consider electron re-heating, we determined that the best conditions to produce the observed high-energy spectrum are low photon temperatures and high optical depths. However, for these simulations, the spectrum peaks at an energy below 300 keV by a factor $\\sim 10$. For the cases we consider with higher photon temperatures and lower optical depths, we demonstrate that additional energy in the electrons is required to produce a power-law spectrum above the peak-energy. By considering electron re-heating near the photosphere, the spectrum for these simulations h...
Finding Planet Nine: a Monte Carlo approach
Marcos, C de la Fuente
2016-01-01
Planet Nine is a hypothetical planet located well beyond Pluto that has been proposed in an attempt to explain the observed clustering in physical space of the perihelia of six extreme trans-Neptunian objects or ETNOs. The predicted approximate values of its orbital elements include a semimajor axis of 700 au, an eccentricity of 0.6, an inclination of 30 degrees, and an argument of perihelion of 150 degrees. Searching for this putative planet is already under way. Here, we use a Monte Carlo approach to create a synthetic population of Planet Nine orbits and study its visibility statistically in terms of various parameters and focusing on the aphelion configuration. Our analysis shows that, if Planet Nine exists and is at aphelion, it might be found projected against one out of four specific areas in the sky. Each area is linked to a particular value of the longitude of the ascending node and two of them are compatible with an apsidal antialignment scenario. In addition and after studying the current statistic...
Parallel Monte Carlo Simulation of Aerosol Dynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kun Zhou
2014-02-01
Full Text Available A highly efficient Monte Carlo (MC algorithm is developed for the numerical simulation of aerosol dynamics, that is, nucleation, surface growth, and coagulation. Nucleation and surface growth are handled with deterministic means, while coagulation is simulated with a stochastic method (Marcus-Lushnikov stochastic process. Operator splitting techniques are used to synthesize the deterministic and stochastic parts in the algorithm. The algorithm is parallelized using the Message Passing Interface (MPI. The parallel computing efficiency is investigated through numerical examples. Near 60% parallel efficiency is achieved for the maximum testing case with 3.7 million MC particles running on 93 parallel computing nodes. The algorithm is verified through simulating various testing cases and comparing the simulation results with available analytical and/or other numerical solutions. Generally, it is found that only small number (hundreds or thousands of MC particles is necessary to accurately predict the aerosol particle number density, volume fraction, and so forth, that is, low order moments of the Particle Size Distribution (PSD function. Accurately predicting the high order moments of the PSD needs to dramatically increase the number of MC particles.
Monte Carlo simulations of the NIMROD diffractometer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Botti, A. [University of Roma TRE, Rome (Italy)]. E-mail: botti@fis.uniroma3.it; Ricci, M.A. [University of Roma TRE, Rome (Italy); Bowron, D.T. [ISIS-Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton (United Kingdom); Soper, A.K. [ISIS-Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton (United Kingdom)
2006-11-15
The near and intermediate range order diffractometer (NIMROD) has been selected as a day one instrument on the second target station at ISIS. Uniquely, NIMROD will provide continuous access to particle separations ranging from the interatomic (<1A) to the mesoscopic (<300A). This instrument is mainly designed for structural investigations, although the possibility of putting a Fermi chopper (and corresponding NIMONIC chopper) in the incident beam line, will potentially allow the performance of low resolution inelastic scattering measurements. The performance characteristics of the TOF diffractometer have been simulated by means of a series of Monte Carlo calculations. In particular, the flux as a function of the transferred momentum Q as well as the resolution in Q and transferred energy have been estimated. Moreover, the possibility of including a honeycomb collimator in order to achieve better resolution has been tested. Here, we want to present the design of this diffractometer that will bridge the gap between wide- and small-angle neutron scattering experiments.
Commensurabilities between ETNOs: a Monte Carlo survey
de la Fuente Marcos, C.; de la Fuente Marcos, R.
2016-07-01
Many asteroids in the main and trans-Neptunian belts are trapped in mean motion resonances with Jupiter and Neptune, respectively. As a side effect, they experience accidental commensurabilities among themselves. These commensurabilities define characteristic patterns that can be used to trace the source of the observed resonant behaviour. Here, we explore systematically the existence of commensurabilities between the known ETNOs using their heliocentric and barycentric semimajor axes, their uncertainties, and Monte Carlo techniques. We find that the commensurability patterns present in the known ETNO population resemble those found in the main and trans-Neptunian belts. Although based on small number statistics, such patterns can only be properly explained if most, if not all, of the known ETNOs are subjected to the resonant gravitational perturbations of yet undetected trans-Plutonian planets. We show explicitly that some of the statistically significant commensurabilities are compatible with the Planet Nine hypothesis; in particular, a number of objects may be trapped in the 5:3 and 3:1 mean motion resonances with a putative Planet Nine with semimajor axis ˜700 au.
Diffusion Monte Carlo in internal coordinates.
Petit, Andrew S; McCoy, Anne B
2013-08-15
An internal coordinate extension of diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) is described as a first step toward a generalized reduced-dimensional DMC approach. The method places no constraints on the choice of internal coordinates other than the requirement that they all be independent. Using H(3)(+) and its isotopologues as model systems, the methodology is shown to be capable of successfully describing the ground state properties of molecules that undergo large amplitude, zero-point vibrational motions. Combining the approach developed here with the fixed-node approximation allows vibrationally excited states to be treated. Analysis of the ground state probability distribution is shown to provide important insights into the set of internal coordinates that are less strongly coupled and therefore more suitable for use as the nodal coordinates for the fixed-node DMC calculations. In particular, the curvilinear normal mode coordinates are found to provide reasonable nodal surfaces for the fundamentals of H(2)D(+) and D(2)H(+) despite both molecules being highly fluxional.
Monte Carlo simulations for focusing elliptical guides
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Valicu, Roxana [FRM2 Garching, Muenchen (Germany); Boeni, Peter [E20, TU Muenchen (Germany)
2009-07-01
The aim of the Monte Carlo simulations using McStas Programme was to improve the focusing of the neutron beam existing at PGAA (FRM II) by prolongation of the existing elliptic guide (coated now with supermirrors with m=3) with a new part. First we have tried with an initial length of the additional guide of 7,5cm and coatings for the neutron guide of supermirrors with m=4,5 and 6. The gain (calculated by dividing the intensity in the focal point after adding the guide by the intensity at the focal point with the initial guide) obtained for this coatings indicated that a coating with m=5 would be appropriate for a first trial. The next step was to vary the length of the additional guide for this m value and therefore choosing the appropriate length for the maximal gain. With the m value and the length of the guide fixed we have introduced an aperture 1 cm before the focal point and we have varied the radius of this aperture in order to obtain a focused beam. We have observed a dramatic decrease in the size of the beam in the focal point after introducing this aperture. The simulation results, the gains obtained and the evolution of the beam size will be presented.
Monte Carlo Production Management at CMS
Boudoul, G.; Pol, A; Srimanobhas, P; Vlimant, J R; Franzoni, Giovanni
2015-01-01
The analysis of the LHC data at the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment requires the production of a large number of simulated events.During the runI of LHC (2010-2012), CMS has produced over 12 Billion simulated events,organized in approximately sixty different campaigns each emulating specific detector conditions and LHC running conditions (pile up).In order toaggregate the information needed for the configuration and prioritization of the events production,assure the book-keeping and of all the processing requests placed by the physics analysis groups,and to interface with the CMS production infrastructure,the web-based service Monte Carlo Management (McM) has been developed and put in production in 2012.McM is based on recent server infrastructure technology (CherryPy + java) and relies on a CouchDB database back-end.This contribution will coverthe one and half year of operational experience managing samples of simulated events for CMS,the evolution of its functionalitiesand the extension of its capabi...
Monte Carlo models of dust coagulation
Zsom, Andras
2010-01-01
The thesis deals with the first stage of planet formation, namely dust coagulation from micron to millimeter sizes in circumstellar disks. For the first time, we collect and compile the recent laboratory experiments on dust aggregates into a collision model that can be implemented into dust coagulation models. We put this model into a Monte Carlo code that uses representative particles to simulate dust evolution. Simulations are performed using three different disk models in a local box (0D) located at 1 AU distance from the central star. We find that the dust evolution does not follow the previously assumed growth-fragmentation cycle, but growth is halted by bouncing before the fragmentation regime is reached. We call this the bouncing barrier which is an additional obstacle during the already complex formation process of planetesimals. The absence of the growth-fragmentation cycle and the halted growth has two important consequences for planet formation. 1) It is observed that disk atmospheres are dusty thr...
Parallel Monte Carlo simulation of aerosol dynamics
Zhou, K.
2014-01-01
A highly efficient Monte Carlo (MC) algorithm is developed for the numerical simulation of aerosol dynamics, that is, nucleation, surface growth, and coagulation. Nucleation and surface growth are handled with deterministic means, while coagulation is simulated with a stochastic method (Marcus-Lushnikov stochastic process). Operator splitting techniques are used to synthesize the deterministic and stochastic parts in the algorithm. The algorithm is parallelized using the Message Passing Interface (MPI). The parallel computing efficiency is investigated through numerical examples. Near 60% parallel efficiency is achieved for the maximum testing case with 3.7 million MC particles running on 93 parallel computing nodes. The algorithm is verified through simulating various testing cases and comparing the simulation results with available analytical and/or other numerical solutions. Generally, it is found that only small number (hundreds or thousands) of MC particles is necessary to accurately predict the aerosol particle number density, volume fraction, and so forth, that is, low order moments of the Particle Size Distribution (PSD) function. Accurately predicting the high order moments of the PSD needs to dramatically increase the number of MC particles. 2014 Kun Zhou et al.
Measuring Berry curvature with quantum Monte Carlo
Kolodrubetz, Michael
2014-01-01
The Berry curvature and its descendant, the Berry phase, play an important role in quantum mechanics. They can be used to understand the Aharonov-Bohm effect, define topological Chern numbers, and generally to investigate the geometric properties of a quantum ground state manifold. While Berry curvature has been well-studied in the regimes of few-body physics and non-interacting particles, its use in the regime of strong interactions is hindered by the lack of numerical methods to solve it. In this paper we fill this gap by implementing a quantum Monte Carlo method to solve for the Berry curvature, based on interpreting Berry curvature as a leading correction to imaginary time ramps. We demonstrate our algorithm using the transverse-field Ising model in one and two dimensions, the latter of which is non-integrable. Despite the fact that the Berry curvature gives information about the phase of the wave function, we show that our algorithm has no sign or phase problem for standard sign-problem-free Hamiltonians...
Monte Carlo simulation experiments on box-type radon dosimeter
Jamil, Khalid; Kamran, Muhammad; Illahi, Ahsan; Manzoor, Shahid
2014-11-01
Epidemiological studies show that inhalation of radon gas (222Rn) may be carcinogenic especially to mine workers, people living in closed indoor energy conserved environments and underground dwellers. It is, therefore, of paramount importance to measure the 222Rn concentrations (Bq/m3) in indoors environments. For this purpose, box-type passive radon dosimeters employing ion track detector like CR-39 are widely used. Fraction of the number of radon alphas emitted in the volume of the box type dosimeter resulting in latent track formation on CR-39 is the latent track registration efficiency. Latent track registration efficiency is ultimately required to evaluate the radon concentration which consequently determines the effective dose and the radiological hazards. In this research, Monte Carlo simulation experiments were carried out to study the alpha latent track registration efficiency for box type radon dosimeter as a function of dosimeter's dimensions and range of alpha particles in air. Two different self developed Monte Carlo simulation techniques were employed namely: (a) Surface ratio (SURA) method and (b) Ray hitting (RAHI) method. Monte Carlo simulation experiments revealed that there are two types of efficiencies i.e. intrinsic efficiency (ηint) and alpha hit efficiency (ηhit). The ηint depends upon only on the dimensions of the dosimeter and ηhit depends both upon dimensions of the dosimeter and range of the alpha particles. The total latent track registration efficiency is the product of both intrinsic and hit efficiencies. It has been concluded that if diagonal length of box type dosimeter is kept smaller than the range of alpha particle then hit efficiency is achieved as 100%. Nevertheless the intrinsic efficiency keeps playing its role. The Monte Carlo simulation experimental results have been found helpful to understand the intricate track registration mechanisms in the box type dosimeter. This paper explains that how radon concentration from the
Monte Carlo simulation experiments on box-type radon dosimeter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jamil, Khalid, E-mail: kjamil@comsats.edu.pk; Kamran, Muhammad; Illahi, Ahsan; Manzoor, Shahid
2014-11-11
Epidemiological studies show that inhalation of radon gas ({sup 222}Rn) may be carcinogenic especially to mine workers, people living in closed indoor energy conserved environments and underground dwellers. It is, therefore, of paramount importance to measure the {sup 222}Rn concentrations (Bq/m{sup 3}) in indoors environments. For this purpose, box-type passive radon dosimeters employing ion track detector like CR-39 are widely used. Fraction of the number of radon alphas emitted in the volume of the box type dosimeter resulting in latent track formation on CR-39 is the latent track registration efficiency. Latent track registration efficiency is ultimately required to evaluate the radon concentration which consequently determines the effective dose and the radiological hazards. In this research, Monte Carlo simulation experiments were carried out to study the alpha latent track registration efficiency for box type radon dosimeter as a function of dosimeter’s dimensions and range of alpha particles in air. Two different self developed Monte Carlo simulation techniques were employed namely: (a) Surface ratio (SURA) method and (b) Ray hitting (RAHI) method. Monte Carlo simulation experiments revealed that there are two types of efficiencies i.e. intrinsic efficiency (η{sub int}) and alpha hit efficiency (η{sub hit}). The η{sub int} depends upon only on the dimensions of the dosimeter and η{sub hit} depends both upon dimensions of the dosimeter and range of the alpha particles. The total latent track registration efficiency is the product of both intrinsic and hit efficiencies. It has been concluded that if diagonal length of box type dosimeter is kept smaller than the range of alpha particle then hit efficiency is achieved as 100%. Nevertheless the intrinsic efficiency keeps playing its role. The Monte Carlo simulation experimental results have been found helpful to understand the intricate track registration mechanisms in the box type dosimeter. This paper
Monte Carlo simulation on kinetics of batch and semi-batch free radical polymerization
Shao, Jing
2015-10-27
Based on Monte Carlo simulation technology, we proposed a hybrid routine which combines reaction mechanism together with coarse-grained molecular simulation to study the kinetics of free radical polymerization. By comparing with previous experimental and simulation studies, we showed the capability of our Monte Carlo scheme on representing polymerization kinetics in batch and semi-batch processes. Various kinetics information, such as instant monomer conversion, molecular weight, and polydispersity etc. are readily calculated from Monte Carlo simulation. The kinetic constants such as polymerization rate k p is determined in the simulation without of “steady-state” hypothesis. We explored the mechanism for the variation of polymerization kinetics those observed in previous studies, as well as polymerization-induced phase separation. Our Monte Carlo simulation scheme is versatile on studying polymerization kinetics in batch and semi-batch processes.
Bouty, O.; Delaye, J. M.; Peuget, S.; Charpentier, T.
In-depth understanding of the effects of actinides in borosilicate glass matrices used for nuclear waste disposal is of great importance for nuclear spent fuel reprocessing cycle and fission products immobilization. This work carried out on ternary simplified glasses (Si, B, Na) doped respectively with 1 mol. % and 3.85 mol. % europium, presents a comprehensive study on the behaviour of trivalent europium taken as a surrogate of trivalent actinides. Neutron scattering, Wide Angle X- ray Scattering, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Raman Spectroscopy and Reverse Monte Carlo simulations were performed. For both glasses, it was found that europium coordination number was around 6 ± 0.2, revealing an octahedral spatial configuration. Europium species accommodates in both silicate and borate site distributions but preferentially in the silicate network. Europium induces a IVB/IIIB ratio decrease and a silicate network polymerization according to NMR 29Si chemical shift and Raman spectra evolution.
Monte-Carlo simulation-based statistical modeling
Chen, John
2017-01-01
This book brings together expert researchers engaged in Monte-Carlo simulation-based statistical modeling, offering them a forum to present and discuss recent issues in methodological development as well as public health applications. It is divided into three parts, with the first providing an overview of Monte-Carlo techniques, the second focusing on missing data Monte-Carlo methods, and the third addressing Bayesian and general statistical modeling using Monte-Carlo simulations. The data and computer programs used here will also be made publicly available, allowing readers to replicate the model development and data analysis presented in each chapter, and to readily apply them in their own research. Featuring highly topical content, the book has the potential to impact model development and data analyses across a wide spectrum of fields, and to spark further research in this direction.
EXTENDED MONTE CARLO LOCALIZATION ALGORITHM FOR MOBILE SENSOR NETWORKS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2008-01-01
A real-world localization system for wireless sensor networks that adapts for mobility and irregular radio propagation model is considered.The traditional range-based techniques and recent range-free localization schemes are not welt competent for localization in mobile sensor networks,while the probabilistic approach of Bayesian filtering with particle-based density representations provides a comprehensive solution to such localization problem.Monte Carlo localization is a Bayesian filtering method that approximates the mobile node’S location by a set of weighted particles.In this paper,an enhanced Monte Carlo localization algorithm-Extended Monte Carlo Localization (Ext-MCL) is suitable for the practical wireless network environment where the radio propagation model is irregular.Simulation results show the proposal gets better localization accuracy and higher localizable node number than previously proposed Monte Carlo localization schemes not only for ideal radio model,but also for irregular one.
On the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Rajeeva L Karandikar
2006-04-01
Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) is a popular method used to generate samples from arbitrary distributions, which may be speciﬁed indirectly. In this article, we give an introduction to this method along with some examples.
Bayesian phylogeny analysis via stochastic approximation Monte Carlo
Cheon, Sooyoung
2009-11-01
Monte Carlo methods have received much attention in the recent literature of phylogeny analysis. However, the conventional Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms, such as the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm, tend to get trapped in a local mode in simulating from the posterior distribution of phylogenetic trees, rendering the inference ineffective. In this paper, we apply an advanced Monte Carlo algorithm, the stochastic approximation Monte Carlo algorithm, to Bayesian phylogeny analysis. Our method is compared with two popular Bayesian phylogeny software, BAMBE and MrBayes, on simulated and real datasets. The numerical results indicate that our method outperforms BAMBE and MrBayes. Among the three methods, SAMC produces the consensus trees which have the highest similarity to the true trees, and the model parameter estimates which have the smallest mean square errors, but costs the least CPU time. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bayesian phylogeny analysis via stochastic approximation Monte Carlo.
Cheon, Sooyoung; Liang, Faming
2009-11-01
Monte Carlo methods have received much attention in the recent literature of phylogeny analysis. However, the conventional Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms, such as the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm, tend to get trapped in a local mode in simulating from the posterior distribution of phylogenetic trees, rendering the inference ineffective. In this paper, we apply an advanced Monte Carlo algorithm, the stochastic approximation Monte Carlo algorithm, to Bayesian phylogeny analysis. Our method is compared with two popular Bayesian phylogeny software, BAMBE and MrBayes, on simulated and real datasets. The numerical results indicate that our method outperforms BAMBE and MrBayes. Among the three methods, SAMC produces the consensus trees which have the highest similarity to the true trees, and the model parameter estimates which have the smallest mean square errors, but costs the least CPU time.
Monte Carlo techniques for analyzing deep penetration problems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cramer, S.N.; Gonnord, J.; Hendricks, J.S.
1985-01-01
A review of current methods and difficulties in Monte Carlo deep-penetration calculations is presented. Statistical uncertainty is discussed, and recent adjoint optimization of splitting, Russian roulette, and exponential transformation biasing is reviewed. Other aspects of the random walk and estimation processes are covered, including the relatively new DXANG angular biasing technique. Specific items summarized are albedo scattering, Monte Carlo coupling techniques with discrete ordinates and other methods, adjoint solutions, and multi-group Monte Carlo. The topic of code-generated biasing parameters is presented, including the creation of adjoint importance functions from forward calculations. Finally, current and future work in the area of computer learning and artificial intelligence is discussed in connection with Monte Carlo applications. 29 refs.
Monte Carlo simulations: Hidden errors from ``good'' random number generators
Ferrenberg, Alan M.; Landau, D. P.; Wong, Y. Joanna
1992-12-01
The Wolff algorithm is now accepted as the best cluster-flipping Monte Carlo algorithm for beating ``critical slowing down.'' We show how this method can yield incorrect answers due to subtle correlations in ``high quality'' random number generators.
An Introduction to Multilevel Monte Carlo for Option Valuation
Higham, Desmond J
2015-01-01
Monte Carlo is a simple and flexible tool that is widely used in computational finance. In this context, it is common for the quantity of interest to be the expected value of a random variable defined via a stochastic differential equation. In 2008, Giles proposed a remarkable improvement to the approach of discretizing with a numerical method and applying standard Monte Carlo. His multilevel Monte Carlo method offers an order of speed up given by the inverse of epsilon, where epsilon is the required accuracy. So computations can run 100 times more quickly when two digits of accuracy are required. The multilevel philosophy has since been adopted by a range of researchers and a wealth of practically significant results has arisen, most of which have yet to make their way into the expository literature. In this work, we give a brief, accessible, introduction to multilevel Monte Carlo and summarize recent results applicable to the task of option evaluation.
MODELING LEACHING OF VIRUSES BY THE MONTE CARLO METHOD
A predictive screening model was developed for fate and transport of viruses in the unsaturated zone. A database of input parameters allowed Monte Carlo analysis with the model. The resulting kernel densities of predicted attenuation during percolation indicated very ...
A MONTE-CARLO METHOD FOR ESTIMATING THE CORRELATION EXPONENT
MIKOSCH, T; WANG, QA
1995-01-01
We propose a Monte Carlo method for estimating the correlation exponent of a stationary ergodic sequence. The estimator can be considered as a bootstrap version of the classical Hill estimator. A simulation study shows that the method yields reasonable estimates.
Using Supervised Learning to Improve Monte Carlo Integral Estimation
Tracey, Brendan; Alonso, Juan J
2011-01-01
Monte Carlo (MC) techniques are often used to estimate integrals of a multivariate function using randomly generated samples of the function. In light of the increasing interest in uncertainty quantification and robust design applications in aerospace engineering, the calculation of expected values of such functions (e.g. performance measures) becomes important. However, MC techniques often suffer from high variance and slow convergence as the number of samples increases. In this paper we present Stacked Monte Carlo (StackMC), a new method for post-processing an existing set of MC samples to improve the associated integral estimate. StackMC is based on the supervised learning techniques of fitting functions and cross validation. It should reduce the variance of any type of Monte Carlo integral estimate (simple sampling, importance sampling, quasi-Monte Carlo, MCMC, etc.) without adding bias. We report on an extensive set of experiments confirming that the StackMC estimate of an integral is more accurate than ...
A MONTE-CARLO METHOD FOR ESTIMATING THE CORRELATION EXPONENT
MIKOSCH, T; WANG, QA
We propose a Monte Carlo method for estimating the correlation exponent of a stationary ergodic sequence. The estimator can be considered as a bootstrap version of the classical Hill estimator. A simulation study shows that the method yields reasonable estimates.
Accelerating Monte Carlo Renderers by Ray Histogram Fusion
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mauricio Delbracio
2015-03-01
Full Text Available This paper details the recently introduced Ray Histogram Fusion (RHF filter for accelerating Monte Carlo renderers [M. Delbracio et al., Boosting Monte Carlo Rendering by Ray Histogram Fusion, ACM Transactions on Graphics, 33 (2014]. In this filter, each pixel in the image is characterized by the colors of the rays that reach its surface. Pixels are compared using a statistical distance on the associated ray color distributions. Based on this distance, it decides whether two pixels can share their rays or not. The RHF filter is consistent: as the number of samples increases, more evidence is required to average two pixels. The algorithm provides a significant gain in PSNR, or equivalently accelerates the rendering process by using many fewer Monte Carlo samples without observable bias. Since the RHF filter depends only on the Monte Carlo samples color values, it can be naturally combined with all rendering effects.
Monte Carlo methods and applications in nuclear physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carlson, J.
1990-01-01
Monte Carlo methods for studying few- and many-body quantum systems are introduced, with special emphasis given to their applications in nuclear physics. Variational and Green's function Monte Carlo methods are presented in some detail. The status of calculations of light nuclei is reviewed, including discussions of the three-nucleon-interaction, charge and magnetic form factors, the coulomb sum rule, and studies of low-energy radiative transitions. 58 refs., 12 figs.
Public Infrastructure for Monte Carlo Simulation: publicMC@BATAN
Waskita, A A; Akbar, Z; Handoko, L T; 10.1063/1.3462759
2010-01-01
The first cluster-based public computing for Monte Carlo simulation in Indonesia is introduced. The system has been developed to enable public to perform Monte Carlo simulation on a parallel computer through an integrated and user friendly dynamic web interface. The beta version, so called publicMC@BATAN, has been released and implemented for internal users at the National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN). In this paper the concept and architecture of publicMC@BATAN are presented.
Radiative Equilibrium and Temperature Correction in Monte Carlo Radiation Transfer
Bjorkman, J. E.; Wood, Kenneth
2001-01-01
We describe a general radiative equilibrium and temperature correction procedure for use in Monte Carlo radiation transfer codes with sources of temperature-independent opacity, such as astrophysical dust. The technique utilizes the fact that Monte Carlo simulations track individual photon packets, so we may easily determine where their energy is absorbed. When a packet is absorbed, it heats a particular cell within the envelope, raising its temperature. To enforce radiative equilibrium, the ...
Chemical accuracy from quantum Monte Carlo for the Benzene Dimer
Azadi, Sam; Cohen, R. E
2015-01-01
We report an accurate study of interactions between Benzene molecules using variational quantum Monte Carlo (VMC) and diffusion quantum Monte Carlo (DMC) methods. We compare these results with density functional theory (DFT) using different van der Waals (vdW) functionals. In our QMC calculations, we use accurate correlated trial wave functions including three-body Jastrow factors, and backflow transformations. We consider two benzene molecules in the parallel displaced (PD) geometry, and fin...
de Finetti Priors using Markov chain Monte Carlo computations.
Bacallado, Sergio; Diaconis, Persi; Holmes, Susan
2015-07-01
Recent advances in Monte Carlo methods allow us to revisit work by de Finetti who suggested the use of approximate exchangeability in the analyses of contingency tables. This paper gives examples of computational implementations using Metropolis Hastings, Langevin and Hamiltonian Monte Carlo to compute posterior distributions for test statistics relevant for testing independence, reversible or three way models for discrete exponential families using polynomial priors and Gröbner bases.
Event-chain Monte Carlo for classical continuous spin models
Michel, Manon; Mayer, Johannes; Krauth, Werner
2015-10-01
We apply the event-chain Monte Carlo algorithm to classical continuum spin models on a lattice and clarify the condition for its validity. In the two-dimensional XY model, it outperforms the local Monte Carlo algorithm by two orders of magnitude, although it remains slower than the Wolff cluster algorithm. In the three-dimensional XY spin glass model at low temperature, the event-chain algorithm is far superior to the other algorithms.
Confidence and efficiency scaling in Variational Quantum Monte Carlo calculations
Delyon, François; Holzmann, Markus
2016-01-01
Based on the central limit theorem, we discuss the problem of evaluation of the statistical error of Monte Carlo calculations using a time discretized diffusion process. We present a robust and practical method to determine the effective variance of general observables and show how to verify the equilibrium hypothesis by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. We then derive scaling laws of the efficiency illustrated by Variational Monte Carlo calculations on the two dimensional electron gas.
Study of the Transition Flow Regime using Monte Carlo Methods
Hassan, H. A.
1999-01-01
This NASA Cooperative Agreement presents a study of the Transition Flow Regime Using Monte Carlo Methods. The topics included in this final report are: 1) New Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) procedures; 2) The DS3W and DS2A Programs; 3) Papers presented; 4) Miscellaneous Applications and Program Modifications; 5) Solution of Transitional Wake Flows at Mach 10; and 6) Turbulence Modeling of Shock-Dominated Fows with a k-Enstrophy Formulation.
Monte Carlo Simulation of Optical Properties of Wake Bubbles
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CAO Jing; WANG Jiang-An; JIANG Xing-Zhou; SHI Sheng-Wei
2007-01-01
Based on Mie scattering theory and the theory of multiple light scattering, the light scattering properties of air bubbles in a wake are analysed by Monte Carlo simulation. The results show that backscattering is enhanced obviously due to the existence of bubbles, especially with the increase of bubble density, and that it is feasible to use the Monte Carlo method to study the properties of light scattering by air bubbles.
Successful combination of the stochastic linearization and Monte Carlo methods
Elishakoff, I.; Colombi, P.
1993-01-01
A combination of a stochastic linearization and Monte Carlo techniques is presented for the first time in literature. A system with separable nonlinear damping and nonlinear restoring force is considered. The proposed combination of the energy-wise linearization with the Monte Carlo method yields an error under 5 percent, which corresponds to the error reduction associated with the conventional stochastic linearization by a factor of 4.6.
Confidence and efficiency scaling in variational quantum Monte Carlo calculations
Delyon, F.; Bernu, B.; Holzmann, Markus
2017-02-01
Based on the central limit theorem, we discuss the problem of evaluation of the statistical error of Monte Carlo calculations using a time-discretized diffusion process. We present a robust and practical method to determine the effective variance of general observables and show how to verify the equilibrium hypothesis by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. We then derive scaling laws of the efficiency illustrated by variational Monte Carlo calculations on the two-dimensional electron gas.
Monte Carlo methods for light propagation in biological tissues
Vinckenbosch, Laura; Lacaux, Céline; Tindel, Samy; Thomassin, Magalie; Obara, Tiphaine
2016-01-01
Light propagation in turbid media is driven by the equation of radiative transfer. We give a formal probabilistic representation of its solution in the framework of biological tissues and we implement algorithms based on Monte Carlo methods in order to estimate the quantity of light that is received by a homogeneous tissue when emitted by an optic fiber. A variance reduction method is studied and implemented, as well as a Markov chain Monte Carlo method based on the Metropolis–Hastings algori...
Multiscale Monte Carlo equilibration: pure Yang-Mills theory
Endres, Michael G; Detmold, William; Orginos, Kostas; Pochinsky, Andrew V
2015-01-01
We present a multiscale thermalization algorithm for lattice gauge theory, which enables efficient parallel generation of uncorrelated gauge field configurations. The algorithm combines standard Monte Carlo techniques with ideas drawn from real space renormalization group and multigrid methods. We demonstrate the viability of the algorithm for pure Yang-Mills gauge theory for both heat bath and hybrid Monte Carlo evolution, and show that it ameliorates the problem of topological freezing up to controllable lattice spacing artifacts.
Geometrical and Monte Carlo projectors in 3D PET reconstruction
Aguiar, Pablo; Rafecas López, Magdalena; Ortuno, Juan Enrique; Kontaxakis, George; Santos, Andrés; Pavía, Javier; Ros, Domènec
2010-01-01
Purpose: In the present work, the authors compare geometrical and Monte Carlo projectors in detail. The geometrical projectors considered were the conventional geometrical Siddon ray-tracer (S-RT) and the orthogonal distance-based ray-tracer (OD-RT), based on computing the orthogonal distance from the center of image voxel to the line-of-response. A comparison of these geometrical projectors was performed using different point spread function (PSF) models. The Monte Carlo-based method under c...
Monte Carlo method for solving a parabolic problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tian Yi
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we present a numerical method based on random sampling for a parabolic problem. This method combines use of the Crank-Nicolson method and Monte Carlo method. In the numerical algorithm, we first discretize governing equations by Crank-Nicolson method, and obtain a large sparse system of linear algebraic equations, then use Monte Carlo method to solve the linear algebraic equations. To illustrate the usefulness of this technique, we apply it to some test problems.
MONTE CARLO SIMULATION OF CHARGED PARTICLE IN AN ELECTRONEGATIVE PLASMA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L SETTAOUTI
2003-12-01
Full Text Available Interest in radio frequency (rf discharges has grown tremendously in recent years due to their importance in microelectronic technologies. Especially interesting are the properties of discharges in electronegative gases which are most frequently used for technological applications. Monte Carlo simulation have become increasingly important as a simulation tool particularly in the area of plasma physics. In this work, we present some detailed properties of rf plasmas obtained by Monte Carlo simulation code, in SF6
Application of Monte Carlo methods in tomotherapy and radiation biophysics
Hsiao, Ya-Yun
Helical tomotherapy is an attractive treatment for cancer therapy because highly conformal dose distributions can be achieved while the on-board megavoltage CT provides simultaneous images for accurate patient positioning. The convolution/superposition (C/S) dose calculation methods typically used for Tomotherapy treatment planning may overestimate skin (superficial) doses by 3-13%. Although more accurate than C/S methods, Monte Carlo (MC) simulations are too slow for routine clinical treatment planning. However, the computational requirements of MC can be reduced by developing a source model for the parts of the accelerator that do not change from patient to patient. This source model then becomes the starting point for additional simulations of the penetration of radiation through patient. In the first section of this dissertation, a source model for a helical tomotherapy is constructed by condensing information from MC simulations into series of analytical formulas. The MC calculated percentage depth dose and beam profiles computed using the source model agree within 2% of measurements for a wide range of field sizes, which suggests that the proposed source model provides an adequate representation of the tomotherapy head for dose calculations. Monte Carlo methods are a versatile technique for simulating many physical, chemical and biological processes. In the second major of this thesis, a new methodology is developed to simulate of the induction of DNA damage by low-energy photons. First, the PENELOPE Monte Carlo radiation transport code is used to estimate the spectrum of initial electrons produced by photons. The initial spectrum of electrons are then combined with DNA damage yields for monoenergetic electrons from the fast Monte Carlo damage simulation (MCDS) developed earlier by Semenenko and Stewart (Purdue University). Single- and double-strand break yields predicted by the proposed methodology are in good agreement (1%) with the results of published
Monte Carlo Volcano Seismic Moment Tensors
Waite, G. P.; Brill, K. A.; Lanza, F.
2015-12-01
Inverse modeling of volcano seismic sources can provide insight into the geometry and dynamics of volcanic conduits. But given the logistical challenges of working on an active volcano, seismic networks are typically deficient in spatial and temporal coverage; this potentially leads to large errors in source models. In addition, uncertainties in the centroid location and moment-tensor components, including volumetric components, are difficult to constrain from the linear inversion results, which leads to a poor understanding of the model space. In this study, we employ a nonlinear inversion using a Monte Carlo scheme with the objective of defining robustly resolved elements of model space. The model space is randomized by centroid location and moment tensor eigenvectors. Point sources densely sample the summit area and moment tensors are constrained to a randomly chosen geometry within the inversion; Green's functions for the random moment tensors are all calculated from modeled single forces, making the nonlinear inversion computationally reasonable. We apply this method to very-long-period (VLP) seismic events that accompany minor eruptions at Fuego volcano, Guatemala. The library of single force Green's functions is computed with a 3D finite-difference modeling algorithm through a homogeneous velocity-density model that includes topography, for a 3D grid of nodes, spaced 40 m apart, within the summit region. The homogenous velocity and density model is justified by long wavelength of VLP data. The nonlinear inversion reveals well resolved model features and informs the interpretation through a better understanding of the possible models. This approach can also be used to evaluate possible station geometries in order to optimize networks prior to deployment.
Quantum Monte Carlo with directed loops.
Syljuåsen, Olav F; Sandvik, Anders W
2002-10-01
We introduce the concept of directed loops in stochastic series expansion and path-integral quantum Monte Carlo methods. Using the detailed balance rules for directed loops, we show that it is possible to smoothly connect generally applicable simulation schemes (in which it is necessary to include backtracking processes in the loop construction) to more restricted loop algorithms that can be constructed only for a limited range of Hamiltonians (where backtracking can be avoided). The "algorithmic discontinuities" between general and special points (or regions) in parameter space can hence be eliminated. As a specific example, we consider the anisotropic S=1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet in an external magnetic field. We show that directed-loop simulations are very efficient for the full range of magnetic fields (zero to the saturation point) and anisotropies. In particular, for weak fields and anisotropies, the autocorrelations are significantly reduced relative to those of previous approaches. The back-tracking probability vanishes continuously as the isotropic Heisenberg point is approached. For the XY model, we show that back tracking can be avoided for all fields extending up to the saturation field. The method is hence particularly efficient in this case. We use directed-loop simulations to study the magnetization process in the two-dimensional Heisenberg model at very low temperatures. For LxL lattices with L up to 64, we utilize the step structure in the magnetization curve to extract gaps between different spin sectors. Finite-size scaling of the gaps gives an accurate estimate of the transverse susceptibility in the thermodynamic limit: chi( perpendicular )=0.0659+/-0.0002.
Monte Carlo implementation of polarized hadronization
Matevosyan, Hrayr H.; Kotzinian, Aram; Thomas, Anthony W.
2017-01-01
We study the polarized quark hadronization in a Monte Carlo (MC) framework based on the recent extension of the quark-jet framework, where a self-consistent treatment of the quark polarization transfer in a sequential hadronization picture has been presented. Here, we first adopt this approach for MC simulations of the hadronization process with a finite number of produced hadrons, expressing the relevant probabilities in terms of the eight leading twist quark-to-quark transverse-momentum-dependent (TMD) splitting functions (SFs) for elementary q →q'+h transition. We present explicit expressions for the unpolarized and Collins fragmentation functions (FFs) of unpolarized hadrons emitted at rank 2. Further, we demonstrate that all the current spectator-type model calculations of the leading twist quark-to-quark TMD SFs violate the positivity constraints, and we propose a quark model based ansatz for these input functions that circumvents the problem. We validate our MC framework by explicitly proving the absence of unphysical azimuthal modulations of the computed polarized FFs, and by precisely reproducing the earlier derived explicit results for rank-2 pions. Finally, we present the full results for pion unpolarized and Collins FFs, as well as the corresponding analyzing powers from high statistics MC simulations with a large number of produced hadrons for two different model input elementary SFs. The results for both sets of input functions exhibit the same general features of an opposite signed Collins function for favored and unfavored channels at large z and, at the same time, demonstrate the flexibility of the quark-jet framework by producing significantly different dependences of the results at mid to low z for the two model inputs.
kmos: A lattice kinetic Monte Carlo framework
Hoffmann, Max J.; Matera, Sebastian; Reuter, Karsten
2014-07-01
Kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) simulations have emerged as a key tool for microkinetic modeling in heterogeneous catalysis and other materials applications. Systems, where site-specificity of all elementary reactions allows a mapping onto a lattice of discrete active sites, can be addressed within the particularly efficient lattice kMC approach. To this end we describe the versatile kmos software package, which offers a most user-friendly implementation, execution, and evaluation of lattice kMC models of arbitrary complexity in one- to three-dimensional lattice systems, involving multiple active sites in periodic or aperiodic arrangements, as well as site-resolved pairwise and higher-order lateral interactions. Conceptually, kmos achieves a maximum runtime performance which is essentially independent of lattice size by generating code for the efficiency-determining local update of available events that is optimized for a defined kMC model. For this model definition and the control of all runtime and evaluation aspects kmos offers a high-level application programming interface. Usage proceeds interactively, via scripts, or a graphical user interface, which visualizes the model geometry, the lattice occupations and rates of selected elementary reactions, while allowing on-the-fly changes of simulation parameters. We demonstrate the performance and scaling of kmos with the application to kMC models for surface catalytic processes, where for given operation conditions (temperature and partial pressures of all reactants) central simulation outcomes are catalytic activity and selectivities, surface composition, and mechanistic insight into the occurrence of individual elementary processes in the reaction network.
Perturbation Monte Carlo methods for tissue structure alterations.
Nguyen, Jennifer; Hayakawa, Carole K; Mourant, Judith R; Spanier, Jerome
2013-01-01
This paper describes an extension of the perturbation Monte Carlo method to model light transport when the phase function is arbitrarily perturbed. Current perturbation Monte Carlo methods allow perturbation of both the scattering and absorption coefficients, however, the phase function can not be varied. The more complex method we develop and test here is not limited in this way. We derive a rigorous perturbation Monte Carlo extension that can be applied to a large family of important biomedical light transport problems and demonstrate its greater computational efficiency compared with using conventional Monte Carlo simulations to produce forward transport problem solutions. The gains of the perturbation method occur because only a single baseline Monte Carlo simulation is needed to obtain forward solutions to other closely related problems whose input is described by perturbing one or more parameters from the input of the baseline problem. The new perturbation Monte Carlo methods are tested using tissue light scattering parameters relevant to epithelia where many tumors originate. The tissue model has parameters for the number density and average size of three classes of scatterers; whole nuclei, organelles such as lysosomes and mitochondria, and small particles such as ribosomes or large protein complexes. When these parameters or the wavelength is varied the scattering coefficient and the phase function vary. Perturbation calculations give accurate results over variations of ∼15-25% of the scattering parameters.
A Survey on Multilevel Monte Carlo for European Options
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Masoud Moharamnejad
2016-03-01
Full Text Available One of the most applicable and common methods for pricing options is the Monte Carlo simulation. Among the advantages of this method we can name ease of use, being suitable for different types of options including vanilla options and exotic options. On one hand, convergence rate of Monte Carlo's variance is , which has a slow convergence in responding problems, such that for achieving accuracy of ε for a d dimensional problem, computation complexity would be . Thus, various methods have been proposed in Monte Carlo framework to increase the convergence rate of variance as variance reduction methods. One of the recent methods was proposed by Gills in 2006, is the multilevel Monte Carlo method. This method besides reducing the computationcomplexity to while being used in Euler discretizing and to while being used in Milsteindiscretizing method, has the capacity to be combined with other variance reduction methods. In this article, multilevel Monte Carlo using Euler and Milsteindiscretizing methods is adopted for comparing computation complexity with standard Monte Carlo method in pricing European call options.
Implications of Monte Carlo Statistical Errors in Criticality Safety Assessments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pevey, Ronald E.
2005-09-15
Most criticality safety calculations are performed using Monte Carlo techniques because of Monte Carlo's ability to handle complex three-dimensional geometries. For Monte Carlo calculations, the more histories sampled, the lower the standard deviation of the resulting estimates. The common intuition is, therefore, that the more histories, the better; as a result, analysts tend to run Monte Carlo analyses as long as possible (or at least to a minimum acceptable uncertainty). For Monte Carlo criticality safety analyses, however, the optimization situation is complicated by the fact that procedures usually require that an extra margin of safety be added because of the statistical uncertainty of the Monte Carlo calculations. This additional safety margin affects the impact of the choice of the calculational standard deviation, both on production and on safety. This paper shows that, under the assumptions of normally distributed benchmarking calculational errors and exact compliance with the upper subcritical limit (USL), the standard deviation that optimizes production is zero, but there is a non-zero value of the calculational standard deviation that minimizes the risk of inadvertently labeling a supercritical configuration as subcritical. Furthermore, this value is shown to be a simple function of the typical benchmarking step outcomes--the bias, the standard deviation of the bias, the upper subcritical limit, and the number of standard deviations added to calculated k-effectives before comparison to the USL.
Monte Carlo simulation of zinc protoporphyrin fluorescence in the retina
Chen, Xiaoyan; Lane, Stephen
2010-02-01
We have used Monte Carlo simulation of autofluorescence in the retina to determine that noninvasive detection of nutritional iron deficiency is possible. Nutritional iron deficiency (which leads to iron deficiency anemia) affects more than 2 billion people worldwide, and there is an urgent need for a simple, noninvasive diagnostic test. Zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) is a fluorescent compound that accumulates in red blood cells and is used as a biomarker for nutritional iron deficiency. We developed a computational model of the eye, using parameters that were identified either by literature search, or by direct experimental measurement to test the possibility of detecting ZPP non-invasively in retina. By incorporating fluorescence into Steven Jacques' original code for multi-layered tissue, we performed Monte Carlo simulation of fluorescence in the retina and determined that if the beam is not focused on a blood vessel in a neural retina layer or if part of light is hitting the vessel, ZPP fluorescence will be 10-200 times higher than background lipofuscin fluorescence coming from the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) layer directly below. In addition we found that if the light can be focused entirely onto a blood vessel in the neural retina layer, the fluorescence signal comes only from ZPP. The fluorescence from layers below in this second situation does not contribute to the signal. Therefore, the possibility that a device could potentially be built and detect ZPP fluorescence in retina looks very promising.
Optimization of Monte Carlo dose calculations: The interface problem
Soudentas, Edward
1998-05-01
High energy photon beams are widely used for radiation treatment of deep-seated tumors. The human body contains many types of interfaces between dissimilar materials that affect dose distribution in radiation therapy. Experimentally, significant radiation dose perturbations has been observed at such interfaces. The EGS4 Monte Carlo code was used to calculate dose perturbations at boundaries between dissimilar materials (such as bone/water) for 60Co and 6 MeV linear accelerator beams using a UNIX workstation. A simple test of the reliability of a random number generator was also developed. A systematic study of the adjustable parameters in EGS4 was performed in order to minimize calculational artifacts at boundaries. Calculations of dose perturbations at boundaries between different materials showed that there is a 12% increase in dose at water/bone interface, and a 44% increase in dose at water/copper interface. with the increase mainly due to electrons produced in water and backscattered from the high atomic number material. The dependence of the dose increase on the atomic number was also investigated. The clinically important case of using two parallel opposed beams for radiation therapy was investigated where increased doses at boundaries has been observed. The Monte Carlo calculations can provide accurate dosimetry data under conditions of electronic non-equilibrium at tissue interfaces.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Courtine, Fabien [Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, Universite Blaise Pascal - CNRS/IN2P3, 63000 Aubiere Cedex (France)
2007-03-15
The thesis proceeded in the context of dating by thermoluminescence. This method requires laboratory measurements of the natural radioactivity. For that purpose, we have been using a germanium spectrometer. To refine the calibration of this one, we modelled it by using a Monte-Carlo computer code: Geant4. We developed a geometrical model which takes into account the presence of inactive zones and zones of poor charge-collection within the germanium crystal. The parameters of the model were adjusted by comparison with experimental results obtained with a source of {sup 137}Cs. It appeared that the form of the inactive zones is less simple than is presented in the specialized literature. This model was widened to the case of a more complex source, with cascade effect and angular correlations between photons: the {sup 60}Co. Lastly, applied to extended sources, it gave correct results and allowed us to validate the simulation of matrix effect. (author)
Evidence for Stable Square Ice from Quantum Monte Carlo
Chen, Ji; Brandenburg, Jan Gerit; Alfè, Dario; Michaelides, Angelos
2016-01-01
Recent experiments on ice formed by water under nanoconfinement provide evidence for a two-dimensional (2D) `square ice' phase. However, the interpretation of the experiments has been questioned and the stability of square ice has become a matter of debate. Partially this is because the simulation approaches employed so far (force fields and density functional theory) struggle to accurately describe the very small energy differences between the relevant phases. Here we report a study of 2D ice using an accurate wave-function based electronic structure approach, namely Diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC). We find that at relatively high pressure square ice is indeed the lowest enthalpy phase examined, supporting the initial experimental claim. Moreover, at lower pressures a `pentagonal ice' phase (not yet observed experimentally) has the lowest enthalpy, and at ambient pressure the `pentagonal ice' phase is degenerate with a `hexagonal ice' phase. Our DMC results also allow us to evaluate the accuracy of various densi...
Monte Carlo simulations for design of the KFUPM PGNAA facility
Naqvi, A A; Maslehuddin, M; Kidwai, S
2003-01-01
Monte Carlo simulations were carried out to design a 2.8 MeV neutron-based prompt gamma ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) setup for elemental analysis of cement samples. The elemental analysis was carried out using prompt gamma rays produced through capture of thermal neutrons in sample nuclei. The basic design of the PGNAA setup consists of a cylindrical cement sample enclosed in a cylindrical high-density polyethylene moderator placed between a neutron source and a gamma ray detector. In these simulations the predominant geometrical parameters of the PGNAA setup were optimized, including moderator size, sample size and shielding of the detector. Using the results of the simulations, an experimental PGNAA setup was then fabricated at the 350 kV Accelerator Laboratory of this University. The design calculations were checked experimentally through thermal neutron flux measurements inside the PGNAA moderator. A test prompt gamma ray spectrum of the PGNAA setup was also acquired from a Portland cement samp...
Kinetic Monte Carlo modelling of neutron irradiation damage in iron
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gamez, L. [Instituto de Fusion Nuclear, UPM, Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, ETSII, UPM, Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: linarejos.gamez@upm.es; Martinez, E. [Instituto de Fusion Nuclear, UPM, Madrid (Spain); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, LLNL, CA 94550 (United States); Perlado, J.M.; Cepas, P. [Instituto de Fusion Nuclear, UPM, Madrid (Spain); Caturla, M.J. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Alicante, Alicante (Spain); Victoria, M. [Instituto de Fusion Nuclear, UPM, Madrid (Spain); Marian, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, LLNL, CA 94550 (United States); Arevalo, C. [Instituto de Fusion Nuclear, UPM, Madrid (Spain); Hernandez, M.; Gomez, D. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)
2007-10-15
Ferritic steels (FeCr based alloys) are key materials needed to fulfill the requirements expected in future nuclear fusion facilities, both for magnetic and inertial confinement, and advanced fission reactors (GIV) and transmutation systems. Research in such field is actually a critical aspect in the European research program and abroad. Experimental and multiscale simulation methodologies are going hand by hand in increasing the knowledge of materials performance. At DENIM, it is progressing in some specific part of the well-linked simulation methodology both for defects energetics and diffusion, and for dislocation dynamics. In this study, results obtained from kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of neutron irradiated Fe under different conditions are presented, using modified ad hoc parameters. A significant agreement with experimental measurements has been found for some of the parameterization and mechanisms considered. The results of these simulations are discussed and compared with previous calculations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fayos Ferrer, F.; Antolin Sanmartin, E.; Simon de Blas, R.; Palazon Cano, I.; Bertomeu Padin, T.; Gutierrez Sarraga, J.; Rey Portoles, G.
2011-07-01
This paper is subjected to various tests including Monte Carlo dosimetric the code in the latest versions of Multi plan Accuracy planner. They compare their results and Ray-Tracing Algorithm (RT), present from the earliest versions, with the experimental results obtained by photographic dosimetry and ionization chamber measurements.
Monte Carlo systems used for treatment planning and dose verification
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brualla, Lorenzo [Universitaetsklinikum Essen, NCTeam, Strahlenklinik, Essen (Germany); Rodriguez, Miguel [Centro Medico Paitilla, Balboa (Panama); Lallena, Antonio M. [Universidad de Granada, Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Granada (Spain)
2017-04-15
General-purpose radiation transport Monte Carlo codes have been used for estimation of the absorbed dose distribution in external photon and electron beam radiotherapy patients since several decades. Results obtained with these codes are usually more accurate than those provided by treatment planning systems based on non-stochastic methods. Traditionally, absorbed dose computations based on general-purpose Monte Carlo codes have been used only for research, owing to the difficulties associated with setting up a simulation and the long computation time required. To take advantage of radiation transport Monte Carlo codes applied to routine clinical practice, researchers and private companies have developed treatment planning and dose verification systems that are partly or fully based on fast Monte Carlo algorithms. This review presents a comprehensive list of the currently existing Monte Carlo systems that can be used to calculate or verify an external photon and electron beam radiotherapy treatment plan. Particular attention is given to those systems that are distributed, either freely or commercially, and that do not require programming tasks from the end user. These systems are compared in terms of features and the simulation time required to compute a set of benchmark calculations. (orig.) [German] Seit mehreren Jahrzehnten werden allgemein anwendbare Monte-Carlo-Codes zur Simulation des Strahlungstransports benutzt, um die Verteilung der absorbierten Dosis in der perkutanen Strahlentherapie mit Photonen und Elektronen zu evaluieren. Die damit erzielten Ergebnisse sind meist akkurater als solche, die mit nichtstochastischen Methoden herkoemmlicher Bestrahlungsplanungssysteme erzielt werden koennen. Wegen des damit verbundenen Arbeitsaufwands und der langen Dauer der Berechnungen wurden Monte-Carlo-Simulationen von Dosisverteilungen in der konventionellen Strahlentherapie in der Vergangenheit im Wesentlichen in der Forschung eingesetzt. Im Bemuehen, Monte-Carlo
Monte Carlo Techniques for Nuclear Systems - Theory Lectures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brown, Forrest B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Monte Carlo Methods, Codes, and Applications Group; Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Nuclear Engineering Dept.
2016-11-29
These are lecture notes for a Monte Carlo class given at the University of New Mexico. The following topics are covered: course information; nuclear eng. review & MC; random numbers and sampling; computational geometry; collision physics; tallies and statistics; eigenvalue calculations I; eigenvalue calculations II; eigenvalue calculations III; variance reduction; parallel Monte Carlo; parameter studies; fission matrix and higher eigenmodes; doppler broadening; Monte Carlo depletion; HTGR modeling; coupled MC and T/H calculations; fission energy deposition. Solving particle transport problems with the Monte Carlo method is simple - just simulate the particle behavior. The devil is in the details, however. These lectures provide a balanced approach to the theory and practice of Monte Carlo simulation codes. The first lectures provide an overview of Monte Carlo simulation methods, covering the transport equation, random sampling, computational geometry, collision physics, and statistics. The next lectures focus on the state-of-the-art in Monte Carlo criticality simulations, covering the theory of eigenvalue calculations, convergence analysis, dominance ratio calculations, bias in Keff and tallies, bias in uncertainties, a case study of a realistic calculation, and Wielandt acceleration techniques. The remaining lectures cover advanced topics, including HTGR modeling and stochastic geometry, temperature dependence, fission energy deposition, depletion calculations, parallel calculations, and parameter studies. This portion of the class focuses on using MCNP to perform criticality calculations for reactor physics and criticality safety applications. It is an intermediate level class, intended for those with at least some familiarity with MCNP. Class examples provide hands-on experience at running the code, plotting both geometry and results, and understanding the code output. The class includes lectures & hands-on computer use for a variety of Monte Carlo calculations
SIMIND Monte Carlo simulation of a single photon emission CT
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bahreyni Toossi M
2010-01-01
Full Text Available In this study, we simulated a Siemens E.CAM SPECT system using SIMIND Monte Carlo program to acquire its experimental characterization in terms of energy resolution, sensitivity, spatial resolution and imaging of phantoms using 99m Tc. The experimental and simulation data for SPECT imaging was acquired from a point source and Jaszczak phantom . Verification of the simulation was done by comparing two sets of images and related data obtained from the actual and simulated systems. Image quality was assessed by comparing image contrast and resolution. Simulated and measured energy spectra (with or without a collimator and spatial resolution from point sources in air were compared. The resulted energy spectra present similar peaks for the gamma energy of 99m Tc at 140 KeV. FWHM for the simulation calculated to14.01 KeV and 13.80 KeV for experimental data, corresponding to energy resolution of 10.01and 9.86% compared to defined 9.9% for both systems, respectively. Sensitivities of the real and virtual gamma cameras were calculated to 85.11 and 85.39 cps/MBq, respectively. The energy spectra of both simulated and real gamma cameras were matched. Images obtained from Jaszczak phantom, experimentally and by simulation, showed similarity in contrast and resolution. SIMIND Monte Carlo could successfully simulate the Siemens E.CAM gamma camera. The results validate the use of the simulated system for further investigation, including modification, planning, and developing a SPECT system to improve the quality of images.
Reducing quasi-ergodicity in a double well potential by Tsallis Monte Carlo simulation
Iwamatsu, Masao; Okabe, Yutaka
2000-01-01
A new Monte Carlo scheme based on the system of Tsallis's generalized statistical mechanics is applied to a simple double well potential to calculate the canonical thermal average of potential energy. Although we observed serious quasi-ergodicity when using the standard Metropolis Monte Carlo algorithm, this problem is largely reduced by the use of the new Monte Carlo algorithm. Therefore the ergodicity is guaranteed even for short Monte Carlo steps if we use this new canonical Monte Carlo sc...
Finding organic vapors - a Monte Carlo approach
Vuollekoski, Henri; Boy, Michael; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Kulmala, Markku
2010-05-01
drawbacks in accuracy, the inability to find diurnal variation and the lack of size resolution. Here, we aim to shed some light onto the problem by applying an ad hoc Monte Carlo algorithm to a well established aerosol dynamical model, the University of Helsinki Multicomponent Aerosol model (UHMA). By performing a side-by-side comparison with measurement data within the algorithm, this approach has the significant advantage of decreasing the amount of manual labor. But more importantly, by basing the comparison on particle number size distribution data - a quantity that can be quite reliably measured - the accuracy of the results is good.
Coherent Scattering Imaging Monte Carlo Simulation
Hassan, Laila Abdulgalil Rafik
Conventional mammography has poor contrast between healthy and cancerous tissues due to the small difference in attenuation properties. Coherent scatter potentially provides more information because interference of coherently scattered radiation depends on the average intermolecular spacing, and can be used to characterize tissue types. However, typical coherent scatter analysis techniques are not compatible with rapid low dose screening techniques. Coherent scatter slot scan imaging is a novel imaging technique which provides new information with higher contrast. In this work a simulation of coherent scatter was performed for slot scan imaging to assess its performance and provide system optimization. In coherent scatter imaging, the coherent scatter is exploited using a conventional slot scan mammography system with anti-scatter grids tilted at the characteristic angle of cancerous tissues. A Monte Carlo simulation was used to simulate the coherent scatter imaging. System optimization was performed across several parameters, including source voltage, tilt angle, grid distances, grid ratio, and shielding geometry. The contrast increased as the grid tilt angle increased beyond the characteristic angle for the modeled carcinoma. A grid tilt angle of 16 degrees yielded the highest contrast and signal to noise ratio (SNR). Also, contrast increased as the source voltage increased. Increasing grid ratio improved contrast at the expense of decreasing SNR. A grid ratio of 10:1 was sufficient to give a good contrast without reducing the intensity to a noise level. The optimal source to sample distance was determined to be such that the source should be located at the focal distance of the grid. A carcinoma lump of 0.5x0.5x0.5 cm3 in size was detectable which is reasonable considering the high noise due to the usage of relatively small number of incident photons for computational reasons. A further study is needed to study the effect of breast density and breast thickness
Molinelli, S.; Mairani, A.; Mirandola, A.; Vilches Freixas, G.; Tessonnier, T.; Giordanengo, S.; Parodi, K.; Ciocca, M.; Orecchia, R.
2013-06-01
During one year of clinical activity at the Italian National Center for Oncological Hadron Therapy 31 patients were treated with actively scanned proton beams. Results of patient-specific quality assurance procedures are presented here which assess the accuracy of a three-dimensional dose verification technique with the simultaneous use of multiple small-volume ionization chambers. To investigate critical cases of major deviations between treatment planning system (TPS) calculated and measured data points, a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation tool was implemented for plan verification in water. Starting from MC results, the impact of dose calculation, dose delivery and measurement set-up uncertainties on plan verification results was analyzed. All resulting patient-specific quality checks were within the acceptance threshold, which was set at 5% for both mean deviation between measured and calculated doses and standard deviation. The mean deviation between TPS dose calculation and measurement was less than ±3% in 86% of the cases. When all three sources of uncertainty were accounted for, simulated data sets showed a high level of agreement, with mean and maximum absolute deviation lower than 2.5% and 5%, respectively.
Deficiency in Monte Carlo simulations of coupled neutron-gamma-ray fields
Maleka, Peane P.; Maucec, Marko; de Meijer, Robert J.
2011-01-01
The deficiency in Monte Carlo simulations of coupled neutron-gamma-ray field was investigated by benchmarking two simulation codes with experimental data. Simulations showed better correspondence with the experimental data for gamma-ray transport only. In simulations, the neutron interactions with m
Optical monitoring of rheumatoid arthritis: Monte Carlo generated reconstruction kernels
Minet, O.; Beuthan, J.; Hielscher, A. H.; Zabarylo, U.
2008-06-01
Optical imaging in biomedicine is governed by the light absorption and scattering interaction on microscopic and macroscopic constituents in the medium. Therefore, light scattering characteristics of human tissue correlate with the stage of some diseases. In the near infrared range the scattering event with the coefficient approximately two orders of magnitude greater than absorption plays a dominant role. When measuring the optical parameters variations were discovered that correlate with the rheumatoid arthritis of a small joint. The potential of an experimental setup for transillumination the finger joint with a laser diode and the pattern of the stray light detection are demonstrated. The scattering caused by skin contains no useful information and it can be removed by a deconvolution technique to enhance the diagnostic value of this non-invasive optical method. Monte Carlo simulations ensure both the construction of the corresponding point spread function and both the theoretical verification of the stray light picture in rather complex geometry.
Sensitivity analysis for oblique incidence reflectometry using Monte Carlo simulations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kamran, Faisal; Andersen, Peter E.
2015-01-01
Oblique incidence reflectometry has developed into an effective, noncontact, and noninvasive measurement technology for the quantification of both the reduced scattering and absorption coefficients of a sample. The optical properties are deduced by analyzing only the shape of the reflectance...... profiles. This article presents a sensitivity analysis of the technique in turbid media. Monte Carlo simulations are used to investigate the technique and its potential to distinguish the small changes between different levels of scattering. We present various regions of the dynamic range of optical...... properties in which system demands vary to be able to detect subtle changes in the structure of the medium, translated as measured optical properties. Effects of variation in anisotropy are discussed and results presented. Finally, experimental data of milk products with different fat content are considered...
Geometrical form factor calculation using Monte Carlo integration for lidar
Mao, Feiyue; Gong, Wei; Li, Jun
2012-06-01
We proposed a geometrical form factor (GFF) calculation using Monte Carlo integration (GFF-MC) for lidar that is practical and can be applied to any laser intensity distribution. Theoretical results have been calculated with our method based on the functions of measured, uniform and Gaussian laser intensity distribution. Two experimental GFF traces on clear days are obtained to verify the validity of the theoretical results. The results indicated that the measured distribution function outperformed the Gaussian and uniform functions. That means that the deviation of the measured laser intensity distribution from an ideal one can be too large to neglect. In addition, the theoretical GFF of the uniform distribution had a larger error than that of the Gaussian distribution. Furthermore, the effects of the inclination angle of the laser beam and the central obstruction of the support structure of the second mirror of the telescope are discussed in this study.
Monte-Carlo study of Dirac semimetals phase diagram
Braguta, V V; Kotov, A Yu; Nikolaev, A A
2016-01-01
In this paper the phase diagram of Dirac semimetals is studied within lattice Monte-Carlo simulation. In particular, we concentrate on the dynamical chiral symmetry breaking which results in semimetal/insulator transition. Using numerical simulation we determined the values of the critical coupling constant of the semimetal/insulator transition for different values of the anisotropy of the Fermi velocity. This measurement allowed us to draw tentative phase diagram for Dirac semimetals. It turns out that within the Dirac model with Coulomb interaction both Na$_3$Bi and Cd$_3$As$_2$ known experimentally to be Dirac semimetals would lie deeply in the insulating region of the phase diagram. It probably shows a decisive role of screening of the interelectron interaction in real materials, similar to the situation in graphene.
Monte Carlo Simulation of Magnetization Behaviour of Co Nanowires
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHONG Ke-Hua; HUANG Zhi-Gao; FENG Qian; JIANG Li-Qin; YANG Yan-Min; CHEN Zhi-Gao
2006-01-01
Based on the Monte Carlo method, we simulate the magnetization curves with various magnetic field orientations for various single Co nanowires at room temperature. The simulated switching field as a function of angle θ between the field and the wire axis is consistent well with the experimental data. Correspondingly, the coercivity as a function of angle θ is presented, which together with the switching field plays an important role on explaining the magnetic reversal mechanism. It is found that the angular dependence of coercivity depends on the diameter of nanowires, and the coercivity and switching field versus θ deviate markedly from the prediction from the classical uniform rotation mode in the chain-of-sphere model. Furthermore, the magnetic reversal configurations display that magnetization reversal in the wires with small diameters is a nucleation-propagation process, and it is similar to the curling spread process in the larger wires.
Calibration of the Top-Quark Monte-Carlo Mass
Kieseler, Jan; Moch, Sven-Olaf
2015-01-01
We present a method to establish experimentally the relation between the top-quark mass $m_t^{MC}$ as implemented in Monte-Carlo generators and the Lagrangian mass parameter $m_t$ in a theoretically well-defined renormalization scheme. We propose a simultaneous fit of $m_t^{MC}$ and an observable sensitive to $m_t$, which does not rely on any prior assumptions about the relation between $m_t$ and $m_t^{MC}$. The measured observable is independent of $m_t^{MC}$ and can be used subsequently for a determination of $m_t$. The analysis strategy is illustrated with examples for the extraction of $m_t$ from inclusive and differential cross sections for hadro-production of top-quarks.
Monte Carlo study of Dirac semimetals phase diagram
Braguta, V. V.; Katsnelson, M. I.; Kotov, A. Yu.; Nikolaev, A. A.
2016-11-01
In this paper the phase diagram of Dirac semimetals is studied within a lattice Monte Carlo simulation. In particular, we concentrate on the dynamical chiral symmetry breaking which results in a semimetal-insulator transition. Using numerical simulation, we determine the values of the critical coupling constant of the semimetal-insulator transition for different values of the anisotropy of the Fermi velocity. This measurement allows us to draw a tentative phase diagram for Dirac semimetals. It turns out that within the Dirac model with Coulomb interaction both Na3Bi and Cd3As2 , known experimentally to be Dirac semimetals, would lie deep in the insulating region of the phase diagram. This result probably shows a decisive role of screening of the interelectron interaction in real materials, similar to the situation in graphene.
Modelling a gamma irradiation process using the Monte Carlo method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Soares, Gabriela A.; Pereira, Marcio T., E-mail: gas@cdtn.br, E-mail: mtp@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)
2011-07-01
In gamma irradiation service it is of great importance the evaluation of absorbed dose in order to guarantee the service quality. When physical structure and human resources are not available for performing dosimetry in each product irradiated, the appliance of mathematic models may be a solution. Through this, the prediction of the delivered dose in a specific product, irradiated in a specific position and during a certain period of time becomes possible, if validated with dosimetry tests. At the gamma irradiation facility of CDTN, equipped with a Cobalt-60 source, the Monte Carlo method was applied to perform simulations of products irradiations and the results were compared with Fricke dosimeters irradiated under the same conditions of the simulations. The first obtained results showed applicability of this method, with a linear relation between simulation and experimental results. (author)
Magnetic properties of checkerboard lattice: a Monte Carlo study
Jabar, A.; Masrour, R.; Hamedoun, M.; Benyoussef, A.
2017-06-01
The magnetic properties of ferrimagnetic mixed-spin Ising model in the checkerboard lattice are studied using Monte Carlo simulations. The variation of total magnetization and magnetic susceptibility with the crystal field has been established. We have obtained a transition from an order to a disordered phase in some critical value of the physical variables. The reduced transition temperature is obtained for different exchange interactions. The magnetic hysteresis cycles have been established. The multiples hysteresis cycle in checkerboard lattice are obtained. The multiples hysteresis cycle have been established. The ferrimagnetic mixed-spin Ising model in checkerboard lattice is very interesting from the experimental point of view. The mixed spins system have many technological applications such as in domain opto-electronics, memory, nanomedicine and nano-biological systems. The obtained results show that that crystal field induce long-range spin-spin correlations even bellow the reduced transition temperature.
Variational Monte Carlo investigation of SU (N ) Heisenberg chains
Dufour, Jérôme; Nataf, Pierre; Mila, Frédéric
2015-05-01
Motivated by recent experimental progress in the context of ultracold multicolor fermionic atoms in optical lattices, we have investigated the properties of the SU (N) Heisenberg chain with totally antisymmetric irreducible representations, the effective model of Mott phases with m Gutzwiller projected fermionic wave functions, we have been able to verify these predictions for a representative number of cases with N ≤10 and m ≤N /2 , and we have shown that the opening of a gap is associated to a spontaneous dimerization or trimerization depending on the value of m and N . We have also investigated the marginal cases where Abelian bosonization did not lead to any prediction. In these cases, variational Monte Carlo predicts that the ground state is critical with exponents consistent with conformal field theory.
Quantum Monte Carlo calculations of two neutrons in finite volume
Klos, P; Tews, I; Gandolfi, S; Gezerlis, A; Hammer, H -W; Hoferichter, M; Schwenk, A
2016-01-01
Ab initio calculations provide direct access to the properties of pure neutron systems that are challenging to study experimentally. In addition to their importance for fundamental physics, their properties are required as input for effective field theories of the strong interaction. In this work, we perform auxiliary-field diffusion Monte Carlo calculations of the ground and first excited state of two neutrons in a finite box, considering a simple contact potential as well as chiral effective field theory interactions. We compare the results against exact diagonalizations and present a detailed analysis of the finite-volume effects, whose understanding is crucial for determining observables from the calculated energies. Using the L\\"uscher formula, we extract the low-energy S-wave scattering parameters from ground- and excited-state energies for different box sizes.
Improved version of the PHOBOS Glauber Monte Carlo
Loizides, C; Steinberg, P
2014-01-01
Glauber models are used to calculate geometric quantities in the initial state of heavy ion collisions, such as impact parameter, number of participating nucleons and initial eccentricity. Experimental heavy-ion collaboration, in particular at RHIC and LHC, use Glauber Model calculations for various geometric observables. In this document, we describe the assumptions inherent to the approach, and provide an updated implementation (v2) of the Monte Carlo based Glauber Model calculation, which originally was used by the PHOBOS collaboration. The main improvement w.r.t. the earlier version (arXiv:0805.4411) are the inclusion of tritium, Helium-3, and Uranium, as well as the treatment of deformed nuclei and Glauber-Gribov fluctuations of the proton in p+A collisions. A users' guide (updated to reflect changes in v2) is provided for running various calculations.
Monte Carlo Simulation Tool Installation and Operation Guide
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Ankney, Austin S.; Berguson, Timothy J.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Orrell, John L.; Troy, Meredith D.; Wiseman, Clinton G.
2013-09-02
This document provides information on software and procedures for Monte Carlo simulations based on the Geant4 toolkit, the ROOT data analysis software and the CRY cosmic ray library. These tools have been chosen for its application to shield design and activation studies as part of the simulation task for the Majorana Collaboration. This document includes instructions for installation, operation and modification of the simulation code in a high cyber-security computing environment, such as the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory network. It is intended as a living document, and will be periodically updated. It is a starting point for information collection by an experimenter, and is not the definitive source. Users should consult with one of the authors for guidance on how to find the most current information for their needs.
Effect of doping of graphene structure: A Monte Carlo simulations
Masrour, R.; Jabar, A.
2016-10-01
In this work, we have studied the effect of magnetic atom doping of graphene structure using Monte Carlo simulation. The reduced critical temperature with the magnetic atom doping x has been deduced from the thermal variation of magnetization and magnetic susceptibility. The variation of magnetization versus the crystal field of grapheme structure for different x and for different reduced temperatures has been established. We also have measured the coercive field (hC) as a function x in grapheme structure, finding that hC increases with increasing x concentration as predicted experimentally. The doping-induced magnetism in graphene. Magnetically atom doping in graphene systems are potential candidates for application in future spintronic devices, magnetometry requires macroscopic quantities of graphene to detect magnetic moments directly.
Monte Carlo modeling of recrystallization processes in α-uranium
Steiner, M. A.; McCabe, R. J.; Garlea, E.; Agnew, S. R.
2017-08-01
Starting with electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) data obtained from a warm clock-rolled α-uranium deformation microstructure, a Potts Monte Carlo model was used to simulate static site-saturated recrystallization and test which recrystallization nucleation conditions within the microstructure are best validated by experimental observations. The simulations support prior observations that recrystallized nuclei within α-uranium form preferentially on non-twin high-angle grain boundary sites at 450 °C. They also demonstrate, in a new finding, that nucleation along these boundaries occurs only at a highly constrained subset of sites possessing the largest degrees of local deformation. Deformation in the EBSD data can be identified by the Kernel Average Misorientation (KAM), which may be considered as a proxy for the local geometrically necessary dislocation (GND) density.
High-Pressure Hydrogen Sulfide by Diffusion Quantum Monte Carlo
Azadi, Sam
2016-01-01
We use the diffusion quantum Monte Carlo to revisit the enthalpy-pressure phase diagram of the various products from the different proposed decompositions of H$_2$S at pressures above 150~GPa. Our results entails a revision of the ground-state enthalpy-pressure phase diagram. Specifically, we find that the C2/c HS$_2$ structure is persistent up to 440~GPa before undergoing a phase transition into the C2/m phase. Contrary to density functional theory, our calculations suggest that the C2/m phase of HS is more stable than the I4$_1$/amd HS structure over the whole pressure range from 150 to 400 GPa. Moreover, we predict that the Im-3m phase is the most likely candidate for H$_3$S, which is consistent with recent experimental x-ray diffraction measurements.
An unbiased Hessian representation for Monte Carlo PDFs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carrazza, Stefano; Forte, Stefano [Universita di Milano, TIF Lab, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milan (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Milano (Italy); Kassabov, Zahari [Universita di Milano, TIF Lab, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milan (Italy); Universita di Torino, Dipartimento di Fisica, Turin (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Torino (Italy); Latorre, Jose Ignacio [Universitat de Barcelona, Departament d' Estructura i Constituents de la Materia, Barcelona (Spain); Rojo, Juan [University of Oxford, Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, Oxford (United Kingdom)
2015-08-15
We develop a methodology for the construction of a Hessian representation of Monte Carlo sets of parton distributions, based on the use of a subset of the Monte Carlo PDF replicas as an unbiased linear basis, and of a genetic algorithm for the determination of the optimal basis. We validate the methodology by first showing that it faithfully reproduces a native Monte Carlo PDF set (NNPDF3.0), and then, that if applied to Hessian PDF set (MMHT14) which was transformed into a Monte Carlo set, it gives back the starting PDFs with minimal information loss. We then show that, when applied to a large Monte Carlo PDF set obtained as combination of several underlying sets, the methodology leads to a Hessian representation in terms of a rather smaller set of parameters (MC-H PDFs), thereby providing an alternative implementation of the recently suggested Meta-PDF idea and a Hessian version of the recently suggested PDF compression algorithm (CMC-PDFs). The mc2hessian conversion code is made publicly available together with (through LHAPDF6) a Hessian representations of the NNPDF3.0 set, and the MC-H PDF set. (orig.)
An Unbiased Hessian Representation for Monte Carlo PDFs
Carrazza, Stefano; Kassabov, Zahari; Latorre, Jose Ignacio; Rojo, Juan
2015-01-01
We develop a methodology for the construction of a Hessian representation of Monte Carlo sets of parton distributions, based on the use of a subset of the Monte Carlo PDF replicas as an unbiased linear basis, and of a genetic algorithm for the determination of the optimal basis. We validate the methodology by first showing that it faithfully reproduces a native Monte Carlo PDF set (NNPDF3.0), and then, that if applied to Hessian PDF set (MMHT14) which was transformed into a Monte Carlo set, it gives back the starting PDFs with minimal information loss. We then show that, when applied to a large Monte Carlo PDF set obtained as combination of several underlying sets, the methodology leads to a Hessian representation in terms of a rather smaller set of parameters (CMC-H PDFs), thereby providing an alternative implementation of the recently suggested Meta-PDF idea and a Hessian version of the recently suggested PDF compression algorithm (CMC-PDFs). The mc2hessian conversion code is made publicly available togethe...
Monte Carlo method of least squares fitting of experimental data%基于蒙特卡罗最小二乘的实验数据拟合方法
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
颜清; 彭小平
2011-01-01
Using the least squares method that fits chemical industry empirical datum, the correlation coefficient approaches in 1, and the precision is high.the results differ with the empirical correlation. Monte Carlo method is a probabilistic model based on non-deterministic numerical methods. Monte Carlo method of least squares fits of experimental data processing chemicals.so the application is more flexible and broader scope. In the Excel spreadsheet, using the worksheet data and VBA programming is easy to complete mixing least-squares data fitting Monte Carlo, VBA and Excel spreadsheets to achieve data communications and parallel processing experimental data, to read the worksheet experimental data and calculate the approximate point random search, the least-squares statistical analysis, and the results output to the worksheet. Monte Carlo method of least squares fits method of least squares using the same precision with the standard, in line with large numbers theorem, which is based on the accuracy improved significantly. Monte Carlo method in the random search point is small, the error, and when the random search points to 10 000, its accuracy is almost the same with the method of least squares. At the same time we can get the empirical correlation that has been very close relationship between the number of quasi-equation sand practice which make unified theory of the experimental results.%采用最小二乘法拟合化工实验数据,相关系数接近于1,精度高,但所得的结果与经验关联式大相径庭.蒙特卡罗方法是一种基于概率模型的非确定性数值方法.蒙特卡罗最小二乘拟合方法处理化工实验数据,应用中更为灵活,适用范围更广.在Excel电子表格中,利用工作表中的数据与VBA混合编程很容易完成蒙特卡罗最小二乘数据拟合,VBA实现与Excel电子表格的数据通讯及并行处理实验数据,读取工作表中的实验数据,计算随机点的大致搜索范围,进行最小二乘
Vectorizing and macrotasking Monte Carlo neutral particle algorithms
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Heifetz, D.B.
1987-04-01
Monte Carlo algorithms for computing neutral particle transport in plasmas have been vectorized and macrotasked. The techniques used are directly applicable to Monte Carlo calculations of neutron and photon transport, and Monte Carlo integration schemes in general. A highly vectorized code was achieved by calculating test flight trajectories in loops over arrays of flight data, isolating the conditional branches to as few a number of loops as possible. A number of solutions are discussed to the problem of gaps appearing in the arrays due to completed flights, which impede vectorization. A simple and effective implementation of macrotasking is achieved by dividing the calculation of the test flight profile among several processors. A tree of random numbers is used to ensure reproducible results. The additional memory required for each task may preclude using a larger number of tasks. In future machines, the limit of macrotasking may be possible, with each test flight, and split test flight, being a separate task.
Properties of Reactive Oxygen Species by Quantum Monte Carlo
Zen, Andrea; Guidoni, Leonardo
2014-01-01
The electronic properties of the oxygen molecule, in its singlet and triplet states, and of many small oxygen-containing radicals and anions have important roles in different fields of Chemistry, Biology and Atmospheric Science. Nevertheless, the electronic structure of such species is a challenge for ab-initio computational approaches because of the difficulties to correctly describe the statical and dynamical correlation effects in presence of one or more unpaired electrons. Only the highest-level quantum chemical approaches can yield reliable characterizations of their molecular properties, such as binding energies, equilibrium structures, molecular vibrations, charge distribution and polarizabilities. In this work we use the variational Monte Carlo (VMC) and the lattice regularized Monte Carlo (LRDMC) methods to investigate the equilibrium geometries and molecular properties of oxygen and oxygen reactive species. Quantum Monte Carlo methods are used in combination with the Jastrow Antisymmetrized Geminal ...
LCG MCDB - a Knowledgebase of Monte Carlo Simulated Events
Belov, S; Galkin, E; Gusev, A; Pokorski, Witold; Sherstnev, A V
2008-01-01
In this paper we report on LCG Monte Carlo Data Base (MCDB) and software which has been developed to operate MCDB. The main purpose of the LCG MCDB project is to provide a storage and documentation system for sophisticated event samples simulated for the LHC collaborations by experts. In many cases, the modern Monte Carlo simulation of physical processes requires expert knowledge in Monte Carlo generators or significant amount of CPU time to produce the events. MCDB is a knowledgebase mainly to accumulate simulated events of this type. The main motivation behind LCG MCDB is to make the sophisticated MC event samples available for various physical groups. All the data from MCDB is accessible in several convenient ways. LCG MCDB is being developed within the CERN LCG Application Area Simulation project.
The Monte Carlo method in quantum field theory
Morningstar, C
2007-01-01
This series of six lectures is an introduction to using the Monte Carlo method to carry out nonperturbative studies in quantum field theories. Path integrals in quantum field theory are reviewed, and their evaluation by the Monte Carlo method with Markov-chain based importance sampling is presented. Properties of Markov chains are discussed in detail and several proofs are presented, culminating in the fundamental limit theorem for irreducible Markov chains. The example of a real scalar field theory is used to illustrate the Metropolis-Hastings method and to demonstrate the effectiveness of an action-preserving (microcanonical) local updating algorithm in reducing autocorrelations. The goal of these lectures is to provide the beginner with the basic skills needed to start carrying out Monte Carlo studies in quantum field theories, as well as to present the underlying theoretical foundations of the method.
TAKING THE NEXT STEP WITH INTELLIGENT MONTE CARLO
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Booth, T.E.; Carlson, J.A. [and others
2000-10-01
For many scientific calculations, Monte Carlo is the only practical method available. Unfortunately, standard Monte Carlo methods converge slowly as the square root of the computer time. We have shown, both numerically and theoretically, that the convergence rate can be increased dramatically if the Monte Carlo algorithm is allowed to adapt based on what it has learned from previous samples. As the learning continues, computational efficiency increases, often geometrically fast. The particle transport work achieved geometric convergence for a two-region problem as well as for problems with rapidly changing nuclear data. The statistics work provided theoretical proof of geometic convergence for continuous transport problems and promising initial results for airborne migration of particles. The statistical physics work applied adaptive methods to a variety of physical problems including the three-dimensional Ising glass, quantum scattering, and eigenvalue problems.
Optimised Iteration in Coupled Monte Carlo - Thermal-Hydraulics Calculations
Hoogenboom, J. Eduard; Dufek, Jan
2014-06-01
This paper describes an optimised iteration scheme for the number of neutron histories and the relaxation factor in successive iterations of coupled Monte Carlo and thermal-hydraulic reactor calculations based on the stochastic iteration method. The scheme results in an increasing number of neutron histories for the Monte Carlo calculation in successive iteration steps and a decreasing relaxation factor for the spatial power distribution to be used as input to the thermal-hydraulics calculation. The theoretical basis is discussed in detail and practical consequences of the scheme are shown, among which a nearly linear increase per iteration of the number of cycles in the Monte Carlo calculation. The scheme is demonstrated for a full PWR type fuel assembly. Results are shown for the axial power distribution during several iteration steps. A few alternative iteration method are also tested and it is concluded that the presented iteration method is near optimal.
Monte Carlo tests of the ELIPGRID-PC algorithm
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Davidson, J.R.
1995-04-01
The standard tool for calculating the probability of detecting pockets of contamination called hot spots has been the ELIPGRID computer code of Singer and Wickman. The ELIPGRID-PC program has recently made this algorithm available for an IBM{reg_sign} PC. However, no known independent validation of the ELIPGRID algorithm exists. This document describes a Monte Carlo simulation-based validation of a modified version of the ELIPGRID-PC code. The modified ELIPGRID-PC code is shown to match Monte Carlo-calculated hot-spot detection probabilities to within {plus_minus}0.5% for 319 out of 320 test cases. The one exception, a very thin elliptical hot spot located within a rectangular sampling grid, differed from the Monte Carlo-calculated probability by about 1%. These results provide confidence in the ability of the modified ELIPGRID-PC code to accurately predict hot-spot detection probabilities within an acceptable range of error.
Efficiency of Monte Carlo sampling in chaotic systems.
Leitão, Jorge C; Lopes, J M Viana Parente; Altmann, Eduardo G
2014-11-01
In this paper we investigate how the complexity of chaotic phase spaces affect the efficiency of importance sampling Monte Carlo simulations. We focus on flat-histogram simulations of the distribution of finite-time Lyapunov exponent in a simple chaotic system and obtain analytically that the computational effort: (i) scales polynomially with the finite time, a tremendous improvement over the exponential scaling obtained in uniform sampling simulations; and (ii) the polynomial scaling is suboptimal, a phenomenon known as critical slowing down. We show that critical slowing down appears because of the limited possibilities to issue a local proposal in the Monte Carlo procedure when it is applied to chaotic systems. These results show how generic properties of chaotic systems limit the efficiency of Monte Carlo simulations.
Sequential Monte Carlo on large binary sampling spaces
Schäfer, Christian
2011-01-01
A Monte Carlo algorithm is said to be adaptive if it automatically calibrates its current proposal distribution using past simulations. The choice of the parametric family that defines the set of proposal distributions is critical for a good performance. In this paper, we present such a parametric family for adaptive sampling on high-dimensional binary spaces. A practical motivation for this problem is variable selection in a linear regression context. We want to sample from a Bayesian posterior distribution on the model space using an appropriate version of Sequential Monte Carlo. Raw versions of Sequential Monte Carlo are easily implemented using binary vectors with independent components. For high-dimensional problems, however, these simple proposals do not yield satisfactory results. The key to an efficient adaptive algorithm are binary parametric families which take correlations into account, analogously to the multivariate normal distribution on continuous spaces. We provide a review of models for binar...
Monte Carlo simulation of laser attenuation characteristics in fog
Wang, Hong-Xia; Sun, Chao; Zhu, You-zhang; Sun, Hong-hui; Li, Pan-shi
2011-06-01
Based on the Mie scattering theory and the gamma size distribution model, the scattering extinction parameter of spherical fog-drop is calculated. For the transmission attenuation of the laser in the fog, a Monte Carlo simulation model is established, and the impact of attenuation ratio on visibility and field angle is computed and analysed using the program developed by MATLAB language. The results of the Monte Carlo method in this paper are compared with the results of single scattering method. The results show that the influence of multiple scattering need to be considered when the visibility is low, and single scattering calculations have larger errors. The phenomenon of multiple scattering can be interpreted more better when the Monte Carlo is used to calculate the attenuation ratio of the laser transmitting in the fog.
VARIATIONAL MONTE-CARLO APPROACH FOR ARTICULATED OBJECT TRACKING
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kartik Dwivedi
2013-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we describe a novel variational Monte Carlo approach for modeling and tracking body parts of articulated objects. An articulated object (human target is represented as a dynamic Markov network of the different constituent parts. The proposed approach combines local information of individual body parts and other spatial constraints influenced by neighboring parts. The movement of the relative parts of the articulated body is modeled with local information of displacements from the Markov network and the global information from other neighboring parts. We explore the effect of certain model parameters (including the number of parts tracked; number of Monte-Carlo cycles, etc. on system accuracy and show that ourvariational Monte Carlo approach achieves better efficiency and effectiveness compared to other methods on a number of real-time video datasets containing single targets.
Meaningful timescales from Monte Carlo simulations of molecular systems
Costa, Liborio I
2016-01-01
A new Markov Chain Monte Carlo method for simulating the dynamics of molecular systems with atomistic detail is introduced. In contrast to traditional Kinetic Monte Carlo approaches, where the state of the system is associated with minima in the energy landscape, in the proposed method, the state of the system is associated with the set of paths traveled by the atoms and the transition probabilities for an atom to be displaced are proportional to the corresponding velocities. In this way, the number of possible state-to-state transitions is reduced to a discrete set, and a direct link between the Monte Carlo time step and true physical time is naturally established. The resulting rejection-free algorithm is validated against event-driven molecular dynamics: the equilibrium and non-equilibrium dynamics of hard disks converge to the exact results with decreasing displacement size.
Monte Carlo Methods for Tempo Tracking and Rhythm Quantization
Cemgil, A T; 10.1613/jair.1121
2011-01-01
We present a probabilistic generative model for timing deviations in expressive music performance. The structure of the proposed model is equivalent to a switching state space model. The switch variables correspond to discrete note locations as in a musical score. The continuous hidden variables denote the tempo. We formulate two well known music recognition problems, namely tempo tracking and automatic transcription (rhythm quantization) as filtering and maximum a posteriori (MAP) state estimation tasks. Exact computation of posterior features such as the MAP state is intractable in this model class, so we introduce Monte Carlo methods for integration and optimization. We compare Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods (such as Gibbs sampling, simulated annealing and iterative improvement) and sequential Monte Carlo methods (particle filters). Our simulation results suggest better results with sequential methods. The methods can be applied in both online and batch scenarios such as tempo tracking and transcr...
Introduction to the variational and diffusion Monte Carlo methods
Toulouse, Julien; Umrigar, C J
2015-01-01
We provide a pedagogical introduction to the two main variants of real-space quantum Monte Carlo methods for electronic-structure calculations: variational Monte Carlo (VMC) and diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC). Assuming no prior knowledge on the subject, we review in depth the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm used in VMC for sampling the square of an approximate wave function, discussing details important for applications to electronic systems. We also review in detail the more sophisticated DMC algorithm within the fixed-node approximation, introduced to avoid the infamous Fermionic sign problem, which allows one to sample a more accurate approximation to the ground-state wave function. Throughout this review, we discuss the statistical methods used for evaluating expectation values and statistical uncertainties. In particular, we show how to estimate nonlinear functions of expectation values and their statistical uncertainties.
Monte Carlo Simulation in Statistical Physics An Introduction
Binder, Kurt
2010-01-01
Monte Carlo Simulation in Statistical Physics deals with the computer simulation of many-body systems in condensed-matter physics and related fields of physics, chemistry and beyond, to traffic flows, stock market fluctuations, etc.). Using random numbers generated by a computer, probability distributions are calculated, allowing the estimation of the thermodynamic properties of various systems. This book describes the theoretical background to several variants of these Monte Carlo methods and gives a systematic presentation from which newcomers can learn to perform such simulations and to analyze their results. The fifth edition covers Classical as well as Quantum Monte Carlo methods. Furthermore a new chapter on the sampling of free-energy landscapes has been added. To help students in their work a special web server has been installed to host programs and discussion groups (http://wwwcp.tphys.uni-heidelberg.de). Prof. Binder was awarded the Berni J. Alder CECAM Award for Computational Physics 2001 as well ...
Applicability of Quasi-Monte Carlo for lattice systems
Ammon, Andreas; Jansen, Karl; Leovey, Hernan; Griewank, Andreas; Müller-Preussker, Micheal
2013-01-01
This project investigates the applicability of quasi-Monte Carlo methods to Euclidean lattice systems in order to improve the asymptotic error scaling of observables for such theories. The error of an observable calculated by averaging over random observations generated from ordinary Monte Carlo simulations scales like $N^{-1/2}$, where $N$ is the number of observations. By means of quasi-Monte Carlo methods it is possible to improve this scaling for certain problems to $N^{-1}$, or even further if the problems are regular enough. We adapted and applied this approach to simple systems like the quantum harmonic and anharmonic oscillator and verified an improved error scaling of all investigated observables in both cases.
Failure Probability Estimation of Wind Turbines by Enhanced Monte Carlo
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sichani, Mahdi Teimouri; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Naess, Arvid
2012-01-01
This paper discusses the estimation of the failure probability of wind turbines required by codes of practice for designing them. The Standard Monte Carlo (SMC) simulations may be used for this reason conceptually as an alternative to the popular Peaks-Over-Threshold (POT) method. However......, estimation of very low failure probabilities with SMC simulations leads to unacceptably high computational costs. In this study, an Enhanced Monte Carlo (EMC) method is proposed that overcomes this obstacle. The method has advantages over both POT and SMC in terms of its low computational cost and accuracy...... is controlled by the pitch controller. This provides a fair framework for comparison of the behavior and failure event of the wind turbine with emphasis on the effect of the pitch controller. The Enhanced Monte Carlo method is then applied to the model and the failure probabilities of the model are estimated...
Implementation of Monte Carlo Simulations for the Gamma Knife System
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xiong, W [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center/Mercy Medical Center, 1000 N Village Ave., Rockville Centre, NY 11570 (United States); Huang, D [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center/Mercy Medical Center, 1000 N Village Ave., Rockville Centre, NY 11570 (United States); Lee, L [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center/Mercy Medical Center, 1000 N Village Ave., Rockville Centre, NY 11570 (United States); Feng, J [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center/Mercy Medical Center, 1000 N Village Ave., Rockville Centre, NY 11570 (United States); Morris, K [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center/Mercy Medical Center, 1000 N Village Ave., Rockville Centre, NY 11570 (United States); Calugaru, E [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center/Mercy Medical Center, 1000 N Village Ave., Rockville Centre, NY 11570 (United States); Burman, C [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center/Mercy Medical Center, 1000 N Village Ave., Rockville Centre, NY 11570 (United States); Li, J [Fox Chase Cancer Center, 333 Cottman Ave., Philadelphia, PA 17111 (United States); Ma, C-M [Fox Chase Cancer Center, 333 Cottman Ave., Philadelphia, PA 17111 (United States)
2007-06-15
Currently the Gamma Knife system is accompanied with a treatment planning system, Leksell GammaPlan (LGP) which is a standard, computer-based treatment planning system for Gamma Knife radiosurgery. In LGP, the dose calculation algorithm does not consider the scatter dose contributions and the inhomogeneity effect due to the skull and air cavities. To improve the dose calculation accuracy, Monte Carlo simulations have been implemented for the Gamma Knife planning system. In this work, the 201 Cobalt-60 sources in the Gamma Knife unit are considered to have the same activity. Each Cobalt-60 source is contained in a cylindric stainless steel capsule. The particle phase space information is stored in four beam data files, which are collected in the inner sides of the 4 treatment helmets, after the Cobalt beam passes through the stationary and helmet collimators. Patient geometries are rebuilt from patient CT data. Twenty two Patients are included in the Monte Carlo simulation for this study. The dose is calculated using Monte Carlo in both homogenous and inhomogeneous geometries with identical beam parameters. To investigate the attenuation effect of the skull bone the dose in a 16cm diameter spherical QA phantom is measured with and without a 1.5mm Lead-covering and also simulated using Monte Carlo. The dose ratios with and without the 1.5mm Lead-covering are 89.8% based on measurements and 89.2% according to Monte Carlo for a 18mm-collimator Helmet. For patient geometries, the Monte Carlo results show that although the relative isodose lines remain almost the same with and without inhomogeneity corrections, the difference in the absolute dose is clinically significant. The average inhomogeneity correction is (3.9 {+-} 0.90) % for the 22 patients investigated. These results suggest that the inhomogeneity effect should be considered in the dose calculation for Gamma Knife treatment planning.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Villarreal-Barajas, J.E.; Ferro-Flores, G.; Hernandez-Oviedo, O
2002-07-01
In this work we compare the Monte Carlo (MCNP4B) calculated beta-gamma depth-dose profile for a liquid {sup 153}Sm beta-gamma source used in radiation synovectomy with the experimental depth-dose distribution obtained using radiochromic dye film dosimetry. The calculated and experimental depth-dose distribution shows a very good agreement (within 5%) in the region where the dose deposition is dominated by the beta particle component (first 800 {mu}m depth on tissue-equivalent material). The agreement worsens, reaching a maximum deviation of 15%, at depths close to the maximum range of the beta particles. Finally the agreement improves for the region where the gamma component accounts for one-third of the total absorbed dose (depths >1 mm ). The possible contributions to these differences are discussed, as well as their relevance for the application of {sup 153}Sm in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. (author)
A standard Event Class for Monte Carlo Generators
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
L.A.Gerren; M.Fischler
2001-01-01
StdHepC++[1]is a CLHEP[2] Monte Carlo event class library which provides a common interface to Monte Carlo Event Generators,This work is an extensive redesign of the StdHep Fortran interface to use the full power of object oriented design,A generated event maps naturally onto the Directed Acyclic Graph concept and we have used the HepMC classes to implement this.The full implementation allows the user to combine events to simulate beam pileup and access them transparently as though they were a single event.
Parallelization of Monte Carlo codes MVP/GMVP
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nagaya, Yasunobu; Mori, Takamasa; Nakagawa, Masayuki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Sasaki, Makoto
1998-03-01
General-purpose Monte Carlo codes MVP/GMVP are well-vectorized and thus enable us to perform high-speed Monte Carlo calculations. In order to achieve more speedups, we parallelized the codes on the different types of the parallel processing platforms. The platforms reported are a distributed-memory vector-parallel computer Fujitsu VPP500, a distributed-memory massively parallel computer Intel Paragon and a distributed-memory scalar-parallel computer Hitachi SR2201. As mentioned generally, ideal speedup could be obtained for large-scale problems but parallelization efficiency got worse as the batch size per a processing element (PE) was smaller. (author)
Parton distribution functions in Monte Carlo factorisation scheme
Jadach, S.; Płaczek, W.; Sapeta, S.; Siódmok, A.; Skrzypek, M.
2016-12-01
A next step in development of the KrkNLO method of including complete NLO QCD corrections to hard processes in a LO parton-shower Monte Carlo is presented. It consists of a generalisation of the method, previously used for the Drell-Yan process, to Higgs-boson production. This extension is accompanied with the complete description of parton distribution functions in a dedicated, Monte Carlo factorisation scheme, applicable to any process of production of one or more colour-neutral particles in hadron-hadron collisions.
Kinetic Monte Carlo method applied to nucleic acid hairpin folding.
Sauerwine, Ben; Widom, Michael
2011-12-01
Kinetic Monte Carlo on coarse-grained systems, such as nucleic acid secondary structure, is advantageous for being able to access behavior at long time scales, even minutes or hours. Transition rates between coarse-grained states depend upon intermediate barriers, which are not directly simulated. We propose an Arrhenius rate model and an intermediate energy model that incorporates the effects of the barrier between simulated states without enlarging the state space itself. Applying our Arrhenius rate model to DNA hairpin folding, we demonstrate improved agreement with experiment compared to the usual kinetic Monte Carlo model. Further improvement results from including rigidity of single-stranded stacking.
Quasi-Monte Carlo methods for the Heston model
Jan Baldeaux; Dale Roberts
2012-01-01
In this paper, we discuss the application of quasi-Monte Carlo methods to the Heston model. We base our algorithms on the Broadie-Kaya algorithm, an exact simulation scheme for the Heston model. As the joint transition densities are not available in closed-form, the Linear Transformation method due to Imai and Tan, a popular and widely applicable method to improve the effectiveness of quasi-Monte Carlo methods, cannot be employed in the context of path-dependent options when the underlying pr...
Modelling hadronic interactions in cosmic ray Monte Carlo generators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pierog Tanguy
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Currently the uncertainty in the prediction of shower observables for different primary particles and energies is dominated by differences between hadronic interaction models. The LHC data on minimum bias measurements can be used to test Monte Carlo generators and these new constraints will help to reduce the uncertainties in air shower predictions. In this article, after a short introduction on air showers and Monte Carlo generators, we will show the results of the comparison between the updated version of high energy hadronic interaction models EPOS LHC and QGSJETII-04 with LHC data. Results for air shower simulations and their consequences on comparisons with air shower data will be discussed.
An overview of Monte Carlo treatment planning for radiotherapy.
Spezi, Emiliano; Lewis, Geraint
2008-01-01
The implementation of Monte Carlo dose calculation algorithms in clinical radiotherapy treatment planning systems has been anticipated for many years. Despite a continuous increase of interest in Monte Carlo Treatment Planning (MCTP), its introduction into clinical practice has been delayed by the extent of calculation time required. The development of newer and faster MC codes is behind the commercialisation of the first MC-based treatment planning systems. The intended scope of this article is to provide the reader with a compact 'primer' on different approaches to MCTP with particular attention to the latest developments in the field.
Applications of quantum Monte Carlo methods in condensed systems
Kolorenc, Jindrich
2010-01-01
The quantum Monte Carlo methods represent a powerful and broadly applicable computational tool for finding very accurate solutions of the stationary Schroedinger equation for atoms, molecules, solids and a variety of model systems. The algorithms are intrinsically parallel and are able to take full advantage of the present-day high-performance computing systems. This review article concentrates on the fixed-node/fixed-phase diffusion Monte Carlo method with emphasis on its applications to electronic structure of solids and other extended many-particle systems.
Monte Carlo simulation of electron slowing down in indium
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rouabah, Z.; Hannachi, M. [Materials and Electronic Systems Laboratory (LMSE), University of Bordj Bou Arreridj, Bordj Bou Arreridj (Algeria); Champion, C. [Université de Bordeaux 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Centre d’Etudes Nucléaires de Bordeaux-Gradignan, (CENBG), Gradignan (France); Bouarissa, N., E-mail: n_bouarissa@yahoo.fr [Laboratory of Materials Physics and its Applications, University of M' sila, 28000 M' sila (Algeria)
2015-07-15
Highlights: • Electron scattering in indium targets. • Modeling of elastic cross-sections. • Monte Carlo simulation of low energy electrons. - Abstract: In the current study, we aim at simulating via a detailed Monte Carlo code, the electron penetration in a semi-infinite indium medium for incident energies ranging from 0.5 to 5 keV. Electron range, backscattering coefficients, mean penetration depths as well as stopping profiles are then reported. The results may be seen as the first predictions for low-energy electron penetration in indium target.
Monte Carlo methods and models in finance and insurance
Korn, Ralf
2010-01-01
Offering a unique balance between applications and calculations, this book incorporates the application background of finance and insurance with the theory and applications of Monte Carlo methods. It presents recent methods and algorithms, including the multilevel Monte Carlo method, the statistical Romberg method, and the Heath-Platen estimator, as well as recent financial and actuarial models, such as the Cheyette and dynamic mortality models. The book enables readers to find the right algorithm for a desired application and illustrates complicated methods and algorithms with simple applicat
Utilising Monte Carlo Simulation for the Valuation of Mining Concessions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rosli Said
2005-12-01
Full Text Available Valuation involves the analyses of various input data to produce an estimated value. Since each input is itself often an estimate, there is an element of uncertainty in the input. This leads to uncertainty in the resultant output value. It is argued that a valuation must also convey information on the uncertainty, so as to be more meaningful and informative to the user. The Monte Carlo simulation technique can generate the information on uncertainty and is therefore potentially useful to valuation. This paper reports on the investigation that has been conducted to apply Monte Carlo simulation technique in mineral valuation, more specifically, in the valuation of a quarry concession.
PEPSI — a Monte Carlo generator for polarized leptoproduction
Mankiewicz, L.; Schäfer, A.; Veltri, M.
1992-09-01
We describe PEPSI (Polarized Electron Proton Scattering Interactions), a Monte Carlo program for polarized deep inelastic leptoproduction mediated by electromagnetic interaction, and explain how to use it. The code is a modification of the LEPTO 4.3 Lund Monte Carlo for unpolarized scattering. The hard virtual gamma-parton scattering is generated according to the polarization-dependent QCD cross-section of the first order in α S. PEPSI requires the standard polarization-independent JETSET routines to simulate the fragmentation into final hadrons.
THE APPLICATION OF MONTE CARLO SIMULATION FOR A DECISION PROBLEM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Çiğdem ALABAŞ
2001-01-01
Full Text Available The ultimate goal of the standard decision tree approach is to calculate the expected value of a selected performance measure. In the real-world situations, the decision problems become very complex as the uncertainty factors increase. In such cases, decision analysis using standard decision tree approach is not useful. One way of overcoming this difficulty is the Monte Carlo simulation. In this study, a Monte Carlo simulation model is developed for a complex problem and statistical analysis is performed to make the best decision.
Accuracy Analysis of Assembly Success Rate with Monte Carlo Simulations
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
仲昕; 杨汝清; 周兵
2003-01-01
Monte Carlo simulation was applied to Assembly Success Rate (ASR) analyses.ASR of two peg-in-hole robot assemblies was used as an example by taking component parts' sizes,manufacturing tolerances and robot repeatability into account.A statistic arithmetic expression was proposed and deduced in this paper,which offers an alternative method of estimating the accuracy of ASR,without having to repeat the simulations.This statistic method also helps to choose a suitable sample size,if error reduction is desired.Monte Carlo simulation results demonstrated the feasibility of the method.
Novel Quantum Monte Carlo Approaches for Quantum Liquids
Rubenstein, Brenda M.
Quantum Monte Carlo methods are a powerful suite of techniques for solving the quantum many-body problem. By using random numbers to stochastically sample quantum properties, QMC methods are capable of studying low-temperature quantum systems well beyond the reach of conventional deterministic techniques. QMC techniques have likewise been indispensible tools for augmenting our current knowledge of superfluidity and superconductivity. In this thesis, I present two new quantum Monte Carlo techniques, the Monte Carlo Power Method and Bose-Fermi Auxiliary-Field Quantum Monte Carlo, and apply previously developed Path Integral Monte Carlo methods to explore two new phases of quantum hard spheres and hydrogen. I lay the foundation for a subsequent description of my research by first reviewing the physics of quantum liquids in Chapter One and the mathematics behind Quantum Monte Carlo algorithms in Chapter Two. I then discuss the Monte Carlo Power Method, a stochastic way of computing the first several extremal eigenvalues of a matrix too memory-intensive to be stored and therefore diagonalized. As an illustration of the technique, I demonstrate how it can be used to determine the second eigenvalues of the transition matrices of several popular Monte Carlo algorithms. This information may be used to quantify how rapidly a Monte Carlo algorithm is converging to the equilibrium probability distribution it is sampling. I next present the Bose-Fermi Auxiliary-Field Quantum Monte Carlo algorithm. This algorithm generalizes the well-known Auxiliary-Field Quantum Monte Carlo algorithm for fermions to bosons and Bose-Fermi mixtures. Despite some shortcomings, the Bose-Fermi Auxiliary-Field Quantum Monte Carlo algorithm represents the first exact technique capable of studying Bose-Fermi mixtures of any size in any dimension. In Chapter Six, I describe a new Constant Stress Path Integral Monte Carlo algorithm for the study of quantum mechanical systems under high pressures. While
Fission source sampling in coupled Monte Carlo simulations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Olsen, Boerge; Dufek, Jan [KTH Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Nuclear Research Technology
2017-05-15
We study fission source sampling methods suitable for the iterative way of solving coupled Monte Carlo neutronics problems. Specifically, we address the question as to how the initial Monte Carlo fission source should be optimally sampled at the beginning of each iteration step. We compare numerically two approaches of sampling the initial fission source; the tested techniques are derived from well-known methods for iterating the neutron flux in coupled simulations. The first technique samples the initial fission source using the source from the previous iteration step, while the other technique uses a combination of all previous steps for this purpose. We observe that the previous-step approach performs the best.
Monte Carlo simulation of electrons in dense gases
Tattersall, Wade; Boyle, Greg; Cocks, Daniel; Buckman, Stephen; White, Ron
2014-10-01
We implement a Monte-Carlo simulation modelling the transport of electrons and positrons in dense gases and liquids, by using a dynamic structure factor that allows us to construct structure-modified effective cross sections. These account for the coherent effects caused by interactions with the relatively dense medium. The dynamic structure factor also allows us to model thermal gases in the same manner, without needing to directly sample the velocities of the neutral particles. We present the results of a series of Monte Carlo simulations that verify and apply this new technique, and make comparisons with macroscopic predictions and Boltzmann equation solutions. Financial support of the Australian Research Council.
Green's function monte carlo and the many-fermion problem
Kalos, M. H.
The application of Green's function Monte Carlo to many body problems is outlined. For boson problems, the method is well developed and practical. An "efficiency principle",importance sampling, can be used to reduce variance. Fermion problems are more difficult because spatially antisymmetric functions must be represented as a difference of two density functions. Naively treated, this leads to a rapid growth of Monte Carlo error. Methods for overcoming the difficulty are discussed. Satisfactory algorithms exist for few-body problems; for many-body problems more work is needed, but it is likely that adequate methods will soon be available.
Cosmological Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation with Cmbeasy
Müller, C M
2004-01-01
We introduce a Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation and data analysis package for the cosmological computation package Cmbeasy. We have taken special care in implementing an adaptive step algorithm for the Markov Chain Monte Carlo in order to improve convergence. Data analysis routines are provided which allow to test models of the Universe against up-to-date measurements of the Cosmic Microwave Background, Supernovae Ia and Large Scale Structure. The observational data is provided with the software for convenient usage. The package is publicly available as part of the Cmbeasy software at www.cmbeasy.org.
Monte Carlo simulation of ICRF discharge initiation in ITER
Tripský, M.; Wauters, T.; Lyssoivan, A.; Křivská, A.; Louche, F.; Van Schoor, M.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.
2015-12-01
Discharges produced and sustained by ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) waves in absence of plasma current will be used on ITER for (ion cyclotron-) wall conditioning (ICWC). The here presented simulations aim at ensuring that the ITER ICRH&CD system can be safely employed for ICWC and at finding optimal parameters to initiate the plasma. The 1D Monte Carlo code RFdinity1D3V was developed to simulate ICRF discharge initiation. The code traces the electron motion along one toroidal magnetic field line, accelerated by the RF field in front of the ICRF antenna. Electron collisions in the calculations are handled by a Monte Carlo procedure taking into account their energies and the related electron collision cross sections for collisions with H2, H2+ and H+. The code also includes Coulomb collisions between electrons and ions (e - e, e - H2+ , e - H+). We study the electron multiplication rate as a function of the RF discharge parameters (i) antenna input power (0.1-5MW), and (ii) the neutral pressure (H2) for two antenna phasing (monopole [0000]-phasing and small dipole [0π0π]-phasing). Furthermore, we investigate the electron multiplication rate dependency on the distance from the antenna straps. This radial dependency results from the decreasing electric amplitude and field smoothening with increasing distance from the antenna straps. The numerical plasma breakdown definition used in the code corresponds to the moment when a critical electron density nec for the low hybrid resonance (ω = ωLHR) is reached. This numerical definition was previously found in qualitative agreement with experimental breakdown times obtained from the literature and from experiments on the ASDEX Upgrade and TEXTOR.
van der Graaf, E. R.; Dendooven, P.; Brandenburg, S.
2014-01-01
A detector model optimization procedure based on matching Monte Carlo simulations with measurements for two experimentally calibrated sample geometries which are frequently used in radioactivity measurement laboratories results in relative agreement within 5% between simulated and measured efficienc
Monte Carlo method with heuristic adjustment for irregularly shaped food product volume measurement.
Siswantoro, Joko; Prabuwono, Anton Satria; Abdullah, Azizi; Idrus, Bahari
2014-01-01
Volume measurement plays an important role in the production and processing of food products. Various methods have been proposed to measure the volume of food products with irregular shapes based on 3D reconstruction. However, 3D reconstruction comes with a high-priced computational cost. Furthermore, some of the volume measurement methods based on 3D reconstruction have a low accuracy. Another method for measuring volume of objects uses Monte Carlo method. Monte Carlo method performs volume measurements using random points. Monte Carlo method only requires information regarding whether random points fall inside or outside an object and does not require a 3D reconstruction. This paper proposes volume measurement using a computer vision system for irregularly shaped food products without 3D reconstruction based on Monte Carlo method with heuristic adjustment. Five images of food product were captured using five cameras and processed to produce binary images. Monte Carlo integration with heuristic adjustment was performed to measure the volume based on the information extracted from binary images. The experimental results show that the proposed method provided high accuracy and precision compared to the water displacement method. In addition, the proposed method is more accurate and faster than the space carving method.
NOTE: Monte Carlo evaluation of kerma in an HDR brachytherapy bunker
Pérez-Calatayud, J.; Granero, D.; Ballester, F.; Casal, E.; Crispin, V.; Puchades, V.; León, A.; Verdú, G.
2004-12-01
In recent years, the use of high dose rate (HDR) after-loader machines has greatly increased due to the shift from traditional Cs-137/Ir-192 low dose rate (LDR) to HDR brachytherapy. The method used to calculate the required concrete and, where appropriate, lead shielding in the door is based on analytical methods provided by documents published by the ICRP, the IAEA and the NCRP. The purpose of this study is to perform a more realistic kerma evaluation at the entrance maze door of an HDR bunker using the Monte Carlo code GEANT4. The Monte Carlo results were validated experimentally. The spectrum at the maze entrance door, obtained with Monte Carlo, has an average energy of about 110 keV, maintaining a similar value along the length of the maze. The comparison of results from the aforementioned values with the Monte Carlo ones shows that results obtained using the albedo coefficient from the ICRP document more closely match those given by the Monte Carlo method, although the maximum value given by MC calculations is 30% greater.
Monte Carlo analysis of radiative transport in oceanographic lidar measurements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cupini, E.; Ferro, G. [ENEA, Divisione Fisica Applicata, Centro Ricerche Ezio Clementel, Bologna (Italy); Ferrari, N. [Bologna Univ., Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Ingegneria Energetica, Nucleare e del Controllo Ambientale
2001-07-01
The analysis of oceanographic lidar systems measurements is often carried out with semi-empirical methods, since there is only a rough understanding of the effects of many environmental variables. The development of techniques for interpreting the accuracy of lidar measurements is needed to evaluate the effects of various environmental situations, as well as of different experimental geometric configurations and boundary conditions. A Monte Carlo simulation model represents a tool that is particularly well suited for answering these important questions. The PREMAR-2F Monte Carlo code has been developed taking into account the main molecular and non-molecular components of the marine environment. The laser radiation interaction processes of diffusion, re-emission, refraction and absorption are treated. In particular are considered: the Rayleigh elastic scattering, produced by atoms and molecules with small dimensions with respect to the laser emission wavelength (i.e. water molecules), the Mie elastic scattering, arising from atoms or molecules with dimensions comparable to the laser wavelength (hydrosols), the Raman inelastic scattering, typical of water, the absorption of water, inorganic (sediments) and organic (phytoplankton and CDOM) hydrosols, the fluorescence re-emission of chlorophyll and yellow substances. PREMAR-2F is an extension of a code for the simulation of the radiative transport in atmospheric environments (PREMAR-2). The approach followed in PREMAR-2 was to combine conventional Monte Carlo techniques with analytical estimates of the probability of the receiver to have a contribution from photons coming back after an interaction in the field of view of the lidar fluorosensor collecting apparatus. This offers an effective mean for modelling a lidar system with realistic geometric constraints. The retrieved semianalytic Monte Carlo radiative transfer model has been developed in the frame of the Italian Research Program for Antarctica (PNRA) and it is
Markov chain Monte Carlo methods for state-space models with point process observations.
Yuan, Ke; Girolami, Mark; Niranjan, Mahesan
2012-06-01
This letter considers how a number of modern Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods can be applied for parameter estimation and inference in state-space models with point process observations. We quantified the efficiencies of these MCMC methods on synthetic data, and our results suggest that the Reimannian manifold Hamiltonian Monte Carlo method offers the best performance. We further compared such a method with a previously tested variational Bayes method on two experimental data sets. Results indicate similar performance on the large data sets and superior performance on small ones. The work offers an extensive suite of MCMC algorithms evaluated on an important class of models for physiological signal analysis.
Calculating kinetics parameters and reactivity changes with continuous-energy Monte Carlo
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kiedrowski, Brian C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brown, Forrest B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wilson, Paul [UNIV. WISCONSIN
2009-01-01
The iterated fission probability interpretation of the adjoint flux forms the basis for a method to perform adjoint weighting of tally scores in continuous-energy Monte Carlo k-eigenvalue calculations. Applying this approach, adjoint-weighted tallies are developed for two applications: calculating point reactor kinetics parameters and estimating changes in reactivity from perturbations. Calculations are performed in the widely-used production code, MCNP, and the results of both applications are compared with discrete ordinates calculations, experimental measurements, and other Monte Carlo calculations.
Yoshizumi, Maíra T; Yoriyaz, Hélio; Caldas, Linda V E
2010-01-01
Backscattered radiation (BSR) from field-defining collimators can affect the response of a monitor chamber in X-radiation fields. This contribution must be considered since this kind of chamber is used to monitor the equipment response. In this work, the dependence of a transmission ionization chamber response on the aperture diameter of the collimators was studied experimentally and using a Monte Carlo (MC) technique. According to the results, the BSR increases the chamber response of over 4.0% in the case of a totally closed collimator and 50 kV energy beam, using both techniques. The results from Monte Carlo simulation confirm the validity of the simulated geometry.
Stochastic simulation and Monte-Carlo methods; Simulation stochastique et methodes de Monte-Carlo
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Graham, C. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France); Talay, D. [Institut National de Recherche en Informatique et en Automatique (INRIA), 78 - Le Chesnay (France); Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France)
2011-07-01
This book presents some numerical probabilistic methods of simulation with their convergence speed. It combines mathematical precision and numerical developments, each proposed method belonging to a precise theoretical context developed in a rigorous and self-sufficient manner. After some recalls about the big numbers law and the basics of probabilistic simulation, the authors introduce the martingales and their main properties. Then, they develop a chapter on non-asymptotic estimations of Monte-Carlo method errors. This chapter gives a recall of the central limit theorem and precises its convergence speed. It introduces the Log-Sobolev and concentration inequalities, about which the study has greatly developed during the last years. This chapter ends with some variance reduction techniques. In order to demonstrate in a rigorous way the simulation results of stochastic processes, the authors introduce the basic notions of probabilities and of stochastic calculus, in particular the essential basics of Ito calculus, adapted to each numerical method proposed. They successively study the construction and important properties of the Poisson process, of the jump and deterministic Markov processes (linked to transport equations), and of the solutions of stochastic differential equations. Numerical methods are then developed and the convergence speed results of algorithms are rigorously demonstrated. In passing, the authors describe the probabilistic interpretation basics of the parabolic partial derivative equations. Non-trivial applications to real applied problems are also developed. (J.S.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Burkatzki, Mark Thomas
2008-07-01
The author presents scalar-relativistic energy-consistent Hartree-Fock pseudopotentials for the main-group and 3d-transition-metal elements. The pseudopotentials do not exhibit a singularity at the nucleus and are therefore suitable for quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) calculations. The author demonstrates their transferability through extensive benchmark calculations of atomic excitation spectra as well as molecular properties. In particular, the author computes the vibrational frequencies and binding energies of 26 first- and second-row diatomic molecules using post Hartree-Fock methods, finding excellent agreement with the corresponding all-electron values. The author shows that the presented pseudopotentials give superior accuracy than other existing pseudopotentials constructed specifically for QMC. The localization error and the efficiency in QMC are discussed. The author also presents QMC calculations for selected atomic and diatomic 3d-transitionmetal systems. Finally, valence basis sets of different sizes (VnZ with n=D,T,Q,5 for 1st and 2nd row; with n=D,T for 3rd to 5th row; with n=D,T,Q for the 3d transition metals) optimized for the pseudopotentials are presented. (orig.)
A new Monte Carlo simulation model for laser transmission in smokescreen based on MATLAB
Lee, Heming; Wang, Qianqian; Shan, Bin; Li, Xiaoyang; Gong, Yong; Zhao, Jing; Peng, Zhong
2016-11-01
A new Monte Carlo simulation model of laser transmission in smokescreen is promoted in this paper. In the traditional Monte Carlo simulation model, the radius of particles is set at the same value and the initial cosine value of photons direction is fixed also, which can only get the approximate result. The new model is achieved based on MATLAB and can simulate laser transmittance in smokescreen with different sizes of particles, and the output result of the model is close to the real scenarios. In order to alleviate the influence of the laser divergence while traveling in the air, we changed the initial direction cosine of photons on the basis of the traditional Monte Carlo model. The mixed radius particle smoke simulation results agree with the measured transmittance under the same experimental conditions with 5.42% error rate.
A Proposal for a Standard Interface Between Monte Carlo Tools And One-Loop Programs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Binoth, T.; /Edinburgh U.; Boudjema, F.; /Annecy, LAPP; Dissertori, G.; Lazopoulos, A.; /Zurich, ETH; Denner, A.; /PSI, Villigen; Dittmaier, S.; /Freiburg U.; Frederix, R.; Greiner, N.; Hoeche, Stefan; /Zurich U.; Giele, W.; Skands, P.; Winter, J.; /Fermilab; Gleisberg, T.; /SLAC; Archibald, J.; Heinrich, G.; Krauss, F.; Maitre, D.; /Durham U., IPPP; Huber, M.; /Munich, Max Planck Inst.; Huston, J.; /Michigan State U.; Kauer, N.; /Royal Holloway, U. of London; Maltoni, F.; /Louvain U., CP3 /Milan Bicocca U. /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /Granada U., Theor. Phys. Astrophys. /CERN /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Heidelberg U. /Oxford U., Theor. Phys.
2011-11-11
Many highly developed Monte Carlo tools for the evaluation of cross sections based on tree matrix elements exist and are used by experimental collaborations in high energy physics. As the evaluation of one-loop matrix elements has recently been undergoing enormous progress, the combination of one-loop matrix elements with existing Monte Carlo tools is on the horizon. This would lead to phenomenological predictions at the next-to-leading order level. This note summarises the discussion of the next-to-leading order multi-leg (NLM) working group on this issue which has been taking place during the workshop on Physics at TeV Colliders at Les Houches, France, in June 2009. The result is a proposal for a standard interface between Monte Carlo tools and one-loop matrix element programs.
A proposal for a standard interface between Monte Carlo tools and one-loop programs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Binoth, T.; Boudjema, F.; Dissertori, G.; Lazopoulos, A.; Denner, A.; Dittmaier, S.; Frederix, R.; Greiner, N.; Hoche, S.; Giele, W.; Skands, P.
2010-01-01
Many highly developed Monte Carlo tools for the evaluation of cross sections based on tree matrix elements exist and are used by experimental collaborations in high energy physics. As the evaluation of one-loop matrix elements has recently been undergoing enormous progress, the combination of one-loop matrix elements with existing Monte Carlo tools is on the horizon. This would lead to phenomenological predictions at the next-to-leading order level. This note summarizes the discussion of the next-to-leading order multi-leg (NLM) working group on this issue which has been taking place during the workshop on Physics at TeV colliders at Les Houches, France, in June 2009. The result is a proposal for a standard interface between Monte Carlo tools and one-loop matrix element programs.
Monte Carlo molecular simulation of phase-coexistence for oil production and processing
Li, Jun
2011-01-01
The Gibbs-NVT ensemble Monte Carlo method is used to simulate the liquid-vapor coexistence diagram and the simulation results of methane agree well with the experimental data in a wide range of temperatures. For systems with two components, the Gibbs-NPT ensemble Monte Carlo method is employed in the simulation while the mole fraction of each component in each phase is modeled as a Leonard-Jones fluid. As the results of Monte Carlo simulations usually contain huge statistical error, the blocking method is used to estimate the variance of the simulation results. Additionally, in order to improve the simulation efficiency, the step sizes of different trial moves is adjusted automatically so that their acceptance probabilities can approach to the preset values.
Monte Carlo analysis of a control technique for a tunable white lighting system
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chakrabarti, Maumita; Thorseth, Anders; Jepsen, Jørgen
2017-01-01
A simulated colour control mechanism for a multi-coloured LED lighting system is presented. The system achieves adjustable and stable white light output and allows for system-to-system reproducibility after application of the control mechanism. The control unit works using a pre-calibrated lookup...... table for an experimentally realized system, with a calibrated tristimulus colour sensor. A Monte Carlo simulation is used to examine the system performance concerning the variation of luminous flux and chromaticity of the light output. The inputs to the Monte Carlo simulation, are variations of the LED...... peak wavelength, the LED rated luminous flux bin, the influence of the operating conditions, ambient temperature, driving current, and the spectral response of the colour sensor. The system performance is investigated by evaluating the outputs from the Monte Carlo simulation. The outputs show...
Monte-Carlo fluid approaches to detached plasmas in non-axisymmetric divertor configurations
Feng, Y.; Frerichs, H.; Kobayashi, M.; Reiter, D.
2017-03-01
Fluid transport modeling in three-dimensional boundaries of toroidal confinement devices is reviewed with the emphasis on a Monte-Carlo approach to simulate detached plasmas. The loss of axisymmetry in such configurations presents a major challenge for numerical implementation of the standard fluid model widely applied to fusion experimental devices. A large-scale effort has been made to address this problem under complementary aspects including different magnetic topologies and numerical techniques. In this paper, we give a brief review of the different strategies pioneered and the challenges involved. A more detailed description is provided for the Monte-Carlo code—EMC3-Eirene, where the physics model and the basic idea behind the applied Monte-Carlo method are presented. The focus is put on its applications to detachment studies for stellarators and tokamaks. Here, major achievements and difficulties encountered are described. Model limitations and further development plans are discussed.
NRMC - A GPU code for N-Reverse Monte Carlo modeling of fluids in confined media
Sánchez-Gil, Vicente; Noya, Eva G.; Lomba, Enrique
2017-08-01
NRMC is a parallel code for performing N-Reverse Monte Carlo modeling of fluids in confined media [V. Sánchez-Gil, E.G. Noya, E. Lomba, J. Chem. Phys. 140 (2014) 024504]. This method is an extension of the usual Reverse Monte Carlo method to obtain structural models of confined fluids compatible with experimental diffraction patterns, specifically designed to overcome the problem of slow diffusion that can appear under conditions of tight confinement. Most of the computational time in N-Reverse Monte Carlo modeling is spent in the evaluation of the structure factor for each trial configuration, a calculation that can be easily parallelized. Implementation of the structure factor evaluation in NVIDIA® CUDA so that the code can be run on GPUs leads to a speed up of up to two orders of magnitude.
Monte Carlo analysis of a control technique for a tunable white lighting system
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chakrabarti, Maumita; Thorseth, Anders; Jepsen, Jørgen
2017-01-01
A simulated colour control mechanism for a multi-coloured LED lighting system is presented. The system achieves adjustable and stable white light output and allows for system-to-system reproducibility after application of the control mechanism. The control unit works using a pre-calibrated lookup...... table for an experimentally realized system, with a calibrated tristimulus colour sensor. A Monte Carlo simulation is used to examine the system performance concerning the variation of luminous flux and chromaticity of the light output. The inputs to the Monte Carlo simulation, are variations of the LED...... peak wavelength, the LED rated luminous flux bin, the influence of the operating conditions, ambient temperature, driving current, and the spectral response of the colour sensor. The system performance is investigated by evaluating the outputs from the Monte Carlo simulation. The outputs show...
Monte Carlo simulation of gamma ray tomography for image reconstruction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guedes, Karlos A.N.; Moura, Alex; Dantas, Carlos; Melo, Silvio; Lima, Emerson, E-mail: karlosguedes@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Meric, Ilker [University of Bergen (Norway)
2015-07-01
The Monte Carlo simulations of known density and shape object was validate with Gamma Ray Tomography in static experiments. An aluminum half-moon piece placed inside a steel pipe was the MC simulation test object that was also measured by means of gamma ray transmission. Wall effect of the steel pipe due to irradiation geometry in a single pair source-detector tomography was evaluated by comparison with theoretical data. MCNPX code requires a defined geometry to each photon trajectory which practically prevents this usage for tomography reconstruction simulation. The solution was found by writing a program in Delphi language to create input files automation code. Simulations of tomography data by automated MNCPX code were carried out and validated by experimental data. Working in this sequence the produced data needed a databank to be stored. Experimental setup used a Cesium-137 isotopic radioactive source (7.4 × 109 Bq), and NaI(Tl) scintillation detector of (51 × 51) × 10−3 m crystal size coupled to a multichannel analyzer. A stainless steel tubes of 0,154 m internal diameter, 0.014 m thickness wall. The results show that the MCNPX simulation code adapted to automated input file is useful for generating a matrix data M(θ,t), of a computerized gamma ray tomography for any known density and regular shape object. Experimental validation used RMSE from gamma ray paths and from attenuation coefficient data. (author)
High-pressure high-temperature equation of state of graphite from Monte Carlo simulations
Colonna, F.; Fasolino, A.; Meijer, E.J.
2011-01-01
The thermoelastic behavior of graphite is experimentally accessible in a limited range of pressures and temperatures. Here we perform Monte Carlo simulations based on the accurate long range carbon bond-order potential (LCBOPII) in order to study graphite in a wider range of thermodynamic
Using Nuclear Theory, Data and Uncertainties in Monte Carlo Transport Applications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rising, Michael Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2015-11-03
These are slides for a presentation on using nuclear theory, data and uncertainties in Monte Carlo transport applications. The following topics are covered: nuclear data (experimental data versus theoretical models, data evaluation and uncertainty quantification), fission multiplicity models (fixed source applications, criticality calculations), uncertainties and their impact (integral quantities, sensitivity analysis, uncertainty propagation).
Effective quantum Monte Carlo algorithm for modeling strongly correlated systems
Kashurnikov, V. A.; Krasavin, A. V.
2007-01-01
A new effective Monte Carlo algorithm based on principles of continuous time is presented. It allows calculating, in an arbitrary discrete basis, thermodynamic quantities and linear response of mixed boson-fermion, spin-boson, and other strongly correlated systems which admit no analytic description
Time management for Monte-Carlo tree search in Go
Baier, Hendrik; Winands, Mark H M
2012-01-01
The dominant approach for programs playing the game of Go is nowadays Monte-Carlo Tree Search (MCTS). While MCTS allows for fine-grained time control, little has been published on time management for MCTS programs under tournament conditions. This paper investigates the effects that various time-man
Variational Monte Carlo calculations of few-body nuclei
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wiringa, R.B.
1986-01-01
The variational Monte Carlo method is described. Results for the binding energies, density distributions, momentum distributions, and static longitudinal structure functions of the /sup 3/H, /sup 3/He, and /sup 4/He ground states, and for the energies of the low-lying scattering states in /sup 4/He are presented. 25 refs., 3 figs.
Monte Carlo studies of nuclei and quantum liquid drops
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pandharipande, V.R.; Pieper, S.C.
1989-01-01
The progress in application of variational and Green's function Monte Carlo methods to nuclei is reviewed. The nature of single-particle orbitals in correlated quantum liquid drops is discussed, and it is suggested that the difference between quasi-particle and mean-field orbitals may be of importance in nuclear structure physics. 27 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.
Determining MTF of digital detector system with Monte Carlo simulation
Jeong, Eun Seon; Lee, Hyung Won; Nam, Sang Hee
2005-04-01
We have designed a detector based on a-Se(amorphous Selenium) and done simulation the detector with Monte Carlo method. We will apply the cascaded linear system theory to determine the MTF for whole detector system. For direct comparison with experiment, we have simulated 139um pixel pitch and used simulated X-ray tube spectrum.
A separable shadow Hamiltonian hybrid Monte Carlo method.
Sweet, Christopher R; Hampton, Scott S; Skeel, Robert D; Izaguirre, Jesús A
2009-11-07
Hybrid Monte Carlo (HMC) is a rigorous sampling method that uses molecular dynamics (MD) as a global Monte Carlo move. The acceptance rate of HMC decays exponentially with system size. The shadow hybrid Monte Carlo (SHMC) was previously introduced to reduce this performance degradation by sampling instead from the shadow Hamiltonian defined for MD when using a symplectic integrator. SHMC's performance is limited by the need to generate momenta for the MD step from a nonseparable shadow Hamiltonian. We introduce the separable shadow Hamiltonian hybrid Monte Carlo (S2HMC) method based on a formulation of the leapfrog/Verlet integrator that corresponds to a separable shadow Hamiltonian, which allows efficient generation of momenta. S2HMC gives the acceptance rate of a fourth order integrator at the cost of a second-order integrator. Through numerical experiments we show that S2HMC consistently gives a speedup greater than two over HMC for systems with more than 4000 atoms for the same variance. By comparison, SHMC gave a maximum speedup of only 1.6 over HMC. S2HMC has the additional advantage of not requiring any user parameters beyond those of HMC. S2HMC is available in the program PROTOMOL 2.1. A Python version, adequate for didactic purposes, is also in MDL (http://mdlab.sourceforge.net/s2hmc).
Quantum Monte Carlo diagonalization method as a variational calculation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mizusaki, Takahiro; Otsuka, Takaharu [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Honma, Michio
1997-05-01
A stochastic method for performing large-scale shell model calculations is presented, which utilizes the auxiliary field Monte Carlo technique and diagonalization method. This method overcomes the limitation of the conventional shell model diagonalization and can extremely widen the feasibility of shell model calculations with realistic interactions for spectroscopic study of nuclear structure. (author)
Monte Carlo simulation of quantum statistical lattice models
Raedt, Hans De; Lagendijk, Ad
1985-01-01
In this article we review recent developments in computational methods for quantum statistical lattice problems. We begin by giving the necessary mathematical basis, the generalized Trotter formula, and discuss the computational tools, exact summations and Monte Carlo simulation, that will be used t
Distributed and Adaptive Darting Monte Carlo through Regenerations
Ahn, S.; Chen, Y.; Welling, M.
2013-01-01
Darting Monte Carlo (DMC) is a MCMC procedure designed to effectively mix between multiple modes of a probability distribution. We propose an adaptive and distributed version of this method by using regenerations. This allows us to run multiple chains in parallel and adapt the shape of the jump regi
A novel Monte Carlo approach to hybrid local volatility models
A.W. van der Stoep (Anton); L.A. Grzelak (Lech Aleksander); C.W. Oosterlee (Cornelis)
2017-01-01
textabstractWe present in a Monte Carlo simulation framework, a novel approach for the evaluation of hybrid local volatility [Risk, 1994, 7, 18–20], [Int. J. Theor. Appl. Finance, 1998, 1, 61–110] models. In particular, we consider the stochastic local volatility model—see e.g. Lipton et al. [Quant.
SPANDY: a Monte Carlo program for gas target scattering geometry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jarmie, N.; Jett, J.H.; Niethammer, A.C.
1977-02-01
A Monte Carlo computer program is presented that simulates a two-slit gas target scattering geometry. The program is useful in estimating effects due to finite geometry and multiple scattering in the target foil. Details of the program are presented and experience with a specific example is discussed.
Monte Carlo Simulation of Partially Confined Flexible Polymers
Hermsen, G.F.; de Geeter, B.A.; van der Vegt, N.F.A.; Wessling, Matthias
2002-01-01
We have studied conformational properties of flexible polymers partially confined to narrow pores of different size using configurational biased Monte Carlo simulations under athermal conditions. The asphericity of the chain has been studied as a function of its center of mass position along the por
Tackling the premature convergence problem in Monte-Carlo localization
Kootstra, G.; de Boer, B.
2009-01-01
Monte-Carlo localization uses particle filtering to estimate the position of the robot. The method is known to suffer from the loss of potential positions when there is ambiguity present in the environment. Since many indoor environments are highly symmetric, this problem of premature convergence is
Nonequilibrium Candidate Monte Carlo Simulations with Configurational Freezing Schemes.
Giovannelli, Edoardo; Gellini, Cristina; Pietraperzia, Giangaetano; Cardini, Gianni; Chelli, Riccardo
2014-10-14
Nonequilibrium Candidate Monte Carlo simulation [Nilmeier et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2011, 108, E1009-E1018] is a tool devised to design Monte Carlo moves with high acceptance probabilities that connect uncorrelated configurations. Such moves are generated through nonequilibrium driven dynamics, producing candidate configurations accepted with a Monte Carlo-like criterion that preserves the equilibrium distribution. The probability of accepting a candidate configuration as the next sample in the Markov chain basically depends on the work performed on the system during the nonequilibrium trajectory and increases with decreasing such a work. It is thus strategically relevant to find ways of producing nonequilibrium moves with low work, namely moves where dissipation is as low as possible. This is the goal of our methodology, in which we combine Nonequilibrium Candidate Monte Carlo with Configurational Freezing schemes developed by Nicolini et al. (J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2011, 7, 582-593). The idea is to limit the configurational sampling to particles of a well-established region of the simulation sample, namely the region where dissipation occurs, while leaving fixed the other particles. This allows to make the system relaxation faster around the region perturbed by the finite-time switching move and hence to reduce the dissipated work, eventually enhancing the probability of accepting the generated move. Our combined approach enhances significantly configurational sampling, as shown by the case of a bistable dimer immersed in a dense fluid.
Monte Carlo simulation of magnetic nanostructured thin films
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Guan Zhi-Qiang; Yutaka Abe; Jiang Dong-Hua; Lin Hai; Yoshitake Yamazakia; Wu Chen-Xu
2004-01-01
@@ Using Monte Carlo simulation, we have compared the magnetic properties between nanostructured thin films and two-dimensional crystalline solids. The dependence of nanostructured properties on the interaction between particles that constitute the nanostructured thin films is also studied. The result shows that the parameters in the interaction potential have an important effect on the properties of nanostructured thin films at the transition temperatures.
Multi-microcomputer system for Monte-Carlo calculations
Berg, B; Krasemann, H
1981-01-01
The authors propose a microcomputer system that allows parallel processing for Monte Carlo calculations in lattice gauge theories, simulations of high energy physics experiments and many other fields of current interest. The master-n-slave multiprocessor system is based on the Motorola MC 6800 microprocessor. One attraction of this processor is that it allows up to 16 M Byte random access memory.
Criticality benchmarks validation of the Monte Carlo code TRIPOLI-2
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maubert, L. (Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, Service d' Etudes de Criticite, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)); Nouri, A. (Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, Service d' Etudes de Criticite, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)); Vergnaud, T. (Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Direction des Reacteurs Nucleaires, Service d' Etudes des Reacteurs et de Mathematique Appliquees, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France))
1993-04-01
The three-dimensional energy pointwise Monte-Carlo code TRIPOLI-2 includes metallic spheres of uranium and plutonium, nitrate plutonium solutions, square and triangular pitch assemblies of uranium oxide. Results show good agreements between experiments and calculations, and avoid a part of the code and its ENDF-B4 library validation. (orig./DG)
Strain in the mesoscale kinetic Monte Carlo model for sintering
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bjørk, Rasmus; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Tikare, V.
2014-01-01
Shrinkage strains measured from microstructural simulations using the mesoscale kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) model for solid state sintering are discussed. This model represents the microstructure using digitized discrete sites that are either grain or pore sites. The algorithm used to simulate...
Monte Carlo estimation of the conditional Rasch model
Akkermans, Wies M.W.
1994-01-01
In order to obtain conditional maximum likelihood estimates, the so-called conditioning estimates have to be calculated. In this paper a method is examined that does not calculate these constants exactly, but approximates them using Monte Carlo Markov Chains. As an example, the method is applied to
Monte Carlo estimation of the conditional Rasch model
Akkermans, W.
1998-01-01
In order to obtain conditional maximum likelihood estimates, the conditioning constants are needed. Geyer and Thompson (1992) proposed a Markov chain Monte Carlo method that can be used to approximate these constants when they are difficult to calculate exactly. In the present paper, their method is
Nanoporous gold formation by dealloying : A Metropolis Monte Carlo study
Zinchenko, O.; De Raedt, H. A.; Detsi, E.; Onck, P. R.; De Hosson, J. T. M.
2013-01-01
A Metropolis Monte Carlo study of the dealloying mechanism leading to the formation of nanoporous gold is presented. A simple lattice-gas model for gold, silver and acid particles, vacancies and products of chemical reactions is adopted. The influence of temperature, concentration and lattice defect
Quantum Monte Carlo simulation of topological phase transitions
Yamamoto, Arata; Kimura, Taro
2016-12-01
We study the electron-electron interaction effects on topological phase transitions by the ab initio quantum Monte Carlo simulation. We analyze two-dimensional class A topological insulators and three-dimensional Weyl semimetals with the long-range Coulomb interaction. The direct computation of the Chern number shows the electron-electron interaction modifies or extinguishes topological phase transitions.
Calculating coherent pair production with Monte Carlo methods
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bottcher, C.; Strayer, M.R.
1989-01-01
We discuss calculations of the coherent electromagnetic pair production in ultra-relativistic hadron collisions. This type of production, in lowest order, is obtained from three diagrams which contain two virtual photons. We discuss simple Monte Carlo methods for evaluating these classes of diagrams without recourse to involved algebraic reduction schemes. 19 refs., 11 figs.
A Monte Carlo Evaluation of Maximum Likelihood Multidimensional Scaling Methods
Bijmolt, T.H.A.; Wedel, M.
1996-01-01
We compare three alternative Maximum Likelihood Multidimensional Scaling methods for pairwise dissimilarity ratings, namely MULTISCALE, MAXSCAL, and PROSCAL in a Monte Carlo study.The three MLMDS methods recover the true con gurations very well.The recovery of the true dimensionality depends on the
Direct determination of liquid phase coexistence by Monte Carlo simulations
Zweistra, H.J.A.; Besseling, N.A.M.
2006-01-01
A formalism to determine coexistence points by means of Monte Carlo simulations is presented. The general idea of the method is to perform a simulation simultaneously in several unconnected boxes which can exchange particles. At equilibrium, most of the boxes will be occupied by a homogeneous phase.
Monte Carlo methods for multidimensional integration for European option pricing
Todorov, V.; Dimov, I. T.
2016-10-01
In this paper, we illustrate examples of highly accurate Monte Carlo and quasi-Monte Carlo methods for multiple integrals related to the evaluation of European style options. The idea is that the value of the option is formulated in terms of the expectation of some random variable; then the average of independent samples of this random variable is used to estimate the value of the option. First we obtain an integral representation for the value of the option using the risk neutral valuation formula. Then with an appropriations change of the constants we obtain a multidimensional integral over the unit hypercube of the corresponding dimensionality. Then we compare a specific type of lattice rules over one of the best low discrepancy sequence of Sobol for numerical integration. Quasi-Monte Carlo methods are compared with Adaptive and Crude Monte Carlo techniques for solving the problem. The four approaches are completely different thus it is a question of interest to know which one of them outperforms the other for evaluation multidimensional integrals in finance. Some of the advantages and disadvantages of the developed algorithms are discussed.
Monte Carlo Simulation Optimizing Design of Grid Ionization Chamber
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHENG; Yu-lai; WANG; Qiang; YANG; Lu
2013-01-01
The grid ionization chamber detector is often used for measuring charged particles.Based on Monte Carlo simulation method,the energy loss distribution and electron ion pairs of alpha particle with different energy have been calculated to determine suitable filling gas in the ionization chamber filled with
Optimization of sequential decisions by least squares Monte Carlo method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nishijima, Kazuyoshi; Anders, Annett
change adaptation measures, and evacuation of people and assets in the face of an emerging natural hazard event. Focusing on the last example, an efficient solution scheme is proposed by Anders and Nishijima (2011). The proposed solution scheme takes basis in the least squares Monte Carlo method, which...
Testing Dependent Correlations with Nonoverlapping Variables: A Monte Carlo Simulation
Silver, N. Clayton; Hittner, James B.; May, Kim
2004-01-01
The authors conducted a Monte Carlo simulation of 4 test statistics or comparing dependent correlations with no variables in common. Empirical Type 1 error rates and power estimates were determined for K. Pearson and L. N. G. Filon's (1898) z, O. J. Dunn and V. A. Clark's (1969) z, J. H. Steiger's (1980) original modification of Dunn and Clark's…
Bayesian Monte Carlo Method for Nuclear Data Evaluation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koning, A.J., E-mail: koning@nrg.eu
2015-01-15
A Bayesian Monte Carlo method is outlined which allows a systematic evaluation of nuclear reactions using TALYS. The result will be either an EXFOR-weighted covariance matrix or a collection of random files, each accompanied by an experiment based weight.
Auxiliary-field quantum Monte Carlo methods in nuclei
Alhassid, Y
2016-01-01
Auxiliary-field quantum Monte Carlo methods enable the calculation of thermal and ground state properties of correlated quantum many-body systems in model spaces that are many orders of magnitude larger than those that can be treated by conventional diagonalization methods. We review recent developments and applications of these methods in nuclei using the framework of the configuration-interaction shell model.
Play It Again: Teaching Statistics with Monte Carlo Simulation
Sigal, Matthew J.; Chalmers, R. Philip
2016-01-01
Monte Carlo simulations (MCSs) provide important information about statistical phenomena that would be impossible to assess otherwise. This article introduces MCS methods and their applications to research and statistical pedagogy using a novel software package for the R Project for Statistical Computing constructed to lessen the often steep…
Exact Dynamics via Poisson Process: a unifying Monte Carlo paradigm
Gubernatis, James
2014-03-01
A common computational task is solving a set of ordinary differential equations (o.d.e.'s). A little known theorem says that the solution of any set of o.d.e.'s is exactly solved by the expectation value over a set of arbitary Poisson processes of a particular function of the elements of the matrix that defines the o.d.e.'s. The theorem thus provides a new starting point to develop real and imaginary-time continous-time solvers for quantum Monte Carlo algorithms, and several simple observations enable various quantum Monte Carlo techniques and variance reduction methods to transfer to a new context. I will state the theorem, note a transformation to a very simple computational scheme, and illustrate the use of some techniques from the directed-loop algorithm in context of the wavefunction Monte Carlo method that is used to solve the Lindblad master equation for the dynamics of open quantum systems. I will end by noting that as the theorem does not depend on the source of the o.d.e.'s coming from quantum mechanics, it also enables the transfer of continuous-time methods from quantum Monte Carlo to the simulation of various classical equations of motion heretofore only solved deterministically.
Monte Carlo method for magnetic impurities in metals
Hirsch, J. E.; Fye, R. M.
1986-01-01
The paper discusses a Monte Carlo algorithm to study properties of dilute magnetic alloys; the method can treat a small number of magnetic impurities interacting wiith the conduction electrons in a metal. Results for the susceptibility of a single Anderson impurity in the symmetric case show the expected universal behavior at low temperatures. Some results for two Anderson impurities are also discussed.
Simulating Strongly Correlated Electron Systems with Hybrid Monte Carlo
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Chuan
2000-01-01
Using the path integral representation, the Hubbard and the periodic Anderson model on D-dimensional cubic lattice are transformed into field theories of fermions in D + 1 dimensions. These theories at half-filling possess a positive definite real symmetry fermion matrix and can be simulated using the hybrid Monte Carlo method.
Research of Monte Carlo Simulation in Commercial Bank Risk Management
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
BeimingXiao
2004-01-01
Simulation method is an important-tool in financial risk management. It can simulate financial variable or economic wriable and deal with non-linear or non-nominal issue. This paper analyzes the usage of "Monte Carlo" approach in commercial bank risk management.
Observations on variational and projector Monte Carlo methods.
Umrigar, C J
2015-10-28
Variational Monte Carlo and various projector Monte Carlo (PMC) methods are presented in a unified manner. Similarities and differences between the methods and choices made in designing the methods are discussed. Both methods where the Monte Carlo walk is performed in a discrete space and methods where it is performed in a continuous space are considered. It is pointed out that the usual prescription for importance sampling may not be advantageous depending on the particular quantum Monte Carlo method used and the observables of interest, so alternate prescriptions are presented. The nature of the sign problem is discussed for various versions of PMC methods. A prescription for an exact PMC method in real space, i.e., a method that does not make a fixed-node or similar approximation and does not have a finite basis error, is presented. This method is likely to be practical for systems with a small number of electrons. Approximate PMC methods that are applicable to larger systems and go beyond the fixed-node approximation are also discussed.
Monte-carlo calculations for some problems of quantum mechanics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Novoselov, A. A., E-mail: novoselov@goa.bog.msu.ru; Pavlovsky, O. V.; Ulybyshev, M. V. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation)
2012-09-15
The Monte-Carlo technique for the calculations of functional integral in two one-dimensional quantum-mechanical problems had been applied. The energies of the bound states in some potential wells were obtained using this method. Also some peculiarities in the calculation of the kinetic energy in the ground state had been studied.
Quantum Monte Carlo simulation of topological phase transitions
Yamamoto, Arata
2016-01-01
We study the electron-electron interaction effects on topological phase transitions by the ab-initio quantum Monte Carlo simulation. We analyze two-dimensional class A topological insulators and three-dimensional Weyl semimetals with the long-range Coulomb interaction. The direct computation of the Chern number shows the electron-electron interaction modifies or extinguishes topological phase transitions.
Exploring Mass Perception with Markov Chain Monte Carlo
Cohen, Andrew L.; Ross, Michael G.
2009-01-01
Several previous studies have examined the ability to judge the relative mass of objects in idealized collisions. With a newly developed technique of psychological Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling (A. N. Sanborn & T. L. Griffiths, 2008), this work explores participants; perceptions of different collision mass ratios. The results reveal…
CMS Monte Carlo production operations in a distributed computing environment
Mohapatra, A; Khomich, A; Lazaridis, C; Hernández, J M; Caballero, J; Hof, C; Kalinin, S; Flossdorf, A; Abbrescia, M; De Filippis, N; Donvito, G; Maggi, G; My, S; Pompili, A; Sarkar, S; Maes, J; Van Mulders, P; Villella, I; De Weirdt, S; Hammad, G; Wakefield, S; Guan, W; Lajas, J A S; Elmer, P; Evans, D; Fanfani, A; Bacchi, W; Codispoti, G; Van Lingen, F; Kavka, C; Eulisse, G
2008-01-01
Monte Carlo production for the CMS experiment is carried out in a distributed computing environment; the goal of producing 30M simulated events per month in the first half of 2007 has been reached. A brief overview of the production operations and statistics is presented.
A Variational Monte Carlo Approach to Atomic Structure
Davis, Stephen L.
2007-01-01
The practicality and usefulness of variational Monte Carlo calculations to atomic structure are demonstrated. It is found to succeed in quantitatively illustrating electron shielding, effective nuclear charge, l-dependence of the orbital energies, and singlet-tripetenergy splitting and ionization energy trends in atomic structure theory.
Monte Carlo Simulation on Glueball Search at BESⅢ
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
QIN Hu; SHEN Xiao-Yan
2007-01-01
The J/ψ radiative decays are suggested as promising modes for glueball search. A full Monte Carlo simulation of J/ψ→γηη and γηη', based on the design of BESⅢ detector, is performed to study the sensitivity of searching for a possible tensor glueball at BESⅢ.
The Metropolis Monte Carlo Method in Statistical Physics
Landau, David P.
2003-11-01
A brief overview is given of some of the advances in statistical physics that have been made using the Metropolis Monte Carlo method. By complementing theory and experiment, these have increased our understanding of phase transitions and other phenomena in condensed matter systems. A brief description of a new method, commonly known as "Wang-Landau sampling," will also be presented.
Exploring Mass Perception with Markov Chain Monte Carlo
Cohen, Andrew L.; Ross, Michael G.
2009-01-01
Several previous studies have examined the ability to judge the relative mass of objects in idealized collisions. With a newly developed technique of psychological Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling (A. N. Sanborn & T. L. Griffiths, 2008), this work explores participants; perceptions of different collision mass ratios. The results reveal…
Monte Carlo Simulation of Partially Confined Flexible Polymers
Hermsen, G.F.; de Geeter, B.A.; van der Vegt, N.F.A.; Wessling, Matthias
2002-01-01
We have studied conformational properties of flexible polymers partially confined to narrow pores of different size using configurational biased Monte Carlo simulations under athermal conditions. The asphericity of the chain has been studied as a function of its center of mass position along the
Direct Monte Carlo simulation of nanoscale mixed gas bearings
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kyaw Sett Myo
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The conception of sealed hard drives with helium gas mixture has been recently suggested over the current hard drives for achieving higher reliability and less position error. Therefore, it is important to understand the effects of different helium gas mixtures on the slider bearing characteristics in the head–disk interface. In this article, the helium/air and helium/argon gas mixtures are applied as the working fluids and their effects on the bearing characteristics are studied using the direct simulation Monte Carlo method. Based on direct simulation Monte Carlo simulations, the physical properties of these gas mixtures such as mean free path and dynamic viscosity are achieved and compared with those obtained from theoretical models. It is observed that both results are comparable. Using these gas mixture properties, the bearing pressure distributions are calculated under different fractions of helium with conventional molecular gas lubrication models. The outcomes reveal that the molecular gas lubrication results could have relatively good agreement with those of direct simulation Monte Carlo simulations, especially for pure air, helium, or argon gas cases. For gas mixtures, the bearing pressures predicted by molecular gas lubrication model are slightly larger than those from direct simulation Monte Carlo simulation.
Monte Carlo: in the beginning and some great expectations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Metropolis, N.
1985-01-01
The central theme will be on the historical setting and origins of the Monte Carlo Method. The scene was post-war Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. There was an inevitability about the Monte Carlo Event: the ENIAC had recently enjoyed its meteoric rise (on a classified Los Alamos problem); Stan Ulam had returned to Los Alamos; John von Neumann was a frequent visitor. Techniques, algorithms, and applications developed rapidly at Los Alamos. Soon, the fascination of the Method reached wider horizons. The first paper was submitted for publication in the spring of 1949. In the summer of 1949, the first open conference was held at the University of California at Los Angeles. Of some interst perhaps is an account of Fermi's earlier, independent application in neutron moderation studies while at the University of Rome. The quantum leap expected with the advent of massively parallel processors will provide stimuli for very ambitious applications of the Monte Carlo Method in disciplines ranging from field theories to cosmology, including more realistic models in the neurosciences. A structure of multi-instruction sets for parallel processing is ideally suited for the Monte Carlo approach. One may even hope for a modest hardening of the soft sciences.
On a full Monte Carlo approach to quantum mechanics
Sellier, J. M.; Dimov, I.
2016-12-01
The Monte Carlo approach to numerical problems has shown to be remarkably efficient in performing very large computational tasks since it is an embarrassingly parallel technique. Additionally, Monte Carlo methods are well known to keep performance and accuracy with the increase of dimensionality of a given problem, a rather counterintuitive peculiarity not shared by any known deterministic method. Motivated by these very peculiar and desirable computational features, in this work we depict a full Monte Carlo approach to the problem of simulating single- and many-body quantum systems by means of signed particles. In particular we introduce a stochastic technique, based on the strategy known as importance sampling, for the computation of the Wigner kernel which, so far, has represented the main bottleneck of this method (it is equivalent to the calculation of a multi-dimensional integral, a problem in which complexity is known to grow exponentially with the dimensions of the problem). The introduction of this stochastic technique for the kernel is twofold: firstly it reduces the complexity of a quantum many-body simulation from non-linear to linear, secondly it introduces an embarassingly parallel approach to this very demanding problem. To conclude, we perform concise but indicative numerical experiments which clearly illustrate how a full Monte Carlo approach to many-body quantum systems is not only possible but also advantageous. This paves the way towards practical time-dependent, first-principle simulations of relatively large quantum systems by means of affordable computational resources.
Bug, Marion U.; Yong Baek, Woon; Rabus, Hans; Villagrasa, Carmen; Meylan, Sylvain; Rosenfeld, Anatoly B.
2017-01-01
This work provides the first cross section data set of DNA constituents for an impact of electrons in the energy range between about 10 eV and 1 keV on a DNA target. The data set is designed for an implementation in Monte Carlo simulations and consists of model functions, taking into account elastic scattering, ionization and excitation interactions with the DNA constituents tetrahydrofuran, trimethylphosphate, pyrimidine and purine. It was developed on the basis of experimentally determined absolute differential and total scattering cross sections in accordance with the available literature data. The data set will be available in the Geant4-DNA toolkit to allow secondary electron transport in a DNA-like medium down to the ionization threshold.
Quantum Monte Carlo Calculations Applied to Magnetic Molecules
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Engelhardt, Larry [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)
2006-01-01
We have calculated the equilibrium thermodynamic properties of Heisenberg spin systems using a quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) method. We have used some of these systems as models to describe recently synthesized magnetic molecules, and-upon comparing the results of these calculations with experimental data-have obtained accurate estimates for the basic parameters of these models. We have also performed calculations for other systems that are of more general interest, being relevant both for existing experimental data and for future experiments. Utilizing the concept of importance sampling, these calculations can be carried out in an arbitrarily large quantum Hilbert space, while still avoiding any approximations that would introduce systematic errors. The only errors are statistical in nature, and as such, their magnitudes are accurately estimated during the course of a simulation. Frustrated spin systems present a major challenge to the QMC method, nevertheless, in many instances progress can be made. In this chapter, the field of magnetic molecules is introduced, paying particular attention to the characteristics that distinguish magnetic molecules from other systems that are studied in condensed matter physics. We briefly outline the typical path by which we learn about magnetic molecules, which requires a close relationship between experiments and theoretical calculations. The typical experiments are introduced here, while the theoretical methods are discussed in the next chapter. Each of these theoretical methods has a considerable limitation, also described in Chapter 2, which together serve to motivate the present work. As is shown throughout the later chapters, the present QMC method is often able to provide useful information where other methods fail. In Chapter 3, the use of Monte Carlo methods in statistical physics is reviewed, building up the fundamental ideas that are necessary in order to understand the method that has been used in this work. With these
Development of ray tracing visualization program by Monte Carlo method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Higuchi, Kenji; Otani, Takayuki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan); Hasegawa, Yukihiro
1997-09-01
Ray tracing algorithm is a powerful method to synthesize three dimensional computer graphics. In conventional ray tracing algorithms, a view point is used as a starting point of ray tracing, from which the rays are tracked up to the light sources through center points of pixels on the view screen to calculate the intensities of the pixels. This manner, however, makes it difficult to define the configuration of light source as well as to strictly simulate the reflections of the rays. To resolve these problems, we have developed a new ray tracing means which traces rays from a light source, not from a view point, with use of Monte Carlo method which is widely applied in nuclear fields. Moreover, we adopt the variance reduction techniques to the program with use of the specialized machine (Monte-4) for particle transport Monte Carlo so that the computational time could be successfully reduced. (author)
Development of ray tracing visualization program by Monte Carlo method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Higuchi, Kenji; Otani, Takayuki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan); Hasegawa, Yukihiro
1997-09-01
Ray tracing algorithm is a powerful method to synthesize three dimensional computer graphics. In conventional ray tracing algorithms, a view point is used as a starting point of ray tracing, from which the rays are tracked up to the light sources through center points of pixels on the view screen to calculate the intensities of the pixels. This manner, however, makes it difficult to define the configuration of light source as well as to strictly simulate the reflections of the rays. To resolve these problems, we have developed a new ray tracing means which traces rays from a light source, not from a view point, with use of Monte Carlo method which is widely applied in nuclear fields. Moreover, we adopt the variance reduction techniques to the program with use of the specialized machine (Monte-4) for particle transport Monte Carlo so that the computational time could be successfully reduced. (author)
Direct aperture optimization for IMRT using Monte Carlo generated beamlets.
Bergman, Alanah M; Bush, Karl; Milette, Marie-Pierre; Popescu, I Antoniu; Otto, Karl; Duzenli, Cheryl
2006-10-01
This work introduces an EGSnrc-based Monte Carlo (MC) beamlet does distribution matrix into a direct aperture optimization (DAO) algorithm for IMRT inverse planning. The technique is referred to as Monte Carlo-direct aperture optimization (MC-DAO). The goal is to assess if the combination of accurate Monte Carlo tissue inhomogeneity modeling and DAO inverse planning will improve the dose accuracy and treatment efficiency for treatment planning. Several authors have shown that the presence of small fields and/or inhomogeneous materials in IMRT treatment fields can cause dose calculation errors for algorithms that are unable to accurately model electronic disequilibrium. This issue may also affect the IMRT optimization process because the dose calculation algorithm may not properly model difficult geometries such as targets close to low-density regions (lung, air etc.). A clinical linear accelerator head is simulated using BEAMnrc (NRC, Canada). A novel in-house algorithm subdivides the resulting phase space into 2.5 X 5.0 mm2 beamlets. Each beamlet is projected onto a patient-specific phantom. The beamlet dose contribution to each voxel in a structure-of-interest is calculated using DOSXYZnrc. The multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf positions are linked to the location of the beamlet does distributions. The MLC shapes are optimized using direct aperture optimization (DAO). A final Monte Carlo calculation with MLC modeling is used to compute the final dose distribution. Monte Carlo simulation can generate accurate beamlet dose distributions for traditionally difficult-to-calculate geometries, particularly for small fields crossing regions of tissue inhomogeneity. The introduction of DAO results in an additional improvement by increasing the treatment delivery efficiency. For the examples presented in this paper the reduction in the total number of monitor units to deliver is approximately 33% compared to fluence-based optimization methods.
Global Monte Carlo Simulation with High Order Polynomial Expansions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
William R. Martin; James Paul Holloway; Kaushik Banerjee; Jesse Cheatham; Jeremy Conlin
2007-12-13
The functional expansion technique (FET) was recently developed for Monte Carlo simulation. The basic idea of the FET is to expand a Monte Carlo tally in terms of a high order expansion, the coefficients of which can be estimated via the usual random walk process in a conventional Monte Carlo code. If the expansion basis is chosen carefully, the lowest order coefficient is simply the conventional histogram tally, corresponding to a flat mode. This research project studied the applicability of using the FET to estimate the fission source, from which fission sites can be sampled for the next generation. The idea is that individual fission sites contribute to expansion modes that may span the geometry being considered, possibly increasing the communication across a loosely coupled system and thereby improving convergence over the conventional fission bank approach used in most production Monte Carlo codes. The project examined a number of basis functions, including global Legendre polynomials as well as “local” piecewise polynomials such as finite element hat functions and higher order versions. The global FET showed an improvement in convergence over the conventional fission bank approach. The local FET methods showed some advantages versus global polynomials in handling geometries with discontinuous material properties. The conventional finite element hat functions had the disadvantage that the expansion coefficients could not be estimated directly but had to be obtained by solving a linear system whose matrix elements were estimated. An alternative fission matrix-based response matrix algorithm was formulated. Studies were made of two alternative applications of the FET, one based on the kernel density estimator and one based on Arnoldi’s method of minimized iterations. Preliminary results for both methods indicate improvements in fission source convergence. These developments indicate that the FET has promise for speeding up Monte Carlo fission source
Multiple-time-stepping generalized hybrid Monte Carlo methods
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Escribano, Bruno, E-mail: bescribano@bcamath.org [BCAM—Basque Center for Applied Mathematics, E-48009 Bilbao (Spain); Akhmatskaya, Elena [BCAM—Basque Center for Applied Mathematics, E-48009 Bilbao (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, E-48013 Bilbao (Spain); Reich, Sebastian [Universität Potsdam, Institut für Mathematik, D-14469 Potsdam (Germany); Azpiroz, Jon M. [Kimika Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea (UPV/EHU) and Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), P.K. 1072, Donostia (Spain)
2015-01-01
Performance of the generalized shadow hybrid Monte Carlo (GSHMC) method [1], which proved to be superior in sampling efficiency over its predecessors [2–4], molecular dynamics and hybrid Monte Carlo, can be further improved by combining it with multi-time-stepping (MTS) and mollification of slow forces. We demonstrate that the comparatively simple modifications of the method not only lead to better performance of GSHMC itself but also allow for beating the best performed methods, which use the similar force splitting schemes. In addition we show that the same ideas can be successfully applied to the conventional generalized hybrid Monte Carlo method (GHMC). The resulting methods, MTS-GHMC and MTS-GSHMC, provide accurate reproduction of thermodynamic and dynamical properties, exact temperature control during simulation and computational robustness and efficiency. MTS-GHMC uses a generalized momentum update to achieve weak stochastic stabilization to the molecular dynamics (MD) integrator. MTS-GSHMC adds the use of a shadow (modified) Hamiltonian to filter the MD trajectories in the HMC scheme. We introduce a new shadow Hamiltonian formulation adapted to force-splitting methods. The use of such Hamiltonians improves the acceptance rate of trajectories and has a strong impact on the sampling efficiency of the method. Both methods were implemented in the open-source MD package ProtoMol and were tested on a water and a protein systems. Results were compared to those obtained using a Langevin Molly (LM) method [5] on the same systems. The test results demonstrate the superiority of the new methods over LM in terms of stability, accuracy and sampling efficiency. This suggests that putting the MTS approach in the framework of hybrid Monte Carlo and using the natural stochasticity offered by the generalized hybrid Monte Carlo lead to improving stability of MTS and allow for achieving larger step sizes in the simulation of complex systems.
Monte Carlo Simulation Program from the World Petroleum Assessment 2000, DDS-60 (Emc2.xls)
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Monte Carlo programs described in chapter MC, Monte Carlo Simulation Method. Emc2.xls was the program used to calculate the estimates of undiscovered resources for...
Mont Carlo Simulation Program from the World Petroleum Assessment 2000, DDS-60 (emcee.xls).xml
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Monte Carlo programs described in chapter MC, Monte Carlo Simulation Method. Emc2.xls was the program used to calculate the estimates of undiscovered resources for...
Monte Carlo Simulation Program from the World Petroleum Assessment 2000, DDS-60 (Emc2.xls).
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Monte Carlo programs described in chapter MC, Monte Carlo Simulation Method. Emc2.xls was the program used to calculate the estimates of undiscovered resources for...