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Sample records for monoxide nonmethane hydrocarbons

  1. A survey of carbon monoxide and non-methane hydrocarbons in the Arctic Ocean during summer 2010

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    S. Tran

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available During the ARK XXV 1 + 2 expedition in the Arctic Ocean carried out in June–July 2010 aboard the R/V Polarstern, we measured carbon monoxide (CO, non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC and phytoplankton pigments at the sea surface and down to a depth of 100 m. The CO and NMHC sea-surface concentrations were highly variable; CO, propene and isoprene levels ranged from 0.6 to 17.5 nmol L−1, 1 to 322 pmol L−1 and 1 to 541 pmol L−1, respectively. The CO and alkene concentrations as well as their sea–air fluxes were enhanced in polar waters off of Greenland, which were more stratified because of ice melting and richer in chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM than typical North Atlantic waters. The spatial distribution of the surface concentrations of CO was consistent with our current understanding of CO-induced UV photoproduction in the sea. The vertical distributions of the CO and alkenes were comparable and followed the trend of light penetration, with the concentrations displaying a relatively regular exponential decrease down to non-measurable values below 50 m. However, no diurnal variations of CO or alkene concentrations were observed in the stratified and irradiated surface layers. On several occasions, we observed the existence of subsurface CO maxima at the level of the deep chlorophyll maximum. This finding suggests the existence of a non-photochemical CO production pathway, most likely of phytoplanktonic origin. The corresponding production rates normalized to the chlorophyll content were in the range of those estimated from laboratory experiments. In general, the vertical distributions of isoprene followed that of the phytoplankton biomass. These data support the existence of a dominant photochemical source of CO and light alkenes enhanced in polar waters of the Arctic Ocean, with a minor contribution of a biological source of CO. The biological source of isoprene is observed in the different water masses but significantly

  2. A survey of carbon monoxide and non-methane hydrocarbons in the Arctic Ocean during summer 2010: assessment of the role of phytoplankton

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    S. Tran

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available During the ARK XXV 1+2 expedition in the Arctic Ocean carried out in June–July 2010 aboard the R/V Polarstern, we measured carbon monoxide (CO, non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC and phytoplankton pigments at the sea surface and down to a depth of 100 m. The CO and NMHC sea-surface concentrations were highly variable; CO, propene and isoprene levels ranged from 0.6 to 17.5 nmol l−1, 1 to 322 pmol l−1 and 1 to 541 pmol l−1, respectively. The CO and alkene concentrations were enhanced in polar waters off of Greenland, which were more stratified because of ice melting and richer in chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM than typical North Atlantic waters. The spatial distribution of the surface concentrations of CO was consistent with our current understanding of CO-induced UV photo-production in the sea. The vertical distributions of the CO and alkenes followed the trend of light penetration, with the concentrations displaying a relatively regular exponential decrease down to non-measurable values below 50 m. However, no diurnal variations of CO or alkene concentrations were observed in the stratified and irradiated surface layers. This finding suggests that the production and removal processes of CO and alkenes were tightly coupled. We tentatively determined a first-order rate constant for the microbial consumption of CO of 0.5 d−1, which is in agreement with previous studies. On several occasions, we observed the existence of subsurface CO maxima at the level of the deep chlorophyll maximum. This finding represents field evidence for the existence of a non-photochemical CO production pathway, most likely of phytoplanktonic origin. The corresponding production rates normalized to the chlorophyll content were in the range of those estimated from laboratory experiments. In general, the vertical distributions of isoprene followed that of the phytoplankton biomass. Hence, oceanic data

  3. Nonmethane hydrocarbon composition of urban and rural atmospheres

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    Sexton, Ken; Westberg, Hal

    Nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC) are not measured routinely at most ambient monitoring stations. Yet this type of information is required to evaluate existing control strategies aimed at achieving the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for O 3. This paper summarizes data from ambient air monitoring programs in seven urban centers (Houston, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington, D.C., Newark, Boston, Milwaukee,) and six rural areas in California, Wisconsin, Texas, Illinois, Maine and Florida. Gas Chromatographie analysis was used to identify individual C 2-C 10 HCs in more than 990 ambient air samples. Measurements in urban and rural areas are compared based on total and individual HC concentrations.

  4. Characterization of non-methane hydrocarbons in Asian summer monsoon outflow observed by the CARIBIC aircraft

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    A. K. Baker

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Between April and December 2008 the CARIBIC commercial aircraft conducted monthly measurement flights between Frankfurt, Germany and Chennai, India. These flights covered the period of the Asian summer monsoon (June–September, during which enhancements in a number of atmospheric species were observed in monsoon outflow. In addition to in situ measurements of trace gases and aerosols, whole air samples were collected during the flights, and these were subsequently analyzed for a suite of trace gases that included the non-methane hydrocarbons. Non-methane hydrocarbons are relatively short-lived compounds and the large enhancements in their mixing ratios in the upper troposphere over Southwest Asia between June and September, sometimes more than double their spring and fall means, provides qualitative evidence for the influence of convectively uplifted boundary layer air. The particularly large enhancements of the combustion tracers benzene and ethyne, along with the similarity of their ratios to carbon monoxide and emission ratios from the burning of household biofuels, indicate a strong influence of biofuel burning to NMHC emissions in this region. Conversely, the ratios of ethane and propane to carbon monoxide, along with the ratio between i-butane and n-butane, indicate a significant source of these compounds from the use of LPG and natural gas, and comparison to previous campaigns suggests that this source could be increasing. Photochemical aging patterns of NMHCs showed that the CARIBIC samples were collected in two distinctly different regions of the monsoon circulation: a southern region where air masses had been recently influenced by low level contact and a northern region, where air parcels had spent substantial time in transit in the upper troposphere before being probed. Estimates of age using ratios of individual NMHCs have ranges of 3–6 d in the south and 9–12 d in the north.

  5. Receptor Model Source Apportionment of Nonmethane Hydrocarbons in Mexico City

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    V. Mugica

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose of estimating the source contributions of nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC to the atmosphere at three different sites in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area, 92 ambient air samples were measured from February 23 to March 22 of 1997. Light- and heavy-duty vehicular profiles were determined to differentiate the NMHC contribution of diesel and gasoline to the atmosphere. Food cooking source profiles were also determined for chemical mass balance receptor model application. Initial source contribution estimates were carried out to determine the adequate combination of source profiles and fitting species. Ambient samples of NMHC were apportioned to motor vehicle exhaust, gasoline vapor, handling and distribution of liquefied petroleum gas (LP gas, asphalt operations, painting operations, landfills, and food cooking. Both gasoline and diesel motor vehicle exhaust were the major NMHC contributors for all sites and times, with a percentage of up to 75%. The average motor vehicle exhaust contributions increased during the day. In contrast, LP gas contribution was higher during the morning than in the afternoon. Apportionment for the most abundant individual NMHC showed that the vehicular source is the major contributor to acetylene, ethylene, pentanes, n-hexane, toluene, and xylenes, while handling and distribution of LP gas was the major source contributor to propane and butanes. Comparison between CMB estimates of NMHC and the emission inventory showed a good agreement for vehicles, handling and distribution of LP gas, and painting operations; nevertheless, emissions from diesel exhaust and asphalt operations showed differences, and the results suggest that these emissions could be underestimated.

  6. Emissions of non-methane hydrocarbons from cars in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the exhaust emission of non-methane hydrocarbons(NMHCs) from cars in China at the Beijing driving cycle on the chassis dynamometer.The emission factor average of NMHCs was 0.9 g/km,which was over twice that from the Australian car fleet and 2-4 times that of the American car emission in the 1990s-2000s.The emission profile of Beijing cars showed higher fractions of aromatics and C4?C7 HCs,and lower percentages of C2?C3 HCs,compared with those of the US car fleet.The average ratio of benzene/toluene for cars tested was 0.5,the average benzene/toluene/ethyl benzene/xylenes(BTEX) ratios were 1/2.2/0.1/1.8,which were consistent with those of the Tanyugou tunnel located in the suburb of Beijing.α-pinene and β-pinene were detected from the exhaust gas on dynamometer for the first time,and had likely similar exhaust emission characteristics with C2?C3 HCs and styrene,giving an evidence that air pinenes may be related to human activities.Isoprene was also detected directly.These observations suggest that the procedure regarding pinenes and isoprene as coming from biologic sources of VOCs in the atmosphere should be applied with great care,especially in the core of the big city like Beijing.The specific reactivity of NMHCs was higher than that of cars of US,and the specific reactivity of volatile aromatic compounds was higher than that of the US SPECIATE database.

  7. Measurement of stable carbon isotope ratios of non-methane hydrocarbons and halocarbons

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    Zuiderweg, A.T.

    2012-01-01

    Within the realm of volatile organic compounds, hydrocarbons and halocarbons form a sizable proportion of carbon input to the atmosphere. Within these compound categories, the light non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC, two to seven carbon atoms) and monocarbon halocarbons have a special place as these

  8. Hydrogen sulfide and nonmethane hydrocarbon emissions from broiler houses in the Southeastern United States

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    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and nonmethane hydrocarbon (NMHC) emissions from two mechanically ventilated commercial broiler houses located in the Southeastern United States were continuously monitored over 12 flocks during the one-year period of 2006-2007 as a joint effort between Iowa State University a...

  9. Performance of commercial non-methane hydrocarbon analyzers in monitoring polar volatile organic compounds

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    Quantifying non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) from animal feeding operations (AFOs) is challenging due to the broad spectrum of compounds and the polar nature of the most abundant compounds. The purpose of this study was to determine the performance of commercial NMHC analyzers for measuring volatile ...

  10. Reconstruction of Northern Hemisphere 1950-2010 atmospheric non-methane hydrocarbons

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    Helmig, D.; Petrenko, V.; Martinerie, P.; Witrant, E.; Rockmann, T.; Zuiderweg, A.; Holzinger, R.; Hueber, J.; Thompson, C.; White, J. W. C.; Sturges, W.; Baker, A.; Blunier, T.; Etheridge, D.; Rubino, M.; Tans, P.

    2014-01-01

    The short-chain non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) are mostly emitted into the atmosphere by anthropogenic processes. Recent studies have pointed out a tight linkage between the atmospheric mole fractions of the NMHC ethane and the atmospheric growth rate of methane. Consequently, atmospheric NMHC are

  11. Reconstruction of Northern Hemisphere 1950-2010 atmospheric non-methane hydrocarbons

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    Helmig, D.; Petrenko, V.; Martinerie, P.; Witrant, E.; Rockmann, T.; Zuiderweg, A.; Holzinger, R.; Hueber, J.; Thompson, C.; White, J. W. C.; Sturges, W.; Baker, A.; Blunier, T.; Etheridge, D.; Rubino, M.; Tans, P.

    2014-01-01

    The short-chain non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) are mostly emitted into the atmosphere by anthropogenic processes. Recent studies have pointed out a tight linkage between the atmospheric mole fractions of the NMHC ethane and the atmospheric growth rate of methane. Consequently, atmospheric NMHC are

  12. Network monitoring of speciated vs. total non-methane hydrocarbon measurements

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    Chen, Sheng-Po; Liao, Wei-Cheng; Chang, Chih-Chung; Su, Yuan-Chang; Tong, Yu-Huei; Chang, Julius S.; Wang, Jia-Lin

    2014-06-01

    The total non-methane hydrocarbon (TNMHC) level in the atmosphere is defined as the level of total hydrocarbons minus the level of methane. TNMHC observations are made in selected air quality stations (AQS) of Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) across Taiwan. The AQS network is also complemented by a network of photochemical assessment monitoring stations (PAMS) to provide hourly observations of 56 speciated non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs). In this study, the relationship between the AQS and PAMS TNMHC values was cross-examined for the period of 2007-2011 at four sites that conducted both types of measurements. Although the two observations differ in their methods of collection, the variations in the two datasets showed high synchronicity. However, because some of the NMHCs were missed in the summation of 56 species, the PAMS TNMHC values were consistently lower than those of the AQS TNMHC by an average of 30%.

  13. Nonmethane hydrocarbon and oxy hydrocarbon measurements during the 2002 New England Air Quality Study

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    Goldan, Paul D.; Kuster, William C.; Williams, Eric; Murphy, Paul C.; Fehsenfeld, Fred C.; Meagher, James

    2004-11-01

    Nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and oxy hydrocarbons (oxy HCs) were measured aboard the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration research vessel Ronald H. Brown during the New England Air Quality Study from 13 July to 10 August 2002 by an online dual gas chromatographic instrument with two separate analytical columns equipped, respectively, with flame ionization and mass spectrometer detectors. Measurements, taken each half hour, included C2 to C10 alkanes, C2 to C5 alkenes, alcohols and ketones, C6 to C9 aromatics, and biogenic volatile compounds including six monoterpenes, isoprene and its immediate oxidation products methacrolein and methylvinylketone. All compounds have been categorized by their contribution to the OH loss rate calculated for 298K and 1 atm. Large temporal variability was observed for all compounds. Airflow from the Providence, Rhode Island/Boston, Massachusetts, urban corridor northeast to the New Hampshire coast was usually heavily laden with NMHCs and oxy HCs of anthropogenic origin. Comparison of specific compound ratios with automotive tunnel studies suggested that these were predominantly mobile source emissions. When such flow occurred during daylight hours, these urban plumes were accompanied by increases in ozone in the 80 to 120 ppbv range. About equally as often, much less chemically mature NMHC plumes were encountered near the New Hampshire coast. Ozone was titrated out of these latter plumes, and the unusually high mixing ratios of C4 and C5 alkenes suggested that their source was partly gasoline vapor release rather than mobile source emissions. In the New England coastal region explored, in spite of the large anthropogenic NMHC input during periods of offshore flow, OH loss with hydrocarbons was frequently dominated by compounds of biogenic origin. During periods of cleaner marine air inflow the OH loss rate was dominated by reaction with methane and with oxy HCs, predominantly acetone, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde.

  14. Biogenic nonmethane hydrocarbon emissions estimated from tethered balloon observations

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    Davis, K. J.; Lenschow, D. H.; Zimmerman, P. R.

    1994-01-01

    A new technique for estimating surface fluxes of trace gases, the mixed-layer gradient technique, is used to calculate isoprene and terpene emissions from forests. The technique is applied to tethered balloon measurements made over the Amazon forest and a pine-oak forest in Alabama at altitudes up to 300 m. The observations were made during the dry season Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment (ABLE 2A) and the Rural Oxidants in the Southern Environment 1990 experiment (ROSE I). Results from large eddy simulations of scalar transport in the clear convective boundary layer are used to infer fluxes from the balloon profiles. Profiles from the Amazon give a mean daytime emission of 3630 +/- 1400 micrograms isoprene sq m/h, where the uncertainty represents the standard deviation of the mean of eight flux estimates. Twenty profiles from Alabama give emissions of 4470 +/- 3300 micrograms isoprene sq m/h, 1740 +/- 1060 micrograms alpha-pinene sq m/h, and 790 +/- 560 micrograms beta-pinene sq m/h, respectively. These results are in agreement with emissions derived from chemical budgets. The emissions may be overestimated because of uncertainty about how to incorporate the effects of the canopy on the mixed-layer gradients. The large variability in these emission estimates is probably due to the relatively short sampling times of the balloon profiles, though spatially heterogeneous emissions may also play a role. Fluxes derived using this technique are representative of an upwind footprint of several kilometers and are independent of hydrocarbon oxidation rate and mean advection.

  15. Observations of the release of non-methane hydrocarbons from fractured shale.

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    Sommariva, Roberto; Blake, Robert S; Cuss, Robert J; Cordell, Rebecca L; Harrington, Jon F; White, Iain R; Monks, Paul S

    2014-01-01

    The organic content of shale has become of commercial interest as a source of hydrocarbons, owing to the development of hydraulic fracturing ("fracking"). While the main focus is on the extraction of methane, shale also contains significant amounts of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs). We describe the first real-time observations of the release of NMHCs from a fractured shale. Samples from the Bowland-Hodder formation (England) were analyzed under different conditions using mass spectrometry, with the objective of understanding the dynamic process of gas release upon fracturing of the shale. A wide range of NMHCs (alkanes, cycloalkanes, aromatics, and bicyclic hydrocarbons) are released at parts per million or parts per billion level with temperature- and humidity-dependent release rates, which can be rationalized in terms of the physicochemical characteristics of different hydrocarbon classes. Our results indicate that higher energy inputs (i.e., temperatures) significantly increase the amount of NMHCs released from shale, while humidity tends to suppress it; additionally, a large fraction of the gas is released within the first hour after the shale has been fractured. These findings suggest that other hydrocarbons of commercial interest may be extracted from shale and open the possibility to optimize the "fracking" process, improving gas yields and reducing environmental impacts.

  16. Analyses of firn gas samples from Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica : Study of nonmethane hydrocarbons and methyl chloride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaspers, K.A.; Wal, R.S.W. van de; Gouw, J.A. de; Hofstede, C.M.; Broeke, M.R. van den; Veen, C. van der; Neubert, R.E.M.; Meijer, H.A.J.; Brenninkmeijer, C.A.M.; Karlöf, L.; Winther, J.G.

    2004-01-01

    Firn air was sampled on the Antarctic plateau in Dronning Maud Land (DML), during the Norwegian Antarctic Research Expedition (NARE) 2000/2001. In this paper, we describe the analyses for methyl chloride and nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) in these firn air samples. For the first time, the NMHCs eth

  17. C 2-C 10 nonmethane hydrocarbons measured in Dallas, USA—Seasonal trends and diurnal characteristics

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    Qin, Y.; Walk, T.; Gary, R.; Yao, X.; Elles, S.

    Nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) are important precursors of ozone and other photo oxidants. We presented continuous hourly average concentrations of 45 C 2-C 10 NMHCs measured in urban area of Dallas, USA from 1996 to 2004. Most of the selected compounds are good variables with less noise. The top 10 species with high ozone-generating potential were identified according to their concentrations and reactivities. The ambient concentrations of abundant anthropogenic emission hydrocarbons measured in Dallas were about 2-4 times of the background values measured in the remote areas with adjacent latitude. The time series for anthropogenic emission hydrocarbons showed an obvious seasonal cycle with relatively high concentration in winter and low concentration in summer. The sinusoidal function with a linearly decreasing factor could well fit the time series of NMHCs. The phase of seasonal cycle for the aromatic hydrocarbons of toluene, m/ p xylene and o-xylene that might come from both vehicle emission and solvent utilities evaporation was about 1 month earlier than that for alkanes and alkenes that mainly came from vehicle emission. Ambient NMHCs in Dallas decreased with a stable rate during 1996-2004. For most of compounds with high ozone-generating potential, the rate of ambient concentration decrease was higher or much higher than the rate of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) source emission reduction estimated by EPA's National Emission Inventory. On weekdays, the morning hydrocarbon concentration peak was coincident with morning traffic rush time in Dallas. Another concentration peak was delayed to afternoon traffic rush time. The characteristics of VOCs sources, photochemical removal processes and atmospheric dilution could be interpreted by the diurnal variations of benzene/ethylbenzene (B/E), toluene/ethylbenzene (T/E) and xylene/ethylbenzene (X/E). The ratio of VOC/NO x measured in Dallas was substantially smaller than that calculated for USA cities. Ozone

  18. CARIBIC observations of greenhouse gases and non-methane hydrocarbons on flights between Germany and South Africa

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    Brenninkmeijer, C. A.; Schuck, T. J.; Baker, A. K.; van Velthoven, P.

    2012-12-01

    Since May 2005 the CARIBIC project (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container, www.caribic-atmospheric.com) has made near-monthly deployments of an atmospheric observatory making measurements from aboard a Lufthansa Airbus A340-600 during routine passenger flights. Flights originate in Frankfurt, Germany and serve a large number of destinations, among them Cape Town and Johannesburg in South Africa. On these flights, which took place primarily during northern hemisphere winter 2010/2011, a near-meridional profile was obtained over Europe and Africa, in similar fashion to HIPPO flight tracks over the Pacific, be it without vertical profiles. Over Central Africa, deep convection transports boundary layer air to the free troposphere, linking observations at cruise altitude to surface emissions and allowing for the investigation of emissions and sources of atmospherically relevant species in Africa. Mixing ratios of greenhouse gases (methane, carbon dioxide, sulfur hexafluoride and nitrous oxide) and a suite of C2-C8 non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) are measured from flask samples collected at cruise altitude during flight. Several tracers, for example methane, carbon monoxide, and various NMHC, exhibit enhanced mixing ratios over tropical Africa. Using tracer-tracer correlations to characterize methane emissions from Africa, we find that biomass burning made a major contribution to the methane burden, but that also biogenic sources, such as wetlands, play a significant role. We also compare these measurements to those conducted earlier over India, which were used to investigate sources and emissions of greenhouse gases during the South Asian summer monsoon.

  19. Non-methane hydrocarbons in the atmosphere of Mexico City: Results of the 2012 ozone-season campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaimes-Palomera, Mónica; Retama, Armando; Elias-Castro, Gabriel; Neria-Hernández, Angélica; Rivera-Hernández, Olivia; Velasco, Erik

    2016-05-01

    With the aim to strengthen the verification capabilities of the local air quality management, the air quality monitoring network of Mexico City has started the monitoring of selected non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs). Previous information on the NMHC characterization had been obtained through individual studies and comprehensive intensive field campaigns, in both cases restricted to sampling periods of short duration. This new initiative will address the NMHC pollution problem during longer monitoring periods and provide robust information to evaluate the effectiveness of new control measures. The article introduces the design of the monitoring network and presents results from the first campaign carried out during the first six months of 2012 covering the ozone-season (Mar-May). Using as reference data collected in 2003, results show reductions during the morning rush hour (6-9 h) in the mixing ratios of light alkanes associated with the consumption and distribution of liquefied petroleum gas and aromatic compounds related with the evaporation of fossil fuels and solvents, in contrast to olefins from vehicular traffic. The increase in mixing ratios of reactive olefins is of relevance to understand the moderate success in the ozone and fine aerosols abatement in recent years in comparison to other criteria pollutants. In the case of isoprene, the typical afternoon peak triggered by biogenic emissions was clearly observed for the first time within the city. The diurnal profiles of the monitored compounds are analyzed in terms of the energy balance throughout the day as a surrogate of the boundary layer evolution. Particular features of the diurnal profiles and correlation between individual NMHCs and carbon monoxide are used to investigate the influence of specific emission sources. The results discussed here highlight the importance of monitoring NMHCs to better understand the drivers and impacts of air pollution in large cities like Mexico City.

  20. Measurement, modeling, and analysis of nonmethane hydrocarbons and ozone in the southeast United States national parks

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    Kang, Daiwen

    In this research, the sources, distributions, transport, ozone formation potential, and biogenic emissions of VOCs are investigated focusing on three Southeast United States National Parks: Shenandoah National Park, Big Meadows site (SHEN), Great Smoky Mountains National Park at Cove Mountain (GRSM) and Mammoth Cave National Park (MACA). A detailed modeling analysis is conducted using the Multiscale Air Quality SImulation Platform (MAQSIP) focusing on nonmethane hydrocarbons and ozone characterized by high O3 surface concentrations. Nine emissions perturbation using the Multiscale Air Quality SImulation Platform (MAQSIP) focusing on nonmethane hydrocarbons and ozone characterized by high O 3 surface concentrations. In the observation-based analysis, source classification techniques based on correlation coefficient, chemical reactivity, and certain ratios were developed and applied to the data set. Anthropogenic VOCs from automobile exhaust dominate at Mammoth Cave National Park, and at Cove Mountain, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, while at Big Meadows, Shenandoah National Park, the source composition is complex and changed from 1995 to 1996. The dependence of isoprene concentrations on ambient temperatures is investigated, and similar regressional relationships are obtained for all three monitoring locations. Propylene-equivalent concentrations are calculated to account for differences in reaction rates between the OH and individual hydrocarbons, and to thereby estimate their relative contributions to ozone formation. Isoprene fluxes were also estimated for all these rural areas. Model predictions (base scenario) tend to give lower daily maximum O 3 concentrations than observations by 10 to 30%. Model predicted concentrations of lumped paraffin compounds are of the same order of magnitude as the observed values, while the observed concentrations for other species (isoprene, ethene, surrogate olefin, surrogate toluene, and surrogate xylene) are usually an

  1. Seasonal and Diurnal Variations of Atmospheric Non-Methane Hydrocarbons in Guangzhou, China

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    Longfeng Li

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, high ambient ozone concentrations have become one of the major regional air quality issues in the Pearl River Delta (PRD region. Non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs, as key precursors of ozone, were found to be the limiting factor in photochemical ozone formation for large areas in the PRD. For source apportioning of NMHCs as well as ozone pollution control strategies, it is necessary to obtain typical seasonal and diurnal patterns of NMHCs with a large pool of field data. To date, few studies have focused on seasonal and diurnal variations of NMHCs in urban areas of Guangzhou. This study explored the seasonal variations of most hydrocarbons concentrations with autumn maximum and spring minimum in Guangzhou. The diurnal variations of most anthropogenic NMHCs typically showed two-peak pattern with one at 8:00 in the morning and another at 20:00 in the evening, both corresponding to traffic rush hours in Guangzhou, whereas isoprene displayed a different bimodal diurnal curve. Propene, ethene, m, p-xylene and toluene were the four largest contributors to ozone formation in Guangzhou, based on the evaluation of individual NMHCs’ photochemical reactivity. Therefore, an effective strategy for controlling ozone pollution may be achieved by the reduction of vehicle emissions in Guangzhou.

  2. Tropospheric OH and Cl levels deduced from non-methane hydrocarbon measurements in a marine site

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    C. Arsene

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available In situ continuous hourly measurements of C2–C8 non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCS have been performed from March to October 2006 at two coastal locations (natural and rural on the island of Crete, in the Eastern Mediterranean. Well defined diel variations were observed for several short lived NMHCS (including ethene, propene, n-butane, n-pentane, n-hexane, 2-methyl-pentane. The daytime concentration of hydroxyl (OH radicals estimated from these experimental data varied from 1.3×106 to ~4.0×106 radical cm−3, in good agreement with box-model simulations. In addition the relative variability of various hydrocarbon pairs (at least 7 was used to derive the tropospheric levels of Cl atoms. The Cl atom concentration has been estimated to range between 0.6×104 and 4.7×104 atom cm−3, in good agreement with gaseous hydrochloric acid (HCl observations in the area. Such levels of Cl atoms can be of considerable importance for the oxidation capacity of the troposphere on a regional scale.

  3. Estimates for biogenic non-methane hydrocarbons and nitric oxide emissions in the Valley of Mexico

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    Velasco, Erik

    Biogenic non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC), 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (methylbutenol or MBO) and nitrogen oxide (NO) emissions were estimated for the Valley of Mexico developing a spatially and temporally resolved emission inventory for air quality models. The modeling domain includes all the Metropolitan Mexico City Area, the surrounding forests and agriculture fields. The estimates were based on several sources of land use and land cover data and a biogenic emission model; the biomass density and tree characteristics were obtained from reforestation program data. The biogenic emissions depend also on climatic conditions, mainly temperature and solar radiation. The temperature was obtained from a statistical revision of the last 10 yr data reported by the Mexico City Automatic Atmospheric Monitoring Network, while the solar radiation data were obtained from measurements performed in a typical oak forest in the Valley and from sources of total solar radiation data for Mexico City. The results indicated that 7% of total hydrocarbon emissions in Mexico Valley are due to vegetation and NO emissions from soil contribute with 1% to the total NO x emissions.

  4. A five year record of high-frequency in situ measurements of non-methane hydrocarbons at Mace Head, Ireland

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    A. Grant

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Continuous high-frequency in situ measurements of a range of non-methane hydrocarbons have been made at Mace Head since January 2005. Mace Head is a background Northern Hemispheric site situated on the eastern edge of the Atlantic. Five year measurements (2005–2009 of eleven non-methane hydrocarbons, namely C2–C5 alkanes, benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene and the xylenes, have been separated into baseline Northern Hemispheric and European polluted air masses, among other sectors. Seasonal cycles in baseline Northern Hemispheric air masses and European polluted air masses arriving at Mace Head have been studied. Baseline air masses show a broad summer minima between June and September for shorter lived species, longer lived species show summer minima in July/August. All species displayed a winter maxima in February. European air masses showed baseline elevated mole fractions for all non-methane hydrocarbons, largest elevations (of up to 360 ppt for ethane maxima from baseline data were observed in winter maxima, with smaller elevations observed during the summer. Analysis of temporal trends using the Mann-Kendall test showed small (<6%/year but statistically significant decreases in the butanes, i-pentane and o-xylene between 2005 and 2009 in European air. Toluene was found to have an increasing trend of 34%/year in European air. No significant trends were found for any species in baseline air.

  5. Geochemical investigation of the potential for mobilizing non-methane hydrocarbons during carbon dioxide storage in deep coal beds

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    Kolak, J.J.; Burruss, R.C.

    2006-01-01

    Coal samples of different rank (lignite to anthracite) were extracted in the laboratory with supercritical CO2 (40 ??C; 10 MPa) to evaluate the potential for mobilizing non-methane hydrocarbons during CO2 storage (sequestration) or enhanced coal bed methane recovery from deep (???1-km depth) coal beds. The total measured alkane concentrations mobilized from the coal samples ranged from 3.0 to 64 g tonne-1 of dry coal. The highest alkane concentration was measured in the lignite sample extract; the lowest was measured in the anthracite sample extract. Substantial concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were also mobilized from these samples: 3.1 - 91 g tonne-1 of dry coal. The greatest amounts of PAHs were mobilized from the high-volatile bituminous coal samples. The distributions of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons mobilized from the coal samples also varied with rank. In general, these variations mimicked the chemical changes that occur with increasing degrees of coalification and thermal maturation. For example, the amount of PAHs mobilized from coal samples paralleled the general trend of bitumen formation with increasing coal rank. The coal samples yielded hydrocarbons during consecutive extractions with supercritical CO2, although the amount of hydrocarbons mobilized declined with each successive extraction. These results demonstrate that the potential for supercritical CO2 to mobilize non-methane hydrocarbons from coal beds, and the effect of coal rank on this process, are important to consider when evaluating deep coal beds for CO2 storage.

  6. The carbon isotopic compositions of Non-methane Hydrocarbons in atmosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Lin; ZHANG HuiMin; REN ZhaoFang; MU Ling; SHI RuiLiang; CHANG LiPing; LI Fan

    2009-01-01

    Carbon isotopic compositions of atmospheric Non-methane Hydrocarbons (NMHCs) in the urban areas of Taiyuan and Lanzhou in summer were reported and the sources of NMHCs are discussed.Carbon isotopic ratios (δ13C) of vehicle exhaust,coal-combustion exhaust,fuel volatiles and cooking exhaust were also measured with thermal desorption-gas chromatography-isotope ratio-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-IR-MS).δ13C values of NMHCs in the urban areas of Lanzhou and Taiyuan range from -32.3‰ to -22.3‰ and from -32.8‰ to -18.1‰.δ13C values of vehicle exhaust,coal-combustion exhaust,fuel volatiles and cooking exhaust are -32.5‰--21.7‰,-24.5‰--22.3‰,-32.5%--27.4‰ and -31.6‰--24.5‰,respectively.The data indicate that vehicle exhaust and cooking exhaust make a significant contribution to the atmospheric NMHCs.Therefore,to reduce emissions of vehicle exhaust and cook-ing exhaust is critical for controlling atmospheric NMHCs pollution in summer.

  7. Seasonal behavior of non-methane hydrocarbons in the firn air at Summit, Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmig, D.; Stephens, C. R.; Caramore, J.; Hueber, J.

    2014-03-01

    Non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) were measured in the ambient air and in the snowpack interstitial firn air at ˜1 m depth continuously for nearly two years at Summit, Greenland, from fall 2008 through summer 2010. Additionally, five firn air depth profiles were conducted to a depth of 3 m spanning winter, spring, and summer seasons. Here we report measurements of ethane, ethene, ethyne, propane, propene, i-butane, n-butane, i-pentane, n-pentane, and benzene and discuss the seasonal behavior of these species in the ambient and firn air. The alkanes, ethyne, and benzene in the firn air closely reflect the ambient air concentrations during all the seasons of the year. In spring and summer seasons, ethene and propene were enhanced in the near-surface firn over that in the ambient air, indicating a photochemical production mechanism for these species within the snowpack interstitial air. Evaluation of the NMHC ratios of i-butane/n-butane, i-pentane/n-pentane, and benzene/ethyne in both ambient and firn air does not provide evidence for chlorine or bromine radical chemistry significantly affecting these gases, except in a few summer samples, where individual data points may suggest bromine oxidation influence.

  8. New off-line aircraft instrumentation for non-methane hydrocarbon measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechara, Joelle; Borbon, Agnès; Jambert, Corinne; Perros, Pascal E

    2008-11-01

    New off-line instrumentation was developed to implement measurements of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) on (French) research aircraft. NMHC are collected on multisorbent tubes by AMOVOC (Airborne Measurements Of Volatile Organic Compounds), a new automatic sampler. AMOVOC is a versatile and portable sampler targeting a wide range of NMHC at high frequency (sampling time of 10 min). Multisorbent tubes are analyzed on the ground by short-path thermal desorption coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The development and optimization of both NMHC sampling and analysis are reported here. On the one hand, the paper points out technical choices that were made according to aircraft constraints and avoiding sample loss or contamination. On the other hand, it describes analytical optimization, tube storage stability, and moisture removal. The method shows high selectivity, sensitivity (limit of detection less than 10 ppt) and precision (less than 24%). Finally, NMHC data collected on French aircraft during the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis campaign are reported for the first time. The results highlight instrumentation validity and protocol efficiency for NMHC measurements in the lower and upper troposphere.

  9. Non-methane hydrocarbons over the Eastern Mediterranean during summer, measured from northwest Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvage, Carina; Derstroff, Bettina; Bourtsoukidis, Efstratios; Keßel, Stephan; Thorenz, Ute; Baker, Angela; Williams, Jonathan; Lelieveld, Jos

    2015-04-01

    In summer 2014 the CYprus Photochemistry EXperiment (CYPHEX) field campaign took place at an elevated (600m) measurement site in the north western part of Cyprus close (10 km) to the coast (35,96N, 32,4E) in order to investigate the photochemistry and air mass transport of the eastern Mediterranean. Non-methane hydrocarbons were measured with a commercial GC-FID (AMA instruments GmbH, Ulm, Germany) with a final dataset consisting of two weeks of continuous, hourly measurements for 10 NMHC. NMHCs are a class of volatile organic compounds (VOC) which are emitted by both anthropogenic and natural sources. Their predominant sink in the atmosphere is photochemically driven oxidation by OH radicals. Their atmospheric lifetimes, which range from a few days for more reactive compounds such as pentanes and butanes and up to a month for less reactive ones like ethane, make it possible to deduce photochemical histories and transport regimes from NMHC observations. Furthermore, in the presence of NOx they are important precursors for tropospheric ozone. Backward trajectories show that the airmasses reaching the measurement site had been influenced periodically by emissions from western continental Europe (France, Spain) that crossed the Mediterranean Sea and from eastern continental Europe (Greece and Turkey) more recently influenced by industrial emissions. Varying patterns in NMHC data delineates these two regimes very well, with aged western European air masses being characterized by low level ethane and with toluene and benzene being higher and more variable in plumes from eastern Europe. Additionally, atypical n-butane and i-butane ratios suggest a deviation from the expected predominant oxidation by OH, possibly indicating reaction with chlorine radicals (Cl). The dataset has been evaluated with respect to NMHC sources and oxidative history using different methods of approach.

  10. Analysis of non-methane hydrocarbons in air samples collected aboard the CARIBIC passenger aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Baker

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The CARIBIC project (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container is a long-term monitoring program making regular atmospheric measurements from an instrument container installed monthly aboard a passenger aircraft. Typical cruising altitudes of the aircraft allow for the study of the free troposphere and the extra-tropical upper troposphere as well as the lowermost stratosphere. CARIBIC measurements include a number of real time analyses as well as the collection of aerosol and whole air samples. These whole air samples are analyzed post-flight for a suite of trace gases, which includes non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC.

    The NMHC measurement system and its analytical performance are described here. Precision was found to vary slightly by compound, and is less than 2% for the C2–C6 alkanes and ethyne, and between 1 and 6% for C7–C8 alkanes and aromatic compounds. Preliminary results from participation in a Global Atmospheric Watch (WMO VOC audit indicate accuracies within the precision of the system. Limits of detection are 1 pptv for most compounds, and up to 3 pptv for some aromatics. These are sufficiently low to measure mixing ratios typically observed in the upper troposphere and lowermost stratosphere for the longer-lived NMHC, however, in air samples from these regions many of the compounds with shorter lifetimes (<5 d were frequently below the detection limit. Observed NMHC concentrations span many orders of magnitude, dependent on atmospheric region and air mass history, with concentrations typically decreasing with shorter chemical lifetimes.

  11. Variation of ambient non-methane hydrocarbons in Beijing city in summer 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Wang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In conjunction with hosting the 2008 Beijing Olympics, the municipal government implemented a series of stringent air quality control measures. To assess the impacts on variation of ambient non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs, the whole air was sampled by canisters at one urban site and two suburban sites in Beijing, and 55 NMHC species were quantified by gas chromatography equipped with a quadrupole mass spectrometer and a flame ionization detector (GC/MSD/FID as parts of the field Campaign for the Beijing Olympic Games Air Quality program (CareBeijing. According to the control measures, the data were presented according to four periods: 18–30 June, 8–19 July, 15–24 August (during the Olympic Games, and 6–15 September (during the Paralympic Games. Compared with the levels in June, the mixing ratios of NMHCs obtained in the Olympic and Paralympic Games periods were reduced by 35% and 25%, respectively. Source contributions were calculated using a chemical mass balance model (CMB 8.2. After implementing the control measures, emissions from target sources were obviously reduced, and reductions in vehicle exhaust could explain 48–82% of the reductions of ambient NMHCs. Reductions in emissions from gasoline evaporation, paint and solvent use, and the chemical industry contributed 9–40%, 3–24%, and 1–5%, respectively, to reductions of ambient NMHCs. Sources of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG and biogenic emissions were not controlled, and contributions from these sources from July to September were stable or even higher than in June. Ozone formation potentials (OFPs were calculated for the measured NMHCs. The total OFPs during the Olympic and Paralympic Games were reduced by 48% and 32%, respectively, compared with values in June. Reductions in the OFPs of alkenes and aromatics explained 77–92% of total OFP reductions. The alkenes and aromatics were mainly from vehicle exhausts, and reductions of vehicle exhaust gases explained 67–87% of

  12. Trends of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC emissions in Beijing during 2002–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs play a critical role in the photochemical production of ozone (O3 and organic aerosols. Obtaining an accurate understanding on NMHC emission trends is essential for predicting air quality changes and evaluating the effectiveness of current control measures. In this study, we evaluated temporal trends in NMHC emissions in Beijing based on ambient measurements during the summer at an urban site in Beijing from 2002 to 2013. In contrast to the results of the most recent inventory (Multi-resolution Emission Inventory for China, MEIC, which reported that total NMHC emissions increased at a rate of ~4% yr−1, mixing ratios of NMHCs measured at this urban site displayed an obvious decrease (~30% during the last decade. A Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF model was applied to the NMHC measurements for source apportionment, and the results showed a decrease in the concentrations contributed by transportation-related sources to total NMHC emissions by 66% during 2004–2012, which was comparable to the relative decline of 65% reported by the MEIC inventory. This finding indicates that the implementation of stricter emissions standards and control measures has been effective for reducing transportation-related NMHC emissions. In addition, the PMF results suggested that there were no significant temporal changes in NMHC concentrations from paint and solvent use during 2004–2012, in contrast with the rapid rate of increase (27.5% yr−1 reported by the MEIC inventory. To re-evaluate the NMHC emissions trends for paint and solvent use, annual variations in NMHC / NOx ratios were compared between ambient measurements and the MEIC inventory. In contrast to the significant rise in NMHC / NOx ratios from the inventory, the measured ratios declined by 14% during 2005–2012. However, the inferred NMHC / NOx ratios based on PMF results exhibited a comparable decline of 11% to measurements. These results indicate that the increase

  13. Nonmethane hydrocarbons at Pico Mountain, Azores: 1. Oxidation chemistry in the North Atlantic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmig, D.; Tanner, D. M.; Honrath, R. E.; Owen, R. C.; Parrish, D. D.

    2008-10-01

    Measurements of nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC) at the Pico Mountain observatory at 2225 m asl on Pico Island, Azores, Portugal, from August 2004 to August 2005 (in part overlapping with the field campaign of the International Consortium on Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation study) were used to investigate NMHC sources and seasonal oxidation chemistry in the central North Atlantic region. Levels of anthropogenic NMHC were characteristic of the marine free troposphere. Their concentrations were low compared to continental sites at higher northern latitudes, but higher than data reported from a similarly located Pacific mountain site at Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii. These higher NMHC levels are indicative of a greater influence of the adjacent continents on air composition at Pico. Substantially enhanced NMHC concentrations during the summers of 2004 and 2005 were attributed to long-range transport of biomass burning plumes originating from fires in northern Canada, Alaska, and Siberia. This finding exemplifies the continuing impact of biomass burning plumes on atmospheric composition and chemistry many days downwind of these emission sources. Seasonal cycles with lower NMHC concentrations and lower ratios of more reactive to less reactive NMHC during summer reflect the higher degree of photochemical processing occurring during transport. The NMHC concentrations indicate no significant role of chlorine atom oxidation on NMHC. Ozone above 35 ppbv was measured at Pico Mountain throughout all seasons. Enhanced ozone levels were observed in air that had relatively "fresh" photochemical signatures (e.g., ln [propane]/[ethane] > -2.5). During spring-summer air that was more processed ("older" air with ln [propane]/[ethane] < -2.5) on average had lower ozone levels (down to <20 ppbv). This relationship indicates that conditions in the lower free troposphere over the mid-North Atlantic during the spring and summer lead to net photochemical ozone destruction

  14. Long term trends of methane, non methane hydrocarbons, and carbon monoxide in urban atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ezaz; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Jeon, Eui-Chan; Brown, Richard J C

    2015-06-15

    The concentrations of methane (CH4), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC), and carbon monoxide (CO) were measured at two urban locations (Guro (GR) and Nowon (NW)) in Seoul, Korea between 2004 and 2013. The mean amount fractions of CH4, NMHC, and CO, measured at GR over this period were 2.06±0.02, 0.32±0.03, and 0.61±0.05 ppm, respectively, while at NW they were 2.08±0.06, 0.33±0.05, and 0.54±0.06 ppm, respectively. The ratio of CH4 to the total hydrocarbon amount fraction remained constant across the study years: 0.82 to 0.90 at GR and 0.81 to 0.89 at NW. Similarly, stable ratios were also observed between NMHC and THC at the two sites. In contrast, the annual mean ratios for CH4/NMHC showed a larger variation: between 4.55 to 8.67 at GR and 4.25 to 8.45 at NW. The seasonality of CO was characterized by wintertime maxima, while for CH4 and NMHC the highest amount fractions were found in fall. The analysis of their long-term trends based on Mann-Kendall and Sen's methods showed an overall increase of THC and CH4, whereas a decreasing trend was observed for NMHC and CO.

  15. Seasonal variability of atmospheric nitrogen oxides and non-methane hydrocarbons at the GEOSummit station, Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. J. Kramer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of atmospheric NOx (NOx = NO + NO2, peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN, NOy and non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC were taken at the GEOSummit Station, Greenland (72.34° N, 38.29° W, 3212 m.a.s.l from July 2008 to July 2010. The data set represents the first year-round concurrent record of these compounds sampled at a high latitude Arctic site in the free troposphere. Here, the study focused on the seasonal variability of these important ozone (O3 precursors in the Arctic free troposphere and the impact from transported anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions. Our analysis shows that PAN is the dominant NOy species in all seasons at Summit, varying from 49% to 78%, however, we find that odd NOy species (odd NOy = NOy − PAN-NOx contribute a large amount to the total NOy speciation with monthly means of up to 95 pmol mol−1 in the winter and ∼40 pmol mol−1 in the summer, and that the level of odd NOy species at Summit during summer is greater than that of NOx. We hypothesize that the source of this odd NOy is most likely alkyl nitrates from transported pollution, and photochemically produced species such as HNO3 and HONO. FLEXPART retroplume analysis and tracers for anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions, were used to identify periods when the site was impacted by polluted air masses. Europe contributed the largest source of anthropogenic emissions during the winter and spring months, with up to 82% of the simulated anthropogenic black carbon originating from this region between December 2009 and March 2010, whereas, North America was the primary source of biomass burning emissions. Polluted air masses were typically aged, with median transport times to the site from the source region of 11 days for anthropogenic events in winter, and 14 days for BB plumes. Overall we find that the transport of polluted air masses to the high altitude Arctic typically resulted in high variability in levels of O3 and O3 precursors. During winter

  16. Implications of changing urban and rural emissions on non-methane hydrocarbons in the Pearl River Delta region of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, J. H.; Chan, L. Y.; Chan, C. Y.; Li, Y. S.; Chang, C. C.; Wang, X. M.; Zou, S. C.; Barletta, Barbara; Blake, D. R.; Wu, Dui

    2008-05-01

    Guangzhou (GZ) is one of the highly industrialized and economically vibrant cities in China, yet it remains relatively understudied in terms of its air quality, which has become severely degraded. In this study, extensive air sampling campaigns had been conducted at GZ urban sites and in Dinghu Mountain (DM), a rural site, in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) during the spring of 2001 and 2005. Additionally, roadside and tunnel samples were collected in GZ in 2000 and 2005. Later, exhaust samples from liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)- and gasoline-fueled taxis were collected in 2006. All samples were analyzed for C2-C10 non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs). NMHC profiles showed significant differences in the exhaust samples between gasoline- and LPG-fueled taxis. Propane (47%) was the dominant hydrocarbon in the exhaust of the LPG-fueled taxis, while ethene (35%) was the dominant one in that of gasoline-fueled taxis. The use of LPG-fueled buses and taxis since 2003 and the leakage from these LPG-fueled vehicles were the major factors for the much higher level of propane in GZ urban area in 2005 compared to 2001. The mixing ratios of toluene, ethylbenzene, m/p-xylene and o-xylene decreased at the GZ and DM sites between 2001 and 2005, especially for toluene in GZ, despite the sharp increase in the number of registered motor vehicles in GZ. This phenomenon was driven in part by the closure of polluting industries as well as the upgrading of the road network in urban GZ and in part by the implementation of more stringent emission standards for polluting industries and motor vehicles in the PRD region.

  17. Biogenic non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC). Nature`s contribution to regional and global atmospheric chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klockow, D.; Hoffman, T. [Inst. of Spectrochemistry and Applied Spectroscopy, Dortmund (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    Terrestrial vegetation provides an important source of volatile hydrocarbons, especially isoprene, monoterpenes and in addition possibly sesquiterpenes as well as oxygenated compounds. Although there exist considerable uncertainties in the estimation of the magnitude of these biogenic NMHC emissions, it is generally accepted that the majority of global NMHC release is from natural and not from anthropogenic sources. Taking into consideration the high reactivity of the mostly unsaturated biogenic emissions, their impact on tropospheric processes can be assumed to be of great importance. Together with anthropogenic NO{sub x} emissions, the highly reactive natural alkenes can act as precursors in photochemical oxidant formation and contribute to regional-scale air pollution. Their oxidation in the atmosphere and the subsequent gas-to-particle conversion of the products lead to the formation of organic aerosols. Because of the formation of phytotoxic compounds, the interaction of the biogenic hydrocarbons with ozone inside or outside the leaves and needles of plants has been suggested to play a role in forest decline. (author)

  18. Sources of C₂-C₄ alkenes, the most important ozone nonmethane hydrocarbon precursors in the Pearl River Delta region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanli; Wang, Xinming; Zhang, Zhou; Lü, Sujun; Huang, Zhonghui; Li, Longfeng

    2015-01-01

    Surface ozone is becoming an increasing concern in China's megacities such as the urban centers located in the highly industrialized and densely populated Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, where previous studies suggested that ozone production is sensitive to VOC emissions with alkenes being important precursors. However, little was known about sources of alkenes. Here we present our monitoring of ambient volatile organic compounds at four representative urban, suburban and rural sites in the PRD region during November-December 2009, which experienced frequent ozone episodes. C2-C4 alkenes, whose total mixing ratios were 11-20% of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) quantified, accounted for 38-64% of ozone formation potentials (OFPs) and 30-50% of the total hydroxyl radical (OH) reactivity by NMHCs. Ethylene was the most abundant alkene, accounting for 8-15% in total mixing ratios of NMHCs and contributed 25-46% of OFPs. Correlations between C2-C4 alkenes and typical source tracers suggested that ethylene might be largely related to vehicle exhausts and industry activities, while propene and butenes were much more LPG-related. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) confirmed that vehicle exhaust and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) were two major sources that altogether accounted for 52-62%, 58-77%, 73-83%, 68-79% and 73-84% for ethylene, propene, 1-butene, trans-2-butene and cis-2-butene, respectively. Vehicle exhausts alone contributed 32-49% ethylene and 35-41% propene. Industry activities contributed 13-23% ethylene and 7-20% propene. LPG instead contributed the most to butenes (38-65%) and substantially to propene (23-36%). Extensive tests confirmed high fractions of propene and butenes in LPG then used in Guangzhou and in LPG combustion plumes; therefore, limiting alkene contents in LPG would benefit regional ozone control.

  19. Observations of nonmethane hydrocarbons and oxygenated volatile organic compounds at a rural site in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemer, Daniel; Pos, Willer; Milne, Peter; Farmer, Charles; Zika, Rod; Apel, Eric; Olszyna, Ken; Kliendienst, Tad; Lonneman, William; Bertman, Steve; Shepson, Paul; Starn, Tim

    1998-11-01

    Measurements of an extensive range of nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) including alkanes, alkenes, and aromatics, and oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) including alcohols, ketones, and aldehydes were conducted for several weeks during the summer of 1995 as part of the Southern Oxidants Study (SOS) at a rural experimental site (Youth, Inc.) 32 km southeast of Nashville, Tennessee, in the southeastern United States. These measurements were conducted to (1) determine the absolute magnitude and variability of oxygenated compounds found in a contemporary rural region; (2) assess the importance of the measured ambient levels of OVOCs on a photochemical reactivity basis relative to the more commonly determined NMHCs; and (3) to evaluate our ability to accurately measure oxygenates by the current techniques employed under a field study scenario. Several other physical (temperature, insolation, etc.), meteorological (wind velocity, wind direction, atmospheric structure, and boundary layer height), and chemical (criterion pollutants, NOx, SO2, CO, O3, etc.) parameters were measured concurrently with the NMHC and OVOC measurements. During the study period, OVOCs were consistently the dominant compounds present, and methanol and acetone had the highest mixing ratios. Although OVOCs made up the majority of the volatile organic compound component on a mass basis, a substantial sink for OH was isoprene and its immediate oxidation products, methacrolein and methyl vinyl ketone. In combination with CO and formaldehyde, these compounds comprised about 85% of the observed OH reactivity at the site. Acetaldehyde and methanol were responsible for an additional 10%, with the NMHCs and remaining OVOCs making up the final 5% of the measured OH reactivity at the site. These observed patterns reinforce recent studies which find OVOCs to be an important component of the rural troposphere.

  20. Influence of oil and gas emissions on ambient atmospheric non-methane hydrocarbons in residential areas of Northeastern Colorado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea R. Thompson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Northern Front Range (NFR region of Colorado has experienced rapid expansion of oil and gas extraction from shale and tight sands reservoirs in recent years due to advances in hydraulic fracturing technology, with over 25,000 wells currently in operation. This region has also been designated as a federal ozone non-attainment area by the U.S. EPA. High ozone levels are a significant health concern, as are potential health impacts from chronic exposure to primary emissions of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC for residents living near wells. From measurements of ambient atmospheric NMHC present in residential areas located in close proximity to wells in Erie, Colorado, we find that mean mole fractions of the C2–C5 alkanes are enhanced by a factor of 18–77 relative to the regional background, and present at higher levels than typically found in large urban centers. When combined with NMHC observations from downtown Denver and Platteville, it is apparent that these compounds are elevated across the NFR, with highest levels within the Greater Wattenberg Gas Field. This represents a large area source for ozone precursors in the NFR. The BTEX aromatic compounds in Erie were comparable to (e.g., benzene or lower than (e.g., toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene in large urban centers, however, benzene was significantly higher in Platteville, and within the range of chronic health-based exposure levels. An initial look at comparisons with data sets from previous years reveal that ambient levels for oil and gas-related NMHC in Erie, as well as further downwind in Boulder, have not decreased, but appear to have been increasing, despite tightening of emissions standards for the oil and gas industries in 2008.

  1. ACTRIS non-methane hydrocarbon intercomparison experiment in Europe to support WMO-GAW and EMEP observation networks

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    C. C. Hoerger

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The performance of 20 European laboratories involved in long-term non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC measurements within the framework of Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW and European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP was assessed with respect to the ACTRIS (Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research InfraStructure Network and GAW data quality objectives (DQOs. Compared to previous intercomparisons the DQOs of ACTRIS are much more demanding with deviations to a reference value of less than 5% and repeatability of better than 2% for mole fractions above 0.1 nmol mol−1. The participants were asked to measure both a 30 component NMHC mixture in nitrogen (NMHC_N2 at approximately 1 nmol mol−1 and whole air (NMHC_air, following a standardised operation procedure including zero- and calibration gas measurements. Furthermore, they had to report details on their instruments and they were asked to assess measurement uncertainties. The NMHCs were analysed either by gas chromatography-flame ionisation detection or gas chromatography-mass spectrometer methods. Most systems performed well for the NMHC_N2 measurements (88% of the reported values were within the GAW DQOs and even 58% within the ACTRIS DQOs. For NMHC_air generally more frequent and larger deviations to the assigned values were observed compared to NMHC_N2 (77% of the reported values were within the GAW DQOs, but only 48% within the ACTRIS DQOs. Important contributors to the poorer performance in NMHC_air compared to NMHC_N2 were a more complex matrix and a larger span of NMHC mole fractions (0.03–2.5 nmol mol−1. Issues, which affected both NMHC mixtures, are the usage of direct vs. two-step calibration, breakthrough of C2–C3 hydrocarbons, blank values in zero-gas measurements (especially for those systems using a Nafion® Dryer, adsorptive losses of aromatic compounds, and insufficient chromatographic resolution. Essential for high-quality results are experienced operators, a

  2. The levels, variation characteristics, and sources of atmospheric non-methane hydrocarbon compounds during wintertime in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengtang; Ma, Zhuobiao; Mu, Yujing; Liu, Junfeng; Zhang, Chenglong; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Liu, Pengfei; Zhang, Hongxing

    2017-09-01

    Atmospheric non-methane hydrocarbon compounds (NMHCs) were measured at a sampling site in Beijing city from 15 December 2015 to 14 January 2016 to recognize their pollution levels, variation characteristics, and sources. We quantified 53 NMHCs, and the proportions of alkanes, alkenes, acetylene, and aromatics to the total NMHCs were 49.8-55.8, 21.5-24.7, 13.5-15.9, and 9.3-10.7 %, respectively. The variation trends in the NMHC concentrations were basically identical and exhibited remarkable fluctuation, which was mainly ascribed to the variation in meteorological conditions, especially wind speed. The diurnal variations in NMHCs on clear days exhibited two peaks during the morning and evening rush hours, whereas the rush hours' peaks diminished or even disappeared on the haze days, implying that the relative contribution of the vehicular emissions to atmospheric NMHCs depended on the pollution status. Two evident peaks of the propane / propene ratios appeared in the early morning before sun rise and at noontime on clear days, whereas only one peak occurred in the afternoon during the haze days, which were attributed to the relatively fast reactions of propene with OH, NO3, and O3. Based on the chemical kinetic equations, the daytime OH concentrations were calculated to be in the range of 3. 47 × 105-1. 04 × 106 molecules cm-3 on clear days and 6. 42 × 105-2. 35 × 106 molecules cm-3 on haze days. The nighttime NO3 concentrations were calculated to be in the range of 2. 82 × 109-4. 86 × 109 molecules cm-3 on clear days. The correlation coefficients of typical hydrocarbon pairs (benzene / toluene, o-xylene / m,p-xylene, isopentane / n-pentane, etc.) revealed that vehicular emissions and coal combustion were important sources for atmospheric NMHCs in Beijing during the wintertime. Five major emission sources for atmospheric NMHCs in Beijing during the wintertime were further identified by positive matrix factorization (PMF), including gasoline-related emissions

  3. 40 CFR 52.269 - Control strategy and regulations: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons) and carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons) and carbon monoxide. 52.269 Section 52.269 Protection of Environment... PLANS California § 52.269 Control strategy and regulations: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons) and... provide for attainment and maintenance of the national standards for photochemical oxidants...

  4. Multi-year (2004–2008 record of nonmethane hydrocarbons and halocarbons in New England: seasonal variations and regional sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Russo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-year time series records of C2-C6 alkanes, C2-C4 alkenes, ethyne, isoprene, C6-C8 aromatics, trichloroethene (C2HCl3, and tetrachloroethene (C2Cl4 from canister samples collected during January 2004–February 2008 at the University of New Hampshire (UNH AIRMAP Observatory at Thompson Farm (TF in Durham, NH are presented. The objectives of this work are to identify the sources of nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs and halocarbons observed at TF, characterize the seasonal and interannual variability in ambient mixing ratios and sources, and estimate regional emission rates of NMHCs. Analysis of correlations and comparisons with emission ratios indicated that a ubiquitous and persistent mix of emissions from several anthropogenic sources is observed throughout the entire year. The highest C2-C8 anthropogenic NMHC mixing ratios were observed in mid to late winter. Following the springtime minimums, the C3-C6 alkanes, C7-C8 aromatics, and C2HCl3 increased in early to mid summer, presumably reflecting enhanced evaporative emissions. Mixing ratios of C2Cl4 and C2HCl3 decreased by 0.7±0.2 and 0.3±0.05 pptv/year, respectively, which is indicative of reduced usage and emissions of these halogenated solvents. Emission rates of C3-C8 NMHCs were estimated to be 109 to 1010 molecules cm-2 s-1 in winter 2006. The emission rates extrapolated to the state of New Hampshire and New England were ~2–60 Mg/day and ~12–430 Mg/day, respectively. The 2002 and 2005 EPA National Emissions Inventory (NEI emission rates of benzene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes for New Hampshire agreed within ±<5–20% of the emission rates estimated from the TF data, while toluene

  5. Multi-year (2004–2008 record of nonmethane hydrocarbons and halocarbons in New England: seasonal variations and regional sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Russo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Multi-year time series records of C2-C6 alkanes, C2-C4 alkenes, ethyne, isoprene, C6-C8 aromatics, trichloroethene (C2HCl3, and tetrachloroethene (C2Cl4 from canister samples collected during January 2004–February 2008 at the University of New Hampshire (UNH AIRMAP Observatory at Thompson Farm (TF in Durham, NH are presented. The objectives of this work are to identify the sources of nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs and halocarbons observed at TF, characterize the seasonal and interannual variability in ambient mixing ratios and sources, and estimate regional emission rates of NMHCs. Analysis of correlations and comparisons with emission ratios indicated that a ubiquitous and persistent mix of emissions from several anthropogenic sources is observed throughout the entire year. The highest C2-C8 anthropogenic NMHC mixing ratios were observed in mid to late winter. Following the springtime minimums, the C3-C6 alkanes, C7-C8 aromatics, and C2HCl3 increased in early to mid summer, presumably reflecting enhanced evaporative emissions. Mixing ratios of C2Cl4 and C2HCl3 decreased by 0.7±0.2 and 0.3±0.05 pptv/year, respectively, which is indicative of reduced usage and emissions of these halogenated solvents. Emission rates of C3-C8 NMHCs were estimated to be 109 to 1010 molecules cm−2 s−1 in winter 2006. The emission rates extrapolated to the state of New Hampshire and New England were ~2–60 Mg/day and ~12–430 Mg/day, respectively. Emission rates of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, and ethyne in the 2002 and 2005 EPA National Emissions Inventories were within ±50% of the TF emission rates.

  6. Nonmethane hydrocarbons and ozone in three rural southeast United States national parks: A model sensitivity analysis and comparison to measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Daiwen; Aneja, Viney P.; Mathur, Rohit; Ray, John D.

    2003-10-01

    A detailed modeling analysis is conducted focusing on nonmethane hydrocarbons and ozone in three southeast United States national parks for a 15-day time period (14-29 July 1995) characterized by high O3 surface concentrations. The three national parks are Smoky Mountains National Park (GRSM), Mammoth Cave National Park (MACA), and Shenandoah National Park (SHEN), Big Meadows. A base emission scenario and eight variant predictions are analyzed, and predictions are compared with data observed at the three locations for the same time period. Model-predicted concentrations are higher than observed values for O3 (with a cutoff of 40 ppbv) by 3.0% at GRSM, 19.1% at MACA, and 9.0% at SHEN (mean normalized bias error). They are very similar to observations for overall mean ozone concentrations at GRSM and SHEN. They generally agree (the same order of magnitude) with observed values for lumped paraffin compounds but are an order of magnitude lower for other species (isoprene, ethene, surrogate olefin, surrogate toluene, and surrogate xylene). Model sensitivity analyses here indicate that each location differs in terms of volatile organic compound (VOC) capacity to produce O3, but a maximum VOC capacity point (MVCP) exists at all locations that changes the influence of VOCs on O3 from net production to production suppression. Analysis of individual model processes shows that more than 50% of daytime O3 concentrations at the high-elevation rural locations (GRSM and SHEN) are transported from other areas; local chemistry is the second largest O3 contributor. At the low-elevation location (MACA), about 80% of daytime O3 is produced by local chemistry and 20% is transported from other areas. Local emissions (67-95%) are predominantly responsible for VOCs at all locations, the rest coming from transport. Chemistry processes are responsible for about 50% removal of VOCs for all locations; less than 10% are lost to surface deposition and the rest are exported to other areas

  7. Non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and their contribution to ozone formation potential in a petrochemical industrialized city, Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Chenhui; Mao, Xiaoxuan; Huang, Tao; Liang, Xiaoxue; Wang, Yanan; Shen, Yanjie; Jiang, Wanyanhan; Wang, Huiqin; Bai, Zhilin; Ma, Minquan; Yu, Zhousuo; Ma, Jianmin; Gao, Hong

    2016-03-01

    Hourly air concentrations of fifty-three non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) were measured at downtown and suburb of Lanzhou, a petrochemical industrialized city, Northwest China in 2013. The measured data were used to investigate the seasonal characteristics of NMHCs air pollution and their contributions to the ozone formation in Lanzhou. Annually averaged NMHCs concentration was 38.29 ppbv in downtown Lanzhou. Among 53 NMHCs, alkanes, alkenes, and aromatics accounted for 57%, 23% and 20% of the total NMHCs air concentration, respectively. The atmospheric levels of toluene and propane with mean values of 4.62 and 4.56 ppbv were higher than other NMHCs, respectively. The ambient levels of NMHCs in downtown Lanzhou were compared with measured NMHCs data collected at a suburban site of Lanzhou, located near a large-scale petrochemical industry. Results show that the levels of alkanes, alkenes, and aromatics in downtown Lanzhou were lower by factors of 3-11 than that in west suburb of the city. O3-isopleth plots show that ozone was formed in VOCs control area in downtown Lanzhou and NOx control area at the west suburban site during the summertime. Propylene-equivalent (Prop-Equiv) concentration and the maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) in downtown Lanzhou indicate that cis-2-butene, propylene, and m/p-xylene were the first three compounds contributing to ozone formation potentials whereas in the petrochemical industrialized west suburb, ethane, propene, and trans-2-Butene played more important role in the summertime ozone formation. Principal component analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regression (MLR) were further applied to identify the dominant emission sources and examine their fractions in total NMHCs. Results suggest that vehicle emission, solvent usage, and industrial activities were major sources of NMHCs in the city, accounting for 58.34%, 22.19%, and 19.47% of the total monitored NMHCs in downtown Lanzhou, respectively. In the west suburb of the city

  8. 40 CFR 1065.265 - Nonmethane cutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nonmethane cutter. 1065.265 Section 1065.265 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Hydrocarbon Measurements § 1065.265 Nonmethane...

  9. Simultaneous monitoring of atmospheric methane and speciated non-methane hydrocarbon concentrations using Peltier effect sub-ambient pre-concentration and gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, D; Seakins, P W; Lewis, A C

    2000-02-01

    Sub-ambient trapping, used to pre-concentrate atmospheric samples for non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) analysis by gas chromatography, can also be used to measure ambient methane concentrations. Above a sample volume of 40 ml, a dynamic equilibrium is established between ambient and trapped methane allowing for simultaneous quantitative determinations of methane and NMHC. The temperature stability of the trap is critical for quantitative methane analysis and this can be achieved by Peltier effect cooling. Simultaneous measurements of methane and NMHC reduce the equipment required for field trips and can ease the interpretation and modelling of atmospheric data. The feasibility for deployment of the system in remote locations was demonstrated by running the apparatus virtually unattended for a 5-day period. The correlations between the concentrations of methane, ethane and ethene measured during this period are discussed.

  10. Influence of oil and gas field operations on spatial and temporal distributions of atmospheric non-methane hydrocarbons and their effect on ozone formation in winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Field

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Emissions from oil and natural gas development during winter in the Upper Green River Basin of Wyoming are known to drive episodic ozone (O3 production. Contrasting O3 distributions were observed in the winters of 2011 and 2012, with numerous episodes in 2011 compared to none in 2012. During 2011 wintertime O3 episodes at two sites near Boulder Wyoming, situated ∼5 km apart, were observed to sometimes differ. In 2012 the lack of O3 episodes coincided with a reduction in ambient levels of total non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC. Measurements of speciated NMHC, and other air quality parameters, were performed to better understand emission sources and to determine which compounds are most active in promoting O3 formation. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF analyses of the data were carried out to help achieve these goals. PMF analyses revealed three contributing factors that were identified with different emission source types: factor 1, combustion/traffic; factor 2, fugitive natural gas; and factor 3, fugitive condensate. Compositional signatures of three contributing factors were identified through comparison with independently derived emission source profiles. Fugitive emissions of natural gas and of condensate were the two principal emission source types for NMHC. A water treatment and recycling facility was found to be a significant source of condensate range NMHC, in particular toluene and m+p-xylene. Emissions from water treatment have an influence upon peak O3 mixing ratios at downwind measurement sites.

  11. Springtime depletion of tropospheric ozone, gaseous elemental mercury and non-methane hydrocarbons in the European Arctic, and its relation to atmospheric transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eneroth, Kristina; Holmén, Kim; Berg, Torunn; Schmidbauer, Norbert; Solberg, Sverre

    Using a trajectory climatology for the period 1992-2001 we have examined how seasonal changes in transport cause changes in the concentrations of tropospheric ozone (O 3), gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) and non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) observed at the Mt. Zeppelin station, Ny-Ålesund (78.9°N, 11.9°E). During April-June O 3 depletion events were frequently observed in connection with air transport across the Arctic Basin. The O 3 loss was most pronounced in air masses advected close to the surface. This result supports the idea that the O 3 depletion reactions take place in the lowermost part of the atmosphere in the central Arctic Basin. A strong positive correlation between springtime O 3 depletion events and the oxidation of GEM to divalent mercury was found. During air mass advection from Siberia, the Barents Sea and the Norwegian Sea the strongest correlation was observed during April-May, whereas air masses originating from the Canadian Arctic and the central Arctic areas showed the highest O 3-GEM correlation in May-June. We suggest that this 1-month lag could either be due to the position of the marginal ice zone or temperature differences between the northwestern and northeastern air masses. In connection with springtime O 3 depletion events low concentrations of some NMHCs, especially ethane and ethyne, were observed, indicating that both bromine (ethyne oxidant) and chlorine radicals (ethane oxidant) are present in the Arctic atmosphere during spring. In winter, negative correlations between O 3 and NMHCs were found in connection with air transport from Europe and Siberia, which we interpret as O 3 destruction taking place in industrially contaminated plumes.

  12. Nonmethane Hydrocarbons and Ozone in the Rural Southeast United States National Parks: A Model Sensitivity Analysis and Its Comparison with Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, D.; Aneja, V. P.; Mathur, R.; Ray, J. D.

    2001-12-01

    A comprehensive modeling analysis is conducted using the Multiscale Air Quality SImulation Platform (MAQSIP) focusing on nonmethane hydrocarbons and ozone in three southeast United States national parks for a 15-day time period (July 14th to July 29th, 1995) characterized by high O3 surface concentrations. Nine emission scenarios including the base scenario are analyzed. Model predictions are compared with and contrasted against observed data at the three locations for the same time period. Model predictions (base scenario) tend to give lower daily maximum O3 concentrations than observation by 10.8% at Cove Mountain, Great Smoke Mountains National Park (GRSM), 26.8% at Mammoth Cave National Park (MACA), and 17.6% at Big Meadows, Shenandoah National Park (SHEN). Overall mean ozone concentrations are very similar at GRSM and SHEN (observed data at MACA are not available). Model predicted concentrations of lumped paraffin compounds match the observed values on the same order, while the observed concentrations for other species (isoprene, ethene, surrogate olefin, surrogate toluene, and surrogate xylene) are usually an order of magnitude higher than the predictions. Sensitivity analyses indicate each location has its own characteristics in terms of the capacity of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to produce O3, but a maximum VOC capacity point (MVCP) exists at all locations that changes the influence of VOCs on O3 from production to destruction. Analysis of individual model process budgets shows that more than 50% of daytime O3 concentrations at these rural locations are transported from other areas, local chemistry is the second largest contributor (13% to 42%), all other processes combined contribute less than 10% of the daytime O3 concentrations. Local emissions (>99%) are predominantly responsible for VOCs at all locations, while vertical diffusion (>70%) is the predominant process to move VOCs away from the modeling grid. Dry deposition ( ~ 10%) and chemistry (2

  13. Analysis of non-methane hydrocarbon data from a monitoring station affected by oil and gas development in the Eagle Ford shale, Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar W. Schade

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Within the last decade, unconventional oil and gas exploration in the US has become a new source of atmospheric hydrocarbons. Although a geographically dispersed source, field measurements in and downwind of a number of shale basins demonstrate the impact exploration activities have on ambient levels of hydrocarbons. Due to concerns related to ozone production, regulatory agencies are adding monitoring stations to better understand the potential influence of emissions from areas with increased oil and gas related activities. The Eagle Ford shale in south Texas is a rapidly developing shale play producing both oil and natural gas, providing 10% and 5% of US domestic oil and gas production, respectively, in 2013. We analyzed the first year of measurements from a newly established monitoring site at its central north edge. The data reveal median ethane mixing ratios—used as a marker for oil and gas exploration related emissions—at five times its typical clean air background. Ethane mixing ratios above ten times the background occurred regularly. Saturated hydrocarbons with likely origin in oil and gas exploration explain half of the data set’s variability. They dominate OH radical reactivity at levels both similar to other shale areas and similar to Houston’s ship channel area a decade ago. Air advecting slowly across the shale area from east-southeast and southwest directions shows the most elevated hydrocarbon concentrations, and evidence is presented linking elevated alkene abundances to flaring in the shale area. A case study is presented linking high emissions from an upwind facility to hydrocarbon plumes observed at the monitor.

  14. Measurements of hydrocarbons, oxygenated hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides in an urban basin in Colorado: Implications for Emission Inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldan, P. D.; Trainer, M.; Kuster, W. C.; Parrish, D. D.; Carpenter, J.; Roberts, J. M.; Yee, J. E.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.

    1995-11-01

    Concentrations of a wide variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the C3 to C10 range, CO, NOy (total reactive oxidized nitrogen), SO2, and meteorological parameters were measured concurrently at a site on the western perimeter of Boulder, Colorado, during February 1991. The measurement site, located some 150 m above the Boulder urban basin, receives air masses typifying averaged local sources. The highest hydrocarbon concentrations observed showed little effects of photochemical loss processes and reflect the pattern of the local emission sources. The observed ratios of CO and the VOCs to NOy are compared to those predicted by the 1985 National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) inventory.These comparisons indicate (1) good agreement for CO/NOY, (2) significant overpredictions by the NAPAP inventory for many of the hydrocarbon to NOY ratios, (3) much more benzene from mobile sources (and less from area sources) than predicted by the NAPAP inventory, and (4) large underpredictions of the light alcohols and carbonyls by the NAPAP inventory. These first two results are in marked contrast to the conclusions of the recent tunnel study reported by Ingalls in 1989. Source profile reconciliation implies substantial input from both a local propane source and gasoline headspace venting.

  15. Cobalt--zirconia catalysts for the synthesis of hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide and hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulanova, T.F.; Lapidus, A.L.

    1972-01-01

    Laboratory and pilot plant experiments were done in order to replace thoria by more readily available and biologically inactive promoters in kieselguhr-supported cobalt and cobalt-magnesia catalysts. Maximum activity, stability, and yields of ceresins boiling above 460/sup 0/C were obtained with a zirconia-cobalt weight ratio of 1:10. The activity of this catalyst remained spectacularly high for five months. The optimum reaction temperature was 190/sup 0/C at 8 to 9 atm pressure of the carbon monoxide-hydrogen mixture. The experimental procedures and the chemical and grain-size composition of five catalysts are given, as well as the yields of methane, C/sub 2-4/fraction, gasoline, oils, and ceresin.

  16. Solar production of catalytic filamentous carbon by thermal decomposition of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirillov, V.A.; Kuvshinov, G.G.; Mogilnykh, Yu.I. [Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Reller, A. [University of Hamburg (Germany); Steinfeld, A.; Weidenkaff, A.; Meier, A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    Concentrated solar radiation was used as the clean source of process heat for the production of Catalytic Filamentous Carbon (CFC) by thermal decomposition of gaseous hydrocarbons and by CO disproportionation in the presence of small metal catalyst particles. Depending on the catalyst, two different types of CFC, namely nano tubes and nano fibers, were obtained in solar experiments at the PSI solar furnace. (author) 2 figs., 1 tab., 7 refs.

  17. Characterization of non-methane hydrocarbons emitted from Chinese cooking%中式餐饮业油烟中非甲烷碳氢化合物排放特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春洋; 马永亮

    2011-01-01

    使用挥发性有机物采样标准方法TO-14/15,选择了北京市5家不同菜系、不同营业规模的餐馆,在其营业时段,连续采集油烟中非甲烷碳氢(NMHCs)样品,使用气相色谱质谱联用仪(GC/MS)进行样品分析.研究了4大类72种NMHCs排放浓度和组分组成特点.不同采样餐馆的NMHCs排放浓度存在差异,与菜系类型、规模、上座率、档次高低均有关系.用基准风量折算后,采样餐馆NMHCs基准排放浓度变化范围为9.13×103~14.2×103μg·m-3.在组分分布上,烷烃、烯烃和芳香烃在采样餐馆NMHCs组分组成中占主%EPA Method TO-14/15 for measurement of toxic organics in air samples was applied to examine non-methane hydrocarbon(NMHC) emissions from 5 Chinese restaurants in Beijing.The 5 restaurants use 4 different cooking styles.A total of 72 components of VOCs were observed.The distinguishing characteristics of NMHC emissions from different restaurants are attributed to their cooking style,business scale,number of customers and restaurant grade.Based on the calibrated baseline ventilation volume,the NMHC concentrations of the examined restaurants were in the range of 9.13×103~14.2×103μg · m-3.Alkanes,alkenes and aromatics were the major NMHC components,which were in the ranges of 28.4%~47.9%,8.9%~58.3% and 10.8%~50.4%,respectively,according to the specified parameters set for the individual restaurant.However,the proportion of chlorohydrocarbons and naphthalene varied significantly,especially that of naphthalene.Based on our sampling results and catering industry data from the Beijing statistical yearbook the total amount of NMHCs emitted from commercial restaurants in Beijing was roughly estimated,to be 10559 tons per year.The data suggest that commercial cooking might be an important source of ozone precursors.

  18. Impact of the improved patsari biomass stove on urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon biomarkers and carbon monoxide exposures in rural Mexican women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riojas-Rodriguez, Horacio; Schilmann, Astrid; Marron-Mares, Adriana Teresa; Masera, Omar; Li, Zheng; Romanoff, Lovisa; Sjödin, Andreas; Rojas-Bracho, Leonora; Needham, Larry L; Romieu, Isabelle

    2011-09-01

    Cooking with biomass fuels on open fires results in exposure to health-damaging pollutants such as carbon monoxide (CO), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and particulate matter. We compared CO exposures and urinary PAH biomarkers pre- and postintervention with an improved biomass stove, the Patsari stove. In a subsample of 63 women participating in a randomized controlled trial in central Mexico, we measured personal CO exposure for 8 hr during the day using continuous monitors and passive samplers. In addition, first-morning urine samples obtained the next day were analyzed for monohydroxylated PAH metabolites by gas chromatography/isotope dilution/high-resolution mass spectrometry. Exposure data were collected during the use of an open fire (preintervention) and after installation of the improved stove (postintervention) for 47 women, enabling paired comparisons. Median pre- and postintervention values were 4 and 1 ppm for continuous personal CO and 3 and 1 ppm for passive sampler CO, respectively. Postintervention measurements indicated an average reduction of 42% for hydroxylated metabolites of naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, and pyrene on a whole-weight concentration basis (micrograms per liter of urine), and a 34% reduction on a creatinine-adjusted basis (micrograms per gram of creatinine). Pre- and postintervention geometric mean values for 1-hydroxypyrene were 3.2 and 2.0 μg/g creatinine, respectively. Use of the Patsari stove significantly reduced CO and PAH exposures in women. However, levels of many PAH biomarkers remained higher than those reported among smokers.

  19. Constraints on emissions of carbon monoxide, methane, and a suite of hydrocarbons in the Colorado Front Range using observations of 14CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. P. Tans

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric radiocarbon (14CO represents an important observational constraint on emissions of fossil-fuel derived carbon into the atmosphere due to the absence of 14CO in fossil fuel reservoirs. The high sensitivity and precision that accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS affords in atmospheric 14CO analysis has greatly increased the potential for using such measurements to evaluate bottom-up emissions inventories of fossil fuel CO2 (CO2ff, as well as those for other co-emitted species. Here we use observations of 14CO2 and a series of hydrocarbons and combustion tracers from discrete air samples collected between June 2009 and September 2010 at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO; Lat: 40.050° N, Lon: 105.004° W to derive emission ratios of each species to CO2ff. From these emission ratios, we estimate emissions of these species by using the Vulcan CO2ff high resolution data product as a reference. The species considered in this analysis are carbon monoxide (CO, methane (CH4, acetylene (C2H2, benzene (C6H6, and C3–C5 alkanes. Comparisons of top-down emissions estimates are made to existing inventories of these species for Denver and adjacent counties, as well as to previous efforts to estimate emissions from atmospheric observations over the same area. We find that CO is overestimated in the 2008 National Emissions Inventory (NEI, 2008 by a factor of ~2. A close evaluation of the inventory suggests that the ratio of CO emitted per unit fuel burned from on-road gasoline vehicles is likely over-estimated by a factor of 2.5. The results also suggest that while the oil and gas sector is the largest contributor to the CH4 signal in air arriving from the north and east, it is very likely that other sources, including agricultural sources, contribute to this signal and must be accounted for when attributing these signals to oil and gas industry activity from a top-down perspective. Our results are

  20. Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min Suk

    2017-02-16

    Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation are provided. Methods of using the devices for hydrocarbon reformation are also provided. The devices can include a liquid container to receive a hydrocarbon source, and a plasma torch configured to be submerged in the liquid. The plasma plume from the plasma torch can cause reformation of the hydrocarbon. The device can use a variety of plasma torches that can be arranged in a variety of positions in the liquid container. The devices can be used for the reformation of gaseous hydrocarbons and/or liquid hydrocarbons. The reformation can produce methane, lower hydrocarbons, higher hydrocarbons, hydrogen gas, water, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, or a combination thereof.

  1. 40 CFR 1065.365 - Nonmethane cutter penetration fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... fractions. 1065.365 Section 1065.365 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Measurements § 1065.365 Nonmethane cutter penetration fractions. (a) Scope and frequency. If you use a FID... penetration fractions of methane, PFCH4, and ethane, PF C2H6. As detailed in this section, these...

  2. Carbon monoxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and smokers. Carbon monoxide can harm a fetus (unborn baby still in the womb). Symptoms of carbon ... symptoms Outlook (Prognosis) Carbon monoxide poisoning can cause death. For those who survive, recovery is slow. How ...

  3. CARBON MONOXIDE TREATMENT GUIDELINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miran Brvar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide is the leading cause of unintentional poisoning-related death in Slovenia. It is an odorless, colorless gas that usually remains undetectable until exposures result in injury or death. Exposure to carbon monoxide is most commonly accompanied by headache, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, confusion, drowsiness, fatigue and collapse. Carbon monoxide poisoning management includes normobaric oxygen therapy. Hyperbaric-oxygen treatments reduce the risk of cognitive sequelae after carbon monoxide poisoning. 

  4. Emissions of non-methane organic compounds from a grassland site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukui, Yoshiko; Doskey, P.V.

    1996-03-01

    A mixture of oxygenated hydrocarbons (OxHCs), isoprene, and monoterpenes was detected in the emissions from a grassland site in the Midwestern United States. A plot dominated by crown vetch (Coronilla varia) and bluegrass (Poa spp.), exhibited a constant decrease in emissions of total non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs) from 580 {mu}g m{sup -2} hr{sup -1} in June 1992 to 150 {mu}g m{sup - 2} hr{sup -1} in October 1992, except for a slight increase in August. Oxygenated hydrocarbons (methanol, acetaldehyde, and acetone) and terpenes (isoprene, limonene, myrcene, {alpha}-pinene, and {beta}- pinene) composed about 90% and 10% of the identified NMOC emissions, respectively. Isoprene represented about 10% of the terpene emissions. Total NMOC emission rates based on vegetative biomass averaged 2.3 {mu}g g{sup -1} hr{sup -1}, with 10% of the identified NMOCs attributed to monoterpenes and the remainder mainly OxHCs. Over the course of the investigation, the relationship between the monoterpene emission rate and the temperature for a single plot was logarithmic and similar to the one between compound vapor pressure and temperature. However, emission rates normalized to temperature decreased throughout the summer and fall, indicating that parameterizations of emission rates from herbaceous plants must include a factor to compensate for environmental conditions such as soil moisture and nutrient deposition, which affect plant phenology and the seasonal pattern of species dominance.

  5. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... main content Languages 简体中文 English Bahasa Indonesia 한국어 Español ภาษาไทย Tiếng Việt Text Size: Decrease Font Increase ... Monoxide Information Center Carbon Monoxide Information Center En Español The Invisible Killer Carbon monoxide, also known as ...

  6. Limitations of microbial hydrocarbon degradation at the Amon mud volcano (Nile deep-sea fan)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felden, J.; Lichtschlag, A.; Wenzhöfer, F.; de Beer, D.; Feseker, T.; Pop Ristova, P.; de Lange, G.; Boetius, A.

    2013-01-01

    The Amon mud volcano (MV), located at 1250m water depth on the Nile deep-sea fan, is known for its active emission of methane and non-methane hydrocarbons into the hydrosphere. Previous investigations showed a low efficiency of hydrocarbon-degrading anaerobic microbial communities inhabiting the Amo

  7. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Estimates OCTOBER 13, 2015 Incidents, Deaths, and In-Depth Investigations Associated with Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide from Engine-Driven Generators and ... Engine-Driven Tools, 2004–2014 JANUARY 08, 2015 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths Associated with the Use of Consumer Products 2011 Annual Estimates View All ... Inside CPSC Accessibility ...

  8. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION Search CPSC Search Menu Home Recalls Recall List CPSC Recall API Recall Lawsuits ... and Bans Report an Unsafe Product Consumers Businesses Home Safety Education Safety Education Centers Carbon Monoxide Information ...

  9. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Safety Blogs: CO Safety More CO Blogs Research & Statistics JANUARY 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths ... 2011 Annual Estimates View All CO-Related Injury Statistics and Technical Reports Related Links Recalls Safety Education ...

  10. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... On Safety Blogs: CO Safety More CO Blogs Research & Statistics JANUARY 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide ... Related Links Recalls Safety Education Regulations, Laws & Standards Research & Statistics Business & Manufacturing Small Business Resources OnSafety Blogs ...

  11. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Community Outreach Resource Center Toy Recall Statistics CO Poster Contest Pool Safely Business & Manufacturing Business & Manufacturing Business ... Featured Resources CPSC announces winners of carbon monoxide poster contest Video View the blog Clues You Can ...

  12. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Criminal Penalties Federal Court Orders & Decisions Research & Statistics Research & Statistics Technical Reports Injury Statistics NEISS Injury Data ... On Safety Blogs: CO Safety More CO Blogs Research & Statistics JANUARY 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths ...

  13. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Statistics JANUARY 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths Associated with the Use of Consumer Products 2012 Annual Estimates OCTOBER 13, 2015 Incidents, Deaths, and In-Depth Investigations Associated with Non-Fire ...

  14. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Unites States die every year from accidental non-fire related CO poisoning associated with consumer products, including ... CO Blogs Research & Statistics JANUARY 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths Associated with the Use of ...

  15. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Import Safety International Recall Guidance Civil and Criminal Penalties Federal Court Orders & ... 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths Associated with the Use of Consumer Products 2012 ...

  16. Carbon Monoxide Nonattainment Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies areas in the U.S. where air pollution levels have not met the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Carbon Monoxide and have...

  17. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Unites States die every year from accidental non-fire related CO poisoning associated with consumer products, including ... CO Blogs Research & Statistics JANUARY 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths Associated with the Use of ...

  18. Multimodel simulations of carbon monoxide: Comparison with observations and projected near-future changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindell, D. T.; Faluvegi, G.; Stevenson, D. S.; Krol, M. C.; Emmons, L. K.; Lamarque, J.-F.; PéTron, G.; Dentener, F. J.; Ellingsen, K.; Schultz, M. G.; Wild, O.; Amann, M.; Atherton, C. S.; Bergmann, D. J.; Bey, I.; Butler, T.; Cofala, J.; Collins, W. J.; Derwent, R. G.; Doherty, R. M.; Drevet, J.; Eskes, H. J.; Fiore, A. M.; Gauss, M.; Hauglustaine, D. A.; Horowitz, L. W.; Isaksen, I. S. A.; Lawrence, M. G.; Montanaro, V.; Müller, J.-F.; Pitari, G.; Prather, M. J.; Pyle, J. A.; Rast, S.; Rodriguez, J. M.; Sanderson, M. G.; Savage, N. H.; Strahan, S. E.; Sudo, K.; Szopa, S.; Unger, N.; van Noije, T. P. C.; Zeng, G.

    2006-10-01

    We analyze present-day and future carbon monoxide (CO) simulations in 26 state-of-the-art atmospheric chemistry models run to study future air quality and climate change. In comparison with near-global satellite observations from the MOPITT instrument and local surface measurements, the models show large underestimates of Northern Hemisphere (NH) extratropical CO, while typically performing reasonably well elsewhere. The results suggest that year-round emissions, probably from fossil fuel burning in east Asia and seasonal biomass burning emissions in south-central Africa, are greatly underestimated in current inventories such as IIASA and EDGAR3.2. Variability among models is large, likely resulting primarily from intermodel differences in representations and emissions of nonmethane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) and in hydrologic cycles, which affect OH and soluble hydrocarbon intermediates. Global mean projections of the 2030 CO response to emissions changes are quite robust. Global mean midtropospheric (500 hPa) CO increases by 12.6 ± 3.5 ppbv (16%) for the high-emissions (A2) scenario, by 1.7 ± 1.8 ppbv (2%) for the midrange (CLE) scenario, and decreases by 8.1 ± 2.3 ppbv (11%) for the low-emissions (MFR) scenario. Projected 2030 climate changes decrease global 500 hPa CO by 1.4 ± 1.4 ppbv. Local changes can be much larger. In response to climate change, substantial effects are seen in the tropics, but intermodel variability is quite large. The regional CO responses to emissions changes are robust across models, however. These range from decreases of 10-20 ppbv over much of the industrialized NH for the CLE scenario to CO increases worldwide and year-round under A2, with the largest changes over central Africa (20-30 ppbv), southern Brazil (20-35 ppbv) and south and east Asia (30-70 ppbv). The trajectory of future emissions thus has the potential to profoundly affect air quality over most of the world's populated areas.

  19. PTR-MS measurements of non-methane volatile organic compounds during an intensive field campaign at the summit of Mount Tai, China, in June 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inomata, S.; Tanimoto, H.; Kato, S.; Suthawaree, J.; Kanaya, Y.; Pochanart, P.; Liu, Y.; Wang, Z.

    2010-08-01

    Owing to recent industrialization, Central East China has become a significant source of air pollutants. To examine the processes controlling the chemistry and transport of tropospheric ozone, we performed on-line measurements of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) as part of an intensive field campaign at Mount Tai, China, in June 2006 (MTX2006), using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). Temporal variations of NMVOCs were recorded in mass-scan mode from m/z17 to m/z 300 during 12-30 June 2006. More than thirty kinds of NMVOCs were detected up to m/z 160, including alkenes, aromatics, alcohols, aldehydes, and ketones. In combination with non-methane hydrocarbon data obtained by a gas chromatography with flame ionization detection, it was found that oxygenated VOCs were the predominant NMVOCs. Diurnal variations depending mainly on local photochemistry were observed during 24-28 June. During the night of 12 June, we observed an episode of high NMVOCs concentrations attributed to the burning of agricultural biomass. The ΔNMVOCs/ΔCO ratios derived by PTR-MS measurements for this episode (with biomass burning (BB) plume) and during 16-23 June (without BB plume) are compared to emission ratios from various types of biomass burning as reviewed by Andreae and Merlet (2001) and to ratios recently measured by PTR-MS in tropical forests (Karl et al., 2007) and at urban sites (Warneke et al., 2007).

  20. [Atmospheric non-methane hydrocarbons near plants of crude oil first treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustaffa, Elisa; De Marinis Loiotile, Annamaria; Farella, Genoveffa; Petraccone, Stefania; De Gennaro, Gianluigi; Bianchi, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    La continua espansione delle attività di perforazione ai fini dell'estrazione petrolifera in prossimità di aree abitate ha fatto sì che negli ultimi anni l'attenzione si focalizzasse sull'impatto di questo processo fortemente industrializzato sulla salute pubblica. Le comunità che vivono nei dintorni di impianti di questo tipo devono, infatti, fronteggiare diversi problemi, quali l'inquinamento atmosferico e acustico, la contaminazione del suolo e delle acque sotterranee, il traffico dei camion da e verso il sito, incidenti e malfunzionamenti all'interno dell'impianto. In questo contesto, la valutazione del rischio per la salute è ostacolata dal fatto che l'esposizione alle sostanze chimiche presenti non può essere valutata in via definitiva, poiché non sempre si è a conoscenza di tutti i composti immessi nell'ambiente né delle loro concentrazioni, per non parlare del problema delle coesposizioni ad altri inquinanti. Nonostante l'oramai conclamato e vasto interesse generato da questo argomento, ad oggi esistono pochi studi basati su popolazioni riguardanti gli effetti sulla salute delle comunità che vivono in prossimità dei siti di perforazione ed estrazione; ciò genera la necessità di condurre campagne di monitoraggio mirate e studi epidemiologici che verifichino l'eventuale esistenza e natura di pattern di malattie associati a tali attività. La presente rassegna bibliografica individua, quindi, i principali inquinanti atmosferici presenti in prossimità di un impianto di primo trattamento del greggio e cerca di fornire un quadro generale delle loro potenziali sorgenti e caratteristiche.

  1. A Regional Analysis of Non-Methane Hydrocarbons And Meteorology of The Rural Southeast United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Yorkville, GA) to 21.15 ppbC (Centreville, AL) during the summer. The terpene concentration was greatest in the summer with averages ranging between 3.19...28 Figure 5b. Seasonal average of terpene sum (t-,P3-pinene, limonene) .................. 28 Figure 6. Isoprene concentration...concentrations absorb ultraviolet radiation of 200-300 nm, preventing it from reaching the earth’s surface; for this reason, it is called "good ozone". In the

  2. Hydrocarbon pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pneumonia - hydrocarbon ... Coughing Fever Shortness of breath Smell of a hydrocarbon product on the breath Stupor (decreased level of ... Most children who drink or inhale hydrocarbon products and develop ... hydrocarbons may lead to rapid respiratory failure and death.

  3. 40 CFR 86.1710-99 - Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fleet average non-methane organic gas....1710-99 Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles and... follows: Table R99-15—Fleet Average Non-Methane Organic Gas Standards (g/mi) for Light-Duty Vehicles...

  4. Aromatic hydrocarbons as ozone precursors before and after outbreak of the 2008 financial crisis in the Pearl River Delta region, south China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanli; Wang, Xinming; Blake, Donald R.; Li, Longfeng; Zhang, Zhou; Wang, Shaoyi; Guo, Hai; Lee, Frank S. C.; Gao, Bo; Chan, Loyin; Wu, Dui; Rowland, F. Sherwood

    2012-08-01

    In the second half of 2008 China's highly industrialized Pearl River Delta (PRD) region was hard-hit by the financial crisis (FC). This study reports volatile organic compounds measured in the PRD during November-December in both 2007 before the FC and 2008 after the FC. While total mixing ratios of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) on average were only about 7% lower from 40.2 ppbv in 2007 to 37.5 ppbv in 2008, their ozone formation potentials (OFPs) dropped about 30%, resulting from about 55% plummet of aromatic hydrocarbons (AHs) against a greater than 20% increase of total alkanes/alkenes. The elevated alkanes and alkenes in 2008 could be explained by greater emissions from vehicle exhausts and LPG combustion due to rapid increase of vehicle numbers and LPG consumption; the drop of AHs could be explained by reduced emissions from industries using AH-containing solvents due to the influence of the FC, as indicated by much lower ratios of toluene to benzene and of xylenes/trichloroethylene/tetrachloroethylene to carbon monoxide (CO) in 2008. Source apportionment by positive matrix factorization (PMF) also revealed much less contribution of industry solvents to total anthropogenic NMHCs and particularly to toluene and xylenes in 2008 than in 2007. Based on PMF reconstructed source contributions, calculated OFPs by industrial emissions were responsible for 40.8% in 2007 in contrast to 18.4% in 2008. Further investigation into local industry output statistics suggested that the plummet of AHs in 2008 should be attributed to small enterprises, which contributed largely to ambient AHs due to their huge numbers and non-existent emission treatment, but were much more influenced by the FC.

  5. Non-methane volatile organic compound flux from a subarctic mire in Northern Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Bäckstrand, Kristina; Crill, Patrick M.; Mastepanov, Mikhail; Christensen, Torben R.; Bastviken, David

    2011-01-01

    Biogenic NMVOCs are mainly formed by plants and microorganisms. They have strong impact on the local atmospheric chemistry when emitted to the atmosphere. The objective of this study was to determine if there are significant emissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) from a subarctic mire in northern Sweden. Subarctic peatlands in discontinuous permafrost regions are undergoing substantial environmental changes due to their high sensitivity to climate warming and there is ne...

  6. Carbon Monoxide (CO) Poisoning Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir When power outages occur after severe weather (such as winter storms, hurricanes or tornadoes), using alternative sources of power can cause carbon monoxide (CO) to build up in a ...

  7. Carbon Monoxide Mixing Ratio System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory — The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Carbon Monoxide (CO) system provides high-precision atmospheric concentration measurements of CO mixing ratio (ppbv dry air) every 10...

  8. Material processing with hydrogen and carbon monoxide on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, Aloysius F.; Landis, Geoffrey A.; Linne, Diane L.

    1991-01-01

    Several novel proposals are examined for propellant production from carbon dioxide and monoxide and hydrogen. Potential uses were also examined of CO as a fuel or as a reducing agent in metal oxide processing as obtained or further reduced to carbon. Hydrogen can be reacted with CO to produce a wide variety of hydrocarbons, alcohols, and other organic compounds. Methanol, produced by Fischer-Tropsch chemistry may be useful as a fuel; it is easy to store and handle because it is a liquid at Mars temperatures. The reduction of CO2 to hydrocarbons such as methane or acetylene can be accomplished with hydrogen. Carbon monoxide and hydrogen require cryogenic temperatures for storage as liquids. Noncryogenic storage of hydrogen may be accomplished using hydrocarbons, inorganic hydrides, or metal hydrides. Noncryogenic storage of CO may be accomplished in the form of iron carbonyl (FE(CO)5) or other metal carbonyls. Low hydrogen content fuels such as acetylene (C2H2) may be effective propellants with low requirements for earth derived resources. The impact on manned Mars missions of alternative propellant production and utilization is discussed.

  9. Studies relevant to the catalytic activation of carbon monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, P.C.

    1992-06-04

    Research activity during the 1991--1992 funding period has been concerned with the following topics relevant to carbon monoxide activation. (1) Exploratory studies of water gas shift catalysts heterogenized on polystyrene based polymers. (2) Mechanistic investigation of the nucleophilic activation of CO in metal carbonyl clusters. (3) Application of fast reaction techniques to prepare and to investigate reactive organometallic intermediates relevant to the activation of hydrocarbons toward carbonylation and to the formation of carbon-carbon bonds via the migratory insertion of CO into metal alkyl bonds.

  10. (Carbon monoxide metabolism by photosynthetic bacteria)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    Research continued on the metabolism of carbon monoxide by Rhodospirillum rubrum. This report discusses progress on the activity, induction, inhibition, and spectroscopic analysis of the enzyme Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase. (CBS)

  11. Carbon Monoxide Silicate Reduction System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Carbon Monoxide Silicate Reduction System (COSRS) is an innovative method that for the first time uses the strong reductant carbon monoxide to both reduce iron...

  12. Carbon monoxide formation in tomatoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gladon, R.J.; Staby, G.L.

    1979-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is not emanated to any large extent from tomato fruits (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill. cvs. Rutgers and Ohio MR-13), but is retained within the internal atmosphere. CO is found during all stages of fruit development, but no set pattern of CO concentration is evident.

  13. MOPITT Carbon Monoxide Over India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    MOPITT observed high levels of carbon monoxide (red and yellow pixels) over the Indian sub-continent during March. These values are associated with industrial activity in the region just south of the Himalayan Mountains. Notice that to the north, the Himalayas are characterized by low values (blue pixels).

  14. Four-electron deoxygenative reductive coupling of carbon monoxide at a single metal site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Joshua A.; Agapie, Theodor

    2016-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is the ultimate source of the fossil fuels that are both central to modern life and problematic: their use increases atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases, and their availability is geopolitically constrained. Using carbon dioxide as a feedstock to produce synthetic fuels might, in principle, alleviate these concerns. Although many homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts convert carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide, further deoxygenative coupling of carbon monoxide to generate useful multicarbon products is challenging. Molybdenum and vanadium nitrogenases are capable of converting carbon monoxide into hydrocarbons under mild conditions, using discrete electron and proton sources. Electrocatalytic reduction of carbon monoxide on copper catalysts also uses a combination of electrons and protons, while the industrial Fischer-Tropsch process uses dihydrogen as a combined source of electrons and electrophiles for carbon monoxide coupling at high temperatures and pressures. However, these enzymatic and heterogeneous systems are difficult to probe mechanistically. Molecular catalysts have been studied extensively to investigate the elementary steps by which carbon monoxide is deoxygenated and coupled, but a single metal site that can efficiently induce the required scission of carbon-oxygen bonds and generate carbon-carbon bonds has not yet been documented. Here we describe a molybdenum compound, supported by a terphenyl-diphosphine ligand, that activates and cleaves the strong carbon-oxygen bond of carbon monoxide, enacts carbon-carbon coupling, and spontaneously dissociates the resulting fragment. This complex four-electron transformation is enabled by the terphenyl-diphosphine ligand, which acts as an electron reservoir and exhibits the coordinative flexibility needed to stabilize the different intermediates involved in the overall reaction sequence. We anticipate that these design elements might help in the development of efficient catalysts for

  15. Relationship between total Non-Methane Hydrocarbons (NMHC) and Speciated NMHCs by Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Station (PAMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S.; Ou Yang, C.; Chang, J.; Wang, J.

    2012-12-01

    Total NMHC observations were made in some of the EPA air quality stations (AQS) across Taiwan, along with measurements of ozone, CO, NOx, SO2 and PM10. This network is also complimented by another eight-station network, called photochemical assessment monitoring stations (PAMS), to provide hourly observations of 56 individual volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In this study, the relationship of the total NMHC and PAMS NMHC observations for the period of 2007-2011 at four sites were cross-examined. It was found that both the hourly mixing ratios and variations of the summed PAMS NMHC values were in excellent agreement with the total NMHC data, with the summed PAMS NMHC observations accounted for at least 80% of the total NMHC observations. However, when looking into the VOC emission database, the PAMS NMHC emissions only contributed 58% of the total NMHC emissions. This then leads to about 30% difference in the traditionally observed NMHCs and estimated emissions. The three-dimensional Eulerian air quality model (PAMS-AQM) was used to simulate both the total NMHC and individual PAMS NMHCs, which showed that the sum of the simulated PAMS NMHCs agreed well with the observed PAMS values. However, the modeled total VOC values were significantly higher than the observed total NMHC values, and such findings were consistent among all four stations. This and the above findings combine to suggest that the customarily labeled "total NMHC" reported by almost all air quality stations are underestimates by about 30%. This underestimate is rather uncertain for two reasons: One, both total NMHC and PAMS speciated NMHC measurements underestimate VOC levels in ambient air. Since both types of measurements use the same method of flame ionization detection, it is less sensitive to oxygen containing VOCs (OVOCs), e.g., aldehydes, esters, ketones, ether, acids, etc. than other VOCs. In contrast, the PAMS measurements only target 56 PAMS NMHCs although more directly, and OVOCs also are not covered by the measurements. So both measurements miss the same group of VOCs for different reasons. Two, due to the lumping methods used to treat numerous VOCs in all air quality models, the integral rate expressions and deposition constants of each lumping groups are only approximate. The unique characteristics of individual VOCs cannot be revealed in the relevant lumping groups. When this is added to uncertainties in emissions estimates, model results can only be considered as reasonable set of independent estimates. At this time, our findings of this approximately 30% uncertainty may be the limit of model accuracy in comparing VOC simulations with observations.

  16. Seasonal cycles of nonmethane hydrocarbons and methyl chloride, as derived from firn air from Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaspers, K.A.; Wal, R.S.W. van de; Gouw, J.A. de; Hofstede, C.M.; Broeke, M.R. van den; Reijmer, C.H.; Veen, C. van der; Neubert, R.E.M.; Meijer, H.A.J.; Brenninkmeijer, C.A.M.; Karlöf, L.; Winther, J.G.

    2004-01-01

    [1] This paper presents atmospheric concentrations of ethane, propane, acetylene, and methyl chloride, inferred from firn air by using a numerical one-dimensional firn diffusion model. The firn air was collected on the Antarctic plateau in Dronning Maud Land during the Norwegian Antarctic Research E

  17. Carbon monoxide kinetics following simulated cigarette smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karnik, A.S. (Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI); Coin, E.J.

    1980-05-01

    Carbon monoxide kinetics were measured in the blood (% carboxyhemoglobin) and alveolar phase (ppM carbon monoxide) after simulated cigarette smoking. Cigarette smoking was siumlated using the same amount of carbon monoxide that 2R1F cigarettes manufactured by the Tobacco Research Institute would contain. Ten boluses of air containing carbon monoxide equivalent to smoking one cigarette were inhaled by six healthy nonsmoker volunteers. Carbon monoxide in the air phase was measured by an Ecolyzer and carboxyhemoglobin was measured by a CO-Oximeter. The mean rise in alveolar carbon monoxide immediately and 20 min after inhaling the last bolus was 3.3 and 3.1 ppM, respectively (p<.005). The mean rise in carboxyhemoglobin immediately and 20 min after inhalation of the last bolus was 0.8 and 0.5% respectively (P<.005). The changes in carboxyhemoglobin were found to be similar to changes that occur when one cigarette is actually smoked.

  18. Limitations of microbial hydrocarbon degradation at the Amon mud volcano (Nile deep-sea fan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Felden

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Amon mud volcano (MV, located at 1250 m water depth on the Nile deep-sea fan, is known for its active emission of methane and non-methane hydrocarbons into the hydrosphere. Previous investigations showed a low efficiency of hydrocarbon-degrading anaerobic microbial communities inhabiting the Amon MV center in the presence of sulfate and hydrocarbons in the seeping subsurface fluids. By comparing spatial and temporal patterns of in situ biogeochemical fluxes, temperature gradients, pore water composition, and microbial activities over 3 yr, we investigated why the activity of anaerobic hydrocarbon degraders can be low despite high energy supplies. We found that the central dome of the Amon MV, as well as a lateral mud flow at its base, showed signs of recent exposure of hot subsurface muds lacking active hydrocarbon degrading communities. In these highly disturbed areas, anaerobic degradation of methane was less than 2% of the methane flux. Rather high oxygen consumption rates compared to low sulfide production suggest a faster development of more rapidly growing aerobic hydrocarbon degraders in highly disturbed areas. In contrast, the more stabilized muds surrounding the central gas and fluid conduits hosted active anaerobic hydrocarbon-degrading microbial communities. The low microbial activity in the hydrocarbon-vented areas of Amon MV is thus a consequence of kinetic limitations by heat and mud expulsion, whereas most of the outer MV area is limited by hydrocarbon transport.

  19. Carbon monoxide conversion by anaerobic bioreactor sludges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sipma, J.; Stams, A.J.M.; Lens, P.N.L.; Lettinga, G.

    2003-01-01

    Seven different anaerobic sludges from wastewater treatment reactors were screened for their ability to convert carbon monoxide (CO) at 30 and 55degreesC
    Seven different anaerobic sludges from wastewater treatment reactors were screened for their ability to convert carbon monoxide (CO) at 30 and

  20. Characterization of hydrocarbon utilizing fungi from hydrocarbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    hydrocarbon polluted sediments and water .... ecosystem may result in selective increase or decrease in microbial population (Okpokwasili ... been implicated in degradation of hydrocarbons such as crude oil, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and.

  1. GLOBAL SIMULATION OF TROPOSPHERIC O3-NOX-HYDROCARBON CHEMISTRY, 3. ORIGIN OF TROPOSPHERIC OZONE AND EFFECTS OF NON-METHANE HYDROCARBONS. (R824096)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  2. Non-methane volatile organic compound flux from a subarctic mire in Northern Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäckstrand, Kristina; Crill, Patrick M.; Mastepanov, Mikhail; Christensen, Torben R.; Bastviken, David

    2008-04-01

    Biogenic NMVOCs are mainly formed by plants and microorganisms. They have strong impact on the local atmospheric chemistry when emitted to the atmosphere. The objective of this study was to determine if there are significant emissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) from a subarctic mire in northern Sweden. Subarctic peatlands in discontinuous permafrost regions are undergoing substantial environmental changes due to their high sensitivity to climate warming and there is need for including NMVOCs in the overall carbon budget. Automatic and manual chamber measurements were used to estimate NMVOC fluxes from three dominating subhabitats on the mire during three growing seasons. Emission rates varied and were related to plant species distribution and seasonal net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide. The highest fluxes were observed from wetter sites dominated by Eriophorum and Sphagnum spp. Total NMVOC emissions from the mire (~17 ha) is estimated to consist of ~150 kgC during a growing season with 150 d. NMVOC fluxes can account for ~5% of total net carbon exchange (-3177 kgC) at the mire during the same period. NMVOC emissions are therefore a significant component in a local carbon budget for peatlands.

  3. The Carbon Monoxide Tape Recorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeberl, M. R.; Duncan, B. N.; Douglass, A. R.; Waters, J.; Livesey, N.; Read, W.; Filipiak, M.

    2006-01-01

    Using Aura MLS data we have identified the stratospheric tape recorder in carbon monoxide (CO). Unlike the water vapor tape recorder, which is controlled by upper troposphere processes, the CO tape recorder is linked to seasonal biomass burning. Since CO has a lifetime of only a few months, the CO tape recorder barely extends above 20 km. The tape head for CO appears to be close to 360K near the same location as the water vapor tape head [Read et al, 20041. Both tape heads are below the equatorial cold point tropopause but above the base of the tropical tropopause layer. The tape recorder signal becomes more distinct from 360K to 380K suggesting that convective detrainment of plays a decreasingly important role with altitude. The Global Modeling Initiative chemical transport model forced by the climatology of biomass burning reproduces the CO tape recorder.

  4. Apparatus for hydrocarbon extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.

    2013-03-19

    Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

  5. International comparison of a hydrocarbon gas standard at the picomol per mol level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoderick, George C; Duewer, David L; Apel, Eric; Baldan, Annarita; Hall, Bradley; Harling, Alice; Helmig, Detlev; Heo, Gwi Suk; Hueber, Jacques; Kim, Mi Eon; Kim, Yong Doo; Miller, Ben; Montzka, Steve; Riemer, Daniel

    2014-03-04

    Studies of climate change increasingly recognize the diverse influences of hydrocarbons in the atmosphere, including roles in particulates and ozone formation. Measurements of key nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) suggest atmospheric mole fractions ranging from low picomoles per mol (ppt) to nanomoles per mol (ppb), depending on location and compound. To accurately establish mole fraction trends and to relate measurement records from many laboratories and researchers, it is essential to have accurate, stable, calibration standards. In February of 2008, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) developed and reported on picomoles per mol standards containing 18 nonmethane hydrocarbon compounds covering the mole fraction range of 60 picomoles per mol to 230 picomoles per mol. The stability of these gas mixtures was only characterized over a short time period (2 to 3 months). NIST recently prepared a suite of primary standard gas mixtures by gravimetric dilution to ascertain the stability of the 2008 picomoles per mol NMHC standards suite. The data from this recent chromatographic intercomparison of the 2008 to the 2011 suites confirm a much longer stability of almost 5 years for 15 of the 18 hydrocarbons; the double-bonded alkenes of propene, isobutene, and 1-pentene showed instability, in line with previous publications. The agreement between the gravimetric values from preparation and the analytical mole fractions determined from regression illustrate the internal consistency of the suite within ±2 pmol/mol. However, results for several of the compounds reflect stability problems for the three double-bonded hydrocarbons. An international intercomparison on one of the 2008 standards has also been completed. Participants included National Metrology Institutes, United States government laboratories, and academic laboratories. In general, results for this intercomparison agree to within about ±5% with the gravimetric mole fractions of the hydrocarbons.

  6. Engineering evidence for carbon monoxide toxicity cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galatsis, Kosmas

    2016-07-01

    Unintentional carbon monoxide poisonings and fatalities lead to many toxicity cases. Given the unusual physical properties of carbon monoxide-in that the gas is odorless and invisible-unorganized and erroneous methods in obtaining engineering evidence as required during the discovery process often occurs. Such evidence gathering spans domains that include building construction, appliance installation, industrial hygiene, mechanical engineering, combustion and physics. In this paper, we attempt to place a systematic framework that is relevant to key aspects in engineering evidence gathering for unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning cases. Such a framework aims to increase awareness of this process and relevant issues to help guide legal counsel and expert witnesses.

  7. Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet İbrahim Turan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide poisoning is a major cause of death following attempted suicide and accidental exposures. Although clinical presentation depends on the duration and the intensity of exposure, the assessment of the severity of intoxication is difficult. A small percentage of patients who show complete initial recovery may develop delayed neurological deficits. Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning is a rare and poor prognosis neurologic disorders and there is no specific treatment. We present a case with early onset of delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning with typical cranial imaging findings in a child with atypical history and clinical presentation.

  8. MODELLING OF CARBON MONOXIDE AIR POLLUTION IN LARG CITIES BY EVALUETION OF SPECTRAL LANDSAT8 IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hamzelo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution in large cities is one of the major problems that resolve and reduce it need multiple applications and environmental management. Of The main sources of this pollution is industrial activities, urban and transport that enter large amounts of contaminants into the air and reduces its quality. With Variety of pollutants and high volume manufacturing, local distribution of manufacturing centers, Testing and measuring emissions is difficult. Substances such as carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and unburned hydrocarbons and lead compounds are substances that cause air pollution and carbon monoxide is most important. Today, data exchange systems, processing, analysis and modeling is of important pillars of management system and air quality control. In this study, using the spectral signature of carbon monoxide gas as the most efficient gas pollution LANDSAT8 images in order that have better spatial resolution than appropriate spectral bands and weather meters،SAM classification algorithm and Geographic Information System (GIS , spatial distribution of carbon monoxide gas in Tehran over a period of one year from the beginning of 2014 until the beginning of 2015 at 11 map have modeled and then to the model valuation ،created maps were compared with the map provided by the Tehran quality comparison air company. Compare involved plans did with the error matrix and results in 4 types of care; overall, producer, user and kappa coefficient was investigated. Results of average accuracy were about than 80%, which indicates the fit method and data used for modeling.

  9. Modelling of Carbon Monoxide Air Pollution in Larg Cities by Evaluetion of Spectral LANDSAT8 Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzelo, M.; Gharagozlou, A.; Sadeghian, S.; Baikpour, S. H.; Rajabi, A.

    2015-12-01

    Air pollution in large cities is one of the major problems that resolve and reduce it need multiple applications and environmental management. Of The main sources of this pollution is industrial activities, urban and transport that enter large amounts of contaminants into the air and reduces its quality. With Variety of pollutants and high volume manufacturing, local distribution of manufacturing centers, Testing and measuring emissions is difficult. Substances such as carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and unburned hydrocarbons and lead compounds are substances that cause air pollution and carbon monoxide is most important. Today, data exchange systems, processing, analysis and modeling is of important pillars of management system and air quality control. In this study, using the spectral signature of carbon monoxide gas as the most efficient gas pollution LANDSAT8 images in order that have better spatial resolution than appropriate spectral bands and weather meters،SAM classification algorithm and Geographic Information System (GIS ), spatial distribution of carbon monoxide gas in Tehran over a period of one year from the beginning of 2014 until the beginning of 2015 at 11 map have modeled and then to the model valuation ،created maps were compared with the map provided by the Tehran quality comparison air company. Compare involved plans did with the error matrix and results in 4 types of care; overall, producer, user and kappa coefficient was investigated. Results of average accuracy were about than 80%, which indicates the fit method and data used for modeling.

  10. Carbon Monoxide Silicate Reduction System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Carbon Monoxide Silicate Reduction System (COSRS) is a novel technology for producing large quantities of oxygen on the Moon. Oxygen yields of 15 kilograms per...

  11. Protect Yourself from Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-20

    Learn about carbon monoxide - a colorless, odorless gas - and how to protect yourself and your family.  Created: 11/20/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 12/4/2007.

  12. Integrated electricity and carbon monoxide production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, J.

    1994-03-23

    In a process for the production of carbon monoxide and electric power in an IGCC with the removal of sulphur compounds, between the outlet of quenched gas from a partial oxidation unit and a fuel inlet to a combined cycle gas turbine there is a permeable membrane unit to separate a non-permeable stream, which is utilised as a source of carbon monoxide, and a permeate stream, which is used as fuel for the gas turbine of the combined cycle unit. (author)

  13. Hearing Loss due to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Houshang Mehrparvar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide poisoning is one of the rare causes of hearing loss which may cause reversible or irreversible, unilateral or bilateral hearing loss after acute or chronic exposure. In this report, we present a case of bilateral sensorineural hearing loss in a secondary smelting workshop worker after an acute exposure to carbon monoxide. This complication was diagnosed by pure-tone audiometry and confirmed by transient evoked otoacoustic emissions. Hearing loss has not improved after 3 months of followup.

  14. Transition metal chemistry under high carbon monoxide pressure: an infrared spectroscopic study of catalysis in the Fischer--Tropsch reaction. [7 refs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, R.B.; King, A.D. Jr.; Iqbal, M.Z.; Frazier, C.C.

    1977-01-01

    This project involves the design and construction of equipment to investigate the infrared spectra of metal carbonyl derivatives in the 1600 to 2200 cm./sup -1/ nu(CO) region at pressures up to 500 atmospheres and temperatures up to 250/sup 0/ followed by the use of this equipment to study the infrared spectra of a variety of transition metal derivatives at elevated pressures of carbon monoxide. The ultimate objective of this work is the discovery of new chemistry leading to the development of new systems which are catalytically active for the conversion of mixtures of carbon monoxide and hydrogen to hydrocarbons in connection with the conversion of coal to hydrocarbon fuels. During the initial period covered by this first progress report a high pressure infrared cell has been designed, constructed, and used for the preliminary investigations of reactions of about 15 transition metal derivatives under elevated pressure of carbon monoxide and hydrogen.

  15. Total non-methane volatile organic compounds (TNMVOC) in the atmosphere of Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Padhy, Pratap; Varshney, C. K.

    Volatile organic compounds (VOC), more specifically, non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) play a critical role in the atmospheric chemistry. NMVOC, through complex photochemical reactions, contribute to the formation of toxic oxidants, such as tropospheric ozone and PAN, which are injurious to health and highly phytotoxic. Certain NMVOC have been shown to be highly toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic. NMVOC are receiving increasing attention in the west on account of their implication for human health and air quality. On the other hand, information on NMVOC in India and other developing countries is not available. As a result, appreciation of potential threat from NMVOC in relation to air quality and public health is sadly lacking among planners and policy makers. The paper deals with the estimation of total NMVOC at 13 sites in the urban environment of Delhi during November 1994 to June 1995. An inexpensive, labour intensive manual sample collection device was used and the air samples were analysed using GC-FID. The results show that the amount of NMVOC in the ambient environment of Delhi varied between 1.3 and 32.5 ppmv exhibiting wide temporal and seasonal variation. NMVOC levels mostly peaked at 0900 h, which coincide with the peak traffic hour. The implications of NMVOC build-up in the urban atmosphere are obvious for air quality. The results of this preliminary study make out a strong case for developing a regular monitoring programme for NMVOC in the urban environment of Delhi as well as in other major cities in the region.

  16. Non Methane Hydrocarbons (NMHCs) at the centre of Athens: variability and relative contribution of traffic and wood burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panopoulou, Anastasia; Liakakou, Eleni; Psiloglou, Basil; Gros, Valerie; Bonsang, Bernard; Sauvage, Stephane; Locoge, Nadine; Lianou, Maria; Gerasopoulos, Evangelos; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos

    2016-04-01

    Non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) can be found in significant concentrations in urban areas. They are emitted by biogenic and anthropogenic sources like vehicle exhaust, gasoline evaporation and solvent use. Once emitted they mainly react with hydroxyl radicals (OH) and in the presence of nitrogen oxides (NOx) lead to the formation of secondary pollutants such as ozone (O3), peroxy acetyl nitrate (PAN) and secondary organic aerosols. In Great Athens Area (GAA) despite the numerous air quality issues especially with exceedances in ozone and particulate matter (PM), continuous monitoring of NMHCs is absent. This work presents the first results of a ChArMEX/TRANSEMED project dealing with VOC source apportionment and emission inventory evaluation in megacities around the Mediterranean basin. A representative site in the centre of Athens is progressively equipped with high performance instruments in order to measure continuously NMHCs (time resolution of 30 min) over a long period. The main objective of this presentation is the determination of the ambient level and temporal variability of C2-C6 NMHCs, as well as the impact of the sources controlling their variability. The importance of this work is attributed to the high time resolution measurements providing a detailed light hydrocarbons profile of the area for first time in the GAA. An automatic gas chromatograph (airmoVOC C2-C6 Chromatrap GC, Chromatotec, France) equipped with a flame ionization detector (FID) has been used for the in-situ measurements of NMHCS with two to six carbon atoms (C2-C6 NMHCs) during the period from the 16 of October to end of December 2015. In addition, meteorological and auxiliary data for major gases (CO, O3, NOx) and particulates (PM and Black Carbon (BC) are also available. Atmospheric concentrations of NMHCs range from below the detection limit to a few ppbs, for example almost 14 ppb, 20 ppb and 25 ppb for ethane, propane and acetylene respectively. Between the NMHCs being monitored

  17. Catalysts and process for liquid hydrocarbon fuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Mark G.; Ranaweera, Samantha A.; Henry, William P.

    2016-08-02

    The present invention provides a novel process and system in which a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen synthesis gas, or syngas, is converted into hydrocarbon mixtures composed of high quality distillates, gasoline components, and lower molecular weight gaseous olefins in one reactor or step. The invention utilizes a novel supported bimetallic ion complex catalyst for conversion, and provides methods of preparing such novel catalysts and use of the novel catalysts in the process and system of the invention.

  18. Non-methane volatile organic compounds in Africa: A view from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marais, Eloise Ann

    Isoprene emissions affect human health, air quality, and the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere. Globally anthropogenic non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) emissions are lower than that of isoprene, but local hotspots are hazardous to human health and air quality. In Africa the tropics are a large source of isoprene, while Nigeria appears as a large contributor to regional anthropogenic NMVOC emissions. I make extensive use of space-based formaldehyde (HCHO) observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and the chemical transport model (CTM) GEOS-Chem to estimate and examine seasonality of isoprene emissions across Africa, and identify sources and air quality consequences of anthropogenic NMVOC emissions in Nigeria. To estimate isoprene emissions I first developed a filtering scheme to remove (1) contamination from biomass burning and anthropogenic influences; and (2) displacement of HCHO from the isoprene emission source diagnosed with the GEOS-Chem CTM. Conversion to isoprene emissions is with NOx-dependent GEOS-Chem HCHO yields, obtained as the local sensitivity S of the HCHO column ΩHCHO to a perturbation Delta in isoprene emissions EISOP (S = DeltaΩHCHO/DeltaE ISOP). The error in OMI-derived isoprene emissions is 40% at low levels of NOx and 40-90% under high-NOx conditions and is reduced by spatial and temporal averaging to the extent that errors are random. Weak isoprene emission seasonality in equatorial forests is driven predominantly by temperature, while large seasonality in northern and southern savannas is driven by temperature and leaf area index. The largest contribution of African isoprene emissions to surface ozone and particulate matter, determined with GEOS-Chem, of 8 ppbv and 1.5 μg m-3, respectively, is over West Africa. The OMI HCHO data feature a large enhancement over Nigeria that is due to anthropogenic NMVOC emissions. With the OMI HCHO data, coincident satellite observations of atmospheric composition, aircraft

  19. Interactive chemistry in the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique general circulation model: model description and impact analysis of biogenic hydrocarbons on tropospheric chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Folberth

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a description and evaluation of LMDz-INCA, a global three-dimensional chemistry-climate model, pertaining to its recently developed NMHC version. In this substantially extended version of the model a comprehensive representation of the photochemistry of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC and volatile organic compounds (VOC from biogenic, anthropogenic, and biomass-burning sources has been included. The tropospheric annual mean methane (9.2 years and methylchloroform (5.5 years chemical lifetimes are well within the range of previous modelling studies and are in excellent agreement with estimates established by means of global observations. The model provides a reasonable simulation of the horizontal and vertical distribution and seasonal cycle of CO and key non-methane VOC, such as acetone, methanol, and formaldehyde as compared to observational data from several ground stations and aircraft campaigns. LMDz-INCA in the NMHC version reproduces tropospheric ozone concentrations fairly well throughout most of the troposphere. The model is applied in several sensitivity studies of the biosphere-atmosphere photochemical feedback. The impact of surface emissions of isoprene, acetone, and methanol is studied. These experiments show a substantial impact of isoprene on tropospheric ozone and carbon monoxide concentrations revealing an increase in surface O3 and CO levels of up to 30 ppbv and 60 ppbv, respectively. Isoprene also appears to significantly impact the global OH distribution resulting in a decrease of the global mean tropospheric OH concentration by approximately 0.7×105 molecules cm-3 or roughly 8% and an increase in the global mean tropospheric methane lifetime by approximately seven months. A global mean ozone net radiative forcing due to the isoprene induced increase in the tropospheric ozone burden of 0.09 W m-2 is found. The key role of isoprene photooxidation in the global tropospheric redistribution of NOx is demonstrated. LMDz

  20. Studies relevant to the catalytic activation of carbon monoxide. Technical progress report, September 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, P.C.

    1992-06-04

    Research activity during the 1991--1992 funding period has been concerned with the following topics relevant to carbon monoxide activation. (1) Exploratory studies of water gas shift catalysts heterogenized on polystyrene based polymers. (2) Mechanistic investigation of the nucleophilic activation of CO in metal carbonyl clusters. (3) Application of fast reaction techniques to prepare and to investigate reactive organometallic intermediates relevant to the activation of hydrocarbons toward carbonylation and to the formation of carbon-carbon bonds via the migratory insertion of CO into metal alkyl bonds.

  1. The hydrocarbon sphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandev, P.

    1984-01-01

    The hydrocarbon sphere is understood to be the area in which hydrocarbon compounds are available. It is believed that the lower boundary on the hydrocarbon sphere is most probably located at a depth where the predominant temperatures aid in the destruction of hydrocarbons (300 to 400 degrees centigrade). The upper limit on the hydrocarbon sphere obviously occurs at the earth's surface, where hydrocarbons oxidize to H20 and CO2. Within these ranges, the occurrence of the hydrocarbon sphere may vary from the first few hundred meters to 15 kilometers or more. The hydrocarbon sphere is divided into the external (mantle) sphere in which the primary gas, oil and solid hydrocarbon fields are located, and the internal (metamorphic) sphere containing primarily noncommercial accumulations of hydrocarbon gases and solid carbon containing compounds (anthraxilite, shungite, graphite, etc.) based on the nature and scale of hydrocarbon compound concentrations (natural gas, oil, maltha, asphalt, asphaltite, etc.).

  2. Pulmonary edema in acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kun Sang; Chang, Kee Hyun; Lee, Myung Uk [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1974-10-15

    Acute carbon monoxide poisoning has frequently occurred in Korean, because of the coal briquette being widely used as fuel in Korean residences. Carbon monoxide poisoning has been extensively studied, but it has been sparsely reported that pulmonary edema may develop in acute CO poisoning. We have noticed nine cases of pulmonary edema in acute CO poisoning last year. Other possible causes of pulmonary edema could be exclude in all cases but one. The purpose of this paper is to describe nine cases of pulmonary edema complicated in acute CO poisoning and discuss the pathogenesis and the prognosis.

  3. 40 CFR 60.103 - Standard for carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Refineries § 60.103 Standard for carbon monoxide. Each owner or operator of any fluid catalytic cracking unit... regenerator any gases that contain carbon monoxide (CO) in excess of 500 ppm by volume (dry basis)....

  4. [Carbon monoxide metabolism by photosynthetic bacteria]. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-31

    Research continued on the metabolism of carbon monoxide by Rhodospirillum rubrum. This report discusses progress on the activity, induction, inhibition, and spectroscopic analysis of the enzyme Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase. (CBS)

  5. Carbon Monoxide Hazards from Small Gasoline Powered Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topics Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH CARBON MONOXIDE Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this Page Recommendations NIOSH Publications Worker Notification Program Carbon Monoxide Hazards from Small Gasoline Powered Engines Many ...

  6. Assessment of carbon monoxide values in smokers: a comparison of carbon monoxide in expired air and carboxyhaemoglobin in arterial blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Mette F; Møller, Ann M

    2010-01-01

    Smoking increases perioperative complications. Carbon monoxide concentrations can estimate patients' smoking status and might be relevant in preoperative risk assessment. In smokers, we compared measurements of carbon monoxide in expired air (COexp) with measurements of carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb...

  7. Characterizing non-methane volatile organic compounds emissions from a swine concentrated animal feeding operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumsey, Ian C.; Aneja, Viney P.; Lonneman, William A.

    2012-02-01

    Emissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) were determined from a swine concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO) in North Carolina. NMVOCs were measured in air samples collected in SUMMA and fused-silica lined (FSL) canisters and were analyzed using a gas chromatography flame ionization detection (GC-FID) system. Measurements were made from both an anaerobic lagoon and barn in each of the four seasonal sampling periods during the period June 2007 through April 2008. In each sampling period, nine to eleven canister samples were taken from both the anaerobic lagoon and barn over a minimum of four different days during a period of ˜1 week. Measurements of meteorological and physiochemical parameters were also made during the sampling period. In lagoon samples, six NMVOCs were identified that had significantly larger emissions in comparison to other NMVOCs. This included three alcohols (ethanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, and methanol), two ketones (acetone and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK)) and an aldehyde (acetaldehyde). The overall average fluxes for these NMVOCs, ranged from 0.18 μg m -2 min -1 for 2-ethyl-1-hexanol to 2.11 μg m -2 min -1 for acetone, with seasonal fluxes highest in the summer for four (acetone, acetaldehyde, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and MEK) of the six compounds In barn samples, there were six NMVOCs that had significantly larger concentrations and emissions in comparison to other NMVOCs. These consisted of two alcohols (methanol and ethanol), an aldehyde (acetaldehyde), two ketones (acetone and 2,3-butanedione), and a phenol (4-methylphenol). Overall average barn concentration ranged from 2.87 ppb for 4-methylphenol to 16.12 ppb for ethanol. Overall average normalized barn emission rates ranged from 0.10 g day -1 AU -1 (1 AU (animal unit) = 500 kg of live animal weight) for acetaldehyde to 0.45 g day -1 AU -1 for ethanol. The NMVOCs, 4-methylphenol and 2,3-butanedione, which have low odor thresholds (odor thresholds = 1.86 ppb and 0

  8. Hearing Loss due to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Davari, Mohammad Hossein; Mollasadeghi, Abolfazl

    2013-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is one of the rare causes of hearing loss which may cause reversible or irreversible, unilateral or bilateral hearing loss after acute or chronic exposure. In this report, we present a case of bilateral sensorineural hearing loss in a secondary smelting workshop worker...

  9. Raman characteristics of hydrocarbon and hydrocarbon inclusions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Nai; TIAN ZuoJi; LENG YingYing; WANG HuiTong; SONG FuQing; MENG JianHua

    2007-01-01

    The Raman spectrograms of hydrocarbon standard samples show that: (1) the Raman spectrogram of normal paraffin has very strong peaks of methyl and methylene (from 2700 cm-1 to 2970 cm-1); (2)branch methyl has the particular peak of 748 cm-1±; (3) six cyclic has the particular peak of 804 cm-1±; (4)phenyl has two particular peaks of 988 cm-1± and 3058 cm-1± and the 988 cm-1± peak is stronger than the 3058 cm-1± peak; and (5) hexene has three alkenyl spectrum peaks of 1294 cm-1±, 1635 cm-1± and 2996 cm-1±, with the 1635 cm-1± peak being the strongest, showing that the number of carbon in hydrocarbon does not affect its Raman spectrogram, and the hydrocarbon molecular structure and base groups affect its Raman spectrogram, the same hydrocarbons (such as normal paraffin) have the same Raman spectrogram; the types (such as CH4, C2H6, C3H8) and the content of hydrocarbon in oil inclusions are not estimated by their characteristic Raman peaks. According to the Raman spectrograms of hydrocarbon compositions, the Raman spectrogram of hydrocarbon inclusion can be divided into five types: saturated hydrocarbon Raman spectrogram, fluoresce Raman spectrogram, saturated hydrocarbon bitumen Raman spectrogram, bitumen Raman spectrogram, and ethane Raman spectrogram.And according to the characteristics of Raman spectrogram, hydrocarbon inclusions can be divided into five types: saturated hydrocarbon inclusion, less saturated hydrocarbon (oil or gas) inclusion,saturated hydrocarbon bitumen inclusion, bitumen inclusion, and methane water inclusion.

  10. Raman characteristics of hydrocarbon and hydrocarbon inclusions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Raman spectrograms of hydrocarbon standard samples show that: (1) the Raman spectrogram of normal paraffin has very strong peaks of methyl and methylene (from 2700 cm-1 to 2970 cm-1); (2) branch methyl has the particular peak of 748 cm-1±; (3) six cyclic has the particular peak of 804 cm-1±; (4) phenyl has two particular peaks of 988 cm-1± and 3058 cm-1± and the 988 cm-1± peak is stronger than the 3058 cm-1± peak; and (5) hexene has three alkenyl spectrum peaks of 1294 cm-1±, 1635 cm-1± and 2996 cm-1±, with the 1635 cm-1± peak being the strongest, showing that the number of carbon in hy-drocarbon does not affect its Raman spectrogram, and the hydrocarbon molecular structure and base groups affect its Raman spectrogram, the same hydrocarbons (such as normal paraffin) have the same Raman spectrogram; the types (such as CH4, C2H6, C3H8) and the content of hydrocarbon in oil inclu-sions are not estimated by their characteristic Raman peaks. According to the Raman spectrograms of hydrocarbon compositions, the Raman spectrogram of hydrocarbon inclusion can be divided into five types: saturated hydrocarbon Raman spectrogram, fluoresce Raman spectrogram, saturated hydro-carbon bitumen Raman spectrogram, bitumen Raman spectrogram, and ethane Raman spectrogram. And according to the characteristics of Raman spectrogram, hydrocarbon inclusions can be divided into five types: saturated hydrocarbon inclusion, less saturated hydrocarbon (oil or gas) inclusion, saturated hydrocarbon bitumen inclusion, bitumen inclusion, and methane water inclusion.

  11. C2-C10 hydrocarbon emissions from a boreal wetland and forest floor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hellén

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Emissions of various C2-C10 hydrocarbons (VOCs and halogenated hydrocarbons (VHOCs from a boreal wetland and a Scots pine forest floor in south-western Finland were measured by the static chamber technique. Isoprene was the main non-methane hydrocarbon emitted by the wetland, but small emissions of ethene, propane, propene, 1-butene, 2-methylpropene, butane, pentane and hexane were also detected. The isoprene emission from the wetland was observed to follow the commonly-used isoprene emission algorithm. The mean emission potential of isoprene was 224 µg m-2 h-1 for the whole season. This is lower than the emission potentials published earlier; that is probably at least partly due to the cold and cloudy weather during the measurements. No emissions were detected of monoterpenes or halogenated hydrocarbons from the wetland. The highest hydrocarbon emissions from the Scots pine forest floor were measured in spring and autumn. However, only a few measurements were conducted during summer. The main compounds emitted were monoterpenes. Isoprene emissions were negligible. The total monoterpene emission rates varied from zero to 373 µg m-2 h-1. The results indicated that decaying plant litter may be the source for these emissions. Small emissions of chloroform (100-800 ng m-2 h-1, ethene, propane, propene, 2-methylpropene, cis-2-butene, pentane, hexane and heptane were detected. Comparison with Scots pine emissions showed that the forest floor may be an important monoterpene source, especially in spring.

  12. Methods of using structures including catalytic materials disposed within porous zeolite materials to synthesize hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Harry W.; Petkovic, Lucia M.; Ginosar, Daniel M.

    2011-02-01

    Catalytic structures include a catalytic material disposed within a zeolite material. The catalytic material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of methanol from carbon monoxide and/or carbon dioxide, and the zeolite material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of hydrocarbon molecules from methanol. The catalytic material may include copper and zinc oxide. The zeolite material may include a first plurality of pores substantially defined by a crystal structure of the zeolite material and a second plurality of pores dispersed throughout the zeolite material. Systems for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules also include catalytic structures. Methods for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules include contacting hydrogen and at least one of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide with such catalytic structures. Catalytic structures are fabricated by forming a zeolite material at least partially around a template structure, removing the template structure, and introducing a catalytic material into the zeolite material.

  13. Systems including catalysts in porous zeolite materials within a reactor for use in synthesizing hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolllins, Harry W [Idaho Falls, ID; Petkovic, Lucia M [Idaho Falls, ID; Ginosar, Daniel M [Idaho Falls, ID

    2012-07-24

    Catalytic structures include a catalytic material disposed within a zeolite material. The catalytic material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of methanol from carbon monoxide and/or carbon dioxide, and the zeolite material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of hydrocarbon molecules from methanol. The catalytic material may include copper and zinc oxide. The zeolite material may include a first plurality of pores substantially defined by a crystal structure of the zeolite material and a second plurality of pores dispersed throughout the zeolite material. Systems for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules also include catalytic structures. Methods for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules include contacting hydrogen and at least one of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide with such catalytic structures. Catalytic structures are fabricated by forming a zeolite material at least partially around a template structure, removing the template structure, and introducing a catalytic material into the zeolite material.

  14. Photosynthetic carbon monoxide metabolism by sugarcane leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortschak, H.P.; Nickell, L.G.

    1973-01-01

    The photosynthetic carbon monoxide metabolism by sugarcane was studied to determine whether substantial quantities of CO are removed from the air by fields in Hawaii. Leaves metabolized low CO concentrations photosynthetically, with sucrose as an end product. Rates of uptake were of the order of 10/sup -4/ power mg/d sq m/hr. This was to low to be significant in removing CO from the atmosphere.

  15. Sensorineural Hearing Loss following Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph P. Pillion

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A case study is presented of a 17-year-old male who sustained an anoxic brain injury and sensorineural hearing loss secondary to carbon monoxide poisoning. Audiological data is presented showing a slightly asymmetrical hearing loss of sensorineural origin and mild-to-severe degree for both ears. Word recognition performance was fair to poor bilaterally for speech presented at normal conversational levels in quiet. Management considerations of the hearing loss are discussed.

  16. Hydrocarbon and Carbon Dioxide Fluxes from Natural Gas Well Pad Soils and Surrounding Soils in Eastern Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, Seth N; Watkins, Cody; Jones, Colleen; Mansfield, Marc L; McKinley, Michael; Kenney, Donna; Evans, Jordan

    2017-09-07

    We measured fluxes of methane, non-methane hydrocarbons, and carbon dioxide from natural gas well pad soils and from nearby undisturbed soils in eastern Utah. Methane fluxes varied from less than zero to more than 38 g m-2 h-1. Fluxes from well pad soils were almost always greater than from undisturbed soils. Fluxes were greater from locations with higher concentrations of total combustible gas in soil and were inversely correlated with distance from well heads. Several lines of evidence show that the majority of emission fluxes (about 70%) were primarily due to subsurface sources of raw gas that migrated to the atmosphere, with the remainder likely caused primarily by re-emission of spilled liquid hydrocarbons. Total hydrocarbon fluxes during summer were only 39 (16, 97)% as high as during winter, likely because soil bacteria consumed the majority of hydrocarbons during summer months. We estimate that natural gas well pad soils account for 4.6×10-4 (1.6×10-4, 1.6×10-3)% of total emissions of hydrocarbons from the oil and gas industry in Utah's Uinta Basin. Our undisturbed soil flux measurements were not adequate to quantify rates of natural hydrocarbon seepage in the Uinta Basin.

  17. Recovering hydrocarbons with surfactants from lignin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naae, D.G.; Whittington, L.E.; Ledoux, W.A.; Debons, F.E.

    1988-11-29

    This patent describes a method of recovering hydrocarbons from an underground hydrocarbon formation penetrated by at least one injection well and at least one production well, which comprises: injecting into the formation through an injection well a surfactant slug comprising about 0.1% to about 10% by weight of surfactants produced from lignin, the surfactants produced by placing lignin in contact with water, converting the lignin into low molecular weight lignin phenols by reducing the lignin in the presence of a reducing agent of carbon monoxide or hydrogen creating a reduction reaction mixture comprising oil soluble lignin phenols, the reduction occurring at a temperature greater than about 200/sup 0/C and a pressure greater than about 100 psi, recovering the oil soluble lignin phenols from the reduction mixture, and converting the lignin phenols into lignin surfactants by a reaction selected from the group consisting of alkoxylation, sulfonation, sulfation, aklylation, sulfomethylation, and alkoxysulfation; injecting into the formation through the injection well a drive fluid to push the surfactant slug towards a production well; and recovering hydrocarbons at the production well.

  18. Closed system Fischer-Tropsch synthesis over meteoritic iron, iron ore and nickel-iron alloy. [deuterium-carbon monoxide reaction catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nooner, D. W.; Gibert, J. M.; Gelpi, E.; Oro, J.

    1976-01-01

    Experiments were performed in which meteoritic iron, iron ore and nickel-iron alloy were used to catalyze (in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis) the reaction of deuterium and carbon monoxide in a closed vessel. Normal alkanes and alkenes and their monomethyl substituted isomers and aromatic hydrocarbons were synthesized. Iron oxide and oxidized-reduced Canyon Diablo used as Fischer-Tropsch catalysts were found to produce aromatic hydrocarbons in distributions having many of the features of those observed in carbonaceous chondrites, but only at temperatures and reaction times well above 300 C and 6-8 h.

  19. Compact Instrument for Measurement of Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Southwest Sciences proposed the development of a rugged, compact, and automated instrument for the high sensitivity measurement of tropospheric carbon monoxide...

  20. Anthropogenic non-methane volatile hydrocarbons at Mt. Cimone (2165 m a.s.l., Italy): Impact of sources and transport on atmospheric composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Vullo, Eleonora; Furlani, Francesco; Arduini, Jgor; Giostra, Umberto; Graziosi, Francesco; Cristofanelli, Paolo; Williams, Martin L.; Maione, Michela

    2016-09-01

    To advance our understanding of the factors that affect pollution in mountainous areas, long-term, high frequency measurements of thirteen Non Methane Volatile Organic Compounds (NMVOCs) have been carried out at the atmospheric observatory on the top of Mt. Cimone (2165 m a.s.l.), whose location is ideal for sampling both aged air masses representing the regional background and polluted air masses coming from nearby sources of anthropogenic pollution. An analysis of the NMVOC time series available at Mt. Cimone during 2010-2014 was used to examine the influence of transport processes on NMVOC atmospheric composition and to derive information on the emission sources. We performed a multifactor principal component analysis whose results allowed us to identify the source categories emitting the NMVOCs measured at Mt. Cimone as well as to assess transport ranges in winter and summer. Aged air masses, due to long-range transport and related to vehicular traffic exhaust emissions accounted for 78% of the NMVOC variability in winter and 62% in summer, whereas evaporative emissions, likely to be associated with fresh emissions from nearby sources, accounted for 12% of the NMVOC variability and 24% in winter and summer, respectively. Such results have been confirmed by a further analysis in which the NMVOC variability as a function of their atmospheric lifetimes has been evaluated. The ratios of alkane isomers potentially provides a metric to investigate seasonal changes in NMVOCs composition and in the emission fields of butanes and pentanes, suggesting that during the summer the butanes are originating mainly from the European domain and that for pentanes non-anthropogenic sources may be contributing to the measured concentrations.

  1. Analysis of Carbon Monoxide in Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddle, Benjamin P.; Stephens, Joseph C.

    2003-04-01

    Forensic tests used to perform the qualitative and quantitative analyses of carbon monoxide in blood are described. The qualitative test uses the diffusion of CO, which is released from blood by reaction with H2SO4, into a PdCl2 solution in a Conway cell and the resultant formation of a palladium mirror. The quantitative analysis is based on the absorption of visible light by carboxyhemoglobin at 541 nm and reduced hemoglobin at 555 nm. Both procedures are suitable for undergraduate chemistry experiments.

  2. [Carbon monoxide poisoning by a heating system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Eric; Gehl, Axel; Friedrich, Peter; Kappus, Stefan; Petter, Franz; Maurer, Klaus; Püschel, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    A case of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning in several occupants of two neighboring residential buildings in Hamburg-Harburg (Germany) caused by a defective gas central heating system is described. Because of leaks in one of the residential buildings and the directly adjacent wall of the neighboring house, the gas could spread and accumulated in both residential buildings, which resulted in a highly dangerous situation. Exposure to the toxic gas caused mild to severe intoxication in 15 persons. Three victims died still at the site of the accident. Measures to protect the occupants were taken only with a great delay. As symptoms were unspecific, it was not realized that the various alarms given by persons involved in the accident were related to the same cause. In order to take appropriate measures in time it is indispensible to recognize, assess and check potential risks, which can be done by using carbon monoxide warning devices and performing immediate COHb measurements with special pulse oximeters on site. Moreover, the COHb content in the blood should be routinely determined in all patients admitted to an emergency department with unspecific symptoms.

  3. Observations of iodine monoxide columns from satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Schönhardt

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Iodine species in the troposphere are linked to ozone depletion and new particle formation. In this study, a full year of iodine monoxide (IO columns retrieved from measurements of the SCIAMACHY satellite instrument is presented, coupled with a discussion of their uncertainties and the detection limits. The largest amounts of IO are found near springtime in the Antarctic. A seasonal variation of iodine monoxide in Antarctica is revealed with high values in springtime, slightly less IO in the summer period and again larger amounts in autumn. In winter, no elevated IO levels are found in the areas accessible to satellite measurements. This seasonal cycle is in good agreement with recent ground-based measurements in Antarctica. In the Arctic region, no elevated IO levels were found in the period analysed. This implies that different conditions with respect to iodine release exist in the two Polar Regions. To investigate possible release mechanisms, comparisons of IO columns with those of tropospheric BrO, and ice coverage are described and discussed. Some parallels and interesting differences between IO and BrO temporal and spatial distributions are identified. Overall, the large spatial coverage of satellite retrieved IO data and the availability of a long-term dataset provide new insight about the abundances and distributions of iodine compounds in the troposphere.

  4. Catalysts and process for liquid hydrocarbon fuel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Mark G; Liu, Shetian

    2014-12-09

    The present invention provides a novel process and system in which a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen synthesis gas, or syngas, is converted into hydrocarbon mixtures composed of high quality gasoline components, aromatic compounds, and lower molecular weight gaseous olefins in one reactor or step. The invention utilizes a novel molybdenum-zeolite catalyst in high pressure hydrogen for conversion, as well as a novel rhenium-zeolite catalyst in place of the molybdenum-zeolite catalyst, and provides for use of the novel catalysts in the process and system of the invention.

  5. Nitric oxide and carbon monoxide diffusing capacity of the lung

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, I. van der

    2006-01-01

    The single breath diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) is measure for gas uptake by the lung, and consists of a membrane and a vascular component. Nitric oxide (NO) binds 400 times faster to hemoglobin than carbon monoxide, thus the uptake of NO by the blood is very large.

  6. Nitric oxide and carbon monoxide diffusing capacity of the lung

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, I. van der

    2006-01-01

    The single breath diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) is measure for gas uptake by the lung, and consists of a membrane and a vascular component. Nitric oxide (NO) binds 400 times faster to hemoglobin than carbon monoxide, thus the uptake of NO by the blood is very large. There

  7. Fatal carbon monoxide intoxication after acetylene gas welding of pipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonsson, Ann-Beth; Christensson, Bengt; Berge, Johan; Sjögren, Bengt

    2013-06-01

    Acetylene gas welding of district heating pipes can result in exposure to high concentrations of carbon monoxide. A fatal case due to intoxication is described. Measurements of carbon monoxide revealed high levels when gas welding a pipe with closed ends. This fatality and these measurements highlight a new hazard, which must be promptly prevented.

  8. Real World of Industrial Chemistry: Organic Chemicals from Carbon Monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Kenneth E.; Kolb, Doris

    1983-01-01

    Carbon Monoxide obtained from coal may serve as the source for a wide variety of organic compounds. Several of these compounds are discussed, including phosgene, benzaldehyde, methanol, formic acid and its derivatives, oxo aldehydes, acrylic acids, and others. Commercial reactions of carbon monoxide are highlighted in a table. (JN)

  9. Search of medical literature for indoor carbon monoxide exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan, T.; Ivanovich, M.

    1995-12-01

    This report documents a literature search on carbon monoxide. The search was limited to the medical and toxicological databases at the National Library of Medicine (MEDLARS). The databases searched were Medline, Toxline and TOXNET. Searches were performed using a variety of strategies. Combinations of the following keywords were used: carbon, monoxide, accidental, residential, occult, diagnosis, misdiagnosis, heating, furnace, and indoor. The literature was searched from 1966 to the present. Over 1000 references were identified and summarized using the following abbreviations: The major findings of the search are: (1) Acute and subacute carbon monoxide exposures result in a large number of symptoms affecting the brain, kidneys, respiratory system, retina, and motor functions. (2) Acute and subacute carbon monoxide (CO) poisonings have been misdiagnosed on many occasions. (3) Very few systematic investigations have been made into the frequency and consequences of carbon monoxide poisonings.

  10. Speciation of anthropogenic emissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds: a global gridded data set for 1970–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Huang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs include a large number of chemical species which differ significantly in their chemical characteristics and thus in their impacts on ozone and secondary organic aerosol formation. It is important that chemical transport models (CTMs simulate the chemical transformation of the different NMVOC species in the troposphere consistently. In most emission inventories, however, only total NMVOC emissions are reported, which need to be decomposed into classes to fit the requirements of CTMs. For instance, the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR provides spatially resolved global anthropogenic emissions of total NMVOCs. In this study the EDGAR NMVOC inventory was revised and extended in time and in sectors. Moreover the new version of NMVOC emission data in the EDGAR database were disaggregated on a detailed sector resolution to individual species or species groups, thus enhancing the usability of the NMVOC emission data by the modelling community. Region- and source-specific speciation profiles of NMVOC species or species groups are compiled and mapped to EDGAR processes (detailed resolution of sectors, with corresponding quality codes specifying the quality of the mapping. Individual NMVOC species in different profiles are aggregated to 25 species groups, in line with the common classification of the Global Emissions Initiative (GEIA. Global annual grid maps with a resolution of 0.1°  ×  0.1° for the period 1970–2012 are produced by sector and species. Furthermore, trends in NMVOC composition are analysed, taking road transport and residential sources in Germany and the United Kingdom (UK as examples.

  11. Estimation of emissions of nonmethane organic compounds from a closed landfill site using a landfill gas emission model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nwachukwu, A.N. [Williamson Research Centre for Molecular Environmental Sciences, School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Science, University of Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Diya, A.W. [Health Sciences Research Group, School of Medicine, University of Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    Nonmethane organic compounds (NMOC) emissions from landfills often constitute significant risks both to human health and the general environment. To date very little work has been done on tracking the emissions of NMOC from landfills. To this end, a concerted effort was made to investigate the total annual mass emission rate of NMOC from a closed landfill site in South Manchester, United Kingdom. This was done by using field estimates of NMOC concentration and the landfill parameters into the Landfill Gas Emission Model embedded in ACTS and RISK software. Two results were obtained: (i) a deterministic outcome of 1.7218 x 10-7 kg/year, which was calculated from mean values of the field estimates of NMOC concentration and the landfill parameters, and (ii) a probabilistic outcome of 1.66 x 10-7 - 1.78 x 10-7 kg/year, which is a range of value obtained after Monte Carlo simulation of the uncertain parameters of the landfill including NMOC concentration. A comparison between these two results suggests that the probabilistic outcome is a more representative and reliable estimate of the total annual mass emission of NMOC especially given the variability of the parameters of the model. Moreover, a comparison of the model result and the safety standard of 5.0 x 10-5 kg/year indicate that the mass emission of NMOC from the studied landfill is significantly less than previously thought. However, given that this can accumulate to a dangerous level over a long period of time (such as the age of this landfill site); it may have started affecting the health of the people living within the vicinity of the landfill. A case is therefore made for more studies to be carried out on the emissions of other gases such as CH4 and CO2 from the studied landfill site, as this would help to understand the synergistic effect of the various gases being emitted from the landfill.

  12. Two-step processing of oil shale to linear hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliseev, O.L.; Ryzhov, A.N.; Latypova, D.Zh.; Lapidus, A.L. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). N.D. Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry; Avakyan, T.A. [Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-01

    Thermal and catalytic steam reforming of oil shale mined from Leningrad and Kashpir deposits was studied. Experiments were performed in fixed bed reactor by varying temperature and steam flow rate. Data obtained were approximated by empirical formulas containing some parameters calculated by least-squares method. Thus predicting amount of hydrogen, carbon monoxide and methane in producer gas is possible for given particular kind of oil shale, temperature and steam flow rate. Adding Ni catalyst enriches hydrogen and depletes CO content in effluent gas at low gasification temperatures. Modeling gas simulating steam reforming gases (H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and N{sub 2} mixture) was tested in hydrocarbon synthesis over Co-containing supported catalyst. Selectivity of CO conversion into C{sub 5+} hydrocarbons reaches 84% while selectivity to methane is 7%. Molecular weight distribution of synthesized alkanes obeys Anderson-Schulz-Flory equation and chain growth probability 0.84. (orig.)

  13. Reduction of carbon monoxide. Past research summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrock, R.R.

    1981-10-01

    Research programs for the year on the preparation, characterization, and reactions of binuclear tantalum complexes are described. All evidence to date suggest the following of these dimeric molecules: (1) the dimer does not break into monomers under mild conditions; (2) intermolecular hydride exchange is not negligible, but it is slow; (3) intermolecular non-ionic halide exchange is fast; (4) the ends of the dimers can rotate partially with respect to one another. The binuclear tantalum hydride complexes were found to react with carbon monoxide to give a molecule which is the only example of reduction of CO by a transition metal hydride to give a complex containing a CHO ligand. Isonitrides also reacted in a similar manner with dimeric tantalum hydride. (ATT)

  14. Oxygenated Derivatives of Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    For the book entitled “Insect Hydrocarbons: Biology, Biochemistry and Chemical Ecology”, this chapter presents a comprehensive review of the occurrence, structure and function of oxygenated derivatives of hydrocarbons. The book chapter focuses on the occurrence, structural identification and functi...

  15. Hydrocarbon Spectral Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 115 Hydrocarbon Spectral Database (Web, free access)   All of the rotational spectral lines observed and reported in the open literature for 91 hydrocarbon molecules have been tabulated. The isotopic molecular species, assigned quantum numbers, observed frequency, estimated measurement uncertainty and reference are given for each transition reported.

  16. Plant hydrocarbon recovery process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzadzic, P.M.; Price, M.C.; Shih, C.J.; Weil, T.A.

    1982-01-26

    A process for production and recovery of hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing whole plants in a form suitable for use as chemical feedstocks or as hydrocarbon energy sources which process comprises: (A) pulverizing by grinding or chopping hydrocarbon-containing whole plants selected from the group consisting of euphorbiaceae, apocynaceae, asclepiadaceae, compositae, cactaceae and pinaceae families to a suitable particle size, (B) drying and preheating said particles in a reducing atmosphere under positive pressure (C) passing said particles through a thermal conversion zone containing a reducing atmosphere and with a residence time of 1 second to about 30 minutes at a temperature within the range of from about 200* C. To about 1000* C., (D) separately recovering the condensable vapors as liquids and the noncondensable gases in a condition suitable for use as chemical feedstocks or as hydrocarbon fuels.

  17. Syncope Associated with Carbon Monoxide Poisoning due to Narghile Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seda Ozkan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Narghile smoking is a traditional method of tobacco use, and it has been practiced extensively for 400 years. Traditionally, narghile smoking is a matter of culture mainly in Middle East, Asia, and Africa. In recent years, its use as a social activity has increased worldwide, especially among young people. Narghile smoking is an unusual cause of carbon monoxide poisoning. Narghile smoking, compared to cigarette smoking, can result in more smoke exposure and greater levels of carbon monoxide. We present an acute syncope case of a 19-year-old male patient who had carbon monoxide poisoning after narghile smoking.

  18. Concentrations of Carbon Monoxide and Nitrogen Oxides From a 25 kW Boiler Supplied Periodically and Continuously with Wood Pellets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juszczak Marek

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the fuel feeding mode (continuous or periodic with different stand-by/operation time ratios on carbon monoxide (CO and nitrogen oxides (NO, NOx concentration values in the flue gas was analysed for coniferous wood pellet firing. Experiments were performed in a 25 kW water boiler equipped with an over-fed wood pellet furnace located in a full scale heat station simulating real-life conditions. Influence of oxygen concentration and temperature in the combustion chamber on carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxide concentrations was presented in diagrams. Dust and hydrocarbon concentrations were also monitored. It was concluded that the commonly used periodic fuel supply does not necessarily cause a significant increase of carbon monoxide concentration, as compared to the continuous fuel feeding mode. Continuous fuel supply can even induce higher carbon monoxide concentrations when fuel mass stream is not chosen properly. Each time new fuel type is used in a specific furnace, one should perform experiments to determine the adequate settings (stand-by/operation time ratio, fuel mass streams, air stream to obtain the optimal, lowest possible emission for a certain boiler heat output

  19. The reformation of liquid hydrocarbons in an aqueous discharge reactor

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xuming

    2015-04-21

    We present an aqueous discharge reactor for the reformation of liquid hydrocarbons. To increase a dielectric constant of a liquid medium, we added distilled water to iso-octane and n-dodecane. As expected, we found decreased discharge onset voltage and increased discharge power with increased water content. Results using optical emission spectroscopy identified OH radicals and O atoms as the predominant oxidative reactive species with the addition of water. Enriched CH radicals were also visualized, evidencing the existence of cascade carbon-carbon cleavage and dehydrogenation processes in the aqueous discharge. The gaseous product consisted primarily of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and unsaturated hydrocarbons. The composition of the product was readily adjustable by varying the volume of water added, which demonstrated a significant difference in composition with respect to the tested liquid hydrocarbon. In this study, we found no presence of CO2 emissions or the contamination of the reactor by solid carbon deposition. These findings offer a new approach to the reforming processes of liquid hydrocarbons and provide a novel concept for the design of a practical and compact plasma reformer. © 2015 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  20. An interesting cause of pulmonary emboli: Acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevinc, A.; Savli, H.; Atmaca, H. [Gaziantep University, Gaziantep (Turkey). School of Medicine

    2005-07-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning, a public health problem of considerable significance, is a relatively frequent event today, resulting in thousands of hospitalizations annually. A 70-year-old lady was seen in the emergency department with a provisional diagnosis of carbon monoxide poisoning. The previous night, she slept in a tightly closed room heated with coal ember. She was found unconscious in the morning with poor ventilation. She had a rare presentation of popliteal vein thrombosis, pulmonary emboli, and possible tissue necrosis with carbon monoxide poisoning. Oxygen treatment with low-molecular-weight heparin (nadroparine) and warfarin therapy resulted in an improvement in both popliteal and pulmonary circulations. In conclusion, the presence of pulmonary emboli should be sought in patients with carbon monoxide poisoning.

  1. US EPA Region 9 carbon monoxide designated areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Polygon Feature class of Nonattainment Areas for Carbon Monoxide. Nonattainment areas are geographic areas which have not met National Ambient Air Quality Standards...

  2. Carbon monoxide poisoning in the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Kaabi, Juma M; Wheatley, Andrew D; Barss, Peter; Al Shamsi, Mariam; Lababidi, Anis; Mushtaq, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is rare in the Arabian Peninsula and occurs almost exclusively during the winter months. Knowledge and perception of the hazards of carbon monoxide is limited. Migrant workers from warm climates appear particularly at risk. We investigated 46 cases of carbon monoxide poisoning presenting at emergency departments from 2007-2009 of the two main hospitals in Al Ain city, United Arab Emirates. Interviews, hospital records, and administered questionnaires were used to collect the data. Among the 46 cases investigated, 24 (52%) were males. Foreign nationals compromised 80% of the cases and the incidence was 3.1 cases per 100,000 residents per year. Burning charcoal in poorly ventilated residences was the predominant source of the carbon monoxide poisoning. Almost all cases (98%) were admitted during the winter months, most in the early morning hours. Carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) was significantly increased in cases with loss of consciousness and depressed consciousness. There were no reported fatalities.

  3. Same Exposure, Various Clinical Pictures: The Carbon Monoxide Enigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Salmanoglu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available -Children and adolescents exposed to the same source of carbon monoxide have been shown to demonstrate different clinical pictures (1,2. The same condition probably may be extrapolated between children with varying ages and hence lung surface areas. Smaller children will receive larger doses of carbon monoxide, because they have greater lung surface area/body weight ratios and increased minute volumes/weight ratios. As carbon monoxide accumulation is expected to be more significant nearer to the ground, another explanation for varying clinical pictures in poisoning events may be the different level of sleeping positions of the casualties. Herein, we report a cluster poisoning of carbon monoxide affecting 5 children from the same family at the same time but in different clinical pictures. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2013; 12(1.000: 118-118

  4. Estimation of emissions of nonmethane organic compounds from a closed landfill site using a landfill gas emission model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Nwachukwu, A. W. Diya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonmethane organic compounds (NMOC emissions from landfills often constitute significant risks both to human health and the general environment. To date very little work has been done on tracking the emissions of NMOC from landfills. To this end, a concerted effort was made to investigate the total annual mass emission rate of NMOC from a closed landfill site in South Manchester, United Kingdom. This was done by using field estimates of NMOC concentration and the landfill parameters into the Landfill Gas Emission Model embedded in ACTS and RISK software. Two results were obtained: (i a deterministic outcome of 1.7218 x 10-7 kg/year, which was calculated from mean values of the field estimates of NMOC concentration and the landfill parameters, and (ii a probabilistic outcome of 1.66 x 10-7 - 1.78 x 10-7 kg/year, which is a range of value obtained after Monte Carlo simulation of the uncertain parameters of the landfill including NMOC concentration. A comparison between these two results suggests that the probabilistic outcome is a more representative and reliable estimate of the total annual mass emission of NMOC especially given the variability of the parameters of the model. Moreover, a comparison of the model result and the safety standard of 5.0 x 10-5 kg/year indicate that the mass emission of NMOC from the studied landfill is significantly less than previously thought. However, given that this can accumulate to a dangerous level over a long period of time (such as the age of this landfill site; it may have started affecting the health of the people living within the vicinity of the landfill. A case is therefore made for more studies to be carried out on the emissions of other gases such as CH4 and CO2 from the studied landfill site, as this would help to understand the synergistic effect of the various gases being emitted from the landfill.

  5. Emission, speciation, and evaluation of impacts of non-methane volatile organic compounds from open dump site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Dipanjali; Ray, Sandipan; Chakraborty, Sucharita; Rao, Padma S; Akolkar, A B; Chowdhury, M; Srivastava, Anjali

    2014-07-01

    Surface emission from Dhapa, the only garbage disposal ground in Kolkata, is a matter of concern to the local environment and also fuels the issues of occupational and environmental health. Surface emission of the Dhapa landfill site was studied using a flux chamber measurement for nonmethane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs). Eighteen noncarbonyl volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and 14 carbonyl VOCs, including suspected and known carcinogens, were found in appreciable concentrations. The concentrations of the target species in the flux chamber were found to be significantly higher for most of the species in summer than winter. Surface emission rate of landfill gas was estimated by using two different approaches to assess the applicability for an open landfill site. It was found that the emissions predicted using the model Land GEM version 3.02 is one to two orders less than the emission rate calculated from flux chamber measurement for the target species. Tropospheric ozone formation has a serious impact for NMVOC emission. The total ozone-forming potential (OFP) of the Dhapa dumping ground considering all target NMVOCs was estimated to be 4.9E+04 and 1.2E+05 g/day in winter and summer, respectively. Also, it was found that carbonyl VOCs play a more important role than noncarbonyl VOCs for tropospheric ozone formation. Cumulative cancer risk estimated for all the carcinogenic species was found to be 2792 for 1 million population, while the total noncancer hazard index (HI) was estimated to be 246 for the occupational exposure to different compounds from surface emission to the dump-site workers at Dhapa. Implications: This paper describes the real-time surface emission of NMVOCs from an open municipal solid waste (MSW) dump site studied using a flux chamber. Our study findings indicate that while planning for new landfill site in tropical meteorology, real-time emission data must be considered, rather than relying on modeled data. The formation of tropospheric

  6. Thraustochytrid protists degrade hydrocarbons

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raikar, M.T.; Raghukumar, S.; Vani, V.; David, J.J.; Chandramohan, D.

    Although thraustochytrid protists are known to be of widespread occurrence in the sea, their hydrocarbon-degrading abilities have never been investigated. We isolated thraustochytrids from coastal waters and sediments of Goa coast by enriching MPN...

  7. Carbon monoxide exposure in blast furnace workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, S; Mason, C; Srna, J

    1992-09-01

    This study investigated the occupational exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) of a group of blast furnace workers from an integrated steelworks, compared to a control group having no significant occupational CO exposure from other areas in the same works. The study was undertaken in 1984 at Port Kembla, New South Wales. Carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) levels before and after an eight-hour work shift were measured in 98 male steelworkers: 52 from two CO-exposed iron blast furnaces and 46 controls from production areas in the same steelworks. The sample was stratified by smoking habits. Environmental air CO levels had been found to be consistently higher on one furnace than on the other. Absorption of CO from the working environment occurred in workers on the blast furnace with higher CO levels, regardless of smoking habits. On this blast furnace, some readings of COHb levels after a workshift in nonsmokers approached the proposed Australian occupational limit of 5 per cent COHb saturation. Overall, workers with the highest occupational exposure who smoked most heavily had the highest absorption of CO over a work shift. Biological monitoring gives an accurate measure of individual worker 'dose' of CO from all sources. Both environmental monitoring and biological monitoring need to be included as part of a program for controlling occupational CO exposure.

  8. Carbon Monoxide: An Essential Signalling Molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Brian E.

    Carbon monoxide (CO), like nitric oxide (NO), is an essential signalling molecule in humans. It is active in the cardiovascular system as a vasodilator. In addition, CO possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and anti-proliferative properties and protects tissues from hypoxia and reperfusion injury. Some of its applications in animal models include suppression of organ graft rejection and safeguarding the heart during reperfusion after cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. CO also suppresses arteriosclerotic lesions following angioplasty, reverses established pulmonary hypertension and mitigates the development of post-operative ileus in the murine small intestine and the development of cerebral malaria in mice as well as graft-induced intimal hyperplasia in pigs. There have been several clinical trials using air-CO mixtures for the treatment of lung-, heart-, kidney- and abdominal-related diseases. This review examines the research involving the development of classes of compounds (with particular emphasis on metal carbonyls) that release CO, which could be used in clinically relevant conditions. The review is drawn not only from published papers in the chemical literature but also from the extensive biological literature and patents on CO-releasing molecules (CO-RMs).

  9. First-Principles Investigations on Europium Monoxide

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hao

    2011-05-01

    Europium monoxide is both an insulator and a Heisenberg ferromagnet (Tc=69 K). In the present thesis, the author has investigated the electronic structure of different types of EuO by density functional theory. The on-site Coulomb interaction of the localized Eu 4f and 5d electrons, which is wrongly treated in the standard generalized gradient approximation method, is found to be crucial to obtain the correct insulating ground state as observed in experiments. Our results show that the ferromagnetism is stable under pressure, both hydrostatic and uniaxial. For both types of pressure an insulator-metal transition is demonstrated. Moreover, the experimentally observed insulator-metal transition in oxygen deficient and gadolinium-doped EuO is reproduced in our calculations for impurity concentrations of 6.25% and 25%. Furthermore, a 10- layer EuO thin film is theoretically predicted to be an insulator with a narrow band gap of around 0.08 eV, while the Si/EuO interface shows metallic properties with the Si and O 2p as well as Eu 5d bands crossing the Fermi level.

  10. Chlorine Monoxide in the Antarctic Spring Stratosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo-Ayerbe, Mauricio

    1988-06-01

    A series of observations of stratospheric chlorine monoxide (ClO) were carried out during the austral springs of 1986 and 1987 in McMurdo Station, Antarctica, as part of two experimental campaigns sent to investigate the seasonal decrease in ozone over the antarctic continent (the ozone "hole"). Measurements of the vertical distribution of ClO were obtained by high resolution ground-based emission spectroscopy at 278 GHz, using the Stony Brook mm-wave receiver. They show the presence of an anomalous layer of lower stratospheric ClO which is not observed at other latitudes. This anomalous layer is centered at ~20 km altitude and exhibits a pronounced diurnal variation, reaching a maximum at midday and disappearing at night. During the period of Sep. 20-24, 1987, the lower-stratospheric ClO had a maximum volume mixing ratio of 1.8_sp{+0cdot5}{ -0cdot9} ppbv. A normal ClO layer centered at ~36 km was also observed, with concentrations and diurnal behavior similar to those seen in tropical latitudes. These findings are evidence of anomalous chlorine chemistry taking place in the lower stratosphere during the antarctic spring, and indicate that increasing anthropogenic chlorine is a prime causative agent in the formation of the ozone hole.

  11. Assessment of carbon monoxide values in smokers: a comparison of carbon monoxide in expired air and carboxyhaemoglobin in arterial blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Mette F; Møller, Ann M

    2010-01-01

    Smoking increases perioperative complications. Carbon monoxide concentrations can estimate patients' smoking status and might be relevant in preoperative risk assessment. In smokers, we compared measurements of carbon monoxide in expired air (COexp) with measurements of carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) ......) in arterial blood. The objectives were to determine the level of correlation and to determine whether the methods showed agreement and evaluate them as diagnostic tests in discriminating between heavy and light smokers....

  12. ANALYSIS OF HYDROCARBON TREATING SYSTEM TO THE EMISSION OFF SPARK-IGNITION FOUR-STROKE ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binyamin Binyamin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of carbon monoxide (CO, unburnthydrocarbon (UHC emission and fuel consumption on spark-ignition four-stroke engine is continuously attempted. The purposes from this research were to determine the effect of Hydrocarbon Treating System (HTS  on levels of CO, UHC and fuel consumption. This is an experimental research. Its is conducted by comparing the exhaust pollutant concentration such as carbon monoxide, unburnt hydrocarbon and also fuel consumption between standard engine setting and Hydrocarbon Treating System applied. The research variable are HTS flow rate from Q1 = 0 cc/s (without HTS, Q2 = 1,5 cc/s, Q3 = 2 cc/s, Q4 = 2,5 cc/s, and Q5 = 33 cc/s. The research will be done in three conditions which are low, medium and high rotation. The result showed that Hydrocarbon Threating System decrease fuel consumption up to 19,43% with flow rate Q5 = 3 cc/s, but on the other hand it increase CO emission up to 80.84% with flow rate Q5 = 3 cc/s and UHC emission level up to 124.75% with flow rate Q5 = 3 cc/s from engine standart condition.

  13. Characterizing reduced sulfur compounds and non-methane volatile organic compounds emissions from a swine concentrated animal feeding operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumsey, Ian Cooper

    Reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs) and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) emissions from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) have become a potential environmental and human health concern. Both RSCs and NMVOCs contribute to odor. In addition, RSCs also have the potential to form fine particulate matter (PMfine) and NMVOCs the potential to form ozone. Measurements of RSCs and NMVOCs emissions were made from both an anaerobic lagoon and barn at a swine CAFO in North Carolina. Emission measurements were made over all four seasonal periods. In each seasonal period, measurements were made from both the anaerobic lagoon and barn for ˜1 week. RSC and NMVOCs samples were collected using passivated canisters. Nine to eleven canister samples were taken from both the lagoon and barn over each sampling period. The canisters were analyzed ex-situ using gas chromatography flame ionization detection (GC-FID). Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) measurements were made in-situ using a pulsed fluorescence H2S/SO2 analyzer. During sampling, measurements of meteorological and physiochemical parameters were made. H2S had the largest RSC flux, with an overall average lagoon flux of 1.33 mug m-2 min-1. The two main RSCs identified by the GC-FID, dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), had overall average lagoon fluxes an order of magnitude lower, 0.12 and 0.09 mug m-2 min-1, respectively. Twelve significant NMVOCs were identified in lagoon samples (ethanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, methanol, acetaldehyde, decanal, heptanal, hexanal, nonanal, octanal, acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, and 4-methylphenol). The overall average fluxes for these NMVOCs, ranged from 0.08 mug m-2 min-1 (4-methylphenol) to 2.11 mug m-2 min-1 (acetone). Seasonal H2S barn concentrations ranged from 72-631 ppb. DMS and DMDS seasonal concentrations were 2-3 orders of magnitude lower. There were six significant NMVOCs identified in barn samples (methanol, ethanol, acetone 2-3 butanedione, acetaldehyde

  14. High temperature thermodynamics and vaporization of stoichiometric titanium monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheldon, R.I.; Gilles, P.W.

    1976-08-17

    Three vaporization experiments were performed on samples of nearly stoichiometric titanium monoxide. Two experiments were constant temperature experiments (1806/sup 0/K) designed to measure the equilibrium vapor pressures of Ti(g) and TiO(g). In one experiment titanium monoxide was vaporized from a tungsten Knudsen effusion cell; the vapor was collected on a water cooled quartz cap surrounding the cell; and the total amount of titanium deposited on the cap was analyzed colorimetrically. In the second constant temperature experiment (1806/sup 0/K) the vapor composition in equilibrium with nearly stoichiometric titanium monoxide was measured mass spectrometrically. The mass spectrometer results were used to apportion the total titanium collected in the first experiment to Ti(g) and TiO(g). In the third experiment the temperature dependence of the ions Ti/sup +/(48) and TiO(64) was measured spectrometrically. The results obtained in this work are compared with published thermodynamic properties of the titanium oxygen system, and indicate the standard free energy of formation of titanium monoxide obtained from the earliest calorimetric measurements yielded a result not negative enough and also oxygen pressures obtained by emf measurements for stoichiometric titanium monoxide at 1806/sup 0/K are high by a factor of 42.6. The present results are in good agreement with the thermodynamic properties reported in recently issued pages of the JANAF Thermochemical Tables.

  15. Net Ecosystem Fluxes of Hydrocarbons from a Ponderosa Pine Forest in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhew, R. C.; Turnipseed, A. A.; Ortega, J. V.; Smith, J. N.; Guenther, A. B.; Shen, S.; Martinez, L.; Koss, A.; Warneke, C.; De Gouw, J. A.; Deventer, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    Light (C2-C4) alkenes, light alkanes and isoprene (C5H8) are non-methane hydrocarbons that play important roles in the photochemical production of tropospheric ozone and in the formation of secondary organic aerosols. Natural terrestrial fluxes of the light hydrocarbons are poorly characterized, with global emission estimates based on limited field measurements. In 2014, net fluxes of these compounds were measured at the Manitou Experimental Forest Observatory, a semi-arid ponderosa pine forest in the Colorado Rocky Mountains and site of the prior BEACHON campaigns. Three field intensives were conducted between June 17 and August 10, 2014. Net ecosystem flux measurements utilized a relaxed eddy accumulation system coupled to an automated gas chromatograph. Summertime average emissions of ethene and propene were up to 90% larger than those observed from a temperate deciduous forest. Ethene and propene fluxes were also correlated to each other, similar to the deciduous forest study. Emissions of isoprene were small, as expected for a coniferous forest, and these fluxes were not correlated with either ethene or propene. Unexpected emissions of light alkanes were also observed, and these showed a distinct diurnal cycle. Understory flux measurements allowed for the partitioning of fluxes between the surface and the canopy. Full results from the three field intensives will be compared with environmental variables in order to parameterize the fluxes for use in modeling emissions.

  16. Processes in petroleum chemistry. Technical and economical characteristics Vol. 1. Synthesis gas and derivatives. Main hydrocarbon intermediaries (2 ed. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauvel, A.; Lefebvre, G.; Castex, L.

    1985-01-01

    The aim of this book is to give rudiments for a preliminary study to outline petrochemical operation and cost estimation. Basic operations are examined: Steam reforming or partial oxidation, steam or thermal cracking and catalytic reforming. The main topics examined include: hydrogen purification, hydrogen fabrication from hydrocarbons, carbonaceous materials or water, production of carbon monoxide, ammoniac synthesis methanol synthesis from synthesis gas, preparation of formol, urea, acetylene and monomers for the preparation of plastics.

  17. Quantitative Hydrocarbon Surface Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Vonnie M.

    2000-01-01

    The elimination of ozone depleting substances, such as carbon tetrachloride, has resulted in the use of new analytical techniques for cleanliness verification and contamination sampling. The last remaining application at Rocketdyne which required a replacement technique was the quantitative analysis of hydrocarbons by infrared spectrometry. This application, which previously utilized carbon tetrachloride, was successfully modified using the SOC-400, a compact portable FTIR manufactured by Surface Optics Corporation. This instrument can quantitatively measure and identify hydrocarbons from solvent flush of hardware as well as directly analyze the surface of metallic components without the use of ozone depleting chemicals. Several sampling accessories are utilized to perform analysis for various applications.

  18. Miscellaneous hydrocarbon solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebarta, Vikhyat; DeWitt, Christopher

    2004-08-01

    The solvents discussed in this article are common solvents not categorized as halogenated, aromatic, or botanical. The solvents discussed are categorized into two groups: hydrocarbon mixtures and single agents. The hydrocarbon mixtures discussed are Stoddard solvent, naphtha, and kerosene. The remaining solvents described are n-hexane, methyl n-butyl ketone, dimethylformamide, dimethyl sulfoxide, and butyl mercaptans. Effects common to this group of agents and their unique effects are characterized. Treatment of exposures and toxic effects of these solvents is described, and physiochemical properties and occupational exposure levels are listed.

  19. Anaerobic degradation of propane and butane by sulfate-reducing bacteria enriched from marine hydrocarbon cold seeps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaekel, Ulrike; Musat, Niculina; Adam, Birgit; Kuypers, Marcel; Grundmann, Olav; Musat, Florin

    2013-05-01

    The short-chain, non-methane hydrocarbons propane and butane can contribute significantly to the carbon and sulfur cycles in marine environments affected by oil or natural gas seepage. In the present study, we enriched and identified novel propane and butane-degrading sulfate reducers from marine oil and gas cold seeps in the Gulf of Mexico and Hydrate Ridge. The enrichment cultures obtained were able to degrade simultaneously propane and butane, but not other gaseous alkanes. They were cold-adapted, showing highest sulfate-reduction rates between 16 and 20 °C. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene libraries, followed by whole-cell hybridizations with sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes showed that each enrichment culture was dominated by a unique phylotype affiliated with the Desulfosarcina-Desulfococcus cluster within the Deltaproteobacteria. These phylotypes formed a distinct phylogenetic cluster of propane and butane degraders, including sequences from environments associated with hydrocarbon seeps. Incubations with (13)C-labeled substrates, hybridizations with sequence-specific probes and nanoSIMS analyses showed that cells of the dominant phylotypes were the first to become enriched in (13)C, demonstrating that they were directly involved in hydrocarbon degradation. Furthermore, using the nanoSIMS data, carbon assimilation rates were calculated for the dominant cells in each enrichment culture.

  20. Novel techniques for characterization of hydrocarbon emission sources in the Barnett Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Brian Joseph

    Changes in ambient atmospheric hydrocarbon concentrations can have both short-term and long-term effects on the atmosphere and on human health. Thus, accurate characterization of emissions sources is critically important. The recent boom in shale gas production has led to an increase in hydrocarbon emissions from associated processes, though the exact extent is uncertain. As an original quantification technique, a model airplane equipped with a specially-designed, open-path methane sensor was flown multiple times over a natural gas compressor station in the Barnett Shale in October 2013. A linear optimization was introduced to a standard Gaussian plume model in an effort to determine the most probable emission rate coming from the station. This is shown to be a suitable approach given an ideal source with a single, central plume. Separately, an analysis was performed to characterize the nonmethane hydrocarbons in the Barnett during the same period. Starting with ambient hourly concentration measurements of forty-six hydrocarbon species, Lagrangian air parcel trajectories were implemented in a meteorological model to extend the resolution of these measurements and achieve domain-fillings of the region for the period of interest. A self-organizing map (a type of unsupervised classification) was then utilized to reduce the dimensionality of the total multivariate set of grids into characteristic one-dimensional signatures. By also introducing a self-organizing map classification of the contemporary wind measurements, the spatial hydrocarbon characterizations are analyzed for periods with similar wind conditions. The accuracy of the classification is verified through assessment of observed spatial mixing ratio enhancements of key species, through site-comparisons with a related long-term study, and through a random forest analysis (an ensemble learning method of supervised classification) to determine the most important species for defining key classes. The hydrocarbon

  1. [Massive poisoning with carbon monoxide: an update from a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Mariano; Crapanzano, Gabriel; Cabrerizo, Silvia; Aichele, Cristina; Deurtiaga, Alejandra; Vallejos, Yamila

    2017-02-01

    Carbon monoxide is known as the "silent murderer" because it is a colorless and odorless gas. According to these characteristics, toxicity goes unnoticed which makes the diagnosis difficult. In most cases, the cold periods and group poisoning make suspect its presence because inappropriate heat both in home or public environments. Our goal is to inform about a mass carbon monoxide poisoning in a children's parties room using a combustion source installed, not for the purpose of heating, but as a supply of light (generator), emphasizing that it can occur in any time of the year.

  2. Structural and magnetic properties of mechanochemically synthesized nanocrystalline titanium monoxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barudžija Tanja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nano-sized titanium monoxide (TiO powder was prepared by mechanochemical synthesis. A mixture of commercial Ti and TiO2 (rutile powders with the molar ratio of 1:1 was milled in a planetary ball mill for 5, 10, 20, 30 and 60 min under argon atmosphere. The final single-phase titanium monoxide sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, magnetic measurements using a superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer (SQUID and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The temperature dependency of the magnetic susceptibility is characterized by significant contribution of Pauli paramagnetism due to conduction electrons.

  3. Apparatus and methods for hydrocarbon extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.

    2016-04-26

    Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

  4. Optrode for sensing hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Holly; Milanovich, Fred P.; Hirschfeld, Tomas B.; Miller, Fred S.

    1987-01-01

    A two-phase system employing the Fujiwara reaction is provided for the fluorometric detection of halogenated hydrocarbons. A fiber optic is utilized to illuminate a column of pyridine trapped in a capillary tube coaxially attached at one end to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A strongly alkaline condition necessary for the reaction is maintained by providing a reservoir of alkali in contact with the column of pyridine, the surface of contact being adjacent to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A semipermeable membrane caps the other end of the capillary tube, the membrane being preferentially permeable to the halogenated hydrocarbon and but preferentially impermeable to water and pyridine. As the halogenated hydrocarbon diffuses through the membrane and into the column of pyridine, fluorescent reaction products are formed. Light propagated by the fiber optic from a light source, excites the fluorescent products. Light from the fluorescence emission is also collected by the same fiber optic and transmitted to a detector. The intensity of the fluorescence gives a measure of the concentration of the halogenated hydrocarbons.

  5. Mantle hydrocarbons: abiotic or biotic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugisaki, R; Mimura, K

    1994-06-01

    Analyses of 227 rocks from fifty localities throughout the world showed that mantle derived rocks such as tectonized peridotites in ophiolite sequences (tectonites) arid peridotite xenoliths in alkali basalts contain heavier hydrocarbons (n-alkanes), whereas igneous rocks produced by magmas such as gabbro arid granite lack them. The occurrence of hydrocarbons indicates that they were not derived either from laboratory contamination or from held contamination; these compounds found in the mantle-derived rocks are called here "mantle hydrocarbons." The existence of hydrocarbons correlates with petrogenesis. For example, peridotite cumulates produced by magmatic differentiation lack hydrocarbons whereas peridotite xenoliths derived from the mantle contain them. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric records of the mantle hydrocarbons resemble those of aliphatics in meteorites and in petroleum. Features of the hydrocarbons are that (a) the mantle hydrocarbons reside mainly along grain boundaries and in fluid inclusions of minerals; (b) heavier isoprenoids such as pristane and phytane are present; and (c) delta 13C of the mantle hydrocarbons is uniform (about -27%). Possible origins for the mantle hydrocarbons are as follows. (1) They were in organically synthesized by Fischer-Tropsch type reaction in the mantle. (2) They were delivered by meteorites and comets to the early Earth. (3) They were recycled by subduction. The mantle hydrocarbons in the cases of (1) and (2) are abiogenic and those in (3) are mainly biogenic. It appears that hydrocarbons may survive high pressures and temperatures in the mantle, but they are decomposed into lighter hydrocarbon gases such as CH4 at lower pressures when magmas intrude into the crust; consequently, peridotite cumulates do not contain heavier hydrocarbons but possess hydrocarbon gases up to C4H10.

  6. The Effects of Low Level Prenatal Carbon Monoxide on Neocortical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    378.1958). Ginsberg MD, Myers RE (Fetal brain damage following maternal carbon monoxide intoxication: an experimental study. Acta obstetricia et...monoxide production and blood loss at delivery. Acta obstetricia et gynecologica Scandinavica 48:362-370.1969). Longo LD (Carbon monoxide in the

  7. Bacterial sources for phenylalkane hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, L.; Winans, R.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Langworthy, T. [Univ. of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The presence of phenylalkane hydrocarbons in geochemical samples has been the source of much controversy. Although an anthropogenic input from detergent sources always appears likely, the distribution of phenylalkane hydrocarbons in some cases far exceeding that attributed to detergent input has led to a reappraisal of this view. Indeed, recent work involving analysis of the lipid hydrocarbon extracts from extant Thermoplasma bacteria has revealed the presence of phenylalkane hydrocarbons. The presence of phenylalkane hydrocarbons in sedimentary organic matter may therefore represent potential biological markers for thermophilic bacteria.

  8. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Amharic (amarunya) Arabic (العربية) Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) French (français) ... Kiswahili) Tagalog (Tagalog) Tigrinya (tigrinya) Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) Amharic (amarunya) Prevention Guidelines: You Can Prevent Carbon Monoxide ...

  9. Pathways and bioenergetics of anaerobic carbon monoxide fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diender, Martijn; Stams, Fons; Machado de Sousa, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Carbon monoxide can act as a substrate for different modes of fermentative anaerobic metabolism. The trait of utilizing CO is spread among a diverse group of microorganisms, including members of bacteria as well as archaea. Over the last decade this metabolism has gained interest due to the poten

  10. UV-induced carbon monoxide emission from living vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Dan; Albert, Kristian Rost; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard

    2013-01-01

    The global burden of carbon monoxide (CO) is rather uncertain. In this paper we address the potential for UV-induced CO emission by living terrestrial vegetation surfaces. Real-time measurements of CO concentrations were made with a cavity enhanced laser spectrometer connected in closed loop...

  11. Study on Response Time of SPE Carbon Monoxide Sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The influence of structural design and the parameters of the working electrode on the response time of a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) carbon monoxide sensor has been studied. Results show that the response time is mainly determined by the RC time constant of the catalyst layer and also related with the working electrode potential.

  12. Carbon monoxide : A quantitative tracer for fossil fuel CO2?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gamnitzer, Ulrike; Karstens, Ute; Kromer, Bernd; Neubert, Rolf E. M.; Meijer, Harro A. J.; Schroeder, Hartwig; Levin, Ingeborg

    2006-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and radiocarbon ((CO2)-C-14) measurements have been made in Heidelberg from 2001 to 2004 in order to determine the regional fossil fuel CO2 component and to investigate the application of CO as a quantitative tracer for fossil fuel CO2 (CO2(foss)). The obs

  13. Hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and methane in the marine environment

    OpenAIRE

    Bullister, John Logan

    1980-01-01

    EXTRACT (SEE PDF FOR FULL ABSTRACT): The horizontal and vertical distribution of three dissolved trace gases, namely molecular hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and methane, was measured in coastal and oceanic areas. Atmospheric concentrations of these gases were measured both at locations influenced by nearby human activity, and in areas far removed from these inputs.

  14. Carbon monoxide poisoning mimicking long-QT induced syncope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.M. Onvlee-Dekker (Irene); A.C.H. de Vries (Andrica); A.D.J. ten Harkel (Arend)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractCarbon monoxide (CO)poisoning is a rare cause of QT prolongation, and is therefore easily missed. The case of a patient with unexplained syncope and QT prologation on the electrocardiogram that turned out to be related to CO poisoning is reported here. In patients with QT prolongation,

  15. Optimization of Treatment Policy for Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. N. Akalayev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the efficiency of combination use of hyperbaric oxygenation, succinate-containing solutions, and anti-edematous agents in patients with acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Subjects and methods. The results of treatment were analyzed in 32 patients admitted in 2009—2011 for severe acute carbon monoxide poisoning and a Glasgow coma score of 6—8. The patients were divided into 2 groups: 1 patients whose combination therapy involved hyperbaric oxygenation, Succinasol infusions, and L-lysine-aescinate injections; 2 those who received traditional therapy. All the patients underwent complex clinical, laboratory, and neurophysiologic examinations. Results. Just 24 hours after the combination use of Succinasol and L-lysine-aescinate, Group I patients were observed to have substantially reduced lactate, the content of the latter approached the normal value following 48 hours, which was much below the values in the control group. The similar pattern was observed when endogenous intoxication parameters were examined. During the performed therapy, the level of consciousness and that of intellect according to the MMSE and FAB scales were restored more rapidly in the study group patients than in Group 2. Conclusion. The combination use of hyperbaric oxygenation, the succinate-containing solution Succinasol, and the anti-edematous agent L-lysine-aescinate considerably enhances the efficiency of intensive therapy for acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Key words: carbon monoxide, toxic hypoxic encephalopathy, combination therapy, hyperbaric oxygenation, succinic acid, L-lysine-aescinate.

  16. Microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varjani, Sunita J

    2017-01-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants are recalcitrant compounds and are classified as priority pollutants. Cleaning up of these pollutants from environment is a real world problem. Bioremediation has become a major method employed in restoration of petroleum hydrocarbon polluted environments that makes use of natural microbial biodegradation activity. Petroleum hydrocarbons utilizing microorganisms are ubiquitously distributed in environment. They naturally biodegrade pollutants and thereby remove them from the environment. Removal of petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants from environment by applying oleophilic microorganisms (individual isolate/consortium of microorganisms) is ecofriendly and economic. Microbial biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants employs the enzyme catalytic activities of microorganisms to enhance the rate of pollutants degradation. This article provides an overview about bioremediation for petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants. It also includes explanation about hydrocarbon metabolism in microorganisms with a special focus on new insights obtained during past couple of years. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Superconductivity in aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubozono, Yoshihiro, E-mail: kubozono@cc.okayama-u.ac.jp [Research Laboratory for Surface Science, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Research Center of New Functional Materials for Energy Production, Storage and Transport, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, ACT-C, Kawaguchi 332-0012 (Japan); Goto, Hidenori; Jabuchi, Taihei [Research Laboratory for Surface Science, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Yokoya, Takayoshi [Research Laboratory for Surface Science, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Research Center of New Functional Materials for Energy Production, Storage and Transport, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Kambe, Takashi [Department of Physics, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Sakai, Yusuke; Izumi, Masanari; Zheng, Lu; Hamao, Shino; Nguyen, Huyen L.T. [Research Laboratory for Surface Science, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Sakata, Masafumi; Kagayama, Tomoko; Shimizu, Katsuya [Center of Science and Technology under Extreme Conditions, Osaka University, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Aromatic superconductor is one of core research subjects in superconductivity. Superconductivity is observed in certain metal-doped aromatic hydrocarbons. Some serious problems to be solved exist for future advancement of the research. This article shows the present status of aromatic superconductors. - Abstract: ‘Aromatic hydrocarbon’ implies an organic molecule that satisfies the (4n + 2) π-electron rule and consists of benzene rings. Doping solid aromatic hydrocarbons with metals provides the superconductivity. The first discovery of such superconductivity was made for K-doped picene (K{sub x}picene, five benzene rings). Its superconducting transition temperatures (T{sub c}’s) were 7 and 18 K. Recently, we found a new superconducting K{sub x}picene phase with a T{sub c} as high as 14 K, so we now know that K{sub x}picene possesses multiple superconducting phases. Besides K{sub x}picene, we discovered new superconductors such as Rb{sub x}picene and Ca{sub x}picene. A most serious problem is that the shielding fraction is ⩽15% for K{sub x}picene and Rb{sub x}picene, and it is often ∼1% for other superconductors. Such low shielding fractions have made it difficult to determine the crystal structures of superconducting phases. Nevertheless, many research groups have expended a great deal of effort to make high quality hydrocarbon superconductors in the five years since the discovery of hydrocarbon superconductivity. At the present stage, superconductivity is observed in certain metal-doped aromatic hydrocarbons (picene, phenanthrene and dibenzopentacene), but the shielding fraction remains stubbornly low. The highest priority research area is to prepare aromatic superconductors with a high superconducting volume-fraction. Despite these difficulties, aromatic superconductivity is still a core research target and presents interesting and potentially breakthrough challenges, such as the positive pressure dependence of T{sub c} that is clearly

  18. A 60-yr record of atmospheric carbon monoxide reconstructed from Greenland firn air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Petrenko

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a reconstruction of the Northern Hemisphere (NH high latitude atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO mole fraction from Greenland firn air. Firn air samples were collected at three deep ice core sites in Greenland (NGRIP in 2001, Summit in 2006 and NEEM in 2008. CO records from the three sites agree well with each other as well as with recent atmospheric measurements, indicating that CO is well preserved in the firn at these sites. CO atmospheric history was reconstructed back to the year 1950 from the measurements using a combination of two forward models of gas transport in firn and an inverse model. The reconstructed history suggests that Arctic CO was already higher in 1950 than it is today. CO mole fractions rose gradually until the 1970s and peaked in the 1970s or early 1980s, followed by a decline to today's levels. We compare the CO history with the atmospheric histories of methane, light hydrocarbons, molecular hydrogen, CO stable isotopes and hydroxyl radical (OH, as well as with published CO emission inventories and results of a historical run from a chemistry-transport model. We find that the reconstructed Greenland CO history cannot be reconciled with available emission inventories unless large changes in OH are assumed. We argue that the available CO emission inventories chronically underestimate NH emissions, and fail to capture the emission decline starting in the late 1970s, which was most likely due to reduced emissions from road transportation in North America and Europe.

  19. Membrane separation of hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Y. Alice; Kulkarni, Sudhir S.; Funk, Edward W.

    1986-01-01

    Mixtures of heavy oils and light hydrocarbons may be separated by passing the mixture through a polymeric membrane. The membrane which is utilized to effect the separation comprises a polymer which is capable of maintaining its integrity in the presence of hydrocarbon compounds and which has been modified by being subjected to the action of a sulfonating agent. Sulfonating agents which may be employed will include fuming sulfuric acid, chlorosulfonic acid, sulfur trioxide, etc., the surface or bulk modified polymer will contain a degree of sulfonation ranging from about 15 to about 50%. The separation process is effected at temperatures ranging from about ambient to about 100.degree. C. and pressures ranging from about 50 to about 1000 psig.

  20. Direct hydrocarbon fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Scott A.; Lai, Tammy; Liu, Jiang

    2010-05-04

    The direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells, to generate greater power densities at lower temperatures without carbon deposition. The performance obtained is comparable to that of fuel cells used for hydrogen, and is achieved by using novel anode composites at low operating temperatures. Such solid oxide fuel cells, regardless of fuel source or operation, can be configured advantageously using the structural geometries of this invention.

  1. THERMOCHEMISTRY OF HYDROCARBON RADICALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent M. Ervin, Principal Investigator

    2004-08-17

    Gas phase negative ion chemistry methods are employed to determine enthalpies of formation of hydrocarbon radicals that are important in combustion processes and to investigate the dynamics of ion-molecule reactions. Using guided ion beam tandem mass spectrometry, we measure collisional threshold energies of endoergic proton transfer and hydrogen atom transfer reactions of hydrocarbon molecules with negative reagent ions. The measured reaction threshold energies for proton transfer yield the relative gas phase acidities. In an alternative methodology, competitive collision-induced dissociation of proton-bound ion-molecule complexes provides accurate gas phase acidities relative to a reference acid. Combined with the electron affinity of the R {center_dot} radical, the gas phase acidity yields the RH bond dissociation energy of the corresponding neutral molecule, or equivalently the enthalpy of formation of the R{center_dot} organic radical, using equation: D(R-H) = {Delta}{sub acid}H(RH) + EA(R) - IE(H). The threshold energy for hydrogen abstraction from a hydrocarbon molecule yields its hydrogen atom affinity relative to the reagent anion, providing the RH bond dissociation energy directly. Electronic structure calculations are used to evaluate the possibility of potential energy barriers or dynamical constrictions along the reaction path, and as input for RRKM and phase space theory calculations. In newer experiments, we have measured the product velocity distributions to obtain additional information on the energetics and dynamics of the reactions.

  2. Importance of fundamental sp, sp2, and sp3 hydrocarbon radicals in the growth of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Bikau; Koshi, Mitsuo

    2012-06-05

    The most basic chemistry of products formation in hydrocarbons pyrolysis has been explored via a comparative experimental study on the roles of fundamental sp, sp(2), and sp(3) hydrocarbon radicals/intermediates such as ethyne/ethynyl (C(2)H(2)/C(2)H), ethene/ethenyl (C(2)H(4)/C(2)H(3)), and methane/methyl (CH(4)/CH(3)) in products formations. By using an in situ time-of-flight mass spectrometry technique, gas-phase products of pyrolysis of acetylene (ethyne, C(2)H(2)), ethylene (ethene, C(2)H(4)), and acetone (propanone, CH(3)COCH(3)) were detected and found to include small aliphatic products to large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of mass 324 amu. Observed products mass spectra showed a remarkable sequence of mass peaks at regular mass number intervals of 24, 26, or 14 indicating the role of the particular corresponding radicals, ethynyl (C(2)H), ethenyl (C(2)H(3)), or methyl (CH(3)), in products formation. The analysis of results revealed the following: (a) product formation in hydrocarbon pyrolysis is dominated by hydrogen abstraction and a vinyl (ethenyl, C(2)H(3)) radical addition (HAVA) mechanism, (b) contrary to the existing concept of termination of products mass growth at cyclopenta fused species like acenaphthylene, novel pathways forming large PAHs were found succeeding beyond such cyclopenta fused species by the further addition of C(2)H(x) or CH(3) radicals, (c) production of cyclopenta ring-fused PAHs (CP-PAHs) such as fluoranthene/corannulene appeared as a preferred route over benzenoid species like pyrene/coronene, (d) because of the high reactivity of the CH(3) radical, it readily converts unbranched products into products with aliphatic chains (branched product), and (e) some interesting novel products such as dicarbon monoxide (C(2)O), tricarbon monoxide (C(3)O), and cyclic ketones were detected especially in acetone pyrolysis. These results finally suggest that existing kinetic models of product formation should be modified to include

  3. Aircraft measurements of bromine monoxide, iodine monoxide, and glyoxal profiles in the tropics: comparison with ship-based and in situ measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkamer, R.; Baidar, S.; Campos, T. L.; Coburn, S.; DiGangi, J. P.; Dix, B.; Koenig, T. K.; Ortega, I.; Pierce, B. R.; Reeves, M.; Sinreich, R.; Wang, S.; Zondlo, M. A.; Romashkin, P. A.

    2015-01-01

    Tropospheric chemistry of halogens and organic carbon over tropical oceans modifies ozone and atmospheric aerosols, yet atmospheric models remain largely untested for lack of vertically resolved measurements of bromine monoxide (BrO), iodine monoxide (IO), and small oxygenated hydrocarbons like glyoxal (CHOCHO) in the tropical troposphere. BrO, IO, glyoxal, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), water vapor (H2O) and O2-O2 collision complexes (O4) were measured by the CU Airborne Multi AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (CU AMAX-DOAS) instrument, in situ aerosol size distributions by an Ultra High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer (UHSAS), and in situ H2O by Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser hygrometer (VCSEL). Data are presented from two research flights (RF12, RF17) aboard the NSF/NCAR GV aircraft over the tropical Eastern Pacific Ocean (tEPO) as part of the "Tropical Ocean tRoposphere Exchange of Reactive halogens and Oxygenated hydrocarbons" (TORERO) project. We assess the accuracy of O4 slant column density (SCD) measurements in the presence and absence of aerosols, and find O4-inferred aerosol extinction profiles at 477 nm agree within 5% with Mie calculations of extinction profiles constrained by UHSAS. CU AMAX-DOAS provides a flexible choice of geometry which we exploit to minimize the SCD in the reference spectrum (SCDREF, maximize signal-to-noise), and to test the robustness of BrO, IO, and glyoxal differential SCDs. The RF12 case study was conducted in pristine marine and free tropospheric air. The RF17 case study was conducted above the NOAA RV Ka'imimoana (TORERO cruise, KA-12-01), and provides independent validation data from ship-based in situ Cavity Enhanced- and MAX-DOAS. Inside the marine boundary layer (MBL) no BrO was detected (smaller than 0.5 pptv), and 0.2-0.55 pptv IO and 32-36 pptv glyoxal were observed. The near surface concentrations agree within 20% (IO) and 10% (glyoxal) between ship and aircraft. The BrO concentration strongly

  4. Aircraft measurements of bromine monoxide, iodine monoxide, and glyoxal profiles in the tropics: comparison with ship-based and in situ measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Volkamer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropospheric chemistry of halogens and organic carbon over tropical oceans modifies ozone and atmospheric aerosols, yet atmospheric models remain largely untested for lack of vertically resolved measurements of bromine monoxide (BrO, iodine monoxide (IO, and small oxygenated hydrocarbons like glyoxal (CHOCHO in the tropical troposphere. BrO, IO, glyoxal, nitrogen dioxide (NO2, water vapor (H2O and O2-O2 collision complexes (O4 were measured by the CU Airborne Multi AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (CU AMAX-DOAS instrument, in situ aerosol size distributions by an Ultra High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer (UHSAS, and in situ H2O by Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser hygrometer (VCSEL. Data are presented from two research flights (RF12, RF17 aboard the NSF/NCAR GV aircraft over the tropical Eastern Pacific Ocean (tEPO as part of the "Tropical Ocean tRoposphere Exchange of Reactive halogens and Oxygenated hydrocarbons" (TORERO project. We assess the accuracy of O4 slant column density (SCD measurements in the presence and absence of aerosols, and find O4-inferred aerosol extinction profiles at 477 nm agree within 5% with Mie calculations of extinction profiles constrained by UHSAS. CU AMAX-DOAS provides a flexible choice of geometry which we exploit to minimize the SCD in the reference spectrum (SCDREF, maximize signal-to-noise, and to test the robustness of BrO, IO, and glyoxal differential SCDs. The RF12 case study was conducted in pristine marine and free tropospheric air. The RF17 case study was conducted above the NOAA RV Ka'imimoana (TORERO cruise, KA-12-01, and provides independent validation data from ship-based in situ Cavity Enhanced- and MAX-DOAS. Inside the marine boundary layer (MBL no BrO was detected (smaller than 0.5 pptv, and 0.2–0.55 pptv IO and 32–36 pptv glyoxal were observed. The near surface concentrations agree within 20% (IO and 10% (glyoxal between ship and aircraft. The BrO concentration strongly

  5. Digit and letter alexia in carbon monoxide poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingyu Shen; Xiaoming Rong; Rui Pan; Ying Peng; Wei Peng; Yamei Tang

    2012-01-01

    This study examined a 24-year-old patient with delayed encephalopathy, who was admitted to hospital with complaints of headache and visual impairment 1 week after acute carbon monoxide poisoning. The results of a visual field assessment, electroencephalography and head magnetic resonance imaging indicated damage to the cerebral cortex. After a 2-week treatment period, the patient had recovered from the visual impairment, but exhibited digit- and letter-reading difficulty. The Chinese aphasia battery and the number and letter battery supplement were conducted. The results revealed that the patient exhibited digit and letter alexia, while the ability to read Chinese characters was preserved. In contrast, the patient exhibited a deficit in Chinese character writing, while number and letter writing remained intact. Following treatment, reading and writing ability was improved and electroencephalographic abnormalities were ameliorated. Overall, our experimental findings demonstrated that delayed encephalopathy following acute carbon monoxide poisoning was characterized by digit and letter alexia.

  6. Catalysis of carbon monoxide methanation by deep sea manganate minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, A. L.; Maple, M. B.; Arrhenius, G.

    1990-01-01

    The catalytic activity of deep sea manganese nodule minerals for the methanation of carbon monoxide was measured with a microcatalytic technique between 200 and 460 degrees C. The manganate minerals were activated at 248 degrees C by immersion into a stream of hydrogen in which pulses of carbon monoxide were injected. Activation energies for the methanation reaction and hydrogen desorption from the manganate minerals were obtained and compared with those of pure nickel. Similar energy values indicate that the activity of the nodule materials for the reaction appears to be related to the amount of reducible transition metals present in the samples (ca. 11 wt.-%). Since the activity of the nodule minerals per gram is comparable to that of pure nickel, most of the transition metal ions located between manganese oxide layers appear to be exposed and available to catalyze the reaction.

  7. Effect of carbon monoxide on plants. [Mimosa pudica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, P.W.; Crocker, W.; Hitchcock, A.E.

    1933-01-01

    Of 108 species of plants treated with one per cent carbon monoxide, 45 showed epinastic growth of leaves. Several species showed hyponasty which caused upward curling of leaves. Other effects included: retarded stem elongation; abnormally small new leaves; abnormal yellowing of the leaves, beginning with the oldest; abscission of leaves usually associated with yellowing; and hypertrophied tissues on stems and roots. During recovery an abnormally large number of side shoots arose from latent buds of many species. Motion pictures of Mimosa pudica showed a loss of correlation, normal equilibrium position to gravity, and sensitiveness to contact or heat stimuli; however, the leaves moved about more rapidly than those of controls. Since carbon monoxide causes growth rigor and loss of sensitiveness to external stimuli, it is here considered as an anesthetic.

  8. [Sudden unilateral sensorineural hearing loss after carbon monoxide intoxication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalska-Piechowiak, Teresa; Miarzyńska, Maria; Perlik-Gattner, Irena

    2004-01-01

    A case of unilateral sensorineural hearing loss of the left ear after carbon monoxide intoxication was presented. The diagnosis was based upon an interview, medical examinations and audiometric investigations. Results of diagnostic evaluations, clinical presentation and treatment were discussed. Hearing improvement was obtained after 6 days of treatment and normal hearing returned after 14 days. Patients who suffer from CO intoxication are at risk of hearing impairment, therefore, there is a need for audiometric follow up in these patients.

  9. Pregnancy Hypertenssion and Preeclampsia in Enviromental Expossure to Carbon Monoxide

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: In this study relationship between carbon monoxide (CO) with pregnancy induced hypertension and preeclampsia in mothers in various levels of CO pollution was evaluated. Methods: The study was carried out in three teaching hospitals and 4500 pregnant women living area divided in one low-level CO polluted and as the second level, three moderate to high polluted areas (central, south and west). The subjects, residence places were within 5 kilometers of the air pollution monitoring ...

  10. Mobile Carbon Monoxide Monitoring System Based on Arduino-Matlab for Environmental Monitoring Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azieda Mohd Bakri, Nur; Junid, Syed Abdul Mutalib Al; Razak, Abdul Hadi Abdul; Idros, Mohd Faizul Md; Karimi Halim, Abdul

    2015-11-01

    Nowadays, the increasing level of carbon monoxide globally has become a serious environmental issue which has been highlighted in most of the country globally. The monitoring of carbon monoxide content is one of the approaches to identify the level of carbon monoxide pollution towards providing the solution for control the level of carbon monoxide produced. Thus, this paper proposed a mobile carbon monoxide monitoring system for measuring the carbon monoxide content based on Arduino-Matlab General User Interface (GUI). The objective of this project is to design, develop and implement the real-time mobile carbon monoxide sensor system and interfacing for measuring the level of carbon monoxide contamination in real environment. Four phases or stages of work have been carried out for the accomplishment of the project, which classified as sensor development, controlling and integrating sensor, data collection and data analysis. As a result, a complete design and developed system has been verified with the handheld industrial standard carbon monoxide sensor for calibrating the sensor sensitivity and measurement in the laboratory. Moreover, the system has been tested in real environments by measuring the level of carbon monoxide in three different lands used location; industrial area; residential area and main road (commercial area). In this real environment test, the industrial area recorded the highest reading with 71.23 ppm and 82.59 ppm for sensor 1 and sensor 2 respectively. As a conclusion, the mobile realtime carbon monoxide system based on the Arduino-Matlab is the best approach to measure the carbon monoxide concentration in different land-used since it does not require a manual data collection and reduce the complexity of the existing carbon monoxide level concentration measurement practise at the same time with a complete data analysis facilities.

  11. A metal-free electrocatalyst for carbon dioxide reduction to multi-carbon hydrocarbons and oxygenates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jingjie; Ma, Sichao; Sun, Jing; Gold, Jake I; Tiwary, ChandraSekhar; Kim, Byoungsu; Zhu, Lingyang; Chopra, Nitin; Odeh, Ihab N; Vajtai, Robert; Yu, Aaron Z; Luo, Raymond; Lou, Jun; Ding, Guqiao; Kenis, Paul J A; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2016-12-13

    Electroreduction of carbon dioxide into higher-energy liquid fuels and chemicals is a promising but challenging renewable energy conversion technology. Among the electrocatalysts screened so far for carbon dioxide reduction, which includes metals, alloys, organometallics, layered materials and carbon nanostructures, only copper exhibits selectivity towards formation of hydrocarbons and multi-carbon oxygenates at fairly high efficiencies, whereas most others favour production of carbon monoxide or formate. Here we report that nanometre-size N-doped graphene quantum dots (NGQDs) catalyse the electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide into multi-carbon hydrocarbons and oxygenates at high Faradaic efficiencies, high current densities and low overpotentials. The NGQDs show a high total Faradaic efficiency of carbon dioxide reduction of up to 90%, with selectivity for ethylene and ethanol conversions reaching 45%. The C2 and C3 product distribution and production rate for NGQD-catalysed carbon dioxide reduction is comparable to those obtained with copper nanoparticle-based electrocatalysts.

  12. Photocatalytic decomposition of humic acids in anoxic aqueous solutions producing hydrogen, oxygen and light hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauson, Deniss; Budarnaja, Olga; Beltran, Ignacio Castellanos; Krichevskaya, Marina; Preis, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    Photocatalytic water splitting for hydrogen and oxygen production requires sacrificial electron donors, for example, organic compounds. Titanium dioxide catalysts doped with platinum, cobalt, tungsten, copper and iron were experimentally tested for the production of hydrogen, oxygen and low molecular weight hydrocarbons from aqueous solutions of humic substances (HS). Platinum-doped catalyst showed the best results in hydrogen generation, also producing methane, ethene and ethane, whereas the best oxygen production was exhibited by P25, followed by copper--and cobalt-containing photocatalysts. Iron-containing photocatalyst produced carbon monoxide as a major product. HS undergoing anoxic photocatalytic degradation produce hydrogen with minor hydrocarbons, and/or oxygen. It appears that better hydrogen yield is achieved when direct HS splitting takes place, as opposed to HS acting as electron donors for water splitting.

  13. A metal-free electrocatalyst for carbon dioxide reduction to multi-carbon hydrocarbons and oxygenates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jingjie; Ma, Sichao; Sun, Jing; Gold, Jake I.; Tiwary, Chandrasekhar; Kim, Byoungsu; Zhu, Lingyang; Chopra, Nitin; Odeh, Ihab N.; Vajtai, Robert; Yu, Aaron Z.; Luo, Raymond; Lou, Jun; Ding, Guqiao; Kenis, Paul J. A.; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

    2016-12-01

    Electroreduction of carbon dioxide into higher-energy liquid fuels and chemicals is a promising but challenging renewable energy conversion technology. Among the electrocatalysts screened so far for carbon dioxide reduction, which includes metals, alloys, organometallics, layered materials and carbon nanostructures, only copper exhibits selectivity towards formation of hydrocarbons and multi-carbon oxygenates at fairly high efficiencies, whereas most others favour production of carbon monoxide or formate. Here we report that nanometre-size N-doped graphene quantum dots (NGQDs) catalyse the electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide into multi-carbon hydrocarbons and oxygenates at high Faradaic efficiencies, high current densities and low overpotentials. The NGQDs show a high total Faradaic efficiency of carbon dioxide reduction of up to 90%, with selectivity for ethylene and ethanol conversions reaching 45%. The C2 and C3 product distribution and production rate for NGQD-catalysed carbon dioxide reduction is comparable to those obtained with copper nanoparticle-based electrocatalysts.

  14. Hydrocarbon conversion catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoek, A.; Huizinga, T.; Maxwell, I.E.

    1989-08-15

    This patent describes a process for hydrocracking hydrocarbon oils into products of lower average molecular weight and lower average boiling point. It comprises contacting a hydrocarbon oil at a temperature between 250{sup 0}C and 500{sup 0}C and a pressure up to 300 bar in the presence of hydrogen with a catalyst consisting essentially of a Y zeolite modified to have a unit cell size below 24.35A, a water absorption capacity (at 25{sup 0}C and a rho/rho/sub o/ value of 0.2) of at least 8% by weight of the zeolite and a pore volume of at least 0.25 ml/g wherein between 10% and 60% of the total pore volume is made up of pores having a diameter of at least 8 nm; an alumina binder and at least one hydrogenation component selected from the group consisting of a Group VI metal, a Group VIII metal and mixtures thereof.

  15. Thermophysical Properties of Hydrocarbon Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 4 NIST Thermophysical Properties of Hydrocarbon Mixtures (PC database for purchase)   Interactive computer program for predicting thermodynamic and transport properties of pure fluids and fluid mixtures containing up to 20 components. The components are selected from a database of 196 components, mostly hydrocarbons.

  16. Hydrocarbon Receptor Pathway in Dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbeek, F.G. van; Spee, B.; Penning, L.C.; Kummeling, A.; Gils, I.H.M.; Grinwis, G.C.M.; Leenen, D. van; Holstege, F.C.P.; Vos-Loohuis, M.; Rothuizen, J.; Leegwater, P.A.J.

    2013-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) mediates biological responses to toxic chemicals. An unexpected role for AHR in vascularization was suggested when mice lacking AHR displayed impaired closure of the ductus venosus after birth, as did knockout mice for aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein

  17. Hydrocarbon Receptor Pathway in Dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbeek, F.G. van; Spee, B.; Penning, L.C.; Kummeling, A.; Gils, I.H.M.; Grinwis, G.C.M.; Leenen, D. van; Holstege, F.C.P.; Vos-Loohuis, M.; Rothuizen, J.; Leegwater, P.A.J.

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) mediates biological responses to toxic chemicals. An unexpected role for AHR in vascularization was suggested when mice lacking AHR displayed impaired closure of the ductus venosus after birth, as did knockout mice for aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting

  18. Central Diabetes Insipidus and Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar State Following Accidental Carbon Monoxide Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ul Abideen, Zain; Mahmud, Syed Nayer; Rasheed, Amna; Farooq Qasim, Yusaf; Ali, Furqan

    2017-06-03

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is common and carries significant morbidity and mortality. The nervous system, particularly the brain, is frequently affected by it, owing to its high metabolic activity and oxygen requirements. Carbon monoxide damages the nervous system by both hypoxic and inflammatory mechanisms. Central diabetes insipidus is an extremely rare complication of carbon monoxide poisoning. Herein, we report the case of a young lady, who developed this complication and severe hypernatremia after accidental carbon monoxide poisoning. She also developed a hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state during the treatment for hypernatremia. To the best of our knowledge, both these entities have not been reported together in association with carbon monoxide poisoning. The purpose of this article is to emphasize the anticipation and early recognition of central diabetes insipidus in carbon monoxide poisoning. This can prevent severe hypernatremia and complications associated with its presence and treatment.

  19. Carbon monoxide may be an important molecule in migraine and other headaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arngrim, Nanna; Schytz, Henrik W; Hauge, Mette K

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Carbon monoxide was previously considered to just be a toxic gas. A wealth of recent information has, however, shown that it is also an important endogenously produced signalling molecule involved in multiple biological processes. Endogenously produced carbon monoxide may thus play...... an important role in nociceptive processing and in regulation of cerebral arterial tone. DISCUSSION: Carbon monoxide-induced headache shares many characteristics with migraine and other headaches. The mechanisms whereby carbon monoxide causes headache may include hypoxia, nitric oxide signalling and activation...

  20. Research advance in non-thermal plasma induced selective catalytic reduction NOx with low hydrocarbon compounds%低温等离子体诱导低碳烃选择性催化还原NOx研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏清发; 刘亚敏; 陈杰; 潘华; 施耀

    2009-01-01

    The emission of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from stationary sources, primarily from power stations, industrial heaters and cogeneration plants, represents a major environmental problem. This paper intends to give a general review over the advances in non-thermal plasma assisted selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx with lower hydrocarbon compounds. In the last decade, the non-thermal plasma induced SCR of nitrogen oxide with low hydrocarbon compounds has received much attention. The different hydrocarbons (≤C3) used in the research are discussed. As we know,methane is more difficultly activated than non-methane hydrocarbons, such as ethylene and propylene etc. The reduction mechanism is also discussed. In addition, aiming at the difficulties existed, the direction for future research is prospected.%综述了近年来低温等离子体诱导低碳烃选择性催化还原NOx的研究进展,详细介绍了难活化的甲烷及较易活化的非甲烷低碳烃气体如乙烯、丙烯及丙烷等的研究现状,探讨了低温等离子体诱导低碳烃选择性催化还原NOx的反应机理,并展望了低温等离子体诱导低碳烃选择性催化还原NOx今后研究方向.

  1. Hydrocarbon Observations and Ozone Production Rates in Western Houston During the Texas 2000 Air Quality Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkowitz, Carl M.; Spicer, Chet W.; Doskey, Paul V.

    2005-06-01

    Measurements of total non-methane hydrocarbon in whole air canisters collected from the top of a skyscraper on the western edge of Houston, Texas are summarized with an emphasis on samples collected during the passage of plumes of O{sub 3} and the associated rapid increase in the mixing ratio of this species. The back-trajectories associated with these events showed a pronounced deceleration of air parcels over central and western Houston and were not necessarily associated with direct passage over the petrochemical plants located in the heavily industrialized eastern part of Houston. As a result of the time these air parcels spent over the central and western parts of Houston, their VOC mix and associated chemical production rates were expected to differ from similar observations made over eastern Houston from aircraft sampling at low altitudes. Although periods of high O{sub 3} in the western part of the city were closely associated with light alkenes, these same observations show isoprene to make a significant contribution to the total VOC reactivity in the early afternoon (the start of peak photochemical activity) in contrast to observations made east of our sampling site that found the reactivity to be dominated by anthropogenic species. By initializing a 0-dimensional chemical kinetic model with observations made at the Williams Tower, we find that the ozone production efficiency scaled linearly to the ratio of total hydrocarbons and NO{sub x}, with an average OPE of 7.2, ranging from 2.3 to 16.9; these values are smaller than those reported in eastern Houston, suggesting a strong gradient in photochemical productivity across the city.

  2. Hydrocarbon gas standards at the pmol/mol level to support ambient atmospheric measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoderick, George C; Duewer, David L; Ning, Li; DeSirant, Kathryn

    2010-02-01

    Studies of climate change increasingly recognize the diverse influences exerted by hydrocarbons in the atmosphere, including roles in particulates and ozone formation. Measurements of key non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) suggest atmospheric concentrations ranging from low pmol/mol to nmol/mol, depending on location and compound. To accurately establish concentration trends and to relate measurement records from many laboratories and researchers, it is essential to have good calibration standards. Several of the world's National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) are developing primary and secondary reference gas standards at the nmol/mol level. While the U.S. NMI, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), has developed pmol/mol standards for halocarbons and some volatile organics, the feasibility of preparing well-characterized, stable standards for NMHCs at the pmol/mol level is not yet established. NIST recently developed a suite of primary standards by gravimetric dilution that contains 18 NMHCs covering the concentration range of 60 pmol/mol to 230 pmol/mol. Taking into account the small but chemically significant contribution of NMHCs in the high-purity diluent nitrogen used in their preparation, the relative concentrations and short-term stability (2 to 3 months) of these NMHCs in the primary standards have been confirmed by chromatographic analysis. The gravimetric values assigned from the methods used to prepare the materials and the analytical concentrations determined from chromatographic analysis generally agree to within +/-2 pmol/mol. However, anomalous results for several of the compounds reflect the difficulties inherent in avoiding contamination and making accurate measurements at these very low levels.

  3. Compilation of a source profile database for hydrocarbon and OVOC emissions in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Ziwei; Shao, Min; Lu, Sihua

    2016-10-01

    Source profiles are essential for quantifying the role of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions in air pollution. This study compiled a database of VOC source profiles in China, with 75 species drawn from five major categories: transportation, solvent use, biomass burning, fossil fuel burning, and industrial processes. Source profiles were updated for diesel vehicles, biomass burning, and residential coal burning by measuring both hydrocarbons and oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs), while other source profiles were derived from the available literature. The OVOCs contributed 53.8% of total VOCs in the profiles of heavy - duty diesel vehicle exhaust and 12.4%-46.3% in biomass and residential coal burning, which indicated the importance of primary OVOCs emissions from combustion-related sources. Taking the national emission inventory from 2008 as an example, we established an approach for assigning source profiles to develop a speciation-specific VOC and OVOC emission inventory. The results showed that aromatics contributed 30% of the total 26 Tg VOCs, followed by alkanes (24%), alkenes (19%) and OVOCs (12%). Aromatics (7.9 Tg) were much higher than in previous results (1.1 Tg and 3.4 Tg), while OVOCs (3.1 Tg) were comparable with the 3.3 Tg and 4.3 Tg reported in studies using profiles from the US. The current emission inventories were built based on emission factors from non-methane hydrocarbon measurements, and therefore the proportions from OVOC emissions was neglected, leading to up to 30% underestimation of total VOC emissions. As a result, there is a need to deploy appropriate emission factors and source profiles that include OVOC measurements to reduce the uncertainty of estimated emissions and chemical reactivity potential.

  4. Multifractal analysis of slacken surface in hydrocarbon molecules through fuel additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Arockia Prabakar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of organic fuel additives (Bio-Glycerol on fuel savings, emission reduction and extend engine life. Using this enzyme, a motor cycle is tested five times. The test report shows the reduction in the release of carbon monoxide (CO and hydrocarbon upto 60%. The use of organic fuel additives in diesel vehicles for different periods of time reveals the reduction in air pollution by 55%. Finally, we have experimented scanning electron microscope (SEM test for organic fuel additives with biodiesel. The SEM image shows the existence of molecules of hydrocarbons. The analysis elucidated the complex morphology of molecules of hydrocarbons in fuel additives with biodiesel. The hydrocarbon molecules are slackened and irregular as it refers to the fractal form. SEM Photograph images are analyzed by multifractal analysis. MFA (multifractal analysis is carried out according to the method of moments, i.e., the probability distribution is estimated for moments which differ from -150

  5. Mixing ratios of carbon monoxide in the troposphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novelli, P.C.; Steele, L.P. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (United States)); Tans, P.P. (NOAA, Boulder, CO (United States))

    1992-12-20

    Carbon monoxide (CO) mixing ratios were measured in air samples collected weekly at eight locations. The air was collected as part of the CMDL/NOAA cooperative flask sampling program (Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory, formerly Geophysical Monitoring for Climatic Change, Air Resources Laboratory/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) at Point Barrow, Alaska, Niwot Ridge, Colorado, Mauna Loa and Cape Kumakahi, Hawaii, Guam, Marianas Islands, Christmas Island, Ascension Island and American Samoa. Half-liter or 3-L glass flasks fitted with glass piston stopcocks holding teflon O rings were used for sample collection. CO levels were determined within several weeks of collection using gas chromatography followed by mercuric oxide reduction detection, and mixing ratios were referenced against the CMDL/NOAA carbon monoxide standard scale. During the period of study (mid-1988 through December 1990) CO levels were greatest in the high latitudes of the northern hemisphere (mean mixing ratio from January 1989 to December 1990 at Point Barrow was approximately 154 ppb) and decreased towards the south (mean mixing ratio at Samoa over a similar period was 65 ppb). Mixing ratios varied seasonally, the amplitude of the seasonal cycle was greatest in the north and decreased to the south. Carbon monoxide levels were affected by both local and regional scale processes. The difference in CO levels between northern and southern latitudes also varied seasonally. The greatest difference in CO mixing ratios between Barrow and Samoa was observed during the northern winter (about 150 ppb). The smallest difference, 40 ppb, occurred during the austral winter. The annually averaged CO difference between 71[degrees]N and 14[degrees]S was approximately 90 ppb in both 1989 and 1990; the annually averaged interhemispheric gradient from 71[degrees]N to 41[degrees]S is estimated as approximately 95 ppb. 66 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. REFORMULATION OF COAL-DERIVED TRANSPORTATION FUELS: SELECTIVE OXIDATION OF CARBON MONOXIDE ON METAL FOAM CATALYSTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mr. Paul Chin; Dr. Xiaolei Sun; Professor George W. Roberts; Professor James J. Spivey; Mr. Amornmart Sirijarhuphan; Dr. James G. Goodwin, Jr.; Dr. Richard W. Rice

    2002-12-31

    Several different catalytic reactions must be carried out in order to convert hydrocarbons (or alcohols) into hydrogen for use as a fuel for polyelectrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells. Each reaction in the fuel-processing sequence has a different set of characteristics, which influences the type of catalyst support that should be used for that particular reaction. A wide range of supports are being evaluated for the various reactions in the fuel-processing scheme, including porous and non-porous particles, ceramic and metal straight-channel monoliths, and ceramic and metal monolithic foams. These different types of support have distinctly different transport characteristics. The best choice of support for a given reaction will depend on the design constraints for the system, e.g., allowable pressure drop, and on the characteristics of the reaction for which the catalyst is being designed. Three of the most important reaction characteristics are the intrinsic reaction rate, the exothermicity/endothermicity of the reaction, and the nature of the reaction network, e.g., whether more than one reaction takes place and, in the case of multiple reactions, the configuration of the network. Isotopic transient kinetic analysis was used to study the surface intermediates. The preferential oxidation of low concentrations of carbon monoxide in the presence of high concentrations of hydrogen (PROX) is an important final step in most fuel processor designs. Data on the behavior of straight-channel monoliths and foam monolith supports will be presented to illustrate some of the factors involved in choosing a support for this reaction.

  7. A 60 yr record of atmospheric carbon monoxide reconstructed from Greenland firn air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Petrenko

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We present the first reconstruction of the Northern Hemisphere (NH high latitude atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO mole fraction from Greenland firn air. Firn air samples were collected at three deep ice core sites in Greenland (NGRIP in 2001, Summit in 2006 and NEEM in 2008. CO records from the three sites agree well with each other as well as with recent atmospheric measurements, indicating that CO is well preserved in the firn at these sites. CO atmospheric history was reconstructed back to the year 1950 from the measurements using a combination of two forward models of gas transport in firn and an inverse model. The reconstructed history suggests that Arctic CO in 1950 was 140–150 nmol mol−1, which is higher than today's values. CO mole fractions rose by 10–15 nmol mol−1 from 1950 to the 1970s and peaked in the 1970s or early 1980s, followed by a ≈ 30 nmol mol−1 decline to today's levels. We compare the CO history with the atmospheric histories of methane, light hydrocarbons, molecular hydrogen, CO stable isotopes and hydroxyl radicals (OH, as well as with published CO emission inventories and results of a historical run from a chemistry-transport model. We find that the reconstructed Greenland CO history cannot be reconciled with available emission inventories unless unrealistically large changes in OH are assumed. We argue that the available CO emission inventories strongly underestimate historical NH emissions, and fail to capture the emission decline starting in the late 1970s, which was most likely due to reduced emissions from road transportation in North America and Europe.

  8. Hydrogenation of carbon monoxide over the mixed catalysts composed of cobalt-nickel/manganese oxide-zirconium oxide and zeolite catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, Tatsumi; Iwakuni, Hideharu; Eguchi, Koichi; Arai, Hiromichi (Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan))

    1991-08-15

    Mechanical mixtures of Co-Ni/MnO-ZrO2 and zeolite were used as catalysts for the selective synthesis of gasoline by carbon monoxide hydrogenation. Formation of branched alkanes was promoted, but that of hydrocarbons higher than a carbon number of 10 was suppressed by a combination with zeolite. The reactivity of zeolite for higher hydrocarbons has the decisive role in the product distribution as result of using these mixed catalysts, and thus the product distribution strongly depends on the type of zeolite. Since the hydrogenolysis of higher hydrocarbons proceeds on the strong acid sites, the formation of branched alkanes was promoted by increasing the aluminium content in the zeolite. Ammonia temperature-programmed desorption suggests that increasing the aluminium content in the zeolite increases the number of strong acid sites, but weakens the average strength of the acid sites. Pentasil zeolite with an aluminium content of 1.32 mmolg{sup -1} is effective for enhancing the yield of gasoline as well as its octane number. 8 figs., 1 tab., 20 refs.

  9. Thermal Degradation of Lead Monoxide Filled Polymer Composite Radiation Shields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harish, V.; Nagaiah, N.

    2011-07-01

    Lead monoxide filled Isophthalate resin particulate polymer composites were prepared with different filler concentrations and investigated for physical, thermal, mechanical and gamma radiation shielding characteristics. This paper discusses about the thermo gravimetric analysis of the composites done to understand their thermal properties especially the effect of filler concentration on the thermal stability & degradation rate of composites. Pristine polymer exhibits single stage degradation whereas filled composites exhibit two stage degradation processes. Further, the IDT values as well as degradation rates decrease with the increased filler content in the composite.

  10. Modeling of Carbon Monoxide Removal by Corona Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Jingwei; SUN Yabing; ZHAO Dayong; ZHENG Zheng; XU Yuewu; YANG Haifeng; ZHU Hongbiao; ZHOU Xiaoxia

    2009-01-01

    Modeling of carbon monoxide (CO) removal by a corona plasma was conducted in this study.The purification efficiency of CO was calculated theoretically and the factors affecting the removal of CO were analyzed.The results showed that the main removal mechanisms of CO were direct dissociation by generated high-energy electrons and indirect oxidation by generated hydroxyl radicals.The purification efficiency of CO was dependent on the plasma parameters,indoor air humidity and initial concentration of CO.Good consistency between the theoretical calculation and the experimental results was observed.

  11. Pathways and Bioenergetics of Anaerobic Carbon Monoxide Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diender, Martijn; Stams, Alfons J M; Sousa, Diana Z

    2015-01-01

    Carbon monoxide can act as a substrate for different modes of fermentative anaerobic metabolism. The trait of utilizing CO is spread among a diverse group of microorganisms, including members of bacteria as well as archaea. Over the last decade this metabolism has gained interest due to the potential of converting CO-rich gas, such as synthesis gas, into bio-based products. Three main types of fermentative CO metabolism can be distinguished: hydrogenogenesis, methanogenesis, and acetogenesis, generating hydrogen, methane and acetate, respectively. Here, we review the current knowledge on these three variants of microbial CO metabolism with an emphasis on the potential enzymatic routes and bio-energetics involved.

  12. Pathways and bioenergetics of anaerobic carbon monoxide fermentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martijn eDiender

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide can act as a substrate for different modes of fermentative anaerobic metabolism. The trait of utilizing CO is spread among a diverse group of microorganisms, including members of bacteria as well as archaea. Over the last decade this metabolism has gained interest due to the potential of converting CO rich gas, such as synthesis gas, into bio-based products. Three main types of fermentative CO metabolism can be distinguished: hydrogenogenesis, methanogenesis and acetogenesis, generating hydrogen, methane and acetate, respectively. Here, we review the current knowledge on these three variants of microbial CO metabolism with an emphasis on the potential enzymatic routes and bio-energetics involved.

  13. OMI Observations of Bromine Monoxide Emissions from Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleiman, R. M.; Chance, K.; Liu, X.; Gonzalez Abad, G.; Kurosu, T. P.

    2016-12-01

    We analyze bromine monoxide (BrO) data from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) for emissions from various volcanoes. We use OMI data from 2005 to 2014 to investigate BrO signatures from Galapagos, Kasatochi and Eyjafjallajökull volcanoes. Elevated signatures of BrO daily averages were found over Eyjafjallajökull. SO2 cross sections are updated in the operational BrO algorithm and their effect on the volcanic BrO signature is studied. Comparison between two different sets of SO2 cross sections is made and results still show BrO enhancement over the Eyjafjallajökull region.

  14. Dipolar dissociation dynamics in electron collisions with carbon monoxide

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Dipayan; Nandi, Dhananjay

    2016-01-01

    Dipolar dissociation processes in the electron collisions with carbon monoxide have been studied using time of flight (TOF) mass spectroscopy in combination with the highly differential velocity slice imaging (VSI) technique. Probing ion-pair states both positive and/or negative ions may be detected. The ion yield curve of negative ions provides the threshold energy for the ion-pair production. On the other hand, the kinetic energy distributions and angular distributions of the fragment anion provide detailed dynamics of the dipolar dissociation process. Two ion-pair states have been identified based on angular distribution measurements using VSI technique.

  15. Speciation of Total Organic Gas and Particulate Matter Emissions from Onroad Vehicles in the Next Version of MOVES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calculation of organic gas measures used in MOVES (total hydrocarbons, methane, non-methane hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds, non-methane organic gases, and total organic gases). Incorporation of speciation within MOVES to produce total organic gas and particulate matte...

  16. Hydrocarbon Leak Detection Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — FTT is proposing the development of a sensor to detect the presence of hydrocarbons in turbopump Inter-Propellant Seals (IPS). The purpose of the IPS is to prevent...

  17. Growth of hydrocarbon utilizing microorganisms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Mavinkurve, S.

    Two isolates from marine mud having broad spectrum hydrocarbon utilizing profile were identified as Arthrobacter simplex and Candida tropicalis.Both the organisms grew exponentially on crude oil. The cell yield of the organisms was influenced...

  18. Bioassay of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Kirk, E.A.

    1980-08-01

    A positive relationship was found between the photodynamic activity of 24 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons versus published results on the mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and initiation of unscheduled DNA synthesis. Metabolic activation of benzo(a)pyrene resulted in detection of increased mutagenesis in Paramecium tetraurelia as found also in the Ames Salmonella assay. The utility of P. tetraurelia as a biological detector of hazardous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is discussed.

  19. Electrochemical decomposition of chlorinated hydrocarbons

    OpenAIRE

    McGee, Gerard Anthony

    1993-01-01

    This work involves the characterisation of the electrochemical decomposition of chlorinated hydrocarbons. A variety of methods were employed involving the use of catalytic reagents to enhance the rate at which chlorinated organic compounds are reduced. The first reagent used was oxygen which was electrochemically reduced to superoxide in nonaqueous solvents. Superoxide is a reactive intermediate and decomposes chlorinated hydrocarbons. However it was found that since the rate of reaction betw...

  20. Aliphatic hydrocarbons of the fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weete, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    Review of studies of aliphatic hydrocarbons which have been recently detected in the spores of phytopathogenic fungi, and are found to be structurally very similar to the alkanes of higher plants. It appears that the hydrocarbon components of the few mycelial and yeast forms reported resemble the distribution found in bacteria. The occurence and distribution of these compounds in the fungi is discussed. Suggested functional roles of fungal spore alkanes are presented.

  1. LIQUID HYDROCARBON FUEL CELL DEVELOPMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A compound anode consists of a reforming catalyst bed in direct contact with a palladium-silver fuel cell anode. The objective of this study was to...prove the feasibility of operating a compound anode fuel cell on a liquid hydrocarbon and to define the important parameters that influence cell...performance. Both reformer and fuel cell tests were conducted with various liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Included in this report is a description of the

  2. Formation of orthorhombic tin dioxide from mechanically milled monoxide powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamelas, F. J.

    2004-12-01

    X-ray scattering measurements are used to show that the metastable orthorhombic phase of tin dioxide is produced by the oxidation of mechanically milled litharge-phase tin monoxide. After milling to a grain size of approximately 20nm, followed by heating to 575°C, the fraction of the orthorhombic phase is approximately 80%. The orthorhombic phase was originally observed in high-pressure experiments, but more recently, it has been produced in a wide variety of thin-film and nanoparticle samples. The data presented here demonstrate the importance of small-grain-size tin monoxide as a precursor in the ambient-pressure synthesis of the orthorhombic phase. This result has practical importance in the production of tin dioxide gas sensors. A more fundamental observation is that the particle size of a precursor phase can have a marked effect on subsequent phases produced during oxidation. Lastly, a formula for determining the orthorhombic fraction in two-phase tin dioxide samples is developed using the method of standard additions.

  3. A carbon monoxide passive sampler: Research and development needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traynor, G.W.; Apte, M.G.; Diamond, R.C.; Woods, A.L.

    1991-11-01

    In rare instances, carbon monoxide (CO) levels in houses can reach dangerously high concentrations, causing adverse health effects ranging from mild headaches to, under extreme conditions, death. Hundreds of fatal accidental carbon monoxide poisonings occur each year primarily due to the indoor operation of motor vehicles, the indoor use of charcoal for cooking, the operation of malfunctioning vented and unvented combustion appliances, and the misuse combustion appliances. Because there is a lack of simple, inexpensive, and accurate field sampling instrumentation, it is difficult for gas utilities and researchers to conduct field research studies designed to quantify the concentrations of CO in residences. Determining the concentration of CO in residences is the first step towards identifying the high risk appliances and high-CO environments which pose health risks. Thus, there exists an urgent need to develop and field-validate a CO-quantifying technique suitable for affordable field research. A CO passive sampler, if developed, could fulfill these requirements. Existing CO monitoring techniques are discussed as well as three potential CO-detection methods for use in a CO passive sampler. Laboratory and field research needed for the development and validation of an effective and cost-efficient CO passive sampler are also discussed.

  4. Space-based observation of volcanic iodine monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönhardt, Anja; Richter, Andreas; Theys, Nicolas; Burrows, John P.

    2017-04-01

    Volcanic eruptions inject substantial amounts of halogens into the atmosphere. Chlorine and bromine oxides have frequently been observed in volcanic plumes from different instrumental platforms such as from ground, aircraft and satellites. The present study is the first observational evidence that iodine oxides are also emitted into the atmosphere during volcanic eruptions. Large column amounts of iodine monoxide, IO, are observed in satellite measurements following the major eruption of the Kasatochi volcano, Alaska, in 2008. The IO signal is detected in measurements made both by SCIAMACHY (Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric CHartographY) on ENVISAT (Environmental Satellite) and GOME-2 (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2) on MetOp-A (Meteorological Operational Satellite A). Following the eruption on 7 August 2008, strongly elevated levels of IO slant columns of more than 4 × 1013 molec cm-2 are retrieved along the volcanic plume trajectories for several days. The retrieved IO columns from the different instruments are consistent, and the spatial distribution of the IO plume is similar to that of bromine monoxide, BrO. Details in the spatial distribution, however, differ between IO, BrO and sulfur dioxide, SO2. The column amounts of IO are approximately 1 order of magnitude smaller than those of BrO. Using the GOME-2A observations, the total mass of IO in the volcanic plume injected into the atmosphere from the eruption of Kasatochi on 7 August 2008, is determined to be on the order of 10 Mg.

  5. The electric dipole moment of cobalt monoxide, CoO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Xiujuan; Steimle, Timothy C

    2014-03-28

    A number of low-rotational lines of the E(4)Δ7/2 ← X(4)Δ7/2 (1,0) band system of cobalt monoxide, CoO, were recorded field free and in the presence of a static electric field. The magnetic hyperfine parameter, h7/2, and the electron quadrupole parameter, eQq0, for the E(4)Δ7/2(υ = 1) state were optimized from the analysis of the field-free spectrum. The permanent electric dipole moment, μ(→)(el), for the X(4)Δ7/2 (υ = 0) and E(4)Δ7/2 (υ = 1) states were determined to be 4.18 ± 0.05 D and 3.28 ± 0.05 D, respectively, from the analysis of the observed Stark spectra of F' = 7 ← F″ = 6 branch feature in the Q(7/2) line and the F' = 8 ← F″ = 7 branch feature in the R(7/2) line. The measured dipole moments of CoO are compared to those from theoretical predictions and the trend across the 3d-metal monoxide series discussed.

  6. Carbon Monoxide Emissions in Middle Aged Debris Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Morgan; Gorti, Uma; Hales, Antonio; Carpenter, John M.; Hughes, A. Meredith

    2017-01-01

    Circumstellar disks greater than 10 Myr old, referred to as debris disks, are expected to be gas poor. The original gas and dust in these disks is thought to be accreted onto the host stars, used up in the formation of planets and other bodies, or blown out of the disks via stellar radiation. However, recent ALMA observations at millimeter wavelengths have led to the detection of carbon monoxide (J=2-1) emission in a few debris disks, prompting further investigation.Using ALMA data, two separate models of gas genesis were tested against observations of the CO emissions in the disks around HIP 73145, HIP 76310, and HIP 84881 in the Upper Sco association. One of these models was built on the hypothesis that the gas in these debris disks is left over from stellar formation and has persisted over uncommonly long periods of time. The other model is built on the hypothesis that this gas is of secondary nature, produced by collisions between planetary bodies in the debris disks. Model emissions were calculated using the Line Modeling Engine (LIME) radiative transfer code and were compared with observational data to infer gas masses under both production scenarios. The implications of the masses of carbon monoxide in the disks suggested by each of the two models are discussed.

  7. HYDROCARBONS RESERVES IN VENEZUELA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Cruz, D.J.

    2007-07-01

    Venezuela is an important player in the energy world, because of its hydrocarbons reserves. The process for calculating oil and associated gas reserves is described bearing in mind that 90% of the gas reserves of Venezuela are associated to oil. Likewise, an analysis is made of the oil reserves figures from 1975 to 2003. Reference is also made to inconsistencies found by international experts and the explanations offered in this respect by the Ministry of Energy and Petroleum (MENPET) and Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) regarding the changes that took place in the 1980s. In turn, Hubbert's Law is explained to determine peak production of conventional oil that a reservoir or field will reach, as well as its relationship with remaining reserves. Emphasis is placed on the interest of the United Nations on this topic. The reserves of associated gas are presented along with their relationship with the different crude oils that are produced and with injected gas, as well as with respect to the possible changes that would take place in the latter if oil reserves are revised. Some recommendations are submitted so that the MENPET starts preparing the pertinent policies ruling reserves. (auth)

  8. Evaluation of hydrocarbon potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cashman, P.H.; Trexler, J.H. Jr. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    1992-09-30

    Task 8 is responsible for assessing the hydrocarbon potential of the Yucca Mountain vincinity. Our main focus is source rock stratigraphy in the NTS area in southern Nevada. (In addition, Trexler continues to work on a parallel study of source rock stratigraphy in the oil-producing region of east central Nevada, but this work is not funded by Task 8.) As a supplement to the stratigraphic studies, we are studying the geometry and kinematics of deformation at NTS, particularly as these pertain to reconstructing Paleozoic stratigraphy and to predicting the nature of the Late Paleozoic rocks under Yucca Mountain. Our stratigraphic studies continue to support the interpretation that rocks mapped as the {open_quotes}Eleana Formation{close_quotes} are in fact parts of two different Mississippian units. We have made significant progress in determining the basin histories of both units. These place important constraints on regional paleogeographic and tectonic reconstructions. In addition to continued work on the Eleana, we plan to look at the overlying Tippipah Limestone. Preliminary TOC and maturation data indicate that this may be another potential source rock.

  9. 40 CFR 52.1627 - Control strategy and regulations: Carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...: Carbon monoxide. 52.1627 Section 52.1627 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New Mexico § 52.1627 Control strategy and regulations: Carbon monoxide. (a) Part D Approval. The...

  10. Method of removing nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas using a water-soluble iron ion-dithiocarbamate, xanthate or thioxanthate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D. Kwok-Keung; Chang, Shih-Ger

    1987-08-25

    The present invention relates to a method of removing of nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas which method comprises contacting a nitrogen oxide-containing gas with an aqueous solution of water soluble organic compound-iron ion chelate complex. The NO absorption efficiency of ferrous urea-dithiocarbamate and ferrous diethanolamine-xanthate as a function of time, oxygen content and solution ph is presented. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  11. A kinetic study on the adsorption and reaction of hydrogen over silica-supported ruthenium and silver-ruthenium catalysts during the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VanderWiel, D.P.

    1999-02-12

    Although the catalytic hydrogenation of carbon monoxide has been a subject of considerable investigation for many years, its increasing economical attractiveness as an industrial source of hydrocarbons has recently led to a search for more active and selective catalysts. A fundamental problem in the development of such catalysts is an incomplete knowledge of the operative surface processes, due in large part to the inability to accurately measure surface concentrations of reactant species during reaction. Specifically, the concentration of surface hydrogen proves difficult to estimate using normally revealing techniques such as transient isotopic exchange due to kinetic isotope effects. Knowledge of such concentrations is essential to the determination of the mechanisms of adsorption and reaction, since many kinetic parameters are concentration dependent. It is the aim of this research to investigate the mechanism and kinetics of the adsorption and reaction of hydrogen on silica-supported ruthenium and silver-ruthenium catalysts during the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide. By preadsorbing carbon monoxide onto the surface of ruthenium and silver-ruthenium catalysts, the kinetics of hydrogen adsorption and reaction can be monitored upon exposure of this surface to ambient hydrogen gas. This is accomplished by conducting identical experiments on two separate systems. First, the formation of methane is monitored using mass spectroscopy, and specific reaction rates and apparent activation energies are measured. Next, in situ {sup 1}H-NMR is used to monitor the amount of hydrogen present on the catalyst surface during adsorption and reaction. The results for these two sets of experiments are then combined to show a correlation between the rate of reaction and the surface hydrogen concentration. Finally, transition state theory is applied to this system and is used to explain the observed change in the apparent activation energy. The structure sensitivity of hydrogen

  12. A kinetic study on the adsorption and reaction of hydrogen over silica-supported ruthenium and silver-ruthenium catalysts during the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VanderWiel, David P. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1999-02-12

    Although the catalytic hydrogenation of carbon monoxide has been a subject of considerable investigation for many years, its increasing economical attractiveness as an industrial source of hydrocarbons has recently led to a search for more active and selective catalysts. A fundamental problem in the development of such catalysts is an incomplete knowledge of the operative surface processes, due in large part to the inability to accurately measure surface concentrations of reactant species during reaction. Specifically, the concentration of surface hydrogen proves difficult to estimate using normally revealing techniques such as transient isotopic exchange due to kinetic isotope effects. Knowledge of such concentrations is essential to the determination of the mechanisms of adsorption and reaction, since many kinetic parameters are concentration dependent. It is the aim of this research to investigate the mechanism and kinetics of the adsorption and reaction of hydrogen on silica-supported ruthenium and silver-ruthenium catalysts during the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide. By preadsorbing carbon monoxide onto the surface of ruthenium and silver-ruthenium catalysts, the kinetics of hydrogen adsorption and reaction can be monitored upon exposure of this surface to ambient hydrogen gas. This is accomplished by conducting identical experiments on two separate systems. First, the formation of methane is monitored using mass spectroscopy, and specific reaction rates and apparent activation energies are measured. Next, in situ 1H-NMR is used to monitor the amount of hydrogen present on the catalyst surface during adsorption and reaction. The results for these two sets of experiments are then combined to show a correlation between the rate of reaction and the surface hydrogen concentration. Finally, transition state theory is applied to this system and is used to explain the observed change in the apparent activation energy. The structure sensitivity of hydrogen

  13. Environmental variables and levels of exhaled carbon monoxide and carboxyhemoglobin in elderly people taking exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salicio, Marcos Adriano; Mana, Viviane Aparecida Martins; Fett, Waléria Christiane Rezende; Gomes, Luciano Teixeira; Botelho, Clovis

    2016-04-01

    This article aims to analyze levels of exhaled carbon monoxide, carboxyhemoglobinand cardiopulmonary variables in old people practicing exercise in external environments, and correlate them with climate and pollution factors. Temporal ecological study with118 active elderly people in the city of Cuiabá, in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Data were obtained on use of medication, smoking, anthropometric measurements, spirometry, peak flow, oxygen saturation, heart rate, exhaled carbon monoxide, carboxyhemoglobin, climate, number of farm fires and pollution. Correlations were found between on the one hand environmental temperature, relative humidity of the air and number of farmers' fires, and on the other hand levels of carbon monoxide exhaled and carboxyhemoglobin (p elderly people, environmental factors influence levels of exhaled carbon monoxide, carboxyhemoglobin and heart rate. There is thus a need for these to be monitored during exercise. The use of a carbon monoxide monitor to evaluate exposure to pollutants is suggested.

  14. Direct hydrocarbons formation from CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} by non-thermal plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham, M.H.; Tatibouet, J.M.; Batiot-Dupeyrat, C. [Univ. de Poitiers, Poitiers (France). Centre national de la recherche scientifique, Laboratoire de Catalyse en Chimie Organique

    2010-07-01

    Methane (CH{sub 4}) is typically burned to produce heat, the most degraded form of energy. This paper presented a possible way to conserve fossil carbon resources and limit carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions by transforming methane into a chemical feedstock. The Fischer-Tropsch process is one of the possible ways of producing hydrocarbons by reforming CH{sub 4} by CO{sub 2} to obtain a mixture of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H{sub 2}). However, previous studies have shown that hydrocarbons can by produced directly from a CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} mixture by non-thermal plasma, thereby avoiding the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. This paper presented the results obtained in a coaxial dielectric discharge barrier (DBD) reactor for hydrocarbon formation by varying either the CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2} ratio or the input energy. The main products were C{sub 2} to C{sub 4} alkanes. The increasing hydrocarbons to CO ratio with the CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2} initial ratio suggests a radical type mechanism. It was concluded that a 15 percent hydrocarbon yield can be obtained in a single pass with only a short loss of initial carbon. 1 ref.

  15. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Farid

    2010-01-01

    Carbonaceous materials play an important role in space. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a ubiquitous component of the carbonaceous materials. PAHs are the best-known candidates to account for the IR emission bands. They are also thought to be among the carriers of the diffuse interstellar absorption bands (DIBs). PAH ionization states reflect the ionization balance of the medium while PAH size, composition, and structure reflect the energetic and chemical history of the medium. A major challenge is to reproduce in the laboratory the physical conditions that exist in the emission and absorption interstellar zones. The harsh physical conditions of the ISM -low temperature, collisionless, strong UV radiation fields- are simulated in the laboratory by associating a molecular beam with an ionizing discharge to generate a cold plasma expansion. PAH ions and radicals are formed from the neutral precursors in an isolated environment at low temperature and probed with high-sensitivity cavity ringdown spectroscopy in the NUV-NIR range. Carbon nanoparticles are also formed during the short residence time of the precursors in the plasma and are characterized with time-offlight mass spectrometry. These experiments provide unique information on the spectra of large carbonaceous molecules and ions in the gas phase that can now be directly compared to interstellar and circumstellar observations (IR emission bands, DIBs, extinction curve). These findings also hold great potential for understanding the formation process of interstellar carbonaceous grains. We will review recent progress in the experimental and theoretical studies of PAHs, compare the laboratory data with astronomical observations and discuss the global implications.

  16. Multi-instrument comparison and compilation of non-methane organic gas emissions from biomass burning and implications for smoke-derived secondary organic aerosol precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Lindsay E.; Yokelson, Robert J.; Stockwell, Chelsea E.; Veres, Patrick R.; Simpson, Isobel J.; Blake, Donald R.; Orlando, John J.; Barsanti, Kelley C.

    2017-01-01

    Multiple trace-gas instruments were deployed during the fourth Fire Lab at Missoula Experiment (FLAME-4), including the first application of proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PTR-TOFMS) and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-TOFMS) for laboratory biomass burning (BB) measurements. Open-path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (OP-FTIR) was also deployed, as well as whole-air sampling (WAS) with one-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. This combination of instruments provided an unprecedented level of detection and chemical speciation. The chemical composition and emission factors (EFs) determined by these four analytical techniques were compared for four representative fuels. The results demonstrate that the instruments are highly complementary, with each covering some unique and important ranges of compositional space, thus demonstrating the need for multi-instrument approaches to adequately characterize BB smoke emissions. Emission factors for overlapping compounds generally compared within experimental uncertainty, despite some outliers, including monoterpenes. Data from all measurements were synthesized into a single EF database that includes over 500 non-methane organic gases (NMOGs) to provide a comprehensive picture of speciated, gaseous BB emissions. The identified compounds were assessed as a function of volatility; 6-11 % of the total NMOG EF was associated with intermediate-volatility organic compounds (IVOCs). These atmospherically relevant compounds historically have been unresolved in BB smoke measurements and thus are largely missing from emission inventories. Additionally, the identified compounds were screened for published secondary organic aerosol (SOA) yields. Of the total reactive carbon (defined as EF scaled by the OH rate constant and carbon number of each compound) in the BB emissions, 55-77 % was associated with compounds for

  17. Hypervalence in monoxides and dioxides of superalkali clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Elizabeth; Meloni, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    F2Li3, a superalkali cluster, is characterized as having a lower adiabatic ionization energy than its elemental alkali counterpart and, coupled with the presence of complex molecular orbitals, suggests promise for novel bonding possibilities. CBS-QB3 composite method was used to study three distinct cluster isomers, as well as their cationic (+1) and anionic (-1) species, to identify energetic trends and observe geometric changes. Oxides were then generated from these clusters, of which three distinct monoxides and nine dioxides were obtained upon structure optimization. Identical calculations were performed for the oxide species and their charged counterparts. Some of the most stable oxides produced appear to possess hypervalent lithium and oxygen atoms, forming unique structures with exceptional stability.

  18. Carbon monoxide expedites metabolic exhaustion to inhibit tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegiel, Barbara; Gallo, David; Csizmadia, Eva; Harris, Clair; Belcher, John; Vercellotti, Gregory M; Penacho, Nuno; Seth, Pankaj; Sukhatme, Vikas; Ahmed, Asif; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo; Helczynski, Leszek; Bjartell, Anders; Persson, Jenny Liao; Otterbein, Leo E

    2013-12-01

    One classical feature of cancer cells is their metabolic acquisition of a highly glycolytic phenotype. Carbon monoxide (CO), one of the products of the cytoprotective molecule heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in cancer cells, has been implicated in carcinogenesis and therapeutic resistance. However, the functional contributions of CO and HO-1 to these processes are poorly defined. In human prostate cancers, we found that HO-1 was nuclear localized in malignant cells, with low enzymatic activity in moderately differentiated tumors correlating with relatively worse clinical outcomes. Exposure to CO sensitized prostate cancer cells but not normal cells to chemotherapy, with growth arrest and apoptosis induced in vivo in part through mitotic catastrophe. CO targeted mitochondria activity in cancer cells as evidenced by higher oxygen consumption, free radical generation, and mitochondrial collapse. Collectively, our findings indicated that CO transiently induces an anti-Warburg effect by rapidly fueling cancer cell bioenergetics, ultimately resulting in metabolic exhaustion.

  19. The effect of carbon monoxide on planetary haze formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hörst, S. M.; Tolbert, M. A, E-mail: sarah.horst@colorado.edu [Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2014-01-20

    Organic haze plays a key role in many planetary processes ranging from influencing the radiation budget of an atmosphere to serving as a source of prebiotic molecules on the surface. Numerous experiments have investigated the aerosols produced by exposing mixtures of N{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} to a variety of energy sources. However, many N{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} atmospheres in both our solar system and extrasolar planetary systems also contain carbon monoxide (CO). We have conducted a series of atmosphere simulation experiments to investigate the effect of CO on the formation and particle size of planetary haze analogues for a range of CO mixing ratios using two different energy sources, spark discharge and UV. We find that CO strongly affects both number density and particle size of the aerosols produced in our experiments and indicates that CO may play an important, previously unexplored, role in aerosol chemistry in planetary atmospheres.

  20. Prevention of carbon monoxide exposure in general and recreational aviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelnick, Sanford D; Lischak, Michael W; Young, David G; Massa, Thomas V

    2002-08-01

    Carbon monoxide exposure is an important public health issue that poses a significant, albeit uncommon risk in aviation. Exposure is most common in single engine piston-driven aircraft where air is passed over the exhaust manifold to serve as cabin heat. Effective primary prevention of this exposure is the regular inspection and maintenance of aircraft exhaust systems, as required by law. For situations at special risk should exposure occur, and where there is concern for the public safety, installation of active warning devices for CO intrusion into cockpits may improve secondary prevention. Modern studies should be performed of occupation-specific abilities to support the 50 ppm FAA CO exposure standard and 50-70 ppm FAA Technical Standard Order (TSO) for CO monitors alerting pilots to the possibility of exhaust gas intrusion into their cockpits.

  1. ROLE OF ENDOGENOUS CARBON MONOXIDE IN ENDOTOXIN SHOCK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To study the role of endogenous carbon monoxide (CO) in endotoxin shock. Methods. The changes of CO levels and the effects of zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP),an inhibitor of heme-oxygenase (HO), in endotoxin shock and the efficacy of hemin,an inducer of HO were investigated.Results. The plasma CO levels were found to be significantly increased during the course of endotoxin shock. Injection of ZnPP was shown to abrogate the endotoxin-induced hypotension and metabolic derangements markedly. Administration of hemin to healthy rabbits revealed the hypotension and metabolic derangements similar to the animals given endotoxin.Conclusion.CO is a newly found endogenously produced mediator which may play an important role in the pathogenesis of endotoxin shock.

  2. ROLE OF ENDOGENOUS CARBON MONOXIDE IN ENDOTOXIN SHOCK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史源; 李华强; 潘捷; 覃世文; 潘凤; 蒋东波; 沈际皋

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To study the role of endogenous carbon monoxide (CO) in endotoxin shock. Methods. The changes of CO levels and the effects of zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP), an inhibitor of hemeoxygenase (HO), in endotoxin shock and the efficacy of heroin, an inducer of HO were investigated. Results. The plasma CO levels were found to be significantly increased during the comse of endotoxin shock. Injection of ZnPP was shown to abrogate the endotoxin-induced hypotension and metabolic derangements markedly. Administration of hemin to healthy rabbits revealed the hypotension and metabolic derangements similar to the animsls given endotoxin. Conclusion. CO is a newly found endogenously produced mediator which may play an important role in the pathogenesis of endotoxin shock.

  3. Technique for measuring carbon monoxide uptake in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depledge, M.H.; Collis, C.H.; Chir, B.; Barrett, A.

    1981-04-01

    A new method has been developed for measuring carbon monoxide (CO) uptake in mice. Each animal was placed in a syringe and allowed to rebreathe a mixture of CO and helium (He) for 60 s. CO uptake was detemined from a comparison of CO and He concentrations before and after rebreathing. Weight specific CO uptake increased with body weight in CBA mice weighing between 20 to 35 gr. In larger mice, size dependence was less marked, although a slight fall in CO uptake was observed in older animals. Anaesthesia reduced ventilatory rate and CO uptake to a variable extent. The method is reproducible, non-invasive and does not require anaesthesia; consequently, it can be used to study serial changes in lung function. It is sensitive enough to detect lung damage in CBA mice following 16 Gy total body irradiation. Values of diffusing capacity obtained for mice using this method are consistent with published values.

  4. Terahertz Time Domain Gas-phase Spectroscopy of Carbon Monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilcullen, Patrick; Hartley, I. D.; Jensen, E. T.; Reid, M.

    2015-04-01

    Free induction decay signals emitted from Carbon Monoxide (CO) excited by sub-picosecond pulses of Terahertz (THz) radiation are directly measured in the time domain and compared to model calculations using a linear dispersion model to good agreement. Best fitting techniques of the data using the model allow the self-pressure broadening of CO to be measured across a range of absolute pressures, and the rotational constant to be determined. We find B V = 5.770 ± 0.003 × 1010 Hz in agreement with previous measurements. A partial pressure limit of detection for CO of 7900 ppm is estimated at atmosphere through extrapolating the calculated commensurate echo peaks down to low pressures with respect to the RMS noise floor of our THz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) apparatus, which implies a limit of detection in the range of 40 ppm for commercial THz-TDS systems.

  5. An Unusual Cause of Supraventricular Tachycardia: Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suat Zengin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available      Carbon monoxide (CO is a toxic gas produced by the incomplete combustion of carbon-containing compounds. Exposure to high concentrations of CO can be letha and is the most common cause of death from poisoning worldwide. Cardiac manifestations after exposure to CO, including myocardial ischemia, heart failure, and arrhythmias, have been reported. A 28-year-old a patient was admitted to our emergency department with altered consciousness as a consequence of acute domestic exposure to CO from a stove. His carboxyhemoglobin level was 39%. The oxygen treatment was started promptly, and therapeutic red cell exchange was performed. An electrocardiogram revealed supraventricular tachycardia (SVT, and an echocardiographic examination demonstrated normal cardiac functions. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the second to report a case of SVT attack due to acute CO intoxication. This paper discusses the management of this complication in patients poisoned with CO.

  6. The application of forest classification from Landsat data as a basis for natural hydrocarbon emission estimation and photochemical oxidant model simulations in southeastern Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salop, J.; Wakelyn, N. T.; Levy, G. F.; Middleton, W. M.; Gervin, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    The possible contribution by natural hydrocarbon emissions to the total ozone budget recorded in the Tidewater region of southeastern Virginia during the height of the summer period was examined. Natural sources investigated were limited to the primary HC emitters and most prevalent natural vegetation, the forests. Three types and their areal coverage were determined for Region VI of the Virginia State Air Pollution Control Board using remotely sensed data from Landsat, a NASA experimental earth resources satellite. Emission factors appropriate to the specific types (coniferous 0.24 x 10 to the 13th, mixed 0.63 x 10 to the 13th, deciduous 1.92 x 10 to the 13th, microgram/h), derived from contemporary procedures, were applied to produce an overall regional emission rate of 2.79 x 10 to the 13th microgram/h for natural non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC). This rate was used with estimates of the anthropogenic NO(x) and NMHC loading, as input into a photochemical box model. Additional HC loading on the order of that estimated to be produced by the natural forest communities was required in order to reach certain measured summer peak ozone levels as the computer simulation was unable to account for the measured episodic levels on the basis of the anthropogenic inventory alone.

  7. Evidence for horizontal gene transfer of anaerobic carbon monoxide dehydrogenases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen eTechtmann

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO is commonly known as a toxic gas, yet it is used by both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and many archaea. In this study, we determined the prevalence of anaerobic carbon monoxide dehydrogenases (anaerobic CODHs, or [Ni,Fe]-CODHs in currently available genomic sequence databases. More than 6% (185 genomes out of 2887 bacterial and archaeal genome sequences in the IMG database possess at least one gene encoding [Ni,Fe]-CODH, the key enzyme for anaerobic CO utilization. The phylogenetic study of this extended protein family revealed nine distinct clades of [Ni,Fe]-CODHs. These clades consisted of [Ni,Fe]-CODHs that, while apparently monophyletic within the clades, were encoded by microorganisms of disparate phylogeny, based on 16S rRNA sequences, and widely ranging physiology. Following this discovery, it was therefore of interest to examine the extent and possible routes of horizontal gene transfer (HGT affecting [Ni,Fe]-CODH genes and gene clusters that include [Ni,Fe]-CODHs.The genome sequence of the extreme thermophile Thermosinus carboxydivorans was used as a case study for HGT. The [Ni,Fe]-CODH operon of T. carboxydivorans differs from its whole genome in its G+C content by 8.2 mol%. Here, we apply statistical methods to establish acquisition by T. carboxydivorans of the gene cluster including [Ni,Fe]-CODH via HGT. Analysis of tetranucleotide frequency and codon usage with application of the Kullback-Leibler divergence metric showed that the [Ni,Fe]-CODH-1 operon of T. carboxidyvorans is quite dissimilar to the whole genome. Using the same metrics, the T. carboxydivorans [Ni,Fe]-CODH-1 operon is highly similar to the genome of the phylogenetically distant anaerobic carboxydotroph Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans. These results allow to assume recent HTG of the gene cluster from a relative of C. hydrogenoformans to T. carboxydivorans or a more ancient transfer from a C. hydrogenoformans ancestor to a T. carboxydivorans

  8. A pilot study to assess ground-level ambient air concentrations of fine particles and carbon monoxide in urban Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shendell, Derek G; Naeher, Luke P

    2002-11-01

    Ambient concentrations and the elemental composition of particles less than 2.5 microm in diameter (PM2.5), as well as carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations, were measured at ground-level in three Guatemalan cities in summer 1997: Guatemala City, Quetzaltenango, and Antigua. This pilot study also included quantitative and qualitative characterizations of microenvironment conditions, e.g., local meteorology, reported elsewhere. The nondestructive X-ray fluorescence elemental analysis (XRF) of Teflon filters was conducted. The highest integrated average PM2.5. concentrations in an area (zona) of Guatemala City and Quetzaltenango were 150 microg m(-3) (zona 12) and 120 microg m(-3) (zona 2), respectively. The reported integrated average PM2.5 concentration for Antigua was 5 microg m(-3). The highest observed half-hour and monitoring period average CO concentrations in Guatemala City were 10.9 ppm (zona 8) and 7.2 ppm (zonas 8 and 10), respectively. The average monitoring period CO concentration in Antigua was 2.6 ppm. Lead and bromine concentrations were negligible, indicative of the transition to unleaded fuel use in cars and motorcycles. The XRF results suggested sources of air pollution in Guatemala, where relative rankings varied by city and by zonas within each city, were fossil fuel combustion emitting hydrocarbons, combustion of sulfurous conventional fuels, soil/roadway dust, farm/agricultural dust, and vehicles (evaportion of gas, parts' wear).

  9. Enrichment of light hydrocarbon mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang; Dali; Devlin, David; Barbero, Robert S.; Carrera, Martin E.; Colling, Craig W.

    2010-08-10

    Light hydrocarbon enrichment is accomplished using a vertically oriented distillation column having a plurality of vertically oriented, nonselective micro/mesoporous hollow fibers. Vapor having, for example, both propylene and propane is sent upward through the distillation column in between the hollow fibers. Vapor exits neat the top of the column and is condensed to form a liquid phase that is directed back downward through the lumen of the hollow fibers. As vapor continues to ascend and liquid continues to countercurrently descend, the liquid at the bottom of the column becomes enriched in a higher boiling point, light hydrocarbon (propane, for example) and the vapor at the top becomes enriched in a lower boiling point light hydrocarbon (propylene, for example). The hollow fiber becomes wetted with liquid during the process.

  10. The Effect of the Hayward Corridor Improvement Project on Carbon Monoxide Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlfelder, M.; Martinez, E.; Maestas, A.; Peek, A.

    2013-12-01

    In August of 2010, construction began on a stretch of road in Downtown Hayward to address a problem with traffic flow. Known as the Hayward Corridor, the project reshaped the flow of traffic, replacing the two way streets of Foothill, Mission, and A Street with a loop between them. This project began with the initiative of reducing congestion in this area and improving access to businesses for pedestrians. The project was expected to have little environmental impact in most common assessments of degree of effect, including particulate matter, ozone and carbon monoxide levels. This report will discuss the effect of the Hayward Corridor Improvement Project on carbon monoxide emission. Data available to the public in the project's Environmental Impact Report shows that carbon monoxide levels before construction began were at an acceptable level according to federal and state standards. Projections for future concentrations both with and without the project show a decrease in carbon monoxide levels due to technological improvements and the gradual replacement of older, less efficient vehicles. The Environmental Impact Report projected that there would be little difference in carbon monoxide levels whether the project took place or not, at an average of 1.67x102 fewer parts per million per 1 hour period of measurement emitted in the case of the project not taking place. While it is not possible to draw a conclusion on what the current carbon monoxide levels would be if the project had not taken place due to the changes in traffic flow and other surrounding roads as a result of the project, the data gathered in June of 2013 suggested that carbon monoxide levels are higher than the values projected in 2007. This report summarizes both the accuracy of these carbon monoxide level projections and the effect of construction on carbon monoxide levels in the Hayward Corridor and the surrounding area.

  11. High Pressure Preignition Chemistry of Hydrocarbons and Hydrocarbon Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    and hydrocarbon blends in our various combustion systems, with emphasis on the effects of elevated pressure using our pressurized flow reactor ( PFR ...facility. Detailed experimental data were generated from the PFR for use in associated kinetic modeling work. We continued to develop and extend both

  12. Adsorption of nitrogen and carbon monoxide on clinoptilolite: determination and prediction of pure and binary isotherms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triebe, R.W.; Tezel, F.H. [University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Department of Chemical Engineering

    1995-10-01

    The adsorption of carbon monoxide and nitrogen on clinoptilolite is studied to determine the natural zeolite`s potential for air purification. Pure and binary isotherms were determined for nitrogen and carbon monoxide on a natural Turkish clinoptilolite under near ambient conditions. Experimentally determined isotherms are compared to predictions based on various models from the literature. The Wilson form of the Vacancy Solution Theory is the only model that provides reasonable agreement with the binary isotherm. Clinoptilolite is concluded to be a promising sorbent for separation of carbon monoxide and nitrogen. 30 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH): ToxFAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a state: This map displays locations where Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) is known to be present. On ... I get more information? ToxFAQs TM for Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) ( Hidrocarburos Totales de Petróleo (TPH) ) August ...

  14. Hydrocarbon recovery comprising injecting a slug comprising oil soluble alkoxylated surfactants from lignin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naae, D.G.; DaGue, M.G.; Dunn, N.G.

    1993-07-27

    A method is described of recovering hydrocarbons from an underground hydrocarbon formation penetrated by at least one injection well and at least one production well, which comprises: injecting into the formation through an injection well a surfactant slug comprising about 0.1% to about 10% by weight of oil soluble surfactants produced from lignin, said oil soluble surfactants produced by placing lignin in contact with water, converting the lignin into relatively low molecular weight lignin phenols by reducing the lignin in the presence of a reducing agent of carbon monoxide or hydrogen, said reduction occurring at a temperature greater than about 200 C and a pressure greater than about 100 psi, recovering the oil soluble lignin phenols from the reaction mixture, alkoxylating the lignin phenols by reacting the lignin phenols with an a-olefin epoxide having about 6 to about 20 carbon atoms at about 100 to about 200 C for about 1 to about 3 hours in an organic solvent, and changing the alkoxylated lignin phenols into oil soluble lignin surfactants by a reaction selected from the group consisting of sulfonation, sulfation, and alkoxysulfation; injecting into the formation through the injection well a drive fluid to push the surfactant slug towards a production well; and recovering hydrocarbons at the production well.

  15. A new comprehensive reaction mechanism for combustion of hydrocarbon fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranzi, E.; Sogaro, A.; Gaffuri, P.; Pennati, G. [Politecnico di Milano (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica Industriale e Ingegneria Chimica; Westbrook, C.K.; Pitz, W.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1993-12-03

    A chemical kinetic model has been developed which describes pyrolysis, ignition and oxidation of many small hydrocarbon fuels over a wide range of experimental conditions. Fuels include carbon monoxide and hydrogen, methane and other alkane species up to n-butane, ethylene, propene, acetylene, and oxygenated species such as methanol, acetaldehyde and ethanol. Formation of some larger intermediate and product species including benzene, butadiene, large olefins, and cyclopentadiene has been treated in a semi-empirical manner. The reaction mechanism has been tested for conditions that do not involve transport and diffusional processes, including plug flow and stirred reactors, batch reactors and shock tubes. The present kinetic model and its validation differ from previous reaction mechanisms in two ways. First, in addition to conventional combustion data, experiments more commonly associated with chemical engineering problems such as oxidative coupling, oxidative pyrolysis and steam cracking are used to test the reaction mechanism, making it even more general than previous models. In addition, H atom abstraction and some other reaction rates, even for the smaller C{sub 2}, C{sub 3} and C{sub 4} species, are treated using approximations that facilitate future extensions to larger fuels in a convenient manner. Construction of the reaction mechanism and comparisons with experimental data illustrate the generality of the model.

  16. 33 CFR 157.166 - Hydrocarbon emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrocarbon emissions. 157.166... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.166 Hydrocarbon emissions. If the... ballasted in that port the hydrocarbon vapors in each tank are contained by a means under § 157.132....

  17. Compositions and methods for hydrocarbon functionalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunnoe, Thomas Brent; Fortman, George; Boaz, Nicholas C.; Groves, John T.

    2017-03-28

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for methods of hydrocarbon functionalization, methods and systems for converting a hydrocarbon into a compound including at least one group ((e.g., hydroxyl group) (e.g., methane to methanol)), functionalized hydrocarbons, and the like.

  18. Effective viscosity of confined hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, V.N.; Persson, B.N.J.

    2012-01-01

    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon films with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. We find that the logarithm of the effective viscosity ηeff for nanometer-thin films depends linearly on the logarithm of the shear rate: log ηeff=C-nlog γ̇, where...

  19. Fire-safe hydrocarbon fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fodor, G.E.; Weatherford, W.D. Jr.; Wright, B.R.

    1979-11-06

    A stabilized, fire-safe, aqueous hydrocarbon fuel emulsion prepared by mixing: a diesel fuel; an emulsifier (consisting of oleyl diethanolamide, diethanolamine, and diethanolamine soap of oleic acid) which has been treated with about 0 to 7 1/2 of oleic acid. A modified version of this fuel also contains 0 to 0.5% of an antimisting agent, and water.

  20. Hydrophobic encapsulation of hydrocarbon gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leontiev, Alexander V; Saleh, Anas W; Rudkevich, Dmitry M

    2007-04-26

    [reaction: see text] Encapsulation data for hydrophobic hydrocarbon gases within a water-soluble hemicarcerand in aqueous solution are reported. It is concluded that hydrophobic interactions serve as the primary driving force for the encapsulation, which can be used for the design of gas-separating polymers with intrinsic inner cavities.

  1. Horizontal and vertical structure of reactive bromine events probed by bromine monoxide MAX-DOAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, William R.; Peterson, Peter K.; Frieß, Udo; Sihler, Holger; Lampel, Johannes; Platt, Ulrich; Moore, Chris; Pratt, Kerri; Shepson, Paul; Halfacre, John; Nghiem, Son V.

    2017-08-01

    Heterogeneous photochemistry converts bromide (Br-) to reactive bromine species (Br atoms and bromine monoxide, BrO) that dominate Arctic springtime chemistry. This phenomenon has many impacts such as boundary-layer ozone depletion, mercury oxidation and deposition, and modification of the fate of hydrocarbon species. To study environmental controls on reactive bromine events, the BRomine, Ozone, and Mercury EXperiment (BROMEX) was carried out from early March to mid-April 2012 near Barrow (Utqiaġvik), Alaska. We measured horizontal and vertical gradients in BrO with multiple-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) instrumentation at three sites, two mobile and one fixed. During the campaign, a large crack in the sea ice (an open lead) formed pushing one instrument package ˜ 250 km downwind from Barrow (Utqiaġvik). Convection associated with the open lead converted the BrO vertical structure from a surface-based event to a lofted event downwind of the lead influence. The column abundance of BrO downwind of the re-freezing lead was comparable to upwind amounts, indicating direct reactions on frost flowers or open seawater was not a major reactive bromine source. When these three sites were separated by ˜ 30 km length scales of unbroken sea ice, the BrO amount and vertical distributions were highly correlated for most of the time, indicating the horizontal length scales of BrO events were typically larger than ˜ 30 km in the absence of sea ice features. Although BrO amount and vertical distribution were similar between sites most of the time, rapid changes in BrO with edges significantly smaller than this ˜ 30 km length scale episodically transported between the sites, indicating BrO events were large but with sharp edge contrasts. BrO was often found in shallow layers that recycled reactive bromine via heterogeneous reactions on snowpack. Episodically, these surface-based events propagated aloft when aerosol extinction was higher (> 0.1 km

  2. Horizontal and vertical structure of reactive bromine events probed by bromine monoxide MAX-DOAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. R. Simpson

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneous photochemistry converts bromide (Br− to reactive bromine species (Br atoms and bromine monoxide, BrO that dominate Arctic springtime chemistry. This phenomenon has many impacts such as boundary-layer ozone depletion, mercury oxidation and deposition, and modification of the fate of hydrocarbon species. To study environmental controls on reactive bromine events, the BRomine, Ozone, and Mercury EXperiment (BROMEX was carried out from early March to mid-April 2012 near Barrow (Utqiaġvik, Alaska. We measured horizontal and vertical gradients in BrO with multiple-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS instrumentation at three sites, two mobile and one fixed. During the campaign, a large crack in the sea ice (an open lead formed pushing one instrument package ∼ 250 km downwind from Barrow (Utqiaġvik. Convection associated with the open lead converted the BrO vertical structure from a surface-based event to a lofted event downwind of the lead influence. The column abundance of BrO downwind of the re-freezing lead was comparable to upwind amounts, indicating direct reactions on frost flowers or open seawater was not a major reactive bromine source. When these three sites were separated by ∼ 30 km length scales of unbroken sea ice, the BrO amount and vertical distributions were highly correlated for most of the time, indicating the horizontal length scales of BrO events were typically larger than ∼ 30 km in the absence of sea ice features. Although BrO amount and vertical distribution were similar between sites most of the time, rapid changes in BrO with edges significantly smaller than this ∼ 30 km length scale episodically transported between the sites, indicating BrO events were large but with sharp edge contrasts. BrO was often found in shallow layers that recycled reactive bromine via heterogeneous reactions on snowpack. Episodically, these surface-based events propagated aloft when

  3. Carbon monoxide toxicity. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). NewSearch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the mechanism and clinical manifestations of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure, including the effects on the liver, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Topics include studies of the carbon monoxide binding affinity with hemoglobin, measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in humans and various animal species, carbon monoxide levels resulting from tobacco and marijuana smoke, occupational exposure and the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) biological exposure index, symptomology and percent of blood CO, and intrauterine exposure. Air pollution, tobacco smoking, and occupational exposure are discussed as primary sources of carbon monoxide exposure. The effects of cigarette smoking on fetal development and health are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 137 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. Carbon monoxide toxicity. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection data base). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the mechanism and clinical manifestations of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure, including the effects on the liver, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Topics include studies of the carbon monoxide binding affinity with hemoglobin, measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in humans and various animal species, carbon monoxide levels resulting from tobacco and marijuana smoke, occupational exposure and the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) biological exposure index, symptomology and percent of blood CO, and intrauterine exposure. Air pollution, tobacco smoking, and occupational exposure are discussed as primary sources of carbon monoxide exposure. The effects of cigarette smoking on fetal development and health are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 172 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  5. Personal Exposure Monitoring of Particulate Matter, Nitrogen Dioxide, and Carbon Monoxide, including Susceptible Groups

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    R. M. Harrison; C. A. Thornton; R. G. Lawrence; D. Mark; R. P. Kinnersley; J. G. Ayres

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the relation between personal exposures to nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, and PM10, and exposures estimated from static concentrations of these pollutants measured within the same...

  6. Carbon monoxide toxicity. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the mechanism and clinical manifestations of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure, including the effects on the liver, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Topics include studies of the carbon monoxide binding affinity with hemoglobin, measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in humans and various animal species, carbon monoxide levels resulting from tobacco and marijuana smoke, occupational exposure and the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) biological exposure index, symptomology and percent of blood CO, and intrauterine exposure. Air pollution, tobacco smoking, and occupational exposure are discussed as primary sources of carbon monoxide exposure. The effects of cigarette smoking on fetal development and health are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  7. Carbon monoxide toxicity. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the mechanism and clinical manifestations of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure, including the effects on the liver, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Topics include studies of the carbon monoxide binding affinity with hemoglobin, measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in humans and various animal species, carbon monoxide levels resulting from tobacco and marijuana smoke, occupational exposure and the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) biological exposure index, symptomology and percent of blood CO, and intrauterine exposure. Air pollution, tobacco smoking, and occupational exposure are discussed as primary sources of carbon monoxide exposure. The effects of cigarette smoking on fetal development and health are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  8. The influence of tobacco blend composition on carbon monoxide formation in mainstream cigarette smoke

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Djulančić, Nermina; Radojičić, Vesna; Srbinovska, Marija

    2013-01-01

    ...) in the gas phase of mainstream cigarette smoke. The results showed that the type of tobacco examined had a significant impact on the amount of carbon monoxide production in the gas phase of cigarette smoke...

  9. Cobalt promoted copper manganese oxide catalysts for ambient temperature carbon monoxide oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher; Taylor, Stuart H; Burrows, Andrew; Crudace, Mandy J; Kiely, Christopher J; Hutchings, Graham J

    2008-04-14

    Low levels of cobalt doping (1 wt%) of copper manganese oxide enhances its activity for carbon monoxide oxidation under ambient conditions and the doped catalyst can display higher activity than current commercial catalysts.

  10. Electronic structure and optical properties of a new type of semiconductor material:graphene monoxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Gui; Zhang Yufeng; Yan Xunwang

    2013-01-01

    The electronic and optical properties of graphene monoxide,a new type of semiconductor material,are theoretically studied by first-principles density functional theory.The calculated band structure shows that graphene monoxide is a semiconductor with a direct band gap of 0.95 eV.The density of states of graphene monoxide and the partial density of states for C and O are given to understand the electronic structure.In addition,we calculate the optical properties of graphene monoxide,including the complex dielectric function,absorption coefficient,complex refractive index,loss-function,reflectivity and conductivity.These results provide a physical basis for potential application in optoelectronic devices.

  11. Improved provincial emission inventory and speciation profiles of anthropogenic non-methane volatile organic compounds: a case study for Jiangsu, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs are the key precursors of ozone (O3 and secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation. Accurate estimation of their emissions plays a crucial role in air quality simulation and policy making. We developed a high-resolution anthropogenic NMVOC emission inventory for Jiangsu in eastern China from 2005 to 2014, based on detailed information of individual local sources and field measurements of source profiles of the chemical industry. A total of 56 NMVOCs samples were collected in nine chemical plants and were then analyzed with a gas chromatography – mass spectrometry system (GC-MS. Source profiles of stack emissions from synthetic rubber, acetate fiber, polyether, vinyl acetate and ethylene production, and those of fugitive emissions from ethylene, butanol and octanol, propylene epoxide, polyethylene and glycol production were obtained. Various manufacturing technologies and raw materials led to discrepancies in source profiles between our domestic field tests and foreign results for synthetic rubber and ethylene production. The provincial NMVOC emissions were calculated to increase from 1774 Gg in 2005 to 2507 Gg in 2014, and relatively large emission densities were found in cities along the Yangtze River with developed economies and industries. The estimates were larger than those from most other available inventories, due mainly to the complete inclusion of emission sources and to the elevated activity levels from plant-by-plant investigation in this work. Industrial processes and solvent use were the largest contributing sectors, and their emissions were estimated to increase, respectively, from 461 to 958 and from 38 to 966 Gg. Alkanes, aromatics and oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs were the most important species, accounting for 25.9–29.9, 20.8–23.2 and 18.2–21.0 % to annual total emissions, respectively. Quantified with a Monte Carlo simulation, the uncertainties of annual NMVOC emissions

  12. Improved provincial emission inventory and speciation profiles of anthropogenic non-methane volatile organic compounds: a case study for Jiangsu, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Mao, Pan; Zhou, Yaduan; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Shekou; Dong, Yanping; Xie, Fangjian; Yu, Yiyong; Li, Wenqing

    2017-06-01

    Non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) are the key precursors of ozone (O3) and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. Accurate estimation of their emissions plays a crucial role in air quality simulation and policy making. We developed a high-resolution anthropogenic NMVOC emission inventory for Jiangsu in eastern China from 2005 to 2014, based on detailed information of individual local sources and field measurements of source profiles of the chemical industry. A total of 56 NMVOCs samples were collected in nine chemical plants and were then analyzed with a gas chromatography - mass spectrometry system (GC-MS). Source profiles of stack emissions from synthetic rubber, acetate fiber, polyether, vinyl acetate and ethylene production, and those of fugitive emissions from ethylene, butanol and octanol, propylene epoxide, polyethylene and glycol production were obtained. Various manufacturing technologies and raw materials led to discrepancies in source profiles between our domestic field tests and foreign results for synthetic rubber and ethylene production. The provincial NMVOC emissions were calculated to increase from 1774 Gg in 2005 to 2507 Gg in 2014, and relatively large emission densities were found in cities along the Yangtze River with developed economies and industries. The estimates were larger than those from most other available inventories, due mainly to the complete inclusion of emission sources and to the elevated activity levels from plant-by-plant investigation in this work. Industrial processes and solvent use were the largest contributing sectors, and their emissions were estimated to increase, respectively, from 461 to 958 and from 38 to 966 Gg. Alkanes, aromatics and oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) were the most important species, accounting for 25.9-29.9, 20.8-23.2 and 18.2-21.0 % to annual total emissions, respectively. Quantified with a Monte Carlo simulation, the uncertainties of annual NMVOC emissions vary slightly through the years

  13. Regulation of multiple carbon monoxide consumption pathways in anaerobic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M Techtmann

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO, well known as a toxic gas, is increasingly recognized as a key metabolite and signaling molecule. Microbial utilization of CO is quite common, evidenced by the rapid escalation in description of new species of CO-utilizing bacteria and archaea. Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH, the protein complex that enables anaerobic CO utilization has been well-characterized from an increasing number of microorganisms, however the regulation of multiple CO-related gene clusters in single isolates remains unexplored. Many species are extroraordinarily resistant to high CO concentrations, thiriving under pure CO at more than one atmosphere. We hypothesized that, in strains that can grow exclusively on CO, both carbon acquisition via the CODH/Acetyl CoA synthase complex and energy conservation via a CODH-linked hydrogenase must be differentially regulated in response to the availability of CO. The CO-sensing transcriptional activator, CooA is present in most CO-oxidizing bacteria. Here we present a genomic and phylogenetic survey of CODH operons and cooA genes found in CooA-containing bacteria. Two distinct groups of CooA homologs were found: One clade (CooA-1 is found in the majority of CooA containing bacteria, whereas the other clade (CooA-2 is found only in genomes that encode multiple CODH clusters, suggesting that the CooA-2 might be important for cross-regulation of competing CODH operons. Recombinant CooA-1 and CooA-2 regulators from the prototypical CO-utilizing bacterium Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans were purified, and promoter binding analyses revealed that CooA-1 specifically regulates the hydrogenase-linked CODH, whereas CooA-2 is able to regulate both the hydrogenase-linked CODH and the CODH/ACS operons. These studies point to the ability of dual CooA homologs to partition CO into divergent CO-utilizing pathways resulting in efficient consumption of a single limiting growth substrate available across a wide range of

  14. Four-electron deoxygenative reductive coupling of carbon monoxide at a single metal site

    OpenAIRE

    Buss, Joshua A.; Agapie, Theodor

    2016-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is the ultimate source of the fossil fuels that are both central to modern life and problematic: their use increases atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases, and their availability is geopolitically constrained. Using carbon dioxide as a feedstock to produce synthetic fuels might, in principle, alleviate these concerns. Although many homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts convert carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide, further deoxygenative coupling of carbon monoxide to generate us...

  15. Delayed neuropsychiatric syndrome after carbon monoxide poisoning: inclusion of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in the recovery protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Dante Lo Pardo; Davide Amedola; Giuliana Senatore; Alberto Damiano; Gabriela Pezzuti; Nicola Pugliese; Gianpiero Locatelli; Alfredo Siani; Nicola Maria Vitola

    2016-01-01

    The delayed neuropsychiatric syndrome can arise in the period from 4 days to 5 weeks following carbon monoxide poisoning, and is characterized by neuropsychological deficits, which in some cases become chronic. This case report describes an adult female who apparently suffered self-inflicted carbon monoxide poisoning. She was not treated with hyperbaric oxygen and developed delayed sequelae on day 20. The treatment started with 40 sessions of hyperbaric oxygen therapy and subsequently with ne...

  16. The Range of 1-3 keV Electrons in Solid Oxygen and Carbon Monoxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oehlenschlæger, M.; Andersen, H.H.; Schou, Jørgen

    1985-01-01

    The range of 1-3 keV electrons in films of solid oxygen and carbon monoxide has been measured by a mirror substrate method. The technique used here is identical to the one previously used for range measurements in solid hydrogen and nitrogen. The range in oxygen is slightly shorter than...... that in nitrogen whereas the range in carbon monoxide is about 20% larger than that in the nitrogen....

  17. Selected constituents in the smokes of foreign commercial cigaretts: tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, R.A.; Quincy, R.B.; Guerin, M.R.

    1979-05-01

    The tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide contents of the smokes of 220 brands of foreign commercial cigarettes are reported. In some instances, filter cigarettes of certain brands were found to deliver as much or more smoke constituents than their nonfilter counterparts. Also, data indicated that there can be a great variation in the tar, nicotine, or carbon monoxide content of the smoke of samples of a given brand of cigarettes, depending on the nation in which they are purchased. 24 tables.

  18. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in hypersaline environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Martins

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Literature on hydrocarbon degradation in extreme hypersaline media presents studies that point to a negative effect of salinity increase on hydrocarbonoclastic activity, while several others report an opposite tendency. Based on information available in the literature, we present a discussion on the reasons that justify these contrary results. Despite the fact that microbial ability to metabolize hydrocarbons is found in extreme hypersaline media, indeed some factors are critical for the occurrence of hydrocarbon degradation in such environments. How these factors affect hydrocarbon degradation and their implications for the assessment of hydrocarbon biodegradation in hypersaline environments are presented in this review.

  19. Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talmadge, M.; Biddy, M.; Dutta, A.; Jones, S.; Meyer, A.

    2013-03-01

    This technology pathway case investigates the upgrading of woody biomass derived synthesis gas (syngas) to hydrocarbon biofuels. While this specific discussion focuses on the conversion of syngas via a methanol intermediate to hydrocarbon blendstocks, there are a number of alternative conversion routes for production of hydrocarbons through a wide array of intermediates from syngas. Future work will also consider the variations to this pathway to determine the most economically viable and lowest risk conversion route. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the syngas-to-hydrocarbon pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel- and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  20. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in hypersaline environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Luiz Fernando; Peixoto, Raquel Silva

    2012-01-01

    Literature on hydrocarbon degradation in extreme hypersaline media presents studies that point to a negative effect of salinity increase on hydrocarbonoclastic activity, while several others report an opposite tendency. Based on information available in the literature, we present a discussion on the reasons that justify these contrary results. Despite the fact that microbial ability to metabolize hydrocarbons is found in extreme hypersaline media, indeed some factors are critical for the occurrence of hydrocarbon degradation in such environments. How these factors affect hydrocarbon degradation and their implications for the assessment of hydrocarbon biodegradation in hypersaline environments are presented in this review. PMID:24031900

  1. TOWARD THE FORMATION OF CARBONACEOUS REFRACTORY MATTER IN HIGH TEMPERATURE HYDROCARBON-RICH ATMOSPHERES OF EXOPLANETS UPON MICROMETEOROID IMPACT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dangi, Beni B.; Kim, Yong S.; Krasnokutski, Serge A.; Kaiser, Ralf I. [Department of Chemistry, University of Hawai’i at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Bauschlicher Jr, Charles W. [Entry Systems and Technology Division, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2015-05-20

    We report on laboratory simulation experiments mimicking the chemical processing of model atmospheres of exoplanets containing C3 and C4 hydrocarbons at moderate temperatures of 400 K upon interaction of catalytic surfaces of micrometeoroids. By utilizing an ultrasonic levitator device and heating singly levitated particles under simulated microgravity conditions, Raman spectroscopy is utilized as a non-invasive tool to probe on line and in situ the conversion of C3 and C4 hydrocarbons to refractory carbonaceous matter on the surfaces of levitated particles. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry and electron microscopic imaging were also conducted to gain further insight into the elementary composition and structures of the refractories formed. Our results provide compelling evidence that in the presence of a catalytic surface, which can be supplied in the form of micrometeoroids and atmospheric dust particles, hydrocarbon gases present in the atmospheres of exoplanets can be converted to refractory, carbon-rich carbonaceous matter of mainly graphitic structure with a carbon content of at least 90% at elevated temperatures. This finding might explain the low methane to carbon monoxide (CH{sub 4}–CO) ratio in the hot Neptune GJ 436b, where the abundant methane photochemically converts to higher order hydrocarbons and ultimately to refractory graphite-like carbon in the presence of a silicon surface.

  2. Carbon monoxide exposure in households in Ciudad Juárez, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Teresa; Gurian, Patrick L; Velázquez-Angulo, Gilberto; Corella-Barud, Verónica; Rojo, Analila; Graham, Jay P

    2008-03-01

    This study assessed exposure to carbon monoxide from gas and wood heater emissions in a sample of 64 households in peri-urban residential areas in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, México. Indoor and outdoor carbon monoxide concentrations and temperatures were monitored for a continuous period of 1 week at 1 and 6-min intervals, respectively. The moving average carbon monoxide concentrations were compared to the World Health Organization (WHO) standards for carbon monoxide. Sixty-seven percent of households with gas heaters and 60% of households with wood heaters exceeded a health-based standard at some point during the monitoring. The difference between indoor and outdoor temperatures was modestly correlated with average carbon monoxide exposure (r=0.35, p-value <0.01). Heater type may be a stronger determinant of exposure, as households with a particular heater model (the El Sol FM-210) were significantly more likely to be among the more highly exposed households (odds ratio of 4.8, p-value of 0.02). A variety of health effects were pooled and found at elevated frequency in the households that exceeded the 8-h standard of 9ppm (odds ratio=5.1, p-value=0.031). These results highlight the need for further efforts to identify and mitigate potentially hazardous carbon monoxide exposures, particularly in moderate-income countries with cooler climates.

  3. Aqueous reactions of chlorine dioxide with hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rav-Acha, C.; Choshen, E.

    1987-11-01

    In contrast to mechanisms proposed earlier in the literature, according to which chlorine dioxide (ClO/sub 2/) reacts with various hydrocarbons in aqueous media by abstracting allylic or benzylic hydrogens, it is shown that ClO/sub 2/ reacts with olefins through initial electron transfer. Hydrocarbons that can undergo facile oxidation, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and some olefins, react with ClO/sub 2/ quite rapidly, while saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons, some aromatic hydrocarbons, and olefins substituted with electron-withdrawing groups remain unreactive. This was substantiated by comparing the reactivities toward ClO/sub 2/ of a variety of hydrocarbons, including aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, saturated and unsaturated acids, PAH, or cyclic and acyclic olefins. The results were supported by a detailed kinetic and product study of the reaction between ClO/sub 2/ and some model compounds.

  4. A modified oxidative microcoulometric method for determination of sulphur in hydrocarbons containing large amounts of chlorine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedergren, A

    1977-01-01

    The oxidative coulometric method for trace sulphur determinations has been modified and a procedure is described which includes the elimination of the interferences caused by chlorine whilst retaining a high recovery of sulphur. The liquid hydrocarbon sample is combusted in an excess of oxygen at 1000 K followed by dilution with a proper flow of carbon monoxide at 1300 K. In this way the partial pressure of oxygen is kept small and the interfering chlorine compounds are effectively converted into hydrogen chloride which does not interfere with the coulometric titration. A recovery of sulphur of 96 +/- 1% was found for thiophene in mixtures of chlorobenzene (0-10%) and cyclohexane, thus indicating the absence of significant interference.

  5. Carbon monoxide inhalation increases microparticles causing vascular and CNS dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiajun; Yang, Ming; Kosterin, Paul; Salzberg, Brian M; Milovanova, Tatyana N; Bhopale, Veena M; Thom, Stephen R

    2013-12-01

    We hypothesized that circulating microparticles (MPs) play a role in pro-inflammatory effects associated with carbon monoxide (CO) inhalation. Mice exposed for 1h to 100 ppm CO or more exhibit increases in circulating MPs derived from a variety of vascular cells as well as neutrophil activation. Tissue injury was quantified as 2000 kDa dextran leakage from vessels and as neutrophil sequestration in the brain and skeletal muscle; and central nervous system nerve dysfunction was documented as broadening of the neurohypophysial action potential (AP). Indices of injury occurred following exposures to 1000 ppm for 1h or to 1000 ppm for 40 min followed by 3000 ppm for 20 min. MPs were implicated in causing injuries because infusing the surfactant MP lytic agent, polyethylene glycol telomere B (PEGtB) abrogated elevations in MPs, vascular leak, neutrophil sequestration and AP prolongation. These manifestations of tissue injury also did not occur in mice lacking myeloperoxidase. Vascular leakage and AP prolongation were produced in naïve mice infused with MPs that had been obtained from CO poisoned mice, but this did not occur with MPs obtained from control mice. We conclude that CO poisoning triggers elevations of MPs that activate neutrophils which subsequently cause tissue injuries.

  6. Carbon monoxide: from toxin to endogenous modulator of cardiovascular functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Johnson

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO is a pollutant commonly recognized for its toxicological attributes, including CNS and cardiovascular effects. But CO is also formed endogenously in mammalian tissues. Endogenously formed CO normally arises from heme degradation in a reaction catalyzed by heme oxygenase. While inhibitors of endogenous CO production can raise arterial pressure, heme loading can enhance CO production and lead to vasodepression. Both central and peripheral tissues possess heme oxygenases and generate CO from heme, but the inability of heme substrate to cross the blood brain barrier suggests the CNS heme-heme oxygenase-CO system may be independent of the periphery. In the CNS, CO apparently acts in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS promoting changes in glutamatergic neurotransmission and lowering blood pressure. At the periphery, the heme-heme oxygenase-CO system can affect cardiovascular functions in a two-fold manner; specifically: 1 heme-derived CO generated within vascular smooth muscle (VSM can promote vasodilation, but 2 its actions on the endothelium apparently can promote vasoconstriction. Thus, it seems reasonable that the CNS-, VSM- and endothelial-dependent actions of the heme-heme oxygenase-CO system may all affect cardiac output and vascular resistance, and subsequently blood pressure.

  7. Acute carbon monoxide poisoning: animal models: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penney, D G

    1990-05-31

    Animals have been used for well over a century in an attempt to understand the toxicology, physiology, and pathology of acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Whether the toxic effects of this gas result from primary hypoxia, as in hypoxic hypoxia to which it is frequently compared, or from direct tissue effects since it enters cells and binds to certain vital components, remains a point of controversy. Acute severe poisoning in man and animals affects primarily the cardiovascular and nervous systems, and frequently produces neurologic dysfunction. Morphologically, tissue damage is usually confined to the white matter. The root cause is at best poorly understood and major investigative efforts have been made toward its elucidation. Many studies with rats, cats and primates indicate a major role for CO-induced hypotension, which serves to compromise blood flow and exacerbate acidosis. The likely cellular mechanisms in this process are only now becoming apparent. This review critically examines the recent as well as a few older CO-animal studies. In scope, they fall into several broad categories: general cardiopulmonary effects, metabolic and tissue effects, general resistance (i.e. tolerance), effects on the central nervous system including blood flow, neurochemistry, morphology and behavior, and finally, experimental therapeutic approaches.

  8. The Role of Oxygen Therapies in Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleyman Metin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to climate and socio-economic issues in Turkey, the incidence of carbon monoxide (CO poisoning is high, especially in winter. Clinical manifestations may vary depending on the type of CO source, concentration and duration of exposure. The symptoms of CO poisoning predominantly manifest in lots of organs and systems with high oxygen utilization, especially the brain and the heart. The primary aim in oxygen therapy is to eliminate CO and to reduce its toxic effects. In this context, normobaric and hyperbaric oxygen therapy are used to achieve these goals. Normobaric oxygen (NBO treatment is an easily accessible and relatively not expensive modality, where hyperbaric oxygen (HBO therapy requires specific equipment, certified staff and is available only in some centers. Additionally, HBO treatment has several additional advantages over NBO treatment. Despite its benefits, it is compulsory to search for some criteria in selecting patients to be treated because of the limited availability and access of hyperbaric facilities. For an effective evaluation and an optimal treatment, advanced education of the healthcare professionals on the use of oxygen delivery modalities in the management of CO poisoning is imperative. In this review, it has been aimed to outline the significance of oxygen treatment modalities and to determine patient selection criteria for HBO treatment in the management of CO poisoning which continues to be an important threat to community health care. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(4.000: 487-494

  9. Carbon monoxide exposures after hurricane Ike - Texas, September 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-14

    During power outages after hurricanes, survivors can be at risk for carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning if they use portable generators improperly. On September 13, 2008, Hurricane Ike struck the coast of Texas, leaving approximately 2.3 million households in the southeastern portion of the state without electricity. Six days later, 1.3 million homes were still without electrical power. To assess the impact of storm-related CO exposures and to enhance prevention efforts, CDC analyzed data from five disparate surveillance sources on CO exposures reported during September 13--26 in counties of southeast Texas that were declared disaster areas by the federal government. This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that one data source, Texas poison centers, received reports of 54 persons with storm-related CO exposures during the surveillance period. Another data source, the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society (UHMS) hyperbaric oxygen treatment database, reported that 15 persons received hyperbaric oxygen treatment for storm-related CO poisoning. Medical examiners, public health officials, and hospitals in Texas reported that seven persons died from storm-related CO poisoning. Among the data sources, the percentage of reported storm-related CO exposures caused by improper generator use ranged from 82% to 87%. These findings underscore the need for effective prevention messages during storm preparation, warnings, and response periods regarding the correct use of generators and the installation and maintenance of battery-powered CO detectors.

  10. The immunomodulatory role of carbon monoxide during transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amano Mariane

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The number of organ and tissue transplants has increased worldwide in recent decades. However, graft rejection, infections due to the use of immunosuppressive drugs and a shortage of graft donors remain major concerns. Carbon monoxide (CO had long been regarded solely as a poisonous gas. Ultimately, physiological studies unveiled the endogenous production of CO, particularly by the heme oxygenase (HO-1 enzyme, recognizing CO as a beneficial gas when used at therapeutic doses. The protective properties of CO led researchers to develop uses for it, resulting in devices and molecules that can deliver CO in vitro and in vivo. The resulting interest in clinical investigations was immediate. Studies regarding the CO/HO-1 modulation of immune responses and their effects on various immune disorders gave rise to transplantation research, where CO was shown to be essential in the protection against organ rejection in animal models. This review provides a perspective of how CO modulates the immune system to improve transplantation and suggests its use as a therapy in the field.

  11. Carbon monoxide and iron modulate plasmatic coagulation in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Vance G; Pretorius, Etheresia; Bester, Janette; Jacobsen, Wayne K; Boyle, Patrick K; Reinhard, Joao P

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a significant source of morbidity and mortality for millions of people worldwide, and multiple potential etiologies have been postulated to contribute to AD. Among these, spontaneous cerebral emboli and increased cerebral and circulating heme oxygenase (Hmox) activity in AD patients are of particular interest, as two of the products of Hmox activity, carbon monoxide (CO) and iron enhance plasmatic coagulation and modify the ultrastructure of thrombi. We hypothesized that patients afflicted with AD would have coagulation kinetics modulated by CO and iron. Using viscoelastic assessments of coagulation, it was determined with a small cohort (n=11) of AD patients that all had enhancement of coagulation by CO, iron, or both. In a complementary fashion, it was determined that a separate cohort (n=12) of AD patients had thrombi with ultrastructural features consistent with iron and CO exposure as assessed with scanning electron microscopy. Further, when stratified by normal or abnormally increased serum ferritin concentrations (which can be increased by Hmox), the AD patients with abnormal ferritin concentrations had significantly thinner fibrin fiber diameters, not unlike that noted when normal plasma is mixed with iron or CO. In sum, AD patients were noted to have plasmatic coagulation kinetic and thrombus ultrastructural changes consistent with exposure to CO and iron. Future investigation of CO and iron in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease is warranted.

  12. Density-functional study of plutonium monoxide monohydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Ruizhi; Lu, Haiyan; Ao, Bingyun; Tang, Tao; Chen, Piheng

    2017-03-01

    The structural, electronic, mechanical, optical, thermodynamic properties of plutonium monoxide monohydride (PuOH) are studied by density-functional calculations within the framework of LDA/GGA and LDA/GGA+U. From the total energy calculation, the lowest-energy crystal structure of PuOH is predicted to have space group F 4 bar 3 m (No. 216). Within the LDA+U framework, the calculated lattice parameter of F 4 bar 3 m -PuOH is in good agreement with the experimental value and the corresponding ground state is predicted to be an antiferromagnetic charge-transfer insulator. Furthermore, we investigate the bonding character of PuOH by analyzing the electron structure and find that there are a stronger Pu-O bond and a weaker Pu-H bond. The mechanical properties including the elastic constants, elastic moduli and Debye's temperature, and the optical properties including the reflectivity and absorption coefficient are also calculated. We then compute the phonon spectrum which verified the dynamical stability of F 4 bar 3 m -PuOH. Some thermodynamic quantities such as the specific heat are evaluated. Finally we calculate the formation energy of PuOH, and the reaction energies for the oxidation of PuOH and PuOH-coated Pu, which are in reasonable agreement with the experimental values.

  13. Carbon monoxide: an emerging regulator of ion channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, William J; Kemp, Paul J

    2011-07-01

    Carbon monoxide is rapidly emerging as an important cellular messenger, regulating a wide range of physiological processes. Crucial to its role in both physiology and disease is its ability differentially to regulate several classes of ion channels, including examples from calcium-activated K(+) (BK(Ca)), voltage-activated K(+) (K(v)) and Ca(2+) channel (L-type) families, ligand-gated P2X receptors (P2X2 and P2X4), tandem P domain K(+) channels (TREK1) and the epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC). The mechanisms by which CO regulates these ion channels are still unclear and remain somewhat controversial. However, available structure-function studies suggest that a limited range of amino acid residues confer CO sensitivity, either directly or indirectly, to particular ion channels and that cellular redox state appears to be important to the final integrated response. Whatever the molecular mechanism by which CO regulates ion channels, endogenous production of this gasotransmitter has physiologically important roles and is currently being explored as a potential therapeutic.

  14. Discovery of carbon monoxide in the upper atmosphere of Pluto

    CERN Document Server

    Greaves, J S; Friberg, P

    2011-01-01

    Pluto's icy surface has changed colour and its atmosphere has swelled since its last closest approach to the Sun in 1989. The thin atmosphere is produced by evaporating ices, and so can also change rapidly, and in particular carbon monoxide should be present as an active thermostat. Here we report the discovery of gaseous CO via the 1.3mm wavelength J=2-1 rotational transition, and find that the line-centre signal is more than twice as bright as a tentative result obtained by Bockelee-Morvan et al. in 2000. Greater surface-ice evaporation over the last decade could explain this, or increased pressure could have caused the atmosphere to expand. The gas must be cold, with a narrow line-width consistent with temperatures around 50 K, as predicted for the very high atmosphere, and the line brightness implies that CO molecules extend up to approximately 3 Pluto radii above the surface. The upper atmosphere must have changed markedly over only a decade since the prior search, and more alterations could occur by the...

  15. Regulation of ROS Production and Vascular Function by Carbon Monoxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Kyung Choi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO is a gaseous molecule produced from heme by heme oxygenase (HO. CO interacts with reduced iron of heme-containing proteins, leading to its involvement in various cellular events via its production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS. CO-mediated ROS production initiates intracellular signal events, which regulate the expression of adaptive genes implicated in oxidative stress and functions as signaling molecule for promoting vascular functions, including angiogenesis and mitochondrial biogenesis. Therefore, CO generated either by exogenous delivery or by HO activity can be fundamentally involved in regulating mitochondria-mediated redox cascades for adaptive gene expression and improving blood circulation (i.e., O2 delivery via neovascularization, leading to the regulation of mitochondrial energy metabolism. This paper will highlight the biological effects of CO on ROS generation and cellular redox changes involved in mitochondrial metabolism and angiogenesis. Moreover, cellular mechanisms by which CO is exploited for disease prevention and therapeutic applications will also be discussed.

  16. Heme oxygenase-1 and carbon monoxide in pulmonary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slebos, Dirk-Jan; Ryter, Stefan W; Choi, Augustine M K

    2003-01-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an inducible stress protein, confers cytoprotection against oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo. In addition to its physiological role in heme degradation, HO-1 may influence a number of cellular processes, including growth, inflammation, and apoptosis. By virtue of anti-inflammatory effects, HO-1 limits tissue damage in response to proinflammatory stimuli and prevents allograft rejection after transplantation. The transcriptional upregulation of HO-1 responds to many agents, such as hypoxia, bacterial lipopolysaccharide, and reactive oxygen/nitrogen species. HO-1 and its constitutively expressed isozyme, heme oxygenase-2, catalyze the rate-limiting step in the conversion of heme to its metabolites, bilirubin IXalpha, ferrous iron, and carbon monoxide (CO). The mechanisms by which HO-1 provides protection most likely involve its enzymatic reaction products. Remarkably, administration of CO at low concentrations can substitute for HO-1 with respect to anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects, suggesting a role for CO as a key mediator of HO-1 function. Chronic, low-level, exogenous exposure to CO from cigarette smoking contributes to the importance of CO in pulmonary medicine. The implications of the HO-1/CO system in pulmonary diseases will be discussed in this review, with an emphasis on inflammatory states.

  17. Heme oxygenase-1 and carbon monoxide in pulmonary medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Augustine MK

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, an inducible stress protein, confers cytoprotection against oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo. In addition to its physiological role in heme degradation, HO-1 may influence a number of cellular processes, including growth, inflammation, and apoptosis. By virtue of anti-inflammatory effects, HO-1 limits tissue damage in response to proinflammatory stimuli and prevents allograft rejection after transplantation. The transcriptional upregulation of HO-1 responds to many agents, such as hypoxia, bacterial lipopolysaccharide, and reactive oxygen/nitrogen species. HO-1 and its constitutively expressed isozyme, heme oxygenase-2, catalyze the rate-limiting step in the conversion of heme to its metabolites, bilirubin IXα, ferrous iron, and carbon monoxide (CO. The mechanisms by which HO-1 provides protection most likely involve its enzymatic reaction products. Remarkably, administration of CO at low concentrations can substitute for HO-1 with respect to anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects, suggesting a role for CO as a key mediator of HO-1 function. Chronic, low-level, exogenous exposure to CO from cigarette smoking contributes to the importance of CO in pulmonary medicine. The implications of the HO-1/CO system in pulmonary diseases will be discussed in this review, with an emphasis on inflammatory states.

  18. Heme oxygenase-1/carbon monoxide: from metabolism to molecular therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryter, Stefan W; Choi, Augustine M K

    2009-09-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a ubiquitous inducible stress-response protein, serves a major metabolic function in heme turnover. HO activity cleaves heme to form biliverdin-IXalpha, carbon monoxide (CO), and iron. Genetic experiments have revealed a central role for HO-1 in tissue homeostasis, protection against oxidative stress, and in the pathogenesis of disease. Four decades of research have witnessed not only progress in elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation and function of this illustrious enzyme, but also have opened remarkable translational applications for HO-1 and its reaction products. CO, once regarded as a metabolic waste, can act as an endogenous mediator of cellular signaling and vascular function. Exogenous application of CO by inhalation or pharmacologic delivery can confer cytoprotection in preclinical models of lung/vascular injury and disease, based on anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-proliferative properties. The bile pigments, biliverdin and bilirubin, end products of heme degradation, have also shown potential as therapeutics in vascular disease based on anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities. Further translational and clinical trials research will unveil whether the HO-1 system or any of its reaction products can be successfully applied as molecular medicine in human disease.

  19. Carbon Monoxide Binding by Hemoglobin and Myoglobin under Photodissociating Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunori, Maurizio; Bonaventura, Joseph; Bonaventura, Celia; Antonini, Eraldo; Wyman, Jeffries

    1972-01-01

    Carbon monoxide binding by myoglobin and hemoglobin has been studied under conditions of constant illumination. For hemoglobin, the homotropic heme-heme interaction (cooperativity) and the heterotropic Bohr effect are invariant with light intensity over a 1000-fold change of c½. The dissociation constant, measured as c½, increases linearly with light intensity, indicating that photodissociation is a one-quantum process. At sufficiently high illumination the apparent enthalpy of ligand binding becomes positive, although in the absence of light it is known to be negative. This finding indicates that light acts primarily by increasing the “off” constants by an additive factor. The invariance of both cooperativity and Bohr effect raises a perplexing issue. It would appear to demand either that the “off” constants for the various elementary steps are all alike (which is contrary to current ideas) or that the additive factor is in each case proportional to the particular “off” constant to which it is added (a seemingly improbable alternative). PMID:4502938

  20. Catalytic removal of carbon monoxide over carbon supported palladium catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, Avanish Kumar [Defence Research and Development Establishment, Jhansi Road, Gwalior-474002 (MP) (India); Saxena, Amit [Centre for Fire Explosive and Environmental Safety, Timarpur, Delhi-110054 (India); Shah, Dilip; Mahato, T.H. [Defence Research and Development Establishment, Jhansi Road, Gwalior-474002 (MP) (India); Singh, Beer, E-mail: beerbs5@rediffmail.com [Defence Research and Development Establishment, Jhansi Road, Gwalior-474002 (MP) (India); Shrivastava, A.R.; Gutch, P.K. [Defence Research and Development Establishment, Jhansi Road, Gwalior-474002 (MP) (India); Shinde, C.P. [School of Studies in Chemistry, Jiwaji University, Gwalior-474002 (MP) (India)

    2012-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbon supported palladium (Pd/C) catalyst was prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Catalytic removal of CO over Pd/C catalyst was studied under dynamic conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effects of Pd %, CO conc., humidity, GHSV and reaction environment were studied. - Abstract: Carbon supported palladium (Pd/C) catalyst was prepared by impregnation of palladium chloride using incipient wetness technique, which was followed by liquid phase reduction with formaldehyde. Thereafter, Pd/C catalyst was characterized using X-ray diffractometery, scanning electron microscopy, atomic absorption spectroscopy, thermo gravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry and surface characterization techniques. Catalytic removal of carbon monoxide (CO) over Pd/C catalyst was studied under dynamic conditions. Pd/C catalyst was found to be continuously converting CO to CO{sub 2} through the catalyzed reaction, i.e., CO + 1/2O{sub 2} {yields} CO{sub 2}. Pd/C catalyst provided excellent protection against CO. Effects of palladium wt%, CO concentration, humidity, space velocity and reaction environment were also studied on the breakthrough behavior of CO.

  1. In-utero carbon monoxide poisoning and multiple fetal abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennequin, Y.; Blum, D.; Vamos, E.; Steppe, M.; Goedseels, J.; Cavatorta, E. (Free Univ. of Brussels (Belgium). Queen Fabiola Children' s Hospital)

    1993-01-23

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning during pregnancy can lead to feto-maternal fatalities and stillbirths. Teratogenic effects have been reported. The authors strongly suspected an association between mild but chronic CO poisoning of the mother and major multiple malformations in the baby. Retrospective interviews of the mother disclosed that at 10 weeks' gestation, she had complained of headache and dizziness. At the same time, her 16-month-old daughter had an episode of unconsciousness. A faulty kitchen gas water-heater was suspected but the family did not have it repaired. The mother continued to have headaches regularly. During the 7th month of pregnancy, the daughter was found comatose. In the emergency ward, carboxyhemoglobins levels were 27.5% for the child and 14% for the pregnant mother. Both were treated with hyperbaric oxygen. Investigations by the gas company revealed a highly abnormal CO production from the kitchen and bathroom gas-water heaters: 120 and 100 parts per million, respectively, after 2 minutes of use.

  2. Effect of water on carbon monoxide-oxygen flame velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonald, Glen E

    1954-01-01

    The flame velocities were measured of 20 percent oxygen and 80 percent carbon monoxide mixtures containing either light water or heavy water. The flame velocity increased from 34.5 centimeters per second with no added water to about 104 centimeters per second for a 1.8 percent addition of light water and to 84 centimeters per second for an equal addition of heavy water. The addition of heavy water caused greater increases in flame velocity with equilibrium hydrogen-atom concentration than would be predicted by the Tanford and Pease square-root relation. The ratio of the flame velocity of a mixture containing light water to that of a mixture containing heavy water was found to be 1.4. This value is the same as the ratio of the reaction rate of hydrogen to that of deuterium and oxygen. A ratio of reaction rates of 1.4 would also be required for the square-root law to give the observed ratio of flame-velocity changes.

  3. Tsukamurella carboxydivorans sp. nov., a carbon monoxide-oxidizing actinomycete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sae W; Kim, Sung M; Park, Sang T; Kim, Young M

    2009-06-01

    A Gram-positive, slightly acid-alcohol-fast, carbon monoxide-oxidizing bacterium, strain Y2(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected from a roadside in Seoul, Korea. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence comparative analyses, strain Y2(T) was shown to belong to the genus Tsukamurella and was most closely related to Tsukamurella tyrosinosolvens DSM 44234(T) (GenBank accession no. AY238514; 99.8 %). The predominant fatty acids were C(18 : 1)omega9c and C(16 : 0). The cell-wall peptidoglycan of strain Y2(T) contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. Strain Y2(T) contained galactose and arabinose as the whole cell sugars. The DNA G+C content was 77 mol%. The DNA-DNA relatedness value between strain Y2(T) and T. tyrosinosolvens DSM 44234(T) was 62.7 %. Based on the combination of the carbon source utilization pattern, fatty acid profile, cell-wall chemotype, DNA G+C content and DNA-DNA hybridization experiments, it is proposed that strain Y2(T) (=KCCM 42885(T)=JCM 15482(T)) represents the type strain of a novel species, Tsukamurella carboxydivorans sp. nov.

  4. A Wireless and Batteryless Intelligent Carbon Monoxide Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen-Chia; Sung, Gang-Neng; Chen, Wen-Ching; Kuo, Chih-Ting; Chue, Jin-Ju; Wu, Chieh-Ming; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2016-09-23

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning from natural gas water heaters is a common household accident in Taiwan. We propose a wireless and batteryless intelligent CO sensor for improving the safety of operating natural gas water heaters. A micro-hydropower generator supplies power to a CO sensor without battery (COSWOB) (2.5 W at a flow rate of 4.2 L/min), and the power consumption of the COSWOB is only ~13 mW. The COSWOB monitors the CO concentration in ambient conditions around natural gas water heaters and transmits it to an intelligent gateway. When the CO level reaches a dangerous level, the COSWOB alarm sounds loudly. Meanwhile, the intelligent gateway also sends a trigger to activate Wi-Fi alarms and sends notifications to the mobile device through the Internet. Our strategy can warn people indoors and outdoors, thereby reducing CO poisoning accidents. We also believe that our technique not only can be used for home security but also can be used in industrial applications (for example, to monitor leak occurrence in a pipeline).

  5. Mopra Central Molecular Zone Carbon Monoxide Survey Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Rebecca; Burton, Michael; Rowell, Gavin

    2017-01-01

    We present an update on the Mopra Central Molecular Zone Carbon Monoxide (CO) survey, with data taken in 2016 extending the original 3.5° >= l >= 358.5°, +1.0° >= b >= -0.5° to 4.0° >= l >= 358.0°, +1.0° >= b >= -1.0°. Using the four simultaneously observed lines of 12CO, 13CO, C18O, and C17O Nyquist sampled at 0.6' spatial and 0.1 km/s spectral resolution, we are building an optical-thickness-corrected three-dimensional model of the diffuse gas, and making cloud mass estimates. This data, as part of the Mopra Southern Galactic Plane CO Survey (Braiding et al. (2015), Burton et al. (2013)), is at the highest resolution available across such a widespread region, and includes the Sagittarius A, Sagittarius B2, Sagittarius C, and G1.3 cloud complexes, as well as Bania's Clump 2.

  6. The Hydration Structure of Carbon Monoxide by Ab Initio Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Awoonor-Williams, Ernest

    2016-01-01

    The solvation of carbon monoxide (CO) in liquid water is important for understanding its toxicological effects and biochemical roles. In this paper, we use ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) and CCSD(T)-F12 calculations to assess the accuracy of the Straub and Karplus molecular mechanical (MM) model for CO(aq). The CCSD(T)-F12 CO--H2O potential energy surfaces show that the most stable structure corresponds to water donating a hydrogen bond to the C center. The MM-calculated surface it incorrectly predicts that the O atom is a stronger hydrogen bond acceptor than the C atom. The AIMD simulations indicate that CO is solvated like a hydrophobic solute, with very limited hydrogen bonding with water. The MM model tends to overestimate the degree of hydrogen bonding and overestimates the atomic radius of the C atom. The calculated Gibbs energy of hydration is in good agreement with experiment (9.3 kJ/mol calc. vs 10.7 kJ/mol exptl.). The calculated diffusivity of CO(aq) in TIP3P-model water was 5.19 x 10-5 cm2/s ...

  7. Gene expression in rat striatum following carbon monoxide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuichi Hara

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO poisoning causes brain damage, which is attenuated by treatment with hydrogen [1,2], a scavenger selective to hydroxyl radical (·≡OH [3]. This suggests a role of ·≡OH in brain damage due to CO poisoning. Studies have shown strong enhancement of ·≡OH production in rat striatum by severe CO poisoning with a blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb level >70% due to 3000 ppm CO, but not less severe CO poisoning with a blood COHb level at approximately 50% due to 1000 ppm CO [4]. Interestingly, 5% O2 causes hypoxia comparable with that by 3000 ppm CO and produces much less •OH than 3000 ppm CO does [4]. In addition, cAMP production in parallel with ·≡OH production [5] might contribute to ·≡OH production [6]. It is likely that mechanisms other than hypoxia contribute to brain damage due to CO poisoning [7]. To search for the mechanisms, we examined the effects of 1000 ppm CO, 3000 ppm CO and 5% O2 on gene expression in rat striatum. All array data have been deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO database under accession number GSE94780.

  8. A Wireless and Batteryless Intelligent Carbon Monoxide Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Chia Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO poisoning from natural gas water heaters is a common household accident in Taiwan. We propose a wireless and batteryless intelligent CO sensor for improving the safety of operating natural gas water heaters. A micro-hydropower generator supplies power to a CO sensor without battery (COSWOB (2.5 W at a flow rate of 4.2 L/min, and the power consumption of the COSWOB is only ~13 mW. The COSWOB monitors the CO concentration in ambient conditions around natural gas water heaters and transmits it to an intelligent gateway. When the CO level reaches a dangerous level, the COSWOB alarm sounds loudly. Meanwhile, the intelligent gateway also sends a trigger to activate Wi-Fi alarms and sends notifications to the mobile device through the Internet. Our strategy can warn people indoors and outdoors, thereby reducing CO poisoning accidents. We also believe that our technique not only can be used for home security but also can be used in industrial applications (for example, to monitor leak occurrence in a pipeline.

  9. Carbon monoxide: silent killer and expert imitator (Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Petrolini

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide is still the most common unintentional poisoning in the Western Countries, and it may often produce potentially serious or lethal acute and delayed clinical manifestations. The considerable variety of symptoms of presentation is the principal reason of the non infrequent diagnostic errors at admission. In emergency medicine it is essential to consider this diagnosis every time a patient is found in state of unconsciousness in an environment with possible exposure to CO, as well as in patients presenting with non-specific syndromes. The prompt identification of the intoxication is essential in order to plan a correct therapy at the proper time, and for prevention of risks of a late neurologic syndrome. Nowadays the diagnosis may be performed through determination of COHb in a fast and non-invasive way, both outside and inside hospitals, thanks to a new generation of specific pulsoxymetrers. After confirmation the patient has to be classified with a grading score for severity depending on clinical presentation, that may be useful also for the choice between normobaric or hyperbaric oxygen treatments. Eventually, it is essential to plan the follow up for the patient during the months following the acute event.

  10. Carbon monoxide: silent killer and expert imitator (Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Petrolini

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide is still the most common unintentional poisoning in the Western Countries, and it may often produce potentially serious or lethal acute and delayed clinical manifestations. The considerable variety of symptoms of presentation is the main reason of the non infrequent diagnostic errors at admission. In emergency medicine it is essential to consider this diagnosis every time a patient is found in state of unconsciousness in an environment with possible exposure to CO, as well as in patients presenting with non-specific syndromes. The prompt identification of the intoxication is essential in order to plan a correct therapy at the proper time, and for preventing of risks of a late neurologic syndrome. After confirmation of the diagnosis through determination of COHb, that may nowadays be performed in a fast and non-invasive way both outside and inside hospitals thanks to a new generation of specific pulsoxyimeters, the patient has to be classified with a grading score for the severity depending on clinical presentation, that may be useful also for choice between normobaric or hyperbaric oxygen treatments. Eventually, it is essential to plan the follow-up for the patient during the months following the acute event.

  11. Microbial production of gaseous hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Hideo

    1987-10-20

    Microbial production of ethylene, isobutane and a saturated gaseous hydrocarbon mixture was described. Microbial ethylene production was studied with Penicillium digitatum IFO 9372 and a novel pathway of the ethylene biosynthesis through alpha-ketoglutarate was proposed. Rhodotorula minuta IFO 1102 was selected for the microbial production of isobutane and the interesting actions of L-leucine and L-phenylalanine for the isobutane production were found. It was finally presented about the microbial production of a saturated gaseous hydrocarbon mixture with Rhizopus japonicus IFO 4758 was described. A gas mixture was produced through a chemical reaction of SH compounds and some cellular component such as squalene under aerobic conditions. (4 figs, 7 tabs, 41 refs)

  12. Hydrocarbon Rocket Technology Impact Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuber, Eric; Prasadh, Nishant; Edwards, Stephen; Mavris, Dimitri N.

    2012-01-01

    Ever since the Apollo program ended, the development of launch propulsion systems in the US has fallen drastically, with only two new booster engine developments, the SSME and the RS-68, occurring in the past few decades.1 In recent years, however, there has been an increased interest in pursuing more effective launch propulsion technologies in the U.S., exemplified by the NASA Office of the Chief Technologist s inclusion of Launch Propulsion Systems as the first technological area in the Space Technology Roadmaps2. One area of particular interest to both government agencies and commercial entities has been the development of hydrocarbon engines; NASA and the Air Force Research Lab3 have expressed interest in the use of hydrocarbon fuels for their respective SLS Booster and Reusable Booster System concepts, and two major commercially-developed launch vehicles SpaceX s Falcon 9 and Orbital Sciences Antares feature engines that use RP-1 kerosene fuel. Compared to engines powered by liquid hydrogen, hydrocarbon-fueled engines have a greater propellant density (usually resulting in a lighter overall engine), produce greater propulsive force, possess easier fuel handling and loading, and for reusable vehicle concepts can provide a shorter turnaround time between launches. These benefits suggest that a hydrocarbon-fueled launch vehicle would allow for a cheap and frequent means of access to space.1 However, the time and money required for the development of a new engine still presents a major challenge. Long and costly design, development, testing and evaluation (DDT&E) programs underscore the importance of identifying critical technologies and prioritizing investment efforts. Trade studies must be performed on engine concepts examining the affordability, operability, and reliability of each concept, and quantifying the impacts of proposed technologies. These studies can be performed through use of the Technology Impact Forecasting (TIF) method. The Technology Impact

  13. Deep desulfurization of hydrocarbon fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chunshan [State College, PA; Ma, Xiaoliang [State College, PA; Sprague, Michael J [Calgary, CA; Subramani, Velu [State College, PA

    2012-04-17

    The invention relates to processes for reducing the sulfur content in hydrocarbon fuels such as gasoline, diesel fuel and jet fuel. The invention provides a method and materials for producing ultra low sulfur content transportation fuels for motor vehicles as well as for applications such as fuel cells. The materials and method of the invention may be used at ambient or elevated temperatures and at ambient or elevated pressures without the need for hydrogen.

  14. Hydrocarbon prospectivity in Western Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maravelis, Angelos; Makrodimitras, George; Zelilidis, Avraam [Patras Univ. (Greece). Lab. of Sedimentology

    2012-06-15

    The geology of Western Greece is dominated by the most external zones of the Hellenide fold-and-thrust belt, namely the Pre-Apulian (or Paxoi) and Ionian zones. With Western Greece and Albania having undergone, in broad terms, similar geological histories, also the hydrocarbon potentials of both areas may be compared. Likewise, the hydrocarbon potential of Italy's Apulian Platform, adjoining in the westerly offshore, may serve as an analogue. Three basin types within Western Greece that deserve hydrocarbon exploration have been examined and are grouped, correlated to major tectonic features, namely foreland (Ionian thrusts' foreland basin), piggy-back (Ionian thrusts' back-arc basin) and strike-slip basins. Additionally, strike-slip basins are further subdivided into the basin north of the Borsh-Khardhiqit strike-slip fault and the Preveza basin, north of Cephalonia transfer fault. Their filling histories suggest the occurrence of Mesozoic carbonate plays and Oligocene/Miocene sandstone plays both for oil and gas.

  15. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  16. Effect of carbon monoxide, hydrogen and sulfate on thermophilic (55°C) hydrogenogenic carbon monoxide conversion in two anaerobic bioreactor sludges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sipma, J.; Meulepas, R.J.W.; Stams, A.J.M.; Lettinga, G.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2004-01-01

    The conversion routes of carbon monoxide (CO) at 55°C by full-scale grown anaerobic sludges treating paper mill and distillery wastewater were elucidated. Inhibition experiments with 2-bromoethanesulfonate (BES) and vancomycin showed that CO conversion was performed by a hydrogenogenic population an

  17. Exhaled carbon monoxide in asthmatics: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Mao

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The non-invasive assessment of airway inflammation is potentially advantageous in asthma management. Exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO measurement is cheap and has been proposed to reflect airway inflammation and oxidative stress but current data are conflicting. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to determine whether eCO is elevated in asthmatics, is regulated by steroid treatment and reflects disease severity and control. Methods A systematic search for English language articles published between 1997 and 2009 was performed using Medline, Embase and Cochrane databases. Observational studies comparing eCO in non-smoking asthmatics and healthy subjects or asthmatics before and after steroid treatment were included. Data were independently extracted by two investigators and analyzed to generate weighted mean differences using either a fixed or random effects meta-analysis depending upon the degree of heterogeneity. Results 18 studies were included in the meta-analysis. The eCO level was significantly higher in asthmatics as compared to healthy subjects and in intermittent asthma as compared to persistent asthma. However, eCO could not distinguish between steroid-treated asthmatics and steroid-free patients nor separate controlled and partly-controlled asthma from uncontrolled asthma in cross-sectional studies. In contrast, eCO was significantly reduced following a course of corticosteroid treatment. Conclusions eCO is elevated in asthmatics but levels only partially reflect disease severity and control. eCO might be a potentially useful non-invasive biomarker of airway inflammation and oxidative stress in nonsmoking asthmatics.

  18. Carbon Monoxide (CO) Is a Novel Inhibitor of Connexin Hemichannels*

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Paravic, Carmen G.; Figueroa, Vania A.; Guzmán, Diego J.; Valderrama, Carlos F.; Vallejos, Antonio A.; Fiori, Mariana C.; Altenberg, Guillermo A.; Reuss, Luis; Retamal, Mauricio A.

    2014-01-01

    Hemichannels (HCs) are hexamers of connexins that can form gap-junction channels at points of cell contacts or “free HCs” at non-contacting regions. HCs are involved in paracrine and autocrine cell signaling, and under pathological conditions may induce and/or accelerate cell death. Therefore, studies of HC regulation are of great significance. Nitric oxide affects the activity of Cx43 and Cx46 HCs, whereas carbon monoxide (CO), another gaseous transmitter, modulates the activity of several ion channels, but its effect on HCs has not been explored. We studied the effect of CO donors (CORMs) on Cx46 HCs expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes using two-electrode voltage clamp and on Cx43 and Cx46 expressed in HeLa cells using a dye-uptake technique. CORM-2 inhibited Cx46 HC currents in a concentration-dependent manner. The C-terminal domain and intracellular Cys were not necessary for the inhibition. The effect of CORM-2 was not prevented by guanylyl-cyclase, protein kinase G, or thioredoxin inhibitors, and was not due to endocytosis of HCs. However, the effect of CORM-2 was reversed by reducing agents that act extracellularly. Additionally, CO inhibited dye uptake of HeLa cells expressing Cx43 or Cx46, and MCF-7 cells, which endogenously express Cx43 and Cx46. Because CORM-2 carbonylates Cx46 in vitro and induces conformational changes, a direct effect of that CO on Cx46 is possible. The inhibition of HCs could help to understand some of the biological actions of CO in physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:25384983

  19. Carbon monoxide total column retrievals from TROPOMI shortwave infrared measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgraf, Jochen; aan de Brugh, Joost; Scheepmaker, Remco; Borsdorff, Tobias; Hu, Haili; Houweling, Sander; Butz, Andre; Aben, Ilse; Hasekamp, Otto

    2016-10-01

    The Tropospheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) spectrometer is the single payload of the Copernicus Sentinel 5 Precursor (S5P) mission. It measures Earth radiance spectra in the shortwave infrared spectral range around 2.3 µm with a dedicated instrument module. These measurements provide carbon monoxide (CO) total column densities over land, which for clear sky conditions are highly sensitive to the tropospheric boundary layer. For cloudy atmospheres over land and ocean, the column sensitivity changes according to the light path through the atmosphere. In this study, we present the physics-based operational S5P algorithm to infer atmospheric CO columns satisfying the envisaged accuracy ( information on atmospheric scattering. For efficient processing, we deploy a linearized two-stream radiative transfer model as forward model and a profile scaling approach to adjust the CO abundance in the inversion. Based on generic measurement ensembles, including clear sky and cloudy observations, we estimated the CO retrieval precision to be ≤ 11 % for surface albedo ≥ 0.03 and solar zenith angle ≤ 70°. CO biases of ≤ 3 % are introduced by inaccuracies in the methane a priori knowledge. For strongly enhanced CO concentrations in the tropospheric boundary layer and for cloudy conditions, CO errors in the order of 8 % can be introduced by the retrieval of cloud parameters of our algorithm. Moreover, we estimated the effect of a distorted spectral instrument response due to the inhomogeneous illumination of the instrument entrance slit in the flight direction to be < 2 % with pseudo-random characteristics when averaging over space and time. Finally, the CO data exploitation is demonstrated for a TROPOMI orbit of simulated shortwave infrared measurements. Overall, the study demonstrates that for an instrument that performs in compliance with the pre-flight specifications, the CO product will meet the required product performance well.

  20. Carbon monoxide exchange and partitioning of a managed mountain meadow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerle, Albin; Kitz, Florian; Spielmann, Felix; Gerdel, Katharina; Wohlfahrt, Georg

    2016-04-01

    With an average mole fraction of 100 ppb carbon monoxide (CO) plays a critical role in atmospheric chemistry and thus has an indirect global warming potential. While sources/sinks of CO on land at least partially cancel out each other, the magnitude of CO sources and sinks is highly uncertain. Even if direct CO fluxes from/to land ecosystems are very much likely clearly lower in magnitude compared to anthropogenic emissions, biomass burning, emissions from chemical precursors and the OH sink, it may be premature to neglect any direct contributions of land ecosystems to the CO budget. In addition, changes in global climate and resulting changes in global productivity may require re-evaluating older data and assumptions. One major reason for the large uncertainty is a general scarcity of empirical data. An additional factor contributing to the uncertainty is the lack of ecosystem-scale CO exchange measurements, i.e. CO flux data that encompass all sources and sinks within an ecosystem. Here we present data on continuous eddy covariance measurements of CO-fluxes above a managed mountain grassland in combination with soil chamber flux measurements, within- and above-canopy concentration profiles and an inverse Lagrangian analysis to disentangle sinks and sources of CO. Results show the grassland ecosystem to be a net source for CO during daytime, with increasing flux rates at higher solar radiation. At night, if at all, the meadow is a slight sink for CO. The same holds true regarding the soil flux measurements. Additionally, a two-month rainout experiment revealed hardly any differences in CO soil fluxes between rainout- and control-plots unless extremely dry conditions were reached.

  1. Inhibition of cellular respiration by endogenously produced carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Gabriela; Lam, Francis; Hagen, Thilo; Moncada, Salvador

    2006-06-01

    Endogenously produced nitric oxide (NO) interacts with mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase, leading to inhibition of cellular respiration. This interaction has been shown to have important physiological and pathophysiological consequences. Exogenous carbon monoxide (CO) is also known to inhibit cytochrome c oxidase in vitro; however, it is not clear whether endogenously produced CO can inhibit cellular respiration and, if so, what the significance of this might be. In this study, we show that exogenous CO inhibits respiration in a moderate but persistent manner in HEK293 cells under ambient (21%) oxygen concentrations (K(i) = 1.44 microM). This effect of CO was increased (K(i) = 0.35 microM) by incubation in hypoxic conditions (1% oxygen). Endogenous CO, generated by HEK293 cells transfected with the inducible isoform of haem oxygenase (haem oxygenase-1; HO-1), also inhibited cellular respiration moderately (by 12%) and this was accompanied by inhibition (23%) of cytochrome c oxidase activity. When the cells were incubated in hypoxic conditions during HO-1 induction, the inhibitory effect of CO on cell respiration was markedly increased to 70%. Furthermore, endogenously produced CO was found to be responsible for the respiratory inhibition that occurs in RAW264.7 cells activated in hypoxic conditions with lipopolysaccharide and interferon-gamma, in the presence of N-(iminoethyl)-L-ornithine to prevent the synthesis of NO. Our results indicate that CO contributes significantly to the respiratory inhibition in activated cells, particularly under hypoxic conditions. Inhibition of cell respiration by endogenous CO through its interaction with cytochrome c oxidase might have an important role in inflammatory and hypoxic conditions.

  2. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in Chronic Carbon Monoxide Intoxication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durak, A. C.; Coskun, A.; Yikilmaz, A.; Erdogan, F.; Mavili, E.; Guven, M. [Hospital of Erciyes Univ., Kayseri (Turkey). Dept. of Radiology

    2005-05-01

    Purpose: To define the cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of the chronic stage of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning in patients with and without neuropsychiatric sequelae. Material and Methods: Eight patients who had neither symptoms nor neurological sequelae and eight patients with neuropsychiatric sequelae were included in the study. Patients aged between 9 to 57 (mean 32.2 years). All patients had been comatose at initial admittance and awoke after normobaric 100% oxygen therapy within 1-7 days. In this study, the patients were being examined with routine cranial MRI between 1 and 10 years (mean 3.4 years) after exposure to CO. Results: The most common finding was bilateral symmetric hyperintensity of the white matter, which was more significant in the centrum semiovale, with relative sparing of the temporal lobes and anterior parts of the frontal lobes on T2-weighted and FLAIR images in all patients. Cerebral cortical atrophy was seen in 10 patients; mild atrophy of cerebellar hemispheres in 8; and vermian atrophy in 11. Corpus callosum was atrophic in one patient. Bilateral globus pallidus lesions were seen in three patients. The lesions were hypointense on T1-weighted images and hyperintense on T2-weighted and FLAIR images. Conclusion: Patients with severe CO intoxication may develop persistent cerebral changes independently of their neuropsychiatric findings in the chronic stage. They may present with characteristic MRI findings as described here, even if asymptomatic. The history of CO exposure is therefore helpful for recognizing and interpreting the MRI findings of chronic stage CO intoxication.

  3. Carbon monoxide pollution and neurodevelopment: A public health concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Although an association between air pollution and adverse systemic health effects has been known for years, the effect of pollutants on neurodevelopment has been underappreciated. Recent evidence suggests a possible link between air pollution and neurocognitive impairment and behavioral disorders in children, however, the exact nature of this relationship remains poorly understood. Infants and children are uniquely vulnerable due to the potential for exposure in both the fetal and postnatal environments during critical periods in development. Carbon monoxide (CO), a common component of indoor and outdoor air pollution, can cross the placenta to gain access to the fetal circulation and the developing brain. Thus, CO is of particular interest as a known neurotoxin and a potential public health threat. Here we review overt CO toxicity and the policies regulating CO exposure, detail the evidence suggesting a potential link between CO-associated ambient air pollution, tobacco smoke, and learning and behavioral abnormalities in children, describe the effects of subclinical CO exposure on the brain during development, and provide mechanistic insight into a potential connection between CO exposure and neurodevelopmental outcome. CO can disrupt a number of critical processes in the developing brain, providing a better understanding of how this specific neurotoxin may impair neurodevelopment. However, further investigation is needed to better define the effects of perinatal CO exposure on the immature brain. Current policies regarding CO standards were established based on evidence of cardiovascular risk in adults with pre-existing comorbidities. Thus, recent and emerging data highlighted in this review regarding CO exposure in the fetus and developing child may be important to consider when the standards and guidelines are evaluated and revised in the future.

  4. Carbon monoxide inhalation increases microparticles causing vascular and CNS dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Jiajun; Yang, Ming [Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Kosterin, Paul [Department of Neuroscience, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Salzberg, Brian M. [Department of Physiology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Milovanova, Tatyana N.; Bhopale, Veena M. [Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Thom, Stephen R., E-mail: sthom@smail.umaryland.edu [Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    We hypothesized that circulating microparticles (MPs) play a role in pro-inflammatory effects associated with carbon monoxide (CO) inhalation. Mice exposed for 1 h to 100 ppm CO or more exhibit increases in circulating MPs derived from a variety of vascular cells as well as neutrophil activation. Tissue injury was quantified as 2000 kDa dextran leakage from vessels and as neutrophil sequestration in the brain and skeletal muscle; and central nervous system nerve dysfunction was documented as broadening of the neurohypophysial action potential (AP). Indices of injury occurred following exposures to 1000 ppm for 1 h or to 1000 ppm for 40 min followed by 3000 ppm for 20 min. MPs were implicated in causing injuries because infusing the surfactant MP lytic agent, polyethylene glycol telomere B (PEGtB) abrogated elevations in MPs, vascular leak, neutrophil sequestration and AP prolongation. These manifestations of tissue injury also did not occur in mice lacking myeloperoxidase. Vascular leakage and AP prolongation were produced in naïve mice infused with MPs that had been obtained from CO poisoned mice, but this did not occur with MPs obtained from control mice. We conclude that CO poisoning triggers elevations of MPs that activate neutrophils which subsequently cause tissue injuries. - Highlights: • Circulating microparticles (MPs) increase in mice exposed to 100 ppm CO or more. • MPs are lysed by infusing the surfactant polyethylene glycol telomere B. • CO-induced MPs cause neutrophil activation, vascular leak and CNS dysfunction. • Similar tissue injuries do not arise with MPs obtained from air-exposed, control mice.

  5. Compliance with Washington State's requirement for residential carbon monoxide alarms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil B. Hampson

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO poisoning is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality in the US. In response, a majority of states have passed legislation in recent years requiring the installation of residential CO alarms. There is, however, no published information evaluating compliance with such laws. Employees of a Seattle medical center were surveyed in 2008 regarding home use of CO and smoke alarms. Washington State enacted legislation requiring residential CO alarms by all residences by January 1, 2013. The survey was repeated in mid-2016 to evaluate compliance. In 2016, a total of 354 employees completed the survey and their responses were compared to an equal number of 2008 survey respondents matched by home ownership and ZIP code. Residential CO alarm use rose from 37% to 78% (p < 0.0001. Among homeowners, 78% had alarms while 80% of renters had them. Homeowners with the highest compliance (96% had purchased their homes since January 1, 2013 while those with the lowest compliance (73% had purchased them earlier. A majority (79% of renters without alarms reported the reason was that their landlord did not provide one, a violation of the law. Only one-half to two-thirds of all equipped homes had the required number of either CO or smoke alarms. Use of residential CO alarms increased significantly in this study population three years after law required them. Areas for further improvement include education of landlords, tenants, and longtime homeowners about the law, as well as public education regarding the number of CO and smoke alarms needed.

  6. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    IFP and the OAPEC jointly organize a regular international seminar dealing with world oil-related problems appearing in the news. For the first time, this seminar has been opened to oil and gas company specialists, service companies, research centers and independents. This year's theme concerns oil and gas reserves: are they abundant or are we headed towards the shortages announced by some experts? This theme is especially topical in that: oil and gas currently meet two thirds of world energy needs and almost completely dominate the transport sector; the reserves declared by the OAPEC countries account for nearly half of world reserves; the price of a barrel of oil went through the roof in 2004; world energy demand is growing fast and alternative sources of energy are far from ready to take over from oil and gas in the next few decades. Since the reserves correspond to the volume it is technically and economically viable to produce, the seminar has, of course, dealt with the technical and economic questions that arise in connection with exploration and production, but it has also considered changes in the geopolitical context. Presentations by the leading companies of the OAPEC countries and by the IFP group were completed by presentation from the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the IHS Energy Group, Total and Gaz de France. This document gathers the transparencies of the following presentations: Hydrocarbon reserves in OAPEC members countries: current and future (M. Al-Lababidi); Non OAPEC liquid reserves and production forecasts (Y. Mathieu); World oil and gas resources and production outlook (K. Chew); Global investments in the upstream (F. Birol); Total's policy in the oil and gas sector (C. de Margerie); Gaz de France's policy in the oil and gas sector (J. Abiteboul); NOC/IOC's opportunities in OPEC countries (I. Sandrea); Relationships between companies, countries and investors: How they may

  7. Correlation between hydrocarbon distribution and water-hydrocarbon ratio in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaofeng Zhou; Qingling Chen; Yuewu Tao; Huixin Weng

    2011-01-01

    In order to shorten the evaluation cycle of cobalt catalyst before the optimized catalyst is fixed on,a mathematical method is proposed to calculate weight percentage of C5+ hydrocarbons.Based on the carbide polymerization mechanism and the main hydrocarbons being linear alkanes and α-olefins,the correlation between hydrocarbon distribution and the molecular mass ratio of water to hydrocarbons is discussed.The result shows the ratio was within the range of 1.125-1.286 and the lower the ratio,the more gaseous hydrocarbons were obtained.Moreover,a linear equation between the weight percentage of C5+ hydrocarbons and the weight ratio of C5+ hydrocarbons to the total water is established.These results are validated by corresponding experiments.The weight percentage of C5+ hydrocarbons could be immediately calculated by this linear equation without detailed gas chromatography (GC) analysis of them.

  8. HYDROCARBON AND SULFUR SENSORS FOR SOFC SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.M. Azad; Chris Holt; Todd Lesousky; Scott Swartz

    2003-11-01

    The following report summarizes work conducted during the Phase I program Hydrocarbon and Sulfur Sensors for SOFC Systems under contract No. DE-FC26-02NT41576. For the SOFC application, sensors are required to monitor hydrocarbons and sulfur in order to increase the operation life of SOFC components. This report discusses the development of two such sensors, one based on thick film approach for sulfur monitoring and the second galvanic based for hydrocarbon monitoring.

  9. 40 CFR 90.316 - Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. 90... Equipment Provisions § 90.316 Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. (a) Calibrate the FID and HFID hydrocarbon... thereafter, adjust the FID and HFID hydrocarbon analyzer for optimum hydrocarbon response as specified...

  10. 40 CFR 86.121-90 - Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. 86... Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.121-90 Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. The hydrocarbon... FID and HFID hydrocarbon analyzers shall be adjusted for optimum hydrocarbon response....

  11. 40 CFR 91.316 - Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. 91....316 Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. (a) Calibrate the FID and HFID hydrocarbon analyzer as described... thereafter, adjust the FID and HFID hydrocarbon analyzer for optimum hydrocarbon response as specified...

  12. 40 CFR 89.319 - Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. 89... Equipment Provisions § 89.319 Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. (a) The FID hydrocarbon analyzer shall... and at least annually thereafter, adjust the FID hydrocarbon analyzer for optimum hydrocarbon...

  13. A Fire Department Community Health Intervention to Prevent Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Following a Hurricane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Matthew; Jenkins, J Lee; Seaman, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Portable generators are commonly used during electrical service interruptions that occur following large storms such as hurricanes. Nearly all portable generators use carbon based fuels and produce deadly carbon monoxide gas. Despite universal warnings to operate these generators outside only, the improper placement of generators makes these devices the leading cause of engine related carbon monoxide deaths in the United States. The medical literature reports many cases of Carbon Monoxide (CO) toxicity associated with generator use following hurricanes and other weather events. This paper describes how Howard County, Maryland Fire and Rescue (HCFR) Services implemented a public education program that focused on prevention of Carbon Monoxide poisoning from portable generator use in the wake of events where electrical service interruptions occurred or had the potential to occur. A major challenge faced was communication with those members of the population who were almost completely dependent upon electronic and wireless technologies and were without redundancies. HCFR utilized several tactics to overcome this challenge including helicopter based surveillance and the use of geocoded information from the electrical service provider to identify outage areas. Once outage areas were identified, HCFR personnel conducted a door-to-door canvasing of effected communities, assessing for hazards and distributing information flyers about the dangers of generator use. This effort represents one of the first reported examples of a community-based endeavor by a fire department to provide proactive interventions designed to prevent carbon monoxide illness. PMID:24596660

  14. Correlation of computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and clinical outcome in acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Namik; Ozcam, Giray; Kosar, Pinar; Ozcan, Ayse; Basar, Hulya; Kaymak, Cetin

    2016-01-01

    Carbon monoxide is a toxic gas for humans and is still a silent killer in both developed and developing countries. The aim of this case series was to evaluate early radiological images as a predictor of subsequent neuropsychological sequelae, following carbon monoxide poisoning. After carbon monoxide exposure, early computed tomography scans and magnetic resonance imaging findings of a 52-year-old woman showed bilateral lesions in the globus pallidus. This patient was discharged and followed for 90 days. The patient recovered without any neurological sequela. In a 58-year-old woman exposed to carbon monoxide, computed tomography showed lesions in bilateral globus pallidus and periventricular white matter. Early magnetic resonance imaging revealed changes similar to that like in early tomography images. The patient recovered and was discharged from hospital. On the 27th day of exposure, the patient developed disorientation and memory impairment. Late magnetic resonance imaging showed diffuse hyperintensity in the cerebral white matter. White matter lesions which progress to demyelination and end up in neuropsychological sequelae cannot always be diagnosed by early computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in carbon monoxide poisoning. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer Observations of Water Vapor and Carbon Monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael D.; Wolff, Michael J.; Clancy, R. Todd; Murchie, Scott L.

    2009-01-01

    The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) spacecraft began taking observations in September 2006 and has now collected more than a full Martian year of data. Retrievals performed using the near-infrared spectra obtained by CRISM are used to characterize the seasonal and spatial variation of the column abundance of water vapor and the column-averaged mixing ratio of carbon monoxide. CRISM retrievals show nominal behavior in water vapor during northern hemisphere spring and summer with maximum abundance reaching 50 precipitable micrometers. Water vapor abundance during the southern hemisphere spring and summer appears significantly reduced compared to observations by other instruments taken during previous years. The CRISM retrievals show the seasonally and globally averaged carbon monoxide mixing ratio to be 700 ppm, but with strong seasonal variations at high latitudes. The summertime near-polar carbon monoxide mixing ratio falls to 200 ppm in the south and 400 ppm in the north as carbon dioxide sublimates from the seasonal polar ice caps and dilutes noncondensable species including carbon monoxide. At low latitudes, the carbon monoxide mixing ratio varies in response to the mean seasonal cycle of surface pressure.

  16. Vapor Pressure and Evaporation Coefficient of Silicon Monoxide over a Mixture of Silicon and Silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Frank T.; Nuth, Joseph A., III

    2012-01-01

    The evaporation coefficient and equilibrium vapor pressure of silicon monoxide over a mixture of silicon and vitreous silica have been studied over the temperature range (1433 to 1608) K. The evaporation coefficient for this temperature range was (0.007 plus or minus 0.002) and is approximately an order of magnitude lower than the evaporation coefficient over amorphous silicon monoxide powder and in general agreement with previous measurements of this quantity. The enthalpy of reaction at 298.15 K for this reaction was calculated via second and third law analyses as (355 plus or minus 25) kJ per mol and (363.6 plus or minus 4.1) kJ per mol respectively. In comparison with previous work with the evaporation of amorphous silicon monoxide powder as well as other experimental measurements of the vapor pressure of silicon monoxide gas over mixtures of silicon and silica, these systems all tend to give similar equilibrium vapor pressures when the evaporation coefficient is correctly taken into account. This provides further evidence that amorphous silicon monoxide is an intimate mixture of small domains of silicon and silica and not strictly a true compound.

  17. Correlation of computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and clinical outcome in acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namik Ozcan

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objectives: Carbon monoxide is a toxic gas for humans and is still a silent killer in both developed and developing countries. The aim of this case series was to evaluate early radiological images as a predictor of subsequent neuropsychological sequelae, following carbon monoxide poisoning. Case 1: After carbon monoxide exposure, early computed tomography scans and magnetic resonance imaging findings of a 52-year-old woman showed bilateral lesions in the globus pallidus. This patient was discharged and followed for 90 days. The patient recovered without any neurological sequela. Case 2: In a 58-year-old woman exposed to carbon monoxide, computed tomography showed lesions in bilateral globus pallidus and periventricular white matter. Early magnetic resonance imaging revealed changes similar to that like in early tomography images. The patient recovered and was discharged from hospital. On the 27th day of exposure, the patient developed disorientation and memory impairment. Late magnetic resonance imaging showed diffuse hyperintensity in the cerebral white matter. Conclusion: White matter lesions which progress to demyelination and end up in neuropsychological sequelae cannot always be diagnosed by early computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in carbon monoxide poisoning.

  18. The Effect of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning on Platelet Volume in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halise Akça

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Carbon monoxide poisoning is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality. There is increasing evidence supporting the important role of mean platelet volume (MPV as a marker of hypoxia and inflammation. In this study, we aimed to determine changes in MPV values in pediatric patients with carbon monoxide poisoning. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated children who were diagnosed with carbon monoxide poisoning in our hospital between January 2005 and 2014. Results: We included 228 children with carbon monoxide poisoning (49% male in this retrospective, controlled study. The mean age of the patients was 88±56 months. Control group consisted of 200 age-matched healthy children. There was no statistically significant difference in MPV levels between the study and control groups (8.43±1.1 fL and 8.26±0.7 fL, respectively. No correlation of MPV and platelet count with carboxyhemoglobin (COHb was found. Conclusion: In our study, it was determined that MPV value was not a helpful parameter for predicting the diagnosis of acute carbon monoxide poisoning in childhood. The difference between the MPV values and the lack of significance and the absence of correlation between MPV value and COHb level led to the fact that MPV was not a guide indicating the clinical severity of the condition.

  19. Detection of hydrocarbons in irradiated foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyahara, Makoto; Maitani, Tamio [National Inst. of Health Sciences, Tokyo (Japan); Saito, Akiko; Kamimura, Tomomi; Nagasawa, Taeko [Kitasato Univ., Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Allied Health Sciences; Kobayashi, Yasuo; Ito, Hitoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Establishment

    2003-06-01

    The hydrocarbon method for the detection of irradiated foods is now recognized as the international technique. This method is based on radiolysis of fatty acids in food to give hydrocarbons. In order to expand this technique's application, ten foods (butter, cheese, chicken, pork, beef, tuna, dry shrimp, avocado, papaya, and mango) were irradiated in the range from 0.5 to 10 kGy and the hydrocarbons in them were detected. Recoveries of the hydrocarbons from most foods were acceptable (38-128%). Some hydrocarbons were found in non-irradiated foods, particularly, in butter, cheese, tuna, and shrimp. Seven irradiated foods, butter, cheese, chicken, beef, pork, tuna, dry shrimp, and avocado were detectable at their practical doses by measuring the appropriate marker hydrocarbons. In most case, marker hydrocarbon will be 1,7-hexadecadiene. However, the marker hydrocarbons produced only in irradiated foods varied from food to food; therefore, it is necessary to check a specific irradiated food for marker hydrocarbons. On the other hand, two irradiated foods (papaya and mango which were irradiated at their practical doses) were difficult to distinguish from non-irradiated foods using this method. (author)

  20. A population-based exposure assessment methodology for carbon monoxide: Development of a carbon monoxide passive sampler and occupational dosimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apte, M.G.

    1997-09-01

    Two devices, an occupational carbon monoxide (CO) dosimeter (LOCD), and an indoor air quality (IAQ) passive sampler were developed for use in population-based CO exposure assessment studies. CO exposure is a serious public health problem in the U.S., causing both morbidity and mortality (lifetime mortality risk approximately 10{sup -4}). Sparse data from population-based CO exposure assessments indicate that approximately 10% of the U.S. population is exposed to CO above the national ambient air quality standard. No CO exposure measurement technology is presently available for affordable population-based CO exposure assessment studies. The LOCD and IAQ Passive Sampler were tested in the laboratory and field. The palladium-molybdenum based CO sensor was designed into a compact diffusion tube sampler that can be worn. Time-weighted-average (TWA) CO exposure of the device is quantified by a simple spectrophotometric measurement. The LOCD and IAQ Passive Sampler were tested over an exposure range of 40 to 700 ppm-hours and 200 to 4200 ppm-hours, respectively. Both devices were capable of measuring precisely (relative standard deviation <20%), with low bias (<10%). The LOCD was screened for interferences by temperature, humidity, and organic and inorganic gases. Temperature effects were small in the range of 10{degrees}C to 30{degrees}C. Humidity effects were low between 20% and 90% RH. Ethylene (200 ppm) caused a positive interference and nitric oxide (50 ppm) caused a negative response without the presence of CO but not with CO.

  1. A population-based exposure assessment methodology for carbon monoxide: Development of a carbon monoxide passive sampler and occupational dosimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apte, Michael G. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1997-09-01

    Two devices, an occupational carbon monoxide (CO) dosimeter (LOCD), and an indoor air quality (IAQ) passive sampler were developed for use in population-based CO exposure assessment studies. CO exposure is a serious public health problem in the U.S., causing both morbidity and mortality (lifetime mortality risk approximately 10{sup -4}). Sparse data from population-based CO exposure assessments indicate that approximately 10% of the U.S. population is exposed to CO above the national ambient air quality standard. No CO exposure measurement technology is presently available for affordable population-based CO exposure assessment studies. The LOCD and IAQ Passive Sampler were tested in the laboratory and field. The palladium-molybdenum based CO sensor was designed into a compact diffusion tube sampler that can be worn. Time-weighted-average (TWA) CO exposure of the device is quantified by a simple spectrophotometric measurement. The LOCD and IAQ Passive Sampler were tested over an exposure range of 40 to 700 ppm-hours and 200 to 4200 ppm-hours, respectively. Both devices were capable of measuring precisely (relative standard deviation <20%), with low bias (<10%). The LOCD was screened for interferences by temperature, humidity, and organic and inorganic gases. Temperature effects were small in the range of 10°C to 30°C. Humidity effects were low between 20% and 90% RH. Ethylene (200 ppm) caused a positive interference and nitric oxide (50 ppm) caused a negative response without the presence of CO but not with CO.

  2. Final Technical Report "Catalytic Hydrogenation of Carbon Monoxide and Olefin Oxidation" Grant number : DE-FG02-86ER13615

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayland, B.B.

    2009-08-31

    Title: Catalytic Hydrogenation of Carbon Monoxide and Olefin Oxidation Grant No. DE-FG02-86ER13615 PI: Wayland, B. B. (wayland@sas.upenn.edu) Abstract Development of new mechanistic strategies and catalyst materials for activation of CO, H2, CH4, C2H4, O2, and related substrates relevant to the conversion of carbon monoxide, alkanes, and alkenes to organic oxygenates are central objectives encompassed by this program. Design and synthesis of metal complexes that manifest reactivity patterns associated with potential pathways for the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide through metallo-formyl (M-CHO), dimetal ketone (M-C(O)-M), and dimetal dionyl (M-C(O)-C(O)-M) species is one major focus. Hydrocarbon oxidation using molecular oxygen is a central goal for methane activation and functionalization as well as regioselective oxidation of olefins. Discovery of new reactivity patterns and control of selectivity are pursued through designing new metal complexes and adjusting reaction conditions. Variation of reaction media promotes distinct reaction pathways that control both reaction rates and selectivities. Dimetalloradical diporphyrin complexes preorganize transition states for substrate reactions that involve two metal centers and manifest large rate increases over mono-metalloradical reactions of hydrogen, methane, and other small molecule substrates. Another broad goal and recurring theme of this program is to contribute to the thermodynamic database for a wide scope of organo-metal transformations in a range of reaction media. One of the most complete descriptions of equilibrium thermodynamics for organometallic reactions in water and methanol is emerging from the study of rhodium porphyrin substrate reactions in aqueous and alcoholic media. Water soluble group nine metalloporphyrins manifest remarkably versatile substrate reactivity in aqueous and alcoholic media which includes producing rhodium formyl (Rh-CHO) and hydroxy methyl (Rh-CH2OH) species. Exploratory

  3. Applied bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinchee, R.E.; Kittel, J.A. [eds.] [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Reisinger, H.J. [ed.] [Integrated Science and Technology, Inc., Marietta, GA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This volume is part of a ten volume set of papers derived from the Third International In Situ and On-Site Bioreclamation Symposium which was held in San Diego, California, in April 1995. The purpose of the conference was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on bioremediation. The papers in this volume focus on petroleum hydrocarbon bioremediation, with an emphasis on pilot-scale and field-scale applications. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  4. Neurological Effects of Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coskun YARAR

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide poisoning (COP is one of the most common causes of mortality and morbidity due to poisoning in all over the world. Although the incidence of COP has not been known exactly in the childhood, almost one-third of CO exposures occurred in children. The data regarding COP in children are inconclusive. Children may be more vulnerable to CO exposure than adults as a result of their high respiration and metabolic rates, high oxygen metabolism, and immature central nervous system. Recent researches proposed new theories about neurological effects of CO toxicity. The clinical presentations associated acute COP may be various and nonspecific. Unrecognized CO exposure may lead to significant morbidity and mortality. CO exposed children often become symptomatic earlier, and recover more rapidly, than similarly CO exposed adults. Mild clinical signs and symptoms associated with COP are headache, dizziness, weakness, lethargy, and myalgia; however, severe signs and symptoms such as blurred vision, syncope, convulsion, coma, cardiopulmonary arrest and death can also accompany with COP. Neurologic manifestations can include altered mental status at different degrees, neck stiffness, tremor, ataxia, and positive Babinski's sign. Delayed neurologic sequels (DNS of COP might be seen in children like adults. DNS symptoms and signs in children include memory problems, mental retardation, mutism, fecal and urinary incontinence, motor deficits, facial palsy, psychosis, chronic headache, seizures, and epilepsy. After CO exposure children must be cared to detect and treat DNS. Although hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT is reported to prevent development of DNS, its indications, application duration and procedures are controversial in both of the children and adults. Although their predictive values are limited, exposing to CO more than eight hours and suffering from CO-induced coma, cardiac arrest, lactic acidosis, high COHb levels, and pathologic findings

  5. Carbon Monoxide Promotes Lateral Root Formation in Rapeseed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO), an odorless, tasteless and colorless gas, has recently proved to be an important bioactive or signal molecule in mammalian cells, with its effects mediated mainly by nitric oxide (NO). In the present report, we show that exogenous CO induces lateral root (LR) formation, an NO-dependent process. Administration of the CO donor hematin to rapeseed (Brassica napus L. Yangyou 6) seedlings for 3 days, dose-dependently promoted the total length and number of LRs. These responses were also seen following the application of gaseous CO aqueous solutions of different saturated concentrations. Furthermore, the actions of CO on seedlings were fully reversed when the CO scavenger hemoglobin (Hb)or the CO-specific synthetic inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin-Ⅸ (ZnPPIX) were added. Interestingly, depletion of endogenous NO using its specific scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide potassium salt (cPTIO)or the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), led to the complete abolition of LR development, illustrating an important role for endogenous NO in the action of CO on LR formation. However, the or absence of ZnPPIX. Furthermore, using an anatomical approach combined with laser scanning confocal microscopy with the NO-specific fluorophore 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate, we observed that both hematin and SNP increased NO release compared with control samples and that the NO signal was mainly distributed in the LR primordia (LRP), especially after 36 h treatment. The LRP were found to have similar morphology in control, SNP- and hematin-treated seedlings.Similarly, the enhancement of the NO signal by CO at 36 h was differentially quenched by the addition of cPTIO, L-NAME,ZnPPIX and Hb. In contrast, the induction of NO caused by SNP was not affected by the application of ZnPPIX. Therefore,we further deduced that CO induces LR formation probably mediated by the NO/NOS pathway and NO may act

  6. Snowmelt onset hinders bromine monoxide heterogeneous recycling in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burd, Justine A.; Peterson, Peter K.; Nghiem, Son V.; Perovich, Don K.; Simpson, William R.

    2017-08-01

    Reactive bromine radicals (bromine atoms, Br, and bromine monoxide, BrO) deplete ozone and alter tropospheric oxidation chemistry during the Arctic springtime (February-June). As spring transitions to summer (May-June) and snow begins to melt, reactive bromine events cease and BrO becomes low in summer. In this study, we explore the relationship between the end of the reactive bromine season and snowmelt timing. BrO was measured by Multi-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectrometer at Utqiaġvik (Barrow), AK, from 2012 to 2016 and on drifting buoys deployed in Arctic sea ice from 2011 to 2016, a total of 13 site and year combinations. The BrO seasonal end date (SED) was objectively determined and was compared to surface-air-temperature-derived melt onset date (MOD). The SED was highly correlated with the MOD (N = 13, R2 = 0.983, RMS = 1.9 days), and BrO is only observed at subfreezing temperatures. In subsets of these sites and years where ancillary data were available, we observed that snowpack depth reduced and rain precipitation occurred within a few days of the SED. These data are consistent with snowpack melting hindering BrO recycling, which is necessary to maintain enhanced BrO concentrations. With a projected warmer Arctic, a shift to earlier snowmelt seasons could alter the timing and role of halogen chemical reactions in the Arctic with impacts on ozone depletion and mercury deposition.Plain Language SummaryReactive bromine events in the Arctic are common in spring and deplete ozone and cause mercury deposition. These events are affected by snow and ice, which are changing in the Arctic; therefore, we need to understand how environmental conditions affect reactive bromine chemistry. We find that the reactive bromine season ends when snowpack begins to melt. Through these full seasonal observations, we find that reactive bromine events occur to warmer temperatures than previously reported, with 0°C being the observed threshold above which reactive

  7. Multimodality evoked potentials in patients with delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiahong Wang; Bo Xiao; Renjun Gu; Lan Xiao; Yi Yang; Yinhui Hao; Nini Wang; Junlin Mu; Jinggang Yin

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic values in patients with delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Methods: The tibial nerve somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs), vision evoked potentials (VEPs), and brain stem audition evoked potentials(BAEPs) were performed in 32 healthy adults and 43 patients with delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Results: This paper indicated abnormalities of tibial nerve SEPs in 31 patients (31/43, 72.1%), VEPs in 17 patients (17/28, 60.7%), and BAEPs in 14 patients (14/43, 32.6%). These results showed that the greatest diagnostic value was SEPs, followed by VEPs and, BAEPs with the lowest sensitivity. Conclusion: Multimodality evoked potentials (EPs) can be used for evaluating the diagnostic and prognostic values in cases of delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

  8. Effect of carbon monoxide inhibition on the growth of an aquatic streptomycete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francisco, D.E.; Silvey, J.K.G.

    1971-01-01

    A recent investigation has shown that the primary mycelium of aquatic streptomycetes is facultatively aerobic while the secondary mycelium is obligately aerobic. The nature of the differences in aerobic metabolism of various morphological phases in the life history was determined by carbon monoxide inhibition. A slide culture chamber technique which allowed continuous microscopic observation of the growing organism while in various gas environments was used. Two distinct patterns of inhibition were observed. The development of early stages of the life history was inhibited by carbon monoxide in the light and the dark. The site of this inhibition could not be determined. The later stages were inhibited only by carbon monoxide in the dark. This suggested a dependence of the secondary mycelium on the activity of cytochrome oxidase. Thus, the primary and secondary mycelial stages were found to be physiologically distinct.

  9. St. Mary's Villa carbon monoxide accumulation incident review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-05-15

    On December 26th 2010, carbon monoxide accumulation within St. Mary's Villa led to the deaths of 3 residents. This extended care facility, located in Humboldt, Saskatchewan, was constructed in 1962 and periodic additions to the building were made up to 1990. The Saskatoon Health Region, which operates the facility, hired March Consulting Associates Inc. to perform a review of the investigation reports of the incident. This review demonstrated that during the night of December 25th to December 26th, 2010, several factors, including large gaps in the make-up air unit and extreme wind, led to backdraft conditions in a boiler of the dust wing mechanical room. Exhaust gases, including carbon monoxide, then built up in the room and were blown into the dust wing by the supply air fan. The report indicates the accumulation of carbon monoxide was not caused by one factor but several.

  10. Substantially isotactic, linear, alternating copolymers of carbon monoxide and an olefin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Ayusman; Jiang, Zhaozhong

    1996-01-01

    The compound, [Pd(Me-DUPHOS)(MeCN).sub.2 ](BF.sub.4).sub.2, [Me-DUPHOS: 1,2-bis(2,5-dimethylphospholano)benzene] is an effective catalyst for the highly enantioselective, alternating copolymerization of olefins, such as aliphatic .alpha.-olefins, with carbon monoxide to form optically active, isotactic polymers which can serve as excellent starting materials for the synthesis of other classes of chiral polymers. For example, the complete reduction of a propylene-carbon monoxide copolymer resulted in the formation of a novel, optically active poly(1,4-alcohol). Also, the previously described catalyst is a catalyst for the novel alternating isomerization cooligomerization of 2-butene with carbon monoxide to form optically active, isotactic poly(1,5-ketone)

  11. Carbon Dioxide in Exoplanetary Atmospheres: Rarely Dominant Compared to Carbon Monoxide and Water

    CERN Document Server

    Heng, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the abundance of carbon dioxide in exoplanetary atmospheres. We construct analytical models of systems in chemical equilibrium that include carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, water, methane and acetylene and relate the equilibrium constants of the chemical reactions to temperature and pressure via the tabulated Gibbs free energies. We prove that such chemical systems may be described by a quintic equation for the mixing ratio of methane. By examining the abundances of these molecules across a broad range of temperatures (spanning equilibrium temperatures from 600 to 2500 K), pressures (via temperature-pressure profiles that explore albedo and opacity variations) and carbon-to-oxygen ratios (from 0.1 to 100), we conclude that carbon dioxide is subdominant compared to carbon monoxide and water. Atmospheric mixing does not alter this conclusion if carbon dioxide is subdominant everywhere in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide may attain comparable abundances if th...

  12. OXIDATION OF DRY HYDROCARBONS AT HIGH-POWER DENSITY ANODES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.Krist; O. Spaldon-Stewart; R. Remick

    2004-03-01

    This work builds upon discoveries by the University of Pennsylvania and others pertaining to the oxidation of dry hydrocarbon fuels in high temperature solid oxide fuel cells. The work reported here was restricted primarily to dry methane and confirms that YSZ-based cells, having ceria in the anode as a catalyst and copper in the anode as a current collector, can operate on dry methane for extended periods. Thirty-three lab-scale cells of various designs were fabricated and operated under a variety of conditions. The longest-lived cell gave stable performance on dry methane at 800 C for over 305 hours. Only slight carbon deposition was noted at the completion of the test. A corresponding nickel/YSZ-based anode would have lasted for less than an hour under these test conditions (which included open circuit potential measurements) before carbon fouling essentially destroyed the cell. The best performing cell achieved 112 mW/cm{sub 2} on dry methane at 800 C. Several problems were encountered with carbon fouling and declining open circuit voltages in many of the test cells after switching from operation on hydrogen to dry methane. Although not rigorously confirmed by experimentation, the results suggested that air infiltration through less than perfect perimeter seals or pinholes in the electrolytes, or both gave rise to conditions that caused the carbon fouling and OCV decline. Small amounts of air reacting with methane in a partial oxidation reaction could produce carbon monoxide that, in turn, would deposit the carbon. If this mechanism is confirmed, it implies that near perfect hardware is required for extended operation. Some evidence was also found for the formation of electrical shorts, probably from carbon deposits bridging the electrolyte. Work with odorized methane and with methane containing 100-ppm hydrogen sulfide confirmed that copper is stable at 800 C in dry hydrocarbon fuels in the presence of sulfur. In a number of cases, but not exclusively, the

  13. In situ observation of self-assembled hydrocarbon Fischer-Tropsch products on a cobalt catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Violeta; van Spronsen, Matthijs A.; Frenken, Joost W. M.

    2016-10-01

    Fischer-Tropsch synthesis is a heterogeneous catalytic reaction that creates approximately 2% of the world's fuel. It involves the synthesis of linear hydrocarbon molecules from a gaseous mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen at high pressures (from a few to tens of bars) and high temperatures (200-350 °C). To gain further insight into the fundamental mechanisms of this industrial process, we have used a purpose-built scanning tunnelling microscope to monitor a cobalt model catalyst under reaction conditions. We show that, after 30 minutes of reaction, the terraces of the cobalt catalyst are covered by parallel arrays of stripes. We propose that the stripes are formed by the self-assembly of linear hydrocarbon product molecules. Surprisingly, the width of the stripes corresponds to molecules that are 14 or 15 carbon atoms long. We introduce a simple model that explains the accumulation of such long molecules by describing their monomer-by-monomer synthesis and explicitly accounting for their thermal desorption.

  14. 40 CFR 52.1877 - Control strategy: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... oxidants (hydrocarbons). 52.1877 Section 52.1877 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....1877 Control strategy: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons). (a) The requirements of Subpart G of this... national standard for photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons) in the Metropolitan Cincinnati...

  15. Assessment of exposure to carbon monoxide group of firefighters from fire fighting and rescue units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadwiga Lembas-Bogaczyk

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Firemen threat during fire burning of chemical substances indicated presence of carbon monoxide (CO in all cases. Carbon monoxide causes death of fire. Inhaled through respiratory system, links with hemoglobin, thus blocking transport and distribution of oxygen in the body. This leads to tissue anoxia, which is a direct threat to firefighters’ life. The purpose of this study was to assess the exposure to carbon monoxide of participating firefighters extinguishing fire. Estimation of carbon monoxide quantity absorbed by firefighters was isolated in a group of 40 firefighters from Fire Extinguishing and Rescue Unit of State Fire in Nysa. The study was conducted by measuring carbon monoxide in exhaled air. For measurement of carbon monoxide concentration in exhaled air Micro CO meter was used. Results were demonstrated separately for nonsmokers (n425 and smokers (n415. Mean COHb[%] levels in nonsmokers, measured prior the rescue action was 0,3950,3% and increased statistically significant after the action to 0,6150,34%, while in the group smokers, this level was 2,1750,64% before the action and increased insignificantly after the action to 2,3350,63%. The average COHb level in the same groups before and after exercise, was respectively: for nonsmokers prior to exercise was 0,4850,28% and after exercise decreased statistically significant to 0,3050,27%. In the group of smokers before exercise was 2,2350,61% and decreased statistically significant up to 1,5450,71%. It was no difference between the group of age and time of employment.

  16. Hydrocarbon conversion process and catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoek, A.; Huizinga, T.; Maxwell, I.E.

    1989-08-15

    This patent describes a process for hydrocracking hydrocarbon oils into products of lower average molecular weight and lower average boiling point. It comprises contacting hydrocarbon oil at a temperature between 250{sup 0}C and 500{sup 0}C and a pressure up to 300 bar in the presence of hydrogen with a catalyst consisting essentially of a Y zeolite modified to have a unit cell size below 24.40 A, a water adsorption capacity (at 25{sup 0}C and a rho/rho/sub o/ value of 0.2) of between 10% and 15% by weight of the zeolite and a pore volume of at least 0.25 ml/g wherein between 10% and 60% of the total pore volume is made up of pores having a diameter of at least 8 nm; am amorphous cracking component, a binder and at least one hydrogenation component selected from the group consisting of a Group VI metal, a Group VIII metal and mixtures thereof.

  17. Hydrocarbon degradation by antarctic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavanagh, J.A.E.; Nichols, P.D.; McMeekin, T.A.; Franzmann, P.D. [Univ. of Tasmania (Australia)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Bacterial cultures obtained from sediment samples collected during a trial oil spill experiment conducted at Airport beach, Eastern Antarctica were selectively enriched for n-alkane-degrading and phenanthrenedegrading bacteria. Samples were collected from a control site and sites treated with different hydrocarbon mixtures - Special Antarctic blend (SAB), BP-Visco and orange roughy oils. One set of replicate sites was also treated with water from Organic Lake which had previously been shown to contain hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria. No viable bacteria were obtained from samples collected from sites treated with orange roughy oil. Extensive degradation of n-alkanes by enrichment cultures obtained from sites treated with SAB and BP-Visco occurred at both 25{degrees}C and 10{degrees}C. Extensive degradation of phenanthrene also occurred in enrichment cultures from these sites grown at 25{degrees}C. Concurrent increases of polar lipid in these cultures were also observed. The presence of 1,4-naphthaquinone and 1-naphthol during the growth of the cultures on phenanthrene is unusual and warrants further investigation of the mechanism of phenanthrene-degradation by these Antarctic bacteria.

  18. Cool Sooting Flames of Hydrocarbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z.A. MANSUROV

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and paramagnetism of soot particles sampled from cool sooting flames of methane and propane in a separately-heated two-sectional reactor under atmospheric pressure at the reactor temperatures of 670-1170 K. The temperature profiles of the flames were studied. The sampling was carried out with a quartz sampler and the samples were frozen with liquid nitrogen. A number of polyaromatic hydrocarbons such as pyrene, fluoranthene, coronene, anthanthrene, 1,12-benzperylene,were identified by spectroscopic methods in the extract of soot. The processes of soot formation at methaneoxygen mixture combustion in the electric field with applied potential changed from 0 to 2,2 kV at different polarity of electrodes have been investigated. It has been stated that at the electrical field application, an increase in soot particle sizes and soot yield occurs; besides, at the application of the field, speeding up the positively charged particles, the interplanar distance decreases. On the basis of investigation of soot particles paramagnetism, it was shown that initially soot particles have high carcinogetic activity and pollute the environment owing to a rapid decrease of the number of these radical centers. The reduction of the radical concentration is connected with radical recombination on soot.

  19. Cyclic process for producing methane from carbon monoxide with heat removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Albert C.; Yang, Chang-lee

    1982-01-01

    Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams are converted to methane by a cyclic, essentially two-step process in which said carbon monoxide is disproportionated to form carbon dioxide and active surface carbon deposited on the surface of a catalyst, and said carbon is reacted with steam to form product methane and by-product carbon dioxide. The exothermic heat of reaction generated in each step is effectively removed during each complete cycle so as to avoid a build up of heat from cycle-to-cycle, with particularly advantageous techniques being employed for fixed bed, tubular and fluidized bed reactor operations.

  20. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulation study of successive hydrogenation reactions of carbon monoxide producing methanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Thi Nu; Ono, Shota; Ohno, Kaoru

    2016-04-01

    Doing ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, we demonstrate a possibility of hydrogenation of carbon monoxide producing methanol step by step. At first, the hydrogen atom reacts with the carbon monoxide molecule at the excited state forming the formyl radical. Formaldehyde was formed after adding one more hydrogen atom to the system. Finally, absorption of two hydrogen atoms to formaldehyde produces methanol molecule. This study is performed by using the all-electron mixed basis approach based on the time dependent density functional theory within the adiabatic local density approximation for an electronic ground-state configuration and the one-shot GW approximation for an electronic excited state configuration.

  1. [Effect of lead and carbon monoxide under the condition of diabetic metabolism (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlipköter, H W; Klitzke, M; Unnewehr, J

    1979-06-01

    The NZO-Mice were used to study the influence of carbon monoxide and lead under the condition of diabetic metabolism. The animals treated with 80 ppm (COHb 10.81) showed significantly lower tolerance for glucose. Even after removing the burden of carbon monoxide for 50 days, the blood sugar level after glucose tolerance test remained in experimental animals significantly higher than in controls (20-min-value). The NZO-Mice after enteral lead exposition showed no significant changes of the condition of the diabetic metabolism after the glucose tolerance test. However, the NZO-Mice, compared to NMRI mice and rats, reached significantly higher level of blood sugar.

  2. Toward Carbon Monoxide-Based Therapeutics: Critical Drug Delivery and Developability Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xingyue; Damera, Krishna; Zheng, Yueqin; Yu, Bingchen; Otterbein, Leo E; Wang, Binghe

    2016-02-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is an intrinsic signaling molecule with importance on par with that of nitric oxide. During the past decade, pharmacologic studies have amply demonstrated the therapeutic potential of carbon monoxide. However, such studies were mostly based on CO inhalation and metal-based CO-releasing molecules. The field is now at the stage that a major effort is needed to develop pharmaceutically acceptable forms of CO for delivery via various routes such as oral, injection, infusion, or topical applications. This review examines the state of the art, discusses the existing hurdles to overcome, and proposes developmental strategies necessary to address remaining drug delivery issues.

  3. Range Measurements of keV Hydrogen Ions in Solid Oxygen and Carbon Monoxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jørgen; Sørensen, H.; Andersen, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    Ranges of 1.3–3.5 keV/atom hydrogen and deuterium molecular ions have been measured by a thin-film reflection method. The technique, used here for range measurements in solid oxygen and carbon monoxide targets, is identical to the one used previously for range measurements in hydrogen and nitrogen....... The main aim was to look for phase-effects, i.e. gas-solid differences in the stopping processes. While measured ranges in solid oxygen were in agreement with known gas data, the ranges in solid carbon monoxide were up to 50% larger than those calculated from gas-stopping data. The latter result agrees...

  4. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning during Pregnancy: Presentation of a Rare Severe Case with Fetal Bladder Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Delomenie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide poisoning during pregnancy is a rare and potentially serious condition. Fetal complications are uncommon, related to anoxic lesions. The severity of these complications does not depend on the level of maternal COHb. We report the case of a 22-year-old pregnant woman who at 30 weeks of gestation had carbon monoxide poisoning secondary to a fire in her home, complicated by cardiac arrest and severe fetal damage. The child had not brain damage, but presented bladder lesions not previously described, with urinary ascites complicating megacystis.

  5. Isolated symmetrical bilateral basal ganglia T2 hyperintensity in carbon monoxide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhaschandra S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide poisoning is not uncommon during the winter months. To make a diagnosis, strong clinical suspicion and acumen, and history of the exposure are necessary. Many a time, the presenting complaints may fail to help reach a diagnosis, in the absence of history. Imaging plays a role in the diagnosis of brain injury with the characteristic features, which are correlated with the clinical profile. Isolated bilateral basal ganglia injury revealing T2 hyperintensity in MRI may be observed in acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

  6. Untangling the Energetics and Dynamics of Boron Monoxide Radical Reactions (11BO; X2Sigma+)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-15

    energy-density molecules and builds up on our previously successful synthesis of higher carbon oxides COx (x=3-6). Higher-order carbon sulfides - carbon...3.1. Crossed Beam Reactions of Boron Monoxide with Acetylene anmd Ethylene (P1, P8) The reaction dynamics of boron monoxide (BO; X2Σ...with acetylene (C2H2; X1Σg+) and with ethylene (C2H4; X1Ag) were investigated under single collision conditions at collision energy of 12 to 13 kJ mol

  7. 77 FR 31351 - Adequacy Determination for Aspen PM10 and Fort Collins Carbon Monoxide Maintenance Plans' Motor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... 93.118(e)(4), which was promulgated August 15, 1997 (62 FR 43780). We described our process for... (69 FR 40004). In addition, in certain areas with monitored ambient carbon monoxide (CO) values... AGENCY Adequacy Determination for Aspen PM and Fort Collins Carbon Monoxide Maintenance Plans'...

  8. Utility of the Measurement of Carboxyhemoglobin Level at the Site of Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Onodera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study examined the hypothesis that correlations exist between the carbon monoxide exposure time and the carboxyhemoglobin concentration at the site of carbon monoxide poisoning, using a pulse carbon monoxide oximeter in rural areas or the carboxyhemoglobin concentration measured at a given medical institution. Background. In previous studies, no definitive relationships between the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin level and the severity of carbon monoxide poisoning have been observed. Method. The subjects included patients treated for acute carbon monoxide poisoning in whom a medical emergency team was able to measure the carboxyhemoglobin level at the site of poisoning. We examined the relationship between the carboxyhemoglobin level at the site of poisoning and carbon monoxide exposure time and the relationships between the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin level and carbon monoxide exposure time. Results. A total of 10 patients met the above criteria. The carboxyhemoglobin levels at the site of poisoning were significantly and positively correlated with the exposure time (rs = 0.710, p=0.021, but the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin levels were not correlated with the exposure time. Conclusion. In rural areas, the carboxyhemoglobin level measured at the site of carbon monoxide poisoning correlated with the exposure time.

  9. Electrochemical oxidation of carbon monoxide: from platinum single crystals to low temperature fuel cells catalysts. Part I: Carbon monoxide oxidation onto low index platinum single crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PHILIP N. ROSS JR

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical oxidation of carbon monoxide and the interfacial structure of the CO adlayer (COads on platinum low index single crystals, Pt(111, Pt(100 and two reconstruction of Pt(110, were examined using the rotation disk electrode method in combination with the in situ surface X-ray diffraction scattering technique. The mechanism of CO oxidation is discussed on the basis of the findings that, depending on the potential, two energetic states of COads exist on the platinum surfaces. Thus, at lower potentials, weakly bonded states (COads,w and at higher potentials strongly bonded states (COads,s are formed. The mechanism of the oxidation of hydrogen-carbon monoxide mixtures is also proposed.

  10. Conversion of organic solids to hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Elias

    1995-01-01

    A method of converting organic solids to liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons includes impregnating an organic solid with photosensitizing ions and exposing the impregnated solid to light in a non-oxidizing atmosphere for a time sufficient to photocatalytically reduce the solid to at least one of a liquid and a gaseous hydrocarbon.

  11. Versatility of hydrocarbon production in cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Min; Wang, Weihua; Zhang, Weiwen; Chen, Lei; Lu, Xuefeng

    2017-02-01

    Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic microorganisms using solar energy, H2O, and CO2 as the primary inputs. Compared to plants and eukaryotic microalgae, cyanobacteria are easier to be genetically engineered and possess higher growth rate. Extensive genomic information and well-established genetic platform make cyanobacteria good candidates to build efficient biosynthetic pathways for biofuels and chemicals by genetic engineering. Hydrocarbons are a family of compounds consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon. Structural diversity of the hydrocarbon family is enabled by variation in chain length, degree of saturation, and rearrangements of the carbon skeleton. The diversified hydrocarbons can be used as valuable chemicals in the field of food, fuels, pharmaceuticals, nutrition, and cosmetics. Hydrocarbon biosynthesis is ubiquitous in bacteria, yeasts, fungi, plants, and insects. A wide variety of pathways for the hydrocarbon biosynthesis have been identified in recent years. Cyanobacteria may be superior chassis for hydrocabon production in a photosynthetic manner. A diversity of hydrocarbons including ethylene, alkanes, alkenes, and terpenes can be produced by cyanobacteria. Metabolic engineering and synthetic biology strategies can be employed to improve hydrocarbon production in cyanobacteria. This review mainly summarizes versatility and perspectives of hydrocarbon production in cyanobacteria.

  12. Primary biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comber, M.I.H.; Den Haan, K.H.; Djemel, N.; Eadsforth, C.V.; King, D.; Paumen, M.L.; Parkerton, T.; Dmytrasz, B.

    2012-12-15

    This report describes primary biodegradation experiments performed to determine the persistence of higher molecular weight petroleum hydrocarbons in seawater. Results from the biodegradation experiments show that the majority of tested petroleum hydrocarbons have half-lives in seawater less than 60 days.

  13. Carbon Monoxide Accumulation in the Extravehicular Mobility Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conkin, J.; Norcrosss, J. R.; Alexander, D. J.; Sanders, R. W.; Makowski, M. S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Life support technology in large closed systems like submarines and space stations catalyzes carbon monoxide (CO) to carbon dioxide, which is easily removed. However, in a small system like the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), spacesuit, CO from exogenous (contaminated oxygen (O (sub 2) supply) and endogenous (human metabolism) sources will accumulate in the free suit volume. The free volume becomes a sink for CO that is rebreathed by the astronaut. The accumulation through time depends on many variables: the amount absorbed by the astronaut, the amount produced by the astronaut (between 0.28 and 0.34 ?moles per hour per kilogram)[1], the amount that enters the suit from contaminated O (sub 2), the amount removed through suit leak, the free volume of the suit, and the O (sub 2) partial pressure[2], just to list a few. Contamination of the EMU O (sub 2) supply with no greater than 1 part per million CO was the motivation for empirical measurements from CO pulse oximetry (SpCO) as well as mathematical modeling of the EMU as a rebreather for CO. Methods: We developed a first-order differential mixing equation as well as an iterative method to compute CO accumulation in the EMU. Pre-post measurements of SpCO (Rad-57, Masimo Corporation) from EMU ground training and on-orbit extravehicular activities (EVAs) were collected. Results: Initial modeling without consideration of the astronaut as a sink but only the source of CO showed that after 8 hours breathing 100 percent O (sub 2) with a 10 milliliter per minute (760 millimeters Hg at 21 degrees Centigrade standard) suit leak, an endogenous production rate of 0.23 moles per hour per kilogram for a 70 kilogram person with 42 liters (1.5 cubic feet) free suit volume resulted in a peak CO partial pressure (pCO) of 0.047 millimeters Hg at 4.3 pounds per square inch absolute (222 millimeters Hg). Preliminary results based on a 2008 model[3] with consideration of the astronaut as a sink and source of CO

  14. Ozone precursors have regionally variable effect on radiative forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Colin

    2013-02-01

    When released near the surface, carbon monoxide, assorted nitrogen oxides (NOx ), and nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC) contribute to the production of ozone, a key component of photochemical smog, which is known to have serious deleterious effects on human health. However, when ozone gets lifted into the troposphere, it is a greenhouse gas. That these ozone precursors have such a dual-pronged effect—affecting both human health and the global radiation budget—suggests that mitigating their emissions could be a potential method to both improve air quality and dampen the rate of anthropogenic climate change.

  15. Tropospheric carbon monoxide over the Pacific during HIPPO: two-way coupled simulation of GEOS-Chem and its multiple nested models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-Y. Yan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Global chemical transport models (CTMs are used extensively to study air pollution and transport at a global scale. These models are limited by coarse horizontal resolutions, not allowing for detailed representation of small-scale nonlinear processes over the pollutant source regions. Here we couple the global GEOS-Chem CTM and its three high-resolution nested models to simulate the tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO over the Pacific Ocean during five HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO campaigns between 2009 and 2011. We develop a two-way coupler, PKUCPL, to integrate simulation results for chemical constituents from the global model (at 2.5° long. × 2° lat. and the three nested models (at 0.667° long. × 0.5° lat. covering Asia, North America and Europe, respectively. The coupler obtains nested model results to modify the global model simulation within the respective nested domains, and simultaneously acquires global model results to provide lateral boundary conditions for the nested models. Compared to the global model alone, the two-way coupled simulation results in enhanced CO concentrations in the nested domains. Sensitivity tests suggest the enhancement to be a result of improved representation of the spatial distributions of CO, nitrogen oxides and non-methane volatile organic compounds, the meteorological dependence of natural emissions, and other resolution-dependent processes. The relatively long lifetime of CO allows for the enhancement to be accumulated and carried across the globe. We find that the two-way coupled simulation increases the global tropospheric mean CO concentrations in 2009 by 10.4%, with a greater enhancement at 13.3% in the Northern Hemisphere. Coincidently, the global tropospheric mean hydroxyl radical (OH is reduced by 4.2% (as compared to the interannual variability of OH at 2.3%, resulting in a 4.2% enhancement in the methyl chloroform lifetime (MCF, via reaction with tropospheric OH. The resulting CO

  16. Method for producing diene hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsaylingol' d, A.L.; Abayev, G.N.; Mikhaylov, R.K.; Stepanov, G.A.; Troitskiy, A.P.

    1980-04-28

    A method is claimed for producing diene hydrocarbons by oxidational dehydration of paraffin or olefin hydrocarbons in a fluidized bed of a concentrate with circulation of the latter between the zones of the reaction of regeneration with the help of circulation stand pipes. To increase the efectiveness of the process, it is proposed to circulate the concentrate between the zones of reaction and regeneration, sequentially disposed in a common apparatus with a difference in the concentration of the concentrate in the circulation stand pipes disposed in the same apparatus and the zone of the reaction equal to 20-700 kg/m/sup 3/. For example, the process of oxidational dehydration of butane through the proposed system is conducted in an apparatus with a diameter of 1,000 mm, a circulation stand pipe diameter of 500 mm, a linear gas speed in the reaction zone of 0.6 m/s, and in the circulation stand pipe of 0.15 m/s. The concentration of the concentrate in the dehydration zone is 640 kg/m/sup 3/ and in the stand pipe, 970 kg/m/sup 3/. The volumetric ratio of the n-C/sub 4/H/sub 10/:air, air:vapor vapor in the form of a condensate is 1:7.2:4.5:5.5. The output of the butadiene is: in the passed butane, 32.9% and in the broken down butane, 52.5%. The butane conversion is 62.6%. The losses of the concentrate with the contact gas and with the regeneration gases is 1/3 as much for the supplied butane, than in a known method. The method makes it possible to reduce the air expenditure by 60%, to reduce the concentrate losses by 2-3 times and to simplify the industrial system.

  17. A modified microbial adhesion to hydrocarbons assay to account for the presence of hydrocarbon droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoueki, Caroline Warne; Tufenkji, Nathalie; Ghoshal, Subhasis

    2010-04-15

    The microbial adhesion to hydrocarbons (MATH) assay has been used widely to characterize microbial cell hydrophobicity and/or the extent of cell adhesion to hydrophobic liquids. The classical MATH assay involves spectrophotometric absorbance measurements of the initial and final cell concentrations in an aqueous cell suspension that has been contacted with a hydrocarbon liquid. In this study, microscopic examination of the aqueous cell suspension after contact with hexadecane or a hexadecane/toluene mixture revealed the presence of hydrocarbon droplets. The hydrocarbon droplets contributed to the absorbance values during spectrophotometric measurements and caused erroneous estimates of cell concentrations and extents of microbial adhesion. A modified MATH assay that avoids such artefacts is proposed here. In this modified assay, microscopic examination of the aqueous suspension and direct cell counts provides cell concentrations that are free of interference from hydrocarbon droplets. The presence of hydrocarbon droplets was noted in MATH assays performed with three bacterial strains, and two different hydrocarbons, at ionic strengths of 0.2 mM and 20 mM and pH 6. In these experiments, the formation of quasi-stable hydrocarbon droplets cannot be attributed to the presence of biosurfactants, or stabilization by biocolloids. The presence of surface potential at the hydrocarbon-water interface that was characterized by electrophoretic mobility of up to -1 and -2 microm cm/Vs, likely caused the formation of the quasi-stable hydrocarbon droplets that provided erroneous results using the classical MATH assay.

  18. Feasibility study of a lead monoxide-based dosimeter for quality assurance in radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K. T.; Han, M. J.; Heo, Y. J.; Park, J. E.; Lee, Y. K.; Kim, J. N.; Oh, K. M.; Cho, H. L.; Choi, Y. S.; Kim, J. Y.; Nam, S. H.; Park, S. K.

    2016-11-01

    Lately, cancer has been treated using high-energy radiation, and this requires highly reliable treatment plans. Therefore, a dosimeter with excellent performance, which is capable of precise dose measurement, is critical. In current clinical practices, an ionization chamber and diode utilizing the ionization reaction mechanism are widely used. Several studies have been carried out to determine optimal materials for the detector in a dosimeter to enable diagnostic imaging. Recently, studies with lead monoxide, which was shown to have low drift current and high resolving power at a high bias, were reported with the dosimeter exhibiting a fast response time against incident photons. This research aims to investigate the feasibility of a lead monoxide-based dosimeter for QA (quality assurance) in radiotherapy. In this paper, we report that the manufactured dosimeter shows similar linearity to a silicon diode and demonstrates similar characteristics in terms of PDD (percent depth dose) results for the thimble ionization chamber. Based on these results, it is demonstrated that the lead monoxide-based dosimeter complies with radiotherapy QA requirements, namely rapid response time, dose linearity, dose rate independence. Thus, we expect the lead monoxide-based dosimeter to be used commercially in the future.

  19. CARBON MONOXIDE FLUXES OF DIFFERENT SOIL LAYERS IN UPLAND CANADIAN BOREAL FORESTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dark or low-light carbon monoxide fluxes at upland Canadian boreal forest sites were measured on-site with static chambers and with a laboratory incubation technique using cores from different depths at the same sites. Three different upland black spruce sites, burned in 1987,199...

  20. An infrared spectroscopic study of the adsorption of carbon monoxide on silica-supported copper oxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, K.P. de; Geus, John W.; Joziasse, J.

    1980-01-01

    Adsorption of carbon monoxide at room temperature (0.1–50 Torr) on silica-supported copper oxide was studied by infrared spectroscopy. Catalysts were prepared by deposition-precipitation or impregnation. After calcination two types of adsorbed CO were identified showing absorption bands at 2136 ± 3

  1. Palladium-catalyzed carbonylative sonogashira coupling of aryl bromides using near stoichiometric carbon monoxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Karoline T.; Laursen, Simon R.; Lindhardt, Anders T.

    2014-01-01

    A general procedure for the palladium-catalyzed carbonylative Sonogashira coupling of aryl bromides is reported, using near stoichiometric amounts of carbon monoxide. The method allows a broad substrate scope in moderate to excellent yields. The formed alkynone motive serves as a platform...

  2. Characterization of Fe-Co-Mn catalysts after carbon monoxide hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez C, S.L.; Serbia, M.A.; Baechler, R.; Orozco, J. [Laboratorio de Cinetica y Catalisis, Departamento de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Los Andes, Merida 5101A (Venezuela); e-mail: goncor@ula.ve

    2003-07-01

    An Fe-Co-Mn catalysts series after hydrogenation of carbon monoxide has been characterized. The XRD analysis shows the magnetite as main crystalline phase after reaction, in addition of carbon and carbide phases. All these phases lead to hydrogen consumption and oxidation rate changes on Fe-Co-Mn catalysts. A phase transformation superficial diagram is analysed. (Author)

  3. Synthesis of Diethyl Oxalate by a Coupling-Regeneration Reaction of Carbon Monoxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fandong Meng; Genhui Xu; Baowei Wang; Xinbin Ma

    2002-01-01

    This article describes a process for the synthesis of diethyl oxalate by a coupling reaction ofcarbon monoxide, catalyzed by palladium in the presence of ethyl nitrite. The kinetics and mechanism ofthe coupling and regeneration reaction are also discussed. This paper presents the results of a scale-uptest of the catalyst and the process based on an a priori computer simulation.

  4. Short-term effects of carbon monoxide on mortality : An analysis within the APHEA project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samoli, Evangelia; Touloumi, Giota; Schwartz, Joel; Anderson, Hugh Ross; Schindler, Christian; Forsberg, Bertil; Vigotti, Maria Angela; Vonk, Judith; Kosnik, Mitja; Skorkovsky, Jiri; Katsouyanni, Klea

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We investigated the short-term effects of carbon monoxide on total and cardiovascular mortality in 19 European cities participating in the APHEA-2 (Air Pollution and Health: A European Approach) project. METHODS: We examined the association using hierarchical models implemented in two st

  5. The impacts of temperature on the absorption spectral lines of carbon monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Jianqiang; Xu Yuanze; Gao Xiaorong; Wang Li; Wang Zeyong, E-mail: jianqguo@home.swjtu.edu.cn [College of Physical Science and Technology, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China)

    2011-02-01

    In order to study the change of temperature on the effects of carbon monoxide absorption spectral lines, first of all proceed from the principle of absorption spectra, using theoretical analysis method, and the transmission and absorption database of the high-resolution molecular educed the carbon monoxide absorption spectrum intensity of spectral lines, integrated widening line type function and absorption coefficient concerned with temperature, then we got the change curve between carbon monoxide absorption spectrum intensity of spectral lines, integrated widening line type function and absorption coefficient with temperature by the numerical simulation of MATLAB, and analyzed and discussed the relationship between the temperature and them. The results showed that the temperature on the effects of carbon monoxide absorption spectral lines, especially on an Integrated widening line type function is complex, and different laser frequencies will also affect the relationship of the line type function and the absorption coefficient change with temperature, which has important reference value for the absorption and measurement of carbon in practical application.

  6. Separation of hydrogen from carbon monoxide using a hollow fiber polyimide membrane: experimental and simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peer, M.; Mehdi Kamali, S.; Mahdeyarfar, M.; Mohammadi, T. [Research Laboratory for Separation Processes, Chemical Engineering Department, Tehran (Iran)

    2007-10-15

    The separation of hydrogen from carbon monoxide (syngas ratio adjustment) with polymeric membranes was investigated in this work. A polyimide hollow fiber membrane module was used for hydrogen separation. This polymer has shown large permeability and selectivity for hydrogen separation (selectivity of ca. 30). Permeation tests were carried out at different feed conditions. Feed flow rates were varied between 150-300 mL/min, temperature was varied in the range of 20-80 C and feed pressure was varied between 5-9 bar. Mixtures containing 0-50 % carbon monoxide were used when carrying out experiments. Measured membrane permeances for hydrogen and carbon monoxide were about 70-100 GPU (gas permeation units) and 3-5.5 GPU, respectively. In addition, a mathematical model for simulation of gas separation in hollow fiber membrane modules with all flow patterns (crossflow, countercurrent and cocurrent) was presented. This model can be used for calculation of membrane performance or its required surface area for a specific separation. Experimental results have shown good correlation with simulation results. Plasticization, competitive sorption and concentration polarization effect of carbon monoxide on membrane performance is shown with experimental results. This effect reduced hydrogen permeances in mixed gas experiments. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  7. Chemical production from waste carbon monoxide: its potential for energy conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrmann, C.A.; Schiefelbein, G.F.; Molton, P.M.; Li, C.T.; Elliott, D.C.; Baker, E.G.

    1977-11-01

    Results of a study of the potential for energy conservation by producing chemicals from by-product or waste carbon monoxide (CO) from industrial sources are summarized. Extensive compilations of both industrial sources and uses for carbon monoxide were developed and included. Reviews of carbon monoxide purification and concentration technology and preliminary economic evaluations of carbon monoxide concentration, pipeline transportation and utilization of CO in the synthesis of ammonia and methanol are included. Preliminary technical and economic feasibility studies were made of producing ammonia and methanol from the by-product CO produced by a typical elemental phosphorus plant. Methanol synthesis appears to be more attractive than ammonia synthesis when using CO feedstock because of reduced water gas shift and carbon dioxide removal requirements. The economic studies indicate that methanol synthesis from CO appears to be competitive with conventional technology when the price of natural gas exceeds $0.82/million Btu, while ammonia synthesis from CO is probably not competitive until the price of natural gas exceeds $1.90/million Btu. It is concluded that there appears to be considerable potential for energy conservation in the chemical industry, by collecting CO rather than flaring it, and using it to make major chemicals such as ammonia and methanol.

  8. Characteristics of Photoacoustic Spectroscopy Detection for Carbon Monoxide Gas Based on DFB Diode Laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Weigen; PENG Xiaojuan; LIU Bingjie; SUN Caixin

    2012-01-01

    The dissolved gas analysis is one of the most effective and convenient methods to diagnose the early discharge faults of transformers. When the fault involves the solid insulation, oil-paper insulation cracks and releases carbon monoxide (CO) gas. Therefore, the detection of CO can forecast the potential inner faults of oil-filled transformers.

  9. Effects of chemical modifications of heme on kinetics of carbon monoxide binding to free home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sono, M.; McCray, J.A.; Asakura, T.

    1977-11-10

    The rates of carbon monoxide recombination to six different kinds of chemically modified heme with various substituents at positions 2 and 4 have been studied in the protein-free state (free heme) by the laser flash photolysis method in a mixture of ethylene glycol and 0.02 N NaOH (80:20, v/v) (80% ethylene glycol). The carbon monoxide combination rate constants to the various free hemes obtained in 80% ethylene glycol at 22/sup 0/ were 1.4, 2.1, 2.1, 3.7, 4.5, and 6.4 x 10/sup 7/ M/sup -1/ s/sup -1/ for 2,4-diformyl-, spirographis (2-formyl-4-vinyl-), isospirographis (2-vinyl-4-formyl-) proto-(2,4-divinyl-), deutero-(2,4-dihydrogen-), and meso-(2,4-diethyl-), hemes, respectively. This order of increase in carbon monoxide combination rate constants for these hemes correlates exactly with decrease in electron attractivity of heme side chains (i.e., increase in pK/sub 3/, basicity of nitrogen base of prophyrin) and is completely opposite to that obtained for carbon monoxide binding to these hemes reconstituted with apomyoglobin. Contrary to the results for myoglobin, the two isomers of monoformyl-monovinylheme exhibited similar optical properties and the same combination rate constant indicating that the differences in the optical and kinetic results observed in myoglobin are due to different interactions of these isomeric hemes with protein.

  10. Calculated Specific Volumes and Magnetic Moments of the 3d Transition Metal Monoxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Hans Lomholt; Andersen, O. K.; Johansson, B.

    1980-01-01

    We have performed self-consistent, spin-polarized band structure calculations as a function of the lattice spacing for the 3d metal monoxides in order to obtain the equilibrium lattice constants. The calculated binding from the 3d electrons and the occurrence of antiferromagnetism account...

  11. Gaseous persufflation with carbon monoxide during ischemia protects the isolated liver and enhances energetic recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetting, Martina; Leuvenink, Henri; Dombrowski, Frank; Minor, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Background: The benefit of carbon monoxide as applied by controlled, continuous gaseous persufflation during liver preservation on postischemic graft recovery was investigated in an isolated rat liver model. Methods: Livers from male Wistar rats were retrieved 30 min after cardiac arrest of the dono

  12. Multimodel simulations of carbon monoxide: comparison with observations and projected near-future changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shindell, D.T.; Krol, M.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/078760410

    2006-01-01

    We analyze present-day and future carbon monoxide (CO) simulations in 26 state-ofthe- art atmospheric chemistry models run to study future air quality and climate change. In comparison with near-global satellite observations from the MOPITT instrument and local surface measurements, the models show

  13. Multimodel simulations of carbon monoxide: Comparison with observations and projected near-future changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shindell, D.T.; Faluvegi, G.; Stevenson, D.S.; Krol, M.C.; Emmons, L.K.; Lamarque, J.F.; Petron, G.; Dentener, F.J.; Ellingsen, K.; Schultz, M.G.; Wild, O.; Amann, M.; Atherton, C.S.; Bergmann, D.J.; Bey, I.; Butler, T.; Cofala, J.; Collins, W.J.; Derwent, R.G.; Doherty, R.M.; Drevet, J.; Eskes, H.J.; Fiore, A.M.; Gauss, M.; Hauglustaine, D.A.; Horowitz, L.W.; Isaksen, I.S.A.; Lawrence, M.G.; Montanaro, V.; Muller, J.F.; Pitari, G.; Prather, M.J.; Pyle, J.A.; Rast, S.; Rodriguez, J.M.; Sanderson, M.G.; Savage, N.H.; Strahan, S.E.; Sudo, K.; Szopa, S.; Unger, N.; Noije, van T.P.C.; Zeng, G.

    2006-01-01

    We analyze present-day and future carbon monoxide (CO) simulations in 26 state-of-the-art atmospheric chemistry models run to study future air quality and climate change. In comparison with near-global satellite observations from the MOPITT instrument and local surface measurements, the models show

  14. Short-term effects of carbon monoxide on mortality : An analysis within the APHEA project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samoli, Evangelia; Touloumi, Giota; Schwartz, Joel; Anderson, Hugh Ross; Schindler, Christian; Forsberg, Bertil; Vigotti, Maria Angela; Vonk, Judith; Kosnik, Mitja; Skorkovsky, Jiri; Katsouyanni, Klea

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We investigated the short-term effects of carbon monoxide on total and cardiovascular mortality in 19 European cities participating in the APHEA-2 (Air Pollution and Health: A European Approach) project. METHODS: We examined the association using hierarchical models implemented in two

  15. Microwave Radiometer for Spectral Observations of Mesospheric Carbon Monoxide at 115 GHz Over Kharkiv, Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piddyachiy, Valeriy; Shulga, Valerii; Myshenko, Valeriy; Korolev, Alexey; Antyufeyev, Oleksandr; Shulga, Dmytro; Forkman, Peter

    2016-11-01

    We present the results of the development of high sensitivity microwave radiometer designed for observation of the atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO) emission lines at 115 GHz. The receiver of this radiometer has the double-sideband noise temperature of 250 K at a temperature of 10°C. To date, this is the best noise performance for uncooled Schottky diode mixer receiver systems. The designed radiometer was tested during the 2014-2015 period at observations of the carbon monoxide emission lines over Kharkiv, Ukraine (50° N, 36.3° E). These tests have shown the reliability of the receiver system, which allows us in the future to use designed radiometer for continuous monitoring of carbon monoxide. The first observations of the atmospheric carbon monoxide spectral lines over Kharkiv have confirmed seasonal changes in the CO abundance and gave us reasons to assume the spread of the influence of the polar vortex on the state of the atmosphere up to the latitude of 50° N where our measurement system is located.

  16. Carbon monoxide oxidation using Zn-Cu-Ti hydrotalcite-derived catalysts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    O Saber; T Zaki

    2014-07-01

    Multioxide catalysts of zinc, copper and titanium with different ratios obtained from layered double hydroxide (LDH) precursors were used in the oxidation of carbon monoxide. The catalysts were characterized by energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, thermal analyses (TG, DTG and DTA) and scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction showed different phases of double hydroxide structures. On increasing the percentage of zinc, hydrotalcite structure became the main phase in these samples. SEM images confirmed the presence of layered double hydroxide as plate-like structure. Experimental results indicated a sharp increase in the catalytic activities of the calcined samples towards the oxidation of carbon monoxide at temperatures in the range of 225-275°C. High conversion of carbon monoxide (90 ∼ 95%) was achieved at reaction temperature of 275°C by samples having ZnTiO3 as a main phase. These results suggested that hydrotalcite structure of Zn-Ti has a positive catalytic effect towards carbon monoxide oxidation.

  17. 75 FR 54773 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Minnesota; Carbon Monoxide (CO...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... ambient monitoring data collected between 1998 and July of 2009, that the Twin Cities area is meeting both... Monoxide (CO) Limited Maintenance Plan for the Twin Cities Area AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... Minneapolis-St. Paul (Twin Cities) area. The one hour CO NAAQS and eight hour CO NAAQS are 35 parts...

  18. Inhalation Toxicology. 11. The Effect of Elevated Temperature on Carbon Monoxide Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    TEMPERATURE ON CARBON MONOXIDE TOXICITY INTRODUCTION The use of the laboratory rat as an animal model for determining the toxicity of combustion gases is...response of rats during exercise. J Appl Physiol. 1968; 24:747-50. 7. Hubbard RW, Matthew WT, Linduska JD, et al. The laboratory rat as a model for

  19. 40 CFR 52.1164 - Localized high concentrations-carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... have developed and have begun to implement a program to identify urban and suburban core areas and... control strategies to insure that such air quality standards will be achieved at such areas. Plans shall... implemented strategies will not create carbon monoxide violations elsewhere in the vicinity after the measures...

  20. Statistical parametric mapping in brain single photon computed emission tomography after carbon monoxide intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, N; Nohara, S; Matsuda, H; Sumiya, H; Noguchi, K; Shimizu, M; Tsuji, S; Kinuya, S; Shuke, N; Yokoyama, K; Seto, H

    2002-04-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to assess regional cerebral blood flow in patients after carbon monoxide intoxication by using brain single photon emission computed tomography and statistical parametric mapping. Eight patients with delayed neuropsychiatric sequelae and ten patients with no neuropsychiatric symptoms after carbon monoxide intoxication were studied with brain single photon emission tomography imaging with 99mTc-hexamethyl-propyleneamine oxime. Forty-four control subjects were also studied. We used the adjusted regional cerebral blood flow images in relative flow distribution (normalization of global cerebral blood flow for each subject to 50 ml x 100 g(-1) x min(-1) with proportional scaling) to compare these groups with statistical parametric mapping. Using this technique, significantly decreased regional cerebral blood flow was noted extensively in the bilateral frontal lobes as well as the bilateral insula and a part of the right temporal lobe in the patients with delayed neuropsychiatric sequelae as compared with normal volunteers (Pparametric mapping is a useful technique for highlighting differences in regional cerebral blood flow in patients following carbon monoxide intoxication as compared with normal volunteers. The selectively reduced blood flow noted in this investigation supports the contention that the decrease following carbon monoxide intoxication may be prolonged and further worsen in the frontal lobe. In addition, the present study may help to clarify the characteristics of the pathophysiological alteration underlying delayed neuropsychiatric sequelae.

  1. 40 CFR 50.8 - National primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.8 National primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide. (a) The national primary ambient air quality standards... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National primary ambient air...

  2. Microwave Radiometer for Spectral Observations of Mesospheric Carbon Monoxide at 115 GHz Over Kharkiv, Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piddyachiy, Valeriy; Shulga, Valerii; Myshenko, Valeriy; Korolev, Alexey; Antyufeyev, Oleksandr; Shulga, Dmytro; Forkman, Peter

    2017-03-01

    We present the results of the development of high sensitivity microwave radiometer designed for observation of the atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO) emission lines at 115 GHz. The receiver of this radiometer has the double-sideband noise temperature of 250 K at a temperature of 10°C. To date, this is the best noise performance for uncooled Schottky diode mixer receiver systems. The designed radiometer was tested during the 2014-2015 period at observations of the carbon monoxide emission lines over Kharkiv, Ukraine (50° N, 36.3° E). These tests have shown the reliability of the receiver system, which allows us in the future to use designed radiometer for continuous monitoring of carbon monoxide. The first observations of the atmospheric carbon monoxide spectral lines over Kharkiv have confirmed seasonal changes in the CO abundance and gave us reasons to assume the spread of the influence of the polar vortex on the state of the atmosphere up to the latitude of 50° N where our measurement system is located.

  3. [Suicidal carbon monoxide poisoning in an electric car. An unusual case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, M; Zollinger, U

    1994-01-01

    The authors report a case of a man who committed suicide by poisoning with carbon monoxide in his electric vehicle. He applied a small motor generator with no exhaust normally used for charging the vehicle's batteries at home, that was found on the loading space behind the seat. This demonstrates the value of a thorough scene investigation.

  4. Anaesthetic properties of carbon monoxide and other gases in relation to plants, insects, and centipedes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, P.W.

    1935-01-01

    The anaesthetic effect of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, propylene, butylene, ethylene, and acetylene, when mixed with oxygen, was tested on ten different species of insects and centipedes. The lowest concentrations found to cause anaesthesia are given in per cent by volume as follows: propylene, for centipede, 30; katydid, 75; rose chafer, 60. Carbon monoxide, for centipede, 81.5; katydid, 89, rose chafer, 85. Butylene, for centipede, 5; katydid, 10; rose chafer, 40. Ethylene or acetylene, for centipede, katydid, and rose chafer, 100. Carbon dioxide, for rose chafer, 30. Ethylene was the most effective plant anaesthetic, 0.0005 per cent stopping growth movements of tomato and sunflower plants as shown by motion pictures; 0.001 per cent stopped elongation of sweet pea seedlings, while 0.00001 per cent retarded elongation nearly 50 per cent. The degree of retardation in growth from ethylene gas varied with the concentration and the plant species. Acetylene and propylene were about equally effective as plant anaesthetics. Both were approximately 10 times as effective as carbon monoxide. Mimosa pudica lost its capacity to respond to external stimuli while being exposed to 0.25 per cent of carbon monoxide, but became normal again upon being removed from the gas. 3 references, 4 tables.

  5. Oxalyl chloride as a practical carbon monoxide source for carbonylation reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen V F; Ulven, Trond

    2015-01-01

    A method for generation of high-quality carbon monoxide by decomposition of oxalyl chloride in an aqueous hydroxide solution is described. The usefulness of the method is demonstrated in the synthesis of heterocycles and for hydroxy-, alkoxy-, amino-, and reductive carbonylation reactions...

  6. Carbon Monoxide Releasing Molecule-A1 (CORM-A1) Improves Neurogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeida, Ana S; Soares, Nuno L; Vieira, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia and neurodegenerative diseases lead to impairment or death of neurons in the central nervous system. Stem cell based therapies are promising strategies currently under investigation. Carbon monoxide (CO) is an endogenous product of heme degradation by heme oxygenase (HO) activity...

  7. Rapid Evaluation of the Severity and Prognosis of Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. N. Marupov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess whether cardiointervalography (CIG might be used to define the health status of patients with carbon monoxide poisoning. Subjects and methods. The autonomic nervous system (ANS was studied in 114 patients aged 16 to 80 years with carbon monohydrate poisoning who were treated at the N. V. Sklifosovsky Research Institute of Emergency Care, Moscow, in 2004—2009. Cardiointervalographic readings were analyzed in relation to condition severity and disease outcome. Results. Within the first hours after carbon monoxide poisoning, the function of the ANS was found to be impaired, which was associated with the development of hypersym-pathicotonia caused by the increased activity of its sympathetic part and the decreased tone of the parasympathet-ic one. The magnitude of hypersympathicotonia depended on the severity of poisoning and the outcome of the disease. The preponderance of ANS parasympathetic part tone suggests disturbed adaptive and compensatory mechanisms and poor prognosis. Conclusion. Cardiointervalography is recommended for the objective evaluation of the severity of carbon monoxide poisoning and the efficiency of performed treatment and prediction of the outcome of the disease. Key words: carbon monoxide, autonomic nervous system, cardiointervalography, adaptive and compensatory mechanisms.

  8. Occupational poisoning by carbon monoxide aboard a gas carrier. Report on 8 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, David; Loddé, Brice; Jegaden, Dominique; Bronstein, Jean-Ariel; Pougnet, Richard; Bell, S; Dewitte, Jean-Dominique

    2010-01-01

    - To determine the accidental factors and the clinical symptoms in eight cases of occupational poisoning of port workers by carbon monoxide. - To consider the primary prevention of this serious pathology occurring at work. - To analyze the circumstances of the exposure to carbon monoxide in the employees in the naval repair sector. - To indicate the systemic failures causing this accidental poisoning, the means for early diagnosis and appropriate treatment, and to discuss the prevention of such accidents. The poisoning occurred in eight mechanics and electricians working without any protective means in a gas carrier tank in dry dock. The employees, unaware of carbon monoxide exposure, stayed for 45 minutes in an atmosphere polluted with carbon monoxide concentrations of over 500 ppm. The main complaints were of headache, muscular weakness, and drowsiness. No post-interval syndrome was found three weeks after poisoning. The levels of carboxyhaemoglobin varied from 1.8 to 31.2%. Early normal pressure oxygen therapy reduced the symptoms. No delayed syndrome was found three weeks after poisoning. The inclusion of poisonous gas in gas-free certification, adherence to maritime harbour regulations, greater respect for working instructions in hazardous environments, and the use of detectors appropriate to the conditions for each ship would avoid exposure and decrease the risk of poisoning.

  9. Hydrocarbon degradation abilities of psychrotolerant Bacillus strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulya Kolsal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradation requires identification of hydrocarbon degrading microbes and the investigation of psychrotolerant hydrocarbon degrading microbes is essential for successful biodegradation in cold seawater. In the present study, a total of 597 Bacillus isolates were screened to select psychrotolerant strains and 134 isolates were established as psychrotolerant on the basis of their ability to grow at 7 °C. Hydrocarbon degradation capacities of these 134 psychrotolerant isolate were initially investigated on agar medium containing different hydrocarbons (naphthalene, n-hexadecane, mineral oil and 47 positive isolates were grown in broth medium containing hydrocarbons at 20 °C under static culture. Bacterial growth was estimated in terms of viable cell count (cfu ml–1. Isolates showing the best growth in static culture were further grown in presence of crude oil under shaking culture and viable cell count was observed between 8.3 × 105–7.4 × 108 cfu ml–1. In the final step, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH (chrysene and naphthalene degradation yield of two most potent isolates was determined by GC-MS along with the measurement of pH, biomass and emulsification activities. Results showed that isolates Ege B.6.2i and Ege B.1.4Ka have shown 60% and 36% chrysene degradation yield, respectively, while 33% and 55% naphthalene degradation yield, respectively, with emulsification activities ranges between 33–50%. These isolates can be used to remove hydrocarbon contamination from different environments, particularly in cold regions.

  10. Waste Plastic Converting into Hydrocarbon Fuel Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarker, Moinuddin; Mamunor Rashid, Mohammad; Molla, Mohammad

    2010-09-15

    The increased demand and high prices for energy sources are driving efforts to convert organic compounds into useful hydrocarbon fuels. Although much of this work has focused on biomass, there are strong benefits to deriving fuels from waste plastic material. Natural State Research Inc. (NSR) has invented a simple and economically viable process to decompose the hydrocarbon polymers of waste plastic into the shorter chain hydrocarbon of liquid fuel (patent pending). The method and principle of the production / process will be discussed. Initial tests with several widely used polymers indicate a high potential for commercialization.

  11. Using supercritical fluids to refine hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarbro, Stephen Lee

    2015-06-09

    A system and method for reactively refining hydrocarbons, such as heavy oils with API gravities of less than 20 degrees and bitumen-like hydrocarbons with viscosities greater than 1000 cp at standard temperature and pressure, using a selected fluid at supercritical conditions. A reaction portion of the system and method delivers lightweight, volatile hydrocarbons to an associated contacting unit which operates in mixed subcritical/supercritical or supercritical modes. Using thermal diffusion, multiphase contact, or a momentum generating pressure gradient, the contacting unit separates the reaction products into portions that are viable for use or sale without further conventional refining and hydro-processing techniques.

  12. Emulsification of hydrocarbons by subsurface bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francy, D.S.; Thomas, J.M.; Raymond, R.L.; Ward, C.H.

    1991-01-01

    Biosurfactants have potential for use in enhancement of in situ biorestoration by increasing the bioavailability of contaminants. Microorganisms isolated from biostimulated, contaminated and uncontaminated zones at the site of an aviation fuel spill and hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms isolated from sites contaminated with unleaded gasoline were examined for their abilities to emulsify petroleum hydrocarbons. Emulsifying ability was quantified by a method involving agitation and visual inspection. Biostimulated-zone microbes and hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms were the best emulsifiers as compared to contaminated and uncontaminated zone microbes. Biostimulation (nutrient and oxygen addition) may have been the dominant factor which selected for and encouraged growth of emulsifiers; exposure to hydrocarbon was also important. Biostimulated microorganisms were better emulsifiers of aviation fuel (the contaminant hydrocarbon) than of heavier hydrocarbon to which they were not previously exposed. By measuring surface tension changes of culture broths, 11 out of 41 emulsifiers tested were identified as possible biosurfactant producers and two isolates produced large surface tension reductions indicating the high probability of biosurfactant production.Biosurfactants have potential for use in enhancement of in situ biorestoration by increasing the bioavailability of contaminants. Microorganisms isolated from biostimulated, contaminated and uncontaminated zones at the site of an aviation fuel spill and hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms isolated from sites contaminated with unleaded gasoline were examined for their abilities to emulsify petroleum hydrocarbons. Emulsifying ability was quantified by a method involving agitation and visual inspection. Biostimulated-zone microbes and hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms were the best emulsifiers as compared to contaminated and uncontaminated zone microbes. Biostimulation (nutrient and oxygen addition) may have been

  13. [Fatal risks in the domestic use of gaseous hydrocarbons examined in the light of legislation in force].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreschi, C; Ravazzoni, A

    1990-01-01

    The authors, in order to identify the causes of mortal poisonings by carbon monoxide in the domestic use of gaseous hydrocarbons and to evaluate the efficacy of the inherent law in force, in particular, the italian law 5 March 1990, n. 46, report 43 cases of mortal poisoning occurred in the Parma district and observed at the Istituto di Medicina legal of Parma University. The authors, for each of these cases, have pointed out responsibilities, causal factors and mechanisms, examining also judicial inquiries and, when possible, experts' technical reports. From the evaluation of the results of their researches, the authors, even if with some perplexity, judge the law in force as suitable to a correct prevention, but only on condition that the controls provided for in law, should be actually carried out. Finally, they evidence a lacking of publicizing about the mortal risk deriving from the non-observation of the legal regulations.

  14. Disulfide S-monoxides convert xanthine dehydrogenase into oxidase in rat liver cytosol more potently than their respective disulfides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, Satoru; Fujita, Junko; Nakanishi, Masahiko; Wada, Shun-ich; Fujimoto, Yohko

    2008-05-01

    Xanthine oxidase (XO)/xanthine dehydrogenase (XD) oxidizes oxypurines to uric acid, with only the XO form producing reactive oxygen species. In the present study, the effects of cystamine S-monoxide and cystine S-monoxide (disulfide S-monoxides) on the conversion of XD to XO in rat liver were examined. A partially purified enzyme fraction from the rat liver was incubated with xanthine in the presence or absence of NAD+, and the uric acid formed was measured by HPLC. Under basal conditions, XO activity represented about 15% of the total XO plus XD activity. Cystamine S-monoxide and cystine S-monoxide converted XD into XO in a dose-dependent manner, and the concentrations required to increase XO activity by 50% were approximately 1 and 2 microM, respectively. Their respective thiols (cysteamine and cysteine) and disulfides (cystamine and cystine) up to 10 microM showed weak or no effects on the activities of XO and XD and their conversion. Experiments utilizing a sulfhydryl reducing reagent (dithiothreitol) and sulfhydryl modifiers (4,4'-dithiodipyridine and 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene) indicated that disulfide S-monoxides-induced conversion of XD to XO occurs via disulfide bridge formation in XD, but not the modification of sulfhydryl groups. These results suggest that disulfide S-monoxides have the potential to increase the generation of reactive oxygen species through the conversion of XD to XO in liver.

  15. 40 CFR 86.317-79 - Hydrocarbon analyzer specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrocarbon analyzer specifications....317-79 Hydrocarbon analyzer specifications. (a) Hydrocarbon measurements are to be made with a heated... measures hydrocarbon emissions on a dry basis is permitted for gasoline-fueled testing; Provided,...

  16. 40 CFR 92.119 - Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. 92... Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. The HFID hydrocarbon analyzer shall receive the following initial and... into service and at least annually thereafter, the HFID hydrocarbon analyzer shall be adjusted...

  17. 40 CFR 86.1321-94 - Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. 86... Procedures § 86.1321-94 Hydrocarbon analyzer calibration. The FID hydrocarbon analyzer shall receive the... into service and at least annually thereafter, the FID hydrocarbon analyzer shall be adjusted...

  18. 21 CFR 178.3530 - Isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons, synthetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons, synthetic... hydrocarbons, synthetic. Isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons, synthetic, may be safely used in the production... isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons, produced by synthesis from petroleum gases consist of a mixture of...

  19. 21 CFR 172.882 - Synthetic isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Synthetic isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons. 172... hydrocarbons. Synthetic isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons may be safely used in food, in accordance with the... liquid hydrocarbons meeting the following specifications: Boiling point 93-260 °C as determined by...

  20. Stable isotope composition of atmospheric carbon monoxide. A modelling study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gromov, Sergey S.

    2014-11-01

    This study aims at an improved understanding of the stable carbon and oxygen isotope composition of the carbon monoxide (CO) in the global atmosphere by means of numerical simulations. At first, a new kinetic chemistry tagging technique for the most complete parameterisation of isotope effects has been introduced into the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) framework. Incorporated into the ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) general circulation model, an explicit treatment of the isotope effects on the global scale is now possible. The expanded model system has been applied to simulate the chemical system containing up to five isotopologues of all carbon- and oxygen-bearing species, which ultimately determine the δ{sup 13}C, δ{sup 18}O and Δ{sup 17}O isotopic signatures of atmospheric CO. As model input, a new stable isotope-inclusive emission inventory for the relevant trace gases has been compiled. The uncertainties of the emission estimates and of the resulting simulated mixing and isotope ratios have been analysed. The simulated CO mixing and stable isotope ratios have been compared to in-situ measurements from ground-based observatories and from the civil-aircraft-mounted CARIBIC-1 measurement platform. The systematically underestimated {sup 13}CO/{sup 12}CO ratios of earlier, simplified modelling studies can now be partly explained. The EMAC simulations do not support the inferences of those studies, which suggest for CO a reduced input of the highly depleted in {sup 13}C methane oxidation source. In particular, a high average yield of 0.94 CO per reacted methane (CH{sub 4}) molecule is simulated in the troposphere, to a large extent due to the competition between the deposition and convective transport processes affecting the CH{sub 4} to CO reaction chain intermediates. None of the other factors, assumed or disregarded in previous studies, however hypothesised to have the potential in enriching tropospheric CO in {sup 13}C, were found significant

  1. Occupational exposure to gases, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds in biomass-fired power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumpponen, M; Rönkkömäki, H; Pasanen, P; Laitinen, J

    2013-01-01

    The combustion of fuels produces air pollutants in the form of gases, organic compounds, and particulate matter. However, although the environmental aspect of these agents has been examined, workers' exposure to them is still a neglected issue. The purpose of this study was to measure maintenance and ash removal workers' multiple exposures to gases, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during their work tasks in biomass-fired power plants. Our hygienic measurements revealed that carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, ammonia and sulfur dioxide were the most common gases that the workers were exposed to during their tasks. Their average concentrations were 0.45 ppm, 0.06 ppm, 0.11 ppm and 0.42 ppm, respectively. Phenanthrene and naphthalene were the most prominent PAHs. At the same sampling points, the most commonly found VOCs were aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons and turpentines. The calculated total PAH concentrations were less than 7% of benzo[a]pyrene's eight-hour occupational exposure limit, and the total VOC concentrations were below the Finnish reference value for the normal industrial level in all measured work tasks. The most evident health effect caused by multiple exposures to gases was upper respiratory track irritation, followed by the disruption of oxygen transport, and finally central nervous system disorders. We recommend powered air respirators with ABEK+P3 cartridges and carbon monoxide gas detectors as the minimum requirement for those working inside biomass-fired power plant boilers, and compressed air breathing apparatus as the best form of protection.

  2. Informative document halogenated hydrocarbon-containing waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen H

    1992-01-01

    This "Informative document halogenated hydrocarbon-containing waste" forms part of a series of "Informative documents waste materials". These documents are conducted by RIVM on the instructions of the Directorate General for the Environment, Waste Materials Directorate, in behal

  3. Quantitative Hydrocarbon Energies from the PMO Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Charles F.

    1979-01-01

    Details a procedure for accurately calculating the quantum mechanical energies of hydrocarbons using the perturbational molecular orbital (PMO) method, which does not require the use of a computer. (BT)

  4. Compost bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) was reduced by 17% in the .... Identification of bacterial isolates was done by biochemical tests. Atagana 1517 ..... control the prolonged thermophilic period in two-phase olive oil mill.

  5. Infrared Spectra of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Bakes, E. L. O.

    2000-01-01

    We have computed the synthetic infrared spectra of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons containing up to 54 carbon atoms. The species studied include ovalene, circumcoronene, dicoronylene, and hexabenzocoronene. We report spectra for anions, neutrals, cations, and multiply charged cations.

  6. Molecular characterization of autochthonous hydrocarbon utilizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria in water, soil and sediment samples collected from ... of the genomic DNA extracted from each bacterial isolate was amplified with ... that16S rRNA-gene-based techniques be used when studying the bacterial ...

  7. Gravity observations for hydrocarbon reservoir monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glegola, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis the added value of gravity observations for hydrocarbon reservoir monitoring and characterization is investigated. Reservoir processes and reservoir types most suitable for gravimetric monitoring are identified. Major noise sources affecting time-lapse gravimetry are analyzed. The

  8. Determination of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cinthia

    2013-08-01

    Aug 1, 2013 ... In this study, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated with airborne particulate ... compounds from the heavily industrialized Vaal Triangle region. ... benzene ring as cluster, linear or angular (Maliszewska-.

  9. Biodegradation of polycyclic hydrocarbons by Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that are present in anthracene oil (a distillation product obtained from coal tar) was demonstrated. Analysis by capillary gas chromatography and high-performance li...

  10. Volatilisation of aromatic hydrocarbons from soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhardt, B.; Christensen, T.H.

    1996-01-01

    The non-steady-state fluxes of aromatic hydrocarbons were measured in the laboratory from the surface of soils contaminated with coal tar Four soil samples from a former gasworks site were used for the experiments. The fluxes were quantified for 11 selected compounds, 4 mono- and 7 polycyclic...... aromatic hydrocarbons, for a period of up to 8 or 16 days. The concentrations of the selected compounds in the soils were between 0.2 and 3,100 mu g/g. The study included the experimental determination of the distribution coefficient of the aromatic hydrocarbons between the sorbed phase and the water under...... saturated conditions. The determined distribution coefficients showed that the aromatic hydrocarbons were more strongly sorbed to the total organic carbon including the coal tar pitch - by a factor of 8 to 25 - than expected for natural organic matter. The fluxes were also estimated using an analytical...

  11. Biodegradation of polycyclic hydrocarbons by Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that are present in anthracene oil (a distillation product obtained from coal tar) was demonstrated. Analysis by capillary gas chromatography and high-performance li...

  12. Carbon monoxide is not always a poison gas for human organism: Physiological and pharmacological features of CO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olas, Beata

    2014-10-05

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is an odorless, colorless and non-irritating gas. Even a small amount of CO exposure is possibly associated with specific toxic effects. CO is also produced endogenously in the body as a byproduct of heme degradation catalyzed by heme oxygenase. More recently CO has been identified as a gasotransmitter in various biological systems. However, the biological role and the therapeutic potential of carbon monoxide is not clear. This review summarizes the negative and the positive functions of carbon monoxide in various biological systems, including cardiovascular system.

  13. Macroporous polymer foams by hydrocarbon templating

    OpenAIRE

    Shastri, Venkatram Prasad; Martin, Ivan; Langer, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Porous polymeric media (polymer foams) are utilized in a wide range of applications, such as thermal and mechanical insulators, solid supports for catalysis, and medical devices. A process for the production of polymer foams has been developed. This process, which is applicable to a wide range of polymers, uses a hydrocarbon particulate phase as a template for the precipitation of the polymer phase and subsequent pore formation. The use of a hydrocarbon template allows for enhanced control ov...

  14. Zeolitic catalytic conversion of alochols to hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Davison, Brian H.; Keller, Martin

    2017-01-03

    A method for converting an alcohol to a hydrocarbon, the method comprising contacting said alcohol with a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst at a temperature of at least 100.degree. C. and up to 550.degree. C., wherein said alcohol can be produced by a fermentation process, said metal is a positively-charged metal ion, and said metal-loaded zeolite catalyst is catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon.

  15. Pyrolysis of hydrocarbons from lignite semicoking tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platonov, V.V.; Ryl' tsova, S.V.; Proskuryakov, V.A.; Rozental, D.A.; Polovetskaya, O.S.

    2000-07-01

    Pyrolysis of hydrocarbons from lignite semicoking tar in the range 750-900{degree}C at a contact time within 0.5-6.0 s was studied. The yields of pyrocarbons, pyrolysis gas, and liquid products and the group and component compositions of the liquid and gaseous products were determined. The optimal pyrolysis parameters from the viewpoint of obtaining the maximal yield of particular 'secondary' hydrocarbons were recommended.

  16. Nitrocarburising in ammonia-hydrocarbon gas mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Hanne; Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The present work investigates the possibility of nitrocarburising in ammonia-acetylene-hydrogen and ammoniapropene- hydrogen gas mixtures, where unsaturated hydrocarbon gas is the carbon source during nitrocarburising. Consequently, nitrocarburising is carried out in a reducing atmosphere...... microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. It is shown that the use of unsaturated hydrocarbon gas in nitrocarburising processes is a viable alternative to traditional nitrocarburising methods....

  17. Nitrocarburizing in ammonia-hydrocarbon gas mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Hanne; Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2011-01-01

    The present work investigates the possibility of nitrocarburising in ammonia-acetylene-hydrogen and ammonia-propene-hydrogen gas mixtures, where unsaturated hydrocarbon gas is the carbon source during nitrocarburising. Consequently, nitrocarburising is carried out in a reducing atmosphere...... microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. It is shown that the use of unsaturated hydrocarbon gas in nitrocarburising processes is a viable alternative to traditional nitrocarburising methods....

  18. Formation of hydrocarbons by bacteria and algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tornabene, T.G.

    1980-12-01

    A literature review has been performed summarizing studies on hydrocarbon synthesis by microorganisms. Certain algal and bacterial species produce hydrocarbons in large quantities, 70 to 80% of dry cell mass, when in a controlled environment. The nutritional requirements of these organisms are simple: CO/sub 2/ and mineral salts. The studies were initiated to determine whether or not microorganisms played a role in petroleum formation. 90 references. (DMC)

  19. Electrokinetic Remediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons Spiked Soils

    OpenAIRE

    , M. Bilgin; , G. Akıncı

    2011-01-01

    In the presented study, remediation studies were conducted to determine the effectiveness of electrokinetic method on the treatment of natural soil contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons, in laboratory scale reactors. Electokinetic remediation of agricultural soil with an initial TPHs (Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons) concentration of 10000 ppm was investigated under 20 V or 40 V direct current by using NaOH and acetic acid as electrolyte solution, treatment efficiencies were observed accordin...

  20. The future of oil and hydrocarbon man

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, Colin

    1999-01-01

    Man appeared on the planet about four million years ago, and by 1850 numbered about one billion Ten came Hydrocarbon man. World population has since increased six-fold. After the oil price shocks of the 1970s, people asked "when will production peak?". It is not easy to answer this question because of the very poor database. Reserves and the many different hydrocarbon categories are poorly defined, reporting practices are ambiguous, revisions are not backdated...

  1. Hydrocarbon degradation by Antarctic coastal bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavanagh, J.E. [University of Tasmania, Hobart (Australia). Antarctic Cooperative Research Centre; CSIRO Div of Marine Research, Hobart (Australia); University of Tasmania, Hobart (Australia). Dept. of Agricultural Science; Nichols, P.D. [University of Tasmania, Hobart (Australia). Antarctic Cooperative Research Centre; CSIRO Div. of Marine Research, Hobart (Australia); Franzmann, P.D. [CSIRO Land and Water, Wembley (Australia); McMeekin, T.A. [University of Tasmania, Hobart (Australia). Antarctic Cooperative Research Centre

    1999-07-01

    Bacterial cultures obtained through selective enrichment of beach sand collected 60 days and one year after treatment of sites in a pilot oil spill trial conducted at Airport Beach, Vestfold Hills, East Antarctica, were examined for the ability to degrade n-alkanes and phenanthrene. The effects of different hydrocarbon mixtures (Special Antarctic Blend [SAB] and BP-Visco), (fish oil [orange roughy]) and inoculation of replicate sites with water from Organic Lake, (previously shown to contain hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria) on the indigenous microbial population, were examined. Of the cultures obtained, those from sites treated with SAB and BP-Visco degraded n-alkanes most consistently and typically to the greatest extent. Two mixed cultures obtained from samples collected at 60 days and two isolates obtained from these cultures extensively degraded phenanthrene. 1-Hydroxy-naphthoic acid formed the major phenanthrene metabolite. Lower levels of salicyclic acid, 1-naphthol, 1,4-naphthaquinone and phenanthrene 9-10 dihydrodiol were detected in extracts of phenanthrene grown cultures. This study shows that under laboratory conditions indigenous Antarctica bacteria can degrade n-alkanes and the more recalcitrant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, phenanthrene. The enrichment of hydrocarbon degrading microorganisms in Antarctic ecosystems exposed to hydrocarbons, is relevant for the long term fate of hydrocarbon spills in this environment. (author)

  2. Deuterated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Doney, Kirstin D; Mori, Tamami; Onaka, Takashi; Tielens, A G G M

    2016-01-01

    The amount of deuterium locked up in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has to date been an uncertain value. We present a near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic survey of HII regions in the Milky Way, Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), and Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) obtained with AKARI, which aims to search for features indicative of deuterated PAHs (PAD or Dn-PAH) to better constrain the D/H ratio of PAHs. Fifty-three HII regions were observed in the NIR (2.5-5 {\\mu}m), using the Infrared Camera (IRC) on board the AKARI satellite. Through comparison of the observed spectra with a theoretical model of deuterated PAH vibrational modes, the aromatic and (a)symmetric aliphatic C-D stretch modes were identified. We see emission features between 4.4-4.8 {\\mu}m, which could be unambiguously attributed to deuterated PAHs in only six of the observed sources, all of which are located in the Milky Way. In all cases, the aromatic C-D stretching feature is weaker than the aliphatic C-D stretching feature, and, in the case o...

  3. Birds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, P.H.

    2006-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are present throughout the global environment and are produced naturally and by activities of humans. Effects of PAH on birds have been determined by studies employing egg injection, egg immersion, egg shell application, single and multiple oral doses, subcutaneous injection, and chemical analysis of field-collected eggs and tissue. The four-to six-ring aromatic compounds are the most toxic to embryos, young birds, and adult birds. For embryos, effects include death, developmental abnormalities, and a variety of cellular and biochemical responses. For adult and young birds, effects include reduced egg production and hatching, increased clutch or brood abandonment, reduced growth, increased organweights, and a variety of biochemical responses. Trophic level accumulation is unlikely. Environmental exposure to PAH in areas of high human population or habitats affected by recent petroleum spills might be sufficient to adversely affect reproduction. Evidence of long-term effects of elevated concentrations of environmental PAH on bird populations is very limited and the mechanisms of effect are unclear.

  4. Microbial biodegradation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ri-He; Xiong, Ai-Sheng; Xue, Yong; Fu, Xiao-Yan; Gao, Feng; Zhao, Wei; Tian, Yong-Sheng; Yao, Quan-Hong

    2008-11-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread in various ecosystems and are pollutants of great concern due to their potential toxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Because of their hydrophobic nature, most PAHs bind to particulates in soil and sediments, rendering them less available for biological uptake. Microbial degradation represents the major mechanism responsible for the ecological recovery of PAH-contaminated sites. The goal of this review is to provide an outline of the current knowledge of microbial PAH catabolism. In the past decade, the genetic regulation of the pathway involved in naphthalene degradation by different gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria was studied in great detail. Based on both genomic and proteomic data, a deeper understanding of some high-molecular-weight PAH degradation pathways in bacteria was provided. The ability of nonligninolytic and ligninolytic fungi to transform or metabolize PAH pollutants has received considerable attention, and the biochemical principles underlying the degradation of PAHs were examined. In addition, this review summarizes the information known about the biochemical processes that determine the fate of the individual components of PAH mixtures in polluted ecosystems. A deeper understanding of the microorganism-mediated mechanisms of catalysis of PAHs will facilitate the development of new methods to enhance the bioremediation of PAH-contaminated sites.

  5. Outcome of patients with carbon monoxide poisoning at a far-east poison center.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Hsuan Ku

    Full Text Available Many cases of carbon monoxide poisoning in Taiwan are due to burning charcoal. Nevertheless, few reports have analyzed the mortality rate of these patients who survive to reach a hospital and die despite intensive treatment. Therefore, this study examined the clinical features, physiological markers, and outcomes after carbon monoxide poisoning and the associations between these findings.We analyzed the records of 261 patients who were referred for management of carbon monoxide intoxication between 2000 and 2010. Patients were grouped according to status at discharge as alive (survivor, n = 242 or dead (non-survivor, n = 19. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, and mortality data were obtained for analysis.Approximately half of the cases (49.4% attempted suicide by burning charcoal. Most of the patients were middle-aged adults (33±19 years, and were referred to our hospital in a relatively short period of time (6±10 hours. Carbon monoxide produced many serious complications after exposure: fever (26.1%, hypothermia (9.6%, respiratory failure (34.1%, shock (8.4%, myocardial infarction (8.0%, gastrointestinal upset (34.9%, hepatitis (18.4%, renal failure (25.3%, coma (18.0% and rhabdomyolysis (21.8%. Furthermore, the non-survivors suffered greater incidences of hypothermia (P<0.001, respiratory failure (P<0.001, shock (P<0.001, hepatitis ((P=0.016, renal failure (P=0.003, coma (P<0.001 than survivors. All patients were treated with high concentration of oxygen therapy using non-rebreather mask. However, hyperbaric oxygen therapy was only used in 18.8% of the patients. In a multivariate-Cox-regression model, it was revealed that shock status was a significant predictor for mortality after carbon monoxide poisoning (OR 8.696, 95% CI 2.053-37.370, P=0.003. Finally, Kaplan-Meier analysis confirmed that patients with shock suffered greater cumulative mortality than without shock (Log-rank test, Chi-square 147.404, P<0.001.The mortality rate for

  6. Variation characteristics of carbon monoxide and ozone over the course of the 2014 Chinese National Arctic Research Expedition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Bokun; BIAN Lingen; ZHENG Xiangdong; DING Minghu; XIE Zhouqing

    2015-01-01

    The concentrations of carbon monoxide and ozone in the marine boundary layer were measured during the 6th Chinese National Arctic Research Expedition (from July to September, 2014). Carbon monoxide concentration ranged between 47.00 and 528.52 ppbv with an average of 103.59 ± 40.37 ppbv. A slight decrease with increasing latitude was observed, except for the extremely high values over the East China Sea which may be attributed to anthropogenic emissions. Ozone concentration ranged between 3.27 and 77.82 ppbv with an average of 29.46±10.48 ppbv. Ozone concentration decreased sharply with increasing latitude outside the Arctic Ocean (during both the northward and the southward course), while no significant variation was observed over the Arctic Ocean. The positive correlation between carbon monoxide and ozone in most sections suggests that the ozone in the marine boundary layer mainly originated from photochemical reactions involving carbon monoxide.

  7. Is carbon monoxide-mediated cyclic guanosine monophosphate production responsible for low blood pressure in neonatal respiratory distress syndrome?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bel, F; Latour, [No Value; Vreman, HJ; Wong, RJ; Stevenson, DK; Steendijk, P; Egberts, J; Krediet, TG

    Infant respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) involves inflammatory processes, causing an increased expression of inducible heme oxygenase with subsequent production of carbon monoxide (CO). We hypothesized that increased production of CO during RDS might be responsible for increased plasma levels of

  8. Non-convulsive status epilepticus in a patient with carbon-monoxide poisoning treated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marziali, Simone; Di Giuliano, Francesca; Picchi, Eliseo; Natoli, Silvia; Leonardis, Carlo; Leonardis, Francesca; Garaci, Francesco; Floris, Roberto

    2016-12-01

    The presentation of carbon monoxide poisoning is non-specific and highly variable. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is used for the treatment of this condition. Various reports show the occurrence of self-limiting seizures after carbon monoxide poisoning and as a consequence of hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Contrary to the seizures, status epilepticus has been rarely observed in these conditions. The exact pathophysiology underlying seizures and status epilepticus associated with carbon monoxide poisoning and hyperbaric oxygen therapy is not really clear, and some elements appear to be common to both conditions. We describe a case of non-convulsive status epilepticus in a patient with carbon monoxide poisoning treated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy. The mechanism, MRI findings and implications are discussed.

  9. Scanning imaging absorption spectrometer for atmospheric chartography carbon monoxide total columns: statistical evaluation and comparison with chemistry transport model results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Laat, A.T.J.; Gloudemans, A.M.S.; Aben, I.; Krol, M.C.; Meirink, J.F.; van der Werf, G.R.; Schrijver, H.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed statistical analysis of one year (September 2003 to August 2004) of global Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY) carbon monoxide (CO) total column retrievals from the Iterative Maximum Likelihood Method (IMLM) algorithm, vers

  10. Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography carbon monoxide total columns: Statistical evaluation and comparison with chemistry transport model results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laat, de A.T.J.; Gloudemans, A.M.S.; Aben, I.; Krol, M.C.; Meirink, J.F.; Werf, van der G.R.; Schrijver, H.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed statistical analysis of one year (September 2003 to August 2004) of global Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY) carbon monoxide (CO) total column retrievals from the Iterative Maximum Likelihood Method (IMLM) algorithm, vers

  11. Hydrogen Oxidation on Gas Diffusion Electrodes for Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells in the Presence of Carbon Monoxide and Oxygen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gang, Xiao; Li, Qingfeng; Hjuler, Hans Aage

    1995-01-01

    Hydrogen oxidation has been studied on a carbon-supported platinum gas diffusion electrode in a phosphoric acidelectrolyte in the presence of carbon monoxide and oxygen in the feed gas. The poisoning effect of carbon monoxide presentin the feed gas was measured in the temperature range from 80...... to 150°C. It was found that throughout the temperaturerange, the potential loss due to the CO poisoning can be reduced to a great extent by the injection of small amounts ofgaseous oxygen into the hydrogen gas containing carbon monoxide. By adding 5 volume percent (v/o) oxygen, an almost......CO-free performance can be obtained for carbon monoxide concentrations up to 0.5 v/o CO at 130°C, 0.2 v/o CO at 100°C,and 0.1 v/o CO at 80°C, respectively....

  12. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in the Region of Fez-Boulemane, Morocco: Epidemiological Profile and Risk Factors (2009-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awatef Tahouri

    2013-12-01

    How to cite this article: Tahouri A, Lyoussi B, Achour S. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in the Region of Fez-Boulemane, Morocco: Epidemiological Profile and Risk Factors (2009-2012. Asia Pac J Med Toxicol 2013;2:131-5.

  13. Determination of the aromatic hydrocarbon to total hydrocarbon ratio of mineral oil in commercial lubricants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uematsu, Yoko; Suzuki, Kumi; Ogimoto, Mami

    2016-01-01

    A method was developed to determine the aromatic hydrocarbon to total hydrocarbon ratio of mineral oil in commercial lubricants; a survey was also conducted of commercial lubricants. Hydrocarbons in lubricants were separated from the matrix components of lubricants using a silica gel solid phase extraction (SPE) column. Normal-phase liquid chromatography (NPLC) coupled with an evaporative light-scattering detector (ELSD) was used to determine the aromatic hydrocarbon to total hydrocarbon ratio. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) coupled with a diode array detector (DAD) and a refractive index detector (RID) was used to estimate carbon numbers and the presence of aromatic hydrocarbons, which supplemented the results obtained by NPLC/ELSD. Aromatic hydrocarbons were not detected in 12 lubricants specified for use for incidental food contact, but were detected in 13 out of 22 lubricants non-specified for incidental food contact at a ratio up to 18%. They were also detected in 10 out of 12 lubricants collected at food factories at a ratio up to 13%. The centre carbon numbers of hydrocarbons in commercial lubricants were estimated to be between C16 and C50.

  14. Selective oxidation of carbon monoxide in the presence of butane and maleic anhydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbin, D.R.; Bonifaz, C. (DuPont Company, Wilmington, DE (United States))

    1994-03-01

    The selective oxidation of carbon monoxide in the presence of butane and maleic anhydride has been studied over platinum- and palladium-containing zeolites as well as palladium-on-silica (Pd/SiO[sub 2]) catalysts. The results show that although a zeolite support is needed in many systems to effect a kinetic control to improve selectivity, thermodynamic control using Pd([approximately]2-4 ppm)/SiO[sub 2] is sufficient to give the desired selectivities in this system. In addition, a palladium-containing vanadium-phosphate catalyst was prepared that showed complete oxidation of carbon monoxide, conversion of butane to maleic anhydride, and no observable decomposition of the maleic anhydride. 14 refs., 4 tabs.

  15. Hydrogen bonding of formamide, urea, urea monoxide and their thio-analogs with water and homodimers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Damanjit Kaur; Shweta Khanna

    2014-11-01

    Ab initio and DFT methods have been employed to study the hydrogen bonding ability of formamide, urea, urea monoxide, thioformamide, thiourea and thiourea monoxide with one water molecule and the homodimers of the selected molecules. The stabilization energies associated with themonohydrated adducts and homodimers’ formation were evaluated at B3LYP/6-311++G** and MP2/6-311++G∗∗ levels. The energies were corrected for zero-point vibrational energies and basis set superposition error using counterpoise method. Atoms in molecules study has been carried out in order to characterize the hydrogen bonds through the changes in electron density and laplacian of electron density. A natural energy decomposition and natural bond orbital analysis was performed to understand the nature of hydrogen bonding.

  16. Electricity generation from carbon monoxide and syngas in a microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Abid; Guiot, Serge R; Mehta, Punita; Raghavan, Vijaya; Tartakovsky, Boris

    2011-05-01

    Electricity generation in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) has been a subject of significant research efforts. MFCs employ the ability of electricigenic bacteria to oxidize organic substrates using an electrode as an electron acceptor. While MFC application for electricity production from a variety of organic sources has been demonstrated, very little research on electricity production from carbon monoxide and synthesis gas (syngas) in an MFC has been reported. Although most of the syngas today is produced from non-renewable sources, syngas production from renewable biomass or poorly degradable organic matter makes energy generation from syngas a sustainable process, which combines energy production with the reprocessing of solid wastes. An MFC-based process of syngas conversion to electricity might offer a number of advantages such as high Coulombic efficiency and biocatalytic activity in the presence of carbon monoxide and sulfur components. This paper presents a discussion on microorganisms and reactor designs that can be used for operating an MFC on syngas.

  17. Unique case of fatal carbon monoxide poisoning in the absence of a combustible fossil fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, D R; Poon, P; Titley, J; Jagger, S F; Rutty, G N

    2001-09-01

    A 37-year-old man died as a result of exposure to carbon monoxide within an apartment. An investigation of the apartment showed no gas appliances or gas supply to the apartment and no evidence of any combustion event to any part of the apartment or roof space. Inhalation of dichloromethane was excluded. Heating to the apartment was found to be via an electrical storage heater, the examination of which revealed that the cast-iron core and insulating material showed evidence of heat damage with significant areas devoid of carbon. This electric storage heater is hypothesized to be the source of carbon for the fatal production of carbon monoxide within the apartment.

  18. The Effect of Water Vapor on Flame Velocity in Equivalent Carbon Monoxide and Oxygen Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiock, Ernest F; King, H Kendall

    1936-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation to study the effect of water vapor upon the spatial speed of flame in equivalent mixtures of carbon monoxide and oxygen at various total pressures from 100 to 780 mm.hg. These results show that, within this pressure range, an increase in flame speed is produced by increasing the mole fraction of water vapor at least as far as saturation at 25 degrees c., and that the rate of this increase is greater the higher the pressure. It is evident that water vapor plays an important part in the explosive oxidation of carbon monoxide; the need for further experimental evidence as to the nature of its action is indicated.

  19. Vibrationally Excited Carbon Monoxide Produced via a Chemical Reaction Between Carbon Vapor and Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jans, Elijah R.; Eckert, Zakari; Frederickson, Kraig; Rich, Bill; Adamovich, Igor V.

    2017-06-01

    Measurements of the vibrational distribution function of carbon monoxide produced via a reaction between carbon vapor and molecular oxygen has shown a total population inversion on vibrational levels 4-7. Carbon vapor, produced using an arc discharge to sublimate graphite, is mixed with an argon oxygen flow. The excited carbon monoxide is vibrationally populated up to level v=14, at low temperatures, T=400-450 K, in a collision-dominated environment, 15-20 Torr, with total population inversions between v=4-7. The average vibrational energy per CO molecule formed by the reaction is 0.6-1.2 eV/molecule, which corresponds to 10-20% of the reaction enthalpy. Kinetic modeling of the flow reactor, including state specific vibrational processes, was performed to infer the vibrational distribution of the products of the reaction. The results show viability of developing of a new chemical CO laser from the reaction of carbon vapor and oxygen.

  20. Alexithymia Associated With Bilateral Globus Pallidus Lesions After Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Feng Huang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Alexithymia refers to a person's inability to identify and describe feelings. We present a patient who developed alexithymia after carbon monoxide poisoning following a suicide attempt by burning charcoal in an enclosed space. Brain computed tomography revealed bilateral globus pallidus hypoxic lesions. Because of the time frame and the presence of brain structural lesions, the alexithymia in this patient was thought to be caused by bilateral globus pallidus hypoxic lesions resulting from carbon monoxide poisoning. The alexithymia in this patient did not respond to a variety of psychotropic drugs, including sertraline, venalfaxine, bupropion or methylphenidate. We suggest that alexithymia, which was associated with brain hypoxic lesions in this case, is resistant to treatment.

  1. Research progress in immunological mechanism of delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai FENG

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning (DEACMP is a syndrome constituted by acute dementia, psychiatric symptoms, pyramidal and extrapyramidal symptoms, which can be developed after the original clinical symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning recovered. Lots of studies have been done to explain the mechanisms of DEACMP, and more and more researches have demonstrated that the immunological mechanism may be involved in or play an important role on the pathogenesis of the process. This article will review the researches of immunological mechanism of DEACMP in recent years and give some prompts to clinical study in the future. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.10.006

  2. Delayed neuropsychiatric syndrome after carbon monoxide poisoning: inclusion of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in the recovery protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dante Lo Pardo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The delayed neuropsychiatric syndrome can arise in the period from 4 days to 5 weeks following carbon monoxide poisoning, and is characterized by neuropsychological deficits, which in some cases become chronic. This case report describes an adult female who apparently suffered self-inflicted carbon monoxide poisoning. She was not treated with hyperbaric oxygen and developed delayed sequelae on day 20. The treatment started with 40 sessions of hyperbaric oxygen therapy and subsequently with neuropsychological rehabilitation and physiotherapy. The treatment resulted in a progressive and almost complete physical and psychological recovery as evidenced by neuropsychometric tests and diagnostic imaging performed in the follow-up. Recovery was attributed to hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Although further research is required, we propose hyperbaric oxygen therapy also in the recovery protocol in the treatment of delayed neuropsychiatric syndrome.

  3. Volatile hydrocarbons inhibit methanogenic crude oil degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela eSherry

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Methanogenic degradation of crude oil in subsurface sediments occurs slowly, but without the need for exogenous electron acceptors, is sustained for long periods and has enormous economic and environmental consequences. Here we show that volatile hydrocarbons are inhibitory to methanogenic oil biodegradation by comparing degradation of an artificially weathered crude oil with volatile hydrocarbons removed, with the same oil that was not weathered. Volatile hydrocarbons (nC5-nC10, methylcyclohexane, benzene, toluene and xylenes were quantified in the headspace of microcosms. Aliphatic (n-alkanes nC12-nC34 and aromatic hydrocarbons (4-methylbiphenyl, 3-methylbiphenyl, 2-methylnaphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene were quantified in the total hydrocarbon fraction extracted from the microcosms. 16S rRNA genes from key microorganisms known to play an important role in methanogenic alkane degradation (Smithella and Methanomicrobiales were quantified by quantitative PCR. Methane production from degradation of weathered oil in microcosms was rapid (1.1 ± 0.1 µmol CH4/g sediment/day with stoichiometric yields consistent with degradation of heavier n-alkanes (nC12-nC34. For non-weathered oil, degradation rates in microcosms were significantly lower (0.4 ± 0.3 µmol CH4/g sediment/day. This indicated that volatile hydrocarbons present in the non-weathered oil inhibit, but do not completely halt, methanogenic alkane biodegradation. These findings are significant with respect to rates of biodegradation of crude oils with abundant volatile hydrocarbons in anoxic, sulphate-depleted subsurface environments, such as contaminated marine sediments which have been entrained below the sulfate-reduction zone, as well as crude oil biodegradation in petroleum reservoirs and contaminated aquifers.

  4. Diverse mechanisms underlying the regulation of ion channels by carbon monoxide

    OpenAIRE

    Peers, C; Boyle, J. P.; Scragg, J. L.; Dallas, M L; Al-Owais, M. M.; Hettiarachichi, N T; Elies, J; Johnson, E.; Gamper, N; Steele, D S

    2014-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is firmly established as an important, physiological signalling molecule as well as a potent toxin. Through its ability to bind metal-containing proteins, it is known to interfere with a number of intracellular signalling pathways, and such actions can account for its physiological and pathological effects. In particular, CO can modulate the intracellular production of reactive oxygen species, NO and cGMP levels, as well as regulate MAPK signalling. In this review, we con...

  5. Resveratrol Induces Hepatic Mitochondrial Biogenesis Through the Sequential Activation of Nitric Oxide and Carbon Monoxide Production

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seul-Ki; Joe, Yeonsoo; Min ZHENG; Kim, Hyo Jeong; Yu, Jae-Kyoung; Cho, Gyeong Jae; Chang, Ki Churl; Kim, Hyoung Kyu; Han, Jin; Ryter, Stefan W.; Chung, Hun Taeg

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Nitric oxide (NO) can induce mitochondrial biogenesis in cultured cells, through increased guanosine 3′,5′-monophosphate (cGMP), and activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α). We sought to determine the role of NO, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and its reaction product (carbon monoxide [CO]) in the induction of mitochondrial biogenesis by the natural antioxidant resveratrol. Results: S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP), an NO donor, induced ...

  6. Hemeoxygenase-1 inhibits human myometrial contractility via carbon monoxide and is upregulated by progesterone during pregnancy.

    OpenAIRE

    Acevedo, C H; Ahmed, A

    1998-01-01

    Nitric oxide was proposed as an endogenous inhibitor of myometrial contractility during pregnancy. Carbon monoxide (CO) like nitric oxide increases cGMP and is generated during the degradation of heme to biliverdin IX by hemeoxygenases (HO). Here we report that the expression of both HO-1 (inducible) and HO-2 (constitutive) were > 15-fold higher in pregnant myometrium compared to nonpregnant myometrium (n = 4, P < 0.001, P < 0.005, respectively). Moreover, the activation of the HO-CO pathway ...

  7. Dielectric Properties of Lead Monoxide Filled Unsaturated Polyester Based Polymer Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harish, V.; Kumar, H. G. Harish; Nagaiah, N.

    2011-07-01

    Lead monoxide filled isophthalate resin particulate polymer composites were prepared with different filler concentrations and investigated for physical, thermal, mechanical and gamma radiation shielding characteristics. This paper discusses about the dielectric properties of the composites. The present study showed that the dielectric constant (ɛ'), dielectric loss (ɛ″) and ac conductivity (σac) of isopthalate based unsaturated polyester resin increases with the increase in wt% PbO filler in polymer matrix.

  8. Synthesis of Diethyl Oxalate by a Coupling—Regeneration Reaction of Carbon Monoxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FandongMeng; GenhuiXu; 等

    2002-01-01

    This article describes a process for the synthesis of diethyl oxalate by a copling reaction of carbon monoxide,catalyzed by palladium in the presence of ethyl nitrite ,The kinetics and mechanism of the coupling and regeneration reaction are also discussed ,This paper presents the results of a scale-up test of the catalyst and the process based on an a priori computer simulation.

  9. Carbon Monoxide Releasing Molecule-A1 (CORM-A1) Improves Neurogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeida, Ana S; Soares, Nuno L; Vieira, Melissa;

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia and neurodegenerative diseases lead to impairment or death of neurons in the central nervous system. Stem cell based therapies are promising strategies currently under investigation. Carbon monoxide (CO) is an endogenous product of heme degradation by heme oxygenase (HO) activit...... cell mechanisms involved in neuronal differentiation. In summary, CO appears as a promising therapeutic molecule to stimulate endogenous neurogenesis or to improve in vitro neuronal production for cell therapy strategies....

  10. Extended Molecular Dynamics Simulation of the Carbon Monoxide Migration in Sperm Whale Myoglobin

    OpenAIRE

    Bossa, Cecilia; Anselmi, Massimiliano; Roccatano, Danilo; Amadei, Andrea; Vallone, Beatrice; Brunori, Maurizio; Di Nola, Alfredo

    2004-01-01

    We report the results of an extended molecular dynamics simulation on the migration of photodissociated carbon monoxide in wild-type sperm whale myoglobin. Our results allow following one possible ligand migration dynamics from the distal pocket to the Xe1 cavity via a path involving the other xenon binding cavities and momentarily two additional packing defects along the pathway. Comparison with recent time resolved structural data obtained by Laue crystallography with subnanosecond to milli...

  11. UV-induced carbon monoxide emission from sand and living vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Dan; Albert, Kristian Rost; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard

    2012-01-01

    The global burden of carbon monoxide, CO, is rather uncertain. In this paper we address the potential of UV-induced CO emission by terrestrial surfaces. Real-time measurements of [CO] were made with a cavity enhanced laser connected in closed loop to either an ecosystem chamber or a leaf scale......−1, almost two-thirds of the latest estimated global CO burden of 360 Tg yr−1 (IPCC, 2001)....

  12. Recovery of energy metabolism in rat brain after carbon monoxide hypoxia.

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, S D; Piantadosi, C. A.

    1992-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) may inhibit mitochondrial electron transport in the brain and increase the toxic effects of the gas. This hypothesis was investigated in anesthetized rats during CO exposure and recovery at either normobaric or hyperbaric O2 concentrations. During exposure and recovery, we measured the oxidation level of cerebrocortical cytochrome c oxidase by differential spectroscopy and biochemical metabolites known to reflect aerobic energy provision in the brain. CO exposure (HbCO = ...

  13. Carbon Monoxide Effects onHuman Ventricle Action PotentialAssessed by Mathematical Simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Beatriz eTrenor; Karen eCardona; Javier eSaiz; Sridharan eRajamani; Luiz eBelardinelli; Wayne Rodney Giles

    2013-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) that is produced in a number of different mammalian tissues is now known to have significant effects on the cardiovascular system. These include: i) vasodilation, ii) changes in heart rate and strength of contractions and iii) modulation of autonomic nervous system input to both the pacemaker and the working myocardium. Excessive CO in the environment is toxic and can initiate or mediate life threatening cardiac rhythm disturbances. Recent reports link these ventricular...

  14. Noninvasive Ambulatory Assessment of Cardiac Function and Myocardial Ischemia in Healthy Subjects Exposed to Carbon Monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-30

    1007 by Paul N. Kizakevich, M.S., P.E. Principal Investigator with Linda Van Hoose, B.S.M.T., Michael L. McCartney, Sc.D., Karen Bolick, M.D., Warren...Calabro and D.E. Hutcheon . "Effects of Carbon Monoxide on the Vulnerability of the Ventricles to Drug-Induced Arrhythmias." J of Clin Pharma 1974;14(1):25

  15. P-chiral phosphine-sulfonate/palladium-catalyzed asymmetric copolymerization of vinyl acetate with carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Akifumi; Kageyama, Takeharu; Goto, Hiroki; Carrow, Brad P; Ito, Shingo; Nozaki, Kyoko

    2012-08-01

    Utilization of palladium catalysts bearing a P-chiral phosphine-sulfonate ligand enabled asymmetric copolymerization of vinyl acetate with carbon monoxide. The obtained γ-polyketones have head-to-tail and isotactic polymer structures. The origin of the regio- and stereoregularities was elucidated by stoichiometric reactions of acylpalladium complexes with vinyl acetate. The present report for the first time demonstrates successful asymmetric coordination-insertion (co)polymerization of vinyl acetate.

  16. Reactions of Vanadocene-Carbyls with Carbon Monoxide, Xylylisocyanide and Carbon Dioxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieman, J.; Teuben, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    Vanadocene-allyl Cp2V(η1-C3H5) (1a) reacts with strong π-acceptor substrate ligands such as carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and isonitriles. No reactions are observed with poorer π-acceptor substrates such as alkynes and nitriles. Reaction of 1a with CO gives Cp[η4-C5H5(C3H5)]V(CO)2, showing that

  17. Ferromagnetic semiconductor-metal transition in heterostructures of electron doped europium monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stollenwerk, Tobias

    2013-09-15

    In the present work, we develop and solve a self-consistent theory for the description of the simultaneous ferromagnetic semiconductor-metal transition in electron doped Europium monoxide. We investigate two different types of electron doping, Gadolinium impurities and Oxygen vacancies. Besides the conduction band occupation, we can identify low lying spin fluctuations on magnetic impurities as the driving force behind the doping induced enhancement of the Curie temperature. Moreover, we predict the signatures of these magnetic impurities in the spectra of scanning tunneling microscope experiments. By extending the theory to allow for inhomogeneities in one spatial direction, we are able to investigate thin films and heterostructures of Gadolinium doped Europium monoxide. Here, we are able to reproduce the experimentally observed decrease of the Curie temperature with the film thickness. This behavior is attributed to missing coupling partners of the localized 4f moments as well as to an electron depletion at the surface which leads to a reduction of the number of itinerant electrons. By investigating the influence of a metallic substrate onto the phase transition in Gadolinium doped Europium monoxide, we find that the Curie temperature can be increased up to 20%. However, as we show, the underlying mechanism of metal-interface induced charge carrier accumulation is inextricably connected to a suppression of the semiconductor-metal transition.

  18. CHANGE OF CARBON MONOXIDE IN PLASMA AND TISSUE DURING ACUTE HYPOXIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁学琴; 刘贵明; 王俊科; 盛卓人

    2003-01-01

    Objective.To investigate the role of endogenous carbon monoxide(CO)in hypoxia. Methods. After rats were inhaled with hypoxic gases and the heme oxygenase inhibitor ZnPPIX was administered,we measured the CO levels in plasma,liver,lung and kidney. Meanwhile plasma cGMP levels were observed. Furthermore,we recorded the changes of hemodynamic and blood gases. Results. Acute mild hypoxia(10%O2)significantly increased CO levels in plasma as well as liver,kidney and lung,while acute severe hypoxia(5%O2)significantly decreased CO levels in plasma as well as liver,kidney and lung. In addition,the former significantly elevated cGMP levels in plasma while the latter markedly reduced cGMP levels in plasma. The hemodynamic changes occurred in accordance with the changes of carbon monoxide. Conclusions. Our results indicate,for the first time ,that the endogenous carbon monoxide plays an important role in regulating the vessel tone during hypoxia.

  19. Evidence for iodine monoxide in the Antarctic snowpack from spectroscopic measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friess, Udo; Deutschmann, Tim; Platt, Ulrich [Institut fuer Umweltphysik, Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany); Gilfedder, Ben [Institut fuer Umweltgeologie, TU-Braunschweig (Germany); Weller, Rolf [Alfred Wegener Institut fuer Polar- und Meeresforschung, Bremerhaven (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Recent ground-based and space borne observations suggest the presence of significant amounts of iodine monoxide in the boundary layer of Antarctica, which are expected to have an impact on the ozone budget and might contribute to the formation of new airborne particles. So far, the source of these iodine radicals has been unknown. Here we present long-term measurements of iodine monoxide at the German Antarctic research station Neumayer, which indicate that the snowpack is the main source for iodine radicals. The measurements have been performed using multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS). Using a coupled atmosphere - snowpack radiative transfer model, the comparison of the signals observed from scattered skylight and from light reflected by the snowpack yields several ppb of iodine monoxide in the upper layers of the sunlit snowpack throughout the year. Snow pit samples from Neumayer Station contain up to 700 ng/l of total iodine, representing a sufficient reservoir for these extraordinarily high IO concentrations.

  20. Natural clinoptilolite exchanged with iron: characterization and catalytic activity in nitrogen monoxide reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Tito-Ferro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to characterize the natural clinoptilolite from Tasajeras deposit, Cuba, modified by hydrothermal ion-exchange with solutions of iron (II sulfate and iron (III nitrate in acid medium. Besides this, its catalytic activity to reduce nitrogen monoxide with carbon monoxide/propene in the presence of oxygen was evaluated. The characterization was performed by Mössbauer and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopies and adsorption measurements. The obtained results lead to conclude that in exchanged samples, incorporated divalent and trivalent irons are found in octahedral coordination. Both irons should be mainly in cationic extra-framework positions inside clinoptilolite channels as charge compensating cations, and also as iron oxy-hydroxides resulting from limited hydrolysis of these cations. The iron (III exchanged samples has a larger amount of iron oxy-hydroxides agglomerates. The iron (II exchanged samples have additionally iron (II sulfate adsorbed. The catalytic activity in the nitrogen monoxide reduction is higher in the exchanged zeolites than starting. Among all samples, those exchanged of iron (II has the higher catalytic activity. This lead to outline that, main catalytically active centers are associated with divalent iron.