WorldWideScience

Sample records for montana usa electronic

  1. Social preferences toward energy generation with woody biomass from public forests in Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert M. Campbell; Tyron J. Venn; Nathaniel M. Anderson

    2016-01-01

    In Montana, USA, there are substantial opportunities for mechanized thinning treatments on public forests to reduce the likelihood of severe and damaging wildfires and improve forest health. These treatments produce residues that can be used to generate renewable energy and displace fossil fuels. The choice modeling method is employed to examine the marginal...

  2. Climate-influenced ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) seed masting trends in western Montana, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher R. Keyes; Rubén Manso González

    2015-01-01

    Aim of study: The aim of this study was to analyze 10-year records of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) seed production, in order to confirm synchronic seed production and to evaluate cyclical masting trends, masting depletion effect, and climate-masting relationships. Area of study: The study area was located in a P. ponderosa stand in the northern Rocky Mountains (western Montana, USA). Material and methods: The study was conducted in one stand that had been subjected to a silvicul...

  3. Observations of brachygnathia superior (underbite in wild ruminates in Western Montana, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith A Hoy

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Beginning spring of 1995 until present, unusual developmental malformations have been observed on many species of vertebrate and documented on individuals of four species of wild ruminates. The most frequently observed of a variety of skeletal anomalies is brachygnathia superior, also called mandibular prognathia or more commonly, underbite, caused by underdevelopment in length and width of the premaxillary bone forward of the premolars. Facial anatomy was examined for bone and tooth malformations on 724 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus that were accident-killed or died of natural causes between January 1996 and December 2009 in northern Ravalli County in the Bitterroot Valley of west-central, Montana, USA. Smaller samples (145 total of hunter-killed elk (Cervis canadensis, mule deer (O. hemionus and pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana from throughout Montana were examined for facial malformations in 2005-09. Incidences of underbite increased from none observed prior to spring of 1995 to more than 35% in 8 of 9 years since 2000 and over 70% in 2008 and 2009. This abnormality appeared abruptly, vastly exceeding expected and previously documented percentages in wild ruminates, and is a characteristic symptom of congenital hypothyroidism. Our data strongly indicates widespread interference with maternal and fetal thyroid hormone function has been occurring in wild ruminants in Montana since autumn 1994.

  4. Estimating detection probability for Canada lynx Lynx canadensis using snow-track surveys in the northern Rocky Mountains, Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Squires; Lucretia E. Olson; David L. Turner; Nicholas J. DeCesare; Jay A. Kolbe

    2012-01-01

    We used snow-tracking surveys to determine the probability of detecting Canada lynx Lynx canadensis in known areas of lynx presence in the northern Rocky Mountains, Montana, USA during the winters of 2006 and 2007. We used this information to determine the minimum number of survey replicates necessary to infer the presence and absence of lynx in areas of similar lynx...

  5. Atmospheric tracer monitoring and surface plume development at the ZERT pilot test in Bozeman, Montana, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, Arthur [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Strazisar, Brian [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Rodney Diehl, J. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Veloski, Garret [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States)

    2010-03-01

    A controlled release of CO2 was conducted at a field site in Bozeman, Montana, USA in July of 2008 in a multi-laboratory study of near surface transport and detection technologies. The development of a subsurface CO2 plume near the middle packer section of the horizontal release was studied using soil-gas and surface flux measurements of CO2. A perfluorocarbon tracer was added to the CO2 released from this section of the horizontal well, and the development of atmospheric plumes of the tracer was studied under various meteorological conditions using horizontal and vertical grids of monitors containing sorbent material to collect the tracer. This study demonstrated the feasibility of using remote sensing for the ultra low level detection of atmospheric plumes of tracers as means to monitor the near surface leakage of sequestered CO2.

  6. Avian botulism and avian chlamydiosis in wild water birds, Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Montana, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docherty, Douglas E; Franson, J Christian; Brannian, Roger E; Long, Renee R; Radi, Craig A; Krueger, David; Johnson, Robert F

    2012-12-01

    In 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Wildlife Health Center, Madison, Wisconsin, conducted a diagnostic investigation into a water bird mortality event involving intoxication with avian botulism type C and infection with avian chlamydiosis at the Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge in Montana, USA. Of 24 carcasses necropsied, 11 had lesions consistent with avian chlamydiosis, including two that tested positive for infectious Chlamydophila psittaci, and 12 were positive for avian botulism type C. One bird tested positive for both avian botulism type C and C. psittaci. Of 61 apparently healthy water birds sampled and released, 13 had serologic evidence of C. psittaci infection and 7 were, at the time of capture, shedding infectious C. psittaci via the cloacal or oropharyngeal route. Since more routinely diagnosed disease conditions may mask avian chlamydiosis, these findings support the need for a comprehensive diagnostic investigation when determining the cause of a wildlife mortality event.

  7. Avian botulism and avian chlamydiosis in wild water birds, Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docherty, Douglas E.; Franson, J. Christian; Brannian, Roger E.; Long, Renee R.; Radi, Craig A.; Krueger, David; Johnson, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    In 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Wildlife Health Center, Madison, Wisconsin, conducted a diagnostic investigation into a water bird mortality event involving intoxication with avian botulism type C and infection with avian chlamydiosis at the Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge in Montana, USA. Of 24 carcasses necropsied, 11 had lesions consistent with avian chlamydiosis, including two that tested positive for infectious Chlamydophila psittaci, and 12 were positive for avian botulism type C. One bird tested positive for both avian botulism type C and C. psittaci. Of 61 apparently healthy water birds sampled and released, 13 had serologic evidence of C. psittaci infection and 7 were, at the time of capture, shedding infectious C. psittaci via the cloacal or oropharyngeal route. Since more routinely diagnosed disease conditions may mask avian chlamydiosis, these findings support the need for a comprehensive diagnostic investigation when determining the cause of a wildlife mortality event.

  8. Lead, mercury, selenium, and other trace elements in tissues of golden eagles from southwestern Montana, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmata, Alan R; Restani, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Lead-based rifle bullets, used in game hunting and recreational shooting, fragment when striking bone and soft tissues. Lead fragments may be ingested by birds scavenging offal piles or nonretrieved carcasses and therefore pose a poisoning risk. We captured and sampled 74 Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in southwestern Montana, USA, from 2008 to 2010 to evaluate levels of lead, mercury, selenium, and 13 other trace elements in blood and feathers. Lead was detected in blood of most (97%, n=70) eagles; mean blood level was 0.26 parts per million (ppm). Most eagles (65%) had background levels (1.0 ppm) in blood. Lead in blood decreased from winter to spring. Resident eagles had higher lead levels than eagles of unknown residency. Mercury was detected in few eagles, whereas selenium was detected in all, but at a low level (0.36 ppm). Other chemical elements in blood were at low or biologically appropriate levels. Lead in feathers (n=29) was correlated with blood lead (P=0.010), as was mercury in blood and feathers (n=48; P=0.003). Concentrations of lead and mercury in feathers were higher in adults than in juveniles and immatures (Pelements tended to increase with age. Selenium in feathers (n=48) appeared stable across plumage classes. Although detection rates of lead in blood of eagles captured in spring increased from 1985-1993 to 2008-2010, mean levels decreased (P0.2 ppm; P<0.02).

  9. Glaciological measurements and mass balances from Sperry Glacier, Montana, USA, years 2005-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Adam M.; Fagre, Daniel B.; Peitzsch, Erich H.; Reardon, Blase A.; Harper, Joel T.

    2017-01-01

    Glacier mass balance measurements help to provide an understanding of the behavior of glaciers and their response to local and regional climate. In 2005 the United States Geological Survey established a surface mass balance monitoring program on Sperry Glacier, Montana, USA. This project is the first quantitative study of mass changes of a glacier in the US northern Rocky Mountains and continues to the present. The following paper describes the methods used during the first 11 years of measurements and reports the associated results. From 2005 to 2015, Sperry Glacier had a cumulative mean mass balance loss of 4.37 m w.e. (water equivalent). The mean winter, summer, and annual glacier-wide mass balances were 2.92, -3.41, and -0.40 m w.e. yr-1 respectively. We derive these cumulative and mean results from an expansive data set of snow depth, snow density, and ablation measurements taken at selected points on the glacier. These data allow for the determination of mass balance point values and a time series of seasonal and annual glacier-wide mass balances for all 11 measurement years. We also provide measurements of glacier extent and accumulation areas for select years. All data have been submitted to the World Glacier Monitoring Service and are available at doi:10.5904/wgms-fog-2016-08. This foundational work provides valuable insight about Sperry Glacier and supplies additional data to the worldwide record of glaciers measured using the glaciological method. Future research will focus on the processes that control accumulation and ablation patterns across the glacier. Also we plan to examine the uncertainties related to our methods and eventually quantify a more robust estimate of error associated with our results.

  10. Risk of Myxobolus cerebralis infection to rainbow trout in the Madison River, Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, R.C.; Kerans, B.L.; Vincent, E.R.; Rasmussen, C.

    2006-01-01

    Myxobolus cerebralis, the parasite that causes salmonid whirling disease, has had detrimental effects on several salmonid populations in the Intermountain West, including the rainbow trout in the Madison River, Montana, USA. The goal of this study was to examine relationships among characteristics of the environment, Tubifex tubifex (the alternate host) populations, and rainbow trout whirling disease risk in the Madison River. Environmental characteristics were measured in side channels of the Madison River, and differences were described with a principal components analysis. The density of T. tubifex, the prevalence of infection in T. tubifex, and the density of infected T. tubifex were determined for the side channels using benthic core samples and examination of live tubificids for infection. The site-specific contribution to whirling disease risk in the side channels was determined using in situ exposures of sentinel rainbow trout. Regression analyses were used to determine correlations among these characteristics. Side channels differed in site-specific contribution to rainbow trout whirling disease risk, which was positively correlated to the density of infected T. tubifex. Side channels with fine sediments and lower water temperatures made greater site-specific contribution to whirling disease risk and had higher densities of infected T. tubifex than side channels with coarser sediments and higher temperatures. The ability to characterize areas of high whirling disease risk is essential for improving our understanding of the dynamics of M. cerebralis such that appropriate management strategies can be implemented. In addition, this study provides a model of how the disease ecology of complex aquatic parasites can be examined when the influential processes operate on different spatial scales. ?? 2006 by the Ecological Society of America.

  11. Glaciological measurements and mass balances from Sperry Glacier, Montana, USA, years 2005–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Adam; Fagre, Daniel B.; Peitzsch, Erich H.; Reardon, Blase A.; Harper, Joel T.

    2017-01-01

    Glacier mass balance measurements help to provide an understanding of the behavior of glaciers and their response to local and regional climate. In 2005 the United States Geological Survey established a surface mass balance monitoring program on Sperry Glacier, Montana, USA. This project is the first quantitative study of mass changes of a glacier in the US northern Rocky Mountains and continues to the present. The following paper describes the methods used during the first 11 years of measurements and reports the associated results. From 2005 to 2015, Sperry Glacier had a cumulative mean mass balance loss of 4.37 m w.e. (water equivalent). The mean winter, summer, and annual glacier-wide mass balances were 2.92, −3.41, and −0.40 m w.e. yr−1 respectively. We derive these cumulative and mean results from an expansive data set of snow depth, snow density, and ablation measurements taken at selected points on the glacier. These data allow for the determination of mass balance point values and a time series of seasonal and annual glacier-wide mass balances for all 11 measurement years. We also provide measurements of glacier extent and accumulation areas for select years. All data have been submitted to the World Glacier Monitoring Service and are available at doi:10.5904/wgms-fog-2016-08. This foundational work provides valuable insight about Sperry Glacier and supplies additional data to the worldwide record of glaciers measured using the glaciological method. Future research will focus on the processes that control accumulation and ablation patterns across the glacier. Also we plan to examine the uncertainties related to our methods and eventually quantify a more robust estimate of error associated with our results.

  12. Climate-influenced ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa seed masting trends in western Montana, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Keyes

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The aim of this study was to analyze 10-year records of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa seed production, in order to confirm synchronic seed production and to evaluate cyclical masting trends, masting depletion effect, and climate-masting relationships. Area of study: The study area was located in a P. ponderosa stand in the northern Rocky Mountains (western Montana, USA. Material and methods: The study was conducted in one stand that had been subjected to a silvicultural study of uneven-aged management techniques that was carried out in 1984, and which resulted in three separate units consisting of one control, one cut/no-burn treatment, and one cut/burn treatment. Seeds were collected during the 10 years following treatment in 15 traps systematically deployed within each of the stand’s three units. The total numbers of seeds collected in each unit were plotted over time to analyze crop synchrony, with Spearman rank correlation coefficient used to test for masting cycles and crop depletion after a mast year. Meteorological records over the period 1983-1994 were related to the occurrence of a mast event (defined as crops exceeding 50,000 viable seeds/ha. Main results: The seed production pattern was non-cyclical, synchronous, and independent of silvicultural treatment history. A mast-depletion effect was evident but was not statistically significant. Mast events seem to be promoted by the occurrence of optimum mean temperatures at the beginning of spring during both the first (11 °C and second (9 °C years of cone maturation. The probability of a mast year was also affected by summer temperature (number of late frost days; negative effect and precipitation amount (positive effect. All these factors would seemingly explain the observed synchronous pattern in cone production. Research highlights: The non-cyclical trend of ponderosa pine seed mast years is influenced by specific climate determinants. Fluctuations in mean early

  13. Uniquely Acquired Vintage Seismic Reflection Data Reveal the Stratigraphic and Tectonic History of the Montana Disturbed Belt, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speece, M. A.; Link, C. A.; Stickney, M.

    2011-12-01

    In 1983 and 1984 Techco of Denver, Colorado, acquired approximately 302 linear kilometers of two-dimensional (2D) seismic reflection data in Flathead and Lake Counties, Montana, USA, as part of an initiative to identify potential drilling targets beneath the Swan and Whitefish Mountain Ranges and adjacent basins of northwestern Montana. These seismic lines were collected in the Montana Disturbed Belt (MDB) or Montana thrust belt along the western edge of Glacier National Park in mountainous terrain with complicated subsurface structures including thrust faults and folds. These structures formed during the Laramide Orogeny as sedimentary rocks of the Precambrian Belt Supergroup were thrust eastward. Later, during the Cenozoic, high-angle normal faults produced prominent west-facing mountain scarps of the Mission, Swan and Whitefish mountains. The 1983 data set consisted of two profiles of 24-fold (96-channels) Vibroseis data and four profiles of 24-fold (96-channels) helicopter-assisted dynamite data. The dynamite data were collected using the Poulter Method in which explosives were placed on poles and air shots were recorded. The 1983 dynamite profiles extend from southwest to northeast across the Whitefish Mountain Range to the edge of Glacier National Park and the Vibroseis data were collected along nearby roadways. The 1984 data set consists of four profiles of 30-fold (120-channels) helicopter-assisted dynamite data that were also collected using the Poulter Method. The 1984 profiles cross the Swan Mountain Range between Flathead Lake and Glacier National Park. All of these data sets were recently donated to Montana Tech and subsequently recovered from nine-track tape. Conventionally processed seismic stacked sections from the 1980s of these data show evidence of a basement decollement that separates relatively undeformed basement from overlying structures of the MDB. Unfortunately, these data sets have not been processed using modern seismic processing

  14. Quantifying social preferences toward woody biomass energy generation in Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Campbell; Tyron Venn; Nathaniel Anderson

    2015-01-01

    A significant amount of the forestland in Montana is in need of mechanical forest restoration treatments, which can improve forest health and reduce wildfire risk, but can be expensive to implement and produce little merchantable timber. One option for disposal of the small diameter material produced by these treatments is to utilize it to produce energy,...

  15. A unified hydrogeological conceptual model of the Milk River transboundary aquifer, traversing Alberta (Canada) and Montana (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pétré, Marie-Amélie; Rivera, Alfonso; Lefebvre, René; Hendry, M. Jim; Folnagy, Attila J. B.

    2016-11-01

    A conceptual model of the transboundary Milk River Aquifer (MRA), extending across the Canada-USA border, was developed based on literature, focused fieldwork and a three-dimensional geological model. The MRA corresponds to the Virgelle Member of the Milk River Formation (Eagle Formation in Montana, USA) and it is an important groundwater resource over a large area (25,000 km2). The Virgelle outcrops near the international border and along the Sweet Grass Arch in Montana. The down-gradient limit of the MRA is the unconformity separating the Virgelle from the gas-bearing sandy shale of the Alderson Member. The MRA is confined above by the Pakowki/Claggett Formations aquitards and below by the Colorado Group aquitard. The MRA contains higher transmissivity areas resulting in preferential flowpaths, confirmed by natural geochemical tracers. Tritium and 14C delineate restricted recharge areas along the outcrops on both sides of the international border. Drastic decreases in horizontal hydraulic gradients indicate that the Milk River intercepts a large proportion of groundwater flowing to the north from the recharge area. Downgradient of the Milk River, groundwater movement is slow, as shown by 36Cl residence times exceeding 1 Ma. These slow velocities imply that groundwater discharge downgradient of the Milk River is via vertical leakage through the Colorado Group and upward along buried valleys, which act as drains and correspond to artesian areas. When confined, the MRA contains a fossil groundwater resource, not significantly renewed by modern recharge. Groundwater exploitation thus far exceeds recharge, a situation requiring properly managed MRA groundwater depletion.

  16. Euoplocephalus tutus and the diversity of ankylosaurid dinosaurs in the Late Cretaceous of Alberta, Canada, and Montana, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria M Arbour

    Full Text Available Few ankylosaurs are known from more than a single specimen, but the ankylosaurid Euoplocephalus tutus (from the Late Cretaceous of Alberta, Canada and Montana, USA is represented by dozens of skulls and partial skeletons, and is therefore an important taxon for understanding intraspecific variation in ankylosaurs. Euoplocephalus is unusual compared to other dinosaurs from the Late Cretaceous of Alberta because it is recognized from the Dinosaur Park, Horseshoe Canyon, and Two Medicine formations. A comprehensive review of material attributed to Euoplocephalus finds support for the resurrection of its purported synonyms Anodontosaurus lambei and Scolosaurus cutleri, and the previously resurrected Dyoplosaurus acutosquameus. Anodontosaurus is found primarily in the Horseshoe Canyon Formation of Alberta and is characterized by ornamentation posterior to the orbits and on the first cervical half ring, and wide, triangular knob osteoderms. Euoplocephalus is primarily found in Megaherbivore Assemblage Zone 1 in the Dinosaur Park Formation of Alberta and is characterized by the absence of ornamentation posterior to the orbits and on the first cervical half ring, and keeled medial osteoderms on the first cervical half ring. Scolosaurus is found primarily in the Two Medicine Formation of Montana (although the holotype is from Dinosaur Provincial Park, and is characterized by long, back-swept squamosal horns, ornamentation posterior to the orbit, and low medial osteoderms on the first cervical half ring; Oohkotokia horneri is morphologically indistinguishable from Scolosaurus cutleri. Dyoplosaurus was previously differentiated from Euoplocephalus sensu lato by the morphology of the pelvis and pes, and these features also differentiate Dyoplosaurus from Anodontosaurus and Scolosaurus; a narrow tail club knob is probably also characteristic for Dyoplosaurus.

  17. Euoplocephalus tutus and the diversity of ankylosaurid dinosaurs in the Late Cretaceous of Alberta, Canada, and Montana, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbour, Victoria M; Currie, Philip J

    2013-01-01

    Few ankylosaurs are known from more than a single specimen, but the ankylosaurid Euoplocephalus tutus (from the Late Cretaceous of Alberta, Canada and Montana, USA) is represented by dozens of skulls and partial skeletons, and is therefore an important taxon for understanding intraspecific variation in ankylosaurs. Euoplocephalus is unusual compared to other dinosaurs from the Late Cretaceous of Alberta because it is recognized from the Dinosaur Park, Horseshoe Canyon, and Two Medicine formations. A comprehensive review of material attributed to Euoplocephalus finds support for the resurrection of its purported synonyms Anodontosaurus lambei and Scolosaurus cutleri, and the previously resurrected Dyoplosaurus acutosquameus. Anodontosaurus is found primarily in the Horseshoe Canyon Formation of Alberta and is characterized by ornamentation posterior to the orbits and on the first cervical half ring, and wide, triangular knob osteoderms. Euoplocephalus is primarily found in Megaherbivore Assemblage Zone 1 in the Dinosaur Park Formation of Alberta and is characterized by the absence of ornamentation posterior to the orbits and on the first cervical half ring, and keeled medial osteoderms on the first cervical half ring. Scolosaurus is found primarily in the Two Medicine Formation of Montana (although the holotype is from Dinosaur Provincial Park), and is characterized by long, back-swept squamosal horns, ornamentation posterior to the orbit, and low medial osteoderms on the first cervical half ring; Oohkotokia horneri is morphologically indistinguishable from Scolosaurus cutleri. Dyoplosaurus was previously differentiated from Euoplocephalus sensu lato by the morphology of the pelvis and pes, and these features also differentiate Dyoplosaurus from Anodontosaurus and Scolosaurus; a narrow tail club knob is probably also characteristic for Dyoplosaurus.

  18. Mountain pine beetle selectivity in old-growth ponderosa pine forests, Montana, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Paul A; Soulé, Peter T; Maxwell, Justin T

    2013-05-01

    A historically unprecedented mountain pine beetle (MPB) outbreak affected western Montana during the past decade. We examined radial growth rates (AD 1860-2007/8) of co-occurring mature healthy and MPB-infected ponderosa pine trees collected at two sites (Cabin Gulch and Kitchen Gulch) in western Montana and: (1) compared basal area increment (BAI) values within populations and between sites; (2) used carbon isotope analysis to calculate intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE) at Cabin Gulch; and (3) compared climate-growth responses using a suite of monthly climatic variables. BAI values within populations and between sites were similar until the last 20-30 years, at which point the visually healthy populations had consistently higher BAI values (22-34%) than the MPB-infected trees. These results suggest that growth rates two-three decades prior to the current outbreak diverged between our selected populations, with the slower-growing trees being more vulnerable to beetle infestation. Both samples from Cabin Gulch experienced upward trends in iWUE, with significant regime shifts toward higher iWUE beginning in 1955-59 for the visually healthy trees and 1960-64 for the MPB-infected trees. Drought tolerance also varied between the two populations with the visually healthy trees having higher growth rates than MPB-infected trees prior to infection during a multi-decadal period of drying summertime conditions. Intrinsic water-use efficiency significantly increased for both populations during the past 150 years, but there were no significant differences between the visually healthy and MPB-infected chronologies.

  19. Garnet peridotite xenoliths in a Montana, U.S.A., kimberlite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Hearn B.; Boyd, F.R.

    1975-01-01

    Within a swarm of late middle Eocene subsilicic-alkalic diatremes, one diatreme 270 by 370 m and an associated dike contain common xenoliths of granulite and rare xenoliths of spinel peridotite and garnet peridotite. Six garnet lherzolite xenoliths have been found and these show a range of textures. Four are granular, and two are intensely sheared. Phlogopite is absent from the intensely sheared xenoliths and is thought to be primary in part in the granular xenoliths. Estimated temperatures and depths of equilibration of xenolith pyroxenes range from 920??C, 106 km (32 kbar) to 1315??C, 148 km (47 kbar). The xenoliths show increasing amounts of deformation with greater inferred depths of origin. The temperature-depth points suggest a segment of an Eocene geotherm for Montana which is similar in slope to the steep portion of the pyroxene-determined Lesotho geotherm (Boyd and Nixon, this volume) and is considerably steeper than typical calculated shield and continental geotherms at present. The steep trend could be a result of plate-tectonic shearing and magma ascension within an Eocene low-velocity zone. Preservation of intensely sheared textures requires rapid transport of material from about 150 km depth during active deformation of relatively dry rock. The occurrence of monticellite peridotite in this kimberlite diatreme suggests that magmas which crystallized to monticellite peridotite at relatively shallow depth could be one of the primitive types of kimberlite magma. ?? 1975.

  20. Avalanche ecology and large magnitude avalanche events: Glacier National Park, Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagre, Daniel B.; Peitzsch, Erich H.

    2010-01-01

    Large magnitude snow avalanches play an important role ecologically in terms of wildlife habitat, vegetation diversity, and sediment transport within a watershed. Ecological effects from these infrequent avalanches can last for decades. Understanding the frequency of such large magnitude avalanches is also critical to avalanche forecasting for the Going-to-the-Sun Road (GTSR). In January 2009, a large magnitude avalanche cycle occurred in and around Glacier National Park, Montana. The study site is the Little Granite avalanche path located along the GTSR. The study is designed to quantify change in vegetative cover immediately after a large magnitude event and document ecological response over a multi-year period. GPS field mapping was completed to determine the redefined perimeter of the avalanche path. Vegetation was inventoried using modified U.S. Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis plots, cross sections were taken from over 100 dead trees throughout the avalanche path, and an avalanche chronology was developed. Initial results indicate that the perimeter of this path was expanded by 30%. The avalanche travelled approximately 1200 vertical meters and 3 linear kilometers. Stands of large conifers as old as 150 years were decimated by the avalanche, causing a shift in dominant vegetation types in many parts of the avalanche path. Woody debris is a major ground cover up to 3 m in depth on lower portions of the avalanche path and will likely affect tree regrowth. Monitoring and measuring the post-avalanche vegetation recovery of this particular avalanche path provides a unique dataset for determining the ecological role of avalanches in mountain landscapes.

  1. Terrace aggradation during the 1978 flood on Powder River, Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, J.A.; Meade, R.H.

    2008-01-01

    Flood processes no longer actively increase the planform area of terraces. Instead, lateral erosion decreases the area. However, infrequent extreme floods continue episodic aggradation of terraces surfaces. We quantify this type of evolution of terraces by an extreme flood in May 1978 on Powder River in southeastern Montana. Within an 89-km study reach of the river, we (1) determine a sediment budget for each geomorphic feature, (2) interpret the stratigraphy of the newly deposited sediment, and (3) discuss the essential role of vegetation in the depositional processes. Peak flood discharge was about 930??m3 s- 1, which lasted about eight??days. During this time, the flood transported 8.2??million tons of sediment into and 4.5??million tons out of the study reach. The masses of sediment transferred between features or eroded from one feature and redeposited on the same feature exceeded the mass transported out of the reach. The flood inundated the floodplain and some of the remnants of two terraces along the river. Lateral erosion decreased the planform area of the lower of the two terraces (~ 2.7??m above the riverbed) by 3.2% and that of the higher terrace (~ 3.5??m above the riverbed) by 4.1%. However, overbank aggradation, on average, raised the lower terrace by 0.16??m and the higher terrace by 0.063??m. Vegetation controlled the type, thickness, and stratigraphy of the aggradation on terrace surfaces. Two characteristic overbank deposits were common: coarsening-upward sequences and lee dunes. Grass caused the deposition of the coarsening-upward sequences, which had 0.02 to 0.07??m of mud at the base, and in some cases, the deposits coarsened upwards to coarse sand on the top. Lee dunes, composed of fine and very fine sand, were deposited in the wake zone downstream from the trees. The characteristic morphology of the dunes can be used to estimate some flood variables such as suspended-sediment particle size, minimum depth, and critical shear velocity

  2. 76 FR 65710 - Decision and Order Amending Waivers Granted to Mitsubishi Electric & Electronics USA, Inc. From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... Electric & Electronics USA, Inc. From the Department of Energy Commercial Package Air Conditioner and Heat... Matter of: Mitsubishi Electric & Electronics USA, Inc. (Mitsubishi) (Case No. CAC-037). Background...

  3. A shallow subsurface controlled release facility in Bozeman, Montana, USA, for testing near surface CO2 detection techniques and transport models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spangler, L.H.; Dobeck, L.M.; Nehrir, A.; Humphries, S.; Barr, J.; Keith, C.; Shaw, J.; Rouse, J.; Cunningham, A.; Benson, S.; Repasky, K.S.; Lewicki, J.; Wells, A.; Diehl, R.; Strazisar, B.; Fessenden, J.; Rahn, T.; Amonette, J.; Barr, J.; Pickles, W.; Jacobson, J.; Silver, E.; Male, E.; Rauch, H.; Gullickson, K.; Trautz, R.; Kharaka, Y.; Birkholzer, J.T.; Wielopolski, L.; Oldenburg, C.M.

    2009-10-20

    A controlled field pilot has been developed in Bozeman, Montana, USA, to study near surface CO2 transport and detection technologies. A slotted horizontal well divided into six zones was installed in the shallow subsurface. The scale and CO2 release rates were chosen to be relevant to developing monitoring strategies for geological carbon storage. The field site was characterized before injection, and CO2 transport and concentrations in saturated soil and the vadose zone were modeled. Controlled releases of CO2 from the horizontal well were performed in the summers of 2007 and 2008, and collaborators from six national labs, three universities, and the U.S. Geological Survey investigated movement of CO2 through the soil, water, plants, and air with a wide range of near surface detection techniques. An overview of these results will be presented.

  4. A shallow subsurface controlled release facility in Bozeman, Montana, USA, for testing near surface CO2 detection techniques and transport models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangler, L.H.; Dobeck, L.M.; Repasky, K.S.; Nehrir, A.R.; Humphries, S.D.; Keith, C.J.; Shaw, J.A.; Rouse, J.H.; Cunningham, A.B.; Benson, S.M.; Oldenburg, C.M.; Lewicki, J.L.; Wells, A.W.; Diehl, J.R.; Strazisar, B.R.; Fessenden, J.E.; Rahn, T.A.; Amonette, J.E.; Barr, J.L.; Pickles, W.L.; Jacobson, J.D.; Silver, E.A.; Male, E.J.; Rauch, H.W.; Gullickson, K.S.; Trautz, R.; Kharaka, Y.; Birkholzer, J.; Wielopolski, L.

    2010-01-01

    A controlled field pilot has been developed in Bozeman, Montana, USA, to study near surface CO2 transport and detection technologies. A slotted horizontal well divided into six zones was installed in the shallow subsurface. The scale and CO2 release rates were chosen to be relevant to developing monitoring strategies for geological carbon storage. The field site was characterized before injection, and CO2 transport and concentrations in saturated soil and the vadose zone were modeled. Controlled releases of CO2 from the horizontal well were performed in the summers of 2007 and 2008, and collaborators from six national labs, three universities, and the U.S. Geological Survey investigated movement of CO2 through the soil, water, plants, and air with a wide range of near surface detection techniques. An overview of these results will be presented. ?? 2009 The Author(s).

  5. A shallow subsurface controlled release facility in Bozeman, Montana, USA, for testing near surface CO2 detection techniques and transport models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spangler, L.H.; Wielopolski, L.; Dobeck, L. M.; Repasky, K. S.; Nehrir, A. R.; Humphries, S. D.; Barr, J. L.; Keith, C. J.; Shaw, J. A.; Rouse, J. H.; Cunningham, A. B.; Benson, S. M.; Oldenburg, C. M.; Lewicki, J. L.; Wells, A. W.; Diehl, J. R.; Strazisar, B. R.; Fessenden, J. E.; Rahn, T. A.; Amonette, J. E.; Barr, J. L.; Pickles, W. L.; Jacobson, J. D.; Silver, E. A.; Male, E. J.; Rauch, H. W.; Gullickson, K. S.; Trautz, R.; Kharaka, Y.; Birkholzer, J.

    2010-03-01

    A controlled field pilot has been developed in Bozeman, Montana, USA, to study near surface CO{sub 2} transport and detection technologies. A slotted horizontal well divided into six zones was installed in the shallow subsurface. The scale and CO{sub 2} release rates were chosen to be relevant to developing monitoring strategies for geological carbon storage. The field site was characterized before injection, and CO{sub 2} transport and concentrations in saturated soil and the vadose zone were modeled. Controlled releases of CO{sub 2} from the horizontal well were performed in the summers of 2007 and 2008, and collaborators from six national labs, three universities, and the U.S. Geological Survey investigated movement of CO{sub 2} through the soil, water, plants, and air with a wide range of near surface detection techniques. An overview of these results will be presented.

  6. A shallow subsurface controlled release facility in Bozeman, Montana, USA, for testing near surface CO2 detection techniques and transport models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spangler, Lee H. [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry; Dobeck, Laura M. [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry; Repasky, Kevin S. [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Nehrir, Amin R. [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Humphries, Seth D. [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Barr, Jamie L. [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Keith, Charlie J. [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Shaw, Joseph A. [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Rouse, Joshua H. [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Cunningham, Alfred B. [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Benson, Sally M. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Global Climate and Energy Project; Oldenburg, Curtis M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.; Lewicki, Jennifer L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.; Wells, Arthur W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.; Diehl, J. Rodney [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.; Strazisar, Brian R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.; Fessenden, Julianna E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Div. of Earth and Environmental Sciences; Rahn, Thom A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Div. of Earth and Environmental Sciences; Amonette, James E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Barr, Jon L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pickles, William L. [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States). Earth and Planetary Sciences; Jacobson, James D. [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States). Earth and Planetary Sciences; Silver, Eli A. [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States). Earth and Planetary Sciences; Male, Erin J. [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States). Earth and Planetary Sciences; Rauch, Henry W. [Univ. of West Virginia, Morgantown, WV (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geography; Gullickson, Kadie S. [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry; Trautz, Robert [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States); Kharaka, Yousif [U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Birkholzer, Jens [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.; Wielopolski, Lucien [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2010-03-01

    A controlled field pilot has been developed in Bozeman, Montana, USA, to study near surface CO2 transport and detection technologies. A slotted horizontal well divided into six zones was installed in the shallow subsurface. The scale and CO2 release rates were chosen to be relevant to developing monitoring strategies for geological carbon storage. The field site was characterized before injection, and CO2 transport and concentrations in saturated soil and the vadose zone were modeled. Controlled releases of CO2 from the horizontal well were performed in the summers of 2007 and 2008, and collaborators from six national labs, three universities, and the U. S. Geological Survey investigated movement of CO2 through the soil, water, plants, and air with a wide range of near surface detection techniques. An overview of these results will be presented.

  7. Increased Detection of Sin Nombre Hantavirus RNA in Antibody-Positive Deer Mice from Montana, USA: Evidence of Male Bias in RNA Viremia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James N. Mills

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses are widespread emergent zoonotic agents that cause unapparent or limited disease in their rodent hosts, yet cause acute, often fatal pulmonary or renal infections in humans. Previous laboratory experiments with rodent reservoir hosts indicate that hantaviruses can be cleared from host blood early in the infection cycle, while sequestered long term in various host organs. Field studies of North American deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus, the natural reservoir of Sin Nombre hantavirus, have shown that viral RNA can be transiently detected well past the early acute infection stage, but only in the minority of infected mice. Here, using a non-degenerate RT-PCR assay optimized for SNV strains known to circulate in Montana, USA, we show that viral RNA can be repeatedly detected on a monthly basis in up to 75% of antibody positive deer mice for periods up to 3–6 months. More importantly, our data show that antibody positive male deer mice are more than twice as likely to have detectable SNV RNA in their blood as antibody positive females, suggesting that SNV-infected male deer mice are more likely to shed virus and for longer periods of time.

  8. Strontium isotope systematics of mixing groundwater and oil-field brine at Goose Lake in northeastern Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, Zell E.; Thamke, Joanna N.; Futa, Kiyoto; Preston, Todd

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater, surface water, and soil in the Goose Lake oil field in northeastern Montana have been affected by Cl−-rich oil-field brines during long-term petroleum production. Ongoing multidisciplinary geochemical and geophysical studies have identified the degree and local extent of interaction between brine and groundwater. Fourteen samples representing groundwater, surface water, and brine were collected for Sr isotope analyses to evaluate the usefulness of 87Sr/86Sr in detecting small amounts of brine. Differences in Sr concentrations and 87Sr/86Sr are optimal at this site for the experiment. Strontium concentrations range from 0.13 to 36.9 mg/L, and corresponding 87Sr/86Sr values range from 0.71097 to 0.70828. The local brine has 168 mg/L Sr and a 87Sr/86Sr value of 0.70802. Mixing relationships are evident in the data set and illustrate the sensitivity of Sr in detecting small amounts of brine in groundwater. The location of data points on a Sr isotope-concentration plot is readily explained by an evaporation-mixing model. The model is supported by the variation in concentrations of most of the other solutes.

  9. Origin of sapphires from a lamprophyre dike at Yogo Gulch, Montana, USA: Clues from their melt inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palke, Aaron C.; Renfro, Nathan D.; Berg, Richard B.

    2016-09-01

    Gem corundum (sapphire) has been mined from an ultramafic lamprophyre dike at Yogo Gulch in central Montana for over 100 years. The sapphires bear signs of corrosion showing that they were not in equilibrium with the lamprophyre that transported them; however, their genesis is poorly understood. We report here the observation of minute glassy melt inclusions in Yogo sapphires. These inclusions are Na- and Ca-rich, Fe-, Mg-, and K-poor silicate glasses with compositions unlike that of the host lamprophyre. Larger, recrystallized melt inclusions contain analcime and calcite drawing a striking resemblance to leucocratic ocelli in the lamprophyre. We suggest here that sapphires formed through partial melting of Al-rich rocks, likely as the lamprophyre pooled at the base of the continental crust. This idea is corroborated by MELTS calculations on a kyanite-eclogite protolith which was presumably derived from a troctolite precursor. These calculations suggest that corundum can form through peritectic melting of kyanite. Linking the melt inclusions petrologically to the lamprophyre represents a significant advancement in our understanding of sapphire genesis and sheds light on how mantle-derived magmas may interact with the continental crust on their ascent to the surface.

  10. Influence of copper recovery on the water quality of the acidic Berkeley Pit lake, Montana, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucci, Nicholas J; Gammons, Christopher H

    2015-04-07

    The Berkeley Pit lake in Butte, Montana, formed by flooding of an open-pit copper mine, is one of the world's largest accumulations of acidic, metal-rich water. Between 2003 and 2012, approximately 2 × 10(11) L of pit water, representing 1.3 lake volumes, were pumped from the bottom of the lake to a copper recovery plant, where dissolved Cu(2+) was precipitated on scrap iron, releasing Fe(2+) back to solution and thence back to the pit. Artificial mixing caused by this continuous pumping changed the lake from a meromictic to holomictic state, induced oxidation of dissolved Fe(2+), and caused subsequent precipitation of more than 2 × 10(8) kg of secondary ferric compounds, mainly schwertmannite and jarosite, which settled to the bottom of the lake. A large mass of As, P, and sulfate was also lost from solution. These unforeseen changes in chemistry resulted in a roughly 25-30% reduction in the lake's calculated and measured total acidity, which represents a significant potential savings in the cost of lime treatment, which is not expected to commence until 2023. Future monitoring is needed to verify that schwertmannite and jarosite in the pit sediment do not convert to goethite, a process which would release stored acidity back to the water column.

  11. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Fire in Whitebark Pine Stands on two Mountains in the Lolo National Forest, Montana, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, E. R.; Grissino-Mayer, H. D.

    2004-12-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) is a long-lived tree species that exists throughout high elevation and treeline forest communities of western North America. It is the foundation of a diminishing ecosystem that supports Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana), red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), grizzly bears (Ursus arctos), and black bears (U. americana). Several factors are directly linked to the decline of the whitebark pine ecosystem: mortality from recent and widespread mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreaks, infestation by the invasive white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola, an exotic fungal canker that weakens and eventually kills white pines), and fire suppression that may have altered the historic fire regime and enabled fire-intolerant tree species to encroach upon whitebark pine stands. The synergistic effects of these factors have led to a dramatic decline in whitebark pine communities throughout its native range, and in response land managers and conservationists have called for research to better understand the ecological dynamics of this little studied ecosystem. My research uses dendrochronology to investigate the fire history of whitebark pine stands on three mountains in the Lolo National Forest, Montana, via fire-scar and age structure analyses. I present here the results from the fire-scar analyses from Morrell Mountain where I obtained 40 cross sections from dead and down whitebark pines. Individual tree mean fire return intervals (MFRI) range from 33 to 119 years, with a stand MFRI of 49 years that includes fire scars dating to the 16th century. Fire events scarred multiple trees in AD 1754, 1796, and 1843, indicating a mixed-severity fire regime. The majority of the samples recorded a frost event in AD 1601, perhaps evidence of the AD 1600 eruption of Mt. Huaynapatina in the Peruvian Andes. My research not only provides an historical framework for land managers, but also provides an opportunity to examine long

  12. A 28,000 year history of vegetation and climate from Lower Red Rock Lake, Centennial Valley, Southwestern Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumma, Stephanie Ann; Whitlock, Cathy; Pierce, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    A sediment core extending to 28,000 cal yr BP from Lower Red Rock Lake in the Centennial Valley of southwestern Montana provides new information on the nature of full-glacial vegetation as well as a history of late-glacial and Holocene vegetation and climate in a poorly studied region. Prior to 17,000 cal yr BP, the eastern Centennial Valley was occupied by a large lake (Pleistocene Lake Centennial), and valley glaciers were present in adjacent mountain ranges. The lake lowered upon erosion of a newly formed western outlet in late-glacial time. High pollen percentages of Juniperus, Poaceae, Asteraceae, and other herbs as well as low pollen accumulation rates suggest sparse vegetation cover. Inferred cold dry conditions are consistent with a strengthened glacial anticyclone at this time. Between 17,000 and 10,500 cal yr BP, high Picea and Abies pollen percentages suggest a shift to subalpine parkland and warmer conditions than before. This is attributed to the northward shift of the jet stream and increasing summer insolation. From 10,500 to 7100 cal yr BP, pollen evidence of open dry forests suggests warm conditions, which were likely a response to increased summer insolation and a strengthened Pacific subtropical high-pressure system. From 7100 to 2400 cal yr BP, cooler moister conditions promoted closed forest and wetlands. Increases in Picea and Abies pollen percentages after 2400 cal yr BP suggest increasing effective moisture. The postglacial pattern of Pseudotsuga expansion indicates that it arrived later on the Atlantic side of the Continental Divide than on the Pacific side. The Divide may have been a physical barrier for refugial populations or it delimited different climate regions that influenced the timing of Pseudotsuga expansion.

  13. Diel variations in stream chemistry and isotopic composition of dissolved inorganic carbon, upper Clark Fork River, Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Stephen R.; Gammons, Christopher H.; Poulson, Simon R.; DeGrandpre, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    Many rivers undergo diel (24-h) concentration fluctuations of pH, dissolved gases, trace metals, nutrients, and other chemical species. A study conducted in 1994 documented such behavior in the upper Clark Fork River, Montana, a stream whose headwaters have been severely impacted by historic metal mining, milling, and smelting. The purpose of the present investigation was to expand on these earlier findings by conducting simultaneous diel samplings at two sites on the upper Clark Fork River separated by 2.5 h of stream travel time. By monitoring two stations, it was possible to more closely examine the processes that control temporal and spatial gradients in stream chemistry. Another objective was to examine diel changes in the δ13C composition of dissolved inorganic C (DIC) and their relationship to biological activity in the stream. The most important findings of this study include: (1) concentrations of dissolved and particulate heavy metals increased during the night and decreased during the day, in agreement with previous work; (2) these changes were positively correlated to diel changes in pH, dissolved O2, and water temperature; (3) dissolved concentrations increased during the night at the lower site, but showed the opposite behavior at the upper site; and (4) diel changes in δ13C-DIC were noted at both sites, although the timing and magnitudes of the cycles differed. Hypotheses to explain the first two observations include: cyclic co-precipitation of divalent metals with carbonate minerals; pH- and temperature-dependent sorption of metal cations onto the streambed and suspended particles; or photosynthetically enhanced oxidation and removal of Fe and Mn oxides at biofilm surfaces during the daytime. The latter model explains the majority of the field observations, including night-time increases in particulate forms of Fe and other elements.

  14. Integrated wildfire risk assessment: framework development and application on the Lewis and Clark National Forest in Montana, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Matthew P; Scott, Joe; Helmbrecht, Don; Calkin, Dave E

    2013-04-01

    The financial, socioeconomic, and ecological impacts of wildfire continue to challenge federal land management agencies in the United States. In recent years, policymakers and managers have increasingly turned to the field of risk analysis to better manage wildfires and to mitigate losses to highly valued resources and assets (HVRAs). Assessing wildfire risk entails the interaction of multiple components, including integrating wildfire simulation outputs with geospatial identification of HVRAs and the characterization of fire effects to HVRAs. We present an integrated and systematic risk assessment framework that entails 3 primary analytical components: 1) stochastic wildfire simulation and burn probability modeling to characterize wildfire hazard, 2) expert-based modeling to characterize fire effects, and 3) multicriteria decision analysis to characterize preference structures across at-risk HVRAs. We demonstrate application of this framework for a wildfire risk assessment performed on the Little Belts Assessment Area within the Lewis and Clark National Forest in Montana, United States. We devote particular attention to our approach to eliciting and encapsulating expert judgment, in which we: 1) adhered to a structured process for using expert judgment in ecological risk assessment, 2) used as our expert base local resource scientists and fire/fuels specialists who have a direct connection to the specific landscape and HVRAs in question, and 3) introduced multivariate response functions to characterize fire effects to HVRAs that consider biophysical variables beyond fire behavior. We anticipate that this work will further the state of wildfire risk science and will lead to additional application of risk assessment to inform land management planning.

  15. Assessing the impacts of river regulation on native bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi) habitats in the upper Flathead River, Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Jones, Leslie A.; Kotter, D.; Miller, William J.; Geise, Doran; Tohtz, Joel; Marotz, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Hungry Horse Dam on the South Fork Flathead River, Montana, USA, has modified the natural flow regimen for power generation, flood risk management and flow augmentation for anadromous fish recovery in the Columbia River. Concern over the detrimental effects of dam operations on native resident fishes prompted research to quantify the impacts of alternative flow management strategies on threatened bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi) habitats. Seasonal and life‐stage specific habitat suitability criteria were combined with a two‐dimensional hydrodynamic habitat model to assess discharge effects on usable habitats. Telemetry data used to construct seasonal habitat suitability curves revealed that subadult (fish that emigrated from natal streams to the river system) bull trout move to shallow, low‐velocity shoreline areas at night, which are most sensitive to flow fluctuations. Habitat time series analyses comparing the natural flow regimen (predam, 1929–1952) with five postdam flow management strategies (1953–2008) show that the natural flow conditions optimize the critical bull trout habitats and that the current strategy best resembles the natural flow conditions of all postdam periods. Late summer flow augmentation for anadromous fish recovery, however, produces higher discharges than predam conditions, which reduces the availability of usable habitat during this critical growing season. Our results suggest that past flow management policies that created sporadic streamflow fluctuations were likely detrimental to resident salmonids and that natural flow management strategies will likely improve the chances of protecting key ecosystem processes and help to maintain and restore threatened bull trout and westslope cutthroat trout populations in the upper Columbia River Basin.

  16. USA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter

    http://www.systime.dk/ungdomsuddannelser/almen-studieforberedelse/usa-en-grundbog-i-politik-og-okonomi.html......http://www.systime.dk/ungdomsuddannelser/almen-studieforberedelse/usa-en-grundbog-i-politik-og-okonomi.html...

  17. Auriacusite, Fe3+Cu2+AsO4O, the first M 3+ member of the olivenite group, from the Black Pine mine, Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Stuart J.; Kampf, Anthony R.; Poirier, Glenn; Raudsepp, Mati; Steele, Ian M.

    2010-05-01

    Auriacusite, ideally Fe3+Cu2+AsO4O, is a new arsenate mineral (IMA2009-037) and the Fe3+ analogue of olivenite, from the Black Pine mine, 14.5 km NW of Philipsburg, Granite Co., Montana, USA. It occurs lining quartz vughs and coating quartz crystals and is associated with segnitite, brochantite, malachite, tetrahedrite and pyrite. Auriacusite forms fibrous crystals up to about 5 µm in width and up to about 100 µm in length, which are intergrown to form fibrous mats. Individual crystals are a brownish golden yellow, whilst the fibrous mats are ochreous yellow. The crystals have a silky lustre and a brownish yellow streak. Mohs hardness is about 3 (estimated). The fracture is irregular and the tenacity is brittle. Auriacusite crystals are biaxial (+), with α = 1.830(5), β = 1.865(5) and γ = 1.910(5), measured using white light, and with 2 V meas. = 83(3)º and 2 V calc. = 84.6º. Orientation: X = a, Y = c, Z = b. Crystals are nonpleochroic or too weakly so to be observed. The empirical formula (based on 5 O atoms) is (Fe{1.33/3+}Cu0.85Zn0.03)Σ2.21(As0.51Sb0.27Si0.04 S0.02Te0.01)Σ0.85O5. Auriacusite is orthorhombic, space group Pnnm, a = 8.6235(7), b = 8.2757(7), c = 5.9501(5) Å, V = 424.63(6) Å3, Z = 4. The five strongest lines in the powder X-ray diffraction pattern are [ d obs in Å / ( I) / hkl]: 4.884 / (100) / 101, 001; 2.991 / (92) / 220; 2.476 / (85) / 311; 2.416 / (83) / 022; 2.669 / (74) / 221. The crystal structure was solved from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data utilising synchrotron radiation and refined to R 1 = 0.1010 on the basis of 951 unique reflections with F o > 4σ F. Auriacusite is identified as a member of the olivenite group with Fe3+ replacing Zn2+ or Cu2+ in trigonal bipyramidal coordination. Evidence suggests that auriacusite is an intermediate member between olivenite and an as yet undescribed Fe3+Fe3+-dominant member. The name is derived from the Latin auri (golden yellow) and acus (needle), in reference to its colour and

  18. Cl-rich minerals in Archean granulite facies ironstones from the Beartooth Mountains, Montana, USA: Implications for fluids involved in granulite metamorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, D. J.

    1988-01-01

    The implications of Cl-rich minerals in granulite facies rocks are discussed. Results from ironstones of the Beartooth Mountains, Montana are discussed. It is suggested that CO2-brine immiscibility might be applicable to granulite facies conditions, and if so, then aqueous brines might be preferentially adsorbed onto mineral surfaces relative to CO2.

  19. ORTHOIMAGERY, LAKE COUNTY, MONTANA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This data set contains imagery from the National Agricultural Imagery Program (NAIP). NAIP acquires digital ortho imagery during the agricultural growing seasons in...

  20. FLOODPLAIN, YELLOWSTONE COUNTY, MONTANA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  1. FLOODPLAIN, BROADWATER COUNTY, MONTANA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  2. FLOODPLAIN, RAVALLI COUNTY, MONTANA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  3. FLOODPLAIN, SANDERS COUNTY, MONTANA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  4. FLOODPLAIN, BROADWATER COUNTY, MONTANA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  5. FLOODPLAIN, MADISON COUNTY, MONTANA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  6. FLOODPLAIN, MISSOULA COUNTY, MONTANA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  7. FLOODPLAIN, CASCADE COUNTY, MONTANA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  8. FLOODPLAIN, SANDERS COUNTY, MONTANA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  9. HYDROLOGY, FLATHEAD COUNTY, MONTANA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  10. Ultramafic xenoliths from the Bearpaw Mountains, Montana, USA: Evidence for multiple metasomatic events in the lithospheric mantle beneath the Wyoming craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downes, H.; Macdonald, R.; Upton, B.G.J.; Cox, K.G.; Bodinier, J.-L.; Mason, P.R.D.; James, D.; Hill, P.G.; Hearn, B.C.

    2004-01-01

    Ultramafic xenoliths in Eocene minettes of the Bearpaw Mountains volcanic field (Montana, USA), derived from the lower lithosphere of the Wyoming craton, can be divided based on textural criteria into tectonite and cumulate groups. The tectonites consist of strongly depleted spinel lherzolites, harzbugites and dunites. Although their mineralogical compositions are generally similar to those of spinel peridotites in off-craton settings, some contain pyroxenes and spinels that have unusually low Al2O3 contents more akin to those found in cratonic spinel peridotites. Furthermore, the tectonite peridotites have whole-rock major element compositions that tend to be significantly more depleted than non-cratonic mantle spinel peridotites (high MgO, low CaO, Al2O3 and TiO2) and resemble those of cratonic mantle. These compositions could have been generated by up to 30% partial melting of an undepleted mantle source. Petrographic evidence suggests that the mantle beneath the Wyoming craton was re-enriched in three ways: (1) by silicate melts that formed mica websterite and clinopyroxenite veins; (2) by growth of phlogopite from K-rich hydrous fluids; (3) by interaction with aqueous fluids to form orthopyroxene porphyroblasts and orthopyroxenite veins. In contrast to their depleted major element compositions, the tectonite peridotites are mostly light rare earth element (LREE)-enriched and show enrichment in fluid-mobile elements such as Cs, Rb, U and Pb on mantle-normalized diagrams. Lack of enrichment in high field strength elements (HFSE; e.g. Nb, Ta, Zr and Hf) suggests that the tectonite peridotites have been metasomatized by a subduction-related fluid. Clinopyroxenes from the tectonite peridotites have distinct U-shaped REE patterns with strong LREE enrichment. They have 143Nd/144Nd values that range from 0??5121 (close to the host minette values) to 0??5107, similar to those of xenoliths from the nearby Highwood Mountains. Foliated mica websterites also have low 143Nd

  11. 76 FR 40714 - Decision and Order Granting a Waiver to Mitsubishi Electric & Electronics USA, Inc. From the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-11

    ... & Electronics USA, Inc. From the Department of Energy Commercial Package Air Conditioner and Heat Pump Test... Case No. CAC-030, which grants Mitsubishi Electric & Electronics USA, Inc. (Mitsubishi) a waiver from.... Decision and Order In the Matter of: Mitsubishi Electric & Electronics USA, Inc. (Mitsubishi) (Case No....

  12. 75 FR 53638 - Approval for Manufacturing Authority; Foreign-Trade Zone 22; LG Electronics Mobilecomm USA, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... Manufacturing Authority; Foreign-Trade Zone 22; LG Electronics Mobilecomm USA, Inc. (Cell Phone Kitting and... manufacturing authority on behalf of LG Electronics Mobilecomm USA, Inc. (LGEMU), within FTZ 22 in Bolingbrook... Electronics Mobilecomm USA, Inc., as described in the application and Federal Register notice, is...

  13. Examining spring wet slab and glide avalanche occurrence along the Going-to-the-Sun Road corridor, Glacier National Park, Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peitzsch, Erich H.; Hendrikx, Jordy; Fagre, Daniel B.; Reardon, Blase

    2012-01-01

    Wet slab and glide snow avalanches are dangerous and yet can be particularly difficult to predict. Wet slab and glide avalanches are presumably triggered by free water moving through the snowpack and the subsequent interaction with layer or ground interfaces, and typically occur in the spring during warming and subsequent melt periods. In Glacier National Park (GNP), Montana, both types of avalanches can occur in the same year and affect the spring opening operations of the Going-to-the-Sun Road (GTSR).

  14. A new ankylosaurine dinosaur from the Judith River Formation of Montana, USA, based on an exceptional skeleton with soft tissue preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbour, Victoria M.; Evans, David C.

    2017-05-01

    The terrestrial Judith River Formation of northern Montana was deposited over an approximately 4 Myr interval during the Campanian (Late Cretaceous). Despite having been prospected and collected continuously by palaeontologists for over a century, few relatively complete dinosaur skeletons have been recovered from this unit to date. Here we describe a new genus and species of ankylosaurine dinosaur, Zuul crurivastator, from the Coal Ridge Member of the Judith River Formation, based on an exceptionally complete and well-preserved skeleton (ROM 75860). This is the first ankylosaurin skeleton known with a complete skull and tail club, and it is the most complete ankylosaurid ever found in North America. The presence of abundant soft tissue preservation across the skeleton, including in situ osteoderms, skin impressions and dark films that probably represent preserved keratin, make this exceptional skeleton an important reference for understanding the evolution of dermal and epidermal structures in this clade. Phylogenetic analysis recovers Zuul as an ankylosaurin ankylosaurid within a clade of Dyoplosaurus and Scolosaurus, with Euoplocephalus being more distantly related within Ankylosaurini. The occurrence of Z. crurivastator from the upper Judith River Formation fills a gap in the ankylosaurine stratigraphic and geographical record in North America, and further highlights that Campanian ankylosaurines were undergoing rapid evolution and stratigraphic succession of taxa as observed for Laramidian ceratopsids, hadrosaurids, pachycephalosaurids and tyrannosaurids.

  15. Diel behavior of iron and other heavy metals in a mountain stream with acidic to neutral pH: Fisher Creek, Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammons, C.H.; Nimick, D.A.; Parker, S.R.; Cleasby, T.E.; McCleskey, R.B.

    2005-01-01

    Three simultaneous 24-h samplings at three sites over a downstream pH gradient were conducted to examine diel fluctuations in heavy metal concentrations in Fisher Creek, a small mountain stream draining abandoned mine lands in Montana. Average pH values at the upstream (F1), middle (F2), and downstream (F3) monitoring stations were 3.31, 5.46, and 6.80, respectively. The downstream increase in pH resulted in precipitation of hydrous ferric oxide (HFO) and hydrous aluminum oxide (HAO) on the streambed. At F1 and F2, Fe showed strong diel cycles in dissolved concentration and Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio; these cycles were attributed to daytime photoreduction of Fe(III) to Fe(II), reoxidation of Fe(II) to Fe(III), and temperature-dependent hydrolysis and precipitation of HFO. At the near-neutral downstream station, no evidence of Fe(III) photoreduction was observed, and suspended particles of HFO dominated the total Fe load. HFO precipitation rates between F2 and F3 were highest in the afternoon, due in part to reoxidation of a midday pulse of Fe2+ formed by photoreduction in the upper, acidic portions of the stream. Dissolved concentrations of Fe(II) and Cu decreased tenfold and 2.4-fold, respectively, during the day at F3. These changes were attributed to sorption onto fresh HFO surfaces. Results of surface complexation modeling showed good agreement between observed and predicted Cu concentrations at F3, but only when adsorption enthalpies were added to the thermodynamic database to take into account diel temperature variations. The field and modeling results illustrate that the degree to which trace metals adsorb onto actively forming HFO is strongly temperature dependent. This study is an example of how diel Fe cycles caused by redox and hydrolysis reactions can induce a diel cycle in a trace metal of toxicological importance in downstream waters. Copyright ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Using GIS and Google Earth for the creation of the Going-to-the-Sun Road Avalanche Atlas, Glacier National Park, Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peitzsch, Erich H.; Fagre, Daniel B.; Dundas, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Snow avalanche paths are key geomorphologic features in Glacier National Park, Montana, and an important component of mountain ecosystems: they are isolated within a larger ecosystem, they are continuously disturbed, and they contain unique physical characteristics (Malanson and Butler, 1984). Avalanches impact subalpine forest structure and function, as well as overall biodiversity (Bebi et al., 2009). Because avalanches are dynamic phenomena, avalanche path geometry and spatial extent depend upon climatic regimes. The USGS/GNP Avalanche Program formally began in 2003 as an avalanche forecasting program for the spring opening of the ever-popular Going-to-the-Sun Road (GTSR), which crosses through 37 identified avalanche paths. Avalanche safety and forecasting is a necessary part of the GTSR spring opening procedures. An avalanche atlas detailing topographic parameters and oblique photographs was completed for the GTSR corridor in response to a request from GNP personnel for planning and resource management. Using ArcMap 9.2 GIS software, polygons were created for every avalanche path affecting the GTSR using aerial imagery, field-based observations, and GPS measurements of sub-meter accuracy. Spatial attributes for each path were derived within the GIS. Resulting products include an avalanche atlas book for operational use, a geoPDF of the atlas, and a Google Earth flyover illustrating each path and associated photographs. The avalanche atlas aids park management in worker safety, infrastructure planning, and natural resource protection by identifying avalanche path patterns and location. The atlas was created for operational and planning purposes and is also used as a foundation for research such as avalanche ecology projects and avalanche path runout modeling.

  17. Spatial reconstructions and comparisons of historic snow avalanche frequency and extent using tree rings in Glacier National Park, Montana, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, B.A.; Pederson, G.T.; Caruso, C.J.; Fagre, D.B.

    2008-01-01

    Natural snow avalanches have periodically damaged infrastructure and disrupted railroad and highway traffic at the southwestern corner of Glacier National Park, Montana. The 94-year history of these disruptions constitutes an uncommon record of natural avalanches spanning over nine decades and presents a unique opportunity to examine how natural avalanche frequency and minimum extent have varied over time due to climatic or biophysical changes. This study compared the historic record of natural avalanches in one avalanche path with tree-ring evidence of avalanches from 109 cross sections and increment cores collected in the same path. Results from combined historic and tree-ring records yielded 27 avalanche years in the 1910-2003 chronology, with the historic record alone underestimating avalanche years by half. Mean return period was 3.2 years. Interpolated maps allowed for more spatially precise estimates of return periods throughout the runout zone than previous studies. The maps show return periods increase rapidly downslope from 2.3 to 25 years. Avalanche years were associated with positive Snow Water Equivalent anomalies at a nearby snow course. Minimum avalanche extent was highly variable but not associated with snowpack anomalies. Most avalanche years coincided with years in which the mean January-February Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and El Nin??o-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) 3.4 indices were neutral. The findings suggest that changes in Pacific climate patterns that influence snowfall could also alter the frequency of natural snow avalanches and could thus change disturbance patterns in the montane forests of the canyon. ?? 2008 Regents of the University of Colorado.

  18. Characterizing wet slab and glide slab avalanche occurrence along the Going-to-the-Sun Road, Glacier National Park, Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peitzsch, Erich H.; Hendrikx, Jordy; Fagre, Daniel B.; Reardon, Blase

    2010-01-01

    Wet slab and glide slab snow avalanches are dangerous and yet can be particularly difficult to predict. Both wet slab and glide slab avalanches are thought to depend upon free water moving through the snowpack but are driven by different processes. In Glacier National Park, Montana, both types of avalanches can occur in the same year and affect the Going-to-the-Sun Road (GTSR). Both wet slab and glide slab avalanches along the GTSR from 2003-2010 are investigated. Meteorological data from two high-elevation weather stations and one SNOTEL site are used in conjunction with an avalanche database and snowpit profiles. These data were used to characterize years when only glide slab avalanches occurred and those years when both glide slab and wet slab avalanches occurred. Results of 168 glide slab and 57 wet slab avalanches along the GTSR suggest both types of avalanche occurrence depend on sustained warming periods with intense solar radiation (or rain on snow) to produce free water in the snowpack. Differences in temperature and net radiation metrics between wet slab and glide slab avalanches emerge as one moves from one day to seven days prior to avalanche occurrence. On average, a more rapid warming precedes wet slab avalanche occurrence. Glide slab and wet slab avalanches require a similar amount of net radiation. Wet slab avalanches do not occur every year, while glide slab avalanches occur annually. These results aim to enhance understanding of the required meteorological conditions for wet slab and glide slab avalanches and aid in improved wet snow avalanche forecasting.

  19. Examination of Libby, Montana, Fill Material for Background Levels of Amphibole from the Rainy Creek Complex Using Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Microanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, David T.; Langer, William H.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Meeker, Gregory P.

    2010-01-01

    Natural background levels of Libby-type amphibole in the sediment of the Libby valley in Montana have not, up to this point, been determined. The purpose of this report is to provide the preliminary findings of a study designed by both the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and performed by the U.S. Geological Survey. The study worked to constrain the natural background levels of fibrous amphiboles potentially derived from the nearby Rainy Creek Complex. The material selected for this study was sampled from three localities, two of which are active open-pit sand and gravel mines. Seventy samples were collected in total and examined using a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer. All samples contained varying amounts of feldspars, ilmenite, magnetite, quartz, clay minerals, pyroxene minerals, and non-fibrous amphiboles such as tremolite, actinolite, and magnesiohornblende. Of the 70 samples collected, only three had detectable levels of fibrous amphiboles compatible with those found in the rainy creek complex. The maximum concentration, identified here, of the amphiboles potentially from the Rainy Creek Complex is 0.083 percent by weight.

  20. Montana StreamStats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-05

    About this volumeMontana StreamStats is a Web-based geographic information system (http://water.usgs.gov/osw/streamstats/) application that provides users with access to basin and streamflow characteristics for gaged and ungaged streams in Montana. Montana StreamStats was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Montana Departments of Transportation, Environmental Quality, and Natural Resources and Conservation. The USGS Scientific Investigations Report consists of seven independent but complementary chapters dealing with various aspects of this effort.Chapter A describes the Montana StreamStats application, the basin and streamflow datasets, and provides a brief overview of the streamflow characteristics and regression equations used in the study. Chapters B through E document the datasets, methods, and results of analyses to determine streamflow characteristics, such as peak-flow frequencies, low-flow frequencies, and monthly and annual characteristics, for USGS streamflow-gaging stations in and near Montana. The StreamStats analytical toolsets that allow users to delineate drainage basins and solve regression equations to estimate streamflow characteristics at ungaged sites in Montana are described in Chapters F and G.

  1. Business pluralism of electronic prescriptions: state of development in Europe and the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmivalli, Lauri; Hilmola, Olli-Pekka

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse the current state of the development of electronic prescriptions in Europe and the USA. These two places have different approaches to the healthcare sector, since in the former one national social insurance usually provides treatment for all of the people (most often only with friction from total costs), but in the latter one the healthcare sector is under free market forces. As our analysis shows in this paper, electronic prescriptions in both of the places have developed in recent years quite favourably, but this development has not produced consistent results, whether electronic prescriptions should be provided by for-profit companies or should they be under strict control of governmental authorities. We base this finding in two empirical observations: (1) in Europe saving potential from electronic prescriptions is estimated to be high, and contains many abstract national economy accounts and (2) leading US companies (providing electronic prescription services) have went been able to increase their revenues significantly, but still their profitability is questionable. We argue that the situation of electronic prescriptions is similar with airline or credit card industry. Both of these are vital for international and local economies, but the business models have developed well after the initial idea.

  2. 75 FR 13484 - Foreign-Trade Zone 22; Temporary/Interim Manufacturing Authority; LG Electronics Mobilecomm USA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 22; Temporary/Interim Manufacturing Authority; LG Electronics... Electronics Mobilecomm USA, Inc. (LGEMU), to process cell phone kits under FTZ procedures within FTZ...

  3. FLOODPLAIN, LEWIS AND CLARK COUNTY, MONTANA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  4. FLOODPLAIN, SILVER BOW COUNTY, MONTANA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  5. Auriacusite, Fe[superscript 3+]Cu[superscript 2+]AsO[subscript 4]O, the first M[superscript 3+] member of the olivenite group, from the Black Pine mine, Montana, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Stuart J.; Kampf, Anthony R.; Poirier, Glenn; Raudsepp, Mati; Steele, Ian M. (CMN); (NHM-LA); (UC); (UBC)

    2011-08-16

    Auriacusite, ideally Fe{sup 3+}Cu{sup 2+}AsO{sub 4}O, is a new arsenate mineral (IMA2009-037) and the Fe{sup 3+} analogue of olivenite, from the Black Pine mine, 14.5 km NW of Philipsburg, Granite Co., Montana, USA. It occurs lining quartz vughs and coating quartz crystals and is associated with segnitite, brochantite, malachite, tetrahedrite and pyrite. Auriacusite forms fibrous crystals up to about 5 {micro}m in width and up to about 100 {micro}m in length, which are intergrown to form fibrous mats. Individual crystals are a brownish golden yellow, whilst the fibrous mats are ochreous yellow. The crystals have a silky lustre and a brownish yellow streak. Mohs hardness is about 3 (estimated). The fracture is irregular and the tenacity is brittle. Auriacusite crystals are biaxial (+), with {alpha} = 1.830(5), {beta} = 1.865(5) and {gamma} = 1.910(5), measured using white light, and with 2V{sub meas.} = 83(3){sup o} and 2V{sub calc.} = 84.6{sup o}. Orientation: X = a, Y = c, Z = b. Crystals are nonpleochroic or too weakly so to be observed. The empirical formula (based on 5 O atoms) is (Fe{sub 1.33}{sup 3+}Cu{sub 0.85}Zn{sub 0.03}){sub {Sigma}2.21}(As{sub 0.51}Sb{sub 0.27}Si{sub 0.04}S{sub 0.02}Te{sub 0.01}){sub {Sigma}0.85}O{sub 5}. Auriacusite is orthorhombic, space group Pnnm, a = 8.6235(7), b = 8.2757(7), c = 5.9501(5) {angstrom}, V = 424.63(6) {angstrom}{sup 3}, Z = 4. The five strongest lines in the powder X-ray diffraction pattern are [d{sub obs} in {angstrom}/(I)/hkl]: 4.884/(100)/101, 001; 2.991/(92)/220; 2.476/(85)/311; 2.416/(83)/022; 2.669/(74)/221. The crystal structure was solved from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data utilising synchrotron radiation and refined to R{sub 1} = 0.1010 on the basis of 951 unique reflections with F {alpha} > 4{sigma}F. Auriacusite is identified as a member of the olivenite group with Fe{sup 3+} replacing Zn{sup 2+} or Cu{sup 2+} in trigonal bipyramidal coordination. Evidence suggests that auriacusite is an intermediate

  6. Forest regions of Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen F. Arno

    1979-01-01

    In this paper, Montana is divided into eight geographic subdivisions called "forest regions," based on distributions of tree and undergrowth species and the relationship of these patterns to climate and topography. The regions serve as a geographic reference for describing patterns of forest vegetation across the State. Data on the distributions of plant...

  7. Arnica montana L

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andreas, Ch.H.

    1958-01-01

    Een eventuele veelvormigheid van de wolverlei, Arnica montana L., heeft in ons land, voor zover mij bekend, geen aanleiding gegeven tot een onderverdeling dezer soort. In Portugal is dat wel het geval; A. de Bolos beschreef in 1948 in het tijdschrift Agronomia Lusitanica 2 ondersoorten voor het Iber

  8. Building Footprints - Montana Structures/Addresses Framework

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The Montana Structures/Addresses Framework is a statewide spatial database of structure and address points in the State of Montana. The Montana Structures/Addresses...

  9. 76 FR 78910 - Decision and Order Granting a Waiver to LG Electronics U.S.A., Inc. From the Department of Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-20

    ... Case No. CAC-036, which grants LG Electronics U.S.A., Inc. (LG) a waiver from the existing DOE test... Electronics U.S.A., Inc. (LG) (Case No. CAC- 036). Background Title III, Part C of the Energy Policy...

  10. Electronic cigarettes in the USA: a summary of available toxicology data and suggestions for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Michael S

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the available evidence evaluating the toxicological profiles of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) in order to understand the potential impact of e-cigarettes on individual users and the public health. Methods Systematic literature searches were conducted between October 2012 and October 2013 using five electronic databases. Search terms such as ‘e-cigarettes’ and ‘electronic delivery devices’ were used to identify the toxicology information for e-cigarettes. Results As of October 2013, the scientific literature contains very limited information regarding the toxicity of e-cigarettes commercially available in the USA. While some preliminary toxicology data suggests that e-cigarette users are exposed to lower levels of toxicants relative to cigarette smokers, the data available is extremely limited at this time. At present, there is insufficient toxicological data available to perform thorough risk assessment analyses for e-cigarettes; few toxicology studies evaluating e-cigarettes have been conducted to date, and standard toxicological testing paradigms have not been developed for comparing disparate types of tobacco products such as e-cigarettes and traditional cigarettes. Conclusions Overall, the limited toxicology data on e-cigarettes in the public domain is insufficient to allow a thorough toxicological evaluation of this new type of tobacco product. In the future, the acquisition of scientific datasets that are derived from scientifically robust standard testing paradigms, include comprehensive chemical characterisation of the aerosol, provide information on users’ toxicant exposure levels, and from studies replicated by independent researchers will improve the scientific community's ability to perform robust toxicological evaluations of e-cigarettes. PMID:24732158

  11. Social Organization in Montana. Montana Economic Study-Staff Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigart, Robert J.

    The four papers in this publication discusses Montana's social structure as it relates to culture, income, urbanism, and communal religious communities. "Montana Social Structure and Culture" includes rural and suburban life styles; the history of rural community organization; rural-small town communities; urban physical conditions;…

  12. Understanding Contrasting Approaches to Nationwide Implementations of Electronic Health Record Systems: England, the USA and Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe Morrison

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As governments commit to national electronic health record (EHR systems, there is increasing international interest in identifying effective implementation strategies. We draw on Coiera's typology of national programmes - ‘top-down’, ‘bottom-up’ and ‘middle-out’ - to review EHR implementation strategies in three exemplar countries: England, the USA and Australia. In comparing and contrasting three approaches, we show how different healthcare systems, national policy contexts and anticipated benefits have shaped initial strategies. We reflect on progress and likely developments in the face of continually changing circumstances. Our review shows that irrespective of the initial strategy, over time there is likely to be convergence on the negotiated, devolved middle-out approach, which aims to balance the interests and responsibilities of local healthcare constituencies and national government to achieve national connectivity. We conclude that, accepting the current lack of empirical evidence, the flexibility offered by the middle-out approach may make this the best initial national strategy.

  13. Libraries in Montana: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/montana.html Libraries in Montana To use the sharing features on ... page, please enable JavaScript. Billings Billings Clinic Medical Library 2825 8th Avenue North Billings, MT 59107-5100 ...

  14. 78 FR 10507 - Montana Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... approved pursuant to 30 CFR 732.17. Therefore, Montana advised that the minor grammatical changes will not.... Montana proposes changes to the Montana Strip and Underground Mine Reclamation Act (MSUMRA) that... conditions of approval in the April 1, 1980, Federal Register (45 FR 21560). You can also find later...

  15. MONTANA PALLADIUM RESEARCH INITIATIVE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, John; McCloskey, Jay; Douglas, Trevor; Young, Mark; Snyder, Stuart; Gurney, Brian

    2012-05-09

    Project Objective: The overarching objective of the Montana Palladium Research Initiative is to perform scientific research on the properties and uses of palladium in the context of the U.S. Department of Energy's Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program. The purpose of the research will be to explore possible palladium as an alternative to platinum in hydrogen-economy applications. To achieve this objective, the Initiatives activities will focus on several cutting-edge research approaches across a range of disciplines, including metallurgy, biomimetics, instrumentation development, and systems analysis. Background: Platinum-group elements (PGEs) play significant roles in processing hydrogen, an element that shows high potential to address this need in the U.S. and the world for inexpensive, reliable, clean energy. Platinum, however, is a very expensive component of current and planned systems, so less-expensive alternatives that have similar physical properties are being sought. To this end, several tasks have been defined under the rubric of the Montana Palladium Research Iniative. This broad swath of activities will allow progress on several fronts. The membrane-related activities of Task 1 employs state-of-the-art and leading-edge technologies to develop new, ceramic-substrate metallic membranes for the production of high-purity hydrogen, and develop techniques for the production of thin, defect-free platinum group element catalytic membranes for energy production and pollution control. The biomimetic work in Task 2 explores the use of substrate-attached hydrogen-producing enzymes and the encapsulation of palladium in virion-based protein coats to determine their utility for distributed hydrogen production. Task 3 work involves developing laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) as a real-time, in situ diagnostic technique to characterize PGEs nanoparticles for process monitoring and control. The systems engineering work in task 4

  16. Chemical and stable isotopic evidence for water/rock interaction and biogenic origin of coalbed methane, Fort Union Formation, Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, C.A.; Flores, R.M.; Stricker, G.D.; Ellis, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    Significant amounts (> 36??million m3/day) of coalbed methane (CBM) are currently being extracted from coal beds in the Paleocene Fort Union Formation of the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana. Information on processes that generate methane in these coalbed reservoirs is important for developing methods that will stimulate additional production. The chemical and isotopic compositions of gas and ground water from CBM wells throughout the basin reflect generation processes as well as those that affect water/rock interaction. Our study included analyses of water samples collected from 228 CBM wells. Major cations and anions were measured for all samples, ??DH2O and ??18OH2O were measured for 199 of the samples, and ??DCH4 of gas co-produced with water was measured for 100 of the samples. Results show that (1) water from Fort Union Formation coal beds is exclusively Na-HCO3-type water with low dissolved SO4 content (median < 1??mg/L) and little or no dissolved oxygen (< 0.15??mg/L), whereas shallow groundwater (depth generally < 120??m) is a mixed Ca-Mg-Na-SO4-HCO3 type; (2) water/rock interactions, such as cation exchange on clay minerals and precipitation/dissolution of CaCO3 and SO4 minerals, account for the accumulation of dissolved Na and depletion of Ca and Mg; (3) bacterially-mediated oxidation-reduction reactions account for high HCO3 (270-3310??mg/L) and low SO4 (median < 0.15??mg/L) values; (4) fractionation between ??DCH4 (- 283 to - 328 per mil) and ??DH2O (- 121 to - 167 per mil) indicates that the production of methane is primarily by biogenic CO2 reduction; and (5) values of ??DH2O and ??18OH2O (- 16 to - 22 per mil) have a wide range of values and plot near or above the global meteoric water line, indicating that the original meteoric water has been influenced by methanogenesis and by being mixed with surface and shallow groundwater.

  17. Wetlands & Deepwater Habitats - Montana Wetland and Riparian Framework - Map Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The Montana Wetland and Riparian Framework represents the extent, type, and approximate location of wetlands, riparian areas, and deepwater habitats in Montana....

  18. The Electronic Monitoring Paradigm: A Proposal for Transforming Criminal Justice in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart S. Yeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a change in public policy that promises to greatly reduce major crime in the United States, protect society, eliminate prison overcrowding, and save taxpayer dollars. This policy would employ electronic monitoring (EM technology in a way that discourages individuals who might otherwise be tempted to commit crimes. The approach is arguably more effective, efficient, humane and ethical than any alternative strategy and potentially could revolutionize law enforcement and the American criminal justice system.

  19. DOLUS LAKES ROADLESS AREA, MONTANA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, James E.; Avery, Dale W.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Dolus Lakes Roadless Area in southwestern Montana, was conducted. Much of the roadless area has probable and substantiated potential for resources of gold, silver, molybdenum, and tungsten. The nature of the geologic terrain indicates that there is little promise for the occurrence of coal, oil, gas, or geothermal resources. Detailed geologic and geochemical studies are suggested to delineate exploration targets that could be tested by drilling.

  20. Individual- and population-level effects of Odocoileus virginianus herbivory on the rare forest herb Scutellaria montana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea R. Benson

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Odocoileus virginianus  (white-tailed deer grazing can impact rare plant species dramatically given their risk for local extirpation and extinction. To determine if O. virginianus management could aid conservation of federally threatened Scutellaria montana  (large-flowered skullcap, we conducted an exclosure experiment across a large occurrence of this rare species in Catoosa County, Georgia, USA. We aimed to: (1 quantify the effects of O. virginianus  grazing on S. montana  individuals, and (2 evaluate the potential of O. virginianus  to influence S. montana  populations. A lesser percentage of S. montana  individuals protected from O. virginianus  were grazed than plants accessible to grazers and additional protection from smaller grazers did not reduce grazing, suggesting that O. virginianus  primarily do graze S. montana. But grazing did not significantly influence S. montana  individuals as evidenced by changes in stem height or the number of leaves per plant assessed during two single growing seasons or across those growing seasons. At the population-level, grazing impacts were buffered by a lack of grazer preferences for specific plant life stages. Although mostly not significant, our findings are biologically interesting given the numerous ecological concerns associated with O. virginianus abundance, including their demonstrated and proposed impact on rare plants.

  1. Limnological Investigations: Lake Koocanusa, Montana. Part 4. Factors Controlling Primary Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    Lund (1965), Hutchinson (1967), Fogg (1975) and Wetzel (1975). Stadelmann et al. (1974) reported that the spring increase in primary productivity at a...Bighorn Lake-Yellowtail Dam, Montana. U.S.A. Freshwater Biology, vol. 5, p. 407-421. Stadelmann , P., J. E. Moore and E. Pickett (1974) Primary production...loading concept in limnology. Schweizerische Zeitschrift fur Hydrologic, vol. 37, p. 53-84. Vollenweider, R. A., M. Munawar and P. Stadelmann (1974) A

  2. 76 FR 47637 - Montana Disaster #MT-00062

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ... ADMINISTRATION Montana Disaster MT-00062 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Montana (FEMA..., Fort Worth, TX 76155. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance,...

  3. 77 FR 47907 - Montana Disaster #MT-00067

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ... ADMINISTRATION Montana Disaster MT-00067 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of MONTANA dated 08/02/2012. Incident: Ash Creek Fire. Incident Period: 06/25/2012 through 07/22/2012. Effective Date:...

  4. 77 FR 48198 - Montana Disaster #MT-00068

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    ... ADMINISTRATION Montana Disaster MT-00068 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Montana dated 08/06/2012. Incident: Dahl Fire. Incident Period: 06/26/2012 through 07/06/2012. Effective Date:...

  5. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, RAVALLI, MONTANA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk Information And supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk;...

  6. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, CASCADE COUNTY, MONTANA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk Information And supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk;...

  7. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, BROADWATER, MONTANA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk Information And supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk;...

  8. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, YELLOWSTONE COUNTY, MONTANA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk Information And supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk;...

  9. 78 FR 44187 - Montana Disaster # MT-00079

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Montana Disaster MT-00079 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... have been determined to be adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Blaine,...

  10. Notes and comments on Montana Refuges

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is a summary of actual management actions, and plant community responses on Montana refuges during 1992. It is part of the moist-soil expert system...

  11. Adminstrative Boundary for Glacier National Park, Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The current administrative boundary of Glacier National Park, Montana. This data is based on 1:24000 scale USGS quad mapping published in 1968, but was revised in...

  12. Waterfowl breeding population survey for Montana: 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for Montana during 1993. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide information on...

  13. Parcels and Land Ownership - Montana Cadastral Framework

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The Montana Cadastral Database is comprised of taxable parcels (fee land) and public land (exempt property). It is not broken down into individual lots, for instance...

  14. Waterfowl breeding population survey for Montana: 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for Montana during 1998. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide information on...

  15. Waterfowl production survey for Montana: July 1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Production and Habitat Survey for Montana during 1980. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide information on duck...

  16. Watershed Boundaries - Watershed Boundary Database for Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This data set is a complete digital hydrologic unit boundary layer of the Subbasins (8-digit), Watersheds (10-digit), and Subwatersheds (12-digit) for Montana. This...

  17. 76 FR 43259 - Southern Montana Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... in Billings, Montana. The committee is meeting as authorized under the Secure Rural Schools and... Grad Montana Hotel and Convention Center, 5500 Midland Road, Billings, MT. Written comments should...

  18. Science Inquiry Learning in Classrooms — Montana Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brelsford, M. A.; Peters, J.; Grimberg, B. I.

    2010-04-01

    Montana's ABRC is working with rural school teachers in southwestern Montana. Astrobiology is a new and exciting subject for the teachers and its inter-disciplinary nature is very useful and rewarding for the teachers and their students.

  19. Observations on a Montana water quality proposal.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.; Puder, M. G.

    2006-01-12

    In May 2005, a group of petitioners led by the Northern Plains Resource Council (NPRC) submitted a petition to revise water quality requirements to the Montana Board of Environmental Review (BER). Under Montana law, the BER had to consider the petition and either reject it or propose it as a new regulation. In September 2005, the BER announced proposed changes to the Montana water quality regulations. The proposal, which included almost the exact language found in the petition, was directed toward discharges of water from coal bed natural gas (CBNG) production. The key elements of the proposal included: (1) No discharges of CBNG water are allowed to Montana surface waters unless operators can demonstrate that injection to aquifers with the potential for later recovery of the water is not feasible. (2) When operators can demonstrate the injection is not feasible, the CBNG water to be discharged must meet very strict technology-based limits for multiple parameters. (3) The Montana water quality standards for the sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and electrical conductivity (EC) would be evaluated using the 7Q10 flow (lowest 7-consecutive-day flow in a 10-year period) rather than a monthly flow that is currently used. (4) SAR and EC would be reclassified as ''harmful parameters'', thereby greatly restricting the ability for CBNG discharges to be allowed under Montana's nondegradation regulations. The proposed regulations, if adopted in their current form, are likely to substantially reduce the amount of CBNG production in Montana. The impact also extends to Wyoming CBNG production through much greater restrictions on water quality that must be met at the interstate border.

  20. Board of Regents' Montana University System (MUS) Strategic Plan 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montana University System, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The Montana University System Strategic Plan is the primary planning document of the Board of Regents. The Plan sets forth an agenda for higher education in Montana by delineating the strategic directions, goals, and objectives that guide the Montana University System (MUS). In July 2006, after several years of study, public dialogue, and internal…

  1. Final report on the safety assessment of Arnica montana extract and Arnica montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Arnica Montana Extract is an extract of dried flowerheads of the plant, Arnica montana. Arnica Montana is a generic term used to describe a plant material derived from the dried flowers, roots, or rhizomes of A. montana. Common names for A. montana include leopard's bane, mountain tobacco, mountain snuff, and wolf's bane. Two techniques for preparing Arnica Montana Extract are hydroalcoholic maceration and gentle disintegration in soybean oil. Propylene glycol and butylene glycol extractions were also reported. The composition of these extracts can include fatty acids, especially palmitic, linoleic, myristic, and linolenic acids, essential oil, triterpenic alcohols, sesquiterpene lactones, sugars, phytosterols, phenol acids, tannins, choline, inulin, phulin, arnicin, flavonoids, carotenoids, coumarins, and heavy metals. The components present in these extracts are dependent on where the plant is grown. Arnica Montana Extract was reported to be used in almost 100 cosmetic formulations across a wide range of product types, whereas Arnica Montana was reported only once. Extractions of Arnica Montana were tested and found not toxic in acute toxicity tests in rabbits, mice, and rats; they were not irritating, sensitizing, or phototoxic to mouse or guinea pig skin; and they did not produce significant ocular irritation. In an Ames test, an extract of A. montana was mutagenic, possibly related to the flavenoid content of the extract. No carcinogenicity or reproductive/developmental toxicity data were available. Clinical tests of extractions failed to elicit irritation or sensitization, yet Arnica dermatitis, a delayed type IV allergy, is reported in individuals who handle arnica flowers and may be caused by sesquiterpene lactones found in the flowers. Ingestion of A. montana-containing products has induced severe gastroenteritis, nervousness, accelerated heart rate, muscular weakness, and death. Absent any basis for concluding that data on one member of a botanical

  2. Montana BioDiesel Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peyton, Brent [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States)

    2017-01-29

    This initiative funding helped put Montana State University (MSU) in a position to help lead in the development of biodiesel production strategies. Recent shortages in electrical power and rising gasoline prices have focused much attention on the development of alternative energy sources that will end our dependence on fossil fuels. In addition, as the concern for environmental impact of utilizing fossil fuels increases, effective strategies must be implemented to reduce emissions or the increased regulations imposed on fossil fuel production will cause economic barriers for their use to continue to increase. Biodiesel has been repeatedly promoted as a more environmentally sound and renewable source of fuel and may prove to be a highly viable solution to provide, at the least, a proportion of our energy needs. Currently there are both practical and economic barriers to the implementation of alternative energy however the advent of these technologies is inevitable. Since many of the same strategies for the storage, transport, and utilization of biodiesel are common with that of fossil fuels, the practical barriers for biodiesel are comparatively minimal. Strategies were developed to harness the CO2 as feedstock to support the growth of biodiesel producing algae. The initiative funding led to the successful funding of highly rated projects in competitive national grant programs in the National Science Foundation and the Department of Energy. This funding put MSU in a key position to develop technologies to utilize the CO2 rich emissions produced in fossil fuel utilization and assembled world experts concerning the growth characteristics of photosynthetic microorganisms capable of producing biodiesel.

  3. 76 FR 76111 - Montana Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ...--Regulatory Planning and Review This rule is exempted from review by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB... to and additions of statutory definitions for ``approximate original contour,'' ``in situ coal..., Federal Register (45 FR 21560). You can also find later actions concerning Montana's program and...

  4. 77 FR 73965 - Montana Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... Section 503(a) of the Act permits a State to assume primacy for the regulation of surface coal mining and... Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Part 926 Montana Regulatory Program AGENCY: Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement, Interior. ACTION: Proposed rule; withdrawal...

  5. Montana Advanced Biofuels Great Falls Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    This November 20, 2015 letter from EPA approves the petition from Montana Advanced Biofuels, LLC, Great Falls facility, regarding ethanol produced through a dry mill process, qualifying under the Clean Air Act for advanced biofuel (D-code 5) and renewable

  6. 76 FR 64047 - Montana Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... until 4 p.m., m.d.t. November 16, 2011. If requested, we will hold a public hearing on the amendment on November 14, 2011. We will accept requests to speak until 4 p.m., m.d.t. on November 1, 2011. ADDRESSES... . Edward L. Coleman, Bureau Chief, Industrial and Energy Minerals Bureau, Montana Department...

  7. 76 FR 64045 - Montana Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... hearing, if one is requested. DATES: We will accept written comments on this amendment until 4 p.m., m.d.t... will accept requests to speak until 4 p.m., m.d.t. on November 1, 2011. ADDRESSES: You may submit... ; Edward L. Coleman, Bureau Chief, Industrial and Energy Minerals Bureau, Montana Department...

  8. A century of climate and ecosystem change in Western Montana: What do temperature trends portend?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederson, G.T.; Graumlich, L.J.; Fagre, D.B.; Kipfer, T.; Muhlfeld, C.C.

    2010-01-01

    The physical science linking human-induced increases in greenhouse gasses to the warming of the global climate system is well established, but the implications of this warming for ecosystem processes and services at regional scales is still poorly understood. Thus, the objectives of this work were to: (1) describe rates of change in temperature averages and extremes for western Montana, a region containing sensitive resources and ecosystems, (2) investigate associations between Montana temperature change to hemispheric and global temperature change, (3) provide climate analysis tools for land and resource managers responsible for researching and maintaining renewable resources, habitat, and threatened/endangered species and (4) integrate our findings into a more general assessment of climate impacts on ecosystem processes and services over the past century. Over 100 years of daily and monthly temperature data collected in western Montana, USA are analyzed for long-term changes in seasonal averages and daily extremes. In particular, variability and trends in temperature above or below ecologically and socially meaningful thresholds within this region (e.g., -17.8??C (0??F), 0??C (32??F), and 32.2??C (90??F)) are assessed. The daily temperature time series reveal extremely cold days (??? -17.8??C) terminate on average 20 days earlier and decline in number, whereas extremely hot days (???32??C) show a three-fold increase in number and a 24-day increase in seasonal window during which they occur. Results show that regionally important thresholds have been exceeded, the most recent of which include the timing and number of the 0??C freeze/thaw temperatures during spring and fall. Finally, we close with a discussion on the implications for Montana's ecosystems. Special attention is given to critical processes that respond non-linearly as temperatures exceed critical thresholds, and have positive feedbacks that amplify the changes. ?? Springer Science + Business Media B

  9. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Montana. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2014 Montana State Code base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Montana.

  10. Grizzly bear density in Glacier National Park, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, K.C.; Stetz, J.B.; Roon, David A.; Waits, L.P.; Boulanger, J.B.; Paetkau, David

    2008-01-01

    We present the first rigorous estimate of grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) population density and distribution in and around Glacier National Park (GNP), Montana, USA. We used genetic analysis to identify individual bears from hair samples collected via 2 concurrent sampling methods: 1) systematically distributed, baited, barbed-wire hair traps and 2) unbaited bear rub trees found along trails. We used Huggins closed mixture models in Program MARK to estimate total population size and developed a method to account for heterogeneity caused by unequal access to rub trees. We corrected our estimate for lack of geographic closure using a new method that utilizes information from radiocollared bears and the distribution of bears captured with DNA sampling. Adjusted for closure, the average number of grizzly bears in our study area was 240.7 (95% CI = 202–303) in 1998 and 240.6 (95% CI = 205–304) in 2000. Average grizzly bear density was 30 bears/1,000 km2, with 2.4 times more bears detected per hair trap inside than outside GNP. We provide baseline information important for managing one of the few remaining populations of grizzlies in the contiguous United States.

  11. Government Districts, Other - Montana Administrative Boundary Web Mapping Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Montana Administrative Boundaries Map Service includes the following boundaries: State, County, Incorporated City/Town, Reservation, School Districts, Tax Increment...

  12. WEST PIONEER WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, MONTANA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Byron R.; Benham, John R.

    1984-01-01

    The West Pioneer Wilderness Study Area is in the Pioneer Mountains, Beaverhead County, Montana. A mineral-resource study of the area identified eight areas with molybdenum potential, four areas with gold-silver potential, one area with tungsten potential, and one area with barite potential. Several small mines were encountered, but none were accessible for the purposes of resource evaluation. No energy resources were identified in the study.

  13. 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey: Alternative Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior alternative school student frequency distributions. These frequency distributions are based upon surveys with 274 alternative school students in Montana during February of 2011. Frequency distributions may not total 274 due to nonresponse and percents may not total 100 percent due to…

  14. 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey: Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey high school student frequency distributions for students with disabilities. These frequency distributions are based upon surveys with 1,672 high school students with disabilities in Montana during February of 2011. Frequency distributions may not total 1,672 due to nonresponse and…

  15. 76 FR 63323 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ...-L13200000-EL0000-P; MTM 97988] Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Montana AGENCY: Bureau of Land... described below in Musselshell County, Montana, will be offered for competitive lease by sealed bid in accordance with the provisions of the Mineral Leasing Act of 1920, as amended. DATES: The lease sale will...

  16. 77 FR 2316 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Montana AGENCY: Bureau of Land... described below in Musselshell County, Montana, will be offered for competitive lease by sealed bid in accordance with the provisions of the Mineral Leasing Act of 1920, as amended. DATES: The lease sale will...

  17. Tipificación de "Arnica montana" L. (Asteraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrer Gallego, Pedro Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Se designa un lectótipo para Arnica montana L. (Asteraceae) a partir del material original de Linneo conservado en el herbario UPS-BURSER. A lectotype for Arnica montana L. (Asteraceae) is designated from Linnaeus’ original material preserved in the UPS-BURSER herbarium.

  18. A Response to "A Description of Merger Applied to the Montana State University Context."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Ronald P.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Contains three responses to Stephen L. Coffman's article appearing in the same issue, "A Description of Merger Applied to the Montana State University Context": one from the chancellor of Montana State University-Billings, one from the president of Montana State University-Bozeman, and one from the commissioner of the Montana State University…

  19. Implementation of diabetes prevention programs in rural areas: Montana and south-eastern Australia compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Prasuna; Hernan, Andrea L; Vanderwood, Karl K; Arave, Diane; Niebylski, Mark L; Harwell, Todd S; Dunbar, James A

    2011-06-01

    To identify the key elements that enabled the Greater Green Triangle Diabetes Prevention Project (GGT DPP) and the Montana Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes Prevention (CDDP) programs successful establishment and implementation in rural areas, as well as identifying specific challenges or barriers for implementation in rural communities. Focus groups were held with the facilitators who delivered the GGT DPP in Australia and the Montana CDDP programs in the USA. Interview questions covered the facilitators' experiences with recruitment, establishing the program, the components and influence of rurality on the program, barriers and challenges to delivering the program, attributes of successful participants, and the influence of community resources and partnerships on the programs. Four main themes emerged from the focus groups: establishing and implementing the diabetes prevention program in the community; strategies for recruitment and retention of participants; what works in lifestyle intervention programs; and rural-centred issues. The results from this study have assisted in determining the factors that contribute to developing, establishing and implementing successful diabetes prevention programs in two rural areas. Recommendations to increase the likelihood of success of programs in rural communities include: securing funding early for the program; establishing support from community leaders and developing positive relationships with health care providers; creating a professional team with passion for the program; encouraging participants to celebrate their small and big successes; and developing procedures for providing post-intervention support to help participants maintain their success. © 2011 The Authors. Australian Journal of Rural Health © National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  20. Using structured decision making to manage disease risk for Montana wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Michael S.; Gude, Justin A.; Anderson, Neil J.; Ramsey, Jennifer M.; Thompson, Michael J.; Sullivan, Mark G.; Edwards, Victoria L.; Gower, Claire N.; Cochrane, Jean Fitts; Irwin, Elise R.; Walshe, Terry

    2013-01-01

    We used structured decision-making to develop a 2-part framework to assist managers in the proactive management of disease outbreaks in Montana, USA. The first part of the framework is a model to estimate the probability of disease outbreak given field observations available to managers. The second part of the framework is decision analysis that evaluates likely outcomes of management alternatives based on the estimated probability of disease outbreak, and applies managers' values for different objectives to indicate a preferred management strategy. We used pneumonia in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) as a case study for our approach, applying it to 2 populations in Montana that differed in their likelihood of a pneumonia outbreak. The framework provided credible predictions of both probability of disease outbreaks, as well as biological and monetary consequences of management actions. The structured decision-making approach to this problem was valuable for defining the challenges of disease management in a decentralized agency where decisions are generally made at the local level in cooperation with stakeholders. Our approach provides local managers with the ability to tailor management planning for disease outbreaks to local conditions. Further work is needed to refine our disease risk models and decision analysis, including robust prediction of disease outbreaks and improved assessment of management alternatives.

  1. Modeling multi-scale resource selection for bear rub trees in northwestern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan Henderson, Matthew J.; Hebblewhite, Mark; Mitchell, Michael S.; Stetz, Jeffrey B.; Kendall, Katherine C.; Carlson, Ross T.

    2015-01-01

    Both black (Ursus americanus) and grizzly bears (U. arctos) are known to rub on trees and other objects, producing a network of repeatedly used and identifiable rub sites. In 2012, we used a resource selection function to evaluate hypothesized relationships between locations of 887 bear rubs in northwestern Montana, USA, and elevation, slope angle, density of open roads and distance from areas of heightened plant-productivity likely containing forage for bears. Slope and density of open roads were negatively correlated with rub presence. No other covariates were supported as explanatory variables. We also hypothesized that bear rubs would be more strongly associated with closed roads and developed trails than with game trails. The frequencies of bear rubs on 30 paired segments of developed tracks and game trails were not different. Our results suggest bear rubs may be associated with bear travel routes, and support their use as “random” sampling devices for non-invasive spatial capture–recapture population monitoring.

  2. Some biological compounds, radical scavenging capacities and antimicrobial activities in the seeds of Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. sub sp. montana from Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emre, I.; Kursat, M.; Yilmaz, O.; Erecevit, P.

    2011-07-01

    This study determined some biological compounds (fatty acid compositions, lipid-soluble vitamins, sterols, flavonoids), radical scavenging capacities and antimicrobial activities in the seeds of Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana. It was found that palmitic acid (C16:0; 8.54+-0.13-3.05+-0.04%), oleic acid (C18:1 n9, 22.41+-0.8-18.83+-0.1%) and a-inolenic acid were the dominant fatty acids in both Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana. It was concluded that both Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana contained stigmasterol and ergosterol as well as beta-sitosterol. The present findings show that Nepeta italica L. contains morin, catechin, naringin and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana contains morin, naringenin as major flavonoids. It was also determined that methanol extracts of Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana were most effective against DPPH radicals. The results of the present study show that the vitamins, flavonoids and fatty acid extracts in the seeds of N. italica L. and S. montana L. subsp. montana prevented the growth of the microorganisms used in the tests at different ratios. (Author).

  3. Some biological compounds, radical scavenging capacities and antimicrobial activities in the seeds of Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana from Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emre, I.; Kursat, M.; Yilmaz, O.; Erecevit, P.

    2011-07-01

    This study determined some biological compounds (fatty acid compositions, lipid-soluble vitamins, sterols, flavonoids), radical scavenging capacities and antimicrobial activities in the seeds of Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana. It was found that palmitic acid (C16:0; 8.54+-0.13-3.05+-0.04%), oleic acid (C18:1 n9, 22.41+-0.8-18.83+-0.1%) and a-inolenic acid were the dominant fatty acids in both Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana. It was concluded that both Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana contained stigmasterol and ergosterol as well as beta-sitosterol. The present findings show that Nepeta italica L. contains morin, catechin, naringin and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana contains morin, naringenin as major flavonoids. It was also determined that methanol extracts of Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana were most effective against DPPH radicals. The results of the present study show that the vitamins, flavonoids and fatty acid extracts in the seeds of N. italica L. and S. montana L. subsp. montana prevented the growth of the microorganisms used in the tests at different ratios. (Author).

  4. Northwest Montana [Waterfowl Production Area] Narrative report: Fical year 1975

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Northwest Montana Wetland Management District outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1975 fiscal year. The report begins by...

  5. Northwest Montana Wildlife Mitigation Habitat Protection : Advance Design : Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Marilyn A.

    1993-02-01

    This report summarizes the habitat protection process developed to mitigate for certain wildlife and wildlife habitat losses due to construction of Hungry Horse and Libby dams in northwestern Montana.

  6. Montana National Wildlife Refuges: Contaminant issues of concern

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to: (1) identify specific contaminant issues of concern for each Montana refuge and wetland management district; (2) summarize the...

  7. Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks 2008 Avian Influenza Surveillance Project Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the work performed by Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks (FWP) during the 2008 surveillance period. The objectives of the project were to employ...

  8. Planning and accomplishment narrative: Northwest Montana Waterfowl Production Area [1973

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This planning and accomplishments narrative report for Northwest Montana Wetland Management District outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1973 calendar year....

  9. Building Points - Montana Structures/Addresses Framework - Web Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Map service for the Montana Structures MSDI Framework. The service will only display at scales of 1:100,000 or larger. Structures are grouped into general categories...

  10. Building Points - Montana Structures/Addresses Framework - Web Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Map service for the Montana Structures MSDI Framework. The service will only display at scales of 1:100,000 or larger. Structures are grouped into general categories...

  11. Land Use and Land Cover - Montana Land Cover Framework 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This statewide land cover theme is a baseline digital map of Montana's natural and human land cover. The baseline map is adapted from the Northwest ReGAP project...

  12. Northwest Montana Wetland Management District : Annual Narrative : Calendar Year 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Northwest Montana WMD outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1995 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  13. Northwest Montana Wetland Management District : Annual Narrative : Calendar Year 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Northwest Montana WMD outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1992 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  14. Northwest Montana Wetland Management District : Annual Narrative : Calendar Year 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Northwest Montana WMD outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1994 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  15. Northwest Montana Wetland Management District : Annual Narrative : Calendar Year 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Northwest Montana WMD outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1993 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  16. Bone foreshafts from a clovis burial in southwestern montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahren, L; Bonnichsen, R

    1974-10-11

    Formal and functional analyses of bone artifacts from a Clovis burial in southwestern Montana suggest that they were constructed to serve as (detachable or nondetachable) foreshafts for attaching fluted projectile points to lance shafts.

  17. [Predator disease sampling results in Montana 1993-1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains data from predator disease sampling in Montana for the reintroduction of black-footed ferrets at Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge....

  18. Waterfowl breeding population survey for Montana: May 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for Montana during 1981. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide information on...

  19. The Marysville, Montana Geothermal Project. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-09-01

    This report describes the exploration of an anomalous site near Marysville, Montana, where the geothermal heat flow is about 10 times the regional average. The site arouses scientific interest because there are no surface manifestations such as young volcanics, hot springs, geysers, etc., within 20 miles of it. Also, there is significant economic interest in exploring the source of heat as a potential for the generation of electricity. Included herein are independent sections prepared by each contractor. Consequently, there is some overlapping information, generally presented from different viewpoints. The project consists of geophysical surveys in 1973 and 1974, the drilling of the deep well in the summer of 1974 to a depth of 6790 feet, the coring and logging of the well, the supporting scientific studies, and the data analysis. Since so much data are available on the Marysville system, it can serve as a testing and research area to help locate and understand similar systems. (GRA)

  20. US hydropower resource assessment for Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J.E.

    1993-12-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE menu-driven software application that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the state of Montana.

  1. Montana StreamStats—A method for retrieving basin and streamflow characteristics in Montana: Chapter A in Montana StreamStats

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Peter M.; Dutton, DeAnn M.; Sando, Steven K.; Sando, Roy

    2016-04-05

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provides streamflow characteristics and other related information needed by water-resource managers to protect people and property from floods, plan and manage water-resource activities, and protect water quality. Streamflow characteristics provided by the USGS, such as peak-flow and low-flow frequencies for streamflow-gaging stations, are frequently used by engineers, flood forecasters, land managers, biologists, and others to guide their everyday decisions. In addition to providing streamflow characteristics at streamflow-gaging stations, the USGS also develops regional regression equations and drainage area-adjustment methods for estimating streamflow characteristics at locations on ungaged streams. Regional regression equations can be complex and often require users to determine several basin characteristics, which are physical and climatic characteristics of the stream and its drainage basin. Obtaining these basin characteristics for streamflow-gaging stations and ungaged sites traditionally has been time consuming and subjective, and led to inconsistent results.StreamStats is a Web-based geographic information system application that was created by the USGS to provide users with access to an assortment of analytical tools that are useful for water-resource planning and management. StreamStats allows users to easily obtain streamflow and basin characteristics for USGS streamflow-gaging stations and user-selected locations on ungaged streams. The USGS, in cooperation with Montana Department of Transportation, Montana Department of Environmental Quality, and Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation, completed a study to develop a StreamStats application for Montana, compute streamflow characteristics at streamflow-gaging stations, and develop regional regression equations to estimate streamflow characteristics at ungaged sites. Chapter A of this Scientific Investigations Report describes the Montana Stream

  2. FOREWORD: The 12th International Workshop on Desorption Induced by Electronic Transitions (DIET XII) (Pine Mountain, Georgia, USA, 19-23 April 2009) The 12th International Workshop on Desorption Induced by Electronic Transitions (DIET XII) (Pine Mountain, Georgia, USA, 19-23 April 2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, Thomas M.; Diebold, Ulrike

    2010-03-01

    The 12th International Workshop on Desorption Induced by Electronic Transitions (DIET XII) took place from 19-23 April 2009 in Pine Mountain, Georgia, USA. This was the 12th conference in a strong and vibrant series, which dates back to the early 1980s. DIET XII continued the tradition of exceptional interdisciplinary science and focused on the study of desorption and dynamics induced by electronic excitations of surfaces and interfaces. The format involved invited lectures, contributed talks and a poster session on the most recent developments and advances in this area of surface physics. The Workshop International Steering Committee and attendees wish to dedicate DIET XII to the memory of the late Professor Theodore (Ted) Madey. Ted was one of the main pioneers of this field and was one of the primary individuals working to keep this area of science exciting and adventurous. His overall contributions to surface science were countless and his contributions to the DIET field and community were enormous. He is missed and remembered by many friends and colleagues throughout the world. The papers collected in this issue cover many of the highlights of DIET XII. Topics include ultrafast electron transfer at surfaces and interfaces, quantum and spatially resolved mapping of surface dynamics and desorption, photon-, electron- and ion-beam induced processes at complex interfaces, the role of non-thermal desorption in astrochemistry and astrophysics and laser-/ion-based methods of examining soft matter and biological media. Although the workshop attracted many scientists active in the general area of non-thermal surface processes, DIET XII also attracted many younger scientists (i.e., postdoctoral fellows, advanced graduate students, and a select number of advanced undergraduate students). This field has had an impact in a number of areas including nanoscience, device physics, astrophysics, and now biophysics. We believe that this special issue of Journal of Physics

  3. 75 FR 57059 - Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation Final Habitat Conservation Plan and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation Final Habitat... received from the Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation (DNRC) a Final...

  4. 77 FR 12581 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Montana AGENCY: Environmental... the state of Montana has revised its Public Water System Supervision (PWSS) Program by...

  5. 75 FR 69434 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Montana AGENCY: Environmental... the State of Montana has revised its Public Water System Supervision (PWSS) Primacy Program...

  6. The Montana Wild Virus Hunt | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health: The Montana Wild Virus Hunt Follow us The Montana Wild Virus Hunt Blake Wiedenheft is a ... their passion for health and science. What is the focus of your research? Viruses that infect bacteria ( ...

  7. Developing a Climate Change Boundary Organization: the Montana Adaptation Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlock, C. L.; Brooks, S.; Armstrong, T.; Bryan, B.

    2016-12-01

    Small-population large-area states like Montana are often challenged by a need to offer timely and relevant climate-change information that addresses diverse and widely dispersed stakeholder groups. In Montana, filling the gap between science and various types of decision-makers has motivated development of the first Montana Climate Assessment (MCA1), to be released in 2017 with a focus on climate-change impacts for agricultural, water and forestry sectors. To sustain and build on the MCA1 effort, we are also in the process of creating a Boundary Organization (defined by the National Academy of Sciences) called the Montana Adaptation Exchange (the Exchange); this entity will facilitate the flow of information across the boundaries between science, knowledge and implementation. In Montana, the Exchange brings scientists and practitioners together to seek solutions related to climate-change adaptation and other pressing environmental and social-economic challenges. The Montana Adaptation Exchange (1) is a collaborative partnership of members from the science and practitioner communities under a shared governance and participatory model; (2) presents research that has been vetted by the scientific community at large and represents the current state of knowledge; (3) allows for revision and expansion of assessments like the MCA; (4) communicates relevant, often technical, research and findings to a wide variety of resource managers and other stakeholders; (5) develops and maintains an extensive online database that organizes, regularly updates, and makes research data products readily available; and (6) offers an online portal and expert network of affiliated researchers and climate adaptation specialists to provide effective customer support. Boundary organizations, such as the Montana Adaptation Exchange, offer a scalable path to effectively move from "science to knowledge to action" while also allowing stakeholder needs to help inform research agendas.

  8. Isolation and molecular characterization of a novel picornavirus from baitfish in the USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas B D Phelps

    Full Text Available During both regulatory and routine surveillance sampling of baitfish from the states of Illinois, Minnesota, Montana, and Wisconsin, USA, isolates (n = 20 of a previously unknown picornavirus were obtained from kidney/spleen or entire viscera of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas and brassy minnows (Hybognathus hankinsoni. Following the appearance of a diffuse cytopathic effect, examination of cell culture supernatant by negative contrast electron microscopy revealed the presence of small, round virus particles (∼ 30-32 nm, with picornavirus-like morphology. Amplification and sequence analysis of viral RNA identified the agent as a novel member of the Picornaviridae family, tentatively named fathead minnow picornavirus (FHMPV. The full FHMPV genome consisted of 7834 nucleotides. Phylogenetic analysis based on 491 amino acid residues of the 3D gene showed 98.6% to 100% identity among the 20 isolates of FHMPV compared in this study while only 49.5% identity with its nearest neighbor, the bluegill picornavirus (BGPV isolated from bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus. Based on complete polyprotein analysis, the FHMPV shared 58% (P1, 33% (P2 and 43% (P3 amino acid identities with BGPV and shared less than 40% amino acid identity with all other picornaviruses. Hence, we propose the creation of a new genus (Piscevirus within the Picornaviridae family. The impact of FHMPV on the health of fish populations is unknown at present.

  9. Effects of phonophoresis with Arnica montana onto acute inflammatory process in rat skeletal muscles: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfredo, Patrícia P; Anaruma, Carlos A; Pião, Antônio C S; João, Silvia M A; Casarotto, Raquel A

    2009-05-01

    This study aimed at verifying the effects of phonophoresis associated with Arnica montana on the acute phase of an inflammatory muscle lesion. Forty Wistar male rats (300+/-50 g), of which the Tibialis Anterior muscle was surgically lesioned, were divided into four groups (n=10 each): control group received no treatment; the ultrasound group (US) was treated in pulsed mode with 1-MHz frequency, 0.5 W/cm(2) intensity (spatial and temporal average - SATA), duty cycle of 1:2 (2 ms on, 4 ms off, 50%), time of application 3 min per session, one session per day, for 3 days; the phonophoresis or ultrasound plus arnica (US+A) group was treated with arnica with the same US parameters plus arnica gel; and the arnica group (A) was submitted to massage with arnica gel, also for 3 min, once a day, for 3 days. Treatment started 24h after the surgical lesion. On the 4th day after lesion creation, animals were sacrificed and sections of the lesioned, inflamed muscle were removed for quantitative (mononuclear and polymorphonuclear cell count) and qualitative histological analysis. Collected data from the 4 groups were statistically analyzed and the significance level set at p<0.05. Results show higher mononuclear cell density in all three treated groups with no significant difference between them, but values were significantly different (p<0.0001) when compared to control group's. As to polymorphonuclear cell density, significant differences were found between control group (p=0.0134) and US, US+A and A groups; the arnica group presented lesser density of polymorphonuclear cells when compared (p=0.0134) to the other groups. No significant difference was found between US and US+A groups. While the massage with arnica gel proved to be an effective anti-inflammatory on acute muscle lesion in topic use, these results point to ineffectiveness of Arnica montana phonophoresis, US having seemingly checked or minimized its anti-inflammatory effect.

  10. Karyomorphometric analysis of Fritillaria montana group in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Samaropoulou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Fritillaria Linnaeus, 1753 (Liliaceae is a genus of geophytes, represented in Greece by 29 taxa. Most of the Greek species are endemic to the country and/or threatened. Although their classical cytotaxonomic studies have already been presented, no karyomorphometric analysis has ever been given. In the present study, the cytological results of Fritillaria montana Hoppe ex W.D.J. Koch, 1832 group, which includes F. epirotica Turrill ex Rix, 1975 and F. montana are statistically evaluated for the first time. Further indices about interchromosomal and intrachromosomal asymmetry are given. A new population of F. epirotica is also investigated, while for F. montana, a diploid individual was found in a known as triploid population. Paired t-tests and PCoA analysis have been applied to compare the two species.

  11. Flavonoids from the aerial parts of Onobrychis montana subsp. scardica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BORIS PEJIN

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Rutin (1, main constituent and two flavone C-glycosides, vitexin (2 and vitexin 2''-O-alpha-rhamnopyranoside (3 were isolated from the aerial parts of Onobrychis montana subsp. scardica. They were identified by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and UV–Vis spectroscopy (procedure with shift reagents, and high resolution ESI-MS. A relatively high content of 1 (5.27 mg/g of dry plant material, measured by HPLC, indicated O. montana subsp. scardica as a new natural source of this biologically active compound. The isolated flavonoid compounds might be of value as chemotaxonomic markers.

  12. Sampling large geographic areas for rare species using environmental DNA: a study of bull trout Salvelinus confluentus occupancy in western Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvey, K S; Young, M K; Knotek, W L; Carim, K J; Wilcox, T M; Padgett-Stewart, T M; Schwartz, M K

    2016-03-01

    This study tested the efficacy of environmental DNA (eDNA) sampling to delineate the distribution of bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in headwater streams in western Montana, U.S.A. Surveys proved fast, reliable and sensitive: 124 samples were collected across five basins by a single crew in c. 8 days. Results were largely consistent with past electrofishing, but, in a basin where S. confluentus were known to be scarce, eDNA samples indicated that S. confluentus were more broadly distributed than previously thought.

  13. Methods for estimating streamflow characteristics at ungaged sites in western Montana based on data through water year 2009: Chapter G in Montana StreamStats

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Peter M.; Sando, Roy; Sando, Steven K.; Dutton, DeAnn M.

    2016-04-05

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Montana Department of Environmental Quality and the Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation, developed regional regression equations based on basin and streamflow characteristics for streamflow-gaging stations through water year 2009 that can be used to estimate streamflow characteristics for ungaged sites in western Montana. The regression equations allow estimation of low-flow frequencies; mean annual and mean monthly streamflows; and the 20-, 50-, and 80-percent durations for annual and monthly duration streamflows for ungaged sites in western Montana that are unaffected by regulation.

  14. Dances with anthrax: wolves (Canis lupus) kill anthrax bacteremic plains bison (Bison bison bison) in southwestern Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Jason K; Asher, Valpa; Stokke, Stephen; Hunter, David L; Alexander, Kathleen A

    2014-04-01

    Bacillus anthracis, the cause of anthrax, was recovered from two plains bison (Bison bison bison) cows killed by wolves (Canis lupus) in Montana, USA, without associated wolf mortality in July 2010. This bison herd experienced an epizootic in summer 2008, killing ∼ 8% of the herd, the first documented in the region in several decades. No wolf deaths were associated with the 2008 event. Surveillance has continued since 2008, with research, ranch, and wildlife personnel diligent during summer. As part of this, we tested wolf-killed bison and elk (Cervus elaphus) for anthrax during the 2010 summer using lateral flow immunochromatographic assays (LFIA). Two bison cows were positive for protective antigen, confirming active bacteremia. The LFIA results were confirmed with traditional bacteriology recovering viable B. anthracis. No wolf fatalities were associated with the bison deaths, despite consuming the meat. Low-level anthrax occurrence in large, rough terrain landscapes remains difficult to detect, particularly if mortality in the herbivore host is not a consequence of infection. In these instances, surveillance of predators with large home ranges may provide a more sensitive indicator of anthrax emergence or reemergence in such systems. Though speculative, it is also possible that anthrax infection in the bison increased predation risk. These results also suggest B. anthracis remains a threat to wildlife and associated livestock in southwestern Montana.

  15. 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey: Nonpublic Accredited Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey high school student frequency distributions for nonpublic accredited schools. These frequency distributions are based upon surveys with 349 high school students in Nonpublic Region during February of 2011. Frequency distributions may not total 349 due to nonresponse and percents may…

  16. A new fauna from the Colorado group of southern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeside, John B.

    1925-01-01

    This paper describes a small but interesting fauna collected in 1921 by W. T. Thorn, Jr., Gail F. Moulton, T. W. Stanton, and K. C. Heald in the Crow Indian Reservation in southern Montana. The locality is in sec. 36, T. 6 S., R. 32 E., Big Horn County, and is 2 miles east of the Soap Creek oil field.

  17. American Indian High School Completion in Rural Southeastern Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Carol

    1995-01-01

    Factors related to dropping out were examined among Northern Cheyenne and Crow high school students living in three southeastern Montana communities and attending a Catholic school, a public school, or a tribal school. Place of residence, parental educational attainment, and school experiences were important variables, but their effects varied by…

  18. Thymol derivatives from hairy roots of Arnica montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weremczuk-Jezyna, I; Kisiel, W; Wysokińska, H

    2006-09-01

    Five known thymol derivatives were isolated from roots of Arnica montana transformed with Agrobacterium rhizogenes LBA 9402. The compounds were characterized by spectral methods. The pattern of thymol derivatives in light-grown hairy roots was slightly different from that in dark-grown ones. This is the first report on the presence of thymol derivatives in hairy roots of the plant.

  19. Methylated Flavonoids from Arnica montana and Arnica chamissonis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merfort, I

    1984-02-01

    From the flowers of ARNICA CHAMISSONIS Less, subsp. FOLIOSA var. INCANA, the methylated flavonoids acacetin, pectolinarigenin, hispidulin, jaceosidin, 6-methoxykaempferol, and betuletol have been isolated and identified by spectroscopic methods. Except for acacetin, the same flavonoids were identified in the flowers of ARNICA MONTANA L. Betuletol was found for the first time in the family of Asteraceae.

  20. On-site energy consumption at softwood sawmills in Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Loeffler; Nathaniel Anderson; Todd A. Morgan; Colin B. Sorenson

    2016-01-01

    Total on-site energy requirements for wood product manufacturing are generally not well understood or publicly available, particularly at subregional scales, such as the state level. This article uses a mail survey of softwood sawmills in Montana to develop a profile of all on-site energy consumption. Energy use is delineated by fuel type on a production basis...

  1. Essential oil of Arnica montana and Arnica chamissonis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Mihailo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil isolated from flowers of Arnica montana and A chamissonis grown on Tara mountain and neighbourhood of Užice was analyzed. Three samples of A. montana and three of A. chamissonis were tested. The oil was isolated by distillation in a Clevenger type apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography. The content of the oil was lower than 0.1% (up to 0.08% in all the samples. Among about hundred recorded constituents, 84 were identified and quantified. Sum of contents of identified components ranged between 96.1 and 98.8%. The most abundant constituents of the A. montana oil were p-caryophyllene (31.5-34.6%, germacrene D (12.5-16.3%, trans-a-ionone (3.9-4.3% and decanal (2.7-5.3%, while, in the case of A. chamissonis these were germacrene D (18.0-38.3%, a-pinene (6.6-19.1%, p-cymene (2.9-9.0% and P-caryophyllene (2.7-4.7%. Along with detail chemical analysis of essential oil of these two commercially important herbal drugs it should be noticed that gas chromatographic technique can be used for differentiation of A. montana and A. chamissonis.

  2. Policy and progress of Electronic Health Record in USA and its enlightenment on TCM Health Informatics%美国电子健康档案政策的简介与启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴敏; 陈敬; 史录文

    2012-01-01

    美国高度重视健康信息技术,在电子健康档案的发展应用上制定了包括“有意义的使用”在内的一系列相关措施与政策,取得了长足进展,这些进展对于我国健康信息技术尤其是中医健康信息学的发展具有重要的借鉴价值.%Much Progress has been done on the Health Information Technology in USA, especially the "meaningful use" and related measures and policies on Electronic Health Record. These progresses can provide a good reference for establishment and development of Health Information Technology including TCM Health Informatics in China.

  3. Mountain plover responses to plague in Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinsmore, Stephen J; Smith, Mark D

    2010-01-01

    Plague is a bacterial (Yersinia pestis) disease that causes epizootic die-offs in black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) populations in the North American Great Plains. Through their grazing and burrowing, prairie dogs modify vegetation and landscape structure on their colonies in ways that affect other grassland species. Plague epizootics on prairie dog colonies can have indirect effects on species associated with colonies. The mountain plover (Charadrius montanus) preferentially nests on black-tailed prairie dog colonies and is thus negatively impacted by the loss of prairie dogs. We studied the effects of plague and colony spatial characteristics on the occupancy of 81 prairie dog colonies by nesting plovers in Phillips County, Montana, during a 13-year period (1995-2007). We used a robust design patch occupancy model to investigate how colony occupancy and extinction and colonization rates were affected by plague history, colony size, and colony shape. Here extinction and colonization rates refer to the probability that a colony loses/gains plovers in a subsequent nesting season, given that it had/lacked plovers in that breeding season. Colony occupancy was best explained by a model with no annual variation or plague effects. Colony extinction rates were driven by a combination of a quadratic of colony area, a 3-year plague response, and a measure of colony shape. Conversely, colonization rates were best explained by a model with a 4-year plague response. The estimated annual proportion of colonies occupied by plovers was 0.75 (95% confidence interval = 0.57-0.87). Estimated extinction probability ranged from a low of 0.07 (standard error [SE] = 0.02) in 2002 to a high of 0.25 (SE = 0.03) in 1995; colonization probability ranged from 0.24 (SE = 0.05) in 2006 to 0.35 (SE = 0.05) in 2000. Our results highlight how a bird that depends on prairie dogs for nesting habitat responds to plague history and other spatial characteristics of the colony. Ultimately

  4. Suicide Report: A Health Risk Behavior Comparison of Montana High School Students Based on Attempted Suicide. 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is administered by the Montana Office of Public Instruction every two years to students in grades 7 through 12. The purpose of the survey is to help monitor the prevalence of behaviors that not only influence youth health, but also put youth at risk for the most significant health and social problems…

  5. Smokers Report: A Health Risk Behavior Comparison of Montana High School Students Based on Current Smoking. 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is administered by the Montana Office of Public Instruction every two years to students in grades 7 through 12. The purpose of the survey is to help monitor the prevalence of behaviors that not only influence youth health, but also put youth at risk for the most significant health and social problems…

  6. Sports Team Participation: A Risk Behavior Comparison of Montana High School Students Based on Sports Team Participation. 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is administered by the Montana Office of Public Instruction every two years to students in grades 7 through 12. The purpose of the survey is to help monitor the prevalence of behaviors that not only influence youth health, but also put youth at risk for the most significant health and social problems…

  7. Students with Special Needs: A Health Risk Behavior Comparison of Montana High School Students Based on Special Education Assistance. 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is administered by the Montana Office of Public Instruction every two years to students in grades 7 through 12. The purpose of the survey is to help monitor the prevalence of behaviors that not only influence youth health, but also put youth at risk for the most significant health and social problems…

  8. Natural avalanches and transportation: A case study from Glacier National Park, Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, B.A.; Fagre, Daniel B.; Steiner, R.W.

    2004-01-01

    In January 2004, two natural avalanches (destructive class 3) derailed a freight train in John F. Stevens Canyon, on the southern boundary of Glacier National Park. The railroad tracks were closed for 29 hours due to cleanup and lingering avalanche hazard, backing up 112km of trains and shutting down Amtrak’s passenger service. The incident marked the fourth time in three winters that natural avalanches have disrupted transportation in the canyon, which is also the route of U.S. Highway 2. It was the latest in a 94-year history of accidents that includes three fatalities and the destruction of a major highway bridge. Despite that history and the presence of over 40 avalanche paths in the 16km canyon, mitigation is limited to nine railroad snow sheds and occasional highway closures. This case study examines natural avalanche cycles of the past 28 winters using data from field observations, a Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) SNOTEL station, and data collected since 2001 at a high-elevation weather station. The avalanches occurred when storms with sustained snowfall buried a persistent near-surface faceted layer and/or were followed by rain-on-snow or dramatic warming (as much as 21oC in 30 minutes). Natural avalanche activity peaked when temperatures clustered near freezing (mean of -1.5oC at 1800m elev.). Avalanches initiated through rapid loading, rain falling on new snow, and/ or temperature-related changes in the mechanical properties of slabs. Lastly, the case study describes how recent incidents have prompted a unique partnership of land management agencies, private corporations and non-profit organizations to develop an avalanche mitigation program for the transportation corridor.

  9. Anatomy and dynamics of a floodplain, Powder River, Montana, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzuto, J.E.; Moody, J.A.; Meade, R.H.

    2008-01-01

    Centimeter-scale measurements on several Powder River floodplains provide insights into the nature of overbank depositional processes that created the floodplains; during a 20-year period after a major flood in 1978. Rising stages initially entered across a sill at the downriver end of the floodplains. Later, as stages continued to rise, water entered the floodplains through distinct low saddles along natural levees. The annual maximum depth of water over the levee crest averaged 0.19 in from 1983 through 1996, and the estimated flow velocities were approximately 0.15 m s-1. Water ponded in the floodplain trough, a topographic low between the natural levee and the pre-flood riverbank, and mud settled as thin layers of nearly constant thickness. Mud layers alternated with sand layers, which were relatively thick near the channel. Together, these beds created a distinctive natural levee. In some locations, individual flood deposits began as a thin mud layer that gradually coarsened upwards to medium-grained sand. Coarsening-upwards sequences form initially as mud because only the uppermost layers of water in the channel supply the first overbank flows, which are rich in mud but starved of sand. At successively higher stages, fine sands and then medium sands increase in concentration in the floodwater and are deposited as fine- and medium-sand layers overlying the initial mud layer. Theoretical predictions from mathematical models of sediment transport by advection and diffusion indicate that these processes acting alone are unlikely to create the observed sand layers of nearly uniform thickness that extend across much of the floodplain. We infer that other transport processes, notably bedload transport, must be important along Powder River. Even with the centimeter-scale measurements of floodplain deposits, daily hydraulic data, and precise annual surface topographic surveys, we were unable to determine any clear correspondence between the gauged flow record of overbank floods and the depositional layers mapped in the floodplain. These results provide a detailed example of floodplain deposits and depositional processes that should prove useful for interpreting natural levee deposits in a variety of geologic settings. Copyright ?? 2008, SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology).

  10. Adapting to the reality of climate change at Glacier National Park, Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagre, Daniel B.

    2007-01-01

    The glaciers of Glacier National Park (GNP) are disappearing rapidly and likely will be gone by 2030. These alpine glaciers have been continuously present for approximately 7,000 years so their loss from GNP in another 25 years underscores the significance of current climate change. There are presently only 27 glaciers remaining of the 150 estimated to have existed when GNP was created in 1910. Mean annual temperature in GNP has increased 1.6 0 C during the past cen- tury, three times the global mean increase. The temperature increase has affected other parts of the mountain ecosystem, too. Snowpacks hold less water equivalent and melt 2+ weeks earlier in the spring. Forest growth rates have increased, alpine treelines have expanded upward and be- come denser, and subalpine meadows have been invaded by high elevation tree species. These latter responses can be mostly attributed to longer growing seasons and warmer temperatures.

  11. Climate change effects on historical range and variability of two large landscapes in western Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Keane; Lisa M. Holsinger; Russell A. Parsons; Kathy Gray

    2008-01-01

    Quantifying the historical range and variability of landscape composition and structure using simulation modeling is becoming an important means of assessing current landscape condition and prioritizing landscapes for ecosystem restoration. However, most simulated time series are generated using static climate conditions which fail to account for the predicted major...

  12. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, BUTTE-SILVER BOW COUNTY, MONTANA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk Information And supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk;...

  13. Distribution of Debris Flows in Glacier National Park,Montana, U.S.A.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The spectacular scenery of Glacier National Park is the result of glacial erosion as well as post-glacial mass wasting processes. Debris flow magnitude and frequency have been established through extensive fieldwork across seven separate drainage basins in the eastern portion of the park. This paper summarizes the investigation of the hypotheses that debris flow distribution in the Glacier National Park, east of the Continental Divide is (a) not random; and (b) concentrated adjacent to the Continental Divide. The location of 2317 debris flows were identified and mapped from sixty-three 1-m resolution Digital Orthophoto Quarter Quadrangles and their spatial distribution was then analyzed using ArcView Spatial Analyst GIS software. The GIS analysis showed that the debris flows are not randomly distributed nor are they concentrated directly adjacent to the Divide. While the Continental Divide provides orographic enhancement of precipitation directly adjacent to the Divide, the debris flows are not concentrated there due to a lack of available weathered regolith. The most recent Little Ice Age glaciation removed the debris directly adjacent to the Divide, and without an adequate debris supply, these steep slopes experience few debris flows. Both abundant water and an adequate debris supply are necessary to initiate slope failure, resulting in a clustering of debris flows at the break in slope where valley walls contact talus slopes. A variety of summer storm and antecedent moisture conditions initiate slope failures in the Glacier National Park, with no distinct meteorological threshold. With over two million visitors every year, and millions of dollars of park infrastructure at risk, identifying the hazard of debris flows is essential to future park management plans.

  14. A study of the trace sulfide mineral assemblages in the Stillwater Complex, Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aird, Hannah M.; Ferguson, Katherine M.; Lehrer, Malia L.; Boudreau, Alan E.

    2017-03-01

    The sulfide assemblages of the Stillwater Complex away from the well-studied ore zones are composed mainly of variable proportions of pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, pentlandite, and ±pyrite. Excluding vein assemblages and those affected by greenschist and lower temperature alteration, the majority can be classified into two broad assemblages, defined here as pristine (multiphase, often globular in shape) or volatile-bearing (multiphase, high-temperature, volatile-rich minerals such as biotite, hornblende, or an unmixed calcite-dolomite assemblage). The volatile-bearing assemblages are mainly found within and below the J-M reef, where native copper and sphalerite are also locally present. Pristine sulfides are found throughout the stratigraphy. Both groups can be affected by apparent S loss in the form of pyrite being converted to magnetite and chalcopyrite to a Cu-Fe-oxide (delafossite), with little to no silicate alteration. An upward trend from pentlandite-rich to pyrrhotite-rich to pyrite-rich assemblages is observed in the footwall rocks in upper GN-I, and the same trend repeats from just below the reef and continues into the overlying N-II and GN-II. Modeling suggests that the sulfide Ni in the Peridotite Zone is largely controlled by silicate Ni. When taken together, observations are most readily explained by the remobilization of selected elements by a high-temperature fluid with the apparent loss of S > Cu > Ni. This could concentrate ore metals by vapor refining, eventually producing a platinum group element-enriched sulfide ore zone, such as the J-M reef.

  15. A study of the trace sulfide mineral assemblages in the Stillwater Complex, Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aird, Hannah M.; Ferguson, Katherine M.; Lehrer, Malia L.; Boudreau, Alan E.

    2016-07-01

    The sulfide assemblages of the Stillwater Complex away from the well-studied ore zones are composed mainly of variable proportions of pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, pentlandite, and ±pyrite. Excluding vein assemblages and those affected by greenschist and lower temperature alteration, the majority can be classified into two broad assemblages, defined here as pristine (multiphase, often globular in shape) or volatile-bearing (multiphase, high-temperature, volatile-rich minerals such as biotite, hornblende, or an unmixed calcite-dolomite assemblage). The volatile-bearing assemblages are mainly found within and below the J-M reef, where native copper and sphalerite are also locally present. Pristine sulfides are found throughout the stratigraphy. Both groups can be affected by apparent S loss in the form of pyrite being converted to magnetite and chalcopyrite to a Cu-Fe-oxide (delafossite), with little to no silicate alteration. An upward trend from pentlandite-rich to pyrrhotite-rich to pyrite-rich assemblages is observed in the footwall rocks in upper GN-I, and the same trend repeats from just below the reef and continues into the overlying N-II and GN-II. Modeling suggests that the sulfide Ni in the Peridotite Zone is largely controlled by silicate Ni. When taken together, observations are most readily explained by the remobilization of selected elements by a high-temperature fluid with the apparent loss of S > Cu > Ni. This could concentrate ore metals by vapor refining, eventually producing a platinum group element-enriched sulfide ore zone, such as the J-M reef.

  16. VOLATILE COMPOUNDS OF WATER-ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF SATUREJA MONTANA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Paliy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We have studied a composition and content of volatile compounds of Satureja montana L. extract. It was established that concentration of volatile compounds in water-ethanol extract of S. montana amounted to 325 mg/100g. The principal component of the extract is carvacrol. It was shown that the extract of Satureja montana represents high biological value

  17. III-Nitride, SiC and Diamond Materials for Electronic Devices. Symposium Held April 8-12 1996, San Francisco, California, U.S.A. Volume 423.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-12-01

    Baliga, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 10, 455 (1989). 3. M. Bhatnagar and B.J. Baliga, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, 19 4. T.P. Chow and R. Tyagi, IEEE...Nakamura et al. of Nichia Chemical have achieved InGaN multi-quantum well (MQW) structure blue/violet lasing under pulsed current injection [3]. Although...Among these, p-type ohmic contact is considered one of the most important. According to the I-V characteristics of the Nichia laser, the turn-on

  18. Relationships of Leaf Area Index and NDVI for 12 Brassica Cultivars in Northeastern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabro, Jay; Allen, Brett; Long, Dan; Isbell, Terry; Gesch, Russ; Brown, Jack; Hatfield, Jerry; Archer, David; Oblath, Emily; Vigil, Merle; Kiniry, Jim; Hunter, Kimberly; Shonnard, David

    2017-04-01

    To our knowledge, there is limited information on the relationship of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and leaf area index (LAI) in spring Brassica oilseed crops. The 2014 results of NDVI and LAI of 12 spring varieties of oilseed crops were measured in a field study conducted in Sidney, Montana, USA under dryland conditions. These 12 varieties were grouped under six species (B. napus, B. rapa, B. juncea, B. carinata, Sinapis alba, and Camelina sativa). The NDVI and LAI were measured weekly throughout the growing season. The NDVI was continually measured at one sample per second across the whole plot using a Crop Circle ACS-470 active crop canopy sensor. The LAI was measured at two locations at 12 samples per plot using an AccuPar model LP-80 Ceptometer. Treatments were replicated four times in a randomized complete block design in plots of 3 m×9 m. Temporal dynamics of NDVI and LAI in various growth stages of 12 varieties were evaluated throughout the growing season. Significant relationships and models between NDVI and LAI were obtained when 12 varieties were grouped under six species.

  19. Baxter v. Montana, libertarianism, and end-of-life: the ripe time for a paradigm shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruble, James H

    2010-09-01

    Baxter v. Montana (2009 WL 5155363 [Mont. 2009]) is a recent decision from the Montana Supreme Court that provides new legal insight into the societal issue of aid in dying. This case involves interests of persons with terminal illness, medical practitioners, law enforcement, legislative and judicial bodies, as well as the citizens of Montana. A summary judgment ruling at the Montana district court level was based almost entirely on a constitutional fundamental rights analysis. In contrast, the Montana Supreme Court affirming decision was based almost entirely on a statutory rights analysis. Both rulings from the Montana courts support the position that licensed prescribers in Montana who provide aid in dying assistance to terminally ill patients have some immunity from criminal prosecution. Each side in the case argued what they believed to be the intents and purposes of the people of Montana. Baxter v. Montana illustrates different methods to determine the will of the people concerning aid in dying and public policy. This case very subtly suggests a paradigm shift may be occurring in aid in dying policy.

  20. Montana Organization for Research in Energy (MORE) Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bromenshenk, Jerry

    1999-12-31

    MORE is a consortium of educational, governmental, and industrial partners in cooperation with the state's Tribal colleges. Formed in 1994, the objectives are to develop and promote energy-related research and education in the state of Montana and the Northwestern region. Specifically, they set out to: (1) promote collaboration and cooperation among Montana's Colleges and Universities; (2) maximize use of existing personnel and resources; (3) foster partnerships with industries, state agencies, and tribal nations; and (4) enhance energy research and training. The 1st Implementation Grant consisted of Management and Coordination, Human Outreach, and two Research Clusters Petroleum Reservoir Characterization and Wind Energy. Overall, they consider this program to have been highly successful. That conclusion was mirrored by the DOE site reviewers, and by invitations from Dr. Matesh Varma, the DOE/EPSCoR National Program Director, to present their programs and outcomes as models for other states the National DOE/EPSCoR meetings.

  1. Bioactivity and phytochemical characterization of Arenaria montana L.

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Eliana; Barros, Lillian; Calhelha, Ricardo C.; Dueñas, Montserrat; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    The bioactivity (antioxidant and cytotoxic activities) of the aqueous and methanolic extracts of Arenaria montana L., a plant commonly used in Portuguese folk medicine, was evaluated and compared. Furthermore, the phytochemical composition was determined regarding hydrophilic (sugars, organic acids and phenolic compounds) and lipophilic (fatty acids and tocopherols) compounds, in order to valorize this plant material as a functional food/nutraceutical. Fructose, oxalic acid, methyl-luteolin 2...

  2. 76 FR 71355 - United States et al. v. Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Montana, Inc. et al.; Proposed Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... affordable prices can attract businesses and jobs to a state or region, and higher health-insurance prices.... *Attorney of Record. FOR PLAINTIFF STATE OF MONTANA: Steve Bullock, Attorney General of Montana. James...

  3. Cooperative Recovery Initiative: Bull Trout Restoration: Restoring Cold, Clean, Complex and Connected Habitat in the Blackfoot River Watershed of Montana.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Habitat degradation and the effects of climate change are the biggest threats to bull trout in the Blackfoot River watershed of Montana. Montana Fish, Wildlife &...

  4. Preliminary assessment report for Fort William Henry Harrison, Montana Army National Guard, Helena, Montana. Installation Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DuWaldt, J.; Meyer, T.

    1993-07-01

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at a Montana Army National Guard (MTARNG) property near Helena, Montana. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, quantities of hazardous substances present, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. This PA satisfies, for the Fort William Henry Harrison property, requirements of the Department of Defense Installation Restoration Program.

  5. Stratigraphy and geologic history of the Montana group and equivalent rocks, Montana, Wyoming, and North and South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, James R.; Cobban, William Aubrey

    1973-01-01

    During Late Cretaceous time a broad north-trending epicontinental sea covered much of the western interior of North America and extended from the Gulf of Mexico to the Arctic Ocean. The sea was bounded on the west by a narrow, unstable, and constantly rising cordillera which extended from Central America to Alaska and which separated the sea from Pacific oceanic waters. The east margin of the sea was bounded by the low-lying stable platform of the central part of the United States.Rocks of the type Montana Group in Montana and equivalent rocks in adjacent States, which consist of eastward-pointing wedges of shallow-water marine and nonmarine strata that enclose westward-pointing wedges of fine-grained marine strata, were deposited in and marginal to this sea. These rocks range in age from middle Santonian to early Maestrichtian and represent a time span of about 14 million years. Twenty-nine distinctive ammonite zones, each with a time span of about half a million years, characterize the marine strata.Persistent beds of bentonite in the transgressive part of the Claggett and Bearpaw Shales of Montana and equivalent rocks elsewhere represent periods of explosive volcanism and perhaps concurrent subsidence along the west shore in the vicinity of the Elkhorn Mountains and the Deer Creek volcanic fields in Montana. Seaward retreat of st randlines, marked by deposition of the Telegraph Creek, Eagle, Judith River, and Fox Hills Formations in Montana and the Mesaverde Formation in Wyoming, may be attributed to uplift in near-coastal areas and to an increase in volcaniclastic rocks delivered to the sea.Rates of transgression and regression determined for the Montana Group in central Montana reveal that the strandline movement was more rapid during times of transgression. The regression of the Telegraph Creek and Eagle strandlines averaged about 50 miles per million years compared with a rate of about 95 miles per million years for the advance of the strand-line during

  6. Stroke Knowledge among Urban and Frontier First Responders and Emergency Medical Technicians in Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Michael J.; Oser, Carrie; Gohdes, Dorothy; Fogle, Crystelle C.; Dietrich, Dennis W.; Burnett, Anne; Okon, Nicholas; Russell, Joseph A.; DeTienne, James; Harwell, Todd S.; Helgerson, Steven D.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To assess stroke knowledge and practice among frontier and urban emergency medical services (EMS) providers and to evaluate the need for additional prehospital stroke training opportunities in Montana. Methods: In 2006, a telephone survey of a representative sample of EMS providers was conducted in Montana. Respondents were stratified…

  7. 75 FR 4698 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Montana; Revisions to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ... Administrative Rules of Montana. Revisions include minor editorial and grammatical changes, updates to the... minor editorial and grammatical changes, and update the citations and references to Federal laws and... Montana; they make minor editorial and grammatical changes, update the citations and references to...

  8. 75 FR 3993 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Montana; Revisions to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... the Administrative Rules of Montana; they include minor editorial and grammatical changes, updates to... minor editorial and grammatical changes, update the citations and references to federal and state laws... Rules of Montana; they make minor editorial and grammatical changes, update the citations and...

  9. Scheduling Recess before Lunch: Exploring the Benefits and Challenges in Montana Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bark, Katie; Stenberg, Molly; Sutherland, Shelly; Hayes, Dayle

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of the "Montana Recess Before Lunch Survey" was to explore benefits, challenges, and factors associated with successful implementation of Recess Before Lunch (RBL), from the perspective of school principals. Methods: An online written questionnaire was distributed to all (N = 661) Montana elementary and…

  10. 75 FR 3489 - Notice of Public Meeting, Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    ... Montana Resource Advisory Council will be held on March 4, 2010, in Billings, MT. The meeting will start... in Montana. At these meetings, topics will include: Miles City and Billings Field Office manager..., 2010. M. Elaine Raper, District Manager. BILLING CODE 4310-DN-P...

  11. 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey: American Indian Students on or near a Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey high school student frequency distributions for American Indian students on or near a reservation. These frequency distributions are based upon surveys with 720 high school American Indian students on or near a reservation in Montana during February of 2011. Frequency distributions…

  12. Det sorte USA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndal, Jørn

    Bogen gennemgår det sorte USAs historie fra 1776 til 2016, idet grundtemaet er spændingsforholdet mellem USAs grundlæggelsesidealer og den racemæssige praksis, et spændingsforhold som Gunnar Myrdal kaldte "det amerikanske dilemma." Bogen, der er opbygget som politisk, social og racemæssig historie...

  13. Glemmer USA Afghanistan nu?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo

    2015-01-01

    Hvis Obamas efterfølger kan skrue den rigtige strategiske fortælling sammen så vil USA ikke forlade Afghanistan med udgangen af 2016.......Hvis Obamas efterfølger kan skrue den rigtige strategiske fortælling sammen så vil USA ikke forlade Afghanistan med udgangen af 2016....

  14. [Special use permit for predator disease study associated with Montana black-footed ferret reintroduction, summer 1994 : Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains a memorandum providing the Montana Black-Footed Ferret Working Group with information on the proposed predator collection that will happen...

  15. Some Biological Compounds, Radical Scavenging Capacities and Antimicrobial Activities in the seeds of Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erecevit, Pınar

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study determined some biological compounds (fatty acid compositions, lipid-soluble vitamins, sterols, flavonoids, radical scavenging capacities and antimicrobial activities in the seeds of Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana. It was found that palmitic acid (C16:0; 8.54±0.13- 3.05±0.04%, oleic acid (C18:1 n9, 22.41±0.8-18.83±0.1% and α-linolenic acid (C18:3 n3;39.56±0.67-77.04±2.07% were the dominant fatty acids in both Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana. It was concluded that both Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana contained stigmasterol (630.07±1.81µg/g, 80.74±0.71µg/g, respectively and ergosterol (1.11±0.14µg/g, 161.32±0.63µg/g respectively as well as beta-sitosterol (2.93±0.03 µg/g. The present findings show that Nepeta italica L. contains morin (37.79±1.09μg/g, catechin (124.39±2.23µg/g, naringin (475.96±3.57µg/g and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana contains morin (188.41±2.53µg/g, catechin (64.14±1.86μg/g, naringenin (38.34±1.78μg/g as major flavonoids. It was also determined that methanol extracts of Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana were most effective against DPPH radicals. The results of the present study show that the vitamins, flavonoids and fatty acid extracts in the seeds of N. italica L. and S. montana L. subsp. montana prevented the growth of the microorganisms used in the tests at different ratios.Este estudio ha determinado algunos compuestos biológicos (ácidos grasos, vitaminas liposolubles, esteroles y flavonoides, capacidad atrapadora de radicales libres, y actividades antimicrobianas de las semillas de Nepeta italica L. y Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana. Se encontró que el ácido palmítico (C16:0; 8.54±0.13-3.05±0.04%, ácido oleico (C18:1 n9, 22.41±0.8-18.83±0.1% y α-linolénico (C18:3 n 3;39.56±0.67-77.04±2.07% eran mayoritarios en ambas semillas de Nepeta italica L. y Sideritis

  16. A Reflight of the Explorer-1 Science Mission: The Montana EaRth Orbiting Pico Explorer (MEROPE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpar, D. M.; Obland, M.; Hunyadi, G.; Jepsen, S.; Larsen, B.; Kankelborg, C.; Hiscock, W.

    2001-05-01

    Montana State University's interdisciplinary Space Science and Engineering Laboratory (SSEL) under support from the Montana NASA Space Grant Consortium is engaged in an earth orbiting satellite student design and flight project. The Montana EaRth Orbiting Pico Explorer (MEROPE) will carry a modern-day reproduction of the scientific payload carried on Explorer-1. On February 1, 1958 the United States launched its first earth orbiting satellite carrying a 14 kg scientific experiment built by Professor James Van Allen's group at the State University of Iowa (now The University of Iowa). The MEROPE student satellite will carry a reproduction, using current-day technology, of the scientific payload flown on Explorer-1. The CubeSat-class satellite will use currently available, low cost technologies to produce a payload-carrying satellite with a total orbital mass of 1 kg in a volume of 1 cubic liter. The satellite is to be launched in late 2001 into a 600 km, 65° inclination orbit. MEROPE will utilize passive magnetic orientation for 2-axis attitude control. A central microprocessor provides timing, controls on-board operations and switching, and enables data storage. Body mounted GaAs solar arrays are expected to provide in excess of 1.5 W. to maintain battery charge and operate the bus and payload. The Geiger counter will be operated at approximately 50% duty cycle, primarily during transits of the earth's radiation belts. Data will be stored on board and transmitted approximately twice per day to a ground station located on the Bozeman campus of the Montana State University. Owing to the 65° inclination, the instrument will also detect the higher energy portion of the electron spectrum responsible for the production of the Aurora Borealis. This paper describes both the technical implementation and design of the satellite and its payload as well as the not inconsiderable task of large team organization and management. As of March 2001, the student team consists of

  17. Montana Integrated Carbon to Liquids (ICTL) Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiato, Rocco; Sharma, Ramesh; Allen, Mark; Peyton, Brent; Macur, Richard; Cameron, Jemima

    2013-09-30

    Integrated carbon-to-liquids technology (ICTL) incorporates three basic processes for the conversion of a wide range of feedstocks to distillate liquid fuels: (1) Direct Microcatalytic Coal Liquefaction (MCL) is coupled with biomass liquefaction via (2) Catalytic Hydrodeoxygenation and Isomerization (CHI) of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) or trigylceride fatty acids (TGFA) to produce liquid fuels, with process derived (3) CO{sub 2} Capture and Utilization (CCU) via algae production and use in BioFertilizer for added terrestrial sequestration of CO{sub 2}, or as a feedstock for MCL and/or CHI. This novel approach enables synthetic fuels production while simultaneously meeting EISA 2007 Section 526 targets, minimizing land use and water consumption, and providing cost competitive fuels at current day petroleum prices. ICTL was demonstrated with Montana Crow sub-bituminous coal in MCL pilot scale operations at the Energy and Environmental Research Center at the University of North Dakota (EERC), with related pilot scale CHI studies conducted at the University of Pittsburgh Applied Research Center (PARC). Coal-Biomass to Liquid (CBTL) Fuel samples were evaluated at the US Air Force Research Labs (AFRL) in Dayton and greenhouse tests of algae based BioFertilizer conducted at Montana State University (MSU). Econometric modeling studies were also conducted on the use of algae based BioFertilizer in a wheat-camelina crop rotation cycle. We find that the combined operation is not only able to help boost crop yields, but also to provide added crop yields and associated profits from TGFA (from crop production) for use an ICTL plant feedstock. This program demonstrated the overall viability of ICTL in pilot scale operations. Related work on the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of a Montana project indicated that CCU could be employed very effectively to reduce the overall carbon footprint of the MCL/CHI process. Plans are currently being made to conduct larger-scale process

  18. Helenalin Acetate in in vitro Propagated Plants of Arnica montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malarz, J; Stojakowska, A; Dohnal, B; Kisiel, W

    1993-02-01

    Propagated "IN VITRO" shoots and plantlets of ARNICA MONTANA L. (Asteraceae) have been shown to produce sesquiterpene lactones, i.e. helenalin and 11,13-dihydrohelenalin esters. The compounds were detected in green organs only; roots of the plantlets contained no sesquiterpene lactones. The helenalin acetate content in leaves of the plantlets (0.073% dry wt) was 4-times higher than in proliferated shoots (0.016% dry wt). The best rate of shoot multiplication was achieved on MS medium, supplemented with NAA 0.5mg/l and Kn 2.5 mg/l (formation of 22 shoots within 8 weeks).

  19. Immunologically active polysaccharides of Arnica montana cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhlmann, J; Zenk, M H; Wagner, H

    1991-01-01

    From the nutrition medium of Arnica montana cell cultures two homogeneous polysaccharides, an acidic arabino-3,6-galactan-protein with mean Mr of 100,000 and a neutral fucogalactoxyloglucan with mean Mr of 22,500 have been isolated by DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B and Sephacryl S-400 column chromatography. Their structures were elucidated mainly by methylation analysis, partial acidic and enzymatic hydrolysis and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The fucogalactoxyloglucan shows a pronounced enhancement of phagocytosis in vivo. The arabino-3,6-galactan-protein displays a strong anticomplementary effect and stimulates macrophages to excrete the tumour necrosis factor (TNF alpha).

  20. Flavonoid Glycosides from Arnica montana and Arnica chamissonis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merfort, I; Wendisch, D

    1987-10-01

    Five flavonoid glycosides were identified from flowers of ARNICA MONTANA, four from A. CHAMISSONIS subsp. FOLIOSA var. INCANA. The structures were established on the basis of total acid hydrolysis and spectral data (UV, (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, MS) as hispidulin 7- O-beta-glucoside, isorhamnetin 3- O-beta-glucoside, 3- O-beta- D-glucopyranosides of spinacetin, 6-methoxykaempferol and patuletin and querectin 3- O-(6''- O-acetyl)-beta- D-glucopyranoside. The latter compound can serve as distinctive marker between these two ARNICA species. The (1)H-NMR spectra in CD (3)OD are discussed.

  1. Avian use of Norris Hill Wind Resource Area, Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmata, A.; Podruzny, K.; Zelenak, J. [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States). Biology Dept.

    1998-07-01

    This document presents results of a study of avian use and mortality in and near a proposed wind resource area in southwestern Montana. Data collected in autumn 1995 through summer 1996 represented preconstruction condition; it was compiled, analyzed, and presented in a format such that comparison with post-construction data would be possible. The primary emphasis of the study was recording avian migration in and near the wind resource area using state-of-the-art marine surveillance radar. Avian use and mortality were investigated during the breeding season by employing traditional avian sampling methods, radiotelemetry, radar, and direct visual observation. 61 figs., 34 tabs.

  2. Nitrogen spatial heterogeneity influences diversity following restoration in a ponderosa pine forest, Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundale, Michael J; Metlen, Kerry L; Fiedler, Carl E; DeLuca, Thomas H

    2006-04-01

    The resource heterogeneity hypothesis (RHH) is frequently cited in the ecological literature as an important mechanism for maintaining species diversity. The RHH has rarely been evaluated in the context of restoration ecology in which a commonly cited goal is to restore diversity. In this study we focused on the spatial heterogeneity of total inorganic nitrogen (TIN) following restoration treatments in a ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa)/Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forest in western Montana, USA. Our objective was to evaluate relationships between understory species richness and TIN heterogeneity following mechanical thinning (thin-only), prescribed burning (burn-only), and mechanical thinning with prescribed burning (thin/burn) to discern the ecological and management implications of these restoration approaches. We employed a randomized block design, with three 9-ha replicates of each treatment and an untreated control. Within each treatment, we randomly established a 20 x 50 m (1000 m2) plot in which we measured species richness across the entire plot and in 12 1-m(2) quadrats randomly placed within each larger plot. Additionally, we measured TIN from a grid consisting of 112 soil samples (0-5 cm) in each plot and computed standard deviations as a measure of heterogeneity. We found a correlation between the net increase in species richness and the TIN standard deviations one and two years following restoration treatments, supporting RHH. Using nonmetric multidimensional scaling ordination and chi-squared analysis, we found that high and low TIN quadrats contained different understory communities in 2003 and 2004, further supporting RHH. A comparison of restoration treatments demonstrated that thin/burn and burn-only treatments created higher N heterogeneity relative to the control. We also found that within prescribed burn treatments, TIN heterogeneity was positively correlated with fine-fuel consumption, a variable reflecting burn severity. These

  3. USA Hire Testing Platform

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The USA Hire Testing Platform delivers tests used in hiring for positions in the Federal Government. To safeguard the integrity of the hiring processes and ensure...

  4. Loeng USA Sisejulgeolekuministeeriumi kantslerilt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    13. okt. pidas USA Sisejulgeolekuministeeriumi teaduse ja tehnoloogia kantsler dr Charles McQueary Tartu Ülikooli Tehnoloogiainstituudis loengu "Uue põlvkonna ettevõtlust suunavad ja julgeolekut edendavad tehnoloogiad"

  5. USA kunstidessant Venemaale

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    USA kunstnike näitus "Kolm sajandit ameerika kunsti" Moskvas Pushkini muuseumis. Eksponeeritakse Mark Rothko, Jean-Michel Basguiat', Roy Lichtensteini, Robert Rauschenbergi, Georgia O'Keefe'i, Willem de Kooningi töid

  6. USA kunstidessant Venemaale

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    USA kunstnike näitus "Kolm sajandit ameerika kunsti" Moskvas Pushkini muuseumis. Eksponeeritakse Mark Rothko, Jean-Michel Basguiat', Roy Lichtensteini, Robert Rauschenbergi, Georgia O'Keefe'i, Willem de Kooningi töid

  7. Hydrogeologic data for the northern Rocky Mountains intermontane basins, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, DeAnn M.; Lawlor, Sean M.; Briar, D.W.; Tresch, R.E.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey began a Regional Aquifer- System Analysis of the Northern Rocky Mountains Intermontane Basins of western Montana and central and central and northern Idaho in 1990 to establish a regional framework of information for aquifers in 54 intermontane basins in an area of about 77,500 square miles. Selected hydrogeologic data have been used as part of this analysis to define the hydro- logic systems. Records of 1,376 wells completed in 31 of the 34 intermontane basins in the Montana part of the study area are tabulated in this report. Data consist of location, alttiude of land surface, date well constructed, geologic unit, depth of well, diameter of casing, type of finish, top of open interval, primary use of water, water level, date water level measured, discharge, specific capacity, source of discharge data, type of log available, date water-quality parameters measured, specific conductance, pH, and temperature. Hydrographs for selected wells also are included. Locations of wells and basins are shown on the accompanying plate.

  8. Chemical characteristics of the major thermal springs of Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariner, R.H.; Presser, T.S.; Evans, W.C.

    1976-07-01

    Twenty-one thermal springs in western Montana were sampled for chemical, isotope, and gas compositions. Most of the springs issue dilute to slightly saline sodium-bicarbonate waters of neutral to slightly alkaline pH. A few of the springs issue sodium-mixed anion waters of near neutral pH. Fluoride concentrations are high in most of the thermal waters, up to 18 miligrams per litre, while F/Cl ratios range from 3/1 in the dilute waters to 1/10 in the slightly saline waters. Most of the springs are theoretically in thermodynamic equilibrium with respect to calcite and fluorite. Nitrogen is the major gas escaping from most of the hot springs; however, Hunters Hot Springs issue principally methane. The deuterium content of the hot spring waters is typical of meteoric water in western Montana. Geothermal calculations based on silica concentrations and Na-K-Ca ratios indicate that most of the springs are associated with low temperature aquifers (less than 100/sup 0/C). Chalcedony may be controlling the silica concentrations in these low temperature aquifers even in ''granitic'' terranes.

  9. Northwest Montana Wetland Management District Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Northwest Montana Wetland Management District outlines District accomplishments during the 1988 calendar year. The report begins...

  10. Northwest Montana Wetland Management District: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1977

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Northwest Montana Wetland Management District outlines District accomplishments during the 1977 calendar year. The report begins with an...

  11. Northwest Montana Wetland Management District: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1978

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Northwest Montana Wetland Management District outlines District accomplishments during the 1978 calendar year. The report begins with an...

  12. MT—Impacts of Oil Exploration and Production to the Northeast Montana Wetland Management District

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Northeast Montana Wetland Management District provides habitat for numerous different species of breeding waterfowl and migrating shorebirds, including the...

  13. Montana Integrated Monitoring in Bird Conservation Regions: 2014 Field Implementation Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 2014 the Avian Science Center (ASC) at the University of Montana (UM) participated in the Integrated Monitoring in Bird Conservation Regions (IMBCR) program for a...

  14. 75 FR 4036 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Montana; Revisions to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... Administrative Rules of Montana. Revisions include minor editorial and grammatical changes, updates to the citations and references to federal and state laws and regulations, other minor changes to conform...

  15. 40 CFR 272.1351 - Montana State-Administered Program: Final Authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Annotated (MCA) 2005, Title 25, “Civil Procedure”: Chapter 20, “Rules of Civil Procedure”, Rule 24(a). (iii) Montana Code Annotated (MCA) 2005, Title 27, “Civil Liability, Remedies, and Limitations”: Chapter...

  16. Final report on biogeochemical cycling of selenium in Benton Lake, Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The biogeochemical cycling of selenium in Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge, west-central Montana was very complicated. Selenium accumulation in sediment was a...

  17. Saline seep impacts on Hailstone and Halfbreed National Wildlife Refuges in south-central Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Elevated salt and selenium levels in groundwater and in saline seeps within the Lake Basin of northern Stillwater County, Montana have impacted water quality on...

  18. 77 FR 43046 - Lolo National Forest; Montana; Center Horse Landscape Restoration EIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... Forest Service Lolo National Forest; Montana; Center Horse Landscape Restoration EIS AGENCY: Forest.... ADDRESSES: Send written comments to: Center Horse Landscape Restoration Project Leader, USDA Forest Service..., Monday through Friday. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Purpose and Need for Action The Center Horse...

  19. Northwest Montana Wetland Management District Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Northwest Montana Wetland Management District outlines District accomplishments during the 1985 calendar year. The report begins...

  20. The Story of Story Mill-A Montana Community Working to Restore Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story Mill, a 55-acre site on the outskirts of Bozeman, Montana, has undergone several transformations in recent history. The place is virtually a “mill of stories” with respect to land use, but originally it was a wetland.

  1. Northwest Montana Wetlands Management District Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Northwest Montana Wetland Management District outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1980 calendar year. The report begins with...

  2. 75 FR 66718 - Helena National Forest; Montana; Blackfoot Travel Plan EIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Helena National Forest; Montana; Blackfoot Travel Plan EIS AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA... the existing motorized public access routes and prohibitions within the Blackfoot travel planning...

  3. Anti-inflammatory activity of Arnica montana 6cH: preclinical study in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macêdo, S B; Ferreira, L R; Perazzo, F F; Carvalho, J C

    2004-04-01

    The anti-inflammatory effect of Arnica montana 6cH was evaluated using acute and chronic inflammation models. In the acute, model, carrageenin-induced rat paw oedema, the group treated with Arnica montana 6cH showed 30% inhibition compared to control (P < 0.05). Treatment with Arnica 6cH, 30 min prior to carrageenin, did not produce any inhibition of the inflammatory process. In the chronic model, Nystatin-induced oedema, the group treated 3 days previously with Arnica montana 6cH had reduced inflammation 6 h after the inflammatory agent was applied (P < 0.05). When treatment was given 6 h after Nystatin treatment, there was no significant inhibitory effect. In a model based on histamine-induced increase of vascular permeability, pretreatment with Arnica montana 6cH blocked the action of histamine in increasing vascular permeability.

  4. 6-O-Isobutyryl-tetrahydrohelenalin from the flowers of Arnica montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willuhn, G; Röttger, P M; Wendisch, D

    1984-02-01

    From the flowers of ARNICA MONTANA L., the helenanolides 6- O-isobutyryl-tetrahydrohelenalin and 2beta-ethoxy-6- O-isobutyryl-2,3-dihydrohelenalin were isolated and their structures established by spectroscopic methods.

  5. Wyodak-Anderson clinker in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana (prbclkg.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This ArcView shapefile contains a polygon representation of the Wyodak-Anderson clinker in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana. This theme was created...

  6. Digital Geologic Map of Glacier National Park, Montana (NPS, GRD, GRE, GLAC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Digital Geologic Map of Glacier National Park, Montana is comprised of GIS data layers, two ancillary GIS tables, a Windows Help File with ancillary map text,...

  7. Northwest Montana Wetland Management District, Swan River National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Northwest Montana Wetland Management District outlines District accomplishments during the 1989 calendar year. The report begins...

  8. National Bison Range, Ninepipe, Pablo and Swan River NWR's, Northwest Montana Wetlands: 1976 [Narrative report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for National Bison Range, Ninepipe NWR, Pablo NWR, Swan River NWR, and Northwest Montana Wetlands outlines Refuge accomplishments during the...

  9. Northwest Montana Wetland Management District, Swan River National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Northwest Montana Wetland Management District outlines District accomplishments during the 1990 calendar year. The report begins...

  10. Northwest Montana Wetland Management District Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Northwest Montana Wetland Management District outlines District accomplishments during the 1987 calendar year. The report begins...

  11. Northwest Montana Wetland Management District, Swan River National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Northwest Montana Wetland Management District outlines District accomplishments during the 1991 calendar year. The report begins...

  12. Trace elements and organochlorines in sediments and fish from Missouri River reservoirs in Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) is currently reviewing the application submitted by the Montana Power Company (MPC) for relicensing their...

  13. Effectiveness and Safety of Arnica montana in Post-Surgical Setting, Pain and Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannitti, Tommaso; Morales-Medina, Julio César; Bellavite, Paolo; Rottigni, Valentina; Palmieri, Beniamino

    2016-01-01

    Arnica montana has been widely used as a homeopathic remedy for the treatment of several inflammatory conditions in pain management and postoperative settings. This review gives an overview of the therapeutic use of Arnica montana in the above-mentioned fields also focusing on its mechanisms of action learned from animal models and in vitro studies. Arnica montana is more effective than placebo when used for the treatment of several conditions including post-traumatic and postoperative pain, edema, and ecchymosis. However, its dosages and preparations used have produced substantial differences in the clinical outcome. Cumulative evidence suggests that Arnica montana may represent a valid alternative to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, at least when treating some specific conditions.

  14. Evaluation of antioxidant and cytoprotective activities of Arnica montana L. and Artemisia absinthium L. ethanolic extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craciunescu Oana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arnica montana L. and Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae are medicinal plants native to temperate regions of Europe, including Romania, traditionally used for treatment of skin wounds, bruises and contusions. In the present study, A. montana and A. absinthium ethanolic extracts were evaluated for their chemical composition, antioxidant activity and protective effect against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in a mouse fibroblast-like NCTC cell line. Results A. absinthium extract showed a higher antioxidant capacity than A. montana extract as Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, Oxygen radical absorbance capacity and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical-scavenging activity, in correlation with its flavonoids and phenolic acids content. Both plant extracts had significant effects on the growth of NCTC cells in the range of 10–100 mg/L A. montana and 10–500 mg/L A. absinthium. They also protected fibroblast cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage, at the same doses. The best protection was observed in cell pre-treatment with 10 mg/L A. montana and 10–300 mg/L A. absinthium, respectively, as determined by Neutral red and lactate dehydrogenase assays. In addition, cell pre-treatment with plant extracts, at these concentrations, prevented morphological changes induced by hydrogen peroxide. Flow-cytometry analysis showed that pre-treatment with A. montana and A. absinthium extracts restored the proportion of cells in each phase of the cell cycle. Conclusions A. montana and A. absinthium extracts, rich in flavonoids and phenolic acids, showed a good antioxidant activity and cytoprotective effect against oxidative damage in fibroblast-like cells. These results provide scientific support for the traditional use of A. montana and A. absinthium in treatment of skin disorders.

  15. FrogwatchUSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droege, S.

    2002-01-01

    $25,000, most of the first part of this program's life was spent developing the tools and web site to document counts of frogs online. Despite the lack of time available to promote the program, send out press releases and recruit observers, news of the program quickly spread by word of mouth and the electronic media. Many newspaper articles later, we found a large number of people had become involved with counting frogs in their neighborhoods and backyards. Current figures show 1,456 observers who have registered at 1,683 sites logging almost 5,000 visits. These visits yield information on when and what species are calling from wetlands throughout the United States. These records are usually the only records of information about frogs and toads for those sites and become a permanent record that can be revisited in future years. Additionally, when observers make a lot of visits or there are many sites in a region, a phenology of calls can be created that documents when it is most likely in that year for each species to be recorded. Finally, even for those observers whose data we may mistrust and therefore are likely to eliminate from analyses, these people have taken the time to leave their televisions, go outside, and directly experience frogs, toads, and all that occur in Nature. In 1999 it was decided that FrogwatchUSA needed to work with another group that specifically focused on environmental education and outreach. After talking to a number of organizations we found that the National Wildlife Federation, with their Backyard Wildlife Habitat, Endangered Species, and other programs along with their four million members who are interested in nature, would be an excellent match. Thus a partnership was born. After over a year of work between Interior and National Wildlife Federation biologists and lawyers, an agreement has been created that places the Federation as the lead of Frogwatch USA. It will now take care of res

  16. Compilation of Water-Resources Data for Montana, Water Year 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladd, P. B.; Berkas, W.R.; White, M.K.; Dodge, K.A.; Bailey, F.A.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, Montana Water Science Center, in cooperation with other Federal, State, and local agencies, and Tribal governments, collects a large amount of data pertaining to the water resources of Montana each water year. This report is a compilation of Montana site-data sheets for the 2006 water year, which consists of records of stage and discharge of streams; water quality of streams and ground water; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; water levels in wells; and precipitation data. Site-data sheets for selected stations in Canada and Wyoming also are included in this report. The data for Montana, along with data from various parts of the Nation, are included in 'Water-Resources Data for the United States, Water Year 2006', which is published as U.S. Geological Survey Water-Data Report WDR-US-2006 and is available at http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/wdr2006. Additional water year 2006 data collected at crest-stage gage and miscellaneous-measurement stations were collected but were not published. These data are stored in files of the U.S. Geological Survey Montana Water Science Center in Helena, Montana, and are available on request.

  17. The Montana ALE (Autonomous Lunar Excavator) Systems Engineering Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Bethanne J.

    2012-01-01

    On May 2 1-26, 20 12, the third annual NASA Lunabotics Mining Competition will be held at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. This event brings together student teams from universities around the world to compete in an engineering challenge. Each team must design, build and operate a robotic excavator that can collect artificial lunar soil and deposit it at a target location. Montana State University, Bozeman, is one of the institutions selected to field a team this year. This paper will summarize the goals of MSU's lunar excavator project, known as the Autonomous Lunar Explorer (ALE), along with the engineering process that the MSU team is using to fulfill these goals, according to NASA's systems engineering guidelines.

  18. CENTENNIAL MOUNTAINS WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, MONTANA AND IDAHO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkind, Irving J.; Ridenour, James

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey conducted within the Centennial Mountains Wilderness study area in Montana and Idaho showed large areas of probable and substantiated resource potential for phosphate. Byproducts that may be derived from processing the phosphate include vanadium, chromium, uranium, silver, fluorine, and the rare earths, lanthanum and yttrium. Results of a geochemical sampling program suggest that there is little promise for the occurrence of base and precious metals in the area. Although the area contains other nonmetallic deposits, such as coal, building stone, and pumiceous ash they are not considered as mineral resources. There is a probable resource potential for oil and gas and significant amounts may underlie the area around the Peet Creek and Odell Creek anticlines.

  19. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Ashton Quadrangle, Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suekawa, H.S.; Merrick, D.; Clayton, J.; Rumba, S.

    1982-07-01

    The Ashton Quadrangle, Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming, was evaluated to identify and delineate areas containing environments favorable for uranium deposits, using criteria developed for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. General surface reconnaissance, radiometric traverses, and geochemical sampling were carried out in all geologic environments within the quadrangle. Aerial radiometric data were evaluated, and anomalies were examined in the field. Fourteen uranium occurrences were noted in the study area. Only one environment, the phosphorites of the Permian Phosphoria Formation, is considered favorable for uranium deposition. The unfavorable environments include: limestones, sandstones, coal and carbonaceous shales, volcanics, Precambrian metamorphics, and Tertiary basins. Unevaluated areas include the John D. Rockefeller Jr. Memorial Parkway and Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks, where park service regulations prohibit detailed investigations.

  20. Shoot Tip Culture of Arnica montana for Micropropagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conchou, O; Nichterlein, K; Vömel, A

    1992-02-01

    Multiple shoots were regenerated from shoot tips of ARNICA MONTANA on MS and B5 media supplemented with BA (1 mg/l) and NAA (0.1 mg/l). Sections of 1-2 mm in length cultured from IN VITRO germinated seedlings regenerated 7.7 (mean) shoots on the MS medium, whereas sections cultured from greenhouse plants regenerated 9.0 (mean) shoots on the B5 medium within 6 weeks. Subsequent subcultures of shoots on the same media but without NAA resulted in similar or lower multiplication rates (1.6 to 3.1 in 3 weeks). Shoot development was promoted, whereas shoot initiation was simultaneously inhibited by the addition of activated charcoal to the media. Rooting was induced by culturing shoots from seedling as well as from greenhouse plant shoot tips on MS or B5 medium supplemented with NAA. The plantlets were transplanted into soil and grown successfully under greenhouse and field conditions.

  1. Wegener’s granulomatosis and environmental factors in Western Montana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Samuel Zeft

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our study was to determine whether exposure to silica or other environmental factors is associated with developing Wegener’s granulomatosis (WG, in a geographically isolated region of Western Montana. We sought to identify and interview all cases of WG diagnosed during 1993-2006 among residents of a ten-county region of Western Montana, as well as a group of demographically similar controls (n=39 without autoimmune disease. In the interview, we ascertained occupational silica and other exposures (metals, solvents, pesticides, tobacco. We enumerated 32 cases of WG, of whom 27 were included in the case-control study. Overall, a history of silica exposure was not associated with WG (OR = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.13-3.27, although there was a suggestion of increase in risk among persons with relatively recent (OR=2.67, 95% CI: 0.54-17.2, heavy (OR=1.82, 95% CI: 0.09-112.9, and prolonged (OR=1.53, 95% CI: 0.16-20.0 exposures. A history of having worked in the mining industry was associated with WG (six cases including three with no silica exposure, zero controls, lower 95% CI: 1.53. Risk was not associated with occupational or aerial pesticide exposure, but with residential rodenticide use (OR=12.15, 95% CI: 1.54-552. Occupational exposure to metals or solvents was not associated with WG, nor was a history of cigarette smoking. Results of earlier studies of WG support the hypothesis that silica exposure adversely influences the risk of developing WG. Our small study of WG failed to identify an association with silica overall, but the results are compat­ible with an increased risk in persons with relatively heavy, prolonged, and/or recent exposure.

  2. Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) suppression for bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) recovery in Flathead Lake, Montana, North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Michael J.; Hansen, Barry S; Beauchamp, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Non-native lake trout Salvelinus namaycush displaced native bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in Flathead Lake, Montana, USA, after 1984, when Mysis diluviana became abundant following its introduction in upstream lakes in 1968–1976. We developed a simulation model to determine the fishing mortality rate on lake trout that would enable bull trout recovery. Model simulations indicated that suppression of adult lake trout by 75% from current abundance would reduce predation on bull trout by 90%. Current removals of lake trout through incentivized fishing contests has not been sufficient to suppress lake trout abundance estimated by mark-recapture or indexed by stratified-random gill netting. In contrast, size structure, body condition, mortality, and maturity are changing consistent with a density-dependent reduction in lake trout abundance. Population modeling indicated total fishing effort would need to increase 3-fold to reduce adult lake trout population density by 75%. We conclude that increased fishing effort would suppress lake trout population density and predation on juvenile bull trout, and thereby enable higher abundance of adult bull trout in Flathead Lake and its tributaries.

  3. Composition of leaf n-alkanes in three Satureja montana L. subspecies from the Balkan peninsula: ecological and taxonomic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodoš, Tanja; Rajčević, Nemanja; Tešević, Vele; Matevski, Vlado; Janaćković, Pedja; Marin, Petar D

    2015-01-01

    The composition of the epicuticular leaf n-alkanes of eight populations of three Satureja montana subspecies (S. montana L. subsp. pisidica (Wettst.) Šilić, S. montana L. subsp. montana, and S. montana L. subsp. variegata (Host) P. W. Ball), from central and western areas of the Balkan Peninsula was characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. In the leaf waxes, 15 n-alkane homologs with chain-lengths ranging from C21 to C35 were identified. The main n-alkane in almost all samples was n-nonacosane (C29 ), but differences in the contents of three other dominant n-alkanes allowed separating the coastal from the continental populations. The diversity and variability of the epicuticular-leaf-n-alkane patterns and their relation to different geographic and bioclimatic parameters were analyzed by several statistical methods (principal component, discriminant, and cluster analyses as well as the Mantel test). All tests showed a high correlation between the leaf n-alkane pattern and the geographical distribution of the investigated populations, confirming the differentiation between S. montana subsp. pisidica and the other two subspecies. The S. montana subsp. variegata and S. montana subsp. montana populations are geographically closer and their differentiation according to the leaf-n-alkane patterns was not clear, even though there was some indication of discrimination between them. Moreover, most of the bioclimatic parameters related to temperature were highly correlated with the differentiation of the coastal and the continental populations.

  4. Baltimaade kunsti turnee USAs

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1998-01-01

    5. nov.-st USA Lõuna-Carolina osariigis Wellington B. Grey galeriis ja Jenkins Fine Art Center's 13 eesti, läti ja leedu kunstniku näitus, mis hakkab kolme aasta jooksul ringlema Ameerikas. Eksponeeritud fotokunst, video, installatsioon, joonistused. Kuraator Peeter Linnap ja Mari Laanemets peavad ettekande näituse avamisega samal ajal toimuval Fotohariduse Ühingu konverentsil

  5. Baltimaade kunsti turnee USAs

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1998-01-01

    5. nov.-st USA Lõuna-Carolina osariigis Wellington B. Grey galeriis ja Jenkins Fine Art Center's 13 eesti, läti ja leedu kunstniku näitus, mis hakkab kolme aasta jooksul ringlema Ameerikas. Eksponeeritud fotokunst, video, installatsioon, joonistused. Kuraator Peeter Linnap ja Mari Laanemets peavad ettekande näituse avamisega samal ajal toimuval Fotohariduse Ühingu konverentsil

  6. The USA PATRIOT Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minow, Mary; Coyle, Karen; Kaufman, Paula

    2002-01-01

    Explains the USA PATRIOT (Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism) Act, passed after the September 11 terrorist attacks, and its implications for libraries and patron records. Considers past dealings with the FBI; court orders; search warrants; wiretaps; and subpoenas. Includes:…

  7. Cooperative Recovery Initiative: Bull Trout Restoration: Restoring Cold, Clean, Complex and Connected Habitat in the Blackfoot River Watershed of Montana Interim Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Habitat degradation and the effects of climate change are the biggest threats to bull trout in the Blackfoot River watershed of Montana. Montana Fish, Wildlife &...

  8. Cooperative Recovery Initiative: Bull Trout Restoration: Restoring Cold, Clean, Complex and Connected Habitat in the Blackfoot River Watershed of Montana Interim Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Habitat degradation and the effects of climate change are the biggest threats to bull trout in the Blackfoot River watershed of Montana. Montana Fish, Wildlife...

  9. Streamflow characteristics based on data through water year 2009 for selected streamflow-gaging stations in or near Montana: Chapter E in Montana StreamStats

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Peter M.

    2016-04-05

    Chapter E of this Scientific Investigations Report documents results from a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Montana Department of Environmental Quality and the Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation, to provide an update of statewide streamflow characteristics based on data through water year 2009 for streamflow-gaging stations in or near Montana. Streamflow characteristics are presented for 408 streamflow-gaging stations in Montana and adjacent areas having 10 or more years of record. Data include the magnitude and probability of annual low and high streamflow, the magnitude and probability of low streamflow for three seasons (March–June, July–October, and November–February), streamflow duration statistics for monthly and annual periods, and mean streamflows for monthly and annual periods. Streamflow is considered to be regulated at streamflow-gaging stations where dams or other large-scale human modifications affect 20 percent or more of the contributing drainage basin. Separate streamflow characteristics are presented for the unregulated and regulated periods of record for streamflow-gaging stations with sufficient data.

  10. Training the next generation of scientists: Modeling Infectious Disease and Water Quality of Montana Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fytilis, N.; Wyman, S.; Lamb, R.; Stevens, L.; Kerans, B.; Rizzo, D. M.

    2010-12-01

    The University of Vermont College of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences and the Barrett Foundation have established a scholarship program for undergraduate students. The Barrett Scholarship program, aware of the importance of developing research quantitative and writing skills for undergraduate students, provides scholarships to outstanding undergraduate students for environmental engineering research projects. The intent is to help retain student interest early in their undergraduate engineering careers when few of their first or second year classes have little engineering or real-world application. We focus on one Barrett research project, derived from a NSF Biodiversity and Infectious Disease grant, because of the multiple disciplines (engineering, ecology, biology) and education levels (spanning secondary to graduate) involved. In this research, students across three departments at two universities (University of Vermont, Montana State University) and one independent high school (Vermont Commons School) formed a cohesive collaboration with faculty members to identify different worm taxa of T. Tubifex. Whirling disease has had a severe impact on the native population of salmonids in the upper Madison River MT, USA, resulting in the death of most fish that contract the parasite. T. Tubifex is the intermediate host for Myxobolus cerebralis, the parasite that causes whirling disease in salmonids. Samples collected from eight locations along the Madison River varied in the prevalence of whirling disease. The site-specific worm community structure has been measured and identified using molecular genetic probes and a taxonomic key to link worm communities to geochemical features (e.g. site elevation, slope, pH, conductivity, temperature, dissolved oxygen and percent of organic soil matter). Using a unique clustering algorithm, we group geochemical features to discriminate over a range of water quality gradients (i.e., “clean” to “dirty”). The link between

  11. Martel's links with USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor Shaw

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Of the 29% foreign members in the Société de Spéléologie, five lived in USA. They were Luella Owen (the only woman member of the Société, R. Ellsworth Cali, H.C. Hovey, E Van Epps and C. R. Blackall. E.S. Balch, though not a member, also knew Martel. These members, between them, published ten papers in Spelunca, which also reviewed their other work. The activities of these six, and their links with France, are discussed. Martel actively encouraged cave work in America, as elsewhere, and Hovey, who had been with him during the survey of Aven Armand, he knew quite well. In 1912 Martel at last visited USA himself and the barometer readings he took in Mamoth Cave to measure altitude enabled him to draw the first longitudinal section of the cave since 1835.

  12. USA-USSR protocol

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    On 30 November the USA Atomic Energy Commission and the USSR State Committee for the Utilization of Atomic Energy signed, in Washington, a protocol 'on carrying out of joint projects in the field of high energy physics at the accelerators of the National Accelerator Laboratory (Batavia) and the Institute for High Energy Physics (Serpukhov)'. The protocol will be in force for five years and can be extended by mutual agreement.

  13. PLANT COMMUNITIES WITH ARNICA MONTANA IN NATURAL HABITATS FROM THE CENTRAL REGION OF ROMANIAN EASTERN CARPATHIANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin MARDARI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Arnica montana is a species of European Union interest, whose harvest from the wild and exploitation should be made under certain management measures. In Romania it is a vulnerable species due to excessive collection. It is a species with European areal occuring in pastures, meadows, forest glades, shrubs communities of mountain to the subalpine regions and, isolated, up to the alpine belt. Most of the plant communities with Arnica montana are semi-natural, with a floristic composition in which there are numerous rare or threatened species also supporting the need of their conservation. Our study was focused on a numerical classification (hierarchical, using Flexible ß algorithm and Bray-Curtis dissimilarity based on 48 plots, of the plant communities with Arnica montana from the central region of Romanian Eastern Carpathians and on the investigation of the effect of some environmental variables (Ellenberg indicator values, altitude, heat load index on their floristic composition (100 m2 scale. Vegetation – environment relationship was assessed via detrended correspondence analysis and canonical correspondence analysis with Monte Carlo test. Six plant communities with Arnica montana were identified (communities of Festuca rubra with Agrostis capillaris, Festuca nigrescens, Vaccinium myrtillus, Nardus stricta, Vaccinium gaultherioides and Juniperus sibirica with a floristic composition mainly shaped by altitude, temperature and soil nitrogen content. Details related to location and sites characteristics, diagnostic species, floristic composition, presence of other rare or threatened species and Arnica montana abundance were presented for all these plant communities.

  14. Montana's Clark Fork River Basin Task Force: a vehicle for integrated water resources management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, David D; Mueller, Gerald

    2010-11-01

    This article examines what is generally considered to be an unattainable goal in the western United States: integrated water resources management (IWRM). Specifically, we examine an organization that is quite unique in the West, Montana's Clark Fork River Basin Task Force (Task Force), and we analyze its activities since its formation in 2001 to answer the question: are the activities and contributions of the Task Force working to promote a more strongly integrated approach to water resources management in Montana? After reviewing the concepts underlying IWRM, some of the issues that have been identified for achieving IWRM in the West, and the Montana system of water right allocation and issues it faces, we adapt Mitchell's IWRM framework and apply it to the analysis of the Task Force's activities in the context of IWRM. In evaluating the physical, interaction, and protocol/planning/policy components of IWRM, we find that the Task Force has been contributing to the evolution of Montana's water resources management towards this framework, though several factors will likely continue to prevent its complete realization. The Task Force has been successful in this regard because of its unique nature and charge, and because of the authority and power given it by successive Montana legislatures. Also critical to the success of the organization is its ability to help translate into policy the outcomes of legal and quasi-judicial decisions that have impacted the state's water resources management agency.

  15. Sesquiterpene lactones in Arnica montana: helenalin and dihydrohelenalin chemotypes in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Nigel B; Burgess, Elaine J; Rodríguez Guitián, Manuel A; Romero Franco, Rosa; López Mosquera, Elvira; Smallfield, Bruce M; Joyce, Nigel I; Littlejohn, Roger P

    2009-05-01

    An analytical RPLC method for sesquiterpene lactones in Arnica montana has been extended to include quantitative analyses of dihydrohelenalin esters. LC-ESI-MS-MS distinguished the isomeric helenalin and dihydrohelenalin esters. The dihydrohelenalin esters have lower response factors for UV detection than do helenalin esters, which must be taken into account for quantitative analyses. Analyses of flowers from 16 different wild populations of A. montana in Spain showed differing proportions of helenalin and dihydrohelenalin esters. For the first time a chemotype with high levels of helenalin esters (total helenalins 5.2-10.3 mg/g dry weight) is reported in Spanish A. montana. These samples were from heath lands at high altitude (1330-1460 m), whereas samples from meadows and peat bogs at lower altitudes were the expected chemotype with high levels of dihydrohelenalin esters (total dihydrohelenalins 10.9-18.2 mg/g). The phenolic compounds, both flavonoid glycosides and caffeoylquinic acids, in Spanish A. montana are reported for the first time. The levels of several of these compounds differed significantly between samples from heath lands and samples from peat bogs or meadows, with the heath land samples being most similar to central European A. montana in their phenolic composition.

  16. 75 FR 55713 - Air Quality Implementation Plans; Montana; Attainment Plan for Libby, MT PM2.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-14

    ... University of Arizona's Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Laboratory Facility to provide further evidence that... mass balance study (CMB) was conducted during the winter of 2003-2004 by the University of Montana... from chemical mass balance and Carbon 14 studies conducted by the University of Montana. In...

  17. Effectiveness of Written Materials in a Rehabilitative Program for Female Offenders: A Case Study at the Montana Women's Prison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Laura; Colling, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    This case study of the Therapeutic Community Program at Montana Women's Prison investigates the relationship between inmate reading levels and the self-help materials used for rehabilitative purposes within prison settings. The Therapeutic Community Handbook, published by the Montana Department of Corrections, is used as the primary method of…

  18. I Feel Like Touching Something That's Not There; Poems by Students in Elementary & Secondary Schools of Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, David, Ed.

    This book, a project of the Montana Arts Council Poets and Writers in the School program, is a collection of poems written by students in elementary and secondary schools of Montana. In addition to the poems, the book contains an essay on motivating and guiding students to write creatively, a list of resources for creative-writing teachers, an…

  19. Using the Rural-Urban Continuum to Explore Adolescent Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drug Use in Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Carl L.; Novilla, M. Lelinneth L. B.; Barnes, Michael D.; Eggett, Dennis; McKell, Chelsea; Reichman, Peter; Havens, Mike

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare 30-day prevalence of alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use among twelfth-grade students in Montana across a rural-urban continuum during 2000, 2002, and 2004. The methods include an analysis of the Montana Prevention Needs Assessment (N = 15,372) using multivariable logistic regression adjusting for risk…

  20. 75 FR 30850 - Final Supplementary Rules for Camping on Undeveloped Public Lands in Montana, North Dakota, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... Recreation Planner, BLM Montana State Office, 5001 Southgate Drive, Billings, MT 59101-4669. FOR FURTHER... Drive, Billings, Montana 59101-4669, (406) 896-5038. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background II... at 72 FR 19958 (April 20, 2007). The rules in the Notice of Camping Limits on Public Lands in...

  1. 75 FR 27551 - Commercial Energy of Montana, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Commercial Energy of Montana, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Commercial Energy of Montana, Inc.'s application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate tariff, noting that such application includes...

  2. Assessment of undiscovered continuous oil and gas resources in the Heath Formation, central Montana and western North Dakota, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Ronald M.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers, Heidi M.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Finn, Thomas M.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2017-06-07

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resources of 884 million barrels of oil and 106 billion cubic feet of gas in the North-Central Montana and Williston Basin Provinces of central Montana and western North Dakota.

  3. Effectiveness of Written Materials in a Rehabilitative Program for Female Offenders: A Case Study at the Montana Women's Prison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Laura; Colling, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    This case study of the Therapeutic Community Program at Montana Women's Prison investigates the relationship between inmate reading levels and the self-help materials used for rehabilitative purposes within prison settings. The Therapeutic Community Handbook, published by the Montana Department of Corrections, is used as the primary method of…

  4. Conformational study reveals amino acid residues essential for hemagglutinating and anti-proliferative activities of Clematis montana lectin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bangmin Lu Bin Zhang Wei Qi Yanan Zhu Yan Zhao Nan Zhou Rong Sun Jinku Bao Chuanfang Wu

    2014-01-01

    Clematis montana lectin (CML), a novel mannose-binding lectin purified from C. montana Buch.-Ham stem (Ranunculaceae), has been proved to have hemagglutinat- ing activity in rabbit erythrocytes and apoptosis-inducing activity in tumor cells...

  5. 75 FR 4343 - Foreign-Trade Zone 22-Chicago, IL; Application for Manufacturing Authority; LG Electronics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ... Electronics MobileComm USA, Inc. (Cell Phone Kitting and Distribution); Bolingbrook, IL An application has..., grantee of FTZ 22, requesting manufacturing authority on behalf of LG Electronics MobileComm USA,...

  6. The Western Environmental Technology Office (WETO), Butte, Montana. Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The Western Environmental Technology Office (WETO) is a multi-purpose engineering test facility located in Butte, Montana, and is managed by MSE, Inc. WETO seeks to contribute to environmental research by emphasizing projects to develop heavy metals removal and recovery processes, thermal vitrification systems, and waste minimization/pollution prevention technologies. WETO`s environmental technology research and testing activities focus on the recovery of usable resources from waste. In one of WETO`s areas of focus, groundwater contamination, water from the Berkeley Pit, located near the WETO site, is being used in demonstrations directed toward the recovery of potable water and metal from the heavy metal-bearing water. The Berkeley Pit is part of an inactive copper mine near Butte that was once part of the nation`s largest open-pit mining operation. The Pit contains approximately 25 billion gallons of Berkeley Pit groundwater and surface water containing many dissolved minerals. As part of DOE/OST`s Resource Recovery Project (RRP), technologies are being demonstrated to not only clean the contaminated water but to recover metal values such as copper, zinc, and iron with an estimated gross value of more than $100 million. When recovered, the Berkeley Pit waters could benefit the entire Butte valley with new water resources for fisheries, irrigation, municipal, and industrial use. At WETO, the emphasis is on environmental technology development and commercialization activities, which will focus on mine cleanup, waste treatment, resource recovery, and water resource management.

  7. Breeding ecology of the redhead duck in western Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokemoen, J.T.

    1966-01-01

    The habits of the redhead duck (Aythya americana) were studied in the Flathead Valley of western Montana in 1960 and 1961 to determine their habitat preferences in this pothole breeding ground. The 2,600-acre study area, surrounding the Ninepipe Reservoir, contained 686 potholes. Redheads usually were paired by the time they arrived on the study area in March. The average density of redhead breeding pairs was 25 pairs per square mile. For all spring activities except nesting, the birds used large, deep, open potholes or breeding-pair potholes. The several breeding-pair potholes and the nesting pothole utilized by the pair comprised their home range. Starting in late April, the pairs moved about the home range as the hens selected nesting sites, usually in the dense emergent vegetation of small, shallow potholes. Hard-stem bulrush (Scirpus acutus) and cat-tail (Typha latifolia) were preferred nesting cover. Redhead nesting success was only 15 percent, a low rate apparently caused by degenerate nesting behavior complicated by high redhead density, a lack of suitable nest hosts, and certain habitat deficiencies. By late June most drakes and unsuccessful hens had moved from the potholes to nearby reservoirs. All successful hens led their newly hatched broods from the nesting potholes to larger brood potholes and many eventually moved to the reservoir. By mid-July virtually all redheads had moved from the potholes to the reservoirs, where they remained until fall migration.

  8. Evolutionary trends in Triceratops from the Hell Creek Formation, Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scannella, John B; Fowler, Denver W; Goodwin, Mark B; Horner, John R

    2014-07-15

    The placement of over 50 skulls of the well-known horned dinosaur Triceratops within a stratigraphic framework for the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation (HCF) of Montana reveals the evolutionary transformation of this genus. Specimens referable to the two recognized morphospecies of Triceratops, T. horridus and T. prorsus, are stratigraphically separated within the HCF with the T. prorsus morphology recovered in the upper third of the formation and T. horridus found lower in the formation. Hypotheses that these morphospecies represent sexual or ontogenetic variation within a single species are thus untenable. Stratigraphic placement of specimens appears to reveal ancestor-descendant relationships. Transitional morphologies are found in the middle unit of the formation, a finding that is consistent with the evolution of Triceratops being characterized by anagenesis, the transformation of a lineage over time. Variation among specimens from this critical stratigraphic zone may indicate a branching event in the Triceratops lineage. Purely cladogenetic interpretations of the HCF dataset imply greater diversity within the formation. These findings underscore the critical role of stratigraphic data in deciphering evolutionary patterns in the Dinosauria.

  9. Characterization and pharmacodynamic properties of Arnica montana complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šutovská, M; Capek, P; Kočmalová, M; Pawlaczyk, I; Zaczyńska, E; Czarny, A; Uhliariková, I; Gancarz, R; Fraňová, S

    2014-08-01

    A dark brown polymeric complex was isolated from flowering parts of medicinal plant Arnica montana L. by hot alkaline extraction followed by neutralization and multi-step extractions with organic solvents. It was recovered in 5.7% yield, on GPC showed two peaks of molecular mass of 9 and 3.5kDa. The compositional analyses of Arnica complex revealed the presence of carbohydrates (26%), uronic acids (12%), phenolics (1.25mM or 213mg of GAE/1g), and low protein content (∼1%). The carbohydrate moiety was rich mainly in rhamnogalacturonan and arabinogalactan. The antitussive tests showed the reduction of the cough efforts by Arnica complex, however, its total antitussive effect was lower compared with that of codeine, the strongest antitussive agent. The bronchodilatory activity of Arnica complex was similar to salbutamol, a classic antiasthmatic drug, and was confirmed by significantly decreased values of specific airways resistance in vivo and by considerably attenuated the amplitude of acetylcholine and histamine-induced contractions in vitro. Arnica complex did not show any cytotoxic effect on mouse fibroblast cultures and human lung cells, up to the dose of 500μg/mL.

  10. THE USE OF EXPRESSIVE SPEECH ACTS IN HANNAH MONTANA SESSION 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Vita Handayani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to describe kinds and forms of expressive speech act in Hannah Montana Session 1. It belongs to descriptive qualitative method. The research object was expressive speech act. The data source was utterances which contain expressive speech acts in the film Hannah Montana Session 1. The researcher used observation method and noting technique in collecting the data. In analyzing the data, descriptive qualitative method was used. The research findings show that there are ten kinds of expressive speech act found in Hannah Montana Session 1, namely expressing apology, expressing thanks, expressing sympathy, expressing attitudes, expressing greeting, expressing wishes, expressing joy, expressing pain, expressing likes, and expressing dislikes. The forms of expressive speech act are direct literal expressive speech act, direct non-literal expressive speech act, indirect literal expressive speech act, and indirect non-literal expressive speech act.

  11. Fourteen polymorphic microsatellite markers for the threatened Arnica montana (Asteraceae)1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duwe, Virginia K.; Ismail, Sascha A.; Buser, Andres; Sossai, Esther; Borsch, Thomas; Muller, Ludo A. H.

    2015-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed to investigate population genetic structure in the threatened species Arnica montana. • Methods and Results: Fourteen microsatellite markers with di-, tetra-, and hexanucleotide repeat motifs were developed for A. montana using 454 pyrosequencing without and with library-enrichment methods, resulting in 56,545 sequence reads and 14,467 sequence reads, respectively. All loci showed a high level of polymorphism, with allele numbers ranging from four to 11 in five individuals from five populations (25 samples) and an expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.192 to 0.648 across the loci. • Conclusions: This set of microsatellite markers is the first one described for A. montana and will facilitate conservation genetic applications as well as the understanding of phylogeographic patterns in this species. PMID:25606354

  12. Etnocentrismus v USA

    OpenAIRE

    Hronová, Jitka

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the bachelor thesis "Ethnocentrism in the USA" is to find basic forms of ethnocentrism and to identify the ones that are in the USA. The Czech and American cultures are compared in the thesis via author's research. Then the rate of ethnocentrism in the USA is evaluated. Interviewing young people gives a current trend and an expectation of future course of the ethnocentrism.

  13. Multikulturalismus v USA

    OpenAIRE

    Smejkal, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this Bachelor thesis is to map out the historical development of multiculturalism in the USA and to deal with the current issues of this phenomenon. For instance, this thesis deals with the process of hispanization in the USA or with the so called affirmative action in the American society. The first part of this thesis explains the term multiculturalism in theory. The second part focuses on the history of the USA and their milestones connected with the development of multicu...

  14. [Helenalin- and 11,13-Dihydrohelenalinester from Flowers of Arnica montana.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willuhn, G; Röttger, P M; Matthiesen, U

    1983-12-01

    From the flowers of ARNICA MONTANA L. 13 helenanolides were isolated and identified. They are shown to be 11,13-dihydrohelenalin ( 1), helenalin ( 2) and their ester derivatives 3-13 (see figure). The natural occurence of 6-O-isobutyryl-, 6-O-tigloyl-, 6-O-isovaleryl- and 6-O-(2-methyl)-butyrylhelenalin (compounds 9, 11, 12, 13) is reported for the first time. The qualitative sesquiterpene lactone composition in flowers of A. MONTANA from different regions was found to be variable.

  15. Repeated sedimentation and exposure of glacial Lake Missoula sediments: A lake-level history at Garden Gulch, Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Larry N.

    2017-01-01

    Glaciolacustrine sediments record lake transgression, regression, and subaerial modification of the silty lake-bottom of glacial Lake Missoula in the Clark Fork River valley. The sequence preserved at Garden Gulch, MT documents lake-level fluctuations at >65% of its full-pool volume. Twelve sedimentary cycles fine upwards from (1) very fine-grained sandy silt to (2) silt with climbing ripples to (3) rhythmically laminated silt and some clay. The cycles are fine-grained turbidites capped locally by thin layers of angular gravel derived from local bedrock outcrops. The gravels appear to be the toes of mass wasting lobes carried onto the exposed lakebed surface during repeated lake-level lowerings. Periglacial wedges, small rotational faults, involutions, and clastic dikes deform the tops of eleven cycles. The wedges are 10-30 cm wide, penetrate 30-70 cm deep, are spaced seven cycles. The Garden Gulch section may represent as few as seven and as many as twelve substantial fillings and partial to complete drainings of glacial Lake Missoula.

  16. High resolution tree-ring based spatial reconstructions of snow avalanche activity in Glacier National Park, Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederson, Gregory T.; Reardon, Blase; Caruso, C.J.; Fagre, Daniel B.

    2006-01-01

    Effective design of avalanche hazard mitigation measures requires long-term records of natural avalanche frequency and extent. Such records are also vital for determining whether natural avalanche frequency and extent vary over time due to climatic or biophysical changes. Where historic records are lacking, an accepted substitute is a chronology developed from tree-ring responses to avalanche-induced damage. This study evaluates a method for using tree-ring chronologies to provide spatially explicit differentiations of avalanche frequency and temporally explicit records of avalanche extent that are often lacking. The study area - part of John F. Stevens Canyon on the southern border of Glacier National Park – is within a heavily used railroad and highway corridor with two dozen active avalanche paths. Using a spatially geo-referenced network of avalanche-damaged trees (n=109) from a single path, we reconstructed a 96-year tree-ring based chronology of avalanche extent and frequency. Comparison of the chronology with historic records revealed that trees recorded all known events as well as the same number of previously unidentified events. Kriging methods provided spatially explicit estimates of avalanche return periods. Estimated return periods for the entire avalanche path averaged 3.2 years. Within this path, return intervals ranged from ~2.3 yrs in the lower track, to ~9-11 yrs and ~12 to >25 yrs in the runout zone, where the railroad and highway are located. For avalanche professionals, engineers, and transportation managers this technique proves a powerful tool in landscape risk assessment and decision making.

  17. Tšarterkool USA-s / Johannes Kiersch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kiersch, Johannes

    2001-01-01

    24.-27. mainì 01 toimub Tallinnas EFFE 2001 (European Forum of Freedom in Education) konverents "Haridus tänases kodanikuühiskonnas." Konverentsil esineb ka Witteni Waldorf-pedagoogika Instituudi õppejõud Johannes Kiersch. Lähemalt tema artiklist USA-s populaarsust võitvate tsharterkoolide kohta, mis on riigi- ja erakooli vahevorm

  18. Favorability for uranium in tertiary sedimentary rocks, southwestern Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wopat, M A; Curry, W E; Robins, J W; Marjaniemi, D K

    1977-10-01

    Tertiary sedimentary rocks in the basins of southwestern Montana were studied to determine their favorability for potential uranium resources. Uranium in the Tertiary sedimentary rocks was probably derived from the Boulder batholith and from silicic volcanic material. The batholith contains numerous uranium occurrences and is the most favorable plutonic source for uranium in the study area. Subjective favorability categories of good, moderate, and poor, based on the number and type of favorable criteria present, were used to classify the rock sequences studied. Rocks judged to have good favorability for uranium deposits are (1) Eocene and Oligocene strata and undifferentiated Tertiary rocks in the western Three Forks basin and (2) Oligocene rocks in the Helena basin. Rocks having moderate favorability consist of (1) Eocene and Oligocene strata in the Jefferson River, Beaverhead River, and lower Ruby River basins, (2) Oligocene rocks in the Townsend and Clarkston basins, (3) Miocene and Pliocene rocks in the Upper Ruby River basin, and (4) all Tertiary sedimentary formations in the eastern Three Forks basin, and in the Grasshopper Creek, Horse Prairie, Medicine Lodge Creek, Big Sheep Creek, Deer Lodge, Big Hole River, and Bull Creek basins. The following have poor favorability: (1) the Beaverhead Conglomerate in the Red Rock and Centennial basins, (2) Eocene and Oligocene rocks in the Upper Ruby River basin, (3) Miocene and Pliocene rocks in the Townsend, Clarkston, Smith River, and Divide Creek basins, (4) Miocene through Pleistocene rocks in the Jefferson River, Beaverhead River, and Lower Ruby River basins, and (5) all Tertiary sedimentary rocks in the Boulder River, Sage Creek, Muddy Creek, Madison River, Flint Creek, Gold Creek, and Bitterroot basins.

  19. Methods for estimating peak-flow frequencies at ungaged sites in Montana based on data through water year 2011: Chapter F in Montana StreamStats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sando, Roy; Sando, Steven K.; McCarthy, Peter M.; Dutton, DeAnn M.

    2016-04-05

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation, completed a study to update methods for estimating peak-flow frequencies at ungaged sites in Montana based on peak-flow data at streamflow-gaging stations through water year 2011. The methods allow estimation of peak-flow frequencies (that is, peak-flow magnitudes, in cubic feet per second, associated with annual exceedance probabilities of 66.7, 50, 42.9, 20, 10, 4, 2, 1, 0.5, and 0.2 percent) at ungaged sites. The annual exceedance probabilities correspond to 1.5-, 2-, 2.33-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, 100-, 200-, and 500-year recurrence intervals, respectively.

  20. Hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of Flacourtia montana J. Grah leaf extract in male Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinchu Joshy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Flacourtia montana and its related species have been used traditionally for the treatment of various diseases. The present study evaluated the hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of F. montana methanolic extract. The hepatoprotective effect of F. montana was evaluated against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats. Administration of paracetamol (2 g/kg showed a significant biochemical and histological deterioration in the liver of experimental animals. Pretreatment with F. montana (200 and 400 mg/kg b.wt. p.o significantly (P ⩽ 0.001 reduced the elevated levels of serum enzymes like serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (AST, serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and reversed the hepatic damage in the liver which evidenced the hepatoprotective activity. The anti-inflammatory activity of F. montana was evaluated by carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton pellet-induced granuloma models. F. montana (200 and 400 mg/kg showed a significant (P ⩽ 0.001 reduction in rat paw edema with 76.39% and 80.32%, respectively induced by carrageenan against the reference anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen (10 mg/kg (83.10%. Oral administration of F. montana (200 and 400 mg/kg also significantly (P ⩽ 0.001 reduced the granuloma mass formation in cotton pellet granuloma method. The reducing power and hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging were increased at increasing doses of F. montana. The results of the present study demonstrate that the methanolic extract of F. montana possess hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities.

  1. TTÜ ja TÜ osalevad USA armee miljoniprojektides

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2016-01-01

    TTÜ ja TÜ liitusid USA-s tegutseva meditsiinitehnoloogia ettevõtete konsortsiumiga. Nii jõuavad juhtivate Eesti kõrgkoolide teadmised USA armeesse, kes konsortsiumi kaudu innovaatilisi tooteid ja teenuseid sisse ostab

  2. TTÜ ja TÜ osalevad USA armee miljoniprojektides

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2016-01-01

    TTÜ ja TÜ liitusid USA-s tegutseva meditsiinitehnoloogia ettevõtete konsortsiumiga. Nii jõuavad juhtivate Eesti kõrgkoolide teadmised USA armeesse, kes konsortsiumi kaudu innovaatilisi tooteid ja teenuseid sisse ostab

  3. Go.USA.gov URL Shortner API

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — The Go.USA.gov REST API allows you interact with Go.USA.gov by shortening URLs, previewing long urls, and getting the number of clicks to a Go.USA.gov URL.. An API...

  4. Inflammatory Process Modulation by Homeopathic Arnica montana 6CH: The Role of Individual Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Kawakami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Arnica montana 6cH on the individual modulation of acute inflammation kinetics in rats were evaluated. Adult male Wistar rats were inoculated with 1% carrageenan into the footpad and treated with Arnica montana 6cH, dexamethasone (4.0 mg/kg; positive control or 5% hydroalcoholic solution (negative control, per os, each 15 minutes, between 30 and 180 minutes after the irritant inoculation. Histopathological and immunohistochemistry procedures were done in order to get a panel of inflammatory positive cells for CD3 (T lymphocytes, CD45RA (B lymphocytes, CD18 (beta 2 integrin, CD163 (ED2 protein, CD54 (ICAM-1, and MAC 387 (monocytes and macrophages. The statistical treatment of data included a posteriori classification of animals from each group (N=20 in two subgroups presenting spontaneous precocious or late oedema. Animals that presented precocious oedema were less responsible to Arnica montana 6cH in relation to hemodynamic changes. Instead, rats that exhibited late oedema presented less intense oedema (P=.01, lower percentage of mast cell degranulation (P=.0001, and increase in lymphatic vessels diameter (P=.05. The data suggest an individually qualitative adjustment of inflammatory vascular events by Arnica montana 6cH.

  5. 78 FR 15681 - Beaverhead-Deerlodge National Forest, Dillon Ranger District; Montana; Birch, Willow, Lost Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... Forest Service Beaverhead-Deerlodge National Forest, Dillon Ranger District; Montana; Birch, Willow, Lost... statement. SUMMARY: The Birch, Willow, Lost Project proposes to treat vegetation communities in the four sub.... FR 7476 (Lower Willow Creek) would have 1.7 miles Spot Reconstructed. FR 8200 (Willow Creek)...

  6. Regional ecological risk assessment for the introduction of Gambusia affinis (western mosquitofish) into Montana watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerome J. Schleier; Sing Sharlene E.; Robert K. D. Peterson

    2008-01-01

    Qualitative risk assessment methodologies were used to assess the risk of establishment and consequent impacts on native minnows and species of concern (SOC) associated with the intentional or unintentional introduction of the mosquito biological control agent, Gambusia affinis, to various Montana watersheds. Gambusia affinis...

  7. 75 FR 67095 - Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge and UL Bend National Wildlife Refuge, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge and UL Bend National Wildlife Refuge, Montana AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior (DOI). ACTION: Notice; extension of comment period. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, are extending the comment period for...

  8. Competency Commonalities and Accompanying Job Titles Derived from the Six Montana Agricultural Manpower Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amberson, Max L.; And Others

    The report provides essential information for curriculum development relevant to manpower demands for agricultural production and agribusiness in Montana. It focuses on an analysis of 3,500 competency statements to determine the existence of duplication, commonalities, and uniqueness among 76 identified job titles derived from six Agricultural…

  9. 77 FR 26275 - Bonneville Power Administration; Montana-to-Washington Transmission System Upgrade Project EIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-03

    ... Bonneville Power Administration; Montana-to-Washington Transmission System Upgrade Project EIS AGENCY...``''sts for long-term transmission service. During the NOS process, utilities and power generators (including wind generators and power marketers) requested the use of BPA's transmission system to...

  10. HIV/AIDS among American Indians/Alaska Natives Living in Montana: A Descriptive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondag, K. Ann; Strike, Carrie

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the epidemiology of HIV among AI/ANs in Montana. Barriers to HIV testing and motivations to test also were explored. Analysis of data revealed that there were no significant changes in regard to HIV/AIDS case rates, demographic characteristics, or risk behaviors of AI/ANs infected with HIV/AIDS since reporting began in 1985.…

  11. Protective effect of Satureja montana extract on cyclophosphamide-induced testicular injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El Tawab, Azza M; Shahin, Nancy N; AbdelMohsen, Mona M

    2014-12-05

    The present study investigated the protective effect of Satureja montana extract against cyclophosphamide-induced testicular injury in rats. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the extract were 1.03% and 0.34%w/w of dry herb expressed as chlorogenic acid and quercetin, respectively. HPLC analysis identified caffeic, syringic and rosmarinic acids as the chief phenolic acids, and rutin as the major flavonoid in the extract. Oral daily administration of S.montana extract (50mg/kg/day) for 7days before and 7days after an intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide (200mg/kg) restored the reduced relative testicular weight, serum testosterone level and testicular alkaline phosphatase activity, raised the lowered testicular sorbitol dehydrogenase and acid phosphatase activities, and decreased the elevated testicular hemoglobin absorbance. It also attenuated lipid peroxidation, restored the lowered glutathione content, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities, and improved total antioxidant capacity. Moreover, S.montana extract mitigated testicular DNA fragmentation, decreased the elevated Fas and Bax gene expression, up-regulated the decreased Bcl-2 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ) gene expression and normalized Akt1 protein level. Histopathological investigation confirmed the protective effects of the extract. Conclusively, S.montana extract protects the rat testis against cyclophosphamide-induced damage via anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic mechanisms that seem to be mediated, at least in part, by PPAR-γ and Akt1 up-regulation.

  12. School Readiness and Achievement of Crow Indian Children, First Through Fourth Grades, at Pryor, Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Joyce Martin

    The study was based on a year's work with Crow Indian children, grades 1-4, at Pryor, Montana. Five tests were given and evaluated: the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, the Metropolitan Achievement Tests, the Gesell Developmental Examination, the Lowenfeld Mosaic, and 3 selected tasks from Piaget. The 21 pupils used for this study were broken…

  13. The Crow Indian Reservation of Montana. Indian Affairs (No. 4). Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHoyos, Genevieve; DeHoyos, Auturo

    As a final report of a survey about manpower potential of the Crow Indian Reservation of Montana, this report gives a description of population characteristics, educational achievement, potential labor force, available skills of the labor force, and present employment conditions of the worker population on the reservation. The report also includes…

  14. Family Supports in Montana: Region III: Special Training for Exceptional People (STEP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Pam

    Special Training for Exceptional People (STEP) is a private, nonprofit agency serving children with developmental disabilities (0-22 years) and their families in the south-central section of Montana, encompassing Billings and a Crow Indian Reservation. One of the services provided by STEP is specialized family care, to prevent placement out of…

  15. Annual Report of Indian Education in Montana. Johnson-O'Malley Activities, Fiscal Year 1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montana State Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, Helena.

    During fiscal year 1978, the Montana Office of Public Instruction administered Johnson-O'Malley (JOM) Act funds totaling $684,200 for projects affecting 4,501 eligible students on the Crow, Fort Peck, Fort Belknap, and Rocky Boy's Indian Reservations. Funds were awarded on a per capita basis to provide supplemental educational programs for Indian…

  16. School Readiness and Achievement of Crow Indian Children, First Through Fourth Grades, at Pryor, Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Joyce Martin

    The study was based on a year's work with Crow Indian children, grades 1-4, at Pryor, Montana. Five tests were given and evaluated: the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, the Metropolitan Achievement Tests, the Gesell Developmental Examination, the Lowenfeld Mosaic, and 3 selected tasks from Piaget. The 21 pupils used for this study were broken…

  17. Perspectives and Future Directions Concerning Fresh, Whole Foods in Montana School Nutrition Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Lacy; Byker Shanks, Carmen J.; Roth, Aubree; Bark, Katie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: To meet new USDA school meal standards, school nutrition programs may need to transition from a "heat and serve" meal preparation approach to increased scratch cooking and use of fresh, whole foods. This study aims to assess the attitudes, motivations, and barriers for Montana school nutrition professionals and key…

  18. Chemical composition and antioxidant potential of Ruta montana L. essential oil from Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambouche, N; Merah, B; Bellahouel, S; Bouayed, J; Dicko, A; Derdour, A; Younos, C; Soulimani, R

    2008-09-01

    The essential oil of aerial parts of Ruta montana L. growing in the Oran region in the west of Algeria was obtained by hydrodistillation with a 1.63% yield on a dry weight basis. Gas chromatography (GC) and GC/mass spectrometry (MS) analyses were carried out to identify the chemical composition of R. montana essential oil. Moreover, spectrophotometric analyses were employed to highlight the scavenger capacity of this oil using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test. Twenty compounds were identified by GC and CG/MS analyses, and the bulk of the compounds of the oil were undecan-2-one (32.8%), nonan-2-one (29.5%), nonanol-2-acetate (18.2%), and psoralen (3.5%). The results obtained using the DPPH test show that R. montana essential oil possesses antiradical activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Thus, a linear correlation (correlation coefficient R(2) = 0.971, P < .001) was found between the reduction of DPPH stable free radical and the concentration of R. montana essential oil.

  19. Perspectives and Future Directions Concerning Fresh, Whole Foods in Montana School Nutrition Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Lacy; Byker Shanks, Carmen J.; Roth, Aubree; Bark, Katie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: To meet new USDA school meal standards, school nutrition programs may need to transition from a "heat and serve" meal preparation approach to increased scratch cooking and use of fresh, whole foods. This study aims to assess the attitudes, motivations, and barriers for Montana school nutrition professionals and key…

  20. The Roles of Principal Leadership Behaviors and Organizational Routines in Montana's Distinguished Title I Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Sean Niles

    2012-01-01

    This embedded multiple-case study addressed the lack of qualitative research on the contributions of principal leadership behaviors and organizational routines in Montana's distinguished Title I schools. This study was guided by the research question, "How do principal leadership behaviors and organizational routines contribute to the high…

  1. Fire ecology of Montana forest habitat types east of the Continental Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    William C. Fischer; Bruce D. Clayton

    1983-01-01

    Provides information on fire as an ecological factor for forest habitat types occurring east of the Continental Divide in Montana. Identifies "Fire Groups" of habitat types based on fire's role in forest succession. Describes forest fuels and suggests considerations for fire management.

  2. Potential effects of climate change on streamflow for seven watersheds in eastern and central Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Katherine J.; Haj, Adel; Regan, R. Steven; Viger, Roland J.

    2016-01-01

    Study regionEastern and central Montana.Study focusFish in Northern Great Plains streams tolerate extreme conditions including heat, cold, floods, and drought; however changes in streamflow associated with long-term climate change may render some prairie streams uninhabitable for current fish species. To better understand future hydrology of these prairie streams, the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System model and output from the RegCM3 Regional Climate model were used to simulate streamflow for seven watersheds in eastern and central Montana, for a baseline period (water years 1982–1999) and three future periods: water years 2021–2038 (2030 period), 2046–2063 (2055 period), and 2071–2088 (2080 period).New hydrological insights for the regionProjected changes in mean annual and mean monthly streamflow vary by the RegCM3 model selected, by watershed, and by future period. Mean annual streamflows for all future periods are projected to increase (11–21%) for two of the four central Montana watersheds: Middle Musselshell River and Cottonwood Creek. Mean annual streamflows for all future periods are projected to decrease (changes of −24 to −75%) for Redwater River watershed in eastern Montana. Mean annual streamflows are projected to increase slightly (2–15%) for the 2030 period and decrease (changes of −16 to −44%) for the 2080 period for the four remaining watersheds.

  3. Soil remediation at natural gas mercury meter stations in Montana and northwestern Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larango, G.J. [Olympus Environmental, Incorporated, Billings, MT (United States)

    1996-06-01

    The Montana Power Company initiated voluntary soil assessment and remediation at natural gas meter stations reported to have contained a mercury manometer at some time during facility operation. Remedial sites were selected according to criteria developed from data collected during a Phase I Assessment of approximately 400 facilities. The Montana Power Company and the Montana Department of Environmental Quality agreed upon a soil cleanup action level of 23 parts per million Total Mercury. Remedial field work included an initial assessment with a mercury vapor analyzer to determine the areal extent of impact at each site, excavation of soil until laboratory analyses of confirmation samples met the cleanup action level, and disposal of the excavated soil. The mercury meters were typically housed in small sheds measuring less than 10 feet by 10 feet. Generally, the spilled mercury was confined to areas beneath or adjacent to the meters; but in some cases, mercury was detected in other areas inside and outside the sheds. Approximately 355 cubic yards of soil at 103 sites were excavated primarily by hand and occasionally with a backhoe, and placed in one-yard soil bags for disposal. Composite soil samples were collected from each soil bag and analyzed by the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure for mercury to characterize the material as hazardous or non-hazardous. Bags characterized as non-hazardous were transported to an industrial landfill in Montana, while bags characterized as hazardous were transported to a facility in Tennessee where the mercury was recovered through a recycling process.

  4. 77 FR 2970 - Gibson Dam Hydroelectric Company, LLC, Montana; Notice of Availability of Final Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Gibson Dam Hydroelectric Company, LLC, Montana; Notice of Availability of... 47897), the Office of Energy Projects has reviewed the application for license for the Gibson Dam Hydroelectric Project, located at the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation's Gibson dam on...

  5. 77 FR 7531 - Disapproval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Montana; Revisions to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-13

    ... concrete plants, mineral crushers'' in new rule ARM 17.8.743(1)(b) as submitted by the State of Montana on... proposed an action for the above SIP revision submittals on September 26, 2011 (76 FR 59338). We accepted..., particulate matter, carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), lead, nitrogen oxides (NO X ) or any...

  6. Productivity and soil properties 45 years after timber harvest and mechanical site preparation in western Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke M. Cerise; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Paul McDaniel; Cole Mayn; Robert. Heinse

    2013-01-01

    Site preparation following timber harvests is widely used to increase seedling establishment postharvest. Historically, dozer piling and ripping were the most common forms of site preparation in the Intermountain West. Less commonly, terracing of hill slopes was another form of site preparation on the Bitterroot National Forest in western Montana from 1961-1970 on...

  7. 78 FR 76319 - Notice of Invitation-Coal Exploration License Application MTM 106757, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ... through Friday, in the public room at the BLM Montana State Office, 5001 Southgate Drive, Billings, MT... Southgate Drive, Billings, MT 59101-4669 and Signal Peak Energy, LLC, 100 Portal Drive, Roundup, MT 59072... State Office coal Web site at http://www.blm.gov/mt/st/en/prog/energy/coal.html . A written notice...

  8. Inflammatory Process Modulation by Homeopathic Arnica montana 6CH: The Role of Individual Variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Ana Paula; Sato, Cesar; Cardoso, Thayna Neves; Bonamin, Leoni Villano

    2011-01-01

    The effects of Arnica montana 6cH on the individual modulation of acute inflammation kinetics in rats were evaluated. Adult male Wistar rats were inoculated with 1% carrageenan into the footpad and treated with Arnica montana 6cH, dexamethasone (4.0 mg/kg; positive control) or 5% hydroalcoholic solution (negative control), per os, each 15 minutes, between 30 and 180 minutes after the irritant inoculation. Histopathological and immunohistochemistry procedures were done in order to get a panel of inflammatory positive cells for CD3 (T lymphocytes), CD45RA (B lymphocytes), CD18 (beta 2 integrin), CD163 (ED2 protein), CD54 (ICAM-1), and MAC 387 (monocytes and macrophages). The statistical treatment of data included a posteriori classification of animals from each group (N = 20) in two subgroups presenting spontaneous precocious or late oedema. Animals that presented precocious oedema were less responsible to Arnica montana 6cH in relation to hemodynamic changes. Instead, rats that exhibited late oedema presented less intense oedema (P = .01), lower percentage of mast cell degranulation (P = .0001), and increase in lymphatic vessels diameter (P = .05). The data suggest an individually qualitative adjustment of inflammatory vascular events by Arnica montana 6cH.

  9. Entrepreneurship in Montana. A Handbook for Integrating Entrepreneurship into All Vocational Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Ronald R.

    This handbook was developed to provide vocational education teachers in Montana with information about entreprenuership so that they can integrate the concepts into their vocational courses. The guide provides a definition of entrepreneurship and describes the syllabus for entrepreneurship (ownership, location, financing, personnel, promotion,…

  10. 76 FR 14584 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Montana; Attainment Plan for Libby...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-17

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Montana; Attainment... ) national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS) for the Libby nonattainment area. The plan revision, herein... and transit projects are consistent with (``conform to'') the state air quality implementation plan...

  11. Phytochemical profile and anticholinesterase and antimicrobial activities of supercritical versus conventional extracts of Satureja montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Filipa V M; Martins, Alice; Salta, Joana; Neng, Nuno R; Nogueira, José M F; Mira, Delfina; Gaspar, Natália; Justino, Jorge; Grosso, Clara; Urieta, José S; Palavra, António M S; Rauter, Amélia P

    2009-12-23

    Winter savory Satureja montana is a medicinal herb used in traditional gastronomy for seasoning meats and salads. This study reports a comparison between conventional (hydrodistillation, HD, and Soxhlet extraction, SE) and alternative (supercritical fluid extraction, SFE) extraction methods to assess the best option to obtain bioactive compounds. Two different types of extracts were tested, the volatile (SFE-90 bar, second separator vs HD) and the nonvolatile fractions (SFE-250 bar, first and second separator vs SE). The inhibitory activity over acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase by S. montana extracts was assessed as a potential indicator for the control of Alzheimer's disease. The supercritical nonvolatile fractions, which showed the highest content of (+)-catechin, chlorogenic, vanillic, and protocatechuic acids, also inhibited selectively and significantly butyrylcholinesterase, whereas the nonvolatile conventional extract did not affect this enzyme. Microbial susceptibility tests revealed the great potential of S. montana volatile supercritical fluid extract for the growth control and inactivation of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus, showing some activity against Botrytis spp. and Pyricularia oryzae. Although some studies were carried out on S. montana, the phytochemical analysis together with the biological properties, namely, the anticholinesterase and antimicrobial activities of the plant nonvolatile and volatile supercritical fluid extracts, are described herein for the first time.

  12. Al-Dulimi and Montana Management Inc. v. Switzerland / Stefan Kadelbach

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kadelbach, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Euroopa Inimõiguste Kohtu lahendist asjas Al-Dulimi ja Montana Management Inc vs. Šveits, mis puudutas ÜRO julgeolekunõukogu resolutsiooni, millega pandi riikidele kohustus külmutada viivitamatult ka Iraagi vanemametnikele või nende äriühingutele kuuluv vara

  13. 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey: American Indian Students in Urban Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey high school student frequency distributions for American Indian students in urban schools. These frequency distributions are based upon surveys with 808 high school American Indian students in urban schools during February of 2011. Frequency distributions may not total 808 due to…

  14. A quantitative approach to assessing the efficacy of occupant protection programs: A case study from Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manlove, Kezia; Stanley, Laura; Peck, Alyssa

    2015-10-01

    Quantitative evaluation of vehicle occupant protection programs is critical for ensuring efficient government resource allocation, but few methods exist for conducting evaluation across multiple programs simultaneously. Here we present an analysis of occupant protection efficacy in the state of Montana. This approach relies on seat belt compliance rates as measured by the National Occupant Protection Usage Survey (NOPUS). A hierarchical logistic regression model is used to estimate the impacts of four Montana Department of Transportation (MDT)-funded occupant protection programs used in the state of Montana, following adjustment for a suite of potential confounders. Activity from two programs, Buckle Up coalitions and media campaigns, are associated with increased seat belt use in Montana, whereas the impact of another program, Selective Traffic Enforcement, is potentially masked by other program activity. A final program, Driver's Education, is not associated with any shift in seat belt use. This method allows for a preliminary quantitative estimation of program impacts without requiring states to obtain any new seat belt use data. This approach provides states a preliminary look at program impacts, and a means for carefully planning future program allocation and investigation.

  15. The Fiscal Impact of Tax-Credit Scholarships in Montana. School Choice Issues in the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlob, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Many states have enacted or are considering proposals to give tax credits for contributions that provide tuition scholarships for students in K-12 schools to attend the private or public schools of their choice. This study seeks to inform the public and policymakers about the implications for Montana if the state were to enact such a program. The…

  16. 1972-73 Program Evaluation of the Right to Read Program of Hardin, Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin School District, MT.

    This paper presents an evaluation of the Hardin, Montana, School District's Right to Read program. Short descriptions of the results of the evaluation are presented for the areas of paragraph meaning, word meaning, interest/attitude, basic approach, instructional technique, student grouping, availability and skill of reading teachers, nonclassroom…

  17. Assessment of coal geology, resources, and reserve base in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, David C.; Luppens, James A.

    2013-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated in-place resources of 1.07 trillion short tons of coal in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana. Of that total, with a maximum stripping ratio of 10:1, recoverable coal was 162 billion tons. The estimate of economically recoverable resources was 25 billion tons.

  18. A Descriptive Study of Students with Disabilities at Montana State University Billings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell, Thomas Francis

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe and analyze how the characteristics of age, major and type of disabilities for students who received services through Disability Support Services at Montana State University-Billings have changed from 1999 to 2011. Furthermore, this analysis contrasted local trends for types of disabilities with national…

  19. Endophytic Streptomyces in the traditional medicinal plant Arnica montana L.: secondary metabolites and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardecki, Tina; Brötz, Elke; De Ford, Christian; von Loewenich, Friederike D; Rebets, Yuriy; Tokovenko, Bogdan; Luzhetskyy, Andriy; Merfort, Irmgard

    2015-08-01

    Arnica montana L. is a medical plant of the Asteraceae family and grows preferably on nutrient poor soils in mountainous environments. Such surroundings are known to make plants dependent on symbiosis with other organisms. Up to now only arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were found to act as endophytic symbiosis partners for A. montana. Here we identified five Streptomyces strains, microorganisms also known to occur as endophytes in plants and to produce a huge variety of active secondary metabolites, as inhabitants of A. montana. The secondary metabolite spectrum of these strains does not contain sesquiterpene lactones, but consists of the glutarimide antibiotics cycloheximide and actiphenol as well as the diketopiperazines cyclo-prolyl-valyl, cyclo-prolyl-isoleucyl, cyclo-prolyl-leucyl and cyclo-prolyl-phenylalanyl. Notably, genome analysis of one strain was performed and indicated a huge genome size with a high number of natural products gene clusters among which genes for cycloheximide production were detected. Only weak activity against the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus was revealed, but the extracts showed a marked cytotoxic activity as well as an antifungal activity against Candida parapsilosis and Fusarium verticillioides. Altogether, our results provide evidence that A. montana and its endophytic Streptomyces benefit from each other by completing their protection against competitors and pathogens and by exchanging plant growth promoting signals with nutrients.

  20. Dispersal distance and achene quality of the rare anemochorous species Arnica montana L. : implications for conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strykstra, RJ; Pegtel, DM; Bergsma, A

    1998-01-01

    In The Netherlands, Arnica montana (Asteraceae) is a, rare plant species. Future survival in The Netherlands depends on its; ability to disperse between source populations and habitats, newly created by man. Plumed Asteraceae achenes are often considered to disperse over large distances. Therefore,

  1. Euroopa teadis USA salavanglaist / Tõnis Erilaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erilaid, Tõnis, 1943-

    2005-01-01

    USA endise välisministri Colin Powelli sõnul pole see tema sõpradele Euroopas uudiseks, et USA on viinud vange riikidesse, kus tema seadused ei kehti. USA praeguse välisministri Condoleezza Rice'i sõnul on USA vange üle kuulanud väljaspool USA-d. USA Today kirjeldab Stare Kiejkuty küla Poolas, kus arvatavasti on olnud salavangla

  2. Euroopa teadis USA salavanglaist / Tõnis Erilaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erilaid, Tõnis, 1943-

    2005-01-01

    USA endise välisministri Colin Powelli sõnul pole see tema sõpradele Euroopas uudiseks, et USA on viinud vange riikidesse, kus tema seadused ei kehti. USA praeguse välisministri Condoleezza Rice'i sõnul on USA vange üle kuulanud väljaspool USA-d. USA Today kirjeldab Stare Kiejkuty küla Poolas, kus arvatavasti on olnud salavangla

  3. Pepeljajev eesti näitlejatega USA-s

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Sasha Pepeljajevi tantsulavastust "Uksed" etendati USA rahvusvahelisel teatrifestivalil "Arts & Ideas". Vene-Eesti trupi Apparatus lavastus on pühendatud Daniil Harmsi 100. sünniaastapäevale ning põhineb tema töödel

  4. Pepeljajev eesti näitlejatega USA-s

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Sasha Pepeljajevi tantsulavastust "Uksed" etendati USA rahvusvahelisel teatrifestivalil "Arts & Ideas". Vene-Eesti trupi Apparatus lavastus on pühendatud Daniil Harmsi 100. sünniaastapäevale ning põhineb tema töödel

  5. Aquatic macroinvertebrate diversity and biomass as potential indices of environmental contamination at National Wildlife Refuges in Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Aquatic macroinvertebrate diversity and biomass were measured at wetland units on three National Wildlife Refuges in Montana and examined to determine if they were...

  6. Medicine Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Lamesteer National Wildlife Refuge, Northeastern Montana Wetlands: Narrative report: January 1, 1971 - December 31, 1971

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Medicine Lake NWR, Lamesteer NWR, and Northeastern Montana Wetlands outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1971 calendar year....

  7. Final Environmental Assessment for Wide Area Coverage Construct Land Mobile Network Communications Infrastructure Malmstrom Air Force Base, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    to his vegetation type include common snowberry (Symphoricarpos albus), needle-and thread, phlox, lupine (Lupinus sp.), and buckwheat (Montana...Common species include common snowberry, Oregon grape (Berberis aquifolium), bluegrass, western wheatgrass, lupine , yarrow (Achillea millefolium

  8. Medicine Lake National Wildlife Refuge, *Lamesteer National Wildlife Refuge, *Northeastern Montana Wetlands: Narrative report: January 1, 1968 - December 31, 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Medicine Lake NWR, Lamesteer NWR, and Northeastern Montana Wetlands outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1968 calendar year....

  9. Wyodak-Anderson coal zone study limit in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana (wabndg.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This ArcView shapefile contains a polygon representing the study area for the Wyodak-Anderson coal zone in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana. This theme...

  10. Literature review and database of relations between salinity and aquatic biota : applications to Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge, Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Long-term accumulation of salts in wetlands at Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Montana, has raised concern among wetland managers that increasing salinity...

  11. Medicine Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Lamesteer National Wildlife Refuge, Northeastern Montana Wetlands: Narrative report: January 1, 1972 - December 31, 1972

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Medicine Lake NWR, Lamesteer NWR, and Northeastern Montana WMD outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1972 calendar year. The report...

  12. Medicine Lake National Wildlife Refuge, *Lamesteer National Wildlife Refuge, *Northeastern Montana Wetlands: Narrative report: January 1, 1969 - December 31, 1969

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Medicine Lake NWR, Lamesteer NWR, and Northeastern Montana Wetlands outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1969 calendar year....

  13. Medicine Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Lamesteer National Wildlife Refuge, Northeastern Montana Wetlands: Narrative report: July 1, 1973 - June 30, 1974

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Medicine Lake NWR, Lamesteer NWR, and Northeastern Montana WMD outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1974 fiscal year. The report...

  14. Medicine Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Lamesteer National Wildlife Refuge, Northeastern Montana Wetlands: Narrative report: January 1, 1970 - December 31, 1970

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Medicine Lake NWR, Lamesteer NWR, and Northeastern Montana Wetlands outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1970 calendar year....

  15. [Special use permit for predator disease study associated with Montana black-footed ferret reintroduction, summer 1994 : APHIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains a memorandum providing the Montana Black-Footed Ferret Working Group with information on the proposed predator collection that will happen...

  16. Medicine Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Lamesteer National Wildlife Refuge, Northeastern Montana Wetlands: Narrative report: July 1, 1974 - June 30, 1975

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Medicine Lake NWR, Lamesteer NWR, and Northeastern Montana WMD outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1975 fiscal year. The report...

  17. Dengue in Florida (USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge R. Rey

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Florida (USA, particularly the southern portion of the State, is in a precarious situation concerning arboviral diseases. The geographic location, climate, lifestyle, and the volume of travel and commerce are all conducive to arbovirus transmission. During the last decades, imported dengue cases have been regularly recorded in Florida, and the recent re-emergence of dengue as a major public health concern in the Americas has been accompanied by a steady increase in the number of imported cases. In 2009, there were 28 cases of locally transmitted dengue in Key West, and in 2010, 65 cases were reported. Local transmission was also reported in Martin County in 2013 (29 cases, and isolated locally transmitted cases were also reported from other counties in the last five years. Dengue control and prevention in the future will require close cooperation between mosquito control and public health agencies, citizens, community and government agencies, and medical professionals to reduce populations of the vectors and to condition citizens and visitors to take personal protection measures that minimize bites by infected mosquitoes.

  18. USA pelgab Hiina tehnoloogialuuret / Tõnis Arnover

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arnover, Tõnis, 1952-

    2005-01-01

    Hiina Ameerika-vastasest majandusluurest. USA luureameti andmetel on USA-s loodud üle kolme tuhande Hiina firma, kelle ülesandeks on tööstusliku või sõjalise tehnoloogia hankimine. Vt. samas: Hiina firmad ostavad üha suuremaid USA ettevõtteid

  19. Mercury Emission Control Technologies for PPL Montana-Colstrip Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John P. Kay; Michael L. Jones; Steven A. Benson

    2007-04-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) was asked by PPL Montana LLC (PPL) to provide assistance and develop an approach to identify cost-effective options for mercury control at its coal-fired power plants. The work conducted focused on baseline mercury level and speciation measurement, short-term parametric testing, and week long testing of mercury control technology at Colstrip Unit 3. Three techniques and various combinations of these techniques were identified as viable options for mercury control. The options included oxidizing agents or sorbent enhancement additives (SEAs) such as chlorine-based SEA1 and an EERC proprietary SEA2 with and without activated carbon injection. Baseline mercury emissions from Colstrip Unit 3 are comparatively low relative to other Powder River Basin (PRB) coal-fired systems and were found to range from 5 to 6.5 g/Nm3 (2.9 to 3.8 lb/TBtu), with a rough value of approximately 80% being elemental upstream of the scrubber and higher than 95% being elemental at the outlet. Levels in the stack were also greater than 95% elemental. Baseline mercury removal across the scrubber is fairly variable but generally tends to be about 5% to 10%. Parametric results of carbon injection alone yielded minimal reduction in Hg emissions. SEA1 injection resulted in 20% additional reduction over baseline with the maximum rate of 400 ppm (3 gal/min). Week long testing was conducted with the combination of SEA2 and carbon, with injection rates of 75 ppm (10.3 lb/hr) and 1.5 lb/MMacf (40 lb/hr), respectively. Reduction was found to be an additional 30% and, overall during the testing period, was measured to be 38% across the scrubber. The novel additive injection method, known as novel SEA2, is several orders of magnitude safer and less expensive than current SEA2 injection methods. However, used in conjunction with this plant configuration, the technology did not demonstrate a significant level of mercury reduction. Near-future use of this

  20. Phytotoxicity of floodplain soils contaminated with trace metals along the clark fork river, Grant-Kohrs Ranch National Historic Site, Deer Lodge, Montana, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, B.R.; Nimmo, D.W.R.; Chapman, P.L.

    1997-01-01

    Concentrations of metals in sediments and soils deposited along the floodplain of the Clark Fork River, within the Grant-Kohrs Ranch National Historic Site, Deer Lodge, Montana, USA, have exceeded maximum background concentrations in the United States for most metals tested. As a result of mining and smelting activities, portions of the Deer Lodge Valley, including the Grant-Kohrs Ranch, have received National Priority List Designation under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act. Using a series of plant germination tests, pH measurements, and metal analyses, this study investigated the toxicity of soils from floodplain 'slicken' areas, bare spots devoid of vegetation, along the Clark Fork River. The slicken soils collected from the Grant-Kohrs Ranch were toxic to all four plant species tested. The most sensitive endpoint in the germination tests was root length and the least sensitive was emergence. Considering emergence, the most sensitive species was the resident grass species Agrostis gigantea. The sensitivities were reversed when root lengths were examined, with Echinochloa crusgalli showing the greatest sensitivity. Both elevated concentrations of metals and low pH were necessary to produce an acutely phytotoxic response in laboratory seed germination tests using slicken soils. Moreover, pH values on the Grant-Kohrs Ranch appear to be a better predictor of acutely phytotoxic conditions than total metal levels.

  1. MORE (Montana Organization for Research in Energy), MT DOE/EPSCoR. Progress performance report, traineeship activities: 30 September 1992--31 January 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    This report focuses on Montana`s Graduate Traineeship in Energy Program and covers the past 16 months. During this period, MORE established a graduate traineeship program in energy, released three calls for applications, and funded 26 graduates. The traineeship program stresses interdisciplinary training to prepare professionals for careers in energy-related fields. Preference is given to research projects involving interdisciplinary, intercampus, collaborative research with DOE national laboratories and Montana`s energy industries. The 26 trainee research projects, campus affiliation, host laboratory, and host scientist are summarized in this report.

  2. Análise qualitativa dos efeitos da sonoforese com Arnica montana sobre o processo inflamatório agudo do músculo esquelético de ratos Qualitative analysis of effects of phonophoresis with Arnica montana onto acute inflammatory process in rat skeletal muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Pereira Alfredo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo visou verificar o efeito da sonoforese com Arnica montana sobre a fase inflamatória aguda de uma lesão muscular. Para isso, 40 ratos Wistar machos, lesados cirurgicamente, foram divididos em 4 grupos: controle (C, 10 ratos lesados e não tratados; grupo ultra-som (US, 10 lesados, tratados com US; grupo ultra-som com arnica (US+A, 10 ratos lesados, tratados com sonoforese de gel de arnica; grupo arnica (A, 10 ratos lesados, tratados com massagem de gel de arnica. O tratamento dos três grupos foi iniciado 24h após a lesão, sendo aplicado uma vez ao dia durante 3 minutos, por três dias. Quatro dias após a lesão, os animais foram sacrificados e o terço médio do músculo tibial anterior lesado foi removido e tratado histologicamente. Os resultados da análise qualitativa mostram que, no grupo C, formou-se um intenso infiltrado de células inflamatórias no espaço intersticial e um processo de regeneração apenas iniciado. Nos grupos US e US+A foi detectado um avançado processo inflamatório, com tecido conjuntivo mais organizado e consistente. No grupo A foi detectada diminuição no número de células inflamatórias e uma desorganização em sua disposição, o que poderia levar a um atraso no processo de regeneração. Conclui-se que os grupos que receberam a aplicação do ultra-som e ultra-som com arnica apresentaram semelhante aceleração do processo inflamatório agudo, sugerindo ineficácia da sonoforese quando comparada à aplicação de apenas ultra-som.This study aimed at verifying the effects of phonophoresis associated to Arnica montana on the acute phase of an inflammatory muscle injury. Forty Wistar male rats of which the Tibialis Anterior muscle was surgically lesioned, were divided into 4 groups (n=10 each: control group received no treatment; the ultrasound group (US, treated with US; the US+A group was treated with arnica phonophoresis; and the arnica group (A received massage with arnica gel. Treatment

  3. The 1990 Montana initiative to increase cigarette taxes: lessons for other states and localities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, R W; Males, M A; Nelson, D E

    1993-01-01

    In November 1990, voters in Montana defeated an initiative that would have increased the state's excise tax on a pack of cigarettes by 25 cents. The increased revenues were intended for tobacco education and research. Opponents of the measure, primarily tobacco companies, outspent proponents by more than 35 to 1. Their primary themes were opposition to new taxes and to a larger state bureaucracy. Based on the results of initiative campaigns in Montana and California, taxation initiatives are more likely to succeed if guidance is sought from leaders of similar campaigns in other states, tobacco control coalitions are built and funding secured early, and polling conducted before initiative measures are finalized. Other requirements for success include careful wording of the initiative, strong leadership, consideration of a paid petition drive, effective use of the news media, anticipating opposition arguments, and emphasizing the benefits of the tax increase in the campaign.

  4. Montana Rivers Information System : Edit/Entry Program User's Manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks

    1992-07-01

    The Montana Rivers Information System (MRIS) was initiated to assess the state`s fish, wildlife, and recreation value; and natural cultural, and geologic features. The MRIS is now a set of data bases containing part of the information in the Natural Heritage Program natural features and threatened and endangered species data bases and comprises of the Montana Interagency Stream Fisheries Database; the MDFWP Recreation Database; and the MDFWP Wildlife Geographic Information System. The purpose of this User`s Manual is to describe to the user how to maintain the MRIS database of their choice by updating, changing, deleting, and adding records using the edit/entry programs; and to provide to the user all information and instructions necessary to complete data entry into the MRIS databases.

  5. Sesquiterpene lactone content in leaves of in vitro and field cultivated Arnica montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, T J; Bomme, U; Alfermann, A W

    1998-04-01

    On the basis of GC and GC/MS analyses we report on the full qualitative and quantitative sesquiterpene lactone (STL) content of in vitro cultivated A. montana plantlets consisting of helenalin and 11alpha,13-dihydrohelenalin esters in approximately equal amounts. The accumulation of STL was shown to be correlated with tissue differentiation in the above-ground parts. The seasonal variation of STL content in leaves of A. montana cultivated in the proving field was investigated. Changes in the composition of the STL fraction were detected. While young plants accumulate mainly helenalin derivatives, the content of such compounds decreases to almost zero within about 6 weeks from the beginning of leaf formation while that of dihydrohelenalin type compounds increases at the same rate and remains constant for a longer period.

  6. Arnica montana gel in osteoarthritis of the knee: an open, multicenter clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuesel, Otto; Weber, Michel; Suter, Andy

    2002-01-01

    This open multicenter trial investigated the safety and efficacy of an Arnica montana fresh plant gel, applied twice daily, in 26 men and 53 women with mild to moderate osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. After 3 and 6 weeks, significant decreases in median total scores on the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) were evident in the intention-to-treat and per-protocol populations (both P < .0001). Scores on the pain, stiffness, and function subscales also showed significant reductions at these timepoints. The overall local adverse-event rate of 7.6% included only one allergic reaction. Sixty-nine patients (87%) rated the tolerability of the gel as "good" or "fairly good," and 76% would use it again. Topical application of Arnica montana gel for 6 weeks was a safe, well-tolerated, and effective treatment of mild to moderate OA of the knee.

  7. A geologic and mineral exploration spatial database for the Stillwater Complex, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zientek, Michael L.; Parks, Heather L.

    2014-01-01

    The Stillwater Complex is a Neoarchean, ultramafic to mafic layered intrusion exposed in the Beartooth Mountains in south-central Montana. This igneous intrusion contains magmatic mineralization that is variably enriched in strategic and critical commodities such as chromium, nickel, and the platinum-group elements. One deposit, the J-M Reef, is the sole source of primary production and reserves for platinum-group elements in the United States.

  8. Geologic map of the Dillon 1 degree by 2 degrees Quadrangle, Idaho and Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppel, E.T.; Lopez, D.A.; O'Neill, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    The digital ARC/INFO databases included in this website provide a GIS database for the geologic map of the Dillon 1 degree by 2 degree quadrangle of southwest Montana and east-central Idaho. The geologic map was originally published as U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Series Map I-1803-H. This website directory contains ARC/INFO format files that can be used to query or display the geology of USGS Map I-1803-H with GIS software.

  9. Effects of aerially applied mexacarbate on western spruce budworm larvae and their parasites in Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll B. Williams; Patrick J. Shea; Mark D. McGregor

    1979-01-01

    In tests on the Bitterroot National Forest, Montana, in 1965 and 1966, mexacarbate, aerially applied at the rate of 0.15 lb a.i./gal/acre (68.04 g a.iJ3.785 1/0.404 ha), killed about 90 percent of the western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman) populations. More parasitized budworm larvae survived treatments than nonparasitized.

  10. Geochemical and petrographic data for intrusions peripheral to the Big Timber Stock, Crazy Mountains, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Bray, Edward A.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2015-01-01

    The Paleocene Fort Union Formation hosts a compositionally diverse array of Eocene plugs, dikes, and sills arrayed around the Eocene Big Timber stock in the Crazy Mountains of south-central Montana. The geochemistry and petrography of the sills have not previously been characterized or interpreted. The purpose of this report is (1) to present available geochemical and petrographic data for several dozen samples of these rocks and (2) to provide a basic interpretive synthesis of these data.

  11. Les effets de l'Arnica Montana sur la coagulation sanguine. Essai clinique randomisé.

    OpenAIRE

    Baillargeon, L.; Drouin, J; Desjardins, L.; Leroux, D.; Audet, D.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study, which took the form of a two-period cross-over clinical trial, was to determine whether a homeopathic substance, Arnica Montana, significantly decreased bleeding time (Simplate II) and to describe its impact on various blood coagulation tests. It was not shown that this substance had a significant impact on various parameters of blood coagulation in healthy volunteers in the period immediately following administration [corrected].

  12. [The effects of Arnica Montana on blood coagulation. Randomized controlled trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillargeon, L; Drouin, J; Desjardins, L; Leroux, D; Audet, D

    1993-11-01

    The purpose of this study, which took the form of a two-period cross-over clinical trial, was to determine whether a homeopathic substance, Arnica Montana, significantly decreased bleeding time (Simplate II) and to describe its impact on various blood coagulation tests. It was not shown that this substance had a significant impact on various parameters of blood coagulation in healthy volunteers in the period immediately following administration [corrected].

  13. A geologic and mineral exploration spatial database for the Stillwater Complex, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zientek, Michael L.; Parks, Heather L.

    2014-01-01

    The Stillwater Complex is a Neoarchean, ultramafic to mafic layered intrusion exposed in the Beartooth Mountains in south-central Montana. This igneous intrusion contains magmatic mineralization that is variably enriched in strategic and critical commodities such as chromium, nickel, and the platinum-group elements. One deposit, the J-M Reef, is the sole source of primary production and reserves for platinum-group elements in the United States.

  14. A Taxonomic Checklist of the Mosquitoes of Montana With Notes On New Geographic Distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolston, Marni G; Johnson, Gregory D; Hokit, D Grant

    2016-12-01

    An updated checklist of 50 species of mosquitoes found in Montana is presented and includes 2 new records (Aedes niphadopsis and Anopheles walkeri) that can be added to the 2005 state list by Darsie and Ward. The results of a statewide mosquito surveillance program, conducted annually from 2004 to 2015, facilitated the establishment of an abundance rating of the species in the state and expanded the known geographic range for Coquillettidia perturbans, Ae. nigromaculis, and Culiseta minnesotae.

  15. Preliminary geologic investigation of the West Glendive lignite deposits, Dawson County, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banet, Arthur C.

    1979-01-01

    Four major lignite beds, all in the Fort Union Formation (Paleocene), occur in the West Glendive area, Dawson County, Montana. The Newton Ranch and Poverty Flats beds are in the Lebo Member and the Peuse and Kolberg Ranch beds are in the Tongue River Member. Correlation of the lignite beds across the area shows that the Peuse bed is the thickest and most extensive. Field mapping and drill-hole data indicate that folding and faulting are more common than previously reported.

  16. Evaluation of Eurasian Watermilfoil Control Techniques Using Aquatic Herbicides in Fort Peck Lake, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    cold winter condi- tions in Montana and other northern states, Eurasian watermilfoil is capable of overwintering under ice and rapidly emerges in the...River, fluctuations in depth of annual snow pack and timing of annual snow melt in its watershed can greatly impact seasonal lake-level elevations...Eurasian watermilfoil and curlyleaf pondweed using low doses of endothall combined with 2,4-D. ERDC/TN APCRP-CC-05. Vicksburg, MS: U.S. Army Engineer

  17. Statistical summaries of streamflow in Montana and adjacent areas, water years 1900 through 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Peter M.

    2005-01-01

    In response to the need to have more current information about streamflow characteristics in Montana, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Montana Department of Environmental Quality, Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes, and Bureau of Land Management, conducted a study to analyze streamflow data. Updated statistical summaries of streamflow characteristics are presented for 286 streamflow-gaging sites in Montana and adjacent areas having 10 or more years of record for water years 1900 through 2002. Data include the magnitude and probability of annual low and high flow, the magnitude and probability of low flow for three seasons (March-June, July-October, and November-February), flow duration of the daily mean discharge, and the monthly and annual mean discharges. For streamflow-gaging stations where 20 percent or more of the contributing drainage basin is affected by dams or other large-scale human modification, streamflow is considered regulated. Separate streamflow characteristics are presented for the unregulated and regulated periods of record for sites with sufficient data.

  18. Natural radioactivity in geothermal waters, Alhambra Hot Springs and nearby areas, Jefferson County, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Robert B.; Janzer, Victor J.

    1978-01-01

    Radioactive hot springs issue from a fault zone in crystalline rock of the Boulder batholith at Alhambra, Jefferson County, in southwestern Montana. The discharge contains high concentrations of radon, and the gross alpha activity and the concentration of adium-226 exceed maximum levels recommended by the Environmental Protection Agency for drinking water. Part of the discharge is diverted for space heating, bathing, and domestic use. The radioactive thermal waters at measured temperatures of about 60°C are of the sodium bicarbonate type and saturated with respect to calcium carbonate. Radium-226 in the rock and on fractured surfaces or coprecipitated with calcium carbonate probably is the principal source of radon that is dissolved in the thermal water and discharged with other gases from some wells and springs. Local surface water and shallow ground water are of the calcium bicarbonate type and exhibit low background activity. The temperature, percent sodium, and radioactivity of mixed waters adjacent to the fault zone increase with depth. Samples from most of the major hot springs in southwestern Montana have been analyzed for gross alpha and beta activity. The high level of radioactivity at Alhambra appears to be related to leaching of radioactive material from siliceous veins by ascending thermal waters and is not a normal characteristic of hot springs issuing from fractured crystalline rock in Montana.

  19. Annona montana fruit and leaves improve the glycemic and lipid profiles of Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbalho, Sandra Maria; Soares de Souza, Maricelma da Silva; dos Santos Bueno, Patrícia Cincotto; Guiguer, Elen Landgraf; Farinazzi-Machado, Flávia Maria Vasques; Araújo, Adriano Cressoni; Meneguim, Carla Omete; Pascoal Silveira, Eliane; de Souza Oliveira, Natalia; da Silva, Beatriz Clivati; Barbosa, Sara da Silva; Mendes, Claudemir Gregório; Gonçalves, Priscilla Rodrigues

    2012-10-01

    Species of the family Annonaceae has been used traditionally as a medicinal plant in tropical regions of South and North America and in Africa. Annona montana is known popularly as false graviola and originates from tropical America and can be cultivated throughout Brazil. There are no studies in the literature that associate A. montana with the metabolic profile of animals. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to assess the effects of the consumption of pulp and leaves of this plant on the metabolic profile of Wistar rats. The animals, which were treated for 40 days, were divided into two control groups--treated with water via gavage and ad libitum, respectively, and two treated groups--one treated with leaf juice and the other with pulp juice of the fruit. Glycemia, lipids, and body weight were found to decrease and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c) levels to increase in the animals treated with leaf juice. The group treated with pulp juice showed a reduction in lipids and augmented HDL-c. The use of A. montana may have beneficial effects in the prevention of diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia and may thus contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

  20. Alleloppathic effects and insecticidal activity of the aqueous extract of Satureja montana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šućur Jovana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Extensive use of synthetic insecticides, herbicides and other pesticides has negative effects on the environment and on human and animal health. Therefore scientists are turning towards natural pesticides such as active components of plant extracts. Effect of two concentrations (0.1% and 0.2% of Satureja montana L. aqueous extract on lipid peroxidation process, as well as the activity of the antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GPX, PPX and CAT in leaves and roots of pepper and black nightshade seedlings were examined 24, 72 and 120h after the treatment. Our results showed that higher concentration of S. montana aqueous extract induced lipid peroxidation in black nightshade roots. Furthermore, significant increases of pyrogallol and guaiacol peroxidase were detected in black nightshade leaves treated with 0.2% S. montana aqueous extract. The second aim was to evaluate effectiveness of aqueous extract as contact toxicant against whitefly. It was observed that aqueous extract with concentration of 0.2% showed toxic effect with 68.33% mortality after 96h.

  1. Golden reputation wanted for a gold producer. The case of the Rosia Montana Gold Corporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George David

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Inappropriate stakeholder communication often generates risks or even dangers to the organizations which are not aware of the importance of a proper flow of information to/from its publics. “Rosia Montana Gold Corporation”, a Canada-based company specialized in gold extraction, has initiated since 1996 a project to extract gold from the perimeter Rosia Montana (Western Carpathians, county of Alba, Romania. Although the technical documentation has been submitted back in 2004 to the authorities to be endorsed and approved, the approval is still pending due to a great amount of negative public perceptions often turned to hostile behaviors. In order to diminish this hostility, the company has started a huge communication campaign founded on factuality in its attempt to extract gold in Romania. However, the results are still unsatisfactory, even if the amount of negative perceptions has been lowered in a certain measure. In our paper we would like to analyze, based on the Situational Crisis Communication Theory (SCCT and quantitative analysis methods, several influences produced by the organizational communication done so far over the organization itself, as well as over stakeholders such as the local community in Rosia Montana, public institutions, and non-governmental organizations.

  2. Peak-flow frequency analyses and results based on data through water year 2011 for selected streamflow-gaging stations in or near Montana: Chapter C in Montana StreamStats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sando, Steven K.; McCarthy, Peter M.; Dutton, DeAnn M.

    2016-04-05

    Chapter C of this Scientific Investigations Report documents results from a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Montana Department of Transportation and the Montana Department of Natural Resources, to provide an update of statewide peak-flow frequency analyses and results for Montana. The purpose of this report chapter is to present peak-flow frequency analyses and results for 725 streamflow-gaging stations in or near Montana based on data through water year 2011. The 725 streamflow-gaging stations included in this study represent nearly all streamflowgaging stations in Montana (plus some from adjacent states or Canadian Provinces) that have at least 10 years of peak-flow records through water year 2011. For 29 of the 725 streamflow-gaging stations, peak-flow frequency analyses and results are reported for both unregulated and regulated conditions. Thus, peak-flow frequency analyses and results are reported for a total of 754 analyses. Estimates of peak-flow magnitudes for 66.7-, 50-, 42.9-, 20-, 10-, 4-, 2-, 1-, 0.5-, and 0.2-percent annual exceedance probabilities are reported. These annual exceedance probabilities correspond to 1.5-, 2-, 2.33-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, 100-, 200-, and 500-year recurrence intervals.

  3. Idaho and Montana non-fuel exploration database 1980-1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, David A.; DiFrancesco, Carl A.; Porter, Kenneth E.; Bleiwas, Donald I.; Causey, J. Douglas; Ferguson, William B.

    2006-01-01

    This report describes a relational database containing information about mineral exploration projects in the States of Idaho and Montana for the years 1980 through 1997 and a spatial (geographic) database constructed using data from the relational database. The focus of this project was to collect information on exploration for mineral commodities with the exception of sand, gravel, coal, geothermal, oil, and gas. The associate databases supplied with this report are prototypes that can be used or modified as needed. The following sources were used to create the databases-serial mining periodicals; annual mineral publications; mining company reports; U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) publications; an Idaho mineral property data base developed by Dave Boleneus, USGS, Spokane, Washington; Montana state publications; and discussions with representatives of Montana, principally the Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology and the Department of Environmental Quality. Fifty commodity groups were reported between the 596 exploration projects identified in this study. Precious metals (gold, silver, or platinum group elements) were the primary targets for about 67 percent of the exploration projects. Information on 17 of the projects did not include commodities. No location could be determined for 51 projects, all in Idaho. During the time period evaluated, some mineral properties were developed into large mining operations (for example Beal Mountain Mine, Stillwater Mine, Troy Mine, Montana Tunnels Mine) and six properties were reclaimed. Environmental Impact Statements were done on four properties. Some operating mines either closed or went through one or more shutdowns and re-openings. Other properties, where significant resources were delineated by recent exploration during this time frame, await the outcome of important factors for development such as defining additional reserves, higher metal prices, and the permitting process. Many of these

  4. Science for informed decision: A 3D unified conceptual model of the Milk River Transboundary Aquifer (Alberta-Montana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, A.; Pétré, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Milk River transboundary aquifer straddles southern Alberta (Canada) and northern Montana (United States), in a semi-arid region considered water short. This confined sandstone aquifer is a source for municipal supply and agricultural uses on the Canadian side, as well as for secondary oil recovery on the US-side of the border. The extensive use of this resource since the mid 1950's has led to a dramatic drop in the water level in some places and concerns about the durability of the resource have risen. The Milk River aquifer has been the object of many studies during the 20th century; however most of them were limited by the USCanada border, preventing a sound understanding of the global dynamics of the aquifer. The objectives of this transboundary study are to better understand the dynamics of the Milk River aquifer, following its natural limits, in order to make recommendations for a sustainable management and its good governance by the two international jurisdictions, as recommended in the UNGA resolution 63/124 on the Law of Transboundary Aquifers. Since 2009, the Milk River transboundary aquifer is part of the inventory of UNESCO ISARM-Americas initiative, which encourages riparian states to work cooperatively toward mutually beneficial and sustainable aquifer development However, the use of this shared resource is not ruled by any international agreement or convention between the USA and the Canada. Stakeholders from the two countries have been involved, at various levels of jurisdictions (municipal, provincial, state, federal) to establish a strong cooperation. In these contexts, models can constitute useful tools for informed decisions. In the case of the Milk River aquifer, models could support scientists and managers from both countries in avoiding potential tensions linked to the water shortage context in this region. Models can determine the conditions of overexploitation and provide an assessment of a sustainable yield. A unified conceptual model

  5. Eesti piloodid õpivad USA-s Black Hawkiga lendama

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Eesti õhujõudude helikopteripiloodid Rene Kallis ja Martin Noorsalu jäävad pärast väljaõpet kolmeks aastaks USA-sse teenima Marylandi üksuse juurde ning käivad selle aja jooksul ka missioonil Afganistanis

  6. Assessment of coal geology, resources, and reserves in the Montana Powder River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haacke, Jon E.; Scott, David C.; Osmonson, Lee M.; Luppens, James A.; Pierce, Paul E.; Gunderson, Jay A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize geology, coal resources, and coal reserves in the Montana Powder River Basin assessment area in southeastern Montana. This report represents the fourth assessment area within the Powder River Basin to be evaluated in the continuing U.S. Geological Survey regional coal assessment program. There are four active coal mines in the Montana Powder River Basin assessment area: the Spring Creek and Decker Mines, both near Decker; the Rosebud Mine, near Colstrip; and the Absaloka Mine, west of Colstrip. During 2011, coal production from these four mines totaled approximately 36 million short tons. A fifth mine, the Big Sky, had significant production from 1969-2003; however, it is no longer in production and has since been reclaimed. Total coal production from all five mines in the Montana Powder River Basin assessment area from 1968 to 2011 was approximately 1.4 billion short tons. The Rosebud/Knobloch coal bed near Colstrip and the Anderson, Dietz 2, and Dietz 3 coal beds near Decker contain the largest deposits of surface minable, low-sulfur, subbituminous coal currently being mined in the assessment area. A total of 26 coal beds were identified during this assessment, 18 of which were modeled and evaluated to determine in-place coal resources. The total original coal resource in the Montana Powder River Basin assessment area for the 18 coal beds assessed was calculated to be 215 billion short tons. Available coal resources, which are part of the original coal resource remaining after subtracting restrictions and areas of burned coal, are about 162 billion short tons. Restrictions included railroads, Federal interstate highways, urban areas, alluvial valley floors, state parks, national forests, and mined-out areas. It was determined that 10 of the 18 coal beds had sufficient areal extent and thickness to be evaluated for recoverable surface resources ([Roland (Baker), Smith, Anderson, Dietz 2, Dietz 3, Canyon, Werner

  7. Landscape conditions predisposing grizzly bears to conflicts on private agricultural lands in the western USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S.M.; Madel, M.J.; Mattson, D.J.; Graham, J.M.; Merrill, T.

    2006-01-01

    We used multiple logistic regression to model how different landscape conditions contributed to the probability of human-grizzly bear conflicts on private agricultural ranch lands. We used locations of livestock pastures, traditional livestock carcass disposal areas (boneyards), beehives, and wetland-riparian associated vegetation to model the locations of 178 reported human-grizzly bear conflicts along the Rocky Mountain East Front, Montana, USA during 1986-2001. We surveyed 61 livestock producers in the upper Teton watershed of north-central Montana, to collect spatial and temporal data on livestock pastures, boneyards, and beehives for the same period, accounting for changes in livestock and boneyard management and beehive location and protection, for each season. We used 2032 random points to represent the null hypothesis of random location relative to potential explanatory landscape features, and used Akaike's Information Criteria (AIC/AICC) and Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit statistics for model selection. We used a resulting "best" model to map contours of predicted probabilities of conflict, and used this map for verification with an independent dataset of conflicts to provide additional insights regarding the nature of conflicts. The presence of riparian vegetation and distances to spring, summer, and fall sheep or cattle pastures, calving and sheep lambing areas, unmanaged boneyards, and fenced and unfenced beehives were all associated with the likelihood of human-grizzly bear conflicts. Our model suggests that collections of attractants concentrated in high quality bear habitat largely explain broad patterns of human-grizzly bear conflicts on private agricultural land in our study area. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Final Independent External Peer Review Report for the Intake Diversion Dam Modification Lower Yellowstone Project, Montana Draft Supplement to the 26 April 2010 Environmental Assessment and Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    February 8, 2013 Final Independent External Peer Review Report for the Intake Diversion Dam Modification Lower Yellowstone Project, Montana...Final Independent External Peer Review Report for the Intake Diversion Dam Modification Lower Yellowstone Project, Montana Draft Supplement to the...Intake Project IEPR Final IEPR Report Intake Project IEPR Final IEPR Report Final Independent External Peer Review Report for the

  9. USA presidendivalimistel eristus kolm kandidaati / Aadu Hiietamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hiietamm, Aadu, 1954-

    2008-01-01

    USA presidendivalimiste eelvalimistel jätkavad tihedat rebimist demokraatidest senaatorid Hillary Clinton ja Barack Obama, vabariiklastest tõusis esile senaator John McCain. Vt. samas: USA eelvalimiste kalender

  10. Eesti ja USA sõlmisid kokkuleppe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2017-01-01

    Kaitseminister Margus Tsahkna ja Ameerika Ühendriikide suursaadik Eestis James Melville allkirjastasid Eesti ja USA kaitsekoostöö kokkuleppe, mis hakkab reguleerima Eestis viibivate USA relvajõudude liikmete, nende pereliikmete ja lepinglaste õiguslikku staatust

  11. Eesti ja USA sõlmisid kokkuleppe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2017-01-01

    Kaitseminister Margus Tsahkna ja Ameerika Ühendriikide suursaadik Eestis James Melville allkirjastasid Eesti ja USA kaitsekoostöö kokkuleppe, mis hakkab reguleerima Eestis viibivate USA relvajõudude liikmete, nende pereliikmete ja lepinglaste õiguslikku staatust

  12. Temporal trends and stationarity in annual peak flow and peak-flow timing for selected long-term streamflow-gaging stations in or near Montana through water year 2011: Chapter B in Montana StreamStats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sando, Steven K.; McCarthy, Peter M.; Sando, Roy; Dutton, DeAnn M.

    2016-04-05

    A large-scale study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Montana Department of Transportation and the Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation, was done to investigate general patterns in peak-flow temporal trends and stationarity through water year 2011 for 24 long-term streamflow-gaging stations (hereinafter referred to as gaging stations) in Montana. Hereinafter, all years refer to water years; a water year is the 12-month period from October 1 through September 30 and is designated by the year in which it ends. The primary focus of the study was to identify general patterns in peak-flow temporal trends and stationarity that are relevant to application of peak-flow frequency analyses within a statewide gaging-station network.

  13. Megainvesteering USA terasekompaniilt / Andres Reimer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reimer, Andres

    2000-01-01

    USA kompanii RUMA toob tänavu Muuga sadamasse ülisuure, ligi 2,2 miljardi kroonise välisinvesteeringu teraseterminali näol. Tabel: Välisinvesteeringute TOP 10. Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 29. märts lk. 4

  14. USA panustab keskkonda / Jeffrey Goldstein

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Goldstein, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    USA uus energiapoliitika kava näeb ette bensiini tarbimise vähendamist järgneva 10 aasta jooksul 20%, mis omakorda vähendab ameeriklaste autodest eralduva süsihappegaasi heitmete kasvu ning vähendab sõltuvust naftast

  15. VASCULAR PLANT SPECIES RELATIONSHIP AND GRASSLAND PRODUCTIVITY IN ARNICA MONTANA HABITATS IN THE LIMESTONE AREA OF GÂRDA DE SUS VILLAGE (APUSENI MOUNTAINS – ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Stoie

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Apuseni Mountains region (Romania holds one of the most important romanian grassland areas with the medicinal species protected over Europe – Arnica montana. Following several studies on vegetation growing in the limestone region of Gârda de Sus village, one can conclude that there are some correlations between the species present in the Arnica montana habitats and also between those and the grasslands productivity. The coverage degree of every species was quantified by metric frame method. Arnica montana shows a weak positive correlation with the strong oligotrophic species within the studied grasslands. The habitats productivity show variable correlations with the vascular plants within the Arnica montana habitats. The Arnica montana presents no preferences for the productivity level of the grasslands where it grows, but only within a very restricted range of low productivity that characterize this grasslands.

  16. Sõda, mille USA on juba kaotanud / Mart Helme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Helme, Mart, 1949-

    2003-01-01

    USA pole suutnud Iraagi-vastase sõja vajalikkust põhjendada, arvavad paljud USA poliitikavaatlejad. Rängaks diplomaatiliseks eksimuseks peetakse USA kaitseministri Donald Rumsfeldi avaldust, et USA ei vaja kellegi abi sõjas

  17. Sõda, mille USA on juba kaotanud / Mart Helme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Helme, Mart, 1949-

    2003-01-01

    USA pole suutnud Iraagi-vastase sõja vajalikkust põhjendada, arvavad paljud USA poliitikavaatlejad. Rängaks diplomaatiliseks eksimuseks peetakse USA kaitseministri Donald Rumsfeldi avaldust, et USA ei vaja kellegi abi sõjas

  18. 77 FR 6587 - Startek USA, Inc. Alexandria, LA; Startek USA, Inc., Collinsville, VA; Amended Certification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... Employment and Training Administration Startek USA, Inc. Alexandria, LA; Startek USA, Inc., Collinsville, VA..., applicable to workers of StarTek USA, Inc., Alexandria, Louisiana. The workers are engaged in the supply of..., Virginia location of StarTek USA, Inc. supplied call center services such as sales and technical...

  19. USA andis Gruusiale vastakaid signaale / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2008-01-01

    USA välisministri Condoleezza Riceþi saabumisest Thbilisisse, et avaldada Gruusiale toetust. USA poolt antud soovitustest Gruusia president Mihhail Saakashvilile mitte jõudu kasutada ega alluda Venemaa provokatsioonidele ning hoiatustest sõjalise konflikti tagajärgede eest. USA analüütikute arvamusi

  20. USA andis Gruusiale vastakaid signaale / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2008-01-01

    USA välisministri Condoleezza Riceþi saabumisest Thbilisisse, et avaldada Gruusiale toetust. USA poolt antud soovitustest Gruusia president Mihhail Saakashvilile mitte jõudu kasutada ega alluda Venemaa provokatsioonidele ning hoiatustest sõjalise konflikti tagajärgede eest. USA analüütikute arvamusi

  1. Tartu tudengist USA suurpanga asepresidendiks / Askur Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Askur, 1973-

    2007-01-01

    Killu Tõugu Sanborn on Tartu ülikooli bioloogiateaduskonnast USA maineka ülikooli doktoriks ja sealt 58 miljardi dollari suuruse kapitaliga Comerica panga tippjuhiks jõudnuna eestlase läbilöögi musternäide. Haridustee USA-s ja elukutse valikud, müügiesindajast riskikapitalistiks

  2. USA tippametnik ootab puutumatuselepet / Liis Jemmer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jemmer, Liis

    2003-01-01

    Videopressikonverentsil USA Tallinna saatkonnas ütles USA välisministri abi Lincoln P. Bloomfield, et tal on kahju, et EL avaldas Kesk- ja Ida-Euroopa riikidele survet mitte sõlmida USA kodanikele Rahvusvahelise Kriminaalkohtu suhtes puutumatust andvaid lepinguid

  3. USA kaitsetollide vastu / Joseph E. Stiglitz

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stiglitz, Joseph E.

    2002-01-01

    USA poolt tollide kehtestamine imporditavale terasele on põhjustanud protesti. Riigid, eriti Euroopas, mis on võimelised USA-le vastu hakkama, peavad seda tegema nüüd. Karmide abinõude tarvitusele võtmine on nii nende kui ka USA huvides

  4. USA suursaadikuga Tallinna lahel / Katrin Kruss

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kruss, Katrin

    2007-01-01

    USA suursaadik Stanley Davis Phillips oma haridusteest, perekonnast, armastusest mere vastu, panusest isa Earl Phillipsi mööbliäri laiendamisse, golfiharrastusest, suursaadikute ettevalmistusest USA-s, suursaadiku residentsist Pirital ning uue saatkonnahoone otsingutest Tallinnas. Lisa: Stanley Davis Phillips

  5. USA suursaadikuga Tallinna lahel / Katrin Kruss

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kruss, Katrin

    2007-01-01

    USA suursaadik Stanley Davis Phillips oma haridusteest, perekonnast, armastusest mere vastu, panusest isa Earl Phillipsi mööbliäri laiendamisse, golfiharrastusest, suursaadikute ettevalmistusest USA-s, suursaadiku residentsist Pirital ning uue saatkonnahoone otsingutest Tallinnas. Lisa: Stanley Davis Phillips

  6. USA kaitsetollide vastu / Joseph E. Stiglitz

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stiglitz, Joseph E.

    2002-01-01

    USA poolt tollide kehtestamine imporditavale terasele on põhjustanud protesti. Riigid, eriti Euroopas, mis on võimelised USA-le vastu hakkama, peavad seda tegema nüüd. Karmide abinõude tarvitusele võtmine on nii nende kui ka USA huvides

  7. Water-resources activities of the U.S. Geological Survey in Montana, October 1987 through September 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamke, J. N.

    1989-01-01

    Water resources programs and activities of the U.S. Geological Survey in Montana consist principally of hydrological data collection and local, areal, or statewide hydrologic investigations. The work is supported by direct Federal funding, by transfer of funds from other Federal agencies, and by joint funding agreements with State or local agencies. The Montana District of the Geological Survey 's Water Resources Division conducts its hydrologic work through a headquarters office in Helena, and field offices in Helena, Billings, Fort Peck and Kalispell. This report describes the eighteen projects funded for fiscal years 1988 and 1989. In addition, it describes the operations of the Montana District, water conditions during water year 1988, activities in addition to regular programs, sources of publications and information, and lists reports published or released during the preceding 5 years. (USGS)

  8. Importance of titanohematite in detrital remanent magnetizations of strata spanning the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary, Hell Creek region, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprain, Courtney J.; Feinberg, Joshua M.; Renne, Paul R.; Jackson, Mike

    2016-03-01

    Intermediate composition titanohematite, Fe2-yTiyO3 with 0.5 ≤ y ≤ 0.7, is seldom the focus of paleomagnetic study and is commonly believed to be rare in nature. While largely overlooked in magnetostratigraphic studies, intermediate titanohematite has been identified as the dominant ferrimagnetic mineral in an array of Late Mesozoic and early Cenozoic Laramide clastic deposits throughout the central United States. Intermediate titanohematite is ferrimagnetic and has similar magnetic properties to titanomagnetite, except its unique self-reversing property. Due to these similarities, and with detrital remanent magnetizations masking its self-reversing nature, intermediate titanohematite is often misidentified in sedimentary deposits. Past studies relied upon nonmagnetic techniques including X-ray diffraction and electron microprobe analysis. While these techniques can identify the presence of intermediate titanohematite, they fail to test whether the mineral is the primary recorder. To facilitate the identification of intermediate titanohematite in sedimentary deposits, we characterize this mineral using low-temperature magnetometry and high-temperature susceptibility experiments, and present a new identification technique based on titanohematite's self-reversing property, for sediments that span the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary (Hell Creek region, Montana). Results from the self-reversal test indicate that the majority of remanence is held by minerals that become magnetized parallel to an applied field, but that intermediate, self-reversing titanohematite (y = 0.53-0.63) is an important ancillary carrier of remanence. While earlier literature suggests that intermediate titanohematite is rare in nature, reanalysis using specialized rock magnetic techniques may reveal that it is more abundant in the rock record, particularly within depositional basins adjacent to calc-alkaline volcanics, than previously thought.

  9. Cuticular hydrocarbons of Drosophila montana: geographic variation, sexual dimorphism and potential roles as pheromones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Jackson H; Etges, William J; Schmitt, Thomas; Hoikkala, Anneli

    2014-02-01

    Sexual selection within populations can play an important role in speciation when divergence in mating signals and their corresponding preferences occur along different coevolutionary trajectories in different populations. In insects, one potential target of sexual selection is the blend of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs), which often show intra- and interspecific variation, sexual dimorphism and may act as pheromones. In Drosophila montana, a cold-adapted, circumboreal member of the Drosophila virilis species group, flies from different populations have been found to show significant premating isolation as well as variation in male mating signal (song) and female preference. While the role of male courtship song in mate choice has been studied extensively, CHCs in this species have received little attention. In this study, we identified most of the CHCs found on the cuticle of D. montana and characterized population divergence and sexual dimorphism of CHC profiles among flies established from three natural populations - one European and two North American. We also studied their potential role as pheromones by analyzing CHCs of flies used in female-choice mating experiments. We report significant population×sex effects on CHC profiles, as well as significant relationships between some CHC principal components and particular mating behaviours, such as female attractiveness and male mating success, providing evidence that CHCs may play a role in mate choice in this species. The study also provides evidence for variation in the degree to which CHCs play a role in chemical communication among these populations, which may have an influence on the speciation process itself, and could be due to variation in interactions with other closely-related species that occur sympatrically with D. montana in some, but not other, parts of its distribution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Peerless structure, Daniels County, northeastern Montana: A probable late Ordovician impact structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comstock, J. M.; Dietz, R. D.; Morrow, J. R.

    2004-05-01

    The Peerless structure is an ~6 km-diameter sub-surface anomaly located in Daniels County, northeastern Montana. The disruption of sedimentary rock in the structure lies between 2624 to 2818 m below the topographic surface. Seismic mapping shows a typical complex crater composed of a central uplift ~2 km across, which shows structural uplift of up to 90 m, an annular ring ~4 km across, and an outer rim ~6 km in diameter. The youngest disrupted rock unit is the upper Ordovician Red River formation, which indicates that the structure was formed about 430-450 Ma ago.

  11. The Montana Rivers Information System: Edit/entry program user`s manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    The Montana Rivers Information System (MRIS) was initiated to assess the state`s fish, wildlife, and recreation value; and natural cultural and geologic features. The MRIS is now a set of data bases containing part of the information in the Natural Heritage Program natural features and threatened and endangered species data bases. The purpose of this User`s Manual is to: (1) describe to the user how to maintain the MRIS database of their choice by updating, changing, deleting, and adding records using the edit/entry programs; and (2) provide to the user all information and instructions necessary to complete data entry into the MRIS databases.

  12. Arbuscular mycorrhiza of Arnica montana under field conditions--conventional and molecular studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryszka, Przemysław; Błaszkowski, Janusz; Jurkiewicz, Anna; Turnau, Katarzyna

    2010-11-01

    Two distinct populations of Arnica montana, an endangered medicinal plant, were studied under field conditions. The material was investigated using microscopic and molecular methods. The analyzed plants were always found to be mycorrhizal. Nineteen arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal DNA sequences were obtained from the roots. They were related to Glomus Group A, but most did not match any known species. Some showed a degree of similarity to fungi colonizing liverworts. Conventional analysis of spores isolated from soil samples allowed to identify different fungal taxa: Glomus macrocarpum, Glomus mosseae, Acaulospora lacunosa, and Scutellospora dipurpurescens. Their spores were also isolated from trap cultures.

  13. Electricity Generation from Geothermal Resources on the Fort Peck Reservation in Northeast Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Garry J. [Gradient Geophysics Inc., Missoula, MT (United States); Birkby, Jeff [Birkby Consulting LLC, Missoula, MT (United States)

    2015-05-12

    Tribal lands owned by Assiniboine and Sioux Tribes on the Fort Peck Indian Reservation, located in Northeastern Montana, overlie large volumes of deep, hot, saline water. Our study area included all the Fort Peck Reservation occupying roughly 1,456 sq miles. The geothermal water present in the Fort Peck Reservation is located in the western part of the Williston Basin in the Madison Group complex ranging in depths of 5500 to 7500 feet. Although no surface hot springs exist on the Reservation, water temperatures within oil wells that intercept these geothermal resources in the Madison Formation range from 150 to 278 degrees F.

  14. 2006–2015 mega-drought in the western USA and its monitoring from space data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Kogan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available During 2014 and early 2015, scientific and online publications strongly focused on the multi-year drought over the western USA, showing its dramatic consequences for the US economy, environment and society. Considering such an extraordinary drought, many questions related to its beginning, duration, dynamics, intensity, genesis, extent and frequency became unanswered and even became controversial. How different is this current event from the extraordinary US drought of the 1930s and other intensive droughts? Can this drought be classified as a mega-drought? This paper attempts to answer most of these questions, by applying National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA global operational satellite system estimating vegetation health. It has been shown that the latest western US drought began in 2006 and has continued for nine full years. Since vegetation stress still continues in the first few months of 2015 (when this paper is written coming into the 10th year, this drought was classified as a “mega-drought”. In 2006, when the drought began, vegetation was stressed in over 61% of the western USA. During 2012 and 2013 (time of the drought's intensification, this area increased to 71% and 67%, respectively. All 17 states of the western two-thirds of the USA were affected by this drought, especially South Dakota, Nebraska, Oklahoma, Texas, Montana and Wyoming with up to 100% of the area affected by severe vegetation stress during 2012–2014. Compared to other catastrophic droughts of the past 100 years, the current drought during the worst year (2012, affected 71.3% of the western USA. This is comparable to the area affected by a catastrophic drought in 1934 (71.6% and much higher than the droughts in 1956 (49% and 1988 (31%. In terms of number of drought years, the other droughts in the western USA (1985–1986, 1988–1992, 1995–1996, and 2001–2003 were shorter and less intensive. Among western states, California was the most

  15. Measured and Estimated Sodium-Adsorption Ratios for Tongue River and its Tributaries, Montana and Wyoming, 2004-06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, M.R.; Nimick, David A.; Cleasby, Thomas E.; Kinsey, Stacy M.; Lambing, John H.

    2007-01-01

    The Tongue River drains an area of about 5,400 square miles and flows northward from its headwaters in the Bighorn National Forest of northeastern Wyoming to join the Yellowstone River at Miles City, Montana. Water from the Tongue River and its tributaries is extensively used for irrigation in both Wyoming and Montana. The Tongue River watershed contains vast coal deposits that are extracted at several surface mines. In some areas of the watershed, the coal beds also contain methane gas (coal-bed methane or natural gas), which has become the focus of intense exploration and development. Production of coal-bed methane requires the pumping of large volumes of ground water from the coal beds to reduce water pressure within the formation and release the stored gas. Water from the coal beds typically is high in sodium and low in calcium and magnesium, resulting in a high sodium-adsorption ratio (SAR). Disposal of ground water with high sodium concentrations into the Tongue River has the potential to increase salinity and SAR of water in the river, and potentially reduce the quality of water for irrigation purposes. This report documents SAR values measured in water samples collected at 12 monitoring sites in the Tongue River watershed and presents regression relations between specific conductance (SC) and SAR at each site for the years 2004-06. SAR in water samples was determined from laboratory-measured concentrations of sodium, calcium, and magnesium. The results of regression analysis indicated that SC and SAR were significantly related (p-values developed for most monitoring sites in the Tongue River watershed were used with continuous SC data to estimate daily SAR during the 2004 and 2005 irrigation seasons and to estimate 2006 provisional SAR values, which were displayed on the Web in real-time. Water samples were collected and analyzed from seven sites on the main stem of the Tongue River located at: (1) Monarch, Wyoming, station 06299980, (2) State line near

  16. Investigation of Geomorphic and Seismic Effects on the 1959 Madison Canyon, Montana, Landslide Using an Integrated Field, Engineering Geomorphology Mapping, and Numerical Modelling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolter, A.; Gischig, V.; Stead, D.; Clague, J. J.

    2016-06-01

    We present an integrated approach to investigate the seismically triggered Madison Canyon landslide (volume = 20 Mm3), which killed 26 people in Montana, USA, in 1959. We created engineering geomorphological maps and conducted field surveys, long-range terrestrial digital photogrammetry, and preliminary 2D numerical modelling with the objective of determining the conditioning factors, mechanisms, movement behaviour, and evolution of the failure. We emphasise the importance of both endogenic (i.e. seismic) and exogenic (i.e. geomorphic) processes in conditioning the slope for failure and hypothesise a sequence of events based on the morphology of the deposit and seismic modelling. A section of the slope was slowly deforming before a magnitude-7.5 earthquake with an epicentre 30 km away triggered the catastrophic failure in August 1959. The failed rock mass rapidly fragmented as it descended the slope towards Madison River. Part of the mass remained relatively intact as it moved on a layer of pulverised debris. The main slide was followed by several debris slides, slumps, and rockfalls. The slide debris was extensively modified soon after the disaster by the US Army Corps of Engineers to provide a stable outflow channel from newly formed Earthquake Lake. Our modelling and observations show that the landslide occurred as a result of long-term damage of the slope induced by fluvial undercutting, erosion, weathering, and past seismicity, and due to the short-term triggering effect of the 1959 earthquake. Static models suggest the slope was stable prior to the 1959 earthquake; failure would have required a significant reduction in material strength. Preliminary dynamic models indicate that repeated seismic loading was a critical process for catastrophic failure. Although the ridge geometry and existing tension cracks in the initiation zone amplified ground motions, the most important factors in initiating failure were pre-existing discontinuities and seismically induced

  17. Efeito de dinamizações de Arnica montana L. no metabolismo de chambá (Justicia pectoralis Jacq. Effect of dynamizations of Arnica montana in metabolism of chambá (Justicia pectoralis Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.M.C. Andrade

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou avaliar a resposta do crescimento e do metabolismo secundário de Justicia pectoralis, expresso em produção de cumarina, a crescentes dinamizações de A. montana. O experimento foi conduzido na Universidade Federal de Viçosa. O delineamento estatístico foi inteiramente casualizado, com seis repetições e cinco tratamentos, totalizando 30 parcelas experimentais, sendo cada parcela constituída de uma planta por vaso. Os tratamentos foram as dinamizações 3CH, 30CH, 60CH, 100CH e 200CH do preparado homeopático A. montana. Os tratamentos foram aplicados às plantas via pulverização, em intervalos semanais, iniciando logo após o plantio. Após quatro meses do plantio as plantas foram colhidas. As características de crescimento avaliadas foram matérias fresca e seca de folhas e caules, matérias fresca e seca de inflorescências e matérias fresca e seca total. No estudo fitoquímico foi avaliada a produção da cumarina (1-2 benzopirona. Não houve resposta nas variáveis de crescimento aos tratamentos. As dinamizações de A. montana causaram alterações no metabolismo secundário das plantas. Os conteúdos de cumarina das plantas com A. montana 3CH e 30CH foram próximos e mais baixos, aumentando progressivamente a partir de 60CH, chegando ao máximo em 100CH, seguido de redução em 200CH. A preparação homeopática A. montana causa alterações no metabolismo secundário de chambá, sendo as repostas dependentes da dinamização.Were evaluated the responses to dynamizations of Arnica montana in the growth and in the secondary metabolism of Justicia pectoralis expressed as coumarin production. The studies were carried out at the Universidade Federal de Viçosa. The statistical design was completely randomized, with six replicates and five treatments, 30 experimental plots, one plant per pot. The treatments were dynamizations 3CH, 30CH, 60CH, 100CH and 200CH homeopathic preparation of A. montana. The

  18. Extraction and identification of three major aldose reductase inhibitors from Artemisia montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyun Ah; Islam, M D Nurul; Kwon, Yong Soo; Jin, Seong Eun; Son, You Kyung; Park, Jin Ju; Sohn, Hee Sook; Choi, Jae Sue

    2011-02-01

    Aldose reductase inhibitors (ARIs) provide an important therapeutic and preventive opportunity against hyperglycemia associated diabetic complications. The methanolic extracts of 12 species from the genus Artemisia exhibited significant in vitro rat lens AR (RLAR) inhibitory activities with IC(50) values ranging from 0.51 to 13.45 μg/mL (quercetin, 0.64 μg/mL). Since the whole plant of Artemisia montana showed the highest RLAR inhibitory activity, bioassay-guided fractionation was performed to obtain ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions. Repeated column chromatography of two active fractions, yielded fifteen compounds, including four chlorogenic acids (3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, chlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid), six flavonoids (apigenin, luteolin, quercetin, isoquercitrin, hyperoside, luteolin 7-rutinoside), and five coumarins (umbelliferone, scoparone, scopoletin, esculetin, and scopolin); their structures were confirmed by spectroscopic methods. 3,5-Di-O-caffeoylquinic acid and chlorogenic acid, as well as test flavonoids, displayed the most potent RLAR inhibitory activities with IC(50) values ranging from 0.19 to 5.37 μM. Furthermore, the HPLC profiles of the ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions indicated that 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, chlorogenic acid, and hyperoside, as major compounds, might play crucial roles in RLAR inhibition. The results suggest that A. montana and three key AR inhibitors therein would clearly be potential candidates as therapeutic or preventive agents for diabetic complications. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. MEDIATION - THE ONLY VIABLE SOLUTION TO RESOLVE THE CONFLICT IN ROSIA MONTANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRAGOS MARIAN RADULESCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In modern society, located in a continually growing population, one of the main problems is related to the exploitation of natural resources, a source of richness limited and usually non-renewable. That is the exploitation of Rosia Montana, where an old gold mine continues to produce interest for what might be called "gold fever" in Romania. But, unlike the ancient and medieval times, where such operations were encouraged as a development factor, today environmental protection and sustainable development theory says that such mining destroys the nature and the community are serious demage, even if part of the local community wants to work, further mining, considering it a way of life and a reliable source of income. Thus we have two opposing positions camps: those who want to protect nature and those who want to exploit it, and in such a dilemma can not get out only with mediation Mediation is the only one who can bring the same opponents at the negotiation table, in the presence of specialized environments, and fully impartial stranger to conflict, to find a common solution to resolve the conflict, thus brains "peace" sustainable, that can be subsequently implemented. This study aims to review the advantages and the role that mediation can bring it into such a sensitive issue, as the Rosia Montana

  20. A Demonstration System for Capturing Geothermal Energy from Mine Waters beneath Butte, Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackketter, Donald [Montana Tech of the Univ. of Montana, Butte, MT (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Executive Summary An innovative 50-ton ground-source heat pump (GSHP) system was installed to provide space heating and cooling for a 56,000 square foot (5,200 square meter) building in Butte Montana, in conjunction with its heating and chiller systems. Butte is a location with winter conditions much colder than the national average. The GSHP uses flooded mine waters at 78F (25C) as the heat source and heat sink. The heat transfer performance and efficiency of the system were analyzed using data from January through July 2014. This analysis indicated that for typical winter conditions in Butte, Montana, the GSHP could deliver about 88% of the building’s annual heating needs. Compared with a baseline natural-gas/electric system, the system demonstrated at least 69% site energy savings, 38% source energy savings, 39% carbon dioxide emissions reduction, and a savings of $17,000 per year (40%) in utility costs. Assuming a $10,000 per ton cost for installing a production system, the payback period at natural gas costs of $9.63/MMBtu and electricity costs of $0.08/kWh would be in the range of 40 to 50 years. At higher utility prices, or lower installation costs, the payback period would obviously be reduced.

  1. Investigation of ambient seismic noise using seismic interferometry in western Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzywosz, Natalia

    Passive seismic interferometry is a process by which ambient noise data recorded at different seismic stations can be cross-correlated to estimate Green's functions. In the past, both surface waves and body waves have successfully been extracted by cross-correlation of ambient noise data on both regional and global scales. In this study, I have generated Matlab code to simulate an application of seismic interferometry on a synthetic model with pre-defined layers and p-wave velocities. For areas with known velocity models, the Matlab code produced in this study can be used to generate synthetic seismograms, and model the effects of cross-correlation on receiver responses. In order to develop a general understanding of the ambient noise wavefield in western Montana, a spectral analysis program was developed in Matlab. This program is used to process ambient noise data from the Transportable Array (TA) Seismographic Network, and to generate its power spectral density plots and probability density functions. The detailed spectral analysis provides some insight to the ambient noise sources, and their energy distribution throughout western Montana. In addition, an attempt was made to preprocess ambient noise data from the TA array in Matlab for later use. Although preprocessing of the data was successful, limitations in computing power and time, allowed for temporal stacking of only one month of data. The one month period was not long enough to produce Green's functions which contain coherent body waves.

  2. The Aesthetic Post-Communist Subject and the Differend of Rosia Montana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Velicu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available By challenging the state and corporate prerogatives to distinguish between “good” and “bad” development, social movements by and in support of inhabitants of Rosia Montana (Transylvania are subverting prevailing perceptions about Central and Eastern Europe (CEE’s liberal path of development illustrating its injustice in several ways that will be detailed in this article under the heading “inhibitions of political economy” or Balkanism. The significance of the “Save Rosia Montana” movement for post-communism is that it invites post-communist subjects to reflect and revise their perception about issues such as communism, capitalism and development and to raise questions of global significance about the fragile edifice of justice within the neo-liberal capitalist economy. However, resistance to injustice (and implicitly affirmations of other senses of justice is an ambiguous discursive practice through which Rosieni make sense as well as partake their sense of Rosia Montana. The movement brings about a public dispute which may be compared with a differend: (in Lyotard’s words, a conflict that cannot be confined to the rules of “cognitive phrases,” of truth and falsehood. This article argues that while post-communist events of “subjectification” are unstable and thus, are to be viewed aesthetically, this same ambiguous multiplication of political subjectivity may facilitate the creation of social spaces for imagining alternative possibilities of development.

  3. Effect of vegetation cycle on chemical content and antibacterial activity of Satureja montana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damjanović-Vratnica Biljana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of vegetation cycle on phytochemical composition of the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of wild-growing winter savory (Satureja montana L. from Montenegro was analysed by GC-MS and its antibacterial activity tested at different oil concentrations. A total of 36 and 34 constituents were identified in the hydrodistilled oil obtained from herb before flowering and during flowering stage, with major components: thymol (37,36% and 27,68%, carvacrol (15,47% and 4,40%, γ-terpinene (11,75% and 8.66% and p-cymene (7,86% and 31, 37%, respectively. The gained results revealed that essential oil of S. montana has rather significant antibacterial activity against chosen bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. Also, it was found that vegetation cycle affects the chemical composition and antibacterial activity of savory essential oil. Essential oil gained prior to herb flowering period showed stronger antibacterial activity in comparison with the oil gained during herb flowering.

  4. Temperature is the key to altitudinal variation of phenolics in Arnica montana L. cv. ARBO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Andreas; Sareedenchai, Vipaporn; Heller, Werner; Seidlitz, Harald K; Zidorn, Christian

    2009-05-01

    Plants in alpine habitats are exposed to many environmental stresses, in particular temperature and radiation extremes. Recent field experiments on Arnica montana L. cv. ARBO indicated pronounced altitudinal variation in plant phenolics. Ortho-diphenolics increased with altitude compared to other phenolic compounds, resulting in an increase in antioxidative capacity of the tissues involved. Factors causing these variations were investigated by climate chamber (CC) experiments focusing on temperature and ultraviolet (UV)-B radiation. Plants of A. montana L. cv. ARBO were grown in CCs under realistic climatic and radiation regimes. Key factors temperature and UV-B radiation were altered between different groups of plants. Subsequently, flowering heads were analyzed by HPLC for their contents of flavonoids and caffeic acid derivatives. Surprisingly, increased UV-B radiation did not trigger any change in phenolic metabolites in Arnica. In contrast, a pronounced increase in the ratio of B-ring ortho-diphenolic (quercetin) compared to B-ring monophenolic (kaempferol) flavonols resulted from a decrease in temperature by 5 degrees C in the applied climate regime. In conclusion, enhanced UV-B radiation is probably not the key factor triggering shifts in the phenolic composition in Arnica grown at higher altitudes but rather temperature, which decreases with altitude.

  5. Altitudinal variation of secondary metabolite profiles in flowering heads of Arnica montana cv. ARBO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitaler, Renate; Schlorhaufer, P Daniel; Ellmerer, Ernst P; Merfort, Irmgard; Bortenschlager, Sigmar; Stuppner, Hermann; Zidorn, Christian

    2006-02-01

    The altitudinal variation on the contents of secondary metabolites in flowering heads of Arnica montana was assessed. Plants of A. montana cultivar ARBO were grown in nine experimental plots at altitudes between 590 and 2230m at Mount Patscherkofel near Innsbruck/Austria. The total contents of sesquiterpene lactones and flavonoids were not positively correlated with the altitude of the growing site. However, the proportion of flavonoids with vicinal free hydroxy groups in ring B to flavonoids lacking this feature significantly increased with elevation. Additionally, the level of caffeic acid derivatives also positively correlated with the altitude of the growing site. In particular amounts of 1-methoxyoxaloyl-3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid significantly increased in higher sites and samples from the summit region contained 85% more of this compound than samples from valley sites. These results are discussed with regards to chemosystematic studies comparing samples collected in different altitudes as well as in the light of a UV-B protective and radical scavenging function of phenolics and their significance for plant life in environments with elevated UV-B radiation.

  6. Permeation of bioactive constituents from Arnica montana preparations through human skin in-vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekko, I A; Bonner, M C; Bowen, R D; Williams, A C

    2006-09-01

    This study investigated and characterised transdermal permeation of bioactive agents from a topically applied Arnica montana tincture. Permeation experiments conducted over 48 h used polydimethylsiloxane (silastic) and human epidermal membranes mounted in Franz-type diffusion cells with a methanol-water (50:50 v/v) receptor fluid. A commercially available tincture of A. montana L. derived from dried Spanish flower heads was a donor solution. Further donor solutions prepared from this stock tincture concentrated the tincture constituents 1, 2 and 10 fold and its sesquiterpene lactones 10 fold. Permeants were assayed using a high-performance liquid chromatography method. Five components permeated through silastic membranes providing peaks with relative retention factors to an internal standard (santonin) of 0.28, 1.18, 1.45, 1.98 and 2.76, respectively. No permeant was detected within 12 h of applying the Arnica tincture onto human epidermal membranes. However, after 12 h, the first two of these components were detected. These were shown by Zimmermann reagent reaction to be sesquiterpene lactones and liquid chromatography/diode array detection/mass spectrometry indicated that these two permeants were 11,13-dihydrohelenalin (DH) analogues (methacrylate and tiglate esters). The same two components were also detected within 3 h of topical application of the 10-fold concentrated tincture and the concentrated sesquiterpene lactone extract.

  7. Chemical and biological investigations of a toxic plant from Central Africa, Magnistipula butayei subsp. montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karangwa, C; Esters, V; Frédérich, M; Tits, M; Kadima, J N; Damas, J; Noirfalise, A; Angenot, L

    2006-02-20

    Magnistipula butayei subsp. montana (Chrysobalanaceae) is known, in the Great Lakes Region, to possess toxicological properties. In this paper, we investigated the acute toxicity (dose levels 50-1600 mg/kg) of its aqueous extract, administered orally to adult Wistar rats. This study demonstrated that the freeze-dried aqueous extract (5%, w/w) possesses high toxicity. The extract caused hypothermia, neurological disorders, including extensor reflex of maximal convulsive induced-seizures at about 2 h after the administered dose, and death occurred (LD50=370 mg/kg) in a dose dependent manner. Blood parameter evaluation revealed slight variations, but these might not have clinical relevance. Histological examination of internal organs (lungs, liver, heart and kidneys) did not reveal any abnormality in the treated group compared to the control. Therefore, it can be concluded that Magnistipula butayei subsp. montana aqueous extract, given orally, is toxic and that its target is the central nervous system. General phytochemical screening revealed that the plant did not contain significant amounts of products known to be toxic, such as alkaloids or cardioactive glycosides, but only catechic tannins, amino acids, saponins and other aphrogen principles in the three parts of the species (fruit, leave and bark).

  8. Antiproliferative activity of three methoxylated flavonoids isolated from Zeyheria montana Mart. (Bignoniaceae) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seito, Leonardo Noboru; Ruiz, Ana Lucia Tasca Goiz; Vendramini-Costa, Debora; Tinti, Sirlene Valério; de Carvalho, João Ernesto; Bastos, Jairo Kenupp; Di Stasi, Luiz Claudio

    2011-10-01

    The present study isolated three major active flavonoids, two flavones named 4',5,7-trimethoxy-luteolin (1) and 6-hydroxy-5,7-dimethoxyflavone (2) and the flavanone 5-hydroxy-6,7-dimethoxyflavanone (3) from Zeyheria montana dichloromethane leaf extract. Isolation and purification were conducted with the application of column chromatography and structures were assigned by spectral analysis. All compounds were evaluated for cytotoxic activities against human tumor cell lines UACC-62 (melanoma), MCF-7 (breast), NCI-ADR/RES (breast expressing phenotype multiple drug resistance), 786-0 (renal), NCI-H460 (lung, non-small cells), PC-3 (prostate), OVCAR-3 (ovarian), HT-29 (colon) and K562 (leukemia) in vitro. All compounds were active in different degrees on several tumor cell lines and flavanone 3 showed cytotoxicity against almost all cell lines, particularly against human NCI-ADR/RES and K562 cell lines. In conclusion, three antiproliferative compounds were isolated for the first time from Zeyheria montana and its leaves were characterized as an important source of methoxylated flavones and flavanone as potential antitumor compounds. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Antioxidant Potential, Lipid Peroxidation Inhibition and Antimicrobial Activities of Satureja montana L. subsp. kitaibelii Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoljub D. Cvetković

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activity of different Satureja montana L. subsp. kitaibelii extracts was tested by measuring their ability to scavenge reactive hydroxyl radical during the Fenton reaction, using ESR spectroscopy. Also, the influence of these extracts on lipid peroxyl radicals obtained during lipid peroxidation of: (I sunflower oil (37°C, 3h inducedby 4,4'-azobis(4-cyanovaleric acid (ACVA and (II liposomes induced by 2,2'-azobis(2-amidino-propanedihydrochloride (AAPH was studied. n-Butanol extract had the bestantioxidant activity (100% at 0.5 mg/mL in Fenton reaction system; 89.21% at 5 mg/mL in system I; 83.38% at 5 mg/mL in system II. The antioxidant activities of the extracts significantly correlated with total phenolic content. The antimicrobial activity of Satureja montana L. subsp. kitaibelii extracts was investigated. Petroleum ether, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts expressed a wide range of inhibiting activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.

  10. Estimating occupancy and predicting numbers of gray wolf packs in Montana using hunter surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Lindsey N.; Russell, Robin E.; Glenn, Elizabeth M.; Mitchell, Michael S.; Gude, Justin A.; Podruzny, Kevin M.; Sime, Carolyn A.; Laudon, Kent; Ausband, David E.; Nichols, James D.

    2013-01-01

    Reliable knowledge of the status and trend of carnivore populations is critical to their conservation and management. Methods for monitoring carnivores, however, are challenging to conduct across large spatial scales. In the Northern Rocky Mountains, wildlife managers need a time- and cost-efficient method for monitoring gray wolf (Canis lupus) populations. Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks (MFWP) conducts annual telephone surveys of >50,000 deer and elk hunters. We explored how survey data on hunters' sightings of wolves could be used to estimate the occupancy and distribution of wolf packs and predict their abundance in Montana for 2007–2009. We assessed model utility by comparing our predictions to MFWP minimum known number of wolf packs. We minimized false positive detections by identifying a patch as occupied if 2–25 wolves were detected by ≥3 hunters. Overall, estimates of the occupancy and distribution of wolf packs were generally consistent with known distributions. Our predictions of the total area occupied increased from 2007 to 2009 and predicted numbers of wolf packs were approximately 1.34–1.46 times the MFWP minimum counts for each year of the survey. Our results indicate that multi-season occupancy models based on public sightings can be used to monitor populations and changes in the spatial distribution of territorial carnivores across large areas where alternative methods may be limited by personnel, time, accessibility, and budget constraints.

  11. The ammonoids from the Three Forks Shale (Late Devonian of Montana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Korn

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The ammonoid fauna from the Late Devonian Three Forks Shale of Montana is revised. Six taxa were recognised, which belong to the genera Tornoceras, Pernoceras, Raymondiceras, Platyclymenia, Pleuroclymenia, and Carinoclymenia. The ammonoid assemblage suggests a stratigraphic position within the middle Famennian, most probably the Platyclymenia annulata Zone. The ammonoids display extreme septal crowding in intermediate as well as adult growth stages, which can be regarded as evidence for instable palaeoecological conditions during lifetime of the animals. Die Ammonoideenfauna aus dem oberdevonischen Three Forks Shale von Montana wird revidiert. Sechs Taxa werden unterschieden; sie gehören zu den Gattungen Tornoceras, Pernoceras, Raymondiceras, Platyclymenia, Pleuroclymenia und Carinoclymenia. Die Ammonoideen-Vergesellschaftung spricht für eine stratigraphische Position im mittleren Famennium, wahrscheinlich in der Platyclymenia annulata Zone. Die Ammonoideen zeigen auffällige Drängung der Septen in intermediären und adulten Wachstumsstadien, die als Hinweis auf instabile Lebensbedingungen für die Tiere gewertet werden kann. doi:10.1002/mmng.200600008

  12. Integrated approach of environmental impact and risk assessment of Rosia Montana Mining Area, Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefănescu, Lucrina; Robu, Brînduşa Mihaela; Ozunu, Alexandru

    2013-11-01

    The environmental impact assessment of mining sites represents nowadays a large interest topic in Romania. Historical pollution in the Rosia Montana mining area of Romania caused extensive damage to environmental media. This paper has two goals: to investigate the environmental pollution induced by mining activities in the Rosia Montana area and to quantify the environmental impacts and associated risks by means of an integrated approach. Thus, a new method was developed and applied for quantifying the impact of mining activities, taking account of the quality of environmental media in the mining area, and used as case study in the present paper. The associated risks are a function of the environmental impacts and the probability of their occurrence. The results show that the environmental impacts and quantified risks, based on quality indicators to characterize the environmental quality, are of a higher order, and thus measures for pollution remediation and control need to be considered in the investigated area. The conclusion drawn is that an integrated approach for the assessment of environmental impact and associated risks is a valuable and more objective method, and is an important tool that can be applied in the decision-making process for national authorities in the prioritization of emergency action.

  13. Developmental and Environmental Effects on Sesquiterpene Lactones in Cultivated Arnica montana L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorova, Milka; Trendafilova, Antoaneta; Vitkova, Antonina; Petrova, Maria; Zayova, Ely; Antonova, Daniela

    2016-08-01

    The amount of sesquiterpene lactones and the lactone profile of Arnica montana L. in flowering and seed formation stages in vitro and in vivo propagated from seeds of German, Ukrainian, and Austrian origin and grown in two experimental fields were studied. It was found that in vitro propagated 2-year plants in full flowering stage accumulated higher amount of lactones in comparison to in vivo propagated 3-year plants and to the seed formation stage, respectively. Helenalins predominated in in vivo propagated 2-year or in vitro propagated 3-year plants. 2-Methylbutyrate (2MeBu) was the principal ester in the samples with prevalence of helenalins, while isobutyrate (iBu) was the major one in the samples with predominance of 11,13-dihydrohelenalins. The results revealed that the environmental conditions on Vitosha Mt. are more suitable for cultivation of A. montana giving higher content of lactones.

  14. Geospatial data for coal beds in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, Scott A.; Scott, David C.; Osmonson, Lee M.; Luppens, James A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide geospatial data for various layers and themes in a Geographic Information System (GIS) format for the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana. In 2015, as part of the U.S. Coal Resources and Reserves Assessment Project, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed an assessment of coal resources and reserves within the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana. This report is supplemental to USGS Professional Paper 1809 and contains GIS data that can be used to view digital layers or themes, including the Tertiary limit of the Powder River Basin boundary, locations of drill holes, clinker, mined coal, land use and technical restrictions, geology, mineral estate ownership, coal thickness, depth to the top of the coal bed (overburden), and coal reliability categories. Larger scale maps may be viewed using the GIS data provided in this report supplemental to the page-size maps provided in USGS Professional Paper 1809. Additionally, these GIS data can be exported to other digital applications as needed by the user. The database used for this report contains a total of 29,928 drill holes, of which 21,393 are in the public domain. The public domain database is linked to the geodatabase in this report so that the user can access the drill-hole data through GIS applications. Results of this report are available at the USGS Energy Resources Program Web site,http://energy.usgs.gov/RegionalStudies/PowderRiverBasin.aspx.

  15. I Am an Unknown Greatness; Poems & Notes from Montana's 1974-75 Poetry-in-the-Schools Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, David, Ed.

    A project of the Montana Arts Council Poetry-in-the-Schools program, this book contains a selection of poems by elementary and secondary level students and discussions of the program by participating poets. The poems and discussions are divided into the following sections: "Open Window"; "In Light of Five Hours," by Ann…

  16. 77 FR 74873 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Montana, Missoula, MT; Museum of the Rockies at...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-18

    ... Rockies at Montana State University, Bozeman, MT; and University of Wyoming, Department of Anthropology... Anthropology, have completed an inventory of human remains, in consultation with the appropriate Indian tribe, and have determined that there is no cultural affiliation between the remains and any...

  17. Community Strategic Visioning as a Method to Define and Address Poverty: An Analysis from Select Rural Montana Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachapelle, Paul; Austin, Eric; Clark, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Community strategic visioning is a citizen-based planning process in which diverse sectors of a community collectively determine a future state and coordinate a plan of action. Twenty-one communities in rural Montana participated in a multi-phase poverty reduction program that culminated in a community strategic vision process. Research on this…

  18. Five Board Games for the Language Classroom: Uvas, Montana Rusa, El Futbol, La Corrida de Verbos, Paso a Paso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Barbara

    A collection of five board games for the Spanish language classroom contains gameboards, game markers, and directions for each game. It also contains general instructions for the teacher about the classroom use of board games. The games include: "Uvas," for use in vocabulary development and cultural awareness; "Montana Rusa," for general…

  19. Montana Cook Fresh Workshop Pilot: A K-12 School Nutrition Professional Training to Incorporate Whole Foods in School Meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Lacy; Shanks, Carmen Byker; Roth, Aubree; Bark, Katie

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: To meet new school meal guidelines, create meals that appeal to students, and promote positive food choices and health status among students, school nutrition programs are increasingly moving towards scratch cooking. This pilot research aimed to evaluate the outcomes of the Montana Cook Fresh Workshop, a culinary skills class…

  20. 75 FR 8322 - Tatanka Wind Power, LLC, Complainant, v. Montana-Dakota Utilities Company, a Division of MDU...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Tatanka Wind Power, LLC, Complainant, v. Montana-Dakota Utilities Company, a... and Order Nos. 2003 and 2003-A,\\1\\ Tatanka Wind Power, LLC (Complainant) filed a formal complaint...

  1. Water-resources activities of the U.S. Geological Survey in Montana, October 1993 through September 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harksen, C. J.; Midtlyng, Karen S.

    1995-01-01

    Water-resources programs and activities of the U.S. Geological Survey in Montana consist principally of hydrologic-data collection and investigative studies that address water-resource issues. The work is supported by direct Federal funding, by transfer of funds from other Federal agencies, and by joint funding agreements with State or local agencies. The Montana District of the Geological Survey's Water Resources Division conducts its hydrologic work through a District Office in Helena and Field Headquarters in Helena, Billings, Kalispell, and Fort Peck. Thirty-two projects currently are being conducted. As outlined in this report, these projects are operated under the general categories of data-collection programs and investigative studies. This report describes the projects funded for fiscal years 1994 and 1995. The report also describes the operations of the Montana District, general hydrology of Montana, activities in addition to regular programs, and sources of publications and information. It also lists reports published or released during the preceding 5 years.

  2. Montana Cook Fresh Workshop Pilot: A K-12 School Nutrition Professional Training to Incorporate Whole Foods in School Meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Lacy; Shanks, Carmen Byker; Roth, Aubree; Bark, Katie

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: To meet new school meal guidelines, create meals that appeal to students, and promote positive food choices and health status among students, school nutrition programs are increasingly moving towards scratch cooking. This pilot research aimed to evaluate the outcomes of the Montana Cook Fresh Workshop, a culinary skills class…

  3. 76 FR 77008 - Notice of Administrative Boundary Change for Bureau of Land Management Offices in Montana To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Administrative Boundary Change for Bureau of Land Management Offices in Montana To Eliminate the County Split of Lewis and Clark County AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management... changed. The administrative boundary change will realign Lewis and Clark County, currently a split...

  4. Histoplasmosis in a state where it is not known to be endemic--Montana, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    Histoplasmosis is caused by infection with the dimorphic fungus, Histoplasma capsulatum, following inhalation of contaminated soil. Among symptomatic patients, the most common clinical presentation is acute pneumonia. Persons with compromised immune systems are at risk for disseminated histoplasmosis, a severe illness requiring antifungal therapy that is often characterized by fever, malaise, anorexia, and weight loss. H. capsulatum is endemic in the Ohio River and Mississippi River valleys, where it is found in soil enriched with bird droppings and bat guano. During November 2012-February 2013, histoplasmosis was diagnosed in four Montana residents by four different physicians. No epidemiologic links among the cases were identified. Each patient's medical records were reviewed, and their exposure and travel histories were obtained. Three patients reported no recent travel outside of Montana and likely were exposed in Montana, which is west of areas where H. capsulatum is recognized as endemic. One patient reported recent travel to California, where she was exposed to potting soil containing bat guano. Low clinical suspicion, probably related to lack of history of exposure to areas where H. capsulatum is known to be endemic, likely delayed diagnosis and appropriate therapy for three patients. Health-care providers should be aware of the possibility of histoplasmosis in Montana and consider the diagnosis in patients with clinically compatible illnesses.

  5. Crossdated fire histories (1650-1900) from ponderosa pine-dominated forests of Idaho and western Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emily K. Heyerdahl; Penelope Morgan; James P. Riser

    2008-01-01

    For a broader study of the climate drivers of regional-fire years in the Northern Rockies, we reconstructed a history of surface fires at 21 sites in Idaho and western Montana. We targeted sites that historically sustained frequent surface fires and were dominated or codominated by ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa P. & C. Lawson). Our...

  6. Duff mound consumption and cambium injury for centuries-old western larch from prescribed burning in western Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael G. Harrington

    2012-01-01

    Western larch is one of the most fire-adapted conifers in western North America. Its historical perpetuation depended upon regular fire disturbances, which creates open stand conditions and mineral seedbeds. A stand of 200- to 500-year-old larch in western Montana with deep duff mounds resulting from an unusually long 150-year fire-free period was mechanically thinned...

  7. Five Board Games for the Language Classroom: Uvas, Montana Rusa, El Futbol, La Corrida de Verbos, Paso a Paso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Barbara

    A collection of five board games for the Spanish language classroom contains gameboards, game markers, and directions for each game. It also contains general instructions for the teacher about the classroom use of board games. The games include: "Uvas," for use in vocabulary development and cultural awareness; "Montana Rusa," for general…

  8. Linking resource selection and mortality modeling for population estimation of mountain lions in Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Hugh S.; Ruth, Toni K.; Gude, Justin A.; Choate, David; DeSimone, Rich; Hebblewhite, Mark; Matchett, Marc R.; Mitchell, Michael S.; Murphy, Kerry; Williams, Jim

    2015-01-01

    To be most effective, the scale of wildlife management practices should match the range of a particular species’ movements. For this reason, combined with our inability to rigorously or regularly census mountain lion populations, several authors have suggested that mountain lions be managed in a source-sink or metapopulation framework. We used a combination of resource selection functions, mortality estimation, and dispersal modeling to estimate cougar population levels in Montana statewide and potential population level effects of planned harvest levels. Between 1980 and 2012, 236 independent mountain lions were collared and monitored for research in Montana. From these data we used 18,695 GPS locations collected during winter from 85 animals to develop a resource selection function (RSF), and 11,726 VHF and GPS locations from 142 animals along with the locations of 6343 mountain lions harvested from 1988–2011 to validate the RSF model. Our RSF model validated well in all portions of the State, although it appeared to perform better in Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks (MFWP) Regions 1, 2, 4 and 6, than in Regions 3, 5, and 7. Our mean RSF based population estimate for the total population (kittens, juveniles, and adults) of mountain lions in Montana in 2005 was 3926, with almost 25% of the entire population in MFWP Region 1. Estimates based on a high and low reference population estimates produce a possible range of 2784 to 5156 mountain lions statewide. Based on a range of possible survival rates we estimated the mountain lion population in Montana to be stable to slightly increasing between 2005 and 2010 with lambda ranging from 0.999 (SD = 0.05) to 1.02 (SD = 0.03). We believe these population growth rates to be a conservative estimate of true population growth. Our model suggests that proposed changes to female harvest quotas for 2013–2015 will result in an annual statewide population decline of 3% and shows that, due to reduced dispersal, changes to

  9. Intensity of quartz cathodoluminescence and trace-element content in quartz from the porphyry copper deposit at Butte, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusk, B.G.; Reed, M.H.; Dilles, J.H.; Kent, A.J.R.

    2006-01-01

    Textures of hydrothermal quartz revealed by cathodoluminescence using a scanning electron microscope (SEM-CL) reflect the physical and chemical environment of quartz formation. Variations in intensity of SEM-CL can be used to distinguish among quartz from superimposed mineralization events in a single vein. In this study, we present a technique to quantify the cathodoluminescent intensity of quartz within individual and among multiple samples to relate luminescence intensity to specific mineralizing events. This technique has been applied to plutonic quartz and three generations of hydrothermal veins at the porphyry copper deposit in Butte, Montana. Analyzed veins include early quartz-molybdenite veins with potassic alteration, pyrite-quartz veins with sericitic alteration, and Main Stage veins with intense sericitic alteration. CL intensity of quartz is diagnostic of each mineralizing event and can be used to fingerprint quartz and its fluid inclusions, isotopes, trace elements, etc., from specific mineralizing episodes. Furthermore, CL intensity increases proportional to temperature of quartz formation, such that plutonic quartz from the Butte quartz monzonite (BQM) that crystallized at temperatures near 750 ??C luminesces with the highest intensity, whereas quartz that precipitated at ???250 ??C in Main Stage veins luminesces with the least intensity. Trace-element analyses via electron microprobe and laser ablation-ICP-MS indicate that plutonic quartz and each generation of hydrothermal quartz from Butte is dominated by characteristic trace amounts of Al, P, Ti, and Fe. Thus, in addition to CL intensity, each generation of quartz can be distinguished based on its unique trace-element content. Aluminum is generally the most abundant element in all generations of quartz, typically between 50 and 200 ppm, but low-temperature, Main Stage quartz containing 400 to 3600 ppm Al is enriched by an order of magnitude relative to all other quartz generations. Phosphorous

  10. Eesti on USA uus lemmik / Argo Ideon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ideon, Argo, 1966-

    2007-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilvese visiidist Washingtoni, kohtumistest USA presidendi George W. Bushi, asepresident Dick Cheney, asevälisminister John Negroponte, kaitseminister Robert M. Gates'i, USA Kongressi esindajatekoja spiikri Nancy Pelosi ja kongresmenidega. Eestil õnnestus korraldada USA pealinnas kohtumised, mille järjekorras ootab hulk palju suuremaid riike. Vabariigi President töövisiidil Ameerika Ühendriikides 25.-26.06.2007

  11. USA otsib Iraanist aktiivselt tuumainfot / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2005-01-01

    Iraan avaldas protesti USA luurelendude üle Iraani kohal. USA endine kaitseminister James Baker peab Iraani ja Põhja-Koreaga nende tuumaprogrammide hävitamiseks sõja alustamist suurimaks veaks. Kuigi Bushi meeskond rõhutab vajadust lahendada küsimus rahumeelselt, toovad Dick Cheney' ja Condoleezza Rice'i avaldused mitme USA kommentaatori arvates meelde Iraagi sõja eelse taktika

  12. 10 aastat USA-Balti hartat

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    10 aasta möödumisest 16. jaanuaril 1998 Valges Majas toimunud tseremooniast kui Ameerika Ühendriikide, Leedu, Läti ja Eesti presidendid allkirjastasid USA-Balti partnerlusharta. Eesti, Läti, Leedu presidentide ühisavaldusest - "ajalooline poliitiline teetähis Balti-USA riikide suhtes", tähistamaks USA-Balti partnerlusharta 10. aastapäeva. President George W. Bushi õnnitlusest Eesti, Läti ja Leedu elanikele harta 10. aastapäeva puhul\\

  13. Virginia Tech's Ashley White named to USA Today All-USA First Team

    OpenAIRE

    Crumbley, Liz

    2005-01-01

    Virginia Tech senior Ashley White, a University Honors student pursuing degrees in both materials science and engineering and music performance, has been named to USA Today's All-USA College Academic First Team.

  14. USA klaaskatuste murdmise aeg / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2008-01-01

    USA presidendivalimistel kandideeris esmakordselt afroameeriklane, presidendikandidaatide kampaanias osales naiskandidaat Hillary Clinton. Vt. samas: Obama isa kodukülas palvetati ja valmistuti suureks peoks

  15. BusinessUSA Resource Access API

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — BusinessUSA connects businesses to government services and information. The API provides access to resource abstracts including programs, services, data, events, and...

  16. Berliini müür USA-s varisemas / Mehis Replik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Replik, Mehis

    1998-01-01

    USA-s on pankade liitumine lõppjärgus. Tabelid: Pankade Euromoney TOP 200, suurima turuväärtusega pangad juunis 1998, Ida- ja Kesk-Euroopa pankade võrdlus koguvarade alusel. Euroopa ühinevad pangad. Artiklis on käsitletud ka USA pangandusalaseid õigusakte läbi ajaloo

  17. Geodatabase of the datasets used to represent the 4 subareas of the Lower Cretaceous aquifer, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This geodatabase includes spatial datasets which represent the Lower Cretaceous aquifer system in the States of Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, North...

  18. The average concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni and Pb in residential soil and drinking water obtained from springs and wells in Rosia Montana area.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The average concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni and Pb in n=84 residential soil samples, in Rosia Montana area, analyzed by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry are...

  19. Case Study of The ARRA-Funded GSHP Demonstration at the Natural Sources Building, Montana Tech

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malhotra, Mini [ORNL; Liu, Xiaobing [ORNL

    2015-04-01

    Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), 26 ground source heat pump (GSHP) projects were competitively selected in 2009 to demonstrate the benefits of GSHP systems and innovative technologies for cost reduction and/or performance improvement. One of the selected demonstration projects was proposed by Montana Tech of the University of Montana for a 56,000 sq ft, newly constructed, on-campus research facility – the Natural Resources Building (NRB) located in Butte, Montana. This demonstrated GSHP system consists of a 50 ton water-to-water heat pump and a closed-loop ground heat exchanger with two redundant 7.5 hp constant-speed pumps to use water in the nearby flooded mines as a heat source or heat sink. It works in conjunction with the originally installed steam HX and an aircooled chiller to provide space heating and cooling. It is coupled with the existing hot water and chilled water piping in the building and operates in the heating or cooling mode based on the outdoor air temperature. The ground loop pumps operate in conjunction with the existing pumps in the building hot and chilled water loops for the operation of the heat pump unit. The goal of this demonstration project is to validate the technical and economic feasibility of the demonstrated commercial-scale GSHP system in the region, and illustrate the feasibility of using mine waters as the heat sink and source for GSHP systems. Should the demonstration prove satisfactory and feasible, it will encourage similar GSHP applications using mine water, thus help save energy and reduce carbon emissions. The actual performance of the system is analyzed with available measured data for January through July 2014. The annual energy performance is predicted and compared with a baseline scenario, with the heating and cooling provided by the originally designed systems. The comparison is made in terms of energy savings, operating cost savings, cost-effectiveness, and environmental benefits. Finally

  20. Krossil on probleeme USA viisaga? / Raimo Poom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poom, Raimo

    2011-01-01

    Eesti Päevaleht esitas USA Eesti-saatkonnale järelepärimise seoses sellega, et Eerik-Niiles Krossi USA-viisa on tühistatud. Saatkonna pressi- ja kultuuriatašee James Landi vastusest. Eerik-Niiles Krossi kommentaare

  1. Krossil on probleeme USA viisaga? / Raimo Poom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poom, Raimo

    2011-01-01

    Eesti Päevaleht esitas USA Eesti-saatkonnale järelepärimise seoses sellega, et Eerik-Niiles Krossi USA-viisa on tühistatud. Saatkonna pressi- ja kultuuriatašee James Landi vastusest. Eerik-Niiles Krossi kommentaare

  2. USA laenukriis peegeldub Põhjalas / Tõnis Arnover

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arnover, Tõnis, 1952-

    2007-01-01

    USA-s süvenev kinnisvaralaenukriis avaldab mõju ka tunduvalt riskantsematele Põhjamaade kinnisvaraturgudele. Siiski on Põhjalas kõrge riskiga hüpoteeklaenude osa võrreldes ülejäänud laenudega äärmiselt väike. Lisa: Kõige haavatavamad kinnisvaraturud; Mõjud mujal maailmas. Vt. samas: Põhjamaade börsid USAga samas taktis

  3. Bulgaaria valitsus tahab USA raketikilpi / Mihkel Niglas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Niglas, Mihkel

    2007-01-01

    Bulgaarias küsiti USA presidendilt George W. Bushilt, miks Poolasse ja Tšehhi kavandatav raketikilp ei hakka katma Bulgaariat. USA paigutab septembris Bulgaaria sõjabaasi üle 3000 sõduri. George W. Bush toetab Bulgaaria nõudmist Liibüale vabastada Bulgaaria meditsiiniõed

  4. USA's litterære superstjerne

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Thomas Ærvold

    2010-01-01

    Jonathan Franzen er den mest omtalte forfatter i USA lige nu og ombejlet af alle fra Time Magazine til Oprah Winfrey. Hvad er det, han kan, manden bag ”Freedom”?......Jonathan Franzen er den mest omtalte forfatter i USA lige nu og ombejlet af alle fra Time Magazine til Oprah Winfrey. Hvad er det, han kan, manden bag ”Freedom”?...

  5. USA tankid jõudsid Tapale

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2017-01-01

    Tapale saabus poolsada USA sõjamasinat, nende seas neli tanki Abrams M1A2 ja 15 jalaväe lahingumasinat Bradley. Tehnikat hakkab kasutama USA maaväe 4. jalaväediviisi 68. soomusrügemendi esimese pataljoni C-kompanii

  6. Teadlased : USA liitub Kyoto protokolliga / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2004-01-01

    USA ja Austraalia on ainsad riigid, mis pole Kyoto protokollile alla kirjutanud. Princetoni ülikooli professori Michael Oppenheimeri arvates võib USA president George W. Bush oma seisukohti keskkonnaküsimustes muuta, sest teiseks ametiajaks valitud presidendid ei pea mõtlema uuele kampaaniale ning püüavad enne Valgest Majast lahkumist oma mainet maailma silmis parandada

  7. Poola ootab USA maaväelasi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2014-01-01

    Poola kaitseministri Tomasz Siemoniaki sõnul saadab USA Poolasse maavägesid, et laeindada NATO kohalolekut ajal, mil pingeline olukord Ukrainas kestab, kirjutas Washington Post. Siemoniak ütles lehele, et sõjalised planeerijad juba töötavad vastava kava üksikasjade kallal. Ta lisas, et tõenäoliselt saadetakse USA sõdureid ka Baltimaadesse

  8. Etteheide: USA okupeerib Haitit / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2010-01-01

    Prantsusmaa ja Brasiilia on esitanud protesti, sest USA sõjalennukitele on antud eelisõigus Haiti pealinna Port-au-Prince'i lennujaama kasutamisel. Paljude kommentaatorite hinnangul on Prantsusmaa püüdnud haarata prominentset rolli Haiti abistamisel, kuid USA on tegutsenud kiiremini ja jõulisemalt. Kaart

  9. USA relvastab Saddami toetajaid / Triin Oppi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oppi, Triin

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke, 12. juuni 2007, lk. 6. USA koostööst Iraagis endiste vastaste ehk Saddam Husseini toetanud sunniitidega, sest valitsusväed ja USA sõdurid pole suutnud lüüa Iraagi mässulisi ja Al-Qaedat. Kaart: Koostööpiirkonnad

  10. Etteheide: USA okupeerib Haitit / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2010-01-01

    Prantsusmaa ja Brasiilia on esitanud protesti, sest USA sõjalennukitele on antud eelisõigus Haiti pealinna Port-au-Prince'i lennujaama kasutamisel. Paljude kommentaatorite hinnangul on Prantsusmaa püüdnud haarata prominentset rolli Haiti abistamisel, kuid USA on tegutsenud kiiremini ja jõulisemalt. Kaart

  11. Bulgaaria valitsus tahab USA raketikilpi / Mihkel Niglas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Niglas, Mihkel

    2007-01-01

    Bulgaarias küsiti USA presidendilt George W. Bushilt, miks Poolasse ja Tšehhi kavandatav raketikilp ei hakka katma Bulgaariat. USA paigutab septembris Bulgaaria sõjabaasi üle 3000 sõduri. George W. Bush toetab Bulgaaria nõudmist Liibüale vabastada Bulgaaria meditsiiniõed

  12. USA allveelaev uputas kalalaeva / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2001-01-01

    Hawaii lähistel õppustel kiiret pinnaletõusu harjutanud USA allveelaev USS Greeneville põrkas kokku Jaapani õppelaevaga Ehime Maru, õnnetuse tagajärjel hukkus tõenäoliselt 9 jaapanlast. Skeem: Õnnetused USA allveelaevadega

  13. USA raport hoiatab tuumaterroristide eest / Karin Volmer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Volmer, Karin

    2007-01-01

    USA-s tegutseva tuumaterrori vastase organisatsiooni Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI) raport kinnitab maailma edusamme tuumamaterjali turvalisuses, kuid on ka palju ohuallikaid. Analüütikud kahtlevad Venemaa ja Pakistani armee usaldusväärsuses tuumamaterjali hoidmisel. Lisa: Tuumaterrori raport

  14. USA tankid jõudsid Tapale

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2017-01-01

    Tapale saabus poolsada USA sõjamasinat, nende seas neli tanki Abrams M1A2 ja 15 jalaväe lahingumasinat Bradley. Tehnikat hakkab kasutama USA maaväe 4. jalaväediviisi 68. soomusrügemendi esimese pataljoni C-kompanii

  15. The Western Environmental Technology Office (WETO), Butte, Montana. Technology summary (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This document has been prepared by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Environmental Management (EM) Office of Science and Technology (OST) to highlight its research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation (RDDT&E) activities funded through the Western environmental Technology Office (WETO) in Butte, Montana. Technologies and processes described in this document have the potential to enhance DOE`s cleanup and waste management efforts, as well as improve US industry`s competitiveness in global environmental markets. The information presented in this document has been assembled from recently produced OST documents that highlight technology development activities within each of the OST program elements and Focus Areas. This document presents one in a series for each of DOE`s Operations Office and Energy Technology Centers.

  16. Geothermal : A Regulatory Guide to Leasing, Permitting, and Licensing in Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomquist, R.Gordon

    1991-10-01

    The actual geothermal exploration and development may appear to be a simple and straightforward process in comparison to the legal and institutional maze which the developer must navigate in order to obtain all of the federal, state, and local leases, permits, licenses, and approvals necessary at each step in the process. Finally, and often most difficult, is obtaining a contract for the sale of thermal energy, brine, steam, or electricity. This guide is designed to help developers interested in developing geothermal resource sites in the Bonneville Power Administration Service Territory in the state of Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington better understand the federal, state, and local institutional process, the roles and responsibilities of each agency, and how and when to make contact in order to obtain the necessary documents.

  17. Travel Times, Streamflow Velocities, and Dispersion Rates in the Yellowstone River, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Peter M.

    2009-01-01

    The Yellowstone River is a vital natural resource to the residents of southeastern Montana and is a primary source of water for irrigation and recreation and the primary source of municipal water for several cities. The Yellowstone River valley is the primary east-west transportation corridor through southern Montana. This complex of infrastructure makes the Yellowstone River especially vulnerable to accidental spills from various sources such as tanker cars and trucks. In 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Montana Department of Environmental Quality, initiated a dye-tracer study to determine instream travel times, streamflow velocities, and dispersion rates for the Yellowstone River from Lockwood to Glendive, Montana. The purpose of this report is to describe the results of this study and summarize data collected at each of the measurement sites between Lockwood and Glendive. This report also compares the results of this study to estimated travel times from a transport model developed by the USGS for a previous study. For this study, Rhodamine WT dye was injected at four locations in late September and early October 2008 during reasonably steady streamflow conditions. Streamflows ranged from 3,490 to 3,770 cubic feet per second upstream from the confluence of the Bighorn River and ranged from 6,520 to 7,570 cubic feet per second downstream from the confluence of the Bighorn River. Mean velocities were calculated for each subreach between measurement sites for the leading edge, peak concentration, centroid, and trailing edge at 10 percent of the peak concentration. Calculated velocities for the centroid of the dye plume for subreaches that were completely laterally mixed ranged from 1.83 to 3.18 ft/s within the study reach from Lockwood Bridge to Glendive Bridge. The mean of the completely mixed centroid velocity for the entire study reach, excluding the subreach between Forsyth Bridge and Cartersville Dam, was 2.80 ft/s. Longitudinal

  18. Drill hole data for coal beds in the Powder River Basin, Montana and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haacke, Jon E.; Scott, David C.

    2013-01-01

    This report by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) of the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Montana and Wyoming is part of the U.S. Coal Resources and Reserves Assessment Project. Essential to that project was the creation of a comprehensive drill hole database that was used for coal bed correlation and for coal resource and reserve assessments in the PRB. This drill hole database was assembled using data from the USGS National Coal Resources Data System, several other Federal and State agencies, and selected mining companies. Additionally, USGS personnel manually entered lithologic picks into the database from geophysical logs of coalbed methane, oil, and gas wells. Of the 29,928 drill holes processed, records of 21,393 are in the public domain and are included in this report. The database contains location information, lithology, and coal bed names for each drill hole.

  19. Reconnaissance examination of the uranium deposits northeast of Winston, Broadwater County, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becraft, George E.

    1955-01-01

    Anomalous radioactivity and a yellow secondary uranium mineral tentatively identified as carnotite have been found in Tertiary sedimentary rocks about 3 miles northeast of Winston, Mont. The uranium is in tuffs and tuffaceous shales and particularly in beds rich in organic matter. Carnotite(?) was identified from three localities, principally coating fractures but in places part replacing organic material, and anomalous radioactivity without recognizable uranium minerals has been detected at four localities. Six of the seven localities are at approximately the same stratigraphic horizon. The deposits are virtually unexplored and consequently their size and grade are not known. Selected specimens assay as high as 0.36 percent eU. Exploitable deposits of uranium may be found in this area, as well as in similar areas of western Montana that are underlain by Tertiary tuffaceous rocks.

  20. Cartographic modeling of snow avalanche path location within Glacier National Park, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Stephen J.; Brown, Daniel G.; Bian, Ling; Butler, David R.

    1990-01-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) techniques were applied to the study of snow-avalanche path location within Glacier National Park, Montana. Aerial photointerpretation and field surveys confirmed the location of 121 avalanche paths within the selected study area. Spatial and nonspatial information on each path were integrated using the ARC/INFO GIS. Lithologic, structural, hydrographic, topographic, and land-cover impacts on path location were analyzed. All path frequencies within variable classes were normalized by the area of class occurrence relative to the total area of the study area and were added to the morphometric information contained within INFO tables. The normalized values for each GIS coverage were used to cartographically model, by means of composite factor weightings, avalanche path locations.

  1. LONG TERM INVESTMENTS, RISK OR OPPORTUNITY FOR ROMANIAN ECONOMY, CASE STUDY: ROSIA MONTANA GOLD CORPORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florea Georgiana Rodica

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is aimed at describing the influence that foreign direct investments have on a recipient economy, as this study focuses on the changes that foreign direct investments imposed on Romanian economy. In principle, foreign direct investment should enhance one economys results as they pump capital, the vital fluid of any successful enterprise, completing or replacing own capital, as the economy becomes interesting because of its raw material resources, financial facilities or human resource. Anyway, there are some instances that need turning own capital to profit, as, this would benefit more than permission for foreign capital to be turned into advantage. The actual study looks on investments that are to be conducted by Gabriel Resources in Rosia Montana area and tries to evaluate if the business site acts on long term in favor of our national economy.

  2. Cartographic modeling of snow avalanche path location within Glacier National Park, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Stephen J.; Brown, Daniel G.; Bian, Ling; Butler, David R.

    1990-05-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) techniques were applied to the study of snow-avalanche path location within Glacier National Park, Montana. Aerial photointerpretation and field surveys confirmed the location of 121 avalanche paths within the selected study area. Spatial and nonspatial information on each path were integrated using the ARC/INFO GIS. Lithologic, structural, hydrographic, topographic, and land-cover impacts on path location were analyzed. All path frequencies within variable classes were normalized by the area of class occurrence relative to the total area of the study area and were added to the morphometric information contained within INFO tables. The normalized values for each GIS coverage were used to cartographically model, by means of composite factor weightings, avalanche path locations.

  3. Quantitative analysis of sesquiterpene lactones in extract of Arnica montana L. by 1H NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staneva, Jordanka; Denkova, Pavletta; Todorova, Milka; Evstatieva, Ljuba

    2011-01-01

    (1)H NMR spectroscopy was used as a method for quantitative analysis of sesquiterpene lactones present in a crude lactone fraction isolated from Arnica montana. Eight main components - tigloyl-, methacryloyl-, isobutyryl- and 2-methylbutyryl-esters of helenalin (H) and 11α,13-dihydrohelenalin (DH) were identified in the studied sample. The method allows the determination of the total amount of sesquiterpene lactones and the quantity of both type helenalin and 11α,13-dihydrohelenalin esters separately. Furthermore, 6-O-tigloylhelenalin (HT, 1), 6-O-methacryloylhelenalin (HM, 2), 6-O-tigloyl-11α,13-dihydrohelenalin (DHT, 5), and 6-O-methacryloyl-11α,13-dihydrohelenalin (DHM, 6) were quantified as individual components.

  4. Effect of vehicles on topical application of aloe vera and arnica montana components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamante, Valentina; Ceschel, Gian Carlo; Marazzita, Sergio; Ronchi, Celestino; Fini, Adamo

    2007-10-01

    In this study two types of gels and microemulsions are investigated for their ability to dissolve, release, and induce the permeation of helenalin, a flavonoid responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity of arnica montana extract, and aloin, an anthrone-C-glucosyls with antibacterial activity present in aloe vera extract. The release of these agents from each vehicle was followed by HPLC, and transcutaneous permeation was examined using a modified Franz cell and a porcine skin membrane. The study showed that a microemulsion can be a good vehicle to increase the permeation of helenalin, while the gel formulation, containing Sepigel 305, proved able to reduce the release and permeation of aloin, with a consequent activity limited to the surface of application, without any permeation. This is in accordance with the necessity to avoid this process, since human skin fibroblasts can metabolize absorbed aloin into a structurally related compound that increases the sensitivity of skin to ultraviolet light.

  5. Differences in the chemical composition of Arnica montana flowers from wild populations of north Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauser, Maria; Aiello, Nicola; Scartezzini, Fabrizio; Innocenti, Gabbriella; Dall'Acqua, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    The flower heads of fourteen wild Arnica montana L. populations were collected in the summer of 2010 in the provinces of Trento, Brescia and Bergamo (Italy). The dried flowers were analyzed to assess their chemical diversity. HLPC-MS analysis led to the identification of phenolic derivatives and sesquiterpene lactones in the samples, confirming literature data. Quali-quantitative analysis of the flower heads showed similar qualitative patterns both for the phenolic as well as sesquiterpene lactone derivatives, while significant variability was obtained in the amounts (HPLC-DAD) of sesquiterpene lactones (0.45-2.31%), phenolic acids (1.44-2.88%) and flavonoids (0.96-2.44%). The highest quantities of sesquiterpene lactones, flavonoids and phenolic acids were found in Malga Fregasoga (1703 m above sea level), Rifugio Camini (1608 m a.s.l.) and Malga Sass (1817 m a.s.l.) samples, respectively.

  6. Availability, Price, and Quality of Fruits and Vegetables in 12 Rural Montana Counties, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byker Shanks, Carmen; Ahmed, Selena; Smith, Teresa; Houghtaling, Bailey; Jenkins, Mica; Margetts, Miranda; Schultz, Daniel; Stephens, Lacy

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the consumer food environment in rural areas by using the Nutrition Environment Measures Survey for Stores (NEMS-S) to measure the availability, price, and quality of fruits and vegetables. We randomly selected 20 grocery stores (17 rural, 3 urban) in 12 Montana counties using the 2013 US Department of Agriculture's rural-urban continuum codes. We found significant differences in NEMS-S scores for quality of fruits and vegetables; of 6 possible points, the mean quality score was 4.5; of rural stores, the least rural stores had the highest mean quality scores (6.0). Intervention strategies should aim to increase fruit and vegetable quality in rural areas.

  7. Electronics and electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, George H

    1987-01-01

    Electronics and Electronic Systems explores the significant developments in the field of electronics and electronic devices. This book is organized into three parts encompassing 11 chapters that discuss the fundamental circuit theory and the principles of analog and digital electronics. This book deals first with the passive components of electronic systems, such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors. These topics are followed by a discussion on the analysis of electronic circuits, which involves three ways, namely, the actual circuit, graphical techniques, and rule of thumb. The remaining p

  8. Ideaalne torm USA majanduses / Ken Goldstein ; interv. Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Goldstein, Ken

    2008-01-01

    USA majandusuuringute organisatsiooni The Conference Board analüütik USA majanduse olukorrast, mõjust maailmamajandusele, arenguvõimalustest ning uue presidendi vajalikest sammudest majanduses. Lisa: Enamuse arvates on USA valel teel

  9. Coalbed Methane Extraction and Soil Suitability Concerns in the Powder River Basin, Montana and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2006-01-01

    The Powder River Basin is located in northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana. It is an area of approximately 55,000 square kilometers. Extraction of methane gas from the coal seams that underlie the Powder River Basin began in Wyoming in the late 1980s and in Montana in the late 1990s. About 100-200 barrels of co-produced water per day are being extracted from each active well in the Powder River Basin, which comes to over 1.5 million barrels of water per day for all the active coalbed methane wells in the Basin. Lab testing indicates that Powder River Basin co-produced water is potable but is high in sodium and other salts, especially in the western and northern parts of the Powder River Basin. Common water management strategies include discharge of co-produced water into drainages, stock ponds, evaporation ponds, or infiltration ponds; treatment to remove sodium; or application of the water directly on the land surface via irrigation equipment or atomizers. Problems may arise because much of the Powder River Basin contains soils with high amounts of swelling clays. As part of the USGS Rocky Mountain Geographic Science Center's hyperspectral research program, researchers are investigating whether hyperspectral remote sensing data can be beneficial in locating areas of swelling clays. Using detailed hyperspectral data collected over parts of the Powder River Basin and applying our knowledge of how the clays of interest reflect energy, we will attempt to identify and map areas of swelling clays. If successful, such information will be useful to resource and land managers.

  10. Optimization of culture conditions of Arnica montana L.: effects of mycorrhizal fungi and competing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurkiewicz, Anna; Ryszka, Przemyslaw; Anielska, Teresa; Waligórski, Piotr; Białońska, Dobroslawa; Góralska, Katarzyna; Tsimilli-Michael, Merope; Turnau, Katarzyna

    2010-06-01

    Arnica montana is a rare plant that needs special protection because of its intensive harvesting for medicinal purposes. The present work was aimed at finding optimal culture conditions for Arnica plants in order to enable their successful reintroduction into their natural stands. Plants were cultivated under controlled greenhouse conditions on substrata with different nitrogen (N) concentration. As Arnica is always colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in nature, a fact that has been overlooked in other similar projects, we, here, applied and tested different inocula. We found that they differed in their effectiveness, both in establishing symbiosis, assessed by the colonization parameters, and in improving the performance of Arnica, evaluated by the photosynthetic parameters derived from the fluorescence transients (JIP-test), with the inocula containing G. intraradices or composed of several Glomus strains being the most effective. The comparison was possible only on substrata with medium N, since high N did not permit the formation of mycorrhiza, while at low N, few nonmycorrhizal plants survived until the measurements and mycorrhizal plants, which were well growing, exhibited a high heterogeneity. Analysis of secondary metabolites showed clearly that mycorrhization was associated with increased concentrations of phenolic acids in roots. For some of the inocula used, a tendency for increase of the level of phenolic acids in shoots and of sesquiterpene lactones, both in roots and in shoots, was also observed. We also studied the interactions between A. montana and Dactylis glomerata, known to compete with Arnica under field conditions. When specimens from both species were cultured together, there was no effect on D. glomerata, but Arnica could retain a photosynthetic performance that permitted survivability only in the presence of AMF; without AMF, the photosynthetic performance was lower, and the plants were eventually totally outcompeted.

  11. Executives "Plug in" to Electronic Commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education & Training, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Describes a programme, developed by FT Knowledge and the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania, USA, to guide managers through the opportunities and threats presented by electronic commerce. Focuses on areas such as marketing, electronic retailing, pricing, product design, supply chain management and communication. Highlights how the…

  12. Executives "Plug in" to Electronic Commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education & Training, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Describes a programme, developed by FT Knowledge and the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania, USA, to guide managers through the opportunities and threats presented by electronic commerce. Focuses on areas such as marketing, electronic retailing, pricing, product design, supply chain management and communication. Highlights how the…

  13. USA National Phenology Network gridded products documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crimmins, Theresa M.; Marsh, R. Lee; Switzer, Jeff R.; Crimmins, Michael A.; Gerst, Katharine L.; Rosemartin, Alyssa H.; Weltzin, Jake F.

    2017-02-23

    The goals of the USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN, www.usanpn.org) are to advance science, inform decisions, and communicate and connect with the public regarding phenology and species’ responses to environmental variation and climate change. The USA-NPN seeks to facilitate informed ecosystem stewardship and management by providing phenological information freely and openly. One way the USA-NPN is endeavoring to accomplish these goals is by providing data and data products in a wide range of formats, including gridded real-time, short-term forecasted, and historical maps of phenological events, patterns and trends. This document describes the suite of gridded phenologically relevant data products produced and provided by the USA National Phenology Network, which can be accessed at www.usanpn.org/data/phenology_maps and also through web services at geoserver.usanpn.org/geoserver/wms?request=GetCapabilities.

  14. Geology and mineral resources of the North-Central Montana Sagebrush Focal Area: Chapter D in Mineral resources of the Sagebrush Focal Areas of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauk, Jeffrey L.; Zientek, Michael L.; Hearn, B. Carter; Parks, Heather L.; Jenkins, M. Christopher; Anderson, Eric D.; Benson, Mary Ellen; Bleiwas, Donald I.; DeAngelo, Jacob; Denning, Paul D.; Dicken, Connie L.; Drake, Ronald M.; Fernette, Gregory L.; Folger, Helen W.; Giles, Stuart A.; Glen, Jonathan M. G.; Granitto, Matthew; Haacke, Jon E.; Horton, John D.; Kelley, Karen D.; Ober, Joyce A.; Rockwell, Barnaby W.; San Juan, Carma A.; Sangine, Elizabeth S.; Schweitzer, Peter N.; Shaffer, Brian N.; Smith, Steven M.; Williams, Colin F.; Yager, Douglas B.

    2016-10-04

    SummaryThe U.S. Department of the Interior has proposed to withdraw approximately 10 million acres of Federal lands from mineral entry (subject to valid existing rights) from 12 million acres of lands defined as Sagebrush Focal Areas (SFAs) in Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming (for further discussion on the lands involved see Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5089–A). The purpose of the proposed action is to protect the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and its habitat from potential adverse effects of locatable mineral exploration and mining. The U.S. Geological Survey Sagebrush Mineral-Resource Assessment (SaMiRA) project was initiated in November 2015 and supported by the Bureau of Land Management to (1) assess locatable mineral-resource potential and (2) to describe leasable and salable mineral resources for the seven SFAs and Nevada additions.This chapter summarizes the current status of locatable, leasable, and salable mineral commodities and assesses the potential of locatable minerals in the North-Central Montana SFA. The proposed withdrawal area that is evaluated in this report is located in north-central Montana, and includes parts of Fergus, Petroleum, Phillips, and Valley Counties.

  15. Influência da temperatura na germinação de sementes de Annona Montana Influence of the temperature on seed germination of Annona Montana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inez Vilar de Morais Oliveira

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a influência da temperatura sobre a porcentagem de germinação e o índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG de sementes de Annona montana, conhecida como falsa graviola, espécie com potencial para porta-enxerto das variedades comerciais, testaram-se quatro temperaturas (20; 25; 30 e 35ºC. O trabalho foi desenvolvido em laboratório em câmaras de germinação tipo BOD, utilizando-se de sementes de três plantas provenientes do Banco de Germoplasma do Departamento de Produção Vegetal da Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias - UNESP, Câmpus de Jaboticabal-SP. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições, com dez sementes cada. Pelos resultados obtidos, tem-se que tanto para o parâmetro porcentagem de germinação como para o IVG, os maiores valores observados foram para as sementes na temperatura de 30ºC (55% de germinação e IVG = 0,153, seguido da temperatura de 25ºC (25% de germinação e IVG = 0,088. Para as temperaturas de 20ºC e 35ºC, não foi observada ocorrência de germinação. A análise estatística dos dados de porcentagem de germinação foi transformada em arc-sen square root (x/100 e as médias foram comparadas pelo teste de Tukey, a 5% de probabilidade.With the objective to evaluate the influence of the temperature in percentage of germination and the germination velocity index (GVI of seeds of Annona montana, a potencial specie for a rootstock to the comercial varieties, were tested four temperatures (20, 25, 30 and 35ºC. The research was carried in conditions of laboratory, in chamber of germination type BOD using seeds of tree plants that came from the Germplasm Bank of the Department of Vegetable Production of the Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias UNESP, Campus of Jaboticabal, São Paulo state, Brazil. The experimental delineation was entirely randomized, and four replications with ten seeds in each one. By the obtained

  16. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Williston Basin Province of North Dakota, Montana, and South Dakota, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2011-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment method, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered volumes of 3.8 billion barrels of undiscovered oil, 3.7 trillion cubic feet of associated/dissolved natural gas, and 0.2 billion barrels of undiscovered natural gas liquids in the Williston Basin Province, North Dakota, Montana, and South Dakota. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed a comprehensive oil and gas assessment of the Williston Basin, which encompasses more than 90 million acres in parts of North Dakota, eastern Montana, and northern South Dakota. The assessment is based on the geologic elements of each total petroleum system (TPS) defined in the province, including hydrocarbon source rocks (source-rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation, and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). Using this geologic framework, the USGS defined 11 TPS and 19 Assessment Units (AU).

  17. Predicting attitude toward methamphetamine use: the role of antidrug campaign exposure and conversations about meth in Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Adam S

    2014-01-01

    This investigation utilized the integrative model of behavioral prediction to assess the Montana Meth Project (MMP) campaign by testing theoretical antecedents of attitude toward methamphetamine (meth) use. College students in Montana (N = 403) were surveyed about their exposure to MMP ads and communication about meth in conversation. Structural equation modeling showed that the data fit the specified model well. Significant parameters indicated that only beliefs about the negative relational outcomes of meth use, and not about personal well-being or physical appearance, were related to attitude. Attention, rather than encoded exposure, to MMP ads related to each belief about meth use. Conversation frequency related to engagement with MMP ads, and a conversational partner's conveyed attitude toward meth use related to personal and physical beliefs as well as attitudes. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  18. Metronidazole (Flagyl) and Arnica Montana in the prevention of post-surgical complications, a comparative placebo controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaziro, G S

    1984-02-01

    A double blind trial, was designed, in which 118 patients undergoing the removal of impacted wisdom teeth were randomly divided into the following groups; 41 patients received Metronidazole, 39 patients received Arnica Montana, 38 patients received the placebo. Metronidazole was more effective in pain control than Arnica (p less than 0.001) and placebo (p less than 0.01). It prevented swelling better than Arnica (p less than 0.01) and placebo (p less than 0.05) and was more effective in promoting healing than Arnica (p less than 0.01) and placebo (p greater than 0.02). Arnica Montana appeared to give rise to greater pain than placebo (p less than 0.05) and caused more swelling than the placebo (p less than 0.01).

  19. Environmental Assessment, Minuteman III and Peacekeeper Silo Elimination, Malmstrom AFB, Montana; F. E. Warren AFB, Wyoming; and Vandenberg AFB, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    so small watersheds can receive heavy rainfall for short durations, and localized flooding can occur. However, because of the nature of the...and topography of the air basin, and the prevailing meteorological conditions. The significance of a pollutant concentration is determined by...Demographic information from the U.S. Bureau of the Census was used to extract data on minority, low-income, and child populations within Montana and

  20. A New Specimen of the Controversial Chasmosaurine Torosaurus latus (Dinosauria: Ceratopsidae) from the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation of Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Andrew T; Campbell, Carl E; Thomas, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Torosaurus latus is an uncommon and contentious taxon of chasmosaurine ceratopsid known from several upper Maastrichtian units in western North America. We describe a partial parietal of To. latus from the Hell Creek Formation of Montana. Although the specimen's ontogenetic maturity means that it cannot inform the ongoing debate over whether To. latus is the old adult form of the contemporary Triceratops, the specimen is one of the best-preserved To. latus parietals and supplements previous descriptions.

  1. A New Specimen of the Controversial Chasmosaurine Torosaurus latus (Dinosauria: Ceratopsidae from the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation of Montana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew T McDonald

    Full Text Available Torosaurus latus is an uncommon and contentious taxon of chasmosaurine ceratopsid known from several upper Maastrichtian units in western North America. We describe a partial parietal of To. latus from the Hell Creek Formation of Montana. Although the specimen's ontogenetic maturity means that it cannot inform the ongoing debate over whether To. latus is the old adult form of the contemporary Triceratops, the specimen is one of the best-preserved To. latus parietals and supplements previous descriptions.

  2. Effects of the serjania erecta and zeyheria montana ethanol extracts in experimental pulpitis in rats: a histological study

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate, by the semi-quantitative histological analysis, the anti-inflammatory activity of the ethanolic extracts of Serjania erecta e Zeyheria Montana, in experimental pulpits in rats. Study Design: In order to induce pulp inflammation, cavities were performed on the occlusal surface of the mandibular first molars of 45 male rats, without pulp exposure. The animals were distributed into 4 groups: GI, teeth without cavities; GII, single dose of saline...

  3. MEKC as an Improved Method to Detect Falsifications in the Flowers of Arnica montana and A. chamissonis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietta, P G; Mauri, P L; Bruno, A; Merfort, I

    1994-08-01

    ARNICA MONTANA and ARNICA CHAMISSONIS ssp. FOLIOSA flowers are often adultered by blending them with those from HETEROTHECA INULOIDES. TLC, HPLC, and TSP LC/MS have been proposed to detect this kind of falsification. A new method based on micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) has been developed. This procedure permits us to characterize rapidly each drug and to detect easily falsifications from H. INULOIDES in ARNICA drugs.

  4. Records on floral biology and visitors of Jacquemontia montana (Moric. Meisn. (Convolvulaceae in Mucugê, Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FO. Silva

    Full Text Available We present the first records on pollination biology of Jacquemontia montana (Moric. Meisn. (Convolvulaceae, a widespread climber in the Chapada Diamantina. Our objectives were to (1 characterise flower morphology and biology of J. montana; (2 sample flower visitors and (3 make inferences about potential pollinators, based on foraging behaviour. Observations and sampling were performed on two patches from 8:00 AM to 3:30 PM, May 15th to 16th, 2007. The corolla is bowl shaped, pentamerous, gamopetalous, actinomorphic, and yellow, with a mean diameter of 22.43 ± 1.81 mm, the depth being variable during flower phases. Stigma receptivity lasted from 8:00 AM-3:30 PM and pollen viability from 9:00 AM-3:30 PM Pollen. showed great decline in number but not in viability during anthesis. Nectarivorous (Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and herbivorous (Orthoptera insects were found on the flowers. Both male and female bees (Dialictus spp., Robertson 1902 were the most frequent flower visitor. The bees' behaviour, and time spent on flowers, varied according to the resource gathered (i.e., pollen or nectar. The Dialictus species are likely to be the main pollinator of J. montana, considering the frequency, contact with reproductive parts, and carrying only J. montana pollen spread over the ventral part of the thorax, abdomen and legs. Although not quantified, nectar may still be available in the afternoon, considering the behaviour of bees on flowers during this time. Pollen:ovule ration that was1.200:4, suggests facultative xenogamy.

  5. Comparative Ability of Oropsylla montana and Xenopsylla cheopis Fleas to Transmit Yersinia pestis by Two Different Mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Joseph Hinnebusch

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of Yersinia pestis by flea bite can occur by two mechanisms. After taking a blood meal from a bacteremic mammal, fleas have the potential to transmit the very next time they feed. This early-phase transmission resembles mechanical transmission in some respects, but the mechanism is unknown. Thereafter, transmission occurs after Yersinia pestis forms a biofilm in the proventricular valve in the flea foregut. The biofilm can impede and sometimes completely block the ingestion of blood, resulting in regurgitative transmission of bacteria into the bite site. In this study, we compared the relative efficiency of the two modes of transmission for Xenopsylla cheopis, a flea known to become completely blocked at a high rate, and Oropsylla montana, a flea that has been considered to rarely develop proventricular blockage.Fleas that took an infectious blood meal containing Y. pestis were maintained and monitored for four weeks for infection and proventricular blockage. The number of Y. pestis transmitted by groups of fleas by the two modes of transmission was also determined. O. montana readily developed complete proventricular blockage, and large numbers of Y. pestis were transmitted by that mechanism both by it and by X. cheopis, a flea known to block at a high rate. In contrast, few bacteria were transmitted in the early phase by either species.A model system incorporating standardized experimental conditions and viability controls was developed to more reliably compare the infection, proventricular blockage and transmission dynamics of different flea vectors, and was used to resolve a long-standing uncertainty concerning the vector competence of O. montana. Both X. cheopis and O. montana are fully capable of transmitting Y. pestis by the proventricular biofilm-dependent mechanism.

  6. Water-resources activities of the U.S. Geological Survey in Montana, October 1991 through September 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midtlyng, K. S.; Harksen, C.J.

    1993-01-01

    Water-resources programs and activities of the U.S. Geological Survey in Montana consist principally of hydrologic-data collection and investigative studies that address water-resource issues. The work is supported by direct Federal funding, by transfer of funds from other Federal agencies, and by joint funding agreements with State or local agencies. The Montana District of the Geological Survey's Water Resources Division conducts its hydrologic work through a District Office in Helena, and Field Headquarters in Helena, Billings, Fort Peck, and Kalispell. Twenty-seven projects are being con- ducted. As outlined in this report, these projects are operated under the general categories of data- collection programs and investigative studies. This report describes the projects funded for fiscal years 1992 and 1993. hi addition, it describes the operations of the Montana District, hydrologic conditions during water year 1992, activities in addition to regular programs, and sources of publications and information. It also lists reports published or released during the preceding 5 years.

  7. The flowering pattern of Arnica montana L. and A. chamissonis Less. under field cultivation conditions with successive flower head collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Sugier

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The research on the flowering of Arnica montana L. and A. chamissonis Less. was carried out in the years 2005-2006 on two- and three-year plantations on grey-brown podsolic soil with the granulometric composition of heavy clay sand. The aim of the work was to determine the pattern and length of flowering of two- and three-year-old plants under field cultivation conditions with successive flower head collection. The flowering of Arnica montana in both years of study lasted 26 days (from the 28th of May to the 22nd of June. In this period, eight collections of flower heads were made. When analyzing the number of inflorescences gathered during particular collections, it was concluded that at the initial stage of flowering it was not great, but it successively increased with the passage of time up to the seventh collection. The pattern of flowering of the two- and three-year-old Arnica montana plants was similar. The inflorescences of Arnica chamissonis were collected six times, and the most abundant flowering was found in the middle period of this stage, which lasted 20 days.

  8. Globalization and Adult Education: Theoretical and Methodological Reflections. Paper presented at the 5th ISCAE conference, Las Vegas, Montana, USA, 3-6 November

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milana, Marcella

    2012-01-01

    to common vocabulary and agendas in the field of adult education and hence the impact on communication and governance in the area, both from top-down and bottom-up perspectives. Several scholars in education argue for the need to reintegrate the dialectic between micro- and macro-levels through political...... sociological and anthropological perspectives. In the field of adult education reintegrating such dialect could help in tackling the following issues: • Transnational organisations and the state: Much research on adult education either ignores or undervalues the conditioning effects that result from increased...... to be influencing the position of adult education within a broader developmental agenda. What are the implications in very different contexts? How do they help reduce the North-South divide? In an attempt to reintegrate the dialectic between micro- and macro-levels in comparative adult education research...

  9. Roads impact the distribution of noxious weeds more than restoration treatments in a lodgepole pine forest in Montana, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer L. Birdsall; Ward McCaughey; Justin B. Runyon

    2012-01-01

    A century of fire suppression has created unnaturally dense stands in many western North American forests, and silviculture treatments are being increasingly used to reduce fuels to mitigate wildfire hazards and manage insect infestations. Thinning prescriptions have the potential to restore forests to a more historically sustainable state, but land managers need to be...

  10. A shallow subsurface controlled release facility in Bozeman, Montana, USA, for testing near surface CO2 detection techniques and transport models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spangler, Lee H.; Dobeck, Laura M.; Repasky, Kevin S.; Nehrir, Amin R.; Humphries, Seth D.; Barr, Jamie L.; Keith, Charlie J.; Shaw, Joseph A.; Rouse, Joshua H.; Cunningham, Alfred B.; Benson, Sally M.; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Lewicki, Jennifer L.; Wells, Arthur W.; Diehl, J. R.; Strazisar, Brian; Fessenden, Julianna; Rahn, Thom A.; Amonette, James E.; Barr, Jonathan L.; Pickles, William L.; Jacobson, James D.; Silver, Eli A.; Male, Erin J.; Rauch, Henry W.; Gullickson, Kadie; Trautz, Robert; Kharaka, Yousif; Birkholzer, Jens; Wielopolski, Lucien

    2010-03-01

    A facility has been constructed to perform controlled shallow releases of CO2 at flow rates that challenge near surface detection techniques and can be scalable to desired retention rates of large scale CO2 storage projects. Preinjection measurements were made to determine background conditions and characterize natural variability at the site. Modeling of CO2 transport and concentration in saturated soil and the vadose zone was also performed to inform decisions about CO2 release rates and sampling strategies. Four releases of CO2 were carried out over the summer field seasons of 2007 and 2008. Transport of CO2 through soil, water, plants, and air was studied using near surface detection techniques. Soil CO2 flux, soil gas concentration, total carbon in soil, water chemistry, plant health, net CO2 flux, atmospheric CO2 concentration, movement of tracers, and stable isotope ratios were among the quantities measured. Even at relatively low fluxes, most techniques were able to detect elevated levels of CO2 in the soil, atmosphere, or water. Plant stress induced by CO2 was detectable above natural seasonal variations.

  11. LHV soovib USA-s kohtuvälist kokkulepet / Toivo Tänavsuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tänavsuu, Toivo

    2005-01-01

    Kohtuväline kokkulepe LHV ja USA väärtpaberituru järelevalveasutuse SEC vahel tähendaks külmutatud väärtpaberikontode avamist, ent tõenäoliselt ka seda, et LHV peab maksma trahvi. Kohtuistungil USA-s esindavad LHV töötajaid Kristjan Lepikut ja Oliver Peeki advokaadid. Lisa: Teisedki on "sundpuhkusel"

  12. Ilves kritiseeris USA juhtidega Venemaad / Dagne Hanschmidt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hanschmidt, Dagne

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 21. apr. lk. 4. President Toomas Hendrik Ilves kohtus töövisiidil Ameerika Ühendriikidesse USA asepresidendi Dick Cheney ja riigisekretär Condoleezza Rice'iga. Arutusel olid Euroopa Liidu suhted Venemaaga, Venemaa käitumine Gruusiaga, NATO viimase tippkohtumise tulemused. USA välisminister C. Rice avaldas Eesti presidendile tänu Eesti silmapaistva panuse eest Afganistanis. Kohtumisi kommenteerivad Riigikogu Euroopa Liidu asjade komisjoni esimees Marko Mihkelson ja Riigikogu väliskomisjoni esimees Sven Mikser. Vt. samas: Euroliit andis USA viisavabadusele rohelise tee. Euroopa Liidu sise- ja justiitsministrite kohtumisel kiideti heaks otsused, mis võimaldavad Eestil liituda USA viisavabadusprogrammiga. Vabariigi President töövisiidil Ameerika Ühendriikides 17.-23.04.2008

  13. Ilves kritiseeris USA juhtidega Venemaad / Dagne Hanschmidt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hanschmidt, Dagne

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 21. apr. lk. 4. President Toomas Hendrik Ilves kohtus töövisiidil Ameerika Ühendriikidesse USA asepresidendi Dick Cheney ja riigisekretär Condoleezza Rice'iga. Arutusel olid Euroopa Liidu suhted Venemaaga, Venemaa käitumine Gruusiaga, NATO viimase tippkohtumise tulemused. USA välisminister C. Rice avaldas Eesti presidendile tänu Eesti silmapaistva panuse eest Afganistanis. Kohtumisi kommenteerivad Riigikogu Euroopa Liidu asjade komisjoni esimees Marko Mihkelson ja Riigikogu väliskomisjoni esimees Sven Mikser. Vt. samas: Euroliit andis USA viisavabadusele rohelise tee. Euroopa Liidu sise- ja justiitsministrite kohtumisel kiideti heaks otsused, mis võimaldavad Eestil liituda USA viisavabadusprogrammiga. Vabariigi President töövisiidil Ameerika Ühendriikides 17.-23.04.2008

  14. Skandaal USAs : Obamat kujutati islamiterroristina / Aadu Hiietamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hiietamm, Aadu, 1954-

    2008-01-01

    The New Yorkeri esiküljel ilmus karikatuur, kus USA demokraatide presidendikandidaati Barack Obamat ja tema abikaasat Michelle'i kujutati islamiterroristidena, karikaturisti väitel joonistas ta selle Obama laimajate naeruvääristamiseks

  15. Endise USA vastuluuraja naasmine / Priit Pullerits

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pullerits, Priit, 1965-

    2008-01-01

    USA poliitikateaduste professorist Christopher L. Kukest, kes käesoleval õppeaastal töötab Fulbright Scholar programmi stipendiaadina Tartu Ülikoolis. Lisa: CV. Kommenteerib Tartu Ülikooli riigiteaduste instituudi doktorant Mihkel Solvak

  16. Gridded bathymetry of Kahoolawe Island, Hawaii, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry (10m) of Kahoolawe Island, Hawaii, USA. The data include multibeam bathymetry from the EM120, EM122, EM710, EM1020, and EM1002 multibeam sonar...

  17. USA tantsupress soovitab: Tiit Helimets! / Tiit Tuumalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuumalu, Tiit, 1971-

    2007-01-01

    Eesti balletitantsijast Tiit Helimetsast, kes töötab alates 2005. aastast San Francisko balleti juhtsolistina. Lisatud nimekiri eesti tantsijatest välistruppides. USA tantsuajakirjas "Dance Magazine" ilmunud artiklist "25, keda vaadata"

  18. Endise USA vastuluuraja naasmine / Priit Pullerits

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pullerits, Priit, 1965-

    2008-01-01

    USA poliitikateaduste professorist Christopher L. Kukest, kes käesoleval õppeaastal töötab Fulbright Scholar programmi stipendiaadina Tartu Ülikoolis. Lisa: CV. Kommenteerib Tartu Ülikooli riigiteaduste instituudi doktorant Mihkel Solvak

  19. Green Algae from Coal Bed Methane Ponds as a Source of Fertilizer for Economically Important Plants of Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunsakin, O. R.; Apple, M. E.; Zhou, X.; Peyton, B.

    2016-12-01

    The Tongue River Basin of northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana is the location of natural gas reserves and coal bed methane (CBM) acreage. Although the water that emanates from CBM extraction varies with site, it is generally of higher quality than the waters produced by conventional oil and gas wells, in part because it is low in volatile organic compounds. However, since CBM water contains dissolved solids, including sodium (Na), bicarbonate (HCO3) and chloride (Cl) ions, the water must be treated before it can be discharged into the river or wetlands, or used for stock ponds or irrigation. Several ponds have been constructed to serve as a holding facility for CBM water. Algae from the CBM ponds of the Tongue River Basin have the potential to be utilized as fertilizer on economically important plants of Montana. Two very important crop plants of Montana are wheat, Triticum aestivum, and potatoes, Solanum tuberosum. To explore this potential, isolates of unicellular green algae (Chlorella sp.) from the CBM ponds were cultured in aerated vessels with Bold's Basic Growth Medium and natural and/or supplemental light. Algal biomass was condensed in and collected from a valved funnel, after which cell density was determined via light microscopy and a hemacytometer. Algal/water slurries with known nutrient contents were added to seedlings of hard winter wheat, T.aestivum, grown in a greenhouse for three months before harves. When compared to wheat provided with just water, or with water and a commercially available fertilizer, the wheat fertilized with algae had a higher chlorophyll content, more tillers (side shoots), and a higher ratio of influorescences (groups of flowers) per stem. In a related experiment, Ranger Russet seed potatoes, S. tuberosum were given just water, water and Hoagland's nutrient solution, or water with algae in order to compare aboveground growth and potato production among the treatments. The results of this study suggest that

  20. Travel times, streamflow velocities, and dispersion rates in the Missouri River upstream from Canyon Ferry Lake, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, Aroscott

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Montana Department of Environmental Quality, initiated a dye-tracer study to determine travel times, streamflow velocities, and longitudinal dispersion rates for the Missouri River upstream from Canyon Ferry Lake. For this study, rhodamine WT (RWT) dye was injected at two locations, Missouri River Headwaters State Park in early September and Broadwater-Missouri Dam (Broadwater Dam) in late August 2010. Dye concentrations were measured at three sites downstream from each dye-injection location. The study area was a 41.2-mile reach of the Missouri River from Trident, Montana, at the confluence of the Jefferson, Madison, and Gallatin Rivers (Missouri River Headwaters) at river mile 2,319.40 downstream to the U.S. Route 12 Bridge (Townsend Bridge), river mile 2,278.23, near Townsend, Montana. Streamflows were reasonably steady and ranged from 3,070 to 3,700 cubic feet per second. Mean velocities were calculated for each subreach between measurement sites for the leading edge, peak concentration, centroid, and trailing edge at 10 percent of the peak concentration of the dye plume. Calculated velocities for the centroid of the dye plume ranged from 0.80 to 3.02 feet per second within the study reach from Missouri River Headwaters to Townsend Bridge, near Townsend. The mean velocity of the dye plume for the entire study reach, excluding the subreach between the abandoned Milwaukee Railroad bridge at Lombard, Montana (Milwaukee Bridge) and Broadwater-Missouri Dam (Broadwater Dam), was 2.87 feet per second. The velocity of the centroid of the dye plume for the subreach between Milwaukee Bridge and Broadwater Dam (Toston Reservoir) was 0.80 feet per second. The residence time for Toston Reservoir was 8.2 hours during this study. Estimated longitudinal dispersion rates of the dye plume for this study ranged from 0.72 feet per second for the subreach from Milwaukee Bridge to Broadwater Dam to 2.26 feet per second for