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Sample records for montana populations influence

  1. Variation of sesquiterpene lactone contents in different Arnica montana populations: influence of ecological parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seemann, Andreas; Wallner, Teresa; Poschlod, Peter; Heilmann, Jörg

    2010-05-01

    In ten grassland or heathland sites along a geographic (north to south) and climatic gradient in Germany, flowerheads of Arnica montana were collected, and the total content of sesquiterpene lactones (SLs) as well as the content of the detected single compounds were determined. The ratios of helenalin (H)- and corresponding 11 alpha,13-dihydrohelenalin(DH)-type compounds were calculated. All habitats were characterised concerning the climatic and soil conditions, and the values obtained were correlated with SL contents according to univariate statistical analyses. All populations showed very similar and constant ratios of helenalin ( 1)/11 alpha,13-dihydrohelenalin ( 2) at around 1.5-2/1 irrespective of different ecological parameters. The ratio of helenalin/11 alpha,13-dihydrohelenalin esters was several fold higher in all samples, but it was nearly identical in every habitat among each other, except for the helenalin/11 alpha,13-dihydrohelenalin 2-methylbutyrate pair ( 5/ 11), which showed a constantly twofold higher H/DH ratio. However, the 6- O-isovalerylhelenalin content ( 6) showed highly significant correlations to climatic factors.

  2. Waterfowl breeding population survey for Montana: 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for Montana during 1993. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide information on...

  3. Waterfowl breeding population survey for Montana: 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for Montana during 1998. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide information on...

  4. Waterfowl breeding population survey for Montana: May 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for Montana during 1981. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide information on...

  5. Individual- and population-level effects of Odocoileus virginianus herbivory on the rare forest herb Scutellaria montana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea R. Benson

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Odocoileus virginianus  (white-tailed deer grazing can impact rare plant species dramatically given their risk for local extirpation and extinction. To determine if O. virginianus management could aid conservation of federally threatened Scutellaria montana  (large-flowered skullcap, we conducted an exclosure experiment across a large occurrence of this rare species in Catoosa County, Georgia, USA. We aimed to: (1 quantify the effects of O. virginianus  grazing on S. montana  individuals, and (2 evaluate the potential of O. virginianus  to influence S. montana  populations. A lesser percentage of S. montana  individuals protected from O. virginianus  were grazed than plants accessible to grazers and additional protection from smaller grazers did not reduce grazing, suggesting that O. virginianus  primarily do graze S. montana. But grazing did not significantly influence S. montana  individuals as evidenced by changes in stem height or the number of leaves per plant assessed during two single growing seasons or across those growing seasons. At the population-level, grazing impacts were buffered by a lack of grazer preferences for specific plant life stages. Although mostly not significant, our findings are biologically interesting given the numerous ecological concerns associated with O. virginianus abundance, including their demonstrated and proposed impact on rare plants.

  6. Linking resource selection and mortality modeling for population estimation of mountain lions in Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Hugh S.; Ruth, Toni K.; Gude, Justin A.; Choate, David; DeSimone, Rich; Hebblewhite, Mark; Matchett, Marc R.; Mitchell, Michael S.; Murphy, Kerry; Williams, Jim

    2015-01-01

    To be most effective, the scale of wildlife management practices should match the range of a particular species’ movements. For this reason, combined with our inability to rigorously or regularly census mountain lion populations, several authors have suggested that mountain lions be managed in a source-sink or metapopulation framework. We used a combination of resource selection functions, mortality estimation, and dispersal modeling to estimate cougar population levels in Montana statewide and potential population level effects of planned harvest levels. Between 1980 and 2012, 236 independent mountain lions were collared and monitored for research in Montana. From these data we used 18,695 GPS locations collected during winter from 85 animals to develop a resource selection function (RSF), and 11,726 VHF and GPS locations from 142 animals along with the locations of 6343 mountain lions harvested from 1988–2011 to validate the RSF model. Our RSF model validated well in all portions of the State, although it appeared to perform better in Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks (MFWP) Regions 1, 2, 4 and 6, than in Regions 3, 5, and 7. Our mean RSF based population estimate for the total population (kittens, juveniles, and adults) of mountain lions in Montana in 2005 was 3926, with almost 25% of the entire population in MFWP Region 1. Estimates based on a high and low reference population estimates produce a possible range of 2784 to 5156 mountain lions statewide. Based on a range of possible survival rates we estimated the mountain lion population in Montana to be stable to slightly increasing between 2005 and 2010 with lambda ranging from 0.999 (SD = 0.05) to 1.02 (SD = 0.03). We believe these population growth rates to be a conservative estimate of true population growth. Our model suggests that proposed changes to female harvest quotas for 2013–2015 will result in an annual statewide population decline of 3% and shows that, due to reduced dispersal, changes to

  7. Differences in the chemical composition of Arnica montana flowers from wild populations of north Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauser, Maria; Aiello, Nicola; Scartezzini, Fabrizio; Innocenti, Gabbriella; Dall'Acqua, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    The flower heads of fourteen wild Arnica montana L. populations were collected in the summer of 2010 in the provinces of Trento, Brescia and Bergamo (Italy). The dried flowers were analyzed to assess their chemical diversity. HLPC-MS analysis led to the identification of phenolic derivatives and sesquiterpene lactones in the samples, confirming literature data. Quali-quantitative analysis of the flower heads showed similar qualitative patterns both for the phenolic as well as sesquiterpene lactone derivatives, while significant variability was obtained in the amounts (HPLC-DAD) of sesquiterpene lactones (0.45-2.31%), phenolic acids (1.44-2.88%) and flavonoids (0.96-2.44%). The highest quantities of sesquiterpene lactones, flavonoids and phenolic acids were found in Malga Fregasoga (1703 m above sea level), Rifugio Camini (1608 m a.s.l.) and Malga Sass (1817 m a.s.l.) samples, respectively.

  8. Grizzly bear population vital rates and trend in the Northern Continental Divide Ecosystem, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, R.D.; Carney, D.W.; Chilton-Radandt, T.; Courville, S.A.; Haroldson, M.A.; Harris, R.B.; Jonkel, J.; McLellan, B.; Madel, M.; Manley, T.L.; Schwartz, C.C.; Servheen, C.; Stenhouse, G.; Waller, J.S.; Wenum, E.

    2012-01-01

    We estimated grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) population vital rates and trend for the Northern Continental Divide Ecosystem (NCDE), Montana, between 2004 and 2009 by following radio-collared females and observing their fate and reproductive performance. Our estimates of dependent cub and yearling survival were 0.612 (95% CI = 0.300–0.818) and 0.682 (95% CI = 0.258–0.898). Our estimates of subadult and adult female survival were 0.852 (95% CI = 0.628–0.951) and 0.952 (95% CI = 0.892–0.980). From visual observations, we estimated a mean litter size of 2.00 cubs/litter. Accounting for cub mortality prior to the first observations of litters in spring, our adjusted mean litter size was 2.27 cubs/litter. We estimated the probabilities of females transitioning from one reproductive state to another between years. Using the stable state probability of 0.322 (95% CI = 0.262–0.382) for females with cub litters, our adjusted fecundity estimate (mx) was 0.367 (95% CI = 0.273–0.461). Using our derived rates, we estimated that the population grew at a mean annual rate of approximately 3% (λ = 1.0306, 95% CI = 0.928–1.102), and 71.5% of 10,000 Monte Carlo simulations produced estimates of λ > 1.0. Our results indicate an increasing population trend of grizzly bears in the NCDE. Coupled with concurrent studies of population size, we estimate that over 1,000 grizzly bears reside in and adjacent to this recovery area. We suggest that monitoring of population trend and other vital rates using radioed females be continued.

  9. Factors influencing the distribution of native bull trout and westslope cutthroat trout in western Glacier National Park, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Vincent S.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.

    2013-01-01

    The widespread declines of native bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi) populations prompted researchers to investigate factors influencing their distribution and status in western Glacier National Park, Montana. We evaluated the association of a suite of abiotic factors (stream width, elevation, gradient, large woody debris density, pool density, August mean stream temperature, reach surface area) with the occurrence (presence or absence) of bull trout and westslope cutthroat trout in 79 stream reaches in five sub-drainages containing glacial lakes. We modeled the occurrence of each species using logistic regression and evaluated competing models using an information theoretic approach. Westslope cutthroat trout were widely distributed (47 of 79 reaches), and there appeared to be no restrictions on their distribution other than physical barriers. Westslope cutthroat trout were most commonly found in relatively warm reaches downstream of lakes and in headwater reaches with large amounts of large woody debris and abundant pools. By contrast, bull trout were infrequently detected (10 of 79 reaches), with 7 of the 10 (70%) detections in sub-drainages that have not been compromised by non-native lake trout (S. namaycush). Bull trout were most often found in cold, low-gradient reaches upstream of glacial lakes. Our results indicate that complex stream habitats in sub-drainages free of non-native species are important to the persistence of native salmonids in western Glacier National Park. Results from this study may help managers monitor and protect important habitats and populations, inform conservation and recovery programs, and guide non-native species suppression efforts in Glacier National Park and elsewhere.

  10. Climate-influenced ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa seed masting trends in western Montana, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Keyes

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The aim of this study was to analyze 10-year records of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa seed production, in order to confirm synchronic seed production and to evaluate cyclical masting trends, masting depletion effect, and climate-masting relationships. Area of study: The study area was located in a P. ponderosa stand in the northern Rocky Mountains (western Montana, USA. Material and methods: The study was conducted in one stand that had been subjected to a silvicultural study of uneven-aged management techniques that was carried out in 1984, and which resulted in three separate units consisting of one control, one cut/no-burn treatment, and one cut/burn treatment. Seeds were collected during the 10 years following treatment in 15 traps systematically deployed within each of the stand’s three units. The total numbers of seeds collected in each unit were plotted over time to analyze crop synchrony, with Spearman rank correlation coefficient used to test for masting cycles and crop depletion after a mast year. Meteorological records over the period 1983-1994 were related to the occurrence of a mast event (defined as crops exceeding 50,000 viable seeds/ha. Main results: The seed production pattern was non-cyclical, synchronous, and independent of silvicultural treatment history. A mast-depletion effect was evident but was not statistically significant. Mast events seem to be promoted by the occurrence of optimum mean temperatures at the beginning of spring during both the first (11 °C and second (9 °C years of cone maturation. The probability of a mast year was also affected by summer temperature (number of late frost days; negative effect and precipitation amount (positive effect. All these factors would seemingly explain the observed synchronous pattern in cone production. Research highlights: The non-cyclical trend of ponderosa pine seed mast years is influenced by specific climate determinants. Fluctuations in mean early

  11. Influência da temperatura na germinação de sementes de Annona Montana Influence of the temperature on seed germination of Annona Montana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inez Vilar de Morais Oliveira

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a influência da temperatura sobre a porcentagem de germinação e o índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG de sementes de Annona montana, conhecida como falsa graviola, espécie com potencial para porta-enxerto das variedades comerciais, testaram-se quatro temperaturas (20; 25; 30 e 35ºC. O trabalho foi desenvolvido em laboratório em câmaras de germinação tipo BOD, utilizando-se de sementes de três plantas provenientes do Banco de Germoplasma do Departamento de Produção Vegetal da Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias - UNESP, Câmpus de Jaboticabal-SP. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições, com dez sementes cada. Pelos resultados obtidos, tem-se que tanto para o parâmetro porcentagem de germinação como para o IVG, os maiores valores observados foram para as sementes na temperatura de 30ºC (55% de germinação e IVG = 0,153, seguido da temperatura de 25ºC (25% de germinação e IVG = 0,088. Para as temperaturas de 20ºC e 35ºC, não foi observada ocorrência de germinação. A análise estatística dos dados de porcentagem de germinação foi transformada em arc-sen square root (x/100 e as médias foram comparadas pelo teste de Tukey, a 5% de probabilidade.With the objective to evaluate the influence of the temperature in percentage of germination and the germination velocity index (GVI of seeds of Annona montana, a potencial specie for a rootstock to the comercial varieties, were tested four temperatures (20, 25, 30 and 35ºC. The research was carried in conditions of laboratory, in chamber of germination type BOD using seeds of tree plants that came from the Germplasm Bank of the Department of Vegetable Production of the Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias UNESP, Campus of Jaboticabal, São Paulo state, Brazil. The experimental delineation was entirely randomized, and four replications with ten seeds in each one. By the obtained

  12. Climate-influenced ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) seed masting trends in western Montana, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher R. Keyes; Rubén Manso González

    2015-01-01

    Aim of study: The aim of this study was to analyze 10-year records of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) seed production, in order to confirm synchronic seed production and to evaluate cyclical masting trends, masting depletion effect, and climate-masting relationships. Area of study: The study area was located in a P. ponderosa stand in the northern Rocky Mountains (western Montana, USA). Material and methods: The study was conducted in one stand that had been subjected to a silvicul...

  13. Bighorn sheep habitat studies, population dynamics, and population modeling in Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area, Wyoming and Montana, 2000-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Francis J.; Schoenecker, Kathryn A.

    2004-01-01

    At the request of National Park Service resource managers, we began a study in 2000 to evaluate causes for the decline of the bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) population inhabiting Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area (BICA), the Pryor Mountain Wild Horse Range, and surrounding state and U.S. Forest Service lands in Montana and Wyoming. Our study consisted of radio-collaring adult rams and ewes with mortality sensors to monitor adult mortalities, tracking ewes to determine pregnancy and lambing rates, habitat assessments to determine why the population was not expanding into what had been modeled using GIS methodology as suitable bighorn sheep habitat, measuring ungulate herbaceous consumption rates and herbaceous production to determine plant responses, and aerial and boat surveys to determine bighorn sheep population range and population dynamics (Schoenecker and others, this report). Two habitat suitability models were created and conducted (Gudorf, this report; Wockner and others, this report) using different methodologies, and comparisons made between the two. Herd population dynamics were modeled using the POP-II and POP-III programs (Roelle, this report), and a reassessment of ungulate exclosures that were established 8–10 years ago was conducted (Gerhardt, this report).

  14. Nitrogen spatial heterogeneity influences diversity following restoration in a ponderosa pine forest, Montana.

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    Gundale, Michael J; Metlen, Kerry L; Fiedler, Carl E; DeLuca, Thomas H

    2006-04-01

    The resource heterogeneity hypothesis (RHH) is frequently cited in the ecological literature as an important mechanism for maintaining species diversity. The RHH has rarely been evaluated in the context of restoration ecology in which a commonly cited goal is to restore diversity. In this study we focused on the spatial heterogeneity of total inorganic nitrogen (TIN) following restoration treatments in a ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa)/Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forest in western Montana, USA. Our objective was to evaluate relationships between understory species richness and TIN heterogeneity following mechanical thinning (thin-only), prescribed burning (burn-only), and mechanical thinning with prescribed burning (thin/burn) to discern the ecological and management implications of these restoration approaches. We employed a randomized block design, with three 9-ha replicates of each treatment and an untreated control. Within each treatment, we randomly established a 20 x 50 m (1000 m2) plot in which we measured species richness across the entire plot and in 12 1-m(2) quadrats randomly placed within each larger plot. Additionally, we measured TIN from a grid consisting of 112 soil samples (0-5 cm) in each plot and computed standard deviations as a measure of heterogeneity. We found a correlation between the net increase in species richness and the TIN standard deviations one and two years following restoration treatments, supporting RHH. Using nonmetric multidimensional scaling ordination and chi-squared analysis, we found that high and low TIN quadrats contained different understory communities in 2003 and 2004, further supporting RHH. A comparison of restoration treatments demonstrated that thin/burn and burn-only treatments created higher N heterogeneity relative to the control. We also found that within prescribed burn treatments, TIN heterogeneity was positively correlated with fine-fuel consumption, a variable reflecting burn severity. These

  15. Vegetation, topography and daily weather influenced burn severity in central Idaho and western Montana forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan S. Birch; Penelope Morgan; Crystal A. Kolden; John T. Abatzoglou; Gregory K. Dillon; Andrew T. Hudak; Alistair M. S. Smith

    2015-01-01

    Burn severity as inferred from satellite-derived differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) is useful for evaluating fire impacts on ecosystems but the environmental controls on burn severity across large forest fires are both poorly understood and likely to be different than those influencing fire extent. We related dNBR to environmental variables including vegetation,...

  16. Montana StreamStats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-05

    About this volumeMontana StreamStats is a Web-based geographic information system (http://water.usgs.gov/osw/streamstats/) application that provides users with access to basin and streamflow characteristics for gaged and ungaged streams in Montana. Montana StreamStats was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Montana Departments of Transportation, Environmental Quality, and Natural Resources and Conservation. The USGS Scientific Investigations Report consists of seven independent but complementary chapters dealing with various aspects of this effort.Chapter A describes the Montana StreamStats application, the basin and streamflow datasets, and provides a brief overview of the streamflow characteristics and regression equations used in the study. Chapters B through E document the datasets, methods, and results of analyses to determine streamflow characteristics, such as peak-flow frequencies, low-flow frequencies, and monthly and annual characteristics, for USGS streamflow-gaging stations in and near Montana. The StreamStats analytical toolsets that allow users to delineate drainage basins and solve regression equations to estimate streamflow characteristics at ungaged sites in Montana are described in Chapters F and G.

  17. Influence of copper recovery on the water quality of the acidic Berkeley Pit lake, Montana, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucci, Nicholas J; Gammons, Christopher H

    2015-04-07

    The Berkeley Pit lake in Butte, Montana, formed by flooding of an open-pit copper mine, is one of the world's largest accumulations of acidic, metal-rich water. Between 2003 and 2012, approximately 2 × 10(11) L of pit water, representing 1.3 lake volumes, were pumped from the bottom of the lake to a copper recovery plant, where dissolved Cu(2+) was precipitated on scrap iron, releasing Fe(2+) back to solution and thence back to the pit. Artificial mixing caused by this continuous pumping changed the lake from a meromictic to holomictic state, induced oxidation of dissolved Fe(2+), and caused subsequent precipitation of more than 2 × 10(8) kg of secondary ferric compounds, mainly schwertmannite and jarosite, which settled to the bottom of the lake. A large mass of As, P, and sulfate was also lost from solution. These unforeseen changes in chemistry resulted in a roughly 25-30% reduction in the lake's calculated and measured total acidity, which represents a significant potential savings in the cost of lime treatment, which is not expected to commence until 2023. Future monitoring is needed to verify that schwertmannite and jarosite in the pit sediment do not convert to goethite, a process which would release stored acidity back to the water column.

  18. Forest regions of Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen F. Arno

    1979-01-01

    In this paper, Montana is divided into eight geographic subdivisions called "forest regions," based on distributions of tree and undergrowth species and the relationship of these patterns to climate and topography. The regions serve as a geographic reference for describing patterns of forest vegetation across the State. Data on the distributions of plant...

  19. Arnica montana L

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andreas, Ch.H.

    1958-01-01

    Een eventuele veelvormigheid van de wolverlei, Arnica montana L., heeft in ons land, voor zover mij bekend, geen aanleiding gegeven tot een onderverdeling dezer soort. In Portugal is dat wel het geval; A. de Bolos beschreef in 1948 in het tijdschrift Agronomia Lusitanica 2 ondersoorten voor het Iber

  20. Suicide Report: A Health Risk Behavior Comparison of Montana High School Students Based on Attempted Suicide. 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is administered by the Montana Office of Public Instruction every two years to students in grades 7 through 12. The purpose of the survey is to help monitor the prevalence of behaviors that not only influence youth health, but also put youth at risk for the most significant health and social problems…

  1. Smokers Report: A Health Risk Behavior Comparison of Montana High School Students Based on Current Smoking. 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is administered by the Montana Office of Public Instruction every two years to students in grades 7 through 12. The purpose of the survey is to help monitor the prevalence of behaviors that not only influence youth health, but also put youth at risk for the most significant health and social problems…

  2. Sports Team Participation: A Risk Behavior Comparison of Montana High School Students Based on Sports Team Participation. 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is administered by the Montana Office of Public Instruction every two years to students in grades 7 through 12. The purpose of the survey is to help monitor the prevalence of behaviors that not only influence youth health, but also put youth at risk for the most significant health and social problems…

  3. Students with Special Needs: A Health Risk Behavior Comparison of Montana High School Students Based on Special Education Assistance. 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is administered by the Montana Office of Public Instruction every two years to students in grades 7 through 12. The purpose of the survey is to help monitor the prevalence of behaviors that not only influence youth health, but also put youth at risk for the most significant health and social problems…

  4. Building Footprints - Montana Structures/Addresses Framework

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The Montana Structures/Addresses Framework is a statewide spatial database of structure and address points in the State of Montana. The Montana Structures/Addresses...

  5. Estimating current and future streamflow characteristics at ungaged sites, central and eastern Montana, with application to evaluating effects of climate change on fish populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sando, Roy; Chase, Katherine J.

    2017-03-23

    A common statistical procedure for estimating streamflow statistics at ungaged locations is to develop a relational model between streamflow and drainage basin characteristics at gaged locations using least squares regression analysis; however, least squares regression methods are parametric and make constraining assumptions about the data distribution. The random forest regression method provides an alternative nonparametric method for estimating streamflow characteristics at ungaged sites and requires that the data meet fewer statistical conditions than least squares regression methods.Random forest regression analysis was used to develop predictive models for 89 streamflow characteristics using Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System simulated streamflow data and drainage basin characteristics at 179 sites in central and eastern Montana. The predictive models were developed from streamflow data simulated for current (baseline, water years 1982–99) conditions and three future periods (water years 2021–38, 2046–63, and 2071–88) under three different climate-change scenarios. These predictive models were then used to predict streamflow characteristics for baseline conditions and three future periods at 1,707 fish sampling sites in central and eastern Montana. The average root mean square error for all predictive models was about 50 percent. When streamflow predictions at 23 fish sampling sites were compared to nearby locations with simulated data, the mean relative percent difference was about 43 percent. When predictions were compared to streamflow data recorded at 21 U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations outside of the calibration basins, the average mean absolute percent error was about 73 percent.

  6. Cuticular hydrocarbons of Drosophila montana: geographic variation, sexual dimorphism and potential roles as pheromones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Jackson H; Etges, William J; Schmitt, Thomas; Hoikkala, Anneli

    2014-02-01

    Sexual selection within populations can play an important role in speciation when divergence in mating signals and their corresponding preferences occur along different coevolutionary trajectories in different populations. In insects, one potential target of sexual selection is the blend of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs), which often show intra- and interspecific variation, sexual dimorphism and may act as pheromones. In Drosophila montana, a cold-adapted, circumboreal member of the Drosophila virilis species group, flies from different populations have been found to show significant premating isolation as well as variation in male mating signal (song) and female preference. While the role of male courtship song in mate choice has been studied extensively, CHCs in this species have received little attention. In this study, we identified most of the CHCs found on the cuticle of D. montana and characterized population divergence and sexual dimorphism of CHC profiles among flies established from three natural populations - one European and two North American. We also studied their potential role as pheromones by analyzing CHCs of flies used in female-choice mating experiments. We report significant population×sex effects on CHC profiles, as well as significant relationships between some CHC principal components and particular mating behaviours, such as female attractiveness and male mating success, providing evidence that CHCs may play a role in mate choice in this species. The study also provides evidence for variation in the degree to which CHCs play a role in chemical communication among these populations, which may have an influence on the speciation process itself, and could be due to variation in interactions with other closely-related species that occur sympatrically with D. montana in some, but not other, parts of its distribution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Social Organization in Montana. Montana Economic Study-Staff Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigart, Robert J.

    The four papers in this publication discusses Montana's social structure as it relates to culture, income, urbanism, and communal religious communities. "Montana Social Structure and Culture" includes rural and suburban life styles; the history of rural community organization; rural-small town communities; urban physical conditions;…

  8. Factors Influencing Food Choice in the Elderly Mauritian Population ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Influencing Food Choice in the Elderly Mauritian Population. ... in influencing food choices and thus food intake of the elderly people in Mauritius. A cross-sectional nutritional survey was carried out in different regions around the island ...

  9. Composition of leaf n-alkanes in three Satureja montana L. subspecies from the Balkan peninsula: ecological and taxonomic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodoš, Tanja; Rajčević, Nemanja; Tešević, Vele; Matevski, Vlado; Janaćković, Pedja; Marin, Petar D

    2015-01-01

    The composition of the epicuticular leaf n-alkanes of eight populations of three Satureja montana subspecies (S. montana L. subsp. pisidica (Wettst.) Šilić, S. montana L. subsp. montana, and S. montana L. subsp. variegata (Host) P. W. Ball), from central and western areas of the Balkan Peninsula was characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. In the leaf waxes, 15 n-alkane homologs with chain-lengths ranging from C21 to C35 were identified. The main n-alkane in almost all samples was n-nonacosane (C29 ), but differences in the contents of three other dominant n-alkanes allowed separating the coastal from the continental populations. The diversity and variability of the epicuticular-leaf-n-alkane patterns and their relation to different geographic and bioclimatic parameters were analyzed by several statistical methods (principal component, discriminant, and cluster analyses as well as the Mantel test). All tests showed a high correlation between the leaf n-alkane pattern and the geographical distribution of the investigated populations, confirming the differentiation between S. montana subsp. pisidica and the other two subspecies. The S. montana subsp. variegata and S. montana subsp. montana populations are geographically closer and their differentiation according to the leaf-n-alkane patterns was not clear, even though there was some indication of discrimination between them. Moreover, most of the bioclimatic parameters related to temperature were highly correlated with the differentiation of the coastal and the continental populations.

  10. The influence of snow depth and surface air temperature on satellite-derived microwave brightness temperature. [central Russian steppes, and high plains of Montana, North Dakota, and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, J. L.; Hall, D. K.; Chang, A. T. C.; Rango, A.; Allison, L. J.; Diesen, B. C., III

    1980-01-01

    Areas of the steppes of central Russia, the high plains of Montana and North Dakota, and the high plains of Canada were studied in an effort to determine the relationship between passive microwave satellite brightness temperature, surface air temperature, and snow depth. Significant regression relationships were developed in each of these homogeneous areas. Results show that sq R values obtained for air temperature versus snow depth and the ratio of microwave brightness temperature and air temperature versus snow depth were not as the sq R values obtained by simply plotting microwave brightness temperature versus snow depth. Multiple regression analysis provided only marginal improvement over the results obtained by using simple linear regression.

  11. Karyomorphometric analysis of Fritillaria montana group in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Samaropoulou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Fritillaria Linnaeus, 1753 (Liliaceae is a genus of geophytes, represented in Greece by 29 taxa. Most of the Greek species are endemic to the country and/or threatened. Although their classical cytotaxonomic studies have already been presented, no karyomorphometric analysis has ever been given. In the present study, the cytological results of Fritillaria montana Hoppe ex W.D.J. Koch, 1832 group, which includes F. epirotica Turrill ex Rix, 1975 and F. montana are statistically evaluated for the first time. Further indices about interchromosomal and intrachromosomal asymmetry are given. A new population of F. epirotica is also investigated, while for F. montana, a diploid individual was found in a known as triploid population. Paired t-tests and PCoA analysis have been applied to compare the two species.

  12. Developing a Climate Change Boundary Organization: the Montana Adaptation Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlock, C. L.; Brooks, S.; Armstrong, T.; Bryan, B.

    2016-12-01

    Small-population large-area states like Montana are often challenged by a need to offer timely and relevant climate-change information that addresses diverse and widely dispersed stakeholder groups. In Montana, filling the gap between science and various types of decision-makers has motivated development of the first Montana Climate Assessment (MCA1), to be released in 2017 with a focus on climate-change impacts for agricultural, water and forestry sectors. To sustain and build on the MCA1 effort, we are also in the process of creating a Boundary Organization (defined by the National Academy of Sciences) called the Montana Adaptation Exchange (the Exchange); this entity will facilitate the flow of information across the boundaries between science, knowledge and implementation. In Montana, the Exchange brings scientists and practitioners together to seek solutions related to climate-change adaptation and other pressing environmental and social-economic challenges. The Montana Adaptation Exchange (1) is a collaborative partnership of members from the science and practitioner communities under a shared governance and participatory model; (2) presents research that has been vetted by the scientific community at large and represents the current state of knowledge; (3) allows for revision and expansion of assessments like the MCA; (4) communicates relevant, often technical, research and findings to a wide variety of resource managers and other stakeholders; (5) develops and maintains an extensive online database that organizes, regularly updates, and makes research data products readily available; and (6) offers an online portal and expert network of affiliated researchers and climate adaptation specialists to provide effective customer support. Boundary organizations, such as the Montana Adaptation Exchange, offer a scalable path to effectively move from "science to knowledge to action" while also allowing stakeholder needs to help inform research agendas.

  13. Population Distribution and Influencing Factors Based on ESDA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lv Chen; Fan Jie; Sun Wei

    2012-01-01

    Based on the exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA) technique and geographic information system (GIS) platform, with statistic data of counties in 2005, this paper confirms that there is a large population density gap between counties in 2005 because the Gini coefficient is 0.55. Population distribution does not change a lot during the past decades, and the southeast China is still much more densely populated than the northwest China. The global spa- tial autoeorrelation of population distribution is obvious because Moran's I scores 0.42 and local spatial autocorrelation is partly significant. Climate and elevation are still the main natural influ- encing factors. Meanwhile industrial structure and transportation significantly influence population distribution. Different combinations of natural factors have different effects on population distribution. For a long term, climate and terrain factor stability affect population distribution. But its influence will be weakened by progress of technology. Economic development is the main factor that changes population distribution for a short term.

  14. Influence of population density on antibiotic resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinsma, N; Hutchinson, JM; van den Bogaard, AE; Giamarellou, H; Degener, J; Stobberingh, EE

    2003-01-01

    Antibiotic consumption and population density as a measure of crowding in the community were related to the prevalence of antibiotic resistance of three cities in three different countries: St Johns in Newfoundland (Canada), Athens in Greece and Groningen in The Netherlands. Antibiotic consumption w

  15. Influence of population density on antibiotic resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinsma, N; Hutchinson, JM; van den Bogaard, AE; Giamarellou, H; Degener, J; Stobberingh, EE

    Antibiotic consumption and population density as a measure of crowding in the community were related to the prevalence of antibiotic resistance of three cities in three different countries: St Johns in Newfoundland (Canada), Athens in Greece and Groningen in The Netherlands. Antibiotic consumption

  16. Elucidation of the tidal influence on bacterial populations in a monsoon influenced estuary through simultaneous observations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khandeparker, L.; Eswaran, R.; Gardade, L.; Kuchi, N.; Mapari, K.E.; Naik, S.D.; Anil, A.C.

    The influence of tides on bacterial populations in a monsoon influenced tropical estuary was assessed through fine resolution sampling (1 to 3 h) during spring and neap tides from mouth to the freshwater end at four stations during pre...

  17. Libraries in Montana: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/montana.html Libraries in Montana To use the sharing features on ... page, please enable JavaScript. Billings Billings Clinic Medical Library 2825 8th Avenue North Billings, MT 59107-5100 ...

  18. Floating Population Increase and Its Influence on the Urban Population Situation: A Case Study in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Peilin; Lu Qi

    2005-01-01

    Floating population is a special population group in China resulting from the implementation of household registration system. This paper uses a set of floating population survey data, population censuses data and statistical data to analyze the increase and influence of floating population on the urban population situations in Beijing. It is found that Beijing has experienced a rapid increase of floating population since the 1990s and that the increase of this group has become the key factor of the current population expansion in the city. Its distribution in the urban regions intensified and extended the subutbanization process of the capital. In addition,the population structures of sex, age, education and employment in Beijing have changed to some extent due to the influx of floating population.

  19. 78 FR 10507 - Montana Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... approved pursuant to 30 CFR 732.17. Therefore, Montana advised that the minor grammatical changes will not.... Montana proposes changes to the Montana Strip and Underground Mine Reclamation Act (MSUMRA) that... conditions of approval in the April 1, 1980, Federal Register (45 FR 21560). You can also find later...

  20. MONTANA PALLADIUM RESEARCH INITIATIVE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, John; McCloskey, Jay; Douglas, Trevor; Young, Mark; Snyder, Stuart; Gurney, Brian

    2012-05-09

    Project Objective: The overarching objective of the Montana Palladium Research Initiative is to perform scientific research on the properties and uses of palladium in the context of the U.S. Department of Energy's Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program. The purpose of the research will be to explore possible palladium as an alternative to platinum in hydrogen-economy applications. To achieve this objective, the Initiatives activities will focus on several cutting-edge research approaches across a range of disciplines, including metallurgy, biomimetics, instrumentation development, and systems analysis. Background: Platinum-group elements (PGEs) play significant roles in processing hydrogen, an element that shows high potential to address this need in the U.S. and the world for inexpensive, reliable, clean energy. Platinum, however, is a very expensive component of current and planned systems, so less-expensive alternatives that have similar physical properties are being sought. To this end, several tasks have been defined under the rubric of the Montana Palladium Research Iniative. This broad swath of activities will allow progress on several fronts. The membrane-related activities of Task 1 employs state-of-the-art and leading-edge technologies to develop new, ceramic-substrate metallic membranes for the production of high-purity hydrogen, and develop techniques for the production of thin, defect-free platinum group element catalytic membranes for energy production and pollution control. The biomimetic work in Task 2 explores the use of substrate-attached hydrogen-producing enzymes and the encapsulation of palladium in virion-based protein coats to determine their utility for distributed hydrogen production. Task 3 work involves developing laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) as a real-time, in situ diagnostic technique to characterize PGEs nanoparticles for process monitoring and control. The systems engineering work in task 4

  1. Measurements of spatial population synchrony: influence of time series transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Mathieu; Laffaille, Pascal; Ferdy, Jean-Baptiste; Grenouillet, Gaël

    2015-09-01

    Two mechanisms have been proposed to explain spatial population synchrony: dispersal among populations, and the spatial correlation of density-independent factors (the "Moran effect"). To identify which of these two mechanisms is driving spatial population synchrony, time series transformations (TSTs) of abundance data have been used to remove the signature of one mechanism, and highlight the effect of the other. However, several issues with TSTs remain, and to date no consensus has emerged about how population time series should be handled in synchrony studies. Here, by using 3131 time series involving 34 fish species found in French rivers, we computed several metrics commonly used in synchrony studies to determine whether a large-scale climatic factor (temperature) influenced fish population dynamics at the regional scale, and to test the effect of three commonly used TSTs (detrending, prewhitening and a combination of both) on these metrics. We also tested whether the influence of TSTs on time series and population synchrony levels was related to the features of the time series using both empirical and simulated time series. For several species, and regardless of the TST used, we evidenced a Moran effect on freshwater fish populations. However, these results were globally biased downward by TSTs which reduced our ability to detect significant signals. Depending on the species and the features of the time series, we found that TSTs could lead to contradictory results, regardless of the metric considered. Finally, we suggest guidelines on how population time series should be processed in synchrony studies.

  2. Influence of Interactions on Populations for Hyperons in Neutron Stars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Guang-Zhou; ZHAO En-Guang; LIU Wei; SUN Bao-Xi

    2004-01-01

    The numerical results of the populations for the baryon octet in neutron star matter have been presented by solving a set transcendental equations in the framework of the relativistic mean field approximation. The influence of the hyperon interactions on hyperon populations in neutron star matter is discussed. The results manifest that when the ratio of the hyperon-to-nucleon couplings increases, all hyperons appear towards low baryon density direction.

  3. Influence of demography and environment on persistence in toad populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Brad A.; Schorr, Robert A.; Schneider, Scott C.; Muths, Erin L.

    2016-01-01

    Effective conservation of rare species requires an understanding of how potential threats affect population dynamics. Unfortunately, information about population demographics prior to threats (i.e., baseline data) is lacking for many species. Perturbations, caused by climate change, disease, or other stressors can lead to population declines and heightened conservation concerns. Boreal toads (Anaxyrus boreas boreas) have undergone rangewide declines due mostly to the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), with only a few sizable populations remaining in the southern Rocky Mountains, USA, that are disease-free. Despite the apparent region-wide occurrence of Bd, our focal populations in central Colorado were disease free over a 14-year capture-mark-recapture study until the recent discovery of Bd at one of the sites. We used recapture data and the Pradel reverse-time model to assess the influence of environmental and site-specific conditions on survival and recruitment. We then forecast changes in the toad populations with 2 growth models; one using an average lambda value to initiate the projection, and one using the most recent value to capture potential effects of the incursion of disease into the system. Adult survival was consistently high at the 3 sites, whereas recruitment was more variable and markedly low at 1 site. We found that active season moisture, active season length, and breeding shallows were important factors in estimating recruitment. Population growth models indicated a slight increase at 1 site but decreasing trends at the 2 other sites, possibly influenced by low recruitment. Insight into declining species management can be gained from information on survival and recruitment and how site-specific environmental factors influence these demographic parameters. Our data are particularly useful because they provide baseline data on demographics in populations before a disease outbreak and enhance our ability to detect changes

  4. Environmental factors influence lesser scaup migration chronology and population monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Taylor A.; Afton, Alan D.; Schummer, Michael L.; Petrie, Scott A.; Badzinski, Shannon S.; Johnson, Michael A.; Szymanski, Michael L.; Jacobs, Kevin J.; Olsen, Glenn H.; Mitchell, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Identifying environmental metrics specific to lesser scaup (Aythya affinis; scaup) spring migration chronology may help inform development of conservation, management and population monitoring. Our objective was to determine how environmental conditions influence spring migration of lesser scaup to assess the effectiveness of the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey in accurately estimating scaup populations. We first compared peak timing of mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and scaup migration from weekly ground surveys in North Dakota, USA because the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey is designed to capture annual mallard migration. As predicted, we detected that peak timing of scaup and mallard migrations differed in 25 of 36 years investigated (1980–2010). We marked scaup with satellite transmitters (n = 78; 7,403 locations) at Long Point, Lake Erie, Ontario, Canada; Pool 19 of the Mississippi River, Iowa and Illinois, USA; and Presque Isle Bay, Lake Erie, Pennsylvania, USA. We tested the assumption that our marked scaup were representative of the continental population using the traditional survey area by comparing timing of migration of marked birds and scaup counted in the North Dakota Game and Fish Department survey. We detected a strong positive correlation between marked scaup and the survey data, which indicated that marked scaup were representative of the population. We subsequently used our validated sample of marked scaup to investigate the effects of annual variation in temperature, precipitation, and ice cover on spring migration chronology in the traditional and eastern survey areas of the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey, 2005–2010. We evaluated competing environmental models to explain variation in timing and rate of scaup migration at large-scale and local levels. Spring migration of scaup occurred earlier and faster during springs with warmer temperatures and greater precipitation, variables known

  5. Wetlands & Deepwater Habitats - Montana Wetland and Riparian Framework - Map Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The Montana Wetland and Riparian Framework represents the extent, type, and approximate location of wetlands, riparian areas, and deepwater habitats in Montana....

  6. DOLUS LAKES ROADLESS AREA, MONTANA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, James E.; Avery, Dale W.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Dolus Lakes Roadless Area in southwestern Montana, was conducted. Much of the roadless area has probable and substantiated potential for resources of gold, silver, molybdenum, and tungsten. The nature of the geologic terrain indicates that there is little promise for the occurrence of coal, oil, gas, or geothermal resources. Detailed geologic and geochemical studies are suggested to delineate exploration targets that could be tested by drilling.

  7. Citrus rootstocks influence the population densities of pest mites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Rocha da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus are attacked by pest mites such as the citrus rust mite Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashmead (Acari: Eriophyidae and the spider mite Tetranychus mexicanus (McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae. However, little is known on citrus rootstocks influencing pest mites. We aimed to evaluate the influence of rootstocks on population densities of pest mites on the sweet oranges 'Pera CNPMF D-6' and 'Valencia Tuxpan' throughout time. Adults of both mite species were monthly counted during 19 months from June 2011 to February 2013. Rootstocks influenced the populations of pest mites, since lower densities of P. oleivora were found on 'Pera CNPMF D-6' sweet orange grafted on the hybrid TSKC × CTTR - 002 and on 'Swingle' citrumelo in comparison with the hybrid LVK × LCR - 010, 'Red' rough lime and 'Santa Cruz' rangpur lime as rootstocks. Similarly, lower densities of T. mexicanus were found on 'Valencia Tuxpan' sweet orange grafted on the hybrid HTR-051 in comparison to 'Indio' citrandarin, 'Sunki Tropical' mandarin and LVK × LCR - 010 as rootstocks. We concluded that densities of the mites P. oleivora and T. mexicanus on the sweet oranges 'Pera CNPMF D-6' and 'Valencia Tuxpan' were affected in some periods of the year by some rootstocks, suggesting influence of some genotypes on these pests.

  8. Cytogenetic variability in pinus sylvestris L. populations experiencing anthropogenic influence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oudalova, A.; Geras' kin, S.; Vasiliev, D.; Dikarev, V. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    Techno-genic pollution has become one of the most significant ecological factors determining biosphere existence and development. An analysis of genetic consequences of the radiation accidents in the South Urals and Chernobyl has shown that mutation and recombination processes are considerably accelerated in plant and animal's populations experiencing techno-genic influence. This implies that there are complicated adaptation processes leading to changes in genetic structure of populations and increasing genetic load. Pinus sylvestris L. populations growing at the territory of the 'radon' Leningrad regional radioactive waste reprocessing enterprise and Sosnovy Bor town were monitored 6 years (1997-2002) by a set of cyto-genetical and morphological tests. Cytogenetic damage levels within intercalary meristem of needle as well as in root meristem of seedlings were found to significantly exceed corresponding controls. A higher radioresistance of the Scots pine seeds analyzed was demonstrated with an acute {gamma}-radiation that also revealed a selection process directed at an enhancement of repair efficiency and resulting in a shift of mean values of radioresistance in populations towards higher values. An enlargement of variance of studied cytogenetic parameters was found in the populations experiencing techno-genic influence. This indicates, with an account of phenomenon of the enhanced radioresistance, that there are processes of cyto-genetical adaptation in the investigated regions. An analysis of the structure of ecological-genetical variability was carried out with the purpose of separating two components in the inter-population variability - the first is engaged to the genetically determined variability of biological characteristics intrinsic for this species, and the second is responsible for the variability originating from anthropogenic contamination of the natural habitat. Changes of these two types of variability were studied in dependence on

  9. Environmental influence on population dynamics of the bivalve Anomalocardia brasiliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corte, Guilherme Nascimento; Coleman, Ross A.; Amaral, A. Cecília Z.

    2017-03-01

    Understanding how species respond to the environment in terms of population attributes (e.g. abundance, growth, mortality, fecundity, and productivity) is essential to protect ecologically and economically important species. Nevertheless, responses of macrobenthic populations to environmental features are overlooked due to the need of consecutive samplings and time-consuming measurements. We examined the population dynamics of the filter-feeding bivalve Anomalocardia brasiliana on a tidal flat over the course of one year to investigate the hypothesis that, as accepted for macrobenthic communities, populations inhabiting environments with low hydrodynamic conditions such as tidal flat should have higher attributes than populations inhabiting more energetic habitats (i.e. areas more influenced by wave energy such as reflective and intermediate beaches). This would be expected because the harsh conditions of more energetic habitats force organisms to divert more energy towards maintenance, resulting in lower population attributes. We found that A. brasiliana showed moderate growth and secondary production at the study area. Moreover the recruitment period was restricted to a few months. A comparison with previous studies showed that, contrary to expected, A. brasiliana populations from areas with low hydrodynamic conditions have lower abundance, growth, recruitment and turnover rate. It is likely that morphodynamic characteristics recorded in these environments, such as larger periods of air exposure and lower water circulation, may affect food conditions for filter-feeding species and increase competition. In addition, these characteristics may negatively affect macrobenthic species by enhancing eutrophication processes and anoxia. Overall, our results suggest that models accepted and applied at the macrobenthic community level might not be directly extended to A. brasiliana populations.

  10. 76 FR 47637 - Montana Disaster #MT-00062

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ... ADMINISTRATION Montana Disaster MT-00062 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Montana (FEMA..., Fort Worth, TX 76155. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance,...

  11. 77 FR 47907 - Montana Disaster #MT-00067

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ... ADMINISTRATION Montana Disaster MT-00067 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of MONTANA dated 08/02/2012. Incident: Ash Creek Fire. Incident Period: 06/25/2012 through 07/22/2012. Effective Date:...

  12. 77 FR 48198 - Montana Disaster #MT-00068

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    ... ADMINISTRATION Montana Disaster MT-00068 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Montana dated 08/06/2012. Incident: Dahl Fire. Incident Period: 06/26/2012 through 07/06/2012. Effective Date:...

  13. The Crow Indian Reservation of Montana. Indian Affairs (No. 4). Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHoyos, Genevieve; DeHoyos, Auturo

    As a final report of a survey about manpower potential of the Crow Indian Reservation of Montana, this report gives a description of population characteristics, educational achievement, potential labor force, available skills of the labor force, and present employment conditions of the worker population on the reservation. The report also includes…

  14. Health and foreign policy: influences of migration and population mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, Douglas W; Gushulak, Brian D; Macdonald, Liane

    2007-03-01

    International interest in the relationship between globalization and health is growing, and this relationship is increasingly figuring in foreign policy discussions. Although many globalizing processes are known to affect health, migration stands out as an integral part of globalization, and links between migration and health are well documented. Numerous historical interconnections exist between population mobility and global public health, but since the 1990s new attention to emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases has promoted discussion of this topic. The containment of global disease threats is a major concern, and significant international efforts have received funding to fight infectious diseases such as malaria, tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS (human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome). Migration and population mobility play a role in each of these public health challenges. The growing interest in population mobility's health-related influences is giving rise to new foreign policy initiatives to address the international determinants of health within the context of migration. As a result, meeting health challenges through international cooperation and collaboration has now become an important foreign policy component in many countries. However, although some national and regional projects address health and migration, an integrated and globally focused approach is lacking. As migration and population mobility are increasingly important determinants of health, these issues will require greater policy attention at the multilateral level.

  15. Fourteen polymorphic microsatellite markers for the threatened Arnica montana (Asteraceae)1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duwe, Virginia K.; Ismail, Sascha A.; Buser, Andres; Sossai, Esther; Borsch, Thomas; Muller, Ludo A. H.

    2015-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed to investigate population genetic structure in the threatened species Arnica montana. • Methods and Results: Fourteen microsatellite markers with di-, tetra-, and hexanucleotide repeat motifs were developed for A. montana using 454 pyrosequencing without and with library-enrichment methods, resulting in 56,545 sequence reads and 14,467 sequence reads, respectively. All loci showed a high level of polymorphism, with allele numbers ranging from four to 11 in five individuals from five populations (25 samples) and an expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.192 to 0.648 across the loci. • Conclusions: This set of microsatellite markers is the first one described for A. montana and will facilitate conservation genetic applications as well as the understanding of phylogeographic patterns in this species. PMID:25606354

  16. Influence of copper on Euplotes sp. and associated bacterial population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Oliveira Andrade da Silva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of copper on the ciliate Euplotes sp. and associated bacteria isolated from sediment samples of Guanabara Bay were investigated in bioassays. This region is highly affected by heavy metals such as copper, from solid waste constantly dumped in the bay and other sources such as industrial effluents, antifouling paints, atmospheric deposition and urban drainage, and even today there are few data on the metal toxicity to the ecosystem of the Bay of Guanabara. Bioassays were conducted to estimate the LC50-24 h of copper, in order to determine the concentration of metal bearing 50% of the population mortality. The results indicated that the concentrations of 0.05 and 0.009 mg L-1 presented no toxicity to Euplotes sp. The associated bacteria are tolerant to copper concentrations used in bioassays, and suggest that they could be used as a potential agent in the bioremediation of areas affected by copper.

  17. 78 FR 44187 - Montana Disaster # MT-00079

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Montana Disaster MT-00079 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... have been determined to be adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Blaine,...

  18. Notes and comments on Montana Refuges

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is a summary of actual management actions, and plant community responses on Montana refuges during 1992. It is part of the moist-soil expert system...

  19. Adminstrative Boundary for Glacier National Park, Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The current administrative boundary of Glacier National Park, Montana. This data is based on 1:24000 scale USGS quad mapping published in 1968, but was revised in...

  20. Parcels and Land Ownership - Montana Cadastral Framework

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The Montana Cadastral Database is comprised of taxable parcels (fee land) and public land (exempt property). It is not broken down into individual lots, for instance...

  1. Waterfowl production survey for Montana: July 1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Production and Habitat Survey for Montana during 1980. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide information on duck...

  2. Watershed Boundaries - Watershed Boundary Database for Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This data set is a complete digital hydrologic unit boundary layer of the Subbasins (8-digit), Watersheds (10-digit), and Subwatersheds (12-digit) for Montana. This...

  3. Sesquiterpene lactones in Arnica montana: helenalin and dihydrohelenalin chemotypes in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Nigel B; Burgess, Elaine J; Rodríguez Guitián, Manuel A; Romero Franco, Rosa; López Mosquera, Elvira; Smallfield, Bruce M; Joyce, Nigel I; Littlejohn, Roger P

    2009-05-01

    An analytical RPLC method for sesquiterpene lactones in Arnica montana has been extended to include quantitative analyses of dihydrohelenalin esters. LC-ESI-MS-MS distinguished the isomeric helenalin and dihydrohelenalin esters. The dihydrohelenalin esters have lower response factors for UV detection than do helenalin esters, which must be taken into account for quantitative analyses. Analyses of flowers from 16 different wild populations of A. montana in Spain showed differing proportions of helenalin and dihydrohelenalin esters. For the first time a chemotype with high levels of helenalin esters (total helenalins 5.2-10.3 mg/g dry weight) is reported in Spanish A. montana. These samples were from heath lands at high altitude (1330-1460 m), whereas samples from meadows and peat bogs at lower altitudes were the expected chemotype with high levels of dihydrohelenalin esters (total dihydrohelenalins 10.9-18.2 mg/g). The phenolic compounds, both flavonoid glycosides and caffeoylquinic acids, in Spanish A. montana are reported for the first time. The levels of several of these compounds differed significantly between samples from heath lands and samples from peat bogs or meadows, with the heath land samples being most similar to central European A. montana in their phenolic composition.

  4. Dispersal distance and achene quality of the rare anemochorous species Arnica montana L. : implications for conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strykstra, RJ; Pegtel, DM; Bergsma, A

    1998-01-01

    In The Netherlands, Arnica montana (Asteraceae) is a, rare plant species. Future survival in The Netherlands depends on its; ability to disperse between source populations and habitats, newly created by man. Plumed Asteraceae achenes are often considered to disperse over large distances. Therefore,

  5. 76 FR 43259 - Southern Montana Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... in Billings, Montana. The committee is meeting as authorized under the Secure Rural Schools and... Grad Montana Hotel and Convention Center, 5500 Midland Road, Billings, MT. Written comments should...

  6. Science Inquiry Learning in Classrooms — Montana Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brelsford, M. A.; Peters, J.; Grimberg, B. I.

    2010-04-01

    Montana's ABRC is working with rural school teachers in southwestern Montana. Astrobiology is a new and exciting subject for the teachers and its inter-disciplinary nature is very useful and rewarding for the teachers and their students.

  7. Observations on a Montana water quality proposal.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.; Puder, M. G.

    2006-01-12

    In May 2005, a group of petitioners led by the Northern Plains Resource Council (NPRC) submitted a petition to revise water quality requirements to the Montana Board of Environmental Review (BER). Under Montana law, the BER had to consider the petition and either reject it or propose it as a new regulation. In September 2005, the BER announced proposed changes to the Montana water quality regulations. The proposal, which included almost the exact language found in the petition, was directed toward discharges of water from coal bed natural gas (CBNG) production. The key elements of the proposal included: (1) No discharges of CBNG water are allowed to Montana surface waters unless operators can demonstrate that injection to aquifers with the potential for later recovery of the water is not feasible. (2) When operators can demonstrate the injection is not feasible, the CBNG water to be discharged must meet very strict technology-based limits for multiple parameters. (3) The Montana water quality standards for the sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and electrical conductivity (EC) would be evaluated using the 7Q10 flow (lowest 7-consecutive-day flow in a 10-year period) rather than a monthly flow that is currently used. (4) SAR and EC would be reclassified as ''harmful parameters'', thereby greatly restricting the ability for CBNG discharges to be allowed under Montana's nondegradation regulations. The proposed regulations, if adopted in their current form, are likely to substantially reduce the amount of CBNG production in Montana. The impact also extends to Wyoming CBNG production through much greater restrictions on water quality that must be met at the interstate border.

  8. Influence of age, sex, plaque and smoking on periodontal conditions in a population from Bauru, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ragghianti,Mariana Schützer; Greghi, Sebastião Luiz Aguiar; LAURIS, José Roberto Pereira; SANT'ANA, Adriana Campos Passanezi; PASSANEZI, Euloir

    2004-01-01

    Epidemiology is the study of health and disease in populations, and of how these conditions are influenced by heredity, biology, physical environment, social environment, and personal behavior. There are many epidemiological studies in Brazilian population but few about the influence of some risk factors in periodontal conditions. This cross-sectional study was performed to assess the influence of age, sex, plaque and smoking on periodontal disease in a population from Bauru (Brazil). Data co...

  9. Board of Regents' Montana University System (MUS) Strategic Plan 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montana University System, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The Montana University System Strategic Plan is the primary planning document of the Board of Regents. The Plan sets forth an agenda for higher education in Montana by delineating the strategic directions, goals, and objectives that guide the Montana University System (MUS). In July 2006, after several years of study, public dialogue, and internal…

  10. Final report on the safety assessment of Arnica montana extract and Arnica montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Arnica Montana Extract is an extract of dried flowerheads of the plant, Arnica montana. Arnica Montana is a generic term used to describe a plant material derived from the dried flowers, roots, or rhizomes of A. montana. Common names for A. montana include leopard's bane, mountain tobacco, mountain snuff, and wolf's bane. Two techniques for preparing Arnica Montana Extract are hydroalcoholic maceration and gentle disintegration in soybean oil. Propylene glycol and butylene glycol extractions were also reported. The composition of these extracts can include fatty acids, especially palmitic, linoleic, myristic, and linolenic acids, essential oil, triterpenic alcohols, sesquiterpene lactones, sugars, phytosterols, phenol acids, tannins, choline, inulin, phulin, arnicin, flavonoids, carotenoids, coumarins, and heavy metals. The components present in these extracts are dependent on where the plant is grown. Arnica Montana Extract was reported to be used in almost 100 cosmetic formulations across a wide range of product types, whereas Arnica Montana was reported only once. Extractions of Arnica Montana were tested and found not toxic in acute toxicity tests in rabbits, mice, and rats; they were not irritating, sensitizing, or phototoxic to mouse or guinea pig skin; and they did not produce significant ocular irritation. In an Ames test, an extract of A. montana was mutagenic, possibly related to the flavenoid content of the extract. No carcinogenicity or reproductive/developmental toxicity data were available. Clinical tests of extractions failed to elicit irritation or sensitization, yet Arnica dermatitis, a delayed type IV allergy, is reported in individuals who handle arnica flowers and may be caused by sesquiterpene lactones found in the flowers. Ingestion of A. montana-containing products has induced severe gastroenteritis, nervousness, accelerated heart rate, muscular weakness, and death. Absent any basis for concluding that data on one member of a botanical

  11. Montana BioDiesel Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peyton, Brent [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States)

    2017-01-29

    This initiative funding helped put Montana State University (MSU) in a position to help lead in the development of biodiesel production strategies. Recent shortages in electrical power and rising gasoline prices have focused much attention on the development of alternative energy sources that will end our dependence on fossil fuels. In addition, as the concern for environmental impact of utilizing fossil fuels increases, effective strategies must be implemented to reduce emissions or the increased regulations imposed on fossil fuel production will cause economic barriers for their use to continue to increase. Biodiesel has been repeatedly promoted as a more environmentally sound and renewable source of fuel and may prove to be a highly viable solution to provide, at the least, a proportion of our energy needs. Currently there are both practical and economic barriers to the implementation of alternative energy however the advent of these technologies is inevitable. Since many of the same strategies for the storage, transport, and utilization of biodiesel are common with that of fossil fuels, the practical barriers for biodiesel are comparatively minimal. Strategies were developed to harness the CO2 as feedstock to support the growth of biodiesel producing algae. The initiative funding led to the successful funding of highly rated projects in competitive national grant programs in the National Science Foundation and the Department of Energy. This funding put MSU in a key position to develop technologies to utilize the CO2 rich emissions produced in fossil fuel utilization and assembled world experts concerning the growth characteristics of photosynthetic microorganisms capable of producing biodiesel.

  12. Population Density Influences Dispersal in Female White-Tailed Deer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clayton L. Lutz; Duane R. Diefenbach; Christopher S. Rosenberry

    2015-01-01

    .... To test this hypothesis, we conducted a meta-analysis of female dispersal rates from 12 populations of white-tailed deer and predicted dispersal rate and distance were positively related to deer density...

  13. Factors Influencing Food Choice in the Elderly Mauritian Population

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admpather

    Only the factor of taste influencing food choice was significantly different between the two ..... available through the media, promotions, and advertising may confuse consumers and cause ... Predictors of self-initiated, healthful dietary change.

  14. 76 FR 76111 - Montana Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ...--Regulatory Planning and Review This rule is exempted from review by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB... to and additions of statutory definitions for ``approximate original contour,'' ``in situ coal..., Federal Register (45 FR 21560). You can also find later actions concerning Montana's program and...

  15. 77 FR 73965 - Montana Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... Section 503(a) of the Act permits a State to assume primacy for the regulation of surface coal mining and... Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Part 926 Montana Regulatory Program AGENCY: Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement, Interior. ACTION: Proposed rule; withdrawal...

  16. Montana Advanced Biofuels Great Falls Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    This November 20, 2015 letter from EPA approves the petition from Montana Advanced Biofuels, LLC, Great Falls facility, regarding ethanol produced through a dry mill process, qualifying under the Clean Air Act for advanced biofuel (D-code 5) and renewable

  17. 76 FR 64047 - Montana Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... until 4 p.m., m.d.t. November 16, 2011. If requested, we will hold a public hearing on the amendment on November 14, 2011. We will accept requests to speak until 4 p.m., m.d.t. on November 1, 2011. ADDRESSES... . Edward L. Coleman, Bureau Chief, Industrial and Energy Minerals Bureau, Montana Department...

  18. 76 FR 64045 - Montana Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... hearing, if one is requested. DATES: We will accept written comments on this amendment until 4 p.m., m.d.t... will accept requests to speak until 4 p.m., m.d.t. on November 1, 2011. ADDRESSES: You may submit... ; Edward L. Coleman, Bureau Chief, Industrial and Energy Minerals Bureau, Montana Department...

  19. Do farming practices influence population dynamics of rodents?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Massawe, A W; Rwamugira, W; Leirs, Herwig

    2007-01-01

    and slash and burn fields, cropping systems (mono- and inter-crop) had little effect on the population dynamics of M. natalensis [F(1,8) = 6.50; P > 0.05]. The study shows that land preparation methods should be considered a component of rodent pest management in ecologically based or integrated management...

  20. Influence of internal variability on population exposure to hydroclimatic changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankin, Justin S.; Viviroli, Daniel; Mekonnen, Mesfin M.; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.; Horton, Radley M.; E Smerdon, Jason; Diffenbaugh, Noah S.

    2017-04-01

    Future freshwater supply, human water demand, and people’s exposure to water stress are subject to multiple sources of uncertainty, including unknown future pathways of fossil fuel and water consumption, and ‘irreducible’ uncertainty arising from internal climate system variability. Such internal variability can conceal forced hydroclimatic changes on multi-decadal timescales and near-continental spatial-scales. Using three projections of population growth, a large ensemble from a single Earth system model, and assuming stationary per capita water consumption, we quantify the likelihoods of future population exposure to increased hydroclimatic deficits, which we define as the average duration and magnitude by which evapotranspiration exceeds precipitation in a basin. We calculate that by 2060, ∽31%-35% of the global population will be exposed to >50% probability of hydroclimatic deficit increases that exceed existing hydrological storage, with up to 9% of people exposed to >90% probability. However, internal variability, which is an irreducible uncertainty in climate model predictions that is under-sampled in water resource projections, creates substantial uncertainty in predicted exposure: ∽86%-91% of people will reside where irreducible uncertainty spans the potential for both increases and decreases in sub-annual water deficits. In one population scenario, changes in exposure to large hydroclimate deficits vary from -3% to +6% of global population, a range arising entirely from internal variability. The uncertainty in risk arising from irreducible uncertainty in the precise pattern of hydroclimatic change, which is typically conflated with other uncertainties in projections, is critical for climate risk management that seeks to optimize adaptations that are robust to the full set of potential real-world outcomes.

  1. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Montana. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2014 Montana State Code base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Montana.

  2. Climatic and density influences on recruitment in an irruptive population of Roosevelt elk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starns, Heath D.; Ricca, Mark A.; Duarte, Adam; Weckerly, Floyd W.

    2014-01-01

    Current paradigms of ungulate population ecology recognize that density-dependent and independent mechanisms are not always mutually exclusive. Long-term data sets are necessary to assess the relative strength of each mechanism, especially when populations display irruptive dynamics. Using an 18-year time series of population abundances of Roosevelt elk (Cervus elaphus roosevelti) inhabiting Redwood National Park in northwestern California we assessed the influence of population size and climatic variation on elk recruitment and whether irruptive dynamics occurred. An information-theoretic model selection analysis indicated that abundance lagged 2 years and neither climatic factors nor a mix of abundance and climatic factors influenced elk recruitment. However, density-dependent recruitment differed between when the population was declining and when the population increased and then stabilized at an abundance lower than at the start of the decline. The population displayed irruptive dynamics.

  3. What Influences the Savings Decisions of the Hungarian Population?

    OpenAIRE

    Annamária Horváthné Kökény; Zsuzsanna Széles

    2014-01-01

    We created a theoretical model of the main factors that influence household savings based on our secondary research, then conducted a questionnaire survey involving 4106 Hungarian households in the scope of primary research. The examined households had a low level of financial knowledge. They believe that financial literacy needs to be developed, since in general it is true that they are not adequately familiar with the various financial services and state aid options related to them. We came...

  4. Factors influencing furbearer populations and harvest on the Kenai National Moose Range, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Natural factors have influenced several furbearer populations on the 691,000 ha Kenai National Moose Range wildlife refuge in southcentral Alaska. The 1964...

  5. Regional environmental pressure influences population differentiation in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandamme, S G; Maes, G E; Raeymaekers, J A M; Cottenie, K; Imsland, A K; Hellemans, B; Lacroix, G; Mac Aoidh, E; Martinsohn, J T; Martínez, P; Robbens, J; Vilas, R; Volckaert, F A M

    2014-02-01

    Unravelling the factors shaping the genetic structure of mobile marine species is challenging due to the high potential for gene flow. However, genetic inference can be greatly enhanced by increasing the genomic, geographical or environmental resolution of population genetic studies. Here, we investigated the population structure of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) by screening 17 random and gene-linked markers in 999 individuals at 290 geographical locations throughout the northeast Atlantic Ocean. A seascape genetics approach with the inclusion of high-resolution oceanographical data was used to quantify the association of genetic variation with spatial, temporal and environmental parameters. Neutral loci identified three subgroups: an Atlantic group, a Baltic Sea group and one on the Irish Shelf. The inclusion of loci putatively under selection suggested an additional break in the North Sea, subdividing southern from northern Atlantic individuals. Environmental and spatial seascape variables correlated marginally with neutral genetic variation, but explained significant proportions (respectively, 8.7% and 10.3%) of adaptive genetic variation. Environmental variables associated with outlier allele frequencies included salinity, temperature, bottom shear stress, dissolved oxygen concentration and depth of the pycnocline. Furthermore, levels of explained adaptive genetic variation differed markedly between basins (3% vs. 12% in the North and Baltic Sea, respectively). We suggest that stable environmental selection pressure contributes to relatively strong local adaptation in the Baltic Sea. Our seascape genetic approach using a large number of sampling locations and associated oceanographical data proved useful for the identification of population units as the basis of management decisions. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Effects of aerially applied mexacarbate on western spruce budworm larvae and their parasites in Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll B. Williams; Patrick J. Shea; Mark D. McGregor

    1979-01-01

    In tests on the Bitterroot National Forest, Montana, in 1965 and 1966, mexacarbate, aerially applied at the rate of 0.15 lb a.i./gal/acre (68.04 g a.iJ3.785 1/0.404 ha), killed about 90 percent of the western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman) populations. More parasitized budworm larvae survived treatments than nonparasitized.

  7. Mountain plover responses to plague in Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinsmore, Stephen J; Smith, Mark D

    2010-01-01

    Plague is a bacterial (Yersinia pestis) disease that causes epizootic die-offs in black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) populations in the North American Great Plains. Through their grazing and burrowing, prairie dogs modify vegetation and landscape structure on their colonies in ways that affect other grassland species. Plague epizootics on prairie dog colonies can have indirect effects on species associated with colonies. The mountain plover (Charadrius montanus) preferentially nests on black-tailed prairie dog colonies and is thus negatively impacted by the loss of prairie dogs. We studied the effects of plague and colony spatial characteristics on the occupancy of 81 prairie dog colonies by nesting plovers in Phillips County, Montana, during a 13-year period (1995-2007). We used a robust design patch occupancy model to investigate how colony occupancy and extinction and colonization rates were affected by plague history, colony size, and colony shape. Here extinction and colonization rates refer to the probability that a colony loses/gains plovers in a subsequent nesting season, given that it had/lacked plovers in that breeding season. Colony occupancy was best explained by a model with no annual variation or plague effects. Colony extinction rates were driven by a combination of a quadratic of colony area, a 3-year plague response, and a measure of colony shape. Conversely, colonization rates were best explained by a model with a 4-year plague response. The estimated annual proportion of colonies occupied by plovers was 0.75 (95% confidence interval = 0.57-0.87). Estimated extinction probability ranged from a low of 0.07 (standard error [SE] = 0.02) in 2002 to a high of 0.25 (SE = 0.03) in 1995; colonization probability ranged from 0.24 (SE = 0.05) in 2006 to 0.35 (SE = 0.05) in 2000. Our results highlight how a bird that depends on prairie dogs for nesting habitat responds to plague history and other spatial characteristics of the colony. Ultimately

  8. Government Districts, Other - Montana Administrative Boundary Web Mapping Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Montana Administrative Boundaries Map Service includes the following boundaries: State, County, Incorporated City/Town, Reservation, School Districts, Tax Increment...

  9. Influence of Population Density on Offspring Number and Size in Burying Beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauter, Claudia M.

    2010-01-01

    This laboratory exercise investigates the influence of population density on offspring number and size in burying beetles. Students test the theoretical predictions that brood size declines and offspring size increases when competition over resources becomes stronger with increasing population density. Students design the experiment, collect and…

  10. North African Influences and Potential Bias in Case-Control Association Studies in the Spanish Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino-Yanes, María; Corrales, Almudena; Basaldúa, Santiago; Hernández, Alexis; Guerra, Luisa; Villar, Jesús; Flores, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite the limited genetic heterogeneity of Spanish populations, substantial evidences support that historical African influences have not affected them uniformly. Accounting for such population differences might be essential to reduce spurious results in association studies of genetic factors with disease. Using ancestry informative markers (AIMs), we aimed to measure the African influences in Spanish populations and to explore whether these might introduce statistical bias in population-based association studies. Methodology/Principal Findings We genotyped 93 AIMs in Spanish (from the Canary Islands and the Iberian Peninsula) and Northwest Africans, and conducted population and individual-based clustering analyses along with reference data from the HapMap, HGDP-CEPH, and other sources. We found significant differences for the Northwest African influence among Spanish populations from as low as ≈5% in Spanish from the Iberian Peninsula to as much as ≈17% in Canary Islanders, whereas the sub-Saharan African influence was negligible. Strikingly, the Northwest African ancestry showed a wide inter-individual variation in Canary Islanders ranging from 0% to 96%, reflecting the violent way the Islands were conquered and colonized by the Spanish in the XV century. As a consequence, a comparison of allele frequencies between Spanish samples from the Iberian Peninsula and the Canary Islands evidenced an excess of markers with significant differences. However, the inflation of p-values for the differences was adequately controlled by correcting for genetic ancestry estimates derived from a reduced number of AIMs. Conclusions/Significance Although the African influences estimated might be biased due to marker ascertainment, these results confirm that Northwest African genetic footprints are recognizable nowadays in the Spanish populations, particularly in Canary Islanders, and that the uneven African influences existing in these populations might increase the

  11. North African influences and potential bias in case-control association studies in the Spanish population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pino-Yanes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the limited genetic heterogeneity of Spanish populations, substantial evidences support that historical African influences have not affected them uniformly. Accounting for such population differences might be essential to reduce spurious results in association studies of genetic factors with disease. Using ancestry informative markers (AIMs, we aimed to measure the African influences in Spanish populations and to explore whether these might introduce statistical bias in population-based association studies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We genotyped 93 AIMs in Spanish (from the Canary Islands and the Iberian Peninsula and Northwest Africans, and conducted population and individual-based clustering analyses along with reference data from the HapMap, HGDP-CEPH, and other sources. We found significant differences for the Northwest African influence among Spanish populations from as low as ≈ 5% in Spanish from the Iberian Peninsula to as much as ≈ 17% in Canary Islanders, whereas the sub-Saharan African influence was negligible. Strikingly, the Northwest African ancestry showed a wide inter-individual variation in Canary Islanders ranging from 0% to 96%, reflecting the violent way the Islands were conquered and colonized by the Spanish in the XV century. As a consequence, a comparison of allele frequencies between Spanish samples from the Iberian Peninsula and the Canary Islands evidenced an excess of markers with significant differences. However, the inflation of p-values for the differences was adequately controlled by correcting for genetic ancestry estimates derived from a reduced number of AIMs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although the African influences estimated might be biased due to marker ascertainment, these results confirm that Northwest African genetic footprints are recognizable nowadays in the Spanish populations, particularly in Canary Islanders, and that the uneven African influences existing in these

  12. WEST PIONEER WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, MONTANA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Byron R.; Benham, John R.

    1984-01-01

    The West Pioneer Wilderness Study Area is in the Pioneer Mountains, Beaverhead County, Montana. A mineral-resource study of the area identified eight areas with molybdenum potential, four areas with gold-silver potential, one area with tungsten potential, and one area with barite potential. Several small mines were encountered, but none were accessible for the purposes of resource evaluation. No energy resources were identified in the study.

  13. The influence of synaptic weight distribution on neuronal population dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakrishnan Iyer

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The manner in which different distributions of synaptic weights onto cortical neurons shape their spiking activity remains open. To characterize a homogeneous neuronal population, we use the master equation for generalized leaky integrate-and-fire neurons with shot-noise synapses. We develop fast semi-analytic numerical methods to solve this equation for either current or conductance synapses, with and without synaptic depression. We show that its solutions match simulations of equivalent neuronal networks better than those of the Fokker-Planck equation and we compute bounds on the network response to non-instantaneous synapses. We apply these methods to study different synaptic weight distributions in feed-forward networks. We characterize the synaptic amplitude distributions using a set of measures, called tail weight numbers, designed to quantify the preponderance of very strong synapses. Even if synaptic amplitude distributions are equated for both the total current and average synaptic weight, distributions with sparse but strong synapses produce higher responses for small inputs, leading to a larger operating range. Furthermore, despite their small number, such synapses enable the network to respond faster and with more stability in the face of external fluctuations.

  14. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil, Total Phenolics, Total Flavonoids and Antioxidant Activity of Methanolic Extracts of Satureja montana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avni Hajdari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aerial parts of Satureja montana L. (Lamiaceae were collected from seven growing wild populations (four populations in Kosovo, two in Albania and one in Montenegro in 2013 with the aim of assessing the natural variation in the chemical composition of the essential oils, total flavonoids, total phenolics and the antioxidant activity of their methanolic extracts. Essential oils were obtained by steam distillation and analysed using GC-FID and GC-MS, whereas total flavonoids, total phenolics and antioxidant activities were determined using spectrophotometric methods. Sixty-one volatile constituents were identified. The main constituents were myrcene, p-cymene, γ-terpinene, linalool, thymol, carvacrol and viridiflorol. Total phenolics ranged from 68.1 to 102.6 mg/g dry mass, the total flavonoid content ranged from 38.3 to 67.0 mg/g dm, and the antioxidant activity according to the DPPH assay ranged from 253.3 to 342.9 mg TE/g dm and according to the FRAP assay ranged from 8.9 to 11.4 mg TE/g dm. Hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analyses were used to assess the geographical variations in the essential oil composition. Statistical analysis revealed that the analysed populations are grouped into four main clusters that appear to reflect the environmental impact on the chemical composition, which is influenced by differences in habitat composition, altitude and microclimatic conditions.

  15. Arnica montana gel in osteoarthritis of the knee: an open, multicenter clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuesel, Otto; Weber, Michel; Suter, Andy

    2002-01-01

    This open multicenter trial investigated the safety and efficacy of an Arnica montana fresh plant gel, applied twice daily, in 26 men and 53 women with mild to moderate osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. After 3 and 6 weeks, significant decreases in median total scores on the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) were evident in the intention-to-treat and per-protocol populations (both P < .0001). Scores on the pain, stiffness, and function subscales also showed significant reductions at these timepoints. The overall local adverse-event rate of 7.6% included only one allergic reaction. Sixty-nine patients (87%) rated the tolerability of the gel as "good" or "fairly good," and 76% would use it again. Topical application of Arnica montana gel for 6 weeks was a safe, well-tolerated, and effective treatment of mild to moderate OA of the knee.

  16. Does breeding population trajectory and age of nesting females influence disparate nestling sex ratios in two populations of Cooper's hawks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfield, Robert N; Stout, William E; Giovanni, Matthew D; Levine, Noah H; Cava, Jenna A; Hardin, Madeline G; Haynes, Taylor G

    2015-09-01

    Offspring sex ratios at the termination of parental care should theoretically be skewed toward the less expensive sex, which in most avian species would be females, the smaller gender. Among birds, however, raptors offer an unusual dynamic because they exhibit reversed size dimorphism with females being larger than males. And thus theory would predict a preponderance of male offspring. Results for raptors and birds in general have been varied although population-level estimates of sex ratios in avian offspring are generally at unity. Adaptive adjustment of sex ratios in avian offspring is difficult to predict perhaps in part due to a lack of life-history details and short-term investigations that cannot account for precision or repeatability of sex ratios across time. We conducted a novel comparative study of sex ratios in nestling Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperii) in two study populations across breeding generations during 11 years in Wisconsin, 2001-2011. One breeding population recently colonized metropolitan Milwaukee and exhibited rapidly increasing population growth, while the ex-Milwaukee breeding population was stable. Following life-history trade-off theory and our prediction regarding this socially monogamous species in which reversed sexual size dimorphism is extreme, first-time breeding one-year-old, second-year females in both study populations produced a preponderance of the smaller and cheaper sex, males, whereas ASY (after-second-year), ≥2-year-old females in Milwaukee produced a nestling sex ratio near unity and predictably therefore a greater proportion of females compared to ASY females in ex-Milwaukee who produced a preponderance of males. Adjustment of sex ratios in both study populations occurred at conception. Life histories and selective pressures related to breeding population trajectory in two age cohorts of nesting female Cooper's hawk likely vary, and it is possible that these differences influenced the sex ratios we documented for

  17. Wegener’s granulomatosis and environmental factors in Western Montana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Samuel Zeft

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our study was to determine whether exposure to silica or other environmental factors is associated with developing Wegener’s granulomatosis (WG, in a geographically isolated region of Western Montana. We sought to identify and interview all cases of WG diagnosed during 1993-2006 among residents of a ten-county region of Western Montana, as well as a group of demographically similar controls (n=39 without autoimmune disease. In the interview, we ascertained occupational silica and other exposures (metals, solvents, pesticides, tobacco. We enumerated 32 cases of WG, of whom 27 were included in the case-control study. Overall, a history of silica exposure was not associated with WG (OR = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.13-3.27, although there was a suggestion of increase in risk among persons with relatively recent (OR=2.67, 95% CI: 0.54-17.2, heavy (OR=1.82, 95% CI: 0.09-112.9, and prolonged (OR=1.53, 95% CI: 0.16-20.0 exposures. A history of having worked in the mining industry was associated with WG (six cases including three with no silica exposure, zero controls, lower 95% CI: 1.53. Risk was not associated with occupational or aerial pesticide exposure, but with residential rodenticide use (OR=12.15, 95% CI: 1.54-552. Occupational exposure to metals or solvents was not associated with WG, nor was a history of cigarette smoking. Results of earlier studies of WG support the hypothesis that silica exposure adversely influences the risk of developing WG. Our small study of WG failed to identify an association with silica overall, but the results are compat­ible with an increased risk in persons with relatively heavy, prolonged, and/or recent exposure.

  18. 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey: Alternative Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior alternative school student frequency distributions. These frequency distributions are based upon surveys with 274 alternative school students in Montana during February of 2011. Frequency distributions may not total 274 due to nonresponse and percents may not total 100 percent due to…

  19. 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey: Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey high school student frequency distributions for students with disabilities. These frequency distributions are based upon surveys with 1,672 high school students with disabilities in Montana during February of 2011. Frequency distributions may not total 1,672 due to nonresponse and…

  20. 76 FR 63323 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ...-L13200000-EL0000-P; MTM 97988] Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Montana AGENCY: Bureau of Land... described below in Musselshell County, Montana, will be offered for competitive lease by sealed bid in accordance with the provisions of the Mineral Leasing Act of 1920, as amended. DATES: The lease sale will...

  1. 77 FR 2316 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Montana AGENCY: Bureau of Land... described below in Musselshell County, Montana, will be offered for competitive lease by sealed bid in accordance with the provisions of the Mineral Leasing Act of 1920, as amended. DATES: The lease sale will...

  2. Tipificación de "Arnica montana" L. (Asteraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrer Gallego, Pedro Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Se designa un lectótipo para Arnica montana L. (Asteraceae) a partir del material original de Linneo conservado en el herbario UPS-BURSER. A lectotype for Arnica montana L. (Asteraceae) is designated from Linnaeus’ original material preserved in the UPS-BURSER herbarium.

  3. A Response to "A Description of Merger Applied to the Montana State University Context."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Ronald P.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Contains three responses to Stephen L. Coffman's article appearing in the same issue, "A Description of Merger Applied to the Montana State University Context": one from the chancellor of Montana State University-Billings, one from the president of Montana State University-Bozeman, and one from the commissioner of the Montana State University…

  4. Demographic factors and genetic variation influence population persistence under environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willi, Yvonne; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2009-01-01

    Population persistence has been studied in a conservation context to predict the fate of small or declining populations. Persistence models have explored effects on extinction of random demographic and environmental fluctuations, but in the face of directional environmental change they should also integrate factors affecting whether a population can adapt. Here, we examine the population-size dependence of demographic and genetic factors and their likely contributions to extinction time under scenarios of environmental change. Parameter estimates were derived from experimental populations of the rainforest species, Drosophila birchii, held in the lab for 10 generations at census sizes of 20, 100 and 1000, and later exposed to five generations of heat-knockdown selection. Under a model of directional change in the thermal environment, rapid extinction of populations of size 20 was caused by a combination of low growth rate (r) and high stochasticity in r. Populations of 100 had significantly higher reproductive output, lower stochasticity in r and more additive genetic variance (V(A)) than populations of 20, but they were predicted to persist less well than the largest size class. Even populations of 1000 persisted only a few hundred generations under realistic estimates of environmental change because of low V(A) for heat-knockdown resistance. The experimental results document population-size dependence of demographic and adaptability factors. The simulations illustrate a threshold influence of demographic factors on population persistence, while genetic variance has a more elastic impact on persistence under environmental change.

  5. Timing of translocation influences birth rate and population dynamics in a forest carnivore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facka, Aaron N; Lewis, Jeffrey C.; Happe, Patricia; Jenkins, Kurt J.; Callas, Richard; Powell, Roger A.

    2016-01-01

    Timing can be critical for many life history events of organisms. Consequently, the timing of management activities may affect individuals and populations in numerous and unforeseen ways. Translocations of organisms are used to restore or expand populations but the timing of translocations is largely unexplored as a factor influencing population success. We hypothesized that the process of translocation negatively influences reproductive rates of individuals that are moved just before their birthing season and, therefore, the timing of releases could influence translocation success. Prior to reintroducing fishers (Pekania pennanti) into northern California and onto the Olympic Peninsula of Washington, we predicted that female fishers released in November and December (early) would have a higher probability of giving birth to kits the following March or April than females released in January, February, and March (late), just prior to or during the period of blastocyst implantation and gestation. Over four winters (2008–2011), we translocated 56 adult female fishers that could have given birth in the spring immediately after release. Denning rates, an index of birth rate, for females released early were 92% in California and 38% in Washington. In contrast, denning rates for females released late were 40% and 11%, in California and Washington, a net reduction in denning rate of 66% across both sites. To understand how releasing females nearer to parturition could influence population establishment and persistence, we used stochastic population simulations using three-stage Lefkovitch matrices. These simulations showed that translocating female fishers early had long-term positive influences on the mean population size and on quasi-extinction thresholds compared to populations where females were released late. The results from both empirical data and simulations show that the timing of translocation, with respect to life history events, should be considered during

  6. Daily variations in pathogenic bacterial populations in a monsoon influenced tropical environment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khandeparker, L.; Anil, A.C.; Naik, S.D.; Gaonkar, C.C.

    , C.A., 2010.Comparison of the pathogenic potentials of environmental and clinical Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains indicates a role for temperature regulation of virulence. Appl.Environ.Microbiol. 76, 7459–7465 Moss, J.A., Nocker, A., Lepo, J... and the characteristics of the water body change. Bacterial populations, an important component of the microbial loop, influence food web dynamics and ecosystem functioning. The response of the bacterial population to the changing environment is rapid...

  7. Influence of a Small Fraction of Individuals with Enhanced Mutations on a Population Genetic Pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebrat, S.; Stauffer, D.

    It has been observed that a higher mutation load could be introduced into the genomes of children conceived by assisted reproduction technology (fertilization in-vitro). This generates two effects — slightly higher mutational pressure on the whole genetic pool of population and inhomogeneity of mutation distributions in the genetic pool. Computer simulations of the Penna ageing model suggest that already a small fraction of births with enhanced number of new mutations can negatively influence the whole population.

  8. Grizzly bear density in Glacier National Park, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, K.C.; Stetz, J.B.; Roon, David A.; Waits, L.P.; Boulanger, J.B.; Paetkau, David

    2008-01-01

    We present the first rigorous estimate of grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) population density and distribution in and around Glacier National Park (GNP), Montana, USA. We used genetic analysis to identify individual bears from hair samples collected via 2 concurrent sampling methods: 1) systematically distributed, baited, barbed-wire hair traps and 2) unbaited bear rub trees found along trails. We used Huggins closed mixture models in Program MARK to estimate total population size and developed a method to account for heterogeneity caused by unequal access to rub trees. We corrected our estimate for lack of geographic closure using a new method that utilizes information from radiocollared bears and the distribution of bears captured with DNA sampling. Adjusted for closure, the average number of grizzly bears in our study area was 240.7 (95% CI = 202–303) in 1998 and 240.6 (95% CI = 205–304) in 2000. Average grizzly bear density was 30 bears/1,000 km2, with 2.4 times more bears detected per hair trap inside than outside GNP. We provide baseline information important for managing one of the few remaining populations of grizzlies in the contiguous United States.

  9. Golden reputation wanted for a gold producer. The case of the Rosia Montana Gold Corporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George David

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Inappropriate stakeholder communication often generates risks or even dangers to the organizations which are not aware of the importance of a proper flow of information to/from its publics. “Rosia Montana Gold Corporation”, a Canada-based company specialized in gold extraction, has initiated since 1996 a project to extract gold from the perimeter Rosia Montana (Western Carpathians, county of Alba, Romania. Although the technical documentation has been submitted back in 2004 to the authorities to be endorsed and approved, the approval is still pending due to a great amount of negative public perceptions often turned to hostile behaviors. In order to diminish this hostility, the company has started a huge communication campaign founded on factuality in its attempt to extract gold in Romania. However, the results are still unsatisfactory, even if the amount of negative perceptions has been lowered in a certain measure. In our paper we would like to analyze, based on the Situational Crisis Communication Theory (SCCT and quantitative analysis methods, several influences produced by the organizational communication done so far over the organization itself, as well as over stakeholders such as the local community in Rosia Montana, public institutions, and non-governmental organizations.

  10. The Influence of Matching Populations on Kinematic and Kinetic Variables in Runners with Iliotibial Band Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, Stefan; Maiwald, Christian; Krauss, Inga; Axmann, Detlef; Horstmann, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess how participant matching influences biomechanical variables when comparing healthy runners and runners with iliotibial band syndrome (ITBS). We examined 52 healthy runners (CO) and 18 with ITBS, using three-dimensional kinematics and pressure distribution. The study population was matched in three ways and…

  11. Influence of habitat amount, arrangement, and use on population trend estimates of male Kirtland's warblers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deanh M. Donner; John R. Probst; Christine A. Ribic

    2008-01-01

    Kirtland's warblers (Dendroica kirtlandii) persist in a naturally patchy environment of young, regenerating jack pine forests (i.e., 5-23 years old) created after wildfires and human logging activities. We examined how changing landscape structure from 26 years of forest management and wildfire disturbances influenced population size and spatial...

  12. Meteorological influences on North America quail populations [abstract, table, and figure

    OpenAIRE

    Botsford, Louis; Brittnacher, John G.

    1988-01-01

    EXTRACT (SEE PDF FOR FULL ABSTRACT): Comparative study of environmental influences on the population dynamics of three North American species of quail, California quail (Callipepla california), Gambel's quail (C. gambellii), and scaled quail (C. squamata) has lead to identification of differential sensitivity of these species to global weather patterns.

  13. Treatment influence on herbicide resistance level of Belgian Alopecurus myosuroides populations (black-grass).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marechal, P Y; Henriet, F; Bodson, B

    2009-01-01

    Black-grass is a common grass weed, widely spread in Northern Europe and also in Belgium. For ages, it has been an increasing problem in industrial crops, especially winter cereals. Therefore, farmers started to spray herbicide intensively and soon cases of failure occurred for different molecules and different modes of action. Black-grass populations have been tested in greenhouses to assess the influence of an herbicide treatment as to the resistance level regarding three different herbicides: chlortoluron, fenoxaprop-P and mesosulfuron+iodosulfuron. Black-grass seeds were collected in field trials in six locations in Belgium, on individuals which have survived the herbicide treatment. Each population comes from trial plots, measuring 2 meters wide by 5 meters long and characterized by a single or a combination of products. Herbicides sprayed were isoproturon, flufenacet+diflufenican, ACCase inhibitors and ALS inhibitors. Seeds were also collected in the untreated plots. The population present in these last ones corresponds to the former population, before the herbicide selection pressure was applied. In the glasshouse assay, this population was used as the standard population to compare with other populations issued from the same field. The 'R' rating system was set up with this population to assess the evolution of resistance level, year in, year out. Rothamsted and Peldon populations were also included as cross-reference. Each field population presented different behaviours towards herbicide applied in greenhouses and some cases of resistance can be highlighted. Generally, a reduction of treatment efficiency between field and greenhouse results was clearly visible for the whole of studied active ingredients. Indeed, a distribution shift of the populations towards higher resistance classes could be observed. This is particularly remarkable for active ingredients sharing the same mode of action. For example, it has been found that populations already sprayed

  14. Modeling the influence of polls on elections: a population dynamics approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyman, James M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Restrepo, Juan M [UNIV OF ARIZONA; Rael, Rosalyn C [UNIV OF ARIZONA

    2009-01-01

    We propose a population dynamics model for quantifying the effects of polling data on the outcome of multi-party elections decided by a majority-rule voting process. We divide the population into two groups: committed voters impervious to polling data, and susceptible voters whose decision to vote is influenced by data, depending on its reliability. This population-based approach to modeling the process sidesteps the problem of upscaling models based upon the choices made by individuals. We find releasing poll data is not advantageous to leading candidates, but it can be exploited by those closely trailing. The analysis identifies the particular type of voting impetus at play in different stages of an election and could help strategists optimize their influence on susceptible voters.

  15. Local environment but not genetic differentiation influences biparental care in ten plover populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orsolya Vincze

    Full Text Available Social behaviours are highly variable between species, populations and individuals. However, it is contentious whether behavioural variations are primarily moulded by the environment, caused by genetic differences, or a combination of both. Here we establish that biparental care, a complex social behaviour that involves rearing of young by both parents, differs between closely related populations, and then test two potential sources of variation in parental behaviour between populations: ambient environment and genetic differentiation. We use 2904 hours behavioural data from 10 geographically distinct Kentish (Charadrius alexandrinus and snowy plover (C. nivosus populations in America, Europe, the Middle East and North Africa to test these two sources of behavioural variation. We show that local ambient temperature has a significant influence on parental care: with extreme heat (above 40 °C total incubation (i.e. % of time the male or female incubated the nest increased, and female share (% female share of incubation decreased. By contrast, neither genetic differences between populations, nor geographic distances predicted total incubation or female's share of incubation. These results suggest that the local environment has a stronger influence on a social behaviour than genetic differentiation, at least between populations of closely related species.

  16. Some biological compounds, radical scavenging capacities and antimicrobial activities in the seeds of Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. sub sp. montana from Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emre, I.; Kursat, M.; Yilmaz, O.; Erecevit, P.

    2011-07-01

    This study determined some biological compounds (fatty acid compositions, lipid-soluble vitamins, sterols, flavonoids), radical scavenging capacities and antimicrobial activities in the seeds of Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana. It was found that palmitic acid (C16:0; 8.54+-0.13-3.05+-0.04%), oleic acid (C18:1 n9, 22.41+-0.8-18.83+-0.1%) and a-inolenic acid were the dominant fatty acids in both Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana. It was concluded that both Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana contained stigmasterol and ergosterol as well as beta-sitosterol. The present findings show that Nepeta italica L. contains morin, catechin, naringin and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana contains morin, naringenin as major flavonoids. It was also determined that methanol extracts of Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana were most effective against DPPH radicals. The results of the present study show that the vitamins, flavonoids and fatty acid extracts in the seeds of N. italica L. and S. montana L. subsp. montana prevented the growth of the microorganisms used in the tests at different ratios. (Author).

  17. Some biological compounds, radical scavenging capacities and antimicrobial activities in the seeds of Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana from Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emre, I.; Kursat, M.; Yilmaz, O.; Erecevit, P.

    2011-07-01

    This study determined some biological compounds (fatty acid compositions, lipid-soluble vitamins, sterols, flavonoids), radical scavenging capacities and antimicrobial activities in the seeds of Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana. It was found that palmitic acid (C16:0; 8.54+-0.13-3.05+-0.04%), oleic acid (C18:1 n9, 22.41+-0.8-18.83+-0.1%) and a-inolenic acid were the dominant fatty acids in both Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana. It was concluded that both Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana contained stigmasterol and ergosterol as well as beta-sitosterol. The present findings show that Nepeta italica L. contains morin, catechin, naringin and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana contains morin, naringenin as major flavonoids. It was also determined that methanol extracts of Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana were most effective against DPPH radicals. The results of the present study show that the vitamins, flavonoids and fatty acid extracts in the seeds of N. italica L. and S. montana L. subsp. montana prevented the growth of the microorganisms used in the tests at different ratios. (Author).

  18. [The influence of solcoseryl on population and cellular parameters of HeLa and RD cultures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magakian, Iu A; Karalian, Z A; Karalova, E M; Abroian, L O; Akopian, L A; Gasparian, M G; Dzhagatspanian, N G; Semerdzhian, Z B; Ter-Pogosian, Z R

    2010-01-01

    Changes of population and cellular parameters of HeLa and RD cultures after introducing of solcoseryl in culture medium were studied by methods of scanning cytophotometry and cytomorphometry. Monolayer density, proliferation activity, the number of dead cells in a monolayer, the number of nucleoli in nuclei and distribution of cells in the populations by this parameter, RNA and DNA masses in nuclei and nucleoli, total volumes and surface areas of the nuclei and nucleoli were determined. It has been shown that solcoseryl differently affects the cultures both on population and on cellular levels of their organization. The results of multi-parametric analysis of the influence of solseryl on the cultures allow considering it as a biologically active compound with the features typical for cell and cell population growth regulating factors.

  19. A classification system for describing anthropogenic influence on nonhuman primate populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Tracie

    2015-07-01

    Many nonhuman primates live in proximity to humans, and all studied primate populations are influenced in some ways by human interaction. While the effects of human interference on primate behavior and ecology are an important area of research in contemporary primatology, to date there is no systematic way to report the types or level of anthropogenic influence for a primate study population. In this paper, I introduce a diagnostic classification system that will allow primate field researchers to clearly and consistently report anthropogenic conditions at their study sites. This system provides a way to identify population conditions for four major variables: landscape, human-nonhuman primate interface, diet, and predation risk. The incredible diversity of the Order Primates necessitates a descriptive system that is applicable across a wide range of habitat types, social groupings, and ecological roles, so the proposed classification system has been specifically designed to avoid quantitative ranking. Instead, the system is intended to provide a standardized way to report a wealth of population and site information in a simple format. This will allow for meta-analysis of specific conditions across study sites, leading to a greater understanding of the effects of different forms of anthropogenic influence on primate behavior and ecology. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Northwest Montana [Waterfowl Production Area] Narrative report: Fical year 1975

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Northwest Montana Wetland Management District outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1975 fiscal year. The report begins by...

  1. Northwest Montana Wildlife Mitigation Habitat Protection : Advance Design : Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Marilyn A.

    1993-02-01

    This report summarizes the habitat protection process developed to mitigate for certain wildlife and wildlife habitat losses due to construction of Hungry Horse and Libby dams in northwestern Montana.

  2. Montana National Wildlife Refuges: Contaminant issues of concern

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to: (1) identify specific contaminant issues of concern for each Montana refuge and wetland management district; (2) summarize the...

  3. Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks 2008 Avian Influenza Surveillance Project Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the work performed by Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks (FWP) during the 2008 surveillance period. The objectives of the project were to employ...

  4. Planning and accomplishment narrative: Northwest Montana Waterfowl Production Area [1973

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This planning and accomplishments narrative report for Northwest Montana Wetland Management District outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1973 calendar year....

  5. Building Points - Montana Structures/Addresses Framework - Web Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Map service for the Montana Structures MSDI Framework. The service will only display at scales of 1:100,000 or larger. Structures are grouped into general categories...

  6. Building Points - Montana Structures/Addresses Framework - Web Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Map service for the Montana Structures MSDI Framework. The service will only display at scales of 1:100,000 or larger. Structures are grouped into general categories...

  7. Land Use and Land Cover - Montana Land Cover Framework 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This statewide land cover theme is a baseline digital map of Montana's natural and human land cover. The baseline map is adapted from the Northwest ReGAP project...

  8. Northwest Montana Wetland Management District : Annual Narrative : Calendar Year 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Northwest Montana WMD outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1995 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  9. Northwest Montana Wetland Management District : Annual Narrative : Calendar Year 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Northwest Montana WMD outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1992 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  10. Northwest Montana Wetland Management District : Annual Narrative : Calendar Year 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Northwest Montana WMD outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1994 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  11. Northwest Montana Wetland Management District : Annual Narrative : Calendar Year 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Northwest Montana WMD outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1993 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  12. Bone foreshafts from a clovis burial in southwestern montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahren, L; Bonnichsen, R

    1974-10-11

    Formal and functional analyses of bone artifacts from a Clovis burial in southwestern Montana suggest that they were constructed to serve as (detachable or nondetachable) foreshafts for attaching fluted projectile points to lance shafts.

  13. [Predator disease sampling results in Montana 1993-1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains data from predator disease sampling in Montana for the reintroduction of black-footed ferrets at Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge....

  14. Age and gender might influence big five factors of personality: a preliminary report in Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magan, Dipti; Mehta, Manju; Sarvottam, Kumar; Yadav, Raj Kumar; Pandey, R M

    2014-01-01

    Age and gender are two important physiological variables which might influence the personality of an individual. The influence of age and gender on big five personality domains in Indian population was assessed in this cross-sectional study that included 155 subjects (female = 76, male = 79) aged from 16-75 years. Big five personality factors were evaluated using 60-item NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) at a single point in time. Among the big five factors of personality, Conscientiousness was positively correlated (r = 0.195; P personality traits might change with age, and is gender-dependent.

  15. The Marysville, Montana Geothermal Project. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-09-01

    This report describes the exploration of an anomalous site near Marysville, Montana, where the geothermal heat flow is about 10 times the regional average. The site arouses scientific interest because there are no surface manifestations such as young volcanics, hot springs, geysers, etc., within 20 miles of it. Also, there is significant economic interest in exploring the source of heat as a potential for the generation of electricity. Included herein are independent sections prepared by each contractor. Consequently, there is some overlapping information, generally presented from different viewpoints. The project consists of geophysical surveys in 1973 and 1974, the drilling of the deep well in the summer of 1974 to a depth of 6790 feet, the coring and logging of the well, the supporting scientific studies, and the data analysis. Since so much data are available on the Marysville system, it can serve as a testing and research area to help locate and understand similar systems. (GRA)

  16. US hydropower resource assessment for Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J.E.

    1993-12-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE menu-driven software application that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the state of Montana.

  17. THE INFLUENCE OF PRICES AND INCOME ON CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR OF THE POPULATION. THE CASE OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anghelina Andrei

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The recession influenced the consummers in their biggest concern – their income. In the same time the recession changed some important trends in consume. In this paperwork the authors intend to determine how strong the influence of prices and incomes of the population is on the consumer behavior, especially in Romania. Also the author want to present the case study of Romania concerning the recession of economy and some new aspects of consumer behavior. There is a strong conexion between the income and consume and the time of recession show it in the best way. In this way the author did some research on the market and by some analyses in a statistical editor we conclude that there is a strong determination in the consumer behavior by the income of the population especially in Romania, a country with a developing economy.

  18. Genetic and environmental factors influencing the Placental Growth Factor (PGF) variation in two populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorice, Rossella; Ruggiero, Daniela; Nutile, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    . However, to date, no information is available regarding the genetics of PGF variability. Furthermore, even though the effect of environmental factors (e.g.: cigarette smoking) on angiogenesis has been explored, no data on the influence of these factors on PGF levels have been reported so far. Here we have...... first investigated PGF variability in two cohorts focusing on non-genetic risk factors: a study sample from two isolated villages in the Cilento region, South Italy (N=871) and a replication sample from the general Danish population (N=1,812). A significant difference in PGF mean levels was found...... between the two cohorts. However, in both samples, we observed a strong correlation of PGF levels with ageing and sex, men displaying PGF levels significantly higher than women. Interestingly, smoking was also found to influence the trait in the two populations, although differently. We have then focused...

  19. Trade-Offs between Growth Rate, Tree Size and Lifespan of Mountain Pine (Pinus montana) in the Swiss National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigler, Christof

    2016-01-01

    A within-species trade-off between growth rates and lifespan has been observed across different taxa of trees, however, there is some uncertainty whether this trade-off also applies to shade-intolerant tree species. The main objective of this study was to investigate the relationships between radial growth, tree size and lifespan of shade-intolerant mountain pines. For 200 dead standing mountain pines (Pinus montana) located along gradients of aspect, slope steepness and elevation in the Swiss National Park, radial annual growth rates and lifespan were reconstructed. While early growth (i.e. mean tree-ring width over the first 50 years) correlated positively with diameter at the time of tree death, a negative correlation resulted with lifespan, i.e. rapidly growing mountain pines face a trade-off between reaching a large diameter at the cost of early tree death. Slowly growing mountain pines may reach a large diameter and a long lifespan, but risk to die young at a small size. Early growth was not correlated with temperature or precipitation over the growing period. Variability in lifespan was further contingent on aspect, slope steepness and elevation. The shade-intolerant mountain pines follow diverging growth trajectories that are imposed by extrinsic environmental influences. The resulting trade-offs between growth rate, tree size and lifespan advance our understanding of tree population dynamics, which may ultimately improve projections of forest dynamics under changing environmental conditions.

  20. Trade-Offs between Growth Rate, Tree Size and Lifespan of Mountain Pine (Pinus montana in the Swiss National Park.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christof Bigler

    Full Text Available A within-species trade-off between growth rates and lifespan has been observed across different taxa of trees, however, there is some uncertainty whether this trade-off also applies to shade-intolerant tree species. The main objective of this study was to investigate the relationships between radial growth, tree size and lifespan of shade-intolerant mountain pines. For 200 dead standing mountain pines (Pinus montana located along gradients of aspect, slope steepness and elevation in the Swiss National Park, radial annual growth rates and lifespan were reconstructed. While early growth (i.e. mean tree-ring width over the first 50 years correlated positively with diameter at the time of tree death, a negative correlation resulted with lifespan, i.e. rapidly growing mountain pines face a trade-off between reaching a large diameter at the cost of early tree death. Slowly growing mountain pines may reach a large diameter and a long lifespan, but risk to die young at a small size. Early growth was not correlated with temperature or precipitation over the growing period. Variability in lifespan was further contingent on aspect, slope steepness and elevation. The shade-intolerant mountain pines follow diverging growth trajectories that are imposed by extrinsic environmental influences. The resulting trade-offs between growth rate, tree size and lifespan advance our understanding of tree population dynamics, which may ultimately improve projections of forest dynamics under changing environmental conditions.

  1. Environmental Assessment, Minuteman III and Peacekeeper Silo Elimination, Malmstrom AFB, Montana; F. E. Warren AFB, Wyoming; and Vandenberg AFB, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    so small watersheds can receive heavy rainfall for short durations, and localized flooding can occur. However, because of the nature of the...and topography of the air basin, and the prevailing meteorological conditions. The significance of a pollutant concentration is determined by...Demographic information from the U.S. Bureau of the Census was used to extract data on minority, low-income, and child populations within Montana and

  2. Arbuscular mycorrhiza of Arnica montana under field conditions--conventional and molecular studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryszka, Przemysław; Błaszkowski, Janusz; Jurkiewicz, Anna; Turnau, Katarzyna

    2010-11-01

    Two distinct populations of Arnica montana, an endangered medicinal plant, were studied under field conditions. The material was investigated using microscopic and molecular methods. The analyzed plants were always found to be mycorrhizal. Nineteen arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal DNA sequences were obtained from the roots. They were related to Glomus Group A, but most did not match any known species. Some showed a degree of similarity to fungi colonizing liverworts. Conventional analysis of spores isolated from soil samples allowed to identify different fungal taxa: Glomus macrocarpum, Glomus mosseae, Acaulospora lacunosa, and Scutellospora dipurpurescens. Their spores were also isolated from trap cultures.

  3. Influence of population and exercise protocol characteristics on hemodynamic determinants of post-aerobic exercise hypotension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.C. Brito

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to differences in study populations and protocols, the hemodynamic determinants of post-aerobic exercise hypotension (PAEH are controversial. This review analyzed the factors that might influence PAEH hemodynamic determinants, through a search on PubMed using the following key words: “postexercise” or “post-exercise” combined with “hypotension”, “blood pressure”, “cardiac output”, and “peripheral vascular resistance”, and “aerobic exercise” combined only with “blood pressure”. Forty-seven studies were selected, and the following characteristics were analyzed: age, gender, training status, body mass index status, blood pressure status, exercise intensity, duration and mode (continuous or interval, time of day, and recovery position. Data analysis showed that 1 most postexercise hypotension cases are due to a reduction in systemic vascular resistance; 2 age, body mass index, and blood pressure status influence postexercise hemodynamics, favoring cardiac output decrease in elderly, overweight, and hypertensive subjects; 3 gender and training status do not have an isolated influence; 4 exercise duration, intensity, and mode also do not affect postexercise hemodynamics; 5 time of day might have an influence, but more data are needed; and 6 recovery in the supine position facilitates systemic vascular resistance decrease. In conclusion, many factors may influence postexercise hypotension hemodynamics, and future studies should directly address these specific influences because different combinations may explain the observed variability in postexercise hemodynamic studies.

  4. Influence of APOE Genotype on Alzheimer’s Disease CSF Biomarkers in a Spanish Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Monge-Argilés

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To evaluate the association between apolipoprotein E (APOE genotype and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF levels of Alzheimer’s disease (AD biomarkers and to study the influence of APOE genotype on the development of AD in a Spanish population. Material and Methods. The study comprised 29 amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI patients and 27 control subjects. Using ELISA methodology, CSF biomarkers and tau/Aβ ratios were obtained. ANOVA and adjusted odds ratios were calculated. Results. We observed the effect of APOE genotype and age on CSF AD variables. The progression to AD was more clearly influenced by CSF AD variables than by age or APOE status. Conclusions. APOE status influences CSF AD variables. However, the presence of APOE ε4 does not appear to be a deterministic factor for the development of AD, because CSF variables have a greater influence on progression to the disease. These results confirm previous observations and, to our knowledge, are the first published in a Spanish population.

  5. Daily variations in pathogenic bacterial populations in a monsoon influenced tropical environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandeparker, Lidita; Anil, Arga Chandrashekar; Naik, Sneha D; Gaonkar, Chetan C

    2015-07-15

    Changing climatic conditions have influenced the monsoon pattern in recent years. Variations in bacterial population in one such tropical environment were observed everyday over two years and point out intra and inter annual changes driven by the intensity of rainfall. Vibrio spp. were abundant during the monsoon and so were faecal coliforms. Vibrio alginolyticus were negatively influenced by nitrate, whereas, silicate and rainfall positively influenced Vibrio parahaemolyticus numbers. It is also known that pathogenic bacteria are associated with the plankton. Changes in the abundance of plankton, which are governed mainly by environmental changes, could be responsible for variation in pathogenic bacterial abundance during monsoon, other than the land runoff due to precipitation and influx of fresh water.

  6. Montana StreamStats—A method for retrieving basin and streamflow characteristics in Montana: Chapter A in Montana StreamStats

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Peter M.; Dutton, DeAnn M.; Sando, Steven K.; Sando, Roy

    2016-04-05

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provides streamflow characteristics and other related information needed by water-resource managers to protect people and property from floods, plan and manage water-resource activities, and protect water quality. Streamflow characteristics provided by the USGS, such as peak-flow and low-flow frequencies for streamflow-gaging stations, are frequently used by engineers, flood forecasters, land managers, biologists, and others to guide their everyday decisions. In addition to providing streamflow characteristics at streamflow-gaging stations, the USGS also develops regional regression equations and drainage area-adjustment methods for estimating streamflow characteristics at locations on ungaged streams. Regional regression equations can be complex and often require users to determine several basin characteristics, which are physical and climatic characteristics of the stream and its drainage basin. Obtaining these basin characteristics for streamflow-gaging stations and ungaged sites traditionally has been time consuming and subjective, and led to inconsistent results.StreamStats is a Web-based geographic information system application that was created by the USGS to provide users with access to an assortment of analytical tools that are useful for water-resource planning and management. StreamStats allows users to easily obtain streamflow and basin characteristics for USGS streamflow-gaging stations and user-selected locations on ungaged streams. The USGS, in cooperation with Montana Department of Transportation, Montana Department of Environmental Quality, and Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation, completed a study to develop a StreamStats application for Montana, compute streamflow characteristics at streamflow-gaging stations, and develop regional regression equations to estimate streamflow characteristics at ungaged sites. Chapter A of this Scientific Investigations Report describes the Montana Stream

  7. Estimating occupancy and predicting numbers of gray wolf packs in Montana using hunter surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Lindsey N.; Russell, Robin E.; Glenn, Elizabeth M.; Mitchell, Michael S.; Gude, Justin A.; Podruzny, Kevin M.; Sime, Carolyn A.; Laudon, Kent; Ausband, David E.; Nichols, James D.

    2013-01-01

    Reliable knowledge of the status and trend of carnivore populations is critical to their conservation and management. Methods for monitoring carnivores, however, are challenging to conduct across large spatial scales. In the Northern Rocky Mountains, wildlife managers need a time- and cost-efficient method for monitoring gray wolf (Canis lupus) populations. Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks (MFWP) conducts annual telephone surveys of >50,000 deer and elk hunters. We explored how survey data on hunters' sightings of wolves could be used to estimate the occupancy and distribution of wolf packs and predict their abundance in Montana for 2007–2009. We assessed model utility by comparing our predictions to MFWP minimum known number of wolf packs. We minimized false positive detections by identifying a patch as occupied if 2–25 wolves were detected by ≥3 hunters. Overall, estimates of the occupancy and distribution of wolf packs were generally consistent with known distributions. Our predictions of the total area occupied increased from 2007 to 2009 and predicted numbers of wolf packs were approximately 1.34–1.46 times the MFWP minimum counts for each year of the survey. Our results indicate that multi-season occupancy models based on public sightings can be used to monitor populations and changes in the spatial distribution of territorial carnivores across large areas where alternative methods may be limited by personnel, time, accessibility, and budget constraints.

  8. 75 FR 57059 - Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation Final Habitat Conservation Plan and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation Final Habitat... received from the Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation (DNRC) a Final...

  9. 77 FR 12581 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Montana AGENCY: Environmental... the state of Montana has revised its Public Water System Supervision (PWSS) Program by...

  10. 75 FR 69434 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Montana AGENCY: Environmental... the State of Montana has revised its Public Water System Supervision (PWSS) Primacy Program...

  11. The Montana Wild Virus Hunt | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health: The Montana Wild Virus Hunt Follow us The Montana Wild Virus Hunt Blake Wiedenheft is a ... their passion for health and science. What is the focus of your research? Viruses that infect bacteria ( ...

  12. Platelet serotonin transporter (5HTt): physiological influences on kinetic characteristics in a large human population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banović, Miroslav; Bordukalo-Niksić, Tatjana; Balija, Melita; Cicin-Sain, Lipa; Jernej, Branimir

    2010-01-01

    The present study had two goals: first, to give a detailed description of a reliable method for full kinetic analysis of serotonin transporter (5HTt) on the membrane of human platelets, and second, as a main issue, to report on physiological influences on kinetic characteristics of this transmembrane transport on a large population of healthy individuals. Full kinetic analyses of platelet serotonin uptake were performed on 334 blood donors of both sexes by the use of 14C-radioisotopic method, which was first optimized according to assumptions of enzyme kinetic analyses, with regard to platelet concentration, duration of uptake, concentration of substrate as well as important technical parameters (underpressure of filtration, blanks, incubating temperature, etc). Kinetic parameters of platelet serotonin uptake in the whole population were for V(max): 142 +/- 25.3 pmol 5HT/10(8) platelets/minute and for K(m): 0.404 +/- 0.089 microM 5HT. Besides the report on kinetic values of 5HT transporter protein, we have also described major physiological influences on the mentioned parameters, V(max), K(m) and their derivative, V(max)/K(m) (transporter efficiency): range and frequency distribution of normal values, intraindividual stability over time, lack of age influence, gender dependence and seasonal variations. The report on kinetic values and main physiological influences on platelet serotonin transport kinetics, obtained by the use of thoroughly reassessed methodology, and on by far the largest human population studied until now, offers a reliable frame of reference for pathophysiological studies of this parameter in various clinical fields.

  13. The influence of lifestyle on airborne particle surface area doses received by different Western populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacitto, A; Stabile, L; Moreno, T; Kumar, P; Wierzbicka, A; Morawska, L; Buonanno, G

    2017-09-14

    In the present study, the daily dose in terms of particle surface area received by citizens living in five cities in Western countries, characterized by different lifestyle, culture, climate and built-up environment, was evaluated and compared. For this purpose, the exposure to sub-micron particle concentration levels of the population living in Barcelona (Spain), Cassino (Italy), Guilford (United Kingdom), Lund (Sweden), and Brisbane (Australia) was measured through a direct exposure assessment approach. In particular, measurements of the exposure at a personal scale were performed by volunteers (15 per each population) that used a personal particle counter for different days in order to obtain exposure data in microenvironments/activities they resided/performed. Non-smoking volunteers performing non-industrial jobs were considered in the study. Particle concentration data allowed obtaining the exposure of the population living in each city. Such data were combined in a Monte Carlo method with the time activity pattern data characteristics of each population and inhalation rate to obtain the most probable daily dose in term of particle surface area as a function of the population gender, age, and nationality. The highest daily dose was estimated for citizens living in Cassino and Guilford (>1000 mm(2)), whereas the lowest value was recognized for Lund citizens (around 100 mm(2)). Indoor air quality, and in particular cooking and eating activities, was recognized as the main influencing factor in terms of exposure (and thus dose) of the population: then confirming that lifestyle (e.g. time spent in cooking activities) strongly affect the daily dose of the population. On the contrary, a minor or negligible contribution of the outdoor microenvironments was documented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The influence of hydrology and waterway distance on population structure of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in a large river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, J B; Beacham, T D; Wetklo, M; Seeb, L W; Smith, C T; Flannery, B G; Wenburg, J K

    2010-04-01

    Adult Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha navigate in river systems using olfactory cues that may be influenced by hydrologic factors such as flow and the number, size and spatial distribution of tributaries. Thus, river hydrology may influence both homing success and the level of straying (gene flow), which in turn influences population structure. In this study, two methods of multivariate analysis were used to examine the extent to which four indicators of hydrology and waterway distance explained population structure of O. tshawytscha in the Yukon River. A partial Mantel test showed that the indicators of hydrology were positively associated with broad-scale (Yukon basin) population structure, when controlling for the influence of waterway distance. Multivariate multiple regression showed that waterway distance, supplemented with the number and flow of major drainage basins, explained more variation in broad-scale population structure than any single indicator. At an intermediate spatial scale, indicators of hydrology did not appear to influence population structure after accounting for waterway distance. These results suggest that habitat changes in the Yukon River, which alter hydrology, may influence the basin-wide pattern of population structure in O. tshawytscha. Further research is warranted on the role of hydrology in concert with waterway distance in influencing population structure in Pacific salmon.

  15. The influence of coyotes on an urban Canada goose population in the Chicago metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Justin L.; /Ohio State U.

    2007-01-01

    between pre-nesting and nesting seasons (P=0.72) were similar, while between post-nesting and nesting seasons there was a nearly significant difference (P=0.07). The insignificant change in habitat use across seasons suggests that coyotes did not switch habitat use to take advantage of goose nests. Alternatively, the change in ranking of buffer habitat across seasons suggests that coyotes may have switched habitat use to take advantage of goose nests. The results are not clear as large individual variation between coyotes due to differences in habitat availability, and social status interfere with the results of the analysis. Even though I failed to find strong support for coyotes actively hunting goose nests, they nevertheless were the primary nest predator in the area and may influence Canada goose populations. To determine the potential influence of coyotes on the Canada goose population, I created a Canada goose matrix population model that included variables such as coyote predation on adults and nests as well as coyote influence on nest desertion. Using the base population model I calculated the Canada goose population to be increasing with {lambda} = 1.055. The removal of all coyote influence on the goose population would allow {lambda} to increase to 1.214. Nest predation was the most important factor related to coyotes: the removal of coyote nest predation from the model resulted in a population growth rate {lambda} = 1.157. Modeling results suggest coyotes are serving as a limiting factor for the Canada goose population within the Chicago metropolitan area.

  16. TERT Polymorphism rs2853669 Influences on Lung Cancer Risk in the Korean Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Seung Soo; Do, Sook Kyung; Choi, Jin Eun; Lee, Shin Yup; Lee, Jaehee; Cha, Seung Ick; Kim, Chang Ho; Park, Jae Yong

    2015-10-01

    Short telomeres are known as one of the risk factors for human cancers. The present study was conducted to evaluate the association between 6 polymorphisms, which were related with short telomere length in the Korean population, and lung cancer risk using 1,100 cases and 1,096 controls. Among the 6 polymorphisms, TERT rs2853669 was significantly associated with increased lung cancer risk under a recessive model (odds ratio [OR]=1.38, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.05-1.81, P=0.02). The effect of rs2853669 on lung cancer risk was significant in younger individuals (OR=1.73, 95% CI=1.18-2.54, P=0.005) and adenocarcinoma (OR=1.50, 95% CI=1.07-2.07, P=0.02). Our results suggest that a common functional promoter polymorphism, TERT rs2853669, may influence both telomere length and lung cancer risk in the Korean population.

  17. Genetic diversity in European red deer (Cervus elaphus L.): anthropogenic influences on natural populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartl, Günther B; Zachos, Frank; Nadlinger, Karl

    2003-08-01

    Allozyme, microsatellite and mtDNA (RFLP and sequence) data of European red deer populations were examined as to their capability of indicating anthropogenic influences such as the keeping of animals in enclosures, selective hunting for trophies translocation of specimens to improve trophy quality and habitat fragmentation. Deer in enclosures revealed considerable deviations of allele frequencies from isolation-by-distance expectations but no remarkable loss of genetic diversity. Particular allozyme genotypes were associated with antler morphology, and selective hunting was shown to alter allele frequencies in the expected direction. Habitat fragmentation is reflected by various kinds of genetic markers but due to the lack of information on population histories no unequivocal evidence on particular human activities could be obtained.

  18. The influence of population characteristics on variation in general practice based morbidity estimations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van den Dungen C

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background General practice based registration networks (GPRNs provide information on morbidity rates in the population. Morbidity rate estimates from different GPRNs, however, reveal considerable, unexplained differences. We studied the range and variation in morbidity estimates, as well as the extent to which the differences in morbidity rates between general practices and networks change if socio-demographic characteristics of the listed patient populations are taken into account. Methods The variation in incidence and prevalence rates of thirteen diseases among six Dutch GPRNs and the influence of age, gender, socio economic status (SES, urbanization level, and ethnicity are analyzed using multilevel logistic regression analysis. Results are expressed in median odds ratios (MOR. Results We observed large differences in morbidity rate estimates both on the level of general practices as on the level of networks. The differences in SES, urbanization level and ethnicity distribution among the networks' practice populations are substantial. The variation in morbidity rate estimates among networks did not decrease after adjusting for these socio-demographic characteristics. Conclusion Socio-demographic characteristics of populations do not explain the differences in morbidity estimations among GPRNs.

  19. Influence of human population movements on urban climate of Beijing during the Chinese New Year holiday

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingyong; Wu, Lingyun

    2017-01-01

    The population movements for the Chinese New Year (CNY) celebrations, known as the world’s largest yearly migration of human beings, have grown rapidly in the past several decades. The massive population outflows from urban areas largely reduce anthropogenic heat release and modify some other processes, and may thus have noticeable impacts on urban climate of large cities in China. Here, we use Beijing as an example to present observational evidence for such impacts over the period of 1990–2014. Our results show a significant cooling trend of up to 0.55 °C per decade, particularly at the nighttime during the CNY holiday relative to the background period. The average nighttime cooling effect during 2005–2014 reaches 0.94 °C relative to the 1990s, significant at the 99% confidence level. The further analysis supports that the cooling during the CNY holiday is attributable primarily to the population outflow of Beijing. These findings illustrate the importance of population movements in influencing urban climate despite certain limitations. As the world is becoming more mobile and increasingly urban, more efforts are called for to understand the role of human mobility at various spatial and temporal scales. PMID:28358399

  20. Interdependent binary choices under social influence: phase diagram for homogeneous unbiased populations

    CERN Document Server

    del Río, Ana Fernández; de la Rubia, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Coupled Ising models are studied in a discrete choice theory framework, where they can be understood to represent interdependent choice making processes for homogeneous populations under social influence. Two different coupling schemes are considered. The nonlocal or group interdependence model is used to study two interrelated groups making the same binary choice. The local or individual interdependence model represents a single group where agents make two binary choices which depend on each other. For both models, phase diagrams, and their implications in socioeconomic contexts, are described and compared in the absence of private deterministic utilities (zero opinion fields).

  1. Implementation of diabetes prevention programs in rural areas: Montana and south-eastern Australia compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Prasuna; Hernan, Andrea L; Vanderwood, Karl K; Arave, Diane; Niebylski, Mark L; Harwell, Todd S; Dunbar, James A

    2011-06-01

    To identify the key elements that enabled the Greater Green Triangle Diabetes Prevention Project (GGT DPP) and the Montana Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes Prevention (CDDP) programs successful establishment and implementation in rural areas, as well as identifying specific challenges or barriers for implementation in rural communities. Focus groups were held with the facilitators who delivered the GGT DPP in Australia and the Montana CDDP programs in the USA. Interview questions covered the facilitators' experiences with recruitment, establishing the program, the components and influence of rurality on the program, barriers and challenges to delivering the program, attributes of successful participants, and the influence of community resources and partnerships on the programs. Four main themes emerged from the focus groups: establishing and implementing the diabetes prevention program in the community; strategies for recruitment and retention of participants; what works in lifestyle intervention programs; and rural-centred issues. The results from this study have assisted in determining the factors that contribute to developing, establishing and implementing successful diabetes prevention programs in two rural areas. Recommendations to increase the likelihood of success of programs in rural communities include: securing funding early for the program; establishing support from community leaders and developing positive relationships with health care providers; creating a professional team with passion for the program; encouraging participants to celebrate their small and big successes; and developing procedures for providing post-intervention support to help participants maintain their success. © 2011 The Authors. Australian Journal of Rural Health © National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  2. Celebrity Suicides and Their Differential Influence on Suicides in the General Population: A National Population-Based Study in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Myung, Woojae; Won, Hong-Hee; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Yeung, Albert; Lee, Dongsoo; Kim, Doh Kwan; Jeon, Hong Jin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Although evidence suggests that there is an increase in suicide rates in the general population following celebrity suicide, the rates are heterogeneous across celebrities and countries. It is unclear which is the more vulnerable population according to the effect sizes of celebrity suicides to general population. Methods: All suicide victims in the general population verified by the Korea National Statistical Office and suicides of celebrity in South Korea were included for 7 year...

  3. Trends and population dynamics of a Velvet Scoter (Melanitta fusca) population: influence of density dependence and winter climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, G.; Kölzsch, A.; Larsson, K.; Nordberg, M.; Höglund, J.

    2013-01-01

    As many seaduck populations around the world have been reported to be in decline, there is an increasing demand for knowledge about intrinsic and extrinsic factors determining population dynamics of these species. In this study, we analyzed long-term dynamics of the summer population of Velvet Scote

  4. Mountain pine beetle selectivity in old-growth ponderosa pine forests, Montana, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Paul A; Soulé, Peter T; Maxwell, Justin T

    2013-05-01

    A historically unprecedented mountain pine beetle (MPB) outbreak affected western Montana during the past decade. We examined radial growth rates (AD 1860-2007/8) of co-occurring mature healthy and MPB-infected ponderosa pine trees collected at two sites (Cabin Gulch and Kitchen Gulch) in western Montana and: (1) compared basal area increment (BAI) values within populations and between sites; (2) used carbon isotope analysis to calculate intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE) at Cabin Gulch; and (3) compared climate-growth responses using a suite of monthly climatic variables. BAI values within populations and between sites were similar until the last 20-30 years, at which point the visually healthy populations had consistently higher BAI values (22-34%) than the MPB-infected trees. These results suggest that growth rates two-three decades prior to the current outbreak diverged between our selected populations, with the slower-growing trees being more vulnerable to beetle infestation. Both samples from Cabin Gulch experienced upward trends in iWUE, with significant regime shifts toward higher iWUE beginning in 1955-59 for the visually healthy trees and 1960-64 for the MPB-infected trees. Drought tolerance also varied between the two populations with the visually healthy trees having higher growth rates than MPB-infected trees prior to infection during a multi-decadal period of drying summertime conditions. Intrinsic water-use efficiency significantly increased for both populations during the past 150 years, but there were no significant differences between the visually healthy and MPB-infected chronologies.

  5. INFLUENCE OF SOIL TILLAGE AND LOW HERBICIDE DOSES ON WEED POPULATIONS AND SPRING BARLEY YIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Knežević

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of different tillage variants and low herbicide doses of triasulfuron & chlortoluron mixture (Dicuran forte 80 WP on weed populations and crop yield were studied in spring barley on lessive pseudogley soil in North-Eastern Croatia at the Čačinci locality in 1999. Tillage had no significant influence on annual broad-leaved weed biomass production, which was 22 kg ha-1 , on the average. Chisel ploughing and disk harrowing significantly increased perennial weed biomass by 21 and 44 times, respectively compared to mouldboard ploughing. The average efficacy of total weed biomass control was 95, 89 and 81% at full, onehalf and one-quarter of the recommended herbicide dose, respectively and did not differ very much between tillage treatments. Both reduced herbicide doses ensured very good biomass control of the most abundant weed populations such as Ambrosia artemisiifolia L., Chenopodium album L., Ch. polyspermum L. and Polygonum lapathifolium L. No significant tillage and herbicide dose effects were recorded in barley yields, which ranked from 4.93 t ha-1 in chisel ploughing to 4.48 t ha-1 in disk harrowing. These results suggested a possibility of mouldboard ploughing substitution with reduced tillage practices on lessive pseudogley soil and herbicide dose reduction of triasulfuron & chlortoluron mixture to 50% or more in spring barley.

  6. Within-population variability influences early seedling establishment in four Mediterranean oaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Rodríguez, Victoria; Barrio, Isabel C.; Villar, Rafael

    2012-05-01

    Regeneration of Mediterranean forests is severely limited. Multiple abiotic factors are known to constrain the establishment of woody seedlings at its first phases, such as summer drought or excessive incident radiation, but less attention has been paid to the role of intra-specific variation in seedling performance. In this study we investigate the relative influence of environment (light availability, soil moisture and summer irrigation) and intrinsic factors (seed mass and maternal origin) as determinants of within-population variability in the early establishment of four coexisting Mediterranean oaks (Quercus ilex, Quercus suber, Quercus faginea and Quercus pyrenaica), from emergence and early growth to second-year survival in a field experiment. Seed size was a poor predictor of seed and seedling success. Instead, mother identity showed a stronger effect on seedling performance. Time and percentage of emergence, establishment success and morphological traits varied among seedlings from different maternal trees but main drivers for each variable were different for each species. In addition to a direct effect, in many cases mother-related intrinsic traits and seed mass influenced the effects of environmental conditions on seedling performance. The role of intrinsic factors was masked under ameliorated conditions (i.e. summer irrigation), indicating the relevant role of within-population variability to cope with highly heterogeneous and unpredictable Mediterranean environments.

  7. Flavonoids from the aerial parts of Onobrychis montana subsp. scardica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BORIS PEJIN

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Rutin (1, main constituent and two flavone C-glycosides, vitexin (2 and vitexin 2''-O-alpha-rhamnopyranoside (3 were isolated from the aerial parts of Onobrychis montana subsp. scardica. They were identified by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and UV–Vis spectroscopy (procedure with shift reagents, and high resolution ESI-MS. A relatively high content of 1 (5.27 mg/g of dry plant material, measured by HPLC, indicated O. montana subsp. scardica as a new natural source of this biologically active compound. The isolated flavonoid compounds might be of value as chemotaxonomic markers.

  8. Genetic and environmental factors influencing the Placental Growth Factor (PGF variation in two populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossella Sorice

    Full Text Available Placental Growth Factor (PGF is a key molecule in angiogenesis. Several studies have revealed an important role of PGF primarily in pathological conditions (e.g.: ischaemia, tumour formation, cardiovascular diseases and inflammatory processes suggesting its use as a potential therapeutic agent. However, to date, no information is available regarding the genetics of PGF variability. Furthermore, even though the effect of environmental factors (e.g.: cigarette smoking on angiogenesis has been explored, no data on the influence of these factors on PGF levels have been reported so far. Here we have first investigated PGF variability in two cohorts focusing on non-genetic risk factors: a study sample from two isolated villages in the Cilento region, South Italy (N=871 and a replication sample from the general Danish population (N=1,812. A significant difference in PGF mean levels was found between the two cohorts. However, in both samples, we observed a strong correlation of PGF levels with ageing and sex, men displaying PGF levels significantly higher than women. Interestingly, smoking was also found to influence the trait in the two populations, although differently. We have then focused on genetic risk factors. The association between five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs located in the PGF gene and the plasma levels of the protein was investigated. Two polymorphisms (rs11850328 and rs2268614 were associated with the PGF plasma levels in the Cilento sample and these associations were strongly replicated in the Danish sample. These results, for the first time, support the hypothesis of the presence of genetic and environmental factors influencing PGF plasma variability.

  9. The relative influence of road characteristics and habitat on adjacent lizard populations in arid shrublands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Kaylan A.; Chalfoun, Anna D.; Gerow, Kenneth G.

    2016-01-01

    As road networks continue to expand globally, indirect impacts to adjacent wildlife populations remain largely unknown. Simultaneously, reptile populations are declining worldwide and anthropogenic habitat loss and fragmentation are frequently cited causes. We evaluated the relative influence of three different road characteristics (surface treatment, width, and traffic volume) and habitat features on adjacent populations of Northern Sagebrush Lizards (Sceloporus graciosus graciosus), Plateau Fence Lizards (S. tristichus), and Greater Short-Horned Lizards (Phrynosoma hernandesi) in mixed arid shrubland habitats in southwest Wyoming. Neither odds of lizard presence nor relative abundance was significantly related to any of the assessed road characteristics, although there was a trend for higher Sceloporus spp. abundance adjacent to paved roads. Sceloporus spp. relative abundance did not vary systematically with distance to the nearest road. Rather, both Sceloporus spp. and Greater Short-Horned Lizards were associated strongly with particular habitat characteristics adjacent to roads. Sceloporus spp. presence and relative abundance increased with rock cover, relative abundance was associated positively with shrub cover, and presence was associated negatively with grass cover. Greater Short-Horned Lizard presence increased with bare ground and decreased marginally with shrub cover. Our results suggest that habitat attributes are stronger correlates of lizard presence and relative abundance than individual characteristics of adjacent roads, at least in our system. Therefore, an effective conservation approach for these species may be to consider the landscape through which new roads and their associated development would occur, and the impact that placement could have on fragment size and key habitat elements.

  10. Assessment of the influence of gender and skin color on the preference of tooth shade in Saudi population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawaf Labban

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: Gender and skin color influences the perception of teeth shades among general population. Therefore, lighter tooth shades (BL1, BL2 for lighter skin color and comparatively darker tooth shades (BL4, B1, A1 for darker skin individuals should be prescribed as these are perceived as natural among Saudi population.

  11. Influence of Chinese cultural health beliefs among Malaysian Chinese in a suburban population: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, K S; Tan, T W; Ooi, Y T

    2011-04-01

    In a multiethnic nation, it is not uncommon for doctors to encounter patients of different cultural backgrounds. Often, patients' cultural beliefs influence their perception of health and illnesses, and their treatment option. Many Chinese cultural beliefs are influenced by the Taoist concept of yin-yang balance. We interviewed 50 Malaysian Chinese from the general public of a suburban population in order to unravel the impact of Chinese cultural health beliefs on their decision-making, and this was compared with the opinions of 50 Chinese medical students from second to final year. Convenience sampling was then applied. From the survey, 78 percent of the general public believed that 'too much heat' or 'too much coldness' in the body could cause diseases. Compared to the medical students, a significantly higher number of the respondents held such beliefs, including the beliefs that abdominal colic is due to excessive 'wind' in the abdomen, consuming certain food can dispel wind from the body, and the importance of observing taboos during the confinement period after delivery. The majority of respondents from both groups believed that it is acceptable to combine both traditional Chinese medicine and modern medicine. There is a discrepancy in the extent to which these beliefs influence the perception of health and illnesses among the general public and among medical students. Healthcare providers need to be aware of such beliefs and practices regarding traditional Chinese medicine among their Chinese patients.

  12. Methods for estimating streamflow characteristics at ungaged sites in western Montana based on data through water year 2009: Chapter G in Montana StreamStats

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Peter M.; Sando, Roy; Sando, Steven K.; Dutton, DeAnn M.

    2016-04-05

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Montana Department of Environmental Quality and the Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation, developed regional regression equations based on basin and streamflow characteristics for streamflow-gaging stations through water year 2009 that can be used to estimate streamflow characteristics for ungaged sites in western Montana. The regression equations allow estimation of low-flow frequencies; mean annual and mean monthly streamflows; and the 20-, 50-, and 80-percent durations for annual and monthly duration streamflows for ungaged sites in western Montana that are unaffected by regulation.

  13. Factors influencing postoperative mortality one year after surgery for hip fracture in Chinese elderly population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shao-guang; SUN Tian-sheng; LIU Zhi; REN Ji-xin; LIU Bo; GAO Yang

    2013-01-01

    Background Disability and death following hip fracture is becoming more common as the population ages.Previous reports have focused on the selection of internal fixation methods and the analysis of the perioperative therapeutic results in the Chinese population.Few studies have focused on factors influencing medium and long term survival after surgery for hip fracture.We conducted a retrospective study on the factors influencing survival one year after hip fracture surgery in our elderly Chinese population to provide a reference for improved treatment and to enhance efficacy.Methods Records from patients undergoing treatment for hip fracture at our hospital from October 2009 through June 2011 were retrospectively reviewed.Through telephone follow-up,the health condition of each patient was surveyed,and the 1-year postoperative mortality was analyzed.The patients' age,gender,fracture type,pre-injury health condition,mobility,complications,surgical timing,surgical types,methods of anesthesia,and postoperative complications were analyzed.Univariate and multivariate regression analysis was performed on relevant influencing factors.Results A total of 184 patients had complete data and were followed-up for 12-23 months (average,16.5 months).There were 30 deaths (16.3%) at one-year.Univariate analysis revealed that factors such as age,gender,fracture-type,number of co-existing diseases,complications such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or sequelae of stroke,American society of Anesthesiology (ASA) scores,anesthesia methods,pre-injury activity,and post-operative complications were significantly different between survival versus mortality groups (P <0.05).Multivariate regression analysis revealed that age,ASA score,pre-injury mobility and combined chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were independent risk factors for death.Conclusion Full consideration of medium-/long-term risk factors in the treatment of hip fracture in the elderly,selection of appropriate

  14. MEDIATION - THE ONLY VIABLE SOLUTION TO RESOLVE THE CONFLICT IN ROSIA MONTANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRAGOS MARIAN RADULESCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In modern society, located in a continually growing population, one of the main problems is related to the exploitation of natural resources, a source of richness limited and usually non-renewable. That is the exploitation of Rosia Montana, where an old gold mine continues to produce interest for what might be called "gold fever" in Romania. But, unlike the ancient and medieval times, where such operations were encouraged as a development factor, today environmental protection and sustainable development theory says that such mining destroys the nature and the community are serious demage, even if part of the local community wants to work, further mining, considering it a way of life and a reliable source of income. Thus we have two opposing positions camps: those who want to protect nature and those who want to exploit it, and in such a dilemma can not get out only with mediation Mediation is the only one who can bring the same opponents at the negotiation table, in the presence of specialized environments, and fully impartial stranger to conflict, to find a common solution to resolve the conflict, thus brains "peace" sustainable, that can be subsequently implemented. This study aims to review the advantages and the role that mediation can bring it into such a sensitive issue, as the Rosia Montana

  15. Using structured decision making to manage disease risk for Montana wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Michael S.; Gude, Justin A.; Anderson, Neil J.; Ramsey, Jennifer M.; Thompson, Michael J.; Sullivan, Mark G.; Edwards, Victoria L.; Gower, Claire N.; Cochrane, Jean Fitts; Irwin, Elise R.; Walshe, Terry

    2013-01-01

    We used structured decision-making to develop a 2-part framework to assist managers in the proactive management of disease outbreaks in Montana, USA. The first part of the framework is a model to estimate the probability of disease outbreak given field observations available to managers. The second part of the framework is decision analysis that evaluates likely outcomes of management alternatives based on the estimated probability of disease outbreak, and applies managers' values for different objectives to indicate a preferred management strategy. We used pneumonia in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) as a case study for our approach, applying it to 2 populations in Montana that differed in their likelihood of a pneumonia outbreak. The framework provided credible predictions of both probability of disease outbreaks, as well as biological and monetary consequences of management actions. The structured decision-making approach to this problem was valuable for defining the challenges of disease management in a decentralized agency where decisions are generally made at the local level in cooperation with stakeholders. Our approach provides local managers with the ability to tailor management planning for disease outbreaks to local conditions. Further work is needed to refine our disease risk models and decision analysis, including robust prediction of disease outbreaks and improved assessment of management alternatives.

  16. Are life history events of a northern breeding population of Cooper's Hawks influenced by changing climate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfield, Robert N; Hardin, Madeline G; Bielefeldt, John; Keyel, Edward R

    2017-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated earlier timing of spring migration and egg-laying in small passerines, but documentation of such responses to recent climate change in the life histories of higher trophic feeding birds such as raptors is relatively scarce. Raptors may be particularly susceptible to possible adverse effects of climate change due to their longer generation turnover times and lower reproductive capacity, which could lead to population declines because of an inability to match reproductive timing with optimal brood rearing conditions. Conversely adaptively favorable outcomes due to the influence of changing climate may occur. In general, birds that seasonally nest earlier typically have higher reproductive output compared to conspecifics that nest later in the season. Given the strong seasonal decline in reproductive output, and the heritability of nesting phenology, it is possible that nesting seasons would (adaptively) advance over time. Recent climate warming may release prior ecological constraints on birds that depend on food availability at the time of egg production, as do various raptors including Cooper's Hawks (Accipiter cooperii). Under this scenario, productivity, especially clutch size, might increase because it is likely that this reproductive demographic may be the most immediate response to the earlier seasonal presence of food resources. We demonstrated a statistically significant shift of about 4-5 days to an earlier timing of egg-hatching in spring across 36 years during 1980-2015 for a partially migratory population of Cooper's Hawks in Wisconsin, United States, which is consistent with a recent study that showed that Cooper's Hawks had advanced their timing of spring migration during 1979-2012. Both studies occurred in the Great Lakes region, an area that compared to global averages is experiencing earlier and increased warming particularly in the spring in Wisconsin. The nesting period did not lengthen. We suggest that the

  17. Photosynthetic rates influence the population dynamics of understory herbs in stochastic light environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerband, Andrea C; Horvitz, Carol C

    2017-02-01

    Temporal variability in light from gaps in the tree canopy strongly influences the vital rates of understory plants. From 2012 to 2015, we estimated the size-specific vital rates of two herbs, Calathea crotalifera and Heliconia tortuosa, over a range of light environments. We estimated maximum photosynthetic capacity (Amax ) for a subset of individuals each year during three annual censuses, and modelled future size as a linear function of current size (a plant trait that changes ontogenetically), canopy openness (an environmental variable), and Amax (a potentially plastic physiological trait). We estimated what the demographic success would be of a population comprised of individuals with a particular fixed Amax for each of several levels of canopy openness if the environment remained constant, by evaluating corresponding Integral Projection Models and their deterministic growth rates (λ). We then estimated their demographic success in the stochastic light environment (λS ) and its elasticities. As light increased, deterministic λ increased for Calathea by 33% but decreased for Heliconia by 52%, and increasing Amax had no effect on λ for Calathea but increased λ for Heliconia in low light. As Amax increased, λS increased for Heliconia, but not Calathea. We also investigated whether photosynthetic rates would influence the elasticities of λS, including its response to perturbation of vital rates in each environment (E(S)β ), vital rates over all environments (E(S) ), and variability of vital rates among environments (E(S)(σ) ). E(S) , E(S)(σ) , and E(S)β were influenced by Amax for Heliconia but not Calathea. Events that affect some vital rates in high light have a greater impact on overall fitness than events that affect the same vital rates in shady environments, and there is greater potential for selection on traits of large individuals in high light than in low light for Heliconia, while the reverse was true for Calathea. Photosynthetic rates

  18. Antioxidant Potential, Lipid Peroxidation Inhibition and Antimicrobial Activities of Satureja montana L. subsp. kitaibelii Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoljub D. Cvetković

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activity of different Satureja montana L. subsp. kitaibelii extracts was tested by measuring their ability to scavenge reactive hydroxyl radical during the Fenton reaction, using ESR spectroscopy. Also, the influence of these extracts on lipid peroxyl radicals obtained during lipid peroxidation of: (I sunflower oil (37°C, 3h inducedby 4,4'-azobis(4-cyanovaleric acid (ACVA and (II liposomes induced by 2,2'-azobis(2-amidino-propanedihydrochloride (AAPH was studied. n-Butanol extract had the bestantioxidant activity (100% at 0.5 mg/mL in Fenton reaction system; 89.21% at 5 mg/mL in system I; 83.38% at 5 mg/mL in system II. The antioxidant activities of the extracts significantly correlated with total phenolic content. The antimicrobial activity of Satureja montana L. subsp. kitaibelii extracts was investigated. Petroleum ether, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts expressed a wide range of inhibiting activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.

  19. Environment-influenced expression of polygene mutations isolated from a natural population of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J N; Jeung, M; Thoday, J M

    1998-01-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting sternopleural bristle number in Drosophila melanogaster have been mapped using phenotypic markers and progeny testing. The loci were found on four of the third chromosomes isolated from a natural population. All four loci showed large effects at the standard 25 degrees C culture temperature, but they responded in different ways when developmental temperature was lowered or raised. These data support the hypothesis that genotype x environment interactions have important influences on polygene expression, and some loci might be silent, or phenotypically neutral, under some conditions but play a large phenotypic role under others. Thus, a full cataloging of the loci contributing to mutational variance for QTLs cannot be done at just a single, controlled environmental condition.

  20. Baja California’s settlements and the influence of population policies during the Cardenista era

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    Norma del Carmen Cruz González

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Baja California's demographic growth rate during the 20th century was vertiginous: at an annual average of 5.8%, it was the highest rate in the country. This phenomenon has been generally explained as a result of processes beginning in the mid 19th century as well as of dependency relations and the trade imbalance with California. The direct influence of central policies has been, to a great extent, ignored. Therefore, this article analyzes the way in which the Mexican state implemented population policies and their impact. In particular, it focuses on the Lázaro Cárdenas regime, when the "colonization" of Baja California with Mexicans was strongly advocated.

  1. The influence of climatic and physiological performance on population dynamics of Mytilus edulis in West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyrring, Jakob; Blicher, Martin; Sejr, Mikael Kristian

    2014-01-01

    . Results show an overall decline in blue mussel abundance along the coast from south to north Greenland. Physiological adaptation and plasticity of blue mussels was found across latitudes spanning from the temperate to the High Arctic region. Combined our results indicate that low ocean temperature per se....... The blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) has recently expanded its northern distribution in Greenland and is considered to be a sensitive indicator of climate changes. Blue mussels could be a species that would respond to a warmer climate by increased abundance and growth rates in the Arctic. However, adequate...... data on current distribution and physiological performance of blue mussels in the Arctic is lacking, and knowledge of how “climate” in a broad sense specifically influence population dynamics of this species is unknown. Here, we present data on abundance, age and mortality of blue mussels in West...

  2. Factors influencing the selected body parameters and hippometric indexes in donkey’s population

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    Martina Kosťuková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main focus of our work was to collect basic body measurements of donkey population in Czech republic and determine the factors that influence these body measurements and hipometric indexes. The following measurements were recorded: height at withers, chest circumference and metacarpus interference. Based on the collected data, we were able to calculate the hipometric indexes: index of boniness, skeleton strength index, body mass index and coup height index. From a total of 331 individuals of donkey species living in Czech republic we managed to collect 50 samples. These were subjected to a general linear model (GLM and multiplex comparison statistical analysis. We managed to prove a statistically significant difference between donkeys born in Czech republic and the ones born abroad for all the measurements. Specifically the metacarpus circumference the gender dependency was also proved, having its impact on the hipometric indexes as well; the boniness index and skeleton strength index were also proved to be gender – dependent.

  3. 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey: Nonpublic Accredited Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey high school student frequency distributions for nonpublic accredited schools. These frequency distributions are based upon surveys with 349 high school students in Nonpublic Region during February of 2011. Frequency distributions may not total 349 due to nonresponse and percents may…

  4. A new fauna from the Colorado group of southern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeside, John B.

    1925-01-01

    This paper describes a small but interesting fauna collected in 1921 by W. T. Thorn, Jr., Gail F. Moulton, T. W. Stanton, and K. C. Heald in the Crow Indian Reservation in southern Montana. The locality is in sec. 36, T. 6 S., R. 32 E., Big Horn County, and is 2 miles east of the Soap Creek oil field.

  5. American Indian High School Completion in Rural Southeastern Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Carol

    1995-01-01

    Factors related to dropping out were examined among Northern Cheyenne and Crow high school students living in three southeastern Montana communities and attending a Catholic school, a public school, or a tribal school. Place of residence, parental educational attainment, and school experiences were important variables, but their effects varied by…

  6. Thymol derivatives from hairy roots of Arnica montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weremczuk-Jezyna, I; Kisiel, W; Wysokińska, H

    2006-09-01

    Five known thymol derivatives were isolated from roots of Arnica montana transformed with Agrobacterium rhizogenes LBA 9402. The compounds were characterized by spectral methods. The pattern of thymol derivatives in light-grown hairy roots was slightly different from that in dark-grown ones. This is the first report on the presence of thymol derivatives in hairy roots of the plant.

  7. Methylated Flavonoids from Arnica montana and Arnica chamissonis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merfort, I

    1984-02-01

    From the flowers of ARNICA CHAMISSONIS Less, subsp. FOLIOSA var. INCANA, the methylated flavonoids acacetin, pectolinarigenin, hispidulin, jaceosidin, 6-methoxykaempferol, and betuletol have been isolated and identified by spectroscopic methods. Except for acacetin, the same flavonoids were identified in the flowers of ARNICA MONTANA L. Betuletol was found for the first time in the family of Asteraceae.

  8. On-site energy consumption at softwood sawmills in Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Loeffler; Nathaniel Anderson; Todd A. Morgan; Colin B. Sorenson

    2016-01-01

    Total on-site energy requirements for wood product manufacturing are generally not well understood or publicly available, particularly at subregional scales, such as the state level. This article uses a mail survey of softwood sawmills in Montana to develop a profile of all on-site energy consumption. Energy use is delineated by fuel type on a production basis...

  9. Essential oil of Arnica montana and Arnica chamissonis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Mihailo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil isolated from flowers of Arnica montana and A chamissonis grown on Tara mountain and neighbourhood of Užice was analyzed. Three samples of A. montana and three of A. chamissonis were tested. The oil was isolated by distillation in a Clevenger type apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography. The content of the oil was lower than 0.1% (up to 0.08% in all the samples. Among about hundred recorded constituents, 84 were identified and quantified. Sum of contents of identified components ranged between 96.1 and 98.8%. The most abundant constituents of the A. montana oil were p-caryophyllene (31.5-34.6%, germacrene D (12.5-16.3%, trans-a-ionone (3.9-4.3% and decanal (2.7-5.3%, while, in the case of A. chamissonis these were germacrene D (18.0-38.3%, a-pinene (6.6-19.1%, p-cymene (2.9-9.0% and P-caryophyllene (2.7-4.7%. Along with detail chemical analysis of essential oil of these two commercially important herbal drugs it should be noticed that gas chromatographic technique can be used for differentiation of A. montana and A. chamissonis.

  10. Influence of disease on population model of mid-continent mallards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Michael D.

    1992-01-01

    On numerous occasions, waterfowl deaths caused by disease were highly visible to wildlife managers and to the general public. Thousands of birds died during duck plague, avian botulism and avian cholera outbreaks. Undoubtedly, some disease occurred in waterfowl populations throughout their evolution; however, knowledge of disease epizootiology primarily developed during the past 40-50 years (Wobeser 1981) for diseases that cause massive die-offs (e.g., avian cholera, avian botulism and duck plague). Other diseases, such as avian tuberculosis, aspergillosis, parasite infection and lead poisoning, also occur at chronic levels, but the data remain meager on many of these less spectacular causes of mortality and sublethal forms of disease. However, because chronic losses occur throughout the year, their cumulative effect, as well as the large die-offs, are a potential threat to waterfowl populations (Bellrose 1976, Wobeser 1981). Previous studies (Anderson 1975) demonstrated that 50 percent of the annual mortality in mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) populations is from nonhunting causes. In addition to disease, these causes include predation, accidental deaths, inclement weather and other factors (Stout and Cornwell 1976), which can be confounded by disease. Determination of mortality rates from diseases has been difficult because many biases and inconsistencies are associated with the available data. Assessment of disease prevalence and magnitude of losses is complicated by the spatial and temporal variability of many diseases, the logistic difficulty of studying highly mobile waterfowl populations, and the potentially confounding influences of predation and scavenging on detecting disease-related mortality;. Unless losses are so extensive that they direct attention to a particular area, mortality from disease is easily overlooked (see Zwank et al. 1985). Even when die-offs are evident, mortality from disease may be underestimated because sick waterfowl become debilitated

  11. POPULATION RADIATION PROTECTION PROVIDING UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF NATURAL IONIZING IRRADIATION SOURCES

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    E. G. Stepanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An article presents the modern problems of population radiation protection inBashkortostanRepublic. The main natural ionizing irradiation sources are identified and their contribution to the total exposure dose of the BashkortostanRepublicpopulation is analyzed. The types of the main natural ionizing irradiation sources are identified, as well as the ways of their intake and the methods of their influence. The results of laboratory studies are presented for the radon equivalent equilibrium volumetric activity, for the average gamma radiation dose rate in dwellings, for the investigations of gross alpha and gross beta activity in drinking water and open water sourcesBashkortostanRepublic. The article underlines the main problems of the radiation situation in the new construction. The main preventive measures are pointed out for the radiation protection of the buildings under construction improving. The article also presents an analysis of the results of activities of the Administration of Rospotrebnadzor in theBashkortostanRepublicfor the reducing of the levels of the Republican population exposure from the natural irradiation sources.

  12. The influence of light and water mass on bacterial population dynamics in the Amundsen Sea Polynya

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    Inga Richert

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite being perpetually cold, seasonally ice-covered and dark, the coastal Southern Ocean is highly productive and harbors a diverse microbiota. During the austral summer, ice-free coastal patches (or polynyas form, exposing pelagic organisms to sunlight, triggering intense phytoplankton blooms. This strong seasonality is likely to influence bacterioplankton community composition (BCC. For the most part, we do not fully understand the environmental drivers controlling high-latitude BCC and the biogeochemical cycles they mediate. In this study, the Amundsen Sea Polynya was used as a model system to investigate important environmental factors that shape the coastal Southern Ocean microbiota. Population dynamics in terms of occurrence and activity of abundant taxa was studied in both environmental samples and microcosm experiments by using 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes. We found that the BCC in the photic epipelagic zone had low richness, with dominant bacterial populations being related to taxa known to benefit from high organic carbon and nutrient loads (copiotrophs. In contrast, the BCC in deeper mesopelagic water masses had higher richness, featuring taxa known to benefit from low organic carbon and nutrient loads (oligotrophs. Incubation experiments indicated that direct impacts of light and competition for organic nutrients are two important factors shaping BCC in the Amundsen Sea Polynya.

  13. The influence of coastal topography, circulation patterns, and rafting in structuring populations of an intertidal alga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlin, J F; Engel, C R; Stessel, R; Weatherbee, R A; Brawley, S H

    2008-03-01

    Understanding the dispersal processes that influence genetic structure in marine species requires estimating gene flow in a dynamic, fluid environment that is often poorly characterized at scales relevant to multiple dispersive stages (e.g. spores, gametes, zygotes, larvae, adults). We examine genetic structure in the marine alga Fucus vesiculosus L., which inhabits moderately exposed shores in the northern Atlantic but releases gametes only under sunny, calm conditions. We predicted genetic structure would correlate with coastal topography because weather frequently varies across coastal promontories on the Maine shore when F. vesiculosus is reproductive, which causes one side to experience high levels of water motion (= no gamete release) while one side is calm (= gamete release). Furthermore, we expected that the effect of low dispersal capacities of gametes and zygotes would result in spatial genetic structure over short distances. Using surface drifters, we characterized near-shore circulation patterns around the study sites to investigate whether directionality of gene flow was correlated with directionality of currents. We found significant genetic differentiation among sites sampled at two different peninsulas, but patterns of differentiation were unrelated to coastal topography and there was no within-site spatial structuring. Our genetic and near-shore circulation data, combined with an examination of gamete longevity, support the dependency of gene flow on storm-detached, rafting, reproductive adults. This study highlights the significance of rafting as a mechanism for structuring established populations of macroalgae and associated biota and demonstrates the importance of coupling population genetics' research with relevant hydrodynamic studies.

  14. Ancient Humans Influenced the Current Spatial Genetic Structure of Common Walnut Populations in Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Pollegioni

    Full Text Available Common walnut (Juglans regia L is an economically important species cultivated worldwide for its wood and nuts. It is generally accepted that J. regia survived and grew spontaneously in almost completely isolated stands in its Asian native range after the Last Glacial Maximum. Despite its natural geographic isolation, J. regia evolved over many centuries under the influence of human management and exploitation. We evaluated the hypothesis that the current distribution of natural genetic resources of common walnut in Asia is, at least in part, the product of ancient anthropogenic dispersal, human cultural interactions, and afforestation. Genetic analysis combined with ethno-linguistic and historical data indicated that ancient trade routes such as the Persian Royal Road and Silk Road enabled long-distance dispersal of J. regia from Iran and Trans-Caucasus to Central Asia, and from Western to Eastern China. Ancient commerce also disrupted the local spatial genetic structure of autochthonous walnut populations between Tashkent and Samarkand (Central-Eastern Uzbekistan, where the northern and central routes of the Northern Silk Road converged. A significant association between ancient language phyla and the genetic structure of walnut populations is reported even after adjustment for geographic distances that could have affected both walnut gene flow and human commerce over the centuries. Beyond the economic importance of common walnut, our study delineates an alternative approach for understanding how the genetic resources of long-lived perennial tree species may be affected by the interaction of geography and human history.

  15. Eurasian and African mitochondrial DNA influences in the Saudi Arabian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosley Thomas M

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic studies of the Arabian Peninsula are scarce even though the region was the center of ancient trade routes and empires and may have been the southern corridor for the earliest human migration from Africa to Asia. A total of 120 mtDNA Saudi Arab lineages were analyzed for HVSI/II sequences and for haplogroup confirmatory coding diagnostic positions. A phylogeny of the most abundant haplogroup (preHV1 (R0a was constructed based on 13 whole mtDNA genomes. Results The Saudi Arabian group showed greatest similarity to other Arabian Peninsula populations (Bedouin from the Negev desert and Yemeni and to Levantine populations. Nearly all the main western Asia haplogroups were detected in the Saudi sample, including the rare U9 clade. Saudi Arabs had only a minority sub-Saharan Africa component (7%, similar to the specific North-African contribution (5%. In addition, a small Indian influence (3% was also detected. Conclusion The majority of the Saudi-Arab mitochondrial DNA lineages (85% have a western Asia provenance. Although the still large confidence intervals, the coalescence and phylogeography of (preHV1 haplogroup (accounting for 18 % of Saudi Arabian lineages matches a Neolithic expansion in Saudi Arabia.

  16. [Performance of entero-insular axis in an athletic population: diet and exercise influence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Carmen; Quezada-Feijoo, Maribel; Toro, Carmen; Barón-Esquivias, Gonzalo; Segura, Eduardo; Mangas, Alipio; Toro, Rocio

    2015-05-01

    The relationship between physical exercise and appetite regulation can lead to improved competitive performance of athletes. Mediators of the entero-insular axis generate neurohumoral signals that influence on the appetite regulation and energy homeostasis. Determine the influence of diet and prolonged exercise on intestinal peptide, ghrelin, resistin, leptin, and incretins (GLP-1 and GIP) in an athlete population. It is a prospective intervention study, conducted from October 2012 to March 2013. 32 healthy semiprofessional rugby players, aged 13-39 years were included. Anthropometric measurements and blood samples were taken at time 0 and after six months of study. Athletes were randomized to a protein diet (PD) or Mediterranean diet (MD) and plasma levels of intestinal peptide, ghrelin, resistin, leptin, and incretins were calculated. In the PD group, GLP-1 and GIP plasmatic levels showed a significant decrease (p <0.03; p <0.01 respectively). GLP-1 and ghrelin plasmatic concentration demonstrated a significant decrease (p <0.03 respectively) in those who experienced gain of muscle mass (MM). Finally, the athletes related to the PD who showed increased total weight and muscle mass presented significantly decreased GLP-1 concentration (p <0.03 and p<0.002, respectively). GLP-1 plasmatic concentration was decreased, with the PD suggesting to be more beneficial for the athletes in order to avoid hypoglycemia. Furthermore, muscle mass and total weight gain, linked to the PD, could enhance athletic performance in certain sport modalities. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of road network and population demand assumptions in evacuation modeling for distant tsunamis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Kevin; Wood, Nathan J.; Frazier, Tim G.

    2017-01-01

    Tsunami evacuation planning in coastal communities is typically focused on local events where at-risk individuals must move on foot in a matter of minutes to safety. Less attention has been placed on distant tsunamis, where evacuations unfold over several hours, are often dominated by vehicle use and are managed by public safety officials. Traditional traffic simulation models focus on estimating clearance times but often overlook the influence of varying population demand, alternative modes, background traffic, shadow evacuation, and traffic management alternatives. These factors are especially important for island communities with limited egress options to safety. We use the coastal community of Balboa Island, California (USA), as a case study to explore the range of potential clearance times prior to wave arrival for a distant tsunami scenario. We use a first-in–first-out queuing simulation environment to estimate variations in clearance times, given varying assumptions of the evacuating population (demand) and the road network over which they evacuate (supply). Results suggest clearance times are less than wave arrival times for a distant tsunami, except when we assume maximum vehicle usage for residents, employees, and tourists for a weekend scenario. A two-lane bridge to the mainland was the primary traffic bottleneck, thereby minimizing the effect of departure times, shadow evacuations, background traffic, boat-based evacuations, and traffic light timing on overall community clearance time. Reducing vehicular demand generally reduced clearance time, whereas improvements to road capacity had mixed results. Finally, failure to recognize non-residential employee and tourist populations in the vehicle demand substantially underestimated clearance time.

  18. Strong "bottom-up" influences on small mammal populations: State-space model analyses from long-term studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowerdew, John R; Amano, Tatsuya; Sutherland, William J

    2017-03-01

    "Bottom-up" influences, that is, masting, plus population density and climate, commonly influence woodland rodent demography. However, "top-down" influences (predation) also intervene. Here, we assess the impacts of masting, climate, and density on rodent populations placed in the context of what is known about "top-down" influences. To explain between-year variations in bank vole Myodes glareolus and wood mouse Apodemus sylvaticus population demography, we applied a state-space model to 33 years of catch-mark-release live-trapping, winter temperature, and precise mast-collection data. Experimental mast additions aided interpretation. Rodent numbers in European ash Fraxinus excelsior woodland were estimated (May/June, November/December). December-March mean minimum daily temperature represented winter severity. Total marked adult mice/voles (and juveniles in May/June) provided density indices validated against a model-generated population estimate; this allowed estimation of the structure of a time-series model and the demographic impacts of the climatic/biological variables. During two winters of insignificant fruit-fall, 6.79 g/m(2) sterilized ash seed (as fruit) was distributed over an equivalent woodland similarly live-trapped. September-March fruit-fall strongly increased bank vole spring reproductive rate and winter and summer population growth rates; colder winters weakly reduced winter population growth. September-March fruit-fall and warmer winters marginally increased wood mouse spring reproductive rate and September-December fruit-fall weakly elevated summer population growth. Density dependence significantly reduced both species' population growth. Fruit-fall impacts on demography still appeared after a year. Experimental ash fruit addition confirmed its positive influence on bank vole winter population growth with probable moderation by colder temperatures. The models show the strong impact of masting as a "bottom-up" influence on rodent demography

  19. Olive Fruit Fly (Bactrocera oleae) Population Dynamics in the Eastern Mediterranean: Influence of Exogenous Uncertainty on a Monophagous Frugivorous Insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordano, Mariano; Engelhard, Izhar; Rempoulakis, Polychronis; Nemny-Lavy, Esther; Blum, Moshe; Yasin, Sami; Lensky, Itamar M; Papadopoulos, Nikos T; Nestel, David

    2015-01-01

    Despite of the economic importance of the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae) and the large amount of biological and ecological studies on the insect, the factors driving its population dynamics (i.e., population persistence and regulation) had not been analytically investigated until the present study. Specifically, our study investigated the autoregressive process of the olive fly populations, and the joint role of intrinsic and extrinsic factors molding the population dynamics of the insect. Accounting for endogenous dynamics and the influences of exogenous factors such as olive grove temperature, the North Atlantic Oscillation and the presence of potential host fruit, we modeled olive fly populations in five locations in the Eastern Mediterranean region. Our models indicate that the rate of population change is mainly shaped by first and higher order non-monotonic, endogenous dynamics (i.e., density-dependent population feedback). The olive grove temperature was the main exogenous driver, while the North Atlantic Oscillation and fruit availability acted as significant exogenous factors in one of the five populations. Seasonal influences were also relevant for three of the populations. In spite of exogenous effects, the rate of population change was fairly stable along time. We propose that a special reproductive mechanism, such as reproductive quiescence, allows populations of monophagous fruit flies such as the olive fly to remain stable. Further, we discuss how weather factors could impinge constraints on the population dynamics at the local level. Particularly, local temperature dynamics could provide forecasting cues for management guidelines. Jointly, our results advocate for establishing monitoring programs and for a major focus of research on the relationship between life history traits and populations dynamics.

  20. Influences of population density on polyandry and patterns of sperm usage in the marine gastropod Rapana venosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Dong-Xiu; Zhang, Tao; Liu, Jin-Xian

    2016-03-21

    Polyandry is a common mating strategy in animals, with potential for sexual selection to continue post-copulation through sperm competition and/or cryptic female choice. Few studies have investigated the influences of population density on polyandry and sperm usage, and paternity distribution in successive broods of marine invertebrates. The marine gastropod Rapana venosa is ideal for investigating how population density influences the frequency of polyandry and elucidating patterns of sperm usage. Two different population density (12 ind/m(3) and 36 ind/m(3)) treatments with two replications were set to observe reproductive behaviors. Five microsatellite markers were used to identify the frequency of multiple paternity and determine paternal contributions to progeny arrays in 120 egg masses. All of the mean mating frequency, mean number of sires and mean egg-laying frequency were higher at high population density treatment relative to low population density treatment, indicating population density is an important factor affecting polyandry. The last sperm donors achieved high proportions of paternity in 74.77% of egg masses, which supported the "last male sperm precedence" hypothesis. In addition, high variance in reproductive success among R. venosa males were detected, which might have an important influence on effective population size.

  1. September 2012 Survey of the Rocky Mountain Population of Greater Sandhill Cranes

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Greater sandhill cranes of the Rocky Mountain Population (RMP) were counted at fall premigration staging areas in Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Utah, and Wyoming during...

  2. September 2013 Survey of the Rocky Mountain Population of Greater Sandhill Cranes

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Greater sandhill cranes of the Rocky Mountain Population (RMP) were counted at fall premigration staging areas in Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Utah, and Wyoming during...

  3. A 28,000 year history of vegetation and climate from Lower Red Rock Lake, Centennial Valley, Southwestern Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumma, Stephanie Ann; Whitlock, Cathy; Pierce, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    A sediment core extending to 28,000 cal yr BP from Lower Red Rock Lake in the Centennial Valley of southwestern Montana provides new information on the nature of full-glacial vegetation as well as a history of late-glacial and Holocene vegetation and climate in a poorly studied region. Prior to 17,000 cal yr BP, the eastern Centennial Valley was occupied by a large lake (Pleistocene Lake Centennial), and valley glaciers were present in adjacent mountain ranges. The lake lowered upon erosion of a newly formed western outlet in late-glacial time. High pollen percentages of Juniperus, Poaceae, Asteraceae, and other herbs as well as low pollen accumulation rates suggest sparse vegetation cover. Inferred cold dry conditions are consistent with a strengthened glacial anticyclone at this time. Between 17,000 and 10,500 cal yr BP, high Picea and Abies pollen percentages suggest a shift to subalpine parkland and warmer conditions than before. This is attributed to the northward shift of the jet stream and increasing summer insolation. From 10,500 to 7100 cal yr BP, pollen evidence of open dry forests suggests warm conditions, which were likely a response to increased summer insolation and a strengthened Pacific subtropical high-pressure system. From 7100 to 2400 cal yr BP, cooler moister conditions promoted closed forest and wetlands. Increases in Picea and Abies pollen percentages after 2400 cal yr BP suggest increasing effective moisture. The postglacial pattern of Pseudotsuga expansion indicates that it arrived later on the Atlantic side of the Continental Divide than on the Pacific side. The Divide may have been a physical barrier for refugial populations or it delimited different climate regions that influenced the timing of Pseudotsuga expansion.

  4. Montana Valley and Foothill Prairies Ecoregion: Chapter 6 in Status and trends of land change in the Western United States--1973 to 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Janis L.

    2012-01-01

    The Montana Valley and Foothill Prairies Ecoregion comprises numerous intermountain valleys and low-elevation foothill prairies spread across the western half of Montana, on both sides of the Continental Divide (Omernik, 1987; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1997). The ecoregion, which covers approximately 64,658 km2 (24,965 mi2), includes the Flathead Valley and the valleys surrounding Helena, Missoula, Bozeman, Billings, Anaconda, Dillon, and Lewistown (fig. 1). These valleys are generally characterized by shortgrass prairie vegetation and are flanked by forested mountains (Woods and others, 1999); thus, the valleys’ biotas with regards to fish and insects are comparable. In many cases, the valleys are conduits for some of the largest rivers in the state, including Clark Fork and the Missouri, Jefferson, Madison, Flathead, Yellowstone, Gallatin, Smith, Big Hole, Bitterroot, and Blackfoot Rivers (fig. 2). The Montana Valley and Foothill Prairies Ecoregion also includes the “Rocky Mountain front,” an area of prairies along the eastern slope of the northern Rocky Mountains. Principal land uses within the ecoregion include farming, grazing, and mining. The valleys serve as major transportation and utility corridors and also contain the majority of Montana’s human population. The Montana Valley and Foothill Prairies Ecoregion extends into 17 mostly rural counties throughout western Montana. Only three of the counties—Carbon, Yellowstone, and Missoula—are part of a metropolitan statistical area with contiguous built-up areas tied to an employment center. Nearly two-thirds of Montana residents live in nonmetropolitan counties (Albrecht, 2008). Ten of the counties within the ecoregion had population growth rates greater than national averages (9–13 percent) between 1970 and 2000 (table 1). Ravalli and Gallatin Counties had the highest growth rates. Population growth was largely due to amenity-related inmigration and an economy dependent on tourism

  5. Development and validation of an individual based Daphnia magna population model: The influence of crowding on population dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preuss, T.G.; Hammers-Wirtz, M.; Hommen, U.; Rubach, M.N.; Ratte, H.T.

    2009-01-01

    An individual-based model was developed to predict the population dynamics of Daphnia magna at laboratory conditions from individual life-history traits observed in experiments with different feeding conditions. Within the model, each daphnid passes its individual life cycle including feeding on alg

  6. [Influence of industrial pollution with mercury on levels of its accumulation in populated area objects and foods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amreeva, K E; Teryokhin, S P; Krashanovskaya, T R

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with results of study covering influence of industrial pollution with mercury on its accumulation level in populated area objects and foods. Mercury content was measured in ambient air, snow, water, bed silt and regional foods of vegetable and animal origin--that is a potential health hazard for Central Kazakhstan population. The data obtained prove that high levels of mercury were detected in all the studied objects.

  7. Melanoma in the Italian Population and Regional Environmental Influences: A National Retrospective Survey on 2001–2008 Hospitalization Records

    OpenAIRE

    Prisco Piscitelli; Cosimo Neglia; Andrea Falco; Matteo Rivezzi; Nadia Agnello; Alberto Argentiero; Giovanna Chitano; Chiara Distante; Giulia Della Rosa; Giorgia Vinci; Antonella De Donno; Alessandro Distante; Antonella Romanini

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the burden of regional environmental factors influencing the incidence of Melanoma in the Italian population and overcome the problem of partial population coverage by local cancer registries and thematic archives. Methods: We analyzed the Italian national hospitalization records from 2001 to 2008 provided by the Ministry of Health, excluding hospital re-admissions of the same patients, in order to assess the occurrence of Melanoma over a 8-year period. Data were presente...

  8. Factors that influence adherence to antiretroviral treatment in an urban population, Jakarta, Indonesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Rosamond Nony Weaver

    Full Text Available Although the number of people receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART in Indonesia has increased in recent years, little is known about the specific characteristics affecting adherence in this population. Indonesia is different from most of its neighbors given that it is a geographically and culturally diverse country, with a large Muslim population. We aimed to identify the current rate of adherence and explore factors that influence ART adherence.Data were collected from ART-prescribed outpatients on an HIV registry at a North Jakarta hospital in 2012. Socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics were explored as factors associated with adherence using logistics regression analyses. Chi squared test was used to compare the difference between proportions. Reasons for missing medication were analyzed descriptively.Two hundred and sixty-one patients participated, of whom 77% reported ART adherence in the last 3 months. The level of social support experienced was independently associated with adherence where some social support (p = 0.018 and good social support (p = 0.039 improved adherence compared to poor social support. Frequently cited reasons for not taking ART medication included forgetting to take medication (67%, busy with something else (63% and asleep at medication time (60%.This study identified that an increase in the level of social support experienced by ART-prescribed patients was positively associated with adherence. Social support may minimize the impact of stigma among ART prescribed patients. Based on these findings, if social support is not available, alternative support through community-based organizations is recommended to maximize treatment success.

  9. The Health Literacy Status and Influencing Factors of Older Population in Xinjiang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongbing LIU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was to investigate the health literacy and influencing factors of older population in pension institution of Xinjiang, China.Methods: Elderly people were selected from 44 pension institutions in Urumqi, Changji, Karamay and Shihezi and from September 2011 to June 2012 using random layer sampling method. The investigation was carried out by Chi-nese citizen health literacy questionnaire prepared by the China Health Education Center. Data were analyzed by One-way ANOVA, multiple linear regression and Pearson correlation analysis.Results: A total of 1396 elderly people met the inclusion criteria and their average age was (77.37 ± 8.48 years. Their average health literacy score was (77.37 ± 8.48 points, which was at a low level. There was significant difference in health literacy score among the factors of age, gender, race, education, household income, marital status and occupa-tion (P<0.05. The independent influencing factors of health literacy were education, race, occupation, household in-come, age and marital status (P < 0.05. Correlation analysis was conducted between the scores of health knowledge, health belief, health behavior, health skill and total scores of health literacy. Health knowledge scores and total scores had highest correlation (r=0.95, followed by health belief scores and total scores (r=0.81.Conclusion: The correlation between health behavior scores and health skill scores was the lowest (r=0.33. The ma-jor factors that lead to low health literacy in elderly people are femininity, minority and low levels of education.

  10. Influence of erythromycin A on the microbial populations in aquaculture sediment microcosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Hak; Cerniglia, Carl E

    2005-07-01

    Degradation of erythromycin A was studied using two sediment samples obtained from the salmon and trout hatchery sites at Hupp Springs (HS) and Goldendale (GD), Washington, United States. The former site had been treated for 3 years with erythromycin-medicated feed prior to the experiments, and the latter site had not been treated with any antibiotic for at least 6 years. The two sediment microcosms treated with either N-[methyl-14C]erythromycin A or [1,3,5,7,9,11,13-14C]erythromycin A showed S-curves for erythromycin A mineralization with a prolonged lag time of 120 days, except for GD microcosms treated with [1,3,5,7,9,11,13-14C]erythromycin A. We proposed a simplified logistic model to interpret the mineralization curves under the assumption of the low densities of initial populations metabolizing erythromycin A. The model was helpful for knowing the biological potential for erythromycin A degradation in sediments. Although erythromycin A added to the two sediment microcosms did not significantly alter the numbers of total viable aerobic bacteria or erythromycin-resistant bacteria, it affected the bacterial composition. The influence on the bacterial composition appeared to be greater in GD microcosms without pre-exposure to antibiotics. PCR-RFLP and DNA sequence analyses of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene and the erythromycin esterase (ere) gene revealed that ereA type 2 (ereA2) was present in potentially erythromycin-degrading Pseudomonas spp. strains GD100, GD200, HS100, HS200 and HS300, isolated from erythromycin-treated and non-treated GD and HS microcosms. Erythromycin A appeared to influence the development and proliferation of strain GD200, possibly via the lateral gene transfer of ereA2.

  11. Influence of erythromycin A on the microbial populations in aquaculture sediment microcosms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong-Hak [Division of Microbiology, National Center for Toxicological Research, US Food and Drug Administration, 3900 NCTR Road, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States)]. E-mail: yhkim660628@hotmail.com; Cerniglia, Carl E. [Division of Microbiology, National Center for Toxicological Research, US Food and Drug Administration, 3900 NCTR Road, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States)]. E-mail: ccerniglia@nctr.fda.gov

    2005-07-01

    Degradation of erythromycin A was studied using two sediment samples obtained from the salmon and trout hatchery sites at Hupp Springs (HS) and Goldendale (GD), Washington, United States. The former site had been treated for 3 years with erythromycin-medicated feed prior to the experiments, and the latter site had not been treated with any antibiotic for at least 6 years. The two sediment microcosms treated with either N-[methyl-{sup 14}C]erythromycin A or [1,3,5,7,9,11,13-{sup 14}C]erythromycin A showed S-curves for erythromycin A mineralization with a prolonged lag time of 120 days, except for GD microcosms treated with [1,3,5,7,9,11,13-{sup 14}C]erythromycin A. We proposed a simplified logistic model to interpret the mineralization curves under the assumption of the low densities of initial populations metabolizing erythromycin A. The model was helpful for knowing the biological potential for erythromycin A degradation in sediments. Although erythromycin A added to the two sediment microcosms did not significantly alter the numbers of total viable aerobic bacteria or erythromycin-resistant bacteria, it affected the bacterial composition. The influence on the bacterial composition appeared to be greater in GD microcosms without pre-exposure to antibiotics. PCR-RFLP and DNA sequence analyses of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene and the erythromycin esterase (ere) gene revealed that ereA type 2 (ereA2) was present in potentially erythromycin-degrading Pseudomonas spp. strains GD100, GD200, HS100, HS200 and HS300, isolated from erythromycin-treated and non-treated GD and HS microcosms. Erythromycin A appeared to influence the development and proliferation of strain GD200, possibly via the lateral gene transfer of ereA2.

  12. Population structure and genetic diversity of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in fragmented landscapes at the northern edge of their range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, K.L.; Dyte, C.K.; Moynahan, B.J.; Aldridge, C.L.; Sauls, H.S.; Battazzo, A.M.; Walker, B.L.; Doherty, K.E.; Tack, J.; Carlson, J.; Eslinger, D.; Nicholson, J.; Boyce, M.S.; Naugle, D.E.; Paszkowski, C.A.; Coltman, D.W.

    2011-01-01

    Range-edge dynamics and anthropogenic fragmentation are expected to impact patterns of genetic diversity, and understanding the influence of both factors is important for effective conservation of threatened wildlife species. To examine these factors, we sampled greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) from a declining, fragmented region at the northern periphery of the species' range and from a stable, contiguous core region. We genotyped 2,519 individuals at 13 microsatellite loci from 104 leks in Alberta, Saskatchewan, Montana, and Wyoming. Birds from northern Montana, Alberta, and Saskatchewan were identified as a single population that exhibited significant isolation by distance, with the Milk River demarcating two subpopulations. Both subpopulations exhibited high genetic diversity with no evidence that peripheral regions were genetically depauperate or highly structured. However, river valleys and a large agricultural region were significant barriers to dispersal. Leks were also composed primarily of non-kin, rejecting the idea that leks form because of male kin association. Northern Montana sage-grouse are maintaining genetic connectivity in fragmented and northern peripheral habitats via dispersal through and around various forms of fragmentation. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  13. VOLATILE COMPOUNDS OF WATER-ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF SATUREJA MONTANA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Paliy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We have studied a composition and content of volatile compounds of Satureja montana L. extract. It was established that concentration of volatile compounds in water-ethanol extract of S. montana amounted to 325 mg/100g. The principal component of the extract is carvacrol. It was shown that the extract of Satureja montana represents high biological value

  14. Modeling multi-scale resource selection for bear rub trees in northwestern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan Henderson, Matthew J.; Hebblewhite, Mark; Mitchell, Michael S.; Stetz, Jeffrey B.; Kendall, Katherine C.; Carlson, Ross T.

    2015-01-01

    Both black (Ursus americanus) and grizzly bears (U. arctos) are known to rub on trees and other objects, producing a network of repeatedly used and identifiable rub sites. In 2012, we used a resource selection function to evaluate hypothesized relationships between locations of 887 bear rubs in northwestern Montana, USA, and elevation, slope angle, density of open roads and distance from areas of heightened plant-productivity likely containing forage for bears. Slope and density of open roads were negatively correlated with rub presence. No other covariates were supported as explanatory variables. We also hypothesized that bear rubs would be more strongly associated with closed roads and developed trails than with game trails. The frequencies of bear rubs on 30 paired segments of developed tracks and game trails were not different. Our results suggest bear rubs may be associated with bear travel routes, and support their use as “random” sampling devices for non-invasive spatial capture–recapture population monitoring.

  15. The influence of intrauterine contraception on the prevalence and severity of dysmenorrhea: a longitudinal population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindh, Ingela; Milsom, Ian

    2013-07-01

    Does intrauterine contraception influence the prevalence and severity of dysmenorrhea? In this longitudinal study, a copper intrauterine device (Cu-IUD) did not influence the severity of dysmenorrhea, whereas the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) reduced dysmenorrhea severity. Dysmenorrhea is a common problem among young women. The LNG-IUS has been reported to be associated with less painful menstruation, although more long-term studies are necessary. In contrast Cu-IUDs have been reported to exacerbate dysmenorrhea. A longitudinal population study. The prevalence and severity of dysmenorrhea was compared in a longitudinal analysis of variance performed in the same women when using either intrauterine contraception (Cu-IUD or LNG-IUS) or combined oral contraceptives (COCs) with other methods of contraception or no contraception. Random samples of 19-year-old women born in 1962 (n = 656), 1972 (n = 780) and 1982 (n = 666) assessed at 5-year intervals between 1981 and 2001. Current severity of dysmenorrhea was assessed on each occasion by a verbal multidimensional scoring system (VMS) and by a visual analog scale (VAS). Dysmenorrhea severity was unchanged in the same woman when using a Cu-IUD compared with using other methods (= condom use, barrier methods, natural family planning, coitus interruptus and sterilization)/no method of contraception in the longitudinal analysis of factors influencing dysmenorrhea severity (VMS score: +0.05 units/VAS: -0.3 mm, both NS). LNG-IUS and COC use were associated with reduced dysmenorrhea severity compared with other methods/no method (LNG-IUS use, VMS score: -0.4 units/VAS: -13 mm, both P VMS score: -0.4 units/VAS: -11 mm, both P VMS score: -0.3 units, P < 0.05/VAS: -16 mm, P < 0.001). Dysmenorrhea severity decreased between the ages of 19 and 44 years. There was a decline in the response rate over time during the 20 years of this longitudinal study which may be due to the fact that the distribution of

  16. Influence of Soil Organic Matter Content on Abundance and Biomass of Earthworm (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristo Valchovski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The current study explores the influence of soil organic matter content on abundance and biomass of earthworm communities. The observation was carried out on three type of soils: PellicVertisols (very fine texture, Cromi-Vertic Luvisols (fine texture and Calcaric Fluvisols (mediumtexture from the Balkan Peninsula (Bulgaria. The field experiment was provided on uncultivatedplots. In the studied area earthworm fauna comprises of four species: Aporrectodea rosea,Aporrectodea caliginosa, Lumbricus terrestris and Octolasion lacteum. We found peregrine lumbricidtaxa, which are widely distributed in European soils. Our study demonstrated that soil organicmatter has a positive effect on lumbricid populations. It was revealed that augmentation of soilorganic matter favours characteristics of earthworm communities. The soil organic matter contentand earthworm abundance are in strong positive correlation (r > 0.981. The same relationship wasrevealed between the biomass of lumbricid fauna and amount of soil organic matter (r > 0.987. Insum, the soil organic matter could be used as an indicator for earthworm communities inuncultivated soils.

  17. LONG TERM INVESTMENTS, RISK OR OPPORTUNITY FOR ROMANIAN ECONOMY, CASE STUDY: ROSIA MONTANA GOLD CORPORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florea Georgiana Rodica

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is aimed at describing the influence that foreign direct investments have on a recipient economy, as this study focuses on the changes that foreign direct investments imposed on Romanian economy. In principle, foreign direct investment should enhance one economys results as they pump capital, the vital fluid of any successful enterprise, completing or replacing own capital, as the economy becomes interesting because of its raw material resources, financial facilities or human resource. Anyway, there are some instances that need turning own capital to profit, as, this would benefit more than permission for foreign capital to be turned into advantage. The actual study looks on investments that are to be conducted by Gabriel Resources in Rosia Montana area and tries to evaluate if the business site acts on long term in favor of our national economy.

  18. Baxter v. Montana, libertarianism, and end-of-life: the ripe time for a paradigm shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruble, James H

    2010-09-01

    Baxter v. Montana (2009 WL 5155363 [Mont. 2009]) is a recent decision from the Montana Supreme Court that provides new legal insight into the societal issue of aid in dying. This case involves interests of persons with terminal illness, medical practitioners, law enforcement, legislative and judicial bodies, as well as the citizens of Montana. A summary judgment ruling at the Montana district court level was based almost entirely on a constitutional fundamental rights analysis. In contrast, the Montana Supreme Court affirming decision was based almost entirely on a statutory rights analysis. Both rulings from the Montana courts support the position that licensed prescribers in Montana who provide aid in dying assistance to terminally ill patients have some immunity from criminal prosecution. Each side in the case argued what they believed to be the intents and purposes of the people of Montana. Baxter v. Montana illustrates different methods to determine the will of the people concerning aid in dying and public policy. This case very subtly suggests a paradigm shift may be occurring in aid in dying policy.

  19. Major factors influencing linkage disequilibrium by analysis of different chromosome regions in distinct populations: demography, chromosome recombination frequency and selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavattari, P; Deidda, E; Whalen, M; Lampis, R; Mulargia, A; Loddo, M; Eaves, I; Mastio, G; Todd, J A; Cucca, F

    2000-12-12

    Linkage disequilibrium (LD) mapping of disease genes is complicated by population- and chromosome-region-specific factors. We have analysed demographic factors by contrasting intermarker LD results obtained in a large cosmopolitan population (UK), a large genetic isolate (Sardinia) and a subisolate (village of Gavoi) for two regions of the X chromosome. A dramatic increase of LD was found in the subisolate. Demographic history of populations therefore influences LD. Chromosome-region-specific effects, namely the pattern and frequency of homologous recombination, were next delineated by the analysis of chromosome 6p21, including the HLA region. Patterns of global LD in this region were very similar in the UK and Sardinian populations despite their entirely distinct demographies, and correlate well with the pattern of recombinations. Nevertheless, haplotypes extend across recombination hot spots indicative of selection of certain haplotypes. Subisolate aside, chromosome-region-specific differences in LD patterns appear to be more important than the differences in intermarker LD between distinct populations.

  20. Adaptation to sea level rise: does local adaptation influence the demography of coastal fish populations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, K M; Klerks, P L; Leberg, P L

    2010-10-01

    This study compared the growth of two western mosquitofish Gambusia affinis populations that were previously demonstrated to have genetic adaptations that increased survival under lethal salinity exposures. The objective was to evaluate how genetic adaptations to lethal salinity stress affect population demography when exposed to sublethal salinity stress. Results indicate that chronic salinity exposure had a generally negative impact on population size, but fish originating from one of the two populations established with fish from a brackish site exhibited an increase in population size. Saltwater intrusion seems to result in reduced population size for most populations. Some populations inhabiting more saline sites, however, may develop localized adaptations, mitigating the consequences of increased salinity on population productivity.

  1. Montana Organization for Research in Energy (MORE) Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bromenshenk, Jerry

    1999-12-31

    MORE is a consortium of educational, governmental, and industrial partners in cooperation with the state's Tribal colleges. Formed in 1994, the objectives are to develop and promote energy-related research and education in the state of Montana and the Northwestern region. Specifically, they set out to: (1) promote collaboration and cooperation among Montana's Colleges and Universities; (2) maximize use of existing personnel and resources; (3) foster partnerships with industries, state agencies, and tribal nations; and (4) enhance energy research and training. The 1st Implementation Grant consisted of Management and Coordination, Human Outreach, and two Research Clusters Petroleum Reservoir Characterization and Wind Energy. Overall, they consider this program to have been highly successful. That conclusion was mirrored by the DOE site reviewers, and by invitations from Dr. Matesh Varma, the DOE/EPSCoR National Program Director, to present their programs and outcomes as models for other states the National DOE/EPSCoR meetings.

  2. Influence of Media in the Choice of Oral Hygiene Products Used Among the Population of Maduravoyal, Chennai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logaranjani, Anitha; Mahendra, Jaideep; Perumalsamy, Rajapriya; Narayan, Rajeshree Rangari; Rajendran, Sathish; Namasivayam, Ambalavanan

    2015-10-01

    To assess the factors influencing the awareness and practice of oral hygiene among the local population Maduravoyal, Chennai, India. A cross-sectional questionnaire based study was conducted to understand the factors influencing the choice and practice of oral hygiene products among the population of Maduravoyal, Chennai, India. Data was collected by means of a self administered structured questionnaire written in English and validated through a pilot survey. One thousand two hundred and nine subjects, with an age range of 15 to 70 years, who visited the Department of Periodontology, Meenakshi Ammal Dental College, Chennai were selected for investigation. The data obtained was analyzed using the SPSS version 13.0. The frequency of distribution and percentages were calculated. The results of the study showed that tooth brush (98.5%) and toothpaste (98%) were the main products used for the maintenance of oral hygiene and around 84.6% of the population brushed once daily. Information from the media (59.4%) and decay prevention (49.7%) were the major factors that influenced the choice of toothpaste among the study population. The major factor which influenced the choice of oral hygiene products was based on information obtained from advertisements and other sources. There is a need for the dental professionals to be aware of the ever-increasing development and marketing of oral hygiene products from various databases. Hence, the education of people regarding the importance of oral hygiene maintenance, proper selection of oral hygiene products is essential.

  3. Bioactivity and phytochemical characterization of Arenaria montana L.

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Eliana; Barros, Lillian; Calhelha, Ricardo C.; Dueñas, Montserrat; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    The bioactivity (antioxidant and cytotoxic activities) of the aqueous and methanolic extracts of Arenaria montana L., a plant commonly used in Portuguese folk medicine, was evaluated and compared. Furthermore, the phytochemical composition was determined regarding hydrophilic (sugars, organic acids and phenolic compounds) and lipophilic (fatty acids and tocopherols) compounds, in order to valorize this plant material as a functional food/nutraceutical. Fructose, oxalic acid, methyl-luteolin 2...

  4. The influence of the border position of the Pskov region on the socio-cultural values of the population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manakov Andrei

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a sociological research on national and supranational (civilizational identity of the Pskov region population conducted in 1999—2010. The Pskov region is the only European region of Russia that shares borders with three states, two of which are members of the EU. The author defines the areas of the neighbouring countries' sociocultural influence on the lives of the border territory population. The article also describes the existing stereotypes about Russia and the neighbouring countries as well as the influence of frequent trips to these countries on the attitude towards them. The assessment of the EU-Russia cooperation prospects by the Pskov region population is presented in comparison to the results of a similar research conducted in the Kaliningrad region.

  5. The influence of the border position of the Pskov region on the socio-cultural values of the population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manakov A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a sociological research on national and supranational (civilizational identity of the Pskov region population conducted in 1999—2010. The Pskov region is the only European region of Russia that shares borders with three states, two of which are members of the EU. The author defines the areas of the neighbouring countries' sociocultural influence on the lives of the border territory population. The article also describes the existing stereotypes about Russia and the neighbouring countries as well as the influence of frequent trips to these countries on the attitude towards them. The assessment of the EU-Russia cooperation prospects by the Pskov region population is presented in comparison to the results of a similar research conducted in the Kaliningrad region.

  6. 76 FR 71355 - United States et al. v. Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Montana, Inc. et al.; Proposed Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... affordable prices can attract businesses and jobs to a state or region, and higher health-insurance prices.... *Attorney of Record. FOR PLAINTIFF STATE OF MONTANA: Steve Bullock, Attorney General of Montana. James...

  7. Cooperative Recovery Initiative: Bull Trout Restoration: Restoring Cold, Clean, Complex and Connected Habitat in the Blackfoot River Watershed of Montana.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Habitat degradation and the effects of climate change are the biggest threats to bull trout in the Blackfoot River watershed of Montana. Montana Fish, Wildlife &...

  8. Comparison of cytotoxic and anti-platelet activities of polyphenolic extracts from Arnica montana flowers and Juglans regia husks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rywaniak, Joanna; Luzak, Boguslawa; Podsedek, Anna; Dudzinska, Dominika; Rozalski, Marcin; Watala, Cezary

    2015-01-01

    Polyphenolic compounds of plant origin are well known to be beneficial to human health: they exert protective effects on haemostasis and have a particular influence on blood platelets. However, the anti-platelet properties of polyphenolic compounds observed so far have not been weighed against their potential cytotoxic action against platelets. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that anti-platelet and cytotoxic effects on blood platelets may interfere and therefore, may often lead to confusion when evaluating the properties of plant extracts or other agents towards blood platelets. The anti-platelet and cytotoxic in vitro effects of plant extracts obtained from the husks of walnuts (J. regia) and flowers of arnica (A. montana) on platelet reactivity and viability were examined. Platelet function was assessed using standard methods (flow cytometry: P-selectin expression, activation of GPIIbIIIa complex, vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein, VASP index; turbidimetric and impedance aggregometry) and newly set assays (flow cytometric monitoring of platelet cytotoxicity). The results reveal that none of the studied plant extracts demonstrated cytotoxicity towards blood platelets. The phenolic acid-rich extract of A. montana (7.5 and 15 µg/ml) significantly reduced the ADP-induced aggregation in both whole blood and PRP, and decreased the platelet reactivity index (PRI; VASP phosphorylation) in whole blood, while showing excellent antioxidant capacity. The extract of J. regia husks significantly reduced ADP-induced platelet aggregation in whole blood when applied at 7.5 µg/ml, and only slightly decreased the PRI at 15 µg/ml. Both examined extracts suppressed platelet hyper-reactivity, and such influence did not interfere with cytotoxic effects of the extracts. Thus, its high polyphenol content, excellent antioxidant capacity and distinct anti-platelet properties, in combination with its lack of toxicity, make the extract of A. montana flowers a possible

  9. Factors Influencing Cancer Risk Perception in High Risk Populations: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilburt Jon C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients at higher than average risk of heritable cancer may process risk information differently than the general population. However, little is known about clinical, demographic, or psychosocial predictors that may impact risk perception in these groups. The objective of this study was to characterize factors associated with perceived risk of developing cancer in groups at high risk for cancer based on genetics or family history. Methods We searched Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, Ovid PsycInfo, and Scopus from inception through April 2009 for English-language, original investigations in humans using core concepts of "risk" and "cancer." We abstracted key information and then further restricted articles dealing with perceived risk of developing cancer due to inherited risk. Results Of 1028 titles identified, 53 articles met our criteria. Most (92% used an observational design and focused on women (70% with a family history of or contemplating genetic testing for breast cancer. Of the 53 studies, 36 focused on patients who had not had genetic testing for cancer risk, 17 included studies of patients who had undergone genetic testing for cancer risk. Family history of cancer, previous prophylactic tests and treatments, and younger age were associated with cancer risk perception. In addition, beliefs about the preventability and severity of cancer, personality factors such as "monitoring" personality, the ability to process numerical information, as well as distress/worry also were associated with cancer risk perception. Few studies addressed non-breast cancer or risk perception in specific demographic groups (e.g. elderly or minority groups and few employed theory-driven analytic strategies to decipher interrelationships of factors. Conclusions Several factors influence cancer risk perception in patients at elevated risk for cancer. The science of characterizing and improving risk perception in cancer for high risk groups, although

  10. Parental influences on child physical activity and screen viewing time: a population based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfenden Luke

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents can influence their children's physical activity participation and screen time.This study examined the relative significance of perceived parental barriers and self-efficacy in relation to children's physical activity participation and screen time viewing. The associations between these factors and the behaviours were analysed. Methods Cross-sectional population survey in New South Wales, Australia of parents of pre-school (N = 764, younger (Kindergarten, Grades 2 and 4; N = 1557 and older children (Grades 6, 8 and 10; N = 1665. Parents reported barriers and self-efficacy to influence their child's physical activity and screen time behaviours in a range of circumstances. Differences were examined by child's sex and age group, household income, maternal education and location of residence. The duration of physical activity and screen viewing was measured by parental report for pre-school and younger children and self-report for older children. Associations between parental factors and children's organised, non-organised and total activity and screen time were analysed. Results Cost, lack of opportunities for participation and transport problems were the barriers most often reported, particularly by low income parents and those in rural areas. The number of barriers was inversely related to children's time spent in organised activity, but not their non-organised activity. Higher parental self-efficacy was positively associated with organised physical activity in the younger and older children's groups and the non-organised activity of older children. School-age children (younger and older groups were less likely to meet physical activity guidelines when parents reported ≥4 barriers (OR 3.76, 95% CI 1.25-11.34 and OR 3.72, 95% CI 1.71-8.11 respectively. Low parental self-efficacy was also associated with the likelihood of children exceeding screen time guidelines for each age group (pre-school OR 0.62, 95% CI 0

  11. Demographic consequences of inbreeding and outbreeding in Arnica montana: A field experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luijten, S.H.; Kery, M.; Oostermeijer, J.G.B.; Den, Nijs H.J.C.M.

    2002-01-01

    1. The genetic constitution of populations may significantly affect demography. Founder populations or isolated remnants may show inbreeding depression, while established populations can be strongly adapted to the local environment. Gene exchange between populations can lead to better performance if heterozygosity levels are restored (heterosis), or to reduced performance if coadapted gene complexes are disrupted (outbreeding depression). 2. Five populations of the self-incompatible perennial Arnica montana (Asteraceae) were analysed for the demographic consequences of inbreeding and of intra- and interpopulation outcrossing, using both small and large populations as donors for the latter. We analysed seed production and seed weight and monitored growth, survival and flowering of offspring introduced as seeds and as 4-week-old seedlings in a 4-year field experiment. 3. Reduced seed set after selfing was probably due to the self-incompatibility system rather than to inbreeding depression. There was a significant increase for seed set after interpopulation crosses, which resulted from the alleviation of low mate availability in one of the small populations. 4. Significant inbreeding depression was observed for growth rates of plants introduced as seedlings. We found significant heterosis for flowering probability of plants introduced as seeds, but for plants introduced as seedlings, heterosis for seedling size and flowering probability was only marginally significant. Outbreeding depression was not observed. 5. The results of this study are important for reinforcement measures in small, remnant populations. Significant differences among populations for all measured fitness components suggest that reinforcement is best achieved using material from several populations. 6. The observed higher survival of seedlings as compared with seeds suggests that it is better to plant individuals than to sow. Sowing, however, is easier and cheaper, and was more likely to eliminate

  12. Culture Qualitatively but Not Quantitatively Influences Performance in the Boston Naming Test in a Chinese-Speaking Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Bin Chen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The Boston Naming Test (BNT is the most frequently administered confrontational naming test, but the cultural background of the patients may influence their performance in the BNT. The aim of this study was to identify differences in performance in the BNT between a Chinese population in Taiwan, Chinese populations in other areas and a Caucasian population. Methods: A total of 264 native, Chinese-speaking, cognitively normal elders aged >60 years were enrolled in our study and conducted the 30-item Chinese version of the BNT. Another 10 BNT studies were categorized, analyzed and compared with the present study. Results: Higher education was associated with higher scores, whereas age and gender had no effect on performance in the BNT. The score of the Chinese-speaking population was equivalent to the English-speaking population. A disparity in difficulties with items was not only apparent between the Taiwanese and Caucasian populations, but also between the Chinese-speaking populations in the different geographic areas. Conclusion: For the most part, the impact of culture on performance in the BNT may not be quantitative but qualitative. Attention should be paid to a potential effect of culture on difficulties with items when administering the BNT to non-English-speaking populations. Understanding differences in performance in the BNT in distinct cultural settings improves the clinical application of the BNT.

  13. Culture qualitatively but not quantitatively influences performance in the Boston naming test in a chinese-speaking population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting-Bin; Lin, Chi-Ying; Lin, Ker-Neng; Yeh, Yen-Chi; Chen, Wei-Ta; Wang, Kuo-Shu; Wang, Pei-Ning

    2014-01-01

    The Boston Naming Test (BNT) is the most frequently administered confrontational naming test, but the cultural background of the patients may influence their performance in the BNT. The aim of this study was to identify differences in performance in the BNT between a Chinese population in Taiwan, Chinese populations in other areas and a Caucasian population. A total of 264 native, Chinese-speaking, cognitively normal elders aged >60 years were enrolled in our study and conducted the 30-item Chinese version of the BNT. Another 10 BNT studies were categorized, analyzed and compared with the present study. Higher education was associated with higher scores, whereas age and gender had no effect on performance in the BNT. The score of the Chinese-speaking population was equivalent to the English-speaking population. A disparity in difficulties with items was not only apparent between the Taiwanese and Caucasian populations, but also between the Chinese-speaking populations in the different geographic areas. For the most part, the impact of culture on performance in the BNT may not be quantitative but qualitative. Attention should be paid to a potential effect of culture on difficulties with items when administering the BNT to non-English-speaking populations. Understanding differences in performance in the BNT in distinct cultural settings improves the clinical application of the BNT.

  14. Preliminary assessment report for Fort William Henry Harrison, Montana Army National Guard, Helena, Montana. Installation Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DuWaldt, J.; Meyer, T.

    1993-07-01

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at a Montana Army National Guard (MTARNG) property near Helena, Montana. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, quantities of hazardous substances present, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. This PA satisfies, for the Fort William Henry Harrison property, requirements of the Department of Defense Installation Restoration Program.

  15. Stratigraphy and geologic history of the Montana group and equivalent rocks, Montana, Wyoming, and North and South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, James R.; Cobban, William Aubrey

    1973-01-01

    During Late Cretaceous time a broad north-trending epicontinental sea covered much of the western interior of North America and extended from the Gulf of Mexico to the Arctic Ocean. The sea was bounded on the west by a narrow, unstable, and constantly rising cordillera which extended from Central America to Alaska and which separated the sea from Pacific oceanic waters. The east margin of the sea was bounded by the low-lying stable platform of the central part of the United States.Rocks of the type Montana Group in Montana and equivalent rocks in adjacent States, which consist of eastward-pointing wedges of shallow-water marine and nonmarine strata that enclose westward-pointing wedges of fine-grained marine strata, were deposited in and marginal to this sea. These rocks range in age from middle Santonian to early Maestrichtian and represent a time span of about 14 million years. Twenty-nine distinctive ammonite zones, each with a time span of about half a million years, characterize the marine strata.Persistent beds of bentonite in the transgressive part of the Claggett and Bearpaw Shales of Montana and equivalent rocks elsewhere represent periods of explosive volcanism and perhaps concurrent subsidence along the west shore in the vicinity of the Elkhorn Mountains and the Deer Creek volcanic fields in Montana. Seaward retreat of st randlines, marked by deposition of the Telegraph Creek, Eagle, Judith River, and Fox Hills Formations in Montana and the Mesaverde Formation in Wyoming, may be attributed to uplift in near-coastal areas and to an increase in volcaniclastic rocks delivered to the sea.Rates of transgression and regression determined for the Montana Group in central Montana reveal that the strandline movement was more rapid during times of transgression. The regression of the Telegraph Creek and Eagle strandlines averaged about 50 miles per million years compared with a rate of about 95 miles per million years for the advance of the strand-line during

  16. Systematic Review of Factors Influencing Farmers' Market Use Overall and among Low-Income Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Darcy A; Vaudrin, Nicole; Schneider, Christine; Trapl, Erika; Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam; Taggart, Morgan; Ariel Cascio, M; Walsh, Colleen; Flocke, Susan

    2016-07-01

    Recent evidence indicates a widening gap in fruit and vegetable (F/V) consumption between high- and low-income Americans. This gap is related, in part, to decreased access to food retailers that sell fresh F/V in low-income communities. Farmers' markets are identified as a strategy for improving F/V consumption by increasing access to these foods. The aim of this systematic review was to examine literature published from 1994 to 2014 to identify facilitators and barriers of farmers' markets use, particularly among low-income consumers. Peer-reviewed literature was identified in Ebsco Host (Academic Search Complete). Inclusion criteria for abstract review was primary research focused on farmers' market use identifying 87 studies for full-text review. Full-text review identified articles focused on facilitators and/or barriers of farmers' market use resulting in 49 articles. At least two reviewers completed review of all articles. Of the 49 articles, 39% specified inclusion of low-income consumers and fewer than 15% focused on racial and ethnic minorities. Few studies were guided by theory and/or used standardized metrics. Results indicate farmers' market use is influenced by multiple economic, service delivery, spatial-temporal, social, and personal factors. Among studies that included low-income populations (n=19), key barriers to farmers' market use were perceptions that food assistance benefits were not accepted, belief that food variety at farmers' markets was limited, lack of access to transportation, lack of racial/ethnic diversity in the market space, and mismatch between markets and personal lifestyles. There is wide variation in study design and reporting standards and infrequent use of standardized measures limiting comparisons across studies. There is a need to establish valid and reliable metrics and reporting standards for evaluating farmers' markets. Findings may inform interventions, programs, and policies to promote farmers' market use. Copyright

  17. Factors influencing serum concentrations of IgD in the adult population: an observational study in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballo, Iago; Rabuñal, Noelia; Alvela, Lucía; Pérez, Luis-Fernando; Vidal, Carmen; Alonso, Manuela; Sopeña, Bernardo; Gude, Francisco; Gonzalez-Quintela, Arturo

    2017-01-27

    Immunoglobulin D (IgD) is the least studied of immunoglobulin classes. This study sought to investigate the potential relationship between demographic, metabolic, lifestyle and immunologic factors, and serum IgD concentrations in a general adult population. We measured serum IgD concentrations by means of a commercial turbidimetric assay in 413 individuals (median age, 55 years; 45% males), randomly selected from the adult population of a Spanish municipality. Serum IgD concentrations displayed considerable variation in the population, ranging from undetectable (immune disease after a median 11.4 years of follow-up. In conclusion, serum IgD concentrations in adults show a wide variation in the population and may be influenced by common factors, particularly age and smoking habit. These factors should be taken into account when defining reference ranges for serum IgD concentrations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Influence of population density on the concentration and speciation of metals in the soil and street dust from urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, J A; Gabarrón, M; Faz, A; Martínez-Martínez, S; Zornoza, R; Arocena, J M

    2015-09-01

    Street dust and soil from high, medium and low populated cities and natural area were analysed for selected physical-chemical properties, total and chemical speciation of Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, Cd, Co, Ni to understand the influence of human activities on metal accumulation and mobility in the environment. The pH, salinity, carbonates and organic carbon contents were similar between soil and dust from the same city. Population density increases dust/soil salinity but has no influence on metals concentrations in soils. Increases in metal concentrations with population density were observed in dusts. Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr can be mobilized more easily from dust compared to the soil. In addition, population density increase the percentage of Pb and Zn associated to reducible and carbonate phase in the dust. The behaviour of metals except Cd in soil is mainly affected by physico-chemical properties, while total metal influenced the speciation except Cr and Ni in dusts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The influence of admixture and consanguinity on population genetic diversity in Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiong; Al-Bustan, Suzanne; Feng, Qidi; Guo, Wei; Ma, Zhiming; Marafie, Makia; Jacob, Sindhu; Al-Mulla, Fahd; Xu, Shuhua

    2014-11-01

    The Middle East (ME) is an important crossroad where modern humans migrated 'out of Africa' and spread into Europe and Asia. After the initial peopling and long-term isolation leading to well-differentiated populations, the ME also had a crucial role in subsequent human migrations among Africa, Europe and Asia; thus, recent population admixture has been common in the ME. On the other hand, consanguinity, a well-known practice in the ME, often reduces genetic diversity and works in opposition to admixture. Here, we explored the degree to which admixture and consanguinity jointly affected genetic diversity in ME populations. Genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism data were generated in two representative ME populations (Arabian and Iranian), with comparisons made with populations worldwide. Our results revealed an overall higher genetic diversity in both ME populations relative to other non-African populations. We identified a much larger number of long runs of homozygosity in ME populations than in any other populations, which was most likely attributed to high levels of consanguineous marriages that significantly decreased both individual and population heterozygosity. Additionally, we were able to distinguish African, European and Asian ancestries in ME populations and quantify the impact of admixture and consanguinity with statistical approaches. Interestingly, genomic regions with significantly excessive ancestry from individual source populations are functionally enriched in olfactory pathways, which were suspected to be under natural selection. Our findings suggest that genetic admixture, consanguinity and natural selection have collectively shaped the genetic diversity of ME populations, which has important implications in both evolutionary studies and medical practices.

  20. Stroke Knowledge among Urban and Frontier First Responders and Emergency Medical Technicians in Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Michael J.; Oser, Carrie; Gohdes, Dorothy; Fogle, Crystelle C.; Dietrich, Dennis W.; Burnett, Anne; Okon, Nicholas; Russell, Joseph A.; DeTienne, James; Harwell, Todd S.; Helgerson, Steven D.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To assess stroke knowledge and practice among frontier and urban emergency medical services (EMS) providers and to evaluate the need for additional prehospital stroke training opportunities in Montana. Methods: In 2006, a telephone survey of a representative sample of EMS providers was conducted in Montana. Respondents were stratified…

  1. 75 FR 4698 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Montana; Revisions to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ... Administrative Rules of Montana. Revisions include minor editorial and grammatical changes, updates to the... minor editorial and grammatical changes, and update the citations and references to Federal laws and... Montana; they make minor editorial and grammatical changes, update the citations and references to...

  2. 75 FR 3993 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Montana; Revisions to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... the Administrative Rules of Montana; they include minor editorial and grammatical changes, updates to... minor editorial and grammatical changes, update the citations and references to federal and state laws... Rules of Montana; they make minor editorial and grammatical changes, update the citations and...

  3. Scheduling Recess before Lunch: Exploring the Benefits and Challenges in Montana Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bark, Katie; Stenberg, Molly; Sutherland, Shelly; Hayes, Dayle

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of the "Montana Recess Before Lunch Survey" was to explore benefits, challenges, and factors associated with successful implementation of Recess Before Lunch (RBL), from the perspective of school principals. Methods: An online written questionnaire was distributed to all (N = 661) Montana elementary and…

  4. 75 FR 3489 - Notice of Public Meeting, Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    ... Montana Resource Advisory Council will be held on March 4, 2010, in Billings, MT. The meeting will start... in Montana. At these meetings, topics will include: Miles City and Billings Field Office manager..., 2010. M. Elaine Raper, District Manager. BILLING CODE 4310-DN-P...

  5. 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey: American Indian Students on or near a Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey high school student frequency distributions for American Indian students on or near a reservation. These frequency distributions are based upon surveys with 720 high school American Indian students on or near a reservation in Montana during February of 2011. Frequency distributions…

  6. The influence of natural barriers in shaping the genetic structure of Maharashtra populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumarasamy Thangaraj

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The geographical position of Maharashtra state makes it rather essential to study the dispersal of modern humans in South Asia. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the cultural, linguistic and geographical affinity of the populations living in Maharashtra state with other South Asian populations. The genetic origin of populations living in this state is poorly understood and hitherto been described at low molecular resolution level. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To address this issue, we have analyzed the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA of 185 individuals and NRY (non-recombining region of Y chromosome of 98 individuals belonging to two major tribal populations of Maharashtra, and compared their molecular variations with that of 54 South Asian contemporary populations of adjacent states. Inter and intra population comparisons reveal that the maternal gene pool of Maharashtra state populations is composed of mainly South Asian haplogroups with traces of east and west Eurasian haplogroups, while the paternal haplogroups comprise the South Asian as well as signature of near eastern specific haplogroup J2a. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our analysis suggests that Indian populations, including Maharashtra state, are largely derived from Paleolithic ancient settlers; however, a more recent (∼10 Ky older detectable paternal gene flow from west Asia is well reflected in the present study. These findings reveal movement of populations to Maharashtra through the western coast rather than mainland where Western Ghats-Vindhya Mountains and Narmada-Tapti rivers might have acted as a natural barrier. Comparing the Maharastrian populations with other South Asian populations reveals that they have a closer affinity with the South Indian than with the Central Indian populations.

  7. Influence of atomic motion on the population and dipole squeezing of a cascade three-level atom in cavity field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Ai-Dong; Zhang Shou

    2004-01-01

    The dynamical property of a cascade three-level atom is investigated in the condition of atomic motion. The influence of atomic motion on the population and dipole squeezing is discussed. The results show that atomic motion makes the amplitude of atomic population be steady and increasing the parameter ep which denotes the atomic motion and the structure of field mode can shorten the period of collapse-revivals. By choosing an appropriate paramenter ep, we can obtain a dipole squeezed atom of long standing.

  8. Influence of facial skin ageing characteristics on the perceived age in a Russian female population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merinville, E; Grennan, G Z; Gillbro, J M; Mathieu, J; Mavon, A

    2015-10-01

    The desire for a youthful look remains a powerful motivator in the purchase of cosmetics by women globally. To develop an anti-ageing solution that targets the need of end consumers, it is critical to understand which signs of ageing really matter to them and which influence their age perception. To date, such research has not been performed in a Russian population. The aim of this work was to identify the signs of ageing that contribute the most to an 'older' or 'younger' look for Russian women aged 40 years old and above. The age of 203 Russian female volunteers was estimated from their standard photographs by a total of 629 female naïve assessors aged 20-65 years old. Perceived age data were related to 23 facial skin features previously measured using linear correlation coefficients. Differences in average severity of the correlating skin ageing features were evaluated between women perceived older and women perceived younger than their chronological age. Volunteers' responses to a ranking question on their key ageing skin concerns previously collected were analysed to provide an additional view on facial ageing from the consumer perspective. Nine facial skin ageing features were found to correlate the most with perceived age out of the 23 measured. Such results showed the importance of wrinkles in the upper part of the face (crow's feet, glabellar, under eye and forehead wrinkles), but also wrinkles in the lower half of the face associated with facial sagging (upper lip, nasolabial fold). Sagging was confirmed of key importance to female volunteers aged 41-65 years old who were mostly concerned by the sagging of their jawline, ahead of under eye and crow's feet wrinkle. The severity of hyperpigmented spots, red and brown, was also found to contribute to perceived age although to a weaker extent. By providing a clear view on the signs of ageing really matter to Russian women who are aged 40 years old and above, this research offers key information for the

  9. The six pillars of influence how insurgent organizations manipulate governments, populations, and their operatives

    OpenAIRE

    Hagan, Kevin R.

    2009-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited This thesis is a study of insurgent use of six basic principles of human persuasion and influence. These principles are put forth by Robert B. Cialdini in his work Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion. The principles of influence put forth in Cialdini's work are reciprocation, commitment and consistency, social proof, liking, authority, and scarcity. While past studies have sought to explain the manner in which insurgencies gain i...

  10. Population size influences amphibian detection probability: implications for biodiversity monitoring programs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo G Tanadini

    Full Text Available Monitoring is an integral part of species conservation. Monitoring programs must take imperfect detection of species into account in order to be reliable. Theory suggests that detection probability may be determined by population size but this relationship has not yet been assessed empirically. Population size is particularly important because it may induce heterogeneity in detection probability and thereby cause bias in estimates of biodiversity. We used a site occupancy model to analyse data from a volunteer-based amphibian monitoring program to assess how well different variables explain variation in detection probability. An index to population size best explained detection probabilities for four out of six species (to avoid circular reasoning, we used the count of individuals at a previous site visit as an index to current population size. The relationship between the population index and detection probability was positive. Commonly used weather variables best explained detection probabilities for two out of six species. Estimates of site occupancy probabilities differed depending on whether the population index was or was not used to model detection probability. The relationship between the population index and detectability has implications for the design of monitoring and species conservation. Most importantly, because many small populations are likely to be overlooked, monitoring programs should be designed in such a way that small populations are not overlooked. The results also imply that methods cannot be standardized in such a way that detection probabilities are constant. As we have shown here, one can easily account for variation in population size in the analysis of data from long-term monitoring programs by using counts of individuals from surveys at the same site in previous years. Accounting for variation in population size is important because it can affect the results of long-term monitoring programs and ultimately the

  11. Population size influences amphibian detection probability: implications for biodiversity monitoring programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanadini, Lorenzo G; Schmidt, Benedikt R

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring is an integral part of species conservation. Monitoring programs must take imperfect detection of species into account in order to be reliable. Theory suggests that detection probability may be determined by population size but this relationship has not yet been assessed empirically. Population size is particularly important because it may induce heterogeneity in detection probability and thereby cause bias in estimates of biodiversity. We used a site occupancy model to analyse data from a volunteer-based amphibian monitoring program to assess how well different variables explain variation in detection probability. An index to population size best explained detection probabilities for four out of six species (to avoid circular reasoning, we used the count of individuals at a previous site visit as an index to current population size). The relationship between the population index and detection probability was positive. Commonly used weather variables best explained detection probabilities for two out of six species. Estimates of site occupancy probabilities differed depending on whether the population index was or was not used to model detection probability. The relationship between the population index and detectability has implications for the design of monitoring and species conservation. Most importantly, because many small populations are likely to be overlooked, monitoring programs should be designed in such a way that small populations are not overlooked. The results also imply that methods cannot be standardized in such a way that detection probabilities are constant. As we have shown here, one can easily account for variation in population size in the analysis of data from long-term monitoring programs by using counts of individuals from surveys at the same site in previous years. Accounting for variation in population size is important because it can affect the results of long-term monitoring programs and ultimately the conservation of

  12. [Special use permit for predator disease study associated with Montana black-footed ferret reintroduction, summer 1994 : Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains a memorandum providing the Montana Black-Footed Ferret Working Group with information on the proposed predator collection that will happen...

  13. Career Interventions for At-Risk Populations: Incorporating Social Cognitive Influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartrand, Judy M.; Rose, Melissa L.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the career development and the career counseling needs of populations having limited access to educational and occupational opportunities. Reviews some of the limitations of current theories and interventions and offers recommendations for applying social cognitive career theory to populations at risk for experiencing employment and…

  14. Influence of population isolation on genetic variation and demography in Seychelles warblers : a field experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, Jan; Kappe, Anique; van de Zande, Louis

    1998-01-01

    Between 1959 and 1968 the entire world population of Seychelles warblers (Acrocephalus sechellensis) comprised only 26-29 individuals entirely confined to Cousin Island (26 ha). Through conservation actions the island population has reached a carrying capacity of ca 320 birds since 1982. The warbler

  15. Analysing the Influence of the Spontaneous Aneuploidy Frequency on the Cell Population System Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Nefedov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides a qualitative analysis of M.S. Vinogradova's nonlinear model for dynamics of the cell population system. This system describes the stem cells cultivation in vitro under resource constraints. The system consists of two populations, namely: population of normal cells and population of abnormal cells. Resource constraints are considered as linear dependences of mitosis parameters on the normalized densities of each population.One of the key parameters that effects on the realization of the system evolution scenarios is a parameter that determines a share of the normal cells, which pass, when dividing, into population of the abnormal cells. The paper analyses both the existence conditions of the rest points and the changes of the evolution scenarios of population system with changing abovementioned parameter and other system parameters held fixed. It is shown that there is a saddle-node bifurcation in the system; the bifurcation value of the parameter is found. The paper shows the interval of parameter values in which the favorable scenarios of population system evolution are implemented. It also presents results of mathematical modeling.

  16. Evidence for harvest-induced maternal influences on the reproductive rates of fish populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturelli, Paul A; Shuter, Brian J; Murphy, Cheryl A

    2009-03-07

    Knowledge of the relationship between the number of offspring produced (recruitment) and adult abundance is fundamental to forecasting the dynamics of an exploited population. Although small-scale experiments have documented the importance of maternal quality to offspring survival in plants and animals, the effects of this association on the recruitment dynamics of exploited populations are largely unknown. Here, we present results from both a simple population model and a meta-analysis of time-series data from 25 species of exploited marine fishes that suggest that a population of older, larger individuals has a higher maximum reproductive rate than an equivalent population of younger, smaller individuals, and that this difference increases with the reproductive lifespan of the population. These findings (i) establish an empirical link between population age structure and reproductive rate that is consistent with strong effects of maternal quality on population dynamics and (ii) provide further evidence that extended age structure is essential to the sustainability of many exploited fish stocks.

  17. Influence of model specifications on the reliabilities of genomic prediction in a Swedish-Finnish red breed cattle population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rius-Vilarrasa, E; Strandberg, E; Fikse, W F

    2012-01-01

    Using a combined multi-breed reference population, this study explored the influence of model specification and the effect of including a polygenic effect on the reliability of genomic breeding values (DGV and GEBV). The combined reference population consisted of 2986 Swedish Red Breed (SRB...... effects. The influence of the inclusion of a polygenic effect on the reliability of DGV varied across traits and model specifications. Average correlation between DGV with the Mendelian sampling term, across traits, was highest (R =0.25) for the GBLUP model and decreased with increasing proportion...... of markers with large effects. Reliabilities increased when DGV and parent average information were combined in an index. The GBLUP model with the largest gain across traits in the reliability of the index achieved the highest DGV mean reliability. However, the polygenic models showed to be less biased...

  18. Demographic and life history characteristics influence the cytonuclear composition of mosquitofish populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribner, Kim T.; Avise, John C.; Beaumont, A.

    1994-01-01

    Experimental laboratory crosses and population experiments reveal significant differences in individual life-history traits and population demography between two related species of mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis and G. holbrooki. With respect to life-history traits, progeny from G. holbrooki exhibit larger size at birth and earlier age at sexual maturity than do progeny from G. affinis parents. With respect to demography, populations of G. holbrooki exhibit higher recruitment and carrying capacity and loser overwinter mortality than do populations of G. affinis. These differences help t explain the dramatic changes in cytonuclear genotype frequency observed in replicated experimental hybrid populations of Gambusia monitored over 52 weeks. These experimental results are interpreted in the context of introgression patterns previously studied indirectly from distributions of cytonuclear genotypes in a natural mosquitofish hybrid zone.

  19. Long-range dispersal and high-latitude environments influence the population structure of a "stress-tolerant" dinoflagellate endosymbiont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettay, D Tye; Lajeunesse, Todd C

    2013-01-01

    The migration and dispersal of stress-tolerant symbiotic dinoflagellates (genus Symbiodinium) may influence the response of symbiotic reef-building corals to a warming climate. We analyzed the genetic structure of the stress-tolerant endosymbiont, Symbiodinium glynni nomen nudum (ITS2 - D1), obtained from Pocillopora colonies that dominate eastern Pacific coral communities. Eleven microsatellite loci identified genotypically diverse populations with minimal genetic subdivision throughout the Eastern Tropical Pacific, encompassing 1000's of square kilometers from mainland Mexico to the Galapagos Islands. The lack of population differentiation over these distances corresponds with extensive regional host connectivity and indicates that Pocillopora larvae, which maternally inherit their symbionts, aid in the dispersal of this symbiont. In contrast to its host, however, subtropical populations of S. glynni in the Gulf of California (Sea of Cortez) were strongly differentiated from populations in tropical eastern Pacific. Selection pressures related to large seasonal fluctuations in temperature and irradiance likely explain this abrupt genetic discontinuity. We infer that S. glynni genotypes harbored by host larvae arriving from more southern locations are rapidly replaced by genotypes adapted to more temperate environments. The strong population structure of S. glynni corresponds with fluctuating environmental conditions and suggests that these genetically diverse populations have the potential to evolve rapidly to changing environments and reveals the importance of environmental extremes in driving microbial eukaryote (e.g., plankton) speciation in marine ecosystems.

  20. Long-range dispersal and high-latitude environments influence the population structure of a "stress-tolerant" dinoflagellate endosymbiont.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Tye Pettay

    Full Text Available The migration and dispersal of stress-tolerant symbiotic dinoflagellates (genus Symbiodinium may influence the response of symbiotic reef-building corals to a warming climate. We analyzed the genetic structure of the stress-tolerant endosymbiont, Symbiodinium glynni nomen nudum (ITS2 - D1, obtained from Pocillopora colonies that dominate eastern Pacific coral communities. Eleven microsatellite loci identified genotypically diverse populations with minimal genetic subdivision throughout the Eastern Tropical Pacific, encompassing 1000's of square kilometers from mainland Mexico to the Galapagos Islands. The lack of population differentiation over these distances corresponds with extensive regional host connectivity and indicates that Pocillopora larvae, which maternally inherit their symbionts, aid in the dispersal of this symbiont. In contrast to its host, however, subtropical populations of S. glynni in the Gulf of California (Sea of Cortez were strongly differentiated from populations in tropical eastern Pacific. Selection pressures related to large seasonal fluctuations in temperature and irradiance likely explain this abrupt genetic discontinuity. We infer that S. glynni genotypes harbored by host larvae arriving from more southern locations are rapidly replaced by genotypes adapted to more temperate environments. The strong population structure of S. glynni corresponds with fluctuating environmental conditions and suggests that these genetically diverse populations have the potential to evolve rapidly to changing environments and reveals the importance of environmental extremes in driving microbial eukaryote (e.g., plankton speciation in marine ecosystems.

  1. Some Biological Compounds, Radical Scavenging Capacities and Antimicrobial Activities in the seeds of Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erecevit, Pınar

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study determined some biological compounds (fatty acid compositions, lipid-soluble vitamins, sterols, flavonoids, radical scavenging capacities and antimicrobial activities in the seeds of Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana. It was found that palmitic acid (C16:0; 8.54±0.13- 3.05±0.04%, oleic acid (C18:1 n9, 22.41±0.8-18.83±0.1% and α-linolenic acid (C18:3 n3;39.56±0.67-77.04±2.07% were the dominant fatty acids in both Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana. It was concluded that both Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana contained stigmasterol (630.07±1.81µg/g, 80.74±0.71µg/g, respectively and ergosterol (1.11±0.14µg/g, 161.32±0.63µg/g respectively as well as beta-sitosterol (2.93±0.03 µg/g. The present findings show that Nepeta italica L. contains morin (37.79±1.09μg/g, catechin (124.39±2.23µg/g, naringin (475.96±3.57µg/g and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana contains morin (188.41±2.53µg/g, catechin (64.14±1.86μg/g, naringenin (38.34±1.78μg/g as major flavonoids. It was also determined that methanol extracts of Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana were most effective against DPPH radicals. The results of the present study show that the vitamins, flavonoids and fatty acid extracts in the seeds of N. italica L. and S. montana L. subsp. montana prevented the growth of the microorganisms used in the tests at different ratios.Este estudio ha determinado algunos compuestos biológicos (ácidos grasos, vitaminas liposolubles, esteroles y flavonoides, capacidad atrapadora de radicales libres, y actividades antimicrobianas de las semillas de Nepeta italica L. y Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana. Se encontró que el ácido palmítico (C16:0; 8.54±0.13-3.05±0.04%, ácido oleico (C18:1 n9, 22.41±0.8-18.83±0.1% y α-linolénico (C18:3 n 3;39.56±0.67-77.04±2.07% eran mayoritarios en ambas semillas de Nepeta italica L. y Sideritis

  2. The influence of shoot harvesting on the age structure of Convallaria majalis L. populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Kosiński

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the structure of developmental stages and the age structure of Convallaria majalis L. populations. The investigation material consisted of individuals and modules from populations in Betulo-Quercetum, Fago-Quercetum, Melico-Fagetum and Tilio-Carpinetum, in which the leaves and inflorescence of C. majalis were cut annually over a period of three years. Fifty percent of the C. majalis regional population consisted of mature modules, 20% of juvenile modules, 25% of senile modules and a very small percentage of generative modules. In populations of Fago-Quercetum there are four times more senile modules than juvenile modules, while in Melico-Fagetum the percentage of juvenile modules is four times more numerous than the percentage of senile modules. The average age of modules is 4.7±3.8 years. Three year old individuals dominate in the population, while 10 year or older individuals are very rare. In the population disturbed by the three raw material collections, the percentage of juvenile modules was decreased by 50% and the percentage of generative modules was nonexistent. As a result, the average module age is higher than in the undisturbed population. Cutting leaves and inflorescence is an important factor in limiting the recruitment of juvenile modules. The growth of individuals in the disturbed population occurs among older modules, which were able to reproduce before the disturbance occurred. Young individuals (three to four years old are less numerous in the disturbed population, and the majority of individuals are three to six years old.

  3. Contrasting Population and Diet Influences on Gut Length of an Omnivorous Tropical Fish, the Trinidadian Guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandonà, Eugenia; Auer, Sonya K; Kilham, Susan S; Reznick, David N

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is advantageous for organisms that live in variable environments. The digestive system is particularly plastic, responding to changes in diet. Gut length is the result of a trade-off between maximum nutrient absorption and minimum cost for its maintenance and it can be influenced by diet and by evolutionary history. We assessed variation in gut length of Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata) as a function of diet, season, ontogeny, and local adaptation. Populations of guppies adapted to different predation levels have evolved different life history traits and have different diets. We sampled guppies from sites with low (LP) and high predation (HP) pressure in the Aripo and Guanapo Rivers in Trinidad. We collected fish during both the dry and wet season and assessed their diet and gut length. During the dry season, guppies from HP sites fed mostly on invertebrates, while guppies in the LP sites fed mainly on detritus. During the wet season, the diet of LP and HP populations became very similar. We did not find strong evidence of an ontogenetic diet shift. Gut length was negatively correlated with the proportion of invertebrates in diet across fish from all sites, supporting the hypothesis that guppy digestive systems adapt in length to changes in diet. Population of origin also had an effect on gut length, as HP and LP fish maintained different gut lengths even in the wet season, when their diets were very similar and individuals in both types of populations fed mostly on detritus. Thus, both environment and population of origin influenced guppies gut length, but population of origin seemed to have a stronger effect. Our study also showed that, even in omnivorous fish, gut length adapted to different diets, being more evident when the magnitude of difference between animal and plant material in the diet was very large.

  4. Contrasting Population and Diet Influences on Gut Length of an Omnivorous Tropical Fish, the Trinidadian Guppy (Poecilia reticulata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Zandonà

    Full Text Available Phenotypic plasticity is advantageous for organisms that live in variable environments. The digestive system is particularly plastic, responding to changes in diet. Gut length is the result of a trade-off between maximum nutrient absorption and minimum cost for its maintenance and it can be influenced by diet and by evolutionary history. We assessed variation in gut length of Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata as a function of diet, season, ontogeny, and local adaptation. Populations of guppies adapted to different predation levels have evolved different life history traits and have different diets. We sampled guppies from sites with low (LP and high predation (HP pressure in the Aripo and Guanapo Rivers in Trinidad. We collected fish during both the dry and wet season and assessed their diet and gut length. During the dry season, guppies from HP sites fed mostly on invertebrates, while guppies in the LP sites fed mainly on detritus. During the wet season, the diet of LP and HP populations became very similar. We did not find strong evidence of an ontogenetic diet shift. Gut length was negatively correlated with the proportion of invertebrates in diet across fish from all sites, supporting the hypothesis that guppy digestive systems adapt in length to changes in diet. Population of origin also had an effect on gut length, as HP and LP fish maintained different gut lengths even in the wet season, when their diets were very similar and individuals in both types of populations fed mostly on detritus. Thus, both environment and population of origin influenced guppies gut length, but population of origin seemed to have a stronger effect. Our study also showed that, even in omnivorous fish, gut length adapted to different diets, being more evident when the magnitude of difference between animal and plant material in the diet was very large.

  5. Demographic Stress and Governance: The Influence of Nigerian Population Growth on the Risk of Civil Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    growth is declining , the United Nations projects world population to reach a staggering 9.6 billion by 2050. In that time, Nigeria is expected to...children according to a given fertility rate. Rates above two indicate growing populations with declining median ages.11 The following chart...and popular disorders, as merchants, shopkeepers, and craftsmen forcibly wrested control of London from the aldermen, as crowds in the city

  6. Montana Integrated Carbon to Liquids (ICTL) Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiato, Rocco; Sharma, Ramesh; Allen, Mark; Peyton, Brent; Macur, Richard; Cameron, Jemima

    2013-09-30

    Integrated carbon-to-liquids technology (ICTL) incorporates three basic processes for the conversion of a wide range of feedstocks to distillate liquid fuels: (1) Direct Microcatalytic Coal Liquefaction (MCL) is coupled with biomass liquefaction via (2) Catalytic Hydrodeoxygenation and Isomerization (CHI) of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) or trigylceride fatty acids (TGFA) to produce liquid fuels, with process derived (3) CO{sub 2} Capture and Utilization (CCU) via algae production and use in BioFertilizer for added terrestrial sequestration of CO{sub 2}, or as a feedstock for MCL and/or CHI. This novel approach enables synthetic fuels production while simultaneously meeting EISA 2007 Section 526 targets, minimizing land use and water consumption, and providing cost competitive fuels at current day petroleum prices. ICTL was demonstrated with Montana Crow sub-bituminous coal in MCL pilot scale operations at the Energy and Environmental Research Center at the University of North Dakota (EERC), with related pilot scale CHI studies conducted at the University of Pittsburgh Applied Research Center (PARC). Coal-Biomass to Liquid (CBTL) Fuel samples were evaluated at the US Air Force Research Labs (AFRL) in Dayton and greenhouse tests of algae based BioFertilizer conducted at Montana State University (MSU). Econometric modeling studies were also conducted on the use of algae based BioFertilizer in a wheat-camelina crop rotation cycle. We find that the combined operation is not only able to help boost crop yields, but also to provide added crop yields and associated profits from TGFA (from crop production) for use an ICTL plant feedstock. This program demonstrated the overall viability of ICTL in pilot scale operations. Related work on the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of a Montana project indicated that CCU could be employed very effectively to reduce the overall carbon footprint of the MCL/CHI process. Plans are currently being made to conduct larger-scale process

  7. Helenalin Acetate in in vitro Propagated Plants of Arnica montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malarz, J; Stojakowska, A; Dohnal, B; Kisiel, W

    1993-02-01

    Propagated "IN VITRO" shoots and plantlets of ARNICA MONTANA L. (Asteraceae) have been shown to produce sesquiterpene lactones, i.e. helenalin and 11,13-dihydrohelenalin esters. The compounds were detected in green organs only; roots of the plantlets contained no sesquiterpene lactones. The helenalin acetate content in leaves of the plantlets (0.073% dry wt) was 4-times higher than in proliferated shoots (0.016% dry wt). The best rate of shoot multiplication was achieved on MS medium, supplemented with NAA 0.5mg/l and Kn 2.5 mg/l (formation of 22 shoots within 8 weeks).

  8. Immunologically active polysaccharides of Arnica montana cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhlmann, J; Zenk, M H; Wagner, H

    1991-01-01

    From the nutrition medium of Arnica montana cell cultures two homogeneous polysaccharides, an acidic arabino-3,6-galactan-protein with mean Mr of 100,000 and a neutral fucogalactoxyloglucan with mean Mr of 22,500 have been isolated by DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B and Sephacryl S-400 column chromatography. Their structures were elucidated mainly by methylation analysis, partial acidic and enzymatic hydrolysis and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The fucogalactoxyloglucan shows a pronounced enhancement of phagocytosis in vivo. The arabino-3,6-galactan-protein displays a strong anticomplementary effect and stimulates macrophages to excrete the tumour necrosis factor (TNF alpha).

  9. Flavonoid Glycosides from Arnica montana and Arnica chamissonis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merfort, I; Wendisch, D

    1987-10-01

    Five flavonoid glycosides were identified from flowers of ARNICA MONTANA, four from A. CHAMISSONIS subsp. FOLIOSA var. INCANA. The structures were established on the basis of total acid hydrolysis and spectral data (UV, (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, MS) as hispidulin 7- O-beta-glucoside, isorhamnetin 3- O-beta-glucoside, 3- O-beta- D-glucopyranosides of spinacetin, 6-methoxykaempferol and patuletin and querectin 3- O-(6''- O-acetyl)-beta- D-glucopyranoside. The latter compound can serve as distinctive marker between these two ARNICA species. The (1)H-NMR spectra in CD (3)OD are discussed.

  10. Avian use of Norris Hill Wind Resource Area, Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmata, A.; Podruzny, K.; Zelenak, J. [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States). Biology Dept.

    1998-07-01

    This document presents results of a study of avian use and mortality in and near a proposed wind resource area in southwestern Montana. Data collected in autumn 1995 through summer 1996 represented preconstruction condition; it was compiled, analyzed, and presented in a format such that comparison with post-construction data would be possible. The primary emphasis of the study was recording avian migration in and near the wind resource area using state-of-the-art marine surveillance radar. Avian use and mortality were investigated during the breeding season by employing traditional avian sampling methods, radiotelemetry, radar, and direct visual observation. 61 figs., 34 tabs.

  11. How do en route events around the Gulf of Mexico influence landbird populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Emily B.; Barrow, Wylie; Buler, Jeffrey J.; Deppe, Jill L.; Farnsworth, Andrew; Marra, Peter P.; McWilliams, Scott R.; Mehlman, David W; Wilson, R. Randy; Woodrey, Mark S; Moore, Frank R.

    2017-01-01

    Habitats around the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) provide critical resources for Nearctic–Neotropical migratory landbirds, the majority of which travel across or around the GOM every spring and fall as they migrate between temperate breeding grounds in North America and tropical wintering grounds in the Caribbean and Central and South America. At the same time, ecosystems in the GOM are changing rapidly, with unknown consequences for migratory landbird populations, many of which are experiencing population declines. In general, the extent to which events encountered en route limit migratory bird populations is not well understood. At the same time, information from weather surveillance radar, stable isotopes, tracking, eBird, and genetic datasets is increasingly available to address many of the unanswered questions about bird populations that migrate through stopover and airspace habitats in the GOM. We review the state of the science and identify key research needs to understand the impacts of en route events around the GOM region on populations of intercontinental landbird migrants that breed in North America, including: (1) distribution, timing, and habitat associations; (2) habitat characteristics and quality; (3) migratory connectivity; and (4) threats to and current conservation status of airspace and stopover habitats. Finally, we also call for the development of unified and comprehensive long-term monitoring guidelines and international partnerships to advance our understanding of the role of habitats around the GOM in supporting migratory landbird populations moving between temperate breeding grounds and wintering grounds in Mexico, Central and South America, and the Caribbean.

  12. Influence of life history strategies on sensitivity, population growth and response to climate for sympatric alpine birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Scott

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The life history strategy of a species can influence how populations of that species respond to environmental variation. In this study, we used a matrix modeling approach to examine how life history differences among sympatric rock and white-tailed ptarmigan affect the influence of demographic rates on population growth (λ and the potential response to a changing climate. Rock ptarmigan have a slower life history strategy than white-tailed ptarmigan in the study region with lower annual reproductive effort but higher adult survival. Results Based on data from a 5-year field study, deterministic estimates of λ indicated that populations were stable for rock ptarmigan (λ = 1.01, but declining for white-tailed ptarmigan (λ = 0.96. The demographic rates with the highest elasticity for rock ptarmigan were the survival of after-second year females, followed by juvenile survival and success of the first nest. For white-tailed ptarmigan, juvenile survival had the highest elasticity followed by success of the first nest and survival of second-year females. Incorporating stochasticity into the demographic rates led to a 2 and 4% drop in λ for rock and white-tailed ptarmigan respectively. Using data from the first three years we also found that population growth rates of both species were depressed following an increased frequency of severe years, but less so for rock ptarmigan which showed greater resilience under these conditions. Conclusions Our results provide evidence that populations of closely related species can vary in their response to environmental change as a consequence of life history differences. Rock ptarmigan, with a slower life history, are more responsive to demographic rates that influence survival and older life stages but this response is tempered by the extent of variability in each of the rates. Thus, predictions need to consider both aspects in modeling population response to a varying climate

  13. Factors influencing serum total tryptase concentrations in a general adult population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez-Quintela, Arturo; Vizcaino, Luis; Gude, Francisco;

    2010-01-01

    Serum tryptase measurements are increasingly being used in clinical practice. However, there is a paucity of studies focused on factors that influence tryptase concentrations. We investigated the relationships between total tryptase concentrations and age, gender, atopy, alcohol consumption, smok...

  14. Factors influencing serum total tryptase concentrations in a general adult population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez-Quintela, Arturo; Vizcaino, Luis; Gude, Francisco;

    2010-01-01

    Serum tryptase measurements are increasingly being used in clinical practice. However, there is a paucity of studies focused on factors that influence tryptase concentrations. We investigated the relationships between total tryptase concentrations and age, gender, atopy, alcohol consumption...

  15. Prevalence of and factors influencing sensitization to corticosteroids in a Danish patch test population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind-Kezunovic, Dina; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Carlsen, Berit Christina

    2011-01-01

    Corticosteroids are used to treat dermatoses, including allergic contact dermatitis, but can also cause contact allergy. The frequency of corticosteroid allergy varies between studies and is influenced by treatment traditions and availability.......Corticosteroids are used to treat dermatoses, including allergic contact dermatitis, but can also cause contact allergy. The frequency of corticosteroid allergy varies between studies and is influenced by treatment traditions and availability....

  16. Genetic and environmental factors influencing the Placental Growth Factor (PGF) variation in two populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorice, Rossella; Ruggiero, Daniela; Nutile, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    . However, to date, no information is available regarding the genetics of PGF variability. Furthermore, even though the effect of environmental factors (e.g.: cigarette smoking) on angiogenesis has been explored, no data on the influence of these factors on PGF levels have been reported so far. Here we have...... strongly replicated in the Danish sample. These results, for the first time, support the hypothesis of the presence of genetic and environmental factors influencing PGF plasma variability....

  17. Inbreeding avoidance influences the viability of reintroduced populations of African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penny A Becker

    Full Text Available The conservation of many fragmented and small populations of endangered African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus relies on understanding the natural processes affecting genetic diversity, demographics, and future viability. We used extensive behavioural, life-history, and genetic data from reintroduced African wild dogs in South Africa to (1 test for inbreeding avoidance via mate selection and (2 model the potential consequences of avoidance on population persistence. Results suggested that wild dogs avoided mating with kin. Inbreeding was rare in natal packs, after reproductive vacancies, and between sibling cohorts (observed on 0.8%, 12.5%, and 3.8% of occasions, respectively. Only one of the six (16.7% breeding pairs confirmed as third-order (or closer kin consisted of animals that were familiar with each other, while no other paired individuals had any prior association. Computer-simulated populations allowed to experience inbreeding had only a 1.6% probability of extinction within 100 years, whereas all populations avoiding incestuous matings became extinct due to the absence of unrelated mates. Populations that avoided mating with first-order relatives became extinct after 63 years compared with persistence of 37 and 19 years for those also prevented from second-order and third-order matings, respectively. Although stronger inbreeding avoidance maintains significantly more genetic variation, our results demonstrate the potentially severe demographic impacts of reduced numbers of suitable mates on the future viability of small, isolated wild dog populations. The rapid rate of population decline suggests that extinction may occur before inbreeding depression is observed.

  18. Population Structure of UK Biobank and Ancient Eurasians Reveals Adaptation at Genes Influencing Blood Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galinsky, Kevin J; Loh, Po-Ru; Mallick, Swapan; Patterson, Nick J; Price, Alkes L

    2016-11-03

    Analyzing genetic differences between closely related populations can be a powerful way to detect recent adaptation. The very large sample size of the UK Biobank is ideal for using population differentiation to detect selection and enables an analysis of the UK population structure at fine resolution. In this study, analyses of 113,851 UK Biobank samples showed that population structure in the UK is dominated by five principal components (PCs) spanning six clusters: Northern Ireland, Scotland, northern England, southern England, and two Welsh clusters. Analyses of ancient Eurasians revealed that populations in the northern UK have higher levels of Steppe ancestry and that UK population structure cannot be explained as a simple mixture of Celts and Saxons. A scan for unusual population differentiation along the top PCs identified a genome-wide-significant signal of selection at the coding variant rs601338 in FUT2 (p = 9.16 × 10(-9)). In addition, by combining evidence of unusual differentiation within the UK with evidence from ancient Eurasians, we identified genome-wide-significant (p = 5 × 10(-8)) signals of recent selection at two additional loci: CYP1A2-CSK and F12. We detected strong associations between diastolic blood pressure in the UK Biobank and both the variants with selection signals at CYP1A2-CSK (p = 1.10 × 10(-19)) and the variants with ancient Eurasian selection signals at the ATXN2-SH2B3 locus (p = 8.00 × 10(-33)), implicating recent adaptation related to blood pressure.

  19. The Influencing Factors on Population Growth in Metropolises from the Viewpoints of Experts: Case Study of Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Mansourian

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to find the factors influencing population growth in metropolises and thus provide a model for population growth in large cities based on expert opinions. Considering the fact that the multiple factors associated with life in the metropolis, affecting immigration, fertility and mortality, are from different fields, including economic, social, and cultural domains, this article is of an interdisciplinary nature. In the present article while the theoretical concepts are reviewed, the important factors affecting population growth are identified, and then grouped and studied as economic, cultural and social, geographical, infrastructural and urban facilities factors; following that a basic conceptual model is extracted. In this paper, a researcher-made questionnaire is distributed among thirty experts on demography, sociology, and economics. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP applied in this study showed that the “economic factors” have the greatest impact on the population growth in the metropolis of Tehran; and socio-cultural, infrastructural and geographical factors and urban facilities have lesser impacts. Also, in the final prioritizing, of the eleven sub-factors, the sub-factors of occupation, income, lifestyle, individual values and the cost of living, which had the greatest weight, were analyzed. At the end, the final model of population growth in metropolises is provided.

  20. Interethnic differences of cytochrome P450 gene polymorphisms may influence outcome of taxane therapy in Roma and Hungarian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalai, Renata; Ganczer, Alma; Magyari, Lili; Matyas, Petra; Bene, Judit; Melegh, Bela

    2015-12-01

    Taxanes are widely used microtubule-stabilizing chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of cancers. Several cytochrome P450 gene variants have been proven to influence taxane metabolism and therapy. The purpose of this work was to determine the distribution of genetic variations of CYP1B1, CYP2C8 and CYP3A5 genes as the first report on taxane metabolizer cytochrome P450 gene polymorphisms in Roma and Hungarian populations. A total of 397 Roma and 412 Hungarian healthy subjects were genotyped for CYP1B1 c.4326C > G, CYP2C8 c.792C > G and CYP3A5 c.6986A > G variant alleles by PCR-RFLP assay and direct sequencing. We found significant differences in the frequencies of homozygous variant genotypes of CYP1B1 4326 GG (p = 0.002) and CYP3A5 6986 GG (p Roma and Hungarian populations. Regarding minor allele frequencies, for CYP2C8 a significantly increased prevalence was found in 792G allele frequency in the Hungarian population compared to the Roma population (5.83% vs. 2.14%, p = 0.001). Our results can be used as possible predictive factors in population specific treatment algorithms to developing effective programs for a better outcome in patients treated with taxanes.

  1. Flow recommendations for maintaining riparian vegetation along the Upper Missouri River, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Michael L.; Auble, Gregor T.; Friedman, Jonathan M.; Ischinger, Lee S.; Eggleston, Erik D.; Wondzell, Mark A.; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Back, Jennifer T.; Jordan, Mette S.

    1993-01-01

    Montana Power Company, Inc. (MPC) submitted a final license application to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) on November 30, 1992. In this application, MPC proposed a plan for the protection of fish, wildlife, habitat, and water-quality resources. One concern was maintenance of woody riparian vegetation along the Missouri River, especially along the Wild and Scenic reach of the river, where the riparian forest occurs in relatively small discontinuous stands. The objectives of this project were 1) to recommend flows that would protect and enhance riparian forests along the Missouri River, and 2) to develop elements of an environmental monitoring program that could be used to assess the effectiveness of the recommended flows. Plains cottonwood (Populus deltoides subsp. monilifera) is the key structural component of riparian forests along the Missouri River. Therefore, we focused our analysis on factors affecting populations of this species. Previous work had demonstrated that the age structure of cottonwood populations is strongly influenced by aspects of flow that promote successfully establishment. In this study our approach was to determine the precise age of plains cottonwood trees growing along the Upper Missouri River and to relate years of establishment to the flow record. Our work was carried out between Coal Banks Landing and the Fred G. Robinson Bridge within the Wild and Scenic portion of the Missouri River. This segment of the river occupies a narrow valley and exhibits little channel migration. Maps and notes from the journals of Lewis and Clark (1804-1806) suggest that the present distribution and abundance of cottonwoods within the study reach is generally similar to presettlement conditions. Flows in the study reach are influenced by a number of dams and diversions, most importantly, Canyon Ferry and Tiber Dams. Although flow regulation has decreased peak flows and increased low flows, the gross seasonal pattern of flow has not been

  2. The unrealised potential of bike share schemes to influence population physical activity levels - A narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Adrian; Crane, Melanie; Drayton, Bradley Alan; Titze, Sylvia

    2017-02-20

    The recent proliferation of bike share schemes (BSS, also known as public bicycle use programs) in many cities has focused attention on their potential for reducing motorised traffic congestion, improving air quality and reducing car use. Since 2005, hundreds of bike share schemes have been implemented in many cities, with bike share usage patterns monitored in many of them. This paper assesses the development of BSS and provides a rationale for their potential health benefits. The key research question, as yet unanswered, is whether BSS themselves can contribute to improving population health, particularly through increasing population cycling, which would increase population levels of health-enhancing physical activity. This paper presents a framework for evaluating the contribution of BSS to population physical activity, and uses examples of new data analyses to indicate the challenges in answering this question. These illustrative analyses examine cycling in Australia, and [i] compares rates of cycling to work in BSS cities compared to the rest of Australia over time, and [ii] modelling trends in bike counts in Central Melbourne before and after introduction of the BSS in 2010, and compared to adjacent regions in nearby suburbs unexposed to a BSS. These indicative examples point to difficulties in attributing causal increases in cycling for transport to the introduction of a BSS alone. There is an evidence gap, and a need to identify opportunities to improve the health-related components of BSS evaluations, to answer the question whether they have any impact on population physical activity levels.

  3. Connectivity of tiger (Panthera tigris) populations in the human-influenced forest mosaic of Central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Aditya; Vaidyanathan, Srinivas; Mondol, Samrat; Edgaonkar, Advait; Ramakrishnan, Uma

    2013-01-01

    Today, most wild tigers live in small, isolated Protected Areas within human dominated landscapes in the Indian subcontinent. Future survival of tigers depends on increasing local population size, as well as maintaining connectivity between populations. While significant conservation effort has been invested in increasing tiger population size, few initiatives have focused on landscape-level connectivity and on understanding the effect different landscape elements have on maintaining connectivity. We combined individual-based genetic and landscape ecology approaches to address this issue in six protected areas with varying tiger densities and separation in the Central Indian tiger landscape. We non-invasively sampled 55 tigers from different protected areas within this landscape. Maximum-likelihood and Bayesian genetic assignment tests indicate long-range tiger dispersal (on the order of 650 km) between protected areas. Further geo-spatial analyses revealed that tiger connectivity was affected by landscape elements such as human settlements, road density and host-population tiger density, but not by distance between populations. Our results elucidate the importance of landscape and habitat viability outside and between protected areas and provide a quantitative approach to test functionality of tiger corridors. We suggest future management strategies aim to minimize urban expansion between protected areas to maximize tiger connectivity. Achieving this goal in the context of ongoing urbanization and need to sustain current economic growth exerts enormous pressure on the remaining tiger habitats and emerges as a big challenge to conserve wild tigers in the Indian subcontinent.

  4. Exploring local perceptions and attributions of 'extreme' wildfire impacts in Rural Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, M.; Paveglio, T.; Kallman, D.

    2013-12-01

    To date there have been few systematic efforts to uncover the criteria that local stakeholders use to perceive of and make judgments about the severity of wildfire impacts to the social-ecological systems they are a part of. The study presented here sought to uncover expanded understandings of perceived social and ecological impacts from a wildfire in rural Montana and the underlying causes for those perceived impacts. Such efforts could lead to more comprehensive social impact assessment concerning wildfires or other hazards and help better understand how local perceptions might influence residents' ongoing attitudes toward fire risk or mitigation efforts. The study presented here explored local perceptions of impact from the 2012 Dahl fire near Roundup, MT. The Dahl Fire burned 73 permanent structures, 150 outbuilding and 22,000 acres of predominantly private lands in the rural Bull Mountains. Members of the project team interviewed approximately 50 stakeholders impacted by or involved in the management for the Dahl Fire. Interviews took place in the summer of 2013 and included a variety of residents, emergency personnel, firefighters, local community officials and land management professionals. Results suggest that residents considered the Dahl fire especially impactful given the number of private residences and structures that were burned and the number of people displaced or disrupted by the event (either directly, through efforts to help those affected, or through indirect impacts to community function). The extremity of the firefighting conditions (e.g. wind, relative humidity, terrain), the rapidity of fire spread through populated areas and the damages sustained given previous fires in the area all surprised stakeholders and contributed to their perceptions of impact severity. Conflicts over access to properties during and immediately following the fire, and the variable perception that personal wildfire mitigations did little to reduce damages from the

  5. Influence of environmental parameters on the life-history and population dynamics of cuttlefish Sepia officinalis in the western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Stefanie; Valls, Maria; Hidalgo, Manuel; Quetglas, Antoni

    2014-05-01

    The cuttlefish Sepia officinalis constitutes an important fishery resource in the Mediterranean, where it is exploited by both the bottom trawl and small-scale fleet. However, there is currently scarce information on the Mediterranean stocks, since most studies on the population dynamics of this species have been undertaken in the northeast Atlantic. In this work we first analysed different aspects of the cuttlefish life-history from the western Mediterranean such as population structure, reproduction and the trade-offs between somatic condition and reproduction investments. Secondly, we investigated the effects of different environmental parameters (e.g. climate indices, sea surface temperature (SST), rainfall, chlorophyll-a concentration (Chla) and moon phase) on these populations, analysing several landing time series spanning the last 45 years. Our results revealed that Mediterranean cuttlefish populations exhibit strong seasonal variations owing to a reproductive migration towards coastal waters. The positive relationships between somatic and reproductive condition pointed to an income breeder strategy; this was reinforced by the percentage of empty stomachs, which was lowest just before the reproductive period peak. Despite the putative high sensitivity of cephalopod populations to external abiotic factors, our results showed that Mediterranean cuttlefish populations were not affected by most of the environmental parameters investigated. Significant effects were found for SST and a local climatic index, but no or very weak influences were evident for other parameters such as large-scale climatic phenomena (e.g. North Atlantic Oscillation, Mediterranean Oscillation) or other locally-related variables (e.g. rainfall, Chla). Our results revealed a shift in the cuttlefish population dynamics in the early 1980s, which could be related to important changes in the local hydroclimatology reported by previous authors.

  6. Degree of landscape fragmentation influences genetic isolation among populations of a gliding mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Andrea C; Walker, Faith M; Goldingay, Ross L; Ball, Tina; van der Ree, Rodney

    2011-01-01

    Forests and woodlands are under continuing pressure from urban and agricultural development. Tree-dependent mammals that rarely venture to the ground are likely to be highly sensitive to forest fragmentation. The Australian squirrel glider (Petaurus norfolcensis) provides an excellent case study to examine genetic (functional) connectivity among populations. It has an extensive range that occurs in a wide band along the east coast. However, its forest and woodland habitat has become greatly reduced in area and is severely fragmented within the southern inland part of the species' range, where it is recognised as threatened. Within central and northern coastal regions, habitat is much more intact and we thus hypothesise that genetic connectivity will be greater in this region than in the south. To test this we employed microsatellite analysis in a molecular population biology approach. Most sampling locations in the highly modified south showed signatures of genetic isolation. In contrast, a high level of genetic connectivity was inferred among most sampled populations in the more intact habitat of the coastal region, with samples collected 1400 km apart having similar genetic cluster membership. Nonetheless, some coastal populations associated with urbanisation and agriculture are genetically isolated, suggesting the historic pattern observed in the south is emerging on the coast. Our study demonstrates that massive landscape changes following European settlement have had substantial impacts on levels of connectivity among squirrel glider populations, as predicted on the basis of the species' ecology. This suggests that landscape planning and management in the south should be focused on restoring habitat connectivity where feasible, while along the coast, existing habitat connectivity must be maintained and recent losses restored. Molecular population biology approaches provide a ready means for identifying fragmentation effects on a species at multiple scales

  7. Influence of the atomic-wall collision elasticity on the coherent population trapping resonance shape

    CERN Document Server

    Kazakov, G A; Matisov, B G; Romanenko, V I; Yatsenko, L P; Romanenko, A V

    2011-01-01

    We studied theoretically a coherent population trapping resonance formation in cylindrical cell without buffer gas irradiated by a narrow laser beam. We take into account non-zero probabilities of elastic ("specular") and inelastic ("sticking") collision between the atom and the cell wall. We have developed a theoretical model based on averaging over the random Ramsey pulse sequences of times that atom spent in and out of the beam. It is shown that the shape of coherent population trapping resonance line depends on the probability of elastic collision.

  8. Influence of different floor management strategies of the vineyard on the natural yeast population associated with grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero-Bueso, Gustavo; Arroyo, Teresa; Serrano, Ana; Valero, Eva

    2011-07-15

    Some oenological practices, such as the massive utilisation of commercial yeast and the consequent colonisation of wineries, can contribute to reducing the native yeast biodiversity. In this context, the vineyard could be a reservoir of autochthonous yeasts of oenological interest. Thus, the evaluation of the influence of different agricultural parameters on the biodiversity of yeast population in the vineyard is necessary. This work shows the results of the influence of some floor management strategies of the vineyard in the natural yeast population associated with the grape-berries. With this objective, a three year sampling plan was designed in the Shiraz vineyards of the Madrid region using three floor management strategies: bare soil by tillage, bare soil maintained with herbicides and soil maintained with cover crop. The results of this study have shown that bare soil by tillage could be a sustainable alternative for managing the soil, due to the reduced use of agrochemicals and the resulting high yeasts biodiversity. Nevertheless, the presence of herbicides in the vineyard has a minor impact on the diversity of grape associated yeast communities, and this could have increased the yeast populations. Hence, from the fermentative yeasts' (like Saccharomyces) point of view, in hot and arid environments where soils may be affected by the tillage management, the best option could be the maintenance of the bare soil with the use of herbicides.

  9. Hydrogeologic data for the northern Rocky Mountains intermontane basins, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, DeAnn M.; Lawlor, Sean M.; Briar, D.W.; Tresch, R.E.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey began a Regional Aquifer- System Analysis of the Northern Rocky Mountains Intermontane Basins of western Montana and central and central and northern Idaho in 1990 to establish a regional framework of information for aquifers in 54 intermontane basins in an area of about 77,500 square miles. Selected hydrogeologic data have been used as part of this analysis to define the hydro- logic systems. Records of 1,376 wells completed in 31 of the 34 intermontane basins in the Montana part of the study area are tabulated in this report. Data consist of location, alttiude of land surface, date well constructed, geologic unit, depth of well, diameter of casing, type of finish, top of open interval, primary use of water, water level, date water level measured, discharge, specific capacity, source of discharge data, type of log available, date water-quality parameters measured, specific conductance, pH, and temperature. Hydrographs for selected wells also are included. Locations of wells and basins are shown on the accompanying plate.

  10. Chemical characteristics of the major thermal springs of Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariner, R.H.; Presser, T.S.; Evans, W.C.

    1976-07-01

    Twenty-one thermal springs in western Montana were sampled for chemical, isotope, and gas compositions. Most of the springs issue dilute to slightly saline sodium-bicarbonate waters of neutral to slightly alkaline pH. A few of the springs issue sodium-mixed anion waters of near neutral pH. Fluoride concentrations are high in most of the thermal waters, up to 18 miligrams per litre, while F/Cl ratios range from 3/1 in the dilute waters to 1/10 in the slightly saline waters. Most of the springs are theoretically in thermodynamic equilibrium with respect to calcite and fluorite. Nitrogen is the major gas escaping from most of the hot springs; however, Hunters Hot Springs issue principally methane. The deuterium content of the hot spring waters is typical of meteoric water in western Montana. Geothermal calculations based on silica concentrations and Na-K-Ca ratios indicate that most of the springs are associated with low temperature aquifers (less than 100/sup 0/C). Chalcedony may be controlling the silica concentrations in these low temperature aquifers even in ''granitic'' terranes.

  11. Biomonitoring of genotoxicity using micronuclei assay in native population of Astyanax jacuhiensis (Characiformes: Characidae) at sites under petrochemical influence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres de Lemos, Clarice [Divisao de Biologia, Programa de Pesquisas Ambientais, Departamento de Laboratorios, Fundacao Estadual de Protecao Ambiental Henrique Luis Roessler (FEPAM), Avenida Dr. Salvador Franca, 1707, 90690-000, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)], E-mail: claricetl@fepam.rs.gov.br; Almeida Iranco, Fabio de; D' Avila de Oliveira, Nanci Cristina; Dornelles de Souza, Getulio [Divisao de Biologia, Programa de Pesquisas Ambientais, Departamento de Laboratorios, Fundacao Estadual de Protecao Ambiental Henrique Luis Roessler (FEPAM), Avenida Dr. Salvador Franca, 1707, 90690-000, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Guimaraes Fachel, Jandyra Maria [Instituto de Matematica, Departamento de Estatistica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul. Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, 91509-9000, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2008-11-15

    Bom Jardim brook is a small stream that flows through an area under the influence of a Petrochemical Complex, demanding control over its quality, so a genotoxic evaluation was performed. This study was conducted in situ, based on previous analysis on the same subject. These were performed both in vitro, with Salmonella typhimurium and human lymphocytes, and in vivo, using bioassays with fish exposed to water from the study area. The purpose of this research was to assess the quality of the aquatic environment and possible effects from petrochemical pollution to surrounding native populations. Micronuclei (MNE) and nuclear abnormalities (NA) frequencies in peripheral blood of Astyanax jacuhiensis, a native fish species collected from the study area, were used as biomarkers. Study period was from summer/99 to spring/2001, using samples obtained seasonally at two ponds upstream from the industrial area (BJN and BJPa) and two sites in Bom Jardim brook (BJ002 and BJ000), which are subject to Complex influence. MNE and NA frequencies found in individuals from BJ002 and BJ000 were similar, showing positive genotoxic responses related to control sites BJN and BJPa. No differential sensitivity could be verified for micronuclei induction between genders of A. jacuhiensis in the studied population. This study showed that sites subject to petrochemical influence were under higher genotoxic impact. Biomarkers adequacy to the case and the sensitivity of A. jacuhiensis for water monitoring could be also inferred.

  12. Influence of the soil Ca on the tolerance of Festuca rubra populations against toxic metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karataglis, S.S.

    1981-02-15

    Festuca rubra populations from toxic or non-toxic areas were studied. Their tolerance against the soil content in toxic metals and in combination with the Ca content was also correlated. It was demonstrated that the Festuca rubra populations developed in an environment with high concentrations of toxic metals and with high concentrations of Ca at the same time, showed very little or almost no tolerance against these metals. On the contrary, populations from other mines with normal Ca concentrations in their soil indicated increased tolerance against the toxic metals found in it. This behaviour expressed by the Festuca rubra populations of the Ecton mine is probably due to the high Ca concentration found in the soil in the form of CaCO/sub 2/. CaCO/sub 3/ along with the heavy metals has the ability to form undissolved or not easily dissolved carbonate salts. As a result there are no free ions of toxic metals in the immediate environment of the root and consequently the plants cannot be selected against these metals.

  13. Climate change influenced female population sizes through time across the Indonesian archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillot, Elsa G; Tumonggor, Meryanne K; Lansing, J Stephen; Sudoyo, Herawati; Cox, Murray P

    2013-01-01

    Lying at the crossroads of Asia and the Pacific world, the Indonesian archipelago hosts one of the world's richest accumulations of cultural, linguistic, and genetic variation. While the role of human migration into and around the archipelago is now known in some detail, other aspects of Indonesia's complex history are less understood. Here, we focus on population size changes from the first settlement of Indonesia nearly 50 kya up to the historic era. We reconstructed the past effective population sizes of Indonesian women using mitochondrial DNA sequences from 2,104 individuals in 55 village communities on four islands spanning the Indonesian archipelago (Bali, Flores, Sumba, and Timor). We found little evidence for large fluctuations in effective population size. Most communities grew slowly during the late Pleistocene, peaked 15-20 kya, and subsequently declined slowly into the Holocene. This unexpected pattern may reflect population declines caused by the flooding of lowland hunter/gatherer habitat during sea-level rises following the last glacial maximum.

  14. Influence of plant species on population dynamics, genotypic diversity and antibiotic production by indigenous Pseudomonas spp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergsma-Vlami, M.; Prins, M.E.; Raaijmakers, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    The population dynamics, genotypic diversity and activity of naturally-occurring 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG)-producing Pseudomonas spp. was investigated for four plant species (wheat, sugar beet, potato, lily) grown in two different soils. All four plant species tested, except lily and in some

  15. The influence of prostate volume on cancer detection in the Chinese population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Shuo Wu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In western populations, prostate volume (PV has been proven to be one of the strongest predictors of detecting prostate cancer (PCa in biopsies. We performed this study in a biopsy cohort, to evaluate associations among the prostate volume, prostate-specific antigen (PSA and PCa detection in the Chinese population. Between the years, 2007-13, 1486 men underwent prostate biopsy at Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China. The study population was divided into two groups for analysis according to total PSA (tPSA range (4 ng ml−1 20 ng ml−1 . PV, age, tPSA, digital rectal examination (DRE and transrectal ultrasound (TRUS results were also included in the analysis. Although the positive biopsy rates decreased in both tPSA range groups, the downtrend was more pronounced in the 4 ng ml−1 0.05. Further, it may suggest that with increasing PV, the cancer detection rate decreased in men with different tPSA, DRE and TRUS nodule statuses (all P values for trends were 50 ml might be taken into consideration for the biopsy decision-making in the Chinese population.

  16. Sporting programs for inactive population groups : factors influencing implementation in the organized sports setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooms, Linda; Veenhof, Cindy; Schipper-van Veldhoven, Nicolette; de Bakker, Dinny H

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The organized sports sector has received increased attention as a setting to promote health-enhancing physical activity (HEPA) to the general population. For significant public health impact, it is important that successful HEPA programs are widely adopted, implemented and continued as

  17. Prevalence of double incontinence, risks and influence on quality of life in a general female population.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slieker-ten Hove, M.C.; Pool-Goudzwaard, A.L.; Eijkemans, M.J.; Steegers-Theunissen, R.P.M.; Burger, C.W.; Vierhout, M.E.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urinary incontinence (UI) and anal incontinence (AI) are complaints with impact on quality of life (QOL). Few data are available on prevalence of double incontinence (DI) in the general female population. OBJECTIVE: To determine prevalence of UI, AI, and DI, their associations with age,

  18. Influencing degree of ecosystems transformation on the age structure of populations apodemys sylvaticus Apodemys sylvaticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Zemlianyj

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Comparative description of percentage ratio of age groups in populyations of background kind is conducted - Apodemus silvaticus from the habitats different on the degree of transformations. It is set, that the age composition of populations of shallow mammals can serve by the criterion of their functioning.

  19. Influence of population and general practice characteristics on prescribing of minor tranquilisers in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner AC

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of generalised anxiety disorders is widespread in Great Britain. Previous small-scale research has shown variations in minor tranquiliser prescribing, identifying several potential predictors of prescribing volume. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between general practice minor tranquiliser prescribing rates and practice population and general practice characteristics for all general practices in England.Methods: Multiple regression analysis of minor tranquiliser prescribing volumes during 2004/2005 for 8,291 English general practices with general practice and population variables obtained from the General Medical Services (GMS statistics, Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF, 2001 Census and 2004 Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD. Results: The highest rates of minor tranquiliser prescribing were in areas with the greatest local deprivation while general practices situated in areas with larger proportions of residents of black ethnic origin had lower rates of prescribing. Other predictors of increased prescribing were general practices with older general practitioners and general practices with older registered practice populations.Conclusion: Our findings show that there is wide variation of minor tranquilisers prescribing across England which has implications regarding access to treatment and inequity of service provision. Future research should determine the barriers to equitable prescribing amongst general practices serving larger populations of black ethnic origin.

  20. Influence of LAS on marine calanoid copepod population dynamics and potential reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Kirsten; Hansen, Benni Winding; Johansson, Liselotte Sander

    2003-01-01

    The toxicity of linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS) to marine invertebrates is well documented under laboratory conditions using single-species tests. It is less known how LAS affects natural populations of aquatic organisms. We hypothesised that LAS was more toxic to the calanoid copepod Acarti...

  1. Geographic variation in racial disparities in child maltreatment: The influence of county poverty and population density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire-Jack, Kathryn; Lanier, Paul; Johnson-Motoyama, Michelle; Welch, Hannah; Dineen, Michael

    2015-09-01

    There are documented disparities in the rates at which black children come into contact with the child welfare system in the United States compared to white children. A great deal of research has proliferated aimed at understanding whether systematic biases or differential rates of risk among different groups drive these disparities (Drake et al., 2011). In the current study, county rates of maltreatment disparity are compared across the United States and examined in relation to rates of poverty disparity as well as population density. Specifically, using hierarchical linear modeling with a spatially lagged dependent variable, the current study examined data from the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS) and found that poverty disparities were associated with rates of maltreatment disparities, and densely populated metropolitan counties tended to have the greatest levels of maltreatment disparity for both black and Hispanic children. A significant curvilinear relationship was also observed between these variables, such that in addition to the most densely populated counties, the most sparsely populated counties also tended to have higher rates of maltreatment disparity for black and Hispanic children.

  2. Influence of molecular noise on the growth of single cells and bacterial populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mischa Schmidt

    Full Text Available During the last decades experimental studies have revealed that single cells of a growing bacterial population are significantly exposed to molecular noise. Important sources for noise are low levels of metabolites and enzymes that cause significant statistical variations in the outcome of biochemical reactions. In this way molecular noise affects biological processes such as nutrient uptake, chemotactic tumbling behavior, or gene expression of genetically identical cells. These processes give rise to significant cell-to-cell variations of many directly observable quantities such as protein levels, cell sizes or individual doubling times. In this study we theoretically explore if there are evolutionary benefits of noise for a growing population of bacteria. We analyze different situations where noise is either suppressed or where it affects single cell behavior. We consider two specific examples that have been experimentally observed in wild-type Escherichia coli cells: (i the precision of division site placement (at which molecular noise is highly suppressed and (ii the occurrence of noise-induced phenotypic variations in fluctuating environments. Surprisingly, our analysis reveals that in these specific situations both regulatory schemes [i.e. suppression of noise in example (i and allowance of noise in example (ii] do not lead to an increased growth rate of the population. Assuming that the observed regulatory schemes are indeed caused by the presence of noise our findings indicate that the evolutionary benefits of noise are more subtle than a simple growth advantage for a bacterial population in nutrient rich conditions.

  3. Thermal variation and factors influencing vertical migration behavior in Daphnia populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaholt, Stephen P; Kennedy, Meghan L; Turner, Elizabeth; Colbourne, John K; Shaw, Joseph R

    2016-08-01

    The antipredator behavior diel vertical migration (DVM), common in aquatic keystone species Daphnia, involves daily migration from warmer surface waters before dawn to cooler deeper waters after dusk. Plasticity in Daphnia DVM behavior optimizes fitness via trade-offs between growth, reproduction, and predator avoidance. Migration behavior is affected by co-varying biotic and abiotic factors, including light, predator cues, and anthropogenic stressors making it difficult to determine each factor's individual contribution to the variation in this behavior. This study aims to better understand this ecologically significant behavior in Daphnia by: (1) determining how Daphnia pulicaria thermal preferences vary within and among natural populations; (2) distinguishing the role of temperature verses depth in Daphnia vertical migration; and (3) defining how two anthropogenic stressors (copper and nickel) impact Daphnia migratory behavior. Simulated natural lake stratification were constructed in 8L (0.5m tall, 14.5cm wide) water columns to monitor under controlled laboratory conditions the individual effects of temperature gradients, depth, and metal stressors on Daphnia vertical migration. Three major findings are reported. First, while no difference in thermal preference was found among the four populations studied, within lake populations variability among isolates was high. Second, decoupling temperature and depth revealed that depth was a better predictor of Daphnia migratory patterns over temperature. Third, exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of copper or nickel inhibited classic DVM behavior. These findings revealed the high variability in thermal preference found within Daphnia populations, elucidated the individual roles that depth and temperature have on migratory behavior, and showed how copper and nickel can interfere with the natural response of Daphnia to fish predator cues. Thus contributing to the body of knowledge necessary to predict how

  4. Differences in Psychological Sex, Adjustment, and Familial Influences Among Homosexual and Nonhomosexual Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townes, Brenda D.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    This study investigates differences in psychological sex, present and past adjustment, and parental influences among homosexual cross-dressers, homosexual non-cross-dressers, applicants for sex change surgery, and heterosexuals. Homosexual non-cross-dressers and heterosexual groups had the most masculine gender role, with the sex change group…

  5. The Influence of Age and Gender on Skin-Associated Microbial Communities in Urban and Rural Human Populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Ying

    Full Text Available Differences in the bacterial community structure associated with 7 skin sites in 71 healthy people over five days showed significant correlations with age, gender, physical skin parameters, and whether participants lived in urban or rural locations in the same city. While body site explained the majority of the variance in bacterial community structure, the composition of the skin-associated bacterial communities were predominantly influenced by whether the participants were living in an urban or rural environment, with a significantly greater relative abundance of Trabulsiella in urban populations. Adults maintained greater overall microbial diversity than adolescents or the elderly, while the intragroup variation among the elderly and rural populations was significantly greater. Skin-associated bacterial community structure and composition could predict whether a sample came from an urban or a rural resident ~5x greater than random.

  6. Drivers of aggregation in a novel arboreal parasite: the influence of host size and infra-populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yule, Kirsty J; Burns, Kevin C

    2015-02-01

    As a novel arboreal parasite, New Zealand's largest endemic moth, Aenetus virescens, is a biological oddity. With arguably the most unusual lepidopteran life history on earth, larvae grow to 100mm, spending ∼6 years as wood-boring parasites feeding on host tree phloem. Parasite fitness is a product of host suitability. Parasite discrimination between heterogeneous hosts in fragmented populations shapes parasite aggregation. We investigated whether A. virescens aggregation among hosts occurs randomly (target area effect), or if larvae select hosts based on host quality (ideal free distribution). Using long-term larval growth as an indicator of energy intake, we examined A. virescens aggregation in relation to host size and infra-population. Using a generalised linear model, the relationship between parasite intensity and host tree size was analysed. Reduced major axis regression was used to evaluate A. virescens growth after 1 year. Linear mixed-effects models inferred the influence of parasite infra-population on parasite growth, with host tree as a random factor. Results indicate parasite intensity scaled positively with host size. Furthermore, parasite growth remained consistent throughout ontogeny regardless of host size or parasite infra-population. Aenetus virescens aggregation among hosts violates the ideal free distribution hypothesis, occurring instead as a result of host size, supporting the target area effect.

  7. Influence of small hydropower plants on brown trout (Salmo trutta L. population in Mislinja River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaž Cokan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The brown trout (Salmo trutta L. in the Mislinja River has been endangered for years because of small hydroelectric power plants. To find out how they are affecting the population of the brown trout in the Mislinja River, we conducted a sampling of the brown trout, using a generating set. We measured the length and weight of all caught specimens and analysed the obtained data. The results are presented in this paper, e.g., biomass, estimations of abundance, average weight, average length and number of captured brown trout. We discovered that the population of the brown trout has decreased in all the sections where water has been taken away for small hydroelectric power plants.

  8. The influence of historical climate changes on Southern Ocean marine predator populations: a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younger, Jane L; Emmerson, Louise M; Miller, Karen J

    2016-02-01

    The Southern Ocean ecosystem is undergoing rapid physical and biological changes that are likely to have profound implications for higher-order predators. Here, we compare the long-term, historical responses of Southern Ocean predators to climate change. We examine palaeoecological evidence for changes in the abundance and distribution of seabirds and marine mammals, and place these into context with palaeoclimate records in order to identify key environmental drivers associated with population changes. Our synthesis revealed two key factors underlying Southern Ocean predator population changes; (i) the availability of ice-free ground for breeding and (ii) access to productive foraging grounds. The processes of glaciation and sea ice fluctuation were key; the distributions and abundances of elephant seals, snow petrels, gentoo, chinstrap and Adélie penguins all responded strongly to the emergence of new breeding habitat coincident with deglaciation and reductions in sea ice. Access to productive foraging grounds was another limiting factor, with snow petrels, king and emperor penguins all affected by reduced prey availability in the past. Several species were isolated in glacial refugia and there is evidence that refuge populations were supported by polynyas. While the underlying drivers of population change were similar across most Southern Ocean predators, the individual responses of species to environmental change varied because of species specific factors such as dispersal ability and environmental sensitivity. Such interspecific differences are likely to affect the future climate change responses of Southern Ocean marine predators and should be considered in conservation plans. Comparative palaeoecological studies are a valuable source of long-term data on species' responses to environmental change that can provide important insights into future climate change responses. This synthesis highlights the importance of protecting productive foraging grounds

  9. Distance to human populations influences epidemiology of respiratory disease in desert tortoises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Kristin H.; Ashley A. Coble (formerly Emerson), no longer USGS; Yee, Julie L.; Mack, Jeremy S.; Perry, William M.; Anderson, Kemp M.; Brown, Mary B.

    2014-01-01

    We explored variables likely to affect health of Agassiz's desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) in a 1,183-km2 study area in the central Mojave Desert of California between 2005 and 2008. We evaluated 1,004 tortoises for prevalence and spatial distribution of 2 pathogens, Mycoplasma agassizii and M. testudineum, that cause upper respiratory tract disease. We defined tortoises as test-positive if they were positive by culture and/or DNA identification or positive or suspect for specific antibody for either of the two pathogens. We used covariates of habitat (vegetation, elevation, slope, and aspect), tortoise size and sex, distance from another test-positive tortoise, and anthropogenic variables (distances to roads, agricultural areas, playas, urban areas, and centroids of human-populated census blocks). We used both logistic regression models and regression trees to evaluate the 2 species of Mycoplasma separately. The prevalence of test-positive tortoises was low: 1.49% (15/1,004) for M. agassizii and 2.89% (29/1,004) for M. testudineum. The spatial distributions of test-positive tortoises for the 2 Mycoplasma species showed little overlap; only 2 tortoises were test-positive for both diseases. However, the spatial distributions did not differ statistically between the 2 species. We consistently found higher prevalence of test-positive tortoises with shorter distances to centroids of human-populated census blocks. The relationship between distance to human-populated census blocks and tortoises that are test-positive for M. agassizii and potentially M. testudineum may be related to release or escape of captive tortoises because the prevalence of M. agassizii in captive tortoises is high. Our findings have application to other species of chelonians where both domestic captive and wild populations exist. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  10. Human-Mediated Marine Dispersal Influences the Population Structure of Aedes aegypti in the Philippine Archipelago.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Fonzi

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV is an extraordinary health burden on global scale, but still lacks effective vaccine. The Philippines is endemic for dengue fever, but massive employment of insecticides favored the development of resistance mutations in its major vector, Aedes aegypti. Alternative vector control strategies consist in releasing artificially modified mosquitos in the wild, but knowledge on their dispersal ability is necessary for a successful implementation. Despite being documented that Ae. aegypti can be passively transported for long distances, no study to date has been aimed at understanding whether human marine transportation can substantially shape the migration patterns of this mosquito. With thousands of islands connected by a dense network of ships, the Philippines is an ideal environment to fill this knowledge gap.Larvae of Ae. aegypti from 15 seaports in seven major islands of central-western Philippines were collected and genotyped at seven microsatellite loci. Low genetic structure and considerable gene flow was found in the area. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses suggested that anthropic factors (specifically the amount of processed cargo and human population density can explain the observed population structure, while geographical distance was not correlated. Interestingly, cargo shipments seem to be more efficient than passenger ships in transporting Ae. aegypti. Bayesian clustering confirmed that Ae. aegypti from busy ports are more genetically similar, while populations from idle ports are relatively structured, regardless of the geographical distance that separates them.The results confirmed the pivotal role of marine human-mediated long-range dispersal in determining the population structure of Ae. aegypti. Hopefully corroborated by further research, the present findings could assist the design of more effective vector control strategies.

  11. Characteristics of the human host have little influence on which local Schistosoma mansoni populations are acquired.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcio M Barbosa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Brazil remains the country in the Americas with the highest prevalence of schistosomiasis. A combination of control efforts and development, however, has sharply reduced its intensity and distribution. The acquisition of specific schistosome populations may be dependent on host characteristics such as sex, age, geography, work, habits and culture. How these and other host characteristics align with parasite subpopulations may guide approaches to improve control. METHODOLOGY: A cohort of more than 90% of the residents in two rural communities in Brazil participated in an epidemiologic survey of demographic, socio-economic and behavioral characteristics. The variables sex, age, intensity of infection, socio-economic index, % lifetime spent on site, previous infection, and trips outside the district were used to group parasites infecting individuals. Schistosoma mansoni infection status was determined by examination of stools submitted on 3 different days. The aggregate of eggs collected from the whole stool was used to determine degree of population differentiation from allele frequencies for 15 microsatellites. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Infection prevalence was 41% for these communities, and the epidemiologic characteristics were similar to many of the endemic areas of Brazil and the world. Parasite population structuring was observed between the two communities (Jost's D 0.046, CI95% 0.042-0.051, although separated by only 8 km and connected by a highway. No structuring was observed when infected individuals were stratified by host's biologic, demographic or epidemiologic characteristics. Those most heavily infected best reflected the communities' overall parasite diversity. The lack of differentiation within villages suggests that individuals are likely to get infected at the same sites or that the same parasite multilocus genotypes can be found at most sites. The geographic structuring between villages and the lack of structuring

  12. Socioeconomic Position, Rural Residence, and Marginality Influences on Obesity Status in the Adult Mexican Population

    OpenAIRE

    P. Johnelle Sparks; Sparks, Corey S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper assesses individual and social environment determinants of obesity in the adult Mexican population based on socioeconomic position, rural residence, and areal deprivation. Using a nationally representative health and nutrition survey, this analysis considers individual and structural determinants of obesity from a socioeconomic position and health disparities conceptual framework using multilevel logistic regression models. We find that more than thirty percent of Mexican adults we...

  13. Influence of projected ocean warming on population growth potential in two North Atlantic copepod species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegert, Christoph; Ji, Rubao; Davis, Cabell S.

    2010-10-01

    Copepods of the genera Pseudocalanus and Centropages play an important role in the North Atlantic ecosystems and have distinctive spatial and temporal patterns depending on physiological adaptation to different environmental conditions. To examine the possible impact of climate change on these biogeographic patterns, potential population growth rate was computed for each species using IPCC projections of sea surface temperature together with chlorophyll distributions from SeaWiFS climatology and published laboratory data on temperature and food-dependent life-history parameters. The results indicate that the predicted temperature increase throughout the North Atlantic will cause temporal and spatial shifts in copepod species population growth potential. The Centropages population is projected to increase in mid-latitudinal shelf areas, e.g. the Gulf of Maine and the North Sea, due to shorter generation times and a longer growing season, while Pseudocalanus is predicted to be less abundant in these regions after 2050. These shifts potentially have a significant impact on the future demographics of pelagic fish species for which the copepods are the major food source.

  14. Influence of population versus convenience sampling on sample characteristics in studies of cognitive aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodaty, Henry; Mothakunnel, Annu; de Vel-Palumbo, Melissa; Ames, David; Ellis, Kathryn A; Reppermund, Simone; Kochan, Nicole A; Savage, Greg; Trollor, Julian N; Crawford, John; Sachdev, Perminder S

    2014-01-01

    We examined whether differences in findings of studies examining mild cognitive impairment (MCI) were associated with recruitment methods by comparing sample characteristics in two contemporaneous Australian studies, using population-based and convenience sampling. The Sydney Memory and Aging Study invited participants randomly from the electoral roll in defined geographic areas in Sydney. The Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle Study of Ageing recruited cognitively normal (CN) individuals via media appeals and MCI participants via referrals from clinicians in Melbourne and Perth. Demographic and cognitive variables were harmonized, and similar diagnostic criteria were applied to both samples retrospectively. CN participants recruited via convenience sampling were younger, better educated, more likely to be married and have a family history of dementia, and performed better cognitively than those recruited via population-based sampling. MCI participants recruited via population-based sampling had better memory performance and were less likely to carry the apolipoprotein E ε4 allele than clinically referred participants but did not differ on other demographic variables. A convenience sample of normal controls is likely to be younger and better functioning and that of an MCI group likely to perform worse than a purportedly random sample. Sampling bias should be considered when interpreting findings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of combined pollution of antimony and arsenic on culturable soil microbial populations and enzyme activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiongshan; He, Mengchang; Wang, Ying

    2011-01-01

    The effects of both combined and single pollution of antimony (Sb) and arsenic (As) in different concentrations on culturable soil microbial populations and enzyme activities were studied under laboratory conditions. Joint effects of both Sb and As were different from that of Sb or As alone. The inhibition rate of culturable soil microbial populations under Sb and As pollution followed the order: bacterial > fungi > actinomycetes. There existed antagonistic inhibiting effect on urease and acid phophatase and synergistic inhibiting effect on protease under the combined pollution of Sb (III) and As (III). Only urease appeared to be the most sensitive indicator under Sb (V) and As (V) pollution, and there existed antagonistic inhibiting effect on acid phophatase and synergistic inhibiting effect on urease and protease under Sb (V) and As (V) combined pollution at most time. In this study, we also confirmed that the trivalent states of Sb and As were more toxic to all the microbes tested and more inhibitory on microbial enzyme activities then their pentavalent counterparts. The results also suggest that not only the application rate of the two metalloids but also the chemical form of metalloids should be considered while assessing the effect of metalloid on culturable microbial populations and enzyme activities. Urease and acid phosphatase can be used as potential biomarkers to evaluate the intensity of Sb (III) and As (III) stress.

  16. Soil Property Influences on Xiphinema americanum Populations as Related to Maturity of Loess-Derived Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, D P

    1973-10-01

    Field populations of Xiphinerna americanum around roots of Syringa vulgaris 'President Lincoln' were larger in Marshall silty clay loam, a medially developed loess soil, than in Monona silt loam, a minimally developed loess soil. Most X. amerieanum occurred in the top 15 cm of soil, with few below 30 cm. Maximum numbers occurred in August of both years in the Marshall soil, and in August 1969 and June 1970 in the Monona soil. Population fluctuations during the growing season were coincident with changes in soil moisture content. Although the population fluctuation pattern was the same at each depth tested, the adult-to-juvenile ratio increased in one soil while it decreased in the other. Numbers of X. americanum decreased as root weights decreased within a soil profile, but they were not correlated with root weights over all soils and depths. More X. americanum were recovered from the Marshall than from the Monona soil, but fibrous root weights were greater in the Monona soil. Survival of X. americanum in soil columns in growth chamber experiments was better in the Marshall than in the Monona soil. Movement and survival were different in identically textured Monona A and B horizon soils. Factors related to the ion exchange sites may affect X. americanum.

  17. Breeding matters: Natal experience influences population state-dependent host acceptance by an eruptive insect herbivore

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Eruptive forest insects are highly influential agents of change in forest ecosystems, and their effects have increased with recent climate change. State-dependent life histories contribute significantly to the population dynamics of eruptive forest insect herbivores; however, the proximate mechanisms by which these species shift between states is poorly understood. Laboratory bioassays were conducted using the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) to determine the effect of maternal host selection on offspring host preferences, as they apply to population state-dependent behaviors. Female mountain pine beetles exhibited state-dependent preference for artificial host material amended with monoterpenes in the absence of other cues, such that individuals reared in high-density epidemic-state simulations rejected low monoterpene conditions, while low-density endemic-state beetles accepted low monoterpene conditions. State-specific behavior in offspring was dependent on rearing conditions, as a function of maternal host selection, and these effects were observed within one generation. Density-dependent host selection behaviors exhibited by female mountain pine beetle offspring is reinforced by context-dependent maternal effects arising from parental host selection, and in situ exposure to conspecifics. These results demonstrate potential proximate mechanisms that control population dynamics in eruptive forest insects, and will allow for more accurate predictions of continued impact and spread of these species. PMID:28207862

  18. Meteorological influences on the incidence of lichen planus in a north Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash S Mohan, Ravi; Ghanta, Soumi; Verma, Sankalp; Agarwal, Neha; Gupta, Nupur; Singh, Udita

    2013-01-01

    Lichen planus is a chronic, autoimmune, mucocutaneous disease that shows differences in clinical presentation at different times of the year. The present retrospective study was conducted to clarify the meteorological factors that influence the incidence of lichen planus, as well as the general features and clinical presentation of this condition during three consecutive years, 2008, 2009, and 2010, in Moradabad district (Western Uttar Pradesh, India). The study group comprised 1,355 patients extracted from the records of the outpatient department of Kothiwal Dental College Research Centre and Hospital, who were clinically diagnosed as having lichen planus during this three-year period. The highest number of patients (735) were recorded in summer, and the lowest (56) in winter. Females were affected more often, and psychosocial influences were also evident. There were significant differences in the incidence of lichen planus in different seasons, and the summer peak was attributable to the intensity of sun exposure (actinic lichen planus and summertime lichen planus).

  19. Factors influencing exclusive breastfeeding among Iranian mothers: A longitudinal population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Saffari; Amir H. Pakpour; Hui Chen

    2017-01-01

    Background: Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) contributes to the health and survival of the newborns. Many factors influence the EBF behavior. This study aimed to identify the determinant factors in order to improve the practice of EBF among Iranian mothers. Methods: A longitudinal study was carried out in 1445 mothers with newborns in Qazvin city, Iran (September 2015-March 2016). Demographic variables as well as the constructs of theory of planned behavior (TBP) were measu...

  20. The Influence of Migration on Population Ageing in the Cres-Lošinj Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Podgorelec

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Demographic research in regard to the islands of Cres and Lošinj belongs in the domain of small population studies. Throughout history, and especially after World War II, the islands experienced very strong emigration and later immigration processes. After fifty or more years of continual emigration, immigration began on the island of Lošinj in the 1960s, and on Cres in the 1970s. This reversal from strong depopulation to a significant increase in the size of the population, if the islands are examined as a whole, reveals certain demographic particularities in comparison with other Croatian islands. The long-term reduction of the birth rate and prolonged emigration from settlements in the interior of Cres and from all the islands of the Lošinj archipelago has been the cause of many elderly, single-person and abandoned households. All the analytical indicators pertaining to the age structure are above the threshold which marks the beginning of population ageing. The average age on all the islands has for over thirty years been well above 30, whereas in the Lošinj archipelago it has been above the reproductive age – i.e. about 50. The age coefficient varies between 14.02 for Lošinj and 49.22 for Ilovik. The island of Lošinj itself has the youngest population, and hence the lowest indicators of ageing. The burden on the working-age contingent on each island has changed at a different rate and in a different direction during the last three inter-census periods. The co-efficient of dependency of the young is increasing on all the islands, while the co-efficient of dependency of the elderly age groups is falling on Lošinj, Ilovik, Unije and Cres. The reduction of the birth rate and the negative migration balance caused by high emigration of mainly young, unmarried males has caused a seks ratio imbalance in favour of females. The general co-efficient of females, according to the 1991 census was between 105.7 on Lošinj and 145.5 on Unije. The

  1. The influence of population stratification on genetic markers associated with type 1 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Karla Fabiana Brasil; Santos, Aritânia Sousa; Semzezem, Cintia; Correia, Márcia Regina; Brito, Luciano Abreu; Ruiz, Marcelo Ortega; Fukui, Rosa Tsuneshiro; Matioli, Sergio Russo; Passos-Bueno, Maria Rita; Silva, Maria Elizabeth Rossi da

    2017-01-01

    Ethnic admixtures may interfere with the definition of type 1 diabetes (T1D) risk determinants. The role of HLA, PTPN22, INS-VNTR, and CTLA4 in T1D predisposition was analyzed in Brazilian T1D patients (n = 915), with 81.7% self-reporting as white and 789 controls (65.6% white). The results were corrected for population stratification by genotyping 93 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) (BeadXpress platform). Ancestry composition and structural association were characterized using Structure 2.3 and STRAT. Ethnic diversity resulted in T1D determinants that were partially discordant from those reported in Caucasians and Africans. The greatest contributor to T1D was the HLA-DR3/DR4 genotype (OR = 16.5) in 23.9% of the patients, followed by -DR3/DR3 (OR = 8.9) in 8.7%, -DR4/DR4 (OR = 4.7) in 6.0% and -DR3/DR9 (OR = 4.9) in 2.6%. Correction by ancestry also confirmed that the DRB1*09-DQB1*0202 haplotype conferred susceptibility, whereas the DRB1*07-DQB1*0202 and DRB1*11-DQB1*0602 haplotypes were protective, which is similar to reports in African-American patients. By contrast, the DRB1*07-DQB1*0201 haplotype was protective in our population and in Europeans, despite conferring susceptibility to Africans. The DRB1*10-DQB1*0501 haplotype was only protective in the Brazilian population. Predisposition to T1D conferred by PTPN22 and INS-VNTR and protection against T1D conferred by the DRB1*16 allele were confirmed. Correcting for population structure is important to clarify the particular genetic variants that confer susceptibility/protection for T1D in populations with ethnic admixtures. PMID:28262800

  2. Environmental influences on the species diversity, biomass and population density of soft bottom macrofauna in the estuarine system of Goa, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Harkantra, S.N.; Rodrigues, N.R.

    difference among the sites. The best multiple linear regression model revealed that all the 13 parameters studied were significant influencing parameters on species diversity, biomass and population density with exception of temperature. Among these salinity...

  3. The influence of maternal vulnerability and parenting stress on chronic pain in adolescents in a general population sample : The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darlington, A-S. E.; Verhulst, F. C.; De Winter, A. F.; Ormel, J.; Passchier, J.; Hunfeld, J. A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Investigating possible psychosocial predictors of unexplained chronic pain in adolescents is crucial in understanding its development and prevention. A general population sample of adolescents (n = 2230) from the TRAILS cohort study was investigated longitudinally to assess the influence of maternal

  4. Northwest Montana Wetland Management District Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Northwest Montana Wetland Management District outlines District accomplishments during the 1988 calendar year. The report begins...

  5. Northwest Montana Wetland Management District: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1977

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Northwest Montana Wetland Management District outlines District accomplishments during the 1977 calendar year. The report begins with an...

  6. Northwest Montana Wetland Management District: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1978

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Northwest Montana Wetland Management District outlines District accomplishments during the 1978 calendar year. The report begins with an...

  7. MT—Impacts of Oil Exploration and Production to the Northeast Montana Wetland Management District

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Northeast Montana Wetland Management District provides habitat for numerous different species of breeding waterfowl and migrating shorebirds, including the...

  8. Montana Integrated Monitoring in Bird Conservation Regions: 2014 Field Implementation Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 2014 the Avian Science Center (ASC) at the University of Montana (UM) participated in the Integrated Monitoring in Bird Conservation Regions (IMBCR) program for a...

  9. 75 FR 4036 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Montana; Revisions to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... Administrative Rules of Montana. Revisions include minor editorial and grammatical changes, updates to the citations and references to federal and state laws and regulations, other minor changes to conform...

  10. 40 CFR 272.1351 - Montana State-Administered Program: Final Authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Annotated (MCA) 2005, Title 25, “Civil Procedure”: Chapter 20, “Rules of Civil Procedure”, Rule 24(a). (iii) Montana Code Annotated (MCA) 2005, Title 27, “Civil Liability, Remedies, and Limitations”: Chapter...

  11. Final report on biogeochemical cycling of selenium in Benton Lake, Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The biogeochemical cycling of selenium in Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge, west-central Montana was very complicated. Selenium accumulation in sediment was a...

  12. Saline seep impacts on Hailstone and Halfbreed National Wildlife Refuges in south-central Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Elevated salt and selenium levels in groundwater and in saline seeps within the Lake Basin of northern Stillwater County, Montana have impacted water quality on...

  13. 77 FR 43046 - Lolo National Forest; Montana; Center Horse Landscape Restoration EIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... Forest Service Lolo National Forest; Montana; Center Horse Landscape Restoration EIS AGENCY: Forest.... ADDRESSES: Send written comments to: Center Horse Landscape Restoration Project Leader, USDA Forest Service..., Monday through Friday. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Purpose and Need for Action The Center Horse...

  14. Northwest Montana Wetland Management District Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Northwest Montana Wetland Management District outlines District accomplishments during the 1985 calendar year. The report begins...

  15. The Story of Story Mill-A Montana Community Working to Restore Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story Mill, a 55-acre site on the outskirts of Bozeman, Montana, has undergone several transformations in recent history. The place is virtually a “mill of stories” with respect to land use, but originally it was a wetland.

  16. Northwest Montana Wetlands Management District Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Northwest Montana Wetland Management District outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1980 calendar year. The report begins with...

  17. 75 FR 66718 - Helena National Forest; Montana; Blackfoot Travel Plan EIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Helena National Forest; Montana; Blackfoot Travel Plan EIS AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA... the existing motorized public access routes and prohibitions within the Blackfoot travel planning...

  18. Anti-inflammatory activity of Arnica montana 6cH: preclinical study in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macêdo, S B; Ferreira, L R; Perazzo, F F; Carvalho, J C

    2004-04-01

    The anti-inflammatory effect of Arnica montana 6cH was evaluated using acute and chronic inflammation models. In the acute, model, carrageenin-induced rat paw oedema, the group treated with Arnica montana 6cH showed 30% inhibition compared to control (P < 0.05). Treatment with Arnica 6cH, 30 min prior to carrageenin, did not produce any inhibition of the inflammatory process. In the chronic model, Nystatin-induced oedema, the group treated 3 days previously with Arnica montana 6cH had reduced inflammation 6 h after the inflammatory agent was applied (P < 0.05). When treatment was given 6 h after Nystatin treatment, there was no significant inhibitory effect. In a model based on histamine-induced increase of vascular permeability, pretreatment with Arnica montana 6cH blocked the action of histamine in increasing vascular permeability.

  19. 6-O-Isobutyryl-tetrahydrohelenalin from the flowers of Arnica montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willuhn, G; Röttger, P M; Wendisch, D

    1984-02-01

    From the flowers of ARNICA MONTANA L., the helenanolides 6- O-isobutyryl-tetrahydrohelenalin and 2beta-ethoxy-6- O-isobutyryl-2,3-dihydrohelenalin were isolated and their structures established by spectroscopic methods.

  20. Wyodak-Anderson clinker in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana (prbclkg.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This ArcView shapefile contains a polygon representation of the Wyodak-Anderson clinker in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana. This theme was created...

  1. Digital Geologic Map of Glacier National Park, Montana (NPS, GRD, GRE, GLAC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Digital Geologic Map of Glacier National Park, Montana is comprised of GIS data layers, two ancillary GIS tables, a Windows Help File with ancillary map text,...

  2. Northwest Montana Wetland Management District, Swan River National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Northwest Montana Wetland Management District outlines District accomplishments during the 1989 calendar year. The report begins...

  3. National Bison Range, Ninepipe, Pablo and Swan River NWR's, Northwest Montana Wetlands: 1976 [Narrative report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for National Bison Range, Ninepipe NWR, Pablo NWR, Swan River NWR, and Northwest Montana Wetlands outlines Refuge accomplishments during the...

  4. Northwest Montana Wetland Management District, Swan River National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Northwest Montana Wetland Management District outlines District accomplishments during the 1990 calendar year. The report begins...

  5. Northwest Montana Wetland Management District Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Northwest Montana Wetland Management District outlines District accomplishments during the 1987 calendar year. The report begins...

  6. Northwest Montana Wetland Management District, Swan River National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Northwest Montana Wetland Management District outlines District accomplishments during the 1991 calendar year. The report begins...

  7. Trace elements and organochlorines in sediments and fish from Missouri River reservoirs in Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) is currently reviewing the application submitted by the Montana Power Company (MPC) for relicensing their...

  8. Effectiveness and Safety of Arnica montana in Post-Surgical Setting, Pain and Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannitti, Tommaso; Morales-Medina, Julio César; Bellavite, Paolo; Rottigni, Valentina; Palmieri, Beniamino

    2016-01-01

    Arnica montana has been widely used as a homeopathic remedy for the treatment of several inflammatory conditions in pain management and postoperative settings. This review gives an overview of the therapeutic use of Arnica montana in the above-mentioned fields also focusing on its mechanisms of action learned from animal models and in vitro studies. Arnica montana is more effective than placebo when used for the treatment of several conditions including post-traumatic and postoperative pain, edema, and ecchymosis. However, its dosages and preparations used have produced substantial differences in the clinical outcome. Cumulative evidence suggests that Arnica montana may represent a valid alternative to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, at least when treating some specific conditions.

  9. SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS INFLUENCING FAMILY SIZE AMONG RURAL POPULATION OF DISTRICT NAINITAL, UTTARAKHAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Pandey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: India is the second most populous country in the world. A decline in its population growth rate has been shown amounting to during the last decades. The decline in the family size is important step towards population stabilization for our country. The status of family size is related to various demographic, socio-economic, cultural factors and attitude towards use of family planning methods. Objective: To assess the relationship of family size with socio-economic factors and effect of contraceptive use. Methodology: A cross sectional house to house survey to know the family size and socio-demographic was conducted in the adopted villages of field practice area. The study subjects are the married women of reproductive age group (15-49 years. Results: About half (44.9% of respondents were aged more than 35 years and only (0.9% were < 19 years. The family size in our study was 2.55. About 54.5% of respondents have family size d" 2. About two-third of families (65% with size less than or equals to two were of nuclear type. Education level of family has significant relationship with small family size. About 90% of the respondents and their spouse of family size two or less were literate. A significant association was found between occupation of the spouse and family size. The spouses of the respondents with family size more than two were mainly engaged in agriculture (29.7% and as labourer (38.5%. Among the families with family size of more than two, majority were from middle (81% and lower (14.9% class. There is no significant effect of use of contraceptives on the family size.

  10. Influence of population prevalences on numbers of false positives: an overlooked entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Paul; Kelly, Aine Marie

    2011-09-01

    Disease prevalence alters the number of true positives (TP), true negatives (TN), false negatives (FN), and false positives (FP), even if the sensitivity and specificity of a test stays the same. We illustrate this using data for the detection of suspected acute pulmonary embolism (PE) from the Prospective Investigation of Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis II (PIOPED II). We chose PE because of the clinical significance of the disease, the low prevalence of PE in the patient population being tested with CTPA with the widespread adoption of CTPA, and the serious clinical consequences of anticoagulation therapy in FP patients. Based on PIOPED II data (sensitivity 83%, specificity 96%), at a disease prevalence of approximately 5%, the number of FP patients is greater than the number of TP patients. Scaled to the US population, at a disease prevalence of 5%, there would be 139,800 FPs and 3,356,200 TNs. Assuming a mortality rate of 0.5% and a 3.0% rate of major bleeding secondary to anticoagulation therapy for well-controlled patients, if all FP patients received anticoagulation, there would be 699 deaths and 4194 major bleeding complications. At a prevalence of approximately 5% for PE, the number of FPs approaches or is greater than the number of TPs for CTPA for the detection of suspected acute PE. Patients with FP results may receive unnecessary, potentially harmful treatment with anticoagulation therapy. Population prevalence of disease needs to be taken into account along with the diagnostic accuracy of a test, because this may significantly affect downstream patient outcomes. Copyright © 2011 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Influence of embient air pollution by automobile transport on malignancies development in population of Kemerovo city].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larin, S A; Bykov, A A

    2015-01-01

    To reveal relationship between automobile transport emissions and oncologic morbidity among Kemerovo population, the authors selected crossroads and parts of highways with intense traffic. Two groups were observed among the residents of houses near the main crossroads and along highways. As a reference group, residents of houses distant from highways were selected. The study proved that oncologic morbidity is statistically reliably higher among the residents of houses near the crossroads and highways, if compared to that among the residents in houses distant from highways.

  12. Backward air lasing actions induced by femtosecond laser filamentation: influence of population inversion lifetime

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Hongqiang; chu, Wei; Zeng, Bin; Yao, Jinping; Jing, Chenrui; Li, Ziting; Cheng, Ya

    2015-01-01

    We experimentally investigate generation of backward 357 nm N2 laser in a gas mixture of N2/Ar using 800-nm femtosecond laser pulses, and examine the involved gain dynamics based on pump-probe measurements. Our findings show that a minimum lifetime of population inversion in the excited N2 molecules is required for generating intense backward nitrogen lasers, which is ~0.8 ns under our experimental conditions. The results shed new light on the mechanism for generating intense backward lasers from ambient air, which are highly in demand for high sensitivity remote atmospheric sensing application.

  13. Population-Level Density Dependence Influences the Origin and Maintenance of Parental Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Elijah; Thrasher, Patsy; Bonsall, Michael B.; Klug, Hope

    2016-01-01

    Parental care is a defining feature of animal breeding systems. We now know that both basic life-history characteristics and ecological factors influence the evolution of care. However, relatively little is known about how these factors interact to influence the origin and maintenance of care. Here, we expand upon previous work and explore the relationship between basic life-history characteristics (stage-specific rates of mortality and maturation) and the fitness benefits associated with the origin and the maintenance of parental care for two broad ecological scenarios: the scenario in which egg survival is density dependent and the case in which adult survival is density dependent. Our findings suggest that high offspring need is likely critical in driving the origin, but not the maintenance, of parental care regardless of whether density dependence acts on egg or adult survival. In general, parental care is more likely to result in greater fitness benefits when baseline adult mortality is low if 1) egg survival is density dependent or 2) adult mortality is density dependent and mutant density is relatively high. When density dependence acts on egg mortality, low rates of egg maturation and high egg densities are less likely to lead to strong fitness benefits of care. However, when density dependence acts on adult mortality, high levels of egg maturation and increasing adult densities are less likely to maintain care. Juvenile survival has relatively little, if any, effect on the origin and maintenance of egg-only care. More generally, our results suggest that the evolution of parental care will be influenced by an organism’s entire life history characteristics, the stage at which density dependence acts, and whether care is originating or being maintained. PMID:27093056

  14. Population-Level Density Dependence Influences the Origin and Maintenance of Parental Care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elijah Reyes

    Full Text Available Parental care is a defining feature of animal breeding systems. We now know that both basic life-history characteristics and ecological factors influence the evolution of care. However, relatively little is known about how these factors interact to influence the origin and maintenance of care. Here, we expand upon previous work and explore the relationship between basic life-history characteristics (stage-specific rates of mortality and maturation and the fitness benefits associated with the origin and the maintenance of parental care for two broad ecological scenarios: the scenario in which egg survival is density dependent and the case in which adult survival is density dependent. Our findings suggest that high offspring need is likely critical in driving the origin, but not the maintenance, of parental care regardless of whether density dependence acts on egg or adult survival. In general, parental care is more likely to result in greater fitness benefits when baseline adult mortality is low if 1 egg survival is density dependent or 2 adult mortality is density dependent and mutant density is relatively high. When density dependence acts on egg mortality, low rates of egg maturation and high egg densities are less likely to lead to strong fitness benefits of care. However, when density dependence acts on adult mortality, high levels of egg maturation and increasing adult densities are less likely to maintain care. Juvenile survival has relatively little, if any, effect on the origin and maintenance of egg-only care. More generally, our results suggest that the evolution of parental care will be influenced by an organism's entire life history characteristics, the stage at which density dependence acts, and whether care is originating or being maintained.

  15. Population-Level Density Dependence Influences the Origin and Maintenance of Parental Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Elijah; Thrasher, Patsy; Bonsall, Michael B; Klug, Hope

    2016-01-01

    Parental care is a defining feature of animal breeding systems. We now know that both basic life-history characteristics and ecological factors influence the evolution of care. However, relatively little is known about how these factors interact to influence the origin and maintenance of care. Here, we expand upon previous work and explore the relationship between basic life-history characteristics (stage-specific rates of mortality and maturation) and the fitness benefits associated with the origin and the maintenance of parental care for two broad ecological scenarios: the scenario in which egg survival is density dependent and the case in which adult survival is density dependent. Our findings suggest that high offspring need is likely critical in driving the origin, but not the maintenance, of parental care regardless of whether density dependence acts on egg or adult survival. In general, parental care is more likely to result in greater fitness benefits when baseline adult mortality is low if 1) egg survival is density dependent or 2) adult mortality is density dependent and mutant density is relatively high. When density dependence acts on egg mortality, low rates of egg maturation and high egg densities are less likely to lead to strong fitness benefits of care. However, when density dependence acts on adult mortality, high levels of egg maturation and increasing adult densities are less likely to maintain care. Juvenile survival has relatively little, if any, effect on the origin and maintenance of egg-only care. More generally, our results suggest that the evolution of parental care will be influenced by an organism's entire life history characteristics, the stage at which density dependence acts, and whether care is originating or being maintained.

  16. The genome of a Late Pleistocene human from a Clovis burial site in western Montana

    KAUST Repository

    Rasmussen, Morten Arendt Rendt

    2014-02-12

    Clovis, with its distinctive biface, blade and osseous technologies, is the oldest widespread archaeological complex defined in North America, dating from 11,100 to 10,700 14 C years before present (bp) (13,000 to 12,600 calendar years bp). Nearly 50 years of archaeological research point to the Clovis complex as having developed south of the North American ice sheets from an ancestral technology. However, both the origins and the genetic legacy of the people who manufactured Clovis tools remain under debate. It is generally believed that these people ultimately derived from Asia and were directly related to contemporary Native Americans. An alternative, Solutrean, hypothesis posits that the Clovis predecessors emigrated from southwestern Europe during the Last Glacial Maximum. Here we report the genome sequence of a male infant (Anzick-1) recovered from the Anzick burial site in western Montana. The human bones date to 10,705 ± 35 14 C years bp (approximately 12,707-12,556 calendar years bp) and were directly associated with Clovis tools. We sequenced the genome to an average depth of 14.4× and show that the gene flow from the Siberian Upper Palaeolithic Mal\\'ta population into Native American ancestors is also shared by the Anzick-1 individual and thus happened before 12,600 years bp. We also show that the Anzick-1 individual is more closely related to all indigenous American populations than to any other group. Our data are compatible with the hypothesis that Anzick-1 belonged to a population directly ancestral to many contemporary Native Americans. Finally, we find evidence of a deep divergence in Native American populations that predates the Anzick-1 individual. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  17. Resource selection by black-footed ferrets in South Dakota and Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jachowski, D.S.; Millspaugh, J.J.; Biggins, D.E.; Livieri, T.M.; Matchett, M.R.; Rittenhouse, C.D.

    2011-01-01

    The black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes), once extinct in the wild, remains one of the most critically endangered mammals in North America despite 18 years of reintroduction attempts. Because black-footed ferrets are specialized predators of prairie dogs (Cynomys sp.), a better understanding of how black-footed ferrets select resources might provide insight into how best to identify and manage reintroduction sites. We monitored ferret resource selection at two reintroduction sites with different densities of prairie dog populations-one that contained a high density of prairie dogs (Conata Basin, South Dakota) and one that was lower (UL Bend, Montana). We evaluated support for hypotheses about ferret resource selection as related to the distribution of active burrows used by black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), interactions between ferrets, and habitat edge effects. We found support for all three factors within both populations; however, they affected ferret resource selection differently at each site. Ferrets at Conata Basin tended to select areas with high prairie dog burrow density, closer to the colony edge, and that overlapped other ferret ranges. In contrast, ferrets at UL Bend tended not to select areas of high active prairie dog burrow density, avoided areas close to edge habitat, and females avoided areas occupied by other ferrets. The differences observed between the two sites might be best explained by prairie dog densities, which were higher at Conata Basin (119.3 active burrows per ha) than at UL Bend (44.4 active burrows per ha). Given the positive growth of ferret populations at Conata Basin, management that increases the density of prairie dogs might enhance ferret success within natural areas. To achieve long-term recovery of ferrets in the wild, conservationists should increasingly work across and outside natural area boundaries to increase prairie dog populations.

  18. The genome of a Late Pleistocene human from a Clovis burial site in western Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Morten; Anzick, Sarah L; Waters, Michael R; Skoglund, Pontus; DeGiorgio, Michael; Stafford, Thomas W; Rasmussen, Simon; Moltke, Ida; Albrechtsen, Anders; Doyle, Shane M; Poznik, G David; Gudmundsdottir, Valborg; Yadav, Rachita; Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo; White, Samuel Stockton; Allentoft, Morten E; Cornejo, Omar E; Tambets, Kristiina; Eriksson, Anders; Heintzman, Peter D; Karmin, Monika; Korneliussen, Thorfinn Sand; Meltzer, David J; Pierre, Tracey L; Stenderup, Jesper; Saag, Lauri; Warmuth, Vera M; Lopes, Margarida C; Malhi, Ripan S; Brunak, Søren; Sicheritz-Ponten, Thomas; Barnes, Ian; Collins, Matthew; Orlando, Ludovic; Balloux, Francois; Manica, Andrea; Gupta, Ramneek; Metspalu, Mait; Bustamante, Carlos D; Jakobsson, Mattias; Nielsen, Rasmus; Willerslev, Eske

    2014-02-13

    Clovis, with its distinctive biface, blade and osseous technologies, is the oldest widespread archaeological complex defined in North America, dating from 11,100 to 10,700 (14)C years before present (bp) (13,000 to 12,600 calendar years bp). Nearly 50 years of archaeological research point to the Clovis complex as having developed south of the North American ice sheets from an ancestral technology. However, both the origins and the genetic legacy of the people who manufactured Clovis tools remain under debate. It is generally believed that these people ultimately derived from Asia and were directly related to contemporary Native Americans. An alternative, Solutrean, hypothesis posits that the Clovis predecessors emigrated from southwestern Europe during the Last Glacial Maximum. Here we report the genome sequence of a male infant (Anzick-1) recovered from the Anzick burial site in western Montana. The human bones date to 10,705 ± 35 (14)C years bp (approximately 12,707-12,556 calendar years bp) and were directly associated with Clovis tools. We sequenced the genome to an average depth of 14.4× and show that the gene flow from the Siberian Upper Palaeolithic Mal'ta population into Native American ancestors is also shared by the Anzick-1 individual and thus happened before 12,600 years bp. We also show that the Anzick-1 individual is more closely related to all indigenous American populations than to any other group. Our data are compatible with the hypothesis that Anzick-1 belonged to a population directly ancestral to many contemporary Native Americans. Finally, we find evidence of a deep divergence in Native American populations that predates the Anzick-1 individual.

  19. Assessing the influence of CH4 concentration during culture enrichment on the biodegradation kinetics and population structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Juan C; Quijano, Guillermo; Pérez, Rebeca; Muñoz, Raúl

    2014-12-15

    Methanotrophic communities were enriched in three stirred tank reactors continuously supplied with CH4-laden air at 20, 2 and 0.2 gCH4 m(-3) in order to evaluate the influence of CH4 concentration on the biodegradation kinetics, population structure and potential polyhydroxyalkanoate production under sequential nitrogen limitations. The population structure of the enriched cultures, dominated by type I methanotrophs, was influenced by CH4 concentration. No significant correlation between CH4 concentration and the maximum specific degradation rate (qmax) or the half-saturation constant (KS) was recorded, microorganisms enriched at 2 gCH4 m(-3) presenting the highest qmax and those enriched at 20 and 0.2 gCH4 m(-3) exhibiting the lowest KS. Maximum polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) contents of 1.0% and 12.6% (w/w) were achieved at 20 and 2 g CH4 m(-3), respectively. Polyhydroxyvalerate (PHV) was also detected at PHV:PHB ratios of up to 12:1 and 4:1 in the communities enriched at 20 and 0.2 gCH4 m(-3), respectively.

  20. Towards the field binary population: Influence of orbital decay on close binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Korntreff, Christina; Pfalzner, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Surveys of the binary populations in the solar neighbourhood have shown that the periods of G- and M-type stars are log-normally distributed. However, observations of young binary populations suggest a log-uniform distribution. Clearly some process(es) change the period distribution over time. Most stars form in star clusters, in which two important dynamical processes occur: i) gas-induced orbital decay of embedded binary systems and ii) destruction of soft binaries in three-body interactions. The emphasis here is on orbital decay which has been largely neglected so far. Using a combination of Monte-Carlo and dynamical nbody modelling it is demonstrated here that the cluster dynamics destroys the number of wide binaries, but leaves short-period binaries basically undisturbed even for a initially log-uniform distribution. By contrast orbital decay significantly reduces the number and changes the properties of short-period binaries, but leaves wide binaries largely uneffected. Until now it was unclear whether ...

  1. Public perceptions and attitudes toward thalassaemia: Influencing factors in a multi-racial population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Li Ping; George, Elizabeth; Tan, Jin-Ai Mary Anne

    2011-03-30

    Thalassaemia is a common public health problem in Malaysia and about 4.5 to 6% of the Malays and Chinese are carriers of this genetic disorder. The major forms of thalassaemia result in death in utero of affected foetuses (α-thalassaemia) or life-long blood transfusions for survival in β-thalassaemia. This study, the first nationwide population based survey of thalassaemia in Malaysia, aimed to determine differences in public awareness, perceptions and attitudes toward thalassaemia in the multi-racial population in Malaysia. A cross-sectional computer-assisted telephone interview survey of a representative sample of multi-racial Malaysians aged 18 years and above was conducted between July and December 2009. Of a total of 3723 responding households, 2846 (76.4%) have heard of thalassaemia. Mean knowledge score was 11.85 (SD ± 4.03), out of a maximum of 21, with higher scores indicating better knowledge. Statistically significant differences (P screening for thalassaemia, only 13.6% of married participants interviewed have been screened for thalassaemia. The majority (63.4%) were unsupportive of selective termination of foetuses diagnosed with thalassaemia major. Study shows that carrier and premarital screening programs for thalassaemia may be more effective and culturally acceptable in the reduction of pregnancies with thalassaemia major. The findings provide insights into culturally congruent educational interventions to reach out diverse socio-demographic and ethnic communities to increase knowledge and cultivate positive attitudes toward prevention of thalassaemia.

  2. Public perceptions and attitudes toward thalassaemia: Influencing factors in a multi-racial population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Elizabeth

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thalassaemia is a common public health problem in Malaysia and about 4.5 to 6% of the Malays and Chinese are carriers of this genetic disorder. The major forms of thalassaemia result in death in utero of affected foetuses (α-thalassaemia or life-long blood transfusions for survival in β-thalassaemia. This study, the first nationwide population based survey of thalassaemia in Malaysia, aimed to determine differences in public awareness, perceptions and attitudes toward thalassaemia in the multi-racial population in Malaysia. Methods A cross-sectional computer-assisted telephone interview survey of a representative sample of multi-racial Malaysians aged 18 years and above was conducted between July and December 2009. Results Of a total of 3723 responding households, 2846 (76.4% have heard of thalassaemia. Mean knowledge score was 11.85 (SD ± 4.03, out of a maximum of 21, with higher scores indicating better knowledge. Statistically significant differences (P Conclusion Study shows that carrier and premarital screening programs for thalassaemia may be more effective and culturally acceptable in the reduction of pregnancies with thalassaemia major. The findings provide insights into culturally congruent educational interventions to reach out diverse socio-demographic and ethnic communities to increase knowledge and cultivate positive attitudes toward prevention of thalassaemia.

  3. A population facing climate change: joint influences of Allee effects and environmental boundary geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Roques, Lionel; Berestycki, Henri; Kretzschmar, André

    2009-01-01

    As a result of climate change, many populations have to modify their range to follow the suitable areas - their "climate envelope" - often risking extinction. During this migration process, they may face absolute boundaries to dispersal, because of external environmental factors. Consequently, not only the position, but also the shape of the climate envelope can be modified. We use a reaction-diffusion model to analyse the effects on population persistence of simultaneous changes in the climate envelope position and shape. When the growth term is of logistic type, we show that extinction and persistence are principally conditioned by the species mobility and the speed of climate change, but not by the shape of the climate envelope. However, with a growth term taking an Allee effect into account, we find a high sensitivity to the variations of the shape of the climate envelope. In this case, the species which have a high mobility, although they could more easily follow the migration of the climate envelope, wo...

  4. Evaluation of antioxidant and cytoprotective activities of Arnica montana L. and Artemisia absinthium L. ethanolic extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craciunescu Oana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arnica montana L. and Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae are medicinal plants native to temperate regions of Europe, including Romania, traditionally used for treatment of skin wounds, bruises and contusions. In the present study, A. montana and A. absinthium ethanolic extracts were evaluated for their chemical composition, antioxidant activity and protective effect against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in a mouse fibroblast-like NCTC cell line. Results A. absinthium extract showed a higher antioxidant capacity than A. montana extract as Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, Oxygen radical absorbance capacity and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical-scavenging activity, in correlation with its flavonoids and phenolic acids content. Both plant extracts had significant effects on the growth of NCTC cells in the range of 10–100 mg/L A. montana and 10–500 mg/L A. absinthium. They also protected fibroblast cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage, at the same doses. The best protection was observed in cell pre-treatment with 10 mg/L A. montana and 10–300 mg/L A. absinthium, respectively, as determined by Neutral red and lactate dehydrogenase assays. In addition, cell pre-treatment with plant extracts, at these concentrations, prevented morphological changes induced by hydrogen peroxide. Flow-cytometry analysis showed that pre-treatment with A. montana and A. absinthium extracts restored the proportion of cells in each phase of the cell cycle. Conclusions A. montana and A. absinthium extracts, rich in flavonoids and phenolic acids, showed a good antioxidant activity and cytoprotective effect against oxidative damage in fibroblast-like cells. These results provide scientific support for the traditional use of A. montana and A. absinthium in treatment of skin disorders.

  5. Tidal Influence on Nutrients Status and Phytoplankton Population of Okpoka Creek, Upper Bonny Estuary, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Davies

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Okpoka Creek of the Upper Bonny Estuary in the Niger Delta is a tidal creek receiving organic anthropogenic effluents from its environs. The study investigated the influence of tides (low and high on the species composition, diversity, abundance, and distribution of phytoplankton. The surface water and phytoplankton samples were collected monthly from May 2004 to April 2006 at both tides from ten stations according to standard methods. Phytoplankton was identified microscopically. Species diversity was calculated using standard indices. Data analyses were done using analysis of variance, Duncan multiple range, and descriptive statistics. Phosphate and ammonia exceeded international acceptable levels of 0.10 mg/L for natural water bodies indicating high nutrient status, organic matter, and potential pollutants. A total of 158 species of phytoplankton were identified. Diatoms dominated the phytoplankton (62.9%. Diversity indices of diatoms were 1.5±0.03 (Margalef and 0.8±0.01 (Shannon. Pollution-indicator species such as Navicula microcephala, Nitzschia sigma, Synedra ulna (diatoms, Cladophora glomerata (green alga, Euglena acus (euglenoid, Anabeana spiroides (blue-green alga, and Ceratium furca (dinoflagellate were recorded at either only low, high or both tides. Concerted environmental surveillance on Upper Bonny Estuary is advocated to reduce the inflow of pollutants from the Bonny Estuary into this Creek caused by tidal influence.

  6. [Commuting accidents: the influence of excessive daytime sleepiness. A review of an Italian Police officers population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbarino, S; Repice, A M; Traversa, F; Spigno, F; Mascialino, B; Mantineo, G; Ferrillo, F; Bonsignore, A D

    2007-01-01

    Commuting accidents (CA) play an important role in many systems of workers' compensation insurance and with good reason, as they generally bring about more serious consequences in terms of permanent disablement and death than ordinary occupational accidents; this usually leads to high social costs. Nevertheless, research investigations aimed at studying the possible causes underlying the phenomenon are not available in medical literature. Objective of the present study is to evaluate whether excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) might influence the occurrence of CA. 463 CA occurred to 411 police officers in northern Italy during the period 1999 - 2002 were collected; 51.9% of the subjects were working on shifts, 48.1% were non-shift workers. The study was carried out by submitting a self-administered questionnaire to gather information on age and physical characteristics, working conditions, sleep-related problems and accidents occurrence; EDS was measured by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). A large number of workers (36%) complained of EDS; a strict significant relationship between shift - work condition and the presence of EDS was found, thus suggesting that CA are significantly influenced by EDS. The shift work schedule adopted by Italian Police might be accountable for the disruption of the balance between circadian and homeostatic factors.

  7. Coupled Ising models and interdependent discrete choices under social influence in homogeneous populations

    CERN Document Server

    del Río, Ana Fernández

    2011-01-01

    The use of statistical physics to study problems of social sciences is motivated and its current state of the art briefly reviewed, in particular for the case of discrete choice making. The coupling of two binary choices is studied in some detail, using an Ising model for each of the decision variables (the opinion or choice moments or spins, socioeconomic equivalents to the magnetic moments or spins). Toy models for two different types of coupling are studied analytically and numerically in the mean field (infinite range) approximation. This is equivalent to considering a social influence effect proportional to the fraction of adopters or average magnetisation. In the nonlocal case, the two spin variables are coupled through a Weiss mean field type term. In a socioeconomic context, this can be useful when studying individuals of two different groups, making the same decision under social influence of their own group, when their outcome is affected by the fraction of adopters of the other group. In the local ...

  8. Pathogens, nutritional deficiency, and climate influences on a declining moose population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, D.L.; Cox, E.W.; Ballard, W.B.; Whitlaw, H.A.; Lenarz, M.S.; Custer, T.W.; Barnett, T.; Fuller, T.K.

    2006-01-01

    Several potential proximate causes may be implicated in a recent (post-1984) decline in moose (Alces alces andersoni) numbers at their southern range periphery in northwest Minnesota, USA. These causes include deleterious effects of infectious pathogens, some of which are associated with white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), negative effects of climate change, increased food competition with deer or moose, legal or illegal hunting, and increased predation by gray wolves (Canis lupus) and black bears (Ursus americanus). Long-standing factors that may have contributed to the moose decline include those typically associated with marginal habitat such as nutritional deficiencies. We examined survival and productivity among radiocollared (n = 152) adult female and juvenile moose in northwest Minnesota during 1995–2000, and assessed cause of death and pathology through carcass necropsy of radiocollared and non-radiocollared animals.Aerial moose surveys suggested that hunting was an unlikely source of the numerical decline because the level of harvest was relatively low (i.e., approx. 15% / 2 yr) and the population usually grew in years following a hunt. The majority of moose mortalities (up to 87% of radiocollared moose [n = 76] and up to 65% of non-radiocollared moose [n = 84]) were proximally related to pathology associated with parasites and infectious disease. Liver fluke (Fascioloides magna) infections apparently constituted the greatest single source of mortality and caused significant pathology in the liver, thoracic and peritoneal cavities, pericardial sac, and lungs. Mortality due to meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) was less prevalent and was manifested through characteristic neurological disease. Several mortalities apparently were associated with unidentified infectious disease, probably acting in close association with malnutrition. Bone-marrow fat was lower for moose dying of natural causes than those dying of anthropogenic factors or

  9. Chronic fatigue syndrome in an ethnically diverse population: the influence of psychosocial adversity and physical inactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessely Simon

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS is a complex multifactorial disorder. This paper reports the prevalence of chronic fatigue (CF and CFS in an ethnically diverse population sample and tests whether prevalence varies by social adversity, social support, physical inactivity, anxiety and depression. Methods Analysis of survey data linking the Health Survey for England (1998 and 1999 and the Ethnic Minority Psychiatric Illness Rates in the Community (EMPIRIC study undertaken in 2000. The study population comprised a national population sample of 4,281 people ages 16 to 74 years. CF and CFS were operationally defined on the basis of an interview in the EMPIRIC study, alongside questions about psychosocial risk factors. Previous illnesses were reported in the Health Survey for England during 1998 and 1999, as was physical inactivity. Results All ethnic minority groups had a higher prevalence of CFS than the White group. The lowest prevalence was 0.8% in the White group, and it was highest at 3.5% in the Pakistani group (odds ratio (OR, 4.1; 95% confidence interval (95% CI, 1.6 to 10.4. Anxiety (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.4 to 2.2, depression (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1 to 1.8, physical inactivity (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.1 to 3.8, social strain (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.48 and negative aspects of social support (OR, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.4 to 3.3 were independent risk factors for CFS in the overall sample. Together these risk factors explained ethnic differences in the prevalence of CFS, but no single risk factor could explain a higher prevalence in all ethnic groups. Conclusions The prevalence of CFS, but not CF, varies by ethnic group. Anxiety, depression, physical inactivity, social strain and negative aspects of social support together accounted for prevalence differences of CFS in the overall sample.

  10. Influence of socioeconomic status on acute myocardial infarction in the Chinese population: the INTERHEART China study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Jin; LI Wei; WANG Yang; CHEN Tao; Koon Teo; LIU Li-sheng; Salim Yusuf

    2012-01-01

    Background Many researches report that low socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with a higher risk of coronary heart disease (CHD).This study aimed to determine whether levels of education,family income,and other SES were associated with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in the Chinese population,and to compare the difference in this association between northern and southern regions in China.Methods We conducted a case-control study.Cases were first AMI (n=2909).Controls (n=2947) were randomly selected and frequency matched to cases on age and sex.SES was measured using education,family income,possessions in the household,and occupation.Results Low levels of education (8 years) were more common in cases compared to controls (53.4% and 44.1%;P=0.0001).After adjusting all risk factors,the level of education was associated with AMI risk in the Chinese population (P=0.0005).The odds ratio (OR) associated with education of 8 years or less,compared with more than 12 years (trade school/college/university) was 1.33 (95% CI 1.12-1.59),and for education of 9-12 years 1.04 (95% CI 0.88-1.33).The proportion of higher income population was more in controls than cases (39.4% and 35.3%).Number of possessions and non-professional occupation were only weakly or not at all independently related to AMI.The adjusted OR associated with the lower education was 2.38 (95% CI 1.67-3.39) in women,and 1.18 (95% CI 0.99-1.42) in men (P=0.0001,for heterogeneity).The interaction between levels of education and different regions was significant (P=0.0206,for interaction).Conclusion Several socioeconomic factors including levels of education and income were closely associated with increase of AMI risk in China,most markedly in northeast and southern area.The effect of education was stronger towards AMI in women than men.

  11. Compilation of Water-Resources Data for Montana, Water Year 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladd, P. B.; Berkas, W.R.; White, M.K.; Dodge, K.A.; Bailey, F.A.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, Montana Water Science Center, in cooperation with other Federal, State, and local agencies, and Tribal governments, collects a large amount of data pertaining to the water resources of Montana each water year. This report is a compilation of Montana site-data sheets for the 2006 water year, which consists of records of stage and discharge of streams; water quality of streams and ground water; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; water levels in wells; and precipitation data. Site-data sheets for selected stations in Canada and Wyoming also are included in this report. The data for Montana, along with data from various parts of the Nation, are included in 'Water-Resources Data for the United States, Water Year 2006', which is published as U.S. Geological Survey Water-Data Report WDR-US-2006 and is available at http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/wdr2006. Additional water year 2006 data collected at crest-stage gage and miscellaneous-measurement stations were collected but were not published. These data are stored in files of the U.S. Geological Survey Montana Water Science Center in Helena, Montana, and are available on request.

  12. The Montana ALE (Autonomous Lunar Excavator) Systems Engineering Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Bethanne J.

    2012-01-01

    On May 2 1-26, 20 12, the third annual NASA Lunabotics Mining Competition will be held at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. This event brings together student teams from universities around the world to compete in an engineering challenge. Each team must design, build and operate a robotic excavator that can collect artificial lunar soil and deposit it at a target location. Montana State University, Bozeman, is one of the institutions selected to field a team this year. This paper will summarize the goals of MSU's lunar excavator project, known as the Autonomous Lunar Explorer (ALE), along with the engineering process that the MSU team is using to fulfill these goals, according to NASA's systems engineering guidelines.

  13. CENTENNIAL MOUNTAINS WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, MONTANA AND IDAHO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkind, Irving J.; Ridenour, James

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey conducted within the Centennial Mountains Wilderness study area in Montana and Idaho showed large areas of probable and substantiated resource potential for phosphate. Byproducts that may be derived from processing the phosphate include vanadium, chromium, uranium, silver, fluorine, and the rare earths, lanthanum and yttrium. Results of a geochemical sampling program suggest that there is little promise for the occurrence of base and precious metals in the area. Although the area contains other nonmetallic deposits, such as coal, building stone, and pumiceous ash they are not considered as mineral resources. There is a probable resource potential for oil and gas and significant amounts may underlie the area around the Peet Creek and Odell Creek anticlines.

  14. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Ashton Quadrangle, Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suekawa, H.S.; Merrick, D.; Clayton, J.; Rumba, S.

    1982-07-01

    The Ashton Quadrangle, Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming, was evaluated to identify and delineate areas containing environments favorable for uranium deposits, using criteria developed for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. General surface reconnaissance, radiometric traverses, and geochemical sampling were carried out in all geologic environments within the quadrangle. Aerial radiometric data were evaluated, and anomalies were examined in the field. Fourteen uranium occurrences were noted in the study area. Only one environment, the phosphorites of the Permian Phosphoria Formation, is considered favorable for uranium deposition. The unfavorable environments include: limestones, sandstones, coal and carbonaceous shales, volcanics, Precambrian metamorphics, and Tertiary basins. Unevaluated areas include the John D. Rockefeller Jr. Memorial Parkway and Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks, where park service regulations prohibit detailed investigations.

  15. Shoot Tip Culture of Arnica montana for Micropropagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conchou, O; Nichterlein, K; Vömel, A

    1992-02-01

    Multiple shoots were regenerated from shoot tips of ARNICA MONTANA on MS and B5 media supplemented with BA (1 mg/l) and NAA (0.1 mg/l). Sections of 1-2 mm in length cultured from IN VITRO germinated seedlings regenerated 7.7 (mean) shoots on the MS medium, whereas sections cultured from greenhouse plants regenerated 9.0 (mean) shoots on the B5 medium within 6 weeks. Subsequent subcultures of shoots on the same media but without NAA resulted in similar or lower multiplication rates (1.6 to 3.1 in 3 weeks). Shoot development was promoted, whereas shoot initiation was simultaneously inhibited by the addition of activated charcoal to the media. Rooting was induced by culturing shoots from seedling as well as from greenhouse plant shoot tips on MS or B5 medium supplemented with NAA. The plantlets were transplanted into soil and grown successfully under greenhouse and field conditions.

  16. Population variation in anti-S. aureus IgG isotypes influences surface protein A mediated immune subversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Julia; Flaxman, Amy; Rollier, Christine; O'Shea, Matthew K; Fallowfield, Joanne; Lindsay, Michael; Gunner, Frances; Knox, Kyle; Wyllie, David H; Yamaguchi, Yuko

    2016-04-04

    Staphylococcus aureus is a pathogen which causes life-threatening infection, the incidence of which rises during adult life. This, together with the emergence of drug-resistant strains and the expansion of more susceptible elderly populations, represents the rationale for the ongoing development of S. aureus vaccines targeting adult populations. Humoral responses to S. aureus naturally develop early in life, influence susceptibility to infection, and potentially influence the effect of vaccination. Despite this, the nature of pre-existing anti-S. aureus antibodies in healthy adult populations is not fully characterised. Immunoglobulin levels against S. aureus surface antigens were measured by a filter membrane enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using fixed ΔSpA S. aureus as an antigen in serum samples obtained from three clinical cohorts comprising 133 healthy adult volunteers from 19 to 65 years of age. Functional capacity of antibody was also assessed, using antibody-mediated attachment of FITC-stained S. aureus to differentiated HL-60 cells. Wide variation in the concentrations of immunoglobulins recognising S. aureus surface antigens was observed among individuals in all three cohorts. There was a decline of anti-S. aureus IgG1 with age, and a similar trend was observed in IgM, but not in IgA or other IgG sub-classes. Antibody mediated bacterial attachment to cells was associated with IgG1 and IgG3 concentrations in serum. The presence of SpA on the bacterial cell surface reduced antibody-mediated binding of bacteria to phagocytes in serum with low, but not high, levels of naturally occurring anti-S. aureus IgG3 antibodies. Naturally acquired immunoglobulin responses to S. aureus are heterogeneous in populations and their concentrations alter during adulthood. Elevated IgG1 or IgG3 titres against S. aureus enhance S. aureus recognition by phagocytosis and may be correlates of natural protection and/or vaccine efficacy in adult populations. Copyright © 2016 The

  17. Influence of Chemical Parameters on Artemia sp. (Crustacea: Anostraca Population in Al Wathba Lake in the Abu Dhabi Emirate, UAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anitha Saji

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Long term monitoring programme on Brine shrimp (Artemia sp. is being carried out by the Environment Agency, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates (EAD with the prime purpose of understanding the population dynamics, ecology and habitat requirements of Artemia at Al Wathba Lake, situated within Al Wathba Wetland Reserve, which is an artificial wetland near Abu Dhabi City. The present study, being a component of this programme, intends to understand the influence of chemical parameters such as dissolved oxygen, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, ammonia and total organic carbon on Artemia biomass and cyst production at different sites of the Al Wathba Lake. The study was carried out by sampling lake water quarterly for a period of 5 years from 2010 to 2014. The Artemia population was found to have direct impact of the above mentioned parameters on its abundance. The abundance was highest during the year 2010. Further, temperature, dissolved oxygen, nitrate and cadmium were found to be the most crucial parameters for production of Artemia. The study further aimed to determine the significant relationship between physico-chemical parameters and Artemia sp. population dynamics and cyst production.

  18. INFLUENCE OF NPK AND LIME APLICATION ON ERVA-MATE GROWTH, ROOT-ROT SEVERITY AND SOIL FUNGI POPULATION1

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    Igor Poletto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work evaluated the influence of the application of NPK and liming doses in the soil, on the growth of Erva-mate, the severity of rot-root and the fungi population of the soil. To do so, an experiment was installed at the green house, in the Forest Nursery of UFSM, using an experimental design completely randomized factorial 4x3x4 (Factor F: Fusarium spp. inoculation; Factor C: soil limestone; Factor A: NPK doses , totaling 48 treatments. The seedlings were cultivated in vases containing 2 kg of soil, classified as ‘Red-Yellow Argisoil’ (clay soil. At the end of the experiment was measured the stem diameter, height of the aerial part, leaves number, aerial dry biomass, root dry biomass and total dry biomass of the seedlings. Also, the soil was collected, from each treatment, for the chemical analysis and the counting of the fungi population. It was observed that the association among application of NPK and liming in the soil hampered the development of Erva-mate seedlings. The analysis of some variables suggests that the limestone absence provided greater resistance of seedlings to the attack of Fusarium spp. or the severity of Fusarium spp. was reduced in lower pH. The fungi population of the soil presented varied behavior depending on the applied treatments.

  19. Influence of urbanity on perception of mental illness stigma: a population based study in urban and rural Hanoi, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta, Thi Minh Tam; Zieger, Aron; Schomerus, Georg; Cao, Tien Duc; Dettling, Michael; Do, Xuan Tinh; Mungee, Aditya; Diefenbacher, Albert; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Hahn, Eric

    2016-12-01

    To examine, for the first time in Vietnam, whether urbanity of respondents among other socio-demographic factors affects the public perception of stigma attached to persons with mental illness in Hanoi. A general population-based survey was carried out in 2013 in the greater Hanoi area. The perception of stigma attached to people with mental illness was elicited using Link's perceived discrimination and devaluation scale (PDDS) carried out in Vietnamese language. The survey sample (n = 806) was stratified for gender, urban/rural location, age, household size and marital status, in accordance with the 2013 Vietnamese census. Comparing the total score of the PDDS and its single items, we found less perceived stigma and discrimination among the rural population of Hanoi and in respondents who reported religious attainment to either Buddhism or Christianity. Logistic regression analyses found no significant influences of gender, age, household size or marital status regarding the perceived stigma toward persons with mental illness. Less negative perception of stigma attached to persons with mental illness that was observed among the rural population in the Hanoi area may be interpreted in the light of possibly more demanding living conditions in modern urban Vietnam with less opportunities for mentally ill patients and points toward a dynamic interaction with rapidly changing living conditions in Asian megacities. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Socioeconomic Position, Rural Residence, and Marginality Influences on Obesity Status in the Adult Mexican Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Johnelle Sparks

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses individual and social environment determinants of obesity in the adult Mexican population based on socioeconomic position, rural residence, and areal deprivation. Using a nationally representative health and nutrition survey, this analysis considers individual and structural determinants of obesity from a socioeconomic position and health disparities conceptual framework using multilevel logistic regression models. We find that more than thirty percent of Mexican adults were obese in 2006 and that the odds of being obese were strongly associated with an individual's socioeconomic position, gender, place of residence, and the level of marginalization (areal deprivation in the place of residence. Surprisingly, areas of the country where areal deprivation was highest had lower risks of individual obesity outcomes. We suggest that programs oriented towards addressing the health benefits of traditional food systems over high-energy dense refined foods and sugary beverages be promoted as part of a public health program aimed at curbing the rising obesity prevalence in Mexico.

  1. The Influence of Israel Health Insurance Law on the Negev Bedouin Population — A Survey Study

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    Mohammed Morad

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The extension of universal health service insurance to national populations is a relatively new phenomenon. Since 1995, the Israeli National Health Insurance Law (NHIL has provided universal health services to every resident, but the effect of this law on health and health services among minorities has not been examined sufficiently. The goals of this study were to track some of the first changes engendered by the NHIL among the Negev Bedouin Arabs to examine the effects of universal health care services. Methods included analysis of historical and health policy documents, three field appraisals of health care services (1994, 1995, 1999, a region-wide interview survey of Negev Bedouins (1997, and key informant interviews. For the interview survey, a sample of 515 households was chosen from different Bedouin localities representing major sedentarization stages. Results showed that prior to the NHIL, a substantial proportion of the Negev Bedouins were uninsured with limited, locally available health service. Since 1995, health services, particularly primary care clinics and health manpower, have dramatically expanded. The initial expansion appears to have been a marketing ploy, but real improvements have occurred. There was a high level of health service utilization among the Bedouins in the Negev, especially private medical services, hospitals, and night ambulatory medical services. The NHIL brought change to the structure of health services in Israel, namely the institution of a national health system based on proportional allocation of resources (based on size and age and open competition in the provision of quality health care. The expansion of the pool of potential members engendered by the new universal coverage had profound effects on the Health Funds' attitudes towards Negev Bedouins. In addition, real consumer choice was introduced for the first time. Although all the health care needs of this rapidly growing population have yet to be met

  2. Landscape composition creates a threshold influencing Lesser Prairie-Chicken population resilience to extreme drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Beth E.; Haukos, David A.; Hagen, Christian A.; Pitman, James C.

    2016-01-01

    Habitat loss and degradation compound the effects of climate change on wildlife, yet responses to climate and land cover change are often quantified independently. The interaction between climate and land cover change could be intensified in the Great Plains region where grasslands are being converted to row-crop agriculture concurrent with increased frequency of extreme drought events. We quantified the combined effects of land cover and climate change on a species of conservation concern in the Great Plains, the Lesser Prairie-Chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus  ). We combined extreme drought events and land cover change with lek count surveys in a Bayesian hierarchical model to quantify changes in abundance of male Lesser Prairie-Chickens from 1978 to 2014 in Kansas, the core of their species range. Our estimates of abundance indicate a gradually decreasing population through 2010 corresponding to drought events and reduced grassland areas. Decreases in Lesser Prairie-Chicken abundance were greatest in areas with increasing row-crop to grassland land cover ratio during extreme drought events, and decreased grassland reduces the resilience of Lesser Prairie-Chicken populations to extreme drought events. A threshold exists for Lesser Prairie-Chickens in response to the gradient of cropland:grassland land cover. When moving across the gradient of grassland to cropland, abundance initially increased in response to more cropland on the landscape, but declined in response to more cropland after the threshold (δ=0.096, or 9.6% cropland). Preservation of intact grasslands and continued implementation of initiatives to revert cropland to grassland should increase Lesser Prairie-Chicken resilience to extreme drought events due to climate change.

  3. Influence of uncorrected refractive error and unmet refractive error on visual impairment in a Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Fabio H; Corrente, José E; Opromolla, Paula; Schellini, Silvana A

    2014-06-25

    The World Health Organization (WHO) definitions of blindness and visual impairment are widely based on best-corrected visual acuity excluding uncorrected refractive errors (URE) as a visual impairment cause. Recently, URE was included as a cause of visual impairment, thus emphasizing the burden of visual impairment due to refractive error (RE) worldwide is substantially higher. The purpose of the present study is to determine the reversal of visual impairment and blindness in the population correcting RE and possible associations between RE and individual characteristics. A cross-sectional study was conducted in nine counties of the western region of state of São Paulo, using systematic and random sampling of households between March 2004 and July 2005. Individuals aged more than 1 year old were included and were evaluated for demographic data, eye complaints, history, and eye exam, including no corrected visual acuity (NCVA), best corrected vision acuity (BCVA), automatic and manual refractive examination. The definition adopted for URE was applied to individuals with NCVA > 0.15 logMAR and BCVA ≤ 0.15 logMAR after refractive correction and unmet refractive error (UREN), individuals who had visual impairment or blindness (NCVA > 0.5 logMAR) and BCVA ≤ 0.5 logMAR after optical correction. A total of 70.2% of subjects had normal NCVA. URE was detected in 13.8%. Prevalence of 4.6% of optically reversible low vision and 1.8% of blindness reversible by optical correction were found. UREN was detected in 6.5% of individuals, more frequently observed in women over the age of 50 and in higher RE carriers. Visual impairment related to eye diseases is not reversible with spectacles. Using multivariate analysis, associations between URE and UREN with regard to sex, age and RE was observed. RE is an important cause of reversible blindness and low vision in the Brazilian population.

  4. Polygenic Risk for Schizophrenia Influences Cortical Gyrification in 2 Independent General Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing; Zhang, Xiaolong; Cui, Yue; Qin, Wen; Tao, Yan; Li, Jin; Yu, Chunshui; Jiang, Tianzi

    2017-05-01

    Schizophrenia is highly heritable, whereas the effect of each genetic variant is very weak. Since clinical heterogeneity and complexity of schizophrenia is high, considerable effort has been made to relate genetic variants to underlying neurobiological aspects of schizophrenia (endophenotypes). Given the polygenic nature of schizophrenia, our goal was to form a measure of additive genetic risk and explore its relationship to cortical morphology. Utilizing the data from a recent genome-wide association study that included nearly 37 000 cases of schizophrenia, we computed a polygenic risk score (PGRS) for each subject in 2 independent and healthy general populations. We then investigated the effect of polygenic risk for schizophrenia on cortical gyrification calculated from 3.0T structural imaging data in the discovery dataset (N = 315) and replication dataset (N = 357). We found a consistent effect of the polygenic risk for schizophrenia on cortical gyrification in the inferior parietal lobules in 2 independent general-population samples. A higher PGRS was significantly associated with a lower local gyrification index in the bilateral inferior parietal lobles, where case-control differences have been reported in previous studies on schizophrenia. Our findings strongly support the effectiveness of both PGRSs and endophenotypes in establishing the genetic architecture of psychiatry. Our findings may provide some implications regarding individual differences in the genetic risk for schizophrenia to cortical morphology and brain development. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Landscape composition creates a threshold influencing Lesser Prairie-Chicken population resilience to extreme drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth E. Ross

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Habitat loss and degradation compound the effects of climate change on wildlife, yet responses to climate and land cover change are often quantified independently. The interaction between climate and land cover change could be intensified in the Great Plains region where grasslands are being converted to row-crop agriculture concurrent with increased frequency of extreme drought events. We quantified the combined effects of land cover and climate change on a species of conservation concern in the Great Plains, the Lesser Prairie-Chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus. We combined extreme drought events and land cover change with lek count surveys in a Bayesian hierarchical model to quantify changes in abundance of male Lesser Prairie-Chickens from 1978 to 2014 in Kansas, the core of their species range. Our estimates of abundance indicate a gradually decreasing population through 2010 corresponding to drought events and reduced grassland areas. Decreases in Lesser Prairie-Chicken abundance were greatest in areas with increasing row-crop to grassland land cover ratio during extreme drought events, and decreased grassland reduces the resilience of Lesser Prairie-Chicken populations to extreme drought events. A threshold exists for Lesser Prairie-Chickens in response to the gradient of cropland:grassland land cover. When moving across the gradient of grassland to cropland, abundance initially increased in response to more cropland on the landscape, but declined in response to more cropland after the threshold (δ=0.096, or 9.6% cropland. Preservation of intact grasslands and continued implementation of initiatives to revert cropland to grassland should increase Lesser Prairie-Chicken resilience to extreme drought events due to climate change.

  6. Weight status at age 18 influences marriage prospects. A population-based study of Swedish men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kark Malin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a longitudinal population-based study of the relationship between body mass index (BMI in early adulthood and marital status at 40 years of age, obese men were half as likely to be married compared with men of normal weight. Significant associations between obesity and marital status among men in a longitudinal setting are novel findings. Methods The study cohort comprised Swedish men born from 1951 to 1961. Height and weight at age 18 was gathered from the Military Service Conscription Register and information on marital status at 40 years of age was obtained from population registers by record-linkage using the unique personal identification number. The odds ratio (OR for being married was calculated by polytomous logistic regression analysis adjusting for birth year, intellectual performance, education, country of birth, residential area, socioeconomic position in childhood and adulthood, parental education and muscle strength. Results Our study included 486 599 Swedish men. Young men who were obese (BMI≥30.0 at 18 years of age had an OR of 0.49 (95% CI: 0.46–0.52 for being married at 40 years of age compared to normal weight men (BMI: 18.5–24.9. Underweight men (BMI≤18.5 had an OR of 0.84 (0.82–0.86 and overweight men (BMI: 25.0–29.9 had an OR of 0.83 (0.80–0.85 for being married at 40 years of age. Conclusion Underweight, overweight and obese men were less likely to be married than their normal weight counterparts. Obese men had the lowest likelihood of being married. Stigmatization and discrimination may partly explain these findings, but further research is needed before firm conclusions can be drawn.

  7. Use of homeopathy Arnica montana for the issuance of the roots Rosmarinus officinalis L. and Lippia alba (Mill N.E.Br. Uso del preparado homeopático Arnica montana en la formación de raíces de Rosmarinus officinalis L. y Lippia alba (Mill N.E.Br. Uso do preparado homeopático Arnica montana na formação de raízes de Rosmarinus officinalis L. e Lippia alba (MillN.E.E.Br

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Wagner Dias Casali

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of homeopathic preparation Arnica montana in rooting of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis and White Lippia (Lippia alba. The cuttings Rosmarinus officinalis and Lippia alba, collected from the medicinal garden at NCA / UFMG, were placed in trays to root with commercial substrate type "plantmax" and immediately after were subjected to daily applications of homeopathic preparations of Arnica montana in dilutions 3cH, 6cH, 9cH, 12cH, with 2 controls, distilled water and ethanol 70%. The statistical design was completely randomized (DIC, with 6 treatments and 4 repetitions, each experimental unit was formed by 10 stakes. After 45 days, were assessed the number of roots, the nummber of shoots, the length of the largest root, the percentage of rooted stakes and the quality of stakes. Arnica montana in dilutions 3cH, 6cH and 12cH stimulated all variables related to the issuance of roots in the species under study, which emphasizes the similarity between Arnica montana and the picture elicited by the physiological process of cutting, promoting an increase in the percentage and quality of the roots. Keywords: Homeopathy; rooting; cutting; Arnica Montana.   Uso do preparado homeopático Arnica montana na formação de raízes de Rosmarinus officinalis L. e Lippia alba (MillN.E.E.Br Resumo O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência do preparado homeopático Arnica montana na formação de raízes de alecrim (Rosmarinus officinalis e cidreira (Lippia alba. Mudas de Rosmarinus officinalis e Lippia alba, cultivadas no horto medicinal de NCA/UFMG foram colocadas para enraizar em bandejas contendo substrato comercial de tipo "plantamax" e imediatamente após, submetidas a aplicações diárias de preparados homeopáticos de Arnica montana nas diluições 3cH, 6cH, 9cH e 12cH, com dois controles

  8. INFLUENCE OF ENDOGENOUS FACTORS ON THE BEHAVIOR OF CONSUMPTION AND BUYING FOR THE POPULATION OF RESITA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DINU GABRIEL

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to highlight the important goal for a modern enterprise, the consumer, not as an option, but as an objective of every enterprise, according to the company mission on the market in postmodern marketing. The historical development of the study of consumer behavior is closely related to the contribution of the humanities to develop the theories on how endogenous factors influencing the buying behavior. The role of buyer is temporary, the personality being less involved than in a professional role, through reciprocal agreements, they leave a wider space of freedom. Moreover, every man has in his repertoire of roles the one of buyer (addicted, influential, conformist, hesitant, talkative, timid, holder, dishonest, aggressive, demanding, quick, independent, autonomous.

  9. Different testers influence genetic correlational response in narrow-based maize population NSA15

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    Stanisavljević Dušan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to determine correlations between grain yield and other morphological and agronomical traits in two groups of maize half-sib (HS progenies. Progenies were obtained by crossing every S1 family with two unrelated inbred lines as testers, NS732 and NS27. Field trials with incomplete block design, with replicates within set were conducted in 2008 and 2009 at four locations. The following traits were observed: grain yield, ear length, kernel row number, kernel number per row, 1000-kernel weight, plant height, ear height, number of leaves above ear and grain moisture. Significant moderate strong negative correlation between grain yield and ear length was determined in HS1 progeny. High significant correlations occurred among plant and ear height in both HS and between plant height and number of leaves. Observed differences in levels of correlation imply significant influence of tester in each group on HS progeny.

  10. Littering dynamics in a coastal industrial setting: the influence of non-resident populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Marnie L; Paterson de Heer, Chloe; Kinslow, Amber

    2014-03-15

    We examined if there is truth to the preconceptions that non-resident workers (including FIFO/DIDO's) detract from communities. We used marine debris to test this, specifically focussing on littering behaviour and evidence of awareness of local environmental programs that focus on marine debris. Littering was most common at recreational areas, then beaches and whilst boating. Twenty-five percent of respondents that admit to littering, reported no associated guilt with their actions. Younger respondents litter more frequently. Thus, non-resident workers litter at the same rate as permanent residents, visitors and tourists in this region, within this study. Few respondents are aware of the environmental programs that operate in their local region. Awareness was influenced by a respondent's residency (non-residents are less aware), age, and level of education. To address this failure we recommend that industries, that use non-resident workers, should develop inductions that expose new workers to the environmental programs in their region.

  11. Influence of industrial heavy metal pollution on soil free-living nematode population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pen-Mouratov, Stanislav; Shukurov, Nosir; Steinberger, Yosef

    2008-03-01

    The effect of distance from a heavy metal pollution source on the soil nematode community (trophic structure, sex structure, and taxa composition) was investigated along a 15-km transect originating at the Almalyk Industrial Complex, Uzbekistan (pollution source). The soil nematode community was exposed to heavy metal influence both directly and through soil properties changes. Pollution effect on the density and biomass of soil free-living nematodes was found to be highest at pollution source, with fungivores and plant parasites dominating at the upper and deeper soil layers next to the pollution source. These groups decreased along the transect, yielding domination to bacteria- and fungi-feeders. The sex ratio of nematode communities was found to be dependent on heavy metal pollution levels, with the juveniles being the most sensitive nematode group. The Maturity and modified Maturity Indices, reflecting the degree of disturbance of the soil ecosystem, were found to be the most sensitive indices.

  12. Undue influence of weight on self-evaluation: a population-based twin study of gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Bulik, Cynthia M; Kendler, Kenneth S; Roysamb, Espen; Tambs, Kristian; Torgersen, Svenn; Harris, Jennifer R

    2004-03-01

    To explore the extent to which genetic and environmental factors contribute to liability to placing undue importance on weight as an indicator of self-evaluation and to determine whether differences exist across genders in the nature and magnitude of these effects. Self-report data were collected on 8,045 same-sex and opposite-sex twins, aged 18-31 years, from a population-based registry of Norwegian twins. Structural equation modeling was utilized to estimate the relative contribution of genetic and environmental factors to liability for undue influence of weight on self-evaluation, allowing for gender-specific effects. Individual variation in undue influence of weight on self-evaluation was best explained by shared and individual environmental influences. No significant gender differences were found. Shared environmental factors accounted for 31% of the variance. These results raise the possibility that there may be distinct sources of familial resemblance for different symptoms of bulimia nervosa as codified in the 4th ed. of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 1994). Copyright 2004 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 35: 123-132, 2004.

  13. Natal location influences movement and survival of a spatially structured population of snail kites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J.; Kitchens, W.M.; Hines, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    Despite the accepted importance of the need to better understand how natal location affects movement decisions and survival of animals, robust estimates of movement and survival in relation to the natal location are lacking. Our study focuses on movement and survival related to the natal location of snail kites in Florida and shows that kites, in addition to exhibiting a high level of site tenacity to breeding regions, also exhibit particular attraction to their natal region. More specifically, we found that estimates of movement from post-dispersal regions were greater toward natal regions than toward non-natal regions (differences were significant for three of four regions). We also found that estimates of natal philopatry were greater than estimates of philopatry to non-natal regions (differences were statistically significant for two of four regions). A previous study indicated an effect of natal region on juvenile survival; in this study, we show an effect of natal region on adult survival. Estimates of adult survival varied among kites that were hatched in different regions. Adults experienced mortality rates characteristic of the region occupied at the time when survival was measured, but because there is a greater probability that kites will return to their natal region than to any other regions, their survival was ultimately influenced by their natal region. In most years, kites hatched in southern regions had greater survival probabilities than did kites hatched in northern regions. However, during a multiregional drought, one of the northern regions served as a refuge from drought, and during this perturbation, survival was greater for birds hatched in the north. Our study shows that natal location may be important in influencing the ecological dynamics of kites but also highlights the importance of considering temporal variation in habitat conditions of spatially structured systems when attempting to evaluate the conservation value of habitats.

  14. The influence of population on the economic efficiency of the metropolitan governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy V. Pavlov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Research purpose. In order to implement the optimal metropolitan governance model, it is important to understand the conditions under which this or that model is economically effective. There is a need to develop a quantitatively justified methodology for choosing the optimal metropolitan governance model for different types of metropolitan areas. It has been emphasized in some federal documents of Russia, for example, in the “Recommendations for the selection of pilot projects for approbation and improvement of mechanisms for managing the development of metropolitan areas in the Russian Federation”.Materials and methods. Domestic researchers (N. Zubarevich, K. Gonchar, etc. and foreign researchers (Glaeser Edward L., Nakamura, Ciccone A., Hall R., etc. carried out the study of quantitative relationships between the economic growth of cities and the characteristics of cities.However, for metropolitan areas, the analysis of the relationship has not yet been implemented between the outpacing economic growth of the metropolitan area relative to the average country values (labor productivity and GDP per capita, the institutional factor (the type of metropolitan governance model, andthe non-institutional factor (population size. To identify the dependencies we are interested in, we used the OECD statistical database and OECD researches to identify the metropolitan governance model in the sample of metropolitan areas in the world. The sample in this research was 87 metropolitan areas in Europe and was divided into groups, depending on the population and the introduced metropolitan governance model. For each group, a correlation-regression analysis was performed and a weighted average was calculated from the indexes of the economic growth. As the leading index of the economic growth, labor productivity was used, as the final - GDP per capita. Then a comparison was made between the real value of economic growth in each surveyed metropolitan area and

  15. Fertility preservation in the male pediatric population: factors influencing the decision of parents and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyns, C; Collienne, C; Shenfield, F; Robert, A; Laurent, P; Roegiers, L; Brichard, B

    2015-09-01

    How can the decision process for fertility preservation (FP) in adolescents and prepubertal boys be improved based on patient and parent feelings about FP counseling? The content of information given to patients and parents and hope for future parenthood appeared to positively impact on the decision to preserve fertility in the pediatric population and, therefore, deserves special attention to improve FP care. A vast body of literature on adult cancer patients shows that reproductive capacity is a major quality-of-life issue. Patients also have a strong desire to be informed of available FP options with a view to future parenthood of their own genetic child, considering that parents were able to make an informed and voluntary decision for their prepubertal sons despite the heavy emotional burden at the time of diagnosis, there is so far very limited information on patient expectations regarding FP. A lack of awareness often equates to suboptimal care by oncologists and FP specialists, and poor access to FP, therefore improving knowledge and identifying the expectations of pediatric patients and their parents are crucial for optimizing multidisciplinary collaborative care pathways (MCCPs), including counseling and access to FP methods, in the youngest population. A questionnaire survey was posted to an eligible population between May 2005 and May 2013. A total of 348 prepubertal boys and adolescents aged 0-18 years, diagnosed with cancer in a university hospital setting, were eligible. Three different questionnaires for two age groups of children (parents were established based on information from focus groups. Questions were subsequently reviewed by the institutional ethics board before being sent. Of the 348 eligible patients, 44 died and 14 were lost to follow-up. Thus, 290 patients (77 aged 12-18 years and 213 aged children. FP acceptance rates were, respectively, 74 and 78.6% for boys aged parents appeared to positively impact on the decision to preserve

  16. Burn severity and areas of daily fire growth for 42 forest fires in Idaho and Montana, 2005 - 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Donovan Shayne

    This work consisted of two studies of burn severity using infrared perimeter maps and satellite-inferred burn severity data, differenced Normalized Burn Ratio, from 42 wildland fires from central Idaho and western Montana from 2005 to 2007, and 2011. Study 1 examined the proportion of burn severity categories for individual daily areas burned. We defined 2,697 areas, from which we calculated the proportion of three burn severity classes. The proportion of high severity was weakly correlated with size of area burned. Large areas burned do not consistently produced larger proportions of high severity. Study 2 analyzed burn severity relative to 20 environmental variables using the Random Forest machine learning algorithm. We used ten daily weather observations, eight 34-yr climate percentiles, seven topographical index measurements, and four vegetation characteristics from 10,819 randomly located points. We found that higher percentage existing vegetation cover had larger influences on changes in burn severity.

  17. Simulating future residential property losses from wildfire in Flathead County, Montana: Chapter 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prato, Tony; Paveglio, Travis B; Barnett, Yan; Silverstein, Robin; Hardy, Michael; Keane, Robert; Loehman, Rachel; Clark, Anthony; Fagre, Daniel B.; Venn, Tyron; Stockmann, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Wildfire damages to private residences in the United States and elsewhere have increased as a result of expansion of the wildland-urban interface (WUI) and other factors. Understanding this unwelcome trend requires analytical frameworks that simulate how various interacting social, economic, and biophysical factors influence those damages. A methodological framework is developed for simulating expected residential property losses from wildfire [E(RLW)], which is a probabilistic monetary measure of wildfire risk to residential properties in the WUI. E(RLW) is simulated for Flathead County, Montana for five, 10-year subperiods covering the period 2010-2059, under various assumptions about future climate change, economic growth, land use policy, and forest management. Results show statistically significant increases in the spatial extent of WUI properties, the number of residential structures at risk from wildfire, and E(RLW) over the 50-year evaluation period for both the county and smaller subareas (i.e., neighborhoods and parcels). The E(RLW) simulation framework presented here advances the field of wildfire risk assessment by providing a finer-scale tool that incorporates a set of dynamic, interacting processes. The framework can be applied using other scenarios for climate change, economic growth, land use policy, and forest management, and in other areas.

  18. Platelets in the paediatric population: the influence of age and the limitations of automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felle, P; McMahon, C; Rooney, S; Donnelly, P; Ni Chonchubhair, F

    2005-08-01

    Accurate and precise platelet counting is important for the clinical management of children with platelet disorders. Current automated technologies are often unable to discriminate platelets from non-platelet particles particularly in circumstances where platelet anisocytosis is common. This study compares manual methodology and the automated technologies; impedance, optical density and CD61 immunoplatelet method (available on the Cell Dyn 4000) with the reference method of flow cytometric analysis in a paediatric population. A total of 141 samples were analysed and divided into specific age related groups and groups with thrombocytopenia and thrombocytosis. Data analysis showed that the CD61 method compared best with the reference method and this was evident in all the specified groups. The mean platelet count obtained by optical and manual methods were lower, suggesting that these methods are less reliable. The impedance count method was accurate despite its limitations. Strong correlations were observed in the 2-14 year age group but there was greater variation in the platelet characteristics in neonates. The CD61 method is the automated method of choice and would be particularly useful in the problem groups (platelet counts <50 x 10(9)/l and neonates <1 month old).

  19. Plant population and weeds influence stalk insects, soil moisture, and yield in rainfed sunflowers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JAWWAD A. QURESHI; PHILLIP W. STAHLMAN; J. P. MICHAUD

    2007-01-01

    Insect infestation, soil moisture, and yield were examined in populations of≈ 33 140 plants/ha (low) and ≈ 40 340 plants/ha (high) of an oilseed sunflower, Helianthus annuus L, cv. ' Triumph 660CL' with two levels of weediness. Less weedy plots resulted from the application of herbicide combination of S-metolachlor and sulfentrazone, whereas more weedy plots resulted from application of sulfentrazone alone. Among the 12 weed species recorded, neither plant numbers nor biomass differed between crop plant densities.Larvae of the stalk-boring insects Cylindrocopturus adspersus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Mordellistena sp. (Coleoptera: Mordellidae) were less abundant in high density sunflowers, ostensibly due to reduced plant size. However, the same effect was not observed for Dectes texanus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) or Pelochrista womanana (Lepidoptera:Tortricidae), two other stalk-boring insects. Soil moisture was highest in low density and lowest in the high density sunflowers that were less weedy. Stalk circumference, head diameter, and seed weight were reduced for sunflower plants with short interplant distances (mean = 20 cm apart) compared to plants with long interplant distances (mean = 46 cm apart).These three variables were greater in less weedy plots compared with more weedy plots and positively correlated with interplant distance. Yields on a per-hectare basis paralleled those on a per-plant basis but were not different among treatments. The agronomic implications of planting density are discussed in the context of weed and insect management.

  20. Historical population movements in Europe influence genetic relationships in modern samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokal, R R; Oden, N L; Walker, J; Di Giovanni, D; Thomson, B A

    1996-12-01

    We have newly constructed an ethnohistorical database consisting of 3460 records of ethnic locations and movements in Europe since 2200 B.C. Using this database, we computed vectors of proportions that peoples speaking various language families contributed to the gene pools of 2216 1 degree x 1 degree land-based quadrats of Europe. From these vectors we computed ethnohistorical distances as arc distances between all pairs of quadrats. We used these distances as predictors of genetic distances, which we calculated independently from 26 genetic systems. We find significant partial correlations between ethnohistorical and genetic distances when geographic distance, a common causative factor, is held constant. Ethnohistorical distances explain a significant amount of the genetic variation observed in modern populations. These results are highly robust to simulated errors in and omissions from the ethnohistorical database. Randomization tests show that the historical sequence of the movements does not affect estimates of the ethnohistory-genetics correlation, but the geographic locations of movements do. We track the development of the ethnohistory-genetics correlation through time and show it to be gradual and cumulative over the past 4200 years.

  1. [Medicine consumption in the adult population: Influence of self-medication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera-Lasfuentes, Patricia; Aguilar-Palacio, Isabel; Clemente Roldán, Eduardo; Malo Fumanal, Sara; Rabanaque Hernandez, María José

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the factors associated with medicine consumption and self-consumption in Aragón (Spain) Cross-sectional study from the National Health Survey 2006. Aragón (Spain). Adult population in Aragón (Spain). Medicine consumption and the type of consumption. Demographic, health and health style variables were also considered. At least one drug was taken by the 65.1% of the adults in Aragón during the previous two weeks. Of this group, 11.7% were self-medicated. A higher frequency of consumption was observed in females and older people, and in those with a poor self-perceived health. People with a low educational level took drugs more often, but self-consumption was more frequent in the group with a high educational level. Medicine consumption and self-consumption in adults in Aragón is common. It is of great interest to know the consumption profile of these patients in order to develop specific interventions to reduce unnecessary consumption and to improve safety. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  2. Local spatial and temporal factors influencing population and societal vulnerability to natural disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yang; Li, Ning; Wu, Wenxiang; Wu, Jidong; Shi, Peijun

    2014-04-01

    The identification of societal vulnerable counties and regions and the factors contributing to social vulnerability are crucial for effective disaster risk management. Significant advances have been made in the study of social vulnerability over the past two decades, but we still know little regarding China's societal vulnerability profiles, especially at the county level. This study investigates the county-level spatial and temporal patterns in social vulnerability in China from 1980 to 2010. Based on China's four most recent population censuses of 2,361 counties and their corresponding socioeconomic data, a social vulnerability index for each county was created using factor analysis. Exploratory spatial data analysis, including global and local autocorrelations, was applied to reveal the spatial patterns of county-level social vulnerability. The results demonstrate that the dynamic characteristics of China's county-level social vulnerability are notably distinct, and the dominant contributors to societal vulnerability for all of the years studied were rural character, development (urbanization), and economic status. The spatial clustering patterns of social vulnerability to natural disasters in China exhibited a gathering-scattering-gathering pattern over time. Further investigations indicate that many counties in the eastern coastal area of China are experiencing a detectable increase in social vulnerability, whereas the societal vulnerability of many counties in the western and northern areas of China has significantly decreased over the past three decades. These findings will provide policymakers with a sound scientific basis for disaster prevention and mitigation decisions.

  3. [Diet and exercise influence on the proteomic profile of an athlete population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Rocio; Mangas, Alipio; Quezada, Maribel; Rodriguez-Rosety, Manuel; Fournielles, Gabriel; Rodriguez-Rosety, Ignacio; Rodriguez Rosety, Miguel Angel; Alonso, Jose Angel; Garcia-Cozar, Francisco Jose; Duran, Maria Del Carmen

    2014-11-01

    Nutrition has emerged as a fundamental tool included in the training program of athletes. Body composition seeks different objectives depending on type of sport, position, or time of the season. Furthermore, analysis proteomics allows us to know the structure and function of proteins. To study, using proteomics, the influence of two different diets on the anthropometric profile in a rugby players group. It is a prospective and interventionist study. Thirty-two rugby players were included. Two groups were defined, one followed proteic diet (PD) and, the other group subscribed the Mediterranean diet (MD). All participants were evaluated anthropometrically at the beginning and after six months. A blood sample was taken to twenty -two players, half of each group, used for the proteomic analysis. MD highlight more benefit for these athletes. Two groups were defined based on their anthropometric behavior, G1 and G2. The proteomic analysis related significantly some TGF-family mediators with these groups. MD improves the muscular mass without increasing the total body weight, so this data could be determinant to define profiles for athletes. Some TGF-members could be implicated in the adipose tissue and muscular mass balance. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  4. Multiple OPR genes influence personality traits in substance dependent and healthy subjects in two American populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xingguang; Zuo, Lingjun; Kranzler, Henry; Zhang, Huiping; Wang, Shuang; Gelernter, Joel

    2008-10-05

    Personality traits are among the most complex quantitative traits. Certain personality traits are associated with substance dependence (SD); genetic factors may influence both. Associations between opioid receptor (OPR) genes and SD have been reported. This study investigated the relationship between OPR genes and personality traits in a case-control sample. We assessed dimensions of the five-factor model of personality in 556 subjects: 250 with SD [181 European-Americans (EAs) and 69 African-Americans (AAs)] and 306 healthy subjects (266 EAs and 40 AAs). We genotyped 20 OPRM1 markers, 8 OPRD1 markers, and 7 OPRK1 markers, and 38 unlinked ancestry-informative markers in these subjects. The relationships between OPR genes and personality traits were examined using MANCOVA, controlling for gene-gene interaction effects and potential confounders. Associations were decomposed by Roy-Bargmann Stepdown ANCOVA. We found that personality traits were associated as main or interaction effects with the haplotypes, diplotypes, alleles and genotypes at the three OPR genes (0.002 CAC/TAC had interaction effects on Openness (P = 0.010) after conservative correction for multiple testing. The present study demonstrates that the genes encoding the mu-, delta-, and kappa-opioid receptors may contribute to variation in personality traits. Further, the three OPR genes have significant interaction effects on personality traits. This work provides additional evidence that personality traits and SD have a partially overlapping genetic basis.

  5. Loci influencing lipid levels and coronary heart disease risk in 16 European population cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulchenko, Yurii S; Ripatti, Samuli; Lindqvist, Ida; Boomsma, Dorret; Heid, Iris M; Pramstaller, Peter P; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Janssens, A Cecile J W; Wilson, James F; Spector, Tim; Martin, Nicholas G; Pedersen, Nancy L; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Kaprio, Jaakko; Hofman, Albert; Freimer, Nelson B; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Gyllensten, Ulf; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor; Johansson, Asa; Marroni, Fabio; Hayward, Caroline; Vitart, Veronique; Jonasson, Inger; Pattaro, Cristian; Wright, Alan; Hastie, Nick; Pichler, Irene; Hicks, Andrew A; Falchi, Mario; Willemsen, Gonneke; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; de Geus, Eco J C; Montgomery, Grant W; Whitfield, John; Magnusson, Patrik; Saharinen, Juha; Perola, Markus; Silander, Kaisa; Isaacs, Aaron; Sijbrands, Eric J G; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Oostra, Ben A; Elliott, Paul; Ruokonen, Aimo; Sabatti, Chiara; Gieger, Christian; Meitinger, Thomas; Kronenberg, Florian; Döring, Angela; Wichmann, H-Erich; Smit, Johannes H; McCarthy, Mark I; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Peltonen, Leena

    2009-01-01

    Recent genome-wide association (GWA) studies of lipids have been conducted in samples ascertained for other phenotypes, particularly diabetes. Here we report the first GWA analysis of loci affecting total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and triglycerides sampled randomly from 16 population-based cohorts and genotyped using mainly the Illumina HumanHap300-Duo platform. Our study included a total of 17,797-22,562 persons, aged 18-104 years and from geographic regions spanning from the Nordic countries to Southern Europe. We established 22 loci associated with serum lipid levels at a genome-wide significance level (P < 5 x 10(-8)), including 16 loci that were identified by previous GWA studies. The six newly identified loci in our cohort samples are ABCG5 (TC, P = 1.5 x 10(-11); LDL, P = 2.6 x 10(-10)), TMEM57 (TC, P = 5.4 x 10(-10)), CTCF-PRMT8 region (HDL, P = 8.3 x 10(-16)), DNAH11 (LDL, P = 6.1 x 10(-9)), FADS3-FADS2 (TC, P = 1.5 x 10(-10); LDL, P = 4.4 x 10(-13)) and MADD-FOLH1 region (HDL, P = 6 x 10(-11)). For three loci, effect sizes differed significantly by sex. Genetic risk scores based on lipid loci explain up to 4.8% of variation in lipids and were also associated with increased intima media thickness (P = 0.001) and coronary heart disease incidence (P = 0.04). The genetic risk score improves the screening of high-risk groups of dyslipidemia over classical risk factors.

  6. Early retirement and the influence on healthcare budgets and insurance premiums in a diabetes population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Walzer

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Stefan WalzerAnalytica International, Untere Herrenstrasse 25, 79539 Loerrach, GermanyObjectives: To contribute to current discussions about budget impact modeling, two different approaches for the impact of a new pharmaceutical product were analyzed: firstly considering the impact on annual healthcare expenditures only, and secondly additional inclusion of lost insurance premiums due to possible early retirement in patients with chronic diseases.Methods: The dynamic model calculates the budget impact from two different perspectives: (a the impact on healthcare expenditures and (b on expenditures as well as on health insurance revenues due to premiums. The latter approach could especially be useful for patients with chronic diseases who have higher probabilities of early retirement. Early retirement rates and indirect costs were derived from published data. Healthcare premiums were calculated based on an average premium and a mean income. Epidemiological input data were obtained from the literature. Time horizon was 10 years.Results: Results in terms of reimbursement decisions of the budget impact analysis varied depending on the assumptions made for the insurance premiums, costs, and early retirement rate. Sensitivity analyses revealed that in extreme cases the decision for accepting a new pharmaceutical product would probably be negative using approach (a, but positive using approach (b. Conclusions: Depending on the disease and population of interest in a budget impact analysis, not only the healthcare expenditures for a health insurance have to be considered but also the revenue side for an insurance due to retirement should be included.Keywords: decision analysis, budget impact, pharmacoeconomics, health economics, health insurance

  7. Examining Contextual Influences on Fall-Related Injuries Among Older Adults for Population Health Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Geoffrey J; Rodriguez, Hector P

    2015-12-01

    The objectives were to assess the associations between fall-related injuries (FRIs) treated in the emergency department (ED) among older adults in California and contextual county-level physical, social, and economic characteristics, and to assess how county-level economic conditions are associated with FRIs when controlling for other county-level factors. Data from 2008 California ED discharge, Medicare Impact File, and County Health Rankings were used. Random effects logistic regression models estimated contextual associations between county-level factors representing economic conditions, the built environment, community safety, access to care, and obesity with patient-level FRI treatment among 1,712,409 older adults, controlling for patient-level and hospital-level characteristics. Patient-level predictors of FRI treatment were consistent with previous studies not accounting for contextual associations. Larger and rural hospitals had higher odds of FRI treatment, while teaching and safety net hospitals had lower odds. Better county economic conditions were associated with greater odds (ß=0.73, P=0.001) and higher county-level obesity were associated with lower odds (ß=-0.37, P=0.004), but safer built environments (ß=-0.31, P=0.38) were not associated with FRI treatment. The magnitude of association between county-level economic conditions and FRI treatment attenuated with the inclusion of county-level obesity rates. FRI treatment was most strongly and consistently related to more favorable county economic conditions, suggesting differences in treatment or preferences for treatment for FRIs among older individuals in communities of varying resource levels. Using population health data on FRIs, policy makers may be able to remove barriers unique to local contexts when implementing falls prevention educational programs and built environment modifications.

  8. A comparative study on genetic and environmental influences on metabolic phenotypes in Eastern (Chinese) and Western (Danish) populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Shuxia

    2015-01-01

    the risk of clinic diseases e.g. diabetes, atherosclerosis, stroke and cardiovascular disease. Metabolic phenotypes, similar to most complex traits, can be influenced by both genetic and environmental factors as well as their interplay. Many family and twin studies have demonstrated both genetic...... and environmental factors play important role in the variation of metabolic phenotypes and intra-individual change over time. Although both genetic and environmental factors are involved the development of metabolic disorders, the role of environment should be emphasized as the expression or function of gene can...... be regulated to adapt to existing environmental circumstance. In other words, adaptive evolution in populations under distinct environmental and cultural circumstances could have resulted in varying genetic basis of metabolic factors and development of metabolic disorders or diseases. Thus, it can...

  9. Gastric alcohol dehydrogenase activity in man: influence of gender, age, alcohol consumption and smoking in a caucasian population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Billinger, M. H.; Bode, C.

    2002-01-01

    is negatively associated with consumption of larger quantities of alcohol. The question of whether ADH activity is higher in males or females can only be answered with respect to age. The gastric ADH activity in young men is distinctly higher compared to young women, but the opposite holds true in middle......AIMS: The stomach is involved in first-pass metabolism of alcohol in humans. As conflicting data were published regarding the influence of age and gender on the activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) in human gastric mucosa, the present study aimed at the investigation of these and other...... potentially confounding factors (alcohol consumption, smoking, drug intake) on its activity in a Caucasian population. METHODS: ADH activity was assessed in endoscopic gastric biopsy specimens from 111 Caucasian subjects aged 20-80 years, of whom 51 were females. RESULTS: Highest ADH activity was measured...

  10. No clear genetic influences on the association between dyslexia and anxiety in a population-based sample of female twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Andrew J O; Spector, Tim D; Cherkas, Lynn F

    2009-11-01

    Individuals with dyslexia are at an increased risk for anxiety disorders (e.g. generalized anxiety disorder, stress disorders, panic disorder). The extent to which this association is mediated by genetic and/or environmental influences is unclear. The current study explored the relationship between these two phenotypes using a large population-based twin sample. In total, 940 monozygotic and 903 dizygotic female twin pairs were included in the analyses. The presence of dyslexia and anxiety was determined by self-report of diagnosis by a health professional. Tetrachoric correlations confirmed an association between the two phenotypes, but suggested that there was no evidence for shared genetic risks. Bivariate twin modelling corroborated this finding and indicated the relationship between dyslexia and anxiety is mediated by shared environmental factors. Future research should seek to identifying the environmental factors that increase the vulnerability of individuals with dyslexia to emotional problems should be a priority for future research.

  11. Influence of wastewater treatment process and the population size on human virus profiles in wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Joanne; Leonard, Margaret; Greening, Gail E; Lewis, Gillian D

    2011-11-15

    Human adenovirus (AdV and AdV species F), enterovirus (EV) and norovirus (NoV) concentrations entering wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) serving different-sized communities, and effectiveness of different treatment processes in reducing concentrations were established. Data was combined to create a characteristic and unique descriptor of the individual viral composition and termed as the sample virus profile. Virus profiles were generally independent of population size and treatment process (moving bed biofilm reactors, activated sludge, waste stabilisation ponds). AdV and EV concentrations in wastewater were more variable in small (130,000 inhabitants) plants. AdV and EV concentrations were detected in influent of most WWTP (AdV range 1.00-4.08 log(10) infectious units (IU)/L, 3.25-8.62 log(10) genome copies/L; EV range 0.7-3.52 log(10) plaque forming units (PFU)/L; 2.84-6.67 log(10) genome copies/L) with a reduced median concentration in effluent (AdV range 0.70-3.26 log(10) IU/L, 2.97-6.95 log(10) genome copies/L; EV range 0.7-2.15 log(10)PFU/L, 1.54-5.28 log(10) genome copies/L). Highest culturable AdV and EV concentrations in effluent were from a medium-sized WWTP. NoV was sporadic in all WWTP with GI and GII concentrations being similar in influent (range 2.11-4.64 and 2.19-5.46 log(10) genome copies/L) as in effluent (range 2.18-5.06 and 2.88-5.46 log(10) genome copies/L). Effective management of WWTP requires recognition that virus concentration in influent will vary - particularly in small and medium plants. Irrespective of treatment type, culturable viruses and NoV are likely to be present in non-disinfected effluent, with associated human health risks dependent on concentration and receiving water usage. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Microevolutionary events involving narrow host plasmids influences local fixation of vancomycin-resistance in Enterococcus populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana R Freitas

    Full Text Available Vancomycin-resistance in enterococci (VRE is associated with isolates within ST18, ST17, ST78 Enterococcus faecium (Efm and ST6 Enterococcus faecalis (Efs human adapted lineages. Despite of its global spread, vancomycin resistance rates in enterococcal populations greatly vary temporally and geographically. Portugal is one of the European countries where Tn1546 (vanA is consistently found in a variety of environments. A comprehensive multi-hierarchical analysis of VRE isolates (75 Efm and 29 Efs from Portuguese hospitals and aquatic surroundings (1996-2008 was performed to clarify the local dynamics of VRE. Clonal relatedness was established by PFGE and MLST while plasmid characterization comprised the analysis of known relaxases, rep initiator proteins and toxin-antitoxin systems (TA by PCR-based typing schemes, RFLP comparison, hybridization and sequencing. Tn1546 variants were characterized by PCR overlapping/sequencing. Intra- and inter-hospital dissemination of Efm ST18, ST132 and ST280 and Efs ST6 clones, carrying rolling-circle (pEFNP1/pRI1 and theta-replicating (pCIZ2-like, Inc18, pHTβ-like, two pRUM-variants, pLG1-like, and pheromone-responsive plasmids was documented. Tn1546 variants, mostly containing ISEf1 or IS1216, were located on plasmids (30-150 kb with a high degree of mosaicism and heterogeneous RFLP patterns that seem to have resulted from the interplay between broad host Inc18 plasmids (pIP501, pRE25, pEF1, and narrow host RepA_N plasmids (pRUM, pAD1-like. TAs of Inc18 (ω-ε-ζ and pRUM (Axe-Txe plasmids were infrequently detected. Some plasmid chimeras were persistently recovered over years from different clonal lineages. This work represents the first multi-hierarchical analysis of VRE, revealing a frequent recombinatorial diversification of a limited number of interacting clonal backgrounds, plasmids and transposons at local scale. These interactions provide a continuous process of parapatric clonalization driving a full

  13. Microevolutionary Events Involving Narrow Host Plasmids Influences Local Fixation of Vancomycin-Resistance in Enterococcus Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Ana R.; Novais, Carla; Tedim, Ana P.; Francia, María Victoria; Baquero, Fernando; Peixe, Luísa; Coque, Teresa M.

    2013-01-01

    Vancomycin-resistance in enterococci (VRE) is associated with isolates within ST18, ST17, ST78 Enterococcus faecium (Efm) and ST6 Enterococcus faecalis (Efs) human adapted lineages. Despite of its global spread, vancomycin resistance rates in enterococcal populations greatly vary temporally and geographically. Portugal is one of the European countries where Tn1546 (vanA) is consistently found in a variety of environments. A comprehensive multi-hierarchical analysis of VRE isolates (75 Efm and 29 Efs) from Portuguese hospitals and aquatic surroundings (1996–2008) was performed to clarify the local dynamics of VRE. Clonal relatedness was established by PFGE and MLST while plasmid characterization comprised the analysis of known relaxases, rep initiator proteins and toxin-antitoxin systems (TA) by PCR-based typing schemes, RFLP comparison, hybridization and sequencing. Tn1546 variants were characterized by PCR overlapping/sequencing. Intra- and inter-hospital dissemination of Efm ST18, ST132 and ST280 and Efs ST6 clones, carrying rolling-circle (pEFNP1/pRI1) and theta-replicating (pCIZ2-like, Inc18, pHTβ-like, two pRUM-variants, pLG1-like, and pheromone-responsive) plasmids was documented. Tn1546 variants, mostly containing ISEf1 or IS1216, were located on plasmids (30–150 kb) with a high degree of mosaicism and heterogeneous RFLP patterns that seem to have resulted from the interplay between broad host Inc18 plasmids (pIP501, pRE25, pEF1), and narrow host RepA_N plasmids (pRUM, pAD1-like). TAs of Inc18 (ω-ε-ζ) and pRUM (Axe-Txe) plasmids were infrequently detected. Some plasmid chimeras were persistently recovered over years from different clonal lineages. This work represents the first multi-hierarchical analysis of VRE, revealing a frequent recombinatorial diversification of a limited number of interacting clonal backgrounds, plasmids and transposons at local scale. These interactions provide a continuous process of parapatric clonalization driving a full

  14. Different risk factors influence peptic ulcer disease development in a Brazilian population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rodrigo Buzinaro Suzuki; Rodrigo Faria Cola; Larissa Tranquilino Bardela Cola; Camila Garcia Ferrari; Fred Ellinger; Altino Luiz Therezo; Luis Carlos da Silva

    2012-01-01

    GU (OR =1.520,P=0.2863).CONCLUSION:In our population,male gender was a risk factor for PU; ageing for GU,atrophy and metapla

  15. Influence of LAS on marine calanoid copepod population dynamics and potential reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoffersen, Kirsten; Hansen, Benni W; Johansson, Liselotte S; Krog, Elisabeth

    2003-05-29

    The toxicity of linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS) to marine invertebrates is well documented under laboratory conditions using single-species tests. It is less known how LAS affects natural populations of aquatic organisms. We hypothesised that LAS was more toxic to the calanoid copepod Acartia sp. under natural conditions than Acartia tonsa under cultured conditions in the laboratory. This hypothesis was checked by a direct comparison of LAS toxicity in single-species and model (mesocosm) studies. The acute and sublethal effects of LAS on the survival and egg production of laboratory reared A. tonsa were examined by standard test, i.e. incubation with LAS without food for 24-72 h. The LC(50) and EC(50) values averaged 1.23 and 0.74 mg l(-1) for survival and egg production, respectively. These values are comparable to previous reports. The effects of LAS on a natural copepod community were also investigated under in situ conditions. A series of seven mesocosms (holding approx. 3 m(3) of seawater each) was established with two mesocosms being controls without LAS and five mesocosms with increasing concentrations of LAS ranging from 0.1 to 6.5 mg l(-1) applied as a single dose. The indigenous copepod community, dominated by Acartia sp. and Centropages sp., responded clearly to LAS concentrations above 0.1 mg l(-1). The calculated no effect value was 0.14 mg LAS l(-1) (95% CI=0.08-1.82 mg LAS l(-1)) for the entire copepod community including all development stages after 24 h exposure. The increased sensitivity under in situ conditions was probably promoted by the suboptimal growth conditions, e.g. no saturated food concentration or inadequate nutritive values of the food. The amount of food expressed as chlorophyll concentration was low (around 2 microg chl. a l(-1)) but was not affected by LAS. It appeared that the naupliar stages of Acartia and Centropages were the least affected by LAS and that new cohorts were able to develop 15 days after the dosing with LAS.

  16. Cooperative Recovery Initiative: Bull Trout Restoration: Restoring Cold, Clean, Complex and Connected Habitat in the Blackfoot River Watershed of Montana Interim Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Habitat degradation and the effects of climate change are the biggest threats to bull trout in the Blackfoot River watershed of Montana. Montana Fish, Wildlife &...

  17. Cooperative Recovery Initiative: Bull Trout Restoration: Restoring Cold, Clean, Complex and Connected Habitat in the Blackfoot River Watershed of Montana Interim Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Habitat degradation and the effects of climate change are the biggest threats to bull trout in the Blackfoot River watershed of Montana. Montana Fish, Wildlife...

  18. Factors influencing exclusive breastfeeding among Iranian mothers: A longitudinal population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffari, Mohsen; Pakpour, Amir H.; Chen, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Background: Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) contributes to the health and survival of the newborns. Many factors influence the EBF behavior. This study aimed to identify the determinant factors in order to improve the practice of EBF among Iranian mothers. Methods: A longitudinal study was carried out in 1445 mothers with newborns in Qazvin city, Iran (September 2015-March 2016). Demographic variables as well as the constructs of theory of planned behavior (TBP) were measured by questionnaires. Bivariate analysis using Pearson and Spearman correlation tests with analysis of variance were used to investigate the associations among the variables. Both hierarchal multiple regression and logistic regression were applied to identify potential determinative factors for the EBF. Results: Nearly, 80% (CI: 77.97-82.63%) of the participants had the intention of EBF. All TPB constructs, moral norms, and self-identity were significantly correlated with each other (r: 0.09- 0.40, P < 0.01). Some demographic variables such as age, income, employment and primiparity were also correlated with the EBF (r: 0.11-0.15, P < 0.05). The constructs of the TPB were able to predict the EBF behavior, which account for 49% of the variance in the predicting factors (df = 8, F = 7.70). The self-identity and moral norms accounted for an additional 15% of the variance (df = 10, F = 3.16). Younger mothers with lower socio-economic status were at higher risk of EBF cessation. The intention has a greater impact on the initiation of EBF than perceived behavioral control (PBC) but not for the maintenance of EBF (OR, 2.88 [CI: 2.38-3.48] & 1.13 [CI:1.03- 1.23] vs. OR, 1.27 [CI:1.15-1.39] & 2.66 [CI: 2.02-3.49]). Conclusion: The interventions to promote knowledge, attitude and behavioral control towards the EBF should be considered especially in the young mothers with low socio-economic status. PMID:28058240

  19. Factors influencing exclusive breastfeeding among Iranian mothers: A longitudinal population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffari, Mohsen; Pakpour, Amir H; Chen, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Background: Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) contributes to the health and survival of the newborns. Many factors influence the EBF behavior. This study aimed to identify the determinant factors in order to improve the practice of EBF among Iranian mothers. Methods: A longitudinal study was carried out in 1445 mothers with newborns in Qazvin city, Iran (September 2015-March 2016). Demographic variables as well as the constructs of theory of planned behavior (TBP) were measured by questionnaires. Bivariate analysis using Pearson and Spearman correlation tests with analysis of variance were used to investigate the associations among the variables. Both hierarchal multiple regression and logistic regression were applied to identify potential determinative factors for the EBF. Results: Nearly, 80% (CI: 77.97-82.63%) of the participants had the intention of EBF. All TPB constructs, moral norms, and self-identity were significantly correlated with each other (r: 0.09- 0.40, P < 0.01). Some demographic variables such as age, income, employment and primiparity were also correlated with the EBF (r: 0.11-0.15, P < 0.05). The constructs of the TPB were able to predict the EBF behavior, which account for 49% of the variance in the predicting factors (df = 8, F = 7.70). The self-identity and moral norms accounted for an additional 15% of the variance (df = 10, F = 3.16). Younger mothers with lower socio-economic status were at higher risk of EBF cessation. The intention has a greater impact on the initiation of EBF than perceived behavioral control (PBC) but not for the maintenance of EBF (OR, 2.88 [CI: 2.38-3.48] & 1.13 [CI:1.03- 1.23] vs. OR, 1.27 [CI:1.15-1.39] & 2.66 [CI: 2.02-3.49]). Conclusion: The interventions to promote knowledge, attitude and behavioral control towards the EBF should be considered especially in the young mothers with low socio-economic status.

  20. Potential population and assemblage influences of non-native trout on native nongame fish in Nebraska headwater streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turek, Kelly C.; Pegg, Mark A.; Pope, Kevin L.; Schainost, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Non-native trout are currently stocked to support recreational fisheries in headwater streams throughout Nebraska. The influence of non-native trout introductions on native fish populations and their role in structuring fish assemblages in these systems is unknown. The objectives of this study were to determine (i) if the size structure or relative abundance of native fish differs in the presence and absence of non-native trout, (ii) if native fish-assemblage structure differs in the presence and absence of non-native trout and (iii) if native fish-assemblage structure differs across a gradient in abundances of non-native trout. Longnose dace Rhinichthys cataractae were larger in the presence of brown trout Salmo trutta and smaller in the presence of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss compared to sites without trout. There was also a greater proportion of larger white suckers Catostomus commersonii in the presence of brown trout. Creek chub Semotilus atromaculatus and fathead minnow Pimephales promelas size structures were similar in the presence and absence of trout. Relative abundances of longnose dace, white sucker, creek chub and fathead minnow were similar in the presence and absence of trout, but there was greater distinction in native fish-assemblage structure between sites with trout compared to sites without trout as trout abundances increased. These results suggest increased risk to native fish assemblages in sites with high abundances of trout. However, more research is needed to determine the role of non-native trout in structuring native fish assemblages in streams, and the mechanisms through which introduced trout may influence native fish populations.

  1. Single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with carcass traits in a population of Brahman and Brahman-influenced steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, A M; Shivers, C; Riley, D G; Elzo, M A; Garcia, M D

    2016-06-21

    Brahman cattle are important in tropical regions due to their ability to tolerate excessive heat and parasites. However, Brahman cattle exhibit lower carcass quality characteristics when compared to Bos taurus breeds. The objective of this study was to evaluate potential associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in six candidate genes for carcass quality and composition traits in a population of Brahman and Brahman-influenced steers. Steers were evaluated through the American Brahman Breeders Association carcass evaluation project in Gonzales, Texas. Carcass traits measured included hot carcass weight, ribeye area, marbling score, yield grade, quality grade, dressing percent, and Warner-Bratzler shear force score. Six previously described candidate genes were chosen for SNP analysis based on their previous association with growth and carcass traits. Candidate genes utilized in the current study included calpastatin (CAST), calpain (CAPN3), thyroglobulin (TG), growth hormone, insulin growth factor 1, and adiponectin. Six unique SNPs from three candidate genes (TG, CAST, and CAPN3) were significantly associated (P < 0.001) with carcass quality traits (marbling score and quality grade). A genotypic effect was observed for all significant SNPs, with differing levels of performance observed for animals inheriting different genotypes. Although multiple SNPs in the current study were significantly (P < 0.001) associated with growth and carcass traits, they should be validated in larger populations prior to implementation in selection strategies.

  2. Influence of nitrite accumulation on "Candidatus Accumulibacter" population structure and enhanced biological phosphorus removal from municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wei; Li, Boxiao; Wang, Xiangdong; Bai, Xinlong; Peng, Yongzhen

    2016-02-01

    A modified University of Cape Town (MUCT) process was used to treat real municipal wastewater with low carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N). To our knowledge, this is the first study where the influence of nitrite accumulation on "Candidatus Accumulibacter" clade-level population structure was investigated during nitritation establishment and destruction. Real time quantitative PCR assays were conducted using the polyphosphate kinase 1 gene (ppk1) as a genetic marker. Abundances of total "Candidatus Accumulibacter", the relative distributions and population structure of the five "Candidatus Accumulibacter" clades were characterized. Under complete nitrification, clade I using nitrate as electron acceptor was below 5% of total "Candidatus Accumulibacter". When the reactor was transformed into nitritation, clade I gradually disappeared. Clade IID using nitrite as electron acceptor for denitrifying phosphorus (P) removal was always the dominant "Candidatus Accumulibacter" throughout the operational period. This clade was above 90% on average in total "Candidatus Accumulibacter", even up to nearly 100%, which was associated with good performance of denitrifying P removal via nitrite pathway. The nitrite concentrations affected the abundance of clade IID. The P removal was mainly completed by anoxic P uptake of about 88%. The P removal efficiency clearly had a positive correlation with the nitrite accumulation ratio. Under nitritation, the P removal efficiency was 30% higher than that under complete nitrification, suggesting that nitrite was appropriate as electron acceptor for denitrifying P removal when treating carbon-limited wastewater. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Influence of Organic Manures (Biofertilizers on Soil Microbial Population in the Rhizosphere of Mulberry (Morus Indica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Christilda Louis Mary

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different kinds of organic manures on soil microbial population and mulberry production was assessed. A field experiment wascarried out at Periyar EVR College, Tamil Nadu, India in basic soil to study the influence of organic manures on soil bacterial population andmulberry production. The 4 groups of mulberry plants of MR2 variety were biofertilized with FYM, Azospirillum, Phosphobacteria andVermicompost respectively. The biofertilizers lodged bacteria on the rhizosphere of mulberry plants. When the root microorganism areanalyzed Farm yard manure biofertilized mulberry plant root tips had Gluconacobacter diazotrophicus, Bacillus pumilus, Pseudomonas putida,Bacillus coagulans, Bacillus sonorensis, Azotobacter chrococcum; Azospirillum biofertilized mulberry plants root tips had Bacillus coaculans,Azotobactor chrococcum, Azotobactor vinelandii, Bacillus subtilis and Azospirillum brasilense. Phosphobacteria biofertilized mulberry plantroot tips had Pseudomonas putida, Bacillus stearothermophilus, Brevibacillus borslelansis and Streptomycies thermonitrificans andvermicompost biofertilized mulberry plant root tips had lodged bacterias like Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus subtilis, Gluconacobacterdiazotrophicus, Pseudomonas putida, Azotobacter chrococcum, Azotobacter vinelandi, Bacillus stearothermophilus, Brevibacillus borslelansisand Bacillus sonorensis. Microbiology work reveals luxuriant growth of bacteria in all the biofertizer treated rhizosphere in the order FYM

  4. Influence of three bacteria strains on the population dynamics of Tisbe holothuriae (Copepoda, Harpacticoida)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérin, J.-P.; Rieper-Kirchner, M.

    1991-12-01

    The influence of three bacteria strains (Helgo 21, NCMB 308 and NCMB 13) on the life cycle of Tisbe holothuriae Humes 1957 was investigated under constant experimental conditions (19 20°C and 38‰ S). For each of the first six experiments, females (F1), whose life history was followed, were obtained from a common mother (F0). Experiment no 7 was carried out with adult females (F2) obtained during exp. 4. Females were bred in 50-ml dishes and transferred to a fresh container as soon as they produced a new egg-sac. Offspring (F2: exp. 1 6; F3: exp. 7) from successive egg-layings were counted as soon as they moulted into adults. Larval mortality was estimated by enumeration of the adults issuing from a known number of nauplii that had been fed different bacteria strains. Some difficulties arose in obtaining adults with NCMB 13: it appeared to be necessary to provide this first generation with a small quantity of TetraMin (commercial fish food) in order to initiate reproduction and obtain a second generation. However, in exp. 4, F2 adult females fed NCMB 13 became ovigerous and fertile without needing TetraMin. This result is interpreted as denoting an indispensable period of adaptation to the diet, which probably requires important changes at the enzymatic level. One experiment was carried out with Helgo 21; another one with NCMB 308; two with NCMB 13 (with a unique additional meal of TetraMin to allow reproduction), two with NCMB 13 during larval development, then only tetraMin during adult stage, and one with NCMB 13 alone (with females issued from exp. 4). Data obtained regarding longevity, duration of reproduction period, number of egg-sacs and number of adult descendants show an important variability between bacteria strains. Lower results were almost always obtained with Helgo 21 and NCMB 308. An interesting result lies in the maximum number of egg-sacs: low with Helgo 21 and NCMB 308 (5), but very ample with NCMB 13 (11 in one experiment). In experiment 7

  5. Climate influence on juvenile European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L.) populations in an estuarine nursery: A decadal overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, Eduardo G; Grilo, Tiago F; Nyitrai, Dániel; Dolbeth, Marina; Pardal, Miguel Ângelo; Martinho, Filipe

    2016-12-01

    Estuarine systems support the life cycle stages of commercially important marine fish and are influenced by large and local-scale climatic patterns. In this study, performed in the Mondego estuary, Portugal, we used an 11-year database (2003-2013) for analyzing the variability in the population of a marine juvenile migrant fish, the European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax, regarding changes in abundance, population structure, growth rates, secondary production and annual day of peak abundance. Higher densities and production occurred in 2003, but no differences in 0-group growth could be observed. In order to detect change points in both biological and climatic data, the cumulative sum (CUSUM) of the deviations from the mean for the 2003-2013 period were determined for each parameter. The relationship between large and local-scale drivers and 0-group biological attributes were evaluated using a Spearman rank correlation analysis of CUSUM of biological and environmental data, considering the correspondent yearly values and with a time-lag of 1 year. The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index, sea surface temperature (SST) and their respective winter values were tested as large-scale factors, while river runoff, salinity and estuarine water temperature were considered as local climate patterns. The significant factors explaining D. labrax 0-group abundance and production were salinity and the NAO, the latter being also a significant predictor considering the 1-year lag. The NAO with 1-year lag was also positively correlated with the day of peak abundance. The early stages of European sea bass were demonstrated to have a climate-dependent life cycle, controlled by variations in both large-scale climatic patterns and local features. In southern European marine populations, the effects of the NAO seem less direct, and dependent on the magnitude of its expressions and on the time scale considered.

  6. Influence of weather factors on seasonal population dynamics of Coelaenomenodera elaeidis (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae and its natural enemies in NIFOR, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Aneni

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The leaf miner (Coelaenomenodera elaeidis Mlk is the major pest of the oil palm. The seasonality of C. elaeidis, its natural enemies and their relationship with temperature, rainfall and relative humidity was observed between January 2009 and December 2010 at the main station of the Nigerian Institute for Oil Palm Research, Nigeria. Past leaf miner population estimates were obtained from NIFOR entomology division from 1976 - 1980. This study analyses temporal patterns in leaf miner abundance, and elucidates general patterns and factors influencing leaf miner abundance. Multiple linear regressions were used to analyze the relationship between abundance of leaf miner, its parasitoids and predators and the following climatic variables: maximum and minimum temperature (oC, rainfall (mm and relative humidity (%. For the analyses, climate variables from the month of collection (control variable or from the month before the collection (delayed variable were used. The abundance of leaf miner and predatory ants peaked in the dry season, while parasitoids were most abundant in the rainy season. Significant correlations (P is not great than 0.05 were found between leaf miner, its natural enemies and both control and delayed weather variables. For all years, maximum temperature was the most dominant variable for all the leaf miner stages. Significant correlations were found between leaf miner, its natural enemies and both control and delayed weather variables. This indicates that the weather variables at both the month of collection and with a delayed month in relation to collection is critical for pest-weather evaluation. This is important for leaf miner control. Temperature, rainfall and relative humidity had an effect on the population of C. elaeidis, and this effect was manifested primarily in seasonal fluctuations in oil palm agroecosystems. Dry season months with resultant higher temperatures recorded higher population of C. elaeidis.

  7. Streamflow characteristics based on data through water year 2009 for selected streamflow-gaging stations in or near Montana: Chapter E in Montana StreamStats

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Peter M.

    2016-04-05

    Chapter E of this Scientific Investigations Report documents results from a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Montana Department of Environmental Quality and the Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation, to provide an update of statewide streamflow characteristics based on data through water year 2009 for streamflow-gaging stations in or near Montana. Streamflow characteristics are presented for 408 streamflow-gaging stations in Montana and adjacent areas having 10 or more years of record. Data include the magnitude and probability of annual low and high streamflow, the magnitude and probability of low streamflow for three seasons (March–June, July–October, and November–February), streamflow duration statistics for monthly and annual periods, and mean streamflows for monthly and annual periods. Streamflow is considered to be regulated at streamflow-gaging stations where dams or other large-scale human modifications affect 20 percent or more of the contributing drainage basin. Separate streamflow characteristics are presented for the unregulated and regulated periods of record for streamflow-gaging stations with sufficient data.

  8. Host heterogeneity influences the impact of a non-native disease invasion on populations of a foundation tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jules, Erik S.; Carroll, Allyson L.; Garcia, Andrea M.; Steenbock, Christopher M.; Kauffman, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Invasive pathogens are becoming increasingly important in forested ecosystems, yet they are often difficult to study because of their rapid transmission. The rate and extent of pathogen spread are thought to be partially controlled by variation in host characteristics, such as when host size and location influence susceptibility. Few host-pathogen systems, however, have been used to test this prediction. We used Port Orford cedar (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana), a foundation tree species in riparian areas of California and Oregon (USA), and the invasive oomycete Phytophthora lateralis to assess pathogen impacts and the role of host characteristics on invasion. Across three streams that had been infected for 13–18 years by P. lateralis, we mapped 2241 trees and determined whether they had been infected using dendrochronology. The infection probability of trees was governed by host size (diameter at breast height [DBH]) and geomorphic position (e.g., active channel, stream bank, floodplain, etc.) similarly across streams. For instance, only 23% of trees DBH were infected, while 69% of trees ≥20 cm DBH were infected. Presumably, because spores of P. lateralis are transported downstream in water, they are more likely to encounter well-developed root systems of larger trees. Also because of this water-transport of spores, differences in infection probability were found across the geomorphic positions: 59% of cedar in the active channel and the stream bank (combined) were infected, while 23% of trees found on higher geomorphic types were infected. Overall, 32% of cedar had been infected across the three streams. However, 63% of the total cedar basal area had been killed, because the greatest number of trees, and the largest trees, were found in the most susceptible positions. In the active channel and stream bank, 91% of the basal area was infected, while 46% was infected across higher geomorphic positions. The invasion of Port Orford cedar populations by

  9. Melanoma in the Italian Population and Regional Environmental Influences: A National Retrospective Survey on 2001–2008 Hospitalization Records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prisco Piscitelli

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the burden of regional environmental factors influencing the incidence of Melanoma in the Italian population and overcome the problem of partial population coverage by local cancer registries and thematic archives. Methods: We analyzed the Italian national hospitalization records from 2001 to 2008 provided by the Ministry of Health, excluding hospital re-admissions of the same patients, in order to assess the occurrence of Melanoma over a 8-year period. Data were presented by age groups (absolute number of cases from 20 to ≥80 years old and per Region (rates per 100,000 inhabitants for each year. Results: The overall number of new hospitalizations due to malignant Melanoma increased by 16.8% from 2001 (n = 4846 to 2008 (n = 5823, with the rate per 100,000 inhabitants passing from 10.5 to almost 12.0 at a national level. The majority of new diagnoses of malignant Melanoma was observed in two age groups: 61–70 years old (from 979 in 2001 up to 2109 in 2008, corresponding to 15.1 and 18.1 new cases per 100,000 inhabitants, respectively and 71–80 years old (from 954 in 2001 up to 1141 in 2008, corresponding to 19.5 and 21.8 new cases per 100,000 inhabitants, respectively. The number of hospitalizations due to Melanoma increased in all age groups with the only exception of the youngest patients aged 20–30 years old. The highest increases over the 8-year period were observed in people aged ≥81 years old (+34%, 61–70 years old (+20% and surprisingly in the age group 31–40 years old (+17%. Southern Regions showed lower hospitalization rates compared to Northern Italy and Region Lazio. The highest increases between 2001 and 2008 were observed in Trentino/Alto Adige, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Valla d’Aosta and Veneto Region. Conclusions: Hospitalizations due to malignant Melanoma in Italy seem to be influenced by environmental or population-related factors showing a decreasing incidence rate from the Northern to Southern

  10. Ground Water Atlas of the United States: Segment 8, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    completed in semi-consolidated- and consolidated-rock aquifers, chiefly sandstone and limestone. Some wells withdraw water from volcanic rocks, igneous and metamorphic rocks, or fractured fine-grained sedimentary rocks, such as shale; however, wells completed in these types of rocks generally yield only small volumes of water. Most wells in the four-State area of Segment 8 are on privately owned land (fig. 2). Agriculture, primarily irrigation, is one of the largest uses of ground water. The irrigation generally is on lowlands close to streams (fig. 3). Lowlands within a few miles of major streams usually are irrigated with surface water that is diverted by gravity flow from the main stream or a reservoir and transported through a canal system. Surface water also is pumped to irrigate land that gravity systems cannot supply. In addition, ground water is pumped from large-capacity wells to supplement surface water during times of drought or during seasons of the year when surface water is in short supply. Ground water is the only source of water for irrigation in much of the segment. The thickness and permeability of aquifers in the area of Segment 8 vary considerably, as do yields of wells completed in the aquifers. Ground-water levels and artesian pressures (hydraulic head) have declined significantly in some places as a result of excessive withdrawals by wells. State governments have taken steps to control the declines by enacting programs that either limit the number of additional wells that can be completed in a particular aquifer or prevent further ground-water development altogether. The demand for water is directly related to the distribution of people. In 1990, Montana had a population of 799,065; North Dakota, 638,800; South Dakota, 696,004; and Wyoming, 453,588. The more densely populated areas are on lowlands near major streams. Many of the mountain, desert, and upland areas lack major population centers, particularly in Montana and Wyoming, where use of much of

  11. Risk of Myxobolus cerebralis infection to rainbow trout in the Madison River, Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, R.C.; Kerans, B.L.; Vincent, E.R.; Rasmussen, C.

    2006-01-01

    Myxobolus cerebralis, the parasite that causes salmonid whirling disease, has had detrimental effects on several salmonid populations in the Intermountain West, including the rainbow trout in the Madison River, Montana, USA. The goal of this study was to examine relationships among characteristics of the environment, Tubifex tubifex (the alternate host) populations, and rainbow trout whirling disease risk in the Madison River. Environmental characteristics were measured in side channels of the Madison River, and differences were described with a principal components analysis. The density of T. tubifex, the prevalence of infection in T. tubifex, and the density of infected T. tubifex were determined for the side channels using benthic core samples and examination of live tubificids for infection. The site-specific contribution to whirling disease risk in the side channels was determined using in situ exposures of sentinel rainbow trout. Regression analyses were used to determine correlations among these characteristics. Side channels differed in site-specific contribution to rainbow trout whirling disease risk, which was positively correlated to the density of infected T. tubifex. Side channels with fine sediments and lower water temperatures made greater site-specific contribution to whirling disease risk and had higher densities of infected T. tubifex than side channels with coarser sediments and higher temperatures. The ability to characterize areas of high whirling disease risk is essential for improving our understanding of the dynamics of M. cerebralis such that appropriate management strategies can be implemented. In addition, this study provides a model of how the disease ecology of complex aquatic parasites can be examined when the influential processes operate on different spatial scales. ?? 2006 by the Ecological Society of America.

  12. Premating isolation is determined by larval rearing substrates in cactophilic Drosophila mojavensis. IX. Host plant and population specific epicuticular hydrocarbon expression influences mate choice and sexual selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havens, J A; Etges, W J

    2013-03-01

    Sexual signals in cactophilic Drosophila mojavensis include cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs), contact pheromones that mediate female discrimination of males during courtship. CHCs, along with male courtship songs, cause premating isolation between diverged populations, and are influenced by genotype × environment interactions caused by different host cacti. CHC profiles of mated and unmated adult flies from a Baja California and a mainland Mexico population of D. mojavensis reared on two host cacti were assayed to test the hypothesis that male CHCs mediate within-population female discrimination of males. In multiple choice courtship trials, mated and unmated males differed in CHC profiles, indicating that females prefer males with particular blends of CHCs. Mated and unmated females significantly differed in CHC profiles as well. Adults in the choice trials had CHC profiles that were significantly different from those in pair-mated adults from no-choice trials revealing an influence of sexual selection. Females preferred different male CHC blends in each population, but the influence of host cactus on CHC variation was significant only in the mainland population indicating population-specific plasticity in CHCs. Different groups of CHCs mediated female choice-based sexual selection in each population suggesting that geographical and ecological divergence has the potential to promote divergence in mate communication systems.

  13. PLANT COMMUNITIES WITH ARNICA MONTANA IN NATURAL HABITATS FROM THE CENTRAL REGION OF ROMANIAN EASTERN CARPATHIANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin MARDARI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Arnica montana is a species of European Union interest, whose harvest from the wild and exploitation should be made under certain management measures. In Romania it is a vulnerable species due to excessive collection. It is a species with European areal occuring in pastures, meadows, forest glades, shrubs communities of mountain to the subalpine regions and, isolated, up to the alpine belt. Most of the plant communities with Arnica montana are semi-natural, with a floristic composition in which there are numerous rare or threatened species also supporting the need of their conservation. Our study was focused on a numerical classification (hierarchical, using Flexible ß algorithm and Bray-Curtis dissimilarity based on 48 plots, of the plant communities with Arnica montana from the central region of Romanian Eastern Carpathians and on the investigation of the effect of some environmental variables (Ellenberg indicator values, altitude, heat load index on their floristic composition (100 m2 scale. Vegetation – environment relationship was assessed via detrended correspondence analysis and canonical correspondence analysis with Monte Carlo test. Six plant communities with Arnica montana were identified (communities of Festuca rubra with Agrostis capillaris, Festuca nigrescens, Vaccinium myrtillus, Nardus stricta, Vaccinium gaultherioides and Juniperus sibirica with a floristic composition mainly shaped by altitude, temperature and soil nitrogen content. Details related to location and sites characteristics, diagnostic species, floristic composition, presence of other rare or threatened species and Arnica montana abundance were presented for all these plant communities.

  14. Montana's Clark Fork River Basin Task Force: a vehicle for integrated water resources management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, David D; Mueller, Gerald

    2010-11-01

    This article examines what is generally considered to be an unattainable goal in the western United States: integrated water resources management (IWRM). Specifically, we examine an organization that is quite unique in the West, Montana's Clark Fork River Basin Task Force (Task Force), and we analyze its activities since its formation in 2001 to answer the question: are the activities and contributions of the Task Force working to promote a more strongly integrated approach to water resources management in Montana? After reviewing the concepts underlying IWRM, some of the issues that have been identified for achieving IWRM in the West, and the Montana system of water right allocation and issues it faces, we adapt Mitchell's IWRM framework and apply it to the analysis of the Task Force's activities in the context of IWRM. In evaluating the physical, interaction, and protocol/planning/policy components of IWRM, we find that the Task Force has been contributing to the evolution of Montana's water resources management towards this framework, though several factors will likely continue to prevent its complete realization. The Task Force has been successful in this regard because of its unique nature and charge, and because of the authority and power given it by successive Montana legislatures. Also critical to the success of the organization is its ability to help translate into policy the outcomes of legal and quasi-judicial decisions that have impacted the state's water resources management agency.

  15. Global variance in female population height: the influence of education, income, human development, life expectancy, mortality and gender inequality in 96 nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Quentin J

    2014-01-01

    Human height is a heritable trait that is known to be influenced by environmental factors and general standard of living. Individual and population stature is correlated with health, education and economic achievement. Strong sexual selection pressures for stature have been observed in multiple diverse populations, however; there is significant global variance in gender equality and prohibitions on female mate selection. This paper explores the contribution of general standard of living and gender inequality to the variance in global female population heights. Female population heights of 96 nations were culled from previously published sources and public access databases. Factor analysis with United Nations international data on education rates, life expectancy, incomes, maternal and childhood mortality rates, ratios of gender participation in education and politics, the Human Development Index (HDI) and the Gender Inequality Index (GII) was run. Results indicate that population heights vary more closely with gender inequality than with population health, income or education.

  16. 75 FR 55713 - Air Quality Implementation Plans; Montana; Attainment Plan for Libby, MT PM2.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-14

    ... University of Arizona's Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Laboratory Facility to provide further evidence that... mass balance study (CMB) was conducted during the winter of 2003-2004 by the University of Montana... from chemical mass balance and Carbon 14 studies conducted by the University of Montana. In...

  17. Effectiveness of Written Materials in a Rehabilitative Program for Female Offenders: A Case Study at the Montana Women's Prison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Laura; Colling, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    This case study of the Therapeutic Community Program at Montana Women's Prison investigates the relationship between inmate reading levels and the self-help materials used for rehabilitative purposes within prison settings. The Therapeutic Community Handbook, published by the Montana Department of Corrections, is used as the primary method of…

  18. I Feel Like Touching Something That's Not There; Poems by Students in Elementary & Secondary Schools of Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, David, Ed.

    This book, a project of the Montana Arts Council Poets and Writers in the School program, is a collection of poems written by students in elementary and secondary schools of Montana. In addition to the poems, the book contains an essay on motivating and guiding students to write creatively, a list of resources for creative-writing teachers, an…

  19. Using the Rural-Urban Continuum to Explore Adolescent Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drug Use in Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Carl L.; Novilla, M. Lelinneth L. B.; Barnes, Michael D.; Eggett, Dennis; McKell, Chelsea; Reichman, Peter; Havens, Mike

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare 30-day prevalence of alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use among twelfth-grade students in Montana across a rural-urban continuum during 2000, 2002, and 2004. The methods include an analysis of the Montana Prevention Needs Assessment (N = 15,372) using multivariable logistic regression adjusting for risk…

  20. 75 FR 30850 - Final Supplementary Rules for Camping on Undeveloped Public Lands in Montana, North Dakota, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... Recreation Planner, BLM Montana State Office, 5001 Southgate Drive, Billings, MT 59101-4669. FOR FURTHER... Drive, Billings, Montana 59101-4669, (406) 896-5038. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background II... at 72 FR 19958 (April 20, 2007). The rules in the Notice of Camping Limits on Public Lands in...

  1. 75 FR 27551 - Commercial Energy of Montana, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Commercial Energy of Montana, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Commercial Energy of Montana, Inc.'s application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate tariff, noting that such application includes...

  2. Assessment of undiscovered continuous oil and gas resources in the Heath Formation, central Montana and western North Dakota, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Ronald M.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers, Heidi M.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Finn, Thomas M.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2017-06-07

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resources of 884 million barrels of oil and 106 billion cubic feet of gas in the North-Central Montana and Williston Basin Provinces of central Montana and western North Dakota.

  3. Effectiveness of Written Materials in a Rehabilitative Program for Female Offenders: A Case Study at the Montana Women's Prison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Laura; Colling, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    This case study of the Therapeutic Community Program at Montana Women's Prison investigates the relationship between inmate reading levels and the self-help materials used for rehabilitative purposes within prison settings. The Therapeutic Community Handbook, published by the Montana Department of Corrections, is used as the primary method of…

  4. Conformational study reveals amino acid residues essential for hemagglutinating and anti-proliferative activities of Clematis montana lectin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bangmin Lu Bin Zhang Wei Qi Yanan Zhu Yan Zhao Nan Zhou Rong Sun Jinku Bao Chuanfang Wu

    2014-01-01

    Clematis montana lectin (CML), a novel mannose-binding lectin purified from C. montana Buch.-Ham stem (Ranunculaceae), has been proved to have hemagglutinat- ing activity in rabbit erythrocytes and apoptosis-inducing activity in tumor cells...

  5. The Western Environmental Technology Office (WETO), Butte, Montana. Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The Western Environmental Technology Office (WETO) is a multi-purpose engineering test facility located in Butte, Montana, and is managed by MSE, Inc. WETO seeks to contribute to environmental research by emphasizing projects to develop heavy metals removal and recovery processes, thermal vitrification systems, and waste minimization/pollution prevention technologies. WETO`s environmental technology research and testing activities focus on the recovery of usable resources from waste. In one of WETO`s areas of focus, groundwater contamination, water from the Berkeley Pit, located near the WETO site, is being used in demonstrations directed toward the recovery of potable water and metal from the heavy metal-bearing water. The Berkeley Pit is part of an inactive copper mine near Butte that was once part of the nation`s largest open-pit mining operation. The Pit contains approximately 25 billion gallons of Berkeley Pit groundwater and surface water containing many dissolved minerals. As part of DOE/OST`s Resource Recovery Project (RRP), technologies are being demonstrated to not only clean the contaminated water but to recover metal values such as copper, zinc, and iron with an estimated gross value of more than $100 million. When recovered, the Berkeley Pit waters could benefit the entire Butte valley with new water resources for fisheries, irrigation, municipal, and industrial use. At WETO, the emphasis is on environmental technology development and commercialization activities, which will focus on mine cleanup, waste treatment, resource recovery, and water resource management.

  6. Breeding ecology of the redhead duck in western Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokemoen, J.T.

    1966-01-01

    The habits of the redhead duck (Aythya americana) were studied in the Flathead Valley of western Montana in 1960 and 1961 to determine their habitat preferences in this pothole breeding ground. The 2,600-acre study area, surrounding the Ninepipe Reservoir, contained 686 potholes. Redheads usually were paired by the time they arrived on the study area in March. The average density of redhead breeding pairs was 25 pairs per square mile. For all spring activities except nesting, the birds used large, deep, open potholes or breeding-pair potholes. The several breeding-pair potholes and the nesting pothole utilized by the pair comprised their home range. Starting in late April, the pairs moved about the home range as the hens selected nesting sites, usually in the dense emergent vegetation of small, shallow potholes. Hard-stem bulrush (Scirpus acutus) and cat-tail (Typha latifolia) were preferred nesting cover. Redhead nesting success was only 15 percent, a low rate apparently caused by degenerate nesting behavior complicated by high redhead density, a lack of suitable nest hosts, and certain habitat deficiencies. By late June most drakes and unsuccessful hens had moved from the potholes to nearby reservoirs. All successful hens led their newly hatched broods from the nesting potholes to larger brood potholes and many eventually moved to the reservoir. By mid-July virtually all redheads had moved from the potholes to the reservoirs, where they remained until fall migration.

  7. Evolutionary trends in Triceratops from the Hell Creek Formation, Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scannella, John B; Fowler, Denver W; Goodwin, Mark B; Horner, John R

    2014-07-15

    The placement of over 50 skulls of the well-known horned dinosaur Triceratops within a stratigraphic framework for the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation (HCF) of Montana reveals the evolutionary transformation of this genus. Specimens referable to the two recognized morphospecies of Triceratops, T. horridus and T. prorsus, are stratigraphically separated within the HCF with the T. prorsus morphology recovered in the upper third of the formation and T. horridus found lower in the formation. Hypotheses that these morphospecies represent sexual or ontogenetic variation within a single species are thus untenable. Stratigraphic placement of specimens appears to reveal ancestor-descendant relationships. Transitional morphologies are found in the middle unit of the formation, a finding that is consistent with the evolution of Triceratops being characterized by anagenesis, the transformation of a lineage over time. Variation among specimens from this critical stratigraphic zone may indicate a branching event in the Triceratops lineage. Purely cladogenetic interpretations of the HCF dataset imply greater diversity within the formation. These findings underscore the critical role of stratigraphic data in deciphering evolutionary patterns in the Dinosauria.

  8. Characterization and pharmacodynamic properties of Arnica montana complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šutovská, M; Capek, P; Kočmalová, M; Pawlaczyk, I; Zaczyńska, E; Czarny, A; Uhliariková, I; Gancarz, R; Fraňová, S

    2014-08-01

    A dark brown polymeric complex was isolated from flowering parts of medicinal plant Arnica montana L. by hot alkaline extraction followed by neutralization and multi-step extractions with organic solvents. It was recovered in 5.7% yield, on GPC showed two peaks of molecular mass of 9 and 3.5kDa. The compositional analyses of Arnica complex revealed the presence of carbohydrates (26%), uronic acids (12%), phenolics (1.25mM or 213mg of GAE/1g), and low protein content (∼1%). The carbohydrate moiety was rich mainly in rhamnogalacturonan and arabinogalactan. The antitussive tests showed the reduction of the cough efforts by Arnica complex, however, its total antitussive effect was lower compared with that of codeine, the strongest antitussive agent. The bronchodilatory activity of Arnica complex was similar to salbutamol, a classic antiasthmatic drug, and was confirmed by significantly decreased values of specific airways resistance in vivo and by considerably attenuated the amplitude of acetylcholine and histamine-induced contractions in vitro. Arnica complex did not show any cytotoxic effect on mouse fibroblast cultures and human lung cells, up to the dose of 500μg/mL.

  9. Linking individual phenotype to density-dependent population growth: the influence of body size on the population dynamics of malaria vectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Russell, T.L.; Lwetoijera, D.W.; Knols, B.G.J.; Takken, W.; Killeen, G.F.; Ferguson, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the endogenous factors that drive the population dynamics of malaria mosquitoes will facilitate more accurate predictions about vector control effectiveness and our ability to destabilize the growth of either low- or high-density insect populations. We assessed whether variation in

  10. Linking individual phenotype to density-dependent population growth: the influence of body size on the population dynamics of malaria vectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Russell, T.L.; Lwetoijera, D.W.; Knols, B.G.J.; Takken, W.; Killeen, G.F.; Ferguson, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the endogenous factors that drive the population dynamics of malaria mosquitoes will facilitate more accurate predictions about vector control effectiveness and our ability to destabilize the growth of either low-or high-density insect populations. We assessed whether variation in

  11. The influence of different preservation methods on spoilage bacteria populations inoculated in morcilla de Burgos during anaerobic cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, Ana M; Jaime, Isabel; Rovira, Jordi

    2009-06-30

    Blood sausage is a widely consumed traditional product that would benefit from an extended shelf life. The two main spoilage bacteria in vacuum-packaged morcilla de Burgos are Weissella viridescens and Leuconostoc mesenteroides. This study examines the way in which three preservation treatments--organic acid salts (OAS), high-pressure processing (HPP) and pasteurization--influence these bacterial populations and their spoilage behaviour. HPP and pasteurization treatments were found to inhibit growth of the inoculated species and delay sensory spoilage of the product. In both treatments, L. mesenteroides was observed to have a longer recovery time; even so, once its growth started, it grew faster than W. viridescens. This longer recovery time might be due to metabolic modification following treatment, which would affect the production of metabolites such as acetic acid and some aldehydes. W. viridescens was the first strain to recover from the two treatments. It preserved its spoilage behaviour and even increased the production of certain compounds such as acetoin or ethanol. The extended product shelf life following HPP and pasteurization treatments might be due to a combination of various factors such as the fall in both microbial populations, as well as the delay in spoilage caused by damage to L. mesenteroides cells, as this strain is the fastest-acting, most intensive spoilage microorganism. It was observed that the addition of organic salts neither diminished nor delayed the growth of the two inoculated species. Nevertheless, the results also indicate that this treatment inhibits the metabolic activity of L. mesenteroides, resulting once again in an extended product shelf life.

  12. Influence of high-calorie (cafeteria) diets on the population of Paneth cells in the small intestine of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerril, Adriana; Castillo-Robles, Guadalupe; González-Hernández, Margarita; Villanueva, Iván

    2005-01-01

    A high-calorie (cafeteria) diet is known to cause changes in the intestinal morphology and functioning that seem to be related to calorie overfeeding. Among the cell lineages found in the small intestine epithelium, the Paneth cell (PC) population is known to be influenced by factors related mainly to the intestinal microbiota. The role of PCs in the intestinal cell concert remains unclear, because experimental evidence suggests PC involvement in local processes other than protection against pathogens. Participation of PC in digestive mechanisms has been proposed on this basis. We have analyzed the effect of high-carbohydrate (HC) and high-fat (HF) cafeteria diets on the PC population in the small intestine of the adult rat. For 8 weeks, both HC and HF diets caused a gain in body weight, but whereas the HC-fed rats showed reduced counts of intestinal crypts per 5-mum section, the HF-fed group showed the opposite. In control rats, the number of crypts per section showed a slight tendency to decrease along the duodenum - ileum axis, whereas the number of PCs per crypt was increased towards the ileum. As a result, the number of PCs per section (calculated from these data) remained constant along the three segments of the intestine. The hypercaloric diets did not modify the general tendencies seen in the crypt and PC counts, but reduced the number of PCs per section in the duodenum by 50%. HC-fed, but not HF-fed, rats showed a similar reduction in jejunum also. These changes do not correlate particularly with any of the predictable effects of diet composition, so that a multifactorial control of PC density is proposed.

  13. Arthromitus (Bacillus cereus) symbionts in the cockroach Blaberus giganteus: dietary influences on bacterial development and population density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, L.; Jorgensen, J.; Haselton, A.; Pitt, A.; Rudner, R.; Margulis, L.

    1999-01-01

    The filamentous spore-forming bacterium Arthromitus, discovered in termites, millipedes, sow bugs and other soil-dwelling arthropods by Leidy (1850), is the intestinal stage of Bacillus cereus. We extend the range of Arthromitus habitats to include the hindgut of Blaberus giganteus, the large tropical American cockroach. The occurrence and morphology of the intestinal form of the bacillus were compared in individual cockroaches (n=24) placed on four different diet regimes: diurnally maintained insects fed (1) dog food, (2) soy protein only, (3)purified cellulose only, and (4) a dog food-fed group maintained in continuous darkness. Food quality exerted strong influence on population densities and developmental stages of the filamentous bacterium and on fecal pellet composition. The most dramatic rise in Arthromitus populations, defined as the spore-forming filament intestinal stage, occurred in adult cockroaches kept in the dark on a dog food diet. Limited intake of cellulose or protein alone reduced both the frequency of Arthromitus filaments and the rate of weight gain of the insects. Spores isolated from termites, sow bugs, cockroaches and moths, grown on various hard surfaces display a branching mobility and resistance to antibiotics characteristic to group I Bacilli whose members include B. cereus, B. circulans, B. alvei and B. macerans. DNA isolated from pure cultures of these bacilli taken from the guts of Blaberus giganteus (cockroach), Junonia coenia (moth), Porcellio scaber (sow bug) and Cryptotermes brevis (termite) and subjected to Southern hybridization with a 23S-5S B. subtilis ribosomal sequence probe verified that they are indistinguishable from laboratory strains of Bacillus cereus.

  14. Influence of Diadema antillarum populations (Echinodermata: Diadematidae) on algal community structure in Jardines de la Reina, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Blanco, Félix; Clero Alonso, Lídice; González Sansón, Gaspar; Amargós Fabián, Pina

    2011-09-01

    The 1983-1984 mass mortality of Diadema antillarum produced severe damages on Caribbean reefs contributing to substantial changes in community structure that still persist. Despite the importance of Diadema grazing in structuring coral reefs, available information on current abundances and algal-urchin interactions in Cuba is scarce. We analyzed spatial variations in Diadema abundance and its influence on algal community structure in 22 reef sites in Jardines de la Reina, in June/2004 and April/2005. Urchins were counted in five 30 x 2m transects per site, and algal coverage was estimated in randomly located 0.25m side quadrats (15 per site). Abundances of Diadema were higher at reef crests (0.013-1.553 ind/m2), while reef slope populations showed values up to three orders of magnitude lower and were overgrown by macroalgae (up to 87%, local values). Algal community structure at reef slopes were dominated by macroalgae, especially Dictyota, Lobophora and Halimeda while the most abundant macroalgae at reef crests were Halimeda and Amphiroa. Urchin densities were negatively and positively correlated with mean coverage of macroalgae and crustose coralline algae, respectively, when analyzing data pooled across all sites, but not with data from separate habitats (specially reef crest), suggesting, along with historical fish biomass, that shallow reef community structure is being shaped by the synergistic action of other factors (e.g. fish grazing) rather than the influence of Diadema alone. However, we observed clear signs of Diadema grazing at reef crests and decreased macroalgal cover according to 2001 data, what suggest that grazing intensity at this habitat increased at the same time that Diadema recruitment began to be noticeable. Furthermore, the excessive abundance of macroalgae at reef slopes and the scarcity of crustose coralline algae seems to be due by the almost complete absence of D. antillarum at mid depth reefs, where local densities of this urchin were

  15. The influence of male parr body size and mate competition on fertilization success and effective population size in Atlantic salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M W; Hutchings, J A

    2001-06-01

    Alternative mating strategies in male Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, are characterized by variability in body size and mate competition. Controlling breeding numbers of larger, older anadromous males, we examined whether body size of mature male parr influenced fertilization success and whether such an association was affected by mate competition among parr. Variation at three to four hypervariable microsatellite loci was used to determine individual paternity of 53-60 offspring from two or three nests from each experimental treatment. Although individual and total parr reproductive success differed significantly among nests within treatments, there was no relationship between parr size and individual reproductive success at any level of competition when anadromous males were involved. However, in a single treatment having no anadromous male, the influence of body size on parr fertilization success was highly significant. Combining data from all treatments, parr body size was an important predictor of the probability of an individual being involved in spawning. We found a negative relationship between total parr reproductive success and intensity of anadromous male competition. To our knowledge, the present study is the first to estimate the effective number of males from individual fertilization success in fish. Our estimates of Ne should not be taken as absolute and may have a downward bias because we did not sample all nests and we used a proxy for lifetime reproductive success. They do, however, illustrate how mature male parr can greatly increase the effective number of males when the latter is estimated from anadromous individuals alone. Although reproductive success by mature male parr increases the effective number of males, this increase seems likely to be most pronounced in natural populations when the number of anadromous males is low.

  16. Does life course socio-economic position influence chronic disabling pain in older adults? A general population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Rosie J; Belcher, John; Croft, Peter R

    2013-08-01

    Chronic pain is the leading cause of disability in developed countries. Prevalence is linked with socio-economic position (SEP), but little is known about the influence of SEP on disabling pain over the life course. We have investigated the influence of different life course trajectories of SEP on disabling pain ('pain interference') in postal surveys of adults aged ≥50 years sampled from the general population of adults registered with three UK general practices. Current pain interference was measured using the dichotomized 36-item Short-Form (SF-36) health survey. Three recalled SEP measures (age left school, longest job and current/most recent job) were dichotomized into low SEP (left school at or before minimum school leaving age; reported routine or manual occupations) and high SEP, from which eight life course SEP trajectories were constructed. Associations of (i) eight SEP trajectories and (ii) three individual SEP measures adjusted for each other, with pain interference, adjusted for potential confounders, were calculated using logistic regression. A total of 2533 individuals provided data on all three SEP measures. A consistently low life course SEP trajectory was significantly associated with current pain interference compared with a high trajectory [odds ratio (OR) = 2.76, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.19-3.47], even after adjustment for age and gender. Further adjustment reduced the association but it remained significant (OR = 2.04; 95% CI: 1.55-2.68). In the model with individual measures, low age left school (OR = 1.45; 95% CI: 1.15-1.82) and manual longest job (OR = 1.47; 95% CI: 1.13-1.91) were independently associated with pain interference. Our results highlight the potential for reducing chronic disabling pain in later life by addressing inequalities in both childhood education and adult occupational opportunities.

  17. Spatial analysis of factors influencing long-term stress in the grizzly bear (Ursus arctos population of Alberta, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu L Bourbonnais

    Full Text Available Non-invasive measures for assessing long-term stress in free ranging mammals are an increasingly important approach for understanding physiological responses to landscape conditions. Using a spatially and temporally expansive dataset of hair cortisol concentrations (HCC generated from a threatened grizzly bear (Ursus arctos population in Alberta, Canada, we quantified how variables representing habitat conditions and anthropogenic disturbance impact long-term stress in grizzly bears. We characterized spatial variability in male and female HCC point data using kernel density estimation and quantified variable influence on spatial patterns of male and female HCC stress surfaces using random forests. Separate models were developed for regions inside and outside of parks and protected areas to account for substantial differences in anthropogenic activity and disturbance within the study area. Variance explained in the random forest models ranged from 55.34% to 74.96% for males and 58.15% to 68.46% for females. Predicted HCC levels were higher for females compared to males. Generally, high spatially continuous female HCC levels were associated with parks and protected areas while low-to-moderate levels were associated with increased anthropogenic disturbance. In contrast, male HCC levels were low in parks and protected areas and low-to-moderate in areas with increased anthropogenic disturbance. Spatial variability in gender-specific HCC levels reveal that the type and intensity of external stressors are not uniform across the landscape and that male and female grizzly bears may be exposed to, or perceive, potential stressors differently. We suggest observed spatial patterns of long-term stress may be the result of the availability and distribution of foods related to disturbance features, potential sexual segregation in available habitat selection, and may not be influenced by sources of mortality which represent acute traumas. In this wildlife

  18. Spatial analysis of factors influencing long-term stress in the grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) population of Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourbonnais, Mathieu L; Nelson, Trisalyn A; Cattet, Marc R L; Darimont, Chris T; Stenhouse, Gordon B

    2013-01-01

    Non-invasive measures for assessing long-term stress in free ranging mammals are an increasingly important approach for understanding physiological responses to landscape conditions. Using a spatially and temporally expansive dataset of hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) generated from a threatened grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) population in Alberta, Canada, we quantified how variables representing habitat conditions and anthropogenic disturbance impact long-term stress in grizzly bears. We characterized spatial variability in male and female HCC point data using kernel density estimation and quantified variable influence on spatial patterns of male and female HCC stress surfaces using random forests. Separate models were developed for regions inside and outside of parks and protected areas to account for substantial differences in anthropogenic activity and disturbance within the study area. Variance explained in the random forest models ranged from 55.34% to 74.96% for males and 58.15% to 68.46% for females. Predicted HCC levels were higher for females compared to males. Generally, high spatially continuous female HCC levels were associated with parks and protected areas while low-to-moderate levels were associated with increased anthropogenic disturbance. In contrast, male HCC levels were low in parks and protected areas and low-to-moderate in areas with increased anthropogenic disturbance. Spatial variability in gender-specific HCC levels reveal that the type and intensity of external stressors are not uniform across the landscape and that male and female grizzly bears may be exposed to, or perceive, potential stressors differently. We suggest observed spatial patterns of long-term stress may be the result of the availability and distribution of foods related to disturbance features, potential sexual segregation in available habitat selection, and may not be influenced by sources of mortality which represent acute traumas. In this wildlife system and others

  19. Influence of long-distance seed dispersal on the genetic diversity of seed rain in fragmented Pinus densiflora populations relative to pollen-mediated gene flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Hajime; Watanabe, Atsushi; Uchiyama, Kentaro; Saito, Yoko; Ide, Yuji

    2013-01-01

    Long-distance dispersal (LDD) of seeds has a critical impact on species survival in patchy landscapes. However, relative to pollen dispersal, empirical data on how seed LDD affects genetic diversity in fragmented populations have been poorly reported. Thus, we attempted to indirectly evaluate the influence of seed LDD by estimating maternal and paternal inbreeding in the seed rain of fragmented 8 Pinus densiflora populations. In total, the sample size was 458 seeds and 306 adult trees. Inbreeding was estimated by common parentage analysis to evaluate gene flow within populations and by sibship reconstruction analysis to estimate gene flow within and among populations. In the parentage analysis, the observed probability that sampled seeds had the same parents within populations was significantly larger than the expected probability in many populations. This result suggested that gene dispersal was limited to within populations. In the sibship reconstruction, many donors both within and among populations appeared to contribute to sampled seeds. Significant differences in sibling ratios were not detected between paternity and maternity. These results suggested that seed-mediated gene flow and pollen-mediated gene flow from outside population contributed some extent to high genetic diversity of the seed rain (H E > 0.854). We emphasize that pine seeds may have excellent potential for gene exchange within and among populations.

  20. THE USE OF EXPRESSIVE SPEECH ACTS IN HANNAH MONTANA SESSION 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Vita Handayani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to describe kinds and forms of expressive speech act in Hannah Montana Session 1. It belongs to descriptive qualitative method. The research object was expressive speech act. The data source was utterances which contain expressive speech acts in the film Hannah Montana Session 1. The researcher used observation method and noting technique in collecting the data. In analyzing the data, descriptive qualitative method was used. The research findings show that there are ten kinds of expressive speech act found in Hannah Montana Session 1, namely expressing apology, expressing thanks, expressing sympathy, expressing attitudes, expressing greeting, expressing wishes, expressing joy, expressing pain, expressing likes, and expressing dislikes. The forms of expressive speech act are direct literal expressive speech act, direct non-literal expressive speech act, indirect literal expressive speech act, and indirect non-literal expressive speech act.

  1. Influence of neighbourhood purchasing power on breastfeeding at four months of age: a Swedish population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almquist-Tangen, Gerd; Strömberg, Ulf; Holmén, Anders; Alm, Bernt; Roswall, Josefine; Bergman, Stefan; Dahlgren, Jovanna

    2013-11-15

    Parental socioeconomic status (SES) is an important determinant in child health, influencing beneficial factors such as breastfeeding. A better understanding of the influence of neighbourhood-level SES measures, relating to spatial determinants, might lead to targeted actions to promote breastfeeding during infancy. A cross-sectional study analysis the association between breastfeeding at four months of age and neighbourhood purchasing power, taking account of individual-level variables including maternal age, smoking and parental level of education. Data were obtained from a prospective population- based cohort study recruited from birth in 2007-2008 in the Halland region, southwestern Sweden. Questionnaire data on the individual-level variables and the outcome variable of breastfeeding at four months (yes/no) were used (n=2,407). Each mother was geo-coded with respect to her residential parish (there are 61 parishes in the region) and then stratified by parish-level household purchasing power. It emerged that four neighbourhood characteristics were reasonable to use, viz. purchasing power. The proportion of mothers not breastfeeding at four months of age showed a highly significant trend across the neighbourhood strata (p=0.00004): from 16.3% (purchasing power) to 29.4% (≥ 30% with low purchasing power), yielding an OR of 2.24 (95% confidence interval: 1.45-3.16). After adjusting for the individual-level variables, the corresponding OR=1.63 (1.07-2.56) was significant and the trend across the strata was still evident (p=0.05). A multi-level analysis estimated that, in the neighbourhoods with ≥ 30% of the families with low purchasing power, 20% more mothers than expected, taking account of the individual-level factors, reported no breastfeeding at four months of age (≥ 95% posterior probability of an elevated observed-to-expected ratio). The neighbourhood purchasing power provided a spatial determinant of low numbers of mothers breastfeeding at four months

  2. Population dynamics of Aedes aegypti and dengue as influenced by weather and human behavior in San Juan, Puerto Rico.

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    Roberto Barrera

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies on the influence of weather on Aedes aegypti dynamics in Puerto Rico suggested that rainfall was a significant driver of immature mosquito populations and dengue incidence, but mostly in the drier areas of the island. We conducted a longitudinal study of Ae. aegypti in two neighborhoods of the metropolitan area of San Juan city, Puerto Rico where rainfall is more uniformly distributed throughout the year. We assessed the impacts of rainfall, temperature, and human activities on the temporal dynamics of adult Ae. aegypti and oviposition. Changes in adult mosquitoes were monitored with BG-Sentinel traps and oviposition activity with CDC enhanced ovitraps. Pupal surveys were conducted during the drier and wetter parts of the year in both neighborhoods to determine the contribution of humans and rains to mosquito production. Mosquito dynamics in each neighborhood was compared with dengue incidence in their respective municipalities during the study. Our results showed that: 1. Most pupae were produced in containers managed by people, which explains the prevalence of adult mosquitoes at times when rainfall was scant; 2. Water meters were documented for the first time as productive habitats for Ae. aegypti; 3. Even though Puerto Rico has a reliable supply of tap water and an active tire recycling program, water storage containers and discarded tires were important mosquito producers; 4. Peaks in mosquito density preceded maximum dengue incidence; and 5. Ae. aegypti dynamics were driven by weather and human activity and oviposition was significantly correlated with dengue incidence.

  3. The BaLROG project - II. Quantifying the influence of bars on the stellar populations of nearby galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Seidel, Marja K; Martínez-Valpuesta, Inma; Sánchez-Blázquez, Patricia; Pérez, Isabel; Peletier, Reynier; Vazdekis, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    We continue the exploration of the BaLROG (Bars in Low Redshift Optical Galaxies) sample: 16 large mosaics of barred galaxies observed with the integral field unit SAURON. We quantify the influence of bars on the composition of the stellar component. We derive linestrength indices of H${\\beta}$, Fe5015 and Mgb. Based on single stellar population (SSP) models, we calculate ages, metallicities and [Mg/Fe] abundances and their gradients along the bar major and minor axes. The high spatial resolution of our data allows us to identify breaks among index and SSP profiles, commonly at 0.13$\\pm$0.06 bar length, consistent with kinematic features. Inner gradients are about ten times steeper than outer gradients and become larger when there is a central rotating component, implying that the gradients are not independent of dynamics and orbits. Central ages appear to be younger for stronger bars. Yet, the bar regions are usually old. We find a flattening of the iron (Fe5015) and magnesium (Mgb) outer gradients along the...

  4. Population Dynamics of Aedes aegypti and Dengue as Influenced by Weather and Human Behavior in San Juan, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Roberto; Amador, Manuel; MacKay, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies on the influence of weather on Aedes aegypti dynamics in Puerto Rico suggested that rainfall was a significant driver of immature mosquito populations and dengue incidence, but mostly in the drier areas of the island. We conducted a longitudinal study of Ae. aegypti in two neighborhoods of the metropolitan area of San Juan city, Puerto Rico where rainfall is more uniformly distributed throughout the year. We assessed the impacts of rainfall, temperature, and human activities on the temporal dynamics of adult Ae. aegypti and oviposition. Changes in adult mosquitoes were monitored with BG-Sentinel traps and oviposition activity with CDC enhanced ovitraps. Pupal surveys were conducted during the drier and wetter parts of the year in both neighborhoods to determine the contribution of humans and rains to mosquito production. Mosquito dynamics in each neighborhood was compared with dengue incidence in their respective municipalities during the study. Our results showed that: 1. Most pupae were produced in containers managed by people, which explains the prevalence of adult mosquitoes at times when rainfall was scant; 2. Water meters were documented for the first time as productive habitats for Ae. aegypti; 3. Even though Puerto Rico has a reliable supply of tap water and an active tire recycling program, water storage containers and discarded tires were important mosquito producers; 4. Peaks in mosquito density preceded maximum dengue incidence; and 5. Ae. aegypti dynamics were driven by weather and human activity and oviposition was significantly correlated with dengue incidence. PMID:22206021

  5. Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) suppression for bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) recovery in Flathead Lake, Montana, North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Michael J.; Hansen, Barry S; Beauchamp, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Non-native lake trout Salvelinus namaycush displaced native bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in Flathead Lake, Montana, USA, after 1984, when Mysis diluviana became abundant following its introduction in upstream lakes in 1968–1976. We developed a simulation model to determine the fishing mortality rate on lake trout that would enable bull trout recovery. Model simulations indicated that suppression of adult lake trout by 75% from current abundance would reduce predation on bull trout by 90%. Current removals of lake trout through incentivized fishing contests has not been sufficient to suppress lake trout abundance estimated by mark-recapture or indexed by stratified-random gill netting. In contrast, size structure, body condition, mortality, and maturity are changing consistent with a density-dependent reduction in lake trout abundance. Population modeling indicated total fishing effort would need to increase 3-fold to reduce adult lake trout population density by 75%. We conclude that increased fishing effort would suppress lake trout population density and predation on juvenile bull trout, and thereby enable higher abundance of adult bull trout in Flathead Lake and its tributaries.

  6. [Helenalin- and 11,13-Dihydrohelenalinester from Flowers of Arnica montana.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willuhn, G; Röttger, P M; Matthiesen, U

    1983-12-01

    From the flowers of ARNICA MONTANA L. 13 helenanolides were isolated and identified. They are shown to be 11,13-dihydrohelenalin ( 1), helenalin ( 2) and their ester derivatives 3-13 (see figure). The natural occurence of 6-O-isobutyryl-, 6-O-tigloyl-, 6-O-isovaleryl- and 6-O-(2-methyl)-butyrylhelenalin (compounds 9, 11, 12, 13) is reported for the first time. The qualitative sesquiterpene lactone composition in flowers of A. MONTANA from different regions was found to be variable.

  7. Characterization of ecological risks at the Milltown Reservoir-Clark Fork River Sediments Superfund Site, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoe, Gary A.; Blanchet, Richard J.; Linder, Greg L.; Palawski, Don; Brumbaugh, William G.; Canfield, Tim J.; Kemble, Nile E.; Ingersoll, Chris G.; Farag, Aïda M.; DalSoglio, Julie A.

    1994-01-01

    A comprehensive field and laboratory approach to the ecological risk assessment for the Milltown Reservoir-Clark Fork River Sediments Site, a Superfund site in the Rocky Mountains of Montana, has been described in the preceding reports of this series. The risk assessment addresses concerns over the ecological impacts of upstream releases of mining wastes to fisheries of the upper Clark Fork River (CFR) and the benthic and terrestrial habitats further downstream in Milltown Reservoir. The risk characterization component of the process integrated results from a triad of information sources: (a) chemistry studies of environmental media to identify and quantify exposures of terrestrial and aquatic organisms to site-related contaminants; (b) ecological or population studies of terrestrial vegetation, birds, benthic communities, and fish; and (c) in situ and laboratory toxicity studies with terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates and plants, small mammals, amphibians, and fish exposed to contaminated surface water, sediments, wetland soils, and food sources. Trophic transfer studies were performed on waterfowl, mammals, and predatory birds using field measurement data on metals concentrations in environmental media and lower trophic food sources. Studies with sediment exposures were incorporated into the Sediment Quality Triad approach to evaluate risks to benthic ecology. Overall results of the wetland and terrestrial studies suggested that acute adverse biological effects were largely absent from the wetland; however, adverse effects to reproductive, growth, and physiological end points of various terrestrial and aquatic species were related to metals exposures in more highly contaminated depositional areas. Feeding studies with contaminated diet collected from the upper CFR indicated that trout are at high risk from elevated metals concentrations in surface water, sediment, and aquatic invertebrates. Integration of chemical analyses with toxicological and ecological

  8. Summer habitat use by Columbia River redband trout in the Kootenai River drainage, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Bennett, David H.

    2001-01-01

    The reported decline in the abundance, distribution, and genetic diversity of Columbia River redband trout Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri (a rainbow trout subspecies) has prompted fisheries managers to investigate their habitat requirements, identify critical habitat, and develop effective conservation and recovery programs. We analyzed the microhabitat, mesohabitat, and macrohabitat use and distribution of Columbia River redband trout by means of snorkel surveys in two watersheds in the Kootenai River drainage, Montana and Idaho, during the summers of 1997 and 1998. Juvenile (36–125 mm total length, TL) and adult (>=126 mm TL) fish preferred deep microhabitats (>=0.4 m) with low to moderate velocities (<=0.5 m/s) adjacent to the thalweg. Conversely, age-0 (<=35 mm) fish selected slow water (<=0.1 m/s) and shallow depths (<=0.2 m) located in lateral areas of the channel. Age-0, juvenile, and adult fish strongly selected pool mesohabitats and avoided riffles; juveniles and adults generally used runs in proportion to their availability. At the macrohabitat scale, density of Columbia River redband trout (35 mm) was positively related to the abundance of pools and negatively related to stream gradient. The pool: riffle ratio, gradient, and stream size combined accounted for 80% of the variation in density among 23 stream reaches in five streams. Our results demonstrate that low-gradient, medium-elevation reaches with an abundance of complex pools are critical areas for the production of Columbia River redband trout. These data will be useful in assessing the impacts of land-use practices on the remaining populations and may assist with habitat restoration or enhancement efforts.

  9. Favorability for uranium in tertiary sedimentary rocks, southwestern Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wopat, M A; Curry, W E; Robins, J W; Marjaniemi, D K

    1977-10-01

    Tertiary sedimentary rocks in the basins of southwestern Montana were studied to determine their favorability for potential uranium resources. Uranium in the Tertiary sedimentary rocks was probably derived from the Boulder batholith and from silicic volcanic material. The batholith contains numerous uranium occurrences and is the most favorable plutonic source for uranium in the study area. Subjective favorability categories of good, moderate, and poor, based on the number and type of favorable criteria present, were used to classify the rock sequences studied. Rocks judged to have good favorability for uranium deposits are (1) Eocene and Oligocene strata and undifferentiated Tertiary rocks in the western Three Forks basin and (2) Oligocene rocks in the Helena basin. Rocks having moderate favorability consist of (1) Eocene and Oligocene strata in the Jefferson River, Beaverhead River, and lower Ruby River basins, (2) Oligocene rocks in the Townsend and Clarkston basins, (3) Miocene and Pliocene rocks in the Upper Ruby River basin, and (4) all Tertiary sedimentary formations in the eastern Three Forks basin, and in the Grasshopper Creek, Horse Prairie, Medicine Lodge Creek, Big Sheep Creek, Deer Lodge, Big Hole River, and Bull Creek basins. The following have poor favorability: (1) the Beaverhead Conglomerate in the Red Rock and Centennial basins, (2) Eocene and Oligocene rocks in the Upper Ruby River basin, (3) Miocene and Pliocene rocks in the Townsend, Clarkston, Smith River, and Divide Creek basins, (4) Miocene through Pleistocene rocks in the Jefferson River, Beaverhead River, and Lower Ruby River basins, and (5) all Tertiary sedimentary rocks in the Boulder River, Sage Creek, Muddy Creek, Madison River, Flint Creek, Gold Creek, and Bitterroot basins.

  10. Match or mismatch: the influence of phenology on size-dependent life history and divergence in population structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherding, Jost; Beeck, Peter; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Scharf, Werner R.

    2010-01-01

    Summary 1. In gape-limited predators, body size asymmetries determine the outcome of predator-prey interactions. Due to ontogenetic changes in body size, the intensity of intra- and interspecific interactions may change rapidly between the match situation of a predator-prey system and the mismatch situation in which competition, including competition with the prey, dominates. 2. Based on a physiologically structured population model using the European perch (Perca fluviatilis), analysis was performed on how prey density (bream, Abramis brama), initial size differences in the young-of-the-year (YOY) age cohort of the predator, and phenology (time-gap in hatching of predator and prey) influence the size structure of the predator cohort. 3. In relation to the seasonality of reproduction, the match situation of the predator-prey system occurred when perch hatched earlier than bream and when no gape-size limitations existed, leading to decreased size divergence in the predator age cohort. Decreased size divergence was also found when bream hatched much earlier than perch, preventing perch predation on bream occurring, which, in turn, increased the competitive interaction of the perch with bream for the common prey, zooplankton; i.e. the mismatch situation in which also the mean size of the age cohort of the predator decreased. 4. In between the total match and the mismatch, however, only the largest individuals of the perch age cohort were able to prey on the bream, while smaller conspecifics got trapped in competition with each other and with bream for zooplankton, leading to enlarged differences in growth that increased size divergence. 5. The modelling results were combined with 7 years of field data in a lake, where large differences in the length-frequency distribution of YOY perch were observed after their first summer. These field data corroborate that phenology and prey density per predator are important mechanisms in determining size differences within the YOY

  11. Elucidating dynamic responses of North Pacific fish populations to climatic forcing: Influence of life-history strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsu, A.; Aydin, K. Y.; King, J. R.; McFarlane, G. A.; Chiba, S.; Tadokoro, K.; Kaeriyama, M.; Watanabe, Y.

    2008-05-01

    In order to explore mechanistic linkages between low-frequency ocean/climate variability, and fish population responses, we undertook comparative studies of time-series of recruitment-related productivity and the biomass levels of fish stocks representing five life-history strategies in the northern North Pacific between the 1950s and the present. We selected seven species: Japanese sardine ( Sardinopus melanostictus) and California sardine ( Sardinopus sagax) (opportunistic strategists), walleye pollock ( Theragra chalcogramma, intermediate strategist), pink salmon ( Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, salmonic strategist), sablefish ( Anoplopoma fimbria) and Pacific halibut ( Hippoglossus stenolepis) (periodic strategists) and spiny dogfish ( Squalus acanthias, equilibrium strategist). The responses in terms of productivity of sardine, pink salmon, sablefish and halibut to climatic regime shifts were generally immediate, delayed, or no substantial responses depending on the particular regime shift year and fish stock (population). In walleye pollock, there were some periods of high productivity and low productivity, but not coincidental to climatic regime shifts, likely due to indirect climate forcing impacts on both bottom-up and top-down processes. Biomass of zooplankton and all fish stocks examined, except for spiny dogfish whose data were limited, indicated a decadal pattern with the most gradual changes in periodic strategists and most intensive and rapid changes in opportunistic strategists. Responses of sardine productivity to regime shifts were the most intense, probably due to the absence of density-dependent effects and the availability of refuges from predators when sardine biomass was extremely low. Spiny dogfish were least affected by environmental variability. Conversely, spiny dogfish are likely to withstand only modest harvest rates due to their very low intrinsic rate of increase. Thus, each life-history strategy type had a unique response to climatic

  12. Methods for estimating peak-flow frequencies at ungaged sites in Montana based on data through water year 2011: Chapter F in Montana StreamStats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sando, Roy; Sando, Steven K.; McCarthy, Peter M.; Dutton, DeAnn M.

    2016-04-05

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation, completed a study to update methods for estimating peak-flow frequencies at ungaged sites in Montana based on peak-flow data at streamflow-gaging stations through water year 2011. The methods allow estimation of peak-flow frequencies (that is, peak-flow magnitudes, in cubic feet per second, associated with annual exceedance probabilities of 66.7, 50, 42.9, 20, 10, 4, 2, 1, 0.5, and 0.2 percent) at ungaged sites. The annual exceedance probabilities correspond to 1.5-, 2-, 2.33-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, 100-, 200-, and 500-year recurrence intervals, respectively.

  13. Influence of Diadema antillarum populations (Echinodermata: Diadematidae on algal community structure in Jardines de la Reina, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Martín Blanco

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The 1983-1984 mass mortality of Diadema antillarum produced severe damages on Caribbean reefs contributing to substantial changes in community structure that still persist. Despite the importance of Diadema grazing in structuring coral reefs, available information on current abundances and algal-urchin interactions in Cuba is scarce. We analyzed spatial variations in Diadema abundance and its influence on algal community structure in 22 reef sites in Jardines de la Reina, in June/2004 and April/2005. Urchins were counted in five 30x2m transects per site, and algal coverage was estimated in randomly located 0.25m side quadrats (15 per site. Abundances of Diadema were higher at reef crests (0.013-1.553 ind/m², while reef slope populations showed values up to three orders of magnitude lower and were overgrown by macroalgae (up to 87%, local values. Algal community structure at reef slopes were dominated by macroalgae, especially Dictyota, Lobophora and Halimeda while the most abundant macroalgae at reef crests were Halimeda and Amphiroa. Urchin densities were negatively and positively correlated with mean coverage of macroalgae and crustose coralline algae, respectively, when analyzing data pooled across all sites, but not with data from separate habitats (specially reef crest, suggesting, along with historical fish biomass, that shallow reef community structure is being shaped by the synergistic action of other factors (e.g. fish grazing rather than the influence of Diadema alone. However, we observed clear signs of Diadema grazing at reef crests and decreased macroalgal cover according to 2001 data, what suggest that grazing intensity at this habitat increased at the same time that Diadema recruitment began to be noticeable. Furthermore, the excessive abundance of macroalgae at reef slopes and the scarcity of crustose coralline algae seems to be due by the almost complete absence of D. antillarum at mid depth reefs, where local densities of this

  14. Global phylogeography of the dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus): the influence of large effective population size and recent dispersal on the divergence of a marine pelagic cosmopolitan species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Jaimes, P; Uribe-Alcocer, M; Rocha-Olivares, A; García-de-León, F J; Nortmoon, P; Durand, J D

    2010-12-01

    Pelagic fish that are distributed circumtropically are characterised by a low population structure level as a result of a high capacity for dispersion and large population sizes. Nevertheless, historical and contemporary processes, including past demographic and/or range expansions, secondary contact, dispersal, gene flow, and the achievement of large effective population sizes, may play a part in the detection of divergence signals, especially in the case of tropical pelagic species, whose distribution range depends strongly on the sea surface temperature. The connectivity and historical demography of Atlantic, Indian, Pacific and Mediterranean populations of dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus) was studied using partial sequences of the mitochondrial DNA NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1). AMOVA analyses revealed significant inter-oceanic divergence with three phylogroups located in the Indo-Pacific, Eastern Atlantic, and Mediterranean Sea, the last one being the most divergent. However, it was not possible to clearly observe any genetic differentiation between the Indo-Pacific and Atlantic populations, as has been reported for most tropical pelagic species of tuna and billfishes. This supports the assumption of recent dispersal among basins facilitated by the actual continuous distribution of dolphinfish populations. Moreover, the lack of a divergence signal for populations separated by the Panamanian Isthmus reveals that genetic drift does not exert a strong influence on tropical pelagic species with large effective population sizes.

  15. Influences of population, building, and traffic densities on urban heat island intensity in Chiang Mai City, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kammuang-Lue Niti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to evaluate the Urban Heat Island Intensity (UHII and study the influences of population density, building density, and traffic density on the UHII in Chiang Mai city on each season and time. The surrounding air temperature was measured by thermocouples at a constant height of 2 m above the road by mobile surveying approach. The surveyed routes were divided into urban routes and rural routes. The UHII was calculated from the average surrounding air temperature difference between the urban and the rural areas. Experimental investigations were carried out in two seasons, consisting of summer (March-May, 2014 and winter (December 2013-February 2014. Experimental investigations were carried out in two periods, which were a daytime period (01.00-03.00 pm and a nighttime period (10.00 pm-00.00 am on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Sundays. The results show that the UHII in summer day, summer night, winter day, and winter night were 1.07°C, 1.27°C, 0.58°C, and 1.34°C, respectively. This implies that the temperature in Chiang Mai city’s urban area is higher than that in the rural area the entire year. Moreover, it was found that the UHII in summer day, winter day, and winter night were primarily affected by the traffic density with the sensitivity percentage of 87.50%, 72.73%, and 63.33%, respectively. In contrast, the UHII in summer night was mainly affected by the building density with the sensitivity percentage of 50.00%.

  16. The influence of social support on risk of acute cardiovascular diseases in female population aged 25-64 in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafarov, Valery V; Panov, Dmitry O; Gromova, Elena A; Gagulin, Igor V; Gafarova, Almira V

    2013-01-01

    To study the prevalence of social support (SS) and its influence on the relative risk (RR) of myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke in the female population aged 25-64 in Russia. Under the third screening of the WHO "MONICA-psychosocial" programme, a random representative sample of women aged 25-64 (n=870) were surveyed in Novosibirsk. SS was measured according to the methods of the Berkman-Sym test [indices of close contacts (ICC) and index of social network (SNI)]. From 1995 to 2010, women were followed for 16 years to observe the incidence of MI and stroke. The prevalence of low levels of ICC and SNI in women aged 25-64 was 57.1 and 77.7%, respectively. Low levels of ICC and SNI were associated with poor self-rated health and awareness about their health, adverse behavioral habits, high job strain and family stress. Rates of MI and stroke development were higher in married women with low ICC and SNI who were being in class "hard manual work". Over a 16-year study period, the RR of MI in women with low ICC compared to those with high ICC was 4.9 times higher, and the risk of stroke was 4.1 times higher. Low level of SNI increased MI risk in 2.9 times, risk of stroke in 2.7 times. Majority of women aged 25-64 years in Russia have low social support which is associated with poor self-rated health, low awareness about the health that increases the risk of MI and stroke in 2.7-4.9 times in groups of "married" and "hard physical work".

  17. The influence of social support on risk of acute cardiovascular diseases in female population aged 25–64 in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery V. Gafarov

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study the prevalence of social support (SS and its influence on the relative risk (RR of myocardial infarction (MI and stroke in the female population aged 25–64 in Russia. Materials and methods. Under the third screening of the WHO “MONICA-psychosocial” programme, a random representative sample of women aged 25–64 (n=870 were surveyed in Novosibirsk. SS was measured according to the methods of the Berkman–Sym test [indices of close contacts (ICC and index of social network (SNI]. From 1995 to 2010, women were followed for 16 years to observe the incidence of MI and stroke. Results. The prevalence of low levels of ICC and SNI in women aged 25–64 was 57.1 and 77.7%, respectively. Low levels of ICC and SNI were associated with poor self-rated health and awareness about their health, adverse behavioural habits, high job strain and family stress. Rates of MI and stroke development were higher in married women with low ICC and SNI who were being in class “hard manual work”. Over a 16-year study period, the RR of MI in women with low ICC compared to those with high ICC was 4.9 times higher, and the risk of stroke was 4.1 times higher. Low level of SNI increased MI risk in 2.9 times, risk of stroke in 2.7 times. Conclusions. Majority of women aged 25–64 years in Russia have low social support which is associated with poor self-rated health, low awareness about the health that increases the risk of MI and stroke in 2.7–4.9 times in groups of “married” and “hard physical work”.

  18. Molecular Genetic Influences on Normative and Problematic Alcohol Use in a Population-Based Sample of College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Bradley T.; Edwards, Alexis C.; Wolen, Aaron R.; Salvatore, Jessica E.; Aliev, Fazil; Riley, Brien P.; Sun, Cuie; Williamson, Vernell S.; Kitchens, James N.; Pedersen, Kimberly; Adkins, Amy; Cooke, Megan E.; Savage, Jeanne E.; Neale, Zoe; Cho, Seung B.; Dick, Danielle M.; Kendler, Kenneth S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Genetic factors impact alcohol use behaviors and these factors may become increasingly evident during emerging adulthood. Examination of the effects of individual variants as well as aggregate genetic variation can clarify mechanisms underlying risk. Methods: We conducted genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in an ethnically diverse sample of college students for three quantitative outcomes including typical monthly alcohol consumption, alcohol problems, and maximum number of drinks in 24 h. Heritability based on common genetic variants (h2SNP) was assessed. We also evaluated whether risk variants in aggregate were associated with alcohol use outcomes in an independent sample of young adults. Results: Two genome-wide significant markers were observed: rs11201929 in GRID1 for maximum drinks in 24 h, with supportive evidence across all ancestry groups; and rs73317305 in SAMD12 (alcohol problems), tested only in the African ancestry group. The h2SNP estimate was 0.19 (SE = 0.11) for consumption, and was non-significant for other outcomes. Genome-wide polygenic scores were significantly associated with alcohol outcomes in an independent sample. Conclusions: These results robustly identify genetic risk for alcohol use outcomes at the variant level and in aggregate. We confirm prior evidence that genetic variation in GRID1 impacts alcohol use, and identify novel loci of interest for multiple alcohol outcomes in emerging adults. These findings indicate that genetic variation influencing normative and problematic alcohol use is, to some extent, convergent across ancestry groups. Studying college populations represents a promising avenue by which to obtain large, diverse samples for gene identification. PMID:28360924

  19. Hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of Flacourtia montana J. Grah leaf extract in male Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinchu Joshy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Flacourtia montana and its related species have been used traditionally for the treatment of various diseases. The present study evaluated the hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of F. montana methanolic extract. The hepatoprotective effect of F. montana was evaluated against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats. Administration of paracetamol (2 g/kg showed a significant biochemical and histological deterioration in the liver of experimental animals. Pretreatment with F. montana (200 and 400 mg/kg b.wt. p.o significantly (P ⩽ 0.001 reduced the elevated levels of serum enzymes like serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (AST, serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and reversed the hepatic damage in the liver which evidenced the hepatoprotective activity. The anti-inflammatory activity of F. montana was evaluated by carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton pellet-induced granuloma models. F. montana (200 and 400 mg/kg showed a significant (P ⩽ 0.001 reduction in rat paw edema with 76.39% and 80.32%, respectively induced by carrageenan against the reference anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen (10 mg/kg (83.10%. Oral administration of F. montana (200 and 400 mg/kg also significantly (P ⩽ 0.001 reduced the granuloma mass formation in cotton pellet granuloma method. The reducing power and hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging were increased at increasing doses of F. montana. The results of the present study demonstrate that the methanolic extract of F. montana possess hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities.

  20. Inflammatory Process Modulation by Homeopathic Arnica montana 6CH: The Role of Individual Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Kawakami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Arnica montana 6cH on the individual modulation of acute inflammation kinetics in rats were evaluated. Adult male Wistar rats were inoculated with 1% carrageenan into the footpad and treated with Arnica montana 6cH, dexamethasone (4.0 mg/kg; positive control or 5% hydroalcoholic solution (negative control, per os, each 15 minutes, between 30 and 180 minutes after the irritant inoculation. Histopathological and immunohistochemistry procedures were done in order to get a panel of inflammatory positive cells for CD3 (T lymphocytes, CD45RA (B lymphocytes, CD18 (beta 2 integrin, CD163 (ED2 protein, CD54 (ICAM-1, and MAC 387 (monocytes and macrophages. The statistical treatment of data included a posteriori classification of animals from each group (N=20 in two subgroups presenting spontaneous precocious or late oedema. Animals that presented precocious oedema were less responsible to Arnica montana 6cH in relation to hemodynamic changes. Instead, rats that exhibited late oedema presented less intense oedema (P=.01, lower percentage of mast cell degranulation (P=.0001, and increase in lymphatic vessels diameter (P=.05. The data suggest an individually qualitative adjustment of inflammatory vascular events by Arnica montana 6cH.

  1. 78 FR 15681 - Beaverhead-Deerlodge National Forest, Dillon Ranger District; Montana; Birch, Willow, Lost Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... Forest Service Beaverhead-Deerlodge National Forest, Dillon Ranger District; Montana; Birch, Willow, Lost... statement. SUMMARY: The Birch, Willow, Lost Project proposes to treat vegetation communities in the four sub.... FR 7476 (Lower Willow Creek) would have 1.7 miles Spot Reconstructed. FR 8200 (Willow Creek)...

  2. Regional ecological risk assessment for the introduction of Gambusia affinis (western mosquitofish) into Montana watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerome J. Schleier; Sing Sharlene E.; Robert K. D. Peterson

    2008-01-01

    Qualitative risk assessment methodologies were used to assess the risk of establishment and consequent impacts on native minnows and species of concern (SOC) associated with the intentional or unintentional introduction of the mosquito biological control agent, Gambusia affinis, to various Montana watersheds. Gambusia affinis...

  3. 75 FR 67095 - Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge and UL Bend National Wildlife Refuge, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge and UL Bend National Wildlife Refuge, Montana AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior (DOI). ACTION: Notice; extension of comment period. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, are extending the comment period for...

  4. Competency Commonalities and Accompanying Job Titles Derived from the Six Montana Agricultural Manpower Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amberson, Max L.; And Others

    The report provides essential information for curriculum development relevant to manpower demands for agricultural production and agribusiness in Montana. It focuses on an analysis of 3,500 competency statements to determine the existence of duplication, commonalities, and uniqueness among 76 identified job titles derived from six Agricultural…

  5. 77 FR 26275 - Bonneville Power Administration; Montana-to-Washington Transmission System Upgrade Project EIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-03

    ... Bonneville Power Administration; Montana-to-Washington Transmission System Upgrade Project EIS AGENCY...``''sts for long-term transmission service. During the NOS process, utilities and power generators (including wind generators and power marketers) requested the use of BPA's transmission system to...

  6. HIV/AIDS among American Indians/Alaska Natives Living in Montana: A Descriptive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondag, K. Ann; Strike, Carrie

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the epidemiology of HIV among AI/ANs in Montana. Barriers to HIV testing and motivations to test also were explored. Analysis of data revealed that there were no significant changes in regard to HIV/AIDS case rates, demographic characteristics, or risk behaviors of AI/ANs infected with HIV/AIDS since reporting began in 1985.…

  7. Protective effect of Satureja montana extract on cyclophosphamide-induced testicular injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El Tawab, Azza M; Shahin, Nancy N; AbdelMohsen, Mona M

    2014-12-05

    The present study investigated the protective effect of Satureja montana extract against cyclophosphamide-induced testicular injury in rats. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the extract were 1.03% and 0.34%w/w of dry herb expressed as chlorogenic acid and quercetin, respectively. HPLC analysis identified caffeic, syringic and rosmarinic acids as the chief phenolic acids, and rutin as the major flavonoid in the extract. Oral daily administration of S.montana extract (50mg/kg/day) for 7days before and 7days after an intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide (200mg/kg) restored the reduced relative testicular weight, serum testosterone level and testicular alkaline phosphatase activity, raised the lowered testicular sorbitol dehydrogenase and acid phosphatase activities, and decreased the elevated testicular hemoglobin absorbance. It also attenuated lipid peroxidation, restored the lowered glutathione content, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities, and improved total antioxidant capacity. Moreover, S.montana extract mitigated testicular DNA fragmentation, decreased the elevated Fas and Bax gene expression, up-regulated the decreased Bcl-2 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ) gene expression and normalized Akt1 protein level. Histopathological investigation confirmed the protective effects of the extract. Conclusively, S.montana extract protects the rat testis against cyclophosphamide-induced damage via anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic mechanisms that seem to be mediated, at least in part, by PPAR-γ and Akt1 up-regulation.

  8. School Readiness and Achievement of Crow Indian Children, First Through Fourth Grades, at Pryor, Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Joyce Martin

    The study was based on a year's work with Crow Indian children, grades 1-4, at Pryor, Montana. Five tests were given and evaluated: the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, the Metropolitan Achievement Tests, the Gesell Developmental Examination, the Lowenfeld Mosaic, and 3 selected tasks from Piaget. The 21 pupils used for this study were broken…

  9. Family Supports in Montana: Region III: Special Training for Exceptional People (STEP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Pam

    Special Training for Exceptional People (STEP) is a private, nonprofit agency serving children with developmental disabilities (0-22 years) and their families in the south-central section of Montana, encompassing Billings and a Crow Indian Reservation. One of the services provided by STEP is specialized family care, to prevent placement out of…

  10. Annual Report of Indian Education in Montana. Johnson-O'Malley Activities, Fiscal Year 1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montana State Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, Helena.

    During fiscal year 1978, the Montana Office of Public Instruction administered Johnson-O'Malley (JOM) Act funds totaling $684,200 for projects affecting 4,501 eligible students on the Crow, Fort Peck, Fort Belknap, and Rocky Boy's Indian Reservations. Funds were awarded on a per capita basis to provide supplemental educational programs for Indian…

  11. School Readiness and Achievement of Crow Indian Children, First Through Fourth Grades, at Pryor, Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Joyce Martin

    The study was based on a year's work with Crow Indian children, grades 1-4, at Pryor, Montana. Five tests were given and evaluated: the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, the Metropolitan Achievement Tests, the Gesell Developmental Examination, the Lowenfeld Mosaic, and 3 selected tasks from Piaget. The 21 pupils used for this study were broken…

  12. Perspectives and Future Directions Concerning Fresh, Whole Foods in Montana School Nutrition Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Lacy; Byker Shanks, Carmen J.; Roth, Aubree; Bark, Katie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: To meet new USDA school meal standards, school nutrition programs may need to transition from a "heat and serve" meal preparation approach to increased scratch cooking and use of fresh, whole foods. This study aims to assess the attitudes, motivations, and barriers for Montana school nutrition professionals and key…

  13. Chemical composition and antioxidant potential of Ruta montana L. essential oil from Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambouche, N; Merah, B; Bellahouel, S; Bouayed, J; Dicko, A; Derdour, A; Younos, C; Soulimani, R

    2008-09-01

    The essential oil of aerial parts of Ruta montana L. growing in the Oran region in the west of Algeria was obtained by hydrodistillation with a 1.63% yield on a dry weight basis. Gas chromatography (GC) and GC/mass spectrometry (MS) analyses were carried out to identify the chemical composition of R. montana essential oil. Moreover, spectrophotometric analyses were employed to highlight the scavenger capacity of this oil using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test. Twenty compounds were identified by GC and CG/MS analyses, and the bulk of the compounds of the oil were undecan-2-one (32.8%), nonan-2-one (29.5%), nonanol-2-acetate (18.2%), and psoralen (3.5%). The results obtained using the DPPH test show that R. montana essential oil possesses antiradical activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Thus, a linear correlation (correlation coefficient R(2) = 0.971, P < .001) was found between the reduction of DPPH stable free radical and the concentration of R. montana essential oil.

  14. Perspectives and Future Directions Concerning Fresh, Whole Foods in Montana School Nutrition Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Lacy; Byker Shanks, Carmen J.; Roth, Aubree; Bark, Katie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: To meet new USDA school meal standards, school nutrition programs may need to transition from a "heat and serve" meal preparation approach to increased scratch cooking and use of fresh, whole foods. This study aims to assess the attitudes, motivations, and barriers for Montana school nutrition professionals and key…

  15. The Roles of Principal Leadership Behaviors and Organizational Routines in Montana's Distinguished Title I Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Sean Niles

    2012-01-01

    This embedded multiple-case study addressed the lack of qualitative research on the contributions of principal leadership behaviors and organizational routines in Montana's distinguished Title I schools. This study was guided by the research question, "How do principal leadership behaviors and organizational routines contribute to the high…

  16. Fire ecology of Montana forest habitat types east of the Continental Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    William C. Fischer; Bruce D. Clayton

    1983-01-01

    Provides information on fire as an ecological factor for forest habitat types occurring east of the Continental Divide in Montana. Identifies "Fire Groups" of habitat types based on fire's role in forest succession. Describes forest fuels and suggests considerations for fire management.

  17. Quantifying social preferences toward woody biomass energy generation in Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Campbell; Tyron Venn; Nathaniel Anderson

    2015-01-01

    A significant amount of the forestland in Montana is in need of mechanical forest restoration treatments, which can improve forest health and reduce wildfire risk, but can be expensive to implement and produce little merchantable timber. One option for disposal of the small diameter material produced by these treatments is to utilize it to produce energy,...

  18. Social preferences toward energy generation with woody biomass from public forests in Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert M. Campbell; Tyron J. Venn; Nathaniel M. Anderson

    2016-01-01

    In Montana, USA, there are substantial opportunities for mechanized thinning treatments on public forests to reduce the likelihood of severe and damaging wildfires and improve forest health. These treatments produce residues that can be used to generate renewable energy and displace fossil fuels. The choice modeling method is employed to examine the marginal...

  19. Potential effects of climate change on streamflow for seven watersheds in eastern and central Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Katherine J.; Haj, Adel; Regan, R. Steven; Viger, Roland J.

    2016-01-01

    Study regionEastern and central Montana.Study focusFish in Northern Great Plains streams tolerate extreme conditions including heat, cold, floods, and drought; however changes in streamflow associated with long-term climate change may render some prairie streams uninhabitable for current fish species. To better understand future hydrology of these prairie streams, the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System model and output from the RegCM3 Regional Climate model were used to simulate streamflow for seven watersheds in eastern and central Montana, for a baseline period (water years 1982–1999) and three future periods: water years 2021–2038 (2030 period), 2046–2063 (2055 period), and 2071–2088 (2080 period).New hydrological insights for the regionProjected changes in mean annual and mean monthly streamflow vary by the RegCM3 model selected, by watershed, and by future period. Mean annual streamflows for all future periods are projected to increase (11–21%) for two of the four central Montana watersheds: Middle Musselshell River and Cottonwood Creek. Mean annual streamflows for all future periods are projected to decrease (changes of −24 to −75%) for Redwater River watershed in eastern Montana. Mean annual streamflows are projected to increase slightly (2–15%) for the 2030 period and decrease (changes of −16 to −44%) for the 2080 period for the four remaining watersheds.

  20. Soil remediation at natural gas mercury meter stations in Montana and northwestern Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larango, G.J. [Olympus Environmental, Incorporated, Billings, MT (United States)

    1996-06-01

    The Montana Power Company initiated voluntary soil assessment and remediation at natural gas meter stations reported to have contained a mercury manometer at some time during facility operation. Remedial sites were selected according to criteria developed from data collected during a Phase I Assessment of approximately 400 facilities. The Montana Power Company and the Montana Department of Environmental Quality agreed upon a soil cleanup action level of 23 parts per million Total Mercury. Remedial field work included an initial assessment with a mercury vapor analyzer to determine the areal extent of impact at each site, excavation of soil until laboratory analyses of confirmation samples met the cleanup action level, and disposal of the excavated soil. The mercury meters were typically housed in small sheds measuring less than 10 feet by 10 feet. Generally, the spilled mercury was confined to areas beneath or adjacent to the meters; but in some cases, mercury was detected in other areas inside and outside the sheds. Approximately 355 cubic yards of soil at 103 sites were excavated primarily by hand and occasionally with a backhoe, and placed in one-yard soil bags for disposal. Composite soil samples were collected from each soil bag and analyzed by the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure for mercury to characterize the material as hazardous or non-hazardous. Bags characterized as non-hazardous were transported to an industrial landfill in Montana, while bags characterized as hazardous were transported to a facility in Tennessee where the mercury was recovered through a recycling process.