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Sample records for monoxide transfer factor

  1. Reference values for lung function tests: III. Carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (transfer factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neder J.A.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (DLCO or transfer factor (TLCO is a particularly useful test of the appropriateness of gas exchange across the lung alveolocapillary membrane. With the purpose of establishing predictive equations for DLCO using a non-smoking sample of the adult Brazilian population, we prospectively evaluated 100 subjects (50 males and 50 females aged 20 to 80 years, randomly selected from more than 8,000 individuals. Gender-specific linear prediction equations were developed by multiple regression analysis with single breath (SB absolute and volume-corrected (VA DLCO values as dependent variables. In the prediction equations, age (years and height (cm had opposite effects on DLCOSB (ml min-1 mmHg-1, independent of gender (-0.13 (age + 0.32 (height - 13.07 in males and -0.075 (age + 0.18 (height + 0.20 in females. On the other hand, height had a positive effect on DLCOSB but a negative one on DLCOSB/VA (P<0.01. We found that the predictive values from the most cited studies using predominantly Caucasian samples were significantly different from the actually measured values (P<0.05. Furthermore, oxygen uptake at maximal exercise (VO2max correlated highly to DLCOSB (R = 0.71, P<0.001; this variable, however, did not maintain an independent role to explain the VO2max variability in the multiple regression analysis (P>0.05. Our results therefore provide an original frame of reference for either DLCOSB or DLCOSB/VA in Brazilian males and females aged 20 to 80 years, obtained from the standardized single-breath technique.

  2. Evidence for horizontal gene transfer of anaerobic carbon monoxide dehydrogenases

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    Stephen eTechtmann

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO is commonly known as a toxic gas, yet it is used by both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and many archaea. In this study, we determined the prevalence of anaerobic carbon monoxide dehydrogenases (anaerobic CODHs, or [Ni,Fe]-CODHs in currently available genomic sequence databases. More than 6% (185 genomes out of 2887 bacterial and archaeal genome sequences in the IMG database possess at least one gene encoding [Ni,Fe]-CODH, the key enzyme for anaerobic CO utilization. The phylogenetic study of this extended protein family revealed nine distinct clades of [Ni,Fe]-CODHs. These clades consisted of [Ni,Fe]-CODHs that, while apparently monophyletic within the clades, were encoded by microorganisms of disparate phylogeny, based on 16S rRNA sequences, and widely ranging physiology. Following this discovery, it was therefore of interest to examine the extent and possible routes of horizontal gene transfer (HGT affecting [Ni,Fe]-CODH genes and gene clusters that include [Ni,Fe]-CODHs.The genome sequence of the extreme thermophile Thermosinus carboxydivorans was used as a case study for HGT. The [Ni,Fe]-CODH operon of T. carboxydivorans differs from its whole genome in its G+C content by 8.2 mol%. Here, we apply statistical methods to establish acquisition by T. carboxydivorans of the gene cluster including [Ni,Fe]-CODH via HGT. Analysis of tetranucleotide frequency and codon usage with application of the Kullback-Leibler divergence metric showed that the [Ni,Fe]-CODH-1 operon of T. carboxidyvorans is quite dissimilar to the whole genome. Using the same metrics, the T. carboxydivorans [Ni,Fe]-CODH-1 operon is highly similar to the genome of the phylogenetically distant anaerobic carboxydotroph Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans. These results allow to assume recent HTG of the gene cluster from a relative of C. hydrogenoformans to T. carboxydivorans or a more ancient transfer from a C. hydrogenoformans ancestor to a T. carboxydivorans

  3. Carbon monoxide transfer in pig lungs during mechanical ventilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.C.A.M. te Nijenhuis (Frances)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis comprises studies of gas transfer in the lungs during mechanical ventilation, which have been obtained in healthy pigs. The objectives of this thesis were: I) to adapt the breath-holding teclmique, as used during spontaneous breathing for estimation of gas transfer, to condit

  4. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in the Region of Fez-Boulemane, Morocco: Epidemiological Profile and Risk Factors (2009-2012

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    Awatef Tahouri

    2013-12-01

    How to cite this article: Tahouri A, Lyoussi B, Achour S. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in the Region of Fez-Boulemane, Morocco: Epidemiological Profile and Risk Factors (2009-2012. Asia Pac J Med Toxicol 2013;2:131-5.

  5. Transfer factors in medical therapy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sánchez-González, Dolores J; Sosa-Luna, Carlos A; Vásquez-Moctezuma, Ismael

    2011-01-01

    Transfer factor (TF) consists of messenger peptides produced by activated T lymphocytes as part of cellular immunity, and it acts in virgin lymphocytes through TF inducers, suppressors and specific antigens...

  6. Aspiration Pneumonia in Patients with Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Who Had Loss of Consciousness: Prevalence, Outcomes, and Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Chang Hwan; Huh, Jin Won; Seo, Dong Woo; Oh, Bum Jin; Lim, Kyoung Soo; Kim, Won Young

    2017-08-09

    Aspiration pneumonia is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, however little is known about in patients with carbon monoxide intoxication which is the leading cause of poisoning-related death. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence, clinical impacts and risk factors for developing aspiration pneumonia in carbon monoxide poisoning patients with loss of consciousness. A retrospective analysis of a carbon monoxide poisoning registry was performed at our emergency department from January, 2008 to December, 2015. All adult carbon monoxide poisoning patients with loss of consciousness were included. Aspiration pneumonia developed in 103 (19.2%) of 537 patients. It was associated with increased ventilator use (52.4 vs. 3.2%), length of hospital stay (3.6 (2.1-5.1) vs. 1.3 (0.6-2.1) days), and in-hospital mortality (5.8 vs. 0.0%) (all, P 12,000/mm(3), odds ratio was increased up to 17.75 (95% CI, 10.65-29.59; P < .001). The prevalence of aspiration pneumonia was 19.2% in carbon monoxide poisoning patients with loss of consciousness and was associated with poor outcomes. Also, altered mental status on emergency department arrival, white blood cells, and increased exposure duration were independently associated with the development of aspiration pneumonia. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Factors affecting exposure to nicotine and carbon monoxide in adult cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad-Kah, Raheema; Liang, Qiwei; Frost-Pineda, Kimberly; Mendes, Paul E; Roethig, Hans J; Sarkar, Mohamadi

    2011-10-01

    Exposure to cigarette smoke among smokers is highly variable. This variability has been attributed to differences in smoking behavior as measured by smoking topography, as well as other behavioral and subjective aspects of smoking. The objective of this study was to determine the factors affecting smoke exposure as estimated by biomarkers of exposure to nicotine and carbon monoxide (CO). In a multi-center cross-sectional study of 3585 adult smokers and 1077 adult nonsmokers, exposure to nicotine and CO was estimated by 24h urinary excretion of nicotine and five of its metabolites and by blood carboxyhemoglobin, respectively. Number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) was determined from cigarette butts returned. Puffing parameters were determined through a CreSS® micro device and a 182-item adult smoker questionnaire (ASQ) was administered. The relationship between exposure and demographic factors, smoking machine measured tar yield and CPD was examined in a statistical model (Model A). Topography parameters were added to this model (Model B) which was further expanded (Model C) by adding selected questions from the ASQ identified by a data reduction process. In all the models, CPD was the most important and highest ranking factor determining daily exposure. Other statistically significant factors were number of years smoked, questions related to morning smoking, topography and tar yield categories. In conclusion, the models investigated in this analysis, explain about 30-40% of variability in exposure to nicotine and CO.

  8. Association of Some Environmental Factors with Breath Carbon Monoxide Levels of Some Taxi Drivers in Ankara

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    Oguz Baran

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Taxi drivers are among the occupational groups with the highest smoking prevalence and exposure to carbon monoxide (CO. This study aimed to measure breath CO levels of some taxi drivers working in Ankara and to find out some associated factors (if any. METHOD: The descriptive study was carried out with 173 taxi drivers from 14 different taxi stations in the center of Ankara. Data was collected by face to face interviews with a standart questionnaire, while breath CO was measured by a Pi-CO Smokerlyser. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize data, whereas chi-square, independant samples t-test and One-Way ANOVA were used to compare groups by SPSS 15.0 statistical package programme. RESULTS: In the study, all of the taxi drivers (n=173 were male with a mean age of 39.2±9.6 years. Of the drivers, 58.4% were current smokers, whereas 75.1% were exposed to enviromental tobacco smoke. The frequency of indoor smoking in the taxi stations, taxis and drivers’ homes were 48.0%, 45.1%, and 59.0%, respectively. The mean breath CO level of the drivers was 16.9±12.8 ppm. CO level was positively associated with the current smoking status, total years of smoking, number of cigarettes smoked per day and passive exposure to tobacco smoke, whereas the association was negative with the elapsed time from the last cigarette smoked (p0.05. CONCLUSION: Results of the study provide evidence in support of the previous literature that smoking is one of the most important sources of carbonmonoxide. Interventions such as awareness raising trainings, referral of smokers willing to quit smoking to smoking cessation centers and screening programmes for smoking related diseases are needed to be implemented in collaboration with the relevant drivers’ associations. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(6.000: 591-596

  9. Coupling of electron transfer with proton transfer at heme a and Cu(A) (redox Bohr effects) in cytochrome c oxidase. Studies with the carbon monoxide inhibited enzyme.

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    Capitanio, N; Capitanio, G; Minuto, M; De Nitto, E; Palese, L L; Nicholls, P; Papa, S

    2000-05-30

    A study is presented on the coupling of electron transfer with proton transfer at heme a and Cu(A) (redox Bohr effects) in carbon monoxide inhibited cytochrome c oxidase isolated from bovine heart mitochondria. Detailed analysis of the coupling number for H(+) release per heme a, Cu(A) oxidized (H(+)/heme a, Cu(A) ratio) was based on direct measurement of the balance between the oxidizing equivalents added as ferricyanide to the CO-inhibited fully reduced COX, the equivalents of heme a, Cu(A), and added cytochrome c oxidized and the H(+) released upon oxidation and all taken up back by the oxidase upon rereduction of the metal centers. One of two reductants was used, either succinate plus a trace of mitochondrial membranes (providing a source of succinate-c reductase) or hexaammineruthenium(II) as the chloride salt. The experimental H(+)/heme a, Cu(A) ratios varied between 0.65 and 0.90 in the pH range 6.0-8.5. The pH dependence of the H(+)/heme a, Cu(A) ratios could be best-fitted by a function involving two redox-linked acid-base groups with pK(o)-pK(r) of 5.4-6.9 and 7.3-9.0, respectively. Redox titrations in the same samples of the CO-inhibited oxidase showed that Cu(A) and heme a exhibited superimposed E'(m) values, which decreased, for both metals, by around 20 mV/pH unit increase in the range 6.0-8.5. A model in which oxido-reduction of heme a and Cu(A) are both linked to the pK shifts of the two acid-base groups, characterized by the analysis of the pH dependence of the H(+)/heme a, Cu(A) ratios, provided a satisfactory fit for the pH dependence of the E'(m) of heme a and Cu(A). The results presented are consistent with a primary involvement of the redox Bohr effects shared by heme a and Cu(A) in the proton-pumping activity of cytochrome c oxidase.

  10. Human factors and information transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alfred T.

    1989-01-01

    Key problem areas in the management and transfer of information in the National Airspace System, contributing to human errors are identified. Information-management aspects supporting the user's ability to assess prevailing situations accurately with adequate time to make an informed decision are considered. The relationship between judgment biases and requirements for managing weather information is illustrated by examining such hazardous weather phenomena as microbursts and windshears. The system of air-ground communication relying almost exclusively on voice transmissions is discussed, and recommendations in the areas of communications procedures and technology development are provided.

  11. Experimental factors that influence carbon monoxide tolerance of high-temperature proton-exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Kyungjung; Yoo, Duck Young; Park, Jung Ock

    The poisoning effect of carbon monoxide (CO) on high-temperature proton-exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) is investigated with respect to CO concentration, operating temperature, fuel feed mode, and anode Pt loading. The loss in cell voltage when CO is added to pure hydrogen anode gas is a function of fuel utilization and anode Pt loading as well as obvious factors such as CO concentration, temperature and current density. The tolerance to CO can be varied significantly using a different experimental design of fuel utilization and anode Pt loading. A difference in cell performance with CO-containing hydrogen is observed when two cells with different flow channel geometries are used, although the two cells show similar cell performance with pure hydrogen. A different combination of fuel utilization, anode Pt loading and flow channel design can cause an order of magnitude difference in CO tolerance under identical experimental conditions of temperature and current density.

  12. Experimental factors that influence carbon monoxide tolerance of high-temperature proton-exchange membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Kyungjung; Yoo, Duck Young; Park, Jung Ock [Energy and Environment Lab, Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Nongseo-dong, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-712 (Korea)

    2008-10-15

    The poisoning effect of carbon monoxide (CO) on high-temperature proton-exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) is investigated with respect to CO concentration, operating temperature, fuel feed mode, and anode Pt loading. The loss in cell voltage when CO is added to pure hydrogen anode gas is a function of fuel utilization and anode Pt loading as well as obvious factors such as CO concentration, temperature and current density. The tolerance to CO can be varied significantly using a different experimental design of fuel utilization and anode Pt loading. A difference in cell performance with CO-containing hydrogen is observed when two cells with different flow channel geometries are used, although the two cells show similar cell performance with pure hydrogen. A different combination of fuel utilization, anode Pt loading and flow channel design can cause an order of magnitude difference in CO tolerance under identical experimental conditions of temperature and current density. (author)

  13. Synergistic effect of carbon monoxide with other biologically active injurious factors on the organism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pankow, D.; Ponsold, W.

    1974-09-01

    The combined effects on biological organisms are reported for carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, sodium nitrite, hydrocyanic acid, carbon disulfide, sulfur dioxide, ammonia, hydrogen peroxide, ethanol, trichloroethylene, carbon tetrachloride, methane, benzene, iodine acetate, cholesterol, benzpyrene, hexobarbitol, zoxazolamine, nembutal, luminal, morphine, adrenalin, persantin, cytochrome c, aldrin, carbaryl, cyclodiene epoxide; and physical influences such as ambient temperature, atmospheric pressure, ionizing radiation, noise, and vibration. A literature review shows that with increasing CO/sub 2/ and decreasing oxygen concentration in the inhalation air, the toxicity of CO increased in experiments with mice and canaries. Oxides of nitrogen enhance the toxic effect of CO in an additive way and at times synergistically. At 500 m from a metallurgical plant in the USSR the maximum allowable immission concentrations for CO and SO/sub 2/ were exceeded. In children residing there a higher normal erythrocyte number, hemoglobin content, and catalase activity were found in the blood along with higher concentrations of coproporphyrin and 17-ketosteroids. All values returned to normal after an 8-week stay of these children away from the metallurgical plant.

  14. Investigation of the spatiotemporal variation and influencing factors on fine particulate matter and carbon monoxide concentrations near a road intersection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhanyong; Lu, Qing-Chang; He, Hong-Di; Wang, Dongsheng; Gao, Ya; Peng, Zhong-Ren

    2017-03-01

    The minute-scale variations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations near a road intersection in Shanghai, China were investigated to identify the influencing factors at three traffic periods. Measurement results demonstrate a synchronous variation of pollutant concentrations at the roadside and setbacks, and the average concentration of PM2.5 at the roadside is 7% (44% for CO) higher than that of setbacks within 500 m of the intersection. The pollution level at traffic peak periods is found to be higher than that of off-peak periods, and the morning peak period is found to be the most polluted due to a large amount of diesel vehicles and unfavorable dispersion conditions. Partial least square regressions were constructed for influencing factors and setback pollutant concentrations, and results indicate that meteorological factors are the most significant, followed by setback distance from the intersection and traffic factors. CO is found to be sensitive to distance from the traffic source and vehicle type, and highly dependent on local traffic conditions, whereas PM2.5 originates more from other sources and background levels. These findings demonstrate the importance of localized factors in understanding spatiotemporal patterns of air pollution at intersections, and support decision makers in roadside pollution management and control.

  15. Investigation of the spatiotemporal variation and influencing factors on fine particulate matter and carbon monoxide concentrations near a road intersection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhanyong; Lu, Qing-Chang; He, Hong-Di; Wang, Dongsheng; Gao, Ya; Peng, Zhong-Ren

    2016-05-01

    The minute-scale variations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations near a road intersection in Shanghai, China were investigated to identify the influencing factors at three traffic periods. Measurement results demonstrate a synchronous variation of pollutant concentrations at the roadside and setbacks, and the average concentration of PM2.5 at the roadside is 7% (44% for CO) higher than that of setbacks within 500 m of the intersection. The pollution level at traffic peak periods is found to be higher than that of off-peak periods, and the morning peak period is found to be the most polluted due to a large amount of diesel vehicles and unfavorable dispersion conditions. Partial least square regressions were constructed for influencing factors and setback pollutant concentrations, and results indicate that meteorological factors are the most significant, followed by setback distance from the intersection and traffic factors. CO is found to be sensitive to distance from the traffic source and vehicle type, and highly dependent on local traffic conditions, whereas PM2.5 originates more from other sources and background levels. These findings demonstrate the importance of localized factors in understanding spatiotemporal patterns of air pollution at intersections, and support decision makers in roadside pollution management and control.

  16. Transfer factors for nuclear emergency preparedness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostiainen, E.; Haenninen, R. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) (Finland); Rosen, K.; Haak, E.; Eriksson, Aa. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Science (Sweden); Nielsen, S.P.; Keith-Roach, M. [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark); Salbu, B. [Agricultural Univ. of Norway (Norway)

    2002-12-01

    This report by the NKS/BOK-1.4 project subgroup describes transfer factors for radiocaesium and radiostrontium for the fallout year and the years after the fallout. The intention has been to collect information on tools to assess the order of magnitude of radioactive contamination of agricultural products in an emergency situation in Nordic environment. The report describes transfer paths from fallout to plant, from soil to plant and to animal products. The transfer factors of radionuclides (Sr, Cs, I) given in the report are intended to be used for making rough estimates of the contamination of agricultural products soon after the heaviness and composition of the deposition (Bq m{sup -2}) is known. (au)

  17. Delayed neuropsychological sequelae after carbon monoxide poisoning: predictive risk factors in the Emergency Department. A retrospective study

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    Botti Primo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Delayed neuropsychological sequelae (DNS commonly occur after recovery from acute carbon monoxide (CO poisoning. The preventive role and the indications for hyperbaric oxygen therapy in the acute setting are still controversial. Early identification of patients at risk in the Emergency Department might permit an improvement in quality of care. We conducted a retrospective study to identify predictive risk factors for DNS development in the Emergency Department. Methods We retrospectively considered all CO-poisoned patients admitted to the Emergency Department of Careggi University General Hospital (Florence, Italy from 1992 to 2007. Patients were invited to participate in three follow-up visits at one, six and twelve months from hospital discharge. Clinical and biohumoral data were collected; univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to identify predictive risk factors for DNS. Results Three hundred forty seven patients were admitted to the Emergency Department for acute CO poisoning from 1992 to 2007; 141/347 patients participated in the follow-up visit at one month from hospital discharge. Thirty four/141 patients were diagnosed with DNS (24.1%. Five/34 patients previously diagnosed as having DNS presented to the follow-up visit at six months, reporting a complete recovery. The following variables (collected before or upon Emergency Department admission were associated to DNS development at one month from hospital discharge in the univariate analysis: CO exposure duration >6 hours, a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS score Conclusions Our study identified several potential predictive risk factors for DNS. Treatment algorithms based on an appropriate risk-stratification of patients in the Emergency Department might reduce DNS incidence; however, more studies are needed. Adequate follow-up after hospital discharge, aimed at correct recognition of DNS, is also important.

  18. Evidence for a Proton Transfer Network and a Required Persulfide-Bond-Forming Cysteine Residue in Ni-Containing Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eun Jin Kim; Jian Feng; Matthew R. Bramlett; Paul A. Lindahl

    2004-05-18

    OAK-B135 Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase from Moorella thermoacetica catalyzes the reversible oxidation of CO to CO2 at a nickel-iron-sulfur active-site called the C-cluster. Mutants of a proposed proton transfer pathway and of a cysteine residue recently found to form a persulfide bond with the C-cluster were characterized. Four semi-conserved histidine residues were individually mutated to alanine. His116 and His122 were essential to catalysis, while His113 and His119 attenuated catalysis but were not essential. Significant activity was ''rescued'' by a double mutant where His116 was replaced by Ala and His was also introduced at position 115. Activity was also rescued in double mutants where His122 was replaced by Ala and His was simultaneously introduced at either position 121 or 123. Activity was also ''rescued'' by replacing His with Cys at position 116. Mutation of conserved Lys587 near the C-cluster attenuated activity but did not eliminate it. Activity was virtually abolished in a double mutant where Lys587 and His113 were both changed to Ala. Mutations of conserved Asn284 also attenuated activity. These effects suggest the presence of a network of amino acid residues responsible for proton transfer rather than a single linear pathway. The Ser mutant of the persulfide-forming Cys316 was essentially inactive and displayed no EPR signals originating from the C-cluster. Electronic absorption and metal analysis suggests that the C-cluster is absent in this mutant. The persulfide bond appears to be essential for either the assembly or stability of the C-cluster, and/or for eliciting the redox chemistry of the C-cluster required for catalytic activity.

  19. Risk Factors for Non-Occupational Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Anshan Prefecture, Liaoning Province, China, 2011-2012.

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    Qiang Lu

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO poisoning can be fatal but is preventable. From October 2010 to February 2011, Anshan Prefecture reported 57 cases of non-occupational CO poisoning in District A, with two deaths. We conducted an investigation to identify risk factors and recommend preventive measures.We defined a possible case of non-occupational CO poisoning as onset of at least two of the following symptoms: fatigue, headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, cyanosis, loss of consciousness, coma, and shock from October 1, 2010, to February 28, 2011, in a resident of Anshan Prefecture with non-occupational exposure to CO poisoning. We defined a probable case as onset of at least one of the following symptoms: cyanosis, loss of consciousness, coma and shock, plus at least one of the following symptoms: fatigue, headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, among possible cases. A confirmed CO poisoning case was a possible case or probable case plus hemoglobin (Hb CO higher than 10%. We searched for cases by reviewing medical records and records of hyperbaric oxygen tank usage. In a case-control investigation, we compared home heating practices of 30 case-persons and 120 control-persons who were individually matched to each case by neighborhood.Overall, 56% (39/70 of case-patients' households burned coal for home-heating. In the case-control investigation, 40% (12/30 of case-persons' households compared with 5.8% (7/120 of control-persons' households placed stoves in bedrooms (Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio [ORM-H] = 11, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.0-41; 53% (16/30 of case-patients' households and 33% (40/120 of control-patients' households did not extinguish the fire before sleeping (ORM-H = 3.6, 95% CI = 1.1-12; 13% (4/30 of case-patients' households and 3% (4/120 of control-patients' households had not installed the ventilation pipe vertically (ORM-H = 7.3, 95% CI = 1.0-56. Overall, 77% (23/30 of case-patients' households and 39% (47/120 of control

  20. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Transfer Student Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jacob T. N.; Litzler, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Transfer students' adjustment to college has received substantial attention by researchers. This focus has predominately investigated the observation of "transfer shock": a decrease in grade point average (GPA) experienced after transferring. In response to the persistent focus on transfer shock, growing attention has been directed…

  1. Carbon monoxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and smokers. Carbon monoxide can harm a fetus (unborn baby still in the womb). Symptoms of carbon ... symptoms Outlook (Prognosis) Carbon monoxide poisoning can cause death. For those who survive, recovery is slow. How ...

  2. CARBON MONOXIDE TREATMENT GUIDELINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miran Brvar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide is the leading cause of unintentional poisoning-related death in Slovenia. It is an odorless, colorless gas that usually remains undetectable until exposures result in injury or death. Exposure to carbon monoxide is most commonly accompanied by headache, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, confusion, drowsiness, fatigue and collapse. Carbon monoxide poisoning management includes normobaric oxygen therapy. Hyperbaric-oxygen treatments reduce the risk of cognitive sequelae after carbon monoxide poisoning. 

  3. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... main content Languages 简体中文 English Bahasa Indonesia 한국어 Español ภาษาไทย Tiếng Việt Text Size: Decrease Font Increase ... Monoxide Information Center Carbon Monoxide Information Center En Español The Invisible Killer Carbon monoxide, also known as ...

  4. Organizational Culture Factors that Can Influence Knowledge Transfer

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    Ioan Pastor

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper tries to establish the correlation that exists between the types of organizational culture and the factors that influence knowledge transfer. We started from the hypothesis that organizations which have high scores for cultural factors of openness to change and innovation as well as for task-oriented organizational growth will have the tendency of being favourable to knowledge transfer. Moreover, we started from the hypothesis that organizations that have high scores for bureaucracy and competition factors will have the tendency of being unfavourable to knowledge transfer. The research reached the conclusion that there seems to be a correlation between organizational culture and the factors that influence knowledge transfer.

  5. Factors Affecting Training Transfer: Participants' Motivation to Transfer Training, Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alawneh, Muhammad K.

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates factors that motivate participants in learning and training activities to transfer skills, knowledge and attitude from the learning setting to the workplace. Based on training transfer theories hypothesized by Holton (1996), one of the major theories that affect an organization's learning is motivation to transfer theory.…

  6. Racial and Cultural Factors and Learning Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closson, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    Baldwin and Ford (1988) specifically include learner characteristics as one of three key inputs into the learning transfer process but infrequently (actually almost never) has race, ethnicity, or culture been included as a variable when describing trainee characteristics. For the most part one is left to speculate as to the potential influence…

  7. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

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    Full Text Available ... Estimates OCTOBER 13, 2015 Incidents, Deaths, and In-Depth Investigations Associated with Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide from Engine-Driven Generators and ... Engine-Driven Tools, 2004–2014 JANUARY 08, 2015 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths Associated with the Use of Consumer Products 2011 Annual Estimates View All ... Inside CPSC Accessibility ...

  8. Electronic and Nuclear Factors in Charge and Excitation Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piotr Piotrowiak

    2004-09-28

    We report the and/or state of several subprojects of our DOE sponsored research on Electronic and Nuclear Factors in Electron and Excitation Transfer: (1) Construction of an ultrafast Ti:sapphire amplifier. (2) Mediation of electronic interactions in host-guest molecules. (3) Theoretical models of electrolytes in weakly polar media. (4) Symmetry effects in intramolecular excitation transfer.

  9. Evolution of factors affecting placental oxygen transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, A M

    2009-01-01

    states, are more amenable to analysis. This is exemplified by factors contributing, respectively, to blood oxygen affinity and placental diffusing capacity. Comparative genomics has given fresh insight into the evolution of the beta-globin gene complex. In higher primates, duplication of an embryonic...

  10. Transfer factors of polonium from soil to parsley and mint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Masri, M S; Al-Hamwi, A; Eadan, Z; Amin, Y

    2010-12-01

    Transfer factors of (210)Po from soil to parsley and mint have been determined. Artificial polonium isotope ((208)Po) was used as a tracer to determine transfer factor of Po from soil to plant in pot experiments. Two plant growing systems were used for this study namely, an outdoor system and a sheltered system by a polyethylene tent. (208)Po and (210)Po were determined in soil and different parts of the studied plants (stem and leaf), using alpha spectroscopy. The results have shown that there was a clear uptake of (208)Po by roots to leaves and stems of both plants. Higher values of transfer factors using the (210)Po activity concentrations than the (208)Po activity concentration were observed. Transfer factors of (210)Po from soil to parsley varied between 20 × 10⁻² and 50 × 10⁻² and 22 × 10⁻³ and 67 × 10⁻³ in mint, while (208)Po transfer factors varied between 4 × 10⁻² and 12 × 10⁻² for parsley and 10 × 10⁻² and 22 × 10⁻² in mint. Transfer factors of Po were higher in those plants grown in the sheltered system than in the open system; about 75% of Po was transferred from atmosphere to parsley parts using the two systems. Ratios of transferred Po from soil to mint stem and leaf in the sheltered system were higher by 2 times from those in the open system. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

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    Full Text Available ... CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION Search CPSC Search Menu Home Recalls Recall List CPSC Recall API Recall Lawsuits ... and Bans Report an Unsafe Product Consumers Businesses Home Safety Education Safety Education Centers Carbon Monoxide Information ...

  12. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

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    Full Text Available ... Safety Blogs: CO Safety More CO Blogs Research & Statistics JANUARY 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths ... 2011 Annual Estimates View All CO-Related Injury Statistics and Technical Reports Related Links Recalls Safety Education ...

  13. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

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    Full Text Available ... On Safety Blogs: CO Safety More CO Blogs Research & Statistics JANUARY 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide ... Related Links Recalls Safety Education Regulations, Laws & Standards Research & Statistics Business & Manufacturing Small Business Resources OnSafety Blogs ...

  14. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

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    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Criminal Penalties Federal Court Orders & Decisions Research & Statistics Research & Statistics Technical Reports Injury Statistics NEISS Injury Data ... On Safety Blogs: CO Safety More CO Blogs Research & Statistics JANUARY 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths ...

  16. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

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  17. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

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  19. Carbon Monoxide Nonattainment Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies areas in the U.S. where air pollution levels have not met the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Carbon Monoxide and have...

  20. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

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  1. Factors affecting the placental transfer of actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikov, M.R.; Kelman, B.J. (Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA (USA))

    1989-01-01

    The primary goal of this paper is to consider factors that affect the availability and transport of actinides from maternal blood, through the placenta, to the conceptus. These factors, of particular importance in scaling results from animals to man, include the route and temporal pattern of administration, the mass and physicochemical state of material administered, metabolism of the pregnant animal and fetal organs or tissue, and species-specific changes in placental structure relative to stage of gestation at exposure. Preliminary concepts for descriptive and kinetic models are proposed to integrate these results, to identify additional information required for developing more comprehensive models, and to provide a basis for scaling to human pregnancies for purposes of radiation dosimetry.

  2. Transfer Factors for Contaminant Uptake by Fruit and Nut Trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, Bruce A.; Fellows, Robert J.; Minc, Leah D.

    2013-11-20

    Transfer of radionuclides from soils into plants is one of the key mechanisms for long-term contamination of the human food chain. Nearly all computer models that address soil-to-plant uptake of radionuclides use empirically-derived transfer factors to address this process. Essentially all available soil-to-plant transfer factors are based on measurements in annual crops. Because very few measurements are available for tree fruits, samples were taken of alfalfa and oats and the stems, leaves, and fruits and nuts of almond, apple, apricot, carob, fig, grape, nectarine, pecan, pistachio (natural and grafted), and pomegranate, along with local surface soil. The samples were dried, ground, weighed, and analyzed for trace constituents through a combination of induction-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and instrumental neutron activation analysis for a wide range of naturally-occurring elements. Analysis results are presented and converted to soil-to-plant transfer factors. These are compared to commonly used and internationally recommended values. Those determined for annual crops are very similar to commonly-used values; those determined for tree fruits show interesting differences. Most macro- and micronutrients are slightly reduced in fruits; non-essential elements are reduced further. These findings may be used in existing computer models and may allow development of tree-fruit-specific transfer models.

  3. [Transfer factor effectiveness patients with persistent genital human papillomavirus infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morfin-Maciel, Blanca María; Sotelo-Ortiz, Julieta Margarita

    2012-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections worldwide. Most HPV infections are cleared within two years by the immune system. Only in 5% to 10% of infected women the infection persists determining a high risk of developing cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. The transfer factor (TF) or dialyzable leukocyte extract is an immunomodulator that has been successfully used as an adjuvant in the treatment of intracelular infections such as recurrent herpes virus diseases. One daily dose of transfer factor was given for five days and subsequently each week for five weeks to a group of women with persistent genital papillomavirus infection. We included 13 patients, aged 19 to 45 years, with first intercourse between the ages of 14 to 23, and a mean of three sexual partners in their lifetime. All of them had persistent HPV that had been treated before with local and ablative therapeutic options, including cervical freezing, cervical conization, cauterizing loop, imiquimod and podophyllin. Transfer factor was administered daily for 5 days, and subsequently at 7-day intervals for 5 weeks. We found a clinical significant improvement in the gynaecological evaluation of cervical, vaginal, vulvar and perineal lesions. No recurrences have developed for at least 1 year of follow-up. The use of transfer factor in women with HPV showed resolution of genital lesions, without recurrences for at least one year after the treatment was ended.

  4. University Technology Transfer Factors as Predictors of Entrepreneurial Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkman, Dorothy M.

    2011-01-01

    University technology transfer is a collaborative effort between academia and industry involving knowledge sharing and learning. Working closely with their university partners affords biotechnology firms the opportunity to successfully develop licensed inventions and gain access to novel scientific and technological discoveries. These factors may…

  5. Platelet-derived growth factor stimulates heme oxygenase-1 gene expression and carbon monoxide production in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, W; Peyton, K J; Schafer, A I

    1999-11-01

    Recent studies indicate that vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) generate CO from the degradation of heme by the enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Because platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) modulates various responses of VSMCs, we examined whether this peptide regulates the expression of HO-1 and the production of CO by rat aortic SMCs. Treatment of SMCs with PDGF resulted in a time- and concentration-dependent increase in the levels of HO-1 mRNA and protein. Both actinomycin D and cycloheximide blocked PDGF-stimulated HO-1 mRNA and protein. In addition, PDGF stimulated the production of reactive oxygen species by SMCs. Both the PDGF-mediated generation of reactive oxygen species and the induction of HO-1 protein was inhibited by the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine. Incubation of platelets with PDGF-treated SMCs resulted in a significant increase in platelet cGMP concentration that was reversed by treatment of SMCs with the HO-1 inhibitor tin protoporphyrin-IX or by addition of the CO scavenger hemoglobin to platelets. In contrast, the nitric oxide inhibitor methyl-L-arginine did not block the stimulatory effect of PDGF-treated SMCs on platelet cGMP. Finally, incubation of SMCs with the releasate from collagen-activated platelets induced HO-1 protein expression that was blocked by a neutralizing antibody to PDGF. These results demonstrate that either administered exogenously or released by platelets, PDGF stimulates HO-1 gene expression and CO synthesis in vascular smooth muscle. The ability of PDGF to induce HO-1-catalyzed CO release by VSMCs may represent a novel mechanism by which this growth factor regulates vascular cell and platelet function.

  6. Effect of yoga practices on pulmonary function tests including transfer factor of lung for carbon monoxide (TLCO) in asthma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Savita; Soni, Ritu; Singh, K P; Tandon, O P

    2012-01-01

    Prana is the energy, when the self-energizing force embraces the body with extension and expansion and control, it is pranayama. It may affect the milieu at the bronchioles and the alveoli particularly at the alveolo-capillary membrane to facilitate diffusion and transport of gases. It may also increase oxygenation at tissue level. Aim of our study is to compare pulmonary functions and diffusion capacity in patients of bronchial asthma before and after yogic intervention of 2 months. Sixty stable asthmatic-patients were randomized into two groups i.e group 1 (Yoga training group) and group 2 (control group). Each group included thirty patients. Lung functions were recorded on all patients at baseline, and then after two months. Group 1 subjects showed a statistically significant improvement (Pyoga practice. Quality of life also increased significantly. It was concluded that pranayama & yoga breathing and stretching postures are used to increase respiratory stamina, relax the chest muscles, expand the lungs, raise energy levels, and calm the body.

  7. Pion Electromagnetic Form Factor at Lower and Higher Momentum Transfer

    CERN Document Server

    de Melo, J P B C; Tsushima, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    The pion electromagnetic form factor is calculated at lower and higher momentum transfer in order to explore constituent quark models and the differences among those models. In particular, the light-front constituent quark model is utilized here to calculate the pion electromagnetic form factor at lower and higher energies. The matrix elements of the electromagnetic current, are calculated with both "plus" and "minus" components of the electromagnetic current in the light-front. Further, the electromagnetic form factor is compared with other models in the literature and experimental data.

  8. Axial form factor of the nucleon at large momentum transfers

    CERN Document Server

    Anikin, I V; Offen, N

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the emerging possibilities to study threshold pion electroproduction at large momentum transfers at Jefferson Laboratory following the 12 GeV upgrade, we provide a short theory summary and an estimate of the nucleon axial form factor for large virtualities in the $Q^2 = 1-10~\\text{GeV}^2$ range using next-to-leading order light-cone sum rules.

  9. Transfer factors of radionuclides from paddy soils to polished rice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komamura, Misako; Tsumura, Akito; Yuita, Kouichi; Yamasaki, Shin-ichi [National Inst. of Agro-Environmental Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Kodaira, Kiyoshi

    1996-12-31

    The present studies were conducted in order to estimate the transfer factors of radionuclides from paddy soils to polished rice using the {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs survey data and analytical data obtained by conventional radiometric and ICP-MS methods. Soils and rices samples were collected nationwide from 15 paddy fields of National and Prefectural Experiment Stations in 1990 when the amount of radioactive fallout was extremely low (the direct contaminations to rice by {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs are neglected). The highest transfer factors were observed among the alkali metals (K {>=} Rb >> {sup 137}Cs > Cs), followed by alkaline-earth metals (Ca {>=} {sup 90}Sr > Sr {>=} Ba), last came the lanthanoids (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Gd, Lu) and Th, U which all showed extremely low values. The transfer factors (average) of typical elements were as follows, {sup 40}K: 1.0 x 10{sup -1}, Rb: 3.3 x 10{sup -2}, {sup 137}Cs: 2.6 x 10{sup -3}, Cs: 7.8 x 10{sup -4}, Ca: 5.8 x 10{sup -3}, {sup 90}Sr: 4.8 x 10{sup -3}, Sr: 7.4 x 10{sup -4}, Ba: 5.0 x 10{sup -4}, La: 1.5 x 10{sup -4}, Ce: 4.5 x 10{sup -5}, Sm: 6.6 x 10{sup -5}, Lu: 8.8 x 10{sup -5}, Bi: 2.2 x 10{sup -4}, Th: 1.5 x 10{sup -4}, and U: 1.9 x 10{sup -4}. It was found that the transfer factors of fallout {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs were 4-6 times higher than those of natural Sr and Cs. (author)

  10. Deuteron form factor measurements at low momentum transfers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlimme B. S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A precise measurement of the elastic electron-deuteron scattering cross section at four-momentum transfers of 0.24 fm−1 ≤ Q ≤ 2.7 fm−1 has been performed at the Mainz Microtron. In this paper we describe the utilized experimental setup and the necessary analysis procedure to precisely determine the deuteron charge form factor from these data. Finally, the deuteron charge radius rd can be extracted from an extrapolation of that form factor to Q2 = 0.

  11. Consistency in Quenching of ``Absolute'' Spectroscopic Factors from Transfer Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffer, J. P.; Kay, B. P.; Freeman, S. J.

    2013-04-01

    The strengths of single-particle transitions in (e,e'p) knockout reactions on closed-shell nuclei are lower than expected,footnotetextG. J. Kramer et al., Nucl. Phys. A679, 267 (2001). due to limitations of the mean-field description imposed by correlations. This quenching of single-particle strength by ˜0.5 appeared to be a general property of nuclei from ^16O to ^208Pb. In our work, the combined sums of neutron-adding and neutron-removing strengths from (d,p) and (p,d) transfer reactions on four Ni isotopes yield very similar quenching factors of ˜0.53 (varying by ˜10% with reasonable choices of optical-model parameters).footnotetextJ. P. Schiffer et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 022501 (2012). Recently, spectroscopic overlaps between ^4He and ^3He were extracted from GFMC calculations.footnotetextI. Brida et al., Phys. Rev. C 84, 024319 (2011). With these, our data on (α,^3He) and (^3He,α) on the Ni isotopes yields ˜0.62. Additional data for proton transfer on Ni and transfer on other nuclei are also being analyzed. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Physics, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357 and the U.K. Science and Technology Facilities Council.

  12. Preparation and properties of the specific anti-influenza virus transfer factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chongbi; Huang, Lihua; Wang, Yanping; Li, Xiangle; Liang, Shaowei; Zheng, Yingna

    2010-09-13

    Specific anti-influenza virus and normal transfer factors prepared in an experimental animal model, the pig, have been tested for their components, characteristics, and activity of known specificity. Two transfer factors are small molecular mixture which consist entirely or partly of polypeptides and polynucleosides. Moreover, the biological activity of transfer factors could be approved by Rosettes test and specific skin test. The study would lay a foundation for the research and development of other specific transfer factor.

  13. The Influence Theory: Factors That Influence the Transfer Advising Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Alan L.; Dantzler, John A.; Hardy, David E.

    2015-01-01

    The transfer rate from community college to four-year institutions has been dropping for the past 70 years. In the most recent statistics, the national rate of transfer is 23% (Cohen & Brawer, 2008). In the state of Alabama the transfer rate is approximately 4%, and in the rural counties of Alabama the transfer rate hovers around 1%. Many…

  14. Analysis of transfer reactions: determination of spectroscopic factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keeley, N. [CEA Saclay, Dept. d' Astrophysique, de Physique des Particules de Physique Nucleaire et de l' Instrumentation Associee (DSM/DAPNIA/SPhN), 91- Gif sur Yvette (France); The Andrzej So an Institute for Nuclear Studies, Dept. of Nuclear Reactions, Warsaw (Poland)

    2007-07-01

    An overview of the most popular models used for the analysis of direct reaction data is given, concentrating on practical aspects. The 4 following models (in order of increasing sophistication): the distorted wave born approximation (DWBA), the adiabatic model, the coupled channels born approximation, and the coupled reaction channels are briefly described. As a concrete example, the C{sup 12}(d,p)C{sup 13} reaction at an incident deuteron energy of 30 MeV is analysed with progressively more physically sophisticated models. The effect of the choice of the reaction model on the spectroscopic information extracted from the data is investigated and other sources of uncertainty in the derived spectroscopic factors are discussed. We have showed that the choice of the reaction model can significantly influence the nuclear structure information, particularly the spectroscopic factors or amplitudes but occasionally also the spin-parity, that we wish to extract from direct reaction data. We have also demonstrated that the DWBA can fail to give a satisfactory description of transfer data but when the tenets of the theory are fulfilled DWBA can work very well and will yield the same results as most sophisticated models. The use of global rather than fitted optical potentials can also lead to important differences in the extracted spectroscopic factors.

  15. Pion Form Factor in QCD at Intermediate Momentum Transfers

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, V M; Maul, M

    1999-01-01

    We present a quantitative analysis of the electromagnetic pion form factor in the light-cone sum rule approach, including radiative corrections and higher-twist effects. The comparison to the existing data favors the asymptotic profile of the pion distribution amplitude and allows to estimate the deviation: $(\\int du/u \\phi_\\pi(u))/ (\\int du/u \\phi^{\\rm as}_\\pi(u))=$ 1.1$\\pm$ 0.1 at the scale 1 GeV. Special attention is payed to the precise definition and interplay of soft and hard contributions at intermediate momentum transfer, and to matching of the sum rule to the perturbative QCD prediction. We observe a strong numerical cancellation between the soft (end point) contribution and power suppressed hard contributions of higher twist, so that the total nonperturbative correction to the usual pQCD result turns out to be of order 30% for $Q^2\\sim 1$ GeV$^2$.

  16. Transfer factor (diffusing capacity) standardized for alveolar volume: validation, reference values and applications of a new linear model to replace KCO (TL/VA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, D J; Cotes, J E; Flowers, R; Marks, A M; Reed, J W

    1996-06-01

    Transfer factor (TL) varies with alveolar volume (VA), but not in the manner implied by the carbon monoxide transfer coefficient (KCO (TL/VA)). This paper considers two other simple models (one linear and one exponential) which might standardize TL for VA, and asks the questions: 1) Is either model valid? 2) What are appropriate reference values? and 3) Will the model be useful? The relationship of TL to VA within subjects at different depths of inspiration, and between subjects having lungs of different sizes, were measured and compared. The subjects were asymptomatic, nonsmoking, Caucasian adults, including 31 males assessed in the laboratory and 503 male and female participants in population studies. The linear partial regression coefficients of TL on VA (L corrected for body temperature, atmospheric pressure and water saturation (BTPS)) standardized for height (H) in metres, were similar within- and between-subjects; the coefficients applied over a wide range of values for VA. This was not the case for the exponential model. The resulting reference equations in SI units for males and females were: TL = 11.52 H + 2.72 VA.H-2 - 0.051 Age -12.35. RSD 1.17; and TL = 4.87 H + 2.29 VA.H-2 - 0.019 Age -3.03. RSD 0.92, respectively. The residual standard deviations (RSD) about the new relationships were less than in other series. The new linear model could account for much of the variation between different published reference values for TL; it could be useful clinically, in circumstances when VA deviates from the norm. The model does not explain differences in TL associated with gender. Inclusion of VA.H-2 as a covariate in the reference equation for transfer factor, in addition to age and height, improves the accuracy of prediction of normal transfer factor compared with current reference values; its use suggests that some of the differences between published values is due to the volume term. The equations can be used clinically, and eliminate the need for carbon

  17. Factors Differentiating Hospital Transfers from Long-term Care Facilities with High and Low Transfer Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teresi, Jeanne A.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Examined differences among nursing homes in rates at which they transfer patients to hospitals. Data from nursing staff and charts on 286 most recent transfers from 10 nursing homes revealed that, from relatively equivalent patient populations, high-rate facilities transferred more chronically ill, physically frail patients and patients with…

  18. Carbon Monoxide (CO) Poisoning Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir When power outages occur after severe weather (such as winter storms, hurricanes or tornadoes), using alternative sources of power can cause carbon monoxide (CO) to build up in a ...

  19. Carbon Monoxide Mixing Ratio System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory — The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Carbon Monoxide (CO) system provides high-precision atmospheric concentration measurements of CO mixing ratio (ppbv dry air) every 10...

  20. General and specific factors in the intersensory transfer of form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J. L.; Warm, J. S.; Schumsky, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    This study assessed the relative contributions of specific and nonspecific components to intersensory transfer between vision and touch. A paired-associate paradigm was used in which visual metric figures and their tactual analogs served as stimuli, and familiar adjectives were the responses. Positive intersensory transfer, characterized by symmetry across modalities was obtained. The contribution of nonspecific learning to this effect was negligible. Intersensory transfer was found to be less efficient than the empirically determined maximum level of intrasensory transfer possible in this task.

  1. Factors in the Transfer of Governance-Facilitation Skills within Farmers' Marketing Organizations in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miiro, Richard F.; Mazur, Robert E.; Matsiko, Frank B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Training transfer has been examined for formal industrial and service organizations in developed countries but rarely for rural organizations in sub-Saharan Africa. This study sought to identify transfer system factors that best explain the transfer of governance-facilitation skills provided to leaders of farmers' marketing organizations…

  2. Factors in the Transfer of Governance-Facilitation Skills within Farmers' Marketing Organizations in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miiro, Richard F.; Mazur, Robert E.; Matsiko, Frank B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Training transfer has been examined for formal industrial and service organizations in developed countries but rarely for rural organizations in sub-Saharan Africa. This study sought to identify transfer system factors that best explain the transfer of governance-facilitation skills provided to leaders of farmers' marketing organizations…

  3. Student Perceptions of Factors Contributing to Community-College-to-University Transfer Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gard, Dwight R.; Paton, Valerie; Gosselin, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    The transfer process includes areas such as academic preparation and advisement, transfer evaluation, financial aid, and psychosocial factors. A descriptive, exploratory method was employed to capture the perceptions of a transfer student cohort regarding their experiences in transitioning from lower division community college enrollment to…

  4. A Developmental Study of Factors Influencing Discrimination Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Michael

    1973-01-01

    Examines the importance of (1) dimensional characteristics of stimuli present in discrimination transfer tasks, (2) having contrasting stimuli presented simultaneously, and (3) subjects age. Subjects were rural Mexican youths, ages 4 to 10. Reversal and nonreversal type discrimination transfer problems were used in the study. (DP)

  5. Improving the Success of Transfer Students: Responding to Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coston, Charisse T. M.; Lord, Vivian B.; Monell, Jack S.

    2013-01-01

    How can learning communities be designed to reduce transfer student stress and enhance their learning? This study was designed to investigate the impact of the Criminal Justice Transfer Learning Community experience on its participants' level of identified stressors over time and their means of coping with those stressors. The Criminal Justice…

  6. High Quality Factor Resonators for Inductive Power Transfer Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etemadrezaei, Mohammad

    In this dissertation, the Inductive Power Transfer (IPT) systems for multi-MHz frequency of operation are investigated, and new ideas for magnetic link inductive coils are presented. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  7. (Carbon monoxide metabolism by photosynthetic bacteria)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    Research continued on the metabolism of carbon monoxide by Rhodospirillum rubrum. This report discusses progress on the activity, induction, inhibition, and spectroscopic analysis of the enzyme Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase. (CBS)

  8. Carbon Monoxide Silicate Reduction System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Carbon Monoxide Silicate Reduction System (COSRS) is an innovative method that for the first time uses the strong reductant carbon monoxide to both reduce iron...

  9. Transfer of chemicals from feed to animal products: The use of transfer factors in risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeman, W.R.; Berg, K.J. van den; Houben, G.F.

    2007-01-01

    The human risk assessment of feed contaminants has often been hampered by a lack of knowledge concerning their behaviour when consumed by livestock. To gain a better understanding of the transfer of contaminants from animal feed to animal products, a meta-analysis of public literature was made. Data

  10. The Influence of Transfer System Factors and Training Elapsed Time on Transfer in a Healthcare Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalko, Beverly J.

    2010-01-01

    Organizations and other sponsors of training face increasing pressure to demonstrate the value or impact of their training programs on individual and organizational performance. A critical element in the validation of training effectiveness is the permanent transfer of learned knowledge, skills, and behaviors to the workplace. The generalization…

  11. Transfer of chemicals from feed to animal products: The use of transfer factors in risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeman, W.R.; Berg, K.J. van den; Houben, G.F.

    2007-01-01

    The human risk assessment of feed contaminants has often been hampered by a lack of knowledge concerning their behaviour when consumed by livestock. To gain a better understanding of the transfer of contaminants from animal feed to animal products, a meta-analysis of public literature was made. Data

  12. High temperature thermodynamics and vaporization of stoichiometric titanium monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheldon, R.I.; Gilles, P.W.

    1976-08-17

    Three vaporization experiments were performed on samples of nearly stoichiometric titanium monoxide. Two experiments were constant temperature experiments (1806/sup 0/K) designed to measure the equilibrium vapor pressures of Ti(g) and TiO(g). In one experiment titanium monoxide was vaporized from a tungsten Knudsen effusion cell; the vapor was collected on a water cooled quartz cap surrounding the cell; and the total amount of titanium deposited on the cap was analyzed colorimetrically. In the second constant temperature experiment (1806/sup 0/K) the vapor composition in equilibrium with nearly stoichiometric titanium monoxide was measured mass spectrometrically. The mass spectrometer results were used to apportion the total titanium collected in the first experiment to Ti(g) and TiO(g). In the third experiment the temperature dependence of the ions Ti/sup +/(48) and TiO(64) was measured spectrometrically. The results obtained in this work are compared with published thermodynamic properties of the titanium oxygen system, and indicate the standard free energy of formation of titanium monoxide obtained from the earliest calorimetric measurements yielded a result not negative enough and also oxygen pressures obtained by emf measurements for stoichiometric titanium monoxide at 1806/sup 0/K are high by a factor of 42.6. The present results are in good agreement with the thermodynamic properties reported in recently issued pages of the JANAF Thermochemical Tables.

  13. Environmental variables and levels of exhaled carbon monoxide and carboxyhemoglobin in elderly people taking exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salicio, Marcos Adriano; Mana, Viviane Aparecida Martins; Fett, Waléria Christiane Rezende; Gomes, Luciano Teixeira; Botelho, Clovis

    2016-04-01

    This article aims to analyze levels of exhaled carbon monoxide, carboxyhemoglobinand cardiopulmonary variables in old people practicing exercise in external environments, and correlate them with climate and pollution factors. Temporal ecological study with118 active elderly people in the city of Cuiabá, in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Data were obtained on use of medication, smoking, anthropometric measurements, spirometry, peak flow, oxygen saturation, heart rate, exhaled carbon monoxide, carboxyhemoglobin, climate, number of farm fires and pollution. Correlations were found between on the one hand environmental temperature, relative humidity of the air and number of farmers' fires, and on the other hand levels of carbon monoxide exhaled and carboxyhemoglobin (p elderly people, environmental factors influence levels of exhaled carbon monoxide, carboxyhemoglobin and heart rate. There is thus a need for these to be monitored during exercise. The use of a carbon monoxide monitor to evaluate exposure to pollutants is suggested.

  14. Carbon monoxide formation in tomatoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gladon, R.J.; Staby, G.L.

    1979-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is not emanated to any large extent from tomato fruits (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill. cvs. Rutgers and Ohio MR-13), but is retained within the internal atmosphere. CO is found during all stages of fruit development, but no set pattern of CO concentration is evident.

  15. MOPITT Carbon Monoxide Over India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    MOPITT observed high levels of carbon monoxide (red and yellow pixels) over the Indian sub-continent during March. These values are associated with industrial activity in the region just south of the Himalayan Mountains. Notice that to the north, the Himalayas are characterized by low values (blue pixels).

  16. 葡萄糖裂解释放一氧化碳的影响因素%Factors influencing carbon monoxide released from glucose during pyrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张华; 刘献军; 张媛; 秦艳华; 韩开冬; 石怀彬; 尤晓娟; 庄亚东

    2016-01-01

    为考察烟叶中葡萄糖在卷烟燃烧过程中对烟气一氧化碳(CO)生成的影响,采用热重分析仪和裂解仪模拟卷烟燃烧过程中葡萄糖的热裂解,通过电化学法及红外散射法检测热裂解过程中CO的释放量变化,探讨了钾盐(柠檬酸钾、碳酸钾和硫酸钾)添加量(0%~4.0%,质量分数)、氧气浓度(0%~20%,体积分数)和升温速率(50℃/s~300℃/s)等因素对葡萄糖裂解产生CO的影响。结果表明:①有氧慢速裂解(10%O2、20℃/min)条件下,CO的释放过程与TG曲线的葡萄糖热解及残炭氧化两个阶段相对应,在此条件下,葡萄糖有氧裂解的CO产率约为无氧慢速裂解的2倍。②柠檬酸钾能降低葡萄糖的分解温度和CO的产率,且与CO产率存在明显的剂量效应关系。③在空气氛围中快速裂解(50℃/s~300℃/s)时,CO产率随着升温速率的增大而增加。④空气氛围、300℃/s条件下快速裂解时,柠檬酸钾、碳酸钾能降低葡萄糖的CO产率,但硫酸钾对葡萄糖裂解释放CO没有影响。%In order to investigate the influences of endogenic glucose in tobacco leaves on carbon monoxide (CO) release during cigarette combustion, the pyrolysis of glucose was simulated by a thermogravimetric analyzer (TG) and pyrolyzer, and the CO yield formed by pyrolysis was determined with an electrochemical method and FTIR method. Furthermore, the impacts of 0%-4.0% (mass fraction) of potassium salts (potassium citrate, potassium carbonate and potassium sulphate) addition, oxygen concentration (0%-20%, volume fraction) and heating rates (50 ℃/s-300 ℃/s) were also studied. The results showed that: 1) With oxygen-assisted pyrolysis under slow temperature ramp (10% of O2, 20 ℃/min), CO formation from glucose could be divided into a pyrolysis stage and a carbon residue oxidation stage, which corresponded with the two stages of mass loss curve. The CO yield in the presence of

  17. Factors that affect print quality in thermal dye transfer imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Daniel J. P.; McInerney, Elizabeth

    1995-04-01

    Thermal dye transfer (TDT) imaging has established itself as the state- of-the-art process for high quality, continuous tone, nonimpact printing. Imaging quality from this process rivals conventional silver halide photography and exceeds other nonimpact printing technologies. Because this output appears to be virtually indistinguishable from photographic prints, there has been an expectation that all the quality attributes of silver halide photography are embodied in a TDT print. However, there are many significant differences that affect output quality between these two technologies. These differences are primarily in color gamut, print artifacts, Dmin, grain/sharpness, and image stability. The range of colors reproducible by a color, hard copy device, known as its color gamut, is dictated primarily by the image- forming dyes used by the device. The size and shape of a device's gamut is controlled by the spectral density distributions of these image forming dyes, the Dmin of the receiver base, the Dmax of each dye, the amount of light scatter, and the spectral distribution of the viewing illuminant. The spectral density distributions of dyes also have an impact on illuminant sensitivity, which is a predictor of how much the color balance of a print will change with a change in illuminant. By determining and then using characteristic curves for various image- forming dyes, we have been able to calculate and compare the color gamuts and illuminant sensitivity of TDT imaging with other technologies (color monitor and silver halide photography, for example). The differences we have found can have a significant impact on output quality, depending upon the application. Compared to conventional photography, thermal dye transfer prints have traditionally had inferior light stability and resistance to damage from fingerprints. In addition, thermal dye transfer prints have been aggressively attacked by plasticized polyvinyl chloride sheets and folders commonly found in

  18. Radiative transfer in rectangular enclosures - A discretized exchange factor solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naraghi, M. H. N.; Kassemi, M.

    1988-01-01

    The discretized exchange factor method is used to analyze radiative exchange in a rectangular enclosure. The results compare excellently with those of other methods, especially the zonal method. Since the direct exchange factors are between nodal points no integration is necessary for evaluation of these factors. It is found that the present approach provides accurate results even when a small number of nodes is used.

  19. The influence of national level factors on international kaizen transfer: an exploratory study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yokozawa, Kodo; Steenhuis, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research study was to examine the international transfer of kaizen or continuous improvement. The central research question was formulated as: what national level factors influence the transfer of kaizen, and how? Design/methodology/approach: In the study, a survey

  20. The influence of national level factors on international kaizen transfer: an exploratory study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yokozawa, Kodo; Steenhuis, Harm-Jan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research study was to examine the international transfer of kaizen or continuous improvement. The central research question was formulated as: what national level factors influence the transfer of kaizen, and how? Design/methodology/approach: In the study, a survey int

  1. The influence of national level factors on international kaizen transfer: an exploratory study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yokozawa, Kodo; Steenhuis, Harm-Jan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this research study was to examine the international transfer of kaizen or continuous improvement. The central research question was formulated as: what national level factors influence the transfer of kaizen, and how? Design/methodology/approach - In the study, a survey in

  2. Transitioning Transfer Students: Interactive Factors that Influence First-Year Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Mingchu; Williams, James E.; Vieweg, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the diverse patterns of interactive factors that influence transfer students' first-year retention at a midsize four-year university. The population for this study consisted of five cohorts totaling 1,713 full-time, degree-seeking transfer students. Sequential sets of logistic regression analyses on blocks of variables were…

  3. Perception of Transfer Climate Factors in the Macro and Micro Organizational Work Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diggs, Byron Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study was designed to provide insight on the perceived transfer climate factors in the macro and micro organizational work environment that may influence an employee's willingness to transfer what was learned in a training program to the job. More specifically, the purpose of the study was to delineate descriptive patterns and…

  4. Perception of Transfer Climate Factors in the Macro and Micro Organizational Work Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diggs, Byron Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study was designed to provide insight on the perceived transfer climate factors in the macro and micro organizational work environment that may influence an employee's willingness to transfer what was learned in a training program to the job. More specifically, the purpose of the study was to delineate descriptive patterns and…

  5. Sourcebook of Temporal Factors Affecting Information Transfer from Visual Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    Valerie (1969) found that the periphery is poorer than central vision at this task also. 43 I ’ 0 LII •~8 L6 270 l90• V � Figure 8. Perimetric chart...optimum grating patterns: 3 c/deg for green (squares) and red (circles); 1 c/deg for the blue (triangles). Retinal luminance equals 10 td. Filled symbols...squares) and red (circles); 1.5 Hz for the blue (triangles). Filled symbols show comparable data points transferred from Figure 25. (From Kelly, 1974

  6. Factors predisposing nursing home resident to inappropriate transfer to emergency department. The FINE study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélie Perrin

    2017-09-01

    Discussion: A better understanding of the determinant factors of inappropriate transfers to ED of NH residents may lead to proposals of recommendations of better practice in NH and would allow implementing quality improvement programs in the health organization.

  7. Purge and trap method to determine alpha factors of VOC liquid-phase mass transfer coefficients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A theoretical approach and laboratory practice of determining the alpha factors of volatile organic compound (VOC) liquid-phase mass transfer coefficients are present in this study.Using Purge Trap Concentrator, VOC spiked water samples are purged by high-purity nitrogen in the laboratory, the VOC liquid-phase mass transfer rate constants under the laboratory conditions are then obtained by observing the variation of VOCs purged out of the water with the purge time.The alpha factors of VOC liquid-phase mass transfer coefficients are calculated as the ratios of the liquid-phase mass transfer rate constants in real water samples to their counterparts in pure water under the same experimental conditions. This direct and fast approach is easy to control in the laboratory, and would benefit mutual comparison among researchers, so might be useful for thestudy of VOC mass transfer across the liquid-gas interface.

  8. Modeling the factors that influence knowledge transfer in mergers and acquisitions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU; Haiyan; LIANG; Zhanping

    2010-01-01

    This paper constructs a model on the factors that influence knowledge transfer in mergers and acquisitions(M&A)and validates it via questionnaire surveys.Using 125valid collected questionnaires,multiple linear regression analysis and hierarchical regression analysis showed that five out of the ten factors had a positive effect on knowledge transfer effect.The ranking of factor importance,from high to low,was knowledge explicitness,relationship quality,learning intent,advanced transfer activities,and learning capability,which is fairly consistent with positive factors observed in other interorganizational knowledge transfer researches.Our results also showed that one of the control variables(size of acquired firm)had neither a direct or indirect effect on knowledge transfer in M&A.Additionally,our research found that knowledge distance and degree of M&A integration had a positive influence on knowledge transfer effect at the early stage after M&A,but had a negative influence at the late stage.Based on this research,several suggestions for knowledge transfer in M&A are proposed.

  9. Robust and Non-Negative Collective Matrix Factorization for Text-to-Image Transfer Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liu; Jing, Liping; Ng, Michael K

    2015-12-01

    Heterogeneous transfer learning has recently gained much attention as a new machine learning paradigm in which the knowledge can be transferred from source domains to target domains in different feature spaces. Existing works usually assume that source domains can provide accurate and useful knowledge to be transferred to target domains for learning. In practice, there may be noise appearing in given source (text) and target (image) domains data, and thus, the performance of transfer learning can be seriously degraded. In this paper, we propose a robust and non-negative collective matrix factorization model to handle noise in text-to-image transfer learning, and make a reliable bridge to transfer accurate and useful knowledge from the text domain to the image domain. The proposed matrix factorization model can be solved by an efficient iterative method, and the convergence of the iterative method can be shown. Extensive experiments on real data sets suggest that the proposed model is able to effectively perform transfer learning in noisy text and image domains, and it is superior to the popular existing methods for text-to-image transfer learning.

  10. Changes of vascular endothelial growth factor and nitrogen monoxide in retina of rats with diabetes%糖尿病大鼠视网膜血管内皮生长因子和一氧化氮的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈少强; 陈瑞华; 黄焱; 张更

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND:There is positive correlation between vascular endothelia growth factor(VEGF) and nitrogen monoxide in peripheral blood of diabetic patients.However,if there is any change of VEGF and nitrogen monoxide in retina tissues of diabetic patients is till uncertain. OBJECTIVE:To explore the changes of VEGF and nitrogen monoxide in retina tissues of diabetic rats and their effects on the origin and development of diabetic retinopathy(DR). DESIGN:Randomized case controlled study. INTERVENTIONS:The rats were randomly divided into normal control group,one month diabetic group,three months diabetic group and five months diabetic group,each with 20 rats.All the rats except the rats of normal group were abdominally injected strptozotin(STZ) once to induce diabetes models.Immunohistochemical method was applied to observe the expression of VEGF in retina tissues of each group.The activity of nitric oxide synthase(NOS) and the content changes of nitrogen monoxide of retina tissues were tested. RESULTS:Immunological positive reaction of VEGF is only found in inner nucleus layer of retina in normal rats,the content of NOS and NO was(36.17± 1.83) μ kat/g and(36.77± 2.33) μ mol/g respectively.In the third month,the expression of VEGF in the retina of diabetic rats increased significantly and the content of NOS and NO was(115.91± 31.5) μ kat/g and(68.34± 5.46) μ mol/g respectively.There was significant difference between this group and normal group(t=7.43,8.15,P< 0.01).In the fifth month,the expression of VEGF in retina was higher than that of rats in the third month diabetic group.The contents of NOS and NO were(72.35± 16.34) μ kat/g and(50.62± 3.01) μ mol/g.There was difference on this between the five months group and the third months group(t=4.76, 4.19,P< 0.05). CONCLUSION:The overexpression of VEGF,the activity of NOS as well as the content change of nitrogen monoxide in retina of rats with diabetes play important role on the origin and development of DR

  11. Carbon monoxide kinetics following simulated cigarette smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karnik, A.S. (Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI); Coin, E.J.

    1980-05-01

    Carbon monoxide kinetics were measured in the blood (% carboxyhemoglobin) and alveolar phase (ppM carbon monoxide) after simulated cigarette smoking. Cigarette smoking was siumlated using the same amount of carbon monoxide that 2R1F cigarettes manufactured by the Tobacco Research Institute would contain. Ten boluses of air containing carbon monoxide equivalent to smoking one cigarette were inhaled by six healthy nonsmoker volunteers. Carbon monoxide in the air phase was measured by an Ecolyzer and carboxyhemoglobin was measured by a CO-Oximeter. The mean rise in alveolar carbon monoxide immediately and 20 min after inhaling the last bolus was 3.3 and 3.1 ppM, respectively (p<.005). The mean rise in carboxyhemoglobin immediately and 20 min after inhalation of the last bolus was 0.8 and 0.5% respectively (P<.005). The changes in carboxyhemoglobin were found to be similar to changes that occur when one cigarette is actually smoked.

  12. [Determination and analysis of protein profile of different transfer factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidos-Fogelbach, Guillermo Arturo; Paredes-Aguilar, Jorge Antonio; Colín-Martínez, Nayeli Montserrat; Rojo-Gutiérrez, María Isabel; López-Hidalgo, Marisol; Reyes-López, César Augusto Sandino

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: El factor de transferencia (FT) es el extracto dializable de leucocitos con propiedades de transferencia de inmunidad celular. Su uso se ha extendido en el tratamiento de una amplia gama de padecimientos inmunológicos, infecciosos y como coadyuvante de padecimientos oncológicos. A pesar de ello, no se conocen completamente aspectos importantes de su perfil proteico, concentraciones de componentes y mecanismos de acción. Objetivos: Analizar los perfiles proteicos de diferentes factores de transferencia comercializados en México. Métodos: Se obtuvieron y analizaron 6 FT comercializados en México. Se realizó la cuantificación de proteínas por el método de Bradford, cromatografía líquida de alta resolución (HPLC) y electroforesis en geles de poliacrilamida (SDS-PAGE). Todas las muestras fueron analizadas por duplicado. Resultados: Las concentraciones de proteínas totales de todos los FT analizados fueron menores de 0.2 mg/mL. Los perfiles cromatográficos mostraron diferencias en algunos FT. La concentración de proteínas resultó de 6 hasta casi mil veces más baja en comparación con lo informado por algunos fabricantes. Conclusión: Casi la totalidad de los factores de transferencia comercializados en México carecen de un etiquetado y registro sanitario que cumpla con las normas oficiales vigentes.

  13. Lymphatic Vessel Function and Lymphatic Growth Factor Secretion after Microvascular Lymph Node Transfer in Lymphedema Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiina P. Viitanen, MD

    2013-05-01

    Conclusions: Reconstructing the lymphatic anatomy of the axilla with a lymph node flap may offer possibilities that other reconstructive options are lacking. However, we will need further reports and comparative studies about the clinical efficacy of this new promising technique. In addition to the transferred lymph nodes, lymphatic growth factor production may also be induced by other factors related to microvascular breast reconstruction.

  14. The JLab polarization transfer measurements of proton elastic form factor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C F Perdrisat; V Punjabi

    2003-11-01

    The ratio of the electric and magnetic proton form factors, /, has been obtained in two Hall A experiments, from measurements of the longitudinal and transverse polarizations of the recoil proton, ℓ and , in the elastic scattering of polarized electrons, $\\overrightarrow{e}p→ e\\overrightarrow{p}$. Together these experiments cover the 2 range of 0.5 to 5.6 GeV2. A new experiment is currently being prepared, to extend the 2 range to 9 GeV2 in Hall C.

  15. Analysis of Factors Influencing Pregnancy Rate in Frozen-thawed Embryo Transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu LI; Xiao-xi SUN; Jun-ling CHEN; Xiao-hong GAO; Yong-wei WANG; Jie-wei TAO; Li-nan CHENG

    2004-01-01

    Objective To analyse factors influencing the outcome of frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET)Method A retrospective analysis was performed in our center on 129 thawing cycles from March 2001 to April 2003. The related parameters were compared between conceived and non-conceived cycles.Results There were totally 129 clinical pregnancies in these transfers (pregnancy rate: 27.1%). Frozen-thawed embryos were transferred to natural cycles and CC cycling and hormone replacement treatment had equal success. Groups of IVF and ICSI did not differ significantly in pregnancy rates (P>0. 05). The pregnancy rates for one, two, three and four pre-embryos transfer were 0, 20.0%,44.1% and 75.0%,respectively (P<0. 05). There were statistical differences between pregnancy group or non- pregnancy group in the endometrial thickness, CES, CES/No. Of embryo. A higher pregnancy rate was observed in embryo transfers which had at least one 4-cell grade I embryo (d 2)(P<0.01). Conclusions The most important factors influencing the implantation rate and pregnancy rate of frozen-thawed embryo transfer are age, endometrium thickness, and the number, morphology and growth rate of transferred frozen embryos of women participants.

  16. A simple parameterization for quality factor as a function of linear energy transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Lawrence W.; Wilson, John; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    1987-01-01

    The paper presents a simple analytic approximation of the radiation quality factor (Q) as a function of linear energy transfer for use in radiation protection calculations. The paper also presents estimated quality factors in water for protons over a broad range of incident energies. It is shown that the quality factors are less than unity for all proton energies greater than 13 MeV.

  17. An Overview of Potential Factors for Effective Telemedicine Transfer to Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meso, Peter; Mbarika, Victor W A; Sood, Sanjay Prakash

    2009-09-01

    This paper gives an overview of core factors mitigating effective transfer of TeleMedicine to Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) as a capability for improving the extremely poor state of healthcare delivery systems in that region of the world. Using specific examples of TeleMedicine applications, such as in TeleRadiology and health education, the paper highlights the importance of TeleMedicine in SSA. It then presents the salient factors that influence TeleMedicine technology transfer in the form of a conceptual framework. In explaining the framework, the paper offers opinions and supportive arguments on the importance and significance of the identified factors in effective TeleMedicine "uptake" within the SSA. We believe the framework provides a grounded theoretical basis that information and communications technologies (ICT) or technology transfer researchers can use for empirical investigation in order to understand the efficacy of TeleMedicine adoption within developing countries at large.

  18. TRANSFER

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    “Chemistry Department, Kenyatta University, P. 0. Box 43844 ... harvester (X) [L 2] in a manner consistent with the following Forster equation for long range energy transfer [3-7]. .... sensitive foods, chemical reactors and essences. Recently we ...

  19. Lymph node transfer and perinodal lymphatic growth factor treatment for lymphedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkonen, Krista M; Visuri, Mikko T; Tervala, Tomi V; Halonen, Paavo J; Koivisto, Mari; Lähteenvuo, Markku T; Alitalo, Kari K; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo; Saaristo, Anne M

    2013-05-01

    Our objective was to define the optimal growth factor treatment to be used in combination with lymph node transfer to normalize lymphatic vascular anatomy. In the lymph node transfer method, lymphatic anastomoses are expected to form spontaneously. However, lymphangiogenic growth factor therapies have shown promising results in preclinical models of lymphedema. The inguinal lymphatic vasculature of pigs was surgically destroyed around the inguinal lymph node. To enhance the regrowth of the lymphatic network in the defected area, adenoviral vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C) was administered intranodally or perinodally. Control animals received injections of saline or control vector. The lymphangiogenic effect of the growth factor therapy and any potential adverse effects associated with the 2 alternative delivery routes were examined 2 months postoperatively. Both routes of growth factor administration induced robust growth of lymphatic vessels and helped to preserve the structure of the transferred lymph nodes in comparison with the controls. The lymph nodes of the control treated animals regressed in size and their nodal structure was partly replaced by fibro-fatty scar tissue. Intranodally injected adenoviral VEGF-C and adenoviral vector encoding control gene LacZ induced macrophage accumulation inside the node, whereas perinodal administration of VEGF-C did not have this adverse effect. Lymphangiogenic growth factors improve lymphatic vessel regeneration and lymph node function after lymph node transfer. The perinodal route of delivery provides a basis for future clinical trials in lymphedema patients.

  20. Ultrastructural Study on Ultra-Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields and Transfer Factor Effects on Skin Ulcers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadena, M. S. Reyes; Chapul, L. Sánchez; Pérez, Javiér; García, M. N. Jiménez; López, M. A. Jiménez; Espíndola, M. E. Sánchez; Perez, R. Paniagua; Hernández, N. A.; Paniagua, G.; Uribe, F.; Nava, J. J. Godina; Segura, M. A. Rodríguez

    2008-08-01

    We determined the effect of 120Hz ultra low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF) on the healing process of skin in 20 Wistar rats distributed in four groups in which chronic dermal ulcers had been produced. The first two groups received a dose of the transfer factor and interferon-beta (IFN-β) every 24 h during 12 days. The third group (positive control) received only electromagnetic field (ELF) sessions, and in the fourth group (negative control), no treatment was applied. The electromagnetic field was applied through a Helmholtz coils; 30 Gauss of intensity. Results shown histological changes that improve the healing process in animals subjected to ELF together with the transfer factor.

  1. Carbon monoxide conversion by anaerobic bioreactor sludges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sipma, J.; Stams, A.J.M.; Lens, P.N.L.; Lettinga, G.

    2003-01-01

    Seven different anaerobic sludges from wastewater treatment reactors were screened for their ability to convert carbon monoxide (CO) at 30 and 55degreesC
    Seven different anaerobic sludges from wastewater treatment reactors were screened for their ability to convert carbon monoxide (CO) at 30 and

  2. Influencing Factors of Householders’ Transferring out Cultivated Land under the Background of Urban and Rural Integration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Factors influencing householders’ transferring out the cultivated land are analyzed from the aspects of farmers’ individual characteristics,farmers’ family features,resources endowment features and external environmental features.And based on the results of the questionnaire survey of 252 households in Chengdu City,the effect of each factor is analyzed through building the dual preference model of Logistic.The result shows that 65.87% of householders have transferred out their cultivated land and proportion of non-agricultural incomes,stability of land ownership,per capita area of cultivated farmland,comminution of cultivated farmland,transferring price and distance to town have relatively significant effect on farmers’ transferring out cultivated land.Non-agricultural industries should be developed with great efforts and reasonable transferring prices of cultivated land fixed.Law on Land Contract in Rural Area is to be practically implemented and the steady peasants’ vocational skill training system and rural social security system established.Moreover,investment in rural infrastructure should be strengthened to improve the transportation conditions in rural area and promote the market development of cultivated land transference effectively.

  3. Effect of Weissenberg number on turbulent heat transfer and friction factor of viscoelastic fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwack, E. Y.

    The effect of the elasticity of viscoelastic fluids on heat transfer and drag reduction behavior was investigated with aqueous polyacrylamide solutions flowing turbulently in circular pipes. A new dimensionless number called the Weissenberg number was used to account for the elasticity of the fluid. It was found that the fully established friction factor and dimensionless heat transfer coefficient, decrease with increasing Weissenberg number for a fixed Reynolds number up to certain critical Weissenberg numbers for friction and for heat transfer which are 5 to 10 and 200 to 250 respectively. The Powell-Eyring model was used to calculate the characteristic time of each test fluid for determining the Weissenberg number. The influence of polymer concentration, fluid degradation, pipe diameter and solvent chemistry on the behavior of friction and heat transfer of viscoelastic fluids was found to be adequately accounted for in the Weissenberg and Reynolds numbers.

  4. AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON HEAT TRANSFER AND FRICTION FACTOR OF AL2O3 NANOFLUID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.V. Sharma

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available L. Syam Sundar1 and K.V. Sharma2This paper reports experimental investigations of fully developed laminar convective heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of different volume concentrations of Al2O3 nanofluid in a plain tube, fitted with different twist ratios of twisted tape inserts. Experiments are conducted with water and nanofluid in the range of 700transfer coefficient of the nanofluid is high compared with water, and further enhancement of heat transfer is observed with the twisted tape inserts. Pressure drop is slightly increased with the inserts, but is comparatively negligible. A generalized regression equation is developed based on the experimental data for the estimation of the Nusselt number and friction factor for water and nanofluid in a plain tube with twisted tape inserts.

  5. Factors associated with dizygotic twinning after IVF treatment with double embryo transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, E.; Lambers, M. J.; Stakelbeek, M. E. F.; Mooij, T. M.; van den Belt-Dusebout, A. W.; Heymans, M. W.; Schats, R.; Hompes, P. G. A.; Hoek, A.; Burger, C. W.; van Leeuwen, F. E.; Lambalk, C. B.

    2012-01-01

    Dizygotic twin pregnancies after IVF treatment are the result of multiple embryos transferred into the uterine cavity, followed by successful double implantation. Factors that increase the chance of multiple implantation after IVF are relatively unknown. The present study aimed to investigate whethe

  6. Absorption and desorption mass transfer rates in chemically enhanced reactive systems. Part I : Chemical enhancement factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamborg, Espen S.; Versteeg, Geert F.

    2012-01-01

    The chemical enhancement factors have been measured in a controlled environment for absorption and desorption mass transfer processes in aqueous 2.0 M MDEA solutions at temperatures of 298.15, 313.15, and 333.15 K and the loading of CO2 ranging from 0 to 0.8 in a batch-operated stirred tank reactor.

  7. The Role of Individual and Training Design Factors on Training Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Muhammad Awais; Kaur, Sharan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to highlight the role of individual and training design factors on training transfer. Design/methodology/approach: A review of the literature is conducted, and this review highlights a dual role of perceived content validity in the form of increasing self-efficacy and the role of trainees' reaction. The study…

  8. Monte Carlo direct view factor and generalized radiative heat transfer programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Williams, J. L.; Scates, J. H.

    1969-01-01

    Computer programs find the direct view factor from one surface segment to another using the Monte carlo technique, and the radioactive-transfer coefficients between surface segments. An advantage of the programs is the great generality of problems treatable and rapidity of solution from problem conception to receipt of results.

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF AN AIR-TO-LEAF VAPOR PHASE TRANSFER FACTOR FOR DIOXINS AND FURANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Results of an experiment in which grass was grown in a greenhouse and outdoors, and in soils of different concentration levels of dioxins and furans, were used in a modeling exercise to derive an air-to-leaf vapor phase transfer factor. The purpose of the experiment was to under...

  10. Robustly stabilizing controllers with respect to left coprime factor perturbations for irrational transfer functions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curtain, RF

    2004-01-01

    We solve the problem of robust stabilization with respect to left coprime factor perturbations for a class of irrational transfer functions with a state space realization. We obtain a parameterization of the robustly stabilizing controllers in terms of the generating operators and an arbitrary

  11. A Transfer Learning Approach for Applying Matrix Factorization to Small ITS Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voß, Lydia; Schatten, Carlotta; Mazziotti, Claudia; Schmidt-Thieme, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Machine Learning methods for Performance Prediction in Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) have proven their efficacy; specific methods, e.g. Matrix Factorization (MF), however suffer from the lack of available information about new tasks or new students. In this paper we show how this problem could be solved by applying Transfer Learning (TL),…

  12. Factors Associated with Transfer of Training in Workplace E-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji-Hye; Wentling, Tim

    2007-01-01

    Purpose--The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of factors associated with e-learning, particularly computer attitudes and usability, on transfer of training in workplace e-learning courses. Design/methodology/approach--This study relied on quantitative data obtained from four online survey questionnaires. The sample of this study…

  13. The Carbon Monoxide Tape Recorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeberl, M. R.; Duncan, B. N.; Douglass, A. R.; Waters, J.; Livesey, N.; Read, W.; Filipiak, M.

    2006-01-01

    Using Aura MLS data we have identified the stratospheric tape recorder in carbon monoxide (CO). Unlike the water vapor tape recorder, which is controlled by upper troposphere processes, the CO tape recorder is linked to seasonal biomass burning. Since CO has a lifetime of only a few months, the CO tape recorder barely extends above 20 km. The tape head for CO appears to be close to 360K near the same location as the water vapor tape head [Read et al, 20041. Both tape heads are below the equatorial cold point tropopause but above the base of the tropical tropopause layer. The tape recorder signal becomes more distinct from 360K to 380K suggesting that convective detrainment of plays a decreasingly important role with altitude. The Global Modeling Initiative chemical transport model forced by the climatology of biomass burning reproduces the CO tape recorder.

  14. Transfer factors for the „soil-cereals” system in the region of Pcinja, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Jelena S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to estimate the values of transfer factors for natural radionuclides (40K, 226Ra, 232Th, 235U, and 238U and 137Cs from soil to plants (cereals: wheat, corn and barley as important parameters for the agricultures in the selection of the location and the sort of cereals to be planted on. The results presented in this paper refer to the „soil-cereals” system in the region of Pcinja, Serbia. Total of 9 samples of soil and 7 samples of cereals were measured in the Department of Radiation and Environmental Protection, Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, using three high-purity germanium detectors for gamma spectrometry measurements. In all the samples, transfer factors for 226Ra are significantly lower than for 40K, but they are all in good agreement with the literature data. On the three investigated locations, the calculated values of transfer factors for 40K were in the range of 0.144 to 0.392, while in the case of 226Ra, the transfer factors ranged from 0.008 to 0.074. Only one value (0.051 was obtained for transfer factor of 232Th. Specific activities of 137Cs, as well as uranium isotopes, in all the investigated cereal samples, were below minimal detectable activity concentrations. Also, the absorbed dose rate and the annual absorbed dose from the natural radionuclides in the soil, were calculated. The absorbed dose rate ranged from 49-86 nSv/h, while the annual absorbed dose ranged from 0.061-0.105 mSv. The measurements presented in this manuscript are the first to be conducted in the region of Pcinja, thus providing the results that can be used as a baseline for future measurements and monitoring.

  15. Factors Influencing Pregnancy Outcome Following Slow Cooling Cryoembryo Transfer and Risk of Multiple Conception

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su-ying LIU; Jing-ming YAN; Jin-lan HAN; Bin TENG; Zhu-di LU; Yu ZHENG; Ying CAO; Xiang CAO; Ning-yi WANG; Bin HUANG

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the factors that influence the potential for cryoembryo implantation and multiple pregnancy.Methods In this retrospective study,a total of 937 thawing cycles(859 couples)in which 3286 d 3-embryos were thawed.Rates of implantation,clinical pregnancy and multiple conception following FET were observed.Results There were significant differences in female age(P<0.05)and number of good quality embryos(P<0.05)between cycles that resulted in pregnancy and those did not.There was a trend toward decreasing rates of implantation,clinical pregnancy and multiple pregnancy with increasing female age.Compared with transferring 1 good quality embryo,clinical pregnancy rate of transferring 2 and 3 good quality embryos was increased significantly(P<0.0001),there was no significant difference in clinical pregnancy rate between transferring 2 and 3 good quality embryos.Multiple pregnancy rate was increased significantly in the group of transferring 3 good quality embryos(P<0.05),but there was no significant differences in multiple pregnancy rate between transferring 1 and 2 good quality embryos.Younger women(≤30 years)also had a significantly higher multiple pregnancy rates(28.13%)than the older ones(>35 years)(13.64%).With an increase in age from≤30 years to>40 years,clinical pregnancy rate declined from 45.61% to 25.00%.Conclusion Female age and the number of good quality embryos transferred are important factors influencing the clinical and multiple pregnancy rate,reducing the number of good quality embryos transferred may decrease the rate of multipte pregnancy but do not affect the clinical pregnancy rate.

  16. Survey of literature on convective heat transfer coefficients and recovery factors for high atmosphere thermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, S.

    1973-01-01

    Heat transfer phenomena of rarefied gas flows is discussed based on a literature survey of analytical and experimental rarefied gas dynamics. Subsonic flows are emphasized for the purposes of meteorological thermometry in the high atmosphere. The heat transfer coefficients for three basic geometries are given in the regimes of free molecular flow, transition flow, slip flow, and continuum flow. Different types of heat phenomena, and the analysis of theoretical and experimental data are presented. The uncertainties calculated from the interpolation rule compared with the available experimental data are discussed. The recovery factor for each geometry in subsonic rarefied flows is also given.

  17. Factors that affect the reproductive efficiency of the recipient within a bovine embryo transfer program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Duica A.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The embryo transfer is a biotechnological technique that allows increasing the descendant of animals with high genetic value. The positive results, represented in pregnancy after the application of this technique, are affected by some factors that are inherent to the donor, the embryo, the technique, and the recipients which receive a strange embryo in the uterus allowing pregnancy. This review describes some factors affecting the reproductive efficiency of the recipients of bovine embryos within a program of embryo transfer. Its important to evaluate the parameters in this kind of recipients, as race, age, physiological status, health status, weight, reproductive tract integrity and management, and also too monitoring the ovarian structures while the estrus synchronization, and within previous and posterior stages in embryo transfer procedure. Therefore an optimum follicular development will be determinant to corpus luteum formation which generates enough serum progesterone concentrations to offer a right uterine environment allowing the optimum embryo development. Controlling the factors that affect the efficiency of the embryo transfer, it will obtain an increasing of positive results represented in pregnancies and births of individuals come from animals with high genetic value.

  18. Transfer factor: an overlooked potential for the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viza, D; Fudenberg, H H; Palareti, A; Ablashi, D; De Vinci, C; Pizza, G

    2013-01-01

    Transfer factor (TF) is a low-molecular-weight lymphocyte extract capable of transferring antigen-specific cell-mediated immunity (CMI) to T lymphocytes. It has been used successfully as an adjuvant or primary therapy for viral, parasitic, fungal, and some bacterial infections, as well as immunodeficiencies, neoplasias, allergies and autoimmune diseases. From the list of infections that seem to respond noticeably to transfer factor, those due to viruses of the herpes family are particularly remarkable. Indeed, for these viruses it was shown that TF can prevent infection or relapse, acting as a CMI vaccine. Data also suggest its possible use for adjuvant treatment and probably prevention of two currently widespread infections: tuberculosis and AIDS. Furthermore, TF has an interesting potential: answering the challenge from unknown pathogenic agents, a black box effect permitting production of antigen-specific TF to a new pathogen, even before its identification. It thus seems that the preventative potential of transfer factor is as important as its therapeutic one, both discussed in this review.

  19. The ultrasonic-enhanced factor of mass-transfer coefficient in the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Based on several hypotheses about the process of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, the onflow around the solute granule is figured out by the Navier-Stocks equation. In combination with the Higbie’s solute infiltration model, the link be-tween the mass-transfer coefficient and the velocity of flow is found. The mass-transfer coefficient with the ultrasonical effect is compared with that without the ultrasonical effect, and then a new parameter named the ultrasonic-enhanced fac-tor of mass-transfer coefficient is brought forward, which describes the mathe-matical model of the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction process enhanced by ultrasonic. The model gives out the relationships among the ultrasonical power, the ultrasonical frequency, the radius of solute granule and the ultrasonic-enhanced factor of mass-transfer coefficient. The results calculated by this model fit well with the experimental data, including the extraction of Coix Lacryma-jobi Seed Oil (CLSO) and Coix Lacryma-jobi Seed Ester (CLSE) from coix seeds and the extrac-tion of Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) from the alga by means of the ultrasonic-enhanced supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (USFE) and the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SFE) respectively. This proves the rationality of the ultrasonic-enhanced factor model. The model provides a theoretical basis for the application of ultrasonic-enhanced supercritical fluid extraction technique.

  20. Engineering evidence for carbon monoxide toxicity cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galatsis, Kosmas

    2016-07-01

    Unintentional carbon monoxide poisonings and fatalities lead to many toxicity cases. Given the unusual physical properties of carbon monoxide-in that the gas is odorless and invisible-unorganized and erroneous methods in obtaining engineering evidence as required during the discovery process often occurs. Such evidence gathering spans domains that include building construction, appliance installation, industrial hygiene, mechanical engineering, combustion and physics. In this paper, we attempt to place a systematic framework that is relevant to key aspects in engineering evidence gathering for unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning cases. Such a framework aims to increase awareness of this process and relevant issues to help guide legal counsel and expert witnesses.

  1. Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet İbrahim Turan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide poisoning is a major cause of death following attempted suicide and accidental exposures. Although clinical presentation depends on the duration and the intensity of exposure, the assessment of the severity of intoxication is difficult. A small percentage of patients who show complete initial recovery may develop delayed neurological deficits. Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning is a rare and poor prognosis neurologic disorders and there is no specific treatment. We present a case with early onset of delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning with typical cranial imaging findings in a child with atypical history and clinical presentation.

  2. Scale-model charge-transfer technique for measuring enhancement factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kositsky, J.; Nanevicz, J. E.

    1991-01-01

    Determination of aircraft electric field enhancement factors is crucial when using airborne field mill (ABFM) systems to accurately measure electric fields aloft. SRI used the scale model charge transfer technique to determine enhancement factors of several canonical shapes and a scale model Learjet 36A. The measured values for the canonical shapes agreed with known analytic solutions within about 6 percent. The laboratory determined enhancement factors for the aircraft were compared with those derived from in-flight data gathered by a Learjet 36A outfitted with eight field mills. The values agreed to within experimental error (approx. 15 percent).

  3. 急性一氧化碳中毒后迟发性脑病发病的危险因素分析%Risk factor analysis of the delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓莉; 潘登; 韩亚州; 赵国有; 顾仁骏; 曾皎; 顾家鹏; 李瑞杰; 张萍; 吴强; 田松朝; 赵建华; 靳玫

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the associated risk factors of the delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon mon-oxide poisoning (DEACMP) .Methods Seven hundred and fifty-two cases of acute carbon monoxide poisoning (ACMP) in-patients admitted to 10 hospitals in northern Henan during 2001 -2014 who met the inclusive and exclusive criteria were re-cruited .The clinical information of each ACMP patient was collected ,and following-up for each patient was more than 90 days .Based on the occurrence of DEACMP ,the patients were divided into ACMP group and DEACMP group .The statistical induction of 26 indicators in each patient ,such as age ,coma duration ,severity of coma ,smoking & drinking ,etc .was con-ducted to analyze the possible risk factors of DEACMP in ACMP patients .Results One hundred and twenty-seven out of 752 patients demonstrated DEACMP ,the univariate analysis showed that male ACMP patients were more susceptible to DEACMP than female patients ,and the difference was statistically significant (P12 h ,the inci-dence of DEACMP significantly increased ,and up to 58 .3% once the coma last for >48 h .The patients who had moderate-a-bove coma ,positive pathology ,being widowed ,history of smoking and drinking ,major mental stimulation was more suscepti-ble to DEACMP than those without above issues ,and the differences were all statistically significant (All P12 h .Additional care has to be taken for their clinical monitoring to take premorbid preventive treatment as early in-tervention to the disease .%目的:探讨急性一氧化碳中毒后迟发性脑病(DEACM P)发病的相关危险因素。方法以2001—2014年在豫北地区10家医院符合入组标准和排除标准的急性一氧化碳中毒(ACM P)752例住院患者为研究对象,收集临床资料,并随访90 d以上,根据以后是否发生DEACM P分为ACM P组和DEACM P组,对所有患者的年龄、昏迷时间、昏迷程度、吸烟饮酒史等26个指标

  4. Factors Analysis of Spontaneous Abortion after Thawed-vitrified Blastocysts Transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong YANG; Zheng-yi SUN; Cheng-yan DENG; Qi YU; Fang-fang HE

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the factors resulting in spontaneous abortion after transferring frozen-thawing blastocysts. Methods A total of 108 cases transferring vitrified blastocysts were divided into two groups: abortion group (n =20) and ongoing group (n=88). Cytogenetic analysis of apoblemas was performed in 12 cases of the abortion.Results The overall spontaneous abortion rate was 18.50%(20/108) and the early spontaneous rate was 16.67%(18/108). ,4 significant difference in maternal age was observed (abortion group: 33.3±4.0 years, ongoing group: 31.0±3.6 years, P=0.02). No difference in other parameters was found. Cytogenetic analysis of apoblemas was obtained for 12 cases, and 2 specimens were contaminated. Seven of ten patients had abnormal karyotypes. Conclusion The underlying cause of spontaneous abortion after transferring frozen thawing blastocysts appears to be abnormal karyotypes.Advancing maternal age seems to increase the risk of spontaneous abortion.

  5. Magnetic field emission comparison at different quality factors with series-series compensation network for inductive power transfer to vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batra, Tushar; Schaltz, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Inductive power transfer is non-contact transfer of energy by means of magnetic fields. A higher secondary side quality factor at fixed input current ensures a linear increase in power transfer across the air gap. But also at the same time magnetic emissions to the surroundings increase. First...... of all in this paper an analytic expression for comparing the magnetic emissions at different quality factors is introduced. It is shown with help of simulations on Comsol that emissions have a lower increase as compared to linear increase in the power transferred with the quality factor as suggested...

  6. Magnetic field emission comparison at different quality factors with series-series compensation network for inductive power transfer to vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batra, Tushar; Schaltz, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Inductive power transfer is non-contact transfer of energy by means of magnetic fields. A higher secondary side quality factor at fixed input current ensures a linear increase in power transfer across the air gap. But also at the same time magnetic emissions to the surroundings increase. First...... of all in this paper an analytic expression for comparing the magnetic emissions at different quality factors is introduced. It is shown with help of simulations on Comsol that emissions have a lower increase as compared to linear increase in the power transferred with the quality factor as suggested...

  7. Measured elemental transfer factors for boreal hunter/gatherer scenarios: fish, game and berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, S C; Long, J M; Sanipelli, B

    2010-11-01

    The environmental assessment of long-term nuclear waste management requires data to estimate food chain transfers for radionuclides in various environmental settings. For key elements such as iodine (I) and chlorine (Cl), there is a paucity of transfer factor data, particularly outside of agricultural food chains. This study dealt with transfers of I, Cl and 28 other elements to foods that would be typical of boreal hunter/gatherer lifestyles, as well as being common foods for modern recreational and subsistence hunters. Food/substrate concentration ratios (CRs) and related transfer factors for eight species of widely distributed fish, whitetail deer (Odocoileus virginianus), Canada geese (Branta canadensis) and wild blueberries (Vaccinium myrtilloides) were measured and compared to the literature. Limited data were obtained for caribou (Rangifer tarandus), elk (Cervus elaphus) and moose (Alces americanus). Freshwater sediment Kd values and CRs for a ubiquitous freshwater macrophyte were also obtained. The CRs for I in fish were 29Lkg(-1) in edible muscle (fillets) of large-bodied species and 85Lkg(-1) for whole, small-bodied fish. The logCRs for fish and macrophytes were correlated across elements. For several elements, the Kds for sediments in deep water were approximately 4-fold higher than for littoral samples. The elemental transfers to wild animals for some elements were notably different than the literature indicates for domestic animals. It is argued that the transfer data obtained using indigenous elements from real environmental settings, as opposed to contaminant elements in experimental or impacted environments, are especially relevant to assessment of long-term impacts.

  8. Specificity and structural analysis of a guinea pig transfer factor-like activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunnick, W A; Bach, F H

    1977-06-01

    A transfer factor-like activity was prepared by Sephadex G-25 chromatography of immune guinea pig leukocyte lysates. This isolated material leads to antigen-dependent migration inhibition and thymidine uptake by nonimmune lymphoid cells. Tests of the "transfer factor" from guinea pigs immunized to either ovalbumin or bovine gamma-globulin demonstrated the donor specificity of the in vitro activity. The activity is susceptible to heat (56 degrees C), alkali (0.5 M sodium hydroxide), pronase, and phosphodiesterase. The pronase susceptibility is blocked by traysylol, a protease inhibitor; the phosphodiesterase susceptibility is not bocked by traysylol. The guinea pig factor was purified further by alkaline phosphatase treatment. Sephadex G-25 chromatography, and DEAE-cellulose chromatography. The final product, active in vitro, represents about 0.03% of the cellular material absorbing 260 nm light, and contains polymerized amines and phosphate. Gel electrophoresis of the fluram-reactive components suggests a limited heterogeneity of the DEAE-cellulose-purified material. These data are consistent with the active "transfer factor" molecule including both peptide and phosphate-containing components.

  9. [Team-based community psychiatry: importance of context factors and transferability of evidence from studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinmann, S; Gühne, U; Kösters, M; Gaebel, W; Becker, T

    2012-07-01

    The German Society for Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Neurology (DGPPN) guidelines on psychosocial interventions for people with severe mental illness appraise the transferability of results of trials evaluating community-based mental health services to the German situation. This assessment has to draw on research results on factors determining effectiveness. This must be seen against the background of a lack of high-quality trials in Germany. The article discusses system, context and setting factors related to the transfer of evidence on community-based service models from other countries. These issues are discussed on the basis of evidence concerning the models of case management, assertive community treatment and community mental health teams. International differences in study findings are highlighted and the importance of treatment-as-usual in influencing study results is emphasized. The more control services including elements of community-based care there are and the less the pressure to reduce inpatient treatment (threshold to inpatient care admission), the smaller the relative effect sizes of innovative care models will be.In the absence of direct evidence, careful examination of transferability is required before introducing health care models. Research has revealed solid evidence for several factors influencing the effects of innovative community mental health care. Among key factors in the care of people with severe mental illness, home visits and joint team responsibility for both psychiatric and social care were identified. This evidence can facilitate the adaptation of successful mental health care models in Germany.

  10. The Relationship between Organizational Factors and the Transfer of Training in the Electronics Industry in Shenzhen, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jin

    1996-01-01

    A transfer model was applied to data from a survey of workers in four Chinese electronics firms. Results showed that transfer of training depends on organizational factors that facilitate use of knowledge, skills, and attitudes acquired. Supervision and other human factors were most influential. (SK)

  11. Social Factors that Impact Women's Practice of Breast Self-Examination: A Challenge to the Transfer of Training Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Patricia A.; Flannery, Daniele D.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the qualitative study was to understand how social factors might help or hinder the training transfer process. Specifically, this qualitative research looked at the meanings a group of women attached to social factors that might influence their practice of breast self-exam. Implications for transfer of training are suggested.…

  12. Time transfer capability of standard small form factor pluggable laser modules based on photon counting approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojanek, Pavel; Prochazka, Ivan; Blazej, Josef

    2017-05-01

    We are reporting on timing parameters of commonly used standard Small Form Factor Pluggable (SFP) laser modules using single photon counting method. Photon counting is a promising approach for laser time transfer via optical fiber communication hardware. The sub-picosecond precision and stability may be achieved. We have performed several experiments with the aim to measure main parameters of the modules, such as time delay precision, time stability and temperature stability, all being critical for optical time transfer applications. Two standard 16 and 10 Gbit/s at 850 nm SFP modules were examined. The ultimate precision of possible time transfer of 800 fs for averaging times of hours was achieved. The modules together with their driving circuits exhibited very good temperature stability. The temperature drift as low as 300+/-200 fs/K was measured. The achieved timing parameters will enable to use the standard SFP modules for a new method of two way time transfer where the time differences between two distant time scales are measured in parallel to data transfer on existing optical data links without any communication interference.

  13. Carbon Monoxide Silicate Reduction System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Carbon Monoxide Silicate Reduction System (COSRS) is a novel technology for producing large quantities of oxygen on the Moon. Oxygen yields of 15 kilograms per...

  14. Protect Yourself from Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-20

    Learn about carbon monoxide - a colorless, odorless gas - and how to protect yourself and your family.  Created: 11/20/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 12/4/2007.

  15. Integrated electricity and carbon monoxide production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, J.

    1994-03-23

    In a process for the production of carbon monoxide and electric power in an IGCC with the removal of sulphur compounds, between the outlet of quenched gas from a partial oxidation unit and a fuel inlet to a combined cycle gas turbine there is a permeable membrane unit to separate a non-permeable stream, which is utilised as a source of carbon monoxide, and a permeate stream, which is used as fuel for the gas turbine of the combined cycle unit. (author)

  16. Hearing Loss due to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Houshang Mehrparvar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide poisoning is one of the rare causes of hearing loss which may cause reversible or irreversible, unilateral or bilateral hearing loss after acute or chronic exposure. In this report, we present a case of bilateral sensorineural hearing loss in a secondary smelting workshop worker after an acute exposure to carbon monoxide. This complication was diagnosed by pure-tone audiometry and confirmed by transient evoked otoacoustic emissions. Hearing loss has not improved after 3 months of followup.

  17. Energy transfer between a nanosystem and its host fluid: A multiscale factorization approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sereda, Yuriy V.; Espinosa-Duran, John M.; Ortoleva, Peter J., E-mail: ortoleva@indiana.edu [Center for Cell and Virus Theory, Department of Chemistry, Indiana University, 800 E. Kirkwood Ave, Bloomington, Indiana 47405 (United States)

    2014-02-21

    Energy transfer between a macromolecule or supramolecular assembly and a host medium is considered from the perspective of Newton's equations and Lie-Trotter factorization. The development starts by demonstrating that the energy of the molecule evolves slowly relative to the time scale of atomic collisions-vibrations. The energy is envisioned to be a coarse-grained variable that coevolves with the rapidly fluctuating atomistic degrees of freedom. Lie-Trotter factorization is shown to be a natural framework for expressing this coevolution. A mathematical formalism and workflow for efficient multiscale simulation of energy transfer is presented. Lactoferrin and human papilloma virus capsid-like structure are used for validation.

  18. A Study of the Factors Associated with Successful Technology Transfer and their Applicability to Air Force Technology Transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-09-01

    relay race, where one runner passes the baton to the next. Richard Dorf describes in "Models for Technology Transfer From Universities and Research...Meeting. 9. Dorf , Richard C. "Models for Technology Transfer From Universities and Research Laboratories," Technology Management Publication TM1.1988...both located at Wright- Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. Namely, Tim Sharp, Chief, Technology Transfer Division and my faculty advisor, Major Richard

  19. Constructing Nucleon Operators on a Lattice for Form Factors with High Momentum Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syritsyn, Sergey [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Gambhir, Arjun S. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Musch, Bernhard U. [Univ. of Regensburg (Germany); Orginos, Konstantinos [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2017-05-01

    We present preliminary results of computing nucleon form factor at high momentum transfer using the 'boosted' or 'momentum' smearing. We use gauge configurations generated with N f = 2 + 1dynamical Wilson-clover fermions and study the connected as well as disconnected contributions to the nucleon form factors. Our initial results indicate that boosted smearing helps to improve the signal for nucleon correlators at high momentum. However, we also find evidence for large excited state contributions, which will likely require variational analysis to isolate the boosted nucleon ground state.

  20. Heavy chain transfer by tumor necrosis factor-stimulated gene 6 to the bikunin proteoglycan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamkin, Elliott; Cheng, Georgiana; Calabro, Anthony; Hascall, Vincent C; Joo, Eun Ji; Li, Lingyun; Linhardt, Robert J; Lauer, Mark E

    2015-02-20

    We present data that hyaluronan (HA) polysaccharides, about 14-86 monosaccharides in length, are capable of accepting only a single heavy chain (HC) from inter-α-inhibitor via transfer by tumor necrosis factor-stimulated gene 6 (TSG-6) and that this transfer is irreversible. We propose that either the sulfate groups (or the sulfation pattern) at the reducing end of the chondroitin sulfate (CS) chain of bikunin, or the core protein itself, enables the bikunin proteoglycan (PG) to accept more than a single HC and permits TSG-6 to transfer these HCs from its relatively small CS chain to HA. To test these hypotheses, we investigated HC transfer to the intact CS chain of the bikunin PG, and to the free chain of bikunin. We observed that both the free CS chain and the intact bikunin PG were only able to accept a single HC from inter-α-inhibitor via transfer by TSG-6 and that HCs could be swapped from the bikunin PG and its free CS chain to HA. Furthermore, a significant portion of the bikunin PG was unable to accept a single heavy chain. We discuss explanations for these observations, including the intracellular assembly of inter-α-inhibitor. In summary, these data demonstrate that the sulfation of the CS chain of bikunin and/or its core protein promote HC transfer by TSG-6 to its relatively short CS chain, although they are insufficient to enable the CS chain of bikunin to accept more than one HC in the absence of other cofactors. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Direct phylogenetic evidence for lateral transfer of elongation factor-like gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamikawa, Ryoma; Inagaki, Yuji; Sako, Yoshihiko

    2008-05-13

    Genes encoding elongation factor-like (EFL) proteins, which show high similarity to elongation factor-1alpha (EF-1alpha), have been found in phylogenetically distantly related eukaryotes. The sporadic distribution of "EFL-containing" lineages within "EF-1alpha-containing" lineages indirectly, but strongly, suggests lateral gene transfer as the principal driving force in EFL evolution. However, one of the most critical aspects in the above hypothesis, the donor lineages in any putative cases of lateral EFL gene transfer, remained unclear. In this study, we provide direct evidence for lateral transfer of an EFL gene through the analyses of 10 diatom EFL genes. All diatom EFL homologues tightly clustered in phylogenetic analyses, suggesting acquisition of the exogenous EFL gene early in diatom evolution. Our survey additionally identified Thalassiosira pseudonana as a eukaryote bearing EF-1alpha and EFL genes and secondary EFL gene loss in Phaeodactylum tricornutum, the complete genome of which encodes only the EF-1alpha gene. Most importantly, the EFL phylogeny recovered a robust grouping of homologues from diatoms, the cercozoan Bigelowiella natans, and the foraminifer Planoglabratella opecularis, with the diatoms nested within the Bigelowiella plus Planoglabratella (Rhizaria) grouping. The particular relationships recovered are further consistent with two characteristic sequence motifs. The best explanation of our data analyses is an EFL gene transfer from a foraminifer to a diatom, the first case in which the donor-recipient relationship was clarified. Finally, based on a reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR assay and the genome information of Thalassiosira and Phaeodactylum, we propose the loss of elongation factor function in Thalassiosira EF-1alpha.

  2. [Innovative health care models in Germany - success factors, barriers and transferability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Beate S; Leiferman, Mareike; Wilke, Dennis; Gerlach, Ferdinand M; Erler, Antje

    2016-10-01

    Safeguarding country-wide health care in Germany requires innovative ideas: a shortage of skilled staff among medical professionals and in long-term care on the one hand contrasts with an increasing number of multi-morbid elderly patients on the other hand. In the "Innovative Health Care Models" project sponsored by the Robert Bosch Foundation a nationwide status review and systematization of innovative approaches to health care was conducted, along with an analysis of the factors that promote or hinder the implementation of a health care model, and a study of the conditions that must be satisfied if successful concepts are to be transferred to other regions. After identifying innovative and successfully implemented health care models, data on success factors and barriers for implementation as well as data on conditions of their transferability to other regions were collected during structured telephone interviews and entered into a specifically developed database. Content analysis was used to qualitatively evaluate the interviews. Interviews with 65 representatives of successfully implemented models with differing organizational structures and priorities were conducted and evaluated. Success factors and barriers were most obvious in the fields of leadership, readiness to participate, relational aspects, personality traits, cooperation and communication, resources and organizational and structural factors. Various regionally linked health care concepts already exist throughout Germany. The barriers, success factors and conditions influencing the transferability of a model to other regions are largely independent of the type of organization. The success of a model is determined by adequate personal and financial resources, sound organizational structures and external support from political and funding bodies. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  3. A Nuanced Look at Women in STEM Fields at Two-Year Colleges: Factors That Shape Female Students' Transfer Intent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueli; Chan, Hsun-yu; Soffa, Sara Jimenez; Nachman, Brett Ranon

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we explored the relationship between the intent to transfer upward and a set of motivational, contextual, and socio-demographic background factors among 696 female students beginning in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) programs or courses at two-year colleges in a Midwestern state. Drawing upon survey data and administrative records, our multinomial logistic regression analysis revealed that students' math and science self-efficacy beliefs, as well as transfer-oriented interaction, were significant and positive predictors for their intent to transfer into STEM fields as opposed to having no intent to transfer. In addition, the association between transfer intent and these key motivational and contextual factors was moderated by students' racial/ethnic backgrounds, marital status, and childcare obligations. For example, despite the positive relationship between transfer-oriented interaction and the intention to transfer into STEM fields, Black women were less likely to have intent to transfer into STEM fields than White students until Black students reported a moderate level of transfer-oriented interaction. Conversely, Hispanic students were more likely to report intent to transfer into STEM fields than their White peers, even when Hispanic students reported a relatively low level of engagement in transfer-oriented interaction. These and other reported findings bear important and nuanced implications as policymakers, educators, and researchers continue to discover ways to better support women's educational pathways and success in STEM fields at and through two-year colleges. PMID:28220102

  4. A Nuanced Look at Women in STEM Fields at Two-Year Colleges: Factors That Shape Female Students' Transfer Intent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueli; Chan, Hsun-Yu; Soffa, Sara Jimenez; Nachman, Brett Ranon

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we explored the relationship between the intent to transfer upward and a set of motivational, contextual, and socio-demographic background factors among 696 female students beginning in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) programs or courses at two-year colleges in a Midwestern state. Drawing upon survey data and administrative records, our multinomial logistic regression analysis revealed that students' math and science self-efficacy beliefs, as well as transfer-oriented interaction, were significant and positive predictors for their intent to transfer into STEM fields as opposed to having no intent to transfer. In addition, the association between transfer intent and these key motivational and contextual factors was moderated by students' racial/ethnic backgrounds, marital status, and childcare obligations. For example, despite the positive relationship between transfer-oriented interaction and the intention to transfer into STEM fields, Black women were less likely to have intent to transfer into STEM fields than White students until Black students reported a moderate level of transfer-oriented interaction. Conversely, Hispanic students were more likely to report intent to transfer into STEM fields than their White peers, even when Hispanic students reported a relatively low level of engagement in transfer-oriented interaction. These and other reported findings bear important and nuanced implications as policymakers, educators, and researchers continue to discover ways to better support women's educational pathways and success in STEM fields at and through two-year colleges.

  5. Interrelationships of metal transfer factor under wastewater reuse and soil pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, D; Kalavrouziotis, I K; Koukoulakis, P H; Papadopoulos, F; Psoma, P

    2017-04-20

    The transfer of heavy metals under soil pollution wastewater reuse was studied in a Greenhouse experiment using a randomized block design, including 6 treatments of heavy metals mixtures composed of Zn, Mn, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Ni, and Pb, where each metal was taking part in the mixture with 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 mg/kg respectively, in four replications. The Beta vulgaris L (beet) was used as a test plant. It was found that the metal transfer factors were statistically significantly related to the: (i) DTPA extractable soil metals, (ii) the soil pollution level as assessed by the pollution indices, (iii) the soil pH, (iv) the beet dry matter yield and (v) the interactions between the heavy metals in the soil. It was concluded that the Transfer Factor is subjected to multifactor effects and its real nature is complex, and there is a strong need for further study for the understanding of its role in metal-plant relationships. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Heat transfer and friction factors in the ribbed square convergent and divergent channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M. S.; Ahn, S. W.

    2016-06-01

    Heat transfer and friction factors are reported for the measurements of turbulent flows in the convergent and divergent square channels with one-sided ribbed wall as well as two opposite in-line ribbed walls. The study covers three different hydraulic diameter ratios between inlet and exit at the test section such as Dho/Dhi = 0.75, 1.0, and 1.33 and Reynolds numbers in the range of 25,000-79,000. The channels, composing of ten isolated copper sections in the length of test section of 1 m, have the hydraulic diameter of 87.5 mm for the straight channel (Dho/Dhi = 1.0); the rib height-to-hydraulic diameter is 0.114; the rib pitch-to-height ratio equals 10. On the contrary to public opinion that the friction factor depends on the portion of the ribbed area, the total friction factor in the two opposite ribbed walls are lower than in the one-sided ribbed wall in the divergent channel of Dho/Dhi = 1.33 because the total pressure, summing positive dynamic and negative static pressures, is acted. The results show that the two opposite ribbed divergent channel of Dho/Dhi = 1.33 provides the best heat transfer enhancement and the two opposite ribbed convergent channel of Dho/Dhi = 0.75 provides the worst friction factor enhancement, and the ribbed divergent channels are generally recommended.

  7. Comparison of Risks Factors for Unplanned ICU Transfer after ED Admission in Patients with Infections and Those without Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Che-Hung Tsai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The objectives of this study were to compare the risk factors for unplanned intensive care unit (ICU transfer after emergency department (ED admission in patients with infections and those without infections and to explore the feasibility of using risk stratification tools for sepsis to derive a prediction system for such unplanned transfer. Methods. The ICU transfer group included 313 patients, while the control group included 736 patients randomly selected from those who were not transferred to the ICU. Candidate variables were analyzed for association with unplanned ICU transfer in the 1049 study patients. Results. Twenty-four variables were associated with unplanned ICU transfer. Sixteen (66.7% of these variables displayed association in patients with infections and those without infections. These common risk factors included specific comorbidities, physiological responses, organ dysfunctions, and other serious symptoms and signs. Several common risk factors were statistically independent. Conclusions. The risk factors for unplanned ICU transfer in patients with infections were comparable to those in patients without infections. The risk factors for unplanned ICU transfer included variables from multiple dimensions that could be organized according to the PIRO (predisposition, insult/infection, physiological response, and organ dysfunction model, providing the basis for the development of a predictive system.

  8. Assessment of Available Transfer Capability (ATC Using Linear Sensitivity Factors under Deregulated Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Indhumathy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Electric supply industry throughout the world have been restructured to introduce competition among the market participants and bring several competitive opportunities. The structure of power industry is moving towards deregulatory environment from the regulatory environment. Under this deregulatory, there are many technical issues need to be addressed. In this paper, one such technical issue handled carefully is the Available Transfer Capability (ATC. ATC is the amount of maximum additional power transfer between two control areas (source and sink that is available without violating thermal overloads. Here ATC is estimated for normal and contingency modes using linear sensitivity factors according to the security and reliability requirements. Simultaneous bilateral transactions havebeen done on IEEE-30 bus standard system for the assessment of ATC under MATLAB environment. From the results, it is computed that ATC is determined with less computation burden and this study willbe useful for the present open access electricity market.

  9. Strategic factors in the development of the National Technology Transfer Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, Jonathan F.; Stone, Barbara A.

    1993-01-01

    Broad consensus among industry and government leaders has developed over the last decade on the importance of applying the U.S. leadership in research and development (R&D) to strengthen competitiveness in the global marketplace, and thus enhance national prosperity. This consensus has emerged against the backdrop of increasing economic competition, and the dramatic reduction of military threats to national security with the end of the Cold War. This paper reviews the key factors and considerations that shaped - and continue to influence - the development of the Regional Technoloty Transfer Centers (RTTC) and the National Technology Transfer Center (NTTC). Also, the future role of the national network in support of emerging technology policy initiatives will be explored.

  10. Proportion of beneficiaries and factors affecting Janani Suraksha Yojana direct cash transfer scheme in Puducherry, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajarajan, K.; Kumar, S. Ganesh; Kar, Sitanshu Sekhar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) direct benefit transfer scheme was launched in the year 2013 in India and there is a paucity of information affecting it. The study aimed to assess the proportion of eligible beneficiaries utilizing JSY direct cash benefit transfer in Puducherry and to identify its barriers and facilitating factors. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted from January to March 2015 among 152 eligible JSY beneficiaries residing in rural and urban field practice areas of a tertiary care institution in Puducherry, India. Data were collected using a pretested semi structured questionnaire and presented as proportion or percentages. Results: About 144 beneficiaries participated in the study with a response rate of 94.7%. About 46% (66) of them availed cash transfer benefit. The mean time of receiving the benefit is 95.8 days (interquartile range 60–120 days). Among those who have not received (78), about 49 (62.8%) had not applied and 29 (37.18%) filled applications were rejected due to various reasons. About 77.1% (111) of beneficiaries were informed about JSY scheme through health workers. About 52.1% (75/144) still preferred direct bank transfer through the bank. The reasons for not availing benefits includes not having a bank account (24.3%), followed by not having Aadhaar number (9.7%), 11.8% had no ration card, and 13.8% stayed in their mother house. Conclusion: Majority of the beneficiaries did not receive direct cash transfer benefits in urban area than rural area and there is a need to simplify the procedures to improve the uptake of services to this group.

  11. Magnetic Field Emission Comparison at Different Quality Factors with Series-Parallel Compensation Network for Wireless Power Transfer to Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batra, Tushar; Schaltz, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Input current of wireless power transfer system is limited by current rating of power converter on the primary side. Power rating of wireless power transfer system increases linearly with the quality factor for series-parallel topology of the system at a given primary current. Magnetic emissions...

  12. Studies on soil to grass transfer factor (Fv) and grass to milk transfer coefficient (Fm) for cesium in Kaiga region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunakara, N; Ujwal, P; Yashodhara, I; Rao, Chetan; Sudeep Kumara, K; Dileep, B N; Ravi, P M

    2013-10-01

    Detailed studies were carried out to establish site-specific soil to grass transfer factors (Fv) and grass to cow milk transfer coefficients (Fm) for radioactive cesium ((137)Cs) and stable cesium (Cs) for Kaiga region, where a nuclear power station has been in operation for more than 10 years. The study included adopted cows, cows of local farmers, and cows from the dairy farm. A grass field was developed specifically for the study and 2 local breed cows were adopted and allowed to graze in this grass field. The soil and grass samples were collected regularly from this field and analyzed for the concentrations of (137)Cs and stable Cs to evaluate the soil to grass Fv values. The milk samples from the adopted cows were analyzed for the (137)Cs and stable Cs concentrations to evaluate Fm values. For comparison, studies were also carried out in dominant grazing areas in different villages around the nuclear power plant and the cows of local farmers which graze in these areas were identified and milk samples were collected and analyzed regularly. The geometric mean values of Fv were found to be 1.1 × 10(-1) and 1.8 × 10(-1) for (137)Cs and stable Cs, respectively. The Fm of (137)Cs had geometric mean values of 1.9 × 10(-2) d L(-1) and 4.6 × 10(-2) d L(-1), respectively, for adopted Cows 1 and 2; 1.7 × 10(-2) d L(-1) for the cows of local farmers, and 4.0 × 10(-3) d L(-1) for the dairy farm cows. The geometric mean values of Fm for stable Cs were similar to those of (137)Cs. The Fm value for the dairy farm cows was an order of magnitude lower than those for local breed cows. The Fm values observed for the local breed cows were also an order of magnitude higher when compared to the many values reported in the literature and in the IAEA publication. Possible reasons for this higher Fm values were identified. The correlation between Fv and Fm values for (137)Cs and stable Cs and their dependence on the potassium content ((40)K and stable K) in

  13. St. Mary's Villa carbon monoxide accumulation incident review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-05-15

    On December 26th 2010, carbon monoxide accumulation within St. Mary's Villa led to the deaths of 3 residents. This extended care facility, located in Humboldt, Saskatchewan, was constructed in 1962 and periodic additions to the building were made up to 1990. The Saskatoon Health Region, which operates the facility, hired March Consulting Associates Inc. to perform a review of the investigation reports of the incident. This review demonstrated that during the night of December 25th to December 26th, 2010, several factors, including large gaps in the make-up air unit and extreme wind, led to backdraft conditions in a boiler of the dust wing mechanical room. Exhaust gases, including carbon monoxide, then built up in the room and were blown into the dust wing by the supply air fan. The report indicates the accumulation of carbon monoxide was not caused by one factor but several.

  14. Influence of different factors on momentum transfer in mechanically agitated multiphase systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cudak Magdalena

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A comparative analysis concerning the influence of different factors on momentum transfer in mechanically agitated systems was carried out on the basis of experimental results for solid-liquid, gas-liquid and gas-solid-liquid systems. The effects of the impeller - baffles system geometry, scale of the agitated vessel, type and number of impellers and their off-bottom clearance, as well as physical properties of the multiphase systems on the critical impeller speeds needed to produce suspension or dispersion, power consumption and gas hold-up were analysed and evaluated.

  15. Intermedia transfer factors for fifteen toxic pollutants released to air basins in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, T.E.; Daniels, J.I. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Chiao, F.F.; Hsieh, D.P.H. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1993-10-01

    This report provides a summary definition of the intermedia-transfer factors (ITFs). Methods are discussed for estimating these parameters in the absence of measured values, and the estimation errors inherent in these estimation methods are considered. A detailed summary is provided of measured and estimated ITF values for fifteen air contaminants. They include: 1,3 butadiene; cadmium; cellosolve; cellosolve acetate; chloroform; di-2-ethylhexylphthalate; 1,4-dioxame; hexachlorobenzene; inorganic arsenic; inorganic lead; nickel; tetrachloroethylene; toluene; toluene-2,4-diisocyanate; and 1,3-xylene. Recommendations are made regarding the expected value and variance in these values for use in exposure models.

  16. Modeling of Carbon Monoxide Removal by Corona Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Jingwei; SUN Yabing; ZHAO Dayong; ZHENG Zheng; XU Yuewu; YANG Haifeng; ZHU Hongbiao; ZHOU Xiaoxia

    2009-01-01

    Modeling of carbon monoxide (CO) removal by a corona plasma was conducted in this study.The purification efficiency of CO was calculated theoretically and the factors affecting the removal of CO were analyzed.The results showed that the main removal mechanisms of CO were direct dissociation by generated high-energy electrons and indirect oxidation by generated hydroxyl radicals.The purification efficiency of CO was dependent on the plasma parameters,indoor air humidity and initial concentration of CO.Good consistency between the theoretical calculation and the experimental results was observed.

  17. Carbon Monoxide Emissions in Middle Aged Debris Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Morgan; Gorti, Uma; Hales, Antonio; Carpenter, John M.; Hughes, A. Meredith

    2017-01-01

    Circumstellar disks greater than 10 Myr old, referred to as debris disks, are expected to be gas poor. The original gas and dust in these disks is thought to be accreted onto the host stars, used up in the formation of planets and other bodies, or blown out of the disks via stellar radiation. However, recent ALMA observations at millimeter wavelengths have led to the detection of carbon monoxide (J=2-1) emission in a few debris disks, prompting further investigation.Using ALMA data, two separate models of gas genesis were tested against observations of the CO emissions in the disks around HIP 73145, HIP 76310, and HIP 84881 in the Upper Sco association. One of these models was built on the hypothesis that the gas in these debris disks is left over from stellar formation and has persisted over uncommonly long periods of time. The other model is built on the hypothesis that this gas is of secondary nature, produced by collisions between planetary bodies in the debris disks. Model emissions were calculated using the Line Modeling Engine (LIME) radiative transfer code and were compared with observational data to infer gas masses under both production scenarios. The implications of the masses of carbon monoxide in the disks suggested by each of the two models are discussed.

  18. Literature Review and Assessment of Plant and Animal Transfer Factors Used in Performance Assessment Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, David E.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Napier, Bruce A.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Sasser, Lyle B.

    2003-07-20

    A literature review and assessment was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to update information on plant and animal radionuclide transfer factors used in performance-assessment modeling. A group of 15 radionuclides was included in this review and assessment. The review is composed of four main sections, not including the Introduction. Section 2.0 provides a review of the critically important issue of physicochemical speciation and geochemistry of the radionuclides in natural soil-water systems as it relates to the bioavailability of the radionuclides. Section 3.0 provides an updated review of the parameters of importance in the uptake of radionuclides by plants, including root uptake via the soil-groundwater system and foliar uptake due to overhead irrigation. Section 3.0 also provides a compilation of concentration ratios (CRs) for soil-to-plant uptake for the 15 selected radionuclides. Section 4.0 provides an updated review on radionuclide uptake data for animal products related to absorption, homeostatic control, approach to equilibration, chemical and physical form, diet, and age. Compiled transfer coefficients are provided for cow’s milk, sheep’s milk, goat’s milk, beef, goat meat, pork, poultry, and eggs. Section 5.0 discusses the use of transfer coefficients in soil, plant, and animal modeling using regulatory models for evaluating radioactive waste disposal or decommissioned sites. Each section makes specific suggestions for future research in its area.

  19. Evaluation of engineered AAV capsids for hepatic factor IX gene transfer in murine and canine models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markusic, David M; Nichols, Timothy C; Merricks, Elizabeth P; Palaschak, Brett; Zolotukhin, Irene; Marsic, Damien; Zolotukhin, Sergei; Srivastava, Arun; Herzog, Roland W

    2017-05-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) gene therapy vectors have shown the best outcomes in human clinical studies for the treatment of genetic diseases such as hemophilia. However, these pivotal investigations have also identified several challenges. For example, high vector doses are often used for hepatic gene transfer, and cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses against viral capsid may occur. Therefore, achieving therapy at reduced vector doses and other strategies to reduce capsid antigen presentation are desirable. We tested several engineered AAV capsids for factor IX (FIX) expression for the treatment of hemophilia B by hepatic gene transfer. These capsids lack potential phosphorylation or ubiquitination sites, or had been generated through molecular evolution. AAV2 capsids lacking either a single lysine residue or 3 tyrosine residues directed substantially higher coagulation FIX expression in mice compared to wild-type sequence or other mutations. In hemophilia B dogs, however, expression from the tyrosine-mutant vector was merely comparable to historical data on AAV2. Evolved AAV2-LiC capsid was highly efficient in hemophilia B mice but lacked efficacy in a hemophilia B dog. Several alternative strategies for capsid modification improve the in vivo performance of AAV vectors in hepatic gene transfer for correction of hemophilia. However, capsid optimization solely in mouse liver may not predict efficacy in other species and thus is of limited translational utility.

  20. Pulmonary edema in acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kun Sang; Chang, Kee Hyun; Lee, Myung Uk [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1974-10-15

    Acute carbon monoxide poisoning has frequently occurred in Korean, because of the coal briquette being widely used as fuel in Korean residences. Carbon monoxide poisoning has been extensively studied, but it has been sparsely reported that pulmonary edema may develop in acute CO poisoning. We have noticed nine cases of pulmonary edema in acute CO poisoning last year. Other possible causes of pulmonary edema could be exclude in all cases but one. The purpose of this paper is to describe nine cases of pulmonary edema complicated in acute CO poisoning and discuss the pathogenesis and the prognosis.

  1. 40 CFR 60.103 - Standard for carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Refineries § 60.103 Standard for carbon monoxide. Each owner or operator of any fluid catalytic cracking unit... regenerator any gases that contain carbon monoxide (CO) in excess of 500 ppm by volume (dry basis)....

  2. [Carbon monoxide metabolism by photosynthetic bacteria]. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-31

    Research continued on the metabolism of carbon monoxide by Rhodospirillum rubrum. This report discusses progress on the activity, induction, inhibition, and spectroscopic analysis of the enzyme Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase. (CBS)

  3. Carbon Monoxide Hazards from Small Gasoline Powered Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topics Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH CARBON MONOXIDE Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this Page Recommendations NIOSH Publications Worker Notification Program Carbon Monoxide Hazards from Small Gasoline Powered Engines Many ...

  4. Aggregated Transfer Factors For Small Mammals Collected From the Exposed Sediments Of A 137 Cs Contaminated Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paller, Michael H.; Jannika, G. Timothy; Wike, Lynn D

    2005-10-04

    {sup 137}Cs transfer factors were computed for small mammals collected from the dried sediment areas of a partially drained, contaminated reservoir. Soil {sup 137}Cs concentrations were heterogeneous on small and large spatial scales, with a geometric mean of 253.1 Bq/kg dry weight. About 50% of the variance in cotton rat Sigmodon hispidus tissue {sup 137}Cs levels was explained by variation in soil {sup 137}Cs levels. Soil to animal transfer factors (whole body dry weight) averaged 6.0 for cotton rats and 1.2 for cotton mice Peromyscus gossypinus. These values are similar to {sup 137}Cs transfer factors for herbivorous, homeothermic animals from other contaminated ecosystems. Site-specific transfer factors can significantly affect the estimation of dose. In the RESRAD-BIOTA dose model, the default transfer factor for {sup 137}Cs in terrestrial animals is 110 resulting in an estimate of radiation dose to terrestrial biota that is 16 times more than the dose calculated with the actual measured transfer factor.

  5. Neutron spectroscopic factors of 55Ni hole-states from (p,d transfer reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sanetullaev

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Spectroscopic information has been extracted on the hole-states of 55Ni, the least known of the quartet of nuclei (55Ni, 57Ni, 55Co and 57Cu, one nucleon away from 56Ni, the N=Z=28 double magic nucleus. Using the H1(Ni56,dNi55 transfer reaction in inverse kinematics, neutron spectroscopic factors, spins and parities have been extracted for the f7/2, p3/2 and the s1/2 hole-states of 55Ni. These new data provide a benchmark for large basis calculations that include nucleonic orbits in both the sd and pf shells. State of the art calculations have been performed to describe the excitation energies and spectroscopic factors of the s1/2 hole-state below Fermi energy.

  6. Neutron spectroscopic factors of {sup 55}Ni hole-states from (p,d) transfer reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanetullaev, A. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Tsang, M.B., E-mail: tsang@nscl.msu.edu [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Lynch, W.G.; Lee, Jenny; Bazin, D. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Chan, K.P. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Physics Department, Hong Kong Chinese University, Shatin, Hong Kong (China); Coupland, D.; Henzl, V.; Henzlova, D.; Kilburn, M.; Rogers, A.M. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Sun, Z.Y. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Institute of Modern Physics, CAS, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Youngs, M. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Charity, R.J.; Sobotka, L.G. [Department of Chemistry, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Famiano, M. [Department of Physics, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008 (United States); Hudan, S. [Department of Chemistry, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Shapira, D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Peters, W.A. [Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Barbieri, C. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); and others

    2014-09-07

    Spectroscopic information has been extracted on the hole-states of {sup 55}Ni, the least known of the quartet of nuclei ({sup 55}Ni, {sup 57}Ni, {sup 55}Co and {sup 57}Cu), one nucleon away from {sup 56}Ni, the N=Z=28 double magic nucleus. Using the {sup 1}H({sup 56}Ni,d){sup 55}Ni transfer reaction in inverse kinematics, neutron spectroscopic factors, spins and parities have been extracted for the f{sub 7/2}, p{sub 3/2} and the s{sub 1/2} hole-states of {sup 55}Ni. These new data provide a benchmark for large basis calculations that include nucleonic orbits in both the sd and pf shells. State of the art calculations have been performed to describe the excitation energies and spectroscopic factors of the s{sub 1/2} hole-state below Fermi energy.

  7. Neutron spectroscopic factors of $^{55}$Ni hole-states from (p,d) transfer reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Sanetullaev, A; Lynch, W G; Lee, Jenny; Bazin, D; Chan, K P; Coupland, D; Henzl, V; Henzlova, D; Kilburn, M; Rogers, A M; Sun, Z Y; Youngs, M; Charity, R J; Sobotka, L G; Famiano, M; Hudan, S; Shapira, D; Peters, W A; Barbieri, C; Hjorth-Jensen, M; Horoi, M; Otsuka, T; Suzuki, T; Utsuno, Y

    2014-01-01

    Spectroscopic information has been extracted on the hole-states of $^{55}$Ni, the least known of the quartet of nuclei ($^{55}$Ni, $^{57}$Ni, $^{55}$Co and $^{57}$Co), one neutron away from $^{56}$Ni, the N=Z=28 double magic nucleus. Using the $^{1}$H($^{56}$Ni,d)$^{55}$Ni transfer reaction in inverse kinematics, neutron spectroscopic factors, spins and parities have been extracted for the f$_{7/2}$, p$_{3/2}$ and the s$_{1/2}$ hole-states of $^{55}$Ni. This new data provides a benchmark for large basis calculations that include nucleonic orbits in both the sd and pf shells. State of the art calculations have been performed to describe the excitation energies and spectroscopic factors of the s$_{1/2}$ hole-state below Fermi energy.

  8. Neutron spectroscopic factors of 55Ni hole-states from (p,d) transfer reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanetullaev, A.; Tsang, M. B.; Lynch, W. G.; Lee, Jenny; Bazin, D.; Chan, K. P.; Coupland, D.; Henzl, V.; Henzlova, D.; Kilburn, M.; Rogers, A. M.; Sun, Z. Y.; Youngs, M.; Charity, R. J.; Sobotka, L. G.; Famiano, M.; Hudan, S.; Shapira, D.; Peters, W. A.; Barbieri, C.; Hjorth-Jensen, M.; Horoi, M.; Otsuka, T.; Suzuki, T.; Utsuno, Y.

    2014-09-01

    Spectroscopic information has been extracted on the hole-states of 55Ni, the least known of the quartet of nuclei (55Ni, 57Ni, 55Co and 57Cu), one nucleon away from 56Ni, the N=Z=28 double magic nucleus. Using the H1(Ni56,d)Ni55 transfer reaction in inverse kinematics, neutron spectroscopic factors, spins and parities have been extracted for the f7/2, p3/2 and the s1/2 hole-states of 55Ni. These new data provide a benchmark for large basis calculations that include nucleonic orbits in both the sd and pf shells. State of the art calculations have been performed to describe the excitation energies and spectroscopic factors of the s1/2 hole-state below Fermi energy.

  9. The Effect of Technology Transfer Factors on Performance: An Empirical Study of Libyan Petroleum Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In Libya, like most petroleum producing countries, attempts began to develop the petroleum industry through several frames of Technology Transfer (TT. The realization of TT is progressively more forecasted with a starting point of essential factors mainly government support, Knowledge base, environment, Willingness to learn and anticipated to rely more on these factors further in the future. Approach: This study evaluated the degree of significance for the government support, knowledge base, environment and the willingness to learn after years of implementing industry standards, importing technology and training employees and joint ventures with advanced companies were applied to the Libyan petroleum industry. Results: The TT performance factor measurements were derived from a questionnaire survey conducted recently on the Libyan petroleum industry, which involved in TT process. With response rate of 68.35%, the findings showed that the TT performance correlates with the level of readiness of environment, knowledge base, willingness to learn factors and the influential role of government support factor in the Libyan petroleum industry. Conclusion: Hence, results implied or even established that successful performance of TT, which able to cultivate petroleum industry employees can provide a broader spectrum of benefits to the petroleum industry.

  10. Specifics of heat and mass transfer in spherical dimples under the effect of external factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchukin, A. V.; Il'inkov, A. V.; Takmovtsev, V. V.; Khabibullin, I. I.

    2017-06-01

    The specifics are examined of heat transfer enhancement with spherical dimples under the effect of factors important for practice and characteristic of cooling systems of gas-turbine engines and power units. This experimental investigation deals with the effect of the following factors on the flow in a channel with hemispherical dimples: continuous air swirl in an annulus with dimples on its concave wall, dimples on the convex or concave wall of a curved rectangular channel, imposition of regular velocity fluctuations on the external flow in a straight rectangular channel, and adverse or favorable pressure gradient along the flow direction. The flow is turbulent. Reynolds numbers based on the channel hydraulic diameter are on the order of 104. Results of the investigation of a model of a two-cavity diffuser dimple proposed by the authors are presented. It has been found that results for channels with spherical dimples and for smooth channels differ not only quantitatively but also qualitatively. Thus, if the effect of centrifugal mass forces on convex and concave surfaces with hemispherical dimples and in a smooth channel is almost the same (quantitative and qualitative indicators are identical), the pressure gradient in the flow direction brings about the drastically opposite results. At the same time, the quantitative contribution to a change in heat transfer in hemispherical dimples is different and depends on the impact type. The results are discussed with the use of physical models created on the basis of the results of flow visualization studies and data on the turbulence intensity, pressure coefficient, etc. Results of the investigations suggest that application of spherical dimples under nonstandard conditions requires the calculated heat transfer to be corrected to account for one or another effect.

  11. Preparation and identification of transfer factor specific to Staphylococcus aureus in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianwei; Kong, Cui; Wang, Xiukui; Shao, Jun; Feng, Lin; Zhang, Zhaocai

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to explore the methods for preparing transfer factor specific to Staphylococcus aureus (SA-STF) in vitro. Under the optimum conditions, the spleen cells of rabbits were immunized with SA in vitro to prepare SA-STF, and the immune activities were identified with the phagocytosis and sterilization, skin delayed-type hypersensitivity, and immune protection tests. The concentration of polypeptide was 2.26 ± 0.27 mg/mL, and ribose was 0.684 ± 0.094 mg/mL. The phagocytosis and sterilization rates of the STF group were 70.9 ± 12.4% and 62.1 ± 12.2%, respectively, and compared with the non-specific transfer factor (NTF) group, there were no significant differences (P = 0.074 and 0.069, respectively). The skin was inflamed and marked nodules formed at the injection site in the mice of the STF group rather than the NTF and control groups. The survival rate of the STF-1 group was significantly higher than the survival rates of the STF-2 (P = 0.024) and NTF groups (P = 0.016). SA-STF was prepared and characterized successfully in vitro, and it probably is a biological candidate for therapy or adjuvant therapy for diseases caused by Staphylococcus aureus. © 2014 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Assessment of carbon monoxide values in smokers: a comparison of carbon monoxide in expired air and carboxyhaemoglobin in arterial blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Mette F; Møller, Ann M

    2010-01-01

    Smoking increases perioperative complications. Carbon monoxide concentrations can estimate patients' smoking status and might be relevant in preoperative risk assessment. In smokers, we compared measurements of carbon monoxide in expired air (COexp) with measurements of carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb...

  13. Is trauma transfer influenced by factors other than medical need? An examination of insurance status and transfer in patients with mild head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Maya A; Nahed, Brian V; Demoya, Marc A; Curry, William T

    2011-09-01

    The Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act was meant to provide access to emergency medical care irrespective of financial resources. Yet, many Level I trauma Centers have raised concerns about the financial drivers influencing transfer. : To study the relationship between insurance status and transfer, we focused on patients with mild head injury to tease apart the medical necessity for transfer from other potential drivers, such as financial factors. Using the 2002 to 2006 American College of Surgeons National Trauma Databank and Massachusetts General Hospital's Trauma Databank from 1993 to 2009, we conducted a retrospective study and limited our population to patients with mild head injuries and mild to moderate systemic injuries as determined by the Glasgow Coma Scale, Abbreviated Injury Scale, or Injury Severity Score. Statistical analyses were conducted with STATA software. In a nationalized database, (1) uninsured patients with mild head injury are more likely to be transferred out of a Level II or III facility (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 2.07; P = .000) compared with privately insured patients and (2) uninsured patients are less likely to be accepted by a Level II or III facility for transfer compared with privately insured patients (adjusted OR: = .143; P = .000l). For transfers received by 1 Level I trauma center (Massachusetts General Hospital), uninsured patients are more likely to be transferred to (1) Massachusetts General Hospital between midnight and 6 am (adjusted OR: 5.201; P = .000) compared with other time periods throughout the day and (2) Massachusetts General Hospital on Sunday (adjusted OR: 1.09; P = .000) compared with other days of the week. Insurance status appears to influence transfer patterns.

  14. Optimization of the uidA Gene Transfer of Rosa hybrida via Agrobacterium tumefaciens:an Assessment of Factors Influencing the Efficiency of Gene Transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Liping; Bao Manzhu

    2004-01-01

    To develop a transformation protocol of Rosa hybrida 'Samantha' via Agrobacterium tumefaciens, the authors examined the effect of different factors on T-DNA transfer by measuring transient expression levels of an intron-containing β-glucuronidase gene. The results indicate that explant, light condition, salt concentration and acetosyringone (AS) concentration in co-culture medium are the most important factors, and factors like co-culture temperature, co-culture period and bacteria density have a strong effect on the growth of bacteria and then T-DNA transfer. Optimized co-cultivation was performed by inoculation of embryogenic callus with bacteria at a density of OD600= 0.5-0.8 for 20 min and co-culture in darkness under 23 °C on medium with 1/2 MS salts and 300 μmol·L-1 AS for 3 d.

  15. Magnetic Field Emission Comparison at Different Quality Factors with Series-Parallel Compensation Network for Wireless Power Transfer to Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batra, Tushar; Schaltz, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Input current of wireless power transfer system is limited by current rating of power converter on the primary side. Power rating of wireless power transfer system increases linearly with the quality factor for series-parallel topology of the system at a given primary current. Magnetic emissions...... increase in the power rating with the quality factor. This paper signifies that at fixed primary current, operation of wireless power transfer system at higher quality factor is favorable with respect to the magnetic emissions....... to the surroundings also increase with increase in the quality factor. In this paper, first analytical expressions are developed for comparing magnetic emissions at different quality factors. Theoretical and simulation (Comsol) results show comparatively lower increase for the magnetic field emissions to the linear...

  16. European reference equations for CO and NO lung transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilaniu, B; Maitre, J; Glénet, S; Gegout-Petit, A; Guénard, H

    2008-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to calculate reference equations for carbon monoxide and nitric oxide transfer, measured in two distinct populations. The transfer factor of the lung for nitric oxide (T(L,NO)) and carbon monoxide (T(L,CO)) were measured in 303 people aged 18-94 yrs. Measurements were similarly made in two distant cities, using the single-breath technique. Capillary lung volume (V(c)) and membrane conductance, the diffusing capacity of the membrane (D(m)), for carbon monoxide (D(m,CO)) were derived. The transfer of both gases appeared to depend upon age, height, sex and localisation. The rate of decrease in both transfers increased after the age of 59 yrs. T(L,NO)/alveolar volume (V(A)) and T(L,CO)/V(A) were only age-dependent. The mean T(L,NO)/T(L,CO) was 4.75 and the mean D(m)/V(c) was 6.17 min(-1) x kPa(-1); these parameters were independent of any covariate. V(c) and D(m,CO) calculations depend upon the choice of coefficients included in the Roughton-Forster equation. Values of 1.97 for D(m,NO)/D(m,CO) ratio and 12.86 min x kPa(-1) for 1/red cell CO conductance are recommended. The scatter of transfer reference values in the literature, including the current study, is wide. The present results suggest that differences might be due to the populations themselves and not the methods alone.

  17. Interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer is dependent on compatible mitochondrial DNA and reprogramming factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Jiang

    Full Text Available Interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT involves the transfer of a nucleus or cell from one species into the cytoplasm of an enucleated oocyte from another. Once activated, reconstructed oocytes can be cultured in vitro to blastocyst, the final stage of preimplantation development. However, they often arrest during the early stages of preimplantation development; fail to reprogramme the somatic nucleus; and eliminate the accompanying donor cell's mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA in favour of the recipient oocyte's genetically more divergent population. This last point has consequences for the production of ATP by the electron transfer chain, which is encoded by nuclear and mtDNA. Using a murine-porcine interspecies model, we investigated the importance of nuclear-cytoplasmic compatibility on successful development. Initially, we transferred murine fetal fibroblasts into enucleated porcine oocytes, which resulted in extremely low blastocyst rates (0.48%; and failure to replicate nuclear DNA and express Oct-4, the key marker of reprogramming. Using allele specific-PCR, we detected peak levels of murine mtDNA at 0.14±0.055% of total mtDNA at the 2-cell embryo stage and then at ever-decreasing levels to the blastocyst stage (<0.001%. Furthermore, these embryos had an overall mtDNA profile similar to porcine embryos. We then depleted porcine oocytes of their mtDNA using 10 µM 2',3'-dideoxycytidine and transferred murine somatic cells along with murine embryonic stem cell extract, which expressed key pluripotent genes associated with reprogramming and contained mitochondria, into these oocytes. Blastocyst rates increased significantly (3.38% compared to embryos generated from non-supplemented oocytes (P<0.01. They also had significantly more murine mtDNA at the 2-cell stage than the non-supplemented embryos, which was maintained throughout early preimplantation development. At later stages, these embryos possessed 49.99±2.97% murine mtDNA. They

  18. Hearing Loss due to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Davari, Mohammad Hossein; Mollasadeghi, Abolfazl

    2013-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is one of the rare causes of hearing loss which may cause reversible or irreversible, unilateral or bilateral hearing loss after acute or chronic exposure. In this report, we present a case of bilateral sensorineural hearing loss in a secondary smelting workshop worker...

  19. User's manual for CNVUFAC, the general dynamics heat-transfer radiation view factor program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, R. L.

    1976-06-25

    CNVUFAC, the General Dynamics heat-transfer radiation veiw factor program, has been adapted for use on the LLL CDC 7600 computer system. The input and output have been modified, and a node incrementing logic was included to make the code compatible with the TRUMP thermal analyzer and related codes. The program performs the multiple integration necessary to evaluate the geometric black-body radiaton node to node view factors. Card image output that contains node number and view factor information is generated for input into the related program GRAY. Program GRAY is then used to include the effects of gray-body emissivities and multiple reflections, generating the effective gray-body view factors usable in TRUMP. CNVUFAC uses an elemental area summation scheme to evaluate the multiple integrals. The program permits shadowing and self-shadowing. The basic configuration shapes that can be considered are cylinders, cones, spheres, ellipsoids, flat plates, disks, toroids, and polynomials of revolution. Portions of these shapes can also be considered.

  20. Laminar heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of carbon nano tube/water nanofluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathnakumar, P; Mayilsamy, K; Suresh, S; Murugesan, P

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation on the convective heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of CNT/water nanofluid through a circular tube fitted with helical screw tape inserts with constant heat flux under laminar flow condition. Nanofluids of 0.1% and 0.2% volume fractions are prepared by two step method. Thermo-physical properties like thermal conductivity and viscosity are measured by using KD2 thermal property analyzer and Brooke field cone and plate viscometer respectively. From the measurements, it is found that the viscosity increase is substantially higher than the increase in the thermal conductivity. The helical screw tape insets with twist ratios Y = 3, 2.44 and 1.78 are used to study the convective heat transfer and friction factor characteristics under laminar flow in the Reynolds number range of 520-2500. It is observed that, in a plain tube, maximum enhancement in Nusselt number for 0.1% and 0.2% volume fractions of nanofluids compared to pure water is 15% and 32% respectively. With the use of inserts, maximum enhancement in Nusselt number corresponding to twist ratios of 1.78, 2.44 and 3 are obtained as 8%, 16% and 4.6% for 0.1% volume fraction of nanofluid and 5%, 4% and 12% for 0.2% volume fraction of nanofluid when compared with water in plain tube. Thermal performance factor evaluation revealed that the values at all Reynolds number for all twist ratios and both concentration of CNT nanofluid are greater than unity which indicates that helical screw tape inserts with twist ratios considered are feasible in terms of energy saving in laminar flow.

  1. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Hsiun Cho

    2008-08-01

    Conclusion: Children with CO poisoning had good outcomes in this series. Although improperly vented exhaust from water heaters and house fires were the most common causes, intentional poisoning by parents through charcoal burning was also an important factor. Early identification of DNS risk factors might help to provide better care.

  2. Targeted gene transfer of hepatocyte growth factor to alveolar type II epithelial cells reduces lung fibrosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazdhar, Amiq; Temuri, Almas; Knudsen, Lars; Gugger, Mathias; Schmid, Ralph A; Ochs, Matthias; Geiser, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Inefficient alveolar wound repair contributes to the development of pulmonary fibrosis. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a potent growth factor for alveolar type II epithelial cells (AECII) and may improve repair and reduce fibrosis. We studied whether targeted gene transfer of HGF specifically to AECII improves lung fibrosis in bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis. A plasmid encoding human HGF expressed from the human surfactant protein C promoter (pSpC-hHGF) was designed, and extracorporeal electroporation-mediated gene transfer of HGF specifically to AECII was performed 7 days after bleomycin-induced lung injury in the rat. Animals were killed 7 days after hHGF gene transfer. Electroporation-mediated HGF gene transfer resulted in HGF expression specifically in AECII at biologically relevant levels. HGF gene transfer reduced pulmonary fibrosis as assessed by histology, hydroxyproline determination, and design-based stereology compared with controls. Our results indicate that the antifibrotic effect of HGF is due in part to a reduction of transforming growth factor-β(1), modulation of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and reduction of extravascular fibrin deposition. We conclude that targeted HGF gene transfer specifically to AECII decreases bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis and may therefore represent a novel cell-specific gene transfer technology to treat pulmonary fibrosis.

  3. 253 Use of Transfer Factor in Patients with Persistent Genital Human Papillomavirus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morfin-Maciel, Blanca Maria; Sotelo-Ortiz, Julieta Margarita

    2012-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection worldwide. About 75 to 80% of sexually active Americans will be infected with HPV at some point in their lifetime. The risk of HPV infection seems to be related with age at first intercourse, younger age and number of sexual partners. HPV infection is limited to the basal cells of stratified epithelium of the skin or mucous membranas. There is a wide latency period, from months to years, before squamous intraepithelial lesions develop. Most HPV infections are cleared within 2 years by the immune system. Only in 5% to 10% of infected women with “high risk” types the infection persists determining a high risk of developing intraepithelial neoplasias, as cervical cancer, vulvar cancer, penile cancer, and/or anal cancer. The gynecological evaluation and Papanicolau smear are the primary screening tools for detecting HPV infection. There is currently no specific treatment for HPV infection. The Transfer Factor (TF) or Dialyzable Leukocyte Extract is an immunomodulator that has been successfully used as an adjuvant in the treatment of intracelular infections such as recurrent herpes virus diseases. TF induces the expression of RNAm and IFN-γ and increases CD4+ cells. The IFN-γ activates macrophages, neutrophils, B lymphocytes, NK cells, and favours the differentiation of T cells into Th1 lymphocytes that are requiried for the control of intracellular patho gens. Methods We used TF in a group of patients with persistent genital human papillomavirus infection. Results We included 12 patients, aged 19 to 45 years old (mean 30), with 14 to 23 years at first intercourse and a mean of 3 sexual partners in their lifetime. All of them had persistent HPV that had been treated before with local and ablative therapeutic options (including cervical freezing, cauterizing loop, imiquimod, podophyllin and/or cervical conization). Transfer factor was administered daily for 5 days, and

  4. Factors affecting success of embryo collection and transfer in large dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebel, R C; Demétrio, D G B; Metzger, J

    2008-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate factors that affected the success of embryo transfer programs in large dairy herds. Non-lactating donor cows produced a larger number of ova/embryos (Pcows. The interaction between season and donor class was correlated with the proportion of ova/embryos classified as fertilized (P=0.03), because lactating donors had fewer fertilized ova in the summer. There was no correlation between 305-day mature equivalent milk yield and response to superstimulation. Although the interval between superstimulation protocols was correlated with the number of ova/embryos (P=0.03), there was no correlation with the number of viable embryos. Pregnancy per embryo transfer (P/ET) in heifer recipients was correlated with embryo quality grade (Pcows tended to have a lower rate of P/ET during the summer (P=0.12 to P=0.08). Synchronization protocols tended to be (P=0.06; Herd 1) or were (P=0.02; Herd 2) correlated with P/ET. Lactating cows receiving vitrified IVF embryos had a lower (P=0.01) P/ET than those receiving fresh IVF embryos, especially in the summer (P=0.09). Milk yield was not correlated with P/ET. The use of heat abatement systems is critical to improve embryo production and P/ET. Synchronization protocols that optimized synchrony of ovulation may increase fertility of recipient cows and eliminate the need for estrous detection.

  5. Lipid-mediated glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor gene transfer to cultured porcine ventral mesencephalic tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, Matthias; Meyer, Morten; Brevig, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    -mediated transfer of the gene for human glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) to embryonic (E27/28) porcine VM tissue kept as organotypic explant cultures. Treatment of the developing VM with two mitogens, basic fibroblast growth factor and epidermal growth factor, prior to transfection significantly...... numbers of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons in the cultured VM tissue. We conclude that lipid-mediated gene transfer employed on embryonic pig VM explant cultures is a safe and effective method to improve survival of dopaminergic neurons and may become a valuable tool to improve allo...

  6. Environmental processes affecting plant root uptake of radioactive trace elements and variability of transfer factor data: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlke, Sabine; Kirchner, Gerald

    2002-01-01

    Soil-to-plant transfer factors are commonly used to estimate the food chain transfer of radionuclides. Their definition assumes that the concentration of a radionuclide in a plant relates linearly solely to its average concentration in the rooting zone of the soil. However, the large range of transfer factors reported in the literature shows that the concentration of a radionuclide in a soil is not the only factor influencing its uptake by a plant. With emphasis on radiocesium and -strontium, this paper reviews the effects of competition with major ions present in the soil-plant system, the effects of rhizosphere processes and soil micro-organisms on bioavailability, the factors influencing transport to and uptake by roots and the processes affecting long-term uptake rates. Attention is given to summarizing the results of recent novel electrophysiological and genetic techniques which provide a physiologically based understanding of the processes involved in the uptake and translocation of radiocesium and -strontium by plants.

  7. Local convective heat transfer coefficient and friction factor of CuO/water nanofluid in a microchannel heat sink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabi, A. R.; Zarrinabadi, S.; Peyghambarzadeh, S. M.; Hashemabadi, S. H.; Salimi, M.

    2017-02-01

    Forced convective heat transfer in a microchannel heat sink (MCHS) using CuO/water nanofluids with 0.1 and 0.2 vol% as coolant was investigated. The experiments were focused on the heat transfer enhancement in the channel entrance region at Re Hydraulic performance of the MCHS was also estimated by measuring friction factor and pressure drop. Results showed that higher convective heat transfer coefficient was obtained at the microchannel entrance. Maximum enhancement of the average heat transfer coefficient compared with deionized water was about 40 % for 0.2 vol% nanofluid at Re = 1150. Enhancement of the convective heat transfer coefficient of nanofluid decreased with further increasing of Reynolds number.

  8. Risk Factors Influencing Conception Rate in Holstein Heifers before Artificial Insemination or Embryo Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yusuf

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to show the risk factors affecting the conception rate in Holstein heifers after synchronization of estrus. A total of 275 Holstein heifers housed in a free barn were used for the experiment. The herd was visited regularly at four week intervals for synchronization of estrus using Heatsynch and CIDR-Heatsynch protocols. A group of four to 14 animals, depending on the availability, were referred to the experiment at each visit. Estrus induction rates in the two protocols were 93.9% and 94.9%, respectively. There was no difference in the conception rate between the two protocols. Conception rate after artificial insemination (AI or embryo transfer (ET were 46.3% and 51.4%, respectively. The risk factors affecting conception rate in heifers were daily weight gain (odds ratio [OR]= 4.673; P= 0.036 and body condition score (BCS (OR= 3.642; P= 0.018. Furthermore, estrus synchronization protocol (OR= 1.774; P= 0.083 and the absence of corpus luteum (CL at the initiation of treatment (OR= 0.512; P= 0.061 had a tendency to affect the conception rate, while age (OR= 0.715; P= 0.008 was a protective factor to conception rate.  In conclusion, positive daily weight gain before AI or ET, higher BCS, younger age, and the presence of CL at the initiation of estrus synchronization in dairy heifers increased the likelihood to conceive.

  9. Stress intensity factor and load transfer analysis of a cracked riveted lap joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, P.M.G.P. [DEMEGI, Faculdade de Engenharia, Universidade do Porto, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)]. E-mail: pmgpm@fe.up.pt; Matos, P.F.P. de [DEMEGI, Faculdade de Engenharia, Universidade do Porto, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Camanho, P.P. [DEMEGI, Faculdade de Engenharia, Universidade do Porto, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Pastrama, Stefan D. [Department of Strength of Materials, University Politehnica of Bucharest, Splaiul Independentei nr. 313, Sector 6, Bucharest (Romania); Castro, P.M.S.T. de [DEMEGI, Faculdade de Engenharia, Universidade do Porto, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)

    2007-07-01

    One of the main problems of aeronautical structures is the onset and growth of defects due to fatigue loading. This phenomenon is accentuated in areas of stress concentration, for example in the connection of components, such as the riveted joints of fuselage panels. Several geometric configurations can be used in riveted joints of fuselage panels. This work is focused on one geometry, a single-lap splice with three rivets rows and one rivet column. A three-dimensional stress analysis using the finite element method was carried out in order to analyze the load transfer as a function of crack geometry and length, and to determine the stress intensity factors for one or two cracks emanating from the edge of the hole located at the critical cross section.

  10. Lifetime and g-factor measurements of excited states using Coulomb excitation and alpha transfer reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guevara, Z. E., E-mail: zjguevaram@unal.edu.co; Torres, D. A., E-mail: datorresg@unal.edu.co [Physics Department, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá D.C. (Colombia)

    2016-07-07

    In this contribution the challenges in the use of a setup to simultaneously measure lifetimes and g-factor values will be presented. The simultaneous use of the transient field technique and the Doppler Shift Attenuation Method, to measure magnetic moments and lifetimes respectively, allows to obtain a complete characterization of the currents of nucleons and the deformation in excited states close to the ground state. The technique is at the moment limited to Coulomb excitation and alpha-transfer reactions, what opens an interesting perspective to consider this type of experiments with radioactive beams. The use of deep-inelastic and fusion-evaporation reactions will be discussed. An example of a setup that makes use of a beam of {sup 106}Cd to study excited states of {sup 110}Sn and the beam nuclei itself will be presented.

  11. Transfer factors of natural radionuclides and (137)Cs from soil to plants used in traditional medicine in central Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djelic, Gorica; Krstic, Dragana; Stajic, Jelena M; Milenkovic, Biljana; Topuzovic, Marina; Nikezic, Dragoslav; Vucic, Dusica; Zeremski, Tijana; Stankovic, Milan; Kostic, Dragana

    2016-07-01

    Transfer factors of natural radionuclides and (137)Cs from soil to plants used in traditional medicine were determined. The transfer factors (TF) were calculated as Bq kg(-1) of dry plant per Bq kg(-1) of dry soil. Mass activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs in soil and plant samples were measured with high purity germanium detector (HPGe). The concentrations of As, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were determined, as well as the cation exchange capacity (CEC) and the content of exchangeable cations (Ca, Mg, K, Na). Wide ranges of values were obtained for all the metals, especially for Cr and Ni. The Absalom model was used for determination of the amount of (137)Cs transferred from soil to plant based on soil characteristics such as pH, exchangeable potassium, humus and clay contents. The estimated transfer factors were in the range from 0.011 to 0.307 with an arithmetic mean of 0.071, median of 0.050, geometric mean of 0.053 and geometric standard deviation (GSD) of 2.08. This value agreed well with that calculated from the measurements of 0.069, geometric mean 0.040 and GSD 3.19. Correlations between radionuclides, metals, physicochemical properties and transfer factors were determined by Spearman correlation coefficient. There was a strong positive correlation between (137)Cs transfer factor and the ratio of transfer factor for K and (137)Cs. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was performed in order to identify some pattern of data. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Chemical elements in pearl oysters (Paxyodon ponderosus), phytoplankton and estuarine sediments from eastern Amazon (Northern Brazil): Bioaccumulation factors and trophic transfer factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhena, Maria P. S. P.; Costa, Marcondes L.; Berrêdo, José F.; Paiva, Rosildo S.; Souza, Crisvaldo C. S.

    2016-04-01

    The current study was conducted near Barcarena County, which is a mid-sized urban center where aluminum ore processing industries (bauxite) and Vila do Conde cargo terminal are located. It aims to discuss the bioaccumulation factors as well as factors related to the trophic transfer of chemical elements in water, oyster, phytoplankton and bottom sediments from an estuary in the Brazilian Northern coast. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF), trophic transfer factor (TTF) and biota-sediment-water were used to correlate the contents of chemical elements found in organisms. The sediment, surface water, phytoplankton and pearl oysters chemical composition was analyzed by ICP-OES and ICP-MS. Pearl oysters showed K, Ca, Mg, P, Mn, Fe, Zn, Al, Ba and Pb accumulation, which concentration increase is associated with their diet (phytoplankton). Al concentrations are 14 times higher in pearl oysters (Paxyodon ponderosus), assuming that they are associated with wastewater emissions and with industrialization processes in the area. BAF and BSAF values are 1000 times higher than the metal concentrations in water and bioavailable fraction concentrations. The oyster-phytoplankton trophic transfer factor indicates that P, Ba, Ca, Na, Cd and Zn showed the largest transfers (from 5 to 19). These trophic transfers may be sufficient to cause significant ecotoxicological effects on the region biota.

  13. Proposal for new best estimates of the soil-to-plant transfer factor of U, Th, Ra, Pb and Po

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandenhove, H. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Biosphere Impact Studies, Mol (Belgium)], E-mail: hvandenh@sckcen.be; Olyslaegers, G. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Biosphere Impact Studies, Mol (Belgium); Sanzharova, N.; Shubina, O. [RIAREA, Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Reed, E. [SENES Oak Ridge Inc., Center for Risk Analysis, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shang, Z. [Nuclear Safety Center of SEPA, Beijing (China); Velasco, H. [GEA- IMASL, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (Argentina)

    2009-09-15

    There is increasing interest in radiological assessment of discharges of naturally occurring radionuclides into the terrestrial environment. Such assessments require parameter values for the pathways considered in predictive models. An important pathway for human exposure is via ingestion of food crops and animal products. One of the key parameters in environmental assessment is therefore the soil-to-plant transfer factor to food and fodder crops. The objective of this study was to compile data, based on an extensive literature survey, concerning soil-to-plant transfer factors for uranium, thorium, radium, lead, and polonium. Transfer factor estimates were presented for major crop groups (Cereals, Leafy vegetables, Non-leafy vegetables, Root crops, Tubers, Fruits, Herbs, Pastures/grasses, Fodder), and also for some compartments within crop groups. Transfer factors were also calculated per soil group, as defined by their texture and organic matter content (Sand, Loam, Clay and Organic), and evaluation of transfer factors' dependency on specific soil characteristics was performed following regression analysis. The derived estimates were compared with estimates currently in use.

  14. Soil-to-plant transfer factors for natural radionuclides in the Brazilian cerrado region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacomino, Vanusa M.F.; Oliveira, Kerley A.; Menezes, Maria Angela de B., E-mail: vmfj@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Mello, Jaime de; Silva, David F. da, E-mail: jwvmello@ufv.b [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Solos; Siqueira, Maria C.; Taddei, Maria H.; Dias, Fabiana F., E-mail: mc_quimica@hotmail.co, E-mail: mhtaddei@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: fdias@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN-MG), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Pocos de Caldas (LAPOC)

    2009-07-01

    Large amounts of phosphogypsum produced have been attracting attention of Radiological Protection institutions and Environmental Protection agencies worldwide, given its high potential for environmental contamination. In Brazil, this material has been used for several decades, especially for agricultural purposes. Due to the presence of radionuclides in its composition, it is necessary to understand the mechanisms for natural radionuclide transfer in the soil/plant system and to evaluate if the use of phosphogypsum in soil contributes to increased exposition of humans to natural radioactivity. Experiments were accomplished in a greenhouse with lettuce cultivation in two types of soil (sandy and clayey) fertilized with four different amounts of phosphogypsum. Samples of phosphogypsum, soil, lettuce and drainage water were then analyzed for key radionuclides. {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th analyses were carried out by Neutron Activation Analysis; {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, and {sup 210}Pb by analyzed by Gamma Spectrometry; and {sup 210}Po by Alpha Spectrometry Technique. Finally, Transfer Factors of soil-plant were calculated as well as annual contribution to the effective dose due to the ingestion of lettuces. {sup 22}'6Ra average specific activity in phosphogypsum samples (252 Bq kg{sup -1}) was below the maximum level recommended by USEPA, which is 370 Bq.kg{sup -1} for agricultural use. Although most of the results for mean specific activity of radionuclides in lettuce presented values below the Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA), Transfer Factors were estimated for those conditions in which the mean specific activity proved to be superior to MDA. Values ranged from 1.8 10{sup -3} to 2.3 10{sup -2} for {sup 232}Th; 3.5 10{sup -}'2 to 4.1 10{sup -2} for {sup 226}Ra, 2.4 10{sup -1} to 3.2 10{sup -}'1 for {sup 228}Ra, and 3.5 10{sup -2} to 8.5 10{sup -2} for {sup 210}Po, depending on the type of soil used for planting vegetables. In general, results

  15. Superovulation and embryo transfer in dairy cattle – effect of management factors with emphasis on sex-sorted semen

    OpenAIRE

    Mikkola, Marja

    2017-01-01

    Multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET) has been established in cattle breeding since the 1970s. It is an efficient means to increase the number of offspring from genetically superior females. Despite nearly 50 years of development, the average number of transferable embryos recovered in a single embryo collection has remained nearly constant at approximately six embryos per donor. Several animal-related, environmental and management factors contribute to the outcome of superovulation a...

  16. UNDERSTANDING THE INFLUENCE OF INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS, INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION PATTERNS AND CONTEXTUAL FACTORS ON TACIT KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER EFFICIENCY IN BUSINESS NETWORKS

    OpenAIRE

    Bowe, Leanne; Lupiáñez,José Luis; Rico, Luis; Holden, Mary T.; Lynch, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    2 ABSTRACT Over the last decade, there has been an upsurge in interest among scholars on the importance of tacit knowledge transfer in firms, due to the belief that tacit knowledge represents a major source of sustainable competitive advantage (Darr and Kurtzberg, 2000). Despite this interest, factors affecting knowledge transfer at the micro level of analysis, namely a firm‟s interpersonal relationships and communication patterns, have been largely ignored, leaving a significant gap in...

  17. Effects of Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor (GCSF) on Persistent Thin Endometrium in Frozen Embryo Transfer (FET) Cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Vineet V; Choudhary, Sumesh; Sharma, Urmila; Aggarwal, Rohina; Agarwal, Ritu; Gandhi, Khushali; Goraniya, Nilesh

    2016-10-01

    To predict the effectiveness of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF) in the treatment of persistent thin endometrium resistant to other treatments in frozen embryo transfer (FET) cycles. This is a hospital-based prospective study. Thirty-five women with persistent thin endometrium (transfer. Of these, 3 (15.78 %) patients had chemical pregnancy, but there was no clinical pregnancy. In 16 participants, embryo transfer was canceled in view of insufficient endometrial thickness (<7 mm). GCSF caused a small increase in endometrial thickness in women with persistent thin endometrium, but there was no improvement in their pregnancy rates.

  18. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN FACTORS AFFECTING THE TRANSFER OF VOCATIONAL SAFETY TRAINING IN THE WORKPLACE: THE CASE STUDY OF ALUMINIUM OF GREECE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Vasiliki Brinia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to present the process of the transfer of safety training in the company “Aluminium of Greece”. Furthermore, it presents initial attempts to identify key factors affecting transfer of training and the correlation between these factors. The survey conducted among 88 employees using questionnaires. The findings show that employees place great importance on safety training. Motivation for learning and transfer, the opportunity for implementation and personal ambition were associated in our study with some and / or all factors examined (age, experience, level of education, etc.. Additionally, the researchers identified the need for evaluation of education not only immediately after its end, but overall evaluation especially some time after the training, in order to examine the value of education as an investment.

  19. Analysis of the heat transfer and friction factor correlations influence in the prediction of evaporating flows inside tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raush, G.; Rigola, J.; Morales-Ruiz, S.; Oliva, A.; Perez-Segarra, C.D. [Centre Tecnologic de Transferencia de Calor (CTTC), Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya (UPC), ETSEIAT, C. Colom 11, 08222 Terrassa (Barcelona) (Spain)

    2009-11-15

    A methodology for analysing the influence of the heat transfer and friction factor correlations in the prediction of the two-phase flows inside horizontal ducts under evaporation phenomena is presented. An experimental unit based on single stage vapor compression refrigerating system with two parallel evaporation devices has been built to work under real refrigeration conditions. The first evaporation device consists of a double pipe evaporator which allows determining the heat flux through the pipe. The second device is an electrically heated pipe evaporator with uniformly distributed temperature and pressure sensors along the fluid path. The experimental data of temperature and pressure distribution along the smooth heated duct is compared with a selected set of heat transfer and friction factor correlations through a detailed numerical evaporation model. The aim of this paper is to determine possible criteria to select the most suitable heat transfer and friction factor correlations available. (author)

  20. Treatment of chronical myocardial ischemia by adenovirus-mediated hypatocyte growth factor gene transfer in minipigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Biao; ZHANG YouRong; ZHAO Zhong; WU DanLi; YUAN LiZhen; WU Bin; WANG LiSheng; HUANG Jun

    2008-01-01

    Growth factor gene transfer-induced therapeutic angiogenesis has become a novel approach for the treatment of myocardial ischemia. In order to provide a basis for the clinical application of an adeno-virus with hepatocyte growth factor gene (Ad-HGF) in the treatment of myocardial ischemia, we estab-lished a minipig model of chronically ischemic myocardium in which an Ameroid constrictor was placed around the left circumflex branch of the coronary artery (LCX). A total of 18 minipigs were ran-domly divided into 3 groups: a surgery control group, a model group and an Ad-HGF treatment group implanted with Ameroid constrictor. Ad-HGF or the control agent was injected directly into the ischemic myocardium, and an improvement in heart function and blood supply were evaluated. The results showed that myocardial perfusion remarkably improved in the Ad-HGF group compared with that in both the control and model groups. Four weeks after the treatment, the density of newly formed blood vessels was higher and the number of collateral blood vessels was greater in the Ad-HGF group than in the model group. The area of myocardial ischemia reduced evidently and the left ventricular ejection fraction improved significantly in the Ad-HGF group. These results suggest that HGF gene therapy may become a novel approach in the treatment of chronically ischemic myocardium.

  1. Treatment of chronical myocardial ischemia by adenovirus-mediated hepatocyte growth factor gene transfer in minipigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Growth factor gene transfer-induced therapeutic angiogenesis has become a novel approach for the treatment of myocardial ischemia. In order to provide a basis for the clinical application of an adeno- virus with hepatocyte growth factor gene (Ad-HGF) in the treatment of myocardial ischemia, we estab- lished a minipig model of chronically ischemic myocardium in which an Ameroid constrictor was placed around the left circumflex branch of the coronary artery (LCX). A total of 18 minipigs were ran- domly divided into 3 groups: a surgery control group, a model group and an Ad-HGF treatment group implanted with Ameroid constrictor. Ad-HGF or the control agent was injected directly into the ischemic myocardium, and an improvement in heart function and blood supply were evaluated. The results showed that myocardial perfusion remarkably improved in the Ad-HGF group compared with that in both the control and model groups. Four weeks after the treatment, the density of newly formed blood vessels was higher and the number of collateral blood vessels was greater in the Ad-HGF group than in the model group. The area of myocardial ischemia reduced evidently and the left ventricular ejection fraction improved significantly in the Ad-HGF group. These results suggest that HGF gene therapy may become a novel approach in the treatment of chronically ischemic myocardium.

  2. Experimental investigation of heat transfer and friction factor in a corrugated plate heat exchanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shive Dayal Pandey, V.K. Nema

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Experiments are conducted to determine the heat transfer characteristics for fully developed flow of air and water flowing in alternate corrugated ducts with an inter-wall spacing equal to the corrugation height. The friction factor is found for air channel. The test section was formed by three identical corrugated channels having corrugation angle of 30 degree with cold air flowing in the middle one and hot water equally divided in the adjacent channels. Sinusoidal wavy arcs connected with tangential flat portions make the said corrugation angle with transverse direction. The Reynolds number based on hydraulic diameter varied from 750 to 3200 for water and from 16900 to 68000 for air by changing the mass flow rates of the two fluids. The Prandtl numbers were approximately constant at 2.55 for water and 0.7 for air. The various correlations are obtained Num=0.247Re^0.83 for water, Num=66.686Re^0.18 and friction factor f = 0.644 / Re^0.18 for air.

  3. Photosynthetic carbon monoxide metabolism by sugarcane leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortschak, H.P.; Nickell, L.G.

    1973-01-01

    The photosynthetic carbon monoxide metabolism by sugarcane was studied to determine whether substantial quantities of CO are removed from the air by fields in Hawaii. Leaves metabolized low CO concentrations photosynthetically, with sucrose as an end product. Rates of uptake were of the order of 10/sup -4/ power mg/d sq m/hr. This was to low to be significant in removing CO from the atmosphere.

  4. Sensorineural Hearing Loss following Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph P. Pillion

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A case study is presented of a 17-year-old male who sustained an anoxic brain injury and sensorineural hearing loss secondary to carbon monoxide poisoning. Audiological data is presented showing a slightly asymmetrical hearing loss of sensorineural origin and mild-to-severe degree for both ears. Word recognition performance was fair to poor bilaterally for speech presented at normal conversational levels in quiet. Management considerations of the hearing loss are discussed.

  5. Preparation, Characterization, and Determination of Immunological Activities of Transfer Factor Specific to Human Sperm Antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwei Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The objective of this study was to prepare, characterize, and determine immunological activities of specific transfer factor (STF specific to human sperm antigen (HSA for the preparation of antisperm contraceptive vaccine that can be used as an immunocontraceptive. Methods. HSA-STF was prepared using the spleens of rabbits vaccinated with HSA. The specific immunological activities were examined by lymphocyte proliferation test (LPT, leukocyte adhesion inhibition test (LAIT, and by determining the concentrations of IL-4, γ-IFN, and IL-21. HSA-STF was a helveolous substance, having a pH value of 7.0±0.4 and UV absorption maxima at 258 ± 6 nm. It contained seventeen amino acids; glycine and glutamic acids were the highest in terms of concentrations (38.8 μg/mL and 36.3 μg/mL, resp.. Results. The concentration of polypeptide was 2.34±0.31 mg/mL, and ribose was 0.717±0.043 mg/mL. The stimulation index for lymphocyte proliferation test was 1.84, and the leukocyte adhesion inhibition rate was 37.7%. There was a statistically significant difference between the cultural lymphocytes with HSA-STF and non-HSA-STF for γ-IFN and IL-21 (P0.05. Conclusion. HSA-STF was prepared and characterized successfully. It had immunological activity which could transfer the immune response specific to HSA and prove to be a potential candidate for the development of male immunocontraceptive agents.

  6. Internalization of nerve growth factor by pheochromocytoma PC12 cells: absence of transfer to the nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer, H; Schäfer, T; Korsching, S; Thoenen, H

    1982-06-01

    The intracellular distribution of 125I-labeled nerve growth factor (NGF) in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells was studied by quantitative electron microscopic (EM) autoradiography and by subcellular fractionation. PC12 cells were grown as monolayer cultures in medium supplemented with serum in the presence of 125I-NGF. EM autoradiography showed that 125I-NGF was localized at the plasma membrane and cytoplasmic compartments but did not accumulate in the nuclear chromatin or in the nuclear membrane compartment of cells analyzed after 1 hr and 1, 2, and 8 d of incubation with 125I-NGF. 125I-NGF also was not detected in nuclear subcellular fractions prepared from cells grown in serum-supplemented medium either in suspension for 1 d or in monolayer cultures for 1 to 8 d. In contrast, and in confirmation of the results of Yankner and Shooter (Yankner, B. A., and E. M. Shooter (1979) Pro. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 76: 1269-1273), about 60% of the cell-bound 125I-NGF was found in the nuclear pellet after cell fractionation if the cells had been kept previously in suspension for 1 d in phosphate-buffered saline supplemented with 0.2% glucose, 0.1% bovine serum albumin, and 125I-NGF. The ultrastructure of PC12 cells grown under such conditions, however, revealed signs of varying degrees of damage. Autoradiography of the nuclear pellet from these cells showed the grains to be located mainly over damaged nuclei or over cell debris between nuclei. It is concluded that NGF, after binding to specific receptors at the plasma membrane, is transferred to membrane-confined cytoplasmic compartments but does not have to be transferred further to the nuclear membrane or to the nuclear chromatin as a prerequisite for its physiological action.

  7. Stem cell factor gene transfer improves cardiac function after myocardial infarction in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Kiyotake; Fish, Kenneth; Aguero, Jaume; Yaniz-Galende, Elisa; Jeong, Dongtak; Kho, Changwon; Tilemann, Lisa; Fish, Lauren; Liang, Lifan; Eltoukhy, Ahmed A; Anderson, Daniel G; Zsebo, Krisztina; Costa, Kevin D; Hajjar, Roger J

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell factor (SCF), a ligand of the c-kit receptor, is a critical cytokine, which contributes to cell migration, proliferation, and survival. It has been shown that SCF expression increases after myocardial infarction (MI) and may be involved in cardiac repair. The aim of this study was to determine whether gene transfer of membrane-bound human SCF improves cardiac function in a large animal model of MI. A transmural MI was created by implanting an embolic coil in the left anterior descending artery in Yorkshire pigs. One week after the MI, the pigs received direct intramyocardial injections of either a recombinant adenovirus encoding for SCF (Ad.SCF, n=9) or β-gal (Ad.β-gal, n=6) into the infarct border area. At 3 months post-MI, ejection fraction increased by 12% relative to baseline after Ad.SCF therapy, whereas it decreased by 4.2% (P=0.004) in pigs treated with Ad.β-gal. Preload-recruitable stroke work was significantly higher in pigs after SCF treatment (Ad.SCF, 55.5±11.6 mm Hg versus Ad.β-gal, 31.6±12.6 mm Hg, P=0.005), indicating enhanced cardiac function. Histological analyses confirmed the recruitment of c-kit(+) cells as well as a reduced degree of apoptosis 1 week after Ad.SCF injection. In addition, increased capillary density compared with pigs treated with Ad.β-gal was found at 3 months and suggests an angiogenic role of SCF. Local overexpression of SCF post-MI induces the recruitment of c-kit(+) cells at the infarct border area acutely. In the chronic stages, SCF gene transfer was associated with improved cardiac function in a preclinical model of ischemic cardiomyopathy. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Factors Influencing Lava-Substrate Heat Transfer and Implications for Thermomechanical Erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagents, S. A.; Greeley, R.; Lenat, J. F. (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    We develop numerical simulations of basaltic lava flowing laminarly over a basalt substrate in order to examine the details of the lava dynamics and thermal boundary layers and to understand the implications for substrate heating. As the initial stage of a larger study of thermomechanical erosion in different planetary environments, we aim to understand why erosion occurs on Earth, why erosion features are not ubiquitous given the high temperatures involved, and whether it is a plausible mechanism for the formation of planetary channels such as lunar sinuous rilles and Venusian canali. Here we confine our attention to terrestrial lavas with well-known properties and eruption parameters. With relatively simple computational fluid dynamic simulations, most closely representing tube-fed hawaiian basalts (for which erosion has been documented), we demonstrate the importance of incorporating several key factors in models of lava flow/ substrate heat transfer, which have commonly been neglected in previous treatments. By addressing the interaction of the flow dynamics and heat transfer in the lava, our work suggests that the development of a temperature gradient in the base of the lava, even for undeveloped flow, has a significant influence on substrate temperature. The sensitivity of the lava-substrate interface temperature to the thermophysical properties of the lava and substrate suggests that a delicate balance is required for partial melting to occur. Thus, it might take weeks of continuous flow to initiate partial melting of the substrate at distances of several kilometers from the vent. These durations exceed the periods of stability typical of lava flowing in tubes; pauses, blockages, surges, and break-outs frequently disrupt the flow. However, natural irregularities in the flow dynamics or substrate topography might help to initiate and maintain substrate melting on shorter timescales by disturbing the intimately coupled dynamic and thermal boundary layers

  9. Effect of ferrite addition above the base ferrite on the coupling factor of wireless power transfer for vehicle applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batra, Tushar; Schaltz, Erik; Ahn, Seungyoung

    2015-01-01

    Power transfer capability of wireless power transfer systems is highly dependent on the magnetic design of the primary and secondary inductors and is measured quantitatively by the coupling factor. The inductors are designed by placing the coil over a ferrite base to increase the coupling factor...... and reduce magnetic emissions to the surroundings. Effect of adding extra ferrite above the base ferrite at different physical locations on the self-inductance, mutual inductance and coupling factor is under investigation in this paper. The addition can increase or decrease the mutual inductance depending...... on the placement of ferrite. Also, the addition of ferrite increases the self-inductance of the coils and there is a probability for an overall decrease in the coupling factor. Correct placement of ferrite on the other hand can increase the coupling factor relatively higher than the base ferrite as it is closer...

  10. Factors influencing outcomes after medial hamstring lengthening with semitendinosus transfer in patients with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Ki Hyuk; Lee, Jaebong; Chung, Chin Youb; Lee, Kyoung Min; Cho, Byung Chae; Moon, Seung Jun; Kim, Jaeyoung; Park, Moon Seok

    2017-08-14

    Although several studies have investigated the outcomes after distal hamstring lengthening (DHL), no study has undertaken an approach that included all or most of the important factors that could influence the results. This study was performed to evaluate the outcomes after DHL and analyze the factors that influence the improvement and serial change in knee motion after surgery in patients with cerebral palsy (CP), using a linear mixed model (LMM). The study included 314 ambulatory CP patients (594 limbs) with spsastic diplegia who were followed up after undergoing DHL as part of a single-event multilevel surgery and who underwent preoperative and postoperative 3-dimensional (3D) gait analyses. Relevant kinematic values, including knee flexion at initial contact, minimum knee flexion in the stance phase, knee range of motion (ROM), mean pelvic tilt and gait deviation index (GDI) score, were the outcome measures. Changes in knee motion and the GDI score were adjusted for multiple factors, such as sex, the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level, and concomitant surgeries as fixed effects, and follow-up duration, laterality, and each subject as random effects, using a LMM. We found significant improvements in knee flexion at initial contact, minimum knee flexion in the stance phase, knee ROM, and GDI score 2 years after DHL. In patients with GMFCS level I and II, improvement in all sagittal knee kinematics was maintained during follow-up. In addition, GDI score, which represents overall gait pathology, consistently improved throughout the follow-up duration (1.2 per year, p = 0.008). Medial hamstring lengthening with semitendinosus transfer, as a part of a SEMLS, was effective procedure in treating flexed knee gait with regard to sagittal knee kinematics and GDI score in spastic CP with flexed knee gait.

  11. Plasmid Transfer of Plasminogen K1-5 Reduces Subcutaneous Hepatoma Growth by Affecting Inflammatory Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea A. Koch

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that plasminogen K1-5 (PlgK1-5 directly affects tumour cells and inflammation. Therefore, we analysed if PlgK1-5 has immediate effects on hepatoma cells and inflammatory factors in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, effects of plasmid encoding PlgK1-5 (pK1-5 on Hepa129, Hepa1-6, and HuH7 cell viability, apoptosis, and proliferation as well as VEGF and TNF-alpha expression and STAT3-phosphorylation were investigated. In vivo, tumour growth, proliferation, vessel density, and effects on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha expression were examined following treatment with pK1-5. In vivo, pK1-5 halved cell viability; cell death was increased by up to 15% compared to the corresponding controls. Proliferation was not affected. VEGF, TNF-alpha, and STAT3-phosphorylation were affected following treatment with pK1-5. In vivo, ten days after treatment initiation, pK1-5 reduced subcutaneous tumour growth by 32% and mitosis by up to 77% compared to the controls. Vessel density was reduced by 50%. TNF-alpha levels in tumour and liver tissue were increased, whereas VEGF levels in tumours and livers were reduced after pK1-5 treatment. Taken together, plasmid gene transfer of PlgK1-5 inhibits hepatoma (cell growth not only by reducing vessel density but also by inducing apoptosis, inhibiting proliferation, and triggering inflammation.

  12. Factors that Influence the Dissemination of Knowledge in Technology Transfer among Malaysian Manufacturing Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mughaneswari ap Sahadevan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The meaning of technology transfer is so wide but mostly involving some form of technology-re- lated exchange. However, in this particular paper, technology transfer is consider as a concept to examine the process of disseminating knowledge and skills that a person owned to another per- son in order to generate higher productivity with new approach of producing a particular prod- uct or service. Although, many researchers have explored the evolution of technology transfer, nonetheless some drivers are yet to be explored in a Malaysian manufacturing industry. This study, therefore attempts to determine the relationship between absorptive capacity, transfer capacity, communication motivation and learning intent and technology transfer performance. A survey methodology was used in a Japanese multinational company based in Klang Valley, Malaysia. A total of 117 questionnaires were received. Results show that absorptive capacity is the most signifi- cant to influence technology transfer performance.

  13. Coherence and spectral weight transfer in the dynamic structure factor of cold lattice bosons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaleski, T. A.; Kopeć, T. K.

    2017-01-01

    Ultracold atoms have been used to create novel correlated quantum phases allowing to address many solid-state physics problems using the quasi-particle concept, which is the foundation of our understanding of many-body quantum systems. For bosons, the simplest kinds of excited states involve two particles and they are connected to the dynamic structure factor S (k , ω) , measured using Bragg spectroscopy, similarly to the angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) in solid state physics - a major tool in the study of high-Tc cuprates. Calculation of S (k , ω) requires a significant numerical effort to determine multidimensional convolutions of momentum and frequency dependent constituents functions, which we achieve using parallelized fast Fourier transform. As a result, we are able to show that spectral weight transfer between low and high energies is an intrinsic property of the strongly correlated Bose system in close analogy to the doped Mott-Hubbard electronic insulator. Furthermore, the appearance of sharp coherence peaks in the superfluid phase of the cold bosons closely resembles the formation of sharply defined quasiparticle excitations below Tc in cuprates suggesting an intimate connection between the intrinsic nature of these seemingly different systems.

  14. Technology transfer of hearing aids to low and middle income countries: policy and market factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seelman, Katherine D; Werner, Roye

    2014-09-01

    The competitive market advantages of industry and the balancing force of international governmental organizations (IGOs) are examined to identify market and policy in support of sustainable technology transfer of hearing aids to low and middle income countries. A second purpose is to examine the usefulness of findings for other assistive technologies (AT). Searches of electronic databases, IGO documents, industry reports and journals were supplemented by informal discussions with industry and IGO staff and audiologists. The value chain is used to examine the competitive advantage of industry and the balancing tools of certain IGOs. Both industry and IGOs engage in intellectual property (IP) and competition activities and are active in each segment of the hearing aid value chain. Their market and policy objectives and strategies are different. IGOs serve as balancing forces for the competitive advantages of industry. The hearing aid market configuration and hearing aid fitting process are not representative of other AT products but IP, trade and competition policy tools used by IGOs and governments are relevant to other AT. The value chain is a useful tool to identify the location of price mark-ups and the influence of actors. Market factors and reimbursement and subsidization policies drive hearing aid innovation. UN-related international government organization activities are responsive to the needs of disability populations who cannot afford assistive technology. Policy tools used by international governmental organizations are applicable across assistive technology. A partnership model is important to distribution of hearing aids to low and middle income countries.

  15. Transfer factors of radioiodine from volcanic-ash soil (Andosol) to crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ban-Nai, Tadaaki; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan). Environmental and Toxicological Sciences Research Group

    2003-03-01

    In order to obtain soil-to-plant transfer factors (TFs) of radioiodine from volcanic-ash soil to agricultural crops, we carried out radiotracer experiments. The mean values of TFs (on a wet weight basis) of radioiodine from Andosol to edible parts of crops were as follows: water dropwort, 0.24; lettuce, 0.00098; onion, 0.0011; radish, 0.0044; turnip, 0.0013 and eggplant, 0.00010. The mean value of the TFs of radioiodine for edible parts of wheat (on a dry weight basis) was 0.00015. We also studied the distributions of iodine in crops. There was a tendency for the TFs of leaves to be higher than those of tubers, fruits and grains. A very high TF was found for water dropwort, because this plant was cultivated under a waterlogged condition, in which iodine desorbed from soil into soil solution with a drop in the Eh value. The data obtained in this study should be helpful to assess the long-lived {sup 129}I (half life: 1.57 x l0{sup 7} yr) pathway related to the fuel cycle. (author)

  16. Gene electro transfer of plasmid encoding vascular endothelial growth factor for enhanced expression and perfusion in the ischemic swine heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargrave, Barbara; Strange, Robert; Navare, Sagar; Stratton, Michael; Burcus, Nina; Murray, Len; Lundberg, Cathryn; Bulysheva, Anna; Li, Fanying; Heller, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Myocardial ischemia can damage heart muscle and reduce the heart's pumping efficiency. This study used an ischemic swine heart model to investigate the potential for gene electro transfer of a plasmid encoding vascular endothelial growth factor for improving perfusion and, thus, for reducing cardiomyopathy following acute coronary syndrome. Plasmid expression was significantly greater in gene electro transfer treated tissue compared to injection of plasmid encoding vascular endothelial growth factor alone. Higher gene expression was also seen in ischemic versus non-ischemic groups with parameters 20 Volts (ptransfer of plasmid encoding vascular endothelial growth factor had increased perfusion in the area at risk compared to control groups. Troponin and creatine kinase increased across all groups, suggesting equivalent ischemia in all groups prior to treatment. Echocardiography was used to assess ejection fraction, cardiac output, stroke volume, left ventricular end diastolic volume, and left ventricular end systolic volume. No statistically significant differences in these parameters were detected during a 2-week time period. However, directional trends of these variables were interesting and offer valuable information about the feasibility of gene electro transfer of vascular endothelial growth factor in the ischemic heart. The results demonstrate that gene electro transfer can be applied safely and can increase perfusion in an ischemic area. Additional study is needed to evaluate potential efficacy.

  17. Perceptions of a Learning Organization and Factors within the Work Environment That Influence Transfer of Training in Law Enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter-Johnson, Yvonne

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine law enforcement officers' perception of factors within the workplace that influence transfer of training and their perception of the organization being a learning organization. The study actually had three parts. First, it intended to investigate the perception of law enforcement officers regarding…

  18. Learning What Matters: Exploring the Factors Affecting Learning Transfers in Child Welfare Competencies and Career Interest in Child Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Aries Meng-Wei

    2012-01-01

    The understanding of the factors impacting MSW students' interests and motivation to learn child welfare competencies, and how they affect learning transfer of the subject is important for the development of a knowledgeable, competent, and committed workforce that serves children and families in the United States. Practitioners need to attain…

  19. Perceptions of a Learning Organization and Factors within the Work Environment That Influence Transfer of Training in Law Enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter-Johnson, Yvonne

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine law enforcement officers' perception of factors within the workplace that influence transfer of training and their perception of the organization being a learning organization. The study actually had three parts. First, it intended to investigate the perception of law enforcement officers regarding…

  20. Perceptions of a Learning Organization and Factors within the Work Environment That Influence Transfer of Training in Law Enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter-Johnson, Yvonne

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine law enforcement officers' perception of factors within the workplace that influence transfer of training and their perception of the organization being a learning organization. The study actually had three parts. First, it intended to investigate the perception of law enforcement officers regarding…

  1. Compact Instrument for Measurement of Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Southwest Sciences proposed the development of a rugged, compact, and automated instrument for the high sensitivity measurement of tropospheric carbon monoxide...

  2. Factors Affecting the Efficiency of Embryonic Cell Nuclear Transfer in Rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Kui-qing; LIU Qing-you; XIE Ying; WEI Jing-wei; SHI De-shun

    2005-01-01

    Factors affecting the efficiency of nuclear transfer (NT) in rabbits were examined in the present study. When 100 V mm-1of pulse strength and 15 μs of pulse duration were employed, 3 and 4 electronic pulses resulted in significantly more cytoplasts fused with donor cells compared with 2 electronic pulses (P<0.05), but no significant difference was found in the cleavage rate of reconstructed embryos among the three groups (P> 0.05). When the duration and number of electronic pulse were fixed at 15 μs and 3 times, increase of pulse intensity from 100 V mm-1 to 150 V mm-1 and 200 V mm-1 resulted in a significantly decrease in the cleavage rate of reconstructed embryos (P < 0.05), although the fusion rate did not significantly differ among the three groups (P > 0.05). Significantly more reconstructed embryos cleaved and developed to blastocysts when they were derived from donor embryos at the 8-16-cell stage, in comparison with the reconstructed embryos derived from donor embryos at the compact morula stage (P < 0.05), although the fusion rate was similar (P > 0.05). Activation of cytoplasts prior to fusion increased the cleavage rate (P < 0.05) and blastocyst development (P < 0.05) of reconstructed embryos, but decreased the fusion rate (P < 0.05) compared with cytoplasts activated post fusion. More reconstructed embryos developed to blastocysts when they were cultured in TCM + 3% OCS at the first 48 h and then cultured in TCM199+ 10% FCS, in comparison with the reconstructed embryos cultured in either TCM199+ 10% FCS or TCM199+ 3% OCS (P < 0.05). When 22 NT embryos were transferred into the oviducts of one recipient rabbit, one recipient rabbit delivered a female rabbit at 34 days of gestation. In conclusion, either electrofusion parameter or developmental stage of donor embryos have a significant effect on the efficiency of NT, NT embryos require different concentration of serum at their different development stages.

  3. Occupational poisoning by carbon monoxide aboard a gas carrier. Report on 8 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, David; Loddé, Brice; Jegaden, Dominique; Bronstein, Jean-Ariel; Pougnet, Richard; Bell, S; Dewitte, Jean-Dominique

    2010-01-01

    - To determine the accidental factors and the clinical symptoms in eight cases of occupational poisoning of port workers by carbon monoxide. - To consider the primary prevention of this serious pathology occurring at work. - To analyze the circumstances of the exposure to carbon monoxide in the employees in the naval repair sector. - To indicate the systemic failures causing this accidental poisoning, the means for early diagnosis and appropriate treatment, and to discuss the prevention of such accidents. The poisoning occurred in eight mechanics and electricians working without any protective means in a gas carrier tank in dry dock. The employees, unaware of carbon monoxide exposure, stayed for 45 minutes in an atmosphere polluted with carbon monoxide concentrations of over 500 ppm. The main complaints were of headache, muscular weakness, and drowsiness. No post-interval syndrome was found three weeks after poisoning. The levels of carboxyhaemoglobin varied from 1.8 to 31.2%. Early normal pressure oxygen therapy reduced the symptoms. No delayed syndrome was found three weeks after poisoning. The inclusion of poisonous gas in gas-free certification, adherence to maritime harbour regulations, greater respect for working instructions in hazardous environments, and the use of detectors appropriate to the conditions for each ship would avoid exposure and decrease the risk of poisoning.

  4. Evaluation in practice: identifying factors for improving transfer of training in technical domains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barnard, Y.F.; Veldhuis, G.J.; Rooij, J.C.G.M. van

    2001-01-01

    The main goal of training is to prepare trainees for the tasks they are going to perform on their jobs. In other words, training aims at transfer from the classroom to the work floor. Transfer of training can be defined as the extent to which trainees are able to use effectively in their work situat

  5. Predisposition Factors of Career and Technical Education Transfer Students: A Hermeneutic Phenomenology Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hioki, Warren; Lester, Derek; Martinez, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Six college students, who were career and technical education (CTE) transfer students in the state of Nevada, were interviewed Spring Semester of 2009. The study used a hermeneutic phenomenology framework as the method to identify those predisposition variables that heavily influenced the students in their decision to transfer to a senior…

  6. An Analysis of Factors Contributing to the Academic Success of Transfer Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Moore, Donna Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Attrition is a growing concern among higher education institutions. Student retention has long been viewed as a measure of institutional effectiveness. The number of transfer students, particularly those who seek entry into postsecondary education by transfer from a two-year to a four-year institution, continues to increase. However, transfer…

  7. Improving post-transfer survival of bovine embryos produced in vitro: actions of insulin-like growth factor-1, colony stimulating factor-2 and hyaluronan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, J; Hansen, P J; Loureiro, B; Bonilla, L

    2011-12-01

    Technologies for in vitro embryo production have the potential to enhance the efficiency of cattle production systems. However, utilization of in vitro-produced embryos for transfer remains limited throughout much of the world. Despite improvements over the past two decades, problems associated with the production of bovine embryos in vitro still exist which limit the widespread commercial application of this technology. In particular, bovine embryos produced in vitro have a reduced capacity to establish and maintain pregnancy as compared with their in vivo-derived counterparts. Embryo competence for survival following transfer is improved by in vivo culture in the sheep oviduct, thus indicating that standard embryo culture conditions are sub-optimal. Therefore, one strategy to improve post-transfer survival is to modify embryo culture media to more closely mimic the in vivo microenvironment. The maternal environment in which the bovine embryo develops in vivo contains various growth factors, cytokines, hormones, and other regulatory molecules. In addition to affecting bovine embryo development in vitro, recent research indicates that embryo competence for survival following transfer can also be improved when such molecules are added to embryo culture medium. Among the specific molecules that can increase post-transfer embryo survival are insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), colony stimulating factor-2 (CSF-2) and hyaluronan. This paper will review the effects IGF-1, CSF-2 and hyaluronan on post-culture embryo viability and discuss the potential mechanisms through which each of these molecules improves post-transfer survival. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Analysis of Carbon Monoxide in Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddle, Benjamin P.; Stephens, Joseph C.

    2003-04-01

    Forensic tests used to perform the qualitative and quantitative analyses of carbon monoxide in blood are described. The qualitative test uses the diffusion of CO, which is released from blood by reaction with H2SO4, into a PdCl2 solution in a Conway cell and the resultant formation of a palladium mirror. The quantitative analysis is based on the absorption of visible light by carboxyhemoglobin at 541 nm and reduced hemoglobin at 555 nm. Both procedures are suitable for undergraduate chemistry experiments.

  9. Prioritizing the Factors Influencing the Success of Technology Transfer by Reverse Engineering Case Study: Aviation Engines Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Shahriari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the basic purposes in developing countries had been reduction of their technological gap in different eras. So, technology transfer in developing countries has become one of the key factors of economic growth. But technology transfer is a difficult and complex process, so it can be unsuccessful and may waste time and money or undermine the national technology if performed without enough considering and study. Therefore, according to high ability of interior experts and scientists and country's condition to have a successful technology transfer, Reverse Engineering is used as an effective factor. In this paper supporting 15 experts and using Fuzzy Delphi Method, the effective factors on success of technology transfer by reverse engineering in aviation engines industry will be recognized and then prioritized by members of statistical sample and Analytical Network Process (ANP. Finally, we will have three components, technical knowledge for redesign, technical knowledge for producing, and organizational association with original country that are the most important among the other ten selected components.

  10. Experimental studies on heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of a turbulent flow for internally grooved tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponnusamy Selvaraj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports experimental studies on friction factor, Nusselt number, and thermal hydraulic performance of a tube equipped with the classic three modified internally grooved tubes. Heat transfer and friction factor characteristics and pres- sure drop results have been obtained experimentally for a fully developed water flow in a grooved tube is also reported. Tests were performed for Reynolds number ranges from 5000-13500 for different geometric grooved tubes (circular, square, and rapezium. The ratio of length-to-diameter is 38.69 D. Among the grooved tubes, heat transfer enhancement obtained up to 47% for circular grooved tube, 31% for square grooved tube, and 52% for trapezoidal grooved tube in comparison with the smooth tube. It has been observed that the friction factor high in the case of square grooved tube than those of other tubes.

  11. Gene electro transfer of plasmid encoding vascular endothelial growth factor for enhanced expression and perfusion in the ischemic swine heart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Hargrave

    Full Text Available Myocardial ischemia can damage heart muscle and reduce the heart's pumping efficiency. This study used an ischemic swine heart model to investigate the potential for gene electro transfer of a plasmid encoding vascular endothelial growth factor for improving perfusion and, thus, for reducing cardiomyopathy following acute coronary syndrome. Plasmid expression was significantly greater in gene electro transfer treated tissue compared to injection of plasmid encoding vascular endothelial growth factor alone. Higher gene expression was also seen in ischemic versus non-ischemic groups with parameters 20 Volts (p<0.03, 40 Volts (p<0.05, and 90 Volts (p<0.05, but not with 60 Volts (p<0.09 while maintaining a pulse width of 20 milliseconds. The group with gene electro transfer of plasmid encoding vascular endothelial growth factor had increased perfusion in the area at risk compared to control groups. Troponin and creatine kinase increased across all groups, suggesting equivalent ischemia in all groups prior to treatment. Echocardiography was used to assess ejection fraction, cardiac output, stroke volume, left ventricular end diastolic volume, and left ventricular end systolic volume. No statistically significant differences in these parameters were detected during a 2-week time period. However, directional trends of these variables were interesting and offer valuable information about the feasibility of gene electro transfer of vascular endothelial growth factor in the ischemic heart. The results demonstrate that gene electro transfer can be applied safely and can increase perfusion in an ischemic area. Additional study is needed to evaluate potential efficacy.

  12. [Preparation and immunological evaluation of oral solution of egg yolk-derived hepatitis B virus-specific transfer factor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanping; Zhang, Qing; Zhan, Xuejun; Xie, Daze; Dai, Ge; Yang, Hui

    2013-12-01

    To prepare the oral solution of egg yolk hepatitis B virus (HBV)-specific transfer factor (EYHBV-TF) and evaluate its immunological activity as an immune regulator against hepatitis B. From hens immunized with the Hepatitis B vaccine the egg yolk was isolated to extract the specific transfer factor EYHBV-TF, and its physicochemical properties were examined. Leukocyte adhesion inhibition test (LAI) was performed to detect the immunogenic activity of EYHBV-TF. The solution of EYHBV-TF was then administered orally in normal mice, and the specific cellular immune activity induced was assayed with delayed type skin hypersensitivity test (DTH), with the non-specific immune activity assessed with immune organ index. The immune responses induced by oral EYHBV-STF solution were compared with those by EYHBV-STF injection and by different dosages (injection and oral) of porcine spleen HBV-specific transfer factor (PSHBV-STF), porcine spleen nonspecific transfer factor, and egg yolk extracts from non-immunized hens. The prepared EYHBV-STF oral solution, which met the standards for biological products, could inhibit leukocyte adhesion in vitro and significantly enhance mouse foot pad swelling, demonstrating its capability of transferring antigen-specific delayed type hypersensitivity reactions to naive recipient. EYHBV-STF oral solution also significantly improved the immune organ index in mice (P<0 01) with similar effects to those caused by EYHBV-STF injections and by PSHBV-STF injection and oral solution. Orally administered EYHBV-STF and EYHBV-STF injection both possess hepatitis B antigen-specific cellular immune activity and can significantly enhance specific cellular immune responses.

  13. [Application of risk-based approach for determination of critical factors in technology transfer of production of medicinal products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beregovykh, V V; Spitskiy, O R

    2014-01-01

    Risk-based approach is used for examination of impact of different factors on quality of medicinal products in technology transfer. A general diagram is offered for risk analysis execution in technology transfer from pharmaceutical development to production. When transferring technology to full- scale commercial production it is necessary to investigate and simulate production process application beforehand in new real conditions. The manufacturing process is the core factorfor risk analysis having the most impact on quality attributes of a medicinal product. Further importantfactors are linked to materials and products to be handled and manufacturing environmental conditions such as premises, equipment and personnel. Usage of risk-based approach in designing of multipurpose production facility of medicinal products is shown where quantitative risk analysis tool RAMM (Risk Analysis and Mitigation Matrix) was applied.

  14. Two protocols to treat thin endometrium with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor during frozen embryo transfer cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Zhang, Qiong; Hao, Jie; Xu, Dabao; Li, Yanping

    2015-04-01

    The efficacy of two granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) protocols for thin endometrium were investigated. Eighty-two patients were diagnosed with thin endometrium (transfers received intrauterine G-CSF in subsequent frozen embryo transfer (FET) cycles. Patients were divided into the G-CSF only and G-CSF with endometrial scratch subgroups. Compared with previous cycles, endometrial thickness increased from 5.7 ± 0.7 mm to 8.1 ± 2.1 mm after G-CSF treatment (P transfer cancellation and G-CSF treatment in subsequent FET cycles is beneficial. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Carbon monoxide poisoning by a heating system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Eric; Gehl, Axel; Friedrich, Peter; Kappus, Stefan; Petter, Franz; Maurer, Klaus; Püschel, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    A case of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning in several occupants of two neighboring residential buildings in Hamburg-Harburg (Germany) caused by a defective gas central heating system is described. Because of leaks in one of the residential buildings and the directly adjacent wall of the neighboring house, the gas could spread and accumulated in both residential buildings, which resulted in a highly dangerous situation. Exposure to the toxic gas caused mild to severe intoxication in 15 persons. Three victims died still at the site of the accident. Measures to protect the occupants were taken only with a great delay. As symptoms were unspecific, it was not realized that the various alarms given by persons involved in the accident were related to the same cause. In order to take appropriate measures in time it is indispensible to recognize, assess and check potential risks, which can be done by using carbon monoxide warning devices and performing immediate COHb measurements with special pulse oximeters on site. Moreover, the COHb content in the blood should be routinely determined in all patients admitted to an emergency department with unspecific symptoms.

  16. Observations of iodine monoxide columns from satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Schönhardt

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Iodine species in the troposphere are linked to ozone depletion and new particle formation. In this study, a full year of iodine monoxide (IO columns retrieved from measurements of the SCIAMACHY satellite instrument is presented, coupled with a discussion of their uncertainties and the detection limits. The largest amounts of IO are found near springtime in the Antarctic. A seasonal variation of iodine monoxide in Antarctica is revealed with high values in springtime, slightly less IO in the summer period and again larger amounts in autumn. In winter, no elevated IO levels are found in the areas accessible to satellite measurements. This seasonal cycle is in good agreement with recent ground-based measurements in Antarctica. In the Arctic region, no elevated IO levels were found in the period analysed. This implies that different conditions with respect to iodine release exist in the two Polar Regions. To investigate possible release mechanisms, comparisons of IO columns with those of tropospheric BrO, and ice coverage are described and discussed. Some parallels and interesting differences between IO and BrO temporal and spatial distributions are identified. Overall, the large spatial coverage of satellite retrieved IO data and the availability of a long-term dataset provide new insight about the abundances and distributions of iodine compounds in the troposphere.

  17. Nitric oxide and carbon monoxide diffusing capacity of the lung

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, I. van der

    2006-01-01

    The single breath diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) is measure for gas uptake by the lung, and consists of a membrane and a vascular component. Nitric oxide (NO) binds 400 times faster to hemoglobin than carbon monoxide, thus the uptake of NO by the blood is very large.

  18. Nitric oxide and carbon monoxide diffusing capacity of the lung

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, I. van der

    2006-01-01

    The single breath diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) is measure for gas uptake by the lung, and consists of a membrane and a vascular component. Nitric oxide (NO) binds 400 times faster to hemoglobin than carbon monoxide, thus the uptake of NO by the blood is very large. There

  19. Fatal carbon monoxide intoxication after acetylene gas welding of pipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonsson, Ann-Beth; Christensson, Bengt; Berge, Johan; Sjögren, Bengt

    2013-06-01

    Acetylene gas welding of district heating pipes can result in exposure to high concentrations of carbon monoxide. A fatal case due to intoxication is described. Measurements of carbon monoxide revealed high levels when gas welding a pipe with closed ends. This fatality and these measurements highlight a new hazard, which must be promptly prevented.

  20. Real World of Industrial Chemistry: Organic Chemicals from Carbon Monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Kenneth E.; Kolb, Doris

    1983-01-01

    Carbon Monoxide obtained from coal may serve as the source for a wide variety of organic compounds. Several of these compounds are discussed, including phosgene, benzaldehyde, methanol, formic acid and its derivatives, oxo aldehydes, acrylic acids, and others. Commercial reactions of carbon monoxide are highlighted in a table. (JN)

  1. Experimental investigation of heat transfer and friction factor in a corrugated plate heat exchanger

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shive Dayal Pandey, V.K. Nema

    2011-01-01

    Experiments are conducted to determine the heat transfer characteristics for fully developed flow of air and water flowing in alternate corrugated ducts with an inter-wall spacing equal to the corrugation height...

  2. Determination of the Astrophysical S(E) Factors or Rates for Radiative Capture Reaction with One Nucleon Transfer Reaction%Determination of the Astrophysical S(E) Factors or Rates for Radiative Capture Reaction with One Nucleon Transfer Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志宏; 郭冰; 李云居; 苏俊; 李二涛; 白希祥; 王友宝; 曾晟; 王宝祥; 颜胜权; 李志常; 刘建成; 连钢; 金孙均; 刘鑫; 柳卫平

    2012-01-01

    The radiative capture reaction plays an important role in nuclear astrophysics. We have indirectly measured the astrophysical S(E) factors for some proton capture reactions and reaction rates for several neutron capture reactions with one nucleon transfer reactions at HI-13 tandem accelerator in recent years. Some of them are compiled into IAEA EXFOR database and JINA REACLIB project, and used in the network calculations of Big Bang nucleosynthesis and type-I X-ray bursts.

  3. Factors affecting conception rates following artificial insemination or embryo transfer in lactating Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetrio, D G B; Santos, R M; Demetrio, C G B; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2007-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the factors that may affect conception rates (CR) following artificial insemination (AI) or embryo transfer (ET) in lactating Holstein cows. Estrous cycling cows producing 33.1 +/- 7.2 kg of milk/d received PGF2alpha injections and were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 groups (AI or ET). Cows detected in estrus (n = 387) between 48 and 96 h after the PGF2alpha injection received AI (n = 227) 12 h after detection of estrus or ET (n = 160) 6 to 8 d later (1 fresh embryo, grade 1 or 2, produced from nonlactating cows). Pregnancy was diagnosed at 28 and 42 d after estrus, and embryonic loss occurred when a cow was pregnant on d 28 but not pregnant on d 42. Ovulation, conception, and embryonic loss were analyzed by a logistic model to evaluate the effects of covariates [days in milk (DIM), milk yield, body temperature (BT) at d 7 and 14 post-AI, and serum concentration of progesterone (P4) at d 7 and 14 post-AI] on the probability of success. The first analysis included all cows that were detected in estrus. The CR of AI and ET were different on d 28 (AI, 32.6% vs. ET, 49.4%) and 42 (AI, 29.1% vs. ET, 38.8%) and were negatively influenced by high BT (d 7) and DIM. The second analysis included only cows with a corpus luteum on d 7. Ovulation rate was 84.8% and was only negatively affected by DIM. Conception rates of AI and ET were different on d 28 (AI, 37.9% vs. ET, 59.4%) and 42 (AI, 33.8% vs. ET, 46.6%) and were negatively influenced by high BT (d 7). The third analysis included only ovulating cows that were 7 d postestrus. Conception rates of AI and ET were different on d 28 (AI, 37.5% vs. ET, 63.2%) and 42 (AI, 31.7% vs. ET, 51.7%) and were negatively influenced by high BT (d 7). There was a positive effect of serum concentration of P4 and a negative effect of milk production on the probability of conception for the AI group but not for the ET group. The fourth analysis was embryonic loss (AI, 10.8% vs. ET, 21.5%). The transfer

  4. Search of medical literature for indoor carbon monoxide exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan, T.; Ivanovich, M.

    1995-12-01

    This report documents a literature search on carbon monoxide. The search was limited to the medical and toxicological databases at the National Library of Medicine (MEDLARS). The databases searched were Medline, Toxline and TOXNET. Searches were performed using a variety of strategies. Combinations of the following keywords were used: carbon, monoxide, accidental, residential, occult, diagnosis, misdiagnosis, heating, furnace, and indoor. The literature was searched from 1966 to the present. Over 1000 references were identified and summarized using the following abbreviations: The major findings of the search are: (1) Acute and subacute carbon monoxide exposures result in a large number of symptoms affecting the brain, kidneys, respiratory system, retina, and motor functions. (2) Acute and subacute carbon monoxide (CO) poisonings have been misdiagnosed on many occasions. (3) Very few systematic investigations have been made into the frequency and consequences of carbon monoxide poisonings.

  5. Prediction equations for diffusing capacity (transfer factor of lung for North Indians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Chhabra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prediction equations for diffusing capacity of lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO, alveolar volume (VA, and DLCO/VA using the current standardization guidelines are not available for Indian population. The present study was carried out to develop equations for these parameters for North Indian adults and examine the ethnic diversity in predictions. Materials and Methods: DLCO was measured by single-breath technique and VA by single-breath helium dilution using standardized methodology in 357 (258 males, 99 females normal nonsmoker adult North Indians and DLCO/VA was computed. The subjects were randomized into training and test datasets for development of prediction equations by multiple linear regressions and for validation, respectively. Results: For males, the following equations were developed: DLCO, −7.813 + 0.318 × ht −0.624 × age + 0.00552 × age 2 ; VA, −8.152 + 0.087 × ht −0.019 × wt; DLCO/VA, 7.315 − 0.037 × age. For females, the equations were: DLCO, −44.15 + 0.449 × ht −0.099 × age; VA, −6.893 + 0.068 × ht. A statistically acceptable prediction equation was not obtained for DLCO/VA in females. It was therefore computed from predicted DLCO and predicted VA. All equations were internally valid. Predictions of DLCO by Indian equations were lower than most Caucasian predictions in both males and females and greater than the Chinese predictions for males. Conclusion: This study has developed validated prediction equations for DLCO, VA, and DLCO/VA in North Indians. Substantial ethnic diversity exists in predictions for DLCO and VA with Caucasian equations generally yielding higher values than the Indian or Chinese equations. However, DLCO/VA predicted by the Indian equations is slightly higher than that by other equations.

  6. Evidence for iodine monoxide in the Antarctic snowpack from spectroscopic measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friess, Udo; Deutschmann, Tim; Platt, Ulrich [Institut fuer Umweltphysik, Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany); Gilfedder, Ben [Institut fuer Umweltgeologie, TU-Braunschweig (Germany); Weller, Rolf [Alfred Wegener Institut fuer Polar- und Meeresforschung, Bremerhaven (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Recent ground-based and space borne observations suggest the presence of significant amounts of iodine monoxide in the boundary layer of Antarctica, which are expected to have an impact on the ozone budget and might contribute to the formation of new airborne particles. So far, the source of these iodine radicals has been unknown. Here we present long-term measurements of iodine monoxide at the German Antarctic research station Neumayer, which indicate that the snowpack is the main source for iodine radicals. The measurements have been performed using multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS). Using a coupled atmosphere - snowpack radiative transfer model, the comparison of the signals observed from scattered skylight and from light reflected by the snowpack yields several ppb of iodine monoxide in the upper layers of the sunlit snowpack throughout the year. Snow pit samples from Neumayer Station contain up to 700 ng/l of total iodine, representing a sufficient reservoir for these extraordinarily high IO concentrations.

  7. Embryo quality and transcervical technique are not the limiting factors in donkey embryo transfer outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzani, D; Rota, A; Crisci, A; Kindahl, H; Govoni, N; Camillo, F

    2012-02-01

    Embryo transfer (ET) in the donkey resulted in a very low recipient pregnancy rates. The aim of these studies was to investigate if nonsurgical transfer techniques or donkey embryo quality affect donkey recipient pregnancy failure. In Study 1, the impact of transfer technique was investigated by evaluating if cervical catheterization is associated with prostaglandin release and suppression of luteal function and if donkey recipients would become pregnant after nonsurgical transfer of horse embryos. Four jennies, from 5 to 8 d after ovulation, were submitted to a sham transcervical ET and to evaluation of PGFM and progesterone plasma concentrations. Five 8 d horse embryos were nonsurgically transferred into synchronized donkey recipients (HD). Cervical stimulation caused a transient PGF(2α) release in two of four jennies in the absence of a significant decrease in progesterone plasma concentration. All transferred horse embryos resulted in pregnancies in the jenny recipients. In Study 2, donkey embryo viability was investigated by 1.2 meters, 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining of 10 embryos and by the transfer of 6 and 12 donkey embryos in synchronized mare (DH) and donkey (DD) recipients, respectively, of known fertility. The estimated proportion of dead cells in DAPI stained embryos was 0.9% (range 0-3.9%) and below what is considered normal (20%) for horse embryos. Three of six and six of 12 of the DH and DD ETs, respectively resulted in pregnancies at 14 and 25 d (50%), a higher pregnancy rate than previously reported after DD ET. The overall results of this study suggest that the transcervical technique for ET and donkey embryo viability are not the reasons for the low pregnancy rates that have previously been described in donkey recipients, and that nonsurgical ET in donkeys can result in acceptable results.

  8. Density-functional study of plutonium monoxide monohydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Ruizhi; Lu, Haiyan; Ao, Bingyun; Tang, Tao; Chen, Piheng

    2017-03-01

    The structural, electronic, mechanical, optical, thermodynamic properties of plutonium monoxide monohydride (PuOH) are studied by density-functional calculations within the framework of LDA/GGA and LDA/GGA+U. From the total energy calculation, the lowest-energy crystal structure of PuOH is predicted to have space group F 4 bar 3 m (No. 216). Within the LDA+U framework, the calculated lattice parameter of F 4 bar 3 m -PuOH is in good agreement with the experimental value and the corresponding ground state is predicted to be an antiferromagnetic charge-transfer insulator. Furthermore, we investigate the bonding character of PuOH by analyzing the electron structure and find that there are a stronger Pu-O bond and a weaker Pu-H bond. The mechanical properties including the elastic constants, elastic moduli and Debye's temperature, and the optical properties including the reflectivity and absorption coefficient are also calculated. We then compute the phonon spectrum which verified the dynamical stability of F 4 bar 3 m -PuOH. Some thermodynamic quantities such as the specific heat are evaluated. Finally we calculate the formation energy of PuOH, and the reaction energies for the oxidation of PuOH and PuOH-coated Pu, which are in reasonable agreement with the experimental values.

  9. Transformation and influencing factors of scholarly communication based on knowledge transfer: A case study of science and technology literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuefen; WANG; Jing; NING; Yanhong; ZHENG

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The process of scientific literature use can be regarded as that of knowledge transfer. With the help of the knowledge transfer theory and data from scientific literature databases, we explored the behavior of scientific researchers during their scholarly communication, and studied the factors that influenced the behavior of researchers under network environment. Design/methodology/approach: Based on the literature databases of CNKI, Elsevier Science Direct and Springer Link, we used the knowledge transfer theory to construct a model for describing the scholarly communication process, which attempts to find out factors that may influence the communication behavior of researchers. With a focus laid on the absorption behavior of researchers during the knowledge acceptance process, we defined the independent variables of the model and proposed hypotheses on the basis of a comprehensive literature study. Afterwards, college students were invited to participate in a questionnaire survey, which was designed to prove our research model and hypotheses.Findings: Our results showed that during the scholarly communication, it is not the professional knowledge, but the ability and willingness for knowledge acceptance, organizations’ importance and internal atmosphere as well as knowledge authority and relevance that have played a positive significant role in the knowledge transfer performance. In addition, our distance indicators showed that knowledge distance and knowledge transfer performance have significant negative correlations. Research limitations: This study is mainly based on a questionnaire survey of college students, which may limit the generalization of our research results. In addition, more resource types need be considered for further studies.Practical implications: Under network environment, scholarly communication performance based on knowledge transfer theory could greatly contribute to the enrichment of the contentof the knowledge transfer theory

  10. HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT AND FRICTION FACTOR CHARACTERISTICS OF A GRAVITY ASSISTED BAFFLED SHELL AND HEAT-PIPE HEAT EXCHANGER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Raveendiran

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The heat transfer coefficients and friction factors of a baffled shell and heat pipe heat exchanger with various inclination angles were determined experimentally; using methanol as working fluid and water as heat transport fluid were reported. Heat pipe heat exchanger reported in this investigation have inclination angles varied between 15o and 60o for different mass flow rates and temperature at the shell side of the heat exchanger. All the required parameters like outlet temperature of both hot and cold side of heat exchanger and mass flow rate of fluids were measured using an appropriate instrument. Different tests were performed from which condenser side heat transfer coefficient and friction factor were calculated. In all operating conditions it has been found that the heat transfer coefficient increases by increasing the mass flow rate and angle of inclination. The reduction in friction factor occurs when the Reynolds number is increased. The overall optimum experimental effectiveness of GABSHPHE has found to be 42% in all operating conditioning at ψ = 45o.

  11. Factors related to clinical pregnancy after vitrified-warmed embryo transfer: a retrospective and multivariate logistic regression analysis of 2313 transfer cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wenhao; Zhang, Silin; Zhao, Wanqiu; Xia, Xue; Wang, Min; Wang, Hui; Bai, Haiyan; Shi, Juanzi

    2013-07-01

    What factors does multivariate logistic regression show to be significantly associated with the likelihood of clinical pregnancy in vitrified-warmed embryo transfer (VET) cycles? Assisted hatching (AH) and if the reason to freeze embryos was to avoid the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) were significantly positively associated with a greater likelihood of clinical pregnancy. Single factor analysis has shown AH, number of embryos transferred and the reason of freezing for OHSS to be positively and damaged blastomere to be negatively significantly associated with the chance of clinical pregnancy after VET. It remains unclear what factors would be significant after multivariate analysis. The study was a retrospective analysis of 2313 VET cycles from 1481 patients performed between January 2008 and April 2012. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the factors to affect clinical pregnancy outcome of VET. There were 22 candidate variables selected based on clinical experiences and the literature. With the thresholds of α entry = α removal= 0.05 for both variable entry and variable removal, eight variables were chosen to contribute the multivariable model by the bootstrap stepwise variable selection algorithm (n = 1000). Eight variables were age at controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH), reason for freezing, AH, endometrial thickness, damaged blastomere, number of embryos transferred, number of good-quality embryos, and blood presence on transfer catheter. A descriptive comparison of the relative importance was accomplished by the proportion of explained variation (PEV). Among the reasons for freezing, the OHSS group showed a higher OR than the surplus embryo group when compared with other reasons for VET groups (OHSS versus Other, OR: 2.145; CI: 1.4-3.286; Surplus embryos versus Other, OR: 1.152; CI: 0.761-1.743) and high PEV (marginal 2.77%, P = 0.2911; partial 1.68%; CI of area under receptor operator characteristic

  12. The Proton Elastic Form Factor Ratio mu(p) G**p(E)/G**p(M) at Low Momentum Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Ron; J. Glister; B. Lee; K. Allada; W. Armstrong; J. Arrington; A. Beck; F. Benmokhtar; B.L. Berman; W. Boeglin; E. Brash; A. Camsonne; J. Calarco; J. P. Chen; Seonho Choi; E. Chudakov; L. Coman; B. Craver; F. Cusanno; J. Dumas; C. Dutta; R. Feuerbach; A. Freyberger; S. Frullani; F. Garibaldi; R. Gilman; O. Hansen; D. W. Higinbotham; T. Holmstrom; C.E. Hyde; H. Ibrahim; Y. Ilieva; C. W. de Jager; X. Jiang; M. K. Jones; A. Kelleher; E. Khrosinkova; E. Kuchina; G. Kumbartzki; J. J. LeRose; R. Lindgren; P. Markowitz; S. May-Tal Beck; E. McCullough; D. Meekins; M. Meziane; Z.-E. Meziani; R. Michaels; B. Moffit; B.E. Norum; Y. Oh; M. Olson; M. Paolone; K. Paschke; C. F. Perdrisat; E. Piasetzky; M. Potokar; R. Pomatsalyuk; I. Pomerantz; A. Puckett; V. Punjabi; X. Qian; Y. Qiang; R. Ransome; M. Reyhan; J. Roche; Y. Rousseau; A. Saha; A.J. Sarty; B. Sawatzky; E. Schulte; M. Shabestari; A. Shahinyan; R. Shneor; S. ˇ Sirca; K. Slifer; P. Solvignon; J. Song; R. Sparks; R. Subedi; S. Strauch; G. M. Urciuoli; K. Wang; B. Wojtsekhowski; X. Yan; H. Yao; X. Zhan; X. Zhu

    2007-11-01

    High precision measurements of the proton elastic form factor ratio have been made at four-momentum transfers, Q^2, between 0.2 and 0.5 GeV^2. The new data, while consistent with previous results, clearly show a ratio less than unity and significant differences from the central values of several recent phenomenological fits. By combining the new form-factor ratio data with an existing cross-section measurement, one finds that in this Q^2 range the deviation from unity is primarily due to GEp being smaller than the dipole parameterization.

  13. Empirical Analysis of Factors Influencing Surplus Labor Transfer in Poverty-stricken Areas: A Case Study of Yimatu Town in Fuxin City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    From the microscopic point of view,taking the surplus labor transfer in the Yimatu Town area as study object,we conduct survey of characteristics and transfer of rural surplus labor in Yimatu Town,through questionnaires and field interviews.Then we analyze the main factors influencing surplus labor transfer in rural areas from the personal characteristics of labor forces and family factor of labor forces.The results show that gender,age,educational level,farmland management days and other factors pertaining to the labor forces all affect the transfer of surplus labor, but the size and extent of the impact vary.In accordance with various influencing factors,we put forward recommendations for promoting the effective transfer of surplus labor in rural areas as follows:first,paying equal attention to macroscopic factors and microscopic factors influencing the transfer of surplus labor;second,focusing on the factors concerning the rural households and individual farmers,to find out the factors influencing the rational transfer;third,shifting the employment concept of surplus labor in rural areas;fourth,speeding up the construction of small towns and developing the secondary and tertiary industries.

  14. Reduction of carbon monoxide. Past research summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrock, R.R.

    1981-10-01

    Research programs for the year on the preparation, characterization, and reactions of binuclear tantalum complexes are described. All evidence to date suggest the following of these dimeric molecules: (1) the dimer does not break into monomers under mild conditions; (2) intermolecular hydride exchange is not negligible, but it is slow; (3) intermolecular non-ionic halide exchange is fast; (4) the ends of the dimers can rotate partially with respect to one another. The binuclear tantalum hydride complexes were found to react with carbon monoxide to give a molecule which is the only example of reduction of CO by a transition metal hydride to give a complex containing a CHO ligand. Isonitrides also reacted in a similar manner with dimeric tantalum hydride. (ATT)

  15. Historical review: the carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (DLCO) and its membrane (DM) and red cell (Theta.Vc) components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J M B; Bates, D V

    2003-11-14

    The single breath carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (DLCO sb), also called the transfer factor (TLCO), was introduced by Marie and August Krogh in two papers (Krogh and Krogh, Skand. Arch. Physiol. 23, 236-247, 1909; Krogh, J. Physiol., Lond. 49, 271-296, 1915). Physiologically, their measurements showed that sufficient oxygen (by extrapolation from CO) diffused passively from gas to blood without the need to postulate oxygen secretion, a popular theory at the time. Their DLCO sb technique was neglected until the advent of the infra-red CO meter in the 1950s. Ogilvie et al., J. Clin. Invest. 36, 1-17, 1957 published a standardized technique for a 'modified Krogh' single breath DLCO, which eventually became the method of choice in pulmonary function laboratories. The Roughton-Forster equation (J. Appl. Physiol. 1957, 11, 290-302) was an important step conceptually; it partitioned alveolar-capillary diffusion of oxygen (O2) and carbon monoxide (CO) into a membrane component (DM) and a red cell component (theta.Vc) where theta is the DLCO (or DL(O2)) per ml of blood (measured in vitro), and Vc is the pulmonary capillary volume. This equation was based on the kinetics of O2 and CO with haemoglobin (Hb) in solution and with whole blood Hartridge and Roughton, Nature, 1923, 111, 325-326; Proc. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. A, 1923, 104, 376-394; (Proc. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. B, 1923, 94, 336-367; Proc. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. A 1923, 104, 395-430; J. Physiol., Lond. 1927, 62, 232-242; Roughton, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. B 1932, 111, 1-36) and on the relationship between alveolar P(O2) and 1/DLCO. Subsequently, the relationship between DL(O2) (Lilienthal et al., Am. J. Physiol. 147, 199-216, 1946) and DL(CO) was defined. More recently, the measurement of the nitric oxide diffusing capacity (DLNO) has been introduced. For DL(O2) and DLNO the membrane component (as 1/DM) is an important part of the overall diffusion (transfer) resistance. For the DLCO, 1/theta.Vc probably plays the greater

  16. An Analysis of the Factors Affecting Training Transfer within the Work Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    academic community with an overall assessment on training transfer studies focused within the work environment. In addition, a discussion of the effects of...use of electronic databases (e.g., Google Scholar, DTIC, ABI /Inform, Inspec, InfoTrac, OneFile , Business Source Premier, Psych Info) was used to

  17. From In-Service Teacher Development to School Improvement: Factors of Learning Transfer in Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreer, Benjamin; Dietrich, Julia; Kracke, Bärbel

    2017-01-01

    In-service teacher development programs are perceived as a common way to foster school improvement. Nevertheless, program evaluation to date ends with the assessment of acquired knowledge, skills, and motivation, frequently disregarding the actual learning transfer and its conditions. This study aimed to investigate how individual and situational…

  18. Factors influencing behavior and transferability of habitat models for a benthic stream fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin N. Leftwich; Paul L. Angermeier; C. Andrew Dolloff

    1997-01-01

    The authors examined the predictive power and transferability of habitat-based models by comparing associations of tangerine darter Percina aurantiaca and stream habitat at local and regional scales in North Fork Holston River (NFHR) and Little River, VA. The models correctly predicted the presence or absence of tangerine darters in NFHR for 64 percent (local model)...

  19. University, Knowledge and Regional Development: Factors Affecting Knowledge Transfer in a Developing Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fongwa, Neba Samuel; Marais, Lochner

    2016-01-01

    The role of knowledge in the current knowledge economy cannot be overly emphasised. Successful regions are continuously being linked to excellence in the production, accumulation, and application of knowledge. Universities have increasingly been at the centre of such knowledge production, application and transfer. Yet, there is little research and…

  20. EXPERIMENTAL METHODOLOGIES AND PRELIMINARY TRANSFER FACTOR DATA FOR ESTIMATION OF DERMAL EXPOSURES TO PARTICLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developmental efforts and experimental data are described that focused on quantifying the transfer of particles on a mass basis from indoor surfaces to human skin. Methods were developed that utilized a common fluorescein-tagged Arizona Test Dust (ATD) as a possible surrogate ...

  1. Hospital Transfer Network Structure as a Risk Factor for Clostridium difficile Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmering, Jacob E.; Polgreen, Linnea A.; Campbell, David R.; Cavanaugh, Joseph E.; Polgreen, Philip M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the effect on inter-hospital patient sharing via transfers on the rate of Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) in a hospital. Design Retrospective cohort Methods Using data from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project California State Inpatient Database, 2005–2011, we identified 2,752,639 transfers. We then constructed a series of networks detailing the connections formed by hospitals. We computed two measures of connectivity, indegree and weighted indegree, measuring the number of hospitals from which transfers into a hospital arrive, and the total number of incoming transfers, respectively. We estimated a multivariate model of CDI cases using the log-transformed network measures as well as covariates for hospital fixed effects, log median length of stay, log fraction of patients aged 65 or older, quarter and year indicators as predictors. Results We found an increase of one in the log indegree was associated with a 4.8% increase in incidence of CDI (95% CI: 2.3–7.4) and an increase of one in log weighted indegree was associated with a 3.3% increase in CDI incidence (95% CI: 1.5–5.2). Moreover, including measures of connectivity in the models greatly improved their fit. Conclusions Our results suggest infection control is not under the exclusive control of a given hospital but is also influenced by the connections and number of connections that hospitals have with other hospitals. PMID:26072907

  2. Physicochernical factors influencing bacterial transfer from contact lenses to surfaces with different roughness and Wettability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeltfoort, PBJ; van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ; Hooymans, JMM; Bruinsma, GM

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the transfer of Pseudomonas aeruginosa No. 3 and Staphylococcus aureus 835 from contact lenses to surfaces with different hydrophobicity and roughness. Bacteria were allowed to adhere to contact lenses (Surevue, PureVision, or Focus Night & Day) by incubating t

  3. University, Knowledge and Regional Development: Factors Affecting Knowledge Transfer in a Developing Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fongwa, Neba Samuel; Marais, Lochner

    2016-01-01

    The role of knowledge in the current knowledge economy cannot be overly emphasised. Successful regions are continuously being linked to excellence in the production, accumulation, and application of knowledge. Universities have increasingly been at the centre of such knowledge production, application and transfer. Yet, there is little research and…

  4. Syncope Associated with Carbon Monoxide Poisoning due to Narghile Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seda Ozkan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Narghile smoking is a traditional method of tobacco use, and it has been practiced extensively for 400 years. Traditionally, narghile smoking is a matter of culture mainly in Middle East, Asia, and Africa. In recent years, its use as a social activity has increased worldwide, especially among young people. Narghile smoking is an unusual cause of carbon monoxide poisoning. Narghile smoking, compared to cigarette smoking, can result in more smoke exposure and greater levels of carbon monoxide. We present an acute syncope case of a 19-year-old male patient who had carbon monoxide poisoning after narghile smoking.

  5. Influence Factors of Heat Transfer of Unattached Rectangular Underground Engineering Envelope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Using a mathematical model of heat transfer of unattached underground engineering envelope, the calculation area was divided into 14 rectangular blocks according to the interzone temperature profile estimation (ITPE) technology, and the solutions were obtained for all the parts using the technique of variable separation. The Fourier coefficients are determined based on the continuity of the heat flux and boundary conditions, as a result, a system of linear equation group including 26N equations has been obtained. By changing the parameters, the influence of heat characteristics of envelope building material and soil, temperature of earth surface and heat transfer coefficient between air and wall on heat course of the envelope has been quantitatively analyzed.

  6. Factors controlling the competition among rotational and vibrational energy transfer channels in glyoxal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmenter, C S; Clegg, S M; Krajnovich, D J; Lu, S

    1997-08-05

    The state-to-state transfer of rotational and vibrational energy has been studied for S1 glyoxal (CHOCHO) in collisions with D2, N2, CO and C2H4 using crossed molecular beams. A laser is used to pump glyoxal seeded in He to its S1 zero point level with zero angular momentum about its top axis (K' = 0). The inelastic scattering to each of at least 26 S1 glyoxal rotational and rovibrational levels is monitored by dispersed S1-S0 fluorescence. Various collision partners are chosen to investigate the relative influences of reduced mass and the collision pair interaction potential on the competition among the energy transfer channels. When the data are combined with that obtained previously from other collision partners whose masses range from 2 to 84 amu, it is seen that the channel competition is controlled primarily by the kinematics of the collisional interaction. Variations in the intermolecular potential play strictly a secondary role.

  7. Linearity assumption in soil-to-plant transfer factors of natural uranium and radium in Helianthus annuus L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, P. Blanco [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Tome, F. Vera [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain)]. E-mail: fvt@unex.es; Fernandez, M. Perez [Area de Ecologia, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Lozano, J.C. [Laboratorio de Radiactividad Ambiental, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Salamanca, 37008 Salamanca (Spain)

    2006-05-15

    The linearity assumption of the validation of soil-to-plant transfer factors of natural uranium and {sup 226}Ra was tested using Helianthus annuus L. (sunflower) grown in a hydroponic medium. Transfer of natural uranium and {sup 226}Ra was tested in both the aerial fraction of plants and in the overall seedlings (roots and shoots). The results show that the linearity assumption can be considered valid in the hydroponic growth of sunflowers for the radionuclides studied. The ability of sunflowers to translocate uranium and {sup 226}Ra was also investigated, as well as the feasibility of using sunflower plants to remove uranium and radium from contaminated water, and by extension, their potential for phytoextraction. In this sense, the removal percentages obtained for natural uranium and {sup 226}Ra were 24% and 42%, respectively. Practically all the uranium is accumulated in the roots. However, 86% of the {sup 226}Ra activity concentration in roots was translocated to the aerial part.

  8. Carbon Monoxide Binding by Hemoglobin and Myoglobin under Photodissociating Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunori, Maurizio; Bonaventura, Joseph; Bonaventura, Celia; Antonini, Eraldo; Wyman, Jeffries

    1972-01-01

    Carbon monoxide binding by myoglobin and hemoglobin has been studied under conditions of constant illumination. For hemoglobin, the homotropic heme-heme interaction (cooperativity) and the heterotropic Bohr effect are invariant with light intensity over a 1000-fold change of c½. The dissociation constant, measured as c½, increases linearly with light intensity, indicating that photodissociation is a one-quantum process. At sufficiently high illumination the apparent enthalpy of ligand binding becomes positive, although in the absence of light it is known to be negative. This finding indicates that light acts primarily by increasing the “off” constants by an additive factor. The invariance of both cooperativity and Bohr effect raises a perplexing issue. It would appear to demand either that the “off” constants for the various elementary steps are all alike (which is contrary to current ideas) or that the additive factor is in each case proportional to the particular “off” constant to which it is added (a seemingly improbable alternative). PMID:4502938

  9. Embryo quality is the main factor affecting cumulative live birth rate after elective single embryo transfer in fresh stimulation cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niinimäki, Maarit; Veleva, Zdravka; Martikainen, Hannu

    2015-11-01

    The study was aimed to evaluate which factors affect the cumulative live birth rate after elective single embryo transfer in women younger than 36 years. Additionally, number of children in women with more than one delivery per ovum pick-up after fresh elective single embryo transfer and subsequent frozen embryo transfers was assessed. Retrospective cohort study analysing data of a university hospital's infertility clinic in 2001-2010. A total of 739 IVF/ICSI cycles with elective single embryo transfer were included. Analyses were made per ovum pick-up including fresh and subsequent frozen embryo transfers. Factors affecting cumulative live birth rates were examined in uni- and multivariate analyses. A secondary endpoint was the number of children born after all treatments. In the fresh cycles, the live birth rate was 29.2% and the cumulative live birth rate was 51.3%, with a twin rate of 3.4%. In the multivariate analysis, having two (odds ratio (OR) 1.73; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.12-2.67) or ≥3 top embryos (OR 2.66; 95% CI 1.79-3.95) was associated with higher odds for live birth after fresh and frozen embryo cycles. Age, body mass index, duration of infertility, diagnosis or total gonadotropin dose were not associated with the cumulative live birth rate. In cycles with one top embryo, the cumulative live birth rate was 40.2%, whereas it was 64.1% in those with at least three top embryos. Of women who had a live birth in the fresh cycle, 20.4% had more than one child after all frozen embryo transfers. Among women with three or more top embryos after ovum pick-up, 16.1% gave birth to more than one child. The cumulative live birth rate in this age group varies from 40% to 64% and is dependent on the quality of embryos. Women with three or more top embryos have good chance of having more than one child per ovum pick-up without elevated risk of multiple pregnancies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. An interesting cause of pulmonary emboli: Acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevinc, A.; Savli, H.; Atmaca, H. [Gaziantep University, Gaziantep (Turkey). School of Medicine

    2005-07-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning, a public health problem of considerable significance, is a relatively frequent event today, resulting in thousands of hospitalizations annually. A 70-year-old lady was seen in the emergency department with a provisional diagnosis of carbon monoxide poisoning. The previous night, she slept in a tightly closed room heated with coal ember. She was found unconscious in the morning with poor ventilation. She had a rare presentation of popliteal vein thrombosis, pulmonary emboli, and possible tissue necrosis with carbon monoxide poisoning. Oxygen treatment with low-molecular-weight heparin (nadroparine) and warfarin therapy resulted in an improvement in both popliteal and pulmonary circulations. In conclusion, the presence of pulmonary emboli should be sought in patients with carbon monoxide poisoning.

  11. US EPA Region 9 carbon monoxide designated areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Polygon Feature class of Nonattainment Areas for Carbon Monoxide. Nonattainment areas are geographic areas which have not met National Ambient Air Quality Standards...

  12. Carbon monoxide poisoning in the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Kaabi, Juma M; Wheatley, Andrew D; Barss, Peter; Al Shamsi, Mariam; Lababidi, Anis; Mushtaq, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is rare in the Arabian Peninsula and occurs almost exclusively during the winter months. Knowledge and perception of the hazards of carbon monoxide is limited. Migrant workers from warm climates appear particularly at risk. We investigated 46 cases of carbon monoxide poisoning presenting at emergency departments from 2007-2009 of the two main hospitals in Al Ain city, United Arab Emirates. Interviews, hospital records, and administered questionnaires were used to collect the data. Among the 46 cases investigated, 24 (52%) were males. Foreign nationals compromised 80% of the cases and the incidence was 3.1 cases per 100,000 residents per year. Burning charcoal in poorly ventilated residences was the predominant source of the carbon monoxide poisoning. Almost all cases (98%) were admitted during the winter months, most in the early morning hours. Carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) was significantly increased in cases with loss of consciousness and depressed consciousness. There were no reported fatalities.

  13. Same Exposure, Various Clinical Pictures: The Carbon Monoxide Enigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Salmanoglu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available -Children and adolescents exposed to the same source of carbon monoxide have been shown to demonstrate different clinical pictures (1,2. The same condition probably may be extrapolated between children with varying ages and hence lung surface areas. Smaller children will receive larger doses of carbon monoxide, because they have greater lung surface area/body weight ratios and increased minute volumes/weight ratios. As carbon monoxide accumulation is expected to be more significant nearer to the ground, another explanation for varying clinical pictures in poisoning events may be the different level of sleeping positions of the casualties. Herein, we report a cluster poisoning of carbon monoxide affecting 5 children from the same family at the same time but in different clinical pictures. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2013; 12(1.000: 118-118

  14. ELECTRIC FACTORS INFLUENCING THE COMPLEX EROSION PROCESSING BY INTRODUCING THE ELECTROLYTE THROUGH THE TRANSFER OBJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alin Nioata

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The electric and electrochemical complex erosion processing is influenced by a great number of factors acting in tight interdependence and mutually influencing one another for achieving the stability of the processing process and achieving the final technological characteristics.The values taking part in developing the fundamental phenomena of the mechanism of complex erosion prevailing and contributes to the definition of technological characteristics, are factors.The paper presents the U potential difference and electric strength I as determining factors of the complex erosion process as well as other factors deriving from them: the current density, the power of the supply source.

  15. Factors impacting on nurses' transference of theoretical knowledge of holistic care into clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Saras

    2002-12-01

    Since nurse education moved to universities, a reoccurring concern of health consumers, health administrators, and some practising nurses is that nurses are not able to transfer the theoretical knowledge of holistic care into practice. Much has been written about this concern usually under the heading of the theory-practice gap. A common reason that has been highlighted as the cause of this gap is that the theoretical knowledge that nurses learn in academia is predicated on concepts such as humanism and holistic caring. In contrast, the bureaucratic organisation where nurses provide care tends to be based on management concepts where cost containment and outcome measures are more acceptable. Hence nurses' learned values of holistic caring are pitted against the reality of the practice setting. So what is this practice reality? This paper attempts to provide an insider view of why the theoretical knowledge of holistic care may be difficult to enact in the clinical setting. In-depth taped interviews with nurses and participant observation were conducted in acute care hospitals in Western Australia. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using the constant comparative method. The findings indicated that utilitarian nursing and role models had impacted on the transference of theoretical knowledge of holistic care into practice. The paper outlines some measures that nurses themselves can undertake to ensure the narrowing of the theory-practice gap in this area.

  16. Factors controlling the competition among rotational and vibrational energy transfer channels in glyoxal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmenter, Charles S.; Clegg, Samuel M.; Krajnovich, Douglas J.; Lu, Shao-ping

    1997-01-01

    The state-to-state transfer of rotational and vibrational energy has been studied for S1 glyoxal (CHOCHO) in collisions with D2, N2, CO and C2H4 using crossed molecular beams. A laser is used to pump glyoxal seeded in He to its S1 zero point level with zero angular momentum about its top axis (K′ = 0). The inelastic scattering to each of at least 26 S1 glyoxal rotational and rovibrational levels is monitored by dispersed S1–S0 fluorescence. Various collision partners are chosen to investigate the relative influences of reduced mass and the collision pair interaction potential on the competition among the energy transfer channels. When the data are combined with that obtained previously from other collision partners whose masses range from 2 to 84 amu, it is seen that the channel competition is controlled primarily by the kinematics of the collisional interaction. Variations in the intermolecular potential play strictly a secondary role. PMID:11038560

  17. Van der Waals corrected DFT study of adsorption of groups VA and VIA hydrides on graphene monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notash, M. Yaghoobi; Ebrahimzadeh, A. Rastkar

    2016-06-01

    Adsorption properties of H2O, H2S, NH3 and PH3 on graphene monoxide (GMO) nano flack are investigated using density functional theory (DFT). Calculations were carried out by van der Waals correction and general gradient approximation. The adsorption energies and charge transfer between species are obtained and discussed for the considered positions of adsorbate molecules. Charge transfer analysis show that the gas molecules act as an electron acceptor in all cases. The analysis of the adsorption energies suggest GMO can be a good candidate for the adsorption of these molecules.

  18. Carbon monoxide exposure in blast furnace workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, S; Mason, C; Srna, J

    1992-09-01

    This study investigated the occupational exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) of a group of blast furnace workers from an integrated steelworks, compared to a control group having no significant occupational CO exposure from other areas in the same works. The study was undertaken in 1984 at Port Kembla, New South Wales. Carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) levels before and after an eight-hour work shift were measured in 98 male steelworkers: 52 from two CO-exposed iron blast furnaces and 46 controls from production areas in the same steelworks. The sample was stratified by smoking habits. Environmental air CO levels had been found to be consistently higher on one furnace than on the other. Absorption of CO from the working environment occurred in workers on the blast furnace with higher CO levels, regardless of smoking habits. On this blast furnace, some readings of COHb levels after a workshift in nonsmokers approached the proposed Australian occupational limit of 5 per cent COHb saturation. Overall, workers with the highest occupational exposure who smoked most heavily had the highest absorption of CO over a work shift. Biological monitoring gives an accurate measure of individual worker 'dose' of CO from all sources. Both environmental monitoring and biological monitoring need to be included as part of a program for controlling occupational CO exposure.

  19. Carbon Monoxide: An Essential Signalling Molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Brian E.

    Carbon monoxide (CO), like nitric oxide (NO), is an essential signalling molecule in humans. It is active in the cardiovascular system as a vasodilator. In addition, CO possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and anti-proliferative properties and protects tissues from hypoxia and reperfusion injury. Some of its applications in animal models include suppression of organ graft rejection and safeguarding the heart during reperfusion after cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. CO also suppresses arteriosclerotic lesions following angioplasty, reverses established pulmonary hypertension and mitigates the development of post-operative ileus in the murine small intestine and the development of cerebral malaria in mice as well as graft-induced intimal hyperplasia in pigs. There have been several clinical trials using air-CO mixtures for the treatment of lung-, heart-, kidney- and abdominal-related diseases. This review examines the research involving the development of classes of compounds (with particular emphasis on metal carbonyls) that release CO, which could be used in clinically relevant conditions. The review is drawn not only from published papers in the chemical literature but also from the extensive biological literature and patents on CO-releasing molecules (CO-RMs).

  20. First-Principles Investigations on Europium Monoxide

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hao

    2011-05-01

    Europium monoxide is both an insulator and a Heisenberg ferromagnet (Tc=69 K). In the present thesis, the author has investigated the electronic structure of different types of EuO by density functional theory. The on-site Coulomb interaction of the localized Eu 4f and 5d electrons, which is wrongly treated in the standard generalized gradient approximation method, is found to be crucial to obtain the correct insulating ground state as observed in experiments. Our results show that the ferromagnetism is stable under pressure, both hydrostatic and uniaxial. For both types of pressure an insulator-metal transition is demonstrated. Moreover, the experimentally observed insulator-metal transition in oxygen deficient and gadolinium-doped EuO is reproduced in our calculations for impurity concentrations of 6.25% and 25%. Furthermore, a 10- layer EuO thin film is theoretically predicted to be an insulator with a narrow band gap of around 0.08 eV, while the Si/EuO interface shows metallic properties with the Si and O 2p as well as Eu 5d bands crossing the Fermi level.

  1. Chlorine Monoxide in the Antarctic Spring Stratosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo-Ayerbe, Mauricio

    1988-06-01

    A series of observations of stratospheric chlorine monoxide (ClO) were carried out during the austral springs of 1986 and 1987 in McMurdo Station, Antarctica, as part of two experimental campaigns sent to investigate the seasonal decrease in ozone over the antarctic continent (the ozone "hole"). Measurements of the vertical distribution of ClO were obtained by high resolution ground-based emission spectroscopy at 278 GHz, using the Stony Brook mm-wave receiver. They show the presence of an anomalous layer of lower stratospheric ClO which is not observed at other latitudes. This anomalous layer is centered at ~20 km altitude and exhibits a pronounced diurnal variation, reaching a maximum at midday and disappearing at night. During the period of Sep. 20-24, 1987, the lower-stratospheric ClO had a maximum volume mixing ratio of 1.8_sp{+0cdot5}{ -0cdot9} ppbv. A normal ClO layer centered at ~36 km was also observed, with concentrations and diurnal behavior similar to those seen in tropical latitudes. These findings are evidence of anomalous chlorine chemistry taking place in the lower stratosphere during the antarctic spring, and indicate that increasing anthropogenic chlorine is a prime causative agent in the formation of the ozone hole.

  2. Transfer students in STEM majors at a Midwestern University: Academic and social involvement factors that influence student success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Carlos

    There is soon-to-be a shortage of qualified U.S. workers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). As a result, many science-related jobs are being filled by technically-skilled foreign workers. If the U.S wants to maintain its global economic leadership, then it must ensure a continuous growth of highly-trained individuals in STEM disciplines. Therefore, American institutions of higher education, including community colleges, must identify potential factors that contribute to the lack of interest in STEM majors, as well as the low rate of success of students who enter STEM majors but struggle to finish their degrees. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the perceptions of community college transfer students who are pursuing bachelor degrees in STEM majors at Iowa State University (ISU). What were their transfer experiences and what influenced their academic success in STEM. Participants were encouraged to share their transfer experiences while at the community college as well as their experiences on the ISU campus. They were also asked about their level of academic involvement, their relationships with faculty, and their participation in peer group activities prior to and after transferring. The research design included both quantitative and qualitative components, which provided an in-depth look at the experiences of STEM non-engineering and engineering students. Quantitative data include students' background characteristics, demographic information, and college activities at the community college and ISU. Qualitative data were used to illuminate students' overall transfer experience and their successful journey in STEM fields. The combination of quantitative and qualitative methods allowed a better understanding of the strategies students put into practice once they transfer from a community college to a four-year institution in pursuit of a STEM bachelor's degree. The results of this study suggest that there is an association among the

  3. Low concentration of exogenous carbon monoxide protects mammalian cells against proliferation induced by radiation-induced bystander effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, Liping [Center of Medical Physics and Technology, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Yu, K.N. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Center of Medical Physics and Technology, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Bao, Lingzhi; Wu, Wenqing; Wang, Hongzhi [Center of Medical Physics and Technology, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Han, Wei, E-mail: hanw@hfcas.cn [Center of Medical Physics and Technology, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • We show the possibility of modulate proliferation induced by radiation-induced bystander effect with low concentration carbon monoxide. • Carbon monoxide inhibited proliferation via modulating the transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1)/nitric oxide (NO) signaling pathway. • Exogenous carbon monoxide has potential application in clinical radiotherapy. - Abstract: Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) has been proposed to have tight relationship with the irradiation-caused secondary cancers beyond the irradiation-treated area after radiotherapy. Our previous studies demonstrated a protective effect of low concentration carbon monoxide (CO) on the genotoxicity of RIBE after α-particle irradiation. In the present work, a significant inhibitory effect of low-dose exogenous CO, generated by tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (II) dimer [CO-releasing molecule (CORM-2)], on both RIBE-induced proliferation and chromosome aberration was observed. Further studies on the mechanism revealed that the transforming growth factor β1/nitric oxide (NO) signaling pathway, which mediated RIBE signaling transduction, could be modulated by CO involved in the protective effects. Considering the potential of exogenous CO in clinical applications and its protective effect on RIBE, the present work aims to provide a foundation for potential application of CO in radiotherapy.

  4. Assessment of carbon monoxide values in smokers: a comparison of carbon monoxide in expired air and carboxyhaemoglobin in arterial blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Mette F; Møller, Ann M

    2010-01-01

    Smoking increases perioperative complications. Carbon monoxide concentrations can estimate patients' smoking status and might be relevant in preoperative risk assessment. In smokers, we compared measurements of carbon monoxide in expired air (COexp) with measurements of carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) ......) in arterial blood. The objectives were to determine the level of correlation and to determine whether the methods showed agreement and evaluate them as diagnostic tests in discriminating between heavy and light smokers....

  5. Carbon monoxide total column retrievals from TROPOMI shortwave infrared measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgraf, Jochen; aan de Brugh, Joost; Scheepmaker, Remco; Borsdorff, Tobias; Hu, Haili; Houweling, Sander; Butz, Andre; Aben, Ilse; Hasekamp, Otto

    2016-10-01

    The Tropospheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) spectrometer is the single payload of the Copernicus Sentinel 5 Precursor (S5P) mission. It measures Earth radiance spectra in the shortwave infrared spectral range around 2.3 µm with a dedicated instrument module. These measurements provide carbon monoxide (CO) total column densities over land, which for clear sky conditions are highly sensitive to the tropospheric boundary layer. For cloudy atmospheres over land and ocean, the column sensitivity changes according to the light path through the atmosphere. In this study, we present the physics-based operational S5P algorithm to infer atmospheric CO columns satisfying the envisaged accuracy ( information on atmospheric scattering. For efficient processing, we deploy a linearized two-stream radiative transfer model as forward model and a profile scaling approach to adjust the CO abundance in the inversion. Based on generic measurement ensembles, including clear sky and cloudy observations, we estimated the CO retrieval precision to be ≤ 11 % for surface albedo ≥ 0.03 and solar zenith angle ≤ 70°. CO biases of ≤ 3 % are introduced by inaccuracies in the methane a priori knowledge. For strongly enhanced CO concentrations in the tropospheric boundary layer and for cloudy conditions, CO errors in the order of 8 % can be introduced by the retrieval of cloud parameters of our algorithm. Moreover, we estimated the effect of a distorted spectral instrument response due to the inhomogeneous illumination of the instrument entrance slit in the flight direction to be < 2 % with pseudo-random characteristics when averaging over space and time. Finally, the CO data exploitation is demonstrated for a TROPOMI orbit of simulated shortwave infrared measurements. Overall, the study demonstrates that for an instrument that performs in compliance with the pre-flight specifications, the CO product will meet the required product performance well.

  6. Gene Transfer and Expression of Platelet-derived Growth Factors Modulate Periodontal Cellular Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Z.; Lee, C. S.; Tejeda, K.M.; Giannobile, W.V.

    2001-01-01

    Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is a potent stimulator of wound healing. PDGF gene therapy may promote greater periodontal regeneration than local protein application, due to sustained growth factor delivery to the target tissue. This investigation tested the ability of recombinant adenoviruses (rAds) encoding PDGF-A or PDGF-1308 (a PDGF-A dominant-negative mutant that disrupts endogenous PDGF bioactivity) to affect cells derived from the periodontium. Osteoblasts, periodontal ligament ...

  7. SiC MOSFET Based Single Phase Active Boost Rectifier with Power Factor Correction for Wireless Power Transfer Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onar, Omer C [ORNL; Tang, Lixin [ORNL; Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan [ORNL; Campbell, Steven L [ORNL; Miller (JNJ), John M. [JNJ-Miller PLC

    2014-01-01

    Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) technology is a novel research area in the charging technology that bridges the utility and the automotive industries. There are various solutions that are currently being evaluated by several research teams to find the most efficient way to manage the power flow from the grid to the vehicle energy storage system. There are different control parameters that can be utilized to compensate for the change in the impedance due to variable parameters such as battery state-of-charge, coupling factor, and coil misalignment. This paper presents the implementation of an active front-end rectifier on the grid side for power factor control and voltage boost capability for load power regulation. The proposed SiC MOSFET based single phase active front end rectifier with PFC resulted in >97% efficiency at 137mm air-gap and >95% efficiency at 160mm air-gap.

  8. Flux transfer events on the magnetopause - Spatial distribution and controlling factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berchem, J.; Russell, C. T.

    1984-01-01

    The spatial distribution of flux transfer events (FTE) of magnetic flux tubes pulled from the earth's magnetopause is analyzed using ISEE 1 and 2 data from 1977-82. Attention is given to interplanetary conditions influencing different observed FTE polarities. FTEs were observed on nearly 25 percent of the passes near the dayside magnetopause. Direct FTEs were located mainly in the northern dawn sector and reverse FTEs appeared in the southern dusk sector. The distribution indicated an origin in the equatorial sector, and data correlate the appearance of FTEs only when the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) had southward or nearly horizontal orientation. The presence of a southward component in the IMF was coincident with the appearance of an FTE 45 percent of the events. E-W components in the IMF exhibited no connections with the occurrence of an FTE.

  9. Regional accumulation characteristics of cadmium in vegetables: Influencing factors, transfer model and indication of soil threshold content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Chen, Weiping; Wang, Meie; Peng, Chi

    2016-12-01

    A regional investigation in the Youxian prefecture, southern China, was conducted to analyze the impact of environmental factors including soil properties and irrigation in conjunction with the use of fertilizers on the accumulation of Cd in vegetables. The Cd transfer potential from soil to vegetable was provided by the plant uptake factor (PUF), which varied by three orders of magnitude and was described by a Gaussian distribution model. The soil pH, content of soil organic matter (SOM), concentrations of Zn in the soil, pH of irrigation water and nitrogenous fertilizers contributed significantly to the PUF variations. A path model analysis, however, revealed the principal control of the PUF values resulted from the soil pH, soil Zn concentrations and SOM. Transfer functions were developed using the total soil Cd concentrations, soil pH, and SOM. They explained 56% of the variance for all samples irrespective of the vegetable genotypes. The transfer functions predicted the probability of exceeding China food safety standard concentrations for Cd in four major consumable vegetables under different soil conditions. Poor production practices in the study area involved usage of soil with pH values ≤ 5.5, especially for the cultivation of Raphanus sativus L., even with soil Cd concentrations below the China soil quality standard. We found the soil standard Cd concentrations for cultivating vegetables was not strict enough for strongly acidic (pH ≤ 5.5) and SOM-poor (SOM ≤ 10 g kg(-1)) soils present in southern China. It is thus necessary to address the effect of environmental variables to generate a suitable Cd threshold for cultivated soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Factors enhancing Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated gene transfer in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egnin, M.; Mora, A.; Prakash, C. S.; Mortley, D. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Parameters enhancing Agrobacterium-mediated transfer of foreign genes to peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cells were investigated. An intron-containing beta-glucuronidase uidA (gusA) gene under the transcriptional control of CaMV 35S promoter served as a reporter. Transformation frequency was evaluated by scoring the number of sectors expressing GUS activity on leaf and epicotyl explants. The 'Valencia Select' market type cv. New Mexico was more amenable to Agrobacterium transformation than the 'runner' market type cultivars tested (Florunner, Georgia Runner, Sunrunner, or South Runner). The disarmed Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA101 was superior in facilitating the transfer of uidA gene to peanut cells compared to the disarmed strain C58. Rinsing of explants in half-strength Murashige-Skoog (MS) media prior to infection by Agrobacterium significantly increased the transformation efficiency. The use of cocultivation media containing high auxin [1.0 or 2.5 mg/l (4.53 micromolar or 11.31 micromolar) 2,4-D] and low cytokinin [0.25 or 0.5 mg/l (1.0 micromolar or 2.0 micromolar) BA] promoted higher transformation than either hormone-free or thidiazuron-containing medium. The polarity of the epicotyl during cocultivation was important; explants incubated in an inverted (vertically) manner followed by a vertically upright position resulted in improved transformation and shoot regeneration frequencies. Preculture of explants in MS basal medium or with 2.5 mg thidiazuron per l prior to infection drastically decreased the number of transformed zones. The optimized protocol was used to obtain transient transformation frequencies ranging from 12% to 36% for leaf explants, 15% to 42% for epicotyls. Initial evidence of transformation was obtained by polymerase chain reaction and subsequently confirmed by Southern analysis of regenerated plants.

  11. Factors enhancing Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated gene transfer in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egnin, M.; Mora, A.; Prakash, C. S.; Mortley, D. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Parameters enhancing Agrobacterium-mediated transfer of foreign genes to peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cells were investigated. An intron-containing beta-glucuronidase uidA (gusA) gene under the transcriptional control of CaMV 35S promoter served as a reporter. Transformation frequency was evaluated by scoring the number of sectors expressing GUS activity on leaf and epicotyl explants. The 'Valencia Select' market type cv. New Mexico was more amenable to Agrobacterium transformation than the 'runner' market type cultivars tested (Florunner, Georgia Runner, Sunrunner, or South Runner). The disarmed Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA101 was superior in facilitating the transfer of uidA gene to peanut cells compared to the disarmed strain C58. Rinsing of explants in half-strength Murashige-Skoog (MS) media prior to infection by Agrobacterium significantly increased the transformation efficiency. The use of cocultivation media containing high auxin [1.0 or 2.5 mg/l (4.53 micromolar or 11.31 micromolar) 2,4-D] and low cytokinin [0.25 or 0.5 mg/l (1.0 micromolar or 2.0 micromolar) BA] promoted higher transformation than either hormone-free or thidiazuron-containing medium. The polarity of the epicotyl during cocultivation was important; explants incubated in an inverted (vertically) manner followed by a vertically upright position resulted in improved transformation and shoot regeneration frequencies. Preculture of explants in MS basal medium or with 2.5 mg thidiazuron per l prior to infection drastically decreased the number of transformed zones. The optimized protocol was used to obtain transient transformation frequencies ranging from 12% to 36% for leaf explants, 15% to 42% for epicotyls. Initial evidence of transformation was obtained by polymerase chain reaction and subsequently confirmed by Southern analysis of regenerated plants.

  12. Incidence and risk factors for unplanned transfers to acute general hospitals from an intermediate care and rehabilitation geriatric facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colprim, Daniel; Inzitari, Marco

    2014-09-01

    Unplanned acute hospital transfers (AT) from post-acute or long-term care facilities represent critical transitions, which expose patients to negative health outcomes and increase the burden of the emergency departments that receive these patients. We aim at determining incidence and risk factors for AT during the first 30 days of admission at an intermediate care and rehabilitation geriatric facility (ICGF). Prospective cohort study conducted in an ICGF of Barcelona, Spain. Sociodemographics, main diagnostics, and variables of the comprehensive geriatric assessment were recorded at admission. At the moment of AT, suspected diagnostic motivating the transfer was recorded. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate the association between admission characteristics and AT. We included 1505 patients (mean age + standard deviation = 81.31 ± 7.06, 65.7% women). AT were 217 (14.4%, 5.64/1000 days of stay) resulting in only 81 final hospitalizations (37% of AT), whereas 136 patients returned to ICGF after visiting the emergency department. Principal triggers of AT were cardiovascular, falls/orthopedic, and gastrointestinal problems. Being admitted to ICGF after a general surgery [hazard ratio (HR) 1.88; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.21-2.94; P hospital, suggesting perhaps some avoidable AT. Identification of risk factors might be relevant to design strategies to reduce AT. Copyright © 2014 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Granulocyte colony stimulating factor treatment of resistant thin endometrium in women with frozen-thawed blastocyst transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunicki, Michał; Łukaszuk, Krzysztof; Liss, Joanna; Skowrońska, Patrycja; Szczyptańska, Joanna

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) effect on unresponsive thin (transfer at the blastocyst stage. A total of 62 women with thin unresponsive endometrium were included in the study, of which, 29 received a G-CSF infusion and 33 who opted out of the study served as controls. Patients in both groups had similar endometrial thickness at the time of the initial evaluation: 6.50 mm (5.50-6.80) in the G-CSF and 6.40 mm (5.50-7.0) in the control group. However, after the infusion endometrial thickness increased significantly in the G-CSF group in comparison with the controls (p=0.01), (Δ) 0.5 (0.02-1.2) (p=0.005). In the G-CSF group endometrium expanded to 7.90 mm (6.58-8.70) while in the control group to 6.90 mm (6.0-7.75). Five women in each group conceived. The clinical pregnancy rate was 5/29 (17.24%) in the G-CSF treated group and 5/33 (15.15%) in the control group (p>0.05). The live birth rate was 2/29 (6.89%) in the G-CSF group and 2/33 (6.06%) in the control group (p>0.05). We concluded that G-CSF infusion leads to an improvement in endometrium thickness but not to any improvement in the clinical pregnancy and live birth rates. Until more data is available G-CSF treatment should be considered to be of limited value in increasing pregnancy rate. G-CSF: granulocyte colony-stimulating factor; M-CSF: macrophagecolony-stimulating factor; GM-CSF: granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor; FET: frozen embryo transfer; IVF: in vitro fertilization.

  14. JLab Measurements of the 3He Form Factors at Large Momentum Transfers

    CERN Document Server

    Camsonne, A; Olson, M; Acha, A; Allada, K; Anderson, B D; Arrington, J; Baldwin, A; Chen, J -P; Choi, S; Chudakov, E; Cisbani, E; Craver, B; Decowski, P; Dutta, C; Folts, E; Frullani, S; Garibaldi, F; Gilman, R; Gomez, J; Hahn, B; Hansen, J -O; Higinbotham, D W; Holmstrom, T; Huang, J; Iodice, M; Jiang, X; Kelleher, A; Khrosinkova, E; Kievsky, A; Kuchina, E; Kumbartzki, G; Lee, B; LeRose, J J; Lindgren, R A; Lott, G; Lu, H; Marcucci, L E; Margaziotis, D J; Markowitz, P; Marrone, S; Meekins, D; Meziani, Z -E; Michaels, R; Moffit, B; Norum, B; Petratos, G G; Puckett, A; Qian, X; Rondon, O; Saha, A; Sawatzky, B; Segal, J; Shabestari, M; Shahinyan, A; Solvignon, P; Sparveris, N; Subedi, R R; Suleiman, R; Sulkosky, V; Urciuoli, G M; Viviani, M; Wang, Y; Wojtsekhowski, B B; Yan, X; Yao, H; Zhang, W -M; Zheng, X; Zhu, L

    2016-01-01

    The charge and magnetic form factors, FC and FM, of 3He have been extracted in the kinematic range 25 fm-2 < Q2 < 61 fm-2 from elastic electron scattering by detecting 3He recoil nuclei and electrons in coincidence with the High Resolution Spectrometers of the Hall A Facility at Jefferson Lab. The measurements are indicative of a second diffraction minimum for the magnetic form factor, which was predicted in the Q2 range of this experiment, and of a continuing diffractive structure for the charge form factor. The data are in qualitative agreement with theoretical calculations based on realistic interactions and accurate methods to solve the three-body nuclear problem.

  15. Embryo transfer technique: Factors affecting the viability of the corpus luteum in llamas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trasorras, Virginia; Chaves, María Graciela; Neild, Deborah; Gambarotta, Mariana; Aba, Marcelo; Agüero, Alicia

    2010-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the embryo transfer (ET) maneuvers on plasma progesterone concentrations in recipient Lama glama females and the relationship between the site the embryo was transferred to and corpus luteum (CL) localization. Experiment I (effect of transcervical threading): adult non-pregnant, non-lactating llama females were randomly assigned into two groups: control group (without cervical threading, n=10) and group A (with cervical threading, n=10). In both groups, CL activity was evaluated through measurement of progesterone plasma concentrations. In group A, on Day 6 after inducing ovulation with buserelin, the cervix was threaded to evaluate the effect of the maneuver on CL viability. No significant differences were observed in mean progesterone concentrations between groups (P>0.05). Experiment II (effect of depositing PBS): females (n=66) were randomly assigned into six groups (n=10 per group and control group: n=6) to evaluate the effect of depositing PBS in different sites in the uterus in relation to the localization of the CL: group 'Left-Ipsilateral': transcervical placing of PBS in the left uterine horn (CL in left ovary); group 'Left-Contralateral': transcervical placing of PBS in the left uterine horn (CL in right ovary); group 'Right-Ipsilateral': transcervical placing of PBS in the right uterine horn (CL in right ovary); group 'Body-Left': transcervical placing of PBS in the uterine body (CL in left ovary); group 'Body-Right': transcervical placing of PBS in the uterine body (CL in right ovary) and control group. Corpus luteum activity was evaluated in all groups by measuring plasma progesterone concentrations. On Day 6 post-buserelin, the corresponding maneuver was carried out according to the group. No significant differences were found for the mean plasma progesterone concentrations between groups (P>0.05). Experiment III (effect of ET on CL viability): females (n=22) were used as embryo donors and 50

  16. Polyoxometalate-mediated electron transfer-oxygen transfer oxidation of cellulose and hemicellulose to synthesis gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Bidyut Bikash; Neumann, Ronny

    2014-08-01

    Terrestrial plants contain ~70% hemicellulose and cellulose that are a significant renewable bioresource with potential as an alternative to petroleum feedstock for carbon-based fuels. The efficient and selective deconstruction of carbohydrates to their basic components, carbon monoxide and hydrogen, so called synthesis gas, is an important key step towards the realization of this potential, because the formation of liquid hydrocarbon fuels from synthesis gas are known technologies. Here we show that by using a polyoxometalate as an electron transfer-oxygen transfer catalyst, carbon monoxide is formed by cleavage of all the carbon-carbon bonds through dehydration of initially formed formic acid. In this oxidation-reduction reaction, the hydrogen atoms are stored on the polyoxometalate as protons and electrons, and can be electrochemically released from the polyoxometalate as hydrogen. Together, synthesis gas is formed. In a hydrogen economy scenario, this method can also be used to convert carbon monoxide to hydrogen.

  17. Effect of neutralizing sera on factor X-mediated adenovirus serotype 5 gene transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parker, A.L.; Waddington, S.N.; Buckley, S.M.K.; Custers, J.; Havenga, M.J.E.; Rooijen, N. van; Goudsmit, J.; McVey, J.H.; Nicklin, S.A.; Baker, A.H.

    2009-01-01

    The deployment of adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5)-based vectors is hampered by preexisting immunity. When such vectors are delivered intravenously, hepatocyte transduction is mediated by the hexon-coagulation factor X (FX) interaction. Here, we demonstrate that human sera efficiently block FX-mediated

  18. Determinants of technology transfer at university level. The researcher's perspective; Factores determinantes de la transferencia de tecnologia en el ambito universitario. La perspectiva del investigador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilla Melendez, A.; Aguila Obra, A. R. del

    2010-07-01

    The technology transfer (TT) in academia is an area that is increasingly interested in literature and practice of university management. However, few investigations that focus on the perspective of the researcher. Following the literature review, we identified as factors that determine the TT: personal and professional profile, characteristics of the organization, relational factor (companies and OTRI), a factor recognition and economic factor. To establish which of these factors are significant for investigators, has done an empirical study to 382 researchers. We conclude by pointing out the importance of factors such relationships, the knowledge area of research, and the recognition factor. (Author) 17 refs.

  19. FATORES QUE AFETAM A TRANSFERÊNCIA DA APRENDIZAGEM PARA O LOCAL DE TRABALHO/Factors affecting the transfer of learning to the workplace/Factores que afectan la transferencia del aprendizaje para el lugar de trabajo

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ana Luisa de Oliveira Marques Veloso; Maria João Silva; Isabel Silva; Antonio Caetano

    2015-01-01

    ...). Based on Holton model, we carried out a study seeking to identify and understand the factors involved in the process of learning transfer to the workplace from two different training actions on the design and skills...

  20. Interaction and reactivity of nitric oxide and carbon monoxide on ruthenium surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quick, E.E.

    1980-03-01

    A multifaceted investigation of the reduction of nitric oxide by carbon monoxide using a ruthenium (102) single crystal catalyst in the pressure range 10/sup -3/ to 10 Torr and temperature range of 300 to 475/sup 0/C has been undertaken. Kinetic and isotopic results indicate that the reaction products CO/sub 2/ and N/sub 2/ were produced via two reaction mechanisms. Using a reducing gas mixture (low P/sub NO//P/sub CO/ ratio) a two site mechanism was operative involving NO dissociation. The carbon monoxide kinetic order varied from +1 to -3 and the nitric oxide order varied from +1 to 0. The catalyst under these conditions was determined to be metallic ruthenium with oxygen bonded within the first surface layer. The oxygen was unreactive and formed a (1 x 3)-0 LEED pattern. Under oxidizing conditions (high P/sub NO//P/sub CO/ ratio) the catalyst was ruthenium dioxide and the functional mechanism under these reaction conditions yielded a nitric oxide order of +2 to -4. Inclusion of a site poisoning mechanism under reducing conditions and an RuO/sub 2/ growth mechanism involving ruthenium cation transfer under oxidizing conditions into the kinetic rate laws led to an overall rate law which could be fit to the carbon monoxide and nitric oxide order plots. Using isotopically oxygen labelled reactants, it was observed that the three possible isotopes of carbon dioxide were produced. A ..gamma..-CO surface species is postulated as an intermediate in the exchange process. The reaction was observed to be initially surface structure insensitive and the reaction kinetics were derived using a Langmuir-Hinshelwood formalism.

  1. Near Threshold Neutral Pion Electroproduction at High Momentum Transfers and Generalized Form Factors

    CERN Document Server

    Khetarpal, P; Aznauryan, I G; Kubarovsky, V; Adhikari, K P; Adikaram, D; Aghasyan, M; Amaryan, M J; Anderson, M D; Pereira, S Anefalos; Anghinolfi, M; Avakian, H; Baghdasaryan, H; Ball, J; Baltzell, N A; Battaglieri, M; Batourine, V; Bedlinskiy, I; Biselli, A S; Bono, J; Boiarinov, S; Briscoe, W J; Brooks, W K; Burkert, V D; Carman, D S; Celentano, A; Charles, G; Cole, P L; Contalbrigo, M; Crede, V; D'Angelo, A; Dashyan, N; De Vita, R; De Sanctis, E; Deur, A; Djalali, C; Doughty, D; Dugger, M; Dupre, R; Egiyan, H; Alaoui, A El; Fassi, L El; Eugenio, P; Fedotov, G; Fegan, S; Fersch, R; Fleming, J A; Fradi, A; Gabrielyan, M Y; Garçon, M; Gevorgyan, N; Gilfoyle, G P; Giovanetti, K L; Girod, F X; Goetz, J T; Gohn, W; Golovatch, E; Gothe, R W; Griffioen, K A; Guegan, B; Guidal, M; Guo, L; Hafidi, K; Hakobyan, H; Hanretty, C; Harrison, N; Hicks, K; Ho, D; Holtrop, M; Hyde, C E; Ilieva, Y; Ireland, D G; Ishkhanov, B S; Isupov, E L; Jo, H S; Joo, K; Keller, D; Khandaker, M; Kim, A; Kim, W; Klein, F J; Koirala, S; Kubarovsky, A; Kuleshov, S V; Kvaltine, N D; Lewis, S; Livingston, K; Lu, H Y; MacGregor, I J D; Mao, Y; Martinez, D; Mayer, M; McKinnon, B; Meyer, C A; Mineeva, T; Mirazita, M; Mokeev, V; Montgomery, R A; Moutarde, H; Munevar, E; Camacho, C Munoz; Nadel-Turonski, P; Nasseripour, R; Niccolai, S; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; Osipenko, M; Ostrovidov, A I; Pappalardo, L L; Paremuzyan, R; Park, K; Park, S; Pasyuk, E; Phelps, E; Phillips, J J; Pisano, S; Pogorelko, O; Pozdniakov, S; Price, J W; Procureur, S; Protopopescu, D; Puckett, A J R; Raue, B A; Ricco, G; Rimal, D; Ripani, M; Rosner, G; Rossi, P; Sabatié, F; Saini, M S; Salgado, C; Saylor, N A; Schott, D; Schumacher, R A; Seder, E; Seraydaryan, H; Sharabian, Y G; Smith, G D; Sober, D I; Sokhan, D; Stepanyan, S S; Stepanyan, S; Strakovsky, I I; Strauch, S; Taiuti, M; Tang, W; Taylor, C E; Tkachenko, S; Ungaro, M; Vernarsky, B; Voskanyan, H; Voutier, E; Walford, N K; Weinstein, L B; Weygand, D P; Wood, M H; Zachariou, N; Zhang, J; Zhao, Z W; Zonta, I

    2012-01-01

    We report the measurement of near threshold neutral pion electroproduction cross sections and the extraction of the associated structure functions on the proton in the kinematic range $Q^2$ from 2 to 4.5 GeV$^2$ and $W$ from 1.08 to 1.16 GeV. These measurements allow us to access the dominant pion-nucleon s-wave multipoles $E_{0+}$ and $S_{0+}$ in the near-threshold region. In the light-cone sum-rule framework (LCSR), these multipoles are related to the generalized form factors $G_1^{\\pi^0 p}(Q^2)$ and $G_2^{\\pi^0 p}(Q^2)$. The data are compared to these generalized form factors and the results for $G_1^{\\pi^0 p}(Q^2)$ are found to be in good agreement with the LCSR predictions, but the level of agreement with $G_2^{\\pi^0 p}(Q^2)$ is poor.

  2. Risk Factors Influencing Conception Rate in Holstein Heifers before Artificial Insemination or Embryo Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to show the risk factors affecting the conception rate in Holstein heifers after synchronization of estrus. A total of 275 Holstein heifers housed in a free barn were used for the experiment. The herd was visited regularly at four week intervals for synchronization of estrus using Heatsynch and CIDR-Heatsynch protocols. A group of four to 14 animals, depending on the availability, were referred to the experiment at each visit. Estrus induction rates in the two ...

  3. The N(H2/I(CO Conversion Factor: A Treatment that Includes Radiative Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. F. Wall

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un tratamiento que explica mejor el factor de conversión N(H2=I(CO y que incluye la transferencia radiativa. A primera vista, incluir la transferencia radiativa parece superfluo para una línea óptimamente gruesa como CO J = 1 0. No obstante, dado que el medio interestelar es inhomogéneo, los fragmentos de gas (es decir, grumos todavía pueden ser óptimamente delgadas hacia sus bordes y en las alas de los pérfiles de la línea. El tratamiento estadístico de Martin et al. (1984 de la transferencia radiativa a través una nube molecular con grumos se usa para derivar una expresión para el factor de conversión que su- pera los defectos de las explicaciones más tradicionales basadas en Dickman et al. (1986. Por un lado, el tratamiento presentado aquí posiblemente representa un avance importante al entender el factor de conversión N(H2=I(CO pero, por otro lado, tiene sus propios defectos, que son discutidos aquí brevemente.

  4. Developing a food web-based transfer factor of radiocesium for fish, whitespotted char (Salvelinus leucomaenis) in headwater streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Md Enamul; Gomi, Takashi; Sakai, Masaru; Negishi, Junjiro N

    2017-06-01

    We developed a food web-based transfer factor (TFweb) to study contaminant movements from multiple prey items to a predator based on the dietary contributions of prey items with their respective contamination levels. TFweb was used to evaluate the transfer of (137)Cs into whitespotted char (Salvelinus leucomaenis) from the trophic structure of a stream-riparian ecosystem in headwater streams draining a Japanese cedar forest. We also examined the applicability of this method by comparing sites with different contamination levels but similar surrounding environments in Fukushima and Gunma. All samples were collected from August 2012 to May 2013. The dietary contributions from both aquatic and terrestrial prey items to whitespotted char were analyzed using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios. (137)Cs activity concentrations in char ranged from 704 to 6082 Bq kg(-1)-dry in Fukushima and from 193 to 618 Bq kg(-1)-dry in Gunma. Dominant prey taxa such as mayflies (Ephemera japonica), spider crickets (Rhaphidosphoridae gen. spp.), and freshwater crabs (Geothelphusa dehaani), each of them accounted for 3-12% of the fish diet, based on lower and upper estimates, respectively. TFweb ranged from 1.12 to 3.79 in Fukushima and from 1.30 to 4.30 in Gunma, which suggested bioaccumulation from prey items to predator. Widely used ecological parameters TFs by media-char and TTF by single prey-char showed high variability with both dilution and accumulation. TFweb is applicable for (137)Cs transfer in predator-prey systems with complex food web structures of stream-riparian ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparable frequencies of coding mutations and loss of imprinting in human pluripotent cells derived by nuclear transfer and defined factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannesson, Bjarki; Sagi, Ido; Gore, Athurva; Paull, Daniel; Yamada, Mitsutoshi; Golan-Lev, Tamar; Li, Zhe; LeDuc, Charles; Shen, Yufeng; Stern, Samantha; Xu, Nanfang; Ma, Hong; Kang, Eunju; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat; Sauer, Mark V; Zhang, Kun; Benvenisty, Nissim; Egli, Dieter

    2014-11-06

    The recent finding that reprogrammed human pluripotent stem cells can be derived by nuclear transfer into human oocytes as well as by induced expression of defined factors has revitalized the debate on whether one approach might be advantageous over the other. Here we compare the genetic and epigenetic integrity of human nuclear-transfer embryonic stem cell (NT-ESC) lines and isogenic induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines, derived from the same somatic cell cultures of fetal, neonatal, and adult origin. The two cell types showed similar genome-wide gene expression and DNA methylation profiles. Importantly, NT-ESCs and iPSCs had comparable numbers of de novo coding mutations, but significantly more than parthenogenetic ESCs. As iPSCs, NT-ESCs displayed clone- and gene-specific aberrations in DNA methylation and allele-specific expression of imprinted genes. The occurrence of these genetic and epigenetic defects in both NT-ESCs and iPSCs suggests that they are inherent to reprogramming, regardless of derivation approach.

  6. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor administration for infertile women with thin endometrium in frozen embryo transfer program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu; Pan, Ping; Chen, Xiaoli; Li, Lin; Li, Yi; Yang, Dongzi

    2014-03-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) administration for infertile women with thin endometrium in frozen embryo transfer program. Among 59 infertile patients with thin endometrium (≤7 mm), 34 patients received uterine infusion of recombinant human G-CSF (100 μg/0.6 mL) on the day of ovulation or administration of progesterone or human chorionic gonadotropin, with 40 cycles defined as G-CSF group and 49 previous cycles as self-controlled group, and 25 patients refused, with 80 cycles defined as the control group. Higher proportion of induced cycles and lower proportion of natural cycles were observed in the G-CSF group, when compared to the self-controlled group or control group (P transfer were similar in all the groups (P > .05). Our study fails to demonstrate that G-CSF has the potential to improve embryo implantation and clinical pregnancy rate of the infertile women with thin endometrium.

  7. JLab Measurement of the $^4$He Charge Form Factor at Large Momentum Transfers

    CERN Document Server

    Camsonne, A; Olson, M; Sparveris, N; Acha, A; Allada, K; Anderson, B D; Arrington, J; Baldwin, A; Chen, J -P; Choi, S; Chudakov, E; Cisbani, E; Craver, B; Decowski, P; Dutta, C; Folts, E; Frullani, S; Garibaldi, F; Gilman, R; Gomez, J; Hahn, B; Hansen, J -O; Higinbotham, D; Holmstrom, T; Huang, J; Iodice, M; Jiang, X; Kelleher, A; Khrosinkova, E; Kievsky, A; Kuchina, E; Kumbartzki, G; Lee, B; LeRose, J J; Lindgren, R A; Lott, G; Lu, H; Marcucci, L E; Margaziotis, D J; Markowitz, P; Marrone, S; Meekins, D; Meziani, Z -E; Michaels, R; Moffit, B; Norum, B; Petratos, G G; Puckett, A; Qian, X; Rondon, O; Saha, A; Sawatzky, B; Segal, J; Shabestari, M; Shahinyan, A; Solvignon, P; Subedi, R R; Suleiman, R; Sulkosky, V; Urciuoli, G M; Viviani, M; Wang, Y; Wojtsekhowski, B B; Yan, X; Yao, H; Zhang, W -M; Zheng, X; Zhu, L

    2013-01-01

    The charge form factor of $^$4He has been extracted in the range 29 fm$^{-2}$ $\\le Q^2 \\le 77$ fm$^{-2}$ from elastic electron scattering, detecting $^4$He nuclei and electrons in coincidence with the High Resolution Spectrometers of the Hall A Facility of Jefferson Lab. The results are in qualitative agreement with realistic meson-nucleon theoretical calculations. The data have uncovered a second diffraction minimum, which was predicted in the $Q^2$ range of this experiment, and rule out conclusively long-standing predictions of dimensional scaling of high-energy amplitudes using quark counting.

  8. Skeletal muscle-specific expression of human blood coagulation factor Ⅸ rescues factor Ⅸ deficiency mouse by AAV-mediated gene transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖立辉; 陈立; 卢大儒; 王琪; 高啸波; 邱信芳; Jerry; L.Hsueh; 薛京伦; 王健民; 周虹

    1999-01-01

    The efficacy of recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector to deliver and express human blood clotting factor DC (hFIX) gene in skeletal muscle of coagulation factor IX deficiency mouse strain (FactorIX-knockout) is e-valuated. The muscle creatine kinase enhancer (MCK) and βactin promoter ((3A) were used to drive the hFIX minigene (hFIXml), which was flanked by AAV inverted terminal repeats (ITRs). Following intramuscular injection of high liter (2.5 x 1011 vector genomes/mL) of AAV, increased hFIX expression (256 ng/mL of plasma) was achieved. The time course of hFIX expression demonstrated that the expression level gradually increased over a period of two weeks before anti-hFIX antibodies developed in mouse circulating plasma. Those results provided a promising evidence that rAAV-me-diated gene transfer and skeletal muscle-specific expression of hFIX is a feasible strategy for treating patients for hemophilia B.

  9. Protein film voltammetry and co-factor electron transfer dynamics in spinach photosystem II core complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun; Magdaong, Nikki; Frank, Harry A; Rusling, James F

    2014-05-01

    Direct protein film voltammetry (PFV) was used to investigate the redox properties of the photosystem II (PSII) core complex from spinach. The complex was isolated using an improved protocol not used previously for PFV. The PSII core complex had high oxygen-evolving capacity and was incorporated into thin lipid and polyion films. Three well-defined reversible pairs of reduction and oxidation voltammetry peaks were observed at 4 °C in the dark. Results were similar in both types of films, indicating that the environment of the PSII-bound cofactors was not influenced by film type. Based on comparison with various control samples including Mn-depleted PSII, peaks were assigned to chlorophyll a (Chl a) (Em = -0.47 V, all vs. NHE, at pH 6), quinones (-0.12 V), and the manganese (Mn) cluster (Em = 0.18 V). PFV of purified iron heme protein cytochrome b-559 (Cyt b-559), a component of PSII, gave a partly reversible peak pair at 0.004 V that did not have a potential similar to any peaks observed from the intact PSII core complex. The closest peak in PSII to 0.004 V is the 0.18 V peak that was found to be associated with a two-electron process, and thus is inconsistent with iron heme protein voltammetry. The -0.47 V peak had a peak potential and peak potential-pH dependence similar to that found for purified Chl a incorporated into DMPC films. The midpoint potentials reported here may differ to various extents from previously reported redox titration data due to the influence of electrode double-layer effects. Heterogeneous electron transfer (hET) rate constants were estimated by theoretical fitting and digital simulations for the -0.47 and 0.18 V peaks. Data for the Chl a peaks were best fit to a one-electron model, while the peak assigned to the Mn cluster was best fit by a two-electron/one-proton model.

  10. Heterologous Production of an Energy-Conserving Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase Complex in the Hyperthermophile Pyrococcus furiosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit Jan Schut

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO is an important intermediate in anaerobic carbon fixation pathways in acetogenesis and methanogenesis. In addition, some anaerobes can utilize CO as an energy source. In the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus onnurineus, which grows optimally at 80°C, CO oxidation and energy conservation is accomplished by a respiratory complex encoded by a 16-gene cluster containing a carbon monoxide dehydrogenase, a membrane-bound [NiFe]-hydrogenase and a Na+/H+ antiporter module. This complex oxidizes CO, evolves CO2 and H2, and generates a Na+ motive force that is used to conserve energy by a Na+-dependent ATP synthase. Herein we used a bacterial artificial chromosome to insert the 13.2 kb gene cluster encoding the CO-oxidizing respiratory complex of T. onnurineus into the genome of the heterotrophic archaeon, Pyrococcus furiosus, which grows optimally at 100°C. P. furiosus is normally unable to utilize CO, however, the recombinant strain readily oxidized CO and generated H2 at 80°C. Moreover, CO also served as an energy source and allowed the P. furiosus strain to grow with a limiting concentration of sugar or with peptides as the carbon source. Moreover, CO oxidation by P. furiosus was also coupled to the re-utilization, presumably for biosynthesis, of acetate generated by fermentation. The functional transfer of CO utilization between Thermococcus and Pyrococcus species demonstrated herein is representative of the horizontal gene transfer of an environmentally-relevant metabolic capability. The transfer of CO utilizing, hydrogen-producing genetic modules also has applications for biohydrogen production and a CO-based industrial platform for various thermophilic organisms.

  11. Variability of the soil-to-plant radiocaesium transfer factor for Japanese soils predicted with soil and plant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uematsu, Shinichiro; Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Sweeck, Lieve; Van Hees, May; Wannijn, Jean; Smolders, Erik

    2016-03-01

    Food chain contamination with radiocaesium (RCs) in the aftermath of the Fukushima accident calls for an analysis of the specific factors that control the RCs transfer. Here, soil-to-plant transfer factors (TF) of RCs for grass were predicted from the potassium concentration in soil solution (mK) and the Radiocaesium Interception Potential (RIP) of the soil using existing mechanistic models. The mK and RIP were (a) either measured for 37 topsoils collected from the Fukushima accident affected area or (b) predicted from the soil clay content and the soil exchangeable potassium content using the models that had been calibrated for European soils. An average ammonium concentration was used throughout in the prediction. The measured RIP ranged 14-fold and measured mK varied 37-fold among the soils. The measured RIP was lower than the RIP predicted from the soil clay content likely due to the lower content of weathered micas in the clay fraction of Japanese soils. Also the measured mK was lower than that predicted. As a result, the predicted TFs relying on the measured RIP and mK were, on average, about 22-fold larger than the TFs predicted using the European calibrated models. The geometric mean of the measured TFs for grass in the affected area (N = 82) was in the middle of both. The TFs were poorly related to soil classification classes, likely because soil fertility (mK) was obscuring the effects of the soil classification related to the soil mineralogy (RIP). This study suggests that, on average, Japanese soils are more vulnerable than European soils at equal soil clay and exchangeable K content. The affected regions will be targeted for refined model validation.

  12. The Outcome of in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer in women with polycystic ovary syndrome in comparison with tubal factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fazel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose : Infertility with an incidence of about 15% has mainly been one of the community burdens that have even been threatening to the continuity of the family life. One of the most prevalent causes of women infertility is ovarian causes particularly PCOS. The aim of this study was to determine the outcome of IVF & ET in women with PCOS in comparison with tubal factor.Materials and methods : This was a historical cohort study performed from 1997 to 1999, at Royan Institute. 33 patients with PCOS (without any other causes of infertility who failed standard ovulation induction treatment with clomiphen citrate (≥6 cycles underwent 33 cycles of IVF & ET. Controlled group include 76 patients with only tubal factor infertility. Long protocol with Buserelin (GnRHa/HMG was used in this study.IVF & ET cycle characteristics were compared using students t-test and χ2 and Fisher’s exact test.Results : The results of this research showed that there were statistically significant difference in mean age and incidence of OHSS in two groups. Howerer there were no satistically significant differences in duration of follicular phase, the duration of GnRHa usage up to the onset of HMG, cyst number after using GnRHa, cyst aspiration percent, HMG ampoule retrieved oocyte, produced embryo per person, embryo transfer per person, cycle cancellation and pregnancy rate per embryo transfer in two groups.Conclusion : It seems that IVF & ET are successful procedures in PCOS patients resistant to other usual treatment and hormonal dysfunction of this group of patients did not affect the results.

  13. Ageing impact on the transfer factor of (137)Cs and (90)Sr to lettuce and winter wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Attar, Lina; Al-Oudat, Mohammad; Safia, Bassam; Abdul Ghani, Basem

    2016-11-01

    The study focuses on long-term (extending from 1 to 10 years) lysimeter experiments of the transfer factor of (137)Cs and (90)Sr to lettuce and winter wheat crops. Transfer factors (Fvs) were the ratio of the activity concentrations of the radionuclides in crops to those in soil, both as dry weight (Bq kg(-1)). Fvs of (137)Cs to lettuce decreased significantly with ageing; geometric means for the 1(st), 2(nd) and 10(th) year contaminated soil were 0.114, 0.030 and 0.013, respectively. However, a significant decline of Fvs for (137)Cs was only seen between the 1(st) and 2(nd) year for both wheat compartments (straw and grains) which disappeared thereafter. The dynamic of (137)Cs Fvs may be explained according to the distribution coefficient experiment (Kd) which had a value of 3600 L kg(-1) showing a high affinity of the clay minerals for caesium. Desorption data revealed that Cs fixation enhanced with ageing. The mechanism involved may be an initial sorption of caesium species to the surface soil particles followed by progressive irreversible fixation to the interlayer of the porous clay minerals. Fvs of (90)Sr were high and showed trivial variation for both crops for the time course studied. Sorption of Sr(2+) species to the clay mineral may be the governing process, which was supported by high desorption percentage (ranged 77%) with low Kd, i.e. 10 L kg(-1). In general, higher Fvs of (137)Cs and (90)Sr for lettuce was observed in comparison to winter wheat. The diversity of plant species and root systems would play essential roles for such behaviours. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Neurobehavioral Aspects of the Delayed Encephalopathy of Carbon Monoxide Intoxication: Case Report and Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Mendez

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the neurobehavioral aspects of the delayed encephalopathy of carbon monoxide (CO intoxication in a 29 year old woman and review the literature. Four weeks after CO poisoning, the patient developed a frontal lobe syndrome, visuoperceptual impairment, and diffuse white matter lesions with an otherwise normal neurological examination. In contrast, patients with the classical syndrome also have a parkinsonian state or an akinetic–mute state. The delayed encephalopathy of CO poisoning usually results from demyelination of subcortical white matter, necrosis of the globus pallidus, or both. The clinical aspects, risk factors, neurobiological features, and therapy and prognosis are discussed.

  15. A spectroscopic study of factors affecting charge transfer at organo-metallic interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Tucker, C E

    2001-01-01

    polydiacetylene and omega-tricosenoic acid LB films. The resulting analyses have allowed comparison of charge trapping within the different bulk films and also at the film to substrate interface. In addition to DBARS, Fourier Transform Infra-red (FTIR) and Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopies have been used to investigate the factors affecting the carboxylic acid group at the head of the LB molecule and the role this plays in charge transport across the organo-metallic boundary. The properties of organic films produced by the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique have become more widely known in the last few decades, as the variety of organic molecules suitable for this method of production has increased. One class of LB molecule receiving particular attention has been that of conjugated polymers. These organic materials exhibit an anisotropic semi-conductor like behavior along the polymer chain, making them suitable candidate materials for use in molecular electronic devices. However,...

  16. JLab Measurement of the 4He Charge Form Factor at Large Momentum Transfers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camsonne, Alexandre; Katramatou, A. T.; Olson, M.; Sparveris, Nikolaos; Acha, Armando; Allada, Kalyan; Anderson, Bryon; Arrington, John; Baldwin, Alan; Chen, Jian-Ping; Choi, Seonho; Chudakov, Eugene; Cisbani, Evaristo; Craver, Brandon; Decowski, Piotr; Dutta, Chiranjib; Folts, Edward; Frullani, Salvatore; Garibaldi, Franco; Gilman, Ronald; Gomez, Javier; Hahn, Brian; Hansen, Jens-Ole; Higinbotham, Douglas; Holmstrom, Timothy; Huang, Jian; Iodice, Mauro; Kelleher, Aidan; Khrosinkova, Elena; Kievsky, A.; Kuchina, Elena; Kumbartzki, Gerfried; Lee, Byungwuek; LeRose, John; Lindgren, Richard; Lott, Gordon; Lu, H.; Marcucci, Laura; Margaziotis, Demetrius; Markowitz, Pete; Marrone, Stefano; Meekins, David; Meziani, Zein-Eddine; Michaels, Robert; Moffit, Bryan; Norum, Blaine; Petratos, Gerassimos; Puckett, Andrew; Qian, Xin; Rondon-Aramayo, Oscar; Saha, Arunava; Sawatzky, Bradley; Segal, John; Hashemi, Mitra; Shahinyan, Albert; Solvignon-Slifer, Patricia; Subedi, Ramesh; Suleiman, Riad; Sulkosky, Vincent; Urciuoli, Guido; Viviani, Michele; Wang, Y.; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan; Yan, X.; Yao, H.; Zhang, W. -M.; Zheng, X.; Zhu, L.

    2014-04-01

    The charge form factor of 4He has been extracted in the range 29 fm-2 <= Q2 <= 77 fm-2 from elastic electron scattering, detecting 4He nuclei and electrons in coincidence with the High Resolution Spectrometers of the Hall A Facility of Jefferson Lab. The results are in qualitative agreement with realistic meson-nucleon theoretical calculations. The data have uncovered a second diffraction minimum, which was predicted in the Q2 range of this experiment, and rule out conclusively long-standing predictions of dimensional scaling of high-energy amplitudes using quark counting.

  17. An integrated model of transcription factor diffusion shows the importance of intersegmental transfer and quaternary protein structure for target site finding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo G Schmidt

    Full Text Available We present a computational model of transcription factor motion that explains both the observed rapid target finding of transcription factors, and how this motion influences protein and genome structure. Using the Smoldyn software, we modelled transcription factor motion arising from a combination of unrestricted 3D diffusion in the nucleoplasm, sliding along the DNA filament, and transferring directly between filament sections by intersegmental transfer. This presents a fine-grain picture of the way in which transcription factors find their targets two orders of magnitude faster than 3D diffusion alone allows. Eukaryotic genomes contain sections of nucleosome free regions (NFRs around the promoters; our model shows that the presence and size of these NFRs can be explained as their acting as antennas on which transcription factors slide to reach their targets. Additionally, our model shows that intersegmental transfer may have shaped the quaternary structure of transcription factors: sequence specific DNA binding proteins are unusually enriched in dimers and tetramers, perhaps because these allow intersegmental transfer, which accelerates target site finding. Finally, our model shows that a 'hopping' motion can emerge from 3D diffusion on small scales. This explains the apparently long sliding lengths that have been observed for some DNA binding proteins observed in vitro. Together, these results suggest that transcription factor diffusion dynamics help drive the evolution of protein and genome structure.

  18. [Massive poisoning with carbon monoxide: an update from a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Mariano; Crapanzano, Gabriel; Cabrerizo, Silvia; Aichele, Cristina; Deurtiaga, Alejandra; Vallejos, Yamila

    2017-02-01

    Carbon monoxide is known as the "silent murderer" because it is a colorless and odorless gas. According to these characteristics, toxicity goes unnoticed which makes the diagnosis difficult. In most cases, the cold periods and group poisoning make suspect its presence because inappropriate heat both in home or public environments. Our goal is to inform about a mass carbon monoxide poisoning in a children's parties room using a combustion source installed, not for the purpose of heating, but as a supply of light (generator), emphasizing that it can occur in any time of the year.

  19. Structural and magnetic properties of mechanochemically synthesized nanocrystalline titanium monoxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barudžija Tanja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nano-sized titanium monoxide (TiO powder was prepared by mechanochemical synthesis. A mixture of commercial Ti and TiO2 (rutile powders with the molar ratio of 1:1 was milled in a planetary ball mill for 5, 10, 20, 30 and 60 min under argon atmosphere. The final single-phase titanium monoxide sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, magnetic measurements using a superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer (SQUID and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The temperature dependency of the magnetic susceptibility is characterized by significant contribution of Pauli paramagnetism due to conduction electrons.

  20. Transfer in adult and further training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    The Danish sociologist Bjarne Wahlgren has identified 12 factors that provide effective ' transfer '- transfer from education to work. Read Bjarne Wahlgrens publication "Transfer ... Wahlgren "Transfer in adult further training".......The Danish sociologist Bjarne Wahlgren has identified 12 factors that provide effective ' transfer '- transfer from education to work. Read Bjarne Wahlgrens publication "Transfer ... Wahlgren "Transfer in adult further training"....

  1. Transfer in adult and further training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    The Danish sociologist Bjarne Wahlgren has identified 12 factors that provide effective ' transfer '- transfer from education to work. Read Bjarne Wahlgrens publication "Transfer ... Wahlgren "Transfer in adult further training".......The Danish sociologist Bjarne Wahlgren has identified 12 factors that provide effective ' transfer '- transfer from education to work. Read Bjarne Wahlgrens publication "Transfer ... Wahlgren "Transfer in adult further training"....

  2. Carbon monoxide exchange and partitioning of a managed mountain meadow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerle, Albin; Kitz, Florian; Spielmann, Felix; Gerdel, Katharina; Wohlfahrt, Georg

    2016-04-01

    With an average mole fraction of 100 ppb carbon monoxide (CO) plays a critical role in atmospheric chemistry and thus has an indirect global warming potential. While sources/sinks of CO on land at least partially cancel out each other, the magnitude of CO sources and sinks is highly uncertain. Even if direct CO fluxes from/to land ecosystems are very much likely clearly lower in magnitude compared to anthropogenic emissions, biomass burning, emissions from chemical precursors and the OH sink, it may be premature to neglect any direct contributions of land ecosystems to the CO budget. In addition, changes in global climate and resulting changes in global productivity may require re-evaluating older data and assumptions. One major reason for the large uncertainty is a general scarcity of empirical data. An additional factor contributing to the uncertainty is the lack of ecosystem-scale CO exchange measurements, i.e. CO flux data that encompass all sources and sinks within an ecosystem. Here we present data on continuous eddy covariance measurements of CO-fluxes above a managed mountain grassland in combination with soil chamber flux measurements, within- and above-canopy concentration profiles and an inverse Lagrangian analysis to disentangle sinks and sources of CO. Results show the grassland ecosystem to be a net source for CO during daytime, with increasing flux rates at higher solar radiation. At night, if at all, the meadow is a slight sink for CO. The same holds true regarding the soil flux measurements. Additionally, a two-month rainout experiment revealed hardly any differences in CO soil fluxes between rainout- and control-plots unless extremely dry conditions were reached.

  3. The relationship between cholesteryl ester transfer protein levels and risk factor profile in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Grooth, Greetje J; Smilde, Tineke J; Van Wissen, Sanne; Klerkx, Anke H E M; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; Fruchart, Jean-Charles; Kastelein, John J P; Stalenhoef, Anton F H; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) mediates the transfer of neutral lipids between lipoproteins. The role of CETP in atherogenesis is controversial. To better understand the relationships between plasma CETP levels, lipoproteins and atherosclerosis, we assessed these parameters in

  4. Factores que afectam as taxas de gestação após a transferência de embriões equinos

    OpenAIRE

    França, Nara Assaf

    2011-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina Veterinária O sucesso de um programa de transferência de embriões resulta da interacção entre os factores que afectam a recolha do embrião e os factores que afectam a gestação após a transferência dos mesmos. A análise dos factores que poderão ter influência nas taxas de gestação pode ser muito útil para compreensão dos aspectos a melhorar em um programa específico de transferência de embriões, maximização de lucros e gestão de expectativas. Fo...

  5. Overpotential-induced lability of the electronic overlap factor in long-range electrochemical electron transfer: charge and distance dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornyshev, A. A.; Kuznetsov, A. M.; Nielsen, Jens Ulrik;

    2000-01-01

    Long-distance electrochemical electron transfer exhibits approximately exponential dependence on the electron transfer distance. On the basis of a jellium model of the metal surface we show that the slope of the logarithm of the current vs. the transfer distance also depends strongly...

  6. The Effects of Low Level Prenatal Carbon Monoxide on Neocortical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    378.1958). Ginsberg MD, Myers RE (Fetal brain damage following maternal carbon monoxide intoxication: an experimental study. Acta obstetricia et...monoxide production and blood loss at delivery. Acta obstetricia et gynecologica Scandinavica 48:362-370.1969). Longo LD (Carbon monoxide in the

  7. Technology transfer by multinationals

    OpenAIRE

    Kostyantyn Zuzik

    2003-01-01

    The paper analyses the issue of technology transfer by multinational corporations. The following questions are explored: (a) world market of technologies, the role of MNCs (b) Choice of the technology transfer mode, Dunning's OLI-theory as a factor of the choice of the mode of transfer (c) measurement and profitability of technology transfer (d) transfer of technology through partnerships, JVs, alliances and through M&As (e) aspects of technology transfer by services multinationals. Paper uti...

  8. Technology transfer by multinationals

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The paper analyses the issue of technology transfer by multinational corporations. The following questions are explored: (a) world market of technologies, the role of MNCs (b) Choice of the technology transfer mode, Dunning's OLI-theory as a factor of the choice of the mode of transfer (c) measurement and profitability of technology transfer (d) transfer of technology through partnerships, JVs, alliances and through M&As (e) aspects of technology transfer by services multinationals. Paper uti...

  9. Assessing student expertise in introductory physics with isomorphic problems. II. Effect of some potential factors on problem solving and transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandralekha Singh

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we explore the use of isomorphic problem pairs (IPPs to assess introductory physics students’ ability to solve and successfully transfer problem-solving knowledge from one context to another in mechanics. We call the paired problems “isomorphic” because they require the same physics principle to solve them. We analyze written responses and individual discussions for a range of isomorphic problems. We examine potential factors that may help or hinder transfer of problem-solving skills from one problem in a pair to the other. For some paired isomorphic problems, one context often turned out to be easier for students in that it was more often correctly solved than the other. When quantitative and conceptual questions were paired and given back to back, students who answered both questions in the IPP often performed better on the conceptual questions than those who answered the corresponding conceptual questions only. Although students often took advantage of the quantitative counterpart to answer a conceptual question of an IPP correctly, when only given the conceptual question, students seldom tried to convert it into a quantitative question, solve it, and then reason about the solution conceptually. Even in individual interviews when students who were given only conceptual questions had difficulty and the interviewer explicitly encouraged them to convert the conceptual question into the corresponding quantitative problem by choosing appropriate variables, a majority of students were reluctant and preferred to guess the answer to the conceptual question based upon their gut feeling. Misconceptions associated with friction in some problems were so robust that pairing them with isomorphic problems not involving friction did not help students discern their underlying similarities. Alternatively, from the knowledge-in-pieces perspective, the activation of the knowledge resource related to friction was so strongly and automatically

  10. Assessing student expertise in introductory physics with isomorphic problems. II. Effect of some potential factors on problem solving and transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandralekha Singh

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we explore the use of isomorphic problem pairs (IPPs to assess introductory physics students’ ability to solve and successfully transfer problem-solving knowledge from one context to another in mechanics. We call the paired problems “isomorphic” because they require the same physics principle to solve them. We analyze written responses and individual discussions for a range of isomorphic problems. We examine potential factors that may help or hinder transfer of problem-solving skills from one problem in a pair to the other. For some paired isomorphic problems, one context often turned out to be easier for students in that it was more often correctly solved than the other. When quantitative and conceptual questions were paired and given back to back, students who answered both questions in the IPP often performed better on the conceptual questions than those who answered the corresponding conceptual questions only. Although students often took advantage of the quantitative counterpart to answer a conceptual question of an IPP correctly, when only given the conceptual question, students seldom tried to convert it into a quantitative question, solve it, and then reason about the solution conceptually. Even in individual interviews when students who were given only conceptual questions had difficulty and the interviewer explicitly encouraged them to convert the conceptual question into the corresponding quantitative problem by choosing appropriate variables, a majority of students were reluctant and preferred to guess the answer to the conceptual question based upon their gut feeling. Misconceptions associated with friction in some problems were so robust that pairing them with isomorphic problems not involving friction did not help students discern their underlying similarities. Alternatively, from the knowledge-in-pieces perspective, the activation of the knowledge resource related to friction was so strongly and automatically

  11. Induction of collateral artery growth and improvement of post-infarct heart function by hepatocyte growth factor gene transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei WANG; Zhi-jian YANG; Dong-chao MA; Lian-sheng WANG; Shun-lin XU; You-rong ZHANG; Ke-jiang CAO; Fu-min ZHANG; Wen-zhu MA

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To study the effect of adenovirus5-mediated human hepatocyte growth factor (Ad5-HGF) transfer on post-infarct heart failure in a swine model. Methods: Twelve young Suzhong swine were randomly divided into 2 groups: the Ad5-HGF group (n=6) and the null-Ad5 group(n=6). Four weeks after left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) ligation, Ad5-HGF was transferred into the myocardium via the right coronary artery. Coronary angiography and gated cardiac perfusion imaging were performed at the end of4 and 7 weeks after LAD ligation, respectively, to evaluate collateral artery growth and cardiac perfusion. Then all animals were killed, the expression of HGF and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunohistochemistry. Results: Compared with the null-Ad5 group, higher expression of human HGF was observed in the myocardium in the Ad5-HGF group (109.3 ±7.8 vs 6.2±2.6, t=30.685, P<O.01). The left ventricular ejection fraction was higher in the Ads-HGF group than in the null-Ad5 group (43.9±4.3 vs 30.4±2.8, t=6.514, P<0.01). From the 4th week to the 7th week after operation, 1eft ventricular end systolic volume (42.1±3.0 vs31.0±4.9, t=12.800, P<0.01) and left ventricular end diastolic volume (62.2±4.2 vs 55.0±4.8 t=13.207, P<0.01) were improved in the Ad5-HGF group. Cardiac perfusion was significantly improved in the Ad5-HGF group. In the Ad5-HGF group, growth of collateral arteries was obviously greater (average rank sum 9.17 vs 3.83, n=6, u=-2.687, P<0.01), and the number of α-SMA+ vessels/mm2 was significantly greater (56.1±4.2 vs 16.4±3.5, t=17.731, P<0.01) than in the null-Ad5 group. Conclusion: High expression levels of human HGF were observed in the myocardium because of non-infarct-related vessel transfer. HGF can increase the number of functional arterioles and improve collateral artery growth. HGF can improve cardiac perfusion and heart function.

  12. A potential screening factor for accumulation of cholesteyl ester transfer protein deficiency in East Asia: Schistosoma japonicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Shinji

    2014-04-04

    Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP)-deficiency manifests a unique plasma lipoprotein profile without other apparent symptoms. It is highly common in East Asia while rather rare anywhere else. A potential environmental screening factor(s) may therefore contribute to this eccentric distribution, such as its selective advantage against a regional illness, most likely an infectious disease, in relation to plasma lipoproteins. Blood flukes use the host plasma lipoproteins as nutrient sources through the lipoprotein receptor-like systems. Its Asian-specific species, Schistosoma (S) japonicum, which has been endemic in East Asia, takes up cholesteryl ester (CE) from high-density lipoprotein (HDL) for the embryonation of their eggs to miracidia, a critical step of the hepatic pathogenesis of this parasite, but poorly from HDL of CETP-deficiency. CD36-related protein (CD36RP) was cloned from the adults and the eggs of S. japonicum, with 1880-bp encoding 506 amino-acid residues exhibiting the CD36 domains and two transmembrane regions. Its extracellular domain selectively bound human HDL but neither LDL nor CETP-deficiency HDL, and the antibody against the extracellular domain suppressed the selective HDL-CE uptake and embryonation of the eggs. When infected with S. japonicum, wild-type mice developed less hepatic granulomatosis than CETP-transgenic mice by the ectopic egg embryonation. CD36RP is thus a candidate receptor of S. japonicum to facilitate uptake of HDL-CE necessary for egg embryonation. Abnormal HDL caused by CETP-deficiency retards this process and thereby protects the patients from development of hepatic lesions. S. japonicum infection is a potential screening factor for high prevalence of CETP deficiency in East Asia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Amharic (amarunya) Arabic (العربية) Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) French (français) ... Kiswahili) Tagalog (Tagalog) Tigrinya (tigrinya) Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) Amharic (amarunya) Prevention Guidelines: You Can Prevent Carbon Monoxide ...

  14. Pathways and bioenergetics of anaerobic carbon monoxide fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diender, Martijn; Stams, Fons; Machado de Sousa, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Carbon monoxide can act as a substrate for different modes of fermentative anaerobic metabolism. The trait of utilizing CO is spread among a diverse group of microorganisms, including members of bacteria as well as archaea. Over the last decade this metabolism has gained interest due to the poten

  15. UV-induced carbon monoxide emission from living vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Dan; Albert, Kristian Rost; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard

    2013-01-01

    The global burden of carbon monoxide (CO) is rather uncertain. In this paper we address the potential for UV-induced CO emission by living terrestrial vegetation surfaces. Real-time measurements of CO concentrations were made with a cavity enhanced laser spectrometer connected in closed loop...

  16. Study on Response Time of SPE Carbon Monoxide Sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The influence of structural design and the parameters of the working electrode on the response time of a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) carbon monoxide sensor has been studied. Results show that the response time is mainly determined by the RC time constant of the catalyst layer and also related with the working electrode potential.

  17. Carbon monoxide : A quantitative tracer for fossil fuel CO2?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gamnitzer, Ulrike; Karstens, Ute; Kromer, Bernd; Neubert, Rolf E. M.; Meijer, Harro A. J.; Schroeder, Hartwig; Levin, Ingeborg

    2006-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and radiocarbon ((CO2)-C-14) measurements have been made in Heidelberg from 2001 to 2004 in order to determine the regional fossil fuel CO2 component and to investigate the application of CO as a quantitative tracer for fossil fuel CO2 (CO2(foss)). The obs

  18. Hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and methane in the marine environment

    OpenAIRE

    Bullister, John Logan

    1980-01-01

    EXTRACT (SEE PDF FOR FULL ABSTRACT): The horizontal and vertical distribution of three dissolved trace gases, namely molecular hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and methane, was measured in coastal and oceanic areas. Atmospheric concentrations of these gases were measured both at locations influenced by nearby human activity, and in areas far removed from these inputs.

  19. Carbon monoxide poisoning mimicking long-QT induced syncope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.M. Onvlee-Dekker (Irene); A.C.H. de Vries (Andrica); A.D.J. ten Harkel (Arend)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractCarbon monoxide (CO)poisoning is a rare cause of QT prolongation, and is therefore easily missed. The case of a patient with unexplained syncope and QT prologation on the electrocardiogram that turned out to be related to CO poisoning is reported here. In patients with QT prolongation,

  20. Optimization of Treatment Policy for Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. N. Akalayev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the efficiency of combination use of hyperbaric oxygenation, succinate-containing solutions, and anti-edematous agents in patients with acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Subjects and methods. The results of treatment were analyzed in 32 patients admitted in 2009—2011 for severe acute carbon monoxide poisoning and a Glasgow coma score of 6—8. The patients were divided into 2 groups: 1 patients whose combination therapy involved hyperbaric oxygenation, Succinasol infusions, and L-lysine-aescinate injections; 2 those who received traditional therapy. All the patients underwent complex clinical, laboratory, and neurophysiologic examinations. Results. Just 24 hours after the combination use of Succinasol and L-lysine-aescinate, Group I patients were observed to have substantially reduced lactate, the content of the latter approached the normal value following 48 hours, which was much below the values in the control group. The similar pattern was observed when endogenous intoxication parameters were examined. During the performed therapy, the level of consciousness and that of intellect according to the MMSE and FAB scales were restored more rapidly in the study group patients than in Group 2. Conclusion. The combination use of hyperbaric oxygenation, the succinate-containing solution Succinasol, and the anti-edematous agent L-lysine-aescinate considerably enhances the efficiency of intensive therapy for acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Key words: carbon monoxide, toxic hypoxic encephalopathy, combination therapy, hyperbaric oxygenation, succinic acid, L-lysine-aescinate.

  1. Interaction between season and culture with insulin-like growth factor-1 on survival of in vitro produced embryos following transfer to lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, J; Hansen, P J

    2007-06-01

    Culture of bovine embryos in the presence of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) can increase pregnancy rates following transfer to heat-stressed, lactating dairy cows. The objective of the present experiment was to determine whether the effect of IGF-1 on post-transfer embryo survival was a general effect or one specific to heat stress. Lactating recipients (n=311) were synchronized for timed-embryo transfer at four locations. Embryos were produced in vitro and cultured with or without 100 ng/mL IGF-1. At Day 7 after anticipated ovulation (Day 0), a single embryo was randomly transferred to each recipient. Pregnancy was diagnosed at Day 21 by elevated plasma progesterone concentrations, at Days 27-32 by ultrasonography, and at Days 41-49 by transrectal palpation. Transfers were categorized into two seasons, hot or cool (based on the month of transfer). There was a tendency (Pcalving rate (Pcalves born was 77.5%. In conclusion, treatment of embryos with IGF-1 improved pregnancy and calving rates following the transfer of in vitro produced embryos into lactating recipients, but only under heat-stress conditions.

  2. Bioavailability and soil-to-plant transfer factors as indicators of potentially toxic element contamination in agricultural soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamo, Paola, E-mail: paola.adamo@unina.it [Dipartimento di Agraria, Università di Napoli Federico II, via Università 100, 80055 Portici (Italy); Iavazzo, Pietro [Dipartimento di Agraria, Università di Napoli Federico II, via Università 100, 80055 Portici (Italy); Albanese, Stefano [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, dell' Ambiente e delle Risorse, Università di Napoli Federico II, Via Mezzocannone 8, 80134 Napoli (Italy); Agrelli, Diana [Dipartimento di Agraria, Università di Napoli Federico II, via Università 100, 80055 Portici (Italy); De Vivo, Benedetto; Lima, Annamaria [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, dell' Ambiente e delle Risorse, Università di Napoli Federico II, Via Mezzocannone 8, 80134 Napoli (Italy)

    2014-12-01

    Soil pollution in agricultural lands poses a serious threat to food safety, and suggests the need for consolidated methods providing advisory indications for soil management and crop production. In this work, the three-step extraction procedure developed by the EU Measurement and Testing Programme and two soil-to-plant transfer factors (relative to total and bioavailable concentration of elements in soil) were applied on polluted agricultural soils from southern Italy to obtain information on the retention mechanisms of metals in soils and on their level of translocation to edible vegetables. The study was carried out in the Sarno river plain of Campania, an area affected by severe environmental degradation potentially impacting the health of those consuming locally produced vegetables. Soil samples were collected in 36 locations along the two main rivers flowing into the plain. In 11 sites, lettuce plants were collected at the normal stage of consumption. According to Italian environmental law governing residential soils, and on the basis of soil background reference values for the study area, we found diffuse pollution by Be, Sn and Tl, of geogenic origin, Cr and Cu from anthropogenic sources such as tanneries and intensive agriculture, and more limited pollution by Pb, Zn and V. It was found that metals polluting soils as a result of human activities were mainly associated to residual, oxidizable and reducible phases, relatively immobile and only potentially bioavailable to plants. By contrast, the essential elements Zn and Cu showed a tendency to become more readily mobile and bioavailable as their total content in soil increased and were more easily transported to the edible parts of lettuce than other pollutants. According to our results, current soil pollution in the studied area does not affect the proportion of metals taken up by lettuce plants and there is a limited health risk incurred. - Highlights: • Soil pollution in an intensively farmed area of

  3. Analysis of Heat Transfer Characteristics Based on Design Factors for Determining the Internal Geometry of Metal Insulation in Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ki O; Yu, Jeong Ho; Lee, Tae Ho; Jeon, Hyun Ik; Ha, Seung Woo; Cho, Sun Young [KLES Inc., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    A heat insulating material used in the industrial site normally derives its heat insulating performance by using a low thermal conductivity material such as glass fiber. In case of the metal insulation for nuclear power plant, in contrast, only TP 304 stainless steel foil having high thermal conductivity is the only acceptable material. So, it is required to approach in structural aspect to ensure the insulation performance. In this study, the design factors related to the metal insulation internal structure were determined considering the three modes of heat transfer, i.e., conduction, convection, and radiation. The analysis of heat flow was used to understand the ratio of the heat transfer from each factor to the overall heat transfer from all the factors. Based on this study, in order to minimize the convection phenomenon caused by the internal insulation, a multiple foil was inserted in the insulation. The increase in the conduction heat transfer rate was compared, and the insulation performance under the three modes of heat transfer was analyzed in order to determine the internal geometry.

  4. Analysis of heat transfer characteristics based on design factors for determining the internal geometry of metal insulation in nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ki O; Yu, Jeong Ho; Lee, Tae Ho; Jeon, Hyun Ik; Ha, Seung Woo; Cho, Sun Young [KLES Inc., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    A heat insulating material used in the industrial site normally derives its heat insulating performance by using a low thermal conductivity material such as glass fiber. In case of the metal insulation for nuclear power plant, in contrast, only TP 304 stainless steel foil having high thermal conductivity is the only acceptable material. So, it is required to approach in structural aspect to ensure the insulation performance. In this study, the design factors related to the metal insulation internal structure were determined considering the three modes of heat transfer, i.e., conduction, convection, and radiation. The analysis of heat flow was used to understand the ratio of the heat transfer from each factor to the overall heat transfer from all the factors. Based on this study, in order to minimize the convection phenomenon caused by the internal insulation, a multiple foil was inserted in the insulation. The increase in the conduction heat transfer rate was compared, and the insulation performance under the three modes of heat transfer was analyzed in order to determine the internal geometry.

  5. LAMINAR CONVECTIVE HEAT TRANSFER AND FRICTION FACTOR OF AL2O3 NANOFLUID IN CIRCULAR TUBE FITTED WITH TWISTED TAPE INSERTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Syam Sundar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We experimentally investigated the fully developed laminar convective heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of different volume concentrations of Al2O3 nanofluid in a plain tube and fitted with different twist ratios of twisted tape inserts. Experiments were conducted with water and nanofluid in the range of particle volume concentration of , and twisted tape twist ratios of . The nanofluid heat transfer coefficient is high compared to water and further heat transfer enhancement is observed with twisted tape inserts. The pressure drop increases slightly with the inserts, but is comparatively negligible. A generalized regression equation is developed based on the experimental data for the estimation of the Nusselt number and friction factor for water and nanofluid in a plain tube and with twisted tape inserts.

  6. BASELINE PARAMETER UPDATE FOR HUMAN HEALTH INPUT AND TRANSFER FACTORS FOR RADIOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENTS AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coffield, T; Patricia Lee, P

    2007-01-31

    The purpose of this report is to update parameters utilized in Human Health Exposure calculations and Bioaccumulation Transfer Factors utilized at SRS for Performance Assessment modeling. The reason for the update is to utilize more recent information issued, validate information currently used and correct minor inconsistencies between modeling efforts performed in SRS contiguous areas of the heavy industrialized central site usage areas called the General Separations Area (GSA). SRS parameters utilized were compared to a number of other DOE facilities and generic national/global references to establish relevance of the parameters selected and/or verify the regional differences of the southeast USA. The parameters selected were specifically chosen to be expected values along with identifying a range for these values versus the overly conservative specification of parameters for estimating an annual dose to the maximum exposed individual (MEI). The end uses are to establish a standardized source for these parameters that is up to date with existing data and maintain it via review of any future issued national references to evaluate the need for changes as new information is released. These reviews are to be added to this document by revision.

  7. Proton elastic form factor ratios to Q2 = 3.5 GeV2 by polarization transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vina Punjabi; Konrad Aniol; F. Baker; J. Berthot; Martine Bertin; William Bertozzi; Auguste Besson; Louis Bimbot; Werner Boeglin; Edward Brash; Daniel Brown; John Calarco; Lawrence Cardman; Zhengwei Chai; C. Chang; Jian-ping Chen; Chudakov; Steve Churchwell; Evaristo Cisbani; Daniel Dale; Raffaele De Leo; Alexandre Deur; Brian Diederich; John Domingo; Martin Epstein; Lars Ewell; Kevin Fissum; A. Fleck; Helene Fonvieille; Salvatore Frullani; Juncai Gao; Franco Garibaldi; Ashot Gasparian; Gerstner; Shalev Gilad; Ronald Gilman; Oleksandr Glamazdin; Charles Glashausser; Javier Gomez; Viktor Gorbenko; Alphonza Green; Jens-ole Hansen; Calvin Howell; Garth Huber; Mauro Iodice; Cornelis De Jager; Stephanie Jaminion; Xiaodong Jiang; Mark Jones; W. Kahl; J.J. Kelly; M. Khayat; L.H. Kramer; G. Kumbartzki; M. Kuss; E. Lakuriki; G. Lavessiere; J.J. LeRose; M. Liang; R.A. Lindgren; N. Liyanage; G.J. Lolos; R. Macri; R. Madey; S. Malov; D.J. Margaziotis; P. Markowitz; K. McCormick; J.I. McIntyre; R.L.J. van der Meer; R. Michaels; B.D. Milbrath; J.Y. Mougey; S.K. Nanda; E.A.J.M. Offermann; Z. Papandreou; L. Pentchev; C.F. Perdrisat; G.G. Petratos; N.M. Piskunov; R.I. Pomatsalyuk; D.L. Prout; G. Quemener; R.D. Ransome; B.A. Raue; Y. Roblin; R. Roche; G. Rutledge; P.M. Rutt; A. Saha; T. Saito; A.J. Sarty; T.P. Smith; P. Sorokin; S. Strauch; R. Suleiman; K. Takahashi; J.A. Templon; L. Todor; P.E. Ulmer; G.M. Urciuoli; P. Vernin; B. Vlahovic; H. Voskanyan; K. Wijesooriya; B.B. Wojtsekhowski; R.J. Woo; F. Xiong; G.D. Zainea; Z.-L. Zhou

    2003-05-01

    The ratio of the proton's elastic electromagnetic form factors, G{sub Ep}/G{sub Mp}, was obtained by measuring P{sub t} and P{sub {ell}}, the transverse and longitudinal recoil proton polarization components, respectively, for the elastic {rvec e}p {yields} e{rvec p} reaction in the four-momentum transfer squared range of 0.5 to 3.5 GeV{sup 2}. In the single photon exchange approximation, the ratio G{sub Ep}/G{sub Mp} is directly proportional to the ratio P{sub t}/P{sub {ell}}. The simultaneous measurement of P{sub t} and P{sub {ell}} in a polarimeter reduces systematic uncertainties. The results for the ratio G{sub Ep}/G{sub Mp} show a systematic decrease with increasing Q{sup 2}, indicating for the first time a definite difference in the distribution of charge and magnetization in the proton. The data have been reanalyzed and systematic uncertainties have become significantly smaller than previously published results.

  8. [Characteristics and influence factors of the energy consumption and pollutant discharge of municipal solid waste transfer stations in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhao; Li, Zhen-Shan; Feng, Ya-Bin; Jiao, An-Ying; Xue, An

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we investigated characteristics and influence factors of energy consumption and pollutant discharge (ECPD) of municipal solid waste transfer stations (MSW TSs) in Beijing by assessing four parameters including the amount of waste recycled, leachate production, water consumption and electricity consumption, based on three years' average data of MSW TSs in Beijing obtained through field investigations from 2009 to 2011. Meanwhile, integral performances of the stations with and without garbage sorting capacities (Sorting TS and Compressing TS) were also analyzed. Results showed that MSW TSs in Beijing differ greatly. For each ton of MSW, masses of waste recycled, leachate productions, water consumptions and electricity consumptions generally fall in the ranges of 12.9 kg x t(-1), 5.8-49.0 kg x t(-1), 40. 3-156.7 kg x t(-1) and 1.75-5.60 kWh x t(-1), respectively. Despite overall the higher energy consumption and more pollutant discharge than Compressing TS, Sorting TS could achieve waste reduction and reuse by recycling part of the municipal solid wastes, as well as the optimization of process by sorting wastes into different ingredients for corresponding waste disposal plants, which could reduce heavy burdens of landfills and extend their lifespans.

  9. Transfer factor of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K from soil to Alpinia Galangal plant grown in northern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritsananuwat, R.; Chanyotha, S.; Kranrod, C.; Pengvanich, P.

    2017-06-01

    This paper reports the activity concentration of three natural radionuclides, 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, found in Alpinia Galangal plants which are widely used in various Asian cuisines and traditional medicine. The galangal plants and their relevant soils were collected from four provinces in the north of Thailand under natural field conditions. The activity concentration of radionuclides was determined using gamma-ray spectrometry. Soil-to-plant transfer factors (TFs) for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were investigated in rhizome and aerial parts of the galangal plants. The activity concentration in the soils ranged from 22 to 88 Bq kg-1 for 226Ra, 27 to 157 Bq kg-1 for 232Th and 58 to 1157 Bq kg-1 for 40K. In Alpinia Galangal, the concentration ranged from natural radionuclides and their TFs in Thailand for future environmental radiation monitoring. The Annual effective ingestion dose due to ingestion of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in galangals is significantly below the worldwide value reported by UNSCEAR 2000.

  10. Non-invasive Bioluminescence Imaging of Myoblast-Mediated Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1 Alpha Gene Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheysens, Olivier; Chen, Ian Y.; Rodriguez-Porcel, Martin; Chan, Carmel; Rasooly, Julia; Vaerenberg, Caroline; Paulmurugan, Ramasamy; Willmann, Juergen K.; Deroose, Christophe; Wu, Joseph; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose We tested a novel imaging strategy, in which both the survival of transplanted myoblasts and their therapeutic transgene expression, a recombinant hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α-VP2), can be monitored using firefly luciferase (fluc) and Renilla luciferase (hrl) bioluminescence reporter genes, respectively. Procedures The plasmid pUbi-hrl-pUbi-HIF-1α-VP2, which expresses both hrl and HIF-1α-VP2 using two ubiquitin promoters, was characterized in vitro. C2c12 myoblasts stably expressing fluc and transiently transfected with pUbi-hrl-pUbi-HIF-1α-VP2 were injected into the mouse hindlimb. Both hrl and fluc expression were monitored using bioluminescence imaging (BLI). Results Strong correlations existed between the expression of hRL and each of HIF-1α-VP2, VEGF, and PlGF (r2>0.83, r2>0.82, and r2>0.97, respectively). In vivo, both transplanted cells and HIF-1α-VP2 transgene expression were successfully imaged using BLI. Conclusions An objective evaluation of myoblast-mediated gene transfer in living mice can be performed by monitoring both the survival and the transgene expression of transplanted myoblasts using the techniques developed herein. PMID:21267661

  11. Development of a Cell-Based Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer Reporter for Bacillus anthracis Lethal Factor Protease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, R H; Steenblock, E R; Camarero, J A

    2007-03-22

    We report the construction of a cell-based fluorescent reporter for anthrax lethal factor (LF) protease activity using the principle of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). This was accomplished by engineering an Escherichia coli cell line to express a genetically encoded FRET reporter and LF protease. Both proteins were encoded in two different expression plasmids under the control of different tightly controlled inducible promoters. The FRET-based reporter was designed to contain a LF recognition sequence flanked by the FRET pair formed by CyPet and YPet fluorescent proteins. The length of the linker between both fluorescent proteins was optimized using a flexible peptide linker containing several Gly-Gly-Ser repeats. Our results indicate that this FRET-based LF reporter was readily expressed in E. coli cells showing high levels of FRET in vivo in the absence of LF. The FRET signal, however, decreased 5 times after inducing LF expression in the same cell. These results suggest that this cell-based LF FRET reporter may be used to screen genetically encoded libraries in vivo against LF.

  12. Computational fluid dynamics analysis on heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of a turbulent flow for internally grooved tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvaraj P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents computational fluid dynamics studies on heat transfer, pressure drop, friction factor, Nusselt number and thermal hydraulic performance of a plain tube and tube equipped with the three types of internal grooves (circular, square and trapezoidal.Water was used as the working fluid. Tests were performed for Reynolds number ranges from 5000 to 13500 for plain tube and different geometry inside grooved tubes. The maximum increase of pressure drop was obtained from numerical modeling 74% for circular, 38% for square and 78% for trapezoidal grooved tubes were compared with plain tube. Based on computational fluid dynamics analysis the average Nusselt number was increased up to 37%, 26% and 42% for circular, square and trapezoidal grooved tubes respectively while compared with the plain tube. The thermal hydraulic performance was obtained from computational fluid dynamics analysis up to 38% for circular grooved tube, 27% for square grooved tube and 40% for trapezoidal grooved tube while compared with the plain tube.

  13. Sediment transferring function of the lower reaches of the Yellow River influenced by drainage basin factors and human activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU; Jiongxin

    2005-01-01

    Sediment transferring function (Fs) of rivers is defined and indexed in this study, based on the concept of sediment budget at river reach scales. Then, study is made on the Fs of the lower reaches of the Yellow River in relation to natural and human factors in the drainage basin, such as the annual precipitation in different water and sediment source areas, proportion of >0.05 mm sediment of the total sediment load to the lower reaches of Yellow River, the regulated degree of the "clear" baseflow from the drainage area above Lanzhou, frequency of hyperconcentrated flows, area of soil and water conservation measures in the drainage basin. As a result, a multiple regression equation has been established between Fs and 7 influencing factors, with multiple correlation coefficient r = 0.90.The reduction in annual precipitation in different water and sediment source areas has different effects on Fs. The reduction in annual precipitation in the area above Hekou Town and the area between Longmen and Sanmenxia results in a reduction in Fs, but the reduction in annual precipitation in the area between Hekou Town and Longmen results in an increase in Fs. The grain size composition of sediment load strongly affects the Fs; the larger the proportion of >0.05 mm sediment in the suspended sediment load entering the lower reaches of the Yellow River is, the lower the Fs will be. Thus, if the Xiaolangdi Reservoir traps coarse sediment and releases fine sediment, Fs will be enhanced. This study also shows that the lower the proportion of high-flow season river flow to the annual total river flow at Lanzhou Station is, the lower the Fs will be. Therefore, the interception of large quantities of clear water by the reservoirs on the upper reaches of Yellow River is one of the major causes for the decrease in Fs in the lower reaches of the Yellow River.

  14. Post-fusion treatment with MG132 increases transcription factor expression in somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jinyoung; Lee, Joohyeong; Kim, Jinyoung; Park, Junhong; Lee, Eunsong

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of post-fusion treatment of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) oocytes with the proteasomal inhibitor MG132 on maturation promoting factor (MPF) activity, nuclear remodeling, embryonic development, and gene expression of cloned pig embryos. Immediately after electrofusion, SCNT oocytes were treated with MG132 and/or caffeine for 2 hr, vanadate for 0.5 hr, or vanadate for 0.5 hr followed by MG132 for 1.5 hr. Of the MG132 concentrations tested (0-5 microM), the 1 microM concentration showed a higher rate of blastocyst formation (25.9%) than 0 (14.2%), 0.5 (16.9%), and 5 microM (16.9%). Post-fusion treatment with MG132, caffeine, and both MG132 and caffeine improved blastocyst formation (22.1%, 21.4%, and 24.4%, respectively), whereas vanadate treatment inhibited blastocyst formation (6.5%) compared to the control (11.1%). When examined 2 hr after fusion and 1 hr after activation, MPF activity remained at a higher (P fusion with caffeine and/or MG132, but it was decreased by vanadate. The rate of oocytes showing premature chromosome condensation was not altered by MG132 but was decreased by vanadate treatment. In addition, formation of single pronuclei was increased by MG132 compared to control and vanadate treatment. MG132-treated embryos showed increased expression of POU5F1, DPPA2, DPPA3, DPPA5, and NDP52l1 genes compared to control embryos. Our results demonstrate that post-fusion treatment of SCNT oocytes with MG132 prevents MPF degradation and increases expression of transcription factors in SCNT embryos, which are necessary for normal development of SCNT embryos.

  15. Factors that affect transfer of the IncI1 β-lactam resistance plasmid pESBL-283 between E. coli strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Händel

    Full Text Available The spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria worldwide presents a major health threat to human health care that results in therapy failure and increasing costs. The transfer of resistance conferring plasmids by conjugation is a major route by which resistance genes disseminate at the intra- and interspecies level. High similarities between resistance genes identified in foodborne and hospital-acquired pathogens suggest transmission of resistance conferring and transferrable mobile elements through the food chain, either as part of intact strains, or through transfer of plasmids from foodborne to human strains. To study the factors that affect the rate of plasmid transfer, the transmission of an extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL plasmid from a foodborne Escherichia coli strain to the β-lactam sensitive E. coli MG1655 strain was documented as a function of simulated environmental factors. The foodborne E. coli isolate used as donor carried a CTX-M-1 harboring IncI1 plasmid that confers resistance to β-lactam antibiotics. Cell density, energy availability and growth rate were identified as factors that affect plasmid transfer efficiency. Transfer rates were highest in the absence of the antibiotic, with almost every acceptor cell picking up the plasmid. Raising the antibiotic concentrations above the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC resulted in reduced transfer rates, but also selected for the plasmid carrying donor and recombinant strains. Based on the mutational pattern of transconjugant cells, a common mechanism is proposed which compensates for fitness costs due to plasmid carriage by reducing other cell functions. Reducing potential fitness costs due to maintenance and expression of the plasmid could contribute to persistence of resistance genes in the environment even without antibiotic pressure. Taken together, the results identify factors that drive the spread and persistence of resistance conferring plasmids in natural isolates

  16. Factors that affect transfer of the IncI1 β-lactam resistance plasmid pESBL-283 between E. coli strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Händel, Nadine; Otte, Sarah; Jonker, Martijs; Brul, Stanley; ter Kuile, Benno H

    2015-01-01

    The spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria worldwide presents a major health threat to human health care that results in therapy failure and increasing costs. The transfer of resistance conferring plasmids by conjugation is a major route by which resistance genes disseminate at the intra- and interspecies level. High similarities between resistance genes identified in foodborne and hospital-acquired pathogens suggest transmission of resistance conferring and transferrable mobile elements through the food chain, either as part of intact strains, or through transfer of plasmids from foodborne to human strains. To study the factors that affect the rate of plasmid transfer, the transmission of an extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) plasmid from a foodborne Escherichia coli strain to the β-lactam sensitive E. coli MG1655 strain was documented as a function of simulated environmental factors. The foodborne E. coli isolate used as donor carried a CTX-M-1 harboring IncI1 plasmid that confers resistance to β-lactam antibiotics. Cell density, energy availability and growth rate were identified as factors that affect plasmid transfer efficiency. Transfer rates were highest in the absence of the antibiotic, with almost every acceptor cell picking up the plasmid. Raising the antibiotic concentrations above the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) resulted in reduced transfer rates, but also selected for the plasmid carrying donor and recombinant strains. Based on the mutational pattern of transconjugant cells, a common mechanism is proposed which compensates for fitness costs due to plasmid carriage by reducing other cell functions. Reducing potential fitness costs due to maintenance and expression of the plasmid could contribute to persistence of resistance genes in the environment even without antibiotic pressure. Taken together, the results identify factors that drive the spread and persistence of resistance conferring plasmids in natural isolates and shows how these

  17. Stem cell factor gene transfer promotes cardiac repair after myocardial infarction via in situ recruitment and expansion of c-kit+ cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaniz-Galende, Elisa; Chen, Jiqiu; Chemaly, Elie; Liang, Lifan; Hulot, Jean-Sebastien; McCollum, LaTronya; Arias, Teresa; Fuster, Valentin; Zsebo, Krisztina M; Hajjar, Roger J

    2012-11-09

    There is growing evidence that the myocardium responds to injury by recruiting c-kit(+) cardiac progenitor cells to the damage tissue. Even though the ability of exogenously introducing c-kit(+) cells to injured myocardium has been established, the capability of recruiting these cells through modulation of local signaling pathways by gene transfer has not been tested. To determine whether stem cell factor gene transfer mediates cardiac regeneration in a rat myocardial infarction model, through survival and recruitment of c-kit(+) progenitors and cell-cycle activation in cardiomyocytes, and explore the mechanisms involved. Infarct size, cardiac function, cardiac progenitor cells recruitment, fibrosis, and cardiomyocyte cell-cycle activation were measured at different time points in controls (n=10) and upon stem cell factor gene transfer (n=13) after myocardial infarction. We found a regenerative response because of stem cell factor overexpression characterized by an enhancement in cardiac hemodynamic function: an improvement in survival; a reduction in fibrosis, infarct size and apoptosis; an increase in cardiac c-kit(+) progenitor cells recruitment to the injured area; an increase in cardiomyocyte cell-cycle activation; and Wnt/β-catenin pathway induction. Stem cell factor gene transfer induces c-kit(+) stem/progenitor cell expansion in situ and cardiomyocyte proliferation, which may represent a new therapeutic strategy to reverse adverse remodeling after myocardial infarction.

  18. Transcription Factor RUNX1 Regulates Platelet PCTP (Phosphatidylcholine Transfer Protein): Implications for Cardiovascular Events: Differential Effects of RUNX1 Variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Guangfen; Songdej, Natthapol; Voora, Deepak; Goldfinger, Lawrence E; Del Carpio-Cano, Fabiola E; Myers, Rachel A; Rao, A Koneti

    2017-09-05

    PCTP (phosphatidylcholine transfer protein) regulates the intermembrane transfer of phosphatidylcholine. Higher platelet PCTP expression is associated with increased platelet responses on activation of protease-activated receptor 4 thrombin receptors noted in black subjects compared with white subjects. Little is known about the regulation of platelet PCTP. Haplodeficiency of RUNX1, a major hematopoietic transcription factor, is associated with thrombocytopenia and impaired platelet responses on activation. Platelet expression profiling of a patient with a RUNX1 loss-of-function mutation revealed a 10-fold downregulation of the PCTP gene compared with healthy controls. We pursued the hypothesis that PCTP is regulated by RUNX1 and that PCTP expression is correlated with cardiovascular events. We studied RUNX1 binding to the PCTP promoter using DNA-protein binding studies and human erythroleukemia cells and promoter activity using luciferase reporter studies. We assessed the relationship between RUNX1 and PCTP in peripheral blood RNA and PCTP and death or myocardial infarction in 2 separate patient cohorts (587 total patients) with cardiovascular disease. Platelet PCTP protein in the patient was reduced by ≈50%. DNA-protein binding studies showed RUNX1 binding to consensus sites in ≈1 kB of PCTP promoter. PCTP expression was increased with RUNX1 overexpression and reduced with RUNX1 knockdown in human erythroleukemia cells, indicating that PCTP is regulated by RUNX1. Studies in 2 cohorts of patients showed that RUNX1 expression in blood correlated with PCTP gene expression; PCTP expression was higher in black compared with white subjects and was associated with future death/myocardial infarction after adjustment for age, sex, and race (odds ratio, 2.05; 95% confidence interval 1.6-2.7; P<0.0001). RUNX1 expression is known to initiate at 2 alternative promoters, a distal P1 and a proximal P2 promoter. In patient cohorts, there were differential effects of RUNX1

  19. Numerical investigation of heat transfer and friction factor characteristics in a circular tube fitted with V-cut twisted tape inserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Sami D; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H; Takriff, Mohd S; Mohamad, Abu Bakar

    2013-01-01

    Numerical investigation of the heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of a circular fitted with V-cut twisted tape (VCT) insert with twist ratio (y = 2.93) and different cut depths (w = 0.5, 1, and 1.5 cm) were studied for laminar flow using CFD package (FLUENT-6.3.26). The data obtained from plain tube were verified with the literature correlation to ensure the validation of simulation results. Classical twisted tape (CTT) with different twist ratios (y = 2.93, 3.91, 4.89) were also studied for comparison. The results show that the enhancement of heat transfer rate induced by the classical and V-cut twisted tape inserts increases with the Reynolds number and decreases with twist ratio. The results also revealed that the V-cut twisted tape with twist ratio y = 2.93 and cut depth w = 0.5 cm offered higher heat transfer rate with significant increases in friction factor than other tapes. In addition the results of V-cut twist tape compared with experimental and simulated data of right-left helical tape inserts (RLT), it is found that the V-cut twist tape offered better thermal contact between the surface and the fluid which ultimately leads to a high heat transfer coefficient. Consequently, 107% of maximum heat transfer was obtained by using this configuration.

  20. Effect of varying alveolar oxygen partial pressure on diffusing capacity for nitric oxide and carbon monoxide, membrane diffusing capacity and lung capillary blood volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borland, C D; Cox, Y

    1991-12-01

    1. To examine the effect of varying oxygen partial pressure (PAO2) on nitric oxide (DLNO) and carbon monoxide (DLCO) diffusing capacity (transfer factor), 10 subjects performed combined DLCO/DLNO measurements with the inspired mixture made up with three different oxygen concentrations (25%, 18% and 15%) to give PAO2 values of 12-20 kPa. 2. A novel method is described for calculating membrane diffusing capacity (DM) and pulmonary capillary volume (Qc) from DLNO and DLCO. 3. The mean DMCO was 52.89 mmol min-1 kPa-1 and Qc was 0.056 litre. Reducing PAO2 from 20 to 12 kPa resulted in an increase in DLCO = -0.124 (O2%) + 11.67 (P less than 0.001) and a fall in DLNO = 0.538 (O2%) + 32.01 (P less than 0.001) and a fall in DLNO/DLCO = 0.107 (O2%) + 2.52 (P less than 0.001). DM (P = 0.59) and Qc (P = 0.64) also tended to fall with falling PAO2. 4. It appears more likely that the minor reduction in DLNO that we have observed with falling PAO2 is due to diffusion rather than reaction limitation.

  1. In-Hospital Mortality among Rural Medicare Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction: The Influence of Demographics, Transfer, and Health Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muus, Kyle J.; Knudson, Alana D.; Klug, Marilyn G.; Wynne, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    Context/Purpose: Most rural hospitals can provide medical care to acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients, but a need for advanced cardiac care requires timely transfer to a tertiary hospital. There is little information on AMI in-hospital mortality predictors among rural transfer patients. Methods: Cross-sectional retrospective analyses on…

  2. In-Hospital Mortality among Rural Medicare Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction: The Influence of Demographics, Transfer, and Health Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muus, Kyle J.; Knudson, Alana D.; Klug, Marilyn G.; Wynne, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    Context/Purpose: Most rural hospitals can provide medical care to acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients, but a need for advanced cardiac care requires timely transfer to a tertiary hospital. There is little information on AMI in-hospital mortality predictors among rural transfer patients. Methods: Cross-sectional retrospective analyses on…

  3. Combined targeting of adenoviruses to integrins and epidermal growth factor receptors increases gene transfer into primary glioma cells and spheroids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grill, J; Van Beusechem, VW; Van de Valk, P; Dirven, CMF; Leonhart, A; Pherai, DS; Haisma, HJ; Pinedo, HM; Curiel, DT; Gerritsen, WR

    Adenoviral-mediated gene transfer is suboptimal in human glioma and limits in vivo gene therapy approaches. There is a need for targeted vectors able to enhance gene transfer into the tumor as well as to lower the viral load in the surrounding normal tissues. We evaluated primary human tumor samples

  4. An overview of carbon monoxide generation and release by home appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batey, J. [Energy Research Center, Inc., Easton, CT (United States)

    1997-09-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is an odorless, colorless and tasteless gas which is highly toxic and can be produced by many combustion sources commonly found within homes. Potential sources include boilers and furnaces, water heaters, space heaters, stoves, ovens, clothes dryers, wood stoves, fireplaces, charcoal grilles, automobiles, cigarettes, oil lamps, and candles. Any fuel that contains carbon can form CO including, natural gas, propane, kerosene, fuel oil, wood, and coal. Exposure to elevated CO levels typically requires its production by a combustion source and its release into the home through a venting system malfunction. The health effects of CO range from headaches and flue-like symptoms to loss of concentration, coma and death depending on the concentration of CO and the exposure time. At levels of only 1%, which is the order of magnitude produced by automobile exhaust, carbon monoxide can cause death in less than 3 minutes. While most combustion equipment operate with low CO levels, many operating factors can contribute to elevated CO levels in the home including: burner adjustment, combustion air supply, house air-tightness, exhaust fan operation, cracked heat exchangers, vent blockages, and flue pipe damage. Test data on CO emissions is presented from a wide range of sources including Brookhaven National Laboratory, Gas Research Institute, American Gas Association, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the US Consumer Product Safety Commission for many potential CO sources in and near the home.

  5. Compositional variability of the Venusian atmosphere above the clouds: sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcq, Emmanuel; Belyaev, Denis; Lellouch, Emmanuel; Encrenaz, Therese; Montmessin, Franck; Bertaux, Jean-Loup

    The layers of the Venusian atmosphere located at cloud top level is a complex transitional region where intense solar radiation interacts with a fairly dense gaseous medium and particulate matter - ultimately, the cloud particles themselves are a by-product of this interaction. In a stark contrast with the lowermost troposphere, spatial and temporal variations in temperature and composition are easily noticeable. In this talk we will focus on two gaseous species, carbon monoxide (CO) and sulphur dioxide (SO _{2}), whose sources and sinks are reversed: whereas carbon monoxide is produced by photo-dissociation of the main atmospheric constituent CO _{2} and oxidised below the clouds, SO _{2} is destroyed by UV solar radiation above the clouds and replenished from the lower atmosphere. Yet, these two species exhibit very different variation patterns. SO _{2} temporal variations range from very rapid (within a few hours) and large (by a relative factor exceeding 10) variations to secular phases of increases and decreases spanning decades. Its average latitudinal distribution ranges from a decrease with increasing latitude during SO _{2}-rich phases and a possible reversal during SO _{2}-poor phases. In contrast, CO does not exhibit significant secular, nor short-term variability, but clear horizontal trends have been measured, both with respect to latitude and local solar time.

  6. Neurological Effects of Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coskun YARAR

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide poisoning (COP is one of the most common causes of mortality and morbidity due to poisoning in all over the world. Although the incidence of COP has not been known exactly in the childhood, almost one-third of CO exposures occurred in children. The data regarding COP in children are inconclusive. Children may be more vulnerable to CO exposure than adults as a result of their high respiration and metabolic rates, high oxygen metabolism, and immature central nervous system. Recent researches proposed new theories about neurological effects of CO toxicity. The clinical presentations associated acute COP may be various and nonspecific. Unrecognized CO exposure may lead to significant morbidity and mortality. CO exposed children often become symptomatic earlier, and recover more rapidly, than similarly CO exposed adults. Mild clinical signs and symptoms associated with COP are headache, dizziness, weakness, lethargy, and myalgia; however, severe signs and symptoms such as blurred vision, syncope, convulsion, coma, cardiopulmonary arrest and death can also accompany with COP. Neurologic manifestations can include altered mental status at different degrees, neck stiffness, tremor, ataxia, and positive Babinski's sign. Delayed neurologic sequels (DNS of COP might be seen in children like adults. DNS symptoms and signs in children include memory problems, mental retardation, mutism, fecal and urinary incontinence, motor deficits, facial palsy, psychosis, chronic headache, seizures, and epilepsy. After CO exposure children must be cared to detect and treat DNS. Although hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT is reported to prevent development of DNS, its indications, application duration and procedures are controversial in both of the children and adults. Although their predictive values are limited, exposing to CO more than eight hours and suffering from CO-induced coma, cardiac arrest, lactic acidosis, high COHb levels, and pathologic findings

  7. Expression of human factor IX in rabbit hepatocytes by retrovirus-mediated gene transfer: Potential for gene therapy of hemophilia B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, A.R. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (USA) Puget Sound Blood Center, Seattle, WA (USA)); Darlington, G. (Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (USA)); Armentano, D.; Woo, S.L.C.

    1990-08-01

    Hemophilia B (Christmas disease) is a chromosome X-linked blood clotting disorder which results when factor IX is deficient or functionally defective. The enzyme is synthesized in the liver, and the existence of animal models for this genetic disease will permit the development of somatic gene therapy protocols aimed at transfer of the functional gene into the liver. The authors report the construction of an N2-based recombinant retroviral vector, NCMVFIX, for efficient transfer and expression of human factor IX cDNA in primary rabbit hepatocytes. In this construct the human cytomegalovirus immediate early promoter directs the expression of factor IX. Hepatocytes were isolated from 3-week-old New Zealand White rabbits, infected with the recombinant virus, and analyzed for secretion of active factor IX. The infected rabbit hepatocytes produced human factor IX that is indistinguishable from enzyme derived from normal human plasma. The recombinant protein is sufficiently {gamma}-carboxylated and is functionally active in clotting assays. These results establish the feasibility of using infected hepatocytes for the expression of this protein and are a step toward the goal of correcting hemophilia B by hepatic gene transfer.

  8. Digit and letter alexia in carbon monoxide poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingyu Shen; Xiaoming Rong; Rui Pan; Ying Peng; Wei Peng; Yamei Tang

    2012-01-01

    This study examined a 24-year-old patient with delayed encephalopathy, who was admitted to hospital with complaints of headache and visual impairment 1 week after acute carbon monoxide poisoning. The results of a visual field assessment, electroencephalography and head magnetic resonance imaging indicated damage to the cerebral cortex. After a 2-week treatment period, the patient had recovered from the visual impairment, but exhibited digit- and letter-reading difficulty. The Chinese aphasia battery and the number and letter battery supplement were conducted. The results revealed that the patient exhibited digit and letter alexia, while the ability to read Chinese characters was preserved. In contrast, the patient exhibited a deficit in Chinese character writing, while number and letter writing remained intact. Following treatment, reading and writing ability was improved and electroencephalographic abnormalities were ameliorated. Overall, our experimental findings demonstrated that delayed encephalopathy following acute carbon monoxide poisoning was characterized by digit and letter alexia.

  9. Catalysis of carbon monoxide methanation by deep sea manganate minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, A. L.; Maple, M. B.; Arrhenius, G.

    1990-01-01

    The catalytic activity of deep sea manganese nodule minerals for the methanation of carbon monoxide was measured with a microcatalytic technique between 200 and 460 degrees C. The manganate minerals were activated at 248 degrees C by immersion into a stream of hydrogen in which pulses of carbon monoxide were injected. Activation energies for the methanation reaction and hydrogen desorption from the manganate minerals were obtained and compared with those of pure nickel. Similar energy values indicate that the activity of the nodule materials for the reaction appears to be related to the amount of reducible transition metals present in the samples (ca. 11 wt.-%). Since the activity of the nodule minerals per gram is comparable to that of pure nickel, most of the transition metal ions located between manganese oxide layers appear to be exposed and available to catalyze the reaction.

  10. Effect of carbon monoxide on plants. [Mimosa pudica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, P.W.; Crocker, W.; Hitchcock, A.E.

    1933-01-01

    Of 108 species of plants treated with one per cent carbon monoxide, 45 showed epinastic growth of leaves. Several species showed hyponasty which caused upward curling of leaves. Other effects included: retarded stem elongation; abnormally small new leaves; abnormal yellowing of the leaves, beginning with the oldest; abscission of leaves usually associated with yellowing; and hypertrophied tissues on stems and roots. During recovery an abnormally large number of side shoots arose from latent buds of many species. Motion pictures of Mimosa pudica showed a loss of correlation, normal equilibrium position to gravity, and sensitiveness to contact or heat stimuli; however, the leaves moved about more rapidly than those of controls. Since carbon monoxide causes growth rigor and loss of sensitiveness to external stimuli, it is here considered as an anesthetic.

  11. Quantification of the vascular endothelial growth factor with a bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) based single molecule biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, T; Lorenz, B; Stieger, K

    2016-12-15

    Neovascular pathologies in the eye like age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the diabetic retinopathie (DR), retinopathie of prematurity (ROP) or the retinal vein occlusion (RVO) are caused through a hypoxia induced upregulation of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). So far a correlation of intraocular VEGF concentrations to the impact of the pathologies is limited because of invasive sampling. Therefore, a minimally invasive, repeatable quantification of VEGF levels in the eye is needed to correlate the stage of VEGF induced pathologies as well as the efficacy of anti-VEGF treatment. Here we describe the development of three variants of enhanced BRET2 (eBRET2) based, single molecule biosensors by fusing a Renilla luciferase mutant with enhanced light output (RLuc8) to the N-terminus and a suitable eBRET2 acceptor fluorophore (GFP2) to the C-terminus of a VEGF binding domain, directly fused or separated with two different peptide linkers for the quantification of VEGF in vitro. The VEGF binding domain consists of a single chain variable fragment (scFv) based on ranibizumab in which the light- and the heavy- F(ab) chains were connected with a peptide linker to generate one open reading frame (orf). All three variants generate measureable eBRET2 ratios by transferring energy from the luciferase donor to the GFP2 acceptor, whereas only the directly fused and the proline variant permit VEGF quantification. The directly fused biosensor variant allows the quantification of VEGF with higher sensitivity, compared to the widely used ELISA systems and a wide dynamic quantification range in vitro. Our system demonstrates not only an additional in vitro application on VEGF quantification but also a promising step towards an applicable biosensor in an implantable device able to quantify VEGF reliably after implantation in vivo.

  12. (137)Cs inter-plant concentration ratios provide a predictive tool for coral atolls with distinct benefits over transfer factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, William L; Hamilton, Terry F; Bogen, Kenneth T; Conrado, Cynthia L; Kehl, Steven R

    2008-01-01

    Inter-plant concentration ratios (IPCR) [Bqg(-1)(137)Cs in coral atoll tree food crops/Bqg(-1)(137)Cs in leaves of native plant species whose roots share a common soil volume] can replace transfer factors (TF) to predict (137)Cs concentration in tree food crops in a contaminated area with an aged source term. The IPCR strategy has significant benefits relative to TF strategy for such purposes in the atoll ecosystem. IPCR strategy applied to specific assessments takes advantage of the fact that tree roots naturally integrate (137)Cs over large volumes of soil. Root absorption of (137)Cs replaces large-scale, expensive soil sampling schemes to reduce variability in (137)Cs concentration due to inhomogeneous radionuclide distribution. IPCR [drinking-coconut meat (DCM)/Scaevola (SCA) and Tournefortia (TOU) leaves (native trees growing on all atoll islands)] are log-normally distributed (LND) with geometric standard deviation (GSD)=1.85. TF for DCM from Enewetak, Eneu, Rongelap and Bikini Atolls are LND with GSDs of 3.5, 3.0, 2.7, and 2.1, respectively. TF GSD for Rongelap copra coconut meat is 2.5. IPCR of Pandanus fruit to SCA and TOU leaves are LND with GSD=1.7 while TF GSD is 2.1. Because IPCR variability is much lower than TF variability, relative sampling error of an IPCR field sample mean is up 6- to 10-fold lower than that of a TF sample mean if sample sizes are small (10-20). Other IPCR advantages are that plant leaf samples are collected and processed in far less time with much less effort and cost than soil samples.

  13. Long-term protective effects of AAV9-mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor gene transfer in parkinsonian rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Fei; Yang, Chun; Chen, Sha-Sha; Wang, Yan-Yan; Zhou, Wei; Hao, Qiang; Lu, Tao; Hoffer, Barry; Zhao, Li-Ru; Duan, Wei-Ming; Xu, Qun-Yuan

    2017-05-01

    Intrastriatal injection of mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) protein has been shown to provide neuroprotective and neurorestorative effects in a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) - lesioned rat model of Parkinson's disease. Here, we used an adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9) vector to deliver the human MANF (hMANF) gene into the rat striatum 10days after a 6-OHDA lesion to examine long-term effects of hMANF on nigral dopaminergic neurons and mechanisms underlying MANF neuroprotection. Intrastriatal injection of AAV9-hMANF vectors led to a robust and widespread expression of the hMANF gene in the injected striatum up to 24weeks. Increased levels of hMANF protein were also detected in the ipsilateral substantia nigra. The hMANF gene transfer promoted the survival of nigral dopaminergic neurons, regeneration of striatal dopaminergic fibers and an upregulation of striatal dopamine levels, resulting in a long-term improvement of rotational behavior up to 16weeks after viral injections. By using SH-SY5Y cells, we found that intra- and extracellular application of MANF protected cells against 6-OHDA-induced toxicity via inhibiting the endoplasmic reticulum stress and activating the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. Our results suggest that AAV9-mediated hMANF gene delivery into the striatum exerts long-term neuroprotective and neuroregenerative effects on the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system in parkinsonian rats, and provide insights into mechanisms responsible for MANF neuroprotection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Gene transfer of hepatocyte growth factor gene improves learning and memory in the chronic stage of cerebral infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamura, Munehisa; Sato, Naoyuki; Waguri, Satoshi; Uchiyama, Yasuo; Hayashi, Takuya; Iida, Hidehiro; Nakamura, Toshikazu; Ogihara, Toshio; Kaneda, Yasufumi; Morishita, Ryuichi

    2006-04-01

    There is no specific treatment to improve the functional recovery in the chronic stage of ischemic stroke. To provide the new therapeutic options, we examined the effect of overexpression of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in the chronic stage of cerebral infarction by transferring the HGF gene into the brain using hemagglutinating virus of Japan envelope vector. Sixty rats were exposed to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (day 1). Based on the sensorimotor deficits at day 7, the rats were divided equally into control vector or HGF-treated rats. At day 56, rats transfected with the HGF gene showed a significant recovery of learning and memory in Morris water maze tests (control vector 50+/-4 s; HGF 33+/-5 s; P<0.05) and passive avoidance task (control vector 132.4+/-37.5 s; HGF 214.8+/-26.5 s; P<0.05). Although the total volume of cerebral infarction was not related to the outcome, immunohistochemical analysis for Cdc42 and synaptophysin in the peri-infarct region revealed that HGF enhanced the neurite extension and increased synapses. Immunohistochemistry for glial fibriary acidic protein revealed that the formation of glial scar was also prevented by HGF gene treatment. Additionally, the number of the arteries was increased in the HGF group at day 56. These data demonstrated that HGF has a pivotal role for the functional recovery after cerebral infarction through neuritogenesis, improved microcirculation, and the prevention of gliosis. Our results also provide evidence for the feasibility of gene therapy in the chronic stage of cerebral infarction.

  15. Bioavailability and soil-to-plant transfer factors as indicators of potentially toxic element contamination in agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamo, Paola; Iavazzo, Pietro; Albanese, Stefano; Agrelli, Diana; De Vivo, Benedetto; Lima, Annamaria

    2014-12-01

    Soil pollution in agricultural lands poses a serious threat to food safety, and suggests the need for consolidated methods providing advisory indications for soil management and crop production. In this work, the three-step extraction procedure developed by the EU Measurement and Testing Programme and two soil-to-plant transfer factors (relative to total and bioavailable concentration of elements in soil) were applied on polluted agricultural soils from southern Italy to obtain information on the retention mechanisms of metals in soils and on their level of translocation to edible vegetables. The study was carried out in the Sarno river plain of Campania, an area affected by severe environmental degradation potentially impacting the health of those consuming locally produced vegetables. Soil samples were collected in 36 locations along the two main rivers flowing into the plain. In 11 sites, lettuce plants were collected at the normal stage of consumption. According to Italian environmental law governing residential soils, and on the basis of soil background reference values for the study area, we found diffuse pollution by Be, Sn and Tl, of geogenic origin, Cr and Cu from anthropogenic sources such as tanneries and intensive agriculture, and more limited pollution by Pb, Zn and V. It was found that metals polluting soils as a result of human activities were mainly associated to residual, oxidizable and reducible phases, relatively immobile and only potentially bioavailable to plants. By contrast, the essential elements Zn and Cu showed a tendency to become more readily mobile and bioavailable as their total content in soil increased and were more easily transported to the edible parts of lettuce than other pollutants. According to our results, current soil pollution in the studied area does not affect the proportion of metals taken up by lettuce plants and there is a limited health risk incurred.

  16. 137Cs Inter-Plant Concentration Ratios Provide a Predictive Tool for Coral Atolls with Distinct Benefits Over Transfer Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robison, W L; Hamilton, T F; Bogen, K; Corado, C L; Kehl, S R

    2007-07-17

    Inter-plant concentration ratios (IPCR), [Bq g{sup -1} {sup 137}Cs in coral atoll tree food-crops/Bq g{sup -1} {sup 137}Cs in leaves of native plant species whose roots share a common soil volume], can replace transfer factors (TF) to predict {sup 137}Cs concentration in tree food-crops in a contaminated area with an aged source term. The IPCR strategy has significant benefits relative to TF strategy for such purposes in the atoll ecosystem. IPCR strategy applied to specific assessments takes advantage of the fact tree roots naturally integrate 137Cs over large volumes of soil. Root absorption of {sup 137}Cs replaces large-scale, expensive soil sampling schemes to reduce variability in {sup 137}Cs concentration due to inhomogeneous radionuclide distribution. IPCR [drinking-coconut meat (DCM)/Scaevola (SCA) and Tournefortia (TOU) leaves (native trees growing on all atoll islands)] are log normally distributed (LND) with geometric standard deviation (GSD) = 1.85. TF for DCM from Enewetak, Eneu, Rongelap and Bikini Atolls are LND with GSD's of 3.5, 3.0, 2.7, and 2.1, respectively. TF GSD for Rongelap copra coconut meat is 2.5. IPCR of Pandanus fruit to SCA and TOU leaves are LND with GSD = 1.7 while TF GSD is 2.1. Because IPCR variability is much lower than TF variability, relative sampling error of an IPCR field sample mean is up 6- to 10-fold lower than that of a TF sample mean if sample sizes are small (10 to 20). Other IPCR advantages are that plant leaf samples are collected and processed in far less time with much less effort and cost than soil samples.

  17. Mapping Air Quality Index of Carbon Monoxide (CO) in Medan City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryati, I.; Khair, H.

    2017-03-01

    This study aims to map and analyze air quality index of carbon monoxide (CO) in Medan City. This research used 12 (twelve) sampling points around in Medan with an hour duration each point. CO concentration was analyzed using the NDIR CO Analyzer sampling tool. The concentration CO was obtained between 1 ppm - 23 ppm, with an average concentration was 9.5 ppm. This condition is still below the national ambient air quality standard set by Government Regulation of Indonesian Republic Number 41-1999 amounted to 29 ppm. The result of CO concentration measurements was converted into air pollutant standard index, obtained the index value of 58 - 204. Surfer 10 was used to create map of air pollutant standard index for CO. The map illustrates very unhealthy area where located in the Medan Belawan district. The main factors affecting the concentration of CO are from transportation and meteorological factors.

  18. [Sudden unilateral sensorineural hearing loss after carbon monoxide intoxication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalska-Piechowiak, Teresa; Miarzyńska, Maria; Perlik-Gattner, Irena

    2004-01-01

    A case of unilateral sensorineural hearing loss of the left ear after carbon monoxide intoxication was presented. The diagnosis was based upon an interview, medical examinations and audiometric investigations. Results of diagnostic evaluations, clinical presentation and treatment were discussed. Hearing improvement was obtained after 6 days of treatment and normal hearing returned after 14 days. Patients who suffer from CO intoxication are at risk of hearing impairment, therefore, there is a need for audiometric follow up in these patients.

  19. Pregnancy Hypertenssion and Preeclampsia in Enviromental Expossure to Carbon Monoxide

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: In this study relationship between carbon monoxide (CO) with pregnancy induced hypertension and preeclampsia in mothers in various levels of CO pollution was evaluated. Methods: The study was carried out in three teaching hospitals and 4500 pregnant women living area divided in one low-level CO polluted and as the second level, three moderate to high polluted areas (central, south and west). The subjects, residence places were within 5 kilometers of the air pollution monitoring ...

  20. Mobile Carbon Monoxide Monitoring System Based on Arduino-Matlab for Environmental Monitoring Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azieda Mohd Bakri, Nur; Junid, Syed Abdul Mutalib Al; Razak, Abdul Hadi Abdul; Idros, Mohd Faizul Md; Karimi Halim, Abdul

    2015-11-01

    Nowadays, the increasing level of carbon monoxide globally has become a serious environmental issue which has been highlighted in most of the country globally. The monitoring of carbon monoxide content is one of the approaches to identify the level of carbon monoxide pollution towards providing the solution for control the level of carbon monoxide produced. Thus, this paper proposed a mobile carbon monoxide monitoring system for measuring the carbon monoxide content based on Arduino-Matlab General User Interface (GUI). The objective of this project is to design, develop and implement the real-time mobile carbon monoxide sensor system and interfacing for measuring the level of carbon monoxide contamination in real environment. Four phases or stages of work have been carried out for the accomplishment of the project, which classified as sensor development, controlling and integrating sensor, data collection and data analysis. As a result, a complete design and developed system has been verified with the handheld industrial standard carbon monoxide sensor for calibrating the sensor sensitivity and measurement in the laboratory. Moreover, the system has been tested in real environments by measuring the level of carbon monoxide in three different lands used location; industrial area; residential area and main road (commercial area). In this real environment test, the industrial area recorded the highest reading with 71.23 ppm and 82.59 ppm for sensor 1 and sensor 2 respectively. As a conclusion, the mobile realtime carbon monoxide system based on the Arduino-Matlab is the best approach to measure the carbon monoxide concentration in different land-used since it does not require a manual data collection and reduce the complexity of the existing carbon monoxide level concentration measurement practise at the same time with a complete data analysis facilities.

  1. Examining factors affecting beginning teachers’ transfer of learning of ICT-enhanced learning activities in their teaching practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, Joke; Agyei, Douglas; McBride, Ron; Searson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This study examined 100 beginning teachers’ transfer of learning in utilizing Information Communication Technology-enhanced activity-based learning activities. The beginning teachers had participated in a professional development program characterized by ‘learning technology by collaborative design’

  2. Examining factors affecting beginning teachers' transfer of learning of ICT-enhanced learning activities in their teaching practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agyei, D.D.; Voogt, J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined 100 beginning teachers’ transfer of learning when utilising Information Communication Technology-enhanced activity-based learning activities. The beginning teachers had participated in a professional development program that was characterised by ‘learning technology by

  3. Examining factors affecting beginning teachers’ transfer of learning of ICT-enhanced learning activities in their teaching practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, Joke; Agyei, Douglas; McBride, Ron; Searson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This study examined 100 beginning teachers’ transfer of learning in utilizing Information Communication Technology-enhanced activity-based learning activities. The beginning teachers had participated in a professional development program characterized by ‘learning technology by collaborative design’

  4. Observation of black carbon, ozone and carbon monoxide in the Kali Gandaki Valley Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhungel, S.; Panday, A. K.; Kathayat, B.

    2014-12-01

    The increased melting of snow and ice in the arctic and the Himalaya is a growing concern for all of the earth's population. Deposition of black carbon (BC) on the snow and ice surface accelerates melting by absorbing the radiative energy and directly transferring all that energy onto the underlying surface. During pre-monsoon season, satellite images show a thick layer of haze covering the Indo-Gangetic plain (IGP) and the Himalayan foothills. Sub-micron particles are transported to the Himalaya from the IGP predominantly driven by the thermal valley wind system. The Himalayas consist of some of the tallest mountain ranges in the world, over 8000m tall that reach the stratosphere. The Kali Gandaki Valley in Nepal is one of the deepest gorges in the world, and has some of the highest up-valley winds in the world. It is also one of the most open connecting points for air from IGP to reach the Tibetan Plateau. In 2010 the University of Virginia, in collaboration with ICIMOD and Nepal Wireless, established an atmospheric research station in Jomsom, Nepal (28.78N, 83.42E, 2900 m.a.s.l.) half-way along the Kali Gandaki valley. The station is equipped to measure black carbon (BC), carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone concentrations. It also has an automated weather station, a filter sampler, and a NASA Aeronet Sunphotometer. Here we present our observations of black carbon, ozone, carbon monoxide at Jomsom to show the diurnal and seasonal variability of the pollutants. The results show diurnal patterns in the concentration of these pollutants and also episodes of high pollutant transport along the valley. These transport episodes are more common during the pre-monsoon season which indicates that deep mountain valleys like the Kali Gandaki valley facilitate the transport of pollutants and thus promote snow and glacial melting.

  5. Examining factors affecting beginning teachers' transfer of learning of ICT-enhanced learning activities in their teaching practice

    OpenAIRE

    Agyei, D.D.; Voogt, J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined 100 beginning teachers’ transfer of learning when utilising Information Communication Technology-enhanced activity-based learning activities. The beginning teachers had participated in a professional development program that was characterised by ‘learning technology by collaborative design’ in their final year of their pre-service preparation program. Transfer of learning was proposed as characteristic of (i) the professional development program,(ii) beginning teachers and...

  6. Theories Supporting Transfer of Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamnill, Siriporn; McLean, Gary N.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews theories about factors affecting the transfer of training, including theories on motivation (expectancy, equity, goal setting), training transfer design (identical elements, principle, near and far), and transfer climate (organizational). (Contains 36 references.) (SK)

  7. Probing the rate-limiting step for intramolecular transfer of a transcription factor between specific sites on the same DNA molecule by (15)Nz-exchange NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Kyoung-Seok; Tugarinov, Vitali; Clore, G Marius

    2014-10-15

    The kinetics of translocation of the homeodomain transcription factor HoxD9 between specific sites of the same or opposite polarities on the same DNA molecule have been studied by (15)Nz-exchange NMR spectroscopy. We show that exchange occurs by two facilitated diffusion mechanisms: a second-order intermolecular exchange reaction between specific sites located on different DNA molecules without the protein dissociating into free solution that predominates at high concentrations of free DNA, and a first-order intramolecular process involving direct transfer between specific sites located on the same DNA molecule. Control experiments using a mixture of two DNA molecules, each possessing only a single specific site, indicate that transfer between specific sites by full dissociation of HoxD9 into solution followed by reassociation is too slow to measure by z-exchange spectroscopy. Intramolecular transfer with comparable rate constants occurs between sites of the same and opposing polarity, indicating that both rotation-coupled sliding and hopping/flipping (analogous to geminate recombination) occur. The half-life for intramolecular transfer (0.5-1 s) is many orders of magnitude larger than the calculated transfer time (1-100 μs) by sliding, leading us to conclude that the intramolecular transfer rates measured by z-exchange spectroscopy represent the rate-limiting step for a one-base-pair shift from the specific site to the immediately adjacent nonspecific site. At zero concentration of added salt, the intramolecular transfer rate constants between sites of opposing polarity are smaller than those between sites of the same polarity, suggesting that hopping/flipping may become rate-limiting at very low salt concentrations.

  8. Technology Transfer Issues and a New Technology Transfer Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hee Jun

    2009-01-01

    The following are major issues that should be considered for efficient and effective technology transfer: conceptions of technology, technological activity and transfer, communication channels, factors affecting transfer, and models of transfer. In particular, a well-developed model of technology transfer could be used as a framework for…

  9. Central Diabetes Insipidus and Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar State Following Accidental Carbon Monoxide Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ul Abideen, Zain; Mahmud, Syed Nayer; Rasheed, Amna; Farooq Qasim, Yusaf; Ali, Furqan

    2017-06-03

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is common and carries significant morbidity and mortality. The nervous system, particularly the brain, is frequently affected by it, owing to its high metabolic activity and oxygen requirements. Carbon monoxide damages the nervous system by both hypoxic and inflammatory mechanisms. Central diabetes insipidus is an extremely rare complication of carbon monoxide poisoning. Herein, we report the case of a young lady, who developed this complication and severe hypernatremia after accidental carbon monoxide poisoning. She also developed a hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state during the treatment for hypernatremia. To the best of our knowledge, both these entities have not been reported together in association with carbon monoxide poisoning. The purpose of this article is to emphasize the anticipation and early recognition of central diabetes insipidus in carbon monoxide poisoning. This can prevent severe hypernatremia and complications associated with its presence and treatment.

  10. Evaluation of the gauge factor for single-walled carbon nanonets on the flexible plastic substrates by nano-transfer-printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, C. C.; Chao, R. M.; Liu, C. W.; Liang, Steven Y.

    2011-07-01

    Nano-transfer-printing (nTP) is increasingly used for the micro-fabrication of nanoscale materials onto flexible plastic substrates. This paper reports a nTP process for single-walled carbon nanonets (SWCNNs) for use in strain sensors. Traditional SWCNNs grown on a silicon substrate by alcohol catalytic chemical vapor deposition (ACCVD) can serve as strain-sensing elements in strain sensors and nano-electromechanical system (NEMS) sensors, but ACCVD is not well suited to the task. To improve SWCNN fabrication, this work deposits a parylene-C thin film on SWCNNs for transfer-printing onto flexible plastic substrates with polyimide tape. Quantification of the fabricated SWCNN strain-sensing ability (gauge factor) is performed by comparing two specimens with different pattern features and substrates. The gauge factor is measured by tensile testing. SWCNN density variations relative to the observed gauge factors are discussed. Results show that SWCNN gauge factors range from 1.46 to 8.22, depending on the substrate and pattern width. It is further observed that the gauge factor of the presented SWCNN thin film increases when the width of the SWCNN decreases to the low micro-dimensions, i.e. below 40 µm, indicating a significant scaling factor.

  11. A compilation of radionuclide transfer factors for the plant, meat, milk, and aquatic food pathways and the suggested default values for the RESRAD code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y.Y.; Biwer, B.M.; Yu, C.

    1993-08-01

    The ongoing development and revision of the RESRAD computer code at Argonne National Laboratory requires update of radionuclide transfer factors for the plant, meat, milk, and aquatic food pathways. Default values for these transfer factors used in published radiological assessment reports are compiled and compared with values used in RESRAD. The differences among the reported default values used in different radiological assessment codes and reports are also discussed. In data comparisons, values used in more recent reports are given more weight because more recent experimental work tends to be conducted under better-defined laboratory or field conditions. A new default value is suggested for RESRAD if one of the following conditions is met: (1) values used in recent reports are an order of magnitude higher or lower than the default value currently used in RESRAD, or (2) the same default value is used in several recent radiological assessment reports.

  12. Relevant factors for tacit knowledge transfer within organizations: an exploratory study Fatores relevantes à transferência de conhecimento tácito em organizações: um estudo exploratório

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Lemos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge and management of such knowledge have been studied for some time now in the field of Management. However, in the 1990s, with the growth in the economy based on intangible assets, companies needed more than an unstructured approach to corporate knowledge management to succeed in this new competitive environment. Therefore, this article aims to identify, in an exploratory way, the relevant factors for tacit knowledge transfer within a major Brazilian oil company trough a case study. This study reviews the literature concerning tacit knowledge transfer within organizations, and using a quantitative approach based on exploratory factorial analysis, it collects facts in order to identify the relevant factors for tacit knowledge transfer within the organization under study. It can be said that idiosyncratic factors, the knowledge management strategy adopted by the company, and its organizational structure are the critical elements for the success of tacit knowledge transfer within the organization under analysis. Finally, three propositions arising from the results obtained are then consolidated and presented in order that they may be tested in a future explanatory study and the research limitation are unveiled.O conhecimento tem sido estudado há bastante tempo dentro da área de Gestão. Entretanto, a partir da década de 1990, com o crescimento da economia baseada em ativos intangíveis, as empresas passaram a preocupar-se com o conhecimento existente em suas organizações, assim como com o seu gerenciamento. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho é identificar, exploratoriamente, por meio de um estudo de caso, quais são os fatores relevantes à transferência de conhecimento tácito em uma grande empresa petrolífera brasileira. A presente pesquisa analisa parte relevante da bibliografia acerca da transferência de conhecimento tácito em organiza��ões e, usando abordagem quantitativa baseada em análise fatorial exploratória, coleta

  13. ANALYSIS OF THE DYNAMICS OF AGGREGATIVE TRANSFER FACTORS OF CESIUM-137 TO MUSHROOMS AFTER THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT AS A BASIS FOR CONSTRUCTION PREDICTIVE MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Shilova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper shows the analysis of the available data on levels of concentrations and aggregative transfer factors (TFag of 137Cs from soil to different species of mushrooms growing in the contaminated areas of the Bryansk region, which is used to improve predictive models for estimation the expected levels and the expected values of TFag and planning of further research.

  14. Carbon monoxide may be an important molecule in migraine and other headaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arngrim, Nanna; Schytz, Henrik W; Hauge, Mette K

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Carbon monoxide was previously considered to just be a toxic gas. A wealth of recent information has, however, shown that it is also an important endogenously produced signalling molecule involved in multiple biological processes. Endogenously produced carbon monoxide may thus play...... an important role in nociceptive processing and in regulation of cerebral arterial tone. DISCUSSION: Carbon monoxide-induced headache shares many characteristics with migraine and other headaches. The mechanisms whereby carbon monoxide causes headache may include hypoxia, nitric oxide signalling and activation...

  15. Hepatocyte growth factor gene transfer effects on the femoral and intramuscular nerve in a canine model of lower limb ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoqin Ha; Bin Liu; Zhen Qian; Tongde Lü; Ling Hui; Guanxian He; Qiang Yin; Tingxian Niu

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent advancements in gene therapy have provided new methodology for treating ischemia in lower extremities. Gene transfer of angiogenic factors to ischemic tissues may promote local proliferation of new vessels and form collateral circulation. OBJECTIVE: To observe histopathological changes in the femoral and intramuscular nerve three months after intramuscular injection of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) into the peripheral skeletal muscle in a canine model of lower limb ischemia. DESIGN: Randomized occlusion modelled and verification animal study. SETTING: Experimental Center, Lanzhou General Hospital of Lanzhou Military Area Command of Chinese PLA. MATERIALS: This study was performed at Animal Experimental Center, Lanzhou General Hospital of Lanzhou Military Area Command of Chinese PLA from September to November 2006. A total of eight male mongrel dogs, weighing 12-15 kg and 1.5-3 years of age, were selected for this study. This experimental study was in accordance with local ethics standards. Recombinant plasmid carrying HGF (pUDKH) and occlusion model plasmid (pUDK) were provided by the Third Laboratory of Radiation Medical Institute, Academy of Military Medical Sciences of PLA. METHODS: Grouping and model establishment: under anesthesia, complete vascular occlusion models were established on the left lower extremities. The experimental dogs were randomly divided into a model group and a pUDKH treatment group, with four dogs in each group. Dogs in the pUDKH group were injected with 0.15 mg/kg pUDKH. Ten minutes later, intramuscular injections were performed at three spots into the peripheral skeletal muscle of the left hind limb, as well as lateral injections at two spots. The injection volume at each spot was 0.2 mL. Dogs in the model group were injected with pUDK, and dosage and injection method were identical to the treatment group.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Histopathological changes in the femoral nerve, as well as internal and external

  16. Evidence for significant photochemical production of carbon monoxide by particles in coastal and oligotrophic marine waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Huixiang; Zafiriou, Oliver C.

    2009-12-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) photoproduction from particulate and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) was determined in seawater from open-ocean and coastal areas. In confirmatory tests, poisoned or non-poisoned filtered and unfiltered blue-water samples, were exposed to sunlight. CO photoproduction was 21-42% higher in the unfiltered than in the filtered samples. In a more thorough study utilizing concentrated particles prepared by 0.2-μm cross-flow filtration, samples containing varying levels of particles were irradiated under simulated solar radiation. Their CO photoproduction rates increased linearly with particle concentration factor. Particulate CO production was 11-35% of CDOM-based CO production. On an absorbed-photons basis, the former was 30-108% more efficient than the latter. This study suggests that in both coastal and blue waters these new-found particulate photoprocesses are of similar biogeochemical importance to the well-known CDOM photoproduction term.

  17. Assessing Student Expertise in Introductory Physics with Isomorphic Problems. II. Effect of Some Potential Factors on Problem Solving and Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandralekha; Singh

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the use of isomorphic problem pairs (IPPs) to assess introductory physics students' ability to solve and successfully transfer problem-solving knowledge from one context to another in mechanics. We call the paired problems "isomorphic" because they require the same physics principle to solve them. We analyze written…

  18. ELEVATED CHOLESTERYL ESTER TRANSFER PROTEIN-ACTIVITY IN IDDM MEN WHO SMOKE - POSSIBLE FACTOR FOR UNFAVORABLE LIPOPROTEIN PROFILE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DULLAART, RPF; GROENER, JEM; DIKKESCHEI, BD; ERKELENS, DW; DOORENBOS, H

    Objectives: To determine the effect of cigarette smoking on the activity of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and high-density (HDL), low-density (LDL), and very-low-density (VLDL) lipoproteins in insulin-dependent diabetic (IDDM) men with microvascular complications. Research Design and

  19. The Impact of Individual, Educational, and Workplace Factors on the Transfer of School-Based Learning into the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renta Davids, Ana Inés; Van den Bossche, Piet; Gijbels, David; Fandos Garrido, Manel

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the transfer of learning of professional competences from vocational colleges to the workplace context in vocational education. Concretely, the study examined the relations between the professional competences learned at school and the use and further development of those competences at the workplace during…

  20. Factors in the Effective Transfer of Knowledge from Multinational Enterprises to Their Foreign Subsidiaries: A Mozambican Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte Moleiro Martins, José

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to better understand the role of internal stakeholders in subsidiaries of multinational companies (MNCs) in order to offer potential insights into the cross-border transfer of knowledge from those companies' headquarters to their subsidiaries. The focus is upon subsidiaries in developing countries, here Mozambique.…

  1. Mixing ratios of carbon monoxide in the troposphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novelli, P.C.; Steele, L.P. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (United States)); Tans, P.P. (NOAA, Boulder, CO (United States))

    1992-12-20

    Carbon monoxide (CO) mixing ratios were measured in air samples collected weekly at eight locations. The air was collected as part of the CMDL/NOAA cooperative flask sampling program (Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory, formerly Geophysical Monitoring for Climatic Change, Air Resources Laboratory/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) at Point Barrow, Alaska, Niwot Ridge, Colorado, Mauna Loa and Cape Kumakahi, Hawaii, Guam, Marianas Islands, Christmas Island, Ascension Island and American Samoa. Half-liter or 3-L glass flasks fitted with glass piston stopcocks holding teflon O rings were used for sample collection. CO levels were determined within several weeks of collection using gas chromatography followed by mercuric oxide reduction detection, and mixing ratios were referenced against the CMDL/NOAA carbon monoxide standard scale. During the period of study (mid-1988 through December 1990) CO levels were greatest in the high latitudes of the northern hemisphere (mean mixing ratio from January 1989 to December 1990 at Point Barrow was approximately 154 ppb) and decreased towards the south (mean mixing ratio at Samoa over a similar period was 65 ppb). Mixing ratios varied seasonally, the amplitude of the seasonal cycle was greatest in the north and decreased to the south. Carbon monoxide levels were affected by both local and regional scale processes. The difference in CO levels between northern and southern latitudes also varied seasonally. The greatest difference in CO mixing ratios between Barrow and Samoa was observed during the northern winter (about 150 ppb). The smallest difference, 40 ppb, occurred during the austral winter. The annually averaged CO difference between 71[degrees]N and 14[degrees]S was approximately 90 ppb in both 1989 and 1990; the annually averaged interhemispheric gradient from 71[degrees]N to 41[degrees]S is estimated as approximately 95 ppb. 66 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Thermal Degradation of Lead Monoxide Filled Polymer Composite Radiation Shields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harish, V.; Nagaiah, N.

    2011-07-01

    Lead monoxide filled Isophthalate resin particulate polymer composites were prepared with different filler concentrations and investigated for physical, thermal, mechanical and gamma radiation shielding characteristics. This paper discusses about the thermo gravimetric analysis of the composites done to understand their thermal properties especially the effect of filler concentration on the thermal stability & degradation rate of composites. Pristine polymer exhibits single stage degradation whereas filled composites exhibit two stage degradation processes. Further, the IDT values as well as degradation rates decrease with the increased filler content in the composite.

  3. Pathways and Bioenergetics of Anaerobic Carbon Monoxide Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diender, Martijn; Stams, Alfons J M; Sousa, Diana Z

    2015-01-01

    Carbon monoxide can act as a substrate for different modes of fermentative anaerobic metabolism. The trait of utilizing CO is spread among a diverse group of microorganisms, including members of bacteria as well as archaea. Over the last decade this metabolism has gained interest due to the potential of converting CO-rich gas, such as synthesis gas, into bio-based products. Three main types of fermentative CO metabolism can be distinguished: hydrogenogenesis, methanogenesis, and acetogenesis, generating hydrogen, methane and acetate, respectively. Here, we review the current knowledge on these three variants of microbial CO metabolism with an emphasis on the potential enzymatic routes and bio-energetics involved.

  4. Pathways and bioenergetics of anaerobic carbon monoxide fermentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martijn eDiender

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide can act as a substrate for different modes of fermentative anaerobic metabolism. The trait of utilizing CO is spread among a diverse group of microorganisms, including members of bacteria as well as archaea. Over the last decade this metabolism has gained interest due to the potential of converting CO rich gas, such as synthesis gas, into bio-based products. Three main types of fermentative CO metabolism can be distinguished: hydrogenogenesis, methanogenesis and acetogenesis, generating hydrogen, methane and acetate, respectively. Here, we review the current knowledge on these three variants of microbial CO metabolism with an emphasis on the potential enzymatic routes and bio-energetics involved.

  5. OMI Observations of Bromine Monoxide Emissions from Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleiman, R. M.; Chance, K.; Liu, X.; Gonzalez Abad, G.; Kurosu, T. P.

    2016-12-01

    We analyze bromine monoxide (BrO) data from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) for emissions from various volcanoes. We use OMI data from 2005 to 2014 to investigate BrO signatures from Galapagos, Kasatochi and Eyjafjallajökull volcanoes. Elevated signatures of BrO daily averages were found over Eyjafjallajökull. SO2 cross sections are updated in the operational BrO algorithm and their effect on the volcanic BrO signature is studied. Comparison between two different sets of SO2 cross sections is made and results still show BrO enhancement over the Eyjafjallajökull region.

  6. Studies relevant to the catalytic activation of carbon monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, P.C.

    1992-06-04

    Research activity during the 1991--1992 funding period has been concerned with the following topics relevant to carbon monoxide activation. (1) Exploratory studies of water gas shift catalysts heterogenized on polystyrene based polymers. (2) Mechanistic investigation of the nucleophilic activation of CO in metal carbonyl clusters. (3) Application of fast reaction techniques to prepare and to investigate reactive organometallic intermediates relevant to the activation of hydrocarbons toward carbonylation and to the formation of carbon-carbon bonds via the migratory insertion of CO into metal alkyl bonds.

  7. Dipolar dissociation dynamics in electron collisions with carbon monoxide

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Dipayan; Nandi, Dhananjay

    2016-01-01

    Dipolar dissociation processes in the electron collisions with carbon monoxide have been studied using time of flight (TOF) mass spectroscopy in combination with the highly differential velocity slice imaging (VSI) technique. Probing ion-pair states both positive and/or negative ions may be detected. The ion yield curve of negative ions provides the threshold energy for the ion-pair production. On the other hand, the kinetic energy distributions and angular distributions of the fragment anion provide detailed dynamics of the dipolar dissociation process. Two ion-pair states have been identified based on angular distribution measurements using VSI technique.

  8. Transfer factor of caesium-137 in natural and agricultural grass ecosystems in the area of Plavsk radioactive spot, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paramonova, Tatiana A.; Machaeva, Ekaterina N. [Radioecology and Ecotoxicology Department of Soil Science Faculty, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119234 Moscow (Russian Federation); Belyaev, Vladimir R. [Laboratory of soil erosion and fluvial processes of Geography Faculty, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119234 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Root uptake and translocation of ¹³⁷Cs from soil to plant is the key for estimation of general ecological situation and land use on radioactive contaminated territories. There are numerous researches concerning the relationship between the level of the radionuclide presence in soils and its accumulation in vegetation that usually describes as transfer factor (TF) for ¹³⁷Cs (the ratio of the specific ¹³⁷Cs activity in the plant tissue and the soil). But in most cases only edible organs or above-ground parts of plants are taken into account in evaluating TF. It is reasonable from the standpoint of practical use, but does not provide accurate information in the study of ¹³⁷Cs biogeochemical cycle features. The study of the ¹³⁷Cs root uptake from the radioactive contaminated chernozem soil and its distribution between above-ground and below-ground fractions of grass vegetation was conducted in the natural conditions on the territory of Plavsk radioactive spot (Tula region, Russia)~25 years after Chernobyl accident. The main crops of field rotation in this landscape (wheat, barley, potatoes, rape, maize) which occupy watersheds and slopes with arable chernozems contaminated at a level 460-670 Bq/kg (170-220 kBq/m²) and natural grassland ecosystems which occupy lower parts of slopes and flood plains with dry and wet meadows contaminated at a level 620-710 Bq/kg (210-250 kBq/m²) were examined. Total accumulation of ¹³⁷Cs in vegetation strongly depends on the level of soil radioactive contamination (correlation coefficient 0.87). So specific ¹³⁷Cs activity in vegetation of meadows (103-160 Bq/kg) in general more than one in agricultural crops (9-92 Bq/kg). Other reason may be the predominance of perennial herbs in natural meadows whereas agricultural systems contain annual crops. The values of ¹³⁷Cs TF in the studied ecosystems vary within a relatively narrow range: from 0.01 (rape) to 0.20 (wet meadow), that confirms the discrimination of

  9. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.): an assessment of factors affecting gene transfer efficiency during early transformation steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bondt, A; Eggermont, K; Druart, P; De Vil, M; Goderis, I; Vanderleyden, J; Broekaert, W F

    1994-07-01

    The factors influencing transfer of an intron - containing β-glucuronidase gene to apple leaf explants were studied during early steps of an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation procedure. The gene transfer process was evaluated by counting the number of β-glucuronidase expressing leaf zones immediately after cocultivation, as well as by counting the number of β-glucuronidase expressing calli developing on the explants after 6 weeks of postcultivation in the presence of 50 mg/l kanamycin. Of three different tested disarmed A. tumefaciens strains, EHA101(pEHA101) was the most effective for apple transformation. Cocultivation of leaf explants with A. tumefaciens on a medium with a high cytokinin level was more conducive to gene transfer than cocultivation on media with high auxin concentrations. Precultivation of leaf explants, prior to cocultivation, slightly increased the number of β-glucuronidase expressing zones measured immediately after cocultivation, but it drastically decreased the number of transformed calli appearing on the explants 6 weeks after infection. Other factors examined were: Agrobacterium cell density during infection, bacterial growth phase, nature of the carbon source, explant age, and explant genotype.

  10. Accumulation and Soil-to-Plant Transfer Factor of Lead and Manganese in some Plant Species in Semnan Province, Central Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Sakizadeh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Heavy metals have detrimental effects on the health of human being. The values of manganese (Mn and lead (Pb in some plant species and soil samples in an arid area of Iran were evaluated in this study. Methods: The values of Pb and Mn in 94 plant samples from 8 plant species and the related soil samples in 2010 were considered in Shahroud and Damghan, central Iran. Moreover, the soil-to-plant transfer factors of these two elements were investigated. Results: Except for barley, the values of Pb in all of the considered plants were higher than the standard level of 0.3 mg/kg. The amounts of Mn in all of the plant species other than pistachio were higher than the standard level of 25 mg/kg. As a whole, the bio-concentration factor of Mn was higher than that of Pb in the study area. Conclusion: None of the soil-to-plant transfer factors exceeded one. Grape recorded the highest amounts of Pb and Mn compared with that of other investigated plant species. However, since its respective bio concentration factor (BCF was lower than one, it cannot be considered as a hyper accumulator of lead and manganese.

  11. Heterologous Production of an Energy-Conserving Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase Complex in the Hyperthermophile Pyrococcus furiosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schut, Gerrit J.; Lipscomb, Gina L.; Nguyen, Diep M. N.; Kelly, Robert M.; Adams, Michael W. W.

    2016-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is an important intermediate in anaerobic carbon fixation pathways in acetogenesis and methanogenesis. In addition, some anaerobes can utilize CO as an energy source. In the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus onnurineus, which grows optimally at 80°C, CO oxidation and energy conservation is accomplished by a respiratory complex encoded by a 16-gene cluster containing a CO dehydrogenase, a membrane-bound [NiFe]-hydrogenase and a Na+/H+ antiporter module. This complex oxidizes CO, evolves CO2 and H2, and generates a Na+ motive force that is used to conserve energy by a Na+-dependent ATP synthase. Herein we used a bacterial artificial chromosome to insert the 13.2 kb gene cluster encoding the CO-oxidizing respiratory complex of T. onnurineus into the genome of the heterotrophic archaeon, Pyrococcus furiosus, which grows optimally at 100°C. P. furiosus is normally unable to utilize CO, however, the recombinant strain readily oxidized CO and generated H2 at 80°C. Moreover, CO also served as an energy source and allowed the P. furiosus strain to grow with a limiting concentration of sugar or with peptides as the carbon source. Moreover, CO oxidation by P. furiosus was also coupled to the re-utilization, presumably for biosynthesis, of acetate generated by fermentation. The functional transfer of CO utilization between Thermococcus and Pyrococcus species demonstrated herein is representative of the horizontal gene transfer of an environmentally relevant metabolic capability. The transfer of CO utilizing, hydrogen-producing genetic modules also has applications for biohydrogen production and a CO-based industrial platform for various thermophilic organisms. PMID:26858706

  12. In-situ biogas upgrading in thermophilic granular UASB reactor: key factors affecting the hydrogen mass transfer rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassani, Ilaria; Kougias, Panagiotis; Angelidaki, Irini

    2016-01-01

    Biological biogas upgrading coupling CO2 with external H2 to form biomethane opens new avenues for sustainable biofuel production. For developing this technology, efficient H2 to liquid transfer is fundamental. This study proposes an innovative setup for in-situ biogas upgrading converting the CO2...... in the biogas into CH4, via hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. The setup consisted of a granular reactor connected to a separate chamber, where H2 was injected. Different packing materials (rashig rings and alumina ceramic sponge) were tested to increase gas-liquid mass transfer. This aspect was optimized...... by liquid and gas recirculation and chamber configuration. It was shown that by distributing H2 through a metallic diffuser followed by ceramic sponge in a separate chamber, having a volume of 25% of the reactor, and by applying a mild gas recirculation, CO2 content in the biogas dropped from 42 to 10...

  13. Gas Sensing Properties and Mechanism of Nano-SnO2-Based Sensor for Hydrogen and Carbon Monoxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weigen Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nano-SnO2 powder was prepared by the hydrothermal method in this paper. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM were used to characterize the composition of the crystalline phase and the morphology of the prepared gas-sensitive materials, respectively. In particular, the study focused on the sensing behaviors of nano-SnO2-based sensor towards power transformer fault gases such as hydrogen and carbon monoxide. The optimum working temperature for hydrogen and carbon monoxide is about 400∘C and 360∘C, separately. Further investigations into the adsorption process of gas molecule on SnO2 (110 surface based on the first principles were conducted. The calculations indicated that 1σ orbits of H2 split into several new electronic peaks and 5σ orbits of CO almost degenerated completely in the adsorption process, which promoted charge transfer between gas molecule and SnO2 (110 surface. It provides a qualitative explanation for the prepared nano-SnO2-based sensor exhibiting different gas sensing properties towards H2 and CO.

  14. Assessing Student Expertise in Introductory Physics with Isomorphic Problems, Part II: Effect of Some Potential Factors on Problem Solving and Transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Chandralekha

    2016-01-01

    In this companion paper, we explore the use of isomorphic problem pairs (IPPs) to assess introductory physics students' ability to solve and successfully transfer problem-solving knowledge from one context to another in mechanics. We call the paired problems "isomorphic" because they require the same physics principle to solve them. We analyze written responses and individual discussions to a range of isomorphic problems. We examine potential factors that may help or hinder transfer of problem-solving skills from one problem in a pair to the other. For some paired isomorphic problems, one context often turned out to be easier for students in that it was more often correctly solved than the other. When quantitative and conceptual questions were paired and given back to back, students who answered both questions in the IPP often performed better on the conceptual questions than those who answered the corresponding conceptual questions only. Although students often took advantage of the quantitative counterpart ...

  15. Reduced Circulating Concentration of Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor is Associated with Peri- and Post-implantation Failure following In Vitro Fertilization-Embryo Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramer, Ilana; Kruczek, Alexis; Doulaveris, Georgios; Orfanelli, Theofano; Shulman, Brittney; Witkin, Steven S; Spandorfer, Steven D

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated associations between brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-4 (NT4) and pregnancy outcome in women undergoing in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET). Sera obtained on days 24 and 28 of an IVF cycle from women with a live birth, spontaneous abortion, biochemical pregnancy, not pregnant, or an ectopic pregnancy were retrospectively analyzed for BDNF and NT4 by ELISA. Median BDNF levels were higher in women with a live birth compared to women with an ectopic pregnancy (P transfer embryo parameters. Decreased circulating BDNF early in an IVF cycle is associated with adverse peri- and/or post-implantation events and subsequent pregnancy failure. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Material processing with hydrogen and carbon monoxide on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, Aloysius F.; Landis, Geoffrey A.; Linne, Diane L.

    1991-01-01

    Several novel proposals are examined for propellant production from carbon dioxide and monoxide and hydrogen. Potential uses were also examined of CO as a fuel or as a reducing agent in metal oxide processing as obtained or further reduced to carbon. Hydrogen can be reacted with CO to produce a wide variety of hydrocarbons, alcohols, and other organic compounds. Methanol, produced by Fischer-Tropsch chemistry may be useful as a fuel; it is easy to store and handle because it is a liquid at Mars temperatures. The reduction of CO2 to hydrocarbons such as methane or acetylene can be accomplished with hydrogen. Carbon monoxide and hydrogen require cryogenic temperatures for storage as liquids. Noncryogenic storage of hydrogen may be accomplished using hydrocarbons, inorganic hydrides, or metal hydrides. Noncryogenic storage of CO may be accomplished in the form of iron carbonyl (FE(CO)5) or other metal carbonyls. Low hydrogen content fuels such as acetylene (C2H2) may be effective propellants with low requirements for earth derived resources. The impact on manned Mars missions of alternative propellant production and utilization is discussed.

  17. Formation of orthorhombic tin dioxide from mechanically milled monoxide powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamelas, F. J.

    2004-12-01

    X-ray scattering measurements are used to show that the metastable orthorhombic phase of tin dioxide is produced by the oxidation of mechanically milled litharge-phase tin monoxide. After milling to a grain size of approximately 20nm, followed by heating to 575°C, the fraction of the orthorhombic phase is approximately 80%. The orthorhombic phase was originally observed in high-pressure experiments, but more recently, it has been produced in a wide variety of thin-film and nanoparticle samples. The data presented here demonstrate the importance of small-grain-size tin monoxide as a precursor in the ambient-pressure synthesis of the orthorhombic phase. This result has practical importance in the production of tin dioxide gas sensors. A more fundamental observation is that the particle size of a precursor phase can have a marked effect on subsequent phases produced during oxidation. Lastly, a formula for determining the orthorhombic fraction in two-phase tin dioxide samples is developed using the method of standard additions.

  18. A carbon monoxide passive sampler: Research and development needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traynor, G.W.; Apte, M.G.; Diamond, R.C.; Woods, A.L.

    1991-11-01

    In rare instances, carbon monoxide (CO) levels in houses can reach dangerously high concentrations, causing adverse health effects ranging from mild headaches to, under extreme conditions, death. Hundreds of fatal accidental carbon monoxide poisonings occur each year primarily due to the indoor operation of motor vehicles, the indoor use of charcoal for cooking, the operation of malfunctioning vented and unvented combustion appliances, and the misuse combustion appliances. Because there is a lack of simple, inexpensive, and accurate field sampling instrumentation, it is difficult for gas utilities and researchers to conduct field research studies designed to quantify the concentrations of CO in residences. Determining the concentration of CO in residences is the first step towards identifying the high risk appliances and high-CO environments which pose health risks. Thus, there exists an urgent need to develop and field-validate a CO-quantifying technique suitable for affordable field research. A CO passive sampler, if developed, could fulfill these requirements. Existing CO monitoring techniques are discussed as well as three potential CO-detection methods for use in a CO passive sampler. Laboratory and field research needed for the development and validation of an effective and cost-efficient CO passive sampler are also discussed.

  19. Space-based observation of volcanic iodine monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönhardt, Anja; Richter, Andreas; Theys, Nicolas; Burrows, John P.

    2017-04-01

    Volcanic eruptions inject substantial amounts of halogens into the atmosphere. Chlorine and bromine oxides have frequently been observed in volcanic plumes from different instrumental platforms such as from ground, aircraft and satellites. The present study is the first observational evidence that iodine oxides are also emitted into the atmosphere during volcanic eruptions. Large column amounts of iodine monoxide, IO, are observed in satellite measurements following the major eruption of the Kasatochi volcano, Alaska, in 2008. The IO signal is detected in measurements made both by SCIAMACHY (Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric CHartographY) on ENVISAT (Environmental Satellite) and GOME-2 (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2) on MetOp-A (Meteorological Operational Satellite A). Following the eruption on 7 August 2008, strongly elevated levels of IO slant columns of more than 4 × 1013 molec cm-2 are retrieved along the volcanic plume trajectories for several days. The retrieved IO columns from the different instruments are consistent, and the spatial distribution of the IO plume is similar to that of bromine monoxide, BrO. Details in the spatial distribution, however, differ between IO, BrO and sulfur dioxide, SO2. The column amounts of IO are approximately 1 order of magnitude smaller than those of BrO. Using the GOME-2A observations, the total mass of IO in the volcanic plume injected into the atmosphere from the eruption of Kasatochi on 7 August 2008, is determined to be on the order of 10 Mg.

  20. The electric dipole moment of cobalt monoxide, CoO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Xiujuan; Steimle, Timothy C

    2014-03-28

    A number of low-rotational lines of the E(4)Δ7/2 ← X(4)Δ7/2 (1,0) band system of cobalt monoxide, CoO, were recorded field free and in the presence of a static electric field. The magnetic hyperfine parameter, h7/2, and the electron quadrupole parameter, eQq0, for the E(4)Δ7/2(υ = 1) state were optimized from the analysis of the field-free spectrum. The permanent electric dipole moment, μ(→)(el), for the X(4)Δ7/2 (υ = 0) and E(4)Δ7/2 (υ = 1) states were determined to be 4.18 ± 0.05 D and 3.28 ± 0.05 D, respectively, from the analysis of the observed Stark spectra of F' = 7 ← F″ = 6 branch feature in the Q(7/2) line and the F' = 8 ← F″ = 7 branch feature in the R(7/2) line. The measured dipole moments of CoO are compared to those from theoretical predictions and the trend across the 3d-metal monoxide series discussed.

  1. Biota Modeling in EPA's Preliminary Remediation Goal and Dose Compliance Concentration Calculators for Use in EPA Superfund Risk Assessment: Explanation of Intake Rate Derivation, Transfer Factor Compilation, and Mass Loading Factor Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manning, Karessa L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dolislager, Fredrick G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bellamy, Michael B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The Preliminary Remediation Goal (PRG) and Dose Compliance Concentration (DCC) calculators are screening level tools that set forth Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) recommended approaches, based upon currently available information with respect to risk assessment, for response actions at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) sites, commonly known as Superfund. The screening levels derived by the PRG and DCC calculators are used to identify isotopes contributing the highest risk and dose as well as establish preliminary remediation goals. Each calculator has a residential gardening scenario and subsistence farmer exposure scenarios that require modeling of the transfer of contaminants from soil and water into various types of biota (crops and animal products). New publications of human intake rates of biota; farm animal intakes of water, soil, and fodder; and soil to plant interactions require updates be implemented into the PRG and DCC exposure scenarios. Recent improvements have been made in the biota modeling for these calculators, including newly derived biota intake rates, more comprehensive soil mass loading factors (MLFs), and more comprehensive soil to tissue transfer factors (TFs) for animals and soil to plant transfer factors (BV's). New biota have been added in both the produce and animal products categories that greatly improve the accuracy and utility of the PRG and DCC calculators and encompass greater geographic diversity on a national and international scale.

  2. 40 CFR 52.1627 - Control strategy and regulations: Carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...: Carbon monoxide. 52.1627 Section 52.1627 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New Mexico § 52.1627 Control strategy and regulations: Carbon monoxide. (a) Part D Approval. The...

  3. Method of removing nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas using a water-soluble iron ion-dithiocarbamate, xanthate or thioxanthate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D. Kwok-Keung; Chang, Shih-Ger

    1987-08-25

    The present invention relates to a method of removing of nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas which method comprises contacting a nitrogen oxide-containing gas with an aqueous solution of water soluble organic compound-iron ion chelate complex. The NO absorption efficiency of ferrous urea-dithiocarbamate and ferrous diethanolamine-xanthate as a function of time, oxygen content and solution ph is presented. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Efficiency of Spin-Transfer-Torque Switching and Thermal-Stability Factor in a Spin-Valve Nanopillar with First- and Second-Order Uniaxial Magnetic Anisotropies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Rie; Arai, Hiroko; Yuasa, Shinji; Imamura, Hiroshi

    2017-04-01

    The efficiency of spin-transfer-torque (STT) switching and the thermal-stability factor are important figures of merit in STT-based magnetoresistive random-access memory. We derive analytical expressions of the STT-switching efficiency and the thermal-stability factor for a perpendicularly magnetized spin-valve nanopillar with the first- and the second-order uniaxial magnetic anisotropy. It is shown that the STT-switching efficiency is maximized when the effective first-order anisotropy constant (Ku 1 ,eff ) is equal to the second-order anisotropy constant (Ku 2). It is also shown that the thermal-stability factor is most (least) sensitive to a variation of the applied current when Ku 2=-0.41 (0.70) Ku 1 ,eff.

  5. Arctic chlorine monoxide observations during spring 1993 over Thule, Greenland, and implications for ozone depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindell, D. T.; Reeves, J. M.; Emmons, L. K.; de Zafra, R. L.

    1994-12-01

    We have determined the vertical distribution of chlorine monoxide (ClO), from measurements of pressure-broadened molecular-emission spectra made over Thule, Greenland, during the 1993 Arctic spring. The measurements show a weak lower stratospheric layer of chlorine monoxide inside the vortex in late February, which was, however, significantly greater in mixing ratio than that seen in observations we made in the spring of 1992. ClO was also observed in much smaller quantities in early to mid-March 1993 when Thule was outside the vortex. The amount of ClO within the vortex was severely reduced by the time it returned over Thule in late March. This reduction occurred several weeks earlier relative to the winter solstice than the decline of ClO inside the Antarctic vortex in 1993. The enhanced Arctic lower stratospheric layer seen in late February 1993 had a peak mixing ratio of about 0.5 parts per billion by volume (ppbv), slightly less than a factor of 3 smaller than that observed in the Antarctic in 1993 at a nearly equivalent photochemical period, and beyond. We have calculated daily ozone loss rates, due primarily to the dimer chlorine catalytic cycle, from both sets of measurements. The vertical integral of the Arctic daily percentage ozone loss when the largest ClO levels were present, at the end of February, is found to be approximately one quarter of that in the Antarctic at a photochemical period only 1 week later. The relative weakness of daily ozone depletion, combined with the early disappearance of ClO in the Arctic, suggests that hemispheric dilution by ozone-poor air from within the Arctic vortex is unlikely to be sufficient to explain the historically extreme loss of midlatitude northern hemisphere ozone which began in 1992 and persisted throughout 1993.

  6. 鲜胚移植后累计妊娠率及其影响因素%Cumulative pregnancy rates after fresh embryo transfer and its influencing factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋天然; 孙海翔; 王玢

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the pregnancy outcomes and factors influencing on fertilization in vitro and embryo transfer (IVF‐ET ) .Methods The pregnancy outcomes of 1660 women after fresh embryo IVF were analyzed ,who were divided into groups of A (got pregnant) and B (failed to get pregnant) .The women failed to get pregnant after fresh embryo transfer and had frozen embryo transfer were divided into groups of C (got pregnant) and D(failed to get pregnant) .The factors influencing on pregnancy outcomes were analyzed .Results The pregnancy rate was higher in women with fresh embryo IVF than that in those with frozen embryo transfer (60.12% vs .53.15% ) (P<0 .05) .The numbers of egg and effective embryos ,effective embryo ratio ,endometrial thickness and embryo score in group A were higher than those in group B (P<0 .05) .The number of effective embryos ,effective embryo ratio and the number of transferred embryos in group C were higher than those in group D(P<0 .05) .The clinical pregnancy rate of group A was higher than that in group C (P<0 .05) .The clinical pregnancy rate for the third time of frozen embryo transfer was significantly decreased(P<0 .05) .Conclusion Fresh embryo transfer should be taken as the first choice .Frozen embryo transfer still has a higher success rate for fertilization .Some special causes of infertility should be considered in the cases failed to get pregnant after second frozen embryo transfer and the eggs should be taken again if necessary .%目的:探讨体外受精‐胚胎移植妊娠结局及其影响因素。方法回顾性分析1660例鲜胚移植患者临床结局。根据是否临床妊娠分为妊娠组(A组)和非妊娠组(B组);根据冻胚移植结果,新鲜周期未获得活胎分娩的妇女分为妊娠组(C组)和未妊娠组(D组)。分析影响妊娠结局的相关因素。结果鲜胚移植临床妊娠率60.12%(998/1660),高于冻胚移植临床妊娠率53.15%(253/476)( P<0

  7. Adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of placental growth factor to perivascular tissue induces angiogenesis via upregulation of the expression of endogenous vascular endothelial growth factor-A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy, H; Bhardwaj, S; Babu, M; Jauhiainen, S; Herzig, KH; Bellu, AR; Haisma, HJ; Carmeliet, P; Alitalo, K; Yla-Herttuala, S

    2005-01-01

    Placental growth factor (PIGF) is a member of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family that binds specifically to VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-1. However, the mechanism of PIGF- and VEGFR-1-mediated angiogenesis has remained unclear and some in vitro studies suggest that VEGF-A/VEGFR-2

  8. Experimental Determination of the 1 Sigma(+) State Electric-Dipole-Moment Function of Carbon Monoxide up to a Large Internuclear Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chackerian, C., Jr.; Farreng, R.; Guelachvili, G.; Rossetti, C.; Urban, W.

    1984-01-01

    Experimental intensity information is combined with numerically obtained vibrational wave functions in a nonlinear least squares fitting procedure to obtain the ground electronic state electric-dipole-moment function of carbon monoxide valid in the range of nuclear oscillation (0.87 to 1.01 A) of about the V = 38th vibrational level. Mechanical anharmonicity intensity factors, H, are computed from this function for delta V + = 1, 2, 3, with or = to 38.

  9. Descodificação iterativa de códigos LDPC por transferência de mensagens em grafos de factores

    OpenAIRE

    Sílvio Almeida Abrantes Moreira

    2005-01-01

    Os códigos turbo e LDPC, os melhores códigos correctores de erros da actualidade, partilham em comum o facto de usarem métodos de descodificação iterativa que recorrem a algoritmos de natureza idêntica. Em particular os códigos LDPC são habitualmente caracterizados por grafos bipartidos de Tanner e grafos de factores e são descodificados com um algoritmo muito genérico de transferência de mensagens entre nós dos grafos, o algoritmo da soma-e-produto, de que o algoritmo BCJR, usado nos turbo-c...

  10. Electrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide and methane at an immobilized cobalt protoporphyrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jing; Kortlever, Ruud; Kas, Recep; Birdja, Yuvraj Y.; Diaz-Morales, Oscar; Kwon, Youngkook; Ledezma-Yanez, Isis; Schouten, Klaas Jan P.; Mul, Guido; Koper, Marc T. M.

    2015-01-01

    The electrochemical conversion of carbon dioxide and water into useful products is a major challenge in facilitating a closed carbon cycle. Here we report a cobalt protoporphyrin immobilized on a pyrolytic graphite electrode that reduces carbon dioxide in an aqueous acidic solution at relatively low overpotential (0.5 V), with an efficiency and selectivity comparable to the best porphyrin-based electrocatalyst in the literature. While carbon monoxide is the main reduction product, we also observe methane as by-product. The results of our detailed pH-dependent studies are explained consistently by a mechanism in which carbon dioxide is activated by the cobalt protoporphyrin through the stabilization of a radical intermediate, which acts as Brønsted base. The basic character of this intermediate explains how the carbon dioxide reduction circumvents a concerted proton–electron transfer mechanism, in contrast to hydrogen evolution. Our results and their mechanistic interpretations suggest strategies for designing improved catalysts. PMID:26324108

  11. Factors affecting protein transfer into surfactant-isooctane solution: a case study of extraction behavior of chemically modified cytochrome c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, T; Goto, M

    1998-01-01

    The extraction mechanism of proteins by surfactant molecules in an organic solvent has been investigated using a chemically modified protein. We conducted guanidylation on lysine residues of cytochrome c by replacing their amino groups with homoarginine to enhance the protein-surfactant interaction. Results have shown that guanidylated cytochrome c readily forms a hydrophobic complex with dioleyl phosphoric acid (DOLPA) through hydrogen bonding between the phosphate moiety and the guanidinium groups. Although improved protein-surfactant interaction activated the formation of a hydrophobic complex at the interface, it could not improve the protein transfer in isooctane. It has been established that the protein extraction mechanism using surfactant molecules is mainly governed by two processes: formation of an interfacial complex at the oil-water interface and the subsequent solubilization of the complex into the organic phase. In addition, a kinetic study demonstrated that guanidylation of lysine accelerated the initial extraction rate of cytochrome c. This fact implies that the protein transferability from aqueous phase into organic phase depends on the protein-surfactant interaction which can be modified by protein surface engineering.

  12. In-situ biogas upgrading in thermophilic granular UASB reactor: key factors affecting the hydrogen mass transfer rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassani, Ilaria; Kougias, Panagiotis G; Angelidaki, Irini

    2016-12-01

    Biological biogas upgrading coupling CO2 with external H2 to form biomethane opens new avenues for sustainable biofuel production. For developing this technology, efficient H2 to liquid transfer is fundamental. This study proposes an innovative setup for in-situ biogas upgrading converting the CO2 in the biogas into CH4, via hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. The setup consisted of a granular reactor connected to a separate chamber, where H2 was injected. Different packing materials (rashig rings and alumina ceramic sponge) were tested to increase gas-liquid mass transfer. This aspect was optimized by liquid and gas recirculation and chamber configuration. It was shown that by distributing H2 through a metallic diffuser followed by ceramic sponge in a separate chamber, having a volume of 25% of the reactor, and by applying a mild gas recirculation, CO2 content in the biogas dropped from 42 to 10% and the final biogas was upgraded from 58 to 82% CH4 content. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Impact Factors on Heat Transfer Performance of Micro Heat Pipe%微热管传热性能影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张勇

    2015-01-01

    由于具备高效传热性能,微热管在理论研究及各种工程应用领域得到了广泛关注和重视。在微热管的工作循环中,吸液芯是影响其换热性能好坏的关键,吸液芯不但能促使工质液体循环流动,还能促进工质相变,提高热管传热系数。概述了微热管的概念、类型及性能;回顾了微热管的研究历史;综述了微热管全管模型和相变模型的研究现状;分析了微热管的研究思路;最后,展望了其未来可能的发展方向。%The micro heat pipes have a wide concern and attention, such as theory and various practice engineering fields, due to their excellent heat transfer performance. The wick is a key factor to affect the heat transfer performance in working cycle of micro heat pipe. The wick not only could promote the working fluid circulation flow, but also phase change, improving the heat transfer coefficient of micro heat pipe. The paper is overviewed the concept, type and performance of micro heat pipe and reviewed the research history. The micro heat pipe research status mainly include two sides as the whole section and the phase changing section ( evaporation section and condenser section) of heat pipe in heat transfer. Finally, the micro heat pipe research ideas have been analyzed and its possible future research directions prospected.

  14. Relação entre características empresariais e fatores da transferência de conhecimentos entre projetos de produto The relationship between company characteristics and influence factors of the inter-product project knowledge transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Germán Frank

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta uma análise das relações existentes entre as características das empresas e a importância que estas atribuem aos fatores que influenciam na transferência de conhecimentos (TC entre projetos de produtos. A análise é baseada num levantamento (survey realizado com 58 empresas no Brasil. As características estudadas foram: (i tamanho da empresa; (ii tamanho da equipe de projetos; (iii localização das equipes; (iv número de projetos simultâneos; (v tempo de duração dos projetos; (vi grau de inovação; e (vii complexidade dos projetos. Através de uma análise de aglomerados, foi identificado que as características (ii, (iv e (vii são significativas na determinação das importâncias atribuídas aos fatores da TC. Os resultados apontam que as empresas que possuem um perfil de gestão mais complexo enfatizam os fatores de influência pertencentes ao ambiente externo. Já empresas com um perfil de gestão mais simples atribuem maior importância aos fatores internos da empresa.This paper presents an analysis of the relationship between company characteristics and the importance that companies attribute to the main factors that have influence on inter-product project knowledge transfer (KT. The analysis was based on a survey carried out on a sample of 58 companies that operate in Brazil. The studied characteristics of the companies were: (i company size; (ii project team size; (iii team localization; (iv number of concurrent projects; (v project duration; (vi project innovation and (vii project complexity. It was possible to identify, using a cluster analysis, that project team size; number of concurrent projects and project complexity are statistically significant regarding the determination of attributed importance for the KT influence factors. The results revealed that companies that have a more complex management profile are more interested in influence factors of the external environment. On the other hand

  15. Adoptive transfer of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1)-modified macrophages rescues the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) antiinflammatory phenotype in liver ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Shen, Xiu-Da; Yue, Shi; Zhu, Jianjun; Gao, Feng; Zhai, Yuan; Busuttil, Ronald W; Ke, Bibo; Kupiec-Weglinski, Jerzy W

    2014-10-14

    Macrophages are instrumental in the pathophysiology of liver ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). Although Nrf2 regulates macrophage-specific heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) antioxidant defense, it remains unknown whether HO-1 induction might rescue macrophage Nrf2-dependent antiinflammatory functions. This study explores the mechanisms by which the Nrf2-HO-1 axis regulates sterile hepatic inflammation responses after adoptive transfer of ex vivo modified HO-1 overexpressing bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs). Livers in Nrf2-deficient mice preconditioned with Ad-HO-1 BMMs, but not Ad-β-Gal-BMMs, ameliorated liver IRI (at 6 h of reperfusion after 90 min of warm ischemia), evidenced by improved hepatocellular function (serum alanine aminotransferase [sALT] levels) and preserved hepatic architecture (Suzuki histological score). Treatment with Ad-HO-1 BMMs decreased neutrophil accumulation, proinflammatory mediators and hepatocellular necrosis/apoptosis in ischemic livers. Moreover, Ad-HO-1 transfection of Nrf2-deficient BMMs suppressed M1 (Nos2(+)) while promoting the M2 (Mrc-1/Arg-1(+)) phenotype. Unlike in controls, Ad-HO-1 BMMs increased the expression of Notch1, Hes1, phosphorylation of Stat3 and Akt in IR-stressed Nrf2-deficient livers as well as in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BMMs. Thus, adoptive transfer of ex vivo generated Ad-HO-1 BMMs rescued Nrf2-dependent antiinflammatory phenotype by promoting Notch1/Hes1/Stat3 signaling and reprogramming macrophages toward the M2 phenotype. These findings provide the rationale for a novel clinically attractive strategy to manage IR liver inflammation/damage.

  16. Hypervalence in monoxides and dioxides of superalkali clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Elizabeth; Meloni, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    F2Li3, a superalkali cluster, is characterized as having a lower adiabatic ionization energy than its elemental alkali counterpart and, coupled with the presence of complex molecular orbitals, suggests promise for novel bonding possibilities. CBS-QB3 composite method was used to study three distinct cluster isomers, as well as their cationic (+1) and anionic (-1) species, to identify energetic trends and observe geometric changes. Oxides were then generated from these clusters, of which three distinct monoxides and nine dioxides were obtained upon structure optimization. Identical calculations were performed for the oxide species and their charged counterparts. Some of the most stable oxides produced appear to possess hypervalent lithium and oxygen atoms, forming unique structures with exceptional stability.

  17. Carbon monoxide expedites metabolic exhaustion to inhibit tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegiel, Barbara; Gallo, David; Csizmadia, Eva; Harris, Clair; Belcher, John; Vercellotti, Gregory M; Penacho, Nuno; Seth, Pankaj; Sukhatme, Vikas; Ahmed, Asif; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo; Helczynski, Leszek; Bjartell, Anders; Persson, Jenny Liao; Otterbein, Leo E

    2013-12-01

    One classical feature of cancer cells is their metabolic acquisition of a highly glycolytic phenotype. Carbon monoxide (CO), one of the products of the cytoprotective molecule heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in cancer cells, has been implicated in carcinogenesis and therapeutic resistance. However, the functional contributions of CO and HO-1 to these processes are poorly defined. In human prostate cancers, we found that HO-1 was nuclear localized in malignant cells, with low enzymatic activity in moderately differentiated tumors correlating with relatively worse clinical outcomes. Exposure to CO sensitized prostate cancer cells but not normal cells to chemotherapy, with growth arrest and apoptosis induced in vivo in part through mitotic catastrophe. CO targeted mitochondria activity in cancer cells as evidenced by higher oxygen consumption, free radical generation, and mitochondrial collapse. Collectively, our findings indicated that CO transiently induces an anti-Warburg effect by rapidly fueling cancer cell bioenergetics, ultimately resulting in metabolic exhaustion.

  18. The effect of carbon monoxide on planetary haze formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hörst, S. M.; Tolbert, M. A, E-mail: sarah.horst@colorado.edu [Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2014-01-20

    Organic haze plays a key role in many planetary processes ranging from influencing the radiation budget of an atmosphere to serving as a source of prebiotic molecules on the surface. Numerous experiments have investigated the aerosols produced by exposing mixtures of N{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} to a variety of energy sources. However, many N{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} atmospheres in both our solar system and extrasolar planetary systems also contain carbon monoxide (CO). We have conducted a series of atmosphere simulation experiments to investigate the effect of CO on the formation and particle size of planetary haze analogues for a range of CO mixing ratios using two different energy sources, spark discharge and UV. We find that CO strongly affects both number density and particle size of the aerosols produced in our experiments and indicates that CO may play an important, previously unexplored, role in aerosol chemistry in planetary atmospheres.

  19. Prevention of carbon monoxide exposure in general and recreational aviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelnick, Sanford D; Lischak, Michael W; Young, David G; Massa, Thomas V

    2002-08-01

    Carbon monoxide exposure is an important public health issue that poses a significant, albeit uncommon risk in aviation. Exposure is most common in single engine piston-driven aircraft where air is passed over the exhaust manifold to serve as cabin heat. Effective primary prevention of this exposure is the regular inspection and maintenance of aircraft exhaust systems, as required by law. For situations at special risk should exposure occur, and where there is concern for the public safety, installation of active warning devices for CO intrusion into cockpits may improve secondary prevention. Modern studies should be performed of occupation-specific abilities to support the 50 ppm FAA CO exposure standard and 50-70 ppm FAA Technical Standard Order (TSO) for CO monitors alerting pilots to the possibility of exhaust gas intrusion into their cockpits.

  20. ROLE OF ENDOGENOUS CARBON MONOXIDE IN ENDOTOXIN SHOCK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To study the role of endogenous carbon monoxide (CO) in endotoxin shock. Methods. The changes of CO levels and the effects of zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP),an inhibitor of heme-oxygenase (HO), in endotoxin shock and the efficacy of hemin,an inducer of HO were investigated.Results. The plasma CO levels were found to be significantly increased during the course of endotoxin shock. Injection of ZnPP was shown to abrogate the endotoxin-induced hypotension and metabolic derangements markedly. Administration of hemin to healthy rabbits revealed the hypotension and metabolic derangements similar to the animals given endotoxin.Conclusion.CO is a newly found endogenously produced mediator which may play an important role in the pathogenesis of endotoxin shock.

  1. ROLE OF ENDOGENOUS CARBON MONOXIDE IN ENDOTOXIN SHOCK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史源; 李华强; 潘捷; 覃世文; 潘凤; 蒋东波; 沈际皋

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To study the role of endogenous carbon monoxide (CO) in endotoxin shock. Methods. The changes of CO levels and the effects of zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP), an inhibitor of hemeoxygenase (HO), in endotoxin shock and the efficacy of heroin, an inducer of HO were investigated. Results. The plasma CO levels were found to be significantly increased during the comse of endotoxin shock. Injection of ZnPP was shown to abrogate the endotoxin-induced hypotension and metabolic derangements markedly. Administration of hemin to healthy rabbits revealed the hypotension and metabolic derangements similar to the animsls given endotoxin. Conclusion. CO is a newly found endogenously produced mediator which may play an important role in the pathogenesis of endotoxin shock.

  2. Technique for measuring carbon monoxide uptake in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depledge, M.H.; Collis, C.H.; Chir, B.; Barrett, A.

    1981-04-01

    A new method has been developed for measuring carbon monoxide (CO) uptake in mice. Each animal was placed in a syringe and allowed to rebreathe a mixture of CO and helium (He) for 60 s. CO uptake was detemined from a comparison of CO and He concentrations before and after rebreathing. Weight specific CO uptake increased with body weight in CBA mice weighing between 20 to 35 gr. In larger mice, size dependence was less marked, although a slight fall in CO uptake was observed in older animals. Anaesthesia reduced ventilatory rate and CO uptake to a variable extent. The method is reproducible, non-invasive and does not require anaesthesia; consequently, it can be used to study serial changes in lung function. It is sensitive enough to detect lung damage in CBA mice following 16 Gy total body irradiation. Values of diffusing capacity obtained for mice using this method are consistent with published values.

  3. Terahertz Time Domain Gas-phase Spectroscopy of Carbon Monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilcullen, Patrick; Hartley, I. D.; Jensen, E. T.; Reid, M.

    2015-04-01

    Free induction decay signals emitted from Carbon Monoxide (CO) excited by sub-picosecond pulses of Terahertz (THz) radiation are directly measured in the time domain and compared to model calculations using a linear dispersion model to good agreement. Best fitting techniques of the data using the model allow the self-pressure broadening of CO to be measured across a range of absolute pressures, and the rotational constant to be determined. We find B V = 5.770 ± 0.003 × 1010 Hz in agreement with previous measurements. A partial pressure limit of detection for CO of 7900 ppm is estimated at atmosphere through extrapolating the calculated commensurate echo peaks down to low pressures with respect to the RMS noise floor of our THz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) apparatus, which implies a limit of detection in the range of 40 ppm for commercial THz-TDS systems.

  4. An Unusual Cause of Supraventricular Tachycardia: Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suat Zengin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available      Carbon monoxide (CO is a toxic gas produced by the incomplete combustion of carbon-containing compounds. Exposure to high concentrations of CO can be letha and is the most common cause of death from poisoning worldwide. Cardiac manifestations after exposure to CO, including myocardial ischemia, heart failure, and arrhythmias, have been reported. A 28-year-old a patient was admitted to our emergency department with altered consciousness as a consequence of acute domestic exposure to CO from a stove. His carboxyhemoglobin level was 39%. The oxygen treatment was started promptly, and therapeutic red cell exchange was performed. An electrocardiogram revealed supraventricular tachycardia (SVT, and an echocardiographic examination demonstrated normal cardiac functions. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the second to report a case of SVT attack due to acute CO intoxication. This paper discusses the management of this complication in patients poisoned with CO.

  5. Titanium-promoted Allyl Transfer to Carbon Monoxide and Other Unsaturated Molecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klei, Bert; Teuben, Jan H.; Liefde Meijer, Henk J. de

    1981-01-01

    Carbonylation of Cp2Ti-(π-allyl) yields Cp2Ti(CO)2 and triallylmethanol; reactions of Cp2Ti-(π-allyl) and Cp2Ti-(π-1-methylallyl) with other ligands proceed via insertion or allyl-elimination pathways.

  6. Quantifying data retention of perpendicular spin-transfer-torque magnetic random access memory chips using an effective thermal stability factor method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Luc, E-mail: luc.thomas@headway.com; Jan, Guenole; Le, Son; Wang, Po-Kang [TDK-Headway Technologies, Inc., 463 S. Milpitas Boulevard, Milpitas, California 95035 (United States)

    2015-04-20

    The thermal stability of perpendicular Spin-Transfer-Torque Magnetic Random Access Memory (STT-MRAM) devices is investigated at chip level. Experimental data are analyzed in the framework of the Néel-Brown model including distributions of the thermal stability factor Δ. We show that in the low error rate regime important for applications, the effect of distributions of Δ can be described by a single quantity, the effective thermal stability factor Δ{sub eff}, which encompasses both the median and the standard deviation of the distributions. Data retention of memory chips can be assessed accurately by measuring Δ{sub eff} as a function of device diameter and temperature. We apply this method to show that 54 nm devices based on our perpendicular STT-MRAM design meet our 10 year data retention target up to 120 °C.

  7. Quantifying data retention of perpendicular spin-transfer-torque magnetic random access memory chips using an effective thermal stability factor method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Luc; Jan, Guenole; Le, Son; Wang, Po-Kang

    2015-04-01

    The thermal stability of perpendicular Spin-Transfer-Torque Magnetic Random Access Memory (STT-MRAM) devices is investigated at chip level. Experimental data are analyzed in the framework of the Néel-Brown model including distributions of the thermal stability factor Δ. We show that in the low error rate regime important for applications, the effect of distributions of Δ can be described by a single quantity, the effective thermal stability factor Δeff, which encompasses both the median and the standard deviation of the distributions. Data retention of memory chips can be assessed accurately by measuring Δeff as a function of device diameter and temperature. We apply this method to show that 54 nm devices based on our perpendicular STT-MRAM design meet our 10 year data retention target up to 120 °C.

  8. Efficient production by sperm-mediated gene transfer of human decay accelerating factor (hDAF) transgenic pigs for xenotransplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavitrano, Marialuisa; Bacci, Maria Laura; Forni, Monica; Lazzereschi, Davide; Di Stefano, Carla; Fioretti, Daniela; Giancotti, Paola; Marfé, Gabriella; Pucci, Loredana; Renzi, Luigina; Wang, Hongjun; Stoppacciaro, Antonella; Stassi, Giorgio; Sargiacomo, Massimo; Sinibaldi, Paola; Turchi, Valeria; Giovannoni, Roberto; Della Casa, Giacinto; Seren, Eraldo; Rossi, Giancarlo

    2002-01-01

    A large number of hDAF transgenic pigs to be used for xenotransplantation research were generated by using sperm-mediated gene transfer (SMGT). The efficiency of transgenesis obtained with SMGT was much greater than with any other method. In the experiments reported, up to 80% of pigs had the transgene integrated into the genome. Most of the pigs carrying the hDAF gene transcribed it in a stable manner (64%). The great majority of pigs that transcribed the gene expressed the protein (83%). The hDAF gene was transmitted to progeny. Expression was stable and found in caveolae as it is in human cells. The expressed gene was functional based on in vitro experiments performed on peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These results show that our SMGT approach to transgenesis provides an efficient procedure for studies involving large animal models. PMID:12393815

  9. Control of Disease Tolerance to Malaria by Nitric Oxide and Carbon Monoxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktória Jeney

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO and carbon monoxide (CO are gasotransmitters that suppress the development of severe forms of malaria associated with Plasmodium infection. Here, we addressed the mechanism underlying their protective effect against experimental cerebral malaria (ECM, a severe form of malaria that develops in Plasmodium-infected mice, which resembles, in many aspects, human cerebral malaria (CM. NO suppresses the pathogenesis of ECM via a mechanism involving (1 the transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF-2, (2 induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, and (3 CO production via heme catabolism by HO-1. The protection afforded by NO is associated with inhibition of CD4+ T helper (TH and CD8+ cytotoxic (TC T cell activation in response to Plasmodium infection via a mechanism involving HO-1 and CO. The protective effect of NO and CO is not associated with modulation of host pathogen load, suggesting that these gasotransmitters establish a crosstalk-conferring disease tolerance to Plasmodium infection.

  10. Development of multi-dimensional thermal hydraulic modeling using mixing factors for wire wrapped fuel pin bundles with inter-subassembly heat transfer in fast reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, M.; Kamide, H.; Ohshima, H. [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1996-10-01

    Temperature distributions in fuel subassemblies of fast reactors interactively affect heat transfer from center to outer region of the core (inter-subassembly heat transfer) and cooling capability of an inter-wrapper flow, as well as maximum cladding temperature. The prediction of temperature distribution in the sub-assembly is, therefore one of the important issues for the reactor safety assessment. To treat the complex phenomena in the core, a multi-dimensional thermal hydraulic analysis is the most promising method. From the studies on the multi-dimensional thermal hydraulic modeling for the fuel sub-assemblies, the modeling have been recommended through the analysis of sodium experiments using driver subassembly test rig PLANDTL-DHX and blanket subassembly test rig CCTL-CFR. Computations of steady states experiments in the test rigs using the above modeling showed quite good agreement to the experimental data. In the present study, the use of this modeling was extended to transient analyses, and its applicability was examined. Firstly, non-dimensional parameters used to determine the mixing factors were modified from the ones based on bundle-averaged values to the ones by local values. Secondly, a new threshold function was derived and introduced to cut off the mixing factor of thermal plumes under inertia force dominant conditions. In the results of this validation, the accuracy was comparable between the modeling and the experimental instrumentation. Thus the present modeling is capable of predicting the thermal hydraulic fields of the wire wrapped fuel pin bundles with inter-subassembly heat transfer under the conditions from rated steady operations to transitions toward natural circulation decay heat removal modes. (J.P.N.)

  11. The Effect of the Hayward Corridor Improvement Project on Carbon Monoxide Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlfelder, M.; Martinez, E.; Maestas, A.; Peek, A.

    2013-12-01

    In August of 2010, construction began on a stretch of road in Downtown Hayward to address a problem with traffic flow. Known as the Hayward Corridor, the project reshaped the flow of traffic, replacing the two way streets of Foothill, Mission, and A Street with a loop between them. This project began with the initiative of reducing congestion in this area and improving access to businesses for pedestrians. The project was expected to have little environmental impact in most common assessments of degree of effect, including particulate matter, ozone and carbon monoxide levels. This report will discuss the effect of the Hayward Corridor Improvement Project on carbon monoxide emission. Data available to the public in the project's Environmental Impact Report shows that carbon monoxide levels before construction began were at an acceptable level according to federal and state standards. Projections for future concentrations both with and without the project show a decrease in carbon monoxide levels due to technological improvements and the gradual replacement of older, less efficient vehicles. The Environmental Impact Report projected that there would be little difference in carbon monoxide levels whether the project took place or not, at an average of 1.67x102 fewer parts per million per 1 hour period of measurement emitted in the case of the project not taking place. While it is not possible to draw a conclusion on what the current carbon monoxide levels would be if the project had not taken place due to the changes in traffic flow and other surrounding roads as a result of the project, the data gathered in June of 2013 suggested that carbon monoxide levels are higher than the values projected in 2007. This report summarizes both the accuracy of these carbon monoxide level projections and the effect of construction on carbon monoxide levels in the Hayward Corridor and the surrounding area.

  12. Stable isotope composition of atmospheric carbon monoxide. A modelling study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gromov, Sergey S.

    2014-11-01

    This study aims at an improved understanding of the stable carbon and oxygen isotope composition of the carbon monoxide (CO) in the global atmosphere by means of numerical simulations. At first, a new kinetic chemistry tagging technique for the most complete parameterisation of isotope effects has been introduced into the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) framework. Incorporated into the ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) general circulation model, an explicit treatment of the isotope effects on the global scale is now possible. The expanded model system has been applied to simulate the chemical system containing up to five isotopologues of all carbon- and oxygen-bearing species, which ultimately determine the δ{sup 13}C, δ{sup 18}O and Δ{sup 17}O isotopic signatures of atmospheric CO. As model input, a new stable isotope-inclusive emission inventory for the relevant trace gases has been compiled. The uncertainties of the emission estimates and of the resulting simulated mixing and isotope ratios have been analysed. The simulated CO mixing and stable isotope ratios have been compared to in-situ measurements from ground-based observatories and from the civil-aircraft-mounted CARIBIC-1 measurement platform. The systematically underestimated {sup 13}CO/{sup 12}CO ratios of earlier, simplified modelling studies can now be partly explained. The EMAC simulations do not support the inferences of those studies, which suggest for CO a reduced input of the highly depleted in {sup 13}C methane oxidation source. In particular, a high average yield of 0.94 CO per reacted methane (CH{sub 4}) molecule is simulated in the troposphere, to a large extent due to the competition between the deposition and convective transport processes affecting the CH{sub 4} to CO reaction chain intermediates. None of the other factors, assumed or disregarded in previous studies, however hypothesised to have the potential in enriching tropospheric CO in {sup 13}C, were found significant

  13. Excitation and charge transfer in He/sup +/ + H collisions. A molecular approach including two-electron translation factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Errea, L.F.; Mendez, L.; Riera, A.

    1983-06-01

    In a previous paper we have pointed out that the common-translation-factor (CTF) method is the only one which, at present, and within the framework of the molecular model of atomic collisions, can be shown to be both convergent and computationally fast, even for many-electron systems. In this Communication we check that this second statement is correct, presenting, for the first time, a molecular calculation involving two-electron translation factors, for He/sup +/ + H collisions. A careful study of the sensitivity of the calculated cross sections to the choice of the CTF is performed, and conclusions on that sensitivity are drawn, for several types of processes.

  14. Adsorption of nitrogen and carbon monoxide on clinoptilolite: determination and prediction of pure and binary isotherms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triebe, R.W.; Tezel, F.H. [University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Department of Chemical Engineering

    1995-10-01

    The adsorption of carbon monoxide and nitrogen on clinoptilolite is studied to determine the natural zeolite`s potential for air purification. Pure and binary isotherms were determined for nitrogen and carbon monoxide on a natural Turkish clinoptilolite under near ambient conditions. Experimentally determined isotherms are compared to predictions based on various models from the literature. The Wilson form of the Vacancy Solution Theory is the only model that provides reasonable agreement with the binary isotherm. Clinoptilolite is concluded to be a promising sorbent for separation of carbon monoxide and nitrogen. 30 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Examination of Factors That Predict Academic Adjustment and Success of Community College Transfer Students in STEM at 4-Year Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Carlos; Jones, Stephanie J.

    2017-01-01

    There are a limited number of individuals who possess the skills to fulfill the workforce demand in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) in the United States. Therefore, community colleges and 4-year institutions must be able to identify academic and social factors that impact students' participation in the areas of STEM. These…

  16. A Measurement of the neutron electric form factor at very large momentum transfer using polaried electrions scattering from a polarized helium-3 target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelleher, Aidan [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)

    2010-02-01

    Knowledge of the electric and magnetic elastic form factors of the nucleon is essential for an understanding of nucleon structure. Of the form factors, the electric form factor of the neutron has been measured over the smallest range in Q2 and with the lowest precision. Jefferson Lab experiment 02-013 used a novel new polarized 3 He target to nearly double the range of momentum transfer in which the neutron form factor has been studied and to measure it with much higher precision. Polarized electrons were scattered off this target, and both the scattered electron and neutron were detected. Gn E was measured to be 0.0242 ± 0.0020(stat) ± 0.0061(sys) and 0.0247 ± 0.0029(stat) ± 0.0031(sys) at Q2 = 1.7 and 2.5 GeV2 , respectively.

  17. Stimulation of chondrocytes in vitro by gene transfer with plasmids coding for epidermal growth factor (hEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmal, H; Mehlhorn, A T; Zwingmann, J

    2005-01-01

    Human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) influence critical characteristics of chondrocytes. The effects on metabolism and differentiation were evaluated following transfection using specific plasmids coding for both cytokines. Chondrocytes were isolated from...... of recombinant hEGF and bFGF resulted in a significant increase in cell proliferation and glucosaminoglycan production. Chondrocytes were transfected with vectors coding for either hEGF or bFGF and the production of these proteins was measured in supernatants by ELISA. Expression kinetics showed different...... patterns: hEGF was detectable 2.5 days following transfection and peaked at day 5.5, whereas bFGF-production reached its maximum 1.5 days after transfection, declining thereafter. Chondrocytes endogenously produced significant amounts of bFGF within 5 days following isolation. Proliferation of h...

  18. Efectos adversos asociados al tratamiento con factor de transferencia: Ciudad de La Habana, 2004 Adverse drug effects associated to the treatment of patients with transfer factor: City of Havana , 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Aida Cruz Barrios

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available El factor de transferencia (Hebertrans constituye un inmunoestimulante que se emplea en una amplia gama de enfermedades. Su seguridad ha sido evaluada en los ensayos clínicos pre-registro, pero no así en investigaciones poscomercialización, por tal motivo se realizó un estudio observacional y multicéntrico de vigilancia activa, en pacientes tratados con factor de transferencia en 11 hospitales de la Ciudad de La Habana , para identificar los eventos presentados durante el tratamiento, así como clasificarlos según su causalidad y gravedad. La información fue recogida por el médico inmunólogo de cada hospital y supervisada por el farmacoepidemiólogo hospitalario. Durante el tratamiento se obtuvo información de 387 pacientes y se reportaron 133 eventos en 86 casos (22,2 %. Los más frecuentes fueron fiebre, dolor y eritema en el sitio de la inyección, cefalea y diarrea; el 92,5 % de los eventos observados fueron leves. El 27,8 % se clasificó como definitivamente provocados por el fármaco, estos últimos relacionados con la vía de administración. El factor de transferencia resultó un medicamento seguro en los pacientes observadosTransfer factor called Hebertrans is an immunostimulant used in a wide range of diseases. The safety of this drug has been assessed in several clinical assays prior to registration, but not in aftermarket research studies. Therefore, a multicenter observational study of active surveillance was carried out in patients treated with transfer factor in 11 hospitals located in the City of Havana to detect adverse events in the course of treatment, and then to classify them by cause and severity. Data was collected by the immunologist in each hospital and supervised by the pharmacological epidemiologist. During the treatment, information was gathered from 387 patients where 133 events were reported in 86 cases (22,2%. The most frequent were fever, pain, erythema at the site of injection, headache and diarrhea; 92

  19. Sources of carbon monoxide and formaldehyde in North America determined from high-resolution atmospheric data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Miller

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the North American budget for carbon monoxide using data for CO and formaldehyde concentrations from tall towers and aircraft in a model-data assimilation framework. The Stochastic Time-Inverted, Lagrangian Transport model for CO (STILT-CO determines local to regional-scale CO contributions associated with production from fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning, and oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs using an ensemble of Lagrangian particles driven by high resolution assimilated meteorology. In most cases, the model demonstrates high fidelity simulations of hourly surface data from tall towers and point measurements from aircraft, with somewhat less satisfactory performance in coastal regions and when CO from large biomass fires in Alaska and the Yukon Territory influence the continental US.

    Inversions of STILT-CO simulations for CO and formaldehyde show that current inventories of CO emissions from fossil fuel combustion are significantly too high, by almost a factor of three in summer and a factor two in early spring, consistent with recent analyses of data from the INTEX-A aircraft program. Formaldehyde data help to show that sources of CO from oxidation of CH4 and other VOCs represent the dominant sources of CO over North America in summer.

  20. Thermal calculation of ground contact structures: Correction factors of environment- and structure-dependent effects on the heat transfer coefficient

    OpenAIRE

    Nagy, Balázs

    2015-01-01

    The heat loss at ground contact structures is taken into consideration in building heat loss calculations. However, the heat loss through the ground depends not only the soil and the building structure, but the environment as well. New calculation methods based on parametrized transient finite element thermal modelling are introduced in the preceding research article [3]. This paper is the further demonstration of the methods’ environment- or structure-depending correction factors which descr...

  1. Test of Determination of (p,γ) Astrophysical S-Factors Using the Asymptotic Normalization Coefficients from Neutron Transfer Reactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Bing; LI Zhi-Hong; LIU Wei-Ping; BAI Xi-Xiang

    2007-01-01

    The asymptotic normalization coefficients (ANCs) for the virtual decay 17O→16O+n are derived from the angular distributions of the 16O(d, p)17O reaction leading to the ground and first excited states of 17O, respectively, using the distorted wave Born approximation and the adiabatic wave approximation. The ANCs of 17F are then extracted according to charge symmetry of mirror nuclei and used to calculate the astrophysical S-factors of 16O(p,γ)17F leading to the first two states of 17F. The present results are in good agreement with those from the direct measurement. This provides a test of this indirect method to determine direct astrophysical S-factors of(p, γ) reaction. In addition, the S-factors at zero energy for the direct captures to the ground and first excited states of 17F are presented, without the uncertainty associated with the extrapolation from higher energies in direct measurement.

  2. Gas-liquid transfer data used to analyze hydrophobic hydration and find the nature of the Kauzmann-Tanford hydrophobic factor

    OpenAIRE

    Baldwin, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Hydrophobic free energy for protein folding is currently measured by liquid-liquid transfer, based on an analogy between the folding process and the transfer of a nonpolar solute from water into a reference solvent. The second part of the analogy (transfer into a nonaqueous solvent) is dubious and has been justified by arguing that transfer out of water probably contributes the major part of the free energy change. This assumption is wrong: transfer out of water contributes no more than half ...

  3. Carbon monoxide toxicity. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). NewSearch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the mechanism and clinical manifestations of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure, including the effects on the liver, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Topics include studies of the carbon monoxide binding affinity with hemoglobin, measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in humans and various animal species, carbon monoxide levels resulting from tobacco and marijuana smoke, occupational exposure and the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) biological exposure index, symptomology and percent of blood CO, and intrauterine exposure. Air pollution, tobacco smoking, and occupational exposure are discussed as primary sources of carbon monoxide exposure. The effects of cigarette smoking on fetal development and health are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 137 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. Carbon monoxide toxicity. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection data base). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the mechanism and clinical manifestations of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure, including the effects on the liver, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Topics include studies of the carbon monoxide binding affinity with hemoglobin, measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in humans and various animal species, carbon monoxide levels resulting from tobacco and marijuana smoke, occupational exposure and the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) biological exposure index, symptomology and percent of blood CO, and intrauterine exposure. Air pollution, tobacco smoking, and occupational exposure are discussed as primary sources of carbon monoxide exposure. The effects of cigarette smoking on fetal development and health are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 172 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  5. Personal Exposure Monitoring of Particulate Matter, Nitrogen Dioxide, and Carbon Monoxide, including Susceptible Groups

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    R. M. Harrison; C. A. Thornton; R. G. Lawrence; D. Mark; R. P. Kinnersley; J. G. Ayres

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the relation between personal exposures to nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, and PM10, and exposures estimated from static concentrations of these pollutants measured within the same...

  6. Carbon monoxide toxicity. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the mechanism and clinical manifestations of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure, including the effects on the liver, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Topics include studies of the carbon monoxide binding affinity with hemoglobin, measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in humans and various animal species, carbon monoxide levels resulting from tobacco and marijuana smoke, occupational exposure and the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) biological exposure index, symptomology and percent of blood CO, and intrauterine exposure. Air pollution, tobacco smoking, and occupational exposure are discussed as primary sources of carbon monoxide exposure. The effects of cigarette smoking on fetal development and health are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  7. Carbon monoxide toxicity. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the mechanism and clinical manifestations of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure, including the effects on the liver, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Topics include studies of the carbon monoxide binding affinity with hemoglobin, measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in humans and various animal species, carbon monoxide levels resulting from tobacco and marijuana smoke, occupational exposure and the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) biological exposure index, symptomology and percent of blood CO, and intrauterine exposure. Air pollution, tobacco smoking, and occupational exposure are discussed as primary sources of carbon monoxide exposure. The effects of cigarette smoking on fetal development and health are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  8. The influence of tobacco blend composition on carbon monoxide formation in mainstream cigarette smoke

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Djulančić, Nermina; Radojičić, Vesna; Srbinovska, Marija

    2013-01-01

    ...) in the gas phase of mainstream cigarette smoke. The results showed that the type of tobacco examined had a significant impact on the amount of carbon monoxide production in the gas phase of cigarette smoke...

  9. Cobalt promoted copper manganese oxide catalysts for ambient temperature carbon monoxide oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher; Taylor, Stuart H; Burrows, Andrew; Crudace, Mandy J; Kiely, Christopher J; Hutchings, Graham J

    2008-04-14

    Low levels of cobalt doping (1 wt%) of copper manganese oxide enhances its activity for carbon monoxide oxidation under ambient conditions and the doped catalyst can display higher activity than current commercial catalysts.

  10. Electronic structure and optical properties of a new type of semiconductor material:graphene monoxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Gui; Zhang Yufeng; Yan Xunwang

    2013-01-01

    The electronic and optical properties of graphene monoxide,a new type of semiconductor material,are theoretically studied by first-principles density functional theory.The calculated band structure shows that graphene monoxide is a semiconductor with a direct band gap of 0.95 eV.The density of states of graphene monoxide and the partial density of states for C and O are given to understand the electronic structure.In addition,we calculate the optical properties of graphene monoxide,including the complex dielectric function,absorption coefficient,complex refractive index,loss-function,reflectivity and conductivity.These results provide a physical basis for potential application in optoelectronic devices.

  11. Influence of the shape factor on the flow and heat transfer of a water-based nanofluid in a rotating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Umar; Adnan; Ahmed, Naveed; Mohyud-Din, Syed Tauseef

    2017-04-01

    The flow of a nanofluid between two parallel plates (horizontally placed) has been investigated. Different shapes of nanoparticles (suspended in a base fluid) have been considered and the effect of the shape factor has been analyzed. The lower plate is being stretched in opposite directions with forces of the same magnitude. The plates and nanofluid rotate together with angular velocity Ω. The dimensionless form of the flow model, in the form of a system of ordinary differential equations, is obtained by employing some viable similarity transformations. A well-knows analytical method i.e. Variation of Parameters Method (VPM), has been used to solve the problem. Besides, the same system of equations has also been solved numerically by using the forth order Runge-Kutta method, combined with shooting technique. The graphs highlight the influence of ingrained dimensionless physical parameters on the skin friction coefficient, velocity and temperature profiles, and local rate of heat transfer. It is observed that the velocity increases by varying suction/injection parameter and the temperature seems to drop for higher values of the Reynolds number. A decrement in skin friction is observed for increasing nanoparticles volume fraction. On the other hand, the local rate of heat transfer increases for increasing suction/injection parameter, Reynolds number and nanoparticles volume fraction.

  12. The Time-Dependent Transfer Factor of Radiocesium from Soil to Game Animals in Japan after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagami, Keiko; Howard, Brenda J; Uchida, Shigeo

    2016-09-06

    Since the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident, monitoring of tissues from hunted game animals ensures compliance with the standard food limits for radionuclides in Japan. We quantified the transfer of (137)Cs from contaminated land to game animals using the Aggregated transfer factor (Tag = activity concentration in meat [Bq kg(-1) fw]/amount in soil [Bq m(-2)]) of (137)Cs for Asian black bear, wild boar, sika deer, green pheasant, copper pheasant and wild duck, collected between 2011 and 2015. Open data sources were used from Fukushima, Miyagi, Ibaraki, Tochigi, and Gunma prefectures. Our initially compiled data showed that the maximum reported (137)Cs activity concentration in wild boar after the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident were lower than those reported after the Chernobyl accident. The geometric mean Tag values (m(2)kg(-1) fw) of (137)Cs in 2015 for Asian black bear, wild boar, sika deer and copper pheasant were similar (1.9-5.1) × 10(-3) while those for green pheasant and wild duck were about 1 order of magnitude lower at (1.0-2.2) × 10(-4). Effective half-lives were 1.2-6.9 y except for sika deer and copper pheasant where no decreases were found. In contrast to the Chernobyl accident, no seasonal change occurred in the meat (137)Cs activity concentrations of the wild animals during the study period.

  13. Concentrations and Soil-To-Plant Transfer Factor of Selenium in Soil and Plant Species from an Arid Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakizadeh, Mohamad; Mehrabi Sharafabadi, Fatemeh; Shayegan, Eshagh; Ghorbani, Hadi

    2016-10-01

    The concentration of selenium in 97 plants related to seven different species and the associated soil samples was considered in an arid area in the central part of Iran. The mean of Se in the soil samples varied from 0.17 to 0.43 mgkg-1 which is within the worldwide range. There was a highly significant correlation (r=0.688, pfruit) were higher than stem/stalk implying the facile translocation of this element in the considered plant species. The higher than one bio concentration factors (BCFs) of selenium for the chives, spindle tree and wheat is indicative of high phytoremediation potential for these plants.

  14. Increased encapsulated cell biodelivery of nerve growth factor in the brain by transposon-mediated gene transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjord-Larsen, L; Kusk, Poul Henrik; Emerich, D F

    2012-01-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a potential therapeutic agent for Alzheimer's disease (AD) as it has positive effects on the basal forebrain cholinergic neurons whose degeneration correlates with the cognitive decline in AD. We have previously described an encapsulated cell biodelivery device, NsG0202......, capable of local delivery of NGF by a genetically modified human cell line, NGC-0295. The NsG0202 devices have shown promising safety and therapeutic results in a small phase 1b clinical study. However, results also show that the NGF dose could advantageously be increased. We have used the sleeping beauty...

  15. Technology transfer and learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, Harm-Jan; Bruijn, de Erik J.

    2002-01-01

    Despite the fact that international technology transfer has been widely studied its management still encounters many difficulties. To fully understand the issues that are relevant to the process of transferring production technology, it is necessary to determine the important factors that influence

  16. Transfer-function parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    Computer program fits linear-factored form transfer function to given frequency-response data. Program is based on conjugate-gradient search procedure that minimizes error between given frequency-response data and frequency response of transfer function that is supplied by user.

  17. Regulation of multiple carbon monoxide consumption pathways in anaerobic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M Techtmann

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO, well known as a toxic gas, is increasingly recognized as a key metabolite and signaling molecule. Microbial utilization of CO is quite common, evidenced by the rapid escalation in description of new species of CO-utilizing bacteria and archaea. Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH, the protein complex that enables anaerobic CO utilization has been well-characterized from an increasing number of microorganisms, however the regulation of multiple CO-related gene clusters in single isolates remains unexplored. Many species are extroraordinarily resistant to high CO concentrations, thiriving under pure CO at more than one atmosphere. We hypothesized that, in strains that can grow exclusively on CO, both carbon acquisition via the CODH/Acetyl CoA synthase complex and energy conservation via a CODH-linked hydrogenase must be differentially regulated in response to the availability of CO. The CO-sensing transcriptional activator, CooA is present in most CO-oxidizing bacteria. Here we present a genomic and phylogenetic survey of CODH operons and cooA genes found in CooA-containing bacteria. Two distinct groups of CooA homologs were found: One clade (CooA-1 is found in the majority of CooA containing bacteria, whereas the other clade (CooA-2 is found only in genomes that encode multiple CODH clusters, suggesting that the CooA-2 might be important for cross-regulation of competing CODH operons. Recombinant CooA-1 and CooA-2 regulators from the prototypical CO-utilizing bacterium Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans were purified, and promoter binding analyses revealed that CooA-1 specifically regulates the hydrogenase-linked CODH, whereas CooA-2 is able to regulate both the hydrogenase-linked CODH and the CODH/ACS operons. These studies point to the ability of dual CooA homologs to partition CO into divergent CO-utilizing pathways resulting in efficient consumption of a single limiting growth substrate available across a wide range of

  18. Four-electron deoxygenative reductive coupling of carbon monoxide at a single metal site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Joshua A.; Agapie, Theodor

    2016-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is the ultimate source of the fossil fuels that are both central to modern life and problematic: their use increases atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases, and their availability is geopolitically constrained. Using carbon dioxide as a feedstock to produce synthetic fuels might, in principle, alleviate these concerns. Although many homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts convert carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide, further deoxygenative coupling of carbon monoxide to generate useful multicarbon products is challenging. Molybdenum and vanadium nitrogenases are capable of converting carbon monoxide into hydrocarbons under mild conditions, using discrete electron and proton sources. Electrocatalytic reduction of carbon monoxide on copper catalysts also uses a combination of electrons and protons, while the industrial Fischer-Tropsch process uses dihydrogen as a combined source of electrons and electrophiles for carbon monoxide coupling at high temperatures and pressures. However, these enzymatic and heterogeneous systems are difficult to probe mechanistically. Molecular catalysts have been studied extensively to investigate the elementary steps by which carbon monoxide is deoxygenated and coupled, but a single metal site that can efficiently induce the required scission of carbon-oxygen bonds and generate carbon-carbon bonds has not yet been documented. Here we describe a molybdenum compound, supported by a terphenyl-diphosphine ligand, that activates and cleaves the strong carbon-oxygen bond of carbon monoxide, enacts carbon-carbon coupling, and spontaneously dissociates the resulting fragment. This complex four-electron transformation is enabled by the terphenyl-diphosphine ligand, which acts as an electron reservoir and exhibits the coordinative flexibility needed to stabilize the different intermediates involved in the overall reaction sequence. We anticipate that these design elements might help in the development of efficient catalysts for

  19. Four-electron deoxygenative reductive coupling of carbon monoxide at a single metal site

    OpenAIRE

    Buss, Joshua A.; Agapie, Theodor

    2016-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is the ultimate source of the fossil fuels that are both central to modern life and problematic: their use increases atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases, and their availability is geopolitically constrained. Using carbon dioxide as a feedstock to produce synthetic fuels might, in principle, alleviate these concerns. Although many homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts convert carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide, further deoxygenative coupling of carbon monoxide to generate us...

  20. Delayed neuropsychiatric syndrome after carbon monoxide poisoning: inclusion of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in the recovery protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Dante Lo Pardo; Davide Amedola; Giuliana Senatore; Alberto Damiano; Gabriela Pezzuti; Nicola Pugliese; Gianpiero Locatelli; Alfredo Siani; Nicola Maria Vitola

    2016-01-01

    The delayed neuropsychiatric syndrome can arise in the period from 4 days to 5 weeks following carbon monoxide poisoning, and is characterized by neuropsychological deficits, which in some cases become chronic. This case report describes an adult female who apparently suffered self-inflicted carbon monoxide poisoning. She was not treated with hyperbaric oxygen and developed delayed sequelae on day 20. The treatment started with 40 sessions of hyperbaric oxygen therapy and subsequently with ne...

  1. The Range of 1-3 keV Electrons in Solid Oxygen and Carbon Monoxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oehlenschlæger, M.; Andersen, H.H.; Schou, Jørgen

    1985-01-01

    The range of 1-3 keV electrons in films of solid oxygen and carbon monoxide has been measured by a mirror substrate method. The technique used here is identical to the one previously used for range measurements in solid hydrogen and nitrogen. The range in oxygen is slightly shorter than...... that in nitrogen whereas the range in carbon monoxide is about 20% larger than that in the nitrogen....

  2. Selected constituents in the smokes of foreign commercial cigaretts: tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, R.A.; Quincy, R.B.; Guerin, M.R.

    1979-05-01

    The tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide contents of the smokes of 220 brands of foreign commercial cigarettes are reported. In some instances, filter cigarettes of certain brands were found to deliver as much or more smoke constituents than their nonfilter counterparts. Also, data indicated that there can be a great variation in the tar, nicotine, or carbon monoxide content of the smoke of samples of a given brand of cigarettes, depending on the nation in which they are purchased. 24 tables.

  3. Improved measurement of labile proton concentration-weighted chemical exchange rate (kws) with experimental factor-compensated and T1-normalized quantitative chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Renhua; Liu, Charng-Ming; Liu, Philip K; Sun, Phillip Zhe

    2012-01-01

    Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) MRI enables measurement of dilute CEST agents and microenvironment properties such as pH and temperature, holding great promise for in vivo applications. However, because of confounding concomitant RF irradiation and relaxation effects, the CEST-weighted MRI contrast may not fully characterize the underlying CEST phenomenon. We postulated that the accuracy of quantitative CEST MRI could be improved if the experimental factors (labeling efficiency and RF spillover effect) were estimated and taken into account. Specifically, the experimental factor was evaluated as a function of exchange rate and CEST agent concentration ratio, which remained relatively constant for intermediate RF irradiation power levels. Hence, the experimental factors can be calculated based on the reasonably estimated exchange rate and labile proton concentration ratio, which significantly improved quantification. The simulation was confirmed with Creatine phantoms of serially varied concentration titrated to the same pH, whose reverse exchange rate (kws) was found to be linearly correlated with the concentration. In summary, the proposed solution provides simplified yet reasonably accurate quantification of the underlying CEST system, which may help guide the ongoing development of quantitative CEST MRI. PMID:22649044

  4. Are hydrophobins and/or non-specific lipid transfer proteins responsible for gushing in beer? New hypotheses on the chemical nature of gushing inducing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hippeli, Susanne; Elstner, Erich F

    2002-01-01

    Gushing of beer is characterised by the fact that immediately after opening a bottle a great number of fine bubbles are created throughout the volume of beer and ascend quickly under foam formation, which flows out of the bottle. This infuriating gushing phenomenon has been, and still is, a problem of world-wide importance to the brewing industry. It is generally assumed that the causes of malt-derived gushing are due to the use of "weathered" barley or wheat and the growth of moulds in the field, during storage and malting. We now develop a hypothesis connecting several lines of evidence from different laboratories. These results indicate that the fungal hydrophobins, hydrophobic components of conidiospores or aerial mycelia, are gushing-inducing factors. Furthermore, increased formation of ns-LTPs (non-specific lipid transfer proteins), synthesised in grains as response to fungal infection, and their modification during the brewing process may be responsible for malt-derived gushing.

  5. Experimental studies on heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of CuO/water nanofluid under laminar flow in a helically dimpled tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, S.; Chandrasekar, M.; Selvakumar, P.

    2012-04-01

    An experimental investigation on the convective heat transfer and friction factor characteristics in the plain and dimpled tube under laminar flow with constant heat flux is carried out with distilled water and CuO/water nanofluids. For this, CuO nanoparticles with an average size of 15.3 nm were synthesized by sol-gel method. The nanoparticles are then dispersed in distilled water to form stable suspension of CuO/water nanofluid containing 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3% volume concentration of nanoparticles. It is found that the experimental Nusselt numbers for 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3% volume concentration of CuO nanoparticles are about 6, 9.9 and 12.6%, respectively higher than those obtained with distilled water in plain tube. However, the experimental Nusselt numbers for 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3% volume concentration of CuO nanoparticles are about 3.4, 6.8 and 12%, respectively higher than those obtained with distilled water in dimpled tube. The friction factor of CuO/water nanofluid is also increased due to the inclusion of nanoparticles and found to increase with nanoparticle volume concentration. The experimental results show that there exists a difference in the enhancement levels of Nusselt numbers obtained with nanofluids in plain tube and dimpled tube. Hence it is proposed that the mechanism of heat transfer enhancement obtained with nanofluids is due to particle migration from the core of fluid flow to tube wall.

  6. Protein replacement therapy and gene transfer in canine models of hemophilia A, hemophilia B, von willebrand disease, and factor VII deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Timothy C; Dillow, Aaron M; Franck, Helen W G; Merricks, Elizabeth P; Raymer, Robin A; Bellinger, Dwight A; Arruda, Valder R; High, Katherine A

    2009-01-01

    Dogs with hemophilia A, hemophilia B, von Willebrand disease (VWD), and factor VII deficiency faithfully recapitulate the severe bleeding phenotype that occurs in humans with these disorders. The first rational approach to diagnosing these bleeding disorders became possible with the development of reliable assays in the 1940s through research that used these dogs. For the next 60 years, treatment consisted of replacement of the associated missing or dysfunctional protein, first with plasma-derived products and subsequently with recombinant products. Research has consistently shown that replacement products that are safe and efficacious in these dogs prove to be safe and efficacious in humans. But these highly effective products require repeated administration and are limited in supply and expensive; in addition, plasma-derived products have transmitted bloodborne pathogens. Recombinant proteins have all but eliminated inadvertent transmission of bloodborne pathogens, but the other limitations persist. Thus, gene therapy is an attractive alternative strategy in these monogenic disorders and has been actively pursued since the early 1990s. To date, several modalities of gene transfer in canine hemophilia have proven to be safe, produced easily detectable levels of transgene products in plasma that have persisted for years in association with reduced bleeding, and correctly predicted the vector dose required in a human hemophilia B liver-based trial. Very recently, however, researchers have identified an immune response to adeno-associated viral gene transfer vector capsid proteins in a human liver-based trial that was not present in preclinical testing in rodents, dogs, or nonhuman primates. This article provides a review of the strengths and limitations of canine hemophilia, VWD, and factor VII deficiency models and of their historical and current role in the development of improved therapy for humans with these inherited bleeding disorders.

  7. An adeno-associated virus-based intracellular sensor of pathological nuclear factor-κB activation for disease-inducible gene transfer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelwahed Chtarto

    Full Text Available Stimulation of resident cells by NF-κB activating cytokines is a central element of inflammatory and degenerative disorders of the central nervous system (CNS. This disease-mediated NF-κB activation could be used to drive transgene expression selectively in affected cells, using adeno-associated virus (AAV-mediated gene transfer. We have constructed a series of AAV vectors expressing GFP under the control of different promoters including NF-κB -responsive elements. As an initial screen, the vectors were tested in vitro in HEK-293T cells treated with TNF-α. The best profile of GFP induction was obtained with a promoter containing two blocks of four NF-κB -responsive sequences from the human JCV neurotropic polyoma virus promoter, fused to a new tight minimal CMV promoter, optimally distant from each other. A therapeutical gene, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF cDNA under the control of serotype 1-encapsidated NF-κB -responsive AAV vector (AAV-NF was protective in senescent cultures of mouse cortical neurons. AAV-NF was then evaluated in vivo in the kainic acid (KA-induced status epilepticus rat model for temporal lobe epilepsy, a major neurological disorder with a central pathophysiological role for NF-κB activation. We demonstrate that AAV-NF, injected in the hippocampus, responded to disease induction by mediating GFP expression, preferentially in CA1 and CA3 neurons and astrocytes, specifically in regions where inflammatory markers were also induced. Altogether, these data demonstrate the feasibility to use disease-activated transcription factor-responsive elements in order to drive transgene expression specifically in affected cells in inflammatory CNS disorders using AAV-mediated gene transfer.

  8. Prevention of beta cell dysfunction and apoptosis by adenoviral gene transfer of rat insulin-like growth factor 1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhi-hong; LI Tang; CHEN Zong-bo; LUO Bing; SUN Ruo-peng

    2009-01-01

    Background Islet β-cells are almost completely destroyed when patients with type 1 diabete are diagnosed. To date, insulin substitute therapy is still one of the main treatments. The cure of type 1 diabetes requires β-cell regeneration from islet cell precursors and prevention of recurring autoimmunity, Therefore, β-cell regeneration and proliferation emerge as a new research focus on therapy for type 1 diabetes. Islet β-cell regeneration and development are controlled by many growth factors, especially insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1).Methods Recombinant adenovirus encoding rat IGF-1 (rlGF-1) was constructed and transduced into rat β-cells, RINm5F cells. Western blotting analysis and ELISA were used to detect rlGF-1 protein. Streptozotocin (STZ) was used to induce RINm5F cell destruction. The level of nitric oxide (NO) was detected in cell culture supernatants by the Griess reaction. Islet cell function was evaluated by glucose-stimulated insulin production. Flow cytometry analysis was further used to investigate the apoptosis of RINm5F cells. Thiaoollyl blue viability assay was applied to determine cell viability.Results The recombined adenovirus-rlGF-1 was successfully constructed and the titer was 4.0×108pfu/ml. The rlGF-1 protein was effectively expressed in the RINm5F cells and cell culture supernatants, rlGF-1 expression remarkably inhibited STZ-induced islet cell apoptosis and significantly decreased the level of NO. Furthermore, IGF-1 expression also significantly protected insulin secretion and cell proliferation in a time-dependent manner.Conclusions Our study suggests that locally produced rlGF-1 from RINm5F cells may be beneficial in maintaining β-cell function, protecting β-cells from the destruction of apoptosis factors and promoting β-cell survival and proliferation. IGF-1 might be considered as a candidate gene in gene therapy for type 1 diabetes. In addition, it appears that the apoptosis induced by STZ may be NO-dependent.

  9. Carbon monoxide exposure in households in Ciudad Juárez, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Teresa; Gurian, Patrick L; Velázquez-Angulo, Gilberto; Corella-Barud, Verónica; Rojo, Analila; Graham, Jay P

    2008-03-01

    This study assessed exposure to carbon monoxide from gas and wood heater emissions in a sample of 64 households in peri-urban residential areas in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, México. Indoor and outdoor carbon monoxide concentrations and temperatures were monitored for a continuous period of 1 week at 1 and 6-min intervals, respectively. The moving average carbon monoxide concentrations were compared to the World Health Organization (WHO) standards for carbon monoxide. Sixty-seven percent of households with gas heaters and 60% of households with wood heaters exceeded a health-based standard at some point during the monitoring. The difference between indoor and outdoor temperatures was modestly correlated with average carbon monoxide exposure (r=0.35, p-value <0.01). Heater type may be a stronger determinant of exposure, as households with a particular heater model (the El Sol FM-210) were significantly more likely to be among the more highly exposed households (odds ratio of 4.8, p-value of 0.02). A variety of health effects were pooled and found at elevated frequency in the households that exceeded the 8-h standard of 9ppm (odds ratio=5.1, p-value=0.031). These results highlight the need for further efforts to identify and mitigate potentially hazardous carbon monoxide exposures, particularly in moderate-income countries with cooler climates.

  10. Adenovirus-mediated hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha gene transfer induces angiogenesis and neurogenesis following cerebral ischemia in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanfu Wu; Xiu Chen; Zhen Yu; Changlin Hu; Wenqin Cai

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) accumulates under conditions of hypoxia. HIF-1α target genes have pleiotropic effects on neurogenesis, neuroprotection and angiogenesis in the brain.OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether a recombinant adenovirus carrying HIF-1α can increase the expression of HIF-1α in vivo and thus promote angiogenesis and neurogenesis in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: The randomized, controlled experiment was performed at the Department of Neurobiology, Third Military Medical University of Chinese PLA from September 2006 to October 2007.MATERIALS: 68 healthy adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, weighing 230-250 g, were used. HIF-1α antibody was purchased from Wuhan Boster Company. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antibody was purchased from Santa Cruz Biotech Company.METHODS: All 68 rats were induced with a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), according to the method of intra-luminal vascular occlusion. 54 rats, in which MCAO was successfully induced, were randomly divided into adenovirus (Ad) group and recombinant adenovirus with HIF-1αgene (Ad-HIF-1α) group (27 rats for each group). Rats were injected with 10 μL Ad (Ad group) or Ad-HIF-1α (Ad-HIF-1α group) into the lateral ventricle, 1 day after MCAO induction. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to measure the expression of HIF-1α and of VEGF. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the localization of HIF-1α, VEGF and factor Ⅷ in ischemic penumbra. Rat newborn nerve cells were labeled with 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) after ischemia. BrdU/neurofilament 200 (NF200) and BrdU/glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) double labeled immunofluorescent histochemistry was used to identify the differentiation of newborn cells. Neurological function was evaluated using the modified neurological severity score (NSS).RESULTS: Compared with Ad, Ad-HIF-1αenhanced the expression of HIF-1

  11. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor gene transfer prevents vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation by interfering with the MCP-3/CCR2 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yu; Ma, Dandan; Liu, Yue; Li, Hui; Chi, Jinyu; Liu, Wenxiu; Lin, Fang; Hu, Jing; Zhang, Xiaohui; Zhu, Minling; Zhao, Yong; Yin, Xinhua

    2015-11-01

    Increased vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation substantially contributes to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and intimal hyperplasia after vascular injury. The importance of inflammation in VSMC proliferation is now being recognized. Preventing the inflammatory response is one therapeutic strategy that can be used to inhibit atherosclerosis in the clinic. The present study, using RNA interference and gene transfer techniques, was conducted to investigate the effect of monocyte chemotactic protein-3 (MCP-3) on VSMC proliferation that is a result of TNF-α stimulation, and whether overexpression of the tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) gene could prevent VSMC proliferation by blocking the MCP-3/CC chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) pathway. Mouse VSMCs were infected in vitro with recombinant adenoviruses containing either mouse MCP-3-shRNA (Ad-MCP-3-shRNA), the TFPI gene (Ad-TFPI), or the negative control, which was shRNA encoding the sequence for EGFP (Ad-EGFP) or DMEM only. The cells were then stimulated with TNF-α for different time periods on the third day after gene transfer. The data show that VSMC proliferation in the Ad-MCP-3-shRNA and Ad-TFPI groups was markedly decreased using BrdU ELISA and MTT assays; MCP-3-shRNA and TFPI inhibited the expression of MCP-3 and CCR2 after long-term stimulation and inhibited the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and AKT after short-term stimulation, as shown by ELISA and western blot analysis. This study provides convincing evidence that clarifies the effect of the proinflammatory factor MCP-3 in promoting VSMC proliferation. Our data also show, for the first time, that TFPI has an anti-proliferative role in TNF-α stimulated-VSMCs at least partly by interfering with the MCP-3/CCR2 pathway and then via suppression of the ERK1/2 and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways. We conclude that TFPI gene transfer may be a safe and effective therapeutic tool for treating atherosclerosis and intimal hyperplasia.

  12. Carbon monoxide inhalation increases microparticles causing vascular and CNS dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiajun; Yang, Ming; Kosterin, Paul; Salzberg, Brian M; Milovanova, Tatyana N; Bhopale, Veena M; Thom, Stephen R

    2013-12-01

    We hypothesized that circulating microparticles (MPs) play a role in pro-inflammatory effects associated with carbon monoxide (CO) inhalation. Mice exposed for 1h to 100 ppm CO or more exhibit increases in circulating MPs derived from a variety of vascular cells as well as neutrophil activation. Tissue injury was quantified as 2000 kDa dextran leakage from vessels and as neutrophil sequestration in the brain and skeletal muscle; and central nervous system nerve dysfunction was documented as broadening of the neurohypophysial action potential (AP). Indices of injury occurred following exposures to 1000 ppm for 1h or to 1000 ppm for 40 min followed by 3000 ppm for 20 min. MPs were implicated in causing injuries because infusing the surfactant MP lytic agent, polyethylene glycol telomere B (PEGtB) abrogated elevations in MPs, vascular leak, neutrophil sequestration and AP prolongation. These manifestations of tissue injury also did not occur in mice lacking myeloperoxidase. Vascular leakage and AP prolongation were produced in naïve mice infused with MPs that had been obtained from CO poisoned mice, but this did not occur with MPs obtained from control mice. We conclude that CO poisoning triggers elevations of MPs that activate neutrophils which subsequently cause tissue injuries.

  13. Carbon monoxide: from toxin to endogenous modulator of cardiovascular functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Johnson

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO is a pollutant commonly recognized for its toxicological attributes, including CNS and cardiovascular effects. But CO is also formed endogenously in mammalian tissues. Endogenously formed CO normally arises from heme degradation in a reaction catalyzed by heme oxygenase. While inhibitors of endogenous CO production can raise arterial pressure, heme loading can enhance CO production and lead to vasodepression. Both central and peripheral tissues possess heme oxygenases and generate CO from heme, but the inability of heme substrate to cross the blood brain barrier suggests the CNS heme-heme oxygenase-CO system may be independent of the periphery. In the CNS, CO apparently acts in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS promoting changes in glutamatergic neurotransmission and lowering blood pressure. At the periphery, the heme-heme oxygenase-CO system can affect cardiovascular functions in a two-fold manner; specifically: 1 heme-derived CO generated within vascular smooth muscle (VSM can promote vasodilation, but 2 its actions on the endothelium apparently can promote vasoconstriction. Thus, it seems reasonable that the CNS-, VSM- and endothelial-dependent actions of the heme-heme oxygenase-CO system may all affect cardiac output and vascular resistance, and subsequently blood pressure.

  14. Acute carbon monoxide poisoning: animal models: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penney, D G

    1990-05-31

    Animals have been used for well over a century in an attempt to understand the toxicology, physiology, and pathology of acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Whether the toxic effects of this gas result from primary hypoxia, as in hypoxic hypoxia to which it is frequently compared, or from direct tissue effects since it enters cells and binds to certain vital components, remains a point of controversy. Acute severe poisoning in man and animals affects primarily the cardiovascular and nervous systems, and frequently produces neurologic dysfunction. Morphologically, tissue damage is usually confined to the white matter. The root cause is at best poorly understood and major investigative efforts have been made toward its elucidation. Many studies with rats, cats and primates indicate a major role for CO-induced hypotension, which serves to compromise blood flow and exacerbate acidosis. The likely cellular mechanisms in this process are only now becoming apparent. This review critically examines the recent as well as a few older CO-animal studies. In scope, they fall into several broad categories: general cardiopulmonary effects, metabolic and tissue effects, general resistance (i.e. tolerance), effects on the central nervous system including blood flow, neurochemistry, morphology and behavior, and finally, experimental therapeutic approaches.

  15. The Role of Oxygen Therapies in Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleyman Metin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to climate and socio-economic issues in Turkey, the incidence of carbon monoxide (CO poisoning is high, especially in winter. Clinical manifestations may vary depending on the type of CO source, concentration and duration of exposure. The symptoms of CO poisoning predominantly manifest in lots of organs and systems with high oxygen utilization, especially the brain and the heart. The primary aim in oxygen therapy is to eliminate CO and to reduce its toxic effects. In this context, normobaric and hyperbaric oxygen therapy are used to achieve these goals. Normobaric oxygen (NBO treatment is an easily accessible and relatively not expensive modality, where hyperbaric oxygen (HBO therapy requires specific equipment, certified staff and is available only in some centers. Additionally, HBO treatment has several additional advantages over NBO treatment. Despite its benefits, it is compulsory to search for some criteria in selecting patients to be treated because of the limited availability and access of hyperbaric facilities. For an effective evaluation and an optimal treatment, advanced education of the healthcare professionals on the use of oxygen delivery modalities in the management of CO poisoning is imperative. In this review, it has been aimed to outline the significance of oxygen treatment modalities and to determine patient selection criteria for HBO treatment in the management of CO poisoning which continues to be an important threat to community health care. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(4.000: 487-494

  16. Carbon monoxide exposures after hurricane Ike - Texas, September 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-14

    During power outages after hurricanes, survivors can be at risk for carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning if they use portable generators improperly. On September 13, 2008, Hurricane Ike struck the coast of Texas, leaving approximately 2.3 million households in the southeastern portion of the state without electricity. Six days later, 1.3 million homes were still without electrical power. To assess the impact of storm-related CO exposures and to enhance prevention efforts, CDC analyzed data from five disparate surveillance sources on CO exposures reported during September 13--26 in counties of southeast Texas that were declared disaster areas by the federal government. This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that one data source, Texas poison centers, received reports of 54 persons with storm-related CO exposures during the surveillance period. Another data source, the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society (UHMS) hyperbaric oxygen treatment database, reported that 15 persons received hyperbaric oxygen treatment for storm-related CO poisoning. Medical examiners, public health officials, and hospitals in Texas reported that seven persons died from storm-related CO poisoning. Among the data sources, the percentage of reported storm-related CO exposures caused by improper generator use ranged from 82% to 87%. These findings underscore the need for effective prevention messages during storm preparation, warnings, and response periods regarding the correct use of generators and the installation and maintenance of battery-powered CO detectors.

  17. The immunomodulatory role of carbon monoxide during transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amano Mariane

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The number of organ and tissue transplants has increased worldwide in recent decades. However, graft rejection, infections due to the use of immunosuppressive drugs and a shortage of graft donors remain major concerns. Carbon monoxide (CO had long been regarded solely as a poisonous gas. Ultimately, physiological studies unveiled the endogenous production of CO, particularly by the heme oxygenase (HO-1 enzyme, recognizing CO as a beneficial gas when used at therapeutic doses. The protective properties of CO led researchers to develop uses for it, resulting in devices and molecules that can deliver CO in vitro and in vivo. The resulting interest in clinical investigations was immediate. Studies regarding the CO/HO-1 modulation of immune responses and their effects on various immune disorders gave rise to transplantation research, where CO was shown to be essential in the protection against organ rejection in animal models. This review provides a perspective of how CO modulates the immune system to improve transplantation and suggests its use as a therapy in the field.

  18. Carbon monoxide and iron modulate plasmatic coagulation in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Vance G; Pretorius, Etheresia; Bester, Janette; Jacobsen, Wayne K; Boyle, Patrick K; Reinhard, Joao P

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a significant source of morbidity and mortality for millions of people worldwide, and multiple potential etiologies have been postulated to contribute to AD. Among these, spontaneous cerebral emboli and increased cerebral and circulating heme oxygenase (Hmox) activity in AD patients are of particular interest, as two of the products of Hmox activity, carbon monoxide (CO) and iron enhance plasmatic coagulation and modify the ultrastructure of thrombi. We hypothesized that patients afflicted with AD would have coagulation kinetics modulated by CO and iron. Using viscoelastic assessments of coagulation, it was determined with a small cohort (n=11) of AD patients that all had enhancement of coagulation by CO, iron, or both. In a complementary fashion, it was determined that a separate cohort (n=12) of AD patients had thrombi with ultrastructural features consistent with iron and CO exposure as assessed with scanning electron microscopy. Further, when stratified by normal or abnormally increased serum ferritin concentrations (which can be increased by Hmox), the AD patients with abnormal ferritin concentrations had significantly thinner fibrin fiber diameters, not unlike that noted when normal plasma is mixed with iron or CO. In sum, AD patients were noted to have plasmatic coagulation kinetic and thrombus ultrastructural changes consistent with exposure to CO and iron. Future investigation of CO and iron in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease is warranted.

  19. Carbon monoxide: an emerging regulator of ion channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, William J; Kemp, Paul J

    2011-07-01

    Carbon monoxide is rapidly emerging as an important cellular messenger, regulating a wide range of physiological processes. Crucial to its role in both physiology and disease is its ability differentially to regulate several classes of ion channels, including examples from calcium-activated K(+) (BK(Ca)), voltage-activated K(+) (K(v)) and Ca(2+) channel (L-type) families, ligand-gated P2X receptors (P2X2 and P2X4), tandem P domain K(+) channels (TREK1) and the epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC). The mechanisms by which CO regulates these ion channels are still unclear and remain somewhat controversial. However, available structure-function studies suggest that a limited range of amino acid residues confer CO sensitivity, either directly or indirectly, to particular ion channels and that cellular redox state appears to be important to the final integrated response. Whatever the molecular mechanism by which CO regulates ion channels, endogenous production of this gasotransmitter has physiologically important roles and is currently being explored as a potential therapeutic.

  20. Discovery of carbon monoxide in the upper atmosphere of Pluto

    CERN Document Server

    Greaves, J S; Friberg, P

    2011-01-01

    Pluto's icy surface has changed colour and its atmosphere has swelled since its last closest approach to the Sun in 1989. The thin atmosphere is produced by evaporating ices, and so can also change rapidly, and in particular carbon monoxide should be present as an active thermostat. Here we report the discovery of gaseous CO via the 1.3mm wavelength J=2-1 rotational transition, and find that the line-centre signal is more than twice as bright as a tentative result obtained by Bockelee-Morvan et al. in 2000. Greater surface-ice evaporation over the last decade could explain this, or increased pressure could have caused the atmosphere to expand. The gas must be cold, with a narrow line-width consistent with temperatures around 50 K, as predicted for the very high atmosphere, and the line brightness implies that CO molecules extend up to approximately 3 Pluto radii above the surface. The upper atmosphere must have changed markedly over only a decade since the prior search, and more alterations could occur by the...