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Sample records for montana code annotated

  1. Annotated Raptor Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Mahdaviani, Kaveh; Tellambura, Chintha

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, an extension of raptor codes is introduced which keeps all the desirable properties of raptor codes, including the linear complexity of encoding and decoding per information bit, unchanged. The new design, however, improves the performance in terms of the reception rate. Our simulations show a 10% reduction in the needed overhead at the benchmark block length of 64,520 bits and with the same complexity per information bit.

  2. 40 CFR 272.1351 - Montana State-Administered Program: Final Authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Annotated (MCA) 2005, Title 25, “Civil Procedure”: Chapter 20, “Rules of Civil Procedure”, Rule 24(a). (iii) Montana Code Annotated (MCA) 2005, Title 27, “Civil Liability, Remedies, and Limitations”: Chapter...

  3. Annotation of the protein coding regions of the equine genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hestand, Matthew S.; Kalbfleisch, Theodore S.; Coleman, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Current gene annotation of the horse genome is largely derived from in silico predictions and cross-species alignments. Only a small number of genes are annotated based on equine EST and mRNA sequences. To expand the number of equine genes annotated from equine experimental evidence, we sequenced m...... and appear to be small errors in the equine reference genome, since they are also identified as homozygous variants by genomic DNA resequencing of the reference horse. Taken together, we provide a resource of equine mRNA structures and protein coding variants that will enhance equine and cross...

  4. Code Generation for Protocols from CPN models Annotated with Pragmatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kent Inge; Kristensen, Lars Michael; Kindler, Ekkart

    Model-driven engineering (MDE) provides a foundation for automatically generating software based on models. Models allow software designs to be specified focusing on the problem domain and abstracting from the details of underlying implementation platforms. When applied in the context of formal...... modelling languages, MDE further has the advantage that models are amenable to model checking which allows key behavioural properties of the software design to be verified. The combination of formally verified models and automated code generation contributes to a high degree of assurance that the resulting...... of the same model and sufficiently detailed to serve as a basis for automated code generation when annotated with code generation pragmatics. Pragmatics are syntactical annotations designed to make the CPN models descriptive and to address the problem that models with enough details for generating code from...

  5. Annotation of the protein coding regions of the equine genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hestand, Matthew S.; Kalbfleisch, Theodore S.; Coleman, Stephen J.;

    2015-01-01

    Current gene annotation of the horse genome is largely derived from in silico predictions and cross-species alignments. Only a small number of genes are annotated based on equine EST and mRNA sequences. To expand the number of equine genes annotated from equine experimental evidence, we sequenced...

  6. LeARN: a platform for detecting, clustering and annotating non-coding RNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schiex Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last decade, sequencing projects have led to the development of a number of annotation systems dedicated to the structural and functional annotation of protein-coding genes. These annotation systems manage the annotation of the non-protein coding genes (ncRNAs in a very crude way, allowing neither the edition of the secondary structures nor the clustering of ncRNA genes into families which are crucial for appropriate annotation of these molecules. Results LeARN is a flexible software package which handles the complete process of ncRNA annotation by integrating the layers of automatic detection and human curation. Conclusion This software provides the infrastructure to deal properly with ncRNAs in the framework of any annotation project. It fills the gap between existing prediction software, that detect independent ncRNA occurrences, and public ncRNA repositories, that do not offer the flexibility and interactivity required for annotation projects. The software is freely available from the download section of the website http://bioinfo.genopole-toulouse.prd.fr/LeARN

  7. Code Generation from Pragmatics Annotated Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kent Inge

    implemented in a prototype tool called PetriCode. We defined several criteria for our code generation approach, the approach should be scalable so that is can be used to generate code for industrial sized protocols. The models should be verifiable and it should be possible to perform efficient verification...... the PA-CPN model that describe the protocol design. The generated code is also shown to be readable and we demonstrate that a generated implementation can be easily integrated with third party software. We also show that our approach scales to industrial sized protocols by applying our approach......All electronic communication relies on communication protocols. It is therefore very important that protocols are correct and that protocol implementations are reliable. Coloured Petri Nets (CPNs) have been widely used to model, analyse and verify communication protocols. However, relatively...

  8. Student Dress Codes in Public Schools: A Selective Annotated Bibliography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Joan Pedzich

    2002-01-01

    P1 In an attempt to curb the rising presence of gangs in public schools and to reduce disciplinary conflicts, officials in school districts across the United States are implementing dress codes or introducing uniforms...

  9. Retrieval-based Face Annotation by Weak Label Regularized Local Coordinate Coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dayong; Hoi, Steven C H; He, Ying; Zhu, Jianke; Mei, Tao; Luo, Jiebo

    2013-08-01

    Retrieval-based face annotation is a promising paradigm of mining massive web facial images for automated face annotation. This paper addresses a critical problem of such paradigm, i.e., how to effectively perform annotation by exploiting the similar facial images and their weak labels which are often noisy and incomplete. In particular, we propose an effective Weak Label Regularized Local Coordinate Coding (WLRLCC) technique, which exploits the principle of local coordinate coding in learning sparse features, and employs the idea of graph-based weak label regularization to enhance the weak labels of the similar facial images. We present an efficient optimization algorithm to solve the WLRLCC task. We conduct extensive empirical studies on two large-scale web facial image databases: (i) a Western celebrity database with a total of $6,025$ persons and $714,454$ web facial images, and (ii)an Asian celebrity database with $1,200$ persons and $126,070$ web facial images. The encouraging results validate the efficacy of the proposed WLRLCC algorithm. To further improve the efficiency and scalability, we also propose a PCA-based approximation scheme and an offline approximation scheme (AWLRLCC), which generally maintains comparable results but significantly saves much time cost. Finally, we show that WLRLCC can also tackle two existing face annotation tasks with promising performance.

  10. Experimental annotation of post-translational features and translated coding regions in the pathogen Salmonella Typhimurium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Richard D

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complete and accurate genome annotation is crucial for comprehensive and systematic studies of biological systems. However, determining protein-coding genes for most new genomes is almost completely performed by inference using computational predictions with significant documented error rates (> 15%. Furthermore, gene prediction programs provide no information on biologically important post-translational processing events critical for protein function. Results We experimentally annotated the bacterial pathogen Salmonella Typhimurium 14028, using "shotgun" proteomics to accurately uncover the translational landscape and post-translational features. The data provide protein-level experimental validation for approximately half of the predicted protein-coding genes in Salmonella and suggest revisions to several genes that appear to have incorrectly assigned translational start sites, including a potential novel alternate start codon. Additionally, we uncovered 12 non-annotated genes missed by gene prediction programs, as well as evidence suggesting a role for one of these novel ORFs in Salmonella pathogenesis. We also characterized post-translational features in the Salmonella genome, including chemical modifications and proteolytic cleavages. We find that bacteria have a much larger and more complex repertoire of chemical modifications than previously thought including several novel modifications. Our in vivo proteolysis data identified more than 130 signal peptide and N-terminal methionine cleavage events critical for protein function. Conclusion This work highlights several ways in which application of proteomics data can improve the quality of genome annotations to facilitate novel biological insights and provides a comprehensive proteome map of Salmonella as a resource for systems analysis.

  11. Transcriptator: An Automated Computational Pipeline to Annotate Assembled Reads and Identify Non Coding RNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Parijat Tripathi

    Full Text Available RNA-seq is a new tool to measure RNA transcript counts, using high-throughput sequencing at an extraordinary accuracy. It provides quantitative means to explore the transcriptome of an organism of interest. However, interpreting this extremely large data into biological knowledge is a problem, and biologist-friendly tools are lacking. In our lab, we developed Transcriptator, a web application based on a computational Python pipeline with a user-friendly Java interface. This pipeline uses the web services available for BLAST (Basis Local Search Alignment Tool, QuickGO and DAVID (Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery tools. It offers a report on statistical analysis of functional and Gene Ontology (GO annotation's enrichment. It helps users to identify enriched biological themes, particularly GO terms, pathways, domains, gene/proteins features and protein-protein interactions related informations. It clusters the transcripts based on functional annotations and generates a tabular report for functional and gene ontology annotations for each submitted transcript to the web server. The implementation of QuickGo web-services in our pipeline enable the users to carry out GO-Slim analysis, whereas the integration of PORTRAIT (Prediction of transcriptomic non coding RNA (ncRNA by ab initio methods helps to identify the non coding RNAs and their regulatory role in transcriptome. In summary, Transcriptator is a useful software for both NGS and array data. It helps the users to characterize the de-novo assembled reads, obtained from NGS experiments for non-referenced organisms, while it also performs the functional enrichment analysis of differentially expressed transcripts/genes for both RNA-seq and micro-array experiments. It generates easy to read tables and interactive charts for better understanding of the data. The pipeline is modular in nature, and provides an opportunity to add new plugins in the future. Web application is

  12. High-throughput, kingdom-wide prediction and annotation of bacterial non-coding RNAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Livny

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diverse bacterial genomes encode numerous small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs that regulate myriad biological processes. While bioinformatic algorithms have proven effective in identifying sRNA-encoding loci, the lack of tools and infrastructure with which to execute these computationally demanding algorithms has limited their utilization. Genome-wide predictions of sRNA-encoding genes have been conducted in less than 3% of all sequenced bacterial strains, leading to critical gaps in current annotations. The relative paucity of genome-wide sRNA prediction represents a critical gap in current annotations of bacterial genomes and has limited examination of larger issues in sRNA biology, such as sRNA evolution. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have developed and deployed SIPHT, a high throughput computational tool that utilizes workflow management and distributed computing to effectively conduct kingdom-wide predictions and annotations of intergenic sRNA-encoding genes. Candidate sRNA-encoding loci are identified based on the presence of putative Rho-independent terminators downstream of conserved intergenic sequences, and each locus is annotated for several features, including conservation in other species, association with one of several transcription factor binding sites and homology to any of over 300 previously identified sRNAs and cis-regulatory RNA elements. Using SIPHT, we conducted searches for putative sRNA-encoding genes in all 932 bacterial replicons in the NCBI database. These searches yielded nearly 60% of previously confirmed sRNAs, hundreds of previously annotated cis-encoded regulatory RNA elements such as riboswitches, and over 45,000 novel candidate intergenic loci. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Candidate loci were identified across all branches of the bacterial evolutionary tree, suggesting a central and ubiquitous role for RNA-mediated regulation among bacterial species. Annotation of candidate loci by SIPHT provides clues

  13. Proteomic detection of non-annotated protein-coding genes in Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf0-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wook; Silby, Mark W; Purvine, Sam O; Nicoll, Julie S; Hixson, Kim K; Monroe, Matt; Nicora, Carrie D; Lipton, Mary S; Levy, Stuart B

    2009-12-24

    Genome sequences are annotated by computational prediction of coding sequences, followed by similarity searches such as BLAST, which provide a layer of possible functional information. While the existence of processes such as alternative splicing complicates matters for eukaryote genomes, the view of bacterial genomes as a linear series of closely spaced genes leads to the assumption that computational annotations that predict such arrangements completely describe the coding capacity of bacterial genomes. We undertook a proteomic study to identify proteins expressed by Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf0-1 from genes that were not predicted during the genome annotation. Mapping peptides to the Pf0-1 genome sequence identified sixteen non-annotated protein-coding regions, of which nine were antisense to predicted genes, six were intergenic, and one read in the same direction as an annotated gene but in a different frame. The expression of all but one of the newly discovered genes was verified by RT-PCR. Few clues as to the function of the new genes were gleaned from informatic analyses, but potential orthologs in other Pseudomonas genomes were identified for eight of the new genes. The 16 newly identified genes improve the quality of the Pf0-1 genome annotation, and the detection of antisense protein-coding genes indicates the under-appreciated complexity of bacterial genome organization.

  14. Proteomic detection of non-annotated protein-coding genes in Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf0-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wook Kim

    Full Text Available Genome sequences are annotated by computational prediction of coding sequences, followed by similarity searches such as BLAST, which provide a layer of possible functional information. While the existence of processes such as alternative splicing complicates matters for eukaryote genomes, the view of bacterial genomes as a linear series of closely spaced genes leads to the assumption that computational annotations that predict such arrangements completely describe the coding capacity of bacterial genomes. We undertook a proteomic study to identify proteins expressed by Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf0-1 from genes that were not predicted during the genome annotation. Mapping peptides to the Pf0-1 genome sequence identified sixteen non-annotated protein-coding regions, of which nine were antisense to predicted genes, six were intergenic, and one read in the same direction as an annotated gene but in a different frame. The expression of all but one of the newly discovered genes was verified by RT-PCR. Few clues as to the function of the new genes were gleaned from informatic analyses, but potential orthologs in other Pseudomonas genomes were identified for eight of the new genes. The 16 newly identified genes improve the quality of the Pf0-1 genome annotation, and the detection of antisense protein-coding genes indicates the under-appreciated complexity of bacterial genome organization.

  15. Proteomic Detection of Non-Annotated Protein-Coding Genes in Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf0-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Wook; Silby, Mark W.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Nicoll, Julie S.; Hixson, Kim K.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Lipton, Mary S.; Levy, Stuart B.

    2009-12-24

    Genome sequences are annotated by computational prediction of coding sequences, followed by similarity searches such as BLAST, which provide a layer of (possible) functional information. While the existence of processes such as alternative splicing complicates matters for eukaryote genomes, the view of bacterial genomes as a linear series of closely spaced genes leads to the assumption that computational annotations which predict such arrangements completely describe the coding capacity of bacterial genomes. We undertook a proteomic study to identify proteins expressed by Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf0-1 from genes which were not predicted during the genome annotation. Mapping peptides to the Pf0-1 genome sequence identified sixteen non-annotated protein-coding regions, of which nine were antisense to predicted genes, six were intergenic, and one read in the same direction as an annotated gene but in a different frame. The expression of all but one of the newly discovered genes was verified by RT-PCR. Few clues as to the function of the new genes were gleaned from informatic analyses, but potential orthologues in other Pseudomonas genomes were identified for eight of the new genes. The 16 newly identified genes improve the quality of the Pf0-1 genome annotation, and the detection of antisense protein-coding genes indicates the under-appreciated complexity of bacterial genome organization.

  16. Transcriptator: An Automated Computational Pipeline to Annotate Assembled Reads and Identify Non Coding RNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccaro, Antonio; Guarracino, Mario Rosario

    2015-01-01

    RNA-seq is a new tool to measure RNA transcript counts, using high-throughput sequencing at an extraordinary accuracy. It provides quantitative means to explore the transcriptome of an organism of interest. However, interpreting this extremely large data into biological knowledge is a problem, and biologist-friendly tools are lacking. In our lab, we developed Transcriptator, a web application based on a computational Python pipeline with a user-friendly Java interface. This pipeline uses the web services available for BLAST (Basis Local Search Alignment Tool), QuickGO and DAVID (Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery) tools. It offers a report on statistical analysis of functional and Gene Ontology (GO) annotation’s enrichment. It helps users to identify enriched biological themes, particularly GO terms, pathways, domains, gene/proteins features and protein—protein interactions related informations. It clusters the transcripts based on functional annotations and generates a tabular report for functional and gene ontology annotations for each submitted transcript to the web server. The implementation of QuickGo web-services in our pipeline enable the users to carry out GO-Slim analysis, whereas the integration of PORTRAIT (Prediction of transcriptomic non coding RNA (ncRNA) by ab initio methods) helps to identify the non coding RNAs and their regulatory role in transcriptome. In summary, Transcriptator is a useful software for both NGS and array data. It helps the users to characterize the de-novo assembled reads, obtained from NGS experiments for non-referenced organisms, while it also performs the functional enrichment analysis of differentially expressed transcripts/genes for both RNA-seq and micro-array experiments. It generates easy to read tables and interactive charts for better understanding of the data. The pipeline is modular in nature, and provides an opportunity to add new plugins in the future. Web application is freely

  17. Genome-Wide Functional Annotation of Human Protein-Coding Splice Variants Using Multiple Instance Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panwar, Bharat; Menon, Rajasree; Eksi, Ridvan; Li, Hong-Dong; Omenn, Gilbert S; Guan, Yuanfang

    2016-06-03

    The vast majority of human multiexon genes undergo alternative splicing and produce a variety of splice variant transcripts and proteins, which can perform different functions. These protein-coding splice variants (PCSVs) greatly increase the functional diversity of proteins. Most functional annotation algorithms have been developed at the gene level; the lack of isoform-level gold standards is an important intellectual limitation for currently available machine learning algorithms. The accumulation of a large amount of RNA-seq data in the public domain greatly increases our ability to examine the functional annotation of genes at isoform level. In the present study, we used a multiple instance learning (MIL)-based approach for predicting the function of PCSVs. We used transcript-level expression values and gene-level functional associations from the Gene Ontology database. A support vector machine (SVM)-based 5-fold cross-validation technique was applied. Comparatively, genes with multiple PCSVs performed better than single PCSV genes, and performance also improved when more examples were available to train the models. We demonstrated our predictions using literature evidence of ADAM15, LMNA/C, and DMXL2 genes. All predictions have been implemented in a web resource called "IsoFunc", which is freely available for the global scientific community through http://guanlab.ccmb.med.umich.edu/isofunc .

  18. Functional annotation of the vlinc class of non-coding RNAs using systems biology approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Laurent, Georges; Vyatkin, Yuri; Antonets, Denis; Ri, Maxim; Qi, Yao; Saik, Olga; Shtokalo, Dmitry; de Hoon, Michiel J L; Kawaji, Hideya; Itoh, Masayoshi; Lassmann, Timo; Arner, Erik; Forrest, Alistair R R; Nicolas, Estelle; McCaffrey, Timothy A; Carninci, Piero; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Wahlestedt, Claes; Kapranov, Philipp

    2016-04-20

    Functionality of the non-coding transcripts encoded by the human genome is the coveted goal of the modern genomics research. While commonly relied on the classical methods of forward genetics, integration of different genomics datasets in a global Systems Biology fashion presents a more productive avenue of achieving this very complex aim. Here we report application of a Systems Biology-based approach to dissect functionality of a newly identified vast class of very long intergenic non-coding (vlinc) RNAs. Using highly quantitative FANTOM5 CAGE dataset, we show that these RNAs could be grouped into 1542 novel human genes based on analysis of insulators that we show here indeed function as genomic barrier elements. We show that vlinc RNAs genes likely function in cisto activate nearby genes. This effect while most pronounced in closely spaced vlinc RNA-gene pairs can be detected over relatively large genomic distances. Furthermore, we identified 101 vlinc RNA genes likely involved in early embryogenesis based on patterns of their expression and regulation. We also found another 109 such genes potentially involved in cellular functions also happening at early stages of development such as proliferation, migration and apoptosis. Overall, we show that Systems Biology-based methods have great promise for functional annotation of non-coding RNAs.

  19. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Montana. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2014 Montana State Code base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Montana.

  20. Interpreting functional effects of coding variants: challenges in proteome-scale prediction, annotation and assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shameer, Khader; Tripathi, Lokesh P; Kalari, Krishna R; Dudley, Joel T; Sowdhamini, Ramanathan

    2016-09-01

    Accurate assessment of genetic variation in human DNA sequencing studies remains a nontrivial challenge in clinical genomics and genome informatics. Ascribing functional roles and/or clinical significances to single nucleotide variants identified from a next-generation sequencing study is an important step in genome interpretation. Experimental characterization of all the observed functional variants is yet impractical; thus, the prediction of functional and/or regulatory impacts of the various mutations using in silico approaches is an important step toward the identification of functionally significant or clinically actionable variants. The relationships between genotypes and the expressed phenotypes are multilayered and biologically complex; such relationships present numerous challenges and at the same time offer various opportunities for the design of in silico variant assessment strategies. Over the past decade, many bioinformatics algorithms have been developed to predict functional consequences of single nucleotide variants in the protein coding regions. In this review, we provide an overview of the bioinformatics resources for the prediction, annotation and visualization of coding single nucleotide variants. We discuss the currently available approaches and major challenges from the perspective of protein sequence, structure, function and interactions that require consideration when interpreting the impact of putatively functional variants. We also discuss the relevance of incorporating integrated workflows for predicting the biomedical impact of the functionally important variations encoded in a genome, exome or transcriptome. Finally, we propose a framework to classify variant assessment approaches and strategies for incorporation of variant assessment within electronic health records.

  1. The Forgotten Women of Pre-Code: An Annotated Filmography and Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, "pre-code" films have been re-discovered and applauded by film scholars and feminists. The term refers to the period between 1929 and 1934 when many Hollywood studios openly disregarded the censorship restrictions of the Hays Code. Named after censorship czar William H. Hays, the Code forbade nudity, cursing, sexual innuendo,…

  2. Homology-based annotation of non-coding RNAs in the genomes of Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma japonicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santana Clara

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schistosomes are trematode parasites of the phylum Platyhelminthes. They are considered the most important of the human helminth parasites in terms of morbidity and mortality. Draft genome sequences are now available for Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma japonicum. Non-coding RNA (ncRNA plays a crucial role in gene expression regulation, cellular function and defense, homeostasis, and pathogenesis. The genome-wide annotation of ncRNAs is a non-trivial task unless well-annotated genomes of closely related species are already available. Results A homology search for structured ncRNA in the genome of S. mansoni resulted in 23 types of ncRNAs with conserved primary and secondary structure. Among these, we identified rRNA, snRNA, SL RNA, SRP, tRNAs and RNase P, and also possibly MRP and 7SK RNAs. In addition, we confirmed five miRNAs that have recently been reported in S. japonicum and found two additional homologs of known miRNAs. The tRNA complement of S. mansoni is comparable to that of the free-living planarian Schmidtea mediterranea, although for some amino acids differences of more than a factor of two are observed: Leu, Ser, and His are overrepresented, while Cys, Meth, and Ile are underrepresented in S. mansoni. On the other hand, the number of tRNAs in the genome of S. japonicum is reduced by more than a factor of four. Both schistosomes have a complete set of minor spliceosomal snRNAs. Several ncRNAs that are expected to exist in the S. mansoni genome were not found, among them the telomerase RNA, vault RNAs, and Y RNAs. Conclusion The ncRNA sequences and structures presented here represent the most complete dataset of ncRNA from any lophotrochozoan reported so far. This data set provides an important reference for further analysis of the genomes of schistosomes and indeed eukaryotic genomes at large.

  3. 源代码变量名的自动语义标注%Automatic semantic annotation for source code variable names

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈凯; 沈备军; 王永剑; 金波

    2016-01-01

    Large scale open source community provides abundant assets of software for developers.However,it is time-consu-ming to understand and reuse the code.In order to seek a semantic support for code understanding,analyzing and mining,this paper focused on program variable names and proposed an automatic semantic annotation approach based on word similarity and semantic relevance.Meanwhile it developed an automatic annotation tool.This approach built English,Chinese and Pinyin corpus firstly,constructed a segment similarity model to generate multiple candidate annotation schemes,then constructed a probability model using Markov transfer matrix and WordNet to select optimal scheme.It conducted an evaluation by annota-ting open source projects from GitHub.The results show that the approach can achieve annotation accuracy at 68.1%firstly, and improves to 73.3% by user's feedback.%大规模开源代码社区为开发者提供了丰富的软件资产,但要理解和利用这些代码却十分耗时耗力。为寻求代码理解、分析和挖掘的语义支撑,针对源代码变量名进行了研究,提出了一种基于字段相似度与语义关联度的自动语义标注方法,并实现了相应的工具。该方法首先建立英文、中文、拼音语料库,并构建字段相似度模型生成多种候选标注方案;然后利用马尔可夫转移矩阵和语义网WordNet构建概率模型评选出最优的标注方案,从而实现源代码变量名的自动语义识别。使用GitHub开源项目代码进行标注准确度实验,结果表明,初次标注准确度达到68.1%,随着用户反馈增加逐步提升到73.3%。

  4. A Coding System with Independent Annotations of Gesture Forms and Functions during Verbal Communication: Development of a Database of Speech and GEsture (DoSaGE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Anthony Pak-Hin; Law, Sam-Po; Kwan, Connie Ching-Yin; Lai, Christy; Lam, Vivian

    2015-03-01

    Gestures are commonly used together with spoken language in human communication. One major limitation of gesture investigations in the existing literature lies in the fact that the coding of forms and functions of gestures has not been clearly differentiated. This paper first described a recently developed Database of Speech and GEsture (DoSaGE) based on independent annotation of gesture forms and functions among 119 neurologically unimpaired right-handed native speakers of Cantonese (divided into three age and two education levels), and presented findings of an investigation examining how gesture use was related to age and linguistic performance. Consideration of these two factors, for which normative data are currently very limited or lacking in the literature, is relevant and necessary when one evaluates gesture employment among individuals with and without language impairment. Three speech tasks, including monologue of a personally important event, sequential description, and story-telling, were used for elicitation. The EUDICO Linguistic ANnotator (ELAN) software was used to independently annotate each participant's linguistic information of the transcript, forms of gestures used, and the function for each gesture. About one-third of the subjects did not use any co-verbal gestures. While the majority of gestures were non-content-carrying, which functioned mainly for reinforcing speech intonation or controlling speech flow, the content-carrying ones were used to enhance speech content. Furthermore, individuals who are younger or linguistically more proficient tended to use fewer gestures, suggesting that normal speakers gesture differently as a function of age and linguistic performance.

  5. Montana Advanced Biofuels Great Falls Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    This November 20, 2015 letter from EPA approves the petition from Montana Advanced Biofuels, LLC, Great Falls facility, regarding ethanol produced through a dry mill process, qualifying under the Clean Air Act for advanced biofuel (D-code 5) and renewable

  6. Annotated English

    CERN Document Server

    Hernandez-Orallo, Jose

    2010-01-01

    This document presents Annotated English, a system of diacritical symbols which turns English pronunciation into a precise and unambiguous process. The annotations are defined and located in such a way that the original English text is not altered (not even a letter), thus allowing for a consistent reading and learning of the English language with and without annotations. The annotations are based on a set of general rules that make the frequency of annotations not dramatically high. This makes the reader easily associate annotations with exceptions, and makes it possible to shape, internalise and consolidate some rules for the English language which otherwise are weakened by the enormous amount of exceptions in English pronunciation. The advantages of this annotation system are manifold. Any existing text can be annotated without a significant increase in size. This means that we can get an annotated version of any document or book with the same number of pages and fontsize. Since no letter is affected, the ...

  7. SORTA: a system for ontology-based re-coding and technical annotation of biomedical phenotype data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Chao; Sollie, Annet; Sijtsma, Anna; Hendriksen, Dennis; Charbon, Bart; de Haan, Mark; de Boer, Tommy; Kelpin, Fleur; Jetten, Jonathan; van der Velde, Joeri K; Smidt, Nynke; Sijmons, Rolf; Hillege, Hans; Swertz, Morris A

    2015-01-01

    There is an urgent need to standardize the semantics of biomedical data values, such as phenotypes, to enable comparative and integrative analyses. However, it is unlikely that all studies will use the same data collection protocols. As a result, retrospective standardization is often required, which involves matching of original (unstructured or locally coded) data to widely used coding or ontology systems such as SNOMED CT (clinical terms), ICD-10 (International Classification of Disease) and HPO (Human Phenotype Ontology). This data curation process is usually a time-consuming process performed by a human expert. To help mechanize this process, we have developed SORTA, a computer-aided system for rapidly encoding free text or locally coded values to a formal coding system or ontology. SORTA matches original data values (uploaded in semicolon delimited format) to a target coding system (uploaded in Excel spreadsheet, OWL ontology web language or OBO open biomedical ontologies format). It then semi- automatically shortlists candidate codes for each data value using Lucene and n-gram based matching algorithms, and can also learn from matches chosen by human experts. We evaluated SORTA's applicability in two use cases. For the LifeLines biobank, we used SORTA to recode 90 000 free text values (including 5211 unique values) about physical exercise to MET (Metabolic Equivalent of Task) codes. For the CINEAS clinical symptom coding system, we used SORTA to map to HPO, enriching HPO when necessary (315 terms matched so far). Out of the shortlists at rank 1, we found a precision/recall of 0.97/0.98 in LifeLines and of 0.58/0.45 in CINEAS. More importantly, users found the tool both a major time saver and a quality improvement because SORTA reduced the chances of human mistakes. Thus, SORTA can dramatically ease data (re)coding tasks and we believe it will prove useful for many more projects. Database URL: http://molgenis.org/sorta or as an open source download from

  8. 牙龈卟啉单胞菌编码基因重注释研究%Re-annotation of Porphyromonas gingivalis coding-sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐晓捷; 计得伟; 张欣悦; 张无忌; 张会雄

    2015-01-01

    为了确保牙龈卟啉单胞菌生物大分子信息的准确性,对NCBI数据库中的3株牙龈卟啉单胞菌的注释信息进行研究。首先,准备好蛋白质编码与非编码序列正负样本,用基于Z曲线理论的Fisher判别法对正负样本集进行训练,确定一个判断ORF编码或非编码的阈值t0,由阈值作为判别条件来识别所有的ORFs,判断基因片段是否具有编码蛋白质的功能,由此阈值为判别标准排除掉3株牙龈卟啉单胞菌基因组中错误的基因注释信息。然后,用Prodigal基因预测软件对牙龈卟啉单胞菌进行基因预测,基因预测结果与原始功能已知基因进行比对,挑选出具有不同5’终端的ORFs,将这些具有不同5’终端的ORFs与功能已知的基因片段进行比对,找到重叠率小于20%的候选基因。最后,对这些候选基因用Blast进行序列比对找到满足条件的新基因,并为这些新基因添加功能注释信息。基于以上方法共排除了117个非编码的开放式阅读框,并找到了30个NCBI数据库中缺失的编码蛋白质的新基因。%To ensure accuracy of P.gingivalis biological macromolecules information,we investigated the annotations of the 3 P. gingivalis based on NCBI database. Firstly, we prepared protein⁃coding and non⁃coding sequences as positive and negative samples, respectively, and used Fisher Discriminant which was designed based on Z curve theory to determine the threshold t0,which was used as the criterion to determine whether the gene encoding the protein or not. We firstly excluded the wrong annotation information from three stains of P. gingivalis based on the threshold. Secondly, the P. gingivalis were predicted with the prodigal gene prediction software. We used the predicted genes compared to the original known⁃function genes and selected the ORFs with different 5’ terminals, identified the candidate genes with overlapping rate of less than 20

  9. Montana StreamStats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-05

    About this volumeMontana StreamStats is a Web-based geographic information system (http://water.usgs.gov/osw/streamstats/) application that provides users with access to basin and streamflow characteristics for gaged and ungaged streams in Montana. Montana StreamStats was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Montana Departments of Transportation, Environmental Quality, and Natural Resources and Conservation. The USGS Scientific Investigations Report consists of seven independent but complementary chapters dealing with various aspects of this effort.Chapter A describes the Montana StreamStats application, the basin and streamflow datasets, and provides a brief overview of the streamflow characteristics and regression equations used in the study. Chapters B through E document the datasets, methods, and results of analyses to determine streamflow characteristics, such as peak-flow frequencies, low-flow frequencies, and monthly and annual characteristics, for USGS streamflow-gaging stations in and near Montana. The StreamStats analytical toolsets that allow users to delineate drainage basins and solve regression equations to estimate streamflow characteristics at ungaged sites in Montana are described in Chapters F and G.

  10. Analysis of antisense expression by whole genome tiling microarrays and siRNAs suggests mis-annotation of Arabidopsis orphan protein-coding genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey R Richardson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs and trans-acting small-interfering RNAs (tasi-RNAs are small (20-22 nt long RNAs (smRNAs generated from hairpin secondary structures or antisense transcripts, respectively, that regulate gene expression by Watson-Crick pairing to a target mRNA and altering expression by mechanisms related to RNA interference. The high sequence homology of plant miRNAs to their targets has been the mainstay of miRNA prediction algorithms, which are limited in their predictive power for other kingdoms because miRNA complementarity is less conserved yet transitive processes (production of antisense smRNAs are active in eukaryotes. We hypothesize that antisense transcription and associated smRNAs are biomarkers which can be computationally modeled for gene discovery. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We explored rice (Oryza sativa sense and antisense gene expression in publicly available whole genome tiling array transcriptome data and sequenced smRNA libraries (as well as C. elegans and found evidence of transitivity of MIRNA genes similar to that found in Arabidopsis. Statistical analysis of antisense transcript abundances, presence of antisense ESTs, and association with smRNAs suggests several hundred Arabidopsis 'orphan' hypothetical genes are non-coding RNAs. Consistent with this hypothesis, we found novel Arabidopsis homologues of some MIRNA genes on the antisense strand of previously annotated protein-coding genes. A Support Vector Machine (SVM was applied using thermodynamic energy of binding plus novel expression features of sense/antisense transcription topology and siRNA abundances to build a prediction model of miRNA targets. The SVM when trained on targets could predict the "ancient" (deeply conserved class of validated Arabidopsis MIRNA genes with an accuracy of 84%, and 76% for "new" rapidly-evolving MIRNA genes. CONCLUSIONS: Antisense and smRNA expression features and computational methods may identify novel MIRNA genes and other non-coding

  11. 75 FR 3489 - Notice of Public Meeting, Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    ... Montana Resource Advisory Council will be held on March 4, 2010, in Billings, MT. The meeting will start... in Montana. At these meetings, topics will include: Miles City and Billings Field Office manager..., 2010. M. Elaine Raper, District Manager. BILLING CODE 4310-DN-P...

  12. Forest regions of Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen F. Arno

    1979-01-01

    In this paper, Montana is divided into eight geographic subdivisions called "forest regions," based on distributions of tree and undergrowth species and the relationship of these patterns to climate and topography. The regions serve as a geographic reference for describing patterns of forest vegetation across the State. Data on the distributions of plant...

  13. Arnica montana L

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andreas, Ch.H.

    1958-01-01

    Een eventuele veelvormigheid van de wolverlei, Arnica montana L., heeft in ons land, voor zover mij bekend, geen aanleiding gegeven tot een onderverdeling dezer soort. In Portugal is dat wel het geval; A. de Bolos beschreef in 1948 in het tijdschrift Agronomia Lusitanica 2 ondersoorten voor het Iber

  14. Building Footprints - Montana Structures/Addresses Framework

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The Montana Structures/Addresses Framework is a statewide spatial database of structure and address points in the State of Montana. The Montana Structures/Addresses...

  15. Social Organization in Montana. Montana Economic Study-Staff Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigart, Robert J.

    The four papers in this publication discusses Montana's social structure as it relates to culture, income, urbanism, and communal religious communities. "Montana Social Structure and Culture" includes rural and suburban life styles; the history of rural community organization; rural-small town communities; urban physical conditions;…

  16. NCBI prokaryotic genome annotation pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatusova, Tatiana; DiCuccio, Michael; Badretdin, Azat; Chetvernin, Vyacheslav; Nawrocki, Eric P; Zaslavsky, Leonid; Lomsadze, Alexandre; Pruitt, Kim D; Borodovsky, Mark; Ostell, James

    2016-08-19

    Recent technological advances have opened unprecedented opportunities for large-scale sequencing and analysis of populations of pathogenic species in disease outbreaks, as well as for large-scale diversity studies aimed at expanding our knowledge across the whole domain of prokaryotes. To meet the challenge of timely interpretation of structure, function and meaning of this vast genetic information, a comprehensive approach to automatic genome annotation is critically needed. In collaboration with Georgia Tech, NCBI has developed a new approach to genome annotation that combines alignment based methods with methods of predicting protein-coding and RNA genes and other functional elements directly from sequence. A new gene finding tool, GeneMarkS+, uses the combined evidence of protein and RNA placement by homology as an initial map of annotation to generate and modify ab initio gene predictions across the whole genome. Thus, the new NCBI's Prokaryotic Genome Annotation Pipeline (PGAP) relies more on sequence similarity when confident comparative data are available, while it relies more on statistical predictions in the absence of external evidence. The pipeline provides a framework for generation and analysis of annotation on the full breadth of prokaryotic taxonomy. For additional information on PGAP see https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genome/annotation_prok/ and the NCBI Handbook, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK174280/.

  17. Libraries in Montana: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/montana.html Libraries in Montana To use the sharing features on ... page, please enable JavaScript. Billings Billings Clinic Medical Library 2825 8th Avenue North Billings, MT 59107-5100 ...

  18. 78 FR 10507 - Montana Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... approved pursuant to 30 CFR 732.17. Therefore, Montana advised that the minor grammatical changes will not.... Montana proposes changes to the Montana Strip and Underground Mine Reclamation Act (MSUMRA) that... conditions of approval in the April 1, 1980, Federal Register (45 FR 21560). You can also find later...

  19. MONTANA PALLADIUM RESEARCH INITIATIVE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, John; McCloskey, Jay; Douglas, Trevor; Young, Mark; Snyder, Stuart; Gurney, Brian

    2012-05-09

    Project Objective: The overarching objective of the Montana Palladium Research Initiative is to perform scientific research on the properties and uses of palladium in the context of the U.S. Department of Energy's Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program. The purpose of the research will be to explore possible palladium as an alternative to platinum in hydrogen-economy applications. To achieve this objective, the Initiatives activities will focus on several cutting-edge research approaches across a range of disciplines, including metallurgy, biomimetics, instrumentation development, and systems analysis. Background: Platinum-group elements (PGEs) play significant roles in processing hydrogen, an element that shows high potential to address this need in the U.S. and the world for inexpensive, reliable, clean energy. Platinum, however, is a very expensive component of current and planned systems, so less-expensive alternatives that have similar physical properties are being sought. To this end, several tasks have been defined under the rubric of the Montana Palladium Research Iniative. This broad swath of activities will allow progress on several fronts. The membrane-related activities of Task 1 employs state-of-the-art and leading-edge technologies to develop new, ceramic-substrate metallic membranes for the production of high-purity hydrogen, and develop techniques for the production of thin, defect-free platinum group element catalytic membranes for energy production and pollution control. The biomimetic work in Task 2 explores the use of substrate-attached hydrogen-producing enzymes and the encapsulation of palladium in virion-based protein coats to determine their utility for distributed hydrogen production. Task 3 work involves developing laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) as a real-time, in situ diagnostic technique to characterize PGEs nanoparticles for process monitoring and control. The systems engineering work in task 4

  20. Certifying cost annotations in compilers

    CERN Document Server

    Amadio, Roberto M; Régis-Gianas, Yann; Saillard, Ronan

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the problem of building a compiler which can lift in a provably correct way pieces of information on the execution cost of the object code to cost annotations on the source code. To this end, we need a clear and flexible picture of: (i) the meaning of cost annotations, (ii) the method to prove them sound and precise, and (iii) the way such proofs can be composed. We propose a so-called labelling approach to these three questions. As a first step, we examine its application to a toy compiler. This formal study suggests that the labelling approach has good compositionality and scalability properties. In order to provide further evidence for this claim, we report our successful experience in implementing and testing the labelling approach on top of a prototype compiler written in OCAML for (a large fragment of) the C language.

  1. Correction of the Caulobacter crescentus NA1000 genome annotation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bert Ely

    Full Text Available Bacterial genome annotations are accumulating rapidly in the GenBank database and the use of automated annotation technologies to create these annotations has become the norm. However, these automated methods commonly result in a small, but significant percentage of genome annotation errors. To improve accuracy and reliability, we analyzed the Caulobacter crescentus NA1000 genome utilizing computer programs Artemis and MICheck to manually examine the third codon position GC content, alignment to a third codon position GC frame plot peak, and matches in the GenBank database. We identified 11 new genes, modified the start site of 113 genes, and changed the reading frame of 38 genes that had been incorrectly annotated. Furthermore, our manual method of identifying protein-coding genes allowed us to remove 112 non-coding regions that had been designated as coding regions. The improved NA1000 genome annotation resulted in a reduction in the use of rare codons since noncoding regions with atypical codon usage were removed from the annotation and 49 new coding regions were added to the annotation. Thus, a more accurate codon usage table was generated as well. These results demonstrate that a comparison of the location of peaks third codon position GC content to the location of protein coding regions could be used to verify the annotation of any genome that has a GC content that is greater than 60%.

  2. Correction of the Caulobacter crescentus NA1000 genome annotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Bert; Scott, LaTia Etheredge

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial genome annotations are accumulating rapidly in the GenBank database and the use of automated annotation technologies to create these annotations has become the norm. However, these automated methods commonly result in a small, but significant percentage of genome annotation errors. To improve accuracy and reliability, we analyzed the Caulobacter crescentus NA1000 genome utilizing computer programs Artemis and MICheck to manually examine the third codon position GC content, alignment to a third codon position GC frame plot peak, and matches in the GenBank database. We identified 11 new genes, modified the start site of 113 genes, and changed the reading frame of 38 genes that had been incorrectly annotated. Furthermore, our manual method of identifying protein-coding genes allowed us to remove 112 non-coding regions that had been designated as coding regions. The improved NA1000 genome annotation resulted in a reduction in the use of rare codons since noncoding regions with atypical codon usage were removed from the annotation and 49 new coding regions were added to the annotation. Thus, a more accurate codon usage table was generated as well. These results demonstrate that a comparison of the location of peaks third codon position GC content to the location of protein coding regions could be used to verify the annotation of any genome that has a GC content that is greater than 60%.

  3. Alignment-Annotator web server: rendering and annotating sequence alignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gille, Christoph; Fähling, Michael; Weyand, Birgit; Wieland, Thomas; Gille, Andreas

    2014-07-01

    Alignment-Annotator is a novel web service designed to generate interactive views of annotated nucleotide and amino acid sequence alignments (i) de novo and (ii) embedded in other software. All computations are performed at server side. Interactivity is implemented in HTML5, a language native to web browsers. The alignment is initially displayed using default settings and can be modified with the graphical user interfaces. For example, individual sequences can be reordered or deleted using drag and drop, amino acid color code schemes can be applied and annotations can be added. Annotations can be made manually or imported (BioDAS servers, the UniProt, the Catalytic Site Atlas and the PDB). Some edits take immediate effect while others require server interaction and may take a few seconds to execute. The final alignment document can be downloaded as a zip-archive containing the HTML files. Because of the use of HTML the resulting interactive alignment can be viewed on any platform including Windows, Mac OS X, Linux, Android and iOS in any standard web browser. Importantly, no plugins nor Java are required and therefore Alignment-Anotator represents the first interactive browser-based alignment visualization. http://www.bioinformatics.org/strap/aa/ and http://strap.charite.de/aa/. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  4. Maize microarray annotation database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berger Dave K

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray technology has matured over the past fifteen years into a cost-effective solution with established data analysis protocols for global gene expression profiling. The Agilent-016047 maize 44 K microarray was custom-designed from EST sequences, but only reporter sequences with EST accession numbers are publicly available. The following information is lacking: (a reporter - gene model match, (b number of reporters per gene model, (c potential for cross hybridization, (d sense/antisense orientation of reporters, (e position of reporter on B73 genome sequence (for eQTL studies, and (f functional annotations of genes represented by reporters. To address this, we developed a strategy to annotate the Agilent-016047 maize microarray, and built a publicly accessible annotation database. Description Genomic annotation of the 42,034 reporters on the Agilent-016047 maize microarray was based on BLASTN results of the 60-mer reporter sequences and their corresponding ESTs against the maize B73 RefGen v2 "Working Gene Set" (WGS predicted transcripts and the genome sequence. The agreement between the EST, WGS transcript and gDNA BLASTN results were used to assign the reporters into six genomic annotation groups. These annotation groups were: (i "annotation by sense gene model" (23,668 reporters, (ii "annotation by antisense gene model" (4,330; (iii "annotation by gDNA" without a WGS transcript hit (1,549; (iv "annotation by EST", in which case the EST from which the reporter was designed, but not the reporter itself, has a WGS transcript hit (3,390; (v "ambiguous annotation" (2,608; and (vi "inconclusive annotation" (6,489. Functional annotations of reporters were obtained by BLASTX and Blast2GO analysis of corresponding WGS transcripts against GenBank. The annotations are available in the Maize Microarray Annotation Database http://MaizeArrayAnnot.bi.up.ac.za/, as well as through a GBrowse annotation file that can be uploaded to

  5. Teaching and Learning Communities through Online Annotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Pluijm, B.

    2016-12-01

    during lecture presentation. Sharing of experiences and practices of annotation could benefit teachers and learners alike, and does not require complicated software, coding skills or special hardware environments.

  6. Wetlands & Deepwater Habitats - Montana Wetland and Riparian Framework - Map Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The Montana Wetland and Riparian Framework represents the extent, type, and approximate location of wetlands, riparian areas, and deepwater habitats in Montana....

  7. TTC’15 Live Contest Case Study: Transformation of Java Annotations

    OpenAIRE

    Křikava, Filip; Monperrus, Martin

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Java 5 introduced annotations as a systematic mean to attach syntactic meta-data to various elements of Java source code. Since then, annotations have been extensively used by a number of libraries, frameworks and tools to conveniently extend behaviour of Java programs that would otherwise have to be done manually or synthesised from external resources. The annotations are usually processed through reflection and the extended behaviour is injected into Java classes usi...

  8. DOLUS LAKES ROADLESS AREA, MONTANA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, James E.; Avery, Dale W.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Dolus Lakes Roadless Area in southwestern Montana, was conducted. Much of the roadless area has probable and substantiated potential for resources of gold, silver, molybdenum, and tungsten. The nature of the geologic terrain indicates that there is little promise for the occurrence of coal, oil, gas, or geothermal resources. Detailed geologic and geochemical studies are suggested to delineate exploration targets that could be tested by drilling.

  9. Dynamic multimedia annotation tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfund, Thomas; Marchand-Maillet, Stephane

    2001-12-01

    Annotating image collections is crucial for different multimedia applications. Not only this provides an alternative access to visual information but it is a critical step to perform the evaluation of content-based image retrieval systems. Annotation is a tedious task so that there is a real need for developing tools that lighten the work of annotators. The tool should be flexible and offer customization so as to make the annotator the most comfortable. It should also automate the most tasks as possible. In this paper, we present a still image annotation tool that has been developed with the aim of being flexible and adaptive. The principle is to create a set of dynamic web pages that are an interface to a SQL database. The keyword set is fixed and every image receives from concurrent annotators a set of keywords along with time stamps and annotator Ids. Each annotator has the possibility of going back and forth within the collection and its previous annotations. He is helped by a number of search services and customization options. An administrative section allows the supervisor to control the parameter of the annotation, including the keyword set, given via an XML structure. The architecture of the tool is made flexible so as to accommodate further options through its development.

  10. Ubiquitous Annotation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank Allan

    2006-01-01

    Ubiquitous annotation systems allow users to annotate physical places, objects, and persons with digital information. Especially in the field of location based information systems much work has been done to implement adaptive and context-aware systems, but few efforts have focused on the general...... requirements for linking information to objects in both physical and digital space. This paper surveys annotation techniques from open hypermedia systems, Web based annotation systems, and mobile and augmented reality systems to illustrate different approaches to four central challenges ubiquitous annotation...... systems have to deal with: anchoring, structuring, presentation, and authoring. Through a number of examples each challenge is discussed and HyCon, a context-aware hypermedia framework developed at the University of Aarhus, Denmark, is used to illustrate an integrated approach to ubiquitous annotations...

  11. Annotation of selection strengths in viral genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCauley, Stephen; de Groot, Saskia; Mailund, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Motivation: Viral genomes tend to code in overlapping reading frames to maximize information content. This may result in atypical codon bias and particular evolutionary constraints. Due to the fast mutation rate of viruses, there is additional strong evidence for varying selection between intra......- and intergenomic regions. The presence of multiple coding regions complicates the concept of Ka/Ks ratio, and thus begs for an alternative approach when investigating selection strengths. Building on the paper by McCauley & Hein (2006), we develop a method for annotating a viral genome coding in overlapping...... may thus achieve an annotation both of coding regions as well as selection strengths, allowing us to investigate different selection patterns and hypotheses. Results: We illustrate our method by applying it to a multiple alignment of four HIV2 sequences, as well as four Hepatitis B sequences. We...

  12. Web-based Video Annotation and its Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Daisuke; Nagao, Katashi

    In this paper, we developed a Web-based video annotation system, named iVAS (intelligent Video Annotation Server). Audiences can associate any video content on the Internet with annotations. The system analyzes video content in order to acquire cut/shot information and color histograms. And it also automatically generates a Web page for editing annotations. Then, audiences can create annotation data by two methods. The first one helps the users to create text data such as person/object names, scene descriptions, and comments interactively. The second method facilitates the users associating any video fragments with their subjective impression by just clicking a mouse button. The generated annotation data are accumulated and managed by an XML database connected with iVAS. We also developed some application systems based on annotations such as video retrieval, video simplification, and video-content-based community support. One of the major advantages of our approach is easy integration of hand-coded and automatically-generated (such as color histograms and cut/shot information) annotations. Additionally, since our annotation system is open for public, we must consider some reliability or correctness of annotation data. We also developed an automatic evaluation method of annotation reliability using the users' feedback. In the future, these fundamental technologies will contribute to the formation of new communities centered around video content.

  13. 76 FR 47637 - Montana Disaster #MT-00062

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ... ADMINISTRATION Montana Disaster MT-00062 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Montana (FEMA..., Fort Worth, TX 76155. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance,...

  14. 77 FR 47907 - Montana Disaster #MT-00067

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ... ADMINISTRATION Montana Disaster MT-00067 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of MONTANA dated 08/02/2012. Incident: Ash Creek Fire. Incident Period: 06/25/2012 through 07/22/2012. Effective Date:...

  15. 77 FR 48198 - Montana Disaster #MT-00068

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    ... ADMINISTRATION Montana Disaster MT-00068 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Montana dated 08/06/2012. Incident: Dahl Fire. Incident Period: 06/26/2012 through 07/06/2012. Effective Date:...

  16. Functional annotation of hierarchical modularity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanchana Padmanabhan

    method using Saccharomyces cerevisiae data from KEGG and MIPS databases and several other computationally derived and curated datasets. The code and additional supplemental files can be obtained from http://code.google.com/p/functional-annotation-of-hierarchical-modularity/ (Accessed 2012 March 13.

  17. Annotating Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindstrøm, Bo; Wells, Lisa Marie

    2002-01-01

    Coloured Petri nets (CP-nets) can be used for several fundamentally different purposes like functional analysis, performance analysis, and visualisation. To be able to use the corresponding tool extensions and libraries it is sometimes necessary to include extra auxiliary information in the CP-ne...... a certain use of the CP-net. We define the semantics of annotations by describing a translation from a CP-net and the corresponding annotation layers to another CP-net where the annotations are an integrated part of the CP-net....... a method which makes it possible to associate auxiliary information, called annotations, with tokens without modifying the colour sets of the CP-net. Annotations are pieces of information that are not essential for determining the behaviour of the system being modelled, but are rather added to support...

  18. Genome Annotation Transfer Utility (GATU: rapid annotation of viral genomes using a closely related reference genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upton Chris

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since DNA sequencing has become easier and cheaper, an increasing number of closely related viral genomes have been sequenced. However, many of these have been deposited in GenBank without annotations, severely limiting their value to researchers. While maintaining comprehensive genomic databases for a set of virus families at the Viral Bioinformatics Resource Center http://www.biovirus.org and Viral Bioinformatics – Canada http://www.virology.ca, we found that researchers were unnecessarily spending time annotating viral genomes that were close relatives of already annotated viruses. We have therefore designed and implemented a novel tool, Genome Annotation Transfer Utility (GATU, to transfer annotations from a previously annotated reference genome to a new target genome, thereby greatly reducing this laborious task. Results GATU transfers annotations from a reference genome to a closely related target genome, while still giving the user final control over which annotations should be included. GATU also detects open reading frames present in the target but not the reference genome and provides the user with a variety of bioinformatics tools to quickly determine if these ORFs should also be included in the annotation. After this process is complete, GATU saves the newly annotated genome as a GenBank, EMBL or XML-format file. The software is coded in Java and runs on a variety of computer platforms. Its user-friendly Graphical User Interface is specifically designed for users trained in the biological sciences. Conclusion GATU greatly simplifies the initial stages of genome annotation by using a closely related genome as a reference. It is not intended to be a gene prediction tool or a "complete" annotation system, but we have found that it significantly reduces the time required for annotation of genes and mature peptides as well as helping to standardize gene names between related organisms by transferring reference genome

  19. Genome Annotation Transfer Utility (GATU): rapid annotation of viral genomes using a closely related reference genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tcherepanov, Vasily; Ehlers, Angelika; Upton, Chris

    2006-06-13

    Since DNA sequencing has become easier and cheaper, an increasing number of closely related viral genomes have been sequenced. However, many of these have been deposited in GenBank without annotations, severely limiting their value to researchers. While maintaining comprehensive genomic databases for a set of virus families at the Viral Bioinformatics Resource Center http://www.biovirus.org and Viral Bioinformatics - Canada http://www.virology.ca, we found that researchers were unnecessarily spending time annotating viral genomes that were close relatives of already annotated viruses. We have therefore designed and implemented a novel tool, Genome Annotation Transfer Utility (GATU), to transfer annotations from a previously annotated reference genome to a new target genome, thereby greatly reducing this laborious task. GATU transfers annotations from a reference genome to a closely related target genome, while still giving the user final control over which annotations should be included. GATU also detects open reading frames present in the target but not the reference genome and provides the user with a variety of bioinformatics tools to quickly determine if these ORFs should also be included in the annotation. After this process is complete, GATU saves the newly annotated genome as a GenBank, EMBL or XML-format file. The software is coded in Java and runs on a variety of computer platforms. Its user-friendly Graphical User Interface is specifically designed for users trained in the biological sciences. GATU greatly simplifies the initial stages of genome annotation by using a closely related genome as a reference. It is not intended to be a gene prediction tool or a "complete" annotation system, but we have found that it significantly reduces the time required for annotation of genes and mature peptides as well as helping to standardize gene names between related organisms by transferring reference genome annotations to the target genome. The program is freely

  20. Personnalisation de Syst\\`emes OLAP Annot\\'es

    CERN Document Server

    Jerbi, Houssem; Ravat, Franck; Teste, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with personalization of annotated OLAP systems. Data constellation is extended to support annotations and user preferences. Annotations reflect the decision-maker experience whereas user preferences enable users to focus on the most interesting data. User preferences allow annotated contextual recommendations helping the decision-maker during his/her multidimensional navigations.

  1. 78 FR 44187 - Montana Disaster # MT-00079

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Montana Disaster MT-00079 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... have been determined to be adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Blaine,...

  2. Notes and comments on Montana Refuges

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is a summary of actual management actions, and plant community responses on Montana refuges during 1992. It is part of the moist-soil expert system...

  3. Adminstrative Boundary for Glacier National Park, Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The current administrative boundary of Glacier National Park, Montana. This data is based on 1:24000 scale USGS quad mapping published in 1968, but was revised in...

  4. Waterfowl breeding population survey for Montana: 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for Montana during 1993. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide information on...

  5. Parcels and Land Ownership - Montana Cadastral Framework

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The Montana Cadastral Database is comprised of taxable parcels (fee land) and public land (exempt property). It is not broken down into individual lots, for instance...

  6. Waterfowl breeding population survey for Montana: 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for Montana during 1998. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide information on...

  7. Waterfowl production survey for Montana: July 1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Production and Habitat Survey for Montana during 1980. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide information on duck...

  8. Watershed Boundaries - Watershed Boundary Database for Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This data set is a complete digital hydrologic unit boundary layer of the Subbasins (8-digit), Watersheds (10-digit), and Subwatersheds (12-digit) for Montana. This...

  9. Gene calling and bacterial genome annotation with BG7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobes, Raquel; Pareja-Tobes, Pablo; Manrique, Marina; Pareja-Tobes, Eduardo; Kovach, Evdokim; Alekhin, Alexey; Pareja, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    New massive sequencing technologies are providing many bacterial genome sequences from diverse taxa but a refined annotation of these genomes is crucial for obtaining scientific findings and new knowledge. Thus, bacterial genome annotation has emerged as a key point to investigate in bacteria. Any efficient tool designed specifically to annotate bacterial genomes sequenced with massively parallel technologies has to consider the specific features of bacterial genomes (absence of introns and scarcity of nonprotein-coding sequence) and of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies (presence of errors and not perfectly assembled genomes). These features make it convenient to focus on coding regions and, hence, on protein sequences that are the elements directly related with biological functions. In this chapter we describe how to annotate bacterial genomes with BG7, an open-source tool based on a protein-centered gene calling/annotation paradigm. BG7 is specifically designed for the annotation of bacterial genomes sequenced with NGS. This tool is sequence error tolerant maintaining their capabilities for the annotation of highly fragmented genomes or for annotating mixed sequences coming from several genomes (as those obtained through metagenomics samples). BG7 has been designed with scalability as a requirement, with a computing infrastructure completely based on cloud computing (Amazon Web Services).

  10. An Introduction to Genome Annotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Michael S; Yandell, Mark

    2015-12-17

    Genome projects have evolved from large international undertakings to tractable endeavors for a single lab. Accurate genome annotation is critical for successful genomic, genetic, and molecular biology experiments. These annotations can be generated using a number of approaches and available software tools. This unit describes methods for genome annotation and a number of software tools commonly used in gene annotation.

  11. NoGOA: predicting noisy GO annotations using evidences and sparse representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guoxian; Lu, Chang; Wang, Jun

    2017-07-21

    Gene Ontology (GO) is a community effort to represent functional features of gene products. GO annotations (GOA) provide functional associations between GO terms and gene products. Due to resources limitation, only a small portion of annotations are manually checked by curators, and the others are electronically inferred. Although quality control techniques have been applied to ensure the quality of annotations, the community consistently report that there are still considerable noisy (or incorrect) annotations. Given the wide application of annotations, however, how to identify noisy annotations is an important but yet seldom studied open problem. We introduce a novel approach called NoGOA to predict noisy annotations. NoGOA applies sparse representation on the gene-term association matrix to reduce the impact of noisy annotations, and takes advantage of sparse representation coefficients to measure the semantic similarity between genes. Secondly, it preliminarily predicts noisy annotations of a gene based on aggregated votes from semantic neighborhood genes of that gene. Next, NoGOA estimates the ratio of noisy annotations for each evidence code based on direct annotations in GOA files archived on different periods, and then weights entries of the association matrix via estimated ratios and propagates weights to ancestors of direct annotations using GO hierarchy. Finally, it integrates evidence-weighted association matrix and aggregated votes to predict noisy annotations. Experiments on archived GOA files of six model species (H. sapiens, A. thaliana, S. cerevisiae, G. gallus, B. Taurus and M. musculus) demonstrate that NoGOA achieves significantly better results than other related methods and removing noisy annotations improves the performance of gene function prediction. The comparative study justifies the effectiveness of integrating evidence codes with sparse representation for predicting noisy GO annotations. Codes and datasets are available at http://mlda.swu.edu.cn/codes.php?name=NoGOA .

  12. Semantic annotation of mutable data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Robert A; Dou, Lei; Hanken, James; Kelly, Maureen; Lowery, David B; Ludäscher, Bertram; Macklin, James A; Morris, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    Electronic annotation of scientific data is very similar to annotation of documents. Both types of annotation amplify the original object, add related knowledge to it, and dispute or support assertions in it. In each case, annotation is a framework for discourse about the original object, and, in each case, an annotation needs to clearly identify its scope and its own terminology. However, electronic annotation of data differs from annotation of documents: the content of the annotations, including expectations and supporting evidence, is more often shared among members of networks. Any consequent actions taken by the holders of the annotated data could be shared as well. But even those current annotation systems that admit data as their subject often make it difficult or impossible to annotate at fine-enough granularity to use the results in this way for data quality control. We address these kinds of issues by offering simple extensions to an existing annotation ontology and describe how the results support an interest-based distribution of annotations. We are using the result to design and deploy a platform that supports annotation services overlaid on networks of distributed data, with particular application to data quality control. Our initial instance supports a set of natural science collection metadata services. An important application is the support for data quality control and provision of missing data. A previous proof of concept demonstrated such use based on data annotations modeled with XML-Schema.

  13. ANNOTATION SUPPORTED OCCLUDED OBJECT TRACKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devinder Kumar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Tracking occluded objects at different depths has become as extremely important component of study for any video sequence having wide applications in object tracking, scene recognition, coding, editing the videos and mosaicking. The paper studies the ability of annotation to track the occluded object based on pyramids with variation in depth further establishing a threshold at which the ability of the system to track the occluded object fails. Image annotation is applied on 3 similar video sequences varying in depth. In the experiment, one bike occludes the other at a depth of 60cm, 80cm and 100cm respectively. Another experiment is performed on tracking humans with similar depth to authenticate the results. The paper also computes the frame by frame error incurred by the system, supported by detailed simulations. This system can be effectively used to analyze the error in motion tracking and further correcting the error leading to flawless tracking. This can be of great interest to computer scientists while designing surveillance systems etc.

  14. Algal functional annotation tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-07-12

    Abstract BACKGROUND: Progress in genome sequencing is proceeding at an exponential pace, and several new algal genomes are becoming available every year. One of the challenges facing the community is the association of protein sequences encoded in the genomes with biological function. While most genome assembly projects generate annotations for predicted protein sequences, they are usually limited and integrate functional terms from a limited number of databases. Another challenge is the use of annotations to interpret large lists of 'interesting' genes generated by genome-scale datasets. Previously, these gene lists had to be analyzed across several independent biological databases, often on a gene-by-gene basis. In contrast, several annotation databases, such as DAVID, integrate data from multiple functional databases and reveal underlying biological themes of large gene lists. While several such databases have been constructed for animals, none is currently available for the study of algae. Due to renewed interest in algae as potential sources of biofuels and the emergence of multiple algal genome sequences, a significant need has arisen for such a database to process the growing compendiums of algal genomic data. DESCRIPTION: The Algal Functional Annotation Tool is a web-based comprehensive analysis suite integrating annotation data from several pathway, ontology, and protein family databases. The current version provides annotation for the model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and in the future will include additional genomes. The site allows users to interpret large gene lists by identifying associated functional terms, and their enrichment. Additionally, expression data for several experimental conditions were compiled and analyzed to provide an expression-based enrichment search. A tool to search for functionally-related genes based on gene expression across these conditions is also provided. Other features include dynamic visualization of genes

  15. 76 FR 43259 - Southern Montana Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... in Billings, Montana. The committee is meeting as authorized under the Secure Rural Schools and... Grad Montana Hotel and Convention Center, 5500 Midland Road, Billings, MT. Written comments should...

  16. Science Inquiry Learning in Classrooms — Montana Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brelsford, M. A.; Peters, J.; Grimberg, B. I.

    2010-04-01

    Montana's ABRC is working with rural school teachers in southwestern Montana. Astrobiology is a new and exciting subject for the teachers and its inter-disciplinary nature is very useful and rewarding for the teachers and their students.

  17. Observations on a Montana water quality proposal.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.; Puder, M. G.

    2006-01-12

    In May 2005, a group of petitioners led by the Northern Plains Resource Council (NPRC) submitted a petition to revise water quality requirements to the Montana Board of Environmental Review (BER). Under Montana law, the BER had to consider the petition and either reject it or propose it as a new regulation. In September 2005, the BER announced proposed changes to the Montana water quality regulations. The proposal, which included almost the exact language found in the petition, was directed toward discharges of water from coal bed natural gas (CBNG) production. The key elements of the proposal included: (1) No discharges of CBNG water are allowed to Montana surface waters unless operators can demonstrate that injection to aquifers with the potential for later recovery of the water is not feasible. (2) When operators can demonstrate the injection is not feasible, the CBNG water to be discharged must meet very strict technology-based limits for multiple parameters. (3) The Montana water quality standards for the sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and electrical conductivity (EC) would be evaluated using the 7Q10 flow (lowest 7-consecutive-day flow in a 10-year period) rather than a monthly flow that is currently used. (4) SAR and EC would be reclassified as ''harmful parameters'', thereby greatly restricting the ability for CBNG discharges to be allowed under Montana's nondegradation regulations. The proposed regulations, if adopted in their current form, are likely to substantially reduce the amount of CBNG production in Montana. The impact also extends to Wyoming CBNG production through much greater restrictions on water quality that must be met at the interstate border.

  18. Code de droit international privé suisse annoté Code DIP annoté

    CERN Document Server

    Suisse; Geisinger, Elliott

    1995-01-01

    La loi fédérale sur le droit international privé : édition complétée par le texte des principaux traités internationaux et par le Règlement d'arbitrage de la Chambre de commerce internationale

  19. Algal functional annotation tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, D. [UCLA; Casero, D. [UCLA; Cokus, S. J. [UCLA; Merchant, S. S. [UCLA; Pellegrini, M. [UCLA

    2012-07-01

    The Algal Functional Annotation Tool is a web-based comprehensive analysis suite integrating annotation data from several pathway, ontology, and protein family databases. The current version provides annotation for the model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and in the future will include additional genomes. The site allows users to interpret large gene lists by identifying associated functional terms, and their enrichment. Additionally, expression data for several experimental conditions were compiled and analyzed to provide an expression-based enrichment search. A tool to search for functionally-related genes based on gene expression across these conditions is also provided. Other features include dynamic visualization of genes on KEGG pathway maps and batch gene identifier conversion.

  20. Board of Regents' Montana University System (MUS) Strategic Plan 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montana University System, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The Montana University System Strategic Plan is the primary planning document of the Board of Regents. The Plan sets forth an agenda for higher education in Montana by delineating the strategic directions, goals, and objectives that guide the Montana University System (MUS). In July 2006, after several years of study, public dialogue, and internal…

  1. Model and Interoperability using Meta Data Annotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, O.

    2011-12-01

    Software frameworks and architectures are in need for meta data to efficiently support model integration. Modelers have to know the context of a model, often stepping into modeling semantics and auxiliary information usually not provided in a concise structure and universal format, consumable by a range of (modeling) tools. XML often seems the obvious solution for capturing meta data, but its wide adoption to facilitate model interoperability is limited by XML schema fragmentation, complexity, and verbosity outside of a data-automation process. Ontologies seem to overcome those shortcomings, however the practical significance of their use remains to be demonstrated. OMS version 3 took a different approach for meta data representation. The fundamental building block of a modular model in OMS is a software component representing a single physical process, calibration method, or data access approach. Here, programing language features known as Annotations or Attributes were adopted. Within other (non-modeling) frameworks it has been observed that annotations lead to cleaner and leaner application code. Framework-supported model integration, traditionally accomplished using Application Programming Interfaces (API) calls is now achieved using descriptive code annotations. Fully annotated components for various hydrological and Ag-system models now provide information directly for (i) model assembly and building, (ii) data flow analysis for implicit multi-threading or visualization, (iii) automated and comprehensive model documentation of component dependencies, physical data properties, (iv) automated model and component testing, calibration, and optimization, and (v) automated audit-traceability to account for all model resources leading to a particular simulation result. Such a non-invasive methodology leads to models and modeling components with only minimal dependencies on the modeling framework but a strong reference to its originating code. Since models and

  2. Annotating images by mining image search results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-Jing; Zhang, Lei; Li, Xirong; Ma, Wei-Ying

    2008-11-01

    Although it has been studied for years by the computer vision and machine learning communities, image annotation is still far from practical. In this paper, we propose a novel attempt at model-free image annotation, which is a data-driven approach that annotates images by mining their search results. Some 2.4 million images with their surrounding text are collected from a few photo forums to support this approach. The entire process is formulated in a divide-and-conquer framework where a query keyword is provided along with the uncaptioned image to improve both the effectiveness and efficiency. This is helpful when the collected data set is not dense everywhere. In this sense, our approach contains three steps: 1) the search process to discover visually and semantically similar search results, 2) the mining process to identify salient terms from textual descriptions of the search results, and 3) the annotation rejection process to filter out noisy terms yielded by Step 2. To ensure real-time annotation, two key techniques are leveraged-one is to map the high-dimensional image visual features into hash codes, the other is to implement it as a distributed system, of which the search and mining processes are provided as Web services. As a typical result, the entire process finishes in less than 1 second. Since no training data set is required, our approach enables annotating with unlimited vocabulary and is highly scalable and robust to outliers. Experimental results on both real Web images and a benchmark image data set show the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed algorithm. It is also worth noting that, although the entire approach is illustrated within the divide-and conquer framework, a query keyword is not crucial to our current implementation. We provide experimental results to prove this.

  3. The standard operating procedure of the DOE-JGI Microbial Genome Annotation Pipeline (MGAP v.4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntemann, Marcel; Ivanova, Natalia N; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Tripp, H James; Paez-Espino, David; Palaniappan, Krishnaveni; Szeto, Ernest; Pillay, Manoj; Chen, I-Min A; Pati, Amrita; Nielsen, Torben; Markowitz, Victor M; Kyrpides, Nikos C

    2015-01-01

    The DOE-JGI Microbial Genome Annotation Pipeline performs structural and functional annotation of microbial genomes that are further included into the Integrated Microbial Genome comparative analysis system. MGAP is applied to assembled nucleotide sequence datasets that are provided via the IMG submission site. Dataset submission for annotation first requires project and associated metadata description in GOLD. The MGAP sequence data processing consists of feature prediction including identification of protein-coding genes, non-coding RNAs and regulatory RNA features, as well as CRISPR elements. Structural annotation is followed by assignment of protein product names and functions.

  4. Cheating. An Annotated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildemuth, Barbara M., Comp.

    This 89-item, annotated bibliography was compiled to provide access to research and discussions of cheating and, specifically, cheating on tests. It is not limited to any educational level, nor is it confined to any specific curriculum area. Two data bases were searched by computer, and a library search was conducted. A computer search of the…

  5. Collaborative Movie Annotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zad, Damon Daylamani; Agius, Harry

    In this paper, we focus on metadata for self-created movies like those found on YouTube and Google Video, the duration of which are increasing in line with falling upload restrictions. While simple tags may have been sufficient for most purposes for traditionally very short video footage that contains a relatively small amount of semantic content, this is not the case for movies of longer duration which embody more intricate semantics. Creating metadata is a time-consuming process that takes a great deal of individual effort; however, this effort can be greatly reduced by harnessing the power of Web 2.0 communities to create, update and maintain it. Consequently, we consider the annotation of movies within Web 2.0 environments, such that users create and share that metadata collaboratively and propose an architecture for collaborative movie annotation. This architecture arises from the results of an empirical experiment where metadata creation tools, YouTube and an MPEG-7 modelling tool, were used by users to create movie metadata. The next section discusses related work in the areas of collaborative retrieval and tagging. Then, we describe the experiments that were undertaken on a sample of 50 users. Next, the results are presented which provide some insight into how users interact with existing tools and systems for annotating movies. Based on these results, the paper then develops an architecture for collaborative movie annotation.

  6. Annotated Bibliography. First Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haring, Norris G.

    An annotated bibliography which presents approximately 300 references from 1951 to 1973 on the education of severely/profoundly handicapped persons. Citations are grouped alphabetically by author's name within the following categories: characteristics and treatment, gross motor development, sensory and motor development, physical therapy for the…

  7. Annotation of Regular Polysemy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Alonso, Hector

    Regular polysemy has received a lot of attention from the theory of lexical semantics and from computational linguistics. However, there is no consensus on how to represent the sense of underspecified examples at the token level, namely when annotating or disambiguating senses of metonymic words...

  8. Annotated bibliography traceability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Narain, G.

    2006-01-01

    This annotated bibliography contains summaries of articles and chapters of books, which are relevant to traceability. After each summary there is a part about the relevancy of the paper for the LEI project. The aim of the LEI-project is to gain insight in several aspects of traceability in order to

  9. Annotation of Ehux ESTs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuo, Alan; Grigoriev, Igor

    2009-06-12

    22 percent ESTs do no align with scaffolds. EST Pipeleine assembles 17126 consensi from the noaligned ESTs. Annotation Pipeline predicts 8564 ORFS on the consensi. Domain analysis of ORFs reveals missing genes. Cluster analysis reveals missing genes. Expression analysis reveals potential strain specific genes.

  10. Annotation: The Savant Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Pamela; Wallace, Gregory L.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Whilst interest has focused on the origin and nature of the savant syndrome for over a century, it is only within the past two decades that empirical group studies have been carried out. Methods: The following annotation briefly reviews relevant research and also attempts to address outstanding issues in this research area.…

  11. COGNATE: comparative gene annotation characterizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbrandt, Jeanne; Misof, Bernhard; Niehuis, Oliver

    2017-07-17

    The comparison of gene and genome structures across species has the potential to reveal major trends of genome evolution. However, such a comparative approach is currently hampered by a lack of standardization (e.g., Elliott TA, Gregory TR, Philos Trans Royal Soc B: Biol Sci 370:20140331, 2015). For example, testing the hypothesis that the total amount of coding sequences is a reliable measure of potential proteome diversity (Wang M, Kurland CG, Caetano-Anollés G, PNAS 108:11954, 2011) requires the application of standardized definitions of coding sequence and genes to create both comparable and comprehensive data sets and corresponding summary statistics. However, such standard definitions either do not exist or are not consistently applied. These circumstances call for a standard at the descriptive level using a minimum of parameters as well as an undeviating use of standardized terms, and for software that infers the required data under these strict definitions. The acquisition of a comprehensive, descriptive, and standardized set of parameters and summary statistics for genome publications and further analyses can thus greatly benefit from the availability of an easy to use standard tool. We developed a new open-source command-line tool, COGNATE (Comparative Gene Annotation Characterizer), which uses a given genome assembly and its annotation of protein-coding genes for a detailed description of the respective gene and genome structure parameters. Additionally, we revised the standard definitions of gene and genome structures and provide the definitions used by COGNATE as a working draft suggestion for further reference. Complete parameter lists and summary statistics are inferred using this set of definitions to allow down-stream analyses and to provide an overview of the genome and gene repertoire characteristics. COGNATE is written in Perl and freely available at the ZFMK homepage ( https://www.zfmk.de/en/COGNATE ) and on github ( https

  12. DisBlue+: A distributed annotation-based C# compiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir E. AbdelRahman

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Many programming languages utilize annotations to add useful information to the program but they still result in more tokens to be compiled and hence slower compilation time. Any current distributed compiler breaks the program into scattered disjoint pieces to speed up the compilation. However, these pieces cooperate synchronously and depend highly on each other. This causes massive overhead since messages, symbols, or codes must be roamed throughout the network. This paper presents two promising compilers named annotation-based C# (Blue+ and distributed annotation-based C# (DisBlue+. The proposed Blue+ annotation is based on axiomatic semantics to replace the if/loop constructs. As the developer tends to use many (complex conditions and repeat them in the program, such annotations reduce the compilation scanning time and increases the whole code readability. Built on the top of Blue+, DisBlue+ presents its proposed distributed concept which is to divide each program class to its prototype and definition, as disjoint distributed pieces, such that each class definition is compiled with only its related compiled prototypes (interfaces. Such concept reduces the amount of code transferred over the network, minimizes the dependencies among the disjoint pieces, and removes any possible synchronization between them. To test their efficiencies, Blue+ and DisBlue+ were verified with large-size codes against some existing compilers namely Javac, DJavac, and CDjava.

  13. Transcript annotation in FANTOM3: mouse gene catalog based on physical cDNAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norihiro Maeda

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The international FANTOM consortium aims to produce a comprehensive picture of the mammalian transcriptome, based upon an extensive cDNA collection and functional annotation of full-length enriched cDNAs. The previous dataset, FANTOM2, comprised 60,770 full-length enriched cDNAs. Functional annotation revealed that this cDNA dataset contained only about half of the estimated number of mouse protein-coding genes, indicating that a number of cDNAs still remained to be collected and identified. To pursue the complete gene catalog that covers all predicted mouse genes, cloning and sequencing of full-length enriched cDNAs has been continued since FANTOM2. In FANTOM3, 42,031 newly isolated cDNAs were subjected to functional annotation, and the annotation of 4,347 FANTOM2 cDNAs was updated. To accomplish accurate functional annotation, we improved our automated annotation pipeline by introducing new coding sequence prediction programs and developed a Web-based annotation interface for simplifying the annotation procedures to reduce manual annotation errors. Automated coding sequence and function prediction was followed with manual curation and review by expert curators. A total of 102,801 full-length enriched mouse cDNAs were annotated. Out of 102,801 transcripts, 56,722 were functionally annotated as protein coding (including partial or truncated transcripts, providing to our knowledge the greatest current coverage of the mouse proteome by full-length cDNAs. The total number of distinct non-protein-coding transcripts increased to 34,030. The FANTOM3 annotation system, consisting of automated computational prediction, manual curation, and final expert curation, facilitated the comprehensive characterization of the mouse transcriptome, and could be applied to the transcriptomes of other species.

  14. Current and future trends in marine image annotation software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes-Pereira, Jose Nuno; Auger, Vincent; Beisiegel, Kolja; Benjamin, Robert; Bergmann, Melanie; Bowden, David; Buhl-Mortensen, Pal; De Leo, Fabio C.; Dionísio, Gisela; Durden, Jennifer M.; Edwards, Luke; Friedman, Ariell; Greinert, Jens; Jacobsen-Stout, Nancy; Lerner, Steve; Leslie, Murray; Nattkemper, Tim W.; Sameoto, Jessica A.; Schoening, Timm; Schouten, Ronald; Seager, James; Singh, Hanumant; Soubigou, Olivier; Tojeira, Inês; van den Beld, Inge; Dias, Frederico; Tempera, Fernando; Santos, Ricardo S.

    2016-12-01

    Given the need to describe, analyze and index large quantities of marine imagery data for exploration and monitoring activities, a range of specialized image annotation tools have been developed worldwide. Image annotation - the process of transposing objects or events represented in a video or still image to the semantic level, may involve human interactions and computer-assisted solutions. Marine image annotation software (MIAS) have enabled over 500 publications to date. We review the functioning, application trends and developments, by comparing general and advanced features of 23 different tools utilized in underwater image analysis. MIAS requiring human input are basically a graphical user interface, with a video player or image browser that recognizes a specific time code or image code, allowing to log events in a time-stamped (and/or geo-referenced) manner. MIAS differ from similar software by the capability of integrating data associated to video collection, the most simple being the position coordinates of the video recording platform. MIAS have three main characteristics: annotating events in real time, posteriorly to annotation and interact with a database. These range from simple annotation interfaces, to full onboard data management systems, with a variety of toolboxes. Advanced packages allow to input and display data from multiple sensors or multiple annotators via intranet or internet. Posterior human-mediated annotation often include tools for data display and image analysis, e.g. length, area, image segmentation, point count; and in a few cases the possibility of browsing and editing previous dive logs or to analyze the annotations. The interaction with a database allows the automatic integration of annotations from different surveys, repeated annotation and collaborative annotation of shared datasets, browsing and querying of data. Progress in the field of automated annotation is mostly in post processing, for stable platforms or still images

  15. Final report on the safety assessment of Arnica montana extract and Arnica montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Arnica Montana Extract is an extract of dried flowerheads of the plant, Arnica montana. Arnica Montana is a generic term used to describe a plant material derived from the dried flowers, roots, or rhizomes of A. montana. Common names for A. montana include leopard's bane, mountain tobacco, mountain snuff, and wolf's bane. Two techniques for preparing Arnica Montana Extract are hydroalcoholic maceration and gentle disintegration in soybean oil. Propylene glycol and butylene glycol extractions were also reported. The composition of these extracts can include fatty acids, especially palmitic, linoleic, myristic, and linolenic acids, essential oil, triterpenic alcohols, sesquiterpene lactones, sugars, phytosterols, phenol acids, tannins, choline, inulin, phulin, arnicin, flavonoids, carotenoids, coumarins, and heavy metals. The components present in these extracts are dependent on where the plant is grown. Arnica Montana Extract was reported to be used in almost 100 cosmetic formulations across a wide range of product types, whereas Arnica Montana was reported only once. Extractions of Arnica Montana were tested and found not toxic in acute toxicity tests in rabbits, mice, and rats; they were not irritating, sensitizing, or phototoxic to mouse or guinea pig skin; and they did not produce significant ocular irritation. In an Ames test, an extract of A. montana was mutagenic, possibly related to the flavenoid content of the extract. No carcinogenicity or reproductive/developmental toxicity data were available. Clinical tests of extractions failed to elicit irritation or sensitization, yet Arnica dermatitis, a delayed type IV allergy, is reported in individuals who handle arnica flowers and may be caused by sesquiterpene lactones found in the flowers. Ingestion of A. montana-containing products has induced severe gastroenteritis, nervousness, accelerated heart rate, muscular weakness, and death. Absent any basis for concluding that data on one member of a botanical

  16. Montana BioDiesel Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peyton, Brent [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States)

    2017-01-29

    This initiative funding helped put Montana State University (MSU) in a position to help lead in the development of biodiesel production strategies. Recent shortages in electrical power and rising gasoline prices have focused much attention on the development of alternative energy sources that will end our dependence on fossil fuels. In addition, as the concern for environmental impact of utilizing fossil fuels increases, effective strategies must be implemented to reduce emissions or the increased regulations imposed on fossil fuel production will cause economic barriers for their use to continue to increase. Biodiesel has been repeatedly promoted as a more environmentally sound and renewable source of fuel and may prove to be a highly viable solution to provide, at the least, a proportion of our energy needs. Currently there are both practical and economic barriers to the implementation of alternative energy however the advent of these technologies is inevitable. Since many of the same strategies for the storage, transport, and utilization of biodiesel are common with that of fossil fuels, the practical barriers for biodiesel are comparatively minimal. Strategies were developed to harness the CO2 as feedstock to support the growth of biodiesel producing algae. The initiative funding led to the successful funding of highly rated projects in competitive national grant programs in the National Science Foundation and the Department of Energy. This funding put MSU in a key position to develop technologies to utilize the CO2 rich emissions produced in fossil fuel utilization and assembled world experts concerning the growth characteristics of photosynthetic microorganisms capable of producing biodiesel.

  17. Jannovar: a java library for exome annotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Marten; Wang, Kai; Bauer, Sebastian; Smedley, Damian; Krawitz, Peter; Robinson, Peter N

    2014-05-01

    Transcript-based annotation and pedigree analysis are two basic steps in the computational analysis of whole-exome sequencing experiments in genetic diagnostics and disease-gene discovery projects. Here, we present Jannovar, a stand-alone Java application as well as a Java library designed to be used in larger software frameworks for exome and genome analysis. Jannovar uses an interval tree to identify all transcripts affected by a given variant, and provides Human Genome Variation Society-compliant annotations both for variants affecting coding sequences and splice junctions as well as untranslated regions and noncoding RNA transcripts. Jannovar can also perform family-based pedigree analysis with Variant Call Format (VCF) files with data from members of a family segregating a Mendelian disorder. Using a desktop computer, Jannovar requires a few seconds to annotate a typical VCF file with exome data. Jannovar is freely available under the BSD2 license. Source code as well as the Java application and library file can be downloaded from http://compbio.charite.de (with tutorial) and https://github.com/charite/jannovar. © 2014 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  18. GSV Annotated Bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Randy S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pope, Paul A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jiang, Ming [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Trucano, Timothy G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Aragon, Cecilia R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ni, Kevin [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wei, Thomas [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chilton, Lawrence K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bakel, Alan [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2011-06-14

    The following annotated bibliography was developed as part of the Geospatial Algorithm Veri cation and Validation (GSV) project for the Simulation, Algorithms and Modeling program of NA-22. Veri cation and Validation of geospatial image analysis algorithms covers a wide range of technologies. Papers in the bibliography are thus organized into the following ve topic areas: Image processing and analysis, usability and validation of geospatial image analysis algorithms, image distance measures, scene modeling and image rendering, and transportation simulation models.

  19. 76 FR 76111 - Montana Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ...--Regulatory Planning and Review This rule is exempted from review by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB... to and additions of statutory definitions for ``approximate original contour,'' ``in situ coal..., Federal Register (45 FR 21560). You can also find later actions concerning Montana's program and...

  20. 77 FR 73965 - Montana Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... Section 503(a) of the Act permits a State to assume primacy for the regulation of surface coal mining and... Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Part 926 Montana Regulatory Program AGENCY: Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement, Interior. ACTION: Proposed rule; withdrawal...

  1. 76 FR 64047 - Montana Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... until 4 p.m., m.d.t. November 16, 2011. If requested, we will hold a public hearing on the amendment on November 14, 2011. We will accept requests to speak until 4 p.m., m.d.t. on November 1, 2011. ADDRESSES... . Edward L. Coleman, Bureau Chief, Industrial and Energy Minerals Bureau, Montana Department...

  2. 76 FR 64045 - Montana Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... hearing, if one is requested. DATES: We will accept written comments on this amendment until 4 p.m., m.d.t... will accept requests to speak until 4 p.m., m.d.t. on November 1, 2011. ADDRESSES: You may submit... ; Edward L. Coleman, Bureau Chief, Industrial and Energy Minerals Bureau, Montana Department...

  3. Automated Eukaryotic Gene Structure Annotation Using EVidenceModeler and the Program to Assemble Spliced Alignments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, B J; Salzberg, S L; Zhu, W; Pertea, M; Allen, J E; Orvis, J; White, O; Buell, C R; Wortman, J R

    2007-12-10

    EVidenceModeler (EVM) is presented as an automated eukaryotic gene structure annotation tool that reports eukaryotic gene structures as a weighted consensus of all available evidence. EVM, when combined with the Program to Assemble Spliced Alignments (PASA), yields a comprehensive, configurable annotation system that predicts protein-coding genes and alternatively spliced isoforms. Our experiments on both rice and human genome sequences demonstrate that EVM produces automated gene structure annotation approaching the quality of manual curation.

  4. Tool for rapid annotation of microbial SNPs (TRAMS): a simple program for rapid annotation of genomic variation in prokaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reumerman, Richard A; Tucker, Nicholas P; Herron, Paul R; Hoskisson, Paul A; Sangal, Vartul

    2013-09-01

    Next generation sequencing (NGS) has been widely used to study genomic variation in a variety of prokaryotes. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) resulting from genomic comparisons need to be annotated for their functional impact on the coding sequences. We have developed a program, TRAMS, for functional annotation of genomic SNPs which is available to download as a single file executable for WINDOWS users with limited computational experience and as a Python script for Mac OS and Linux users. TRAMS needs a tab delimited text file containing SNP locations, reference nucleotide and SNPs in variant strains along with a reference genome sequence in GenBank or EMBL format. SNPs are annotated as synonymous, nonsynonymous or nonsense. Nonsynonymous SNPs in start and stop codons are separated as non-start and non-stop SNPs, respectively. SNPs in multiple overlapping features are annotated separately for each feature and multiple nucleotide polymorphisms within a codon are combined before annotation. We have also developed a workflow for Galaxy, a highly used tool for analysing NGS data, to map short reads to a reference genome and extract and annotate the SNPs. TRAMS is a simple program for rapid and accurate annotation of SNPs that will be very useful for microbiologists in analysing genomic diversity in microbial populations.

  5. Improving the Caenorhabditis elegans genome annotation using machine learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Rätsch

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available For modern biology, precise genome annotations are of prime importance, as they allow the accurate definition of genic regions. We employ state-of-the-art machine learning methods to assay and improve the accuracy of the genome annotation of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The proposed machine learning system is trained to recognize exons and introns on the unspliced mRNA, utilizing recent advances in support vector machines and label sequence learning. In 87% (coding and untranslated regions and 95% (coding regions only of all genes tested in several out-of-sample evaluations, our method correctly identified all exons and introns. Notably, only 37% and 50%, respectively, of the presently unconfirmed genes in the C. elegans genome annotation agree with our predictions, thus we hypothesize that a sizable fraction of those genes are not correctly annotated. A retrospective evaluation of the Wormbase WS120 annotation [] of C. elegans reveals that splice form predictions on unconfirmed genes in WS120 are inaccurate in about 18% of the considered cases, while our predictions deviate from the truth only in 10%-13%. We experimentally analyzed 20 controversial genes on which our system and the annotation disagree, confirming the superiority of our predictions. While our method correctly predicted 75% of those cases, the standard annotation was never completely correct. The accuracy of our system is further corroborated by a comparison with two other recently proposed systems that can be used for splice form prediction: SNAP and ExonHunter. We conclude that the genome annotation of C. elegans and other organisms can be greatly enhanced using modern machine learning technology.

  6. An automated annotation tool for genomic DNA sequences using GeneScan and BLAST

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Andrew M. Lynn; Chakresh Kumar Jain; K. Kosalai; Pranjan Barman; Nupur Thakur; Harish Batra; Alok Bhattacharya

    2001-04-01

    Genomic sequence data are often available well before the annotated sequence is published. We present a method for analysis of genomic DNA to identify coding sequences using the GeneScan algorithm and characterize these resultant sequences by BLAST. The routines are used to develop a system for automated annotation of genome DNA sequences.

  7. Annotation of Regular Polysemy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Alonso, Hector

    Regular polysemy has received a lot of attention from the theory of lexical semantics and from computational linguistics. However, there is no consensus on how to represent the sense of underspecified examples at the token level, namely when annotating or disambiguating senses of metonymic words...... like “London” (Location/Organization) or “cup” (Container/Content). The goal of this dissertation is to assess whether metonymic sense underspecification justifies incorporating a third sense into our sense inventories, thereby treating the underspecified sense as independent from the literal...

  8. Predicting word sense annotation agreement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Alonso, Hector; Johannsen, Anders Trærup; Lopez de Lacalle, Oier

    2015-01-01

    High agreement is a common objective when annotating data for word senses. However, a number of factors make perfect agreement impossible, e.g. the limitations of the sense inventories, the difficulty of the examples or the interpretation preferences of the annotations. Estimating potential...... agreement is thus a relevant task to supplement the evaluation of sense annotations. In this article we propose two methods to predict agreement on word-annotation instances. We experiment with a continuous representation and a three-way discretization of observed agreement. In spite of the difficulty...

  9. Certifying and reasoning on cost annotations of functional programs

    CERN Document Server

    Amadio, Roberto M

    2011-01-01

    We present a so-called labelling method to insert cost annotations in a higher-order functional program, to certify their correctness with respect to a standard compilation chain to assembly code, and to reason on them in a higher-order Hoare logic.

  10. Government Districts, Other - Montana Administrative Boundary Web Mapping Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Montana Administrative Boundaries Map Service includes the following boundaries: State, County, Incorporated City/Town, Reservation, School Districts, Tax Increment...

  11. Phylogenetic molecular function annotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Barbara E.; Jordan, Michael I.; Repo, Susanna T.; Brenner, Steven E.

    2009-07-01

    It is now easier to discover thousands of protein sequences in a new microbial genome than it is to biochemically characterize the specific activity of a single protein of unknown function. The molecular functions of protein sequences have typically been predicted using homology-based computational methods, which rely on the principle that homologous proteins share a similar function. However, some protein families include groups of proteins with different molecular functions. A phylogenetic approach for predicting molecular function (sometimes called "phylogenomics") is an effective means to predict protein molecular function. These methods incorporate functional evidence from all members of a family that have functional characterizations using the evolutionary history of the protein family to make robust predictions for the uncharacterized proteins. However, they are often difficult to apply on a genome-wide scale because of the time-consuming step of reconstructing the phylogenies of each protein to be annotated. Our automated approach for function annotation using phylogeny, the SIFTER (Statistical Inference of Function Through Evolutionary Relationships) methodology, uses a statistical graphical model to compute the probabilities of molecular functions for unannotated proteins. Our benchmark tests showed that SIFTER provides accurate functional predictions on various protein families, outperforming other available methods.

  12. GLANET: genomic loci annotation and enrichment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otlu, Burçak; Firtina, Can; Keles, Sündüz; Tastan, Oznur

    2017-09-15

    Genomic studies identify genomic loci representing genetic variations, transcription factor (TF) occupancy, or histone modification through next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies. Interpreting these loci requires evaluating them with known genomic and epigenomic annotations. We present GLANET as a comprehensive annotation and enrichment analysis tool which implements a sampling-based enrichment test that accounts for GC content and/or mappability biases, jointly or separately. GLANET annotates and performs enrichment analysis on these loci with a rich library. We introduce and perform novel data-driven computational experiments for assessing the power and Type-I error of its enrichment procedure which show that GLANET has attained high statistical power and well-controlled Type-I error rate. As a key feature, users can easily extend its library with new gene sets and genomic intervals. Other key features include assessment of impact of single nucleotide variants (SNPs) on TF binding sites and regulation based pathway enrichment analysis. GLANET can be run using its GUI or on command line. GLANET's source code is available at https://github.com/burcakotlu/GLANET . Tutorials are provided at https://glanet.readthedocs.org . burcak@ceng.metu.edu.tr or oznur.tastan@cs.bilkent.edu.tr. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  13. An annotated bibliography on the Copper River Delta with emphasis on waterfowl habitat management and improvements

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Annotated, coded bibliography based on holdings of Chugach National Forest office files, Alaska Dept. of Fish & Game Cordova office files, University of Alaska...

  14. Use of Annotations for Component and Framework Interoperability

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, O.; Lloyd, W.; Carlson, J.; Leavesley, G. H.; Geter, F.

    2009-12-01

    The popular programming languages Java and C# provide annotations, a form of meta-data construct. Software frameworks for web integration, web services, database access, and unit testing now take advantage of annotations to reduce the complexity of APIs and the quantity of integration code between the application and framework infrastructure. Adopting annotation features in frameworks has been observed to lead to cleaner and leaner application code. The USDA Object Modeling System (OMS) version 3.0 fully embraces the annotation approach and additionally defines a meta-data standard for components and models. In version 3.0 framework/model integration previously accomplished using API calls is now achieved using descriptive annotations. This enables the framework to provide additional functionality non-invasively such as implicit multithreading, and auto-documenting capabilities while achieving a significant reduction in the size of the model source code. Using a non-invasive methodology leads to models and modeling components with only minimal dependencies on the modeling framework. Since models and modeling components are not directly bound to framework by the use of specific APIs and/or data types they can more easily be reused both within the framework as well as outside of it. To study the effectiveness of an annotation based framework approach with other modeling frameworks, a framework-invasiveness study was conducted to evaluate the effects of framework design on model code quality. A monthly water balance model was implemented across several modeling frameworks and several software metrics were collected. The metrics selected were measures of non-invasive design methods for modeling frameworks from a software engineering perspective. It appears that the use of annotations positively impacts several software quality measures. In a next step, the PRMS model was implemented in OMS 3.0 and is currently being implemented for water supply forecasting in the

  15. AGeS: a software system for microbial genome sequence annotation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Kumar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The annotation of genomes from next-generation sequencing platforms needs to be rapid, high-throughput, and fully integrated and automated. Although a few Web-based annotation services have recently become available, they may not be the best solution for researchers that need to annotate a large number of genomes, possibly including proprietary data, and store them locally for further analysis. To address this need, we developed a standalone software application, the Annotation of microbial Genome Sequences (AGeS system, which incorporates publicly available and in-house-developed bioinformatics tools and databases, many of which are parallelized for high-throughput performance. METHODOLOGY: The AGeS system supports three main capabilities. The first is the storage of input contig sequences and the resulting annotation data in a central, customized database. The second is the annotation of microbial genomes using an integrated software pipeline, which first analyzes contigs from high-throughput sequencing by locating genomic regions that code for proteins, RNA, and other genomic elements through the Do-It-Yourself Annotation (DIYA framework. The identified protein-coding regions are then functionally annotated using the in-house-developed Pipeline for Protein Annotation (PIPA. The third capability is the visualization of annotated sequences using GBrowse. To date, we have implemented these capabilities for bacterial genomes. AGeS was evaluated by comparing its genome annotations with those provided by three other methods. Our results indicate that the software tools integrated into AGeS provide annotations that are in general agreement with those provided by the compared methods. This is demonstrated by a >94% overlap in the number of identified genes, a significant number of identical annotated features, and a >90% agreement in enzyme function predictions.

  16. The DOE-JGI Standard Operating Procedure for the Annotations of the Microbial Genomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Ivanova, Natalia; Chen, I-Min A.; Szeto, Ernest; Markowitz, Victor; Kyrpides, Nikos C.

    2009-05-20

    The DOE-JGI Microbial Annotation Pipeline (DOE-JGI MAP) supports gene prediction and/or functional annotation of microbial genomes towards comparative analysis with the Integrated Microbial Genome (IMG) system. DOE-JGI MAP annotation is applied on nucleotide sequence datasets included in the IMG-ER (Expert Review) version of IMG via the IMG ER submission site. Users can submit the sequence datasets consisting of one or more contigs in a multi-fasta file. DOE-JGI MAP annotation includes prediction of protein coding and RNA genes, as well as repeats and assignment of product names to these genes.

  17. WEST PIONEER WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, MONTANA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Byron R.; Benham, John R.

    1984-01-01

    The West Pioneer Wilderness Study Area is in the Pioneer Mountains, Beaverhead County, Montana. A mineral-resource study of the area identified eight areas with molybdenum potential, four areas with gold-silver potential, one area with tungsten potential, and one area with barite potential. Several small mines were encountered, but none were accessible for the purposes of resource evaluation. No energy resources were identified in the study.

  18. Comparative Omics-Driven Genome Annotation Refinement: Application across Yersiniae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutledge, Alexandra C.; Jones, Marcus B.; Chauhan, Sadhana; Purvine, Samuel O.; Sanford, James; Monroe, Matthew E.; Brewer, Heather M.; Payne, Samuel H.; Ansong, Charles; Frank, Bryan C.; Smith, Richard D.; Peterson, Scott; Motin, Vladimir L.; Adkins, Joshua N.

    2012-03-27

    Genome sequencing continues to be a rapidly evolving technology, yet most downstream aspects of genome annotation pipelines remain relatively stable or are even being abandoned. To date, the perceived value of manual curation for genome annotations is not offset by the real cost and time associated with the process. In order to balance the large number of sequences generated, the annotation process is now performed almost exclusively in an automated fashion for most genome sequencing projects. One possible way to reduce errors inherent to automated computational annotations is to apply data from 'omics' measurements (i.e. transcriptional and proteomic) to the un-annotated genome with a proteogenomic-based approach. This approach does require additional experimental and bioinformatics methods to include omics technologies; however, the approach is readily automatable and can benefit from rapid developments occurring in those research domains as well. The annotation process can be improved by experimental validation of transcription and translation and aid in the discovery of annotation errors. Here the concept of annotation refinement has been extended to include a comparative assessment of genomes across closely related species, as is becoming common in sequencing efforts. Transcriptomic and proteomic data derived from three highly similar pathogenic Yersiniae (Y. pestis CO92, Y. pestis pestoides F, and Y. pseudotuberculosis PB1/+) was used to demonstrate a comprehensive comparative omic-based annotation methodology. Peptide and oligo measurements experimentally validated the expression of nearly 40% of each strain's predicted proteome and revealed the identification of 28 novel and 68 previously incorrect protein-coding sequences (e.g., observed frameshifts, extended start sites, and translated pseudogenes) within the three current Yersinia genome annotations. Gene loss is presumed to play a major role in Y. pestis acquiring its niche as a virulent

  19. MITOS: improved de novo metazoan mitochondrial genome annotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernt, Matthias; Donath, Alexander; Jühling, Frank; Externbrink, Fabian; Florentz, Catherine; Fritzsch, Guido; Pütz, Joern; Middendorf, Martin; Stadler, Peter F

    2013-11-01

    About 2000 completely sequenced mitochondrial genomes are available from the NCBI RefSeq data base together with manually curated annotations of their protein-coding genes, rRNAs, and tRNAs. This annotation information, which has accumulated over two decades, has been obtained with a diverse set of computational tools and annotation strategies. Despite all efforts of manual curation it is still plagued by misassignments of reading directions, erroneous gene names, and missing as well as false positive annotations in particular for the RNA genes. Taken together, this causes substantial problems for fully automatic pipelines that aim to use these data comprehensively for studies of animal phylogenetics and the molecular evolution of mitogenomes. The MITOS pipeline is designed to compute a consistent de novo annotation of the mitogenomic sequences. We show that the results of MITOS match RefSeq and MitoZoa in terms of annotation coverage and quality. At the same time we avoid biases, inconsistencies of nomenclature, and typos originating from manual curation strategies. The MITOS pipeline is accessible online at http://mitos.bioinf.uni-leipzig.de. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Annotation in Digital Scholarly Editions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, P.; Haentjens Dekker, R.

    2016-01-01

    Annotation in digital scholarly editions (of historical documents, literary works, letters, etc.) has long been recognized as an important desideratum, but has also proven to be an elusive ideal. In so far as annotation functionality is available, it is usually developed for a single edition and

  1. Mesotext. Framing and exploring annotations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, P.; Boot, P.; Stronks, E.

    2007-01-01

    From the introduction: Annotation is an important item on the wish list for digital scholarly tools. It is one of John Unsworth’s primitives of scholarship (Unsworth 2000). Especially in linguistics,a number of tools have been developed that facilitate the creation of annotations to source material

  2. Mesotext. Framing and exploring annotations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, P.; Boot, P.; Stronks, E.

    2007-01-01

    From the introduction: Annotation is an important item on the wish list for digital scholarly tools. It is one of John Unsworth’s primitives of scholarship (Unsworth 2000). Especially in linguistics,a number of tools have been developed that facilitate the creation of annotations to source material

  3. Collective dynamics of social annotation

    CERN Document Server

    Cattuto, Ciro; Baldassarri, Andrea; Schehr, G; Loreto, Vittorio

    2009-01-01

    The enormous increase of popularity and use of the WWW has led in the recent years to important changes in the ways people communicate. An interesting example of this fact is provided by the now very popular social annotation systems, through which users annotate resources (such as web pages or digital photographs) with text keywords dubbed tags. Understanding the rich emerging structures resulting from the uncoordinated actions of users calls for an interdisciplinary effort. In particular concepts borrowed from statistical physics, such as random walks, and the complex networks framework, can effectively contribute to the mathematical modeling of social annotation systems. Here we show that the process of social annotation can be seen as a collective but uncoordinated exploration of an underlying semantic space, pictured as a graph, through a series of random walks. This modeling framework reproduces several aspects, so far unexplained, of social annotation, among which the peculiar growth of the size of the...

  4. Pragmatics Annotated Coloured Petri Nets for Protocol Software Generation and Verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kent Inge; Kristensen, Lars Michael; Kindler, Ekkart

    This paper presents the formal definition of Pragmatics Annotated Coloured Petri Nets (PA-CPNs). PA-CPNs represent a class of Coloured Petri Nets (CPNs) that are designed to support automated code genera-tion of protocol software. PA-CPNs restrict the structure of CPN models and allow Petri net...... elements to be annotated with so-called pragmatics, which are exploited for code generation. The approach and tool for gen-erating code is called PetriCode and has been discussed and evaluated in earlier work already. The contribution of this paper is to give a formal def-inition for PA-CPNs; in addition...

  5. 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey: Alternative Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior alternative school student frequency distributions. These frequency distributions are based upon surveys with 274 alternative school students in Montana during February of 2011. Frequency distributions may not total 274 due to nonresponse and percents may not total 100 percent due to…

  6. 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey: Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey high school student frequency distributions for students with disabilities. These frequency distributions are based upon surveys with 1,672 high school students with disabilities in Montana during February of 2011. Frequency distributions may not total 1,672 due to nonresponse and…

  7. 76 FR 63323 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ...-L13200000-EL0000-P; MTM 97988] Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Montana AGENCY: Bureau of Land... described below in Musselshell County, Montana, will be offered for competitive lease by sealed bid in accordance with the provisions of the Mineral Leasing Act of 1920, as amended. DATES: The lease sale will...

  8. 77 FR 2316 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Montana AGENCY: Bureau of Land... described below in Musselshell County, Montana, will be offered for competitive lease by sealed bid in accordance with the provisions of the Mineral Leasing Act of 1920, as amended. DATES: The lease sale will...

  9. Tipificación de "Arnica montana" L. (Asteraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrer Gallego, Pedro Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Se designa un lectótipo para Arnica montana L. (Asteraceae) a partir del material original de Linneo conservado en el herbario UPS-BURSER. A lectotype for Arnica montana L. (Asteraceae) is designated from Linnaeus’ original material preserved in the UPS-BURSER herbarium.

  10. Re-annotation and re-analysis of the Campylobacter jejuni NCTC11168 genome sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorrell Nick

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Campylobacter jejuni is the leading bacterial cause of human gastroenteritis in the developed world. To improve our understanding of this important human pathogen, the C. jejuni NCTC11168 genome was sequenced and published in 2000. The original annotation was a milestone in Campylobacter research, but is outdated. We now describe the complete re-annotation and re-analysis of the C. jejuni NCTC11168 genome using current database information, novel tools and annotation techniques not used during the original annotation. Results Re-annotation was carried out using sequence database searches such as FASTA, along with programs such as TMHMM for additional support. The re-annotation also utilises sequence data from additional Campylobacter strains and species not available during the original annotation. Re-annotation was accompanied by a full literature search that was incorporated into the updated EMBL file [EMBL: AL111168]. The C. jejuni NCTC11168 re-annotation reduced the total number of coding sequences from 1654 to 1643, of which 90.0% have additional information regarding the identification of new motifs and/or relevant literature. Re-annotation has led to 18.2% of coding sequence product functions being revised. Conclusions Major updates were made to genes involved in the biosynthesis of important surface structures such as lipooligosaccharide, capsule and both O- and N-linked glycosylation. This re-annotation will be a key resource for Campylobacter research and will also provide a prototype for the re-annotation and re-interpretation of other bacterial genomes.

  11. A Response to "A Description of Merger Applied to the Montana State University Context."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Ronald P.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Contains three responses to Stephen L. Coffman's article appearing in the same issue, "A Description of Merger Applied to the Montana State University Context": one from the chancellor of Montana State University-Billings, one from the president of Montana State University-Bozeman, and one from the commissioner of the Montana State University…

  12. GIFtS: annotation landscape analysis with GeneCards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalah Irina

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene annotation is a pivotal component in computational genomics, encompassing prediction of gene function, expression analysis, and sequence scrutiny. Hence, quantitative measures of the annotation landscape constitute a pertinent bioinformatics tool. GeneCards® is a gene-centric compendium of rich annotative information for over 50,000 human gene entries, building upon 68 data sources, including Gene Ontology (GO, pathways, interactions, phenotypes, publications and many more. Results We present the GeneCards Inferred Functionality Score (GIFtS which allows a quantitative assessment of a gene's annotation status, by exploiting the unique wealth and diversity of GeneCards information. The GIFtS tool, linked from the GeneCards home page, facilitates browsing the human genome by searching for the annotation level of a specified gene, retrieving a list of genes within a specified range of GIFtS value, obtaining random genes with a specific GIFtS value, and experimenting with the GIFtS weighting algorithm for a variety of annotation categories. The bimodal shape of the GIFtS distribution suggests a division of the human gene repertoire into two main groups: the high-GIFtS peak consists almost entirely of protein-coding genes; the low-GIFtS peak consists of genes from all of the categories. Cluster analysis of GIFtS annotation vectors provides the classification of gene groups by detailed positioning in the annotation arena. GIFtS also provide measures which enable the evaluation of the databases that serve as GeneCards sources. An inverse correlation is found (for GIFtS>25 between the number of genes annotated by each source, and the average GIFtS value of genes associated with that source. Three typical source prototypes are revealed by their GIFtS distribution: genome-wide sources, sources comprising mainly highly annotated genes, and sources comprising mainly poorly annotated genes. The degree of accumulated knowledge for a

  13. Gene Ontology annotations and resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, J A; Dolan, M; Drabkin, H; Hill, D P; Li, Ni; Sitnikov, D; Bridges, S; Burgess, S; Buza, T; McCarthy, F; Peddinti, D; Pillai, L; Carbon, S; Dietze, H; Ireland, A; Lewis, S E; Mungall, C J; Gaudet, P; Chrisholm, R L; Fey, P; Kibbe, W A; Basu, S; Siegele, D A; McIntosh, B K; Renfro, D P; Zweifel, A E; Hu, J C; Brown, N H; Tweedie, S; Alam-Faruque, Y; Apweiler, R; Auchinchloss, A; Axelsen, K; Bely, B; Blatter, M -C; Bonilla, C; Bouguerleret, L; Boutet, E; Breuza, L; Bridge, A; Chan, W M; Chavali, G; Coudert, E; Dimmer, E; Estreicher, A; Famiglietti, L; Feuermann, M; Gos, A; Gruaz-Gumowski, N; Hieta, R; Hinz, C; Hulo, C; Huntley, R; James, J; Jungo, F; Keller, G; Laiho, K; Legge, D; Lemercier, P; Lieberherr, D; Magrane, M; Martin, M J; Masson, P; Mutowo-Muellenet, P; O'Donovan, C; Pedruzzi, I; Pichler, K; Poggioli, D; Porras Millán, P; Poux, S; Rivoire, C; Roechert, B; Sawford, T; Schneider, M; Stutz, A; Sundaram, S; Tognolli, M; Xenarios, I; Foulgar, R; Lomax, J; Roncaglia, P; Khodiyar, V K; Lovering, R C; Talmud, P J; Chibucos, M; Giglio, M Gwinn; Chang, H -Y; Hunter, S; McAnulla, C; Mitchell, A; Sangrador, A; Stephan, R; Harris, M A; Oliver, S G; Rutherford, K; Wood, V; Bahler, J; Lock, A; Kersey, P J; McDowall, D M; Staines, D M; Dwinell, M; Shimoyama, M; Laulederkind, S; Hayman, T; Wang, S -J; Petri, V; Lowry, T; D'Eustachio, P; Matthews, L; Balakrishnan, R; Binkley, G; Cherry, J M; Costanzo, M C; Dwight, S S; Engel, S R; Fisk, D G; Hitz, B C; Hong, E L; Karra, K; Miyasato, S R; Nash, R S; Park, J; Skrzypek, M S; Weng, S; Wong, E D; Berardini, T Z; Huala, E; Mi, H; Thomas, P D; Chan, J; Kishore, R; Sternberg, P; Van Auken, K; Howe, D; Westerfield, M

    2013-01-01

    The Gene Ontology (GO) Consortium (GOC, http://www.geneontology.org) is a community-based bioinformatics resource that classifies gene product function through the use of structured, controlled vocabularies. Over the past year, the GOC has implemented several processes to increase the quantity, quality and specificity of GO annotations. First, the number of manual, literature-based annotations has grown at an increasing rate. Second, as a result of a new 'phylogenetic annotation' process, manually reviewed, homology-based annotations are becoming available for a broad range of species. Third, the quality of GO annotations has been improved through a streamlined process for, and automated quality checks of, GO annotations deposited by different annotation groups. Fourth, the consistency and correctness of the ontology itself has increased by using automated reasoning tools. Finally, the GO has been expanded not only to cover new areas of biology through focused interaction with experts, but also to capture greater specificity in all areas of the ontology using tools for adding new combinatorial terms. The GOC works closely with other ontology developers to support integrated use of terminologies. The GOC supports its user community through the use of e-mail lists, social media and web-based resources.

  14. Generating Protocol Software from CPN Models Annotated with Pragmatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kent Inge; Kristensen, Lars M.; Kindler, Ekkart

    2013-01-01

    Model-driven software engineering (MDSE) provides a foundation for automatically generating software based on models that focus on the problem domain while abstracting from the details of underlying implementation platforms. Coloured Petri Nets (CPNs) have been widely used to formally model...... and verify protocol software, but limited work exists on using CPN models of protocols as a basis for automated code generation. The contribution of this paper is a method for generating protocol software from a class of CPN models annotated with code generation pragmatics. Our code generation method...

  15. Sentiment Analysis of Document Based on Annotation

    CERN Document Server

    Shukla, Archana

    2011-01-01

    I present a tool which tells the quality of document or its usefulness based on annotations. Annotation may include comments, notes, observation, highlights, underline, explanation, question or help etc. comments are used for evaluative purpose while others are used for summarization or for expansion also. Further these comments may be on another annotation. Such annotations are referred as meta-annotation. All annotation may not get equal weightage. My tool considered highlights, underline as well as comments to infer the collective sentiment of annotators. Collective sentiments of annotators are classified as positive, negative, objectivity. My tool computes collective sentiment of annotations in two manners. It counts all the annotation present on the documents as well as it also computes sentiment scores of all annotation which includes comments to obtain the collective sentiments about the document or to judge the quality of document. I demonstrate the use of tool on research paper.

  16. Toponome imaging system: in situ protein network mapping in normal and cancerous colon from the same patient reveals more than five-thousand cancer specific protein clusters and their subcellular annotation by using a three symbol code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Sayantan; Mathew, George; Ruban, Ernie; Epstein, David B A; Krusche, Andreas; Hillert, Reyk; Schubert, Walter; Khan, Michael

    2010-12-03

    In a proof of principle study, we have applied an automated fluorescence toponome imaging system (TIS) to examine whether TIS can find protein network structures, distinguishing cancerous from normal colon tissue present in a surgical sample from the same patient. By using a three symbol code and a power of combinatorial molecular discrimination (PCMD) of 2(21) per subcellular data point in one single tissue section, we demonstrate an in situ protein network structure, visualized as a mosaic of 6813 protein clusters (combinatorial molecular phenotype or CMPs), in the cancerous part of the colon. By contrast, in the histologically normal colon, TIS identifies nearly 5 times the number of protein clusters as compared to the cancerous part (32 009). By subcellular visualization procedures, we found that many cell surface membrane molecules were closely associated with the cell cytoskeleton as unique CMPs in the normal part of the colon, while the same molecules were disassembled in the cancerous part, suggesting the presence of dysfunctional cytoskeleton-membrane complexes. As expected, glandular and stromal cell signatures were found, but interestingly also found were potentially TIS signatures identifying a very restricted subset of cells expressing several putative stem cell markers, all restricted to the cancerous tissue. The detection of these signatures is based on the extreme searching depth, high degree of dimensionality, and subcellular resolution capacity of TIS. These findings provide the technological rationale for the feasibility of a complete colon cancer toponome to be established by massive parallel high throughput/high content TIS mapping.

  17. Code Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapin, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Should a crisis hit the University of Montana, students sitting in classrooms will get immediate emergency information, even if their mobile phones are turned off and they aren't online. Classrooms, dorms, and other buildings are now outfitted with LED message boards--a sort of wall-mounted electronic pager--that use widely understood colors of…

  18. Semantic annotation of medical images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Sascha; Kelm, Michael; Moeller, Manuel; Mukherjee, Saikat; Cavallaro, Alexander; Huber, Martin; Comaniciu, Dorin

    2010-03-01

    Diagnosis and treatment planning for patients can be significantly improved by comparing with clinical images of other patients with similar anatomical and pathological characteristics. This requires the images to be annotated using common vocabulary from clinical ontologies. Current approaches to such annotation are typically manual, consuming extensive clinician time, and cannot be scaled to large amounts of imaging data in hospitals. On the other hand, automated image analysis while being very scalable do not leverage standardized semantics and thus cannot be used across specific applications. In our work, we describe an automated and context-sensitive workflow based on an image parsing system complemented by an ontology-based context-sensitive annotation tool. An unique characteristic of our framework is that it brings together the diverse paradigms of machine learning based image analysis and ontology based modeling for accurate and scalable semantic image annotation.

  19. Publication Production: An Annotated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firman, Anthony H.

    1994-01-01

    Offers brief annotations of 52 articles and papers on document production (from the Society for Technical Communication's journal and proceedings) on 9 topics: information processing, document design, using color, typography, tables, illustrations, photography, printing and binding, and production management. (SR)

  20. VariOtator, a Software Tool for Variation Annotation with the Variation Ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaafsma, Gerard C P; Vihinen, Mauno

    2016-04-01

    The Variation Ontology (VariO) is used for describing and annotating types, effects, consequences, and mechanisms of variations. To facilitate easy and consistent annotations, the online application VariOtator was developed. For variation type annotations, VariOtator is fully automated, accepting variant descriptions in Human Genome Variation Society (HGVS) format, and generating VariO terms, either with or without full lineage, that is, all parent terms. When a coding DNA variant description with a reference sequence is provided, VariOtator checks the description first with Mutalyzer and then generates the predicted RNA and protein descriptions with their respective VariO annotations. For the other sublevels, function, structure, and property, annotations cannot be automated, and VariOtator generates annotation based on provided details. For VariO terms relating to structure and property, one can use attribute terms as modifiers and evidence code terms for annotating experimental evidence. There is an online batch version, and stand-alone batch versions to be used with a Leiden Open Variation Database (LOVD) download file. A SOAP Web service allows client programs to access VariOtator programmatically. Thus, systematic variation effect and type annotations can be efficiently generated to allow easy use and integration of variations and their consequences.

  1. ODMedit: uniform semantic annotation for data integration in medicine based on a public metadata repository

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Dugas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The volume and complexity of patient data – especially in personalised medicine – is steadily increasing, both regarding clinical data and genomic profiles: Typically more than 1,000 items (e.g., laboratory values, vital signs, diagnostic tests etc. are collected per patient in clinical trials. In oncology hundreds of mutations can potentially be detected for each patient by genomic profiling. Therefore data integration from multiple sources constitutes a key challenge for medical research and healthcare. Methods Semantic annotation of data elements can facilitate to identify matching data elements in different sources and thereby supports data integration. Millions of different annotations are required due to the semantic richness of patient data. These annotations should be uniform, i.e., two matching data elements shall contain the same annotations. However, large terminologies like SNOMED CT or UMLS don’t provide uniform coding. It is proposed to develop semantic annotations of medical data elements based on a large-scale public metadata repository. To achieve uniform codes, semantic annotations shall be re-used if a matching data element is available in the metadata repository. Results A web-based tool called ODMedit ( https://odmeditor.uni-muenster.de/ was developed to create data models with uniform semantic annotations. It contains ~800,000 terms with semantic annotations which were derived from ~5,800 models from the portal of medical data models (MDM. The tool was successfully applied to manually annotate 22 forms with 292 data items from CDISC and to update 1,495 data models of the MDM portal. Conclusion Uniform manual semantic annotation of data models is feasible in principle, but requires a large-scale collaborative effort due to the semantic richness of patient data. A web-based tool for these annotations is available, which is linked to a public metadata repository.

  2. NewGOA: predicting new GO annotations of proteins by bi-random walks on a hybrid graph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guoxian; Fu, Guangyuan; Wang, Jun; Zhao, Yingwen

    2017-06-15

    A remaining key challenge of modern biology is annotating the functional roles of proteins. Various computational models have been proposed for this challenge. Most of them assume the annotations of annotated proteins are complete. But in fact, many of them are incomplete. We proposed a method called NewGOA to predict new Gene Ontology (GO) annotations for incompletely annotated proteins and for completely un-annotated ones. NewGOA employs a hybrid graph, composed of two types of nodes (proteins and GO terms), to encode interactions between proteins, hierarchical relationships between terms and available annotations of proteins. To account for structural difference between the terms subgraph and the proteins subgraph, NewGOA applies a bi-random walks algorithm, which executes asynchronous random walks on the hybrid graph, to predict new GO annotations of proteins. Experimental study on archived GO annotations of two model species (H. Sapiens and S. cerevisiae) shows that NewGOA can more accurately and efficiently predict new annotations of proteins than other related methods. Experimental results also indicate the bi-random walks can explore and further exploit the structural difference between terms subgraph and proteins subgraph. The supplementary files and codes of NewGOA are available at: http://mlda.swu.edu.cn/codes.php?name=NewGO.

  3. Investigation of ambient seismic noise using seismic interferometry in western Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzywosz, Natalia

    Passive seismic interferometry is a process by which ambient noise data recorded at different seismic stations can be cross-correlated to estimate Green's functions. In the past, both surface waves and body waves have successfully been extracted by cross-correlation of ambient noise data on both regional and global scales. In this study, I have generated Matlab code to simulate an application of seismic interferometry on a synthetic model with pre-defined layers and p-wave velocities. For areas with known velocity models, the Matlab code produced in this study can be used to generate synthetic seismograms, and model the effects of cross-correlation on receiver responses. In order to develop a general understanding of the ambient noise wavefield in western Montana, a spectral analysis program was developed in Matlab. This program is used to process ambient noise data from the Transportable Array (TA) Seismographic Network, and to generate its power spectral density plots and probability density functions. The detailed spectral analysis provides some insight to the ambient noise sources, and their energy distribution throughout western Montana. In addition, an attempt was made to preprocess ambient noise data from the TA array in Matlab for later use. Although preprocessing of the data was successful, limitations in computing power and time, allowed for temporal stacking of only one month of data. The one month period was not long enough to produce Green's functions which contain coherent body waves.

  4. ParsEval: parallel comparison and analysis of gene structure annotations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Standage Daniel S

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate gene structure annotation is a fundamental but somewhat elusive goal of genome projects, as witnessed by the fact that (model genomes typically undergo several cycles of re-annotation. In many cases, it is not only different versions of annotations that need to be compared but also different sources of annotation of the same genome, derived from distinct gene prediction workflows. Such comparisons are of interest to annotation providers, prediction software developers, and end-users, who all need to assess what is common and what is different among distinct annotation sources. We developed ParsEval, a software application for pairwise comparison of sets of gene structure annotations. ParsEval calculates several statistics that highlight the similarities and differences between the two sets of annotations provided. These statistics are presented in an aggregate summary report, with additional details provided as individual reports specific to non-overlapping, gene-model-centric genomic loci. Genome browser styled graphics embedded in these reports help visualize the genomic context of the annotations. Output from ParsEval is both easily read and parsed, enabling systematic identification of problematic gene models for subsequent focused analysis. Results ParsEval is capable of analyzing annotations for large eukaryotic genomes on typical desktop or laptop hardware. In comparison to existing methods, ParsEval exhibits a considerable performance improvement, both in terms of runtime and memory consumption. Reports from ParsEval can provide relevant biological insights into the gene structure annotations being compared. Conclusions Implemented in C, ParsEval provides the quickest and most feature-rich solution for genome annotation comparison to date. The source code is freely available (under an ISC license at http://parseval.sourceforge.net/.

  5. Objective-guided image annotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Qi; Tsang, Ivor Wai-Hung; Gao, Shenghua

    2013-04-01

    Automatic image annotation, which is usually formulated as a multi-label classification problem, is one of the major tools used to enhance the semantic understanding of web images. Many multimedia applications (e.g., tag-based image retrieval) can greatly benefit from image annotation. However, the insufficient performance of image annotation methods prevents these applications from being practical. On the other hand, specific measures are usually designed to evaluate how well one annotation method performs for a specific objective or application, but most image annotation methods do not consider optimization of these measures, so that they are inevitably trapped into suboptimal performance of these objective-specific measures. To address this issue, we first summarize a variety of objective-guided performance measures under a unified representation. Our analysis reveals that macro-averaging measures are very sensitive to infrequent keywords, and hamming measure is easily affected by skewed distributions. We then propose a unified multi-label learning framework, which directly optimizes a variety of objective-specific measures of multi-label learning tasks. Specifically, we first present a multilayer hierarchical structure of learning hypotheses for multi-label problems based on which a variety of loss functions with respect to objective-guided measures are defined. And then, we formulate these loss functions as relaxed surrogate functions and optimize them by structural SVMs. According to the analysis of various measures and the high time complexity of optimizing micro-averaging measures, in this paper, we focus on example-based measures that are tailor-made for image annotation tasks but are seldom explored in the literature. Experiments show consistency with the formal analysis on two widely used multi-label datasets, and demonstrate the superior performance of our proposed method over state-of-the-art baseline methods in terms of example-based measures on four

  6. Pragmatics Annotated Coloured Petri Nets for Protocol Software Generation and Verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagerland Simonsen, Kent Inge; Kristensen, Lars Michael; Kindler, Ekkart

    2015-01-01

    PetriCode is a tool that supports automated generation of protocol software from a restricted class of Coloured Petri Nets (CPNs) called Pragmatics Annotated Coloured Petri Nets (PA-CPNs). Petri-Code and PA-CPNs have been designed with five main requirements in mind, which include the same model...

  7. Some biological compounds, radical scavenging capacities and antimicrobial activities in the seeds of Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. sub sp. montana from Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emre, I.; Kursat, M.; Yilmaz, O.; Erecevit, P.

    2011-07-01

    This study determined some biological compounds (fatty acid compositions, lipid-soluble vitamins, sterols, flavonoids), radical scavenging capacities and antimicrobial activities in the seeds of Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana. It was found that palmitic acid (C16:0; 8.54+-0.13-3.05+-0.04%), oleic acid (C18:1 n9, 22.41+-0.8-18.83+-0.1%) and a-inolenic acid were the dominant fatty acids in both Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana. It was concluded that both Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana contained stigmasterol and ergosterol as well as beta-sitosterol. The present findings show that Nepeta italica L. contains morin, catechin, naringin and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana contains morin, naringenin as major flavonoids. It was also determined that methanol extracts of Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana were most effective against DPPH radicals. The results of the present study show that the vitamins, flavonoids and fatty acid extracts in the seeds of N. italica L. and S. montana L. subsp. montana prevented the growth of the microorganisms used in the tests at different ratios. (Author).

  8. Some biological compounds, radical scavenging capacities and antimicrobial activities in the seeds of Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana from Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emre, I.; Kursat, M.; Yilmaz, O.; Erecevit, P.

    2011-07-01

    This study determined some biological compounds (fatty acid compositions, lipid-soluble vitamins, sterols, flavonoids), radical scavenging capacities and antimicrobial activities in the seeds of Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana. It was found that palmitic acid (C16:0; 8.54+-0.13-3.05+-0.04%), oleic acid (C18:1 n9, 22.41+-0.8-18.83+-0.1%) and a-inolenic acid were the dominant fatty acids in both Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana. It was concluded that both Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana contained stigmasterol and ergosterol as well as beta-sitosterol. The present findings show that Nepeta italica L. contains morin, catechin, naringin and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana contains morin, naringenin as major flavonoids. It was also determined that methanol extracts of Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana were most effective against DPPH radicals. The results of the present study show that the vitamins, flavonoids and fatty acid extracts in the seeds of N. italica L. and S. montana L. subsp. montana prevented the growth of the microorganisms used in the tests at different ratios. (Author).

  9. Collective dynamics of social annotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattuto, Ciro; Barrat, Alain; Baldassarri, Andrea; Schehr, Gregory; Loreto, Vittorio

    2009-06-30

    The enormous increase of popularity and use of the worldwide web has led in the recent years to important changes in the ways people communicate. An interesting example of this fact is provided by the now very popular social annotation systems, through which users annotate resources (such as web pages or digital photographs) with keywords known as "tags." Understanding the rich emergent structures resulting from the uncoordinated actions of users calls for an interdisciplinary effort. In particular concepts borrowed from statistical physics, such as random walks (RWs), and complex networks theory, can effectively contribute to the mathematical modeling of social annotation systems. Here, we show that the process of social annotation can be seen as a collective but uncoordinated exploration of an underlying semantic space, pictured as a graph, through a series of RWs. This modeling framework reproduces several aspects, thus far unexplained, of social annotation, among which are the peculiar growth of the size of the vocabulary used by the community and its complex network structure that represents an externalization of semantic structures grounded in cognition and that are typically hard to access.

  10. Annotation of mammalian primary microRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enright Anton J

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs are important regulators of gene expression and have been implicated in development, differentiation and pathogenesis. Hundreds of miRNAs have been discovered in mammalian genomes. Approximately 50% of mammalian miRNAs are expressed from introns of protein-coding genes; the primary transcript (pri-miRNA is therefore assumed to be the host transcript. However, very little is known about the structure of pri-miRNAs expressed from intergenic regions. Here we annotate transcript boundaries of miRNAs in human, mouse and rat genomes using various transcription features. The 5' end of the pri-miRNA is predicted from transcription start sites, CpG islands and 5' CAGE tags mapped in the upstream flanking region surrounding the precursor miRNA (pre-miRNA. The 3' end of the pri-miRNA is predicted based on the mapping of polyA signals, and supported by cDNA/EST and ditags data. The predicted pri-miRNAs are also analyzed for promoter and insulator-associated regulatory regions. Results We define sets of conserved and non-conserved human, mouse and rat pre-miRNAs using bidirectional BLAST and synteny analysis. Transcription features in their flanking regions are used to demarcate the 5' and 3' boundaries of the pri-miRNAs. The lengths and boundaries of primary transcripts are highly conserved between orthologous miRNAs. A significant fraction of pri-miRNAs have lengths between 1 and 10 kb, with very few introns. We annotate a total of 59 pri-miRNA structures, which include 82 pre-miRNAs. 36 pri-miRNAs are conserved in all 3 species. In total, 18 of the confidently annotated transcripts express more than one pre-miRNA. The upstream regions of 54% of the predicted pri-miRNAs are found to be associated with promoter and insulator regulatory sequences. Conclusion Little is known about the primary transcripts of intergenic miRNAs. Using comparative data, we are able to identify the boundaries of a significant proportion of

  11. Northwest Montana [Waterfowl Production Area] Narrative report: Fical year 1975

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Northwest Montana Wetland Management District outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1975 fiscal year. The report begins by...

  12. Northwest Montana Wildlife Mitigation Habitat Protection : Advance Design : Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Marilyn A.

    1993-02-01

    This report summarizes the habitat protection process developed to mitigate for certain wildlife and wildlife habitat losses due to construction of Hungry Horse and Libby dams in northwestern Montana.

  13. Montana National Wildlife Refuges: Contaminant issues of concern

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to: (1) identify specific contaminant issues of concern for each Montana refuge and wetland management district; (2) summarize the...

  14. Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks 2008 Avian Influenza Surveillance Project Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the work performed by Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks (FWP) during the 2008 surveillance period. The objectives of the project were to employ...

  15. Planning and accomplishment narrative: Northwest Montana Waterfowl Production Area [1973

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This planning and accomplishments narrative report for Northwest Montana Wetland Management District outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1973 calendar year....

  16. Building Points - Montana Structures/Addresses Framework - Web Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Map service for the Montana Structures MSDI Framework. The service will only display at scales of 1:100,000 or larger. Structures are grouped into general categories...

  17. Building Points - Montana Structures/Addresses Framework - Web Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Map service for the Montana Structures MSDI Framework. The service will only display at scales of 1:100,000 or larger. Structures are grouped into general categories...

  18. Land Use and Land Cover - Montana Land Cover Framework 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This statewide land cover theme is a baseline digital map of Montana's natural and human land cover. The baseline map is adapted from the Northwest ReGAP project...

  19. Northwest Montana Wetland Management District : Annual Narrative : Calendar Year 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Northwest Montana WMD outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1995 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  20. Northwest Montana Wetland Management District : Annual Narrative : Calendar Year 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Northwest Montana WMD outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1992 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  1. Northwest Montana Wetland Management District : Annual Narrative : Calendar Year 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Northwest Montana WMD outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1994 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  2. Northwest Montana Wetland Management District : Annual Narrative : Calendar Year 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Northwest Montana WMD outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1993 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  3. Bone foreshafts from a clovis burial in southwestern montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahren, L; Bonnichsen, R

    1974-10-11

    Formal and functional analyses of bone artifacts from a Clovis burial in southwestern Montana suggest that they were constructed to serve as (detachable or nondetachable) foreshafts for attaching fluted projectile points to lance shafts.

  4. [Predator disease sampling results in Montana 1993-1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains data from predator disease sampling in Montana for the reintroduction of black-footed ferrets at Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge....

  5. Waterfowl breeding population survey for Montana: May 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for Montana during 1981. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide information on...

  6. The JCVI standard operating procedure for annotating prokaryotic metagenomic shotgun sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanenbaum, David M; Goll, Johannes; Murphy, Sean; Kumar, Prateek; Zafar, Nikhat; Thiagarajan, Mathangi; Madupu, Ramana; Davidsen, Tanja; Kagan, Leonid; Kravitz, Saul; Rusch, Douglas B; Yooseph, Shibu

    2010-03-30

    The JCVI metagenomics analysis pipeline provides for the efficient and consistent annotation of shotgun metagenomics sequencing data for sampling communities of prokaryotic organisms. The process can be equally applied to individual sequence reads from traditional Sanger capillary electrophoresis sequences, newer technologies such as 454 pyrosequencing, or sequence assemblies derived from one or more of these data types. It includes the analysis of both coding and non-coding genes, whether full-length or, as is often the case for shotgun metagenomics, fragmentary. The system is designed to provide the best-supported conservative functional annotation based on a combination of trusted homology-based scientific evidence and computational assertions and an annotation value hierarchy established through extensive manual curation. The functional annotation attributes assigned by this system include gene name, gene symbol, GO terms, EC numbers, and JCVI functional role categories.

  7. The standard operating procedure of the DOE-JGI Metagenome Annotation Pipeline (MAP v.4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntemann, Marcel; Ivanova, Natalia N; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Tripp, H James; Paez-Espino, David; Tennessen, Kristin; Palaniappan, Krishnaveni; Szeto, Ernest; Pillay, Manoj; Chen, I-Min A; Pati, Amrita; Nielsen, Torben; Markowitz, Victor M; Kyrpides, Nikos C

    2016-01-01

    The DOE-JGI Metagenome Annotation Pipeline (MAP v.4) performs structural and functional annotation for metagenomic sequences that are submitted to the Integrated Microbial Genomes with Microbiomes (IMG/M) system for comparative analysis. The pipeline runs on nucleotide sequences provided via the IMG submission site. Users must first define their analysis projects in GOLD and then submit the associated sequence datasets consisting of scaffolds/contigs with optional coverage information and/or unassembled reads in fasta and fastq file formats. The MAP processing consists of feature prediction including identification of protein-coding genes, non-coding RNAs and regulatory RNAs, as well as CRISPR elements. Structural annotation is followed by functional annotation including assignment of protein product names and connection to various protein family databases.

  8. Annotated bibliography of selected references on shoreline barrier island deposits with emphasis on Patrick Draw Field, Sweetwater County, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawn-Schatzinger, V.; Schatzinger, R.A.

    1993-07-01

    This bibliography contains 290 annotated references on barrier island and associated depositional environments and reservoirs. It is not an exhaustive compilation of all references on the subject, but rather selected papers on barrier islands, and the depositional processes of formation. Papers that examine the morphology and internal architecture of barrier island deposits, exploration and development technologies are emphasized. Papers were selected that aid in understanding reservoir architecture and engineering technologies to help maximize recovery efficiency from barrier island oil reservoirs. Barrier islands from Wyoming, Montana and the Rocky Mountains basins are extensively covered.

  9. The Marysville, Montana Geothermal Project. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-09-01

    This report describes the exploration of an anomalous site near Marysville, Montana, where the geothermal heat flow is about 10 times the regional average. The site arouses scientific interest because there are no surface manifestations such as young volcanics, hot springs, geysers, etc., within 20 miles of it. Also, there is significant economic interest in exploring the source of heat as a potential for the generation of electricity. Included herein are independent sections prepared by each contractor. Consequently, there is some overlapping information, generally presented from different viewpoints. The project consists of geophysical surveys in 1973 and 1974, the drilling of the deep well in the summer of 1974 to a depth of 6790 feet, the coring and logging of the well, the supporting scientific studies, and the data analysis. Since so much data are available on the Marysville system, it can serve as a testing and research area to help locate and understand similar systems. (GRA)

  10. US hydropower resource assessment for Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J.E.

    1993-12-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE menu-driven software application that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the state of Montana.

  11. Pride-asap: Automatic fragment ion annotation of identified PRIDE spectra

    OpenAIRE

    Hulstaert, Niels; Reisinger, Florian; Rameseder, Jonathan; Barsnes, Harald; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio; Martens, Lennart

    2013-01-01

    We present an open source software application and library written in Java that provides a uniform annotation of identified spectra stored in the PRIDE database. Pride-asap can be ran in a command line mode for automated processing of multiple PRIDE experiments, but also has a graphical user interface that allows end users to annotate the spectra in PRIDE experiments and to inspect the results in detail. Pride-asap binaries, source code and additional information can be downloaded from http:/...

  12. Expressed Peptide Tags: An additional layer of data for genome annotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savidor, Alon [ORNL; Donahoo, Ryan S [ORNL; Hurtado-Gonzales, Oscar [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Verberkmoes, Nathan C [ORNL; Shah, Manesh B [ORNL; Lamour, Kurt H [ORNL; McDonald, W Hayes [ORNL

    2006-01-01

    While genome sequencing is becoming ever more routine, genome annotation remains a challenging process. Identification of the coding sequences within the genomic milieu presents a tremendous challenge, especially for eukaryotes with their complex gene architectures. Here we present a method to assist the annotation process through the use of proteomic data and bioinformatics. Mass spectra of digested protein preparations of the organism of interest were acquired and searched against a protein database created by a six frame translation of the genome. The identified peptides were mapped back to the genome, compared to the current annotation, and then categorized as supporting or extending the current genome annotation. We named the classified peptides Expressed Peptide Tags (EPTs). The well annotated bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris was used as a control for the method and showed high degree of correlation between EPT mapping and the current annotation, with 86% of the EPTs confirming existing gene calls and less than 1% of the EPTs expanding on the current annotation. The eukaryotic plant pathogens Phytophthora ramorum and Phytophthora sojae, whose genomes have been recently sequenced and are much less well annotated, were also subjected to this method. A series of algorithmic steps were taken to increase the confidence of EPT identification for these organisms, including generation of smaller sub-databases to be searched against, and definition of EPT criteria that accommodates the more complex eukaryotic gene architecture. As expected, the analysis of the Phytophthora species showed less correlation between EPT mapping and their current annotation. While ~77% of Phytophthora EPTs supported the current annotation, a portion of them (7.2% and 12.6% for P. ramorum and P. sojae, respectively) suggested modification to current gene calls or identified novel genes that were missed by the current genome annotation of these organisms.

  13. EST-PAC a web package for EST annotation and protein sequence prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strahm Yvan

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With the decreasing cost of DNA sequencing technology and the vast diversity of biological resources, researchers increasingly face the basic challenge of annotating a larger number of expressed sequences tags (EST from a variety of species. This typically consists of a series of repetitive tasks, which should be automated and easy to use. The results of these annotation tasks need to be stored and organized in a consistent way. All these operations should be self-installing, platform independent, easy to customize and amenable to using distributed bioinformatics resources available on the Internet. In order to address these issues, we present EST-PAC a web oriented multi-platform software package for expressed sequences tag (EST annotation. EST-PAC provides a solution for the administration of EST and protein sequence annotations accessible through a web interface. Three aspects of EST annotation are automated: 1 searching local or remote biological databases for sequence similarities using Blast services, 2 predicting protein coding sequence from EST data and, 3 annotating predicted protein sequences with functional domain predictions. In practice, EST-PAC integrates the BLASTALL suite, EST-Scan2 and HMMER in a relational database system accessible through a simple web interface. EST-PAC also takes advantage of the relational database to allow consistent storage, powerful queries of results and, management of the annotation process. The system allows users to customize annotation strategies and provides an open-source data-management environment for research and education in bioinformatics.

  14. Montana StreamStats—A method for retrieving basin and streamflow characteristics in Montana: Chapter A in Montana StreamStats

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Peter M.; Dutton, DeAnn M.; Sando, Steven K.; Sando, Roy

    2016-04-05

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provides streamflow characteristics and other related information needed by water-resource managers to protect people and property from floods, plan and manage water-resource activities, and protect water quality. Streamflow characteristics provided by the USGS, such as peak-flow and low-flow frequencies for streamflow-gaging stations, are frequently used by engineers, flood forecasters, land managers, biologists, and others to guide their everyday decisions. In addition to providing streamflow characteristics at streamflow-gaging stations, the USGS also develops regional regression equations and drainage area-adjustment methods for estimating streamflow characteristics at locations on ungaged streams. Regional regression equations can be complex and often require users to determine several basin characteristics, which are physical and climatic characteristics of the stream and its drainage basin. Obtaining these basin characteristics for streamflow-gaging stations and ungaged sites traditionally has been time consuming and subjective, and led to inconsistent results.StreamStats is a Web-based geographic information system application that was created by the USGS to provide users with access to an assortment of analytical tools that are useful for water-resource planning and management. StreamStats allows users to easily obtain streamflow and basin characteristics for USGS streamflow-gaging stations and user-selected locations on ungaged streams. The USGS, in cooperation with Montana Department of Transportation, Montana Department of Environmental Quality, and Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation, completed a study to develop a StreamStats application for Montana, compute streamflow characteristics at streamflow-gaging stations, and develop regional regression equations to estimate streamflow characteristics at ungaged sites. Chapter A of this Scientific Investigations Report describes the Montana Stream

  15. Bioinformatics for plant genome annotation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiers, M.W.E.J.

    2006-01-01

    Large amounts of genome sequence data are available and much more will become available in the near future. A DNA sequence alone has, however, limited use. Genome annotation is required to assign biological interpretation to the DNA sequence. This thesis describ

  16. Child Development: An Annotated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, LaVerne Thornton, Comp.

    This annotated bibliography focuses on recent publications dealing with factors that influence child growth and development, rather than the developmental processes themselves. Topics include: general sources on child development; physical and perceptual-motor development; cognitive development; social and personality development; and play.…

  17. Teacher Evaluation: An Annotated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Bernard H.; And Others

    In his introduction to the 86-item annotated bibliography by Mueller and Poliakoff, McKenna discusses his views on teacher evaluation and his impressions of the documents cited. He observes, in part, that the current concern is with the process of evaluation and that most researchers continue to believe that student achievement is the most…

  18. Meaningful Assessment: An Annotated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrond, Mary A.

    The annotated bibliography contains citations of nine references on alternative student assessment methods in second language programs, particularly at the secondary school level. The references include a critique of conventional reading comprehension assessment, a discussion of performance assessment, a proposal for a multi-trait, multi-method…

  19. Annotated Bibliography on Humanistic Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganung, Cynthia

    1975-01-01

    Part I of this annotated bibliography deals with books and articles on such topics as achievement motivation, process education, transactional analysis, discipline without punishment, role-playing, interpersonal skills, self-acceptance, moral education, self-awareness, values clarification, and non-verbal communication. Part II focuses on…

  20. Nikos Kazantzakis: An Annotated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Kui

    This research paper consists of an annotated bibliography about Nikos Kazantzakis, one of the major modern Greek writers and author of "The Last Temptation of Christ,""Zorba the Greek," and many other works. Because of Kazantzakis' position in world literature there are many critical works about him; however, bibliographical control of these works…

  1. The surplus value of semantic annotations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marx, M.

    2010-01-01

    We compare the costs of semantic annotation of textual documents to its benefits for information processing tasks. Semantic annotation can improve the performance of retrieval tasks and facilitates an improved search experience through faceted search, focused retrieval, better document summaries,

  2. 75 FR 57059 - Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation Final Habitat Conservation Plan and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation Final Habitat... received from the Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation (DNRC) a Final...

  3. 77 FR 12581 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Montana AGENCY: Environmental... the state of Montana has revised its Public Water System Supervision (PWSS) Program by...

  4. 75 FR 69434 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Montana AGENCY: Environmental... the State of Montana has revised its Public Water System Supervision (PWSS) Primacy Program...

  5. The Montana Wild Virus Hunt | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health: The Montana Wild Virus Hunt Follow us The Montana Wild Virus Hunt Blake Wiedenheft is a ... their passion for health and science. What is the focus of your research? Viruses that infect bacteria ( ...

  6. Annotating BI Visualization Dashboards: Needs and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Elias, Micheline; Bezerianos, Anastasia

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Annotations have been identified as an important aid in analysis record-keeping and recently data discovery. In this paper we discuss the use of annotations on visualization dashboards, with a special focus on business intelligence (BI) analysis. In-depth interviews with experts lead to new annotation needs for multi-chart visualization systems, on which we based the design of a dashboard prototype that supports data and context aware annotations. We focus particularly ...

  7. Intra-species sequence comparisons for annotating genomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boffelli, Dario; Weer, Claire V.; Weng, Li; Lewis, Keith D.; Shoukry, Malak I.; Pachter, Lior; Keys, David N.; Rubin, Edward M.

    2004-07-15

    Analysis of sequence variation among members of a single species offers a potential approach to identify functional DNA elements responsible for biological features unique to that species. Due to its high rate of allelic polymorphism and ease of genetic manipulability, we chose the sea squirt, Ciona intestinalis, to explore intra-species sequence comparisons for genome annotation. A large number of C. intestinalis specimens were collected from four continents and a set of genomic intervals amplified, resequenced and analyzed to determine the mutation rates at each nucleotide in the sequence. We found that regions with low mutation rates efficiently demarcated functionally constrained sequences: these include a set of noncoding elements, which we showed in C intestinalis transgenic assays to act as tissue-specific enhancers, as well as the location of coding sequences. This illustrates that comparisons of multiple members of a species can be used for genome annotation, suggesting a path for the annotation of the sequenced genomes of organisms occupying uncharacterized phylogenetic branches of the animal kingdom and raises the possibility that the resequencing of a large number of Homo sapiens individuals might be used to annotate the human genome and identify sequences defining traits unique to our species. The sequence data from this study has been submitted to GenBank under accession nos. AY667278-AY667407.

  8. Developing a Climate Change Boundary Organization: the Montana Adaptation Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlock, C. L.; Brooks, S.; Armstrong, T.; Bryan, B.

    2016-12-01

    Small-population large-area states like Montana are often challenged by a need to offer timely and relevant climate-change information that addresses diverse and widely dispersed stakeholder groups. In Montana, filling the gap between science and various types of decision-makers has motivated development of the first Montana Climate Assessment (MCA1), to be released in 2017 with a focus on climate-change impacts for agricultural, water and forestry sectors. To sustain and build on the MCA1 effort, we are also in the process of creating a Boundary Organization (defined by the National Academy of Sciences) called the Montana Adaptation Exchange (the Exchange); this entity will facilitate the flow of information across the boundaries between science, knowledge and implementation. In Montana, the Exchange brings scientists and practitioners together to seek solutions related to climate-change adaptation and other pressing environmental and social-economic challenges. The Montana Adaptation Exchange (1) is a collaborative partnership of members from the science and practitioner communities under a shared governance and participatory model; (2) presents research that has been vetted by the scientific community at large and represents the current state of knowledge; (3) allows for revision and expansion of assessments like the MCA; (4) communicates relevant, often technical, research and findings to a wide variety of resource managers and other stakeholders; (5) develops and maintains an extensive online database that organizes, regularly updates, and makes research data products readily available; and (6) offers an online portal and expert network of affiliated researchers and climate adaptation specialists to provide effective customer support. Boundary organizations, such as the Montana Adaptation Exchange, offer a scalable path to effectively move from "science to knowledge to action" while also allowing stakeholder needs to help inform research agendas.

  9. Are clickthrough data reliable as image annotations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsikrika, T.; Diou, C.; Vries, A.P. de; Delopoulos, A.

    2009-01-01

    We examine the reliability of clickthrough data as concept-based image annotations, by comparing them against manual annotations, for different concept categories. Our analysis shows that, for many concepts, the image annotations generated by using clickthrough data are reliable, with up to 90% of t

  10. Annotating images by mining image search results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.J.; Zhang, L.; Li, X.; Ma, W.Y.

    2008-01-01

    Although it has been studied for years by the computer vision and machine learning communities, image annotation is still far from practical. In this paper, we propose a novel attempt at model-free image annotation, which is a data-driven approach that annotates images by mining their search results

  11. "Coded and Uncoded Error Feedback: Effects on Error Frequencies in Adult Colombian EFL Learners' Writing"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on a small-scale study into the effects of uncoded correction (writing the correct forms above each error) and coded annotations (writing symbols that encourage learners to self-correct) on Colombian university-level EFL learners' written work. The study finds that while both coded annotations and uncoded correction appear to…

  12. "Coded and Uncoded Error Feedback: Effects on Error Frequencies in Adult Colombian EFL Learners' Writing"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on a small-scale study into the effects of uncoded correction (writing the correct forms above each error) and coded annotations (writing symbols that encourage learners to self-correct) on Colombian university-level EFL learners' written work. The study finds that while both coded annotations and uncoded correction appear to…

  13. An open annotation ontology for science on web 3.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarese, Paolo; Ocana, Marco; Garcia Castro, Leyla Jael; Das, Sudeshna; Clark, Tim

    2011-05-17

    There is currently a gap between the rich and expressive collection of published biomedical ontologies, and the natural language expression of biomedical papers consumed on a daily basis by scientific researchers. The purpose of this paper is to provide an open, shareable structure for dynamic integration of biomedical domain ontologies with the scientific document, in the form of an Annotation Ontology (AO), thus closing this gap and enabling application of formal biomedical ontologies directly to the literature as it emerges. Initial requirements for AO were elicited by analysis of integration needs between biomedical web communities, and of needs for representing and integrating results of biomedical text mining. Analysis of strengths and weaknesses of previous efforts in this area was also performed. A series of increasingly refined annotation tools were then developed along with a metadata model in OWL, and deployed for feedback and additional requirements the ontology to users at a major pharmaceutical company and a major academic center. Further requirements and critiques of the model were also elicited through discussions with many colleagues and incorporated into the work. This paper presents Annotation Ontology (AO), an open ontology in OWL-DL for annotating scientific documents on the web. AO supports both human and algorithmic content annotation. It enables "stand-off" or independent metadata anchored to specific positions in a web document by any one of several methods. In AO, the document may be annotated but is not required to be under update control of the annotator. AO contains a provenance model to support versioning, and a set model for specifying groups and containers of annotation. AO is freely available under open source license at http://purl.org/ao/, and extensive documentation including screencasts is available on AO's Google Code page: http://code.google.com/p/annotation-ontology/ . The Annotation Ontology meets critical requirements for

  14. Multi-annotation discursive de corpus écrit

    OpenAIRE

    Péry-Woodley, Marie-Paule

    2011-01-01

    National audience; On the basis of the experience acquired in the course of the ANNODIS project, the following questions are discussed: - what is the annotation campaign for? building an annotated " reference corpus" vs. annotation as an experiment; - defining annotation tasks. Naïve vs. expert annotation; - the annotation manual : from linguistic model to annotation protocol; - automatic pre-processing vs. manual annotation. Segmentation, tagging and mark-ups: steps in corpus preparation; - ...

  15. Dictionary-driven protein annotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigoutsos, Isidore; Huynh, Tien; Floratos, Aris; Parida, Laxmi; Platt, Daniel

    2002-09-01

    Computational methods seeking to automatically determine the properties (functional, structural, physicochemical, etc.) of a protein directly from the sequence have long been the focus of numerous research groups. With the advent of advanced sequencing methods and systems, the number of amino acid sequences that are being deposited in the public databases has been increasing steadily. This has in turn generated a renewed demand for automated approaches that can annotate individual sequences and complete genomes quickly, exhaustively and objectively. In this paper, we present one such approach that is centered around and exploits the Bio-Dictionary, a collection of amino acid patterns that completely covers the natural sequence space and can capture functional and structural signals that have been reused during evolution, within and across protein families. Our annotation approach also makes use of a weighted, position-specific scoring scheme that is unaffected by the over-representation of well-conserved proteins and protein fragments in the databases used. For a given query sequence, the method permits one to determine, in a single pass, the following: local and global similarities between the query and any protein already present in a public database; the likeness of the query to all available archaeal/ bacterial/eukaryotic/viral sequences in the database as a function of amino acid position within the query; the character of secondary structure of the query as a function of amino acid position within the query; the cytoplasmic, transmembrane or extracellular behavior of the query; the nature and position of binding domains, active sites, post-translationally modified sites, signal peptides, etc. In terms of performance, the proposed method is exhaustive, objective and allows for the rapid annotation of individual sequences and full genomes. Annotation examples are presented and discussed in Results, including individual queries and complete genomes that were

  16. Detecting Code-Switching in a Multilingual Alpine Heritage Corpus

    OpenAIRE

    Volk, Martin; Clematide, Simon

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes experiments in detecting and annotating code-switching in a large multilingual diachronic corpus of Swiss Alpine texts. The texts are in English, French, German, Italian, Romansh and Swiss German. Because of the multilingual authors (mountaineers, scientists) and the assumed multilingual readers, the texts contain numerous code-switching elements. When building and annotating the corpus, we faced issues of language identification on the sentence and sub-sentential level. ...

  17. Automatic annotation of organellar genomes with DOGMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyman, Stacia; Jansen, Robert K.; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2004-06-01

    Dual Organellar GenoMe Annotator (DOGMA) automates the annotation of extra-nuclear organellar (chloroplast and animal mitochondrial) genomes. It is a web-based package that allows the use of comparative BLAST searches to identify and annotate genes in a genome. DOGMA presents a list of putative genes to the user in a graphical format for viewing and editing. Annotations are stored on our password-protected server. Complete annotations can be extracted for direct submission to GenBank. Furthermore, intergenic regions of specified length can be extracted, as well the nucleotide sequences and amino acid sequences of the genes.

  18. Evaluating Hierarchical Structure in Music Annotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFee, Brian; Nieto, Oriol; Farbood, Morwaread M; Bello, Juan Pablo

    2017-01-01

    Music exhibits structure at multiple scales, ranging from motifs to large-scale functional components. When inferring the structure of a piece, different listeners may attend to different temporal scales, which can result in disagreements when they describe the same piece. In the field of music informatics research (MIR), it is common to use corpora annotated with structural boundaries at different levels. By quantifying disagreements between multiple annotators, previous research has yielded several insights relevant to the study of music cognition. First, annotators tend to agree when structural boundaries are ambiguous. Second, this ambiguity seems to depend on musical features, time scale, and genre. Furthermore, it is possible to tune current annotation evaluation metrics to better align with these perceptual differences. However, previous work has not directly analyzed the effects of hierarchical structure because the existing methods for comparing structural annotations are designed for "flat" descriptions, and do not readily generalize to hierarchical annotations. In this paper, we extend and generalize previous work on the evaluation of hierarchical descriptions of musical structure. We derive an evaluation metric which can compare hierarchical annotations holistically across multiple levels. sing this metric, we investigate inter-annotator agreement on the multilevel annotations of two different music corpora, investigate the influence of acoustic properties on hierarchical annotations, and evaluate existing hierarchical segmentation algorithms against the distribution of inter-annotator agreement.

  19. Evaluating Hierarchical Structure in Music Annotations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian McFee

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Music exhibits structure at multiple scales, ranging from motifs to large-scale functional components. When inferring the structure of a piece, different listeners may attend to different temporal scales, which can result in disagreements when they describe the same piece. In the field of music informatics research (MIR, it is common to use corpora annotated with structural boundaries at different levels. By quantifying disagreements between multiple annotators, previous research has yielded several insights relevant to the study of music cognition. First, annotators tend to agree when structural boundaries are ambiguous. Second, this ambiguity seems to depend on musical features, time scale, and genre. Furthermore, it is possible to tune current annotation evaluation metrics to better align with these perceptual differences. However, previous work has not directly analyzed the effects of hierarchical structure because the existing methods for comparing structural annotations are designed for “flat” descriptions, and do not readily generalize to hierarchical annotations. In this paper, we extend and generalize previous work on the evaluation of hierarchical descriptions of musical structure. We derive an evaluation metric which can compare hierarchical annotations holistically across multiple levels. sing this metric, we investigate inter-annotator agreement on the multilevel annotations of two different music corpora, investigate the influence of acoustic properties on hierarchical annotations, and evaluate existing hierarchical segmentation algorithms against the distribution of inter-annotator agreement.

  20. Corpus Annotation for Parser Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    CARROLL, JOHN; Minnen, Guido; Briscoe, Ted

    1999-01-01

    We describe a recently developed corpus annotation scheme for evaluating parsers that avoids shortcomings of current methods. The scheme encodes grammatical relations between heads and dependents, and has been used to mark up a new public-domain corpus of naturally occurring English text. We show how the corpus can be used to evaluate the accuracy of a robust parser, and relate the corpus to extant resources.

  1. Feedback Driven Annotation and Refactoring of Parallel Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Per

    This thesis combines programmer knowledge and feedback to improve modeling and optimization of software. The research is motivated by two observations. First, there is a great need for automatic analysis of software for embedded systems - to expose and model parallelism inherent in programs. Second......, some program properties are beyond reach of such analysis for theoretical and practical reasons - but can be described by programmers. Three aspects are explored. The first is annotation of the source code. Two annotations are introduced. These allow more accurate modeling of parallelism...... are not effective unless programmers are told how and when they are benecial. A prototype compilation feedback system was developed in collaboration with IBM Haifa Research Labs. It reports issues that prevent further analysis to the programmer. Performance evaluation shows that three programs performes signicantly...

  2. Marky: a tool supporting annotation consistency in multi-user and iterative document annotation projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Pérez, Martín; Glez-Peña, Daniel; Fdez-Riverola, Florentino; Lourenço, Anália

    2015-02-01

    Document annotation is a key task in the development of Text Mining methods and applications. High quality annotated corpora are invaluable, but their preparation requires a considerable amount of resources and time. Although the existing annotation tools offer good user interaction interfaces to domain experts, project management and quality control abilities are still limited. Therefore, the current work introduces Marky, a new Web-based document annotation tool equipped to manage multi-user and iterative projects, and to evaluate annotation quality throughout the project life cycle. At the core, Marky is a Web application based on the open source CakePHP framework. User interface relies on HTML5 and CSS3 technologies. Rangy library assists in browser-independent implementation of common DOM range and selection tasks, and Ajax and JQuery technologies are used to enhance user-system interaction. Marky grants solid management of inter- and intra-annotator work. Most notably, its annotation tracking system supports systematic and on-demand agreement analysis and annotation amendment. Each annotator may work over documents as usual, but all the annotations made are saved by the tracking system and may be further compared. So, the project administrator is able to evaluate annotation consistency among annotators and across rounds of annotation, while annotators are able to reject or amend subsets of annotations made in previous rounds. As a side effect, the tracking system minimises resource and time consumption. Marky is a novel environment for managing multi-user and iterative document annotation projects. Compared to other tools, Marky offers a similar visually intuitive annotation experience while providing unique means to minimise annotation effort and enforce annotation quality, and therefore corpus consistency. Marky is freely available for non-commercial use at http://sing.ei.uvigo.es/marky. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Missing genes in the annotation of prokaryotic genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Wu-chun

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein-coding gene detection in prokaryotic genomes is considered a much simpler problem than in intron-containing eukaryotic genomes. However there have been reports that prokaryotic gene finder programs have problems with small genes (either over-predicting or under-predicting. Therefore the question arises as to whether current genome annotations have systematically missing, small genes. Results We have developed a high-performance computing methodology to investigate this problem. In this methodology we compare all ORFs larger than or equal to 33 aa from all fully-sequenced prokaryotic replicons. Based on that comparison, and using conservative criteria requiring a minimum taxonomic diversity between conserved ORFs in different genomes, we have discovered 1,153 candidate genes that are missing from current genome annotations. These missing genes are similar only to each other and do not have any strong similarity to gene sequences in public databases, with the implication that these ORFs belong to missing gene families. We also uncovered 38,895 intergenic ORFs, readily identified as putative genes by similarity to currently annotated genes (we call these absent annotations. The vast majority of the missing genes found are small (less than 100 aa. A comparison of select examples with GeneMark, EasyGene and Glimmer predictions yields evidence that some of these genes are escaping detection by these programs. Conclusions Prokaryotic gene finders and prokaryotic genome annotations require improvement for accurate prediction of small genes. The number of missing gene families found is likely a lower bound on the actual number, due to the conservative criteria used to determine whether an ORF corresponds to a real gene.

  4. Decontamination of metals by melt refining/slagging. An annotated bibliography: Update on stainless steel and steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worchester, S.A.; Twidwell, L.G.; Paolini, D.J.; Weldon, T.A. [Montana Tech of the Univ., of Montana (United States); Mizia, R.E. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The following presentation is an update to a previous annotation, i.e., WINCO-1138. The literature search and annotated review covers all metals used in the nuclear industries but the emphasis of this update is directed toward work performed on mild steels. As the number of nuclear installations undergoing decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) increases, current radioactive waste storage space is consumed and establishment of new waste storage areas becomes increasingly difficult, the problem of handling and storing radioactive scrap metal (RSM) gains increasing importance in the DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. To alleviate present and future waste problems, Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co (LITCO) is managing a program for the recycling of RSM for beneficial use within the DOE complex. As part of that effort, Montana Tech has been awarded a contract to help optimize melting and refining technology for the recycling of stainless steel RSM. The scope of the Montana Tech program includes a literature survey, a decontaminating slag design study, small wide melting studies to determine optimum slag compositions for removal of radioactive contaminant surrogates, analysis of preferred melting techniques, and coordination of large scale melting demonstrations (100--2,000 lbs) to be conducted at selected facilities. The program will support recycling and decontaminating stainless steel RSM for use in waste canisters for Idaho Waste Immobilization Facility densified high level waste and Pit 9/RWMC boxes. This report is the result of the literature search conducted to establish a basis for experimental melt/slag program development. The program plan will be jointly developed by Montana Tech and LITCO.

  5. Karyomorphometric analysis of Fritillaria montana group in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Samaropoulou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Fritillaria Linnaeus, 1753 (Liliaceae is a genus of geophytes, represented in Greece by 29 taxa. Most of the Greek species are endemic to the country and/or threatened. Although their classical cytotaxonomic studies have already been presented, no karyomorphometric analysis has ever been given. In the present study, the cytological results of Fritillaria montana Hoppe ex W.D.J. Koch, 1832 group, which includes F. epirotica Turrill ex Rix, 1975 and F. montana are statistically evaluated for the first time. Further indices about interchromosomal and intrachromosomal asymmetry are given. A new population of F. epirotica is also investigated, while for F. montana, a diploid individual was found in a known as triploid population. Paired t-tests and PCoA analysis have been applied to compare the two species.

  6. An improved canine genome and a comprehensive catalogue of coding genes and non-coding transcripts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc P Hoeppner

    Full Text Available The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, is a well-established model system for mapping trait and disease loci. While the original draft sequence was of good quality, gaps were abundant particularly in promoter regions of the genome, negatively impacting the annotation and study of candidate genes. Here, we present an improved genome build, canFam3.1, which includes 85 MB of novel sequence and now covers 99.8% of the euchromatic portion of the genome. We also present multiple RNA-Sequencing data sets from 10 different canine tissues to catalog ∼175,000 expressed loci. While about 90% of the coding genes previously annotated by EnsEMBL have measurable expression in at least one sample, the number of transcript isoforms detected by our data expands the EnsEMBL annotations by a factor of four. Syntenic comparison with the human genome revealed an additional ∼3,000 loci that are characterized as protein coding in human and were also expressed in the dog, suggesting that those were previously not annotated in the EnsEMBL canine gene set. In addition to ∼20,700 high-confidence protein coding loci, we found ∼4,600 antisense transcripts overlapping exons of protein coding genes, ∼7,200 intergenic multi-exon transcripts without coding potential, likely candidates for long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs and ∼11,000 transcripts were reported by two different library construction methods but did not fit any of the above categories. Of the lincRNAs, about 6,000 have no annotated orthologs in human or mouse. Functional analysis of two novel transcripts with shRNA in a mouse kidney cell line altered cell morphology and motility. All in all, we provide a much-improved annotation of the canine genome and suggest regulatory functions for several of the novel non-coding transcripts.

  7. Availability, Price, and Quality of Fruits and Vegetables in 12 Rural Montana Counties, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byker Shanks, Carmen; Ahmed, Selena; Smith, Teresa; Houghtaling, Bailey; Jenkins, Mica; Margetts, Miranda; Schultz, Daniel; Stephens, Lacy

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the consumer food environment in rural areas by using the Nutrition Environment Measures Survey for Stores (NEMS-S) to measure the availability, price, and quality of fruits and vegetables. We randomly selected 20 grocery stores (17 rural, 3 urban) in 12 Montana counties using the 2013 US Department of Agriculture's rural-urban continuum codes. We found significant differences in NEMS-S scores for quality of fruits and vegetables; of 6 possible points, the mean quality score was 4.5; of rural stores, the least rural stores had the highest mean quality scores (6.0). Intervention strategies should aim to increase fruit and vegetable quality in rural areas.

  8. Flavonoids from the aerial parts of Onobrychis montana subsp. scardica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BORIS PEJIN

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Rutin (1, main constituent and two flavone C-glycosides, vitexin (2 and vitexin 2''-O-alpha-rhamnopyranoside (3 were isolated from the aerial parts of Onobrychis montana subsp. scardica. They were identified by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and UV–Vis spectroscopy (procedure with shift reagents, and high resolution ESI-MS. A relatively high content of 1 (5.27 mg/g of dry plant material, measured by HPLC, indicated O. montana subsp. scardica as a new natural source of this biologically active compound. The isolated flavonoid compounds might be of value as chemotaxonomic markers.

  9. Methods for estimating streamflow characteristics at ungaged sites in western Montana based on data through water year 2009: Chapter G in Montana StreamStats

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Peter M.; Sando, Roy; Sando, Steven K.; Dutton, DeAnn M.

    2016-04-05

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Montana Department of Environmental Quality and the Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation, developed regional regression equations based on basin and streamflow characteristics for streamflow-gaging stations through water year 2009 that can be used to estimate streamflow characteristics for ungaged sites in western Montana. The regression equations allow estimation of low-flow frequencies; mean annual and mean monthly streamflows; and the 20-, 50-, and 80-percent durations for annual and monthly duration streamflows for ungaged sites in western Montana that are unaffected by regulation.

  10. Omics data management and annotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel, Arye; Dalah, Irina; Pietrokovski, Shmuel; Safran, Marilyn; Lancet, Doron

    2011-01-01

    Technological Omics breakthroughs, including next generation sequencing, bring avalanches of data which need to undergo effective data management to ensure integrity, security, and maximal knowledge-gleaning. Data management system requirements include flexible input formats, diverse data entry mechanisms and views, user friendliness, attention to standards, hardware and software platform definition, as well as robustness. Relevant solutions elaborated by the scientific community include Laboratory Information Management Systems (LIMS) and standardization protocols facilitating data sharing and managing. In project planning, special consideration has to be made when choosing relevant Omics annotation sources, since many of them overlap and require sophisticated integration heuristics. The data modeling step defines and categorizes the data into objects (e.g., genes, articles, disorders) and creates an application flow. A data storage/warehouse mechanism must be selected, such as file-based systems and relational databases, the latter typically used for larger projects. Omics project life cycle considerations must include the definition and deployment of new versions, incorporating either full or partial updates. Finally, quality assurance (QA) procedures must validate data and feature integrity, as well as system performance expectations. We illustrate these data management principles with examples from the life cycle of the GeneCards Omics project (http://www.genecards.org), a comprehensive, widely used compendium of annotative information about human genes. For example, the GeneCards infrastructure has recently been changed from text files to a relational database, enabling better organization and views of the growing data. Omics data handling benefits from the wealth of Web-based information, the vast amount of public domain software, increasingly affordable hardware, and effective use of data management and annotation principles as outlined in this chapter.

  11. Knowledge Annotation maknig implicit knowledge explicit

    CERN Document Server

    Dingli, Alexiei

    2011-01-01

    Did you ever read something on a book, felt the need to comment, took up a pencil and scribbled something on the books' text'? If you did, you just annotated a book. But that process has now become something fundamental and revolutionary in these days of computing. Annotation is all about adding further information to text, pictures, movies and even to physical objects. In practice, anything which can be identified either virtually or physically can be annotated. In this book, we will delve into what makes annotations, and analyse their significance for the future evolutions of the web. We wil

  12. 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey: Nonpublic Accredited Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey high school student frequency distributions for nonpublic accredited schools. These frequency distributions are based upon surveys with 349 high school students in Nonpublic Region during February of 2011. Frequency distributions may not total 349 due to nonresponse and percents may…

  13. A new fauna from the Colorado group of southern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeside, John B.

    1925-01-01

    This paper describes a small but interesting fauna collected in 1921 by W. T. Thorn, Jr., Gail F. Moulton, T. W. Stanton, and K. C. Heald in the Crow Indian Reservation in southern Montana. The locality is in sec. 36, T. 6 S., R. 32 E., Big Horn County, and is 2 miles east of the Soap Creek oil field.

  14. American Indian High School Completion in Rural Southeastern Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Carol

    1995-01-01

    Factors related to dropping out were examined among Northern Cheyenne and Crow high school students living in three southeastern Montana communities and attending a Catholic school, a public school, or a tribal school. Place of residence, parental educational attainment, and school experiences were important variables, but their effects varied by…

  15. Thymol derivatives from hairy roots of Arnica montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weremczuk-Jezyna, I; Kisiel, W; Wysokińska, H

    2006-09-01

    Five known thymol derivatives were isolated from roots of Arnica montana transformed with Agrobacterium rhizogenes LBA 9402. The compounds were characterized by spectral methods. The pattern of thymol derivatives in light-grown hairy roots was slightly different from that in dark-grown ones. This is the first report on the presence of thymol derivatives in hairy roots of the plant.

  16. Methylated Flavonoids from Arnica montana and Arnica chamissonis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merfort, I

    1984-02-01

    From the flowers of ARNICA CHAMISSONIS Less, subsp. FOLIOSA var. INCANA, the methylated flavonoids acacetin, pectolinarigenin, hispidulin, jaceosidin, 6-methoxykaempferol, and betuletol have been isolated and identified by spectroscopic methods. Except for acacetin, the same flavonoids were identified in the flowers of ARNICA MONTANA L. Betuletol was found for the first time in the family of Asteraceae.

  17. On-site energy consumption at softwood sawmills in Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Loeffler; Nathaniel Anderson; Todd A. Morgan; Colin B. Sorenson

    2016-01-01

    Total on-site energy requirements for wood product manufacturing are generally not well understood or publicly available, particularly at subregional scales, such as the state level. This article uses a mail survey of softwood sawmills in Montana to develop a profile of all on-site energy consumption. Energy use is delineated by fuel type on a production basis...

  18. Essential oil of Arnica montana and Arnica chamissonis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Mihailo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil isolated from flowers of Arnica montana and A chamissonis grown on Tara mountain and neighbourhood of Užice was analyzed. Three samples of A. montana and three of A. chamissonis were tested. The oil was isolated by distillation in a Clevenger type apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography. The content of the oil was lower than 0.1% (up to 0.08% in all the samples. Among about hundred recorded constituents, 84 were identified and quantified. Sum of contents of identified components ranged between 96.1 and 98.8%. The most abundant constituents of the A. montana oil were p-caryophyllene (31.5-34.6%, germacrene D (12.5-16.3%, trans-a-ionone (3.9-4.3% and decanal (2.7-5.3%, while, in the case of A. chamissonis these were germacrene D (18.0-38.3%, a-pinene (6.6-19.1%, p-cymene (2.9-9.0% and P-caryophyllene (2.7-4.7%. Along with detail chemical analysis of essential oil of these two commercially important herbal drugs it should be noticed that gas chromatographic technique can be used for differentiation of A. montana and A. chamissonis.

  19. The 2008 update of the Aspergillus nidulans genome annotation : A community effort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wortman, Jennifer Russo; Gilsenan, Jane Mabey; Joardar, Vinita; Deegan, Jennifer; Clutterbuck, John; Andersen, Mikael R.; Archer, David; Bencina, Mojca; Braus, Gerhard; Coutinho, Pedro; von Doehren, Hans; Doonan, John; Driessen, Arnold J. M.; Durek, Pawel; Espeso, Eduardo; Fekete, Erzsebet; Flipphi, Michel; Garcia Estrada, Carlos; Geysens, Steven; Goldman, Gustavo; de Groot, Piet W. J.; Hansen, Kim; Harris, Steven D.; Heinekamp, Thorsten; Helmstaedt, Kerstin; Henrissat, Bernard; Hofmann, Gerald; Homan, Tim; Horio, Tetsuya; Horiuchi, Hiroyuki; James, Steve; Jones, Meriel; Karaffa, Levente; Karanyi, Zsolt; Kato, Masashi; Keller, Nancy; Kelly, Diane E.; Kiel, Jan A. K. W.; Kim, Jung-Mi; van der Klei, Ida J.; Klis, Frans M.; Kovalchuk, Andriy; Krasevec, Nada; Kubicek, Christian P.; Liu, Bo; MacCabe, Andrew; Meyer, Vera; Mirabito, Pete; Miskei, Marton; Mos, Magdalena; Mullins, Jonathan; Nelson, David R.; Nielsen, Jens; Oakley, Berl R.; Osmani, Stephen A.; Pakula, Tiina; Paszewski, Andrzej; Paulsen, Ian; Pilsyk, Sebastian; Pocsi, Istvan; Punt, Peter J.; Ram, Arthur F. J.; Ren, Qinghu; Robellet, Xavier; Robson, Geoff; Seiboth, Bernhard; van Solingen, Piet; Specht, Thomas; Sun, Jibin; Taheri-Talesh, Naimeh; Takeshita, Norio; Ussery, Dave; Vankuyk, Patricia A.; Visser, Hans; de Vondervoort, Peter J. I. van; Walton, Jonathan; Xiang, Xin; Xiong, Yi; Zeng, An Ping; Brandt, Bernd W.; Cornell, Michael J.; van den Hondel, Cees A. M. J. J.; Visser, Jacob; Oliver, Stephen G.; Turner, Geoffrey; Kraševec, Nada; Kuyk, Patricia A. van; Döhren, D.H.; van Seilboth, B; de Vries, R.

    The identification and annotation of protein-coding genes is one of the primary goals of whole-genome sequencing projects, and the accuracy of predicting the primary protein products of gene expression is vital to the interpretation of the available data and the design of downstream functional

  20. The 2008 update of the Aspergillus nidulans genome annotation : a community effort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wortman, Jennifer Russo; Gilsenan, Jane Mabey; Joardar, Vinita; Deegan, Jennifer; Clutterbuck, John; Andersen, Mikael R; Archer, David; Bencina, Mojca; Braus, Gerhard; Coutinho, Pedro; von Döhren, Hans; Doonan, John; Driessen, Arnold J M; Durek, Pawel; Espeso, Eduardo; Fekete, Erzsébet; Flipphi, Michel; Estrada, Carlos Garcia; Geysens, Steven; Goldman, Gustavo; de Groot, Piet W J; Hansen, Kim; Harris, Steven D; Heinekamp, Thorsten; Helmstaedt, Kerstin; Henrissat, Bernard; Hofmann, Gerald; Homan, Tim; Horio, Tetsuya; Horiuchi, Hiroyuki; James, Steve; Jones, Meriel; Karaffa, Levente; Karányi, Zsolt; Kato, Masashi; Keller, Nancy; Kelly, Diane E; Kiel, Jan A K W; Kim, Jung-Mi; van der Klei, Ida J; Klis, Frans M; Kovalchuk, Andriy; Krasevec, Nada; Kubicek, Christian P; Liu, Bo; Maccabe, Andrew; Meyer, Vera; Mirabito, Pete; Miskei, Márton; Mos, Magdalena; Mullins, Jonathan; Nelson, David R; Nielsen, Jens; Oakley, Berl R; Osmani, Stephen A; Pakula, Tiina; Paszewski, Andrzej; Paulsen, Ian; Pilsyk, Sebastian; Pócsi, István; Punt, Peter J; Ram, Arthur F J; Ren, Qinghu; Robellet, Xavier; Robson, Geoff; Seiboth, Bernhard; van Solingen, Piet; Specht, Thomas; Sun, Jibin; Taheri-Talesh, Naimeh; Takeshita, Norio; Ussery, Dave; vanKuyk, Patricia A; Visser, Hans; van de Vondervoort, Peter J I; de Vries, Ronald P; Walton, Jonathan; Xiang, Xin; Xiong, Yi; Zeng, An Ping; Brandt, Bernd W; Cornell, Michael J; van den Hondel, Cees A M J J; Visser, Jacob; Oliver, Stephen G; Turner, Geoffrey

    The identification and annotation of protein-coding genes is one of the primary goals of whole-genome sequencing projects, and the accuracy of predicting the primary protein products of gene expression is vital to the interpretation of the available data and the design of downstream functional

  1. The 2008 update of the Aspergillus nidulans genome annotation: A community effort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wortman, Jennifer Russo; Gilsenan, Jane Mabey; Joardar, Vinita

    2009-01-01

    The identification and annotation of protein-coding genes is one of the primary goals of whole-genome sequencing projects, and the accuracy of predicting the primary protein products of gene expression is vital to the interpretation of the available data and the design of downstream functional ap...

  2. The 2008 update of the Aspergillus nidulans genome annotation: A community effort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wortman, J.R.; Gilsenan, J.M.; Joardar, V.; Deegan, J.; Clutterbuck, J.; Andersen, M.R.; Archer, D.; Bencina, M.; Braus, G.; Coutinho, P.; von Döhren, H.; Doonan, J.; Driessen, A.J.M.; Durek, P.; Espeso, E.; Fekete, E.; Flipphi, M.; Estrada, C.G.; Geysens, S.; Goldman, G.; de Groot, P.W.J.; Hansen, K.; Harris, S.D.; Heinekamp, T.; Helmstaedt, K.; Henrissat, B.; Hofmann, G.; Homan, T.; Horio, T.; Horiuchi, H.; James, S.; Jones, M.; Karaffa, L.; Karányi, Z.; Kato, M.; Keller, N.; Kelly, D.E.; Kiel, J.A.K.W.; Kim, J.M.; van der Klei, I.J.; Klis, F.M.; Kovalchuk, A.; Kraševec, N.; Kubicek, C.P.; Liu, B.; MacCabe, A.; Meyer, V.; Mirabito, P.; Miskei, M.; Mos, M.; Mullins, J.; Nelson, D.R.; Nielsen, J.; Oakley, B.R.; Osmani, S.A.; Pakula, T.; Paszewski, A.; Paulsen, I.; Pilsyk, S.; Pócsi, I.; Punt, P.J.; Ram, A.F.J.; Ren, Q.; Robellet, X.; Robson, G.; Seiboth, B.; van Solingen, P.; Specht, T.; Sun, J.; Taheri-Talesh, N.; Takeshita, N.; Ussery, D.; vanKuyk, P.A.; Visser, H.; van de Vondervoort, P.J.I.; de Vries, R.P.; Walton, J.; Xiang, X.; Xiong, Y.; Zeng, A.P.; Brandt, B.W.; Cornell, M.J.; van den Hondel, C.A.M.J.J.; Visser, J.; Oliver, S.G.; Turner, G.

    2009-01-01

    The identification and annotation of protein-coding genes is one of the primary goals of whole-genome sequencing projects, and the accuracy of predicting the primary protein products of gene expression is vital to the interpretation of the available data and the design of downstream functional appli

  3. Pragmatics annotated coloured petri nets for protocol software generation and verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kent Inge Fagerland; Kristensen, Lars M.; Kindler, Ekkart

    2016-01-01

    Pragmatics Annotated Coloured Petri Nets (PA-CPNs) are a restricted class of Coloured Petri Nets (CPNs) developed to support automated generation of protocol software. The practical application of PA-CPNs and the supporting PetriCode software tool have been discussed and evaluated in earlier papers...

  4. Professional Ethics in Vocational Education Research: An Annotated Bibliography of Related Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, Judith, Comp.

    This 14-item annotated bibliography provides background information on the efforts of several professional groups to define codes of ethics for their members' guidance. It was prepared to aid the members of the American Vocational Education Research Association (AVERA) in their study of ethical principles and guidelines for professional behavior,…

  5. Accurate discrimination of conserved coding and non-coding regions through multiple indicators of evolutionary dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pesole Graziano

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The conservation of sequences between related genomes has long been recognised as an indication of functional significance and recognition of sequence homology is one of the principal approaches used in the annotation of newly sequenced genomes. In the context of recent findings that the number non-coding transcripts in higher organisms is likely to be much higher than previously imagined, discrimination between conserved coding and non-coding sequences is a topic of considerable interest. Additionally, it should be considered desirable to discriminate between coding and non-coding conserved sequences without recourse to the use of sequence similarity searches of protein databases as such approaches exclude the identification of novel conserved proteins without characterized homologs and may be influenced by the presence in databases of sequences which are erroneously annotated as coding. Results Here we present a machine learning-based approach for the discrimination of conserved coding sequences. Our method calculates various statistics related to the evolutionary dynamics of two aligned sequences. These features are considered by a Support Vector Machine which designates the alignment coding or non-coding with an associated probability score. Conclusion We show that our approach is both sensitive and accurate with respect to comparable methods and illustrate several situations in which it may be applied, including the identification of conserved coding regions in genome sequences and the discrimination of coding from non-coding cDNA sequences.

  6. Assessment of protein set coherence using functional annotations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carazo Jose M

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analysis of large-scale experimental datasets frequently produces one or more sets of proteins that are subsequently mined for functional interpretation and validation. To this end, a number of computational methods have been devised that rely on the analysis of functional annotations. Although current methods provide valuable information (e.g. significantly enriched annotations, pairwise functional similarities, they do not specifically measure the degree of homogeneity of a protein set. Results In this work we present a method that scores the degree of functional homogeneity, or coherence, of a set of proteins on the basis of the global similarity of their functional annotations. The method uses statistical hypothesis testing to assess the significance of the set in the context of the functional space of a reference set. As such, it can be used as a first step in the validation of sets expected to be homogeneous prior to further functional interpretation. Conclusion We evaluate our method by analysing known biologically relevant sets as well as random ones. The known relevant sets comprise macromolecular complexes, cellular components and pathways described for Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which are mostly significantly coherent. Finally, we illustrate the usefulness of our approach for validating 'functional modules' obtained from computational analysis of protein-protein interaction networks. Matlab code and supplementary data are available at http://www.cnb.csic.es/~monica/coherence/

  7. Mountain plover responses to plague in Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinsmore, Stephen J; Smith, Mark D

    2010-01-01

    Plague is a bacterial (Yersinia pestis) disease that causes epizootic die-offs in black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) populations in the North American Great Plains. Through their grazing and burrowing, prairie dogs modify vegetation and landscape structure on their colonies in ways that affect other grassland species. Plague epizootics on prairie dog colonies can have indirect effects on species associated with colonies. The mountain plover (Charadrius montanus) preferentially nests on black-tailed prairie dog colonies and is thus negatively impacted by the loss of prairie dogs. We studied the effects of plague and colony spatial characteristics on the occupancy of 81 prairie dog colonies by nesting plovers in Phillips County, Montana, during a 13-year period (1995-2007). We used a robust design patch occupancy model to investigate how colony occupancy and extinction and colonization rates were affected by plague history, colony size, and colony shape. Here extinction and colonization rates refer to the probability that a colony loses/gains plovers in a subsequent nesting season, given that it had/lacked plovers in that breeding season. Colony occupancy was best explained by a model with no annual variation or plague effects. Colony extinction rates were driven by a combination of a quadratic of colony area, a 3-year plague response, and a measure of colony shape. Conversely, colonization rates were best explained by a model with a 4-year plague response. The estimated annual proportion of colonies occupied by plovers was 0.75 (95% confidence interval = 0.57-0.87). Estimated extinction probability ranged from a low of 0.07 (standard error [SE] = 0.02) in 2002 to a high of 0.25 (SE = 0.03) in 1995; colonization probability ranged from 0.24 (SE = 0.05) in 2006 to 0.35 (SE = 0.05) in 2000. Our results highlight how a bird that depends on prairie dogs for nesting habitat responds to plague history and other spatial characteristics of the colony. Ultimately

  8. DFLAT: functional annotation for human development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wick, Heather C; Drabkin, Harold; Ngu, Huy; Sackman, Michael; Fournier, Craig; Haggett, Jessica; Blake, Judith A; Bianchi, Diana W; Slonim, Donna K

    2014-02-07

    Recent increases in genomic studies of the developing human fetus and neonate have led to a need for widespread characterization of the functional roles of genes at different developmental stages. The Gene Ontology (GO), a valuable and widely-used resource for characterizing gene function, offers perhaps the most suitable functional annotation system for this purpose. However, due in part to the difficulty of studying molecular genetic effects in humans, even the current collection of comprehensive GO annotations for human genes and gene products often lacks adequate developmental context for scientists wishing to study gene function in the human fetus. The Developmental FunctionaL Annotation at Tufts (DFLAT) project aims to improve the quality of analyses of fetal gene expression and regulation by curating human fetal gene functions using both manual and semi-automated GO procedures. Eligible annotations are then contributed to the GO database and included in GO releases of human data. DFLAT has produced a considerable body of functional annotation that we demonstrate provides valuable information about developmental genomics. A collection of gene sets (genes implicated in the same function or biological process), made by combining existing GO annotations with the 13,344 new DFLAT annotations, is available for use in novel analyses. Gene set analyses of expression in several data sets, including amniotic fluid RNA from fetuses with trisomies 21 and 18, umbilical cord blood, and blood from newborns with bronchopulmonary dysplasia, were conducted both with and without the DFLAT annotation. Functional analysis of expression data using the DFLAT annotation increases the number of implicated gene sets, reflecting the DFLAT's improved representation of current knowledge. Blinded literature review supports the validity of newly significant findings obtained with the DFLAT annotations. Newly implicated significant gene sets also suggest specific hypotheses for future

  9. Coding Partitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Burderi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the study of decipherability conditions for codes weaker than Unique Decipherability (UD, we introduce the notion of coding partition. Such a notion generalizes that of UD code and, for codes that are not UD, allows to recover the ``unique decipherability" at the level of the classes of the partition. By tacking into account the natural order between the partitions, we define the characteristic partition of a code X as the finest coding partition of X. This leads to introduce the canonical decomposition of a code in at most one unambiguouscomponent and other (if any totally ambiguouscomponents. In the case the code is finite, we give an algorithm for computing its canonical partition. This, in particular, allows to decide whether a given partition of a finite code X is a coding partition. This last problem is then approached in the case the code is a rational set. We prove its decidability under the hypothesis that the partition contains a finite number of classes and each class is a rational set. Moreover we conjecture that the canonical partition satisfies such a hypothesis. Finally we consider also some relationships between coding partitions and varieties of codes.

  10. Suicide Report: A Health Risk Behavior Comparison of Montana High School Students Based on Attempted Suicide. 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is administered by the Montana Office of Public Instruction every two years to students in grades 7 through 12. The purpose of the survey is to help monitor the prevalence of behaviors that not only influence youth health, but also put youth at risk for the most significant health and social problems…

  11. Smokers Report: A Health Risk Behavior Comparison of Montana High School Students Based on Current Smoking. 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is administered by the Montana Office of Public Instruction every two years to students in grades 7 through 12. The purpose of the survey is to help monitor the prevalence of behaviors that not only influence youth health, but also put youth at risk for the most significant health and social problems…

  12. Sports Team Participation: A Risk Behavior Comparison of Montana High School Students Based on Sports Team Participation. 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is administered by the Montana Office of Public Instruction every two years to students in grades 7 through 12. The purpose of the survey is to help monitor the prevalence of behaviors that not only influence youth health, but also put youth at risk for the most significant health and social problems…

  13. Students with Special Needs: A Health Risk Behavior Comparison of Montana High School Students Based on Special Education Assistance. 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is administered by the Montana Office of Public Instruction every two years to students in grades 7 through 12. The purpose of the survey is to help monitor the prevalence of behaviors that not only influence youth health, but also put youth at risk for the most significant health and social problems…

  14. BioSAVE: Display of scored annotation within a sequence context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adryan Boris

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visualization of sequence annotation is a common feature in many bioinformatics tools. For many applications it is desirable to restrict the display of such annotation according to a score cutoff, as biological interpretation can be difficult in the presence of the entire data. Unfortunately, many visualisation solutions are somewhat static in the way they handle such score cutoffs. Results We present BioSAVE, a sequence annotation viewer with on-the-fly selection of visualisation thresholds for each feature. BioSAVE is a versatile OS X program for visual display of scored features (annotation within a sequence context. The program reads sequence and additional supplementary annotation data (e.g., position weight matrix matches, conservation scores, structural domains from a variety of commonly used file formats and displays them graphically. Onscreen controls then allow for live customisation of these graphics, including on-the-fly selection of visualisation thresholds for each feature. Conclusion Possible applications of the program include display of transcription factor binding sites in a genomic context or the visualisation of structural domain assignments in protein sequences and many more. The dynamic visualisation of these annotations is useful, e.g., for the determination of cutoff values of predicted features to match experimental data. Program, source code and exemplary files are freely available at the BioSAVE homepage.

  15. Novel definition files for human GeneChips based on GeneAnnot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrari Sergio

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improvements in genome sequence annotation revealed discrepancies in the original probeset/gene assignment in Affymetrix microarray and the existence of differences between annotations and effective alignments of probes and transcription products. In the current generation of Affymetrix human GeneChips, most probesets include probes matching transcripts from more than one gene and probes which do not match any transcribed sequence. Results We developed a novel set of custom Chip Definition Files (CDF and the corresponding Bioconductor libraries for Affymetrix human GeneChips, based on the information contained in the GeneAnnot database. GeneAnnot-based CDFs are composed of unique custom-probesets, including only probes matching a single gene. Conclusion GeneAnnot-based custom CDFs solve the problem of a reliable reconstruction of expression levels and eliminate the existence of more than one probeset per gene, which often leads to discordant expression signals for the same transcript when gene differential expression is the focus of the analysis. GeneAnnot CDFs are freely distributed and fully compliant with Affymetrix standards and all available software for gene expression analysis. The CDF libraries are available from http://www.xlab.unimo.it/GA_CDF, along with supplementary information (CDF libraries, installation guidelines and R code, CDF statistics, and analysis results.

  16. Harnessing Collaborative Annotations on Online Formative Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jian-Wei; Lai, Yuan-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    This paper harnesses collaborative annotations by students as learning feedback on online formative assessments to improve the learning achievements of students. Through the developed Web platform, students can conduct formative assessments, collaboratively annotate, and review historical records in a convenient way, while teachers can generate…

  17. The surplus value of semantic annotations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Marx

    2010-01-01

    We compare the costs of semantic annotation of textual documents to its benefits for information processing tasks. Semantic annotation can improve the performance of retrieval tasks and facilitates an improved search experience through faceted search, focused retrieval, better document summaries, an

  18. Ground Truth Annotation in T Analyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    This video shows how to annotate the ground truth tracks in the thermal videos. The ground truth tracks are produced to be able to compare them to tracks obtained from a Computer Vision tracking approach. The program used for annotation is T-Analyst, which is developed by Aliaksei Laureshyn, Ph...

  19. Ground Truth Annotation in T Analyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    This video shows how to annotate the ground truth tracks in the thermal videos. The ground truth tracks are produced to be able to compare them to tracks obtained from a Computer Vision tracking approach. The program used for annotation is T-Analyst, which is developed by Aliaksei Laureshyn, Ph...

  20. Towards an event annotated corpus of Polish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Marcińczuk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Towards an event annotated corpus of Polish The paper presents a typology of events built on the basis of TimeML specification adapted to Polish language. Some changes were introduced to the definition of the event categories and a motivation for event categorization was formulated. The event annotation task is presented on two levels – ontology level (language independent and text mentions (language dependant. The various types of event mentions in Polish text are discussed. A procedure for annotation of event mentions in Polish texts is presented and evaluated. In the evaluation a randomly selected set of documents from the Corpus of Wrocław University of Technology (called KPWr was annotated by two linguists and the annotator agreement was calculated. The evaluation was done in two iterations. After the first evaluation we revised and improved the annotation procedure. The second evaluation showed a significant improvement of the agreement between annotators. The current work was focused on annotation and categorisation of event mentions in text. The future work will be focused on description of event with a set of attributes, arguments and relations.

  1. Harnessing Collaborative Annotations on Online Formative Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jian-Wei; Lai, Yuan-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    This paper harnesses collaborative annotations by students as learning feedback on online formative assessments to improve the learning achievements of students. Through the developed Web platform, students can conduct formative assessments, collaboratively annotate, and review historical records in a convenient way, while teachers can generate…

  2. Annotation of regular polysemy and underspecification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martínez Alonso, Héctor; Pedersen, Bolette Sandford; Bel, Núria

    2013-01-01

    We present the result of an annotation task on regular polysemy for a series of seman- tic classes or dot types in English, Dan- ish and Spanish. This article describes the annotation process, the results in terms of inter-encoder agreement, and the sense distributions obtained with two methods...

  3. Assisted annotation of medical free text using RapTAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbel, Glenn T; Garvin, Jennifer; Reeves, Ruth; Cronin, Robert M; Heavirland, Julia; Williams, Jenifer; Weaver, Allison; Jayaramaraja, Shrimalini; Giuse, Dario; Speroff, Theodore; Brown, Steven H; Xu, Hua; Matheny, Michael E

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether assisted annotation using interactive training can reduce the time required to annotate a clinical document corpus without introducing bias. A tool, RapTAT, was designed to assist annotation by iteratively pre-annotating probable phrases of interest within a document, presenting the annotations to a reviewer for correction, and then using the corrected annotations for further machine learning-based training before pre-annotating subsequent documents. Annotators reviewed 404 clinical notes either manually or using RapTAT assistance for concepts related to quality of care during heart failure treatment. Notes were divided into 20 batches of 19-21 documents for iterative annotation and training. The number of correct RapTAT pre-annotations increased significantly and annotation time per batch decreased by ~50% over the course of annotation. Annotation rate increased from batch to batch for assisted but not manual reviewers. Pre-annotation F-measure increased from 0.5 to 0.6 to >0.80 (relative to both assisted reviewer and reference annotations) over the first three batches and more slowly thereafter. Overall inter-annotator agreement was significantly higher between RapTAT-assisted reviewers (0.89) than between manual reviewers (0.85). The tool reduced workload by decreasing the number of annotations needing to be added and helping reviewers to annotate at an increased rate. Agreement between the pre-annotations and reference standard, and agreement between the pre-annotations and assisted annotations, were similar throughout the annotation process, which suggests that pre-annotation did not introduce bias. Pre-annotations generated by a tool capable of interactive training can reduce the time required to create an annotated document corpus by up to 50%. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Towards Viral Genome Annotation Standards, Report from the 2010 NCBI Annotation Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brister, James Rodney; Bao, Yiming; Kuiken, Carla; Lefkowitz, Elliot J; Le Mercier, Philippe; Leplae, Raphael; Madupu, Ramana; Scheuermann, Richard H; Schobel, Seth; Seto, Donald; Shrivastava, Susmita; Sterk, Peter; Zeng, Qiandong; Klimke, William; Tatusova, Tatiana

    2010-10-01

    Improvements in DNA sequencing technologies portend a new era in virology and could possibly lead to a giant leap in our understanding of viral evolution and ecology. Yet, as viral genome sequences begin to fill the world's biological databases, it is critically important to recognize that the scientific promise of this era is dependent on consistent and comprehensive genome annotation. With this in mind, the NCBI Genome Annotation Workshop recently hosted a study group tasked with developing sequence, function, and metadata annotation standards for viral genomes. This report describes the issues involved in viral genome annotation and reviews policy recommendations presented at the NCBI Annotation Workshop.

  5. Manual Annotation of Translational Equivalence The Blinker Project

    CERN Document Server

    Melamed, I D

    1998-01-01

    Bilingual annotators were paid to link roughly sixteen thousand corresponding words between on-line versions of the Bible in modern French and modern English. These annotations are freely available to the research community from http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~melamed . The annotations can be used for several purposes. First, they can be used as a standard data set for developing and testing translation lexicons and statistical translation models. Second, researchers in lexical semantics will be able to mine the annotations for insights about cross-linguistic lexicalization patterns. Third, the annotations can be used in research into certain recently proposed methods for monolingual word-sense disambiguation. This paper describes the annotated texts, the specially-designed annotation tool, and the strategies employed to increase the consistency of the annotations. The annotation process was repeated five times by different annotators. Inter-annotator agreement rates indicate that the annotations are reasonably rel...

  6. Sequencing and annotated analysis of an Estonian human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilleoja, Rutt; Sarapik, Aili; Reimann, Ene; Reemann, Paula; Jaakma, Ülle; Vasar, Eero; Kõks, Sulev

    2012-02-01

    In present study we describe the sequencing and annotated analysis of the individual genome of Estonian. Using SOLID technology we generated 2,449,441,916 of 50-bp reads. The Bioscope version 1.3 was used for mapping and pairing of reads to the NCBI human genome reference (build 36, hg18). Bioscope enables also the annotation of the results of variant (tertiary) analysis. The average mapping of reads was 75.5% with total coverage of 107.72 Gb. resulting in mean fold coverage of 34.6. We found 3,482,975 SNPs out of which 352,492 were novel. 21,222 SNPs were in coding region: 10,649 were synonymous SNPs, 10,360 were nonsynonymous missense SNPs, 155 were nonsynonymous nonsense SNPs and 58 were nonsynonymous frameshifts. We identified 219 CNVs with total base pair coverage of 37,326,300 bp and 87,451 large insertion/deletion polymorphisms covering 10,152,256 bp of the genome. In addition, we found 285,864 small size insertion/deletion polymorphisms out of which 133,969 were novel. Finally, we identified 53 inversions, 19 overlapped genes and 2 overlapped exons. Interestingly, we found the region in chromosome 6 to be enriched with the coding SNPs and CNVs. This study confirms previous findings, that our genomes are more complex and variable as thought before. Therefore, sequencing of the personal genomes followed by annotation would improve the analysis of heritability of phenotypes and our understandings on the functions of genome.

  7. microRNAs Databases: Developmental Methodologies, Structural and Functional Annotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nagendra Kumar

    2017-09-01

    microRNA (miRNA) is an endogenous and evolutionary conserved non-coding RNA, involved in post-transcriptional process as gene repressor and mRNA cleavage through RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) formation. In RISC, miRNA binds in complementary base pair with targeted mRNA along with Argonaut proteins complex, causes gene repression or endonucleolytic cleavage of mRNAs and results in many diseases and syndromes. After the discovery of miRNA lin-4 and let-7, subsequently large numbers of miRNAs were discovered by low-throughput and high-throughput experimental techniques along with computational process in various biological and metabolic processes. The miRNAs are important non-coding RNA for understanding the complex biological phenomena of organism because it controls the gene regulation. This paper reviews miRNA databases with structural and functional annotations developed by various researchers. These databases contain structural and functional information of animal, plant and virus miRNAs including miRNAs-associated diseases, stress resistance in plant, miRNAs take part in various biological processes, effect of miRNAs interaction on drugs and environment, effect of variance on miRNAs, miRNAs gene expression analysis, sequence of miRNAs, structure of miRNAs. This review focuses on the developmental methodology of miRNA databases such as computational tools and methods used for extraction of miRNAs annotation from different resources or through experiment. This study also discusses the efficiency of user interface design of every database along with current entry and annotations of miRNA (pathways, gene ontology, disease ontology, etc.). Here, an integrated schematic diagram of construction process for databases is also drawn along with tabular and graphical comparison of various types of entries in different databases. Aim of this paper is to present the importance of miRNAs-related resources at a single place.

  8. Facilitating functional annotation of chicken microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gresham Cathy R

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modeling results from chicken microarray studies is challenging for researchers due to little functional annotation associated with these arrays. The Affymetrix GenChip chicken genome array, one of the biggest arrays that serve as a key research tool for the study of chicken functional genomics, is among the few arrays that link gene products to Gene Ontology (GO. However the GO annotation data presented by Affymetrix is incomplete, for example, they do not show references linked to manually annotated functions. In addition, there is no tool that facilitates microarray researchers to directly retrieve functional annotations for their datasets from the annotated arrays. This costs researchers amount of time in searching multiple GO databases for functional information. Results We have improved the breadth of functional annotations of the gene products associated with probesets on the Affymetrix chicken genome array by 45% and the quality of annotation by 14%. We have also identified the most significant diseases and disorders, different types of genes, and known drug targets represented on Affymetrix chicken genome array. To facilitate functional annotation of other arrays and microarray experimental datasets we developed an Array GO Mapper (AGOM tool to help researchers to quickly retrieve corresponding functional information for their dataset. Conclusion Results from this study will directly facilitate annotation of other chicken arrays and microarray experimental datasets. Researchers will be able to quickly model their microarray dataset into more reliable biological functional information by using AGOM tool. The disease, disorders, gene types and drug targets revealed in the study will allow researchers to learn more about how genes function in complex biological systems and may lead to new drug discovery and development of therapies. The GO annotation data generated will be available for public use via AgBase website and

  9. Concept annotation in the CRAFT corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bada Michael

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Manually annotated corpora are critical for the training and evaluation of automated methods to identify concepts in biomedical text. Results This paper presents the concept annotations of the Colorado Richly Annotated Full-Text (CRAFT Corpus, a collection of 97 full-length, open-access biomedical journal articles that have been annotated both semantically and syntactically to serve as a research resource for the biomedical natural-language-processing (NLP community. CRAFT identifies all mentions of nearly all concepts from nine prominent biomedical ontologies and terminologies: the Cell Type Ontology, the Chemical Entities of Biological Interest ontology, the NCBI Taxonomy, the Protein Ontology, the Sequence Ontology, the entries of the Entrez Gene database, and the three subontologies of the Gene Ontology. The first public release includes the annotations for 67 of the 97 articles, reserving two sets of 15 articles for future text-mining competitions (after which these too will be released. Concept annotations were created based on a single set of guidelines, which has enabled us to achieve consistently high interannotator agreement. Conclusions As the initial 67-article release contains more than 560,000 tokens (and the full set more than 790,000 tokens, our corpus is among the largest gold-standard annotated biomedical corpora. Unlike most others, the journal articles that comprise the corpus are drawn from diverse biomedical disciplines and are marked up in their entirety. Additionally, with a concept-annotation count of nearly 100,000 in the 67-article subset (and more than 140,000 in the full collection, the scale of conceptual markup is also among the largest of comparable corpora. The concept annotations of the CRAFT Corpus have the potential to significantly advance biomedical text mining by providing a high-quality gold standard for NLP systems. The corpus, annotation guidelines, and other associated resources are

  10. VOLATILE COMPOUNDS OF WATER-ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF SATUREJA MONTANA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Paliy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We have studied a composition and content of volatile compounds of Satureja montana L. extract. It was established that concentration of volatile compounds in water-ethanol extract of S. montana amounted to 325 mg/100g. The principal component of the extract is carvacrol. It was shown that the extract of Satureja montana represents high biological value

  11. Functional annotation of a full-length mouse cDNA collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawai, J.; Shinagawa, A.; Shibata, K.; Yoshino, M.; Itoh, M.; Ishii, Y.; Arakawa, T.; Hara, A.; Fukunishi, Y.; Konno, H.; Adachi, J.; Fukuda, S.; Aizawa, K.; Izawa, M.; Nishi, K.; Kiyosawa, H.; Kondo, S.; Yamanaka, I.; Saito, T.; Okazaki, Y.; Gojobori, T.; Bono, H.; Kasukawa, T.; Saito, R.; Kadota, K.; Matsuda, H.; Ashburner, M.; Batalov, S.; Casavant, T.; Fleischmann, W.; Gaasterland, T.; Gissi, C.; King, B.; Kochiwa, H.; Kuehl, P.; Lewis, S.; Matsuo, Y.; Nikaido, I.; Pesole, G.; Quackenbush, J.; Schriml, L.M.; Staubli, F.; Suzuki, R.; Tomita, M.; Wagner, L.; Washio, T.; Sakai, K.; Okido, T.; Furuno, M.; Aono, H.; Baldarelli, R.; Barsh, G.; Blake, J.; Boffelli, D.; Bojunga, N.; Carninci, P.; de Bonaldo, M.F.; Brownstein, M.J.; Bult, C.; Fletcher, C.; Fujita, M.; Gariboldi, M.; Gustincich, S.; Hill, D.; Hofmann, M.; Hume, D.A.; Kamiya, M.; Lee, N.H.; Lyons, P.; Marchionni, L.; Mashima, J.; Mazzarelli, J.; Mombaerts, P.; Nordone, P.; Ring, B.; Ringwald, M.; Rodriguez, I.; Sakamoto, N.; Sasaki, H.; Sato, K.; Schonbach, C.; Seya, T.; Shibata, Y.; Storch, K.-F.; Suzuki, H.; Toyo-oka, K.; Wang, K.H.; Weitz, C.; Whittaker, C.; Wilming, L.; Wynshaw-Boris, A.; Yoshida, K.; Hasegawa, Y.; Kawaji, H.; Kohtsuki, S.; Hayashizaki, Y.; RIKEN Genome Exploration Research Group Phase II T; FANTOM Consortium

    2001-01-01

    The RIKEN Mouse Gene Encyclopedia Project, a systematic approach to determining the full coding potential of the mouse genome, involves collection and sequencing of full-length complementary DNAs and physical mapping of the corresponding genes to the mouse genome. We organized an international functional annotation meeting (FANTOM) to annotate the first 21,076 cDNAs to be analyzed in this project. Here we describe the first RIKEN clone collection, which is one of the largest described for any organism. Analysis of these cDNAs extends known gene families and identifies new ones.

  12. GHOSTX: A Fast Sequence Homology Search Tool for Functional Annotation of Metagenomic Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shuji; Ishida, Takashi; Ohue, Masahito; Kakuta, Masanori; Akiyama, Yutaka

    2017-01-01

    Metagenomic analysis based on whole genome shotgun sequencing data requires fast protein sequence homology searches for predicting the function of proteins coded on metagenome short reads. However, huge amounts of sequence data cause even general homology search analyses using BLASTX to become difficult in terms of computational cost. GHOSTX is a sequence homology search tool specifically developed for functional annotation of metagenome sequences. The tool is more than 160 times faster than BLASTX and has sufficient search sensitivity for metagenomic analysis. Using this tool, user can perform functional annotation of metagenomic data within a short time and infer metabolic pathways within an environment.

  13. A Common XML-based Framework for Syntactic Annotations

    CERN Document Server

    Ide, Nancy; Erjavec, Tomaz

    2009-01-01

    It is widely recognized that the proliferation of annotation schemes runs counter to the need to re-use language resources, and that standards for linguistic annotation are becoming increasingly mandatory. To answer this need, we have developed a framework comprised of an abstract model for a variety of different annotation types (e.g., morpho-syntactic tagging, syntactic annotation, co-reference annotation, etc.), which can be instantiated in different ways depending on the annotator's approach and goals. In this paper we provide an overview of the framework, demonstrate its applicability to syntactic annotation, and show how it can contribute to comparative evaluation of parser output and diverse syntactic annotation schemes.

  14. Comparative Annotation of Viral Genomes with Non-Conserved Gene Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Groot, Saskia; Mailund, Thomas; Hein, Jotun

    2007-01-01

    Motivation: Detecting genes in viral genomes is a complex task. Due to the biological necessity of them being constrained in length, RNA viruses in particular tend to code in overlapping reading frames. Since one amino acid is encoded by a triplet of nucleic acids, up to three genes may be coded...... allows for coding in unidirectional nested and overlapping reading frames, to annotate two homologous aligned viral genomes. Our method does not insist on conserved gene structure between the two sequences, thus making it applicable for the pairwise comparison of more distantly related sequences. Results...... and HIV2, as well as of two different Hepatitis Viruses, attaining results of ~87% sensitivity and ~98.5% specificity. We subsequently incorporate prior knowledge by "knowing" the gene structure of one sequence and annotating the other conditional on it. Boosting accuracy close to perfect we demonstrate...

  15. Baxter v. Montana, libertarianism, and end-of-life: the ripe time for a paradigm shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruble, James H

    2010-09-01

    Baxter v. Montana (2009 WL 5155363 [Mont. 2009]) is a recent decision from the Montana Supreme Court that provides new legal insight into the societal issue of aid in dying. This case involves interests of persons with terminal illness, medical practitioners, law enforcement, legislative and judicial bodies, as well as the citizens of Montana. A summary judgment ruling at the Montana district court level was based almost entirely on a constitutional fundamental rights analysis. In contrast, the Montana Supreme Court affirming decision was based almost entirely on a statutory rights analysis. Both rulings from the Montana courts support the position that licensed prescribers in Montana who provide aid in dying assistance to terminally ill patients have some immunity from criminal prosecution. Each side in the case argued what they believed to be the intents and purposes of the people of Montana. Baxter v. Montana illustrates different methods to determine the will of the people concerning aid in dying and public policy. This case very subtly suggests a paradigm shift may be occurring in aid in dying policy.

  16. Making web annotations persistent over time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanderson, Robert [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Van De Sompel, Herbert [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    As Digital Libraries (DL) become more aligned with the web architecture, their functional components need to be fundamentally rethought in terms of URIs and HTTP. Annotation, a core scholarly activity enabled by many DL solutions, exhibits a clearly unacceptable characteristic when existing models are applied to the web: due to the representations of web resources changing over time, an annotation made about a web resource today may no longer be relevant to the representation that is served from that same resource tomorrow. We assume the existence of archived versions of resources, and combine the temporal features of the emerging Open Annotation data model with the capability offered by the Memento framework that allows seamless navigation from the URI of a resource to archived versions of that resource, and arrive at a solution that provides guarantees regarding the persistence of web annotations over time. More specifically, we provide theoretical solutions and proof-of-concept experimental evaluations for two problems: reconstructing an existing annotation so that the correct archived version is displayed for all resources involved in the annotation, and retrieving all annotations that involve a given archived version of a web resource.

  17. Montana Organization for Research in Energy (MORE) Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bromenshenk, Jerry

    1999-12-31

    MORE is a consortium of educational, governmental, and industrial partners in cooperation with the state's Tribal colleges. Formed in 1994, the objectives are to develop and promote energy-related research and education in the state of Montana and the Northwestern region. Specifically, they set out to: (1) promote collaboration and cooperation among Montana's Colleges and Universities; (2) maximize use of existing personnel and resources; (3) foster partnerships with industries, state agencies, and tribal nations; and (4) enhance energy research and training. The 1st Implementation Grant consisted of Management and Coordination, Human Outreach, and two Research Clusters Petroleum Reservoir Characterization and Wind Energy. Overall, they consider this program to have been highly successful. That conclusion was mirrored by the DOE site reviewers, and by invitations from Dr. Matesh Varma, the DOE/EPSCoR National Program Director, to present their programs and outcomes as models for other states the National DOE/EPSCoR meetings.

  18. Bioactivity and phytochemical characterization of Arenaria montana L.

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Eliana; Barros, Lillian; Calhelha, Ricardo C.; Dueñas, Montserrat; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    The bioactivity (antioxidant and cytotoxic activities) of the aqueous and methanolic extracts of Arenaria montana L., a plant commonly used in Portuguese folk medicine, was evaluated and compared. Furthermore, the phytochemical composition was determined regarding hydrophilic (sugars, organic acids and phenolic compounds) and lipophilic (fatty acids and tocopherols) compounds, in order to valorize this plant material as a functional food/nutraceutical. Fructose, oxalic acid, methyl-luteolin 2...

  19. Creating Gaze Annotations in Head Mounted Displays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardanbeigi, Diako; Qvarfordt, Pernilla

    2015-01-01

    , the user simply captures an image using the HMD’s camera, looks at an object of interest in the image, and speaks out the information to be associated with the object. The gaze location is recorded and visualized with a marker. The voice is transcribed using speech recognition. Gaze annotations can......To facilitate distributed communication in mobile settings, we developed GazeNote for creating and sharing gaze annotations in head mounted displays (HMDs). With gaze annotations it possible to point out objects of interest within an image and add a verbal description. To create an annota- tion...

  20. Crowdsourcing and annotating NER for Twitter #drift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fromreide, Hege; Hovy, Dirk; Søgaard, Anders

    2014-01-01

    We present two new NER datasets for Twitter; a manually annotated set of 1,467 tweets (kappa=0.942) and a set of 2,975 expert-corrected, crowdsourced NER annotated tweets from the dataset described in Finin et al. (2010). In our experiments with these datasets, we observe two important points: (a......) language drift on Twitter is significant, and while off-the-shelf systems have been reported to perform well on in-sample data, they often perform poorly on new samples of tweets, (b) state-of-the-art performance across various datasets can beobtained from crowdsourced annotations, making it more feasible...

  1. Annotation Style Guide for the Blinker Project

    CERN Document Server

    Melamed, I D

    1998-01-01

    This annotation style guide was created by and for the Blinker project at the University of Pennsylvania. The Blinker project was so named after the ``bilingual linker'' GUI, which was created to enable bilingual annotators to ``link'' word tokens that are mutual translations in parallel texts. The parallel text chosen for this project was the Bible, because it is probably the easiest text to obtain in electronic form in multiple languages. The languages involved were English and French, because, of the languages with which the project co-ordinator was familiar, these were the two for which a sufficient number of annotators was likely to be found.

  2. DIMA – Annotation guidelines for German intonation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kügler, Frank; Smolibocki, Bernadett; Arnold, Denis

    2015-01-01

    easier since German intonation is currently annotated according to different models. To this end, we aim to provide guidelines that are easy to learn. The guidelines were evaluated running an inter-annotator reliability study on three different speech styles (read speech, monologue and dialogue......This paper presents newly developed guidelines for prosodic annotation of German as a consensus system agreed upon by German intonologists. The DIMA system is rooted in the framework of autosegmental-metrical phonology. One important goal of the consensus is to make exchanging data between groups...

  3. Holographic codes

    CERN Document Server

    Latorre, Jose I

    2015-01-01

    There exists a remarkable four-qutrit state that carries absolute maximal entanglement in all its partitions. Employing this state, we construct a tensor network that delivers a holographic many body state, the H-code, where the physical properties of the boundary determine those of the bulk. This H-code is made of an even superposition of states whose relative Hamming distances are exponentially large with the size of the boundary. This property makes H-codes natural states for a quantum memory. H-codes exist on tori of definite sizes and get classified in three different sectors characterized by the sum of their qutrits on cycles wrapped through the boundaries of the system. We construct a parent Hamiltonian for the H-code which is highly non local and finally we compute the topological entanglement entropy of the H-code.

  4. 76 FR 71355 - United States et al. v. Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Montana, Inc. et al.; Proposed Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... affordable prices can attract businesses and jobs to a state or region, and higher health-insurance prices.... *Attorney of Record. FOR PLAINTIFF STATE OF MONTANA: Steve Bullock, Attorney General of Montana. James...

  5. Cooperative Recovery Initiative: Bull Trout Restoration: Restoring Cold, Clean, Complex and Connected Habitat in the Blackfoot River Watershed of Montana.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Habitat degradation and the effects of climate change are the biggest threats to bull trout in the Blackfoot River watershed of Montana. Montana Fish, Wildlife &...

  6. Sharing code

    OpenAIRE

    Kubilius, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Sharing code is becoming increasingly important in the wake of Open Science. In this review I describe and compare two popular code-sharing utilities, GitHub and Open Science Framework (OSF). GitHub is a mature, industry-standard tool but lacks focus towards researchers. In comparison, OSF offers a one-stop solution for researchers but a lot of functionality is still under development. I conclude by listing alternative lesser-known tools for code and materials sharing.

  7. Meteor showers an annotated catalog

    CERN Document Server

    Kronk, Gary W

    2014-01-01

    Meteor showers are among the most spectacular celestial events that may be observed by the naked eye, and have been the object of fascination throughout human history. In “Meteor Showers: An Annotated Catalog,” the interested observer can access detailed research on over 100 annual and periodic meteor streams in order to capitalize on these majestic spectacles. Each meteor shower entry includes details of their discovery, important observations and orbits, and gives a full picture of duration, location in the sky, and expected hourly rates. Armed with a fuller understanding, the amateur observer can better view and appreciate the shower of their choice. The original book, published in 1988, has been updated with over 25 years of research in this new and improved edition. Almost every meteor shower study is expanded, with some original minor showers being dropped while new ones are added. The book also includes breakthroughs in the study of meteor showers, such as accurate predictions of outbursts as well ...

  8. Preliminary assessment report for Fort William Henry Harrison, Montana Army National Guard, Helena, Montana. Installation Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DuWaldt, J.; Meyer, T.

    1993-07-01

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at a Montana Army National Guard (MTARNG) property near Helena, Montana. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, quantities of hazardous substances present, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. This PA satisfies, for the Fort William Henry Harrison property, requirements of the Department of Defense Installation Restoration Program.

  9. Stratigraphy and geologic history of the Montana group and equivalent rocks, Montana, Wyoming, and North and South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, James R.; Cobban, William Aubrey

    1973-01-01

    During Late Cretaceous time a broad north-trending epicontinental sea covered much of the western interior of North America and extended from the Gulf of Mexico to the Arctic Ocean. The sea was bounded on the west by a narrow, unstable, and constantly rising cordillera which extended from Central America to Alaska and which separated the sea from Pacific oceanic waters. The east margin of the sea was bounded by the low-lying stable platform of the central part of the United States.Rocks of the type Montana Group in Montana and equivalent rocks in adjacent States, which consist of eastward-pointing wedges of shallow-water marine and nonmarine strata that enclose westward-pointing wedges of fine-grained marine strata, were deposited in and marginal to this sea. These rocks range in age from middle Santonian to early Maestrichtian and represent a time span of about 14 million years. Twenty-nine distinctive ammonite zones, each with a time span of about half a million years, characterize the marine strata.Persistent beds of bentonite in the transgressive part of the Claggett and Bearpaw Shales of Montana and equivalent rocks elsewhere represent periods of explosive volcanism and perhaps concurrent subsidence along the west shore in the vicinity of the Elkhorn Mountains and the Deer Creek volcanic fields in Montana. Seaward retreat of st randlines, marked by deposition of the Telegraph Creek, Eagle, Judith River, and Fox Hills Formations in Montana and the Mesaverde Formation in Wyoming, may be attributed to uplift in near-coastal areas and to an increase in volcaniclastic rocks delivered to the sea.Rates of transgression and regression determined for the Montana Group in central Montana reveal that the strandline movement was more rapid during times of transgression. The regression of the Telegraph Creek and Eagle strandlines averaged about 50 miles per million years compared with a rate of about 95 miles per million years for the advance of the strand-line during

  10. Comparative Annotation of Viral Genomes with Non-Conserved Gene Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Groot, Saskia; Mailund, Thomas; Hein, Jotun

    2007-01-01

    allows for coding in unidirectional nested and overlapping reading frames, to annotate two homologous aligned viral genomes. Our method does not insist on conserved gene structure between the two sequences, thus making it applicable for the pairwise comparison of more distantly related sequences. Results......: We apply our method to 15 pairwise alignments of six different HIV2 genomes. Given sufficient evolutionary distance between the two sequences, we achieve sensitivity of about 84% and specificity of about 97%. We additionally annotate three pairwise alignments of the more distantly related HIV1...... and HIV2, as well as of two different Hepatitis Viruses, attaining results of ~87% sensitivity and ~98.5% specificity. We subsequently incorporate prior knowledge by "knowing" the gene structure of one sequence and annotating the other conditional on it. Boosting accuracy close to perfect we demonstrate...

  11. Annotation and Re-Sequencing of Genes from De Novo Transcriptome Assembly of Abies alba (Pinaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. Roschanski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: We present a protocol for the annotation of transcriptome sequence data and the identification of candidate genes therein using the example of the nonmodel conifer Abies alba. Methods and Results: A normalized cDNA library was built from an A. alba seedling. The sequencing on a 454 platform yielded more than 1.5 million reads that were de novo assembled into 25 149 contigs. Two complementary approaches were applied to annotate gene fragments that code for (1 well-known proteins and (2 proteins that are potentially adaptively relevant. Primer development and testing yielded 88 amplicons that could successfully be resequenced from genomic DNA. Conclusions: The annotation workflow offers an efficient way to identify potential adaptively relevant genes from the large quantity of transcriptome sequence data. The primer set presented should be prioritized for single-nucleotide polymorphism detection in adaptively relevant genes in A. alba.

  12. Annotation of Scientific Summaries for Information Retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Ibekwe-Sanjuan, Fidelia; Eric, Sanjuan; Eric, Charton

    2011-01-01

    We present a methodology combining surface NLP and Machine Learning techniques for ranking asbtracts and generating summaries based on annotated corpora. The corpora were annotated with meta-semantic tags indicating the category of information a sentence is bearing (objective, findings, newthing, hypothesis, conclusion, future work, related work). The annotated corpus is fed into an automatic summarizer for query-oriented abstract ranking and multi- abstract summarization. To adapt the summarizer to these two tasks, two novel weighting functions were devised in order to take into account the distribution of the tags in the corpus. Results, although still preliminary, are encouraging us to pursue this line of work and find better ways of building IR systems that can take into account semantic annotations in a corpus.

  13. Annotation and retrieval in protein interaction databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannataro, Mario; Hiram Guzzi, Pietro; Veltri, Pierangelo

    2014-06-01

    Biological databases have been developed with a special focus on the efficient retrieval of single records or the efficient computation of specialized bioinformatics algorithms against the overall database, such as in sequence alignment. The continuos production of biological knowledge spread on several biological databases and ontologies, such as Gene Ontology, and the availability of efficient techniques to handle such knowledge, such as annotation and semantic similarity measures, enable the development on novel bioinformatics applications that explicitly use and integrate such knowledge. After introducing the annotation process and the main semantic similarity measures, this paper shows how annotations and semantic similarity can be exploited to improve the extraction and analysis of biologically relevant data from protein interaction databases. As case studies, the paper presents two novel software tools, OntoPIN and CytoSeVis, both based on the use of Gene Ontology annotations, for the advanced querying of protein interaction databases and for the enhanced visualization of protein interaction networks.

  14. SASL: A Semantic Annotation System for Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Pingpeng; Wang, Guoyin; Zhang, Qin; Jin, Hai

    Due to ambiguity, search engines for scientific literatures may not return right search results. One efficient solution to the problems is to automatically annotate literatures and attach the semantic information to them. Generally, semantic annotation requires identifying entities before attaching semantic information to them. However, due to abbreviation and other reasons, it is very difficult to identify entities correctly. The paper presents a Semantic Annotation System for Literature (SASL), which utilizes Wikipedia as knowledge base to annotate literatures. SASL mainly attaches semantic to terminology, academic institutions, conferences, and journals etc. Many of them are usually abbreviations, which induces ambiguity. Here, SASL uses regular expressions to extract the mapping between full name of entities and their abbreviation. Since full names of several entities may map to a single abbreviation, SASL introduces Hidden Markov Model to implement name disambiguation. Finally, the paper presents the experimental results, which confirm SASL a good performance.

  15. Modeling Social Annotation: a Bayesian Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Plangprasopchok, Anon

    2008-01-01

    Collaborative tagging systems, such as del.icio.us, CiteULike, and others, allow users to annotate objects, e.g., Web pages or scientific papers, with descriptive labels called tags. The social annotations, contributed by thousands of users, can potentially be used to infer categorical knowledge, classify documents or recommend new relevant information. Traditional text inference methods do not make best use of socially-generated data, since they do not take into account variations in individual users' perspectives and vocabulary. In a previous work, we introduced a simple probabilistic model that takes interests of individual annotators into account in order to find hidden topics of annotated objects. Unfortunately, our proposed approach had a number of shortcomings, including overfitting, local maxima and the requirement to specify values for some parameters. In this paper we address these shortcomings in two ways. First, we extend the model to a fully Bayesian framework. Second, we describe an infinite ver...

  16. Semantic Annotation to Support Automatic Taxonomy Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Sanghee; Ahmed, Saeema; Wallace, Ken

    2006-01-01

    , the annotations identify which parts of a text are more important for understanding its contents. The extraction of salient sentences is a major issue in text summarisation. Commonly used methods are based on statistical analysis, but for subject-matter type texts, linguistically motivated natural language...... processing techniques, like semantic annotations, are preferred. An experiment to test the method using 140 documents collected from industry demonstrated that classification accuracy can be improved by up to 16%....

  17. Genepi: a blackboard framework for genome annotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descorps-Declère, Stéphane; Ziébelin, Danielle; Rechenmann, François; Viari, Alain

    2006-10-12

    Genome annotation can be viewed as an incremental, cooperative, data-driven, knowledge-based process that involves multiple methods to predict gene locations and structures. This process might have to be executed more than once and might be subjected to several revisions as the biological (new data) or methodological (new methods) knowledge evolves. In this context, although a lot of annotation platforms already exist, there is still a strong need for computer systems which take in charge, not only the primary annotation, but also the update and advance of the associated knowledge. In this paper, we propose to adopt a blackboard architecture for designing such a system We have implemented a blackboard framework (called Genepi) for developing automatic annotation systems. The system is not bound to any specific annotation strategy. Instead, the user will specify a blackboard structure in a configuration file and the system will instantiate and run this particular annotation strategy. The characteristics of this framework are presented and discussed. Specific adaptations to the classical blackboard architecture have been required, such as the description of the activation patterns of the knowledge sources by using an extended set of Allen's temporal relations. Although the system is robust enough to be used on real-size applications, it is of primary use to bioinformatics researchers who want to experiment with blackboard architectures. In the context of genome annotation, blackboards have several interesting features related to the way methodological and biological knowledge can be updated. They can readily handle the cooperative (several methods are implied) and opportunistic (the flow of execution depends on the state of our knowledge) aspects of the annotation process.

  18. Genepi: a blackboard framework for genome annotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziébelin Danielle

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome annotation can be viewed as an incremental, cooperative, data-driven, knowledge-based process that involves multiple methods to predict gene locations and structures. This process might have to be executed more than once and might be subjected to several revisions as the biological (new data or methodological (new methods knowledge evolves. In this context, although a lot of annotation platforms already exist, there is still a strong need for computer systems which take in charge, not only the primary annotation, but also the update and advance of the associated knowledge. In this paper, we propose to adopt a blackboard architecture for designing such a system Results We have implemented a blackboard framework (called Genepi for developing automatic annotation systems. The system is not bound to any specific annotation strategy. Instead, the user will specify a blackboard structure in a configuration file and the system will instantiate and run this particular annotation strategy. The characteristics of this framework are presented and discussed. Specific adaptations to the classical blackboard architecture have been required, such as the description of the activation patterns of the knowledge sources by using an extended set of Allen's temporal relations. Although the system is robust enough to be used on real-size applications, it is of primary use to bioinformatics researchers who want to experiment with blackboard architectures. Conclusion In the context of genome annotation, blackboards have several interesting features related to the way methodological and biological knowledge can be updated. They can readily handle the cooperative (several methods are implied and opportunistic (the flow of execution depends on the state of our knowledge aspects of the annotation process.

  19. Evaluating Hierarchical Structure in Music Annotations

    OpenAIRE

    Brian McFee; Oriol Nieto; Morwaread M. Farbood; Juan Pablo Bello

    2017-01-01

    Music exhibits structure at multiple scales, ranging from motifs to large-scale functional components. When inferring the structure of a piece, different listeners may attend to different temporal scales, which can result in disagreements when they describe the same piece. In the field of music informatics research (MIR), it is common to use corpora annotated with structural boundaries at different levels. By quantifying disagreements between multiple annotators, previous research has yielded...

  20. Fluid Annotations in a Open World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zellweger, Polle Trescott; Bouvin, Niels Olof; Jehøj, Henning

    2001-01-01

    Fluid Documents use animated typographical changes to provide a novel and appealing user experience for hypertext browsing and for viewing document annotations in context. This paper describes an effort to broaden the utility of Fluid Documents by using the open hypermedia Arakne Environment to l...... to layer fluid annotations and links on top of abitrary HTML pages on the World Wide Web. Changes to both Fluid Documents and Arakne are required....

  1. Speaking Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Geoff

    Speaking Code begins by invoking the “Hello World” convention used by programmers when learning a new language, helping to establish the interplay of text and code that runs through the book. Interweaving the voice of critical writing from the humanities with the tradition of computing and software...

  2. Polar Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    QPSK Gaussian channels . .......................................................................... 39 vi 1. INTRODUCTION Forward error correction (FEC...Capacity of BSC. 7 Figure 5. Capacity of AWGN channel . 8 4. INTRODUCTION TO POLAR CODES Polar codes were introduced by E. Arikan in [1]. This paper...Under authority of C. A. Wilgenbusch, Head ISR Division EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This report describes the results of the project “More reliable wireless

  3. Genome cartography through domain annotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponting, C P; Dickens, N J

    2001-01-01

    The evolutionary history of eukaryotic proteins involves rapid sequence divergence, addition and deletion of domains, and fusion and fission of genes. Although the protein repertoires of distantly related species differ greatly, their domain repertoires do not. To account for the great diversity of domain contexts and an unexpected paucity of ortholog conservation, we must categorize the coding regions of completely sequenced genomes into domain families, as well as protein families.

  4. Collaborative annotation of 3D crystallographic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, J; Henderson, M; Khan, I

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the AnnoCryst system-a tool that was designed to enable authenticated collaborators to share online discussions about 3D crystallographic structures through the asynchronous attachment, storage, and retrieval of annotations. Annotations are personal comments, interpretations, questions, assessments, or references that can be attached to files, data, digital objects, or Web pages. The AnnoCryst system enables annotations to be attached to 3D crystallographic models retrieved from either private local repositories (e.g., Fedora) or public online databases (e.g., Protein Data Bank or Inorganic Crystal Structure Database) via a Web browser. The system uses the Jmol plugin for viewing and manipulating the 3D crystal structures but extends Jmol by providing an additional interface through which annotations can be created, attached, stored, searched, browsed, and retrieved. The annotations are stored on a standardized Web annotation server (Annotea), which has been extended to support 3D macromolecular structures. Finally, the system is embedded within a security framework that is capable of authenticating users and restricting access only to trusted colleagues.

  5. JGI Plant Genomics Gene Annotation Pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, Shengqiang; Rokhsar, Dan; Goodstein, David; Hayes, David; Mitros, Therese

    2014-07-14

    Plant genomes vary in size and are highly complex with a high amount of repeats, genome duplication and tandem duplication. Gene encodes a wealth of information useful in studying organism and it is critical to have high quality and stable gene annotation. Thanks to advancement of sequencing technology, many plant species genomes have been sequenced and transcriptomes are also sequenced. To use these vastly large amounts of sequence data to make gene annotation or re-annotation in a timely fashion, an automatic pipeline is needed. JGI plant genomics gene annotation pipeline, called integrated gene call (IGC), is our effort toward this aim with aid of a RNA-seq transcriptome assembly pipeline. It utilizes several gene predictors based on homolog peptides and transcript ORFs. See Methods for detail. Here we present genome annotation of JGI flagship green plants produced by this pipeline plus Arabidopsis and rice except for chlamy which is done by a third party. The genome annotations of these species and others are used in our gene family build pipeline and accessible via JGI Phytozome portal whose URL and front page snapshot are shown below.

  6. Advancing Trypanosoma brucei genome annotation through ribosome profiling and spliced leader mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Marilyn; Ramasamy, Gowthaman; Vasconcelos, Elton J R; Jensen, Bryan C; Myler, Peter J

    2015-08-01

    Since the initial publication of the trypanosomatid genomes, curation has been ongoing. Here we make use of existing Trypanosoma brucei ribosome profiling data to provide evidence of ribosome occupancy (and likely translation) of mRNAs from 225 currently unannotated coding sequences (CDSs). A small number of these putative genes correspond to extra copies of previously annotated genes, but 85% are novel. The median size of these novels CDSs is small (81 aa), indicating that past annotation work has excelled at detecting large CDSs. Of the unique CDSs confirmed here, over half have candidate orthologues in other trypanosomatid genomes, most of which were not yet annotated as protein-coding genes. Nonetheless, approximately one-third of the new CDSs were found only in T. brucei subspecies. Using ribosome footprints, RNA-Seq and spliced leader mapping data, we updated previous work to definitively revise the start sites for 414 CDSs as compared to the current gene models. The data pointed to several regions of the genome that had sequence errors that altered coding region boundaries. Finally, we consolidated this data with our previous work to propose elimination of 683 putative genes as protein-coding and arrive at a view of the translatome of slender bloodstream and procyclic culture form T. brucei.

  7. nGASP - the nematode genome annotation assessment project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coghlan, A; Fiedler, T J; McKay, S J; Flicek, P; Harris, T W; Blasiar, D; Allen, J; Stein, L D

    2008-12-19

    While the C. elegans genome is extensively annotated, relatively little information is available for other Caenorhabditis species. The nematode genome annotation assessment project (nGASP) was launched to objectively assess the accuracy of protein-coding gene prediction software in C. elegans, and to apply this knowledge to the annotation of the genomes of four additional Caenorhabditis species and other nematodes. Seventeen groups worldwide participated in nGASP, and submitted 47 prediction sets for 10 Mb of the C. elegans genome. Predictions were compared to reference gene sets consisting of confirmed or manually curated gene models from WormBase. The most accurate gene-finders were 'combiner' algorithms, which made use of transcript- and protein-alignments and multi-genome alignments, as well as gene predictions from other gene-finders. Gene-finders that used alignments of ESTs, mRNAs and proteins came in second place. There was a tie for third place between gene-finders that used multi-genome alignments and ab initio gene-finders. The median gene level sensitivity of combiners was 78% and their specificity was 42%, which is nearly the same accuracy as reported for combiners in the human genome. C. elegans genes with exons of unusual hexamer content, as well as those with many exons, short exons, long introns, a weak translation start signal, weak splice sites, or poorly conserved orthologs were the most challenging for gene-finders. While the C. elegans genome is extensively annotated, relatively little information is available for other Caenorhabditis species. The nematode genome annotation assessment project (nGASP) was launched to objectively assess the accuracy of protein-coding gene prediction software in C. elegans, and to apply this knowledge to the annotation of the genomes of four additional Caenorhabditis species and other nematodes. Seventeen groups worldwide participated in nGASP, and submitted 47 prediction sets for 10 Mb of the C

  8. Certifying Auto-Generated Flight Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denney, Ewen

    2008-01-01

    Model-based design and automated code generation are being used increasingly at NASA. Many NASA projects now use MathWorks Simulink and Real-Time Workshop for at least some of their modeling and code development. However, there are substantial obstacles to more widespread adoption of code generators in safety-critical domains. Since code generators are typically not qualified, there is no guarantee that their output is correct, and consequently the generated code still needs to be fully tested and certified. Moreover, the regeneration of code can require complete recertification, which offsets many of the advantages of using a generator. Indeed, manual review of autocode can be more challenging than for hand-written code. Since the direct V&V of code generators is too laborious and complicated due to their complex (and often proprietary) nature, we have developed a generator plug-in to support the certification of the auto-generated code. Specifically, the AutoCert tool supports certification by formally verifying that the generated code is free of different safety violations, by constructing an independently verifiable certificate, and by explaining its analysis in a textual form suitable for code reviews. The generated documentation also contains substantial tracing information, allowing users to trace between model, code, documentation, and V&V artifacts. This enables missions to obtain assurance about the safety and reliability of the code without excessive manual V&V effort and, as a consequence, eases the acceptance of code generators in safety-critical contexts. The generation of explicit certificates and textual reports is particularly well-suited to supporting independent V&V. The primary contribution of this approach is the combination of human-friendly documentation with formal analysis. The key technical idea is to exploit the idiomatic nature of auto-generated code in order to automatically infer logical annotations. The annotation inference algorithm

  9. Stroke Knowledge among Urban and Frontier First Responders and Emergency Medical Technicians in Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Michael J.; Oser, Carrie; Gohdes, Dorothy; Fogle, Crystelle C.; Dietrich, Dennis W.; Burnett, Anne; Okon, Nicholas; Russell, Joseph A.; DeTienne, James; Harwell, Todd S.; Helgerson, Steven D.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To assess stroke knowledge and practice among frontier and urban emergency medical services (EMS) providers and to evaluate the need for additional prehospital stroke training opportunities in Montana. Methods: In 2006, a telephone survey of a representative sample of EMS providers was conducted in Montana. Respondents were stratified…

  10. 75 FR 4698 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Montana; Revisions to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ... Administrative Rules of Montana. Revisions include minor editorial and grammatical changes, updates to the... minor editorial and grammatical changes, and update the citations and references to Federal laws and... Montana; they make minor editorial and grammatical changes, update the citations and references to...

  11. 75 FR 3993 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Montana; Revisions to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... the Administrative Rules of Montana; they include minor editorial and grammatical changes, updates to... minor editorial and grammatical changes, update the citations and references to federal and state laws... Rules of Montana; they make minor editorial and grammatical changes, update the citations and...

  12. Scheduling Recess before Lunch: Exploring the Benefits and Challenges in Montana Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bark, Katie; Stenberg, Molly; Sutherland, Shelly; Hayes, Dayle

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of the "Montana Recess Before Lunch Survey" was to explore benefits, challenges, and factors associated with successful implementation of Recess Before Lunch (RBL), from the perspective of school principals. Methods: An online written questionnaire was distributed to all (N = 661) Montana elementary and…

  13. 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey: American Indian Students on or near a Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey high school student frequency distributions for American Indian students on or near a reservation. These frequency distributions are based upon surveys with 720 high school American Indian students on or near a reservation in Montana during February of 2011. Frequency distributions…

  14. An annotation based approach to support design communication

    CERN Document Server

    Hisarciklilar, Onur

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose an approach based on the concept of annotation for supporting design communication. In this paper, we describe a co-operative design case study where we analyse some annotation practices, mainly focused on design minutes recorded during project reviews. We point out specific requirements concerning annotation needs. Based on these requirements, we propose an annotation model, inspired from the Speech Act Theory (SAT) to support communication in a 3D digital environment. We define two types of annotations in the engineering design context, locutionary and illocutionary annotations. The annotations we describe in this paper are materialised by a set of digital artefacts, which have a semantic dimension allowing express/record elements of technical justifications, traces of contradictory debates, etc. In this paper, we first clarify the semantic annotation concept, and we define general properties of annotations in the engineering design context, and the role of annotations in...

  15. Discovering gene annotations in biomedical text databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozsoyoglu Gultekin

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genes and gene products are frequently annotated with Gene Ontology concepts based on the evidence provided in genomics articles. Manually locating and curating information about a genomic entity from the biomedical literature requires vast amounts of human effort. Hence, there is clearly a need forautomated computational tools to annotate the genes and gene products with Gene Ontology concepts by computationally capturing the related knowledge embedded in textual data. Results In this article, we present an automated genomic entity annotation system, GEANN, which extracts information about the characteristics of genes and gene products in article abstracts from PubMed, and translates the discoveredknowledge into Gene Ontology (GO concepts, a widely-used standardized vocabulary of genomic traits. GEANN utilizes textual "extraction patterns", and a semantic matching framework to locate phrases matching to a pattern and produce Gene Ontology annotations for genes and gene products. In our experiments, GEANN has reached to the precision level of 78% at therecall level of 61%. On a select set of Gene Ontology concepts, GEANN either outperforms or is comparable to two other automated annotation studies. Use of WordNet for semantic pattern matching improves the precision and recall by 24% and 15%, respectively, and the improvement due to semantic pattern matching becomes more apparent as the Gene Ontology terms become more general. Conclusion GEANN is useful for two distinct purposes: (i automating the annotation of genomic entities with Gene Ontology concepts, and (ii providing existing annotations with additional "evidence articles" from the literature. The use of textual extraction patterns that are constructed based on the existing annotations achieve high precision. The semantic pattern matching framework provides a more flexible pattern matching scheme with respect to "exactmatching" with the advantage of locating approximate

  16. RNA-eXpress annotates novel transcript features in RNA-seq data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Samuel C; Finkel, Alexander M; Gould, Jodee A; Hertzog, Paul J

    2013-03-15

    Next-generation sequencing is rapidly becoming the approach of choice for transcriptional analysis experiments. Substantial advances have been achieved in computational approaches to support these technologies. These approaches typically rely on existing transcript annotations, introducing a bias towards known genes, require specific experimental design and computational resources, or focus only on identification of splice variants (ignoring other biologically relevant transcribed features contained within the data that may be important for downstream analysis). Biologically relevant transcribed features also include large and small non-coding RNA, new transcription start sites, alternative promoters, RNA editing and processing of coding transcripts. Also, many existing solutions lack accessible interfaces required for wide scale adoption. We present a user-friendly, rapid and computation-efficient feature annotation framework (RNA-eXpress) that enables identification of transcripts and other genomic and transcriptional features independently of current annotations. RNA-eXpress accepts mapped reads in the standard binary alignment (BAM) format and produces a study-specific feature annotation in GTF format, comparison statistics, sequence extraction and feature counts. The framework is designed to be easily accessible while allowing advanced users to integrate new feature-identification algorithms through simple class extension, thus facilitating expansion to novel feature types or identification of study-specific feature types.

  17. [Special use permit for predator disease study associated with Montana black-footed ferret reintroduction, summer 1994 : Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains a memorandum providing the Montana Black-Footed Ferret Working Group with information on the proposed predator collection that will happen...

  18. GO annotation in InterPro: why stability does not indicate accuracy in a sea of changing annotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangrador-Vegas, Amaia; Mitchell, Alex L; Chang, Hsin-Yu; Yong, Siew-Yit; Finn, Robert D

    2016-01-01

    The removal of annotation from biological databases is often perceived as an indicator of erroneous annotation. As a corollary, annotation stability is considered to be a measure of reliability. However, diverse data-driven events can affect the stability of annotations in both primary protein sequence databases and the protein family databases that are built upon the sequence databases and used to help annotate them. Here, we describe some of these events and their consequences for the InterPro database, and demonstrate that annotation removal or reassignment is not always linked to incorrect annotation by the curator. Database URL: http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro.

  19. Improving pan-genome annotation using whole genome multiple alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salzberg Steven L

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid annotation and comparisons of genomes from multiple isolates (pan-genomes is becoming commonplace due to advances in sequencing technology. Genome annotations can contain inconsistencies and errors that hinder comparative analysis even within a single species. Tools are needed to compare and improve annotation quality across sets of closely related genomes. Results We introduce a new tool, Mugsy-Annotator, that identifies orthologs and evaluates annotation quality in prokaryotic genomes using whole genome multiple alignment. Mugsy-Annotator identifies anomalies in annotated gene structures, including inconsistently located translation initiation sites and disrupted genes due to draft genome sequencing or pseudogenes. An evaluation of species pan-genomes using the tool indicates that such anomalies are common, especially at translation initiation sites. Mugsy-Annotator reports alternate annotations that improve consistency and are candidates for further review. Conclusions Whole genome multiple alignment can be used to efficiently identify orthologs and annotation problem areas in a bacterial pan-genome. Comparisons of annotated gene structures within a species may show more variation than is actually present in the genome, indicating errors in genome annotation. Our new tool Mugsy-Annotator assists re-annotation efforts by highlighting edits that improve annotation consistency.

  20. MixtureTree annotator: a program for automatic colorization and visual annotation of MixtureTree.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Chuan Chen

    Full Text Available The MixtureTree Annotator, written in JAVA, allows the user to automatically color any phylogenetic tree in Newick format generated from any phylogeny reconstruction program and output the Nexus file. By providing the ability to automatically color the tree by sequence name, the MixtureTree Annotator provides a unique advantage over any other programs which perform a similar function. In addition, the MixtureTree Annotator is the only package that can efficiently annotate the output produced by MixtureTree with mutation information and coalescent time information. In order to visualize the resulting output file, a modified version of FigTree is used. Certain popular methods, which lack good built-in visualization tools, for example, MEGA, Mesquite, PHY-FI, TreeView, treeGraph and Geneious, may give results with human errors due to either manually adding colors to each node or with other limitations, for example only using color based on a number, such as branch length, or by taxonomy. In addition to allowing the user to automatically color any given Newick tree by sequence name, the MixtureTree Annotator is the only method that allows the user to automatically annotate the resulting tree created by the MixtureTree program. The MixtureTree Annotator is fast and easy-to-use, while still allowing the user full control over the coloring and annotating process.

  1. Semi-Semantic Annotation: A guideline for the URDU.KON-TB treebank POS annotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qaiser ABBAS

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This work elaborates the semi-semantic part of speech annotation guidelines for the URDU.KON-TB treebank: an annotated corpus. A hierarchical annotation scheme was designed to label the part of speech and then applied on the corpus. This raw corpus was collected from the Urdu Wikipedia and the Jang newspaper and then annotated with the proposed semi-semantic part of speech labels. The corpus contains text of local & international news, social stories, sports, culture, finance, religion, traveling, etc. This exercise finally contributed a part of speech annotation to the URDU.KON-TB treebank. Twenty-two main part of speech categories are divided into subcategories, which conclude the morphological, and semantical information encoded in it. This article reports the annotation guidelines in major; however, it also briefs the development of the URDU.KON-TB treebank, which includes the raw corpus collection, designing & employment of annotation scheme and finally, its statistical evaluation and results. The guidelines presented as follows, will be useful for linguistic community to annotate the sentences not only for the national language Urdu but for the other indigenous languages like Punjab, Sindhi, Pashto, etc., as well.

  2. MixtureTree annotator: a program for automatic colorization and visual annotation of MixtureTree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-Chuan; Ogata, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    The MixtureTree Annotator, written in JAVA, allows the user to automatically color any phylogenetic tree in Newick format generated from any phylogeny reconstruction program and output the Nexus file. By providing the ability to automatically color the tree by sequence name, the MixtureTree Annotator provides a unique advantage over any other programs which perform a similar function. In addition, the MixtureTree Annotator is the only package that can efficiently annotate the output produced by MixtureTree with mutation information and coalescent time information. In order to visualize the resulting output file, a modified version of FigTree is used. Certain popular methods, which lack good built-in visualization tools, for example, MEGA, Mesquite, PHY-FI, TreeView, treeGraph and Geneious, may give results with human errors due to either manually adding colors to each node or with other limitations, for example only using color based on a number, such as branch length, or by taxonomy. In addition to allowing the user to automatically color any given Newick tree by sequence name, the MixtureTree Annotator is the only method that allows the user to automatically annotate the resulting tree created by the MixtureTree program. The MixtureTree Annotator is fast and easy-to-use, while still allowing the user full control over the coloring and annotating process.

  3. The Ambulant Annotator: Medical Multimedia Annotations on TabletPC’s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.C.A. Bulterman (Dick)

    2003-01-01

    htmlabstractA new generation of tablet computers has stimulated end-user interest on annotating documents by making pen-based commentary and spoken audio labels to otherwise static documents. The typical application scenario for most annotation systems is to convert existing content to a (virtual)

  4. ASAP: Amplification, sequencing & annotation of plastomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Folta Kevin M

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Availability of DNA sequence information is vital for pursuing structural, functional and comparative genomics studies in plastids. Traditionally, the first step in mining the valuable information within a chloroplast genome requires sequencing a chloroplast plasmid library or BAC clones. These activities involve complicated preparatory procedures like chloroplast DNA isolation or identification of the appropriate BAC clones to be sequenced. Rolling circle amplification (RCA is being used currently to amplify the chloroplast genome from purified chloroplast DNA and the resulting products are sheared and cloned prior to sequencing. Herein we present a universal high-throughput, rapid PCR-based technique to amplify, sequence and assemble plastid genome sequence from diverse species in a short time and at reasonable cost from total plant DNA, using the large inverted repeat region from strawberry and peach as proof of concept. The method exploits the highly conserved coding regions or intergenic regions of plastid genes. Using an informatics approach, chloroplast DNA sequence information from 5 available eudicot plastomes was aligned to identify the most conserved regions. Cognate primer pairs were then designed to generate ~1 – 1.2 kb overlapping amplicons from the inverted repeat region in 14 diverse genera. Results 100% coverage of the inverted repeat region was obtained from Arabidopsis, tobacco, orange, strawberry, peach, lettuce, tomato and Amaranthus. Over 80% coverage was obtained from distant species, including Ginkgo, loblolly pine and Equisetum. Sequence from the inverted repeat region of strawberry and peach plastome was obtained, annotated and analyzed. Additionally, a polymorphic region identified from gel electrophoresis was sequenced from tomato and Amaranthus. Sequence analysis revealed large deletions in these species relative to tobacco plastome thus exhibiting the utility of this method for structural and

  5. Some Biological Compounds, Radical Scavenging Capacities and Antimicrobial Activities in the seeds of Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erecevit, Pınar

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study determined some biological compounds (fatty acid compositions, lipid-soluble vitamins, sterols, flavonoids, radical scavenging capacities and antimicrobial activities in the seeds of Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana. It was found that palmitic acid (C16:0; 8.54±0.13- 3.05±0.04%, oleic acid (C18:1 n9, 22.41±0.8-18.83±0.1% and α-linolenic acid (C18:3 n3;39.56±0.67-77.04±2.07% were the dominant fatty acids in both Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana. It was concluded that both Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana contained stigmasterol (630.07±1.81µg/g, 80.74±0.71µg/g, respectively and ergosterol (1.11±0.14µg/g, 161.32±0.63µg/g respectively as well as beta-sitosterol (2.93±0.03 µg/g. The present findings show that Nepeta italica L. contains morin (37.79±1.09μg/g, catechin (124.39±2.23µg/g, naringin (475.96±3.57µg/g and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana contains morin (188.41±2.53µg/g, catechin (64.14±1.86μg/g, naringenin (38.34±1.78μg/g as major flavonoids. It was also determined that methanol extracts of Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana were most effective against DPPH radicals. The results of the present study show that the vitamins, flavonoids and fatty acid extracts in the seeds of N. italica L. and S. montana L. subsp. montana prevented the growth of the microorganisms used in the tests at different ratios.Este estudio ha determinado algunos compuestos biológicos (ácidos grasos, vitaminas liposolubles, esteroles y flavonoides, capacidad atrapadora de radicales libres, y actividades antimicrobianas de las semillas de Nepeta italica L. y Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana. Se encontró que el ácido palmítico (C16:0; 8.54±0.13-3.05±0.04%, ácido oleico (C18:1 n9, 22.41±0.8-18.83±0.1% y α-linolénico (C18:3 n 3;39.56±0.67-77.04±2.07% eran mayoritarios en ambas semillas de Nepeta italica L. y Sideritis

  6. Automated analysis and annotation of basketball video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saur, Drew D.; Tan, Yap-Peng; Kulkarni, Sanjeev R.; Ramadge, Peter J.

    1997-01-01

    Automated analysis and annotation of video sequences are important for digital video libraries, content-based video browsing and data mining projects. A successful video annotation system should provide users with useful video content summary in a reasonable processing time. Given the wide variety of video genres available today, automatically extracting meaningful video content for annotation still remains hard by using current available techniques. However, a wide range video has inherent structure such that some prior knowledge about the video content can be exploited to improve our understanding of the high-level video semantic content. In this paper, we develop tools and techniques for analyzing structured video by using the low-level information available directly from MPEG compressed video. Being able to work directly in the video compressed domain can greatly reduce the processing time and enhance storage efficiency. As a testbed, we have developed a basketball annotation system which combines the low-level information extracted from MPEG stream with the prior knowledge of basketball video structure to provide high level content analysis, annotation and browsing for events such as wide- angle and close-up views, fast breaks, steals, potential shots, number of possessions and possession times. We expect our approach can also be extended to structured video in other domains.

  7. Annotated Bibliography of the Lower Chesapeake Bay: Current Literature of Biological, Chemical, Geological and Physical Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-31

    OTIC USERS Unclassified 22a NAME OF RESPONSIBLE INDIVIDUAL 22b. TELEPHONE (Inlude Area Code) 122c. OFFICE SYMBOL Craig L. Seltzer (804) 441-3767/827...llth Middle-Atlantic Regional Meeting. Washington, D. C. No Annotation Citation Colo 41 CHEM:organics Huggett, R. J.; Bender , M. E. (1980) Kepone in...tables, plots and site locations. Citation C058 ~58 CHEM:heavy metals Bender , M. E.; Huggett, R. J. (1977) The effect of Tropical Storm Agnes on heavy

  8. Montana Integrated Carbon to Liquids (ICTL) Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiato, Rocco; Sharma, Ramesh; Allen, Mark; Peyton, Brent; Macur, Richard; Cameron, Jemima

    2013-09-30

    Integrated carbon-to-liquids technology (ICTL) incorporates three basic processes for the conversion of a wide range of feedstocks to distillate liquid fuels: (1) Direct Microcatalytic Coal Liquefaction (MCL) is coupled with biomass liquefaction via (2) Catalytic Hydrodeoxygenation and Isomerization (CHI) of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) or trigylceride fatty acids (TGFA) to produce liquid fuels, with process derived (3) CO{sub 2} Capture and Utilization (CCU) via algae production and use in BioFertilizer for added terrestrial sequestration of CO{sub 2}, or as a feedstock for MCL and/or CHI. This novel approach enables synthetic fuels production while simultaneously meeting EISA 2007 Section 526 targets, minimizing land use and water consumption, and providing cost competitive fuels at current day petroleum prices. ICTL was demonstrated with Montana Crow sub-bituminous coal in MCL pilot scale operations at the Energy and Environmental Research Center at the University of North Dakota (EERC), with related pilot scale CHI studies conducted at the University of Pittsburgh Applied Research Center (PARC). Coal-Biomass to Liquid (CBTL) Fuel samples were evaluated at the US Air Force Research Labs (AFRL) in Dayton and greenhouse tests of algae based BioFertilizer conducted at Montana State University (MSU). Econometric modeling studies were also conducted on the use of algae based BioFertilizer in a wheat-camelina crop rotation cycle. We find that the combined operation is not only able to help boost crop yields, but also to provide added crop yields and associated profits from TGFA (from crop production) for use an ICTL plant feedstock. This program demonstrated the overall viability of ICTL in pilot scale operations. Related work on the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of a Montana project indicated that CCU could be employed very effectively to reduce the overall carbon footprint of the MCL/CHI process. Plans are currently being made to conduct larger-scale process

  9. Helenalin Acetate in in vitro Propagated Plants of Arnica montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malarz, J; Stojakowska, A; Dohnal, B; Kisiel, W

    1993-02-01

    Propagated "IN VITRO" shoots and plantlets of ARNICA MONTANA L. (Asteraceae) have been shown to produce sesquiterpene lactones, i.e. helenalin and 11,13-dihydrohelenalin esters. The compounds were detected in green organs only; roots of the plantlets contained no sesquiterpene lactones. The helenalin acetate content in leaves of the plantlets (0.073% dry wt) was 4-times higher than in proliferated shoots (0.016% dry wt). The best rate of shoot multiplication was achieved on MS medium, supplemented with NAA 0.5mg/l and Kn 2.5 mg/l (formation of 22 shoots within 8 weeks).

  10. Immunologically active polysaccharides of Arnica montana cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhlmann, J; Zenk, M H; Wagner, H

    1991-01-01

    From the nutrition medium of Arnica montana cell cultures two homogeneous polysaccharides, an acidic arabino-3,6-galactan-protein with mean Mr of 100,000 and a neutral fucogalactoxyloglucan with mean Mr of 22,500 have been isolated by DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B and Sephacryl S-400 column chromatography. Their structures were elucidated mainly by methylation analysis, partial acidic and enzymatic hydrolysis and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The fucogalactoxyloglucan shows a pronounced enhancement of phagocytosis in vivo. The arabino-3,6-galactan-protein displays a strong anticomplementary effect and stimulates macrophages to excrete the tumour necrosis factor (TNF alpha).

  11. Flavonoid Glycosides from Arnica montana and Arnica chamissonis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merfort, I; Wendisch, D

    1987-10-01

    Five flavonoid glycosides were identified from flowers of ARNICA MONTANA, four from A. CHAMISSONIS subsp. FOLIOSA var. INCANA. The structures were established on the basis of total acid hydrolysis and spectral data (UV, (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, MS) as hispidulin 7- O-beta-glucoside, isorhamnetin 3- O-beta-glucoside, 3- O-beta- D-glucopyranosides of spinacetin, 6-methoxykaempferol and patuletin and querectin 3- O-(6''- O-acetyl)-beta- D-glucopyranoside. The latter compound can serve as distinctive marker between these two ARNICA species. The (1)H-NMR spectra in CD (3)OD are discussed.

  12. Avian use of Norris Hill Wind Resource Area, Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmata, A.; Podruzny, K.; Zelenak, J. [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States). Biology Dept.

    1998-07-01

    This document presents results of a study of avian use and mortality in and near a proposed wind resource area in southwestern Montana. Data collected in autumn 1995 through summer 1996 represented preconstruction condition; it was compiled, analyzed, and presented in a format such that comparison with post-construction data would be possible. The primary emphasis of the study was recording avian migration in and near the wind resource area using state-of-the-art marine surveillance radar. Avian use and mortality were investigated during the breeding season by employing traditional avian sampling methods, radiotelemetry, radar, and direct visual observation. 61 figs., 34 tabs.

  13. VIGOR, an annotation program for small viral genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Shiliang

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The decrease in cost for sequencing and improvement in technologies has made it easier and more common for the re-sequencing of large genomes as well as parallel sequencing of small genomes. It is possible to completely sequence a small genome within days and this increases the number of publicly available genomes. Among the types of genomes being rapidly sequenced are those of microbial and viral genomes responsible for infectious diseases. However, accurate gene prediction is a challenge that persists for decoding a newly sequenced genome. Therefore, accurate and efficient gene prediction programs are highly desired for rapid and cost effective surveillance of RNA viruses through full genome sequencing. Results We have developed VIGOR (Viral Genome ORF Reader, a web application tool for gene prediction in influenza virus, rotavirus, rhinovirus and coronavirus subtypes. VIGOR detects protein coding regions based on sequence similarity searches and can accurately detect genome specific features such as frame shifts, overlapping genes, embedded genes, and can predict mature peptides within the context of a single polypeptide open reading frame. Genotyping capability for influenza and rotavirus is built into the program. We compared VIGOR to previously described gene prediction programs, ZCURVE_V, GeneMarkS and FLAN. The specificity and sensitivity of VIGOR are greater than 99% for the RNA viral genomes tested. Conclusions VIGOR is a user friendly web-based genome annotation program for five different viral agents, influenza, rotavirus, rhinovirus, coronavirus and SARS coronavirus. This is the first gene prediction program for rotavirus and rhinovirus for public access. VIGOR is able to accurately predict protein coding genes for the above five viral types and has the capability to assign function to the predicted open reading frames and genotype influenza virus. The prediction software was designed for performing high

  14. Quantifying Variability of Manual Annotation in Cryo-Electron Tomograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecksel, Corey W; Darrow, Michele C; Dai, Wei; Galaz-Montoya, Jesús G; Chin, Jessica A; Mitchell, Patrick G; Chen, Shurui; Jakana, Jemba; Schmid, Michael F; Chiu, Wah

    2016-06-01

    Although acknowledged to be variable and subjective, manual annotation of cryo-electron tomography data is commonly used to answer structural questions and to create a "ground truth" for evaluation of automated segmentation algorithms. Validation of such annotation is lacking, but is critical for understanding the reproducibility of manual annotations. Here, we used voxel-based similarity scores for a variety of specimens, ranging in complexity and segmented by several annotators, to quantify the variation among their annotations. In addition, we have identified procedures for merging annotations to reduce variability, thereby increasing the reliability of manual annotation. Based on our analyses, we find that it is necessary to combine multiple manual annotations to increase the confidence level for answering structural questions. We also make recommendations to guide algorithm development for automated annotation of features of interest.

  15. Critical Assessment of Function Annotation Meeting, 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedberg, Iddo

    2015-01-21

    The Critical Assessment of Function Annotation meeting was held July 14-15, 2011 at the Austria Conference Center in Vienna, Austria. There were 73 registered delegates at the meeting. We thank the DOE for this award. It helped us organize and support a scientific meeting AFP 2011 as a special interest group (SIG) meeting associated with the ISMB 2011 conference. The conference was held in Vienna, Austria, in July 2011. The AFP SIG was held on July 15-16, 2011 (immediately preceding the conference). The meeting consisted of two components, the first being a series of talks (invited and contributed) and discussion sections dedicated to protein function research, with an emphasis on the theory and practice of computational methods utilized in functional annotation. The second component provided a large-scale assessment of computational methods through participation in the Critical Assessment of Functional Annotation (CAFA).

  16. I2Cnet medical image annotation service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronaki, C E; Zabulis, X; Orphanoudakis, S C

    1997-01-01

    I2Cnet (Image Indexing by Content network) aims to provide services related to the content-based management of images in healthcare over the World-Wide Web. Each I2Cnet server maintains an autonomous repository of medical images and related information. The annotation service of I2Cnet allows specialists to interact with the contents of the repository, adding comments or illustrations to medical images of interest. I2Cnet annotations may be communicated to other users via e-mail or posted to I2Cnet for inclusion in its local repositories. This paper discusses the annotation service of I2Cnet and argues that such services pave the way towards the evolution of active digital medical image libraries.

  17. Speech coding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravishankar, C., Hughes Network Systems, Germantown, MD

    1998-05-08

    Speech is the predominant means of communication between human beings and since the invention of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876, speech services have remained to be the core service in almost all telecommunication systems. Original analog methods of telephony had the disadvantage of speech signal getting corrupted by noise, cross-talk and distortion Long haul transmissions which use repeaters to compensate for the loss in signal strength on transmission links also increase the associated noise and distortion. On the other hand digital transmission is relatively immune to noise, cross-talk and distortion primarily because of the capability to faithfully regenerate digital signal at each repeater purely based on a binary decision. Hence end-to-end performance of the digital link essentially becomes independent of the length and operating frequency bands of the link Hence from a transmission point of view digital transmission has been the preferred approach due to its higher immunity to noise. The need to carry digital speech became extremely important from a service provision point of view as well. Modem requirements have introduced the need for robust, flexible and secure services that can carry a multitude of signal types (such as voice, data and video) without a fundamental change in infrastructure. Such a requirement could not have been easily met without the advent of digital transmission systems, thereby requiring speech to be coded digitally. The term Speech Coding is often referred to techniques that represent or code speech signals either directly as a waveform or as a set of parameters by analyzing the speech signal. In either case, the codes are transmitted to the distant end where speech is reconstructed or synthesized using the received set of codes. A more generic term that is applicable to these techniques that is often interchangeably used with speech coding is the term voice coding. This term is more generic in the sense that the

  18. Automating annotation of information-giving for analysis of clinical conversation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, Elijah; Laws, M Barton; Wilson, Ira B; Penstein Rosé, Carolyn

    2014-02-01

    Coding of clinical communication for fine-grained features such as speech acts has produced a substantial literature. However, annotation by humans is laborious and expensive, limiting application of these methods. We aimed to show that through machine learning, computers could code certain categories of speech acts with sufficient reliability to make useful distinctions among clinical encounters. The data were transcripts of 415 routine outpatient visits of HIV patients which had previously been coded for speech acts using the Generalized Medical Interaction Analysis System (GMIAS); 50 had also been coded for larger scale features using the Comprehensive Analysis of the Structure of Encounters System (CASES). We aggregated selected speech acts into information-giving and requesting, then trained the machine to automatically annotate using logistic regression classification. We evaluated reliability by per-speech act accuracy. We used multiple regression to predict patient reports of communication quality from post-visit surveys using the patient and provider information-giving to information-requesting ratio (briefly, information-giving ratio) and patient gender. Automated coding produces moderate reliability with human coding (accuracy 71.2%, κ=0.57), with high correlation between machine and human prediction of the information-giving ratio (r=0.96). The regression significantly predicted four of five patient-reported measures of communication quality (r=0.263-0.344). The information-giving ratio is a useful and intuitive measure for predicting patient perception of provider-patient communication quality. These predictions can be made with automated annotation, which is a practical option for studying large collections of clinical encounters with objectivity, consistency, and low cost, providing greater opportunity for training and reflection for care providers.

  19. Structural annotation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis proteome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Anand

    Full Text Available Of the ∼4000 ORFs identified through the genome sequence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB H37Rv, experimentally determined structures are available for 312. Since knowledge of protein structures is essential to obtain a high-resolution understanding of the underlying biology, we seek to obtain a structural annotation for the genome, using computational methods. Structural models were obtained and validated for ∼2877 ORFs, covering ∼70% of the genome. Functional annotation of each protein was based on fold-based functional assignments and a novel binding site based ligand association. New algorithms for binding site detection and genome scale binding site comparison at the structural level, recently reported from the laboratory, were utilized. Besides these, the annotation covers detection of various sequence and sub-structural motifs and quaternary structure predictions based on the corresponding templates. The study provides an opportunity to obtain a global perspective of the fold distribution in the genome. The annotation indicates that cellular metabolism can be achieved with only 219 folds. New insights about the folds that predominate in the genome, as well as the fold-combinations that make up multi-domain proteins are also obtained. 1728 binding pockets have been associated with ligands through binding site identification and sub-structure similarity analyses. The resource (http://proline.physics.iisc.ernet.in/Tbstructuralannotation, being one of the first to be based on structure-derived functional annotations at a genome scale, is expected to be useful for better understanding of TB and for application in drug discovery. The reported annotation pipeline is fairly generic and can be applied to other genomes as well.

  20. Software for computing and annotating genomic ranges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lawrence

    Full Text Available We describe Bioconductor infrastructure for representing and computing on annotated genomic ranges and integrating genomic data with the statistical computing features of R and its extensions. At the core of the infrastructure are three packages: IRanges, GenomicRanges, and GenomicFeatures. These packages provide scalable data structures for representing annotated ranges on the genome, with special support for transcript structures, read alignments and coverage vectors. Computational facilities include efficient algorithms for overlap and nearest neighbor detection, coverage calculation and other range operations. This infrastructure directly supports more than 80 other Bioconductor packages, including those for sequence analysis, differential expression analysis and visualization.

  1. Speaking Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Geoff

    ; alternatives to mainstream development, from performances of the live-coding scene to the organizational forms of commons-based peer production; the democratic promise of social media and their paradoxical role in suppressing political expression; and the market’s emptying out of possibilities for free...... development, Speaking Code unfolds an argument to undermine the distinctions between criticism and practice, and to emphasize the aesthetic and political aspects of software studies. Not reducible to its functional aspects, program code mirrors the instability inherent in the relationship of speech...... expression in the public realm. The book’s line of argument defends language against its invasion by economics, arguing that speech continues to underscore the human condition, however paradoxical this may seem in an era of pervasive computing....

  2. Integrative Tissue-Specific Functional Annotations in the Human Genome Provide Novel Insights on Many Complex Traits and Improve Signal Prioritization in Genome Wide Association Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiongshi Lu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Extensive efforts have been made to understand genomic function through both experimental and computational approaches, yet proper annotation still remains challenging, especially in non-coding regions. In this manuscript, we introduce GenoSkyline, an unsupervised learning framework to predict tissue-specific functional regions through integrating high-throughput epigenetic annotations. GenoSkyline successfully identified a variety of non-coding regulatory machinery including enhancers, regulatory miRNA, and hypomethylated transposable elements in extensive case studies. Integrative analysis of GenoSkyline annotations and results from genome-wide association studies (GWAS led to novel biological insights on the etiologies of a number of human complex traits. We also explored using tissue-specific functional annotations to prioritize GWAS signals and predict relevant tissue types for each risk locus. Brain and blood-specific annotations led to better prioritization performance for schizophrenia than standard GWAS p-values and non-tissue-specific annotations. As for coronary artery disease, heart-specific functional regions was highly enriched of GWAS signals, but previously identified risk loci were found to be most functional in other tissues, suggesting a substantial proportion of still undetected heart-related loci. In summary, GenoSkyline annotations can guide genetic studies at multiple resolutions and provide valuable insights in understanding complex diseases. GenoSkyline is available at http://genocanyon.med.yale.edu/GenoSkyline.

  3. HBVRegDB: Annotation, comparison, detection and visualization of regulatory elements in hepatitis B virus sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firth Andrew E

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The many Hepadnaviridae sequences available have widely varied functional annotation. The genomes are very compact (~3.2 kb but contain multiple layers of functional regulatory elements in addition to coding regions. Key regions are subject to purifying selection, as mutations in these regions will produce non-functional viruses. Results These genomic sequences have been organized into a structured database to facilitate research at the molecular level. HBVRegDB is a comparative genomic analysis tool with an integrated underlying sequence database. The database contains genomic sequence data from representative viruses. In addition to INSDC and RefSeq annotation, HBVRegDB also contains expert and systematically calculated annotations (e.g. promoters and comparative genome analysis results (e.g. blastn, tblastx. It also contains analyses based on curated HBV alignments. Information about conserved regions – including primary conservation (e.g. CDS-Plotcon and RNA secondary structure predictions (e.g. Alidot – is integrated into the database. A large amount of data is graphically presented using the GBrowse (Generic Genome Browser adapted for analysis of viral genomes. Flexible query access is provided based on any annotated genomic feature. Novel regulatory motifs can be found by analysing the annotated sequences. Conclusion HBVRegDB serves as a knowledge database and as a comparative genomic analysis tool for molecular biologists investigating HBV. It is publicly available and complementary to other viral and HBV focused datasets and tools http://hbvregdb.otago.ac.nz. The availability of multiple and highly annotated sequences of viral genomes in one database combined with comparative analysis tools facilitates detection of novel genomic elements.

  4. Hydrogeologic data for the northern Rocky Mountains intermontane basins, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, DeAnn M.; Lawlor, Sean M.; Briar, D.W.; Tresch, R.E.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey began a Regional Aquifer- System Analysis of the Northern Rocky Mountains Intermontane Basins of western Montana and central and central and northern Idaho in 1990 to establish a regional framework of information for aquifers in 54 intermontane basins in an area of about 77,500 square miles. Selected hydrogeologic data have been used as part of this analysis to define the hydro- logic systems. Records of 1,376 wells completed in 31 of the 34 intermontane basins in the Montana part of the study area are tabulated in this report. Data consist of location, alttiude of land surface, date well constructed, geologic unit, depth of well, diameter of casing, type of finish, top of open interval, primary use of water, water level, date water level measured, discharge, specific capacity, source of discharge data, type of log available, date water-quality parameters measured, specific conductance, pH, and temperature. Hydrographs for selected wells also are included. Locations of wells and basins are shown on the accompanying plate.

  5. Chemical characteristics of the major thermal springs of Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariner, R.H.; Presser, T.S.; Evans, W.C.

    1976-07-01

    Twenty-one thermal springs in western Montana were sampled for chemical, isotope, and gas compositions. Most of the springs issue dilute to slightly saline sodium-bicarbonate waters of neutral to slightly alkaline pH. A few of the springs issue sodium-mixed anion waters of near neutral pH. Fluoride concentrations are high in most of the thermal waters, up to 18 miligrams per litre, while F/Cl ratios range from 3/1 in the dilute waters to 1/10 in the slightly saline waters. Most of the springs are theoretically in thermodynamic equilibrium with respect to calcite and fluorite. Nitrogen is the major gas escaping from most of the hot springs; however, Hunters Hot Springs issue principally methane. The deuterium content of the hot spring waters is typical of meteoric water in western Montana. Geothermal calculations based on silica concentrations and Na-K-Ca ratios indicate that most of the springs are associated with low temperature aquifers (less than 100/sup 0/C). Chalcedony may be controlling the silica concentrations in these low temperature aquifers even in ''granitic'' terranes.

  6. Novel overlapping coding sequences in Chlamydia trachomatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Klaus Thorleif; Petersen, Lise; Falk, Søren;

    2006-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the aetiological agent of trachoma and sexually transmitted infections. The C. trachomatis genome sequence revealed an organism adapted to the intracellular habitat with a high coding ratio and a small genome consisting of 1.042-kilobase (kb) with 895 annotated protein...... of the novel genes in C. trachomatis Serovar A and Chlamydia muridarum. Several of the genes have typical gene-like and protein-like features. Furthermore, we confirm transcriptional activity from 10 of the putative genes. The combined evidence suggests that at least seven of the 15 are protein coding genes...

  7. Solar Tutorial and Annotation Resource (STAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showalter, C.; Rex, R.; Hurlburt, N. E.; Zita, E. J.

    2009-12-01

    We have written a software suite designed to facilitate solar data analysis by scientists, students, and the public, anticipating enormous datasets from future instruments. Our “STAR" suite includes an interactive learning section explaining 15 classes of solar events. Users learn software tools that exploit humans’ superior ability (over computers) to identify many events. Annotation tools include time slice generation to quantify loop oscillations, the interpolation of event shapes using natural cubic splines (for loops, sigmoids, and filaments) and closed cubic splines (for coronal holes). Learning these tools in an environment where examples are provided prepares new users to comfortably utilize annotation software with new data. Upon completion of our tutorial, users are presented with media of various solar events and asked to identify and annotate the images, to test their mastery of the system. Goals of the project include public input into the data analysis of very large datasets from future solar satellites, and increased public interest and knowledge about the Sun. In 2010, the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) will be launched into orbit. SDO’s advancements in solar telescope technology will generate a terabyte per day of high-quality data, requiring innovation in data management. While major projects develop automated feature recognition software, so that computers can complete much of the initial event tagging and analysis, still, that software cannot annotate features such as sigmoids, coronal magnetic loops, coronal dimming, etc., due to large amounts of data concentrated in relatively small areas. Previously, solar physicists manually annotated these features, but with the imminent influx of data it is unrealistic to expect specialized researchers to examine every image that computers cannot fully process. A new approach is needed to efficiently process these data. Providing analysis tools and data access to students and the public have proven

  8. Sequencing, De Novo assembly and annotation of the Colorado Potato Beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, Transcriptome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Kumar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata is a major pest and a serious threat to potato cultivation throughout the northern hemisphere. Despite its high importance for invasion biology, phenology and pest management, little is known about L. decemlineata from a genomic perspective. We subjected European L. decemlineata adult and larval transcriptome samples to 454-FLX massively-parallel DNA sequencing to characterize a basal set of genes from this species. We created a combined assembly of the adult and larval datasets including the publicly available midgut larval Roche 454 reads and provided basic annotation. We were particularly interested in diapause-specific genes and genes involved in pesticide and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt resistance. RESULTS: Using 454-FLX pyrosequencing, we obtained a total of 898,048 reads which, together with the publicly available 804,056 midgut larval reads, were assembled into 121,912 contigs. We established a repository of genes of interest, with 101 out of the 108 diapause-specific genes described in Drosophila montana; and 621 contigs involved in insecticide resistance, including 221 CYP450, 45 GSTs, 13 catalases, 15 superoxide dismutases, 22 glutathione peroxidases, 194 esterases, 3 ADAM metalloproteases, 10 cadherins and 98 calmodulins. We found 460 putative miRNAs and we predicted a significant number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (29,205 and microsatellite loci (17,284. CONCLUSIONS: This report of the assembly and annotation of the transcriptome of L. decemlineata offers new insights into diapause-associated and insecticide-resistance-associated genes in this species and provides a foundation for comparative studies with other species of insects. The data will also open new avenues for researchers using L. decemlineata as a model species, and for pest management research. Our results provide the basis for performing future gene expression and functional analysis in L

  9. The Aster code; Code Aster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delbecq, J.M

    1999-07-01

    The Aster code is a 2D or 3D finite-element calculation code for structures developed by the R and D direction of Electricite de France (EdF). This dossier presents a complete overview of the characteristics and uses of the Aster code: introduction of version 4; the context of Aster (organisation of the code development, versions, systems and interfaces, development tools, quality assurance, independent validation); static mechanics (linear thermo-elasticity, Euler buckling, cables, Zarka-Casier method); non-linear mechanics (materials behaviour, big deformations, specific loads, unloading and loss of load proportionality indicators, global algorithm, contact and friction); rupture mechanics (G energy restitution level, restitution level in thermo-elasto-plasticity, 3D local energy restitution level, KI and KII stress intensity factors, calculation of limit loads for structures), specific treatments (fatigue, rupture, wear, error estimation); meshes and models (mesh generation, modeling, loads and boundary conditions, links between different modeling processes, resolution of linear systems, display of results etc..); vibration mechanics (modal and harmonic analysis, dynamics with shocks, direct transient dynamics, seismic analysis and aleatory dynamics, non-linear dynamics, dynamical sub-structuring); fluid-structure interactions (internal acoustics, mass, rigidity and damping); linear and non-linear thermal analysis; steels and metal industry (structure transformations); coupled problems (internal chaining, internal thermo-hydro-mechanical coupling, chaining with other codes); products and services. (J.S.)

  10. Ranking Biomedical Annotations with Annotator’s Semantic Relevancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aihua Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomedical annotation is a common and affective artifact for researchers to discuss, show opinion, and share discoveries. It becomes increasing popular in many online research communities, and implies much useful information. Ranking biomedical annotations is a critical problem for data user to efficiently get information. As the annotator’s knowledge about the annotated entity normally determines quality of the annotations, we evaluate the knowledge, that is, semantic relationship between them, in two ways. The first is extracting relational information from credible websites by mining association rules between an annotator and a biomedical entity. The second way is frequent pattern mining from historical annotations, which reveals common features of biomedical entities that an annotator can annotate with high quality. We propose a weighted and concept-extended RDF model to represent an annotator, a biomedical entity, and their background attributes and merge information from the two ways as the context of an annotator. Based on that, we present a method to rank the annotations by evaluating their correctness according to user’s vote and the semantic relevancy between the annotator and the annotated entity. The experimental results show that the approach is applicable and efficient even when data set is large.

  11. Optimal codes as Tanner codes with cyclic component codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholdt, Tom; Pinero, Fernando; Zeng, Peng

    2014-01-01

    In this article we study a class of graph codes with cyclic code component codes as affine variety codes. Within this class of Tanner codes we find some optimal binary codes. We use a particular subgraph of the point-line incidence plane of A(2,q) as the Tanner graph, and we are able to describe...... the codes succinctly using Gröbner bases....

  12. SNAD: sequence name annotation-based designer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbalenya Alexander E

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing diversity of biological data is tagged with unique identifiers (UIDs associated with polynucleotides and proteins to ensure efficient computer-mediated data storage, maintenance, and processing. These identifiers, which are not informative for most people, are often substituted by biologically meaningful names in various presentations to facilitate utilization and dissemination of sequence-based knowledge. This substitution is commonly done manually that may be a tedious exercise prone to mistakes and omissions. Results Here we introduce SNAD (Sequence Name Annotation-based Designer that mediates automatic conversion of sequence UIDs (associated with multiple alignment or phylogenetic tree, or supplied as plain text list into biologically meaningful names and acronyms. This conversion is directed by precompiled or user-defined templates that exploit wealth of annotation available in cognate entries of external databases. Using examples, we demonstrate how this tool can be used to generate names for practical purposes, particularly in virology. Conclusion A tool for controllable annotation-based conversion of sequence UIDs into biologically meaningful names and acronyms has been developed and placed into service, fostering links between quality of sequence annotation, and efficiency of communication and knowledge dissemination among researchers.

  13. Mulligan Concept manual therapy: standardizing annotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Jillian Marie; Johnson, Gillian Margaret; Hetherington, Barbara Helen

    2014-10-01

    Quality technique documentation is integral to the practice of manual therapy, ensuring uniform application and reproducibility of treatment. Manual therapy techniques are described by annotations utilizing a range of acronyms, abbreviations and universal terminology based on biomechanical and anatomical concepts. The various combinations of therapist and patient generated forces utilized in a variety of weight-bearing positions, which are synonymous with Mulligan Concept, challenge practitioners existing annotational skills. An annotation framework with recording rules adapted to the Mulligan Concept is proposed in which the abbreviations incorporate established manual therapy tenets and are detailed in the following sequence of; starting position, side, joint/s, method of application, glide/s, Mulligan technique, movement (or function), whether an assistant is used, overpressure (and by whom) and numbers of repetitions or time and sets. Therapist or patient application of overpressure and utilization of treatment belts or manual techniques must be recorded to capture the complete description. The adoption of the Mulligan Concept annotation framework in this way for documentation purposes will provide uniformity and clarity of information transfer for the future purposes of teaching, clinical practice and audit for its practitioners.

  14. Nutrition & Adolescent Pregnancy: A Selected Annotated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Agricultural Library (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This annotated bibliography on nutrition and adolescent pregnancy is intended to be a source of technical assistance for nurses, nutritionists, physicians, educators, social workers, and other personnel concerned with improving the health of teenage mothers and their babies. It is divided into two major sections. The first section lists selected…

  15. Statistical mechanics of ontology based annotations

    CERN Document Server

    Hoyle, David C

    2016-01-01

    We present a statistical mechanical theory of the process of annotating an object with terms selected from an ontology. The term selection process is formulated as an ideal lattice gas model, but in a highly structured inhomogeneous field. The model enables us to explain patterns recently observed in real-world annotation data sets, in terms of the underlying graph structure of the ontology. By relating the external field strengths to the information content of each node in the ontology graph, the statistical mechanical model also allows us to propose a number of practical metrics for assessing the quality of both the ontology, and the annotations that arise from its use. Using the statistical mechanical formalism we also study an ensemble of ontologies of differing size and complexity; an analysis not readily performed using real data alone. Focusing on regular tree ontology graphs we uncover a rich set of scaling laws describing the growth in the optimal ontology size as the number of objects being annotate...

  16. Suggested Books for Children: An Annotated Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    NHSA Dialog, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article provides an annotated bibliography of various children's books. It includes listings of books that illustrate the dynamic relationships within the natural environment, economic context, racial and cultural identities, cross-group similarities and differences, gender, different abilities and stories of injustice and resistance.

  17. Genotyping and annotation of Affymetrix SNP arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamy, Philippe; Andersen, Claus Lindbjerg; Wikman, Friedrik;

    2006-01-01

    allows us to annotate SNPs that have poor performance, either because of poor experimental conditions or because for one of the alleles the probes do not behave in a dose-response manner. Generally, our method agrees well with a method developed by Affymetrix. When both methods make a call they agree...

  18. Annotated Bibliography of EDGE2D Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.D. Strachan and G. Corrigan

    2005-06-24

    This annotated bibliography is intended to help EDGE2D users, and particularly new users, find existing published literature that has used EDGE2D. Our idea is that a person can find existing studies which may relate to his intended use, as well as gain ideas about other possible applications by scanning the attached tables.

  19. Studies of Scientific Disciplines. An Annotated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, Diane; Kruytbosch, Carlos

    Provided in this bibliography are annotated lists of social studies of science literature, arranged alphabetically by author in 13 disciplinary areas. These areas include astronomy; general biology; biochemistry and molecular biology; biomedicine; chemistry; earth and space sciences; economics; engineering; mathematics; physics; political science;…

  20. Communication and Sexuality: An Annotated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buley, Jerry, Comp.; And Others

    The entries in this annotated bibliography represent books, educational journals, dissertations, popular magazines, and research studies that deal with the topic of communication and sexuality. Arranged alphabetically by author and also indexed according to subject matter, the titles span a variety of topics, including the following: sex and…

  1. La Mujer Chicana: An Annotated Bibliography, 1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapa, Evey, Ed.; And Others

    Intended to provide interested persons, researchers, and educators with information about "la mujer Chicana", this annotated bibliography cites 320 materials published between 1916 and 1975, with the majority being between 1960 and 1975. The 12 sections cover the following subject areas: Chicana publications; Chicana feminism and…

  2. College Students in Transition: An Annotated Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Stephanie M., Ed.; Hinkle, Sara M., Ed.; Kranzow, Jeannine, Ed.; Pistilli, Matthew D., Ed.; Miles, LaTonya Rease, Ed.; Simmons, Jannell G., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    The transition from high school to college is an important milestone, but it is only one of many steps in the journey through higher education. This volume is an annotated bibliography of the emerging literature examining the many other transitions students make beyond the first year, including the sophomore year, the transfer experience, and the…

  3. Adolescent Reproductive Behaviour: An Annotated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations, New York, NY. Population Div.

    A general overview of the literature on adolescent fertility and closely related issues is provided in this annotated bibliography. Material on the following topics is included: (1) programs related to adolescent pregnancy, contraception, abortion, and births; (2) studies relating socioeconomic characteristics of pregnant adolescents to their…

  4. Reflective Annotations: On Becoming a Scholar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Mark; Taylor, Caroline; Greenberger, Scott; Watts, Margie; Balch, Riann

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the authors' reflective annotations on becoming a scholar. This paper begins with a discussion on socialization for teaching, followed by a discussion on socialization for service and sense of belonging. Then, it describes how the doctoral process evolves. Finally, it talks about adult learners who pursue doctoral education.

  5. Communication and Politics: A Selected, Annotated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaid, Lynda Lee; And Others

    Noting that the study of communication in political settings is an increasingly popular and important area of teaching and research in many disciplines, this 51-item annotated bibliography reflects the interdisciplinary nature of the field and is designed to incorporate varying approaches to the subject matter. With few exceptions, the books and…

  6. The Basic Course: A Selected, Annotated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demo, Penny

    Defining basic speech communication courses as those public speaking, interpersonal, or communication courses that treat fundamental communication concepts, this annotated bibliography reflects the current thought of speech educators on the basic course. The bibliography consists of 27 citations, all of which are drawn from the ERIC database. (SKC)

  7. Greeks in Canada (an Annotated Bibliography).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombas, Leonidas C.

    This bibliography on Greeks in Canada includes annotated references to both published and (mostly) unpublished works. Among the 70 entries (arranged in alphabetical order by author) are articles, reports, papers, and theses that deal either exclusively with or include a separate section on Greeks in the various Canadian provinces. (GC)

  8. Annotated Bibliography of English for Special Purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allix, Beverley, Comp.

    This annotated bibliography covers the following types of materials of use to teachers of English for Special Purposes: (1) books, monographs, reports, and conference papers; (2) periodical articles and essays in collections; (3) theses and dissertations; (4) bibliographies; (5) dictionaries; and (6) textbooks in series by publisher. Section (1)…

  9. La Mujer Chicana: An Annotated Bibliography, 1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapa, Evey, Ed.; And Others

    Intended to provide interested persons, researchers, and educators with information about "la mujer Chicana", this annotated bibliography cites 320 materials published between 1916 and 1975, with the majority being between 1960 and 1975. The 12 sections cover the following subject areas: Chicana publications; Chicana feminism and "el movimiento";…

  10. Learning to search for images without annotations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kordumova, S.

    2016-01-01

    Humans are adjusted to the environment and can easily recognize what they see around them or in images. Machines, however, cannot recognize images unless trained to do so. The usual approach is to annotate images with what they capture and train a machine learning algorithm. This thesis focuses on a

  11. Political Campaign Debating: A Selected, Annotated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Kurt; Hellweg, Susan A.

    Noting that television debates have become a regular feature of the media politics by which candidates seek office, this annotated bibliography is particularly intended to assist teachers and researchers of debate, argumentation, and political communication. The 40 citations are limited to the television era of American politics and categorized as…

  12. A Partially Annotated Political Communication Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Barbara C.

    This 63-page annotated bibliography contains available materials in the area of political communication, a relatively new field of political science. Political communication includes facets of the election process and interaction between political parties and the voter. A variety of materials dating from 1960 to 1972 include books, pamphlets,…

  13. Bibliografia de Aztlan: An Annotated Chicano Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Ernie, Ed.

    More than 300 books and articles published from 1920 to 1971 are reviewed in this annotated bibliography of literature on the Chicano. The citations and reviews are categorized by subject area and deal with contemporary Chicano history, education, health, history of Mexico, literature, native Americans, philosophy, political science, pre-Columbian…

  14. Automating Ontological Annotation with WordNet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Chappell, Alan R.; Whitney, Paul D.; Posse, Christian; Paulson, Patrick R.; Baddeley, Bob L.; Hohimer, Ryan E.; White, Amanda M.

    2006-01-22

    Semantic Web applications require robust and accurate annotation tools that are capable of automating the assignment of ontological classes to words in naturally occurring text (ontological annotation). Most current ontologies do not include rich lexical databases and are therefore not easily integrated with word sense disambiguation algorithms that are needed to automate ontological annotation. WordNet provides a potentially ideal solution to this problem as it offers a highly structured lexical conceptual representation that has been extensively used to develop word sense disambiguation algorithms. However, WordNet has not been designed as an ontology, and while it can be easily turned into one, the result of doing this would present users with serious practical limitations due to the great number of concepts (synonym sets) it contains. Moreover, mapping WordNet to an existing ontology may be difficult and requires substantial labor. We propose to overcome these limitations by developing an analytical platform that (1) provides a WordNet-based ontology offering a manageable and yet comprehensive set of concept classes, (2) leverages the lexical richness of WordNet to give an extensive characterization of concept class in terms of lexical instances, and (3) integrates a class recognition algorithm that automates the assignment of concept classes to words in naturally occurring text. The ensuing framework makes available an ontological annotation platform that can be effectively integrated with intelligence analysis systems to facilitate evidence marshaling and sustain the creation and validation of inference models.

  15. Ontological Annotation with WordNet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Chappell, Alan R.; Whitney, Paul D.; Posse, Christian; Paulson, Patrick R.; Baddeley, Bob; Hohimer, Ryan E.; White, Amanda M.

    2006-06-06

    Semantic Web applications require robust and accurate annotation tools that are capable of automating the assignment of ontological classes to words in naturally occurring text (ontological annotation). Most current ontologies do not include rich lexical databases and are therefore not easily integrated with word sense disambiguation algorithms that are needed to automate ontological annotation. WordNet provides a potentially ideal solution to this problem as it offers a highly structured lexical conceptual representation that has been extensively used to develop word sense disambiguation algorithms. However, WordNet has not been designed as an ontology, and while it can be easily turned into one, the result of doing this would present users with serious practical limitations due to the great number of concepts (synonym sets) it contains. Moreover, mapping WordNet to an existing ontology may be difficult and requires substantial labor. We propose to overcome these limitations by developing an analytical platform that (1) provides a WordNet-based ontology offering a manageable and yet comprehensive set of concept classes, (2) leverages the lexical richness of WordNet to give an extensive characterization of concept class in terms of lexical instances, and (3) integrates a class recognition algorithm that automates the assignment of concept classes to words in naturally occurring text. The ensuing framework makes available an ontological annotation platform that can be effectively integrated with intelligence analysis systems to facilitate evidence marshaling and sustain the creation and validation of inference models.

  16. Ludwig von Mises: An Annotated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, David

    A 117-item annotated bibliography of books, articles, essays, lectures, and reviews by economist Ludwig von Mises is presented. The bibliography is arranged chronologicaly, and is followed by an alphabetical listing of the citations, excluding books. An index and information on the Ludwig von Mises Institute at Auburn University (Alabama) are…

  17. Learning to search for images without annotations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kordumova, S.

    2016-01-01

    Humans are adjusted to the environment and can easily recognize what they see around them or in images. Machines, however, cannot recognize images unless trained to do so. The usual approach is to annotate images with what they capture and train a machine learning algorithm. This thesis focuses on a

  18. Small Group Communication: An Annotated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouran, Dennis S.; Guadagnino, Christopher S.

    This annotated bibliography includes sources of information that are primarily concerned with problem solving, decision making, and processes of social influence in small groups, and secondarily deal with other aspects of communication and interaction in groups, such as conflict management and negotiation. The 57 entries, all dating from 1980…

  19. Structuring and presenting annotated media repositories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutledge, L.; Ossenbruggen, J.R. van; Hardman, L.

    2004-01-01

    The Semantic Web envisions a Web that is both human readable and machine processible. In practice, however, there is still a large conceptual gap between annotated content repositories on the one hand, and coherent, human readable Web pages on the other. To bridge this conceptual gap, one needs to s

  20. Skin Cancer Education Materials: Selected Annotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Cancer Inst. (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This annotated bibliography presents 85 entries on a variety of approaches to cancer education. The entries are grouped under three broad headings, two of which contain smaller sub-divisions. The first heading, Public Education, contains prevention and general information, and non-print materials. The second heading, Professional Education,…

  1. Book Reviews, Annotation, and Web Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Patricia

    From reading texts to annotating web pages, grade 6-8 students rely on group cooperation and individual reading and writing skills in this research project that spans six 50-minute lessons. Student objectives for this project are that they will: read, discuss, and keep a journal on a book in literature circles; understand the elements of and…

  2. Greeks in Canada (an Annotated Bibliography).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombas, Leonidas C.

    This bibliography on Greeks in Canada includes annotated references to both published and (mostly) unpublished works. Among the 70 entries (arranged in alphabetical order by author) are articles, reports, papers, and theses that deal either exclusively with or include a separate section on Greeks in the various Canadian provinces. (GC)

  3. Annotated Bibliography of Literature on Narcotic Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, R. Renee

    Nearly 150 abstracts have been included in this annotated bibliography; its purpose has been to scan the voluminous number of documents on the problem of drug addiction in order to summarize the present state of knowledge on narcotic addiction and on methods for its treatment and control. The literature reviewed has been divided into the following…

  4. DNAVis: interactive visualization of comparative genome annotations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiers, M.W.E.J.; Wetering, van de H.; Peeters, T.H.J.M.; Wijk, van J.J.; Nap, J.P.H.

    2006-01-01

    The software package DNAVis offers a fast, interactive and real-time visualization of DNA sequences and their comparative genome annotations. DNAVis implements advanced methods of information visualization such as linked views, perspective walls and semantic zooming, in addition to the display of he

  5. An Annotated Bibliography in Financial Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothy B. Durband

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The following annotated bibliography contains a summary of articles and websites, as well as a list of books related to financial therapy. The resources were compiled through e-mail solicitation from members of the Financial Therapy Forum in November 2008. Members of the forum are marked with an asterisk.

  6. An Annotated Bibliography of Nonsexist Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles Coll., Eutaw, AL. West Alabama Curriculum and Materials Resource Center.

    The result of a thorough search, review, and compilation of resources on women's equity, the annotated bibliography represents a sample of print materials, games and kits, photos and posters, and audiovisual aids now available on sexism that should prove useful to counselors, instructors, school administrators, parents, and elementary and…

  7. Skin Cancer Education Materials: Selected Annotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Cancer Inst. (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This annotated bibliography presents 85 entries on a variety of approaches to cancer education. The entries are grouped under three broad headings, two of which contain smaller sub-divisions. The first heading, Public Education, contains prevention and general information, and non-print materials. The second heading, Professional Education,…

  8. MEETING: Chlamydomonas Annotation Jamboree - October 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossman, Arthur R

    2007-04-13

    Shotgun sequencing of the nuclear genome of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Chlamydomonas throughout) was performed at an approximate 10X coverage by JGI. Roughly half of the genome is now contained on 26 scaffolds, all of which are at least 1.6 Mb, and the coverage of the genome is ~95%. There are now over 200,000 cDNA sequence reads that we have generated as part of the Chlamydomonas genome project (Grossman, 2003; Shrager et al., 2003; Grossman et al. 2007; Merchant et al., 2007); other sequences have also been generated by the Kasuza sequence group (Asamizu et al., 1999; Asamizu et al., 2000) or individual laboratories that have focused on specific genes. Shrager et al. (2003) placed the reads into distinct contigs (an assemblage of reads with overlapping nucleotide sequences), and contigs that group together as part of the same genes have been designated ACEs (assembly of contigs generated from EST information). All of the reads have also been mapped to the Chlamydomonas nuclear genome and the cDNAs and their corresponding genomic sequences have been reassembled, and the resulting assemblage is called an ACEG (an Assembly of contiguous EST sequences supported by genomic sequence) (Jain et al., 2007). Most of the unique genes or ACEGs are also represented by gene models that have been generated by the Joint Genome Institute (JGI, Walnut Creek, CA). These gene models have been placed onto the DNA scaffolds and are presented as a track on the Chlamydomonas genome browser associated with the genome portal (http://genome.jgi-psf.org/Chlre3/Chlre3.home.html). Ultimately, the meeting grant awarded by DOE has helped enormously in the development of an annotation pipeline (a set of guidelines used in the annotation of genes) and resulted in high quality annotation of over 4,000 genes; the annotators were from both Europe and the USA. Some of the people who led the annotation initiative were Arthur Grossman, Olivier Vallon, and Sabeeha Merchant (with many individual

  9. Annotation Method (AM): SE22_AM1 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ether with predicted molecular formulae and putative structures, were provided as metabolite annotations. Comparison with public data...bases was performed. A grading system was introduced to describe the evidence supporting the annotations. ...

  10. Computer systems for annotation of single molecule fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, David Charles; Severin, Jessica

    2016-07-19

    There are provided computer systems for visualizing and annotating single molecule images. Annotation systems in accordance with this disclosure allow a user to mark and annotate single molecules of interest and their restriction enzyme cut sites thereby determining the restriction fragments of single nucleic acid molecules. The markings and annotations may be automatically generated by the system in certain embodiments and they may be overlaid translucently onto the single molecule images. An image caching system may be implemented in the computer annotation systems to reduce image processing time. The annotation systems include one or more connectors connecting to one or more databases capable of storing single molecule data as well as other biomedical data. Such diverse array of data can be retrieved and used to validate the markings and annotations. The annotation systems may be implemented and deployed over a computer network. They may be ergonomically optimized to facilitate user interactions.

  11. On Semantic Annotation in Clarin-PL Parallel Corpora

    OpenAIRE

    Violetta Koseska-Toszewa; Roman Roszko

    2015-01-01

    On Semantic Annotation in Clarin-PL Parallel Corpora In the article, the authors present a proposal for semantic annotation in Clarin-PL parallel corpora: Polish-Bulgarian-Russian and Polish-Lithuanian ones. Semantic annotation of quantification is a novum in developing sentence level semantics in multilingual parallel corpora. This is why our semantic annotation is manual. The authors hope it will be interesting to IT specialists working on automatic processing of the given natural langu...

  12. BEACON: automated tool for Bacterial GEnome Annotation ComparisON

    KAUST Repository

    Kalkatawi, Manal Matoq Saeed

    2015-08-18

    Background Genome annotation is one way of summarizing the existing knowledge about genomic characteristics of an organism. There has been an increased interest during the last several decades in computer-based structural and functional genome annotation. Many methods for this purpose have been developed for eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Our study focuses on comparison of functional annotations of prokaryotic genomes. To the best of our knowledge there is no fully automated system for detailed comparison of functional genome annotations generated by different annotation methods (AMs). Results The presence of many AMs and development of new ones introduce needs to: a/ compare different annotations for a single genome, and b/ generate annotation by combining individual ones. To address these issues we developed an Automated Tool for Bacterial GEnome Annotation ComparisON (BEACON) that benefits both AM developers and annotation analysers. BEACON provides detailed comparison of gene function annotations of prokaryotic genomes obtained by different AMs and generates extended annotations through combination of individual ones. For the illustration of BEACON’s utility, we provide a comparison analysis of multiple different annotations generated for four genomes and show on these examples that the extended annotation can increase the number of genes annotated by putative functions up to 27 %, while the number of genes without any function assignment is reduced. Conclusions We developed BEACON, a fast tool for an automated and a systematic comparison of different annotations of single genomes. The extended annotation assigns putative functions to many genes with unknown functions. BEACON is available under GNU General Public License version 3.0 and is accessible at: http://www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/BEACON/

  13. BEACON: automated tool for Bacterial GEnome Annotation ComparisON.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkatawi, Manal; Alam, Intikhab; Bajic, Vladimir B

    2015-08-18

    Genome annotation is one way of summarizing the existing knowledge about genomic characteristics of an organism. There has been an increased interest during the last several decades in computer-based structural and functional genome annotation. Many methods for this purpose have been developed for eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Our study focuses on comparison of functional annotations of prokaryotic genomes. To the best of our knowledge there is no fully automated system for detailed comparison of functional genome annotations generated by different annotation methods (AMs). The presence of many AMs and development of new ones introduce needs to: a/ compare different annotations for a single genome, and b/ generate annotation by combining individual ones. To address these issues we developed an Automated Tool for Bacterial GEnome Annotation ComparisON (BEACON) that benefits both AM developers and annotation analysers. BEACON provides detailed comparison of gene function annotations of prokaryotic genomes obtained by different AMs and generates extended annotations through combination of individual ones. For the illustration of BEACON's utility, we provide a comparison analysis of multiple different annotations generated for four genomes and show on these examples that the extended annotation can increase the number of genes annotated by putative functions up to 27%, while the number of genes without any function assignment is reduced. We developed BEACON, a fast tool for an automated and a systematic comparison of different annotations of single genomes. The extended annotation assigns putative functions to many genes with unknown functions. BEACON is available under GNU General Public License version 3.0 and is accessible at: http://www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/BEACON/ .

  14. AnnaBot: A Static Verifier for Java Annotation Usage

    OpenAIRE

    Ian Darwin

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes AnnaBot, one of the first tools to verify correct use of Annotation-based metadata in the Java programming language. These Annotations are a standard Java 5 mechanism used to attach metadata to types, methods, or fields without using an external configuration file. A binary representation of the Annotation becomes part of the compiled “.class” file, for inspection by another component or library at runtime. Java Annotations were introduced into the Java language in ...

  15. Toward an Upgraded Honey Bee (Apis mellifera L.) Genome Annotation Using Proteogenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAfee, Alison; Harpur, Brock A; Michaud, Sarah; Beavis, Ronald C; Kent, Clement F; Zayed, Amro; Foster, Leonard J

    2016-02-05

    The honey bee is a key pollinator in agricultural operations as well as a model organism for studying the genetics and evolution of social behavior. The Apis mellifera genome has been sequenced and annotated twice over, enabling proteomics and functional genomics methods for probing relevant aspects of their biology. One troubling trend that emerged from proteomic analyses is that honey bee peptide samples consistently result in lower peptide identification rates compared with other organisms. This suggests that the genome annotation can be improved, or atypical biological processes are interfering with the mass spectrometry workflow. First, we tested whether high levels of polymorphisms could explain some of the missed identifications by searching spectra against the reference proteome (OGSv3.2) versus a customized proteome of a single honey bee, but our results indicate that this contribution was minor. Likewise, error-tolerant peptide searches lead us to eliminate unexpected post-translational modifications as a major factor in missed identifications. We then used a proteogenomic approach with ~1500 raw files to search for missing genes and new exons, to revive discarded annotations and to identify over 2000 new coding regions. These results will contribute to a more comprehensive genome annotation and facilitate continued research on this important insect.

  16. pathDIP: an annotated resource for known and predicted human gene-pathway associations and pathway enrichment analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmati, Sara; Abovsky, Mark; Pastrello, Chiara; Jurisica, Igor

    2017-01-01

    Molecular pathway data are essential in current computational and systems biology research. While there are many primary and integrated pathway databases, several challenges remain, including low proteome coverage (57%), low overlap across different databases, unavailability of direct information about underlying physical connectivity of pathway members, and high fraction of protein-coding genes without any pathway annotations, i.e. ‘pathway orphans’. In order to address all these challenges, we developed pathDIP, which integrates data from 20 source pathway databases, ‘core pathways’, with physical protein–protein interactions to predict biologically relevant protein–pathway associations, referred to as ‘extended pathways’. Cross-validation determined 71% recovery rate of our predictions. Data integration and predictions increase coverage of pathway annotations for protein-coding genes to 86%, and provide novel annotations for 5732 pathway orphans. PathDIP (http://ophid.utoronto.ca/pathdip) annotates 17 070 protein-coding genes with 4678 pathways, and provides multiple query, analysis and output options. PMID:27899558

  17. Flowgen: Flowchart-Based Documentation for C++ Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Kosower, David A.; Lopez-Villarejo, J. J.

    2014-01-01

    We present the Flowgen tool, which generates flowcharts from annotated C++ source code. The tool generates a set of interconnected high-level UML activity diagrams, one for each function or method in the C++ sources. It provides a simple and visual overview of complex implementations of numerical algorithms. Flowgen is complementary to the widely-used Doxygen documentation tool. The ultimate aim is to render complex C++ computer codes accessible, and to enhance collaboration between programme...

  18. A SANE approach to annotation in the digital edition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, P.; Braungart, Georg; Jannidis, Fotis; Gendolla, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Robinson and others have recently called for dynamic and collaborative digital scholarly editions. Annotation is a key component for editions that are not merely passive, read-only repositories of knowledge. Annotation facilities (both annotation creation and display), however, require complex

  19. Automatic annotation of head velocity and acceleration in Anvil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jongejan, Bart

    2012-01-01

    We describe an automatic face tracker plugin for the ANVIL annotation tool. The face tracker produces data for velocity and for acceleration in two dimensions. We compare the annotations generated by the face tracking algorithm with independently made manual annotations for head movements...

  20. Interoperable Multimedia Annotation and Retrieval for the Tourism Sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chatzitoulousis, Antonios; Efraimidis, Pavlos S.; Athanasiadis, I.N.

    2015-01-01

    The Atlas Metadata System (AMS) employs semantic web annotation techniques in order to create an interoperable information annotation and retrieval platform for the tourism sector. AMS adopts state-of-the-art metadata vocabularies, annotation techniques and semantic web technologies. Interoperabilit

  1. Northwest Montana Wetland Management District Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Northwest Montana Wetland Management District outlines District accomplishments during the 1988 calendar year. The report begins...

  2. Northwest Montana Wetland Management District: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1977

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Northwest Montana Wetland Management District outlines District accomplishments during the 1977 calendar year. The report begins with an...

  3. Northwest Montana Wetland Management District: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1978

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Northwest Montana Wetland Management District outlines District accomplishments during the 1978 calendar year. The report begins with an...

  4. MT—Impacts of Oil Exploration and Production to the Northeast Montana Wetland Management District

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Northeast Montana Wetland Management District provides habitat for numerous different species of breeding waterfowl and migrating shorebirds, including the...

  5. Montana Integrated Monitoring in Bird Conservation Regions: 2014 Field Implementation Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 2014 the Avian Science Center (ASC) at the University of Montana (UM) participated in the Integrated Monitoring in Bird Conservation Regions (IMBCR) program for a...

  6. 75 FR 4036 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Montana; Revisions to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... Administrative Rules of Montana. Revisions include minor editorial and grammatical changes, updates to the citations and references to federal and state laws and regulations, other minor changes to conform...

  7. Final report on biogeochemical cycling of selenium in Benton Lake, Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The biogeochemical cycling of selenium in Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge, west-central Montana was very complicated. Selenium accumulation in sediment was a...

  8. Saline seep impacts on Hailstone and Halfbreed National Wildlife Refuges in south-central Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Elevated salt and selenium levels in groundwater and in saline seeps within the Lake Basin of northern Stillwater County, Montana have impacted water quality on...

  9. 77 FR 43046 - Lolo National Forest; Montana; Center Horse Landscape Restoration EIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... Forest Service Lolo National Forest; Montana; Center Horse Landscape Restoration EIS AGENCY: Forest.... ADDRESSES: Send written comments to: Center Horse Landscape Restoration Project Leader, USDA Forest Service..., Monday through Friday. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Purpose and Need for Action The Center Horse...

  10. Northwest Montana Wetland Management District Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Northwest Montana Wetland Management District outlines District accomplishments during the 1985 calendar year. The report begins...

  11. The Story of Story Mill-A Montana Community Working to Restore Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story Mill, a 55-acre site on the outskirts of Bozeman, Montana, has undergone several transformations in recent history. The place is virtually a “mill of stories” with respect to land use, but originally it was a wetland.

  12. Northwest Montana Wetlands Management District Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Northwest Montana Wetland Management District outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1980 calendar year. The report begins with...

  13. 75 FR 66718 - Helena National Forest; Montana; Blackfoot Travel Plan EIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Helena National Forest; Montana; Blackfoot Travel Plan EIS AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA... the existing motorized public access routes and prohibitions within the Blackfoot travel planning...

  14. Anti-inflammatory activity of Arnica montana 6cH: preclinical study in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macêdo, S B; Ferreira, L R; Perazzo, F F; Carvalho, J C

    2004-04-01

    The anti-inflammatory effect of Arnica montana 6cH was evaluated using acute and chronic inflammation models. In the acute, model, carrageenin-induced rat paw oedema, the group treated with Arnica montana 6cH showed 30% inhibition compared to control (P < 0.05). Treatment with Arnica 6cH, 30 min prior to carrageenin, did not produce any inhibition of the inflammatory process. In the chronic model, Nystatin-induced oedema, the group treated 3 days previously with Arnica montana 6cH had reduced inflammation 6 h after the inflammatory agent was applied (P < 0.05). When treatment was given 6 h after Nystatin treatment, there was no significant inhibitory effect. In a model based on histamine-induced increase of vascular permeability, pretreatment with Arnica montana 6cH blocked the action of histamine in increasing vascular permeability.

  15. 6-O-Isobutyryl-tetrahydrohelenalin from the flowers of Arnica montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willuhn, G; Röttger, P M; Wendisch, D

    1984-02-01

    From the flowers of ARNICA MONTANA L., the helenanolides 6- O-isobutyryl-tetrahydrohelenalin and 2beta-ethoxy-6- O-isobutyryl-2,3-dihydrohelenalin were isolated and their structures established by spectroscopic methods.

  16. Wyodak-Anderson clinker in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana (prbclkg.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This ArcView shapefile contains a polygon representation of the Wyodak-Anderson clinker in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana. This theme was created...

  17. Digital Geologic Map of Glacier National Park, Montana (NPS, GRD, GRE, GLAC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Digital Geologic Map of Glacier National Park, Montana is comprised of GIS data layers, two ancillary GIS tables, a Windows Help File with ancillary map text,...

  18. Northwest Montana Wetland Management District, Swan River National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Northwest Montana Wetland Management District outlines District accomplishments during the 1989 calendar year. The report begins...

  19. National Bison Range, Ninepipe, Pablo and Swan River NWR's, Northwest Montana Wetlands: 1976 [Narrative report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for National Bison Range, Ninepipe NWR, Pablo NWR, Swan River NWR, and Northwest Montana Wetlands outlines Refuge accomplishments during the...

  20. Northwest Montana Wetland Management District, Swan River National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Northwest Montana Wetland Management District outlines District accomplishments during the 1990 calendar year. The report begins...

  1. Northwest Montana Wetland Management District Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Northwest Montana Wetland Management District outlines District accomplishments during the 1987 calendar year. The report begins...

  2. Northwest Montana Wetland Management District, Swan River National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Northwest Montana Wetland Management District outlines District accomplishments during the 1991 calendar year. The report begins...

  3. Trace elements and organochlorines in sediments and fish from Missouri River reservoirs in Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) is currently reviewing the application submitted by the Montana Power Company (MPC) for relicensing their...

  4. Effectiveness and Safety of Arnica montana in Post-Surgical Setting, Pain and Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannitti, Tommaso; Morales-Medina, Julio César; Bellavite, Paolo; Rottigni, Valentina; Palmieri, Beniamino

    2016-01-01

    Arnica montana has been widely used as a homeopathic remedy for the treatment of several inflammatory conditions in pain management and postoperative settings. This review gives an overview of the therapeutic use of Arnica montana in the above-mentioned fields also focusing on its mechanisms of action learned from animal models and in vitro studies. Arnica montana is more effective than placebo when used for the treatment of several conditions including post-traumatic and postoperative pain, edema, and ecchymosis. However, its dosages and preparations used have produced substantial differences in the clinical outcome. Cumulative evidence suggests that Arnica montana may represent a valid alternative to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, at least when treating some specific conditions.

  5. Integrative structural annotation of de novo RNA-Seq provides an accurate reference gene set of the enormous genome of the onion (Allium cepa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seungill; Kim, Myung-Shin; Kim, Yong-Min; Yeom, Seon-In; Cheong, Kyeongchae; Kim, Ki-Tae; Jeon, Jongbum; Kim, Sunggil; Kim, Do-Sun; Sohn, Seong-Han; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Choi, Doil

    2015-02-01

    The onion (Allium cepa L.) is one of the most widely cultivated and consumed vegetable crops in the world. Although a considerable amount of onion transcriptome data has been deposited into public databases, the sequences of the protein-coding genes are not accurate enough to be used, owing to non-coding sequences intermixed with the coding sequences. We generated a high-quality, annotated onion transcriptome from de novo sequence assembly and intensive structural annotation using the integrated structural gene annotation pipeline (ISGAP), which identified 54,165 protein-coding genes among 165,179 assembled transcripts totalling 203.0 Mb by eliminating the intron sequences. ISGAP performed reliable annotation, recognizing accurate gene structures based on reference proteins, and ab initio gene models of the assembled transcripts. Integrative functional annotation and gene-based SNP analysis revealed a whole biological repertoire of genes and transcriptomic variation in the onion. The method developed in this study provides a powerful tool for the construction of reference gene sets for organisms based solely on de novo transcriptome data. Furthermore, the reference genes and their variation described here for the onion represent essential tools for molecular breeding and gene cloning in Allium spp.

  6. Evaluation of antioxidant and cytoprotective activities of Arnica montana L. and Artemisia absinthium L. ethanolic extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craciunescu Oana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arnica montana L. and Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae are medicinal plants native to temperate regions of Europe, including Romania, traditionally used for treatment of skin wounds, bruises and contusions. In the present study, A. montana and A. absinthium ethanolic extracts were evaluated for their chemical composition, antioxidant activity and protective effect against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in a mouse fibroblast-like NCTC cell line. Results A. absinthium extract showed a higher antioxidant capacity than A. montana extract as Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, Oxygen radical absorbance capacity and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical-scavenging activity, in correlation with its flavonoids and phenolic acids content. Both plant extracts had significant effects on the growth of NCTC cells in the range of 10–100 mg/L A. montana and 10–500 mg/L A. absinthium. They also protected fibroblast cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage, at the same doses. The best protection was observed in cell pre-treatment with 10 mg/L A. montana and 10–300 mg/L A. absinthium, respectively, as determined by Neutral red and lactate dehydrogenase assays. In addition, cell pre-treatment with plant extracts, at these concentrations, prevented morphological changes induced by hydrogen peroxide. Flow-cytometry analysis showed that pre-treatment with A. montana and A. absinthium extracts restored the proportion of cells in each phase of the cell cycle. Conclusions A. montana and A. absinthium extracts, rich in flavonoids and phenolic acids, showed a good antioxidant activity and cytoprotective effect against oxidative damage in fibroblast-like cells. These results provide scientific support for the traditional use of A. montana and A. absinthium in treatment of skin disorders.

  7. Logical Gene Ontology Annotations (GOAL): exploring gene ontology annotations with OWL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jupp, Simon; Stevens, Robert; Hoehndorf, Robert

    2012-04-24

    Ontologies such as the Gene Ontology (GO) and their use in annotations make cross species comparisons of genes possible, along with a wide range of other analytical activities. The bio-ontologies community, in particular the Open Biomedical Ontologies (OBO) community, have provided many other ontologies and an increasingly large volume of annotations of gene products that can be exploited in query and analysis. As many annotations with different ontologies centre upon gene products, there is a possibility to explore gene products through multiple ontological perspectives at the same time. Questions could be asked that link a gene product's function, process, cellular location, phenotype and disease. Current tools, such as AmiGO, allow exploration of genes based on their GO annotations, but not through multiple ontological perspectives. In addition, the semantics of these ontology's representations should be able to, through automated reasoning, afford richer query opportunities of the gene product annotations than is currently possible. To do this multi-perspective, richer querying of gene product annotations, we have created the Logical Gene Ontology, or GOAL ontology, in OWL that combines the Gene Ontology, Human Disease Ontology and the Mammalian Phenotype Ontology, together with classes that represent the annotations with these ontologies for mouse gene products. Each mouse gene product is represented as a class, with the appropriate relationships to the GO aspects, phenotype and disease with which it has been annotated. We then use defined classes to query these protein classes through automated reasoning, and to build a complex hierarchy of gene products. We have presented this through a Web interface that allows arbitrary queries to be constructed and the results displayed. This standard use of OWL affords a rich interaction with Gene Ontology, Human Disease Ontology and Mammalian Phenotype Ontology annotations for the mouse, to give a fine partitioning of

  8. Sequencing, annotation and comparative analysis of nine BACs of giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yang; Cai, Jing; Li, JianWen; Li, Bo; Lin, RunMao; Tian, Feng; Wang, XiaoLing; Wang, Jun

    2010-01-01

    A 10-fold BAC library for giant panda was constructed and nine BACs were selected to generate finish sequences. These BACs could be used as a validation resource for the de novo assembly accuracy of the whole genome shotgun sequencing reads of giant panda newly generated by the Illumina GA sequencing technology. Complete sanger sequencing, assembly, annotation and comparative analysis were carried out on the selected BACs of a joint length 878 kb. Homologue search and de novo prediction methods were used to annotate genes and repeats. Twelve protein coding genes were predicted, seven of which could be functionally annotated. The seven genes have an average gene size of about 41 kb, an average coding size of about 1.2 kb and an average exon number of 6 per gene. Besides, seven tRNA genes were found. About 27 percent of the BAC sequence is composed of repeats. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using neighbor-join algorithm across five species, including giant panda, human, dog, cat and mouse, which reconfirms dog as the most related species to giant panda. Our results provide detailed sequence and structure information for new genes and repeats of giant panda, which will be helpful for further studies on the giant panda.

  9. Sequencing,annotation and comparative analysis of nine BACs of the giant panda(Ailuropoda melanoleuca)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A 10-fold BAC library for the giant panda was constructed and nine BACs were selected to generate finish sequences.These BACs could be used as a validation resource for the de novo assembly accuracy of the whole genome shotgun sequencing reads of the giant panda newly generated by Illumina GA sequencing technology.Complete Sanger sequencing,assembly,annotation and comparative analysis were carried out on the selected BACs of a joint length 878 kb.Homologue search and de novo prediction methods were used to annotate genes and repeats.Twelve protein coding genes were predicted,seven of which could be functionally annotated.The seven genes have an average gene size of about 41 kb,an average coding size of about 1.2 kb and an average exon number of 6 per gene.Besides,seven tRNA genes were found.About 27 percent of the BAC sequence is composed of repeats.A phylogenetic tree was constructed using a neighbor-join algorithm across five species,including the giant panda,human,dog,cat and mouse,which reconfirms dog as the most closely related species to the giant panda.Our results provide detailed sequence and structure information for new genes and repeats of the giant panda,which will be helpful for further studies about the giant panda.

  10. Compilation of Water-Resources Data for Montana, Water Year 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladd, P. B.; Berkas, W.R.; White, M.K.; Dodge, K.A.; Bailey, F.A.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, Montana Water Science Center, in cooperation with other Federal, State, and local agencies, and Tribal governments, collects a large amount of data pertaining to the water resources of Montana each water year. This report is a compilation of Montana site-data sheets for the 2006 water year, which consists of records of stage and discharge of streams; water quality of streams and ground water; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; water levels in wells; and precipitation data. Site-data sheets for selected stations in Canada and Wyoming also are included in this report. The data for Montana, along with data from various parts of the Nation, are included in 'Water-Resources Data for the United States, Water Year 2006', which is published as U.S. Geological Survey Water-Data Report WDR-US-2006 and is available at http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/wdr2006. Additional water year 2006 data collected at crest-stage gage and miscellaneous-measurement stations were collected but were not published. These data are stored in files of the U.S. Geological Survey Montana Water Science Center in Helena, Montana, and are available on request.

  11. The Montana ALE (Autonomous Lunar Excavator) Systems Engineering Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Bethanne J.

    2012-01-01

    On May 2 1-26, 20 12, the third annual NASA Lunabotics Mining Competition will be held at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. This event brings together student teams from universities around the world to compete in an engineering challenge. Each team must design, build and operate a robotic excavator that can collect artificial lunar soil and deposit it at a target location. Montana State University, Bozeman, is one of the institutions selected to field a team this year. This paper will summarize the goals of MSU's lunar excavator project, known as the Autonomous Lunar Explorer (ALE), along with the engineering process that the MSU team is using to fulfill these goals, according to NASA's systems engineering guidelines.

  12. CENTENNIAL MOUNTAINS WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, MONTANA AND IDAHO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkind, Irving J.; Ridenour, James

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey conducted within the Centennial Mountains Wilderness study area in Montana and Idaho showed large areas of probable and substantiated resource potential for phosphate. Byproducts that may be derived from processing the phosphate include vanadium, chromium, uranium, silver, fluorine, and the rare earths, lanthanum and yttrium. Results of a geochemical sampling program suggest that there is little promise for the occurrence of base and precious metals in the area. Although the area contains other nonmetallic deposits, such as coal, building stone, and pumiceous ash they are not considered as mineral resources. There is a probable resource potential for oil and gas and significant amounts may underlie the area around the Peet Creek and Odell Creek anticlines.

  13. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Ashton Quadrangle, Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suekawa, H.S.; Merrick, D.; Clayton, J.; Rumba, S.

    1982-07-01

    The Ashton Quadrangle, Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming, was evaluated to identify and delineate areas containing environments favorable for uranium deposits, using criteria developed for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. General surface reconnaissance, radiometric traverses, and geochemical sampling were carried out in all geologic environments within the quadrangle. Aerial radiometric data were evaluated, and anomalies were examined in the field. Fourteen uranium occurrences were noted in the study area. Only one environment, the phosphorites of the Permian Phosphoria Formation, is considered favorable for uranium deposition. The unfavorable environments include: limestones, sandstones, coal and carbonaceous shales, volcanics, Precambrian metamorphics, and Tertiary basins. Unevaluated areas include the John D. Rockefeller Jr. Memorial Parkway and Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks, where park service regulations prohibit detailed investigations.

  14. Shoot Tip Culture of Arnica montana for Micropropagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conchou, O; Nichterlein, K; Vömel, A

    1992-02-01

    Multiple shoots were regenerated from shoot tips of ARNICA MONTANA on MS and B5 media supplemented with BA (1 mg/l) and NAA (0.1 mg/l). Sections of 1-2 mm in length cultured from IN VITRO germinated seedlings regenerated 7.7 (mean) shoots on the MS medium, whereas sections cultured from greenhouse plants regenerated 9.0 (mean) shoots on the B5 medium within 6 weeks. Subsequent subcultures of shoots on the same media but without NAA resulted in similar or lower multiplication rates (1.6 to 3.1 in 3 weeks). Shoot development was promoted, whereas shoot initiation was simultaneously inhibited by the addition of activated charcoal to the media. Rooting was induced by culturing shoots from seedling as well as from greenhouse plant shoot tips on MS or B5 medium supplemented with NAA. The plantlets were transplanted into soil and grown successfully under greenhouse and field conditions.

  15. Wegener’s granulomatosis and environmental factors in Western Montana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Samuel Zeft

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our study was to determine whether exposure to silica or other environmental factors is associated with developing Wegener’s granulomatosis (WG, in a geographically isolated region of Western Montana. We sought to identify and interview all cases of WG diagnosed during 1993-2006 among residents of a ten-county region of Western Montana, as well as a group of demographically similar controls (n=39 without autoimmune disease. In the interview, we ascertained occupational silica and other exposures (metals, solvents, pesticides, tobacco. We enumerated 32 cases of WG, of whom 27 were included in the case-control study. Overall, a history of silica exposure was not associated with WG (OR = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.13-3.27, although there was a suggestion of increase in risk among persons with relatively recent (OR=2.67, 95% CI: 0.54-17.2, heavy (OR=1.82, 95% CI: 0.09-112.9, and prolonged (OR=1.53, 95% CI: 0.16-20.0 exposures. A history of having worked in the mining industry was associated with WG (six cases including three with no silica exposure, zero controls, lower 95% CI: 1.53. Risk was not associated with occupational or aerial pesticide exposure, but with residential rodenticide use (OR=12.15, 95% CI: 1.54-552. Occupational exposure to metals or solvents was not associated with WG, nor was a history of cigarette smoking. Results of earlier studies of WG support the hypothesis that silica exposure adversely influences the risk of developing WG. Our small study of WG failed to identify an association with silica overall, but the results are compat­ible with an increased risk in persons with relatively heavy, prolonged, and/or recent exposure.

  16. Automatic Extraction of Tagset Mappings from Parallel-Annotated Corpora

    CERN Document Server

    Hughes, J; Atwell, E; Hughes, John; Souter, Clive; Atwell, Eric

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes some of the recent work of project AMALGAM (automatic mapping among lexico-grammatical annotation models). We are investigating ways to map between the leading corpus annotation schemes in order to improve their resuability. Collation of all the included corpora into a single large annotated corpus will provide a more detailed language model to be developed for tasks such as speech and handwriting recognition. In particular, we focus here on a method of extracting mappings from corpora that have been annotated according to more than one annotation scheme.

  17. How well are protein structures annotated in secondary databases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rother, Kristian; Michalsky, Elke; Leser, Ulf

    2005-09-01

    We investigated to what extent Protein Data Bank (PDB) entries are annotated with second-party information based on existing cross-references between PDB and 15 other databases. We report 2 interesting findings. First, there is a clear "annotation gap" for structures less than 7 years old for secondary databases that are manually curated. Second, the examined databases overlap with each other quite well, dividing the PDB into 2 well-annotated thirds and one poorly annotated third. Both observations should be taken into account in any study depending on the selection of protein structures by their annotation.

  18. NOVEL BIPHASE CODE -INTEGRATED SIDELOBE SUPPRESSION CODE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Feixue; Ou Gang; Zhuang Zhaowen

    2004-01-01

    A kind of novel binary phase code named sidelobe suppression code is proposed in this paper. It is defined to be the code whose corresponding optimal sidelobe suppression filter outputs the minimum sidelobes. It is shown that there do exist sidelobe suppression codes better than the conventional optimal codes-Barker codes. For example, the sidelobe suppression code of length 11 with filter of length 39 has better sidelobe level up to 17dB than that of Barker code with the same code length and filter length.

  19. Image Semantic Automatic Annotation by Relevance Feedback

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Tong-zhen; SHEN Rui-min

    2007-01-01

    A large semantic gap exists between content based index retrieval (CBIR) and high-level semantic, additional semantic information should be attached to the images, it refers in three respects including semantic representation model, semantic information building and semantic retrieval techniques. In this paper, we introduce an associated semantic network and an automatic semantic annotation system. In the system, a semantic network model is employed as the semantic representation model, it uses semantic keywords, linguistic ontology and low-level features in semantic similarity calculating. Through several times of users' relevance feedback, semantic network is enriched automatically. To speed up the growth of semantic network and get a balance annotation, semantic seeds and semantic loners are employed especially.

  20. Applied bioinformatics: Genome annotation and transcriptome analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Vikas

    and dhurrin, which have not previously been characterized in blueberries. There are more than 44,500 spider species with distinct habitats and unique characteristics. Spiders are masters of producing silk webs to catch prey and using venom to neutralize. The exploration of the genetics behind these properties...... japonicus (Lotus), Vaccinium corymbosum (blueberry), Stegodyphus mimosarum (spider) and Trifolium occidentale (clover). From a bioinformatics data analysis perspective, my work can be divided into three parts; genome annotation, small RNA, and gene expression analysis. Lotus is a legume of significant...... has just started. We have assembled and annotated the first two spider genomes to facilitate our understanding of spiders at the molecular level. The need for analyzing the large and increasing amount of sequencing data has increased the demand for efficient, user friendly, and broadly applicable...

  1. Exploiting Social Annotation for Automatic Resource Discovery

    CERN Document Server

    Plangprasopchok, Anon

    2007-01-01

    Information integration applications, such as mediators or mashups, that require access to information resources currently rely on users manually discovering and integrating them in the application. Manual resource discovery is a slow process, requiring the user to sift through results obtained via keyword-based search. Although search methods have advanced to include evidence from document contents, its metadata and the contents and link structure of the referring pages, they still do not adequately cover information sources -- often called ``the hidden Web''-- that dynamically generate documents in response to a query. The recently popular social bookmarking sites, which allow users to annotate and share metadata about various information sources, provide rich evidence for resource discovery. In this paper, we describe a probabilistic model of the user annotation process in a social bookmarking system del.icio.us. We then use the model to automatically find resources relevant to a particular information dom...

  2. Cognition inspired framework for indoor scene annotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhipeng; Liu, Peng; Zhao, Wei; Tang, Xianglong

    2015-09-01

    We present a simple yet effective scene annotation framework based on a combination of bag-of-visual words (BoVW), three-dimensional scene structure estimation, scene context, and cognitive theory. From a macroperspective, the proposed cognition-based hybrid motivation framework divides the annotation problem into empirical inference and real-time classification. Inspired by the inference ability of human beings, common objects of indoor scenes are defined for experience-based inference, while in the real-time classification stage, an improved BoVW-based multilayer abstract semantics labeling method is proposed by introducing abstract semantic hierarchies to narrow the semantic gap and improve the performance of object categorization. The proposed framework was evaluated on a variety of common data sets and experimental results proved its effectiveness.

  3. A Novel Technique to Image Annotation using Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Savita

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available : Automatic annotation of digital pictures is a key technology for managing and retrieving images from large image collection. Traditional image semantics extraction and representation schemes were commonly divided into two categories, namely visual features and text annotations. However, visual feature scheme are difficult to extract and are often semantically inconsistent. On the other hand, the image semantics can be well represented by text annotations. It is also easier to retrieve images according to their annotations. Traditional image annotation techniques are time-consuming and requiring lots of human effort. In this paper we propose Neural Network based a novel approach to the problem of image annotation. These approaches are applied to the Image data set. Our main work is focused on the image annotation by using multilayer perceptron, which exhibits a clear-cut idea on application of multilayer perceptron with special features. MLP Algorithm helps us to discover the concealed relations between image data and annotation data, and annotate image according to such relations. By using this algorithm we can save more memory space, and in case of web applications, transferring of images and download should be fast. This paper reviews 50 image annotation systems using supervised machine learning Techniques to annotate images for image retrieval. Results obtained show that the multi layer perceptron Neural Network classifier outperforms conventional DST Technique.

  4. From concatenated codes to graph codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn; Høholdt, Tom

    2004-01-01

    We consider codes based on simple bipartite expander graphs. These codes may be seen as the first step leading from product type concatenated codes to more complex graph codes. We emphasize constructions of specific codes of realistic lengths, and study the details of decoding by message passing...

  5. Structural Analysis and Visualization of C++ Code Evolution using Syntax Trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chevalier, Fanny; Auber, David; Telea, Alexandru

    2007-01-01

    We present a method to detect and visualize evolution patterns in C++ source code. Our method consists of three steps. First, we extract an annotated syntax tree (AST) from each version of a given C++ source code. Next, we hash the extracted syntax nodes based on a metric combining structure and typ

  6. Composition of leaf n-alkanes in three Satureja montana L. subspecies from the Balkan peninsula: ecological and taxonomic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodoš, Tanja; Rajčević, Nemanja; Tešević, Vele; Matevski, Vlado; Janaćković, Pedja; Marin, Petar D

    2015-01-01

    The composition of the epicuticular leaf n-alkanes of eight populations of three Satureja montana subspecies (S. montana L. subsp. pisidica (Wettst.) Šilić, S. montana L. subsp. montana, and S. montana L. subsp. variegata (Host) P. W. Ball), from central and western areas of the Balkan Peninsula was characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. In the leaf waxes, 15 n-alkane homologs with chain-lengths ranging from C21 to C35 were identified. The main n-alkane in almost all samples was n-nonacosane (C29 ), but differences in the contents of three other dominant n-alkanes allowed separating the coastal from the continental populations. The diversity and variability of the epicuticular-leaf-n-alkane patterns and their relation to different geographic and bioclimatic parameters were analyzed by several statistical methods (principal component, discriminant, and cluster analyses as well as the Mantel test). All tests showed a high correlation between the leaf n-alkane pattern and the geographical distribution of the investigated populations, confirming the differentiation between S. montana subsp. pisidica and the other two subspecies. The S. montana subsp. variegata and S. montana subsp. montana populations are geographically closer and their differentiation according to the leaf-n-alkane patterns was not clear, even though there was some indication of discrimination between them. Moreover, most of the bioclimatic parameters related to temperature were highly correlated with the differentiation of the coastal and the continental populations.

  7. Building a semantically annotated corpus of clinical texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Angus; Gaizauskas, Robert; Hepple, Mark; Demetriou, George; Guo, Yikun; Roberts, Ian; Setzer, Andrea

    2009-10-01

    In this paper, we describe the construction of a semantically annotated corpus of clinical texts for use in the development and evaluation of systems for automatically extracting clinically significant information from the textual component of patient records. The paper details the sampling of textual material from a collection of 20,000 cancer patient records, the development of a semantic annotation scheme, the annotation methodology, the distribution of annotations in the final corpus, and the use of the corpus for development of an adaptive information extraction system. The resulting corpus is the most richly semantically annotated resource for clinical text processing built to date, whose value has been demonstrated through its use in developing an effective information extraction system. The detailed presentation of our corpus construction and annotation methodology will be of value to others seeking to build high-quality semantically annotated corpora in biomedical domains.

  8. Cadec: A corpus of adverse drug event annotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Sarvnaz; Metke-Jimenez, Alejandro; Kemp, Madonna; Wang, Chen

    2015-06-01

    CSIRO Adverse Drug Event Corpus (Cadec) is a new rich annotated corpus of medical forum posts on patient-reported Adverse Drug Events (ADEs). The corpus is sourced from posts on social media, and contains text that is largely written in colloquial language and often deviates from formal English grammar and punctuation rules. Annotations contain mentions of concepts such as drugs, adverse effects, symptoms, and diseases linked to their corresponding concepts in controlled vocabularies, i.e., SNOMED Clinical Terms and MedDRA. The quality of the annotations is ensured by annotation guidelines, multi-stage annotations, measuring inter-annotator agreement, and final review of the annotations by a clinical terminologist. This corpus is useful for studies in the area of information extraction, or more generally text mining, from social media to detect possible adverse drug reactions from direct patient reports. The corpus is publicly available at https://data.csiro.au.(1).

  9. Deburring: an annotated bibliography. Volume V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, L.K.

    1978-01-01

    An annotated summary of 204 articles and publications on burrs, burr prevention and deburring is presented. Thirty-seven deburring processes are listed. Entries cited include English, Russian, French, Japanese and German language articles. Entries are indexed by deburring processes, author, and language. Indexes also indicate which references discuss equipment and tooling, how to use a process, economics, burr properties, and how to design to minimize burr problems. Research studies are identified as are the materials deburred.

  10. Deburring: an annotated bibliography. Volume VI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, L.K.

    1980-07-01

    An annotated summary of 138 articles and publications on burrs, burr prevention and deburring is presented. Thirty-seven deburring processes are listed. Entries cited include English, Russian, French, Japanese, and German language articles. Entries are indexed by deburring processes, author, and language. Indexes also indicate which references discuss equipment and tooling, how to use a proces economics, burr properties, and how to design to minimize burr problems. Research studies are identified as are the materials deburred.

  11. Cultural nationalism: a review and annotated bibliography

    OpenAIRE

    Woods, Eric Taylor

    2014-01-01

    This review and annotated bibliography is part of The State of Nationalism (SoN), a comprehensive guide to the study of nationalism. Topic of this first contribution is cultural nationalism. This concept generally refers to ideas and practices that relate to the intended revival of a purported national community’s culture. If political nationalism is focused on the achievement of political autonomy, cultural nationalism is focused on the cultivation of a nation.

  12. The 2008 update of the Aspergillus nidulans genome annotation: a community effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortman, Jennifer Russo; Gilsenan, Jane Mabey; Joardar, Vinita; Deegan, Jennifer; Clutterbuck, John; Andersen, Mikael R.; Archer, David; Bencina, Mojca; Braus, Gerhard; Coutinho, Pedro; von Döhren, Hans; Doonan, John; Driessen, Arnold J.M.; Durek, Pawel; Espeso, Eduardo; Fekete, Erzsébet; Flipphi, Michel; Estrada, Carlos Garcia; Geysens, Steven; Goldman, Gustavo; de Groot, Piet W.J.; Hansen, Kim; Harris, Steven D.; Heinekamp, Thorsten; Helmstaedt, Kerstin; Henrissat, Bernard; Hofmann, Gerald; Homan, Tim; Horio, Tetsuya; Horiuchi, Hiroyuki; James, Steve; Jones, Meriel; Karaffa, Levente; Karányi, Zsolt; Kato, Masashi; Keller, Nancy; Kelly, Diane E.; Kiel, Jan A.K.W.; Kim, Jung-Mi; van der Klei, Ida J.; Klis, Frans M.; Kovalchuk, Andriy; Kraševec, Nada; Kubicek, Christian P.; Liu, Bo; MacCabe, Andrew; Meyer, Vera; Mirabito, Pete; Miskei, Márton; Mos, Magdalena; Mullins, Jonathan; Nelson, David R.; Nielsen, Jens; Oakley, Berl R.; Osmani, Stephen A.; Pakula, Tiina; Paszewski, Andrzej; Paulsen, Ian; Pilsyk, Sebastian; Pócsi, István; Punt, Peter J.; Ram, Arthur F.J.; Ren, Qinghu; Robellet, Xavier; Robson, Geoff; Seiboth, Bernhard; Solingen, Piet van; Specht, Thomas; Sun, Jibin; Taheri-Talesh, Naimeh; Takeshita, Norio; Ussery, Dave; vanKuyk, Patricia A.; Visser, Hans; van de Vondervoort, Peter J.I.; de Vries, Ronald P.; Walton, Jonathan; Xiang, Xin; Xiong, Yi; Zeng, An Ping; Brandt, Bernd W.; Cornell, Michael J.; van den Hondel, Cees A.M.J.J.; Visser, Jacob; Oliver, Stephen G.; Turner, Geoffrey

    2010-01-01

    The identification and annotation of protein-coding genes is one of the primary goals of whole-genome sequencing projects, and the accuracy of predicting the primary protein products of gene expression is vital to the interpretation of the available data and the design of downstream functional applications. Nevertheless, the comprehensive annotation of eukaryotic genomes remains a considerable challenge. Many genomes submitted to public databases, including those of major model organisms, contain significant numbers of wrong and incomplete gene predictions. We present a community-based reannotation of the Aspergillus nidulans genome with the primary goal of increasing the number and quality of protein functional assignments through the careful review of experts in the field of fungal biology. PMID:19146970

  13. Metingear: a development environment for annotating genome-scale metabolic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, John W; James, A Gordon; Steinbeck, Christoph

    2013-09-01

    Genome-scale metabolic models often lack annotations that would allow them to be used for further analysis. Previous efforts have focused on associating metabolites in the model with a cross reference, but this can be problematic if the reference is not freely available, multiple resources are used or the metabolite is added from a literature review. Associating each metabolite with chemical structure provides unambiguous identification of the components and a more detailed view of the metabolism. We have developed an open-source desktop application that simplifies the process of adding database cross references and chemical structures to genome-scale metabolic models. Annotated models can be exported to the Systems Biology Markup Language open interchange format. Source code, binaries, documentation and tutorials are freely available at http://johnmay.github.com/metingear. The application is implemented in Java with bundles available for MS Windows and Macintosh OS X.

  14. Automatic Function Annotations for Hoare Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Matichuk

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In systems verification we are often concerned with multiple, inter-dependent properties that a program must satisfy. To prove that a program satisfies a given property, the correctness of intermediate states of the program must be characterized. However, this intermediate reasoning is not always phrased such that it can be easily re-used in the proofs of subsequent properties. We introduce a function annotation logic that extends Hoare logic in two important ways: (1 when proving that a function satisfies a Hoare triple, intermediate reasoning is automatically stored as function annotations, and (2 these function annotations can be exploited in future Hoare logic proofs. This reduces duplication of reasoning between the proofs of different properties, whilst serving as a drop-in replacement for traditional Hoare logic to avoid the costly process of proof refactoring. We explain how this was implemented in Isabelle/HOL and applied to an experimental branch of the seL4 microkernel to significantly reduce the size and complexity of existing proofs.

  15. Nonlinear Deep Kernel Learning for Image Annotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiu, Mingyuan; Sahbi, Hichem

    2017-02-08

    Multiple kernel learning (MKL) is a widely used technique for kernel design. Its principle consists in learning, for a given support vector classifier, the most suitable convex (or sparse) linear combination of standard elementary kernels. However, these combinations are shallow and often powerless to capture the actual similarity between highly semantic data, especially for challenging classification tasks such as image annotation. In this paper, we redefine multiple kernels using deep multi-layer networks. In this new contribution, a deep multiple kernel is recursively defined as a multi-layered combination of nonlinear activation functions, each one involves a combination of several elementary or intermediate kernels, and results into a positive semi-definite deep kernel. We propose four different frameworks in order to learn the weights of these networks: supervised, unsupervised, kernel-based semisupervised and Laplacian-based semi-supervised. When plugged into support vector machines (SVMs), the resulting deep kernel networks show clear gain, compared to several shallow kernels for the task of image annotation. Extensive experiments and analysis on the challenging ImageCLEF photo annotation benchmark, the COREL5k database and the Banana dataset validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  16. Management Tool for Semantic Annotations in WSDL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissel-Dallier, Nicolas; Lorré, Jean-Pierre; Benaben, Frédérick

    Semantic Web Services add features to automate web services discovery and composition. A new standard called SAWSDL emerged recently as a W3C recommendation to add semantic annotations within web service descriptions (WSDL). In order to manipulate such information in Java program we need an XML parser. Two open-source libraries already exist (SAWSDL4J and Woden4SAWSDL) but they don't meet all our specific needs such as support for WSDL 1.1 and 2.0. This paper presents a new tool, called EasyWSDL, which is able to handle semantic annotations as well as to manage the full WSDL description thanks to a plug-in mechanism. This tool allows us to read/edit/create a WSDL description and related annotations thanks to a uniform API, in both 1.1 and 2.0 versions. This document compares these three libraries and presents its integration into Dragon the OW2 open-source SOA governance tool.

  17. Annotated receipts capture household food purchases from a broad range of sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimotsu Scott T

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate measurement of household food purchase behavior (HFPB is important for understanding its association with household characteristics, individual dietary intake and neighborhood food retail outlets. However, little research has been done to develop measures of HFPB. The main objective of this paper is to describe the development of a measure of HFPB using annotated food purchase receipts. Methods Households collected and annotated food purchase receipts for a four-week period as part of the baseline assessment of a household nutrition intervention. Receipts were collected from all food sources, including grocery stores and restaurants. Households (n = 90 were recruited from the community as part of an obesity prevention intervention conducted in 2007–2008 in Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA. Household primary shoppers were trained to follow a standardized receipt collection and annotation protocol. Annotated receipts were mailed weekly to research staff. Staff coded the receipt data and entered it into a database. Total food dollars, proportion of food dollars, and ounces of food purchased were examined for different food sources and food categories. Descriptive statistics and correlations are presented. Results A total of 2,483 receipts were returned by 90 households. Home sources comprised 45% of receipts and eating-out sources 55%. Eating-out entrees were proportionally the largest single food category based on counts (16.6% and dollars ($106 per month. Two-week expenditures were highly correlated (r = 0.83 with four-week expenditures. Conclusion Receipt data provided important quantitative information about HFPB from a wide range of sources and food categories. Two weeks may be adequate to reliably characterize HFPB using annotated receipts.

  18. Generation, annotation, and analysis of an extensive Aspergillus niger EST collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Xiang

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aspergillus niger, a saprophyte commonly found on decaying vegetation, is widely used and studied for industrial purposes. Despite its place as one of the most important organisms for commercial applications, the lack of available information about its genetic makeup limits research with this filamentous fungus. Results We present here the analysis of 12,820 expressed sequence tags (ESTs generated from A. niger cultured under seven different growth conditions. These ESTs identify about 5,108 genes of which 44.5% code for proteins sharing similarity (E ≤ 1e -5 with GenBank entries of known function, 38% code for proteins that only share similarity with GenBank entries of unknown function and 17.5% encode proteins that do not have a GenBank homolog. Using the Gene Ontology hierarchy, we present a first classification of the A. niger proteins encoded by these genes and compare its protein repertoire with other well-studied fungal species. We have established a searchable web-based database that includes the EST and derived contig sequences and their annotation. Details about this project and access to the annotated A. niger database are available. Conclusion This EST collection and its annotation provide a significant resource for fundamental and applied research with A. niger. The gene set identified in this manuscript will be highly useful in the annotation of the genome sequence of A. niger, the genes described in the manuscript, especially those encoding hydrolytic enzymes will provide a valuable source for researchers interested in enzyme properties and applications.

  19. Prokaryotic Contig Annotation Pipeline Server: Web Application for a Prokaryotic Genome Annotation Pipeline Based on the Shiny App Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Byeonghyeok; Baek, Min-Jeong; Min, Byoungnam; Choi, In-Geol

    2017-09-01

    Genome annotation is a primary step in genomic research. To establish a light and portable prokaryotic genome annotation pipeline for use in individual laboratories, we developed a Shiny app package designated as "P-CAPS" (Prokaryotic Contig Annotation Pipeline Server). The package is composed of R and Python scripts that integrate publicly available annotation programs into a server application. P-CAPS is not only a browser-based interactive application but also a distributable Shiny app package that can be installed on any personal computer. The final annotation is provided in various standard formats and is summarized in an R markdown document. Annotation can be visualized and examined with a public genome browser. A benchmark test showed that the annotation quality and completeness of P-CAPS were reliable and compatible with those of currently available public pipelines.

  20. Good Codes From Generalised Algebraic Geometry Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Jibril, Mubarak; Ahmed, Mohammed Zaki; Tjhai, Cen

    2010-01-01

    Algebraic geometry codes or Goppa codes are defined with places of degree one. In constructing generalised algebraic geometry codes places of higher degree are used. In this paper we present 41 new codes over GF(16) which improve on the best known codes of the same length and rate. The construction method uses places of small degree with a technique originally published over 10 years ago for the construction of generalised algebraic geometry codes.

  1. Cooperative Recovery Initiative: Bull Trout Restoration: Restoring Cold, Clean, Complex and Connected Habitat in the Blackfoot River Watershed of Montana Interim Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Habitat degradation and the effects of climate change are the biggest threats to bull trout in the Blackfoot River watershed of Montana. Montana Fish, Wildlife &...

  2. Cooperative Recovery Initiative: Bull Trout Restoration: Restoring Cold, Clean, Complex and Connected Habitat in the Blackfoot River Watershed of Montana Interim Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Habitat degradation and the effects of climate change are the biggest threats to bull trout in the Blackfoot River watershed of Montana. Montana Fish, Wildlife...

  3. VESPA: software to facilitate genomic annotation of prokaryotic organisms through integration of proteomic and transcriptomic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterson Elena S

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The procedural aspects of genome sequencing and assembly have become relatively inexpensive, yet the full, accurate structural annotation of these genomes remains a challenge. Next-generation sequencing transcriptomics (RNA-Seq, global microarrays, and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS-based proteomics have demonstrated immense value to genome curators as individual sources of information, however, integrating these data types to validate and improve structural annotation remains a major challenge. Current visual and statistical analytic tools are focused on a single data type, or existing software tools are retrofitted to analyze new data forms. We present Visual Exploration and Statistics to Promote Annotation (VESPA is a new interactive visual analysis software tool focused on assisting scientists with the annotation of prokaryotic genomes though the integration of proteomics and transcriptomics data with current genome location coordinates. Results VESPA is a desktop Java™ application that integrates high-throughput proteomics data (peptide-centric and transcriptomics (probe or RNA-Seq data into a genomic context, all of which can be visualized at three levels of genomic resolution. Data is interrogated via searches linked to the genome visualizations to find regions with high likelihood of mis-annotation. Search results are linked to exports for further validation outside of VESPA or potential coding-regions can be analyzed concurrently with the software through interaction with BLAST. VESPA is demonstrated on two use cases (Yersinia pestis Pestoides F and Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 to demonstrate the rapid manner in which mis-annotations can be found and explored in VESPA using either proteomics data alone, or in combination with transcriptomic data. Conclusions VESPA is an interactive visual analytics tool that integrates high-throughput data into a genomic context to facilitate the discovery of structural mis-annotations

  4. Assessment and improvement of Indian-origin rhesus macaque and Mauritian-origin cynomolgus macaque genome annotations using deep transcriptome sequencing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xinxia; Pipes, Lenore; Xiong, Hao; Green, Richard R.; Jones, Daniel C.; Ruzzo, Walter L.; Schroth, Gary P.; Mason, Christopher E.; Palermo, Robert E.; Katze, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    Background The genome annotations of rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and cynomolgus (Macaca fascicularis) macaques, two of the most common nonhuman primate animal models, are limited. Methods We analyzed large-scale macaque RNA-based next-generation sequencing (RNAseq) data to identify un-annotated macaque transcripts. Results For both macaque species, we uncovered thousands of novel isoforms for annotated genes and thousands of un-annotated intergenic transcripts enriched with non-coding RNAs. We also identified thousands of transcript sequences which are partially or completely ‘missing’ from current macaque genome assemblies. We showed that many newly identified transcripts were differentially expressed during SIV infection of rhesus macaques or during Ebola virus infection of cynomolgus macaques. Conclusions For two important macaque species, we uncovered thousands of novel isoforms and un-annotated intergenic transcripts including coding and non-coding RNAs, polyadenylated and non-polyadenylated transcripts. This resource will greatly improve future macaque studies, as demonstrated by their applications in infectious disease studies. PMID:24810475

  5. IntelliGO: a new vector-based semantic similarity measure including annotation origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devignes Marie-Dominique

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Gene Ontology (GO is a well known controlled vocabulary describing the biological process, molecular function and cellular component aspects of gene annotation. It has become a widely used knowledge source in bioinformatics for annotating genes and measuring their semantic similarity. These measures generally involve the GO graph structure, the information content of GO aspects, or a combination of both. However, only a few of the semantic similarity measures described so far can handle GO annotations differently according to their origin (i.e. their evidence codes. Results We present here a new semantic similarity measure called IntelliGO which integrates several complementary properties in a novel vector space model. The coefficients associated with each GO term that annotates a given gene or protein include its information content as well as a customized value for each type of GO evidence code. The generalized cosine similarity measure, used for calculating the dot product between two vectors, has been rigorously adapted to the context of the GO graph. The IntelliGO similarity measure is tested on two benchmark datasets consisting of KEGG pathways and Pfam domains grouped as clans, considering the GO biological process and molecular function terms, respectively, for a total of 683 yeast and human genes and involving more than 67,900 pair-wise comparisons. The ability of the IntelliGO similarity measure to express the biological cohesion of sets of genes compares favourably to four existing similarity measures. For inter-set comparison, it consistently discriminates between distinct sets of genes. Furthermore, the IntelliGO similarity measure allows the influence of weights assigned to evidence codes to be checked. Finally, the results obtained with a complementary reference technique give intermediate but correct correlation values with the sequence similarity, Pfam, and Enzyme classifications when compared to

  6. Streamflow characteristics based on data through water year 2009 for selected streamflow-gaging stations in or near Montana: Chapter E in Montana StreamStats

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Peter M.

    2016-04-05

    Chapter E of this Scientific Investigations Report documents results from a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Montana Department of Environmental Quality and the Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation, to provide an update of statewide streamflow characteristics based on data through water year 2009 for streamflow-gaging stations in or near Montana. Streamflow characteristics are presented for 408 streamflow-gaging stations in Montana and adjacent areas having 10 or more years of record. Data include the magnitude and probability of annual low and high streamflow, the magnitude and probability of low streamflow for three seasons (March–June, July–October, and November–February), streamflow duration statistics for monthly and annual periods, and mean streamflows for monthly and annual periods. Streamflow is considered to be regulated at streamflow-gaging stations where dams or other large-scale human modifications affect 20 percent or more of the contributing drainage basin. Separate streamflow characteristics are presented for the unregulated and regulated periods of record for streamflow-gaging stations with sufficient data.

  7. Systematic tissue-specific functional annotation of the human genome highlights immune-related DNA elements for late-onset Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiongshi Lu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Continuing efforts from large international consortia have made genome-wide epigenomic and transcriptomic annotation data publicly available for a variety of cell and tissue types. However, synthesis of these datasets into effective summary metrics to characterize the functional non-coding genome remains a challenge. Here, we present GenoSkyline-Plus, an extension of our previous work through integration of an expanded set of epigenomic and transcriptomic annotations to produce high-resolution, single tissue annotations. After validating our annotations with a catalog of tissue-specific non-coding elements previously identified in the literature, we apply our method using data from 127 different cell and tissue types to present an atlas of heritability enrichment across 45 different GWAS traits. We show that broader organ system categories (e.g. immune system increase statistical power in identifying biologically relevant tissue types for complex diseases while annotations of individual cell types (e.g. monocytes or B-cells provide deeper insights into disease etiology. Additionally, we use our GenoSkyline-Plus annotations in an in-depth case study of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD. Our analyses suggest a strong connection between LOAD heritability and genetic variants contained in regions of the genome functional in monocytes. Furthermore, we show that LOAD shares a similar localization of SNPs to monocyte-functional regions with Parkinson's disease. Overall, we demonstrate that integrated genome annotations at the single tissue level provide a valuable tool for understanding the etiology of complex human diseases. Our GenoSkyline-Plus annotations are freely available at http://genocanyon.med.yale.edu/GenoSkyline.

  8. Identification and annotation of genetic variants (SNP/Indel) in Danish Jutland cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Ashutosh; Panitz, Frank; Holm, Lars-Erik

    We sequenced the whole-genome of a Danish Jutland bull to identify genetic variants (SNP/indel). Using UnifiedGenotyper from the Genome Analysis Toolkit (GATK), we identified 6,812,198 SNPs and 804,453 indels. There were 2,598,000 (38.1%) novel SNPs and 607,923(75.6%) novel indels while the remai......,122 indels in coding sequences, 832 predicted to cause frame shift, 89 predicted to be inframe insertion and 115 to be inframe deletion. We detected a higher level of genetic variation in the Jutland bull compared to similar data from Holstein cattle......We sequenced the whole-genome of a Danish Jutland bull to identify genetic variants (SNP/indel). Using UnifiedGenotyper from the Genome Analysis Toolkit (GATK), we identified 6,812,198 SNPs and 804,453 indels. There were 2,598,000 (38.1%) novel SNPs and 607,923(75.6%) novel indels while...... the remaining was annotated in dbSNP build 133. In-depth annotation of the variants revealed that 45,776 SNPs affected the coding sequences of 11,538 genes, 221 SNPs predicted to cause a premature stop codon, 17 to cause a gain in coding sequence and 20,828 predicted to be non-synonymous. We identified 1...

  9. Applying Reliability Metrics to Co-Reference Annotation

    CERN Document Server

    Passonneau, R J

    1997-01-01

    Studies of the contextual and linguistic factors that constrain discourse phenomena such as reference are coming to depend increasingly on annotated language corpora. In preparing the corpora, it is important to evaluate the reliability of the annotation, but methods for doing so have not been readily available. In this report, I present a method for computing reliability of coreference annotation. First I review a method for applying the information retrieval metrics of recall and precision to coreference annotation proposed by Marc Vilain and his collaborators. I show how this method makes it possible to construct contingency tables for computing Cohen's Kappa, a familiar reliability metric. By comparing recall and precision to reliability on the same data sets, I also show that recall and precision can be misleadingly high. Because Kappa factors out chance agreement among coders, it is a preferable measure for developing annotated corpora where no pre-existing target annotation exists.

  10. An Unsupervised Model for Exploring Hierarchical Semantics from Social Annotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mianwei; Bao, Shenghua; Wu, Xian; Yu, Yong

    This paper deals with the problem of exploring hierarchical semantics from social annotations. Recently, social annotation services have become more and more popular in Semantic Web. It allows users to arbitrarily annotate web resources, thus, largely lowers the barrier to cooperation. Furthermore, through providing abundant meta-data resources, social annotation might become a key to the development of Semantic Web. However, on the other hand, social annotation has its own apparent limitations, for instance, 1) ambiguity and synonym phenomena and 2) lack of hierarchical information. In this paper, we propose an unsupervised model to automatically derive hierarchical semantics from social annotations. Using a social bookmark service Del.icio.us as example, we demonstrate that the derived hierarchical semantics has the ability to compensate those shortcomings. We further apply our model on another data set from Flickr to testify our model's applicability on different environments. The experimental results demonstrate our model's efficiency.

  11. PLANT COMMUNITIES WITH ARNICA MONTANA IN NATURAL HABITATS FROM THE CENTRAL REGION OF ROMANIAN EASTERN CARPATHIANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin MARDARI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Arnica montana is a species of European Union interest, whose harvest from the wild and exploitation should be made under certain management measures. In Romania it is a vulnerable species due to excessive collection. It is a species with European areal occuring in pastures, meadows, forest glades, shrubs communities of mountain to the subalpine regions and, isolated, up to the alpine belt. Most of the plant communities with Arnica montana are semi-natural, with a floristic composition in which there are numerous rare or threatened species also supporting the need of their conservation. Our study was focused on a numerical classification (hierarchical, using Flexible ß algorithm and Bray-Curtis dissimilarity based on 48 plots, of the plant communities with Arnica montana from the central region of Romanian Eastern Carpathians and on the investigation of the effect of some environmental variables (Ellenberg indicator values, altitude, heat load index on their floristic composition (100 m2 scale. Vegetation – environment relationship was assessed via detrended correspondence analysis and canonical correspondence analysis with Monte Carlo test. Six plant communities with Arnica montana were identified (communities of Festuca rubra with Agrostis capillaris, Festuca nigrescens, Vaccinium myrtillus, Nardus stricta, Vaccinium gaultherioides and Juniperus sibirica with a floristic composition mainly shaped by altitude, temperature and soil nitrogen content. Details related to location and sites characteristics, diagnostic species, floristic composition, presence of other rare or threatened species and Arnica montana abundance were presented for all these plant communities.

  12. Montana's Clark Fork River Basin Task Force: a vehicle for integrated water resources management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, David D; Mueller, Gerald

    2010-11-01

    This article examines what is generally considered to be an unattainable goal in the western United States: integrated water resources management (IWRM). Specifically, we examine an organization that is quite unique in the West, Montana's Clark Fork River Basin Task Force (Task Force), and we analyze its activities since its formation in 2001 to answer the question: are the activities and contributions of the Task Force working to promote a more strongly integrated approach to water resources management in Montana? After reviewing the concepts underlying IWRM, some of the issues that have been identified for achieving IWRM in the West, and the Montana system of water right allocation and issues it faces, we adapt Mitchell's IWRM framework and apply it to the analysis of the Task Force's activities in the context of IWRM. In evaluating the physical, interaction, and protocol/planning/policy components of IWRM, we find that the Task Force has been contributing to the evolution of Montana's water resources management towards this framework, though several factors will likely continue to prevent its complete realization. The Task Force has been successful in this regard because of its unique nature and charge, and because of the authority and power given it by successive Montana legislatures. Also critical to the success of the organization is its ability to help translate into policy the outcomes of legal and quasi-judicial decisions that have impacted the state's water resources management agency.

  13. Sesquiterpene lactones in Arnica montana: helenalin and dihydrohelenalin chemotypes in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Nigel B; Burgess, Elaine J; Rodríguez Guitián, Manuel A; Romero Franco, Rosa; López Mosquera, Elvira; Smallfield, Bruce M; Joyce, Nigel I; Littlejohn, Roger P

    2009-05-01

    An analytical RPLC method for sesquiterpene lactones in Arnica montana has been extended to include quantitative analyses of dihydrohelenalin esters. LC-ESI-MS-MS distinguished the isomeric helenalin and dihydrohelenalin esters. The dihydrohelenalin esters have lower response factors for UV detection than do helenalin esters, which must be taken into account for quantitative analyses. Analyses of flowers from 16 different wild populations of A. montana in Spain showed differing proportions of helenalin and dihydrohelenalin esters. For the first time a chemotype with high levels of helenalin esters (total helenalins 5.2-10.3 mg/g dry weight) is reported in Spanish A. montana. These samples were from heath lands at high altitude (1330-1460 m), whereas samples from meadows and peat bogs at lower altitudes were the expected chemotype with high levels of dihydrohelenalin esters (total dihydrohelenalins 10.9-18.2 mg/g). The phenolic compounds, both flavonoid glycosides and caffeoylquinic acids, in Spanish A. montana are reported for the first time. The levels of several of these compounds differed significantly between samples from heath lands and samples from peat bogs or meadows, with the heath land samples being most similar to central European A. montana in their phenolic composition.

  14. Space Time Codes from Permutation Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Henkel, Oliver

    2006-01-01

    A new class of space time codes with high performance is presented. The code design utilizes tailor-made permutation codes, which are known to have large minimal distances as spherical codes. A geometric connection between spherical and space time codes has been used to translate them into the final space time codes. Simulations demonstrate that the performance increases with the block lengths, a result that has been conjectured already in previous work. Further, the connection to permutation codes allows for moderate complex en-/decoding algorithms.

  15. Annotation Bibliography for Geographical Science Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukendra Martha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This annotated bibliography is gathered specially for the field of geography obtained from various scientific articles (basic concept in geography of different geographical journals. This article aims to present information particulary for geographers who will undertake researches, and indeed need the geographical References with all spatial concepts. Other reason defeated by the rapid development of the branch of technical geography such as geographical information systems (GIS and remote sensing. It hopes that this bibliography can contribute of remotivating geographers to learn and review their original geographical thought.

  16. 75 FR 55713 - Air Quality Implementation Plans; Montana; Attainment Plan for Libby, MT PM2.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-14

    ... University of Arizona's Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Laboratory Facility to provide further evidence that... mass balance study (CMB) was conducted during the winter of 2003-2004 by the University of Montana... from chemical mass balance and Carbon 14 studies conducted by the University of Montana. In...

  17. Effectiveness of Written Materials in a Rehabilitative Program for Female Offenders: A Case Study at the Montana Women's Prison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Laura; Colling, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    This case study of the Therapeutic Community Program at Montana Women's Prison investigates the relationship between inmate reading levels and the self-help materials used for rehabilitative purposes within prison settings. The Therapeutic Community Handbook, published by the Montana Department of Corrections, is used as the primary method of…

  18. I Feel Like Touching Something That's Not There; Poems by Students in Elementary & Secondary Schools of Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, David, Ed.

    This book, a project of the Montana Arts Council Poets and Writers in the School program, is a collection of poems written by students in elementary and secondary schools of Montana. In addition to the poems, the book contains an essay on motivating and guiding students to write creatively, a list of resources for creative-writing teachers, an…

  19. Using the Rural-Urban Continuum to Explore Adolescent Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drug Use in Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Carl L.; Novilla, M. Lelinneth L. B.; Barnes, Michael D.; Eggett, Dennis; McKell, Chelsea; Reichman, Peter; Havens, Mike

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare 30-day prevalence of alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use among twelfth-grade students in Montana across a rural-urban continuum during 2000, 2002, and 2004. The methods include an analysis of the Montana Prevention Needs Assessment (N = 15,372) using multivariable logistic regression adjusting for risk…

  20. 75 FR 30850 - Final Supplementary Rules for Camping on Undeveloped Public Lands in Montana, North Dakota, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... Recreation Planner, BLM Montana State Office, 5001 Southgate Drive, Billings, MT 59101-4669. FOR FURTHER... Drive, Billings, Montana 59101-4669, (406) 896-5038. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background II... at 72 FR 19958 (April 20, 2007). The rules in the Notice of Camping Limits on Public Lands in...

  1. 75 FR 27551 - Commercial Energy of Montana, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Commercial Energy of Montana, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Commercial Energy of Montana, Inc.'s application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate tariff, noting that such application includes...

  2. Assessment of undiscovered continuous oil and gas resources in the Heath Formation, central Montana and western North Dakota, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Ronald M.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers, Heidi M.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Finn, Thomas M.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2017-06-07

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resources of 884 million barrels of oil and 106 billion cubic feet of gas in the North-Central Montana and Williston Basin Provinces of central Montana and western North Dakota.

  3. Effectiveness of Written Materials in a Rehabilitative Program for Female Offenders: A Case Study at the Montana Women's Prison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Laura; Colling, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    This case study of the Therapeutic Community Program at Montana Women's Prison investigates the relationship between inmate reading levels and the self-help materials used for rehabilitative purposes within prison settings. The Therapeutic Community Handbook, published by the Montana Department of Corrections, is used as the primary method of…

  4. Conformational study reveals amino acid residues essential for hemagglutinating and anti-proliferative activities of Clematis montana lectin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bangmin Lu Bin Zhang Wei Qi Yanan Zhu Yan Zhao Nan Zhou Rong Sun Jinku Bao Chuanfang Wu

    2014-01-01

    Clematis montana lectin (CML), a novel mannose-binding lectin purified from C. montana Buch.-Ham stem (Ranunculaceae), has been proved to have hemagglutinat- ing activity in rabbit erythrocytes and apoptosis-inducing activity in tumor cells...

  5. A Human-Curated Annotation of the Candida albicans Genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent sequencing and assembly of the genome for the fungal pathogen Candida albicans used simple automated procedures for the identification of putative genes. We have reviewed the entire assembly, both by hand and with additional bioinformatic resources, to accurately map and describe 6,354 genes and to identify 246 genes whose original database entries contained sequencing errors (or possibly mutations that affect their reading frame. Comparison with other fungal genomes permitted the identification of numerous fungus-specific genes that might be targeted for antifungal therapy. We also observed that, compared to other fungi, the protein-coding sequences in the C. albicans genome are especially rich in short sequence repeats. Finally, our improved annotation permitted a detailed analysis of several multigene families, and comparative genomic studies showed that C. albicans has a far greater catabolic range, encoding respiratory Complex 1, several novel oxidoreductases and ketone body degrading enzymes, malonyl-CoA and enoyl-CoA carriers, several novel amino acid degrading enzymes, a variety of secreted catabolic lipases and proteases, and numerous transporters to assimilate the resulting nutrients. The results of these efforts will ensure that the Candida research community has uniform and comprehensive genomic information for medical research as well as for future diagnostic and therapeutic applications.

  6. Fundamentals of convolutional coding

    CERN Document Server

    Johannesson, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Fundamentals of Convolutional Coding, Second Edition, regarded as a bible of convolutional coding brings you a clear and comprehensive discussion of the basic principles of this field * Two new chapters on low-density parity-check (LDPC) convolutional codes and iterative coding * Viterbi, BCJR, BEAST, list, and sequential decoding of convolutional codes * Distance properties of convolutional codes * Includes a downloadable solutions manual

  7. Updating RNA-Seq analyses after re-annotation

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Adam; Schaeffer, Lorian; Pachter, Lior

    2013-01-01

    The estimation of isoform abundances from RNA-Seq data requires a time-intensive step of mapping reads to either an assembled or previously annotated transcriptome, followed by an optimization procedure for deconvolution of multi-mapping reads. These procedures are essential for downstream analysis such as differential expression. In cases where it is desirable to adjust the underlying annotation, for example, on the discovery of novel isoforms or errors in existing annotations, current pipel...

  8. A robust data-driven approach for gene ontology annotation

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Gene ontology (GO) and GO annotation are important resources for biological information management and knowledge discovery, but the speed of manual annotation became a major bottleneck of database curation. BioCreative IV GO annotation task aims to evaluate the performance of system that automatically assigns GO terms to genes based on the narrative sentences in biomedical literature. This article presents our work in this task as well as the experimental results after the competition. For th...

  9. Structural Analysis and Visualization of C++ Code Evolution using Syntax Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Chevalier, Fanny; Auber, David; Telea, Alexandru

    2007-01-01

    International audience; We present a method to detect and visualize evolution patterns in C++ source code. Our method consists of three steps. First, we extract an annotated syntax tree (AST) from each version of a given C++ source code. Next, we hash the extracted syntax nodes based on a metric combining structure and type information, and construct matches (correspondences) between similar-hash subtrees. Our technique detects code fragments which have not changed, or changed little, during ...

  10. Literacy and Basic Education: A Selected, Annotated Bibliography. Annotated Bibliography #3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Non-Formal Education Information Center.

    A selected annotated bibliography on literacy and basic education, including contributions from practitioners in the worldwide non-formal education network and compiled for them, has three interrelated themes: integration of literacy programs with broader development efforts; the learner-centered or "psycho-social" approach to literacy,…

  11. Discovery of immune related factors in Fenneropenaeus chinensis by annotation of ESTs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Yaoqing; XIANG Jianhai; WANG Bing; LI Fuhua; TONG Wei

    2004-01-01

    A total of 10446 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) are obtained by a large-scale sequencing of a cDNA library from cephalothorax of adult Fenneropenaeus chinensis.An EST analysis platform was built up based on local computers and bioinformatic techniques were used to annotate these ESTs in order to promptly find possible functional genes, especially for immune related factors.About 4% of the ESTs show similarity to the coding sequences of such factors, including lectin, serine protease, serpin, lysozyme, etc.These ESTs provide a partial profile of the immune system in F.chinensis and useful information for further study on these genes.

  12. Genome sequencing and annotation of multidrug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MDR-TB PR10 strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Zakihalani A. Halim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Here, we report the draft genome sequence and annotation of a multidrug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain PR10 (MDR-TB PR10 isolated from a patient diagnosed with tuberculosis. The size of the draft genome MDR-TB PR10 is 4.34 Mbp with 65.6% of G + C content and consists of 4637 predicted genes. The determinants were categorized by RAST into 400 subsystems with 4286 coding sequences and 50 RNAs. The whole genome shotgun project has been deposited at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession number CP010968.

  13. Genome sequencing and annotation of Amycolatopsis vancoresmycina strain DSM 44592T

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navjot Kaur

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the 9.0-Mb draft genome of Amycolatopsis vancoresmycina strain DSM 44592T, isolated from Indian soil sample; produces antibiotic vancoresmycin. Draft genome of strain DSM44592T consists of 9,037,069 bp with a G+C content of 71.79% and 8340 predicted protein coding genes and 57 RNAs. RAST annotation indicates that strains Streptomyces sp. AA4 (score 521, Saccharomonospora viridis DSM 43017 (score 400 and Actinosynnema mirum DSM 43827 (score 372 are the closest neighbors of the strain DSM 44592T.

  14. Augmented annotation and orthologue analysis for Oryctolagus cuniculus: Better Bunny

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Craig, Douglas B; Kannan, Sujatha; Dombkowski, Alan A

    2012-01-01

    .... Using data extracted from several public bioinformatics repositories we created Better Bunny, a database and query tool that extensively augments the available functional annotation for rabbit genes...

  15. A Novel Approach to Semantic and Coreference Annotation at LLNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firpo, M

    2005-02-04

    A case is made for the importance of high quality semantic and coreference annotation. The challenges of providing such annotation are described. Asperger's Syndrome is introduced, and the connections are drawn between the needs of text annotation and the abilities of persons with Asperger's Syndrome to meet those needs. Finally, a pilot program is recommended wherein semantic annotation is performed by people with Asperger's Syndrome. The primary points embodied in this paper are as follows: (1) Document annotation is essential to the Natural Language Processing (NLP) projects at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); (2) LLNL does not currently have a system in place to meet its need for text annotation; (3) Text annotation is challenging for a variety of reasons, many related to its very rote nature; (4) Persons with Asperger's Syndrome are particularly skilled at rote verbal tasks, and behavioral experts agree that they would excel at text annotation; and (6) A pilot study is recommend in which two to three people with Asperger's Syndrome annotate documents and then the quality and throughput of their work is evaluated relative to that of their neuro-typical peers.

  16. Supporting One-Time Point Annotations for Gesture Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen-Dinh, Long-Van; Calatroni, Alberto; Troester, Gerhard

    2016-12-08

    This paper investigates a new annotation technique that reduces significantly the amount of time to annotate training data for gesture recognition. Conventionally, the annotations comprise the start and end times, and the corresponding labels of gestures in sensor recordings. In this work, we propose a one-time point annotation in which labelers do not have to select the start and end time carefully, but just mark a one-time point within the time a gesture is happening. The technique gives more freedom and reduces significantly the burden for labelers. To make the one-time point annotations applicable, we propose a novel BoundarySearch algorithm to find automatically the correct temporal boundaries of gestures by discovering data patterns around their given one-time point annotations. The corrected annotations are then used to train gesture models. We evaluate the method on three applications from wearable gesture recognition with various gesture classes (10-17 classes) recorded with different sensor modalities. The results show that training on the corrected annotations can achieve performances close to a fully supervised training on clean annotations (lower by just up to 5% F1-score on average). Furthermore, the BoundarySearch algorithm is also evaluated on the ChaLearn 2014 multi-modal gesture recognition challenge recorded with Kinect sensors from computer vision and achieves similar results.

  17. Review of actinide-sediment reactions with an annotated bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ames, L.L.; Rai, D.; Serne, R.J.

    1976-02-10

    The annotated bibliography is divided into sections on chemistry and geochemistry, migration and accumulation, cultural distributions, natural distributions, and bibliographies and annual reviews. (LK)

  18. Semantator: semantic annotator for converting biomedical text to linked data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Cui; Song, Dezhao; Sharma, Deepak; Chute, Christopher G

    2013-10-01

    More than 80% of biomedical data is embedded in plain text. The unstructured nature of these text-based documents makes it challenging to easily browse and query the data of interest in them. One approach to facilitate browsing and querying biomedical text is to convert the plain text to a linked web of data, i.e., converting data originally in free text to structured formats with defined meta-level semantics. In this paper, we introduce Semantator (Semantic Annotator), a semantic-web-based environment for annotating data of interest in biomedical documents, browsing and querying the annotated data, and interactively refining annotation results if needed. Through Semantator, information of interest can be either annotated manually or semi-automatically using plug-in information extraction tools. The annotated results will be stored in RDF and can be queried using the SPARQL query language. In addition, semantic reasoners can be directly applied to the annotated data for consistency checking and knowledge inference. Semantator has been released online and was used by the biomedical ontology community who provided positive feedbacks. Our evaluation results indicated that (1) Semantator can perform the annotation functionalities as designed; (2) Semantator can be adopted in real applications in clinical and transactional research; and (3) the annotated results using Semantator can be easily used in Semantic-web-based reasoning tools for further inference.

  19. Automatic medical X-ray image classification using annotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Mohammad Reza; Mueen, Ahmed; Seng, Woo Chaw

    2014-02-01

    The demand for automatically classification of medical X-ray images is rising faster than ever. In this paper, an approach is presented to gain high accuracy rate for those classes of medical database with high ratio of intraclass variability and interclass similarities. The classification framework was constructed via annotation using the following three techniques: annotation by binary classification, annotation by probabilistic latent semantic analysis, and annotation using top similar images. Next, final annotation was constructed by applying ranking similarity on annotated keywords made by each technique. The final annotation keywords were then divided into three levels according to the body region, specific bone structure in body region as well as imaging direction. Different weights were given to each level of the keywords; they are then used to calculate the weightage for each category of medical images based on their ground truth annotation. The weightage computed from the generated annotation of query image was compared with the weightage of each category of medical images, and then the query image would be assigned to the category with closest weightage to the query image. The average accuracy rate reported is 87.5 %.

  20. Ontology-Based Prediction and Prioritization of Gene Functional Annotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicco, Davide; Masseroli, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Genes and their protein products are essential molecular units of a living organism. The knowledge of their functions is key for the understanding of physiological and pathological biological processes, as well as in the development of new drugs and therapies. The association of a gene or protein with its functions, described by controlled terms of biomolecular terminologies or ontologies, is named gene functional annotation. Very many and valuable gene annotations expressed through terminologies and ontologies are available. Nevertheless, they might include some erroneous information, since only a subset of annotations are reviewed by curators. Furthermore, they are incomplete by definition, given the rapidly evolving pace of biomolecular knowledge. In this scenario, computational methods that are able to quicken the annotation curation process and reliably suggest new annotations are very important. Here, we first propose a computational pipeline that uses different semantic and machine learning methods to predict novel ontology-based gene functional annotations; then, we introduce a new semantic prioritization rule to categorize the predicted annotations by their likelihood of being correct. Our tests and validations proved the effectiveness of our pipeline and prioritization of predicted annotations, by selecting as most likely manifold predicted annotations that were later confirmed.

  1. Introduction to annotated logics foundations for paracomplete and paraconsistent reasoning

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, Jair Minoro; Nakamatsu, Kazumi

    2015-01-01

    This book is written as an introduction to annotated logics. It provides logical foundations for annotated logics, discusses some interesting applications of these logics and also includes the authors' contributions to annotated logics. The central idea of the book is to show how annotated logic can be applied as a tool to solve problems of technology and of applied science. The book will be of interest to pure and applied logicians, philosophers, and computer scientists as a monograph on a kind of paraconsistent logic. But, the layman will also take profit from its reading.

  2. The Western Environmental Technology Office (WETO), Butte, Montana. Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The Western Environmental Technology Office (WETO) is a multi-purpose engineering test facility located in Butte, Montana, and is managed by MSE, Inc. WETO seeks to contribute to environmental research by emphasizing projects to develop heavy metals removal and recovery processes, thermal vitrification systems, and waste minimization/pollution prevention technologies. WETO`s environmental technology research and testing activities focus on the recovery of usable resources from waste. In one of WETO`s areas of focus, groundwater contamination, water from the Berkeley Pit, located near the WETO site, is being used in demonstrations directed toward the recovery of potable water and metal from the heavy metal-bearing water. The Berkeley Pit is part of an inactive copper mine near Butte that was once part of the nation`s largest open-pit mining operation. The Pit contains approximately 25 billion gallons of Berkeley Pit groundwater and surface water containing many dissolved minerals. As part of DOE/OST`s Resource Recovery Project (RRP), technologies are being demonstrated to not only clean the contaminated water but to recover metal values such as copper, zinc, and iron with an estimated gross value of more than $100 million. When recovered, the Berkeley Pit waters could benefit the entire Butte valley with new water resources for fisheries, irrigation, municipal, and industrial use. At WETO, the emphasis is on environmental technology development and commercialization activities, which will focus on mine cleanup, waste treatment, resource recovery, and water resource management.

  3. Breeding ecology of the redhead duck in western Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokemoen, J.T.

    1966-01-01

    The habits of the redhead duck (Aythya americana) were studied in the Flathead Valley of western Montana in 1960 and 1961 to determine their habitat preferences in this pothole breeding ground. The 2,600-acre study area, surrounding the Ninepipe Reservoir, contained 686 potholes. Redheads usually were paired by the time they arrived on the study area in March. The average density of redhead breeding pairs was 25 pairs per square mile. For all spring activities except nesting, the birds used large, deep, open potholes or breeding-pair potholes. The several breeding-pair potholes and the nesting pothole utilized by the pair comprised their home range. Starting in late April, the pairs moved about the home range as the hens selected nesting sites, usually in the dense emergent vegetation of small, shallow potholes. Hard-stem bulrush (Scirpus acutus) and cat-tail (Typha latifolia) were preferred nesting cover. Redhead nesting success was only 15 percent, a low rate apparently caused by degenerate nesting behavior complicated by high redhead density, a lack of suitable nest hosts, and certain habitat deficiencies. By late June most drakes and unsuccessful hens had moved from the potholes to nearby reservoirs. All successful hens led their newly hatched broods from the nesting potholes to larger brood potholes and many eventually moved to the reservoir. By mid-July virtually all redheads had moved from the potholes to the reservoirs, where they remained until fall migration.

  4. Evolutionary trends in Triceratops from the Hell Creek Formation, Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scannella, John B; Fowler, Denver W; Goodwin, Mark B; Horner, John R

    2014-07-15

    The placement of over 50 skulls of the well-known horned dinosaur Triceratops within a stratigraphic framework for the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation (HCF) of Montana reveals the evolutionary transformation of this genus. Specimens referable to the two recognized morphospecies of Triceratops, T. horridus and T. prorsus, are stratigraphically separated within the HCF with the T. prorsus morphology recovered in the upper third of the formation and T. horridus found lower in the formation. Hypotheses that these morphospecies represent sexual or ontogenetic variation within a single species are thus untenable. Stratigraphic placement of specimens appears to reveal ancestor-descendant relationships. Transitional morphologies are found in the middle unit of the formation, a finding that is consistent with the evolution of Triceratops being characterized by anagenesis, the transformation of a lineage over time. Variation among specimens from this critical stratigraphic zone may indicate a branching event in the Triceratops lineage. Purely cladogenetic interpretations of the HCF dataset imply greater diversity within the formation. These findings underscore the critical role of stratigraphic data in deciphering evolutionary patterns in the Dinosauria.

  5. Characterization and pharmacodynamic properties of Arnica montana complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šutovská, M; Capek, P; Kočmalová, M; Pawlaczyk, I; Zaczyńska, E; Czarny, A; Uhliariková, I; Gancarz, R; Fraňová, S

    2014-08-01

    A dark brown polymeric complex was isolated from flowering parts of medicinal plant Arnica montana L. by hot alkaline extraction followed by neutralization and multi-step extractions with organic solvents. It was recovered in 5.7% yield, on GPC showed two peaks of molecular mass of 9 and 3.5kDa. The compositional analyses of Arnica complex revealed the presence of carbohydrates (26%), uronic acids (12%), phenolics (1.25mM or 213mg of GAE/1g), and low protein content (∼1%). The carbohydrate moiety was rich mainly in rhamnogalacturonan and arabinogalactan. The antitussive tests showed the reduction of the cough efforts by Arnica complex, however, its total antitussive effect was lower compared with that of codeine, the strongest antitussive agent. The bronchodilatory activity of Arnica complex was similar to salbutamol, a classic antiasthmatic drug, and was confirmed by significantly decreased values of specific airways resistance in vivo and by considerably attenuated the amplitude of acetylcholine and histamine-induced contractions in vitro. Arnica complex did not show any cytotoxic effect on mouse fibroblast cultures and human lung cells, up to the dose of 500μg/mL.

  6. Grizzly bear density in Glacier National Park, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, K.C.; Stetz, J.B.; Roon, David A.; Waits, L.P.; Boulanger, J.B.; Paetkau, David

    2008-01-01

    We present the first rigorous estimate of grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) population density and distribution in and around Glacier National Park (GNP), Montana, USA. We used genetic analysis to identify individual bears from hair samples collected via 2 concurrent sampling methods: 1) systematically distributed, baited, barbed-wire hair traps and 2) unbaited bear rub trees found along trails. We used Huggins closed mixture models in Program MARK to estimate total population size and developed a method to account for heterogeneity caused by unequal access to rub trees. We corrected our estimate for lack of geographic closure using a new method that utilizes information from radiocollared bears and the distribution of bears captured with DNA sampling. Adjusted for closure, the average number of grizzly bears in our study area was 240.7 (95% CI = 202–303) in 1998 and 240.6 (95% CI = 205–304) in 2000. Average grizzly bear density was 30 bears/1,000 km2, with 2.4 times more bears detected per hair trap inside than outside GNP. We provide baseline information important for managing one of the few remaining populations of grizzlies in the contiguous United States.

  7. Assembly and annotation of full mitochondrial genomes for the corn rootworm species, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera and D. barberi (Insecta: Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), using Next Generation Sequence data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Complete mitochondrial genomes for two corn rootworm species, Diabrotica v. virgifera (16,747 bp) and D. barberi (16,632; Insecta: Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), were assembled from Illumina HiSeq2000 read data. Annotation indicated that the order and orientation of 13 protein coding genes (PCGs), and...

  8. All SNPs are not created equal: genome-wide association studies reveal a consistent pattern of enrichment among functionally annotated SNPs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schork, Andrew J; Thompson, Wesley K; Pham, Phillip;

    2013-01-01

    (TDR = 1-FDR) for strata determined by different genic categories. We show a consistent pattern of enrichment of polygenic effects in specific annotation categories across diverse phenotypes, with the greatest enrichment for SNPs tagging regulatory and coding genic elements, little enrichment...

  9. Phenex: ontological annotation of phenotypic diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P Balhoff

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Phenotypic differences among species have long been systematically itemized and described by biologists in the process of investigating phylogenetic relationships and trait evolution. Traditionally, these descriptions have been expressed in natural language within the context of individual journal publications or monographs. As such, this rich store of phenotype data has been largely unavailable for statistical and computational comparisons across studies or integration with other biological knowledge. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we describe Phenex, a platform-independent desktop application designed to facilitate efficient and consistent annotation of phenotypic similarities and differences using Entity-Quality syntax, drawing on terms from community ontologies for anatomical entities, phenotypic qualities, and taxonomic names. Phenex can be configured to load only those ontologies pertinent to a taxonomic group of interest. The graphical user interface was optimized for evolutionary biologists accustomed to working with lists of taxa, characters, character states, and character-by-taxon matrices. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Annotation of phenotypic data using ontologies and globally unique taxonomic identifiers will allow biologists to integrate phenotypic data from different organisms and studies, leveraging decades of work in systematics and comparative morphology.

  10. EFFICIENT VIDEO ANNOTATIONS BY AN IMAGE GROUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K . Mahi balan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Searching desirable events in uncontrolled videos is a challenging task. So, researches mainly focus on obtaining concepts from numerous labelled videos. But it is time consuming and labour expensive to collect a large amount of required labelled videos for training event models under various condition. To avoid this problem, we propose to leverage abundant Web images for videos since Web images contain a rich source of information with many events roughly annotated and taken under various conditions. However, information from the Web is difficult .so,brute force knowledge transfer of images may hurt the video annotation performance. so, we propose a novel Group-based Domain Adaptation learning framework to leverage different groups of knowledge (source target queried from the Web image search engine to consumer videos (domain target. Different from old methods using multiple source domains of images, our method makes the Web images according to their intrinsic semantic relationships instead of source. Specifically, two different types of groups ( event-specific groups and concept-specific groups are exploited to respectively describe the event-level and concept-level semantic meanings of target-domain videos.

  11. Strong Trinucleotide Circular Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian J. Michel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, we identified a hierarchy relation between trinucleotide comma-free codes and trinucleotide circular codes (see our previous works. Here, we extend our hierarchy with two new classes of codes, called DLD and LDL codes, which are stronger than the comma-free codes. We also prove that no circular code with 20 trinucleotides is a DLD code and that a circular code with 20 trinucleotides is comma-free if and only if it is a LDL code. Finally, we point out the possible role of the symmetric group ∑4 in the mathematical study of trinucleotide circular codes.

  12. BOWiki: an ontology-based wiki for annotation of data and integration of knowledge in biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorio Sergio E

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Motivation Ontology development and the annotation of biological data using ontologies are time-consuming exercises that currently require input from expert curators. Open, collaborative platforms for biological data annotation enable the wider scientific community to become involved in developing and maintaining such resources. However, this openness raises concerns regarding the quality and correctness of the information added to these knowledge bases. The combination of a collaborative web-based platform with logic-based approaches and Semantic Web technology can be used to address some of these challenges and concerns. Results We have developed the BOWiki, a web-based system that includes a biological core ontology. The core ontology provides background knowledge about biological types and relations. Against this background, an automated reasoner assesses the consistency of new information added to the knowledge base. The system provides a platform for research communities to integrate information and annotate data collaboratively. Availability The BOWiki and supplementary material is available at http://www.bowiki.net/. The source code is available under the GNU GPL from http://onto.eva.mpg.de/trac/BoWiki.

  13. Biological Database of Images and Genomes: tools for community annotations linking image and genomic information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlin, Andrew T; Jurkovic, Dominika A; Balish, Mitchell F; Friedberg, Iddo

    2013-01-01

    Genomic data and biomedical imaging data are undergoing exponential growth. However, our understanding of the phenotype–genotype connection linking the two types of data is lagging behind. While there are many types of software that enable the manipulation and analysis of image data and genomic data as separate entities, there is no framework established for linking the two. We present a generic set of software tools, BioDIG, that allows linking of image data to genomic data. BioDIG tools can be applied to a wide range of research problems that require linking images to genomes. BioDIG features the following: rapid construction of web-based workbenches, community-based annotation, user management and web services. By using BioDIG to create websites, researchers and curators can rapidly annotate a large number of images with genomic information. Here we present the BioDIG software tools that include an image module, a genome module and a user management module. We also introduce a BioDIG-based website, MyDIG, which is being used to annotate images of mycoplasmas. Database URL: BioDIG website: http://biodig.org BioDIG source code repository: http://github.com/FriedbergLab/BioDIG The MyDIG database: http://mydig.biodig.org/ PMID:23550062

  14. Re-annotation of the genome sequence of Helicobacter pylori 26695.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende, Tiago; Correia, Daniela M; Rocha, Miguel; Rocha, Isabel

    2013-11-15

    Helicobacter pylori is a pathogenic bacterium that colonizes the human epithelia, causing duodenal and gastric ulcers, and gastric cancer. The genome of H. pylori 26695 has been previously sequenced and annotated. In addition, two genome-scale metabolic models have been developed. In order to maintain accurate and relevant information on coding sequences (CDS) and to retrieve new information, the assignment of new functions to Helicobacter pylori 26695s genes was performed in this work. The use of software tools, on-line databases and an annotation pipeline for inspecting each gene allowed the attribution of validated EC numbers and TC numbers to metabolic genes encoding enzymes and transport proteins, respectively. 1212 genes encoding proteins were identified in this annotation, being 712 metabolic genes and 500 non-metabolic, while 191 new functions were assignment to the CDS of this bacterium. This information provides relevant biological information for the scientific community dealing with this organism and can be used as the basis for a new metabolic model reconstruction.

  15. Annotation and analysis of the geome of Phycomyces blakesleeanus, a model photoresponsive zygomycete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuo, Alan; Salamov, Asaf; Pangilinan, Jasmyn; Lindquist, Erika; Shapiro, Harris; Baker, Scott; Corrochano, Luis; Grigoriev, Igor

    2007-03-19

    Light induces in P. blakesleeanus multiple developmental and biochemical responses (sporangiophore growth and development, beta-carotene synthesis). P. blakesleeanus is an intensively studied, experimentally tractable model organism, and whole-genome analysis is expected to further elucidate the signaling pathways underlying its photoregulation. To this end, the genome was sequenced to 7.49X depth and assembled into 475 scaffolds totaling 56Mbp, and 47847 ESTs were assembled from cDNAs of light and dark cultures. We combined into a single annotation pipeline a variety of gene modeling methods (homology-based, EST-based, and ab initio), and predicted 14792 protein-coding genes. Many of these gene predictions are supported by homology in nr (68percent), by Pfam domains (44percent), or by ESTs (35percent). We next assigned GO terms to 41percent of the proteins and EC numbers to 16percent. We then distributed these annotations to the Phycomyces consortium, along with tools to curate them manually. We expect that the annotation will provide a solid platform for expression analysis. In addition to its value as a model organism, P. blakesleeanus is the second zygomycete with a sequenced genome, after the related Rhizopus oryzae. We therefore will present preliminary results of comparative analysis between the two zygomycetes.

  16. Learning Semantic Concepts from Noisy Media Collection for Automatic Image Annotation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Feng; SHEN Xukun

    2015-01-01

    — Along with the explosive growth of im-ages, automatic image annotation has attracted great in-terest of various research communities. However, despite the great progress achieved in the past two decades, au-tomatic annotation is still an important open problem in computer vision, and can hardly achieve satisfactory per-formance in real-world environment. In this paper, we ad-dress the problem of annotation when noise is interfering with the dataset. A semantic neighborhood learning model on noisy media collection is proposed. Missing labels are replenished, and semantic balanced neighborhood is con-struct. The model allows the integration of multiple la-bel metric learning and local nonnegative sparse coding. We construct semantic consistent neighborhood for each sample, thus corresponding neighbors have higher global similarity, partial correlation, conceptual similarity along with semantic balance. Meanwhile, an iterative denoising method is also proposed. The method proposed makes a marked improvement as compared to the current state-of-the-art.

  17. Towards a Library of Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for (meta)genomic annotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyrpides, Nikos; Angiuoli, Samuel V.; Cochrane, Guy; Field, Dawn; Garrity, George; Gussman, Aaron; Kodira, Chinnappa D.; Klimke, William; Kyrpides, Nikos; Madupu, Ramana; Markowitz, Victor; Tatusova, Tatiana; Thomson, Nick; White, Owen

    2008-04-01

    Genome annotations describe the features of genomes and accompany sequences in genome databases. The methodologies used to generate genome annotation are diverse and typically vary amongst groups. Descriptions of the annotation procedure are helpful in interpreting genome annotation data. Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for genome annotation describe the processes that generate genome annotations. Some groups are currently documenting procedures but standards are lacking for structure and content of annotation SOPs. In addition, there is no central repository to store and disseminate procedures and protocols for genome annotation. We highlight the importance of SOPs for genome annotation and endorse a central online repository of SOPs.

  18. Towards a Library of Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for (meta)genomic annotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyrpides, Nikos; Angiuoli, Samuel V.; Cochrane, Guy; Field, Dawn; Garrity, George; Gussman, Aaron; Kodira, Chinnappa D.; Klimke, William; Kyrpides, Nikos; Madupu, Ramana; Markowitz, Victor; Tatusova, Tatiana; Thomson, Nick; White, Owen

    2008-04-01

    Genome annotations describe the features of genomes and accompany sequences in genome databases. The methodologies used to generate genome annotation are diverse and typically vary amongst groups. Descriptions of the annotation procedure are helpful in interpreting genome annotation data. Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for genome annotation describe the processes that generate genome annotations. Some groups are currently documenting procedures but standards are lacking for structure and content of annotation SOPs. In addition, there is no central repository to store and disseminate procedures and protocols for genome annotation. We highlight the importance of SOPs for genome annotation and endorse a central online repository of SOPs.

  19. THE USE OF EXPRESSIVE SPEECH ACTS IN HANNAH MONTANA SESSION 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Vita Handayani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to describe kinds and forms of expressive speech act in Hannah Montana Session 1. It belongs to descriptive qualitative method. The research object was expressive speech act. The data source was utterances which contain expressive speech acts in the film Hannah Montana Session 1. The researcher used observation method and noting technique in collecting the data. In analyzing the data, descriptive qualitative method was used. The research findings show that there are ten kinds of expressive speech act found in Hannah Montana Session 1, namely expressing apology, expressing thanks, expressing sympathy, expressing attitudes, expressing greeting, expressing wishes, expressing joy, expressing pain, expressing likes, and expressing dislikes. The forms of expressive speech act are direct literal expressive speech act, direct non-literal expressive speech act, indirect literal expressive speech act, and indirect non-literal expressive speech act.

  20. Fourteen polymorphic microsatellite markers for the threatened Arnica montana (Asteraceae)1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duwe, Virginia K.; Ismail, Sascha A.; Buser, Andres; Sossai, Esther; Borsch, Thomas; Muller, Ludo A. H.

    2015-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed to investigate population genetic structure in the threatened species Arnica montana. • Methods and Results: Fourteen microsatellite markers with di-, tetra-, and hexanucleotide repeat motifs were developed for A. montana using 454 pyrosequencing without and with library-enrichment methods, resulting in 56,545 sequence reads and 14,467 sequence reads, respectively. All loci showed a high level of polymorphism, with allele numbers ranging from four to 11 in five individuals from five populations (25 samples) and an expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.192 to 0.648 across the loci. • Conclusions: This set of microsatellite markers is the first one described for A. montana and will facilitate conservation genetic applications as well as the understanding of phylogeographic patterns in this species. PMID:25606354