WorldWideScience

Sample records for monoxide national ambient

  1. 40 CFR 50.8 - National primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.8 National primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide. (a) The national primary ambient air quality standards... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National primary ambient air...

  2. 76 FR 8157 - National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Carbon Monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... determinations proposed by the Administrator are noted. Although they identify the reasoning that supports this... 3-2; PA, Figure 1-1; 2005 NEI \\5\\). The role of mobile source emissions is evident in the spatial and temporal patterns of ambient CO concentrations, which are heavily influenced by the patterns...

  3. Cobalt promoted copper manganese oxide catalysts for ambient temperature carbon monoxide oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher; Taylor, Stuart H; Burrows, Andrew; Crudace, Mandy J; Kiely, Christopher J; Hutchings, Graham J

    2008-04-14

    Low levels of cobalt doping (1 wt%) of copper manganese oxide enhances its activity for carbon monoxide oxidation under ambient conditions and the doped catalyst can display higher activity than current commercial catalysts.

  4. The deployment of carbon monoxide wireless sensor network (CO-WSN) for ambient air monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiwatpongsakorn, Chaichana; Lu, Mingming; Keener, Tim C; Khang, Soon-Jai

    2014-06-16

    Wireless sensor networks are becoming increasingly important as an alternative solution for environment monitoring because they can reduce cost and complexity. Also, they can improve reliability and data availability in places where traditional monitoring methods are difficult to site. In this study, a carbon monoxide wireless sensor network (CO-WSN) was developed to measure carbon monoxide concentrations at a major traffic intersection near the University of Cincinnati main campus. The system has been deployed over two weeks during Fall 2010, and Summer 2011-2012, traffic data was also recorded by using a manual traffic counter and a video camcorder to characterize vehicles at the intersection 24 h, particularly, during the morning and evening peak hour periods. According to the field test results, the 1 hr-average CO concentrations were found to range from 0.1-1.0 ppm which is lower than the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) 35 ppm on a one-hour averaging period. During rush hour periods, the traffic volume at the intersection varied from 2,067 to 3,076 vehicles per hour with 97% being passenger vehicles. Furthermore, the traffic volume based on a 1-h average showed good correlation (R2 = 0.87) with the 1-h average CO-WSN concentrations for morning and evening peak time periods whereas CO-WSN results provided a moderate correlation (R2 = 0.42) with 24 hours traffic volume due to fluctuated changes of meteorological conditions. It is concluded that the performance and the reliability of wireless ambient air monitoring networks can be used as an alternative method for real time air monitoring.

  5. Carbon Monoxide Nonattainment Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies areas in the U.S. where air pollution levels have not met the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Carbon Monoxide and have...

  6. International comparison CCQM-K84—carbon monoxide in synthetic air at ambient level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeongsoon; Moon, Dongmin; Lee, Jinbok; Lim, Jeongsik; Hall, Brad; Novelli, Paul; Brewer, Paul J.; Miller, Michael; Murugun, Arul; Doval Minarro, Marta; Qiao, Han; Shuguo, Hu; Konopelko, L. A.; Kustikov, Y. A.; Kolobova, A. V.; Pankratov, V. V.; Wasserman, I. I.; Zav'yalov, S. V.; Efremova, O. V.; Pavlov, M. V.; Mitchell, Gerald; Guenther, Frank; Walden, Jari; Aoki, Nobuyuki; Shimosaka, Takuya; Tatiana, Mace; Lagler, F.; Borowiak, Annette

    2017-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is reported to mainly be emitted from industries, transportation, and burnings for various usages. Its atmospheric lifetime varies from weeks to months, depending on the mixing ratio of the highly reactive hydroxyl radical. Even though the ambient level of CO varies as a function of regional sources, the mixing ratio ranges from 30 nmol/mol to 300 nmol/mol at the marine boundary layers and from 100 nmol/mol to more than 500 nmol/mol in urban areas(1). In order to study temporal trends and regional variations of the level of CO, the National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration/Earth System Research Laboratory-Global Monitoring Division (NOAA/ESRL-GMD(2)) has played a key role as the designated Central Calibration Laboratory (CCL) within the frame of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) program. NOAA/ESRL-GMD provides natural air standards, analyzed for CO, to WMO GAW participants. Since the structure of WMO traceability chain appears hierarchical and explicit all over the world, WMO intends to improve the CO measurement compatibility to up to 2 ppb (in case of extensive compatibility goal: 5 ppb, GAW report No. 213(3)) in order to ensure compatibility through the GAW network. Nevertheless, accurate measurement of CO at an ambient level has proven to be difficult due to the lack of stability in cylinders. For these reasons, it is necessary that measured results are compared among the values assigned by various NMIs. This key comparison was initially proposed to be aimed at a CO/N2 standard in the 2010 CCQM meeting by KRISS. With participation of FMI, NOAA, and Empa, a modified scheme of CO/air standards was developed for the purpose of atmospheric observations and co-operative support to WMO/GAW activities. Therefore, the purpose of the comparison is to support the measurement capability of CO at an ambient level of 350 nmol/mol. Further, this key comparison is expected to contribute to the establishment of

  7. Time to harmonize national ambient air quality standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutlar Joss, Meltem; Eeftens, Marloes; Gintowt, Emily; Kappeler, Ron; Künzli, Nino

    2017-05-01

    The World Health Organization has developed ambient air quality guidelines at levels considered to be safe or of acceptable risk for human health. These guidelines are meant to support governments in defining national standards. It is unclear how they are followed. We compiled an inventory of ambient air quality standards for 194 countries worldwide for six air pollutants: PM2.5, PM10, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide. We conducted literature and internet searches and asked country representatives about national ambient air quality standards. We found information on 170 countries including 57 countries that did not set any air quality standards. Levels varied greatly by country and by pollutant. Ambient air quality standards for PM2.5, PM10 and SO2 poorly complied with WHO guideline values. The agreement was higher for CO, SO2 (10-min averaging time) and NO2. Regulatory differences mirror the differences in air quality and the related burden of disease around the globe. Governments worldwide should adopt science based air quality standards and clean air management plans to continuously improve air quality locally, nationally, and globally.

  8. Teale National Ambient Air Quality Standards for carbon monoxide

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — California Spatial Information System (CaSIL) is a project designed to improve access to geo-spatial and geo-spatial related data information throughout the state of...

  9. US EPA Region 9 carbon monoxide designated areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Polygon Feature class of Nonattainment Areas for Carbon Monoxide. Nonattainment areas are geographic areas which have not met National Ambient Air Quality Standards...

  10. A pilot study to assess ground-level ambient air concentrations of fine particles and carbon monoxide in urban Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shendell, Derek G; Naeher, Luke P

    2002-11-01

    Ambient concentrations and the elemental composition of particles less than 2.5 microm in diameter (PM2.5), as well as carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations, were measured at ground-level in three Guatemalan cities in summer 1997: Guatemala City, Quetzaltenango, and Antigua. This pilot study also included quantitative and qualitative characterizations of microenvironment conditions, e.g., local meteorology, reported elsewhere. The nondestructive X-ray fluorescence elemental analysis (XRF) of Teflon filters was conducted. The highest integrated average PM2.5. concentrations in an area (zona) of Guatemala City and Quetzaltenango were 150 microg m(-3) (zona 12) and 120 microg m(-3) (zona 2), respectively. The reported integrated average PM2.5 concentration for Antigua was 5 microg m(-3). The highest observed half-hour and monitoring period average CO concentrations in Guatemala City were 10.9 ppm (zona 8) and 7.2 ppm (zonas 8 and 10), respectively. The average monitoring period CO concentration in Antigua was 2.6 ppm. Lead and bromine concentrations were negligible, indicative of the transition to unleaded fuel use in cars and motorcycles. The XRF results suggested sources of air pollution in Guatemala, where relative rankings varied by city and by zonas within each city, were fossil fuel combustion emitting hydrocarbons, combustion of sulfurous conventional fuels, soil/roadway dust, farm/agricultural dust, and vehicles (evaportion of gas, parts' wear).

  11. Contribution of post-harvest agricultural paddy residue fires in the N.W. Indo-Gangetic Plain to ambient carcinogenic benzenoids, toxic isocyanic acid and carbon monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praphulla Chandra, Boggarapu; Sinha, Vinayak

    2016-04-01

    In the North West Indo-Gangetic Plain (N.W.IGP), large scale post-harvest paddy residue fires occur every year during the months of October-November. This anthropogenic perturbation causes contamination of the atmospheric environment with adverse impacts on regional air quality posing health risks for the population exposed to high concentrations of carcinogens such as benzene and toxic VOCs such as isocyanic acid. These gases and carbon monoxide are known to be emitted from biomass fires along with acetonitrile. Yet no long-term in-situ measurements quantifying the impact of this activity have been carried out in the N.W. IGP. Using high quality continuous online in-situ measurements of these gases at a strategic downwind site over a three year period from 2012 to 2014, we demonstrate the strong impact of this anthropogenic emission activity on ambient concentrations of these gases. In contrast to the pre-paddy harvest period, excellent correlation of benzenoids, isocyanic acid and CO with acetonitrile (a biomass burning chemical tracer); (r ≥ 0.82) and distinct VOC/acetonitrile emission ratios were observed for the post-paddy harvest period which was also characterized by high ambient concentrations of these species. The average concentrations of acetonitrile (1.62 ± 0.18 ppb), benzene (2.51 ± 0.28 ppb), toluene (3.72 ± 0.41 ppb), C8-aromatics (2.88 ± 0.30 ppb), C9-aromatics (1.55 ± 0.19 ppb) and CO (552 ± 113 ppb) in the post-paddy harvest periods were about 1.5 times higher than the annual average concentrations. For isocyanic acid, a compound with both primary and secondary sources, the concentration in the post-paddy harvest period was 0.97 ± 0.17 ppb. The annual average concentrations of benzene, a class A carcinogen, exceeded the annual exposure limit of 1.6 ppb at NTP mandated by the National Ambient Air Quality Standard of India (NAAQS). We show that mitigating the post-harvest paddy residue fires can lower the annual average concentration of

  12. 78 FR 34177 - Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: State Implementation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: State Implementation Plan Requirements... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: State Implementation Plan Requirements AGENCY: Environmental... 2008 ozone national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) (the ``2008 ozone NAAQS'') that...

  13. Variation characteristics of carbon monoxide and ozone over the course of the 2014 Chinese National Arctic Research Expedition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Bokun; BIAN Lingen; ZHENG Xiangdong; DING Minghu; XIE Zhouqing

    2015-01-01

    The concentrations of carbon monoxide and ozone in the marine boundary layer were measured during the 6th Chinese National Arctic Research Expedition (from July to September, 2014). Carbon monoxide concentration ranged between 47.00 and 528.52 ppbv with an average of 103.59 ± 40.37 ppbv. A slight decrease with increasing latitude was observed, except for the extremely high values over the East China Sea which may be attributed to anthropogenic emissions. Ozone concentration ranged between 3.27 and 77.82 ppbv with an average of 29.46±10.48 ppbv. Ozone concentration decreased sharply with increasing latitude outside the Arctic Ocean (during both the northward and the southward course), while no significant variation was observed over the Arctic Ocean. The positive correlation between carbon monoxide and ozone in most sections suggests that the ozone in the marine boundary layer mainly originated from photochemical reactions involving carbon monoxide.

  14. Respiratory diseases in preschool children in the city of Niš exposed to suspended particulates and carbon monoxide from ambient air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Amelija

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Analysis of air quality in Serbia indicates that the city of Niš belongs to a group of cities characterized by the third category of air quality (excessive air pollution. The aim of the study was to analyze the degree of causality between ambient air quality affected by particulate matter of 10 μm (PM10 and carbon monoxide (CO and the incidence of respiratory diseases in preschool children in the city of Niš. Methods. We quantified the influence of higher PM10 concentrations and carbon monoxide comprising motor vehicle exhausts in the city of Niš on the occurrence of unwanted health effects in preschool children by means of the hazard quotient (HQ, individual health risk (Ri, and the probability of cancer (ICR. The methodology used was according to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA, and it included basic scientific statistical methods, compilation methods, and the relevant mathematical methods for assessing air pollution health risk, based on the use of attribute equations. Results. Measurement of ambient air pollutant concentrations in the analyzed territory for the entire monitoring duration revealed that PM10 concentrations were significantly above the allowed limits during 80% of the days. The maximum measured PM10 concentration was 191.6 μg/m3, and carbon monoxide 5.415 mg/m3. The incidence of respiratory diseases in the experimental group, with a prominent impact of polluted air was 57.17%, whereas the incidence in the control group was considerably lower, 41.10 %. There were also significant differences in the distribution of certain respiratory diseases. Conclusion. In order to perform good causal analysis of air quality and health risk, it is very important to establish and develop a system for long-term monitoring, control, assessment, and prediction of air pollution. We identified the suspended PM10 and CO as ambient air pollutants causing negative health effects in the exposed preschool children

  15. Near-ambient X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and kinetic approach to the mechanism of carbon monoxide oxidation over lanthanum substituted cobaltites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hueso, J. L.; Martinez-Martinez, D.; Cabalerro, Alfonso; Gonzalez-Elipe, Agustin Rodriguez; Mun, Bongjin Simon; Salmeron, Miquel

    2009-07-31

    We have studied the oxidation of carbon monoxide over a lanthanum substituted perovskite (La0.5Sr0.5CoO3-d) catalyst prepared by spray pyrolysis. Under the assumption of a first-order kinetics mechanism for CO, it has been found that the activation energy barrier of the reaction changes from 80 to 40 kJ mol-1 at a threshold temperature of ca. 320 oC. In situ XPS near-ambient pressure ( 0.2 torr) shows that the gas phase oxygen concentration over the sample decreases sharply at ca. 300 oC. These two observations suggest that the oxidation of CO undergoes a change of mechanism at temperatures higher than 300 oC.

  16. 75 FR 2935 - Extension of Deadline for Promulgating Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ... Protection Agency 40 CFR Parts 50, 58 and 81 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards; Final Rule and... Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... promulgating initial area designations for the ozone national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) that...

  17. 40 CFR 50.4 - National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.4 National primary ambient air quality standards for sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide). Link to an... applicable to all areas notwithstanding the promulgation of SO2 national ambient air quality standards...

  18. 78 FR 34964 - Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: State Implementation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 50, 51, 70 and 71 Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards... proposed rule ``Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: State... proposed rulemaking proposes to implement the 2008 ozone national ambient air quality standards...

  19. Pediatric asthma and ambient pollutant levels in industrializing nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jassal, Mandeep S

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases in childhood and its prevalence has been increasing within industrializing nations. The contribution of ambient pollutants to asthma symptomatology has been explored in some countries through epidemiological investigations, molecular analysis and monitoring functional outcomes. The health effects of rising environmental pollution have been of increasing concern in industrializing nations with rising urbanization patterns. This review article provides an overview of the link between pediatric asthma and exposure to rising sources of urban air pollution. It primarily focuses on the asthma-specific effects of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone and particulate matter. Worldwide trends of asthma prevalence are also provided which detail the prominent rise in asthma symptoms in many urban areas of Africa, Latin America and Asia. The molecular and functional correlation of ambient pollutants with asthma-specific airway inflammation in the pediatric population are also highlighted. The final aspect of the review considers the correlation of motor vehicle, industrial and cooking energy sources, ascribed as the major emitters among the pollutants in urban settings, with asthma epidemiology in children.

  20. 76 FR 54293 - Review of National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Carbon Monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... are typically very low because optimized fuel consumption conditions make boiler combustion highly... originates indoors from sources such as gas stoves, tobacco smoke and gas furnaces (ISA, section 3.6; REA... effects (ISA, p. 2- 10).\\7\\ In addition, the high oxygen consumption of the heart, together with...

  1. 40 CFR 50.16 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... air quality standards for lead. 50.16 Section 50.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.16 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead. (a) The national primary...

  2. 40 CFR 50.12 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... air quality standards for lead. 50.12 Section 50.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.12 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for lead. (a) National primary and...

  3. Formation of solid thorium monoxide at near-ambient conditions as observed by neutron reflectometry and interpreted by screened hybrid functional calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Heming; Majewski, Jaroslaw; Allred, David D.; Wang, Peng; Wen, Xiaodong; Rector, Kirk D.

    2017-04-01

    Oxidation of a ∼1000 Å sputter-deposited thorium thin film at 150 °C in 100 ppm of flowing oxygen in argon produces the long-sought solid form of thorium monoxide. Changes in the scattering length density (SLD) distribution in the film over the 700-min experiment measured by in-situ, dynamic neutron reflectometry (NR) shows the densities, compositions and thickness of the various thorium oxides layers formed. Screened, hybrid density-functional theory calculations of potential thorium oxides aid interpretation, providing atomic-level picture and energetics for understanding oxygen migration. NR provided evidence of the formation of substoichiometric thorium oxide, ThOy (y thorium metal and its dioxide overcoat which grows inward, consuming the thorium at a rate of 2.1 Å/min while y increases until reaching 1:1 oxygen-to-thorium. Its presence indicates that kinetically-favored solid-phase ThO can be preferentially generated as a majority phase under the thermodynamically-favored ThO2 top layer at conditions close to ambient.

  4. 76 FR 72097 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 81 RIN 2060-AR17 Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air... establishes air quality designations for most areas in the United States for the 2008 lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). In a previous action established on November 16, 2010, the EPA...

  5. 77 FR 30087 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... 21, 2012 Part III Environmental Protection Agency 40 CFR Parts 50, 51 and 81 Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards; Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: Nonattainment Area Classifications Approach, Attainment Deadlines and...

  6. 75 FR 71033 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-22

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 81 RIN-2060-AP78 Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air... establishes air quality designations for certain areas in the United States for the 2008 lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). Based on air quality monitoring data, EPA is issuing this rule to...

  7. 40 CFR 50.6 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... air quality standards for PM10. 50.6 Section 50.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.6 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM10. (a) The level of the...

  8. 40 CFR 50.15 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... air quality standards for ozone. 50.15 Section 50.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.15 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of...

  9. ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roque Leal Salcedo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El derecho internacional ambiental es un conocimiento de carácter transversal, que entre otras consideraciones refleja las preocupaciones de la sociedad por la implementación de un modelo de desarrollo sustentable para el respeto a las reglas del medio natural que garantizan la integridad y renovación de los sistemas naturales. El presente artículo enfoca esta visión a través del análisis de material documental revisado, entre ellos tratados internacionales que permiten distinguir el desarrollo del derecho internacional ambiental y el papel de Organización de las Naciones Unidas (ONU, en el propósito común del derecho individual y colectivo de disfrutar de una vida, un ambiente seguro, sano y ecológicamente equilibrado. En función a estas disertaciones las consideraciones finales exponen parte de la visión que ha estructurado la ONU y que representan un aporte considerable en el fomento de la conciencia mundial sobre la necesidad de establecer vínculos entre las naciones para el continuo desarrollo de esta rama del derecho.

  10. Carbon Monoxide Silicate Reduction System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Carbon Monoxide Silicate Reduction System (COSRS) is an innovative method that for the first time uses the strong reductant carbon monoxide to both reduce iron...

  11. 76 FR 76972 - Release of Final Integrated Review Plan for the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... AGENCY Release of Final Integrated Review Plan for the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead... the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead. This document contains the plans for the review of the air quality criteria and national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for lead (Pb). The...

  12. 76 FR 20347 - Release of Draft Integrated Review Plan for the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... AGENCY Release of Draft Integrated Review Plan for the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead... National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead (draft IRP). This document contains the plans for the review of the air quality criteria and national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for lead (Pb)....

  13. 77 FR 65310 - Additional Air Quality Designations for the 2006 24-Hour Fine Particle National Ambient Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Supplemental... particle (PM 2.5 ) national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) air quality designations for the Ak-Chin... Federal Register NAAQS National Ambient Air Quality Standards NTTAA National Technology...

  14. 75 FR 39253 - Release of Second Draft Document Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... AGENCY Release of Second Draft Document Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality... Assessment for the Review of the Particulate Matter National Ambient Air Quality Standards--Second External... revise the standards as part of the review of the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS)...

  15. 76 FR 48073 - Public Hearing for Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 50 RIN 2060-AO72 Public Hearing for Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards... titled ``Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur'' which was... ``Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur'' proposed rule should...

  16. 40 CFR 50.10 - National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.10 Section 50.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.10 National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level...

  17. 75 FR 1566 - Public Hearings for Reconsideration of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... proposed rule, ``Reconsideration of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone,'' which was... 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone'' proposed rule should be addressed to Ms....

  18. 40 CFR 50.9 - National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.9 Section 50.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.9 National 1-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix S to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen (Nitrogen Dioxide) S Appendix S to Part 50 Protection... National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen (Nitrogen Dioxide) 1. General (a) This... national ambient air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen as measured by nitrogen dioxide (“NO2...

  20. Carbon Monoxide Mixing Ratio System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory — The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Carbon Monoxide (CO) system provides high-precision atmospheric concentration measurements of CO mixing ratio (ppbv dry air) every 10...

  1. 40 CFR 50.7 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... air quality standards for PM2.5. 50.7 Section 50.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.7 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5. (a) The national primary...

  2. 40 CFR 50.13 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... air quality standards for PM2.5. 50.13 Section 50.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.13 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for PM2.5. (a) The national...

  3. Environment and Obesity in the National Children's Study Ambiente e obesidade no National Children's Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Trasande

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the approach taken by the National Children's Study (NCS to understanding the role of environmental factors in the development of obesity. We review the literature with regard to the two core hypotheses in the NCS that relate to environmental origins of obesity and describe strategies that will be used to test each hypothesis. Although it is clear that obesity in an individual results from an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure, control of the obesity epidemic will require understanding of factors in the modern built environment and chemical exposures that may have the capacity to disrupt the link between energy intake and expenditure. Through its embrace of the life-course approach to epidemiology, the NCS will be able to study the origins of obesity from preconception through late adolescence, including factors ranging from genetic inheritance to individual behaviors to the social, built, and natural environment and chemical exposures. It will have sufficient statistical power to examine interactions among these multiple influences, including geneenvironment and geneobesity interactions. A major secondary benefit will derive from the banking of specimens for future analysis.Descrevemos a abordagem do National Children's Study (NCS para entender o papel dos fatores ambientais no desenvolvimento da obesidade. Revisamos a literatura a respeito de duas hipóteses principais no NCS que se relacionam a origens ambientais da obesidade e descrevem estratégias que serão utilizadas para testar cada hipótese. Apesar de estar claro que a obesidade em um indivíduo é resultado de um desequilíbrio entre consumo e gasto de energia, o controle da epidemia de obesidade requer o entendimento de fatores no ambiente moderno e exposições químicas que podem ter a capacidade de interromper a ligação entre o consumo e gasto de energia. Através da aceitação da abordagem do curso de vida a epidemiologia, o NCS será capaz de estudar

  4. 76 FR 76048 - Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 81 RIN 2060-AR17 Air Quality Designations for the 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards Correction In rule document 2011-29460 appearing on pages 72097-72120 in the issues of...

  5. Why cross-national differences in role overload? Don't overlook ambient temperature!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Vliert, E.; Van Yperen, N.W.

    1996-01-01

    The finding that, across nations, power distance (expected and accepted unequal interpersonal influence) Is positively related to role overload (Peterson et al., 1995) might he an artifact of the relation between role overload and ambient temperature or other third factors. We related data on power

  6. 78 FR 44485 - Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: State Implementation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 50, 51, 70 and 71 Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards... on this rulemaking, contact Dr. Karl Pepple, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, U.S... Stackhouse, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, by phone...

  7. 40 CFR Appendix R to Part 50 - Interpretation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interpretation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead R Appendix R to Part 50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL.... 50, App. R Appendix R to Part 50—Interpretation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for...

  8. 77 FR 51798 - First Draft Documents Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... AGENCY First Draft Documents Related to the Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for... of the Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards: First External Review Draft. The Agency is...-001; July 2012), please contact Ms. Karen Wesson, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards...

  9. Controls on the microbial utilization of carbon monoxide and formic acid in Acidic Hydrothermal Springs in Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urschel, M.; Kubo, M. W.; Hoehler, T. M.; Boyd, E. S.; Peters, J.

    2012-12-01

    In hydrothermal systems, dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2) in the presence of reduced iron-bearing minerals, such as those found in basalt, can be reduced to form formic acid (HCOOH). HCOOH can then be dehydrated in a side reaction, resulting in the generation of carbon monoxide (CO), which forms an equilibrium with HCOOH. HCOOH can also be further reduced to methane, and longer chain hydrocarbons. Geochemical measurements have demonstrated the presence of elevated concentrations of HCOOH, dissolved CO, and dissolved inorganic carbon (CO2, H2CO3), in high temperature, low pH springs in Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Likewise, a number of compounds that could potentially serve as electron acceptors (e.g. S0, SO42-, NO3-, Fe3+) in the oxidation of CO or formic acid have been detected in many of these systems. We hypothesized that the utilization of CO and HCOOH as carbon and/or energy sources is a broadly-distributed metabolic strategy in high temperature, low pH springs in YNP. To test this hypothesis, radiolabeled CO (14CO) and HCOOH (H14COOH) were used to determine rates of CO and formate oxidation activity in three hot springs in YNP ranging in temperature from 53 °C to 89 °C and pH from 2.5 to 5.3. In parallel, 16S rRNA gene sequencing and enrichment isolation techniques were employed to identify the microorganisms responsible for these activities. Our results indicate that CO and HCOOH are important sources of carbon and/or energy in high temperature, low pH hydrothermal springs in Yellowstone National Park. Rates of CO oxidation appear to be orders of magnitude lower than those of HCOOH oxidation. One possible explanation for this result is that HCOOH is preferentially utilized, consistent with thermodynamic calculations indicating that HCOOH liberates approximately 215 kJ/mol more Gibbs energy (under standard conditions) than CO when oxidized with oxygen (O2) as the electron acceptor. Redox couples of HCOOH oxidation with other electron acceptors (e.g. SO4

  10. 40 CFR 50.11 - National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). 50.11 Section... PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.11 National primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (with nitrogen dioxide as the indicator). (a) The level of...

  11. Designations in US EPA Region 9 for the 1997 8-hour ozone (O3) national ambient air quality standards

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Polygon Esri shapefile of designated areas for 8-hour ozone, for the revoked primary and secondary 1997 National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). Nonattainment...

  12. Carbon Monoxide Silicate Reduction System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Carbon Monoxide Silicate Reduction System (COSRS) is a novel technology for producing large quantities of oxygen on the Moon. Oxygen yields of 15 kilograms per...

  13. Protect Yourself from Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-20

    Learn about carbon monoxide - a colorless, odorless gas - and how to protect yourself and your family.  Created: 11/20/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 12/4/2007.

  14. Carbon monoxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and smokers. Carbon monoxide can harm a fetus (unborn baby still in the womb). Symptoms of carbon ... symptoms Outlook (Prognosis) Carbon monoxide poisoning can cause death. For those who survive, recovery is slow. How ...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix P to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interpretation of the Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone P Appendix P to Part 50 Protection of Environment... STANDARDS Pt. 50, App. P Appendix P to Part 50—Interpretation of the Primary and Secondary National...

  16. CARBON MONOXIDE TREATMENT GUIDELINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miran Brvar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide is the leading cause of unintentional poisoning-related death in Slovenia. It is an odorless, colorless gas that usually remains undetectable until exposures result in injury or death. Exposure to carbon monoxide is most commonly accompanied by headache, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, confusion, drowsiness, fatigue and collapse. Carbon monoxide poisoning management includes normobaric oxygen therapy. Hyperbaric-oxygen treatments reduce the risk of cognitive sequelae after carbon monoxide poisoning. 

  17. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... main content Languages 简体中文 English Bahasa Indonesia 한국어 Español ภาษาไทย Tiếng Việt Text Size: Decrease Font Increase ... Monoxide Information Center Carbon Monoxide Information Center En Español The Invisible Killer Carbon monoxide, also known as ...

  18. Compact Instrument for Measurement of Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Southwest Sciences proposed the development of a rugged, compact, and automated instrument for the high sensitivity measurement of tropospheric carbon monoxide...

  19. Measurement of ambient aerosol hydration state at Great Smoky Mountains National Park in the southeastern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. Taylor

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We present results from two field deployments of a unique tandem differential mobility analyzer (TDMA configuration with two primary capabilities: identifying alternative stable or meta-stable ambient aerosol hydration states associated with hysteresis in aerosol hydration behavior and determining the actual Ambient hydration State (AS-TDMA. This data set is the first to fully classify the ambient hydration state of aerosols despite recognition that hydration state significantly impacts the roles of aerosols in climate, visibility and heterogeneous chemistry. The AS-TDMA was installed at a site in eastern Tennessee on the border of Great Smoky Mountains National Park for projects during the summer of 2006 and winter of 2007–2008. During the summer, 12% of the aerosols sampled in continuous AS-TDMA measurements were found to posses two possible hydration states under ambient conditions. In every case, the more hydrated of the possible states was occupied. The remaining 88% did not posses multiple possible states. In continuous measurements during the winter, 49% of the aerosols sampled possessed two possible ambient hydration states; the remainder possessed only one. Of those aerosols with multiple possible ambient hydration states, 65% occupied the more hydrated state; 35% occupied the less hydrated state. This seasonal contrast is supported by differences in the fine particulate (PM2.5 composition and ambient RH as measured during the two study periods. In addition to seasonal summaries, this work includes case studies depicting the variation of hydration state with changing atmospheric conditions.

  20. 78 FR 47191 - Air Quality Designations for the 2010 Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Primary National Ambient Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 81 RIN 2060-AR18 Air Quality Designations for the 2010 Sulfur Dioxide (SO ) Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standard AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule establishes air quality designations for certain areas in the United States for the...

  1. Estimating contribution of wildland fires to ambient ozone levels in National Parks in the Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiganoush K. Preisler; Shiyuan (Sharon) Zhong; Annie Esperanza; Timothy J. Brown; Andrzej Bytnerowicz; Leland Tarnay

    2010-01-01

    Data from four continuous ozone and weather monitoring sites operated by the National Park Service in Sierra Nevada, California, are used to develop an ozone forecasting model and to estimate the contribution of wildland fires on ambient ozone levels. The analyses of weather and ozone data pointed to the transport of ozone precursors from the Central Valley as an...

  2. Integrating Susceptibility into Environmental Policy: An Analysis of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for Lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramya Chari

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Susceptibility to chemical toxins has not been adequately addressed in risk assessment methodologies. As a result, environmental policies may fail to meet their fundamental goal of protecting the public from harm. This study examines how characterization of risk may change when susceptibility is explicitly considered in policy development; in particular we examine the process used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA to set a National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS for lead. To determine a NAAQS, EPA estimated air lead-related decreases in child neurocognitive function through a combination of multiple data elements including concentration-response (CR functions. In this article, we present alternative scenarios for determining a lead NAAQS using CR functions developed in populations more susceptible to lead toxicity due to socioeconomic disadvantage. The use of CR functions developed in susceptible groups resulted in cognitive decrements greater than original EPA estimates. EPA’s analysis suggested that a standard level of 0.15 µg/m3 would fulfill decision criteria, but by incorporating susceptibility we found that options for the standard could reasonably be extended to lower levels. The use of data developed in susceptible populations would result in the selection of a more protective NAAQS under the same decision framework applied by EPA. Results are used to frame discussion regarding why cumulative risk assessment methodologies are needed to help inform policy development.

  3. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Estimates OCTOBER 13, 2015 Incidents, Deaths, and In-Depth Investigations Associated with Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide from Engine-Driven Generators and ... Engine-Driven Tools, 2004–2014 JANUARY 08, 2015 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths Associated with the Use of Consumer Products 2011 Annual Estimates View All ... Inside CPSC Accessibility ...

  4. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION Search CPSC Search Menu Home Recalls Recall List CPSC Recall API Recall Lawsuits ... and Bans Report an Unsafe Product Consumers Businesses Home Safety Education Safety Education Centers Carbon Monoxide Information ...

  5. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Safety Blogs: CO Safety More CO Blogs Research & Statistics JANUARY 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths ... 2011 Annual Estimates View All CO-Related Injury Statistics and Technical Reports Related Links Recalls Safety Education ...

  6. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... On Safety Blogs: CO Safety More CO Blogs Research & Statistics JANUARY 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide ... Related Links Recalls Safety Education Regulations, Laws & Standards Research & Statistics Business & Manufacturing Small Business Resources OnSafety Blogs ...

  7. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Community Outreach Resource Center Toy Recall Statistics CO Poster Contest Pool Safely Business & Manufacturing Business & Manufacturing Business ... Featured Resources CPSC announces winners of carbon monoxide poster contest Video View the blog Clues You Can ...

  8. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Criminal Penalties Federal Court Orders & Decisions Research & Statistics Research & Statistics Technical Reports Injury Statistics NEISS Injury Data ... On Safety Blogs: CO Safety More CO Blogs Research & Statistics JANUARY 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths ...

  9. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Statistics JANUARY 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths Associated with the Use of Consumer Products 2012 Annual Estimates OCTOBER 13, 2015 Incidents, Deaths, and In-Depth Investigations Associated with Non-Fire ...

  10. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Unites States die every year from accidental non-fire related CO poisoning associated with consumer products, including ... CO Blogs Research & Statistics JANUARY 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths Associated with the Use of ...

  11. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Import Safety International Recall Guidance Civil and Criminal Penalties Federal Court Orders & ... 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths Associated with the Use of Consumer Products 2012 ...

  12. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Unites States die every year from accidental non-fire related CO poisoning associated with consumer products, including ... CO Blogs Research & Statistics JANUARY 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths Associated with the Use of ...

  13. 40 CFR Appendix T to Part 50 - Interpretation of the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur Dioxide) T Appendix T to Part 50 Protection of... AIR QUALITY STANDARDS Pt. 50, App. T Appendix T to Part 50—Interpretation of the Primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Sulfur (Sulfur Dioxide) 1. General (a) This appendix...

  14. Particulate matter concentration in ambient air and its effects on lung functions among residents in the National Capital Region, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesavachandran, C; Pangtey, B S; Bihari, V; Fareed, M; Pathak, M K; Srivastava, A K; Mathur, N

    2013-02-01

    The World Health Organization has estimated that air pollution is responsible for 1.4 % of all deaths and 0.8 % of disability-adjusted life years. NOIDA, located at the National Capital Region, India, was declared as one of the critically air-polluted areas by the Central Pollution Control Board of the Government of India. Studies on the relationship of reduction in lung functions of residents living in areas with higher concentrations of particulate matter (PM) in ambient air were inconclusive since the subjects of most of the studies are hospital admission cases. Very few studies, including one from India, have shown the relationship of PM concentration and its effects of lung functions in the same location. Hence, a cross-sectional study was undertaken to study the effect of particulate matter concentration in ambient air on the lung functions of residents living in a critically air-polluted area in India. PM concentrations in ambient air (PM(1,) PM(2.5)) were monitored at residential locations and identified locations with higher (NOIDA) and lower concentrations (Gurgaon). Lung function tests (FEV(1), PEFR) were conducted using a spirometer in 757 residents. Both air monitoring and lung function tests were conducted on the same day. Significant negative linear relationship exists between higher concentrations of PM(1) with reduced FEV(1) and increased concentrations of PM(2.5) with reduced PEFR and FEV(1). The study shows that reductions in lung functions (PEFR and FEV(1)) can be attributed to higher particulate matter concentrations in ambient air. Decline in airflow obstruction in subjects exposed to high PM concentrations can be attributed to the fibrogenic response and associated airway wall remodeling. The study suggests the intervention of policy makers and stake holders to take necessary steps to reduce the emissions of PM concentrations, especially PM(1,) PM(2.5), which can lead to serious respiratory health concerns in residents.

  15. Search of medical literature for indoor carbon monoxide exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan, T.; Ivanovich, M.

    1995-12-01

    This report documents a literature search on carbon monoxide. The search was limited to the medical and toxicological databases at the National Library of Medicine (MEDLARS). The databases searched were Medline, Toxline and TOXNET. Searches were performed using a variety of strategies. Combinations of the following keywords were used: carbon, monoxide, accidental, residential, occult, diagnosis, misdiagnosis, heating, furnace, and indoor. The literature was searched from 1966 to the present. Over 1000 references were identified and summarized using the following abbreviations: The major findings of the search are: (1) Acute and subacute carbon monoxide exposures result in a large number of symptoms affecting the brain, kidneys, respiratory system, retina, and motor functions. (2) Acute and subacute carbon monoxide (CO) poisonings have been misdiagnosed on many occasions. (3) Very few systematic investigations have been made into the frequency and consequences of carbon monoxide poisonings.

  16. 77 FR 30280 - Final National Recommended Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Carbaryl-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ... about EPA's public docket visit the EPA Docket Center homepage at http://www.epa.gov/epahome/dockets.htm... Geological Survey National Water Quality Assessment Program reported carbaryl as the second most frequently...: Pesticides in the Nation's Streams and Ground Water, 1992-2001. Circular 1291. U.S. Geological Survey....

  17. Prioritization of constituents for national- and regional-scale ambient monitoring of water and sediment in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Lisa D.; Valder, Joshua F.; Carter, Janet M.; Zogorski, John S.

    2013-01-01

    A total of 2,541 constituents were evaluated and prioritized for national- and regional-scale ambient monitoring of water and sediment in the United States. This prioritization was done by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in preparation for the upcoming third decade (Cycle 3; 2013–23) of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. This report provides the methods used to prioritize the constituents and the results of that prioritization. Constituents were prioritized by the NAWQA National Target Analyte Strategy (NTAS) work group on the basis of available information on physical and chemical properties, observed or predicted environmental occurrence and fate, and observed or anticipated adverse effects on human health or aquatic life. Constituents were evaluated within constituent groups that were determined on the basis of physical or chemical properties or on uses or sources. Some constituents were evaluated within more than one constituent group. Although comparable objectives were used in the prioritization of constituents within the different constituent groups, differences in the availability of information accessed for each constituent group led to the development of separate prioritization approaches adapted to each constituent group to make best use of available resources. Constituents were assigned to one of three prioritization tiers: Tier 1, those having the highest priority for inclusion in ambient monitoring of water or sediment on a national or regional scale (including NAWQA Cycle 3 monitoring) on the basis of their likelihood of environmental occurrence in ambient water or sediment, or likelihood of effects on human health or aquatic life; Tier 2, those having intermediate priority for monitoring on the basis of their lower likelihood of environmental occurrence or lower likelihood of effects on human health or aquatic life; and Tier 3, those having low or no priority for monitoring on the basis of evidence of nonoccurrence or lack of

  18. Applicability of ambient toxicity testing to national or regional water-quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, John F.

    1990-01-01

    Comprehensive assessment of the quality of natural waters requires a multifaceted approach. Descriptions of existing conditions may be achieved by various kinds of chemical and hydrologic analyses, whereas information about the effects of such conditions on living organisms depends on biological monitoring. Toxicity testing is one type of biological monitoring that can be used to identify possible effects of toxic contaminants. Based on experimentation designed to monitor responses of organisms to environmental stresses, toxicity testing may have diverse purposes in water-quality assessments. These purposes may include identification of areas that warrant further study because of poor water quality or unusual ecological features, verification of other types of monitoring, or assessment of contaminant effects on aquatic communities. Toxicity-test results are most effective when used as a complement to chemical analyses, hydrologic measurements, and other biological monitoring. However, all toxicity-testing procedures have certain limitations that must be considered in developing the methodology and applications of toxicity testing in any large-scale water-quality-assessment program. A wide variety of toxicity-test methods have been developed to fulfill the needs of diverse applications. The methods differ primarily in the selections made relative to four characteristics: (1) test species, (2) endpoint (acute or chronic), (3) test-enclosure type, and (4) test substance (toxicant) that functions as the environmental stress. Toxicity-test approaches vary in their capacity to meet the needs of large-scale assessments of existing water quality. Ambient testing, whereby the test organism is exposed to naturally occurring substances that contain toxicant mixtures in an organic or inorganic matrix, is more likely to meet these needs than are procedures that call for exposure of the test organisms to known concentrations of a single toxicant. However, meaningful

  19. Will the circle be unbroken: a history of the U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, John

    2007-06-01

    In celebration of the 100th anniversary of the Air & Waste Management Association, this review examines the history of air quality management (AQM) in the United States over the last century, with an emphasis on the ambient standards programs established by the landmark 1970 Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments. The current CAA system is a hybrid of several distinct air pollution control philosophies, including the recursive or circular system driven by ambient standards. Although this evolving system has resulted in tremendous improvements in air quality, it has been far from perfect in terms of timeliness and effectiveness. The paper looks at several periods in the history of the U.S. program, including: (1) 1900-1970, spanning the early smoke abatement and smog control programs, the first federal involvement, and the development of a hybrid AQM approach in the 1970 CAA; (2) 1971-1976, when the first National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) were set and implemented; (3) 1977-1993, a period of the first revisions to the standards, new CAA Amendments, delays in implementation and decision-making, and key science/policy/legislative developments that would alter both the focus and scale of air pollution programs and how they are implemented; and (4) 1993-2006, the second and third wave of NAAQS revisions and their implementation in the context of the 1990 CAA. This discussion examines where NAAQS have helped drive implementation programs and how improvements in both effects and air quality/control sciences influenced policy and legislation to enhance the effectiveness of the system over time. The review concludes with a look toward the future of AQM, emphasizing challenges and ways to meet them. The most significant of these is the need to make more efficient progress toward air quality goals, while adjusting the system to address the growing intersections between air quality management and climate change.

  20. 76 FR 46083 - Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... perspective, as well as from an environmental effects perspective. The National Research Council (NRC) has... perspective than are the effects of nitrogen deposition in natural, unmanaged ecosystems, largely due to the... nitrogen and sulfur and aquatic acidification effects relative to other deposition-related...

  1. Areas Nacionales de Estudio Ambiental: Una Guia. (National Environmental Study Area: A Guide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    This booklet, the Spanish version of SE 014 817, is a guide for teachers and resource managers who are interested in establishing National Environmental Study Areas (NESA) or interested in receiving NESA recognition for their on-going environmental study area programs. It outlines the characteristics and procedures of the program; the nature,…

  2. 77 FR 20217 - Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ..., Distribution, or Use I. National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act J. Executive Order 12898: Federal... document production, to provide sufficient time for CASAC review of the document in advance of this meeting... under certain conditions, can combine with atmospheric ammonia to form ammonium nitrate, a component of...

  3. 77 FR 30160 - Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: Nonattainment Area...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    .... National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act J. Executive Order 12898: Federal Actions To Address... Elizabeth Crowe (WildEarth Guardians) filed a lawsuit seeking to compel the EPA to take action to designate areas for the 2008 ozone NAAQS. WildEarth Guardians and Elizabeth Crowe v. Jackson (D. Ariz....

  4. 77 FR 31351 - Adequacy Determination for Aspen PM10 and Fort Collins Carbon Monoxide Maintenance Plans' Motor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... 93.118(e)(4), which was promulgated August 15, 1997 (62 FR 43780). We described our process for... (69 FR 40004). In addition, in certain areas with monitored ambient carbon monoxide (CO) values... AGENCY Adequacy Determination for Aspen PM and Fort Collins Carbon Monoxide Maintenance Plans'...

  5. Proposals for the National Environmental Health Action Plan Propuestas para el Plan Nacional de Salud y Medio Ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estrella López Martín

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available According to international strategies for environment and health, the spanish administration of Health and Environment launched in 2007 the necessary mechanisms for developing the National Plan for Health and Environment. The first step was an agreement with the Carlos III Health Institute for designing the basis on which to sus- tain the plan. The scientific committee established for that purpose has drafted a basis-report with the participation of a large group of experts. This work is an abstract of the proposals contained in that report. The proposals refer to the items considered as a priority in the European environment and health strategy, ie, cancer, endocrine disruption, neuro-developmental disorders and respiratory diseases and are organized around the major environmental risk factors for health: water, persistent toxic chemicals, electromagnetic fields, ionizing radiation, noise and climate change and extreme temperatures. To give consistency to the plan, the report identifies some essential measures to ensure its administrative, political, technical and financial feasibility. To give it coherence, the report point to some common priorities and methodological strategies. To give a shape to the plan, the report finally identifies programs to be implemented.De acuerdo con las estrategias internacionales en materia de salud y medio ambiente, los Ministerios de Sanidad y de Medio Ambiente pusieron en marcha en 2007 los mecanismos necesarios para la elaboración del Plan Nacional de Salud y Medio Ambiente. El primer paso ha sido la firma de un acuerdo de encomienda de gestión con el Instituto de Salud Carlos III para que éste diseñara las bases sobre las que sustentar el plan. El comité científico creado al efecto ha redactado un informe de bases para lo que ha contado con el concurso de un nutrido grupo de expertos. Las propuestas que se recogen en el informe constituyen el contenido del presente trabajo. Las propuestas hacen

  6. Estimating contribution of wildland fires to ambient ozone levels in National Parks in the Sierra Nevada, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preisler, Haiganoush K., E-mail: hpreisler@fs.fed.u [USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, 800 Buchanan St, Albany, CA 94710 (United States); Zhong Shiyuan, E-mail: zhongs@msu.ed [Department of Geography, Michigan State University, 116 Geography Building, East Lansing, MI 48824-1117 (United States); Esperanza, Annie, E-mail: annie_esperanza@nps.go [Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks, 47050 Generals Highway Three Rivers, CA 93271 (United States); Brown, Timothy J., E-mail: tim.brown@dri.ed [Desert Research Institute, 2215 Raggio Parkway, Reno, NV 89521-10095 (United States); Bytnerowicz, Andrzej, E-mail: abytnerowicz@fs.fed.u [USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, 4955 Canyon Crest Drive, Riverside, CA 92507 (United States); Tarnay, Leland, E-mail: Leland_Tarnay@nps.go [Yosemite National Park, El Portal, CA 95318 (United States)

    2010-03-15

    Data from four continuous ozone and weather monitoring sites operated by the National Park Service in Sierra Nevada, California, are used to develop an ozone forecasting model and to estimate the contribution of wildland fires on ambient ozone levels. The analyses of weather and ozone data pointed to the transport of ozone precursors from the Central Valley as an important source of pollution in these National Parks. Comparisons of forecasted and observed values demonstrated that accurate forecasts of next-day hourly ozone levels may be achieved by using a time series model with historic averages, expected local weather and modeled PM values as explanatory variables. Results on fire smoke influence indicated occurrence of significant increases in average ozone levels with increasing fire activity. The overall effect on diurnal ozone values, however, was small when compared with the amount of variability attributed to sources other than fire. - We have demonstrated that it is possible to produce accurate forecasts of next-day hourly ozone levels in the Sierra Nevada, CA, during fire season.

  7. Nonattainment of national ambient air quality standards: implications for energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garvey, D.B.; Streets, D.G.; Kotecki, R.; Senew, M.

    1979-10-01

    In accordance with the 1977 Clean Air Act Amendments, EPA established regulations governing new and existing sources of emissions in areas where the NAAQS are being exceeded. These requirements may constrain the implementation of a national energy policy to increase the use of coal in utilities and industries. The states designated the nonattainment areas and prepared State Implementation Plans, outlining strategies for attaining the standards by the deadline of December 31, 1982. This report contains maps of nonattainment areas for all pollutants and summaries of the attainment strategies for those pollutants most likely to affect fossil-fueled energy development - SO/sub 2/, TSP, and NO/sub x/. The review of SIPs indicates that attainment of SO/sub 2/ standards should be relatively easy. Attainment of TSP standards may be more difficult since point sources are already well controlled and further reductions in emissions will require controls on fugitive sources. NO/sub x/ nonattainment is currently limited to three small areas. The report also contains an examination of emission limitations in nonattainment areas and a national assessment of the potential constraints of nonattainment on energy development in 1985 to 1990. The assessment concludes that constraints on projected new coal-fired utilities should not be significant. Constraints on expanded industrial coal use from TSP nonattainment may be significant but the effects of SO/sub 2/ nonattainment should be limited.

  8. National automatic network of environmental radiological monitoring (RENAMORA); Red Nacional automatica de monitoreo radiologico ambiental (RENAMORA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez M, J.L.; Sanchez H, L. [CNSNS, Dr. Barragan 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. e-mail: jlgonzalez@cnsns.gob.mx

    2003-07-01

    Inside the programs of Environmental Radiological Surveillance that it carries out the National Commission of Nuclear Security and Safeguards (CNSNS), it develops an National Automatic Network of Environmental Radiological Monitoring (RENAMORA), where it is carried out a registration of speed of environmental dose in continuous and simultaneous forms with the same moment of the measurement. This net allows to account with the meticulous and opportune information that will help to characterize, in dynamics form, the radiological conditions of diverse geographical zones of the country, including the sites that by normative require bigger surveillance, like its are the Laguna Verde Nuclear power station (CNLV), the Nuclear Center of Mexico (ININ) and the Radioactive waste storage center (CADER). This net is in its first development stage; three points inside the state of Veracruz, in the surroundings of the CNLV, already its are operating; the obtained data of rapidity of environmental dose are being stored in a database inside a primary data center located in the facilities of the CNSNS in Mexico city and its will be analyzed according to the project advances. At the moment, its are installing the first ten teams corresponding to the first phase of the RENAMORA (three stages); its are carried out operation tests, transmission, reception and administration of data. The obtained data will be interpreted, analyzed and inter compared to evaluate the risk levels to that it would be hold the population and to determine thresholds that allow to integrate the alarm systems that its had considered for emergency situations. (Author)

  9. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions in The Netherlands: ambient measurements support the national inventories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. M. Neubert

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We present net emission estimates of CH4 and N2O of The Netherlands based on measurements conducted during the period of May 2006 to April 2009 at station Lutjewad, The Netherlands (6°21' E, 53°24' N, 1 m a.s.l.. 222Radon mixing ratios were applied as an indicator for vertical mixing and long-range air mass transport and used to calculate the net surface fluxes from atmospheric mixing ratios of CH4 and N2O. Our study shows that our measurement site Lutjewad is well-suited to measure emissions from The Netherlands and validation of the national inventories using the 222Radon flux method. Since this study is purely observation-based it is independent from inventories or atmospheric models. Our results are compared to the national inventories as reported to the UNFCCC. We found net emissions of: (15.2±5.3 t km−2 a−1 for CH4 and (0.9±0.3 t km−2 a−1 for N2O. These values are lower than the inventory-based emissions (2006-2008 averages of (18.3±3.3 t km−2 a−1 for CH4, and (1.3±0.6 t km−2 a−1 for N2O, but the differences are insignificant.

  10. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions in The Netherlands: ambient measurements support the national inventories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. van der Laan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We present net emission estimates of CH4 and N2O of The Netherlands based on measurements conducted during the period of May 2006 to April 2009 at station Lutjewad, The Netherlands (6° 21' E, 53° 24' N, 1 m a.s.l.. 222Radon mixing ratios were applied as an indicator for vertical mixing and long-range air mass transport and used to calculate the net surface fluxes from atmospheric mixing ratios of CH4 and N2O. Our study shows that our measurement site Lutjewad is well-suited to measure emissions from The Netherlands and validation of the national inventories using the 222Radon flux method. Since this study is purely observation-based it is independent from inventories or atmospheric models. Our results are compared to the national inventories as reported to the UNFCCC. We found net emissions of: (15.2±5.3 t km-2 a-1 for CH4 and (0.9±0.3 t km-2 a-1 for N2O. These values are lower than the inventory-based emissions (2006–2008 averages of (18.3±3.3 t km-2 a-1 for CH4, and (1.3±0.6 t km-2 a-1 for N2O, but the differences are insignificant.

  11. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 8-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone I Appendix I to Part 50 Protection of... AIR QUALITY STANDARDS Pt. 50, App. I Appendix I to Part 50—Interpretation of the 8-Hour Primary and... valid day if valid 8-hour averages are available for at least 75% of possible hours in the day (i.e.,...

  12. 40 CFR Appendix H to Part 50 - Interpretation of the 1-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interpretation of the 1-Hour Primary and Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone H Appendix H to Part 50 Protection of... AIR QUALITY STANDARDS Pt. 50, App. H Appendix H to Part 50—Interpretation of the 1-Hour Primary and...

  13. Carbon monoxide poisoning in the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Kaabi, Juma M; Wheatley, Andrew D; Barss, Peter; Al Shamsi, Mariam; Lababidi, Anis; Mushtaq, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is rare in the Arabian Peninsula and occurs almost exclusively during the winter months. Knowledge and perception of the hazards of carbon monoxide is limited. Migrant workers from warm climates appear particularly at risk. We investigated 46 cases of carbon monoxide poisoning presenting at emergency departments from 2007-2009 of the two main hospitals in Al Ain city, United Arab Emirates. Interviews, hospital records, and administered questionnaires were used to collect the data. Among the 46 cases investigated, 24 (52%) were males. Foreign nationals compromised 80% of the cases and the incidence was 3.1 cases per 100,000 residents per year. Burning charcoal in poorly ventilated residences was the predominant source of the carbon monoxide poisoning. Almost all cases (98%) were admitted during the winter months, most in the early morning hours. Carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) was significantly increased in cases with loss of consciousness and depressed consciousness. There were no reported fatalities.

  14. Nonradioactive Ambient Air Monitoring at Los Alamos National Laboratory 2001--2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Gladney; J.Dewart, C.Eberhart; J.Lochamy

    2004-09-01

    During the spring of 2000, the Cerro Grande forest fire reached Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and ignited both above-ground vegetation and disposed materials in several landfills. During and after the fire, there was concern about the potential human health impacts from chemicals emitted by the combustion of these Laboratory materials. Consequently, short-term, intensive air-monitoring studies were performed during and shortly after the fire. Unlike the radiological data from many years of AIRNET sampling, LANL did not have an adequate database of nonradiological species under baseline conditions with which to compare data collected during the fire. Therefore, during 2001 the Meteorology and Air Quality Group designed and implemented a new air-monitoring program, entitled NonRadNET, to provide nonradiological background data under normal conditions. The objectives of NonRadNET were to: (1) develop the capability for collecting nonradiological air-monitoring data, (2) conduct monitoring to develop a database of typical background levels of selected nonradiological species in the communities nearest the Laboratory, and (3) determine LANL's potential contribution to nonradiological air pollution in the surrounding communities. NonRadNET ended in late December 2002 with five quarters of data. The purpose of this paper is to organize and describe the NonRadNET data collected over 2001-2002 to use as baseline data, either for monitoring during a fire, some other abnormal event, or routine use. To achieve that purpose, in this paper we will: (1) document the NonRadNET program procedures, methods, and quality management, (2) describe the usual origins and uses of the species measured, (3) compare the species measured to LANL and other area emissions, (4) present the five quarters of data, (5) compare the data to known typical environmental values, and (6) evaluate the data against exposure standards.

  15. Do US Ambient Air Lead Levels Have a Significant Impact on Childhood Blood Lead Levels: Results of a National Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LuAnn L. Brink

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Although lead paint and leaded gasoline have not been used in the US for thirty years, thousands of US children continue to have blood lead levels (BLLs of concern. Methods. We investigated the potential association of modeled air lead levels and BLLs ≥ 10 μg/dL using a large CDC database with BLLs on children aged 0–3 years. Percent of children with BLLs ≥ 10 μg/dL (2000–2007 by county and proportion of pre-50 housing and SES variables were merged with the US EPA's National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA modeled air lead data. Results. The proportion with BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL was 1.24% in the highest air lead counties, and the proportion with BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL was 0.36% in the lowest air lead counties, resulting in a crude prevalence ratio of 3.4. Further analysis using multivariate negative binomial regression revealed that NATA lead was a significant predictor of % BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL after controlling for percent pre-l950 housing, percent rural, and percent black. A geospatial regression revealed that air lead, percent older housing, and poverty were all significant predictors of % BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL. Conclusions. More emphasis should be given to potential sources of ambient air lead near residential areas.

  16. Ambient air sampling for radioactive air contaminants at Los Alamos National Laboratory: A large research and development facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberhart, C.F.

    1998-09-01

    This paper describes the ambient air sampling program for collection, analysis, and reporting of radioactive air contaminants in and around Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Particulate matter and water vapor are sampled continuously at more than 50 sites. These samples are collected every two weeks and then analyzed for tritium, and gross alpha, gross beta, and gamma ray radiation. The alpha, beta, and gamma measurements are used to detect unexpected radionuclide releases. Quarterly composites are analyzed for isotopes of uranium ({sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U), plutonium ({sup 238}Pu, {sup 239/249}Pu), and americium ({sup 241}Am). All of the data is stored in a relational database with hard copies as the official records. Data used to determine environmental concentrations are validated and verified before being used in any calculations. This evaluation demonstrates that the sampling and analysis process can detect tritium, uranium, plutonium, and americium at levels much less than one percent of the public dose limit of 10 millirems. The isotopic results also indicate that, except for tritium, off-site concentrations of radionuclides potentially released from LANL are similar to typical background measurements.

  17. Automatic national network of radiation environmental monitoring in Mexico; Red nacional automatica de monitoreo radiologico ambiental en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguirre, Jaime; Delgado, Jose L.; Lopez, Manuel; Zertuche, Jorge V., E-mail: jaguirre@cnsns.gob.mx, E-mail: jldelgado@cnsns.gob.mx, E-mail: mlopez@cnsns.gob.mx, E-mail: jorge.zertuche@cnsns.gob.mx [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias (CNSNS), D.F. (Mexico). Direccion de Vigilancia Radiologica

    2013-07-01

    The Direccion de Vigilancia Radiologica (DVR) of the Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias (CNSNS) de Mexico, performs several function for environmental radiation monitoring. One of these functions is the permanent monitoring of the environmental gamma radiation. For this, it implemented the Red Nacional Automatica de Monitoreo Radiologico Ambiental (RENAMORA) - the National Automated Network for Environmental Radiation Monitoring,which currently comprises 60 detector probes for gamma radiation which with a programmable system that includes information technologies, data transmission and software can send the information in real time to a primary center of data located in the facilities of CNSNS. - When the data are received, the system performs the verification and extraction of the information organized in Tables and charts, and generates a report of environmental gamma radiation dose rate average for each of the probes and for each period of time determined bu CNSNS. The RENAMORA covers the main cities and allows to establish the bases of almost the entire country, as well as to warn about abnormal situations caused by incidents or natural events generated by human activities inside or outside the country which involves radioactive materials; paying special attention to main radiological sites, such as the surroundings of the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plants, research centers and the radioactive waste disposal sites.

  18. Are the elements of the proposed ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards informed by the best available science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Julie E; Sax, Sonja N; Lange, Sabine; Rhomberg, Lorenz R

    2015-06-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) issues National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for six criteria pollutants, including ozone. Each standard has four elements: an indicator, level, averaging time, and form. Ozone levels (i.e., air concentrations) alone in scientific studies are not directly comparable to the "level" element of the NAAQS because the standard considers the level in the context of its relation to the remaining elements. Failure to appreciate this has led to misunderstandings regarding NAAQS that would be health-protective. This can be seen with controlled human ozone exposure studies, which often involved small numbers of people exercising quasi-continuously for a long duration at an intensity not common in the general population (and unlikely achievable by most sensitive individuals), under worst-case exposure profiles. In addition, epidemiology studies have used different averaging times and have had methodological limitations that may have biased results. Such considerations can make it difficult to compare ozone levels and results across studies and to appropriately apply them in a NAAQS evaluation. Relating patterns and circumstances of exposure, and exposure measurements, to all elements of the NAAQS can be challenging, but if US EPA fully undertook this, it would be evident that available evidence does not indicate that proposed lower ozone standards would be more health protective than the current one. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Mapping Air Quality Index of Carbon Monoxide (CO) in Medan City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryati, I.; Khair, H.

    2017-03-01

    This study aims to map and analyze air quality index of carbon monoxide (CO) in Medan City. This research used 12 (twelve) sampling points around in Medan with an hour duration each point. CO concentration was analyzed using the NDIR CO Analyzer sampling tool. The concentration CO was obtained between 1 ppm - 23 ppm, with an average concentration was 9.5 ppm. This condition is still below the national ambient air quality standard set by Government Regulation of Indonesian Republic Number 41-1999 amounted to 29 ppm. The result of CO concentration measurements was converted into air pollutant standard index, obtained the index value of 58 - 204. Surfer 10 was used to create map of air pollutant standard index for CO. The map illustrates very unhealthy area where located in the Medan Belawan district. The main factors affecting the concentration of CO are from transportation and meteorological factors.

  20. Adsorption of nitrogen and carbon monoxide on clinoptilolite: determination and prediction of pure and binary isotherms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triebe, R.W.; Tezel, F.H. [University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Department of Chemical Engineering

    1995-10-01

    The adsorption of carbon monoxide and nitrogen on clinoptilolite is studied to determine the natural zeolite`s potential for air purification. Pure and binary isotherms were determined for nitrogen and carbon monoxide on a natural Turkish clinoptilolite under near ambient conditions. Experimentally determined isotherms are compared to predictions based on various models from the literature. The Wilson form of the Vacancy Solution Theory is the only model that provides reasonable agreement with the binary isotherm. Clinoptilolite is concluded to be a promising sorbent for separation of carbon monoxide and nitrogen. 30 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Field surveys of carbon monoxide in commercial settings using personal exposure monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flachsbart, P. G.; Ott, W. R.

    1984-02-01

    Miniaturized personal exposure monitors (PEMs) were employed to measure carbon monoxide (CO) in 588 different commercial settings (e.g., retail stores, office buildings, hotels, restaurants) in five California cities. Altogether, 5000 CO observations were made by recording the instantaneous instrument reading at 1-minute intervals as the investigators walked along sidewalks and into buildings. For 11 of 15 survey dates, two investigators walked side-by-side, permitting two adjacent PEMs to be compared. Quality assurance tests for 1706 pairs of values showed a very high degree of agreement. CO levels for indoor commercial settings were similar to those measured outdoors on sidewalks, apparently because the pollutant seeps into the structures from traffic outside. Although indoor levels usually were above 0 ppm, they seldom were above 9 ppm (the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for an 8-hour exposure), unless some indoor source could be identified. Carbon monoxide levels on outdoor streets did not vary greatly on different sides of the street, on corners and faces of blocks, and intersections.

  2. Carbon Monoxide (CO) Poisoning Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir When power outages occur after severe weather (such as winter storms, hurricanes or tornadoes), using alternative sources of power can cause carbon monoxide (CO) to build up in a ...

  3. Using National Ambient Air Quality Standards for fine particulate matter to assess regional wildland fire smoke and air quality management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Don; Cisneros, Ricardo; Traina, Samuel; Ghezzehei, Teamrat A; Shaw, Glenn

    2017-10-01

    Wildland fire is an important ecological process in the California Sierra Nevada. Personal accounts from pre-20th century describe a much smokier environment than present day. The policy of suppression beginning in the early 20th century and climate change are contributing to increased megafires. We use a single particulate monitoring site at the wildland urban interface to explore impacts from prescribed, managed, and full suppression wildland fires from 2006 to 2015 producing a contextual assessment of smoke impacts over time at the landscape level. Prescribed fire had little effect on local fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air quality with readings typical of similar non-fire times; hourly and daily good to moderate Air Quality Index (AQI) for PM2.5, maximum hourly concentrations 21-103 μg m(-3), and mean concentrations between 7.7 and 13.2 μg m(-3). Hourly and daily AQI was typically good or moderate during managed fires with 3 h and one day reaching unhealthy while the site remained below National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), with maximum hourly concentrations 27-244 μg m(-3), and mean concentrations 6.7-11.7 μg m(-3). The large high intensity fire in this area created the highest short term impacts (AQI unhealthy for 4 h and very unhealthy for 1 h), 11 unhealthy for sensitive days, and produced the only annual value (43.9 μg m(-3)) over the NAAQS 98th percentile for PM2.5 (35 μg m(-3)). Pinehurst remained below the federal standards for PM2.5 when wildland fire in the local area was managed to 7800 ha (8-22% of the historic burn area). Considering air quality impacts from smoke using the NAAQS at a landscape level over time can give land and air managers a metric for broader evaluation of smoke impacts particularly when assessing ecologically beneficial fire. Allowing managers to control the amount and timing of individual wildland fire emissions can help lessen large smoke impacts to public health from a megafire. Published by

  4. Teale California Ambient Air Quality Standards for carbon monoxide

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — California Spatial Information System (CaSIL) is a project designed to improve access to geo-spatial and geo-spatial related data information throughout the state of...

  5. 77 FR 39205 - Public Hearings for Proposed Rules-National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ... slide presentations unless we receive special requests in advance. Commenters should notify Mr. Rush if... data handling conventions for PM and ambient air monitoring, reporting, and network design requirements... questions during the oral presentations, but will not respond to the presentations at that time....

  6. (Carbon monoxide metabolism by photosynthetic bacteria)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    Research continued on the metabolism of carbon monoxide by Rhodospirillum rubrum. This report discusses progress on the activity, induction, inhibition, and spectroscopic analysis of the enzyme Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase. (CBS)

  7. 75 FR 54773 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Minnesota; Carbon Monoxide (CO...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... ambient monitoring data collected between 1998 and July of 2009, that the Twin Cities area is meeting both... Monoxide (CO) Limited Maintenance Plan for the Twin Cities Area AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... Minneapolis-St. Paul (Twin Cities) area. The one hour CO NAAQS and eight hour CO NAAQS are 35 parts...

  8. Technical comments on EPA`s proposed revisions to the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for particulate matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipfert, F.W.

    1997-03-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has proposed new ambient air quality standards specifically for fine particulate matter, regulating concentrations of particles with median aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 {mu}m (PM{sub 2.5}). Two new standards have been proposed: a maximum 24-hr concentration that is intended to protect against acute health effects, and an annual concentration limit that is intended to protect against longer-term health effects. EPA has also proposed a slight relaxation of the 24-hr standard for inhalable particles (PM{sub 10}), by allowing additional exceedances each year. Fine particles are currently being indirectly controlled by means of regulations for PM{sub 10} and TSP, under the Clean Air Act of 1970 and subsequent amendments. Although routine monitoring of PM{sub 2.5} is rare and data are sparse, the available data indicate that ambient concentrations have been declining at about 6% per year under existing regulations.

  9. Ambient Space and Ambient Sensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik

    The ambient is the aesthetic production of the sensation of being surrounded. As a concept, 'ambient' is mostly used in relation to the music genre 'ambient music' and Brian Eno's idea of environmental background music. However, the production of ambient sensations must be regarded as a central...... aspect of the aesthetization of modern culture in general, from architecture, transport and urbanized lifeforms to film, sound art, installation art and digital environments. This presentation will discuss the key aspects of ambient aesthetization, including issues such as objectlessness...

  10. Association between children's forced vital capacity and long-term exposure to local ambient temperature in China: A national cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qin; Wang, Hai-Jun; Song, Yi; Ma, Jun; Song, Jie-Yun; Guo, Yuming

    2016-07-01

    It is well documented that short-term exposure to extreme ambient temperature is associated with respiratory disorder. However, few studies have assessed the long-term effect of temperature on children's lung function. The present study aimed to investigate the association between long-term exposure to local ambient temperature and children's forced vital capacity (FVC) in China. We analyzed the FVC data of 71,768 children from the 2010 Chinese National Survey on Students' Construction and Health (CHNSCH), and local annual average ambient temperature, relative humidity, air pollutants data from China Meteorological Administration and Ministry of Environment Protection of China. Generalized additive model (GAM) with non-linear function was used to examine the effect of ambient temperature on children's FVC. The results showed that low temperature was significantly associated with decrease of FVC in Chinese children within certain temperature range while adjusting for individual characteristics, socioeconomic conditions, air pollutants and relative humidity. The largest alteration of FVC related to the annual average temperature difference among cities from 20.4°C to 4.5°C was observed, being 242.7ml (95%CI: 220.0, 265.3) decrease in FVC. The similar association was found in both physically active and inactive children, while the largest alteration of FVC related to the temperature difference reached 329.1ml (95%CI: 296.7, 361.6) in physically active children and 290.5ml (95%CI: 255.7, 325.3) in physically inactive ones. Public health policy should be developed for protecting children's respiratory health during growth and development in some areas with cold weather. Key message What is the key question? Few studies have assessed the long-term effect of temperature on children's forced vital capacity (FVC). We analyzed the Chinese national survey data to clarify the association between children's forced vital capacity and long-term exposure to local ambient

  11. Carbon monoxide formation in tomatoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gladon, R.J.; Staby, G.L.

    1979-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is not emanated to any large extent from tomato fruits (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill. cvs. Rutgers and Ohio MR-13), but is retained within the internal atmosphere. CO is found during all stages of fruit development, but no set pattern of CO concentration is evident.

  12. MOPITT Carbon Monoxide Over India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    MOPITT observed high levels of carbon monoxide (red and yellow pixels) over the Indian sub-continent during March. These values are associated with industrial activity in the region just south of the Himalayan Mountains. Notice that to the north, the Himalayas are characterized by low values (blue pixels).

  13. A population-based exposure assessment methodology for carbon monoxide: Development of a carbon monoxide passive sampler and occupational dosimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apte, M.G.

    1997-09-01

    Two devices, an occupational carbon monoxide (CO) dosimeter (LOCD), and an indoor air quality (IAQ) passive sampler were developed for use in population-based CO exposure assessment studies. CO exposure is a serious public health problem in the U.S., causing both morbidity and mortality (lifetime mortality risk approximately 10{sup -4}). Sparse data from population-based CO exposure assessments indicate that approximately 10% of the U.S. population is exposed to CO above the national ambient air quality standard. No CO exposure measurement technology is presently available for affordable population-based CO exposure assessment studies. The LOCD and IAQ Passive Sampler were tested in the laboratory and field. The palladium-molybdenum based CO sensor was designed into a compact diffusion tube sampler that can be worn. Time-weighted-average (TWA) CO exposure of the device is quantified by a simple spectrophotometric measurement. The LOCD and IAQ Passive Sampler were tested over an exposure range of 40 to 700 ppm-hours and 200 to 4200 ppm-hours, respectively. Both devices were capable of measuring precisely (relative standard deviation <20%), with low bias (<10%). The LOCD was screened for interferences by temperature, humidity, and organic and inorganic gases. Temperature effects were small in the range of 10{degrees}C to 30{degrees}C. Humidity effects were low between 20% and 90% RH. Ethylene (200 ppm) caused a positive interference and nitric oxide (50 ppm) caused a negative response without the presence of CO but not with CO.

  14. A population-based exposure assessment methodology for carbon monoxide: Development of a carbon monoxide passive sampler and occupational dosimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apte, Michael G. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1997-09-01

    Two devices, an occupational carbon monoxide (CO) dosimeter (LOCD), and an indoor air quality (IAQ) passive sampler were developed for use in population-based CO exposure assessment studies. CO exposure is a serious public health problem in the U.S., causing both morbidity and mortality (lifetime mortality risk approximately 10{sup -4}). Sparse data from population-based CO exposure assessments indicate that approximately 10% of the U.S. population is exposed to CO above the national ambient air quality standard. No CO exposure measurement technology is presently available for affordable population-based CO exposure assessment studies. The LOCD and IAQ Passive Sampler were tested in the laboratory and field. The palladium-molybdenum based CO sensor was designed into a compact diffusion tube sampler that can be worn. Time-weighted-average (TWA) CO exposure of the device is quantified by a simple spectrophotometric measurement. The LOCD and IAQ Passive Sampler were tested over an exposure range of 40 to 700 ppm-hours and 200 to 4200 ppm-hours, respectively. Both devices were capable of measuring precisely (relative standard deviation <20%), with low bias (<10%). The LOCD was screened for interferences by temperature, humidity, and organic and inorganic gases. Temperature effects were small in the range of 10°C to 30°C. Humidity effects were low between 20% and 90% RH. Ethylene (200 ppm) caused a positive interference and nitric oxide (50 ppm) caused a negative response without the presence of CO but not with CO.

  15. EPISTEMOLOGIA AMBIENTAL

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    O livro Epistemologia Ambiental traz uma rica discussão sobre a questão ambiental, abordando teorias relevantes para o entendimento e interpretação da crise atual, orientando para a construção de novas racionalidades e a constituição de um saber ambiental. A obra vem compartimentada em cinco capítulos distribuídos em 240 páginas. 

  16. Derecho Ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Es indudable la relevancia para la vida del planeta proteger el ambiente. De ahí que a lo largo de las últimas decadas el derecho ambiental se ha consolidado como una nueva y vital rama del derecho público.

  17. Det ambiente

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik

    Om begrebet "det ambiente", der beskriver, hvad der sker, når vi fornemmer baggrundsmusikkens diskrete beats, betragter udsigten gennem panoramavinduet eller tager 3D-brillerne på og læner os tilbage i biografsædet. Bogen analyserer, hvorfan ambiente oplevelser skabes, og hvilke konsekvenser det...

  18. Ambient Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This software sketches comprise two custom-built ambient sensors, i.e. a noise and a movement sensor. Both sensors measure an ambient value and process the values to a color gradient (green > yellow > red). The sensors were built using the Processing 1.5.1 development environment. Available under th

  19. Ambient Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This software sketches comprise two custom-built ambient sensors, i.e. a noise and a movement sensor. Both sensors measure an ambient value and process the values to a color gradient (green > yellow > red). The sensors were built using the Processing 1.5.1 development environment. Available under

  20. Association between ambient carbon monoxide levels and hospitalizations for congestive heart failure in the elderly in 10 canadian cities; Association entre les niveaux atmospheriques de monoxyde de carbone et les hospitalisations pour insuffisance cardiaque congestive des personnes agees dans 10 villes canadiennes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnett, R.T.; Dales, R.E.; Brook, J.R.; Raizenne, M.E.; Krewski, D.

    2001-01-01

    In 1995, two studies, realized in the USA, showed the relation between the carbon monoxide content in the urban air and the hospitalization of elderly people for congestive heart failure. This study, realized this time in the Canada, take again the protocol of one of them increasing the period (4 to 11 years) and the number of concerned towns. (A.L.B.)

  1. Det Ambiente

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik

    Det ambiente er iscenesættelsen af en karakteristisk sanseoplevelse, der er kendetegnet ved fornemmelsen af at være omgivet. I dag bliver begrebet om det ambiente mest anvendt i forbindelse med musikgenren ’ambient musik’. Det ambiente er dog ikke essentielt knyttet til det musikalske, men må...... forstås som et betydeligt bredere fænomen i den moderne æstetiske kultur, der spiller en væsentlig rolle i oplevelsen af moderne transportformer, arkitektur, film, lydkunst, installationskunst og digitale multimedieiscenesættelser. En forståelse af det ambiente er derfor centralt for forståelsen af en...... moderne æstetiseret oplevelseskultur i almindelighed. Da det ambiente ikke hidtil har været gjort til genstand for en mere indgående teoretisk behandling, er der dog stor usikkerhed omkring, hvad fænomenet overhovedet indebærer. Hovedformålet med Det ambiente – Sansning, medialisering, omgivelse er derfor...

  2. 76 FR 4779 - Denial of the Petitions To Reconsider the Final Rule Promulgating the Primary National Ambient...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ... health.'' CAA section 109(b)(1). The legislative history of section 109 indicates that a primary NAAQS is... individuals, EPA must strengthen the entire national standard.''); Coalition of Battery Recyclers Ass'n v....

  3. A Fleet of Low-Cost Sensor Based Air Quality Monitors Is Used to Measure Carbon Dioxide and Carbon Monoxide in Two Settings: In the Ambient Environment to Explore the Regional-Scale Spatial Variability of These Compounds Via a Distributed Network, and in Homes to Investigate How Heating during Winter Months can Impact Indoor Air Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, J. G.; Hannigan, M.; Collier, A. M.; Coffey, E.; Piedrahita, R.

    2016-12-01

    Affordable, small, portable, quiet tools to measure atmospheric trace gases and air quality enable novel experimental design and new findings. Members of the Hannigan Lab at the University of Colorado in Boulder have been working over the last few years to integrate emerging affordable gas sensors into such an air quality monitor. Presented here are carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements from two field experiments that utilized these tools. In the first experiment, ten air quality monitors were located northeast of Boulder throughout the Denver Julesburg oil and gas basin. The Colorado Department of Health and Environment has several air quality monitoring sites in this broader region, each in an Urban center. One goal of the experiment was to determine whether or not significant spatial variability of EPA criteria pollutants like CO, exists on a sub-regulatory monitoring grid scale. Another goal of the experiment was to compare rural sampling locations with urban sites. The monitors collected continuous data (sampling every 15 seconds) at each location over the course of several months. Our sensor calibration procedures are presented along with our observations and an analysis of the spatial and temporal variability in CO and CO2. In the second experiment, we used eight of our air quality monitors to better understand how home heating fuel type can impact indoor air quality in two communities on the Navajo Nation. We sought to compare air quality in homes using one of four different fuels for heat (wood, wood plus coal, pellet, and gas). There are many factors that contribute to indoor air quality and the impact of an emission source, like a woodstove, within a home. Having multiple, easily deployable, air quality monitors allowed us to account for many of these factors. We sampled four homes at a time, aiming for one home from each of our fuel groups in each sampling period. We sampled inside and outside of each home for a period of 3-4 days

  4. Selected constituents in the smokes of foreign commercial cigaretts: tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, R.A.; Quincy, R.B.; Guerin, M.R.

    1979-05-01

    The tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide contents of the smokes of 220 brands of foreign commercial cigarettes are reported. In some instances, filter cigarettes of certain brands were found to deliver as much or more smoke constituents than their nonfilter counterparts. Also, data indicated that there can be a great variation in the tar, nicotine, or carbon monoxide content of the smoke of samples of a given brand of cigarettes, depending on the nation in which they are purchased. 24 tables.

  5. Carbon monoxide kinetics following simulated cigarette smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karnik, A.S. (Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI); Coin, E.J.

    1980-05-01

    Carbon monoxide kinetics were measured in the blood (% carboxyhemoglobin) and alveolar phase (ppM carbon monoxide) after simulated cigarette smoking. Cigarette smoking was siumlated using the same amount of carbon monoxide that 2R1F cigarettes manufactured by the Tobacco Research Institute would contain. Ten boluses of air containing carbon monoxide equivalent to smoking one cigarette were inhaled by six healthy nonsmoker volunteers. Carbon monoxide in the air phase was measured by an Ecolyzer and carboxyhemoglobin was measured by a CO-Oximeter. The mean rise in alveolar carbon monoxide immediately and 20 min after inhaling the last bolus was 3.3 and 3.1 ppM, respectively (p<.005). The mean rise in carboxyhemoglobin immediately and 20 min after inhalation of the last bolus was 0.8 and 0.5% respectively (P<.005). The changes in carboxyhemoglobin were found to be similar to changes that occur when one cigarette is actually smoked.

  6. Carbon monoxide toxicity. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). NewSearch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the mechanism and clinical manifestations of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure, including the effects on the liver, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Topics include studies of the carbon monoxide binding affinity with hemoglobin, measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in humans and various animal species, carbon monoxide levels resulting from tobacco and marijuana smoke, occupational exposure and the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) biological exposure index, symptomology and percent of blood CO, and intrauterine exposure. Air pollution, tobacco smoking, and occupational exposure are discussed as primary sources of carbon monoxide exposure. The effects of cigarette smoking on fetal development and health are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 137 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. Carbon monoxide toxicity. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection data base). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the mechanism and clinical manifestations of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure, including the effects on the liver, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Topics include studies of the carbon monoxide binding affinity with hemoglobin, measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in humans and various animal species, carbon monoxide levels resulting from tobacco and marijuana smoke, occupational exposure and the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) biological exposure index, symptomology and percent of blood CO, and intrauterine exposure. Air pollution, tobacco smoking, and occupational exposure are discussed as primary sources of carbon monoxide exposure. The effects of cigarette smoking on fetal development and health are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 172 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  8. Carbon monoxide toxicity. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the mechanism and clinical manifestations of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure, including the effects on the liver, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Topics include studies of the carbon monoxide binding affinity with hemoglobin, measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in humans and various animal species, carbon monoxide levels resulting from tobacco and marijuana smoke, occupational exposure and the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) biological exposure index, symptomology and percent of blood CO, and intrauterine exposure. Air pollution, tobacco smoking, and occupational exposure are discussed as primary sources of carbon monoxide exposure. The effects of cigarette smoking on fetal development and health are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  9. Carbon monoxide toxicity. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the mechanism and clinical manifestations of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure, including the effects on the liver, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Topics include studies of the carbon monoxide binding affinity with hemoglobin, measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in humans and various animal species, carbon monoxide levels resulting from tobacco and marijuana smoke, occupational exposure and the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) biological exposure index, symptomology and percent of blood CO, and intrauterine exposure. Air pollution, tobacco smoking, and occupational exposure are discussed as primary sources of carbon monoxide exposure. The effects of cigarette smoking on fetal development and health are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  10. Carbon monoxide conversion by anaerobic bioreactor sludges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sipma, J.; Stams, A.J.M.; Lens, P.N.L.; Lettinga, G.

    2003-01-01

    Seven different anaerobic sludges from wastewater treatment reactors were screened for their ability to convert carbon monoxide (CO) at 30 and 55degreesC
    Seven different anaerobic sludges from wastewater treatment reactors were screened for their ability to convert carbon monoxide (CO) at 30 and

  11. Ambient intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, David; Gegov, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    This paper considers some history and the state of the art of Ambient Intelligence and from that seeks to identify new topics and future work. Ubiquitous computing, communications, human-centric computer interaction, embedded systems, context awareness, adaptive systems and distributed device networks are considered.

  12. Technological and operational structure of the National Automatic Network for Environmental Radiological Monitoring (RENAMORA); Estructura tecnologica y operativa de la Red Nacional Automatica de Monitoreo Radiologico Ambiental RENAMORA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez G, E.; Lopez G, M.; Aguirre G, J.; Fabian O, R.; Hernandez A, Y., E-mail: elias.martinez@cnsns.gob.mx [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Barragan 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    The Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias (CNSNS) in Mexico is a decentralized body, under the Secretaria de Energia whose main mission is to ensure that activities involving nuclear and radioactive materials as well as ionizing radiation sources are carried out with maximum security, considering the current technological developments. In order to monitor the levels of environmental radiation to which the population is exposed, the CNSNS has established a series of radiological monitoring programs that allow characterize the environmental radiation levels in each zone or region in the country; to identify the occurrence of natural or artificial radiological events, such as nuclear tests and accidents in radioactive or nuclear facilities. The National Automatic Network for Environmental Radiological Monitoring (RENAMORA) project was initiated with the support of the IAEA through MEX9/049 project and its purpose is to have a network of instruments that automatically and in real time, transmit information of the gamma radiological environmental status of the national territory and changes occurring in it. This network provides data such as the speed of ambient dose equivalent, temperature and humidity in different regions of the country. The network is composed of 92 stations that are distributed throughout the national territory. The structure of the stations has evolved since its inception, now allowing detection tasks, data transmission and managing them remotely from the main server, which is located in the CNSNS, which is performed a statistical dose for each monitoring station. Each monitoring station is formed in its current structure by a probe detection of gamma radiation, a communication module and associated electronics, a mini Web server DataGATE, a cellular modem and an interface converter. (Author)

  13. The Carbon Monoxide Tape Recorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeberl, M. R.; Duncan, B. N.; Douglass, A. R.; Waters, J.; Livesey, N.; Read, W.; Filipiak, M.

    2006-01-01

    Using Aura MLS data we have identified the stratospheric tape recorder in carbon monoxide (CO). Unlike the water vapor tape recorder, which is controlled by upper troposphere processes, the CO tape recorder is linked to seasonal biomass burning. Since CO has a lifetime of only a few months, the CO tape recorder barely extends above 20 km. The tape head for CO appears to be close to 360K near the same location as the water vapor tape head [Read et al, 20041. Both tape heads are below the equatorial cold point tropopause but above the base of the tropical tropopause layer. The tape recorder signal becomes more distinct from 360K to 380K suggesting that convective detrainment of plays a decreasingly important role with altitude. The Global Modeling Initiative chemical transport model forced by the climatology of biomass burning reproduces the CO tape recorder.

  14. Addition of PM2.5 into the National Ambient Air Quality Standards of China and the Contribution to Air Pollution Control: The Case Study of Wuhan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingqing You

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available PM2.5 has gradually become a major environmental problem of China with its rapid economic development, urbanization, and increasing of motor vehicles. Findings and awareness of serious PM2.5 pollution make the PM2.5 a new criterion pollutant of the Chinese National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS revised in 2012. The 2012 NAAQS sets the PM2.5 concentrate limitation with the 24-hour average value and the annual mean value. Wuhan is quite typical among central and southern China in climate, economy, development level, and energy consumption. The data are cited from the official website of Wuhan Environmental Protection Bureau and cover the period from 1 January to 30 June 2013. The data definitely confirm the existence of serious PM2.5 pollution in Wuhan and indicate that the addition of PM2.5 as a criterion pollutant significantly brings down the attainment rate of air quality. The example of Wuhan reveals that local governments should take measures to reduce the emission of PM2.5 if it affects the attainment rate and the performance evaluation value of air quality. The main contribution of 2012 NAAQS is that it brings down the attainment rate of the air quality and forces local governmental officials to take the measures accordingly.

  15. Addition of PM2.5 into the National Ambient Air Quality Standards of China and the Contribution to Air Pollution Control: The Case Study of Wuhan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Mingqing

    2014-01-01

    PM2.5 has gradually become a major environmental problem of China with its rapid economic development, urbanization, and increasing of motor vehicles. Findings and awareness of serious PM2.5 pollution make the PM2.5 a new criterion pollutant of the Chinese National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) revised in 2012. The 2012 NAAQS sets the PM2.5 concentrate limitation with the 24-hour average value and the annual mean value. Wuhan is quite typical among central and southern China in climate, economy, development level, and energy consumption. The data are cited from the official website of Wuhan Environmental Protection Bureau and cover the period from 1 January to 30 June 2013. The data definitely confirm the existence of serious PM2.5 pollution in Wuhan and indicate that the addition of PM2.5 as a criterion pollutant significantly brings down the attainment rate of air quality. The example of Wuhan reveals that local governments should take measures to reduce the emission of PM2.5 if it affects the attainment rate and the performance evaluation value of air quality. The main contribution of 2012 NAAQS is that it brings down the attainment rate of the air quality and forces local governmental officials to take the measures accordingly. PMID:24982994

  16. Addition of PM 2.5 into the national ambient air quality standards of China and the contribution to air pollution control: the case study of Wuhan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Mingqing

    2014-01-01

    PM2.5 has gradually become a major environmental problem of China with its rapid economic development, urbanization, and increasing of motor vehicles. Findings and awareness of serious PM2.5 pollution make the PM2.5 a new criterion pollutant of the Chinese National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) revised in 2012. The 2012 NAAQS sets the PM2.5 concentrate limitation with the 24-hour average value and the annual mean value. Wuhan is quite typical among central and southern China in climate, economy, development level, and energy consumption. The data are cited from the official website of Wuhan Environmental Protection Bureau and cover the period from 1 January to 30 June 2013. The data definitely confirm the existence of serious PM2.5 pollution in Wuhan and indicate that the addition of PM2.5 as a criterion pollutant significantly brings down the attainment rate of air quality. The example of Wuhan reveals that local governments should take measures to reduce the emission of PM2.5 if it affects the attainment rate and the performance evaluation value of air quality. The main contribution of 2012 NAAQS is that it brings down the attainment rate of the air quality and forces local governmental officials to take the measures accordingly.

  17. Engineering evidence for carbon monoxide toxicity cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galatsis, Kosmas

    2016-07-01

    Unintentional carbon monoxide poisonings and fatalities lead to many toxicity cases. Given the unusual physical properties of carbon monoxide-in that the gas is odorless and invisible-unorganized and erroneous methods in obtaining engineering evidence as required during the discovery process often occurs. Such evidence gathering spans domains that include building construction, appliance installation, industrial hygiene, mechanical engineering, combustion and physics. In this paper, we attempt to place a systematic framework that is relevant to key aspects in engineering evidence gathering for unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning cases. Such a framework aims to increase awareness of this process and relevant issues to help guide legal counsel and expert witnesses.

  18. Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet İbrahim Turan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide poisoning is a major cause of death following attempted suicide and accidental exposures. Although clinical presentation depends on the duration and the intensity of exposure, the assessment of the severity of intoxication is difficult. A small percentage of patients who show complete initial recovery may develop delayed neurological deficits. Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning is a rare and poor prognosis neurologic disorders and there is no specific treatment. We present a case with early onset of delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning with typical cranial imaging findings in a child with atypical history and clinical presentation.

  19. 2007 Critical Review Discussion -- Will the circle be unbroken: a history of the U.S. national ambient air quality standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judith C. Chow; John G. Watson; Howard J. Feldman (and others) [Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV (United States)

    2007-10-15

    In the review, John D. Bachmann traces the regulatory history of U.S. air pollution from the beginning of the 20th century to the present. The review divides this progress into four segments: (1) 1900-1970, from smoke abatement to federal involvement and the establishment of air quality management (AQM) in the 1970 Clean Air Act (CAA); (2) 1971-1976, when the first National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) were promulgated and implemented; (3) 1977-1993, which included the first NAAQS revisions, major CAA amendments, and the evolution of AQM; and (4) 1993-2006, the second and third waves of NAAQS revisions and their implementation in the context of the 1990 CAA amendments. A discussant's commentary does not necessarily reflect the position of his or her respective organization. This Critical Review Discussion was compiled from written submissions and presentation transcripts. The invited discussants are as follows: Mr. Howard J. Feldman, director of regulatory and scientific affairs for the American Petroleum Institute; Ms. Janice E. Nolen, assistant vice president of national policy and advocacy for the American Lung Association; Dr. Barry Wallerstein, executive officer at the South Coast Air Quality Management District; Dr. John G. Watson, research professor in the Division of Atmospheric Sciences at the Desert Research Institute; Dr. George M. Hidy of Envair/Aerochem; Dr. Paul J. Lioy, Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine; Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry, New Jersey; Dr. Herbert McKee, environmental consultant; Mr. David Mobley of the Atmospheric Modeling Division of the EPA's Office of Research and Development; and Mr. Keith Baugues, P.E., of air services for KERAMIDA Environmental. 127 refs.

  20. Formation of orthorhombic tin dioxide from mechanically milled monoxide powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamelas, F. J.

    2004-12-01

    X-ray scattering measurements are used to show that the metastable orthorhombic phase of tin dioxide is produced by the oxidation of mechanically milled litharge-phase tin monoxide. After milling to a grain size of approximately 20nm, followed by heating to 575°C, the fraction of the orthorhombic phase is approximately 80%. The orthorhombic phase was originally observed in high-pressure experiments, but more recently, it has been produced in a wide variety of thin-film and nanoparticle samples. The data presented here demonstrate the importance of small-grain-size tin monoxide as a precursor in the ambient-pressure synthesis of the orthorhombic phase. This result has practical importance in the production of tin dioxide gas sensors. A more fundamental observation is that the particle size of a precursor phase can have a marked effect on subsequent phases produced during oxidation. Lastly, a formula for determining the orthorhombic fraction in two-phase tin dioxide samples is developed using the method of standard additions.

  1. Integrated electricity and carbon monoxide production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, J.

    1994-03-23

    In a process for the production of carbon monoxide and electric power in an IGCC with the removal of sulphur compounds, between the outlet of quenched gas from a partial oxidation unit and a fuel inlet to a combined cycle gas turbine there is a permeable membrane unit to separate a non-permeable stream, which is utilised as a source of carbon monoxide, and a permeate stream, which is used as fuel for the gas turbine of the combined cycle unit. (author)

  2. Hearing Loss due to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Houshang Mehrparvar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide poisoning is one of the rare causes of hearing loss which may cause reversible or irreversible, unilateral or bilateral hearing loss after acute or chronic exposure. In this report, we present a case of bilateral sensorineural hearing loss in a secondary smelting workshop worker after an acute exposure to carbon monoxide. This complication was diagnosed by pure-tone audiometry and confirmed by transient evoked otoacoustic emissions. Hearing loss has not improved after 3 months of followup.

  3. Inorganic ions in ambient fine particles over a National Park in central India: Seasonality, dependencies between SO42-, NO3-, and NH4+, and neutralization of aerosol acidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Samresh; Sunder Raman, Ramya

    2016-10-01

    Twelve hour integrated ambient fine particles (PM2.5) were collected over an Van Vihar National Park (VVNP), in Bhopal, Central India. Samples were collected on filter substrates every-other-day for two years (2012 and 2013). In addition to PM2.5 mass concentration, water soluble inorganic ions (WSIIs) were also measured. Further, on-site meteorological parameters including temperature, wind speed, wind direction, relative humidity, rainfall and atmospheric pressure were recorded. During 2012, the average PM2.5 concentration was 40 ± 31 μgm-3 while during 2013 it was 48 ± 50 μgm-3. Further, in about 20% of the samples the 12 h integrated fine PM mass exceeded the daily (24 h) average standards (60 μgm-3). This observation suggests that the PM2.5 mass concentration at the study site is likely to be in violation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS), India. During the study period the sum of three major ions (SO42-, NO3-, and NH4+) accounted for 19.4% of PM2.5 mass on average. Air parcel back trajectory ensembles revealed that emissions from thermal power plants were likely to be the main regional source of particulate SO42- and NO3- measured over VVNP. Further, local traffic activities appeared to have no significant impact on the concentrations of PM2.5 and its WSIIs constituents, as revealed by a day-of-the-week analysis. PM2.5 mass, SO42-, NO3-, and NH4+ showed a pronounced seasonal trend with winter (Jan, Feb) and post-monsoon (Oct, Nov, Dec) highs and pre-monsoon (Mar, Apr, May) and monsoon (Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep) lows, during both 2012 and 2013. Further, when the sum of SO42- and NO3- constituted greater than 90% of water soluble inorganic anions by mass, they were linearly dependent on one another and moderately anti-correlated (r2 = 0.60). The molar ratios of NH4+ and non-sea salt SO42- were examined to understand the aerosol neutralization mechanisms and particulate NO3- formation. An assessment of these ratios and subsequent analyses

  4. Compreendendo o ambiente em Psicologia Ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    Lenelis Kruse

    2005-01-01

    O presente artigo consiste nas respostas às seguintes perguntas, propostas e respondidas pela autora: De que modo você, como uma psicóloga ambiental ou pesquisadora ambiente-comportamento: define o ambiente; leva em conta o ambiente em sua pesquisa; que tipo de teorias necessitamos para responder pelas relações pessoas-ambiente mais efetivamente; a interação entre as pessoas e o ambiente foi suficiente e adequadamente explicada na Psicologia Ambiental; de que modo esta interação poderia ser e...

  5. NIF Ambient Vibration Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noble, C.R.; Hoehler, M.S., S.C. Sommer

    1999-11-29

    LLNL has an ongoing research and development project that includes developing data acquisition systems with remote wireless communication for monitoring the vibrations of large civil engineering structures. In order to establish the capability of performing remote sensing over an extended period of time, the researchers needed to apply this technology to a real structure. The construction of the National Ignition Facility provided an opportunity to test the data acquisition system on a large structure to monitor whether the facility is remaining within the strict ambient vibration guidelines. This document will briefly discuss the NIF ambient vibration requirements and summarize the vibration measurements performed during the Spring and Summer of 1999. In addition, a brief description of the sensors and the data acquisition systems will be provided in Appendix B.

  6. NIF Ambient Vibration Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noble, C.R.; Hoehler, M.S., S.C. Sommer

    1999-11-29

    LLNL has an ongoing research and development project that includes developing data acquisition systems with remote wireless communication for monitoring the vibrations of large civil engineering structures. In order to establish the capability of performing remote sensing over an extended period of time, the researchers needed to apply this technology to a real structure. The construction of the National Ignition Facility provided an opportunity to test the data acquisition system on a large structure to monitor whether the facility is remaining within the strict ambient vibration guidelines. This document will briefly discuss the NIF ambient vibration requirements and summarize the vibration measurements performed during the Spring and Summer of 1999. In addition, a brief description of the sensors and the data acquisition systems will be provided in Appendix B.

  7. 40 CFR 52.269 - Control strategy and regulations: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons) and carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons) and carbon monoxide. 52.269 Section 52.269 Protection of Environment... PLANS California § 52.269 Control strategy and regulations: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons) and... provide for attainment and maintenance of the national standards for photochemical oxidants...

  8. 77 FR 12524 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lead Ambient Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule...) under the Clean Air Act (CAA). This submittal incorporates the National Ambient Air Quality...

  9. Pulmonary edema in acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kun Sang; Chang, Kee Hyun; Lee, Myung Uk [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1974-10-15

    Acute carbon monoxide poisoning has frequently occurred in Korean, because of the coal briquette being widely used as fuel in Korean residences. Carbon monoxide poisoning has been extensively studied, but it has been sparsely reported that pulmonary edema may develop in acute CO poisoning. We have noticed nine cases of pulmonary edema in acute CO poisoning last year. Other possible causes of pulmonary edema could be exclude in all cases but one. The purpose of this paper is to describe nine cases of pulmonary edema complicated in acute CO poisoning and discuss the pathogenesis and the prognosis.

  10. 40 CFR 60.103 - Standard for carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Refineries § 60.103 Standard for carbon monoxide. Each owner or operator of any fluid catalytic cracking unit... regenerator any gases that contain carbon monoxide (CO) in excess of 500 ppm by volume (dry basis)....

  11. [Carbon monoxide metabolism by photosynthetic bacteria]. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-31

    Research continued on the metabolism of carbon monoxide by Rhodospirillum rubrum. This report discusses progress on the activity, induction, inhibition, and spectroscopic analysis of the enzyme Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase. (CBS)

  12. Carbon Monoxide Hazards from Small Gasoline Powered Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topics Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH CARBON MONOXIDE Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this Page Recommendations NIOSH Publications Worker Notification Program Carbon Monoxide Hazards from Small Gasoline Powered Engines Many ...

  13. Mixing ratios of carbon monoxide in the troposphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novelli, P.C.; Steele, L.P. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (United States)); Tans, P.P. (NOAA, Boulder, CO (United States))

    1992-12-20

    Carbon monoxide (CO) mixing ratios were measured in air samples collected weekly at eight locations. The air was collected as part of the CMDL/NOAA cooperative flask sampling program (Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory, formerly Geophysical Monitoring for Climatic Change, Air Resources Laboratory/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) at Point Barrow, Alaska, Niwot Ridge, Colorado, Mauna Loa and Cape Kumakahi, Hawaii, Guam, Marianas Islands, Christmas Island, Ascension Island and American Samoa. Half-liter or 3-L glass flasks fitted with glass piston stopcocks holding teflon O rings were used for sample collection. CO levels were determined within several weeks of collection using gas chromatography followed by mercuric oxide reduction detection, and mixing ratios were referenced against the CMDL/NOAA carbon monoxide standard scale. During the period of study (mid-1988 through December 1990) CO levels were greatest in the high latitudes of the northern hemisphere (mean mixing ratio from January 1989 to December 1990 at Point Barrow was approximately 154 ppb) and decreased towards the south (mean mixing ratio at Samoa over a similar period was 65 ppb). Mixing ratios varied seasonally, the amplitude of the seasonal cycle was greatest in the north and decreased to the south. Carbon monoxide levels were affected by both local and regional scale processes. The difference in CO levels between northern and southern latitudes also varied seasonally. The greatest difference in CO mixing ratios between Barrow and Samoa was observed during the northern winter (about 150 ppb). The smallest difference, 40 ppb, occurred during the austral winter. The annually averaged CO difference between 71[degrees]N and 14[degrees]S was approximately 90 ppb in both 1989 and 1990; the annually averaged interhemispheric gradient from 71[degrees]N to 41[degrees]S is estimated as approximately 95 ppb. 66 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Onboard measurement system of atmospheric carbon monoxide in the Pacific by voluntary observing ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Nara

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Long-term monitoring of carbon monoxide (CO mixing ratios in the atmosphere over the Pacific Ocean is being carried out on commercial cargo vessels participating in the National Institute for Environmental Studies Voluntary Observing Ships program. The program provides a regular platform for measurement of atmospheric CO along four cruise routes: from Japan to Oceania, the United States, Canada, and Southeast Asia. Flask samples are collected during every cruise for subsequent analysis in the laboratory, and in 2005, continuous shipboard CO measurements were initiated on three of the routes. Here, we describe the system we developed for onboard measurement of CO mixing ratios with a commercially available gas filter correlation CO analyzer. The fully automated system measures CO in ambient air, and the detector sensitivity and background signals are calibrated by referencing the measurements to a CO-in-air standard gas (~1 ppmv and to CO-free air scrubbed with a catalyst, respectively. We examined the artificial production of CO in the high-pressure working gas standards during storage by referencing the measurements to CO standard gases maintained as our primary scale before and after use on the ships. The onboard performance of the continuous CO measurement system was evaluated by comparing its data with data from laboratory analyses of flask samples using gas chromatography with a reduction gas detector. The reasonably good consistency between the two independent measurement methods demonstrated the good performance of both methods over the course of 3–5 years. The continuous measurement system was more useful than the flask sampling method for regionally polluted air masses, which were often encountered on Southeast Asian cruises.

  15. A hybrid model for predicting carbon monoxide from vehicular exhausts in urban environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, Sharad; Khare, Mukesh

    Several deterministic-based air quality models evaluate and predict the frequently occurring pollutant concentration well but, in general, are incapable of predicting the 'extreme' concentrations. In contrast, the statistical distribution models overcome the above limitation of the deterministic models and predict the 'extreme' concentrations. However, the environmental damages are caused by both extremes as well as by the sustained average concentration of pollutants. Hence, the model should predict not only 'extreme' ranges but also the 'middle' ranges of pollutant concentrations, i.e. the entire range. Hybrid modelling is one of the techniques that estimates/predicts the 'entire range' of the distribution of pollutant concentrations by combining the deterministic based models with suitable statistical distribution models ( Jakeman, et al., 1988). In the present paper, a hybrid model has been developed to predict the carbon monoxide (CO) concentration distributions at one of the traffic intersections, Income Tax Office (ITO), in the Delhi city, where the traffic is heterogeneous in nature and meteorology is 'tropical'. The model combines the general finite line source model (GFLSM) as its deterministic, and log logistic distribution (LLD) model, as its statistical components. The hybrid (GFLSM-LLD) model is then applied at the ITO intersection. The results show that the hybrid model predictions match with that of the observed CO concentration data within the 5-99 percentiles range. The model is further validated at different street location, i.e. Sirifort roadway. The validation results show that the model predicts CO concentrations fairly well ( d=0.91) in 10-95 percentiles range. The regulatory compliance is also developed to estimate the probability of exceedance of hourly CO concentration beyond the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) of India. It consists of light vehicles, heavy vehicles, three- wheelers (auto rickshaws) and two

  16. Onboard measurement system of atmospheric carbon monoxide over the Pacific Ocean by voluntary observing ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Nara

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Long-term monitoring of carbon monoxide (CO mixing ratios in the atmosphere over the Pacific Ocean is being carried out on commercial cargo vessels participating in the National Institute for Environmental Studies Voluntary Observing Ships program. The program provides a regular platform for measurement of atmospheric CO along four cruising routes: from Japan to Oceania, from Japan to the United States, from Japan to Canada, and from Japan to Southeast Asia. Flask samples are collected during every cruise for subsequent analysis in the laboratory, and in 2005, continuous shipboard CO measurements were initiated on three of the routes. Here, we describe the system we developed for onboard measurement of CO mixing ratios with a commercially available gas filter correlation CO analyzer. The fully automated system measures CO in ambient air, and the detector sensitivity and background signals are calibrated by referencing the measurements to a CO-in-air standard gas (~1 ppmv and to CO-free air scrubbed with a catalyst, respectively. We examined the artificial production of CO in the high-pressure working gas standards (CO balanced with purified air at ppmv levels during storage by referencing the measurements to CO standard gases maintained as our primary scale before and after use on the ships. The onboard performance of the continuous CO measurement system was evaluated by comparing its data with data from laboratory analyses of flask samples using gas chromatography with a reduction gas detector. The reasonably good consistency between the two independent measurement methods demonstrated the good performance of both methods over the course of 3–5 yr. The continuous measurement system was more useful than the flask sampling method for regionally polluted air masses, which were often encountered on Southeast Asian cruises.

  17. Assessment of carbon monoxide values in smokers: a comparison of carbon monoxide in expired air and carboxyhaemoglobin in arterial blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Mette F; Møller, Ann M

    2010-01-01

    Smoking increases perioperative complications. Carbon monoxide concentrations can estimate patients' smoking status and might be relevant in preoperative risk assessment. In smokers, we compared measurements of carbon monoxide in expired air (COexp) with measurements of carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb...

  18. Hearing Loss due to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Davari, Mohammad Hossein; Mollasadeghi, Abolfazl

    2013-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is one of the rare causes of hearing loss which may cause reversible or irreversible, unilateral or bilateral hearing loss after acute or chronic exposure. In this report, we present a case of bilateral sensorineural hearing loss in a secondary smelting workshop worker...

  19. 2011 NATA - Risks and Annual Ambient Concentrations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset includes the modeled annual ambient concentrations and risks at the census tract level for the 2011 National Air Toxics Assessment. All concentrations...

  20. Compreendendo o ambiente em Psicologia Ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenelis Kruse

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo consiste nas respostas às seguintes perguntas, propostas e respondidas pela autora: De que modo você, como uma psicóloga ambiental ou pesquisadora ambiente-comportamento: define o ambiente; leva em conta o ambiente em sua pesquisa; que tipo de teorias necessitamos para responder pelas relações pessoas-ambiente mais efetivamente; a interação entre as pessoas e o ambiente foi suficiente e adequadamente explicada na Psicologia Ambiental; de que modo esta interação poderia ser explicada mais satisfatoriamente; deveríamos estar construindo diferentes tipos de informação ou de conhecimento para criar teorias explanatórias mais úteis; o que está faltando na pesquisa da Psicologia Ambiental: qual é o seu background disciplinar; quais metodologias de pesquisa comportamento-ambiente você usou e achou mais úteis e porque ao trabalhar com outras disciplinas.

  1. Catalyst for Carbon Monoxide Oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Patricia; Brown, Kenneth; VanNorman, John; Brown, David; Upchurch, Billy; Schryer, David; Miller, Irvin

    2010-01-01

    In many applications, it is highly desirable to operate a CO2 laser in a sealed condition, for in an open system the laser requires a continuous flow of laser gas to remove the dissociation products that occur in the discharge zone of the laser, in order to maintain a stable power output. This adds to the operating cost of the laser, and in airborne or space applications, it also adds to the weight penalty of the laser. In a sealed CO2 laser, a small amount of CO2 gas is decomposed in the electrical discharge zone into corresponding quantities of CO and O2. As the laser continues to operate, the concentration of CO2 decreases, while the concentrations of CO and O2 correspondingly increase. The increasing concentration of O2 reduces laser power, because O2 scavenges electrons in the electrical discharge, thereby causing arcing in the electric discharge and a loss of the energetic electrons required to boost CO2 molecules to lasing energy levels. As a result, laser power decreases rapidly. The primary object of this invention is to provide a catalyst that, by composition of matter alone, contains chemisorbed water within and upon its structure. Such bound moisture renders the catalyst highly active and very long-lived, such that only a small quantity of it needs to be used with a CO2 laser under ambient operating conditions. This object is achieved by a catalyst that consists essentially of about 1 to 40 percent by weight of one or more platinum group metals (Pt, Pd, Rh, Ir, Ru, Os, Pt being preferred); about 1 to 90 percent by weight of one or more oxides of reducible metals having multiple valence states (such as Sn, Ti, Mn, Cu, and Ce, with SnO2 being preferred); and about 1 to 90 percent by weight of a compound that can bind water to its structure (such as silica gel, calcium chloride, magnesium sulfate, hydrated alumina, and magnesium perchlorate, with silica gel being preferred). Especially beneficial results are obtained when platinum is present in the

  2. A Wireless and Batteryless Intelligent Carbon Monoxide Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen-Chia; Sung, Gang-Neng; Chen, Wen-Ching; Kuo, Chih-Ting; Chue, Jin-Ju; Wu, Chieh-Ming; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2016-09-23

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning from natural gas water heaters is a common household accident in Taiwan. We propose a wireless and batteryless intelligent CO sensor for improving the safety of operating natural gas water heaters. A micro-hydropower generator supplies power to a CO sensor without battery (COSWOB) (2.5 W at a flow rate of 4.2 L/min), and the power consumption of the COSWOB is only ~13 mW. The COSWOB monitors the CO concentration in ambient conditions around natural gas water heaters and transmits it to an intelligent gateway. When the CO level reaches a dangerous level, the COSWOB alarm sounds loudly. Meanwhile, the intelligent gateway also sends a trigger to activate Wi-Fi alarms and sends notifications to the mobile device through the Internet. Our strategy can warn people indoors and outdoors, thereby reducing CO poisoning accidents. We also believe that our technique not only can be used for home security but also can be used in industrial applications (for example, to monitor leak occurrence in a pipeline).

  3. A Wireless and Batteryless Intelligent Carbon Monoxide Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Chia Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO poisoning from natural gas water heaters is a common household accident in Taiwan. We propose a wireless and batteryless intelligent CO sensor for improving the safety of operating natural gas water heaters. A micro-hydropower generator supplies power to a CO sensor without battery (COSWOB (2.5 W at a flow rate of 4.2 L/min, and the power consumption of the COSWOB is only ~13 mW. The COSWOB monitors the CO concentration in ambient conditions around natural gas water heaters and transmits it to an intelligent gateway. When the CO level reaches a dangerous level, the COSWOB alarm sounds loudly. Meanwhile, the intelligent gateway also sends a trigger to activate Wi-Fi alarms and sends notifications to the mobile device through the Internet. Our strategy can warn people indoors and outdoors, thereby reducing CO poisoning accidents. We also believe that our technique not only can be used for home security but also can be used in industrial applications (for example, to monitor leak occurrence in a pipeline.

  4. Photosynthetic carbon monoxide metabolism by sugarcane leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortschak, H.P.; Nickell, L.G.

    1973-01-01

    The photosynthetic carbon monoxide metabolism by sugarcane was studied to determine whether substantial quantities of CO are removed from the air by fields in Hawaii. Leaves metabolized low CO concentrations photosynthetically, with sucrose as an end product. Rates of uptake were of the order of 10/sup -4/ power mg/d sq m/hr. This was to low to be significant in removing CO from the atmosphere.

  5. Sensorineural Hearing Loss following Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph P. Pillion

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A case study is presented of a 17-year-old male who sustained an anoxic brain injury and sensorineural hearing loss secondary to carbon monoxide poisoning. Audiological data is presented showing a slightly asymmetrical hearing loss of sensorineural origin and mild-to-severe degree for both ears. Word recognition performance was fair to poor bilaterally for speech presented at normal conversational levels in quiet. Management considerations of the hearing loss are discussed.

  6. Biological Sample Ambient Preservation (BioSAP) Device Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address NASA's need for alternative methods for ambient preservation of human biological samples collected during extended spaceflight and planetary operations,...

  7. Psicologia do Ambiente

    OpenAIRE

    Antunes, Dalila; Bernardo, Fátima; Palma-Oliveira, José-Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Na aplicação da Psicologia à área do AMBIENTE importa em primeiro lugar definir o que se entende, neste contexto, por ambiente. O conceito é entendido como toda a envolvente que rodeia o ser humano. Referimo-nos pois ao espaço físico e aos estímulos que nele existem (som, ar, paisagem…), dirigindo-se a Psicologia do Ambiente ao estudo e intervenção sobre a forma como o ambiente influencia o indivíduo ou grupos, e sobre o modo como o comportamento dos indivíduos e grupos influenciam o ambiente...

  8. Atmosphere and Ambient Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik

    Atmosphere and Ambient Space This paper explores the relation between atmosphere and ambient space. Atmosphere and ambient space share many salient properties. They are both ontologically indeterminate, constantly varying and formally diffuse and they are both experienced as a subtle, non......-signifying property of a given space. But from a certain point of view, the two concepts also designate quite dissimilar experiences of space. To be ’ambient’ means to surround. Accordingly, ambient space is that space, which surrounds something or somebody. (Gibson 1987: 65) Since space is essentially...... of a surrounding character, all space can thus be described as having a fundamentally ambient character. So what precisely is an ambient space, then? As I will argue in my presentation, ambient space is a sensory effect of spatiality when a space is experienced as being particularly surrounding: a ‘space effect...

  9. Atmosphere and Ambient Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik

    Atmosphere and Ambient Space This paper explores the relation between atmosphere and ambient space. Atmosphere and ambient space share many salient properties. They are both ontologically indeterminate, constantly varying and formally diffuse and they are both experienced as a subtle, non......-signifying property of a given space. But from a certain point of view, the two concepts also designate quite dissimilar experiences of space. To be ’ambient’ means to surround. Accordingly, ambient space is that space, which surrounds something or somebody. (Gibson 1987: 65) Since space is essentially...... of a surrounding character, all space can thus be described as having a fundamentally ambient character. So what precisely is an ambient space, then? As I will argue in my presentation, ambient space is a sensory effect of spatiality when a space is experienced as being particularly surrounding: a ‘space effect...

  10. Analysis of Carbon Monoxide in Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddle, Benjamin P.; Stephens, Joseph C.

    2003-04-01

    Forensic tests used to perform the qualitative and quantitative analyses of carbon monoxide in blood are described. The qualitative test uses the diffusion of CO, which is released from blood by reaction with H2SO4, into a PdCl2 solution in a Conway cell and the resultant formation of a palladium mirror. The quantitative analysis is based on the absorption of visible light by carboxyhemoglobin at 541 nm and reduced hemoglobin at 555 nm. Both procedures are suitable for undergraduate chemistry experiments.

  11. Ambient ozone effects on gas exchange and total non-structural carbohydrate levels in cutleaf coneflower (Rudbeckia laciniata L.) growing in Great Smoky Mountains National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozone-sensitive and -tolerant individuals of the perennial herbaceous cutleaf coneflower (Rudbeckia laciniata L.) were compared for their gas exchange characteristics and total non-structural carbohydrates in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park USA. Net photosynthesis decreased with increased f...

  12. [Carbon monoxide poisoning by a heating system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Eric; Gehl, Axel; Friedrich, Peter; Kappus, Stefan; Petter, Franz; Maurer, Klaus; Püschel, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    A case of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning in several occupants of two neighboring residential buildings in Hamburg-Harburg (Germany) caused by a defective gas central heating system is described. Because of leaks in one of the residential buildings and the directly adjacent wall of the neighboring house, the gas could spread and accumulated in both residential buildings, which resulted in a highly dangerous situation. Exposure to the toxic gas caused mild to severe intoxication in 15 persons. Three victims died still at the site of the accident. Measures to protect the occupants were taken only with a great delay. As symptoms were unspecific, it was not realized that the various alarms given by persons involved in the accident were related to the same cause. In order to take appropriate measures in time it is indispensible to recognize, assess and check potential risks, which can be done by using carbon monoxide warning devices and performing immediate COHb measurements with special pulse oximeters on site. Moreover, the COHb content in the blood should be routinely determined in all patients admitted to an emergency department with unspecific symptoms.

  13. Observations of iodine monoxide columns from satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Schönhardt

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Iodine species in the troposphere are linked to ozone depletion and new particle formation. In this study, a full year of iodine monoxide (IO columns retrieved from measurements of the SCIAMACHY satellite instrument is presented, coupled with a discussion of their uncertainties and the detection limits. The largest amounts of IO are found near springtime in the Antarctic. A seasonal variation of iodine monoxide in Antarctica is revealed with high values in springtime, slightly less IO in the summer period and again larger amounts in autumn. In winter, no elevated IO levels are found in the areas accessible to satellite measurements. This seasonal cycle is in good agreement with recent ground-based measurements in Antarctica. In the Arctic region, no elevated IO levels were found in the period analysed. This implies that different conditions with respect to iodine release exist in the two Polar Regions. To investigate possible release mechanisms, comparisons of IO columns with those of tropospheric BrO, and ice coverage are described and discussed. Some parallels and interesting differences between IO and BrO temporal and spatial distributions are identified. Overall, the large spatial coverage of satellite retrieved IO data and the availability of a long-term dataset provide new insight about the abundances and distributions of iodine compounds in the troposphere.

  14. Nitric oxide and carbon monoxide diffusing capacity of the lung

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, I. van der

    2006-01-01

    The single breath diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) is measure for gas uptake by the lung, and consists of a membrane and a vascular component. Nitric oxide (NO) binds 400 times faster to hemoglobin than carbon monoxide, thus the uptake of NO by the blood is very large.

  15. Nitric oxide and carbon monoxide diffusing capacity of the lung

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, I. van der

    2006-01-01

    The single breath diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) is measure for gas uptake by the lung, and consists of a membrane and a vascular component. Nitric oxide (NO) binds 400 times faster to hemoglobin than carbon monoxide, thus the uptake of NO by the blood is very large. There

  16. Fatal carbon monoxide intoxication after acetylene gas welding of pipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonsson, Ann-Beth; Christensson, Bengt; Berge, Johan; Sjögren, Bengt

    2013-06-01

    Acetylene gas welding of district heating pipes can result in exposure to high concentrations of carbon monoxide. A fatal case due to intoxication is described. Measurements of carbon monoxide revealed high levels when gas welding a pipe with closed ends. This fatality and these measurements highlight a new hazard, which must be promptly prevented.

  17. Real World of Industrial Chemistry: Organic Chemicals from Carbon Monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Kenneth E.; Kolb, Doris

    1983-01-01

    Carbon Monoxide obtained from coal may serve as the source for a wide variety of organic compounds. Several of these compounds are discussed, including phosgene, benzaldehyde, methanol, formic acid and its derivatives, oxo aldehydes, acrylic acids, and others. Commercial reactions of carbon monoxide are highlighted in a table. (JN)

  18. The future is 'ambient'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugmayr, Artur

    2006-02-01

    The research field of ambient media starts to spread rapidly and first applications for consumer homes are on the way. Ambient media is the logical continuation of research around media. Media has been evolving from old media (e.g. print media), to integrated presentation in one form (multimedia - or new media), to generating a synthetic world (virtual reality), to the natural environment is the user-interface (ambient media), and will be evolving towards real/synthetic undistinguishable media (bio-media or bio-multimedia). After the IT bubble was bursting, multimedia was lacking a vision of potential future scenarios and applications. Within this research paper the potentials, applications, and market available solutions of mobile ambient multimedia are studied. The different features of ambient mobile multimedia are manifold and include wearable computers, adaptive software, context awareness, ubiquitous computers, middleware, and wireless networks. The paper especially focuses on algorithms and methods that can be utilized to realize modern mobile ambient systems.

  19. Inhibition of cellular respiration by endogenously produced carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Gabriela; Lam, Francis; Hagen, Thilo; Moncada, Salvador

    2006-06-01

    Endogenously produced nitric oxide (NO) interacts with mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase, leading to inhibition of cellular respiration. This interaction has been shown to have important physiological and pathophysiological consequences. Exogenous carbon monoxide (CO) is also known to inhibit cytochrome c oxidase in vitro; however, it is not clear whether endogenously produced CO can inhibit cellular respiration and, if so, what the significance of this might be. In this study, we show that exogenous CO inhibits respiration in a moderate but persistent manner in HEK293 cells under ambient (21%) oxygen concentrations (K(i) = 1.44 microM). This effect of CO was increased (K(i) = 0.35 microM) by incubation in hypoxic conditions (1% oxygen). Endogenous CO, generated by HEK293 cells transfected with the inducible isoform of haem oxygenase (haem oxygenase-1; HO-1), also inhibited cellular respiration moderately (by 12%) and this was accompanied by inhibition (23%) of cytochrome c oxidase activity. When the cells were incubated in hypoxic conditions during HO-1 induction, the inhibitory effect of CO on cell respiration was markedly increased to 70%. Furthermore, endogenously produced CO was found to be responsible for the respiratory inhibition that occurs in RAW264.7 cells activated in hypoxic conditions with lipopolysaccharide and interferon-gamma, in the presence of N-(iminoethyl)-L-ornithine to prevent the synthesis of NO. Our results indicate that CO contributes significantly to the respiratory inhibition in activated cells, particularly under hypoxic conditions. Inhibition of cell respiration by endogenous CO through its interaction with cytochrome c oxidase might have an important role in inflammatory and hypoxic conditions.

  20. Carbon monoxide pollution and neurodevelopment: A public health concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Although an association between air pollution and adverse systemic health effects has been known for years, the effect of pollutants on neurodevelopment has been underappreciated. Recent evidence suggests a possible link between air pollution and neurocognitive impairment and behavioral disorders in children, however, the exact nature of this relationship remains poorly understood. Infants and children are uniquely vulnerable due to the potential for exposure in both the fetal and postnatal environments during critical periods in development. Carbon monoxide (CO), a common component of indoor and outdoor air pollution, can cross the placenta to gain access to the fetal circulation and the developing brain. Thus, CO is of particular interest as a known neurotoxin and a potential public health threat. Here we review overt CO toxicity and the policies regulating CO exposure, detail the evidence suggesting a potential link between CO-associated ambient air pollution, tobacco smoke, and learning and behavioral abnormalities in children, describe the effects of subclinical CO exposure on the brain during development, and provide mechanistic insight into a potential connection between CO exposure and neurodevelopmental outcome. CO can disrupt a number of critical processes in the developing brain, providing a better understanding of how this specific neurotoxin may impair neurodevelopment. However, further investigation is needed to better define the effects of perinatal CO exposure on the immature brain. Current policies regarding CO standards were established based on evidence of cardiovascular risk in adults with pre-existing comorbidities. Thus, recent and emerging data highlighted in this review regarding CO exposure in the fetus and developing child may be important to consider when the standards and guidelines are evaluated and revised in the future.

  1. DERECHO AMBIENTAL EN ARGENTINA

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo de la presente publicación es brindar un panorama general, introductorio y actualizado del derecho ambiental argentino. Entendiendo que el derecho ambiental es un signo de nuestra era y que por la dinamicidad de la cuestión ambiental requiere de permanente actualización regularoria. La autora desarrolla en forma objetiva su postura en relación con la necesidad de hacer sostenible al derecho ambiental. Para luego analizar brevemente la situación actual del derecho vigente en Argent...

  2. Environmental dose in the Nuclear Medicine Department of the National Institute of Cancer;Dosis ambiental en el Departamento de Medicina Nuclear del Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres U, C. L.; Avila A, O. L. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, Ocoyoacac 52750, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Medina V, L. A.; Buenfil B, A. E.; Brandan S, M. E. [UNAM, Instituto de Fisica, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Trujillo Z, F. E. [Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Av. San Fernando No. 22, Col. Seccion XVI, 14080 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Gamboa de Buen, I. [UNAM, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    The dosimeters TLD-100 and TLD-900 were used to know the levels of environmental dose in areas of the Nuclear Medicine Department of the National Institute of Cancer. The dosimeters calibration was carried out in the Metrology Department of the National Institute of Nuclear Research. The radioisotopes used in the studied areas are {sup 131}I, {sup 18}F, {sup 67}Ga, {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 111}In, {sup 201}Tl and {sup 137}Cs with gamma energies between 93 and 662 KeV. Dosimeters were placed during five months in the diagnostic, injection, waiting and PET rooms as well as hot room, waste room, enclosed corridors to patient rooms treated with {sup 131}I and {sup 137}Cs and witness dosimeters to know the bottom. The values found vary between 0.3 and 70 major times that those of bottom. The maximum doses were measured in the waste room and in the enclosed corridor to the patient rooms with cervical uterine cancer treated with {sup 137}Cs. (Author)

  3. Reduction of carbon monoxide. Past research summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrock, R.R.

    1981-10-01

    Research programs for the year on the preparation, characterization, and reactions of binuclear tantalum complexes are described. All evidence to date suggest the following of these dimeric molecules: (1) the dimer does not break into monomers under mild conditions; (2) intermolecular hydride exchange is not negligible, but it is slow; (3) intermolecular non-ionic halide exchange is fast; (4) the ends of the dimers can rotate partially with respect to one another. The binuclear tantalum hydride complexes were found to react with carbon monoxide to give a molecule which is the only example of reduction of CO by a transition metal hydride to give a complex containing a CHO ligand. Isonitrides also reacted in a similar manner with dimeric tantalum hydride. (ATT)

  4. Radiactividad y medio ambiente

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez León, José Guillermo

    1993-01-01

    En los medios de comunicación frecuentemente aparecen noticias que hacen referencia a la radiactividad y al medio ambiente y, sin embargo, lo que es la radiactividad y como influye ésta sobre el medio ambiente suele ser poco conocido, incluso por personas de formación científica.

  5. The National program of the production and use of biodiesel and strategic environmental assessment; O Programa nacional de producao e uso de biodiesel e a avaliacao ambiental estrategica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Victor Rafael Fernandes [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    This work analyzes the use of biodiesel in Brazil under the applied perspective of this renewable fuel in the environmental assessment in the productive chain. It inwards the appearance of biodiesel, its evolution in Brazil and in the world, the structured regulatory framework, beyond these points this work also gives a main focus on the advent of National Program of Production and Usage of Biodiesel (NPPUB - originally PNPUB) and on the defined productive arrangement. It scrutinizes the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA), and delimits the pivotal hindrances to the development of biodiesel production sector, claiming to point out all the possible and viable scenarios, profiting the economic development of this activity in harmony with the urgent need to implement Environmentally Safe projects. (author)

  6. DERECHO AMBIENTAL EN ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Nonna

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la presente publicación es brindar un panorama general, introductorio y actualizado del derecho ambiental argentino. Entendiendo que el derecho ambiental es un signo de nuestra era y que por la dinamicidad de la cuestión ambiental requiere de permanente actualización regulatoria. La autora desarrolla en forma objetiva su postura en relación con la necesidad de hacer sostenible al derecho ambiental. Para luego analizar brevemente la situación actual del derecho vigente en Argentina, haciendo un rápido y resumido recorrido desde la última reforma de la Constitución Nacional hasta la consideración especial de cada una de las nuevas normas de presupuestos mínimos de protección ambiental.

  7. Syncope Associated with Carbon Monoxide Poisoning due to Narghile Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seda Ozkan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Narghile smoking is a traditional method of tobacco use, and it has been practiced extensively for 400 years. Traditionally, narghile smoking is a matter of culture mainly in Middle East, Asia, and Africa. In recent years, its use as a social activity has increased worldwide, especially among young people. Narghile smoking is an unusual cause of carbon monoxide poisoning. Narghile smoking, compared to cigarette smoking, can result in more smoke exposure and greater levels of carbon monoxide. We present an acute syncope case of a 19-year-old male patient who had carbon monoxide poisoning after narghile smoking.

  8. Ambient levels and temporal trends of VOCs, including carbonyl compounds, and ozone at Cabañeros National Park border, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Florentina; Tapia, Araceli; Notario, Alberto; Albaladejo, José; Martínez, Ernesto

    2014-03-01

    Concentration levels of 15 carbonyls, 17 VOCs and ozone were studied at Cabañeros National Park border, Spain, in an area mainly constituted by holm oaks (Quercus ilex) and cork oaks (Quercus suber), along with scrubland formations such as rock-rose and heather. The compounds were collected by means of diffusive samplers from August-November 2010 and February-August 2011. Carbonyl compounds, VOCs and O3 were analysed by HPLC with diode array UV-Vis detector, GC-FID and by UV-visible spectrophotometry, respectively. The most abundant carbonyls were hexanal, acetone-acrolein, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Seasonal variation was apparent with maximum values observed in summer months. Total carbonyl concentrations ranged from 2.8 to 19.7 μg m-3. Most VOCs studied (using chemically desorbable cartridges) were either not detected or were below their detection limits, however, a parallel sampling using thermally desorbable cartridges, from May 22 to June 19, revealed the presence of much more VOCs, identified using GC-MS. O3 concentration ranged from 27.2 to 90.5 μg m-3, reaching the maximum monthly mean concentration in March (84.4 μg m-3). The analysis of back trajectories indicates the transport of polluted air masses from remote areas, mainly from the Mediterranean basin that should contribute to the high levels of ozone observed.

  9. Dinitrogen cleavage and functionalization by carbon monoxide promoted by a hafnium complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobloch, Donald J; Lobkovsky, Emil; Chirik, Paul J

    2010-01-01

    Molecular nitrogen (N(2)) and carbon monoxide (CO) have the two strongest bonds in chemistry and present significant challenges in developing new transformations that exploit these two abundant feedstocks. At the core of this objective is the discovery of transition-metal compounds that promote the six-electron reductive cleavage of N(2) at ambient temperature and pressure and also promote new nitrogen-element bond formation. Here we show that an organometallic hafnium compound induces N(2) cleavage on the addition of CO, with a simultaneous assembly of new nitrogen-carbon and carbon-carbon bonds. Subsequent addition of a weak acid liberates oxamide, which demonstrates that an important agrochemical can be synthesized directly from N(2) and CO. These studies introduce an alternative paradigm for N(2) cleavage and functionalization in which the six-electron reductive cleavage is promoted by both the transition metal and the incoming ligand, CO, used for the new bond formations.

  10. Ambient air pollution and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; Stayner, Leslie; Slama, Rémy

    2014-01-01

    to ambient air pollution and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders including gestational hypertension and preeclampsia. We searched electronic databases for English language studies reporting associations between ambient air pollution and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders published between December.......5), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), proximity to major roads, and traffic density met our inclusion criteria. Most studies reported that air pollution increased risk for pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders. There was significant heterogeneity in meta-analysis, which included 16 studies reporting......-analysis combined odds ratio associated with a 5-μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 was 1.57 (95% confidence interval, 1.26-1.96) for combined pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders and 1.31 (95%confidence interval, 1.14-1.50) for preeclampsia [corrected]. Our results suggest that exposure to air pollution increases...

  11. Gold catalysts supported on nanosized iron oxide for low-temperature oxidation of carbon monoxide and formaldehyde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zheng; Zhang, Weidong; Li, Yi; Huang, Zuming; Guo, Huishan; Wu, Feng; Li, Jinjun

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to optimize synthesis of gold catalyst supported on nanosized iron oxide and to evaluate the activity in oxidation of carbon monoxide and formaldehyde. Nanosized iron oxide was prepared from a colloidal dispersion of hydrous iron oxide through a dispersion-precipitation method. Gold was adsorbed onto nanosized iron oxide under self-generated basic conditions. Characterization results indicate that the iron oxide consisted of hematite/maghemite composite with primary particle sizes of 6-8 nm. Gold was highly dispersed on the surface of the support. The catalysts showed good activity in the oxidation of airborne carbon monoxide and formaldehyde. The optimal pH for their synthesis was ∼7. The catalytic performance could be enhanced by extending the adsorption time of gold species on the support within 21 h. The optimized catalyst was capable of achieving complete oxidation of 1% carbon monoxide at -20 °C and 33% conversion of 450 ppm formaldehyde at ambient temperature. The catalyst may be applicable to indoor air purification.

  12. An interesting cause of pulmonary emboli: Acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevinc, A.; Savli, H.; Atmaca, H. [Gaziantep University, Gaziantep (Turkey). School of Medicine

    2005-07-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning, a public health problem of considerable significance, is a relatively frequent event today, resulting in thousands of hospitalizations annually. A 70-year-old lady was seen in the emergency department with a provisional diagnosis of carbon monoxide poisoning. The previous night, she slept in a tightly closed room heated with coal ember. She was found unconscious in the morning with poor ventilation. She had a rare presentation of popliteal vein thrombosis, pulmonary emboli, and possible tissue necrosis with carbon monoxide poisoning. Oxygen treatment with low-molecular-weight heparin (nadroparine) and warfarin therapy resulted in an improvement in both popliteal and pulmonary circulations. In conclusion, the presence of pulmonary emboli should be sought in patients with carbon monoxide poisoning.

  13. Same Exposure, Various Clinical Pictures: The Carbon Monoxide Enigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Salmanoglu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available -Children and adolescents exposed to the same source of carbon monoxide have been shown to demonstrate different clinical pictures (1,2. The same condition probably may be extrapolated between children with varying ages and hence lung surface areas. Smaller children will receive larger doses of carbon monoxide, because they have greater lung surface area/body weight ratios and increased minute volumes/weight ratios. As carbon monoxide accumulation is expected to be more significant nearer to the ground, another explanation for varying clinical pictures in poisoning events may be the different level of sleeping positions of the casualties. Herein, we report a cluster poisoning of carbon monoxide affecting 5 children from the same family at the same time but in different clinical pictures. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2013; 12(1.000: 118-118

  14. Air Quality System (AQS) ambient observations: 2007 PM2.5

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Ambient PM2.5 (particulate matter less than 2.5 microns) concentrations from the national ambient air quality monitoring networks stored in the Air Quality System...

  15. Air Quality System (AQS) ambient observations: 2008 PM2.5

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Ambient PM2.5 (particulate matter less than 2.5 microns) concentrations from the national ambient air quality monitoring networks stored in the Air Quality System...

  16. Nation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Uffe

    2014-01-01

    Nation er et gammelt begreb, som kommer af det latinske ord for fødsel, natio. Nationalisme bygger på forestillingen om, at mennesker har én og kun én national identitet og har ret til deres egen nationalstat. Ordet og forestillingen er kun godt 200 år gammel, og i 1900-tallet har ideologien bredt...... sig over hele verden. Nationalisme er blevet global....

  17. The nationwide survey of the level of PCDD/Fs in ambient air in Taiwan between 2002 and 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee Tzu-Yi; Yuan-Wu Chen; Ying-Ming Weng [EAL, EPA, TW (China)

    2004-09-15

    Taiwan is a solitary island on the western edge of the Pacific Ocean. Incineration is the major way for waste treatment in Taiwan. EPA of the ROC government has planed to build 30 municipal solid waste incinerators MSWIs. Currently, there are 19 MSWIs in operation with a daily treatment capacity of 21,000 tons. The emission of PCDD/Fs from MSWIs has been of great concern from the public. Therefore, large-scale surveys over the PCDD/Fs in ambient air were focused largely on the vicinity of MSWIs in the last three years2. There were only several small-scale projects for ordinary areas were implemented in northern and southern Taiwan. The EPA started to set up the Taiwan Air Quality Monitoring Network TAQMN in 1990. For now, there are 72 air quality monitoring stations, including 58 ordinary ambient air stations, 5 traffic pattern stations, 4 background pattern stations, 3 industrial pattern stations and 2 national park pattern stations. The priority pollutants being monitored in TAQMN include PM10, sulfur dioxides, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, ozone, and hydrocarbons. Besides, it also records several meteorological conditions. These stations were set up after proper evaluation and can well represent the air quality in the vicinity areas. The most recent data for the concentration of PCDD/Fs in ambient air have shown a trend of deceasing level in many areas, but have not been reported in Taiwan. Therefore, in this study, EAL selected 16 TAQMN monitoring stations as sampling sites and launched this nationwide survey from 2002 to 2003.

  18. Carbon monoxide exposure in blast furnace workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, S; Mason, C; Srna, J

    1992-09-01

    This study investigated the occupational exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) of a group of blast furnace workers from an integrated steelworks, compared to a control group having no significant occupational CO exposure from other areas in the same works. The study was undertaken in 1984 at Port Kembla, New South Wales. Carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) levels before and after an eight-hour work shift were measured in 98 male steelworkers: 52 from two CO-exposed iron blast furnaces and 46 controls from production areas in the same steelworks. The sample was stratified by smoking habits. Environmental air CO levels had been found to be consistently higher on one furnace than on the other. Absorption of CO from the working environment occurred in workers on the blast furnace with higher CO levels, regardless of smoking habits. On this blast furnace, some readings of COHb levels after a workshift in nonsmokers approached the proposed Australian occupational limit of 5 per cent COHb saturation. Overall, workers with the highest occupational exposure who smoked most heavily had the highest absorption of CO over a work shift. Biological monitoring gives an accurate measure of individual worker 'dose' of CO from all sources. Both environmental monitoring and biological monitoring need to be included as part of a program for controlling occupational CO exposure.

  19. Carbon Monoxide: An Essential Signalling Molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Brian E.

    Carbon monoxide (CO), like nitric oxide (NO), is an essential signalling molecule in humans. It is active in the cardiovascular system as a vasodilator. In addition, CO possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and anti-proliferative properties and protects tissues from hypoxia and reperfusion injury. Some of its applications in animal models include suppression of organ graft rejection and safeguarding the heart during reperfusion after cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. CO also suppresses arteriosclerotic lesions following angioplasty, reverses established pulmonary hypertension and mitigates the development of post-operative ileus in the murine small intestine and the development of cerebral malaria in mice as well as graft-induced intimal hyperplasia in pigs. There have been several clinical trials using air-CO mixtures for the treatment of lung-, heart-, kidney- and abdominal-related diseases. This review examines the research involving the development of classes of compounds (with particular emphasis on metal carbonyls) that release CO, which could be used in clinically relevant conditions. The review is drawn not only from published papers in the chemical literature but also from the extensive biological literature and patents on CO-releasing molecules (CO-RMs).

  20. First-Principles Investigations on Europium Monoxide

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hao

    2011-05-01

    Europium monoxide is both an insulator and a Heisenberg ferromagnet (Tc=69 K). In the present thesis, the author has investigated the electronic structure of different types of EuO by density functional theory. The on-site Coulomb interaction of the localized Eu 4f and 5d electrons, which is wrongly treated in the standard generalized gradient approximation method, is found to be crucial to obtain the correct insulating ground state as observed in experiments. Our results show that the ferromagnetism is stable under pressure, both hydrostatic and uniaxial. For both types of pressure an insulator-metal transition is demonstrated. Moreover, the experimentally observed insulator-metal transition in oxygen deficient and gadolinium-doped EuO is reproduced in our calculations for impurity concentrations of 6.25% and 25%. Furthermore, a 10- layer EuO thin film is theoretically predicted to be an insulator with a narrow band gap of around 0.08 eV, while the Si/EuO interface shows metallic properties with the Si and O 2p as well as Eu 5d bands crossing the Fermi level.

  1. Chlorine Monoxide in the Antarctic Spring Stratosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo-Ayerbe, Mauricio

    1988-06-01

    A series of observations of stratospheric chlorine monoxide (ClO) were carried out during the austral springs of 1986 and 1987 in McMurdo Station, Antarctica, as part of two experimental campaigns sent to investigate the seasonal decrease in ozone over the antarctic continent (the ozone "hole"). Measurements of the vertical distribution of ClO were obtained by high resolution ground-based emission spectroscopy at 278 GHz, using the Stony Brook mm-wave receiver. They show the presence of an anomalous layer of lower stratospheric ClO which is not observed at other latitudes. This anomalous layer is centered at ~20 km altitude and exhibits a pronounced diurnal variation, reaching a maximum at midday and disappearing at night. During the period of Sep. 20-24, 1987, the lower-stratospheric ClO had a maximum volume mixing ratio of 1.8_sp{+0cdot5}{ -0cdot9} ppbv. A normal ClO layer centered at ~36 km was also observed, with concentrations and diurnal behavior similar to those seen in tropical latitudes. These findings are evidence of anomalous chlorine chemistry taking place in the lower stratosphere during the antarctic spring, and indicate that increasing anthropogenic chlorine is a prime causative agent in the formation of the ozone hole.

  2. Assessment of carbon monoxide values in smokers: a comparison of carbon monoxide in expired air and carboxyhaemoglobin in arterial blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Mette F; Møller, Ann M

    2010-01-01

    Smoking increases perioperative complications. Carbon monoxide concentrations can estimate patients' smoking status and might be relevant in preoperative risk assessment. In smokers, we compared measurements of carbon monoxide in expired air (COexp) with measurements of carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) ......) in arterial blood. The objectives were to determine the level of correlation and to determine whether the methods showed agreement and evaluate them as diagnostic tests in discriminating between heavy and light smokers....

  3. Electric Power From Ambient Energy Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSteese, John G.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Schienbein, Lawrence A.

    2000-10-03

    This report summarizes research on opportunities to produce electric power from ambient sources as an alternative to using portable battery packs or hydrocarbon-fueled systems in remote areas. The work was an activity in the Advanced Concepts Project conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the Office of Research and Development in the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nonproliferation and National Security.

  4. 40 CFR 52.14 - State ambient air quality standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State ambient air quality standards. 52... quality standards. Any ambient air quality standard submitted with a plan which is less stringent than a national standard is not considered part of the plan....

  5. Ambient Dried Aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Steven M.; Paik, Jong-Ah

    2013-01-01

    A method has been developed for creating aerogel using normal pressure and ambient temperatures. All spacecraft, satellites, and landers require the use of thermal insulation due to the extreme environments encountered in space and on extraterrestrial bodies. Ambient dried aerogels introduce the possibility of using aerogel as thermal insulation in a wide variety of instances where supercritically dried aerogels cannot be used. More specifically, thermoelectric devices can use ambient dried aerogel, where the advantages are in situ production using the cast-in ability of an aerogel. Previously, aerogels required supercritical conditions (high temperature and high pressure) to be dried. Ambient dried aerogels can be dried at room temperature and pressure. This allows many materials, such as plastics and certain metal alloys that cannot survive supercritical conditions, to be directly immersed in liquid aerogel precursor and then encapsulated in the final, dried aerogel. Additionally, the metalized Mylar films that could not survive the previous methods of making aerogels can survive the ambient drying technique, thus making multilayer insulation (MLI) materials possible. This results in lighter insulation material as well. Because this innovation does not require high-temperature or high-pressure drying, ambient dried aerogels are much less expensive to produce. The equipment needed to conduct supercritical drying costs many tens of thousands of dollars, and has associated running expenses for power, pressurized gasses, and maintenance. The ambient drying process also expands the size of the pieces of aerogel that can be made because a high-temperature, high-pressure system typically has internal dimensions of up to 30 cm in diameter and 60 cm in height. In the case of this innovation, the only limitation on the size of the aerogels produced would be in the ability of the solvent in the wet gel to escape from the gel network.

  6. Architectural models of ambient-PRISMA in channel ambient calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Nour; Tuosto, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    peer-reviewed Ambient-PRISMA is an architectural approach for specifying aspect-oriented software architecture and generating code of distributed and mobile systems. Ambient-PRISMA lacks a precise semantics due to the fact that it is based only on a metamodel. In this paper, Ambient-PRISMA is mapped into a formal language called Channel Ambient Calculus, a process algebra for specifying mobile applications that provides channels and ambients as first-class citizens. We...

  7. RadNet (Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring System)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — RadNet, formerly Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring System (ERAMS), is a national network of monitoring stations that regularly collect air, precipitation,...

  8. Ambient solar UV radiation and seasonal trends in potential sunburn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To estimate national potential child sunburn risk patterns, monitored ambient solar UV radiation levels at six sites ... Schoolgoing children with skin types I, II and III were identified as being at greatest risk of sunburn. .... unexposed skin colour,.

  9. El ambiente social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Granada

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el título de« Ambiente Social» se quiere enfatizar que el concepto de Ambiente no se agota en lo ecológico (físico-biótico. Así mismo, dentro lo psicosocial, la noción de territorio adquiere importancia y otorga significación a la «experiencia ambiental», ya que abre ventanas hacia la comprensión de actividades como el ordenamiento territorial y a la mediación de las dimensiones psicológica, social y cultural del espacio. Finalmente, aunque el ordenamiento del territorio suele enfocarse desde los componentes sociopolíticos y económicos con el ánimo de planificación, el componente psicosocial traduce aspectos del ordenamiento dentro de la vida cotidiana y relaciona nociones como identidad y arraigo, entre otras.

  10. Ambient oxygen promotes tumorigenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Joong Sung

    Full Text Available Oxygen serves as an essential factor for oxidative stress, and it has been shown to be a mutagen in bacteria. While it is well established that ambient oxygen can also cause genomic instability in cultured mammalian cells, its effect on de novo tumorigenesis at the organismal level is unclear. Herein, by decreasing ambient oxygen exposure, we report a ∼50% increase in the median tumor-free survival time of p53-/- mice. In the thymus, reducing oxygen exposure decreased the levels of oxidative DNA damage and RAG recombinase, both of which are known to promote lymphomagenesis in p53-/- mice. Oxygen is further shown to be associated with genomic instability in two additional cancer models involving the APC tumor suppressor gene and chemical carcinogenesis. Together, these observations represent the first report directly testing the effect of ambient oxygen on de novo tumorigenesis and provide important physiologic evidence demonstrating its critical role in increasing genomic instability in vivo.

  11. High temperature thermodynamics and vaporization of stoichiometric titanium monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheldon, R.I.; Gilles, P.W.

    1976-08-17

    Three vaporization experiments were performed on samples of nearly stoichiometric titanium monoxide. Two experiments were constant temperature experiments (1806/sup 0/K) designed to measure the equilibrium vapor pressures of Ti(g) and TiO(g). In one experiment titanium monoxide was vaporized from a tungsten Knudsen effusion cell; the vapor was collected on a water cooled quartz cap surrounding the cell; and the total amount of titanium deposited on the cap was analyzed colorimetrically. In the second constant temperature experiment (1806/sup 0/K) the vapor composition in equilibrium with nearly stoichiometric titanium monoxide was measured mass spectrometrically. The mass spectrometer results were used to apportion the total titanium collected in the first experiment to Ti(g) and TiO(g). In the third experiment the temperature dependence of the ions Ti/sup +/(48) and TiO(64) was measured spectrometrically. The results obtained in this work are compared with published thermodynamic properties of the titanium oxygen system, and indicate the standard free energy of formation of titanium monoxide obtained from the earliest calorimetric measurements yielded a result not negative enough and also oxygen pressures obtained by emf measurements for stoichiometric titanium monoxide at 1806/sup 0/K are high by a factor of 42.6. The present results are in good agreement with the thermodynamic properties reported in recently issued pages of the JANAF Thermochemical Tables.

  12. Effects of acute hypoventilation and hyperventilation on exhaled carbon monoxide measurement in healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Donato Michele

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High levels of exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO are a marker of airway or lung inflammation. We investigated whether hypo- or hyperventilation can affect measured values. Methods Ten healthy volunteers were trained to achieve sustained end-tidal CO2 (etCO2 concentrations of 30 (hyperventilation, 40 (normoventilation, and 50 mmHg (hypoventilation. As soon as target etCO2 values were achieved for 120 sec, exhaled breath was analyzed for eCO with a photoacoustic spectrometer. At etCO2 values of 30 and 40 mmHg exhaled breath was sampled both after a deep inspiration and after a normal one. All measurements were performed in two different environmental conditions: A ambient CO concentration = 0.8 ppm and B ambient CO concentration = 1.7 ppm. Results During normoventilation, eCO mean (standard deviation was 11.5 (0.8 ppm; it decreased to 10.3 (0.8 ppm during hyperventilation (p 2 changes (hyperventilation: 10% Vs 25% decrease; hypoventilation 3% Vs 25% increase. Taking a deep inspiration before breath sampling was associated with lower eCO values (p Conclusions eCO measurements should not be performed during marked acute hyperventilation, like that induced in this study, but the influence of less pronounced hyperventilation or of hypoventilation is probably negligible in clinical practice

  13. Crisis ambiental y cristianismo

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe Cárdenas

    2008-01-01

    En el artículo se identifican y reconocen algunas opciones que se pueden desarrollar en el cristianismo en relación con la problemática ambiental. Se aborda el dilema bíblico suscitado por interpretaciones antiecológicas y ecológicas. Con base en una lectura de la Biblia, de testimonios cristianos, y en una rememoria de estructuras institucionales, como la parroquia, se analiza el valor que tiene el mensaje cristiano en lo referido a la mitigación de la crisis ambiental.This article identifie...

  14. Associations between Ambient Air Pollution and Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobasher, Zahra; Salam, Muhammad T.; Goodwin, T. Murphy; Lurmann, Frederick; Ingles, Sue A.; Wilson, Melissa L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Exposure to ambient air pollution is linked to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Previous reports examining the relationship between ambient air pollution and Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy have been inconsistent. Objectives We evaluated the effects of ambient air pollution on the odds of Hypertensive Disorder of Pregnancy and whether these associations varied by body mass index (BMI). Methods We conducted a retrospective, case-control study among 298 predominantly Hispanic women (136 clinically-confirmed cases) who attended the Los Angeles County + University of Southern California Women’s and Children’s Hospital during 1996–2008. Trimester-specific carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <10µm and <2.5µm (PM10, PM2.5) exposure were estimated based on 24-hr exposure level at residential address. Logistic regression models were fitted to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for 2 standard deviation increase in exposure levels. Results Exposures to CO and PM2.5 in the first trimester were significantly associated with Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy, and these associations were modified by BMI. In non-obese women (BMI <30), first trimester exposures to PM2.5 and CO were significantly associated with increased odds of Hypertensive Disorder of Pregnancy (ORs per 2-standard deviation increase in PM2.5 (7µg/m3) and CO (1ppm) exposures were 9.10 [95% CI: 3.33–24.6] and 4.96 [95% CI: 1.85–13.31], respectively). Additionally, there was a significantly positive association between exposure to O3 in the second trimester and Hypertensive Disorder of Pregnancy (OR per 15ppb=2.05; 95% CI: 1.22–3.46). Conclusion Among non-obese women, first trimester exposure to PM2.5 and carbon monoxide are associated with increased odds of Hypertensive Disorder of Pregnancy. PMID:23522615

  15. Ambient mass spectrometry imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janfelt, Christian; Nørgaard, Asger W

    2012-01-01

    Easy ambient sonic spray ionization (EASI) and desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) were used for imaging of a number of samples, including sections of rat brain and imprints of plant material on porous Teflon. A novel approach termed Displaced Dual-mode Imaging was utilized for the direct...

  16. Meio ambiente e literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marli de Oliveira Fantini Scarpelli

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo busca reconhecer alguns pontos de tangência entre os romances Vidas secas, de Graciliano Ramos, As cidades invisíveis, de Italo Calvino, e Grande sertão: veredas, de Guimarães Rosa, sobretudo no que respeita às relações modalizantes entre literatura e meio ambiente. Em meio à diversidade temática das obras indicadas, subjaz o tema da consciência ambiental, que, nas últimas décadas, vem recebendo a crescente adesão não apenas de ambientalistas, mas também de intelectuais, políticos, escritores. O foco na degradação ambiental, no alerta implícito acerca das precárias condições de vida futura em nosso planeta revela um dos nucleares e contundentes problemas a desafiar a agenda contemporânea. Nesse sentido, revela-se paradigmático o “lugar-sertão” rosiano, que, ao difundir seu território, seus valores e denúncias, patenteia uma concepção ambiental inovadora e reticular, em estreito diálogo com as atuais pesquisas interdisciplinares sobre o tema, as quais deveriam doravante guardar, em seu horizonte de expectativa, os paradigmas, as perspectivas e os equacionamentos que alicerçam as artes em geral e a literatura em particular.

  17. La radioactividad ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Núñez-Lagos Roglá

    2011-01-01

    Se explican los conceptos fundamentales relacionados con la radiactividad y se utilizan para describir la radiactividad ambiental. Se explican también los isótopos de largo periodo y las principales familias radioactivas junto con la radiación cósmica y los radionucleidos cosmogénicos.

  18. La radioactividad ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Núñez-Lagos Roglá

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se explican los conceptos fundamentales relacionados con la radiactividad y se utilizan para describir la radiactividad ambiental. Se explican también los isótopos de largo periodo y las principales familias radioactivas junto con la radiación cósmica y los radionucleidos cosmogénicos.

  19. [Massive poisoning with carbon monoxide: an update from a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Mariano; Crapanzano, Gabriel; Cabrerizo, Silvia; Aichele, Cristina; Deurtiaga, Alejandra; Vallejos, Yamila

    2017-02-01

    Carbon monoxide is known as the "silent murderer" because it is a colorless and odorless gas. According to these characteristics, toxicity goes unnoticed which makes the diagnosis difficult. In most cases, the cold periods and group poisoning make suspect its presence because inappropriate heat both in home or public environments. Our goal is to inform about a mass carbon monoxide poisoning in a children's parties room using a combustion source installed, not for the purpose of heating, but as a supply of light (generator), emphasizing that it can occur in any time of the year.

  20. Structural and magnetic properties of mechanochemically synthesized nanocrystalline titanium monoxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barudžija Tanja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nano-sized titanium monoxide (TiO powder was prepared by mechanochemical synthesis. A mixture of commercial Ti and TiO2 (rutile powders with the molar ratio of 1:1 was milled in a planetary ball mill for 5, 10, 20, 30 and 60 min under argon atmosphere. The final single-phase titanium monoxide sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, magnetic measurements using a superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer (SQUID and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The temperature dependency of the magnetic susceptibility is characterized by significant contribution of Pauli paramagnetism due to conduction electrons.

  1. 78 FR 63933 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Virginia; Revised Ambient Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Fine Particulate Matter AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... submitted by the Commonwealth of Virginia adding ambient air quality standards and associated reference conditions for Fine Particulate Matter (PM 2.5 ) that are consistent with the 2013 National Ambient...

  2. 78 FR 63878 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Virginia; Revised Ambient Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards for Fine Particulate Matter AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... Commonwealth of Virginia State Implementation Plan (SIP). The revisions add ambient air quality standards and... National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for PM 2.5 . EPA is approving these revisions in...

  3. Baseline carbon monoxide and ozone in the northeast US over 2001–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhou

    2015-10-01

    stratospheric intrusion, and intensified continental export. The lowest baseline CO at Appledore Island (AI, PM, TF, PSP, WFM and the lowest baseline O3 at AI, PM, and PSP in summer 2009 were linked to the negative phase of the Arctic oscillation (AO, when more frequent cyclone activities brought more clean Arctic air to midlatitudes. It was also found that forest fires played a major role in determining baseline CO in the northeast US In summer, ~ 38% of baseline CO variability at AI, CS, MWO, TF, PSP, and WFM could be explained by CO emissions from forest fires in Russia and ~ 22 % by emissions from forest fires in Canada. Long-range transport of O3 and its precursors from biomass burning contributed to the highest baseline O3 in summer 2003 at AI, CS, MWO, TF, and WFM. The findings of this study suggested impacts of increasing Asian emissions, NOx emissions from the Northeast Urban corridor, global biomass burning emissions, and meteorological conditions (e.g. cyclone activity, AO, and NAO should all be considered when designing strategies for meeting and maintaining National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS and evaluating the air quality in the northeast US.

  4. Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Air and Radiation??s (OAR) Ambient Air Quality Data (Current) contains ambient air pollution data collected by EPA, other federal agencies, as well as...

  5. Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Air and Radiation's (OAR) Ambient Air Quality Data (Current) contains ambient air pollution data collected by EPA, other federal agencies, as well as...

  6. The Effects of Low Level Prenatal Carbon Monoxide on Neocortical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    378.1958). Ginsberg MD, Myers RE (Fetal brain damage following maternal carbon monoxide intoxication: an experimental study. Acta obstetricia et...monoxide production and blood loss at delivery. Acta obstetricia et gynecologica Scandinavica 48:362-370.1969). Longo LD (Carbon monoxide in the

  7. Medio ambiente urbano

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    El estudio  y análisis  de las interacciones  entre  ambiente  y desarrollo y  su inserción  en los procesos  de  planificación del crecimiento  social y económico  de  los  países  de América Latina, reviste especial interés para proponer alternativas de acción que  conduzcan  al  logro  de  una mejor  calidad de  vida.  El impacto  que las conferencias sobre  el  Medio Ambiente Humano Estocolmo (1972),  Cocoyoc  (1974) o de documentos como "Nuestro Futuro Común" o "Nuestra Propia Agenda" ha...

  8. Diversidad de musgos en ambientes degradados sujetos a restauración en el Parque Nacional Lago Puelo (Chubut, Argentina Moss diversity in degraded environments under restoring in the Lago Puelo National Park (Chubut, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIANA E ROVERE

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La restauración ecológica es una disciplina que intenta recuperar atributos perdidos en un ecosistema (diversidad de especies, estructura y función. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la diversidad de musgos y sus formas de vida en tres ambientes con diferentes niveles de degradación y los sustratos en los que estos se desarrollan. El área de estudio corresponde a un sector que se está restaurando dentro de la Reserva Nacional Lago Puelo. En ella se encuentran tres ambientes distintos: (1 área remanente de bosque maduro de Nothofagus dombeyi, (2 bosque secundario de Austrocedrus chilensis, y (3 matorral dominado por especies exóticas. Se recorrió cada uno de los ambientes, registrando los sustratos con musgos, formas de vida y géneros. Los resultados evidencian una reducción de los sustratos disponibles y de las especies presentes conforme avanza el grado de alteración, desde el área de bosque maduro de N. dombeyi (9 sustratos: 17 géneros: 7 formas de vida, al sector de bosque secundario de A. chilensis (6 sustratos: 8 géneros: 5 formas de vida, siendo menor en el matorral dominado por especies exóticas (1 sustrato: 4 géneros: 3 formas de vida. Los musgos desempeñan funciones importantes en los ecosistemas, son fundamentales en el balance hídrico, pioneros en suelos inestables controlando la erosión y colonizando sitios alterados, sirven como hábitat y alimento para invertebrados, y también constituyen sitios propicios para la germinación de plantas vasculares. Si bien algunas especies leñosas ven afectada su germinación por la presencia de musgos, estos facilitan la germinación de otras especies arbóreas de los bosques templados. Los resultados podrían ser utilizados en restauración, ya sea recreando los sustratos ausentes o realizando traslado de sustratos con musgos, a fin de favorecer la recuperación de áreas boscosas degradadas considerando la biodiversidad original.Ecological restoration is a discipline

  9. Ambient temperature recorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Larry D.

    1991-01-01

    A temperature data recorder, designated the Ambient Temperature Recorder (ATR-4), was developed at NASA Ames Research Center to meet particular requirements for space life sciences experiments. The small, self-contained, four-channel, battery-powered device records 32 kilobytes of temperature data over a range of -40 to +60 C at four sampling intervals ranging from 1.875 to 15 minutes. Data is stored in its internal electronic memory for later readout by a personal computer.

  10. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Amharic (amarunya) Arabic (العربية) Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) French (français) ... Kiswahili) Tagalog (Tagalog) Tigrinya (tigrinya) Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) Amharic (amarunya) Prevention Guidelines: You Can Prevent Carbon Monoxide ...

  11. Pathways and bioenergetics of anaerobic carbon monoxide fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diender, Martijn; Stams, Fons; Machado de Sousa, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Carbon monoxide can act as a substrate for different modes of fermentative anaerobic metabolism. The trait of utilizing CO is spread among a diverse group of microorganisms, including members of bacteria as well as archaea. Over the last decade this metabolism has gained interest due to the poten

  12. UV-induced carbon monoxide emission from living vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Dan; Albert, Kristian Rost; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard

    2013-01-01

    The global burden of carbon monoxide (CO) is rather uncertain. In this paper we address the potential for UV-induced CO emission by living terrestrial vegetation surfaces. Real-time measurements of CO concentrations were made with a cavity enhanced laser spectrometer connected in closed loop...

  13. Study on Response Time of SPE Carbon Monoxide Sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The influence of structural design and the parameters of the working electrode on the response time of a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) carbon monoxide sensor has been studied. Results show that the response time is mainly determined by the RC time constant of the catalyst layer and also related with the working electrode potential.

  14. Carbon monoxide : A quantitative tracer for fossil fuel CO2?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gamnitzer, Ulrike; Karstens, Ute; Kromer, Bernd; Neubert, Rolf E. M.; Meijer, Harro A. J.; Schroeder, Hartwig; Levin, Ingeborg

    2006-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and radiocarbon ((CO2)-C-14) measurements have been made in Heidelberg from 2001 to 2004 in order to determine the regional fossil fuel CO2 component and to investigate the application of CO as a quantitative tracer for fossil fuel CO2 (CO2(foss)). The obs

  15. Hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and methane in the marine environment

    OpenAIRE

    Bullister, John Logan

    1980-01-01

    EXTRACT (SEE PDF FOR FULL ABSTRACT): The horizontal and vertical distribution of three dissolved trace gases, namely molecular hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and methane, was measured in coastal and oceanic areas. Atmospheric concentrations of these gases were measured both at locations influenced by nearby human activity, and in areas far removed from these inputs.

  16. Carbon monoxide poisoning mimicking long-QT induced syncope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.M. Onvlee-Dekker (Irene); A.C.H. de Vries (Andrica); A.D.J. ten Harkel (Arend)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractCarbon monoxide (CO)poisoning is a rare cause of QT prolongation, and is therefore easily missed. The case of a patient with unexplained syncope and QT prologation on the electrocardiogram that turned out to be related to CO poisoning is reported here. In patients with QT prolongation,

  17. Optimization of Treatment Policy for Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. N. Akalayev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the efficiency of combination use of hyperbaric oxygenation, succinate-containing solutions, and anti-edematous agents in patients with acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Subjects and methods. The results of treatment were analyzed in 32 patients admitted in 2009—2011 for severe acute carbon monoxide poisoning and a Glasgow coma score of 6—8. The patients were divided into 2 groups: 1 patients whose combination therapy involved hyperbaric oxygenation, Succinasol infusions, and L-lysine-aescinate injections; 2 those who received traditional therapy. All the patients underwent complex clinical, laboratory, and neurophysiologic examinations. Results. Just 24 hours after the combination use of Succinasol and L-lysine-aescinate, Group I patients were observed to have substantially reduced lactate, the content of the latter approached the normal value following 48 hours, which was much below the values in the control group. The similar pattern was observed when endogenous intoxication parameters were examined. During the performed therapy, the level of consciousness and that of intellect according to the MMSE and FAB scales were restored more rapidly in the study group patients than in Group 2. Conclusion. The combination use of hyperbaric oxygenation, the succinate-containing solution Succinasol, and the anti-edematous agent L-lysine-aescinate considerably enhances the efficiency of intensive therapy for acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Key words: carbon monoxide, toxic hypoxic encephalopathy, combination therapy, hyperbaric oxygenation, succinic acid, L-lysine-aescinate.

  18. The use of alternative pollutant metrics in time-series studies of ambient air pollution and respiratory emergency department visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrow, Lyndsey A; Klein, Mitchel; Sarnat, Jeremy A; Mulholland, James A; Strickland, Matthew J; Sarnat, Stefanie E; Russell, Armistead G; Tolbert, Paige E

    2011-01-01

    Various temporal metrics of daily pollution levels have been used to examine the relationships between air pollutants and acute health outcomes. However, daily metrics of the same pollutant have rarely been systematically compared within a study. In this analysis, we describe the variability of effect estimates attributable to the use of different temporal metrics of daily pollution levels. We obtained hourly measurements of ambient particulate matter (PM₂.₅), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO₂), and ozone (O₃) from air monitoring networks in 20-county Atlanta for the time period 1993-2004. For each pollutant, we created (1) a daily 1-h maximum; (2) a 24-h average; (3) a commute average; (4) a daytime average; (5) a nighttime average; and (6) a daily 8-h maximum (only for O₃). Using Poisson generalized linear models, we examined associations between daily counts of respiratory emergency department visits and the previous day's pollutant metrics. Variability was greatest across O₃ metrics, with the 8-h maximum, 1-h maximum, and daytime metrics yielding strong positive associations and the nighttime O₃ metric yielding a negative association (likely reflecting confounding by air pollutants oxidized by O₃). With the exception of daytime metric, all of the CO and NO₂ metrics were positively associated with respiratory emergency department visits. Differences in observed associations with respiratory emergency room visits among temporal metrics of the same pollutant were influenced by the diurnal patterns of the pollutant, spatial representativeness of the metrics, and correlation between each metric and copollutant concentrations. Overall, the use of metrics based on the US National Ambient Air Quality Standards (for example, the use of a daily 8-h maximum O₃ as opposed to a 24-h average metric) was supported by this analysis. Comparative analysis of temporal metrics also provided insight into underlying relationships between specific air

  19. An overview of carbon monoxide generation and release by home appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batey, J. [Energy Research Center, Inc., Easton, CT (United States)

    1997-09-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is an odorless, colorless and tasteless gas which is highly toxic and can be produced by many combustion sources commonly found within homes. Potential sources include boilers and furnaces, water heaters, space heaters, stoves, ovens, clothes dryers, wood stoves, fireplaces, charcoal grilles, automobiles, cigarettes, oil lamps, and candles. Any fuel that contains carbon can form CO including, natural gas, propane, kerosene, fuel oil, wood, and coal. Exposure to elevated CO levels typically requires its production by a combustion source and its release into the home through a venting system malfunction. The health effects of CO range from headaches and flue-like symptoms to loss of concentration, coma and death depending on the concentration of CO and the exposure time. At levels of only 1%, which is the order of magnitude produced by automobile exhaust, carbon monoxide can cause death in less than 3 minutes. While most combustion equipment operate with low CO levels, many operating factors can contribute to elevated CO levels in the home including: burner adjustment, combustion air supply, house air-tightness, exhaust fan operation, cracked heat exchangers, vent blockages, and flue pipe damage. Test data on CO emissions is presented from a wide range of sources including Brookhaven National Laboratory, Gas Research Institute, American Gas Association, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the US Consumer Product Safety Commission for many potential CO sources in and near the home.

  20. Cross-correlations of ambient noise recorded by accelerometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rábade García, S. E.; Ramirez-Guzman, L.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the ambient noise cross-correlations obtained by using properly corrected accelerometric recordings, and determine velocity structure in central Mexico based on a dispersion analysis. The data used comprise ten months of continuous recordings - from April 2013 to January 2014 - of ambient seismic noise at stations operated by the National Seismological Service of Mexico and the Engineering Strong Ground Motion Network of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM). The vertical component of ambient noise was base-line corrected, filtered, and properly integrated before extracting Green's functions (GF), which were compared successfully against GF obtained using recordings from broadband velocity sensors. In order to obtain dispersion curves, we estimated group and phase velocities applying the FTAN analysis technique and obtained s-wave velocity profiles at selected regions. We conclude and highlight that the use of widely deployed accelerographs to conduct regional studies using ambient noise tomography is feasible

  1. Arquitectura y medio ambiente

    OpenAIRE

    Saura Carulla, Magdalena

    2003-01-01

    La arquitectura y la planificación son el resultado de una integración ponderada de conocimientos técnicos y una multiplicidad de aspectos relacionados con el conocimiento natural y social. En este trabajo el autor propone, desde el ámbito de las ciencias del medio ambiente, diversos planteamientos teóricos y prácticos relacionados con la arquitectura y el urbanismo. El conocimiento de la naturaleza de los sistemas naturales y de los sistemas ecosociales permite al diseñador aplicar un marco ...

  2. Ambient og intelligent teknologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bøgh

     Dette notat handler om hvordan humanistisk og samfundsfaglig forskning i øjeblikket nyttiggøres ved udformning af IKT-anvendelser, der er indlejret i vor dagligdag i den forstand, at de indgår som et element i de aktiviteter, vi foretager på arbejdet eller i fritiden. Sådanne anvendelser kaldes ...... undertiden ambiente – noget der omslutter os på alle sider. Rapporten peger også på virkemidler som kan forbedre og øge en humanistisk og samfundsfaglig forskningsindsats....

  3. AOX y medio ambiente.

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    Los productos organohalogenados son muy utilizados por la industria y su presencia en el medio ambiente está siendo controlada. En los últimos años se han desarrollado varias técnicas de detección, siendo desde finales de los 80 los AOX (adsorbable organic halogens) uno de los parámetros sobre los que se han realizado más estudios. En muchos paises de la Unión Europea y en E.E.U.U. de América, la presencia de compuestos organohalogenados en aguas continentales y suelos está legislada indicand...

  4. Dioxinas y medio ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Frejo Moya

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el término genérico dioxinas se designa al grupo de las dibenzo-p-dioxinas policloradas (PCDD y de los dibenzofuranos policlorados (PCDF, representantes típicos de los compuestos orgánicos persistentes (COPs. Se obtienen como productos secundarios no deseados de diversos procesos industriales en los que se emplea cloro en alguna de sus etapas. Las dioxinas han centrado en la última década una parte importante de la investigación médica en salud ambiental debido a su notable toxicidad, ya que son las sustancias químicas peligrosas más potentes creadas por el hombre, afectando al sistema nervioso e inmunitario, estando implicadas en la aparición de distintos tipos de cáncer y provocando la aparición de alteraciones hormonales, clasificándose actualmente como disruptores endocrinos. Por otra parte, su persistencia en el medio ambiente, resistencia a la degradación, bioacumulación y capacidad de transporte atmosférico entre las diversas fases medioambientales hace que sean considerados actualmente como compuestos peligrosos para el ser humano.

  5. Crisis ambiental y cristianismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Cárdenas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En el artículo se identifican y reconocen algunas opciones que se pueden desarrollar en el cristianismo en relación con la problemática ambiental. Se aborda el dilema bíblico suscitado por interpretaciones antiecológicas y ecológicas. Con base en una lectura de la Biblia, de testimonios cristianos, y en una rememoria de estructuras institucionales, como la parroquia, se analiza el valor que tiene el mensaje cristiano en lo referido a la mitigación de la crisis ambiental.This article identifies and recognizes some options that can be developed in Christianity in relation to the environmental problem. It starts by analyzing the biblical dilemma provoked by both ecological and antiecological interpretations. Based on a reading of the Bible, testimonies from Christians and with a rememory of institutional structures, like the parish, the valué of the Christian message for mitigating the environmental crisis is analyzed.

  6. Carbon monoxide exposures inside an automobile traveling on an urban arterial highway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, W; Switzer, P; Willits, N

    1994-08-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) exposures were measured inside a motor vehicle during 88 standardized drives on a major urban arterial highway, El Camino Real (traffic volume of 30,500-45,000 vehicles per day), over a 13-1/2 month period. On each trip (lasting between 31 and 61 minutes), the test vehicle drove the same 5.9-mile segment of roadway in both directions, for a total of 11.8 miles, passing through 20 intersections with traffic lights (10 in each direction) in three California cities (Menlo Park, Palo Alto, and Los Altos). Earlier tests showed that the test vehicle was free of CO intrusion. For the 88 trips, the mean CO concentration was 9.8 ppm, with a standard deviation of 5.8 ppm. Of nine covariates that were examined to explain the variability in the mean CO exposures observed on the 88 trips (ambient CO at two fixed stations, atmospheric stability, seasonal trend function, time of day, average surrounding vehicle count, trip duration, proportion of time stopped at lights, and instrument type), a fairly strong seasonal trend was found. A model consisting of only a single measure of traffic volume and a seasonal trend component had substantial predictive power (R2 = 0.68); by contrast, the ambient CO levels, although partially correlated with average exposures, contributed comparatively little predictive power to the model. The CO exposures experienced while drivers waited at the red lights at an intersection ranged from 6.8 to 14.9 ppm and differed considerably from intersection to intersection.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Types for BioAmbients

    CERN Document Server

    Capecchi, Sara; 10.4204/EPTCS.19.7

    2010-01-01

    The BioAmbients calculus is a process algebra suitable for representing compartmentalization, molecular localization and movements between compartments. In this paper we enrich this calculus with a static type system classifying each ambient with group types specifying the kind of compartments in which the ambient can stay. The type system ensures that, in a well-typed process, ambients cannot be nested in a way that violates the type hierarchy. Exploiting the information given by the group types, we also extend the operational semantics of BioAmbients with rules signalling errors that may derive from undesired ambients' moves (i.e. merging incompatible tissues). Thus, the signal of errors can help the modeller to detect and locate unwanted situations that may arise in a biological system, and give practical hints on how to avoid the undesired behaviour.

  8. Types for BioAmbients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Capecchi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The BioAmbients calculus is a process algebra suitable for representing compartmentalization, molecular localization and movements between compartments. In this paper we enrich this calculus with a static type system classifying each ambient with group types specifying the kind of compartments in which the ambient can stay. The type system ensures that, in a well-typed process, ambients cannot be nested in a way that violates the type hierarchy. Exploiting the information given by the group types, we also extend the operational semantics of BioAmbients with rules signalling errors that may derive from undesired ambients' moves (i.e. merging incompatible tissues. Thus, the signal of errors can help the modeller to detect and locate unwanted situations that may arise in a biological system, and give practical hints on how to avoid the undesired behaviour.

  9. Digit and letter alexia in carbon monoxide poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingyu Shen; Xiaoming Rong; Rui Pan; Ying Peng; Wei Peng; Yamei Tang

    2012-01-01

    This study examined a 24-year-old patient with delayed encephalopathy, who was admitted to hospital with complaints of headache and visual impairment 1 week after acute carbon monoxide poisoning. The results of a visual field assessment, electroencephalography and head magnetic resonance imaging indicated damage to the cerebral cortex. After a 2-week treatment period, the patient had recovered from the visual impairment, but exhibited digit- and letter-reading difficulty. The Chinese aphasia battery and the number and letter battery supplement were conducted. The results revealed that the patient exhibited digit and letter alexia, while the ability to read Chinese characters was preserved. In contrast, the patient exhibited a deficit in Chinese character writing, while number and letter writing remained intact. Following treatment, reading and writing ability was improved and electroencephalographic abnormalities were ameliorated. Overall, our experimental findings demonstrated that delayed encephalopathy following acute carbon monoxide poisoning was characterized by digit and letter alexia.

  10. Catalysis of carbon monoxide methanation by deep sea manganate minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, A. L.; Maple, M. B.; Arrhenius, G.

    1990-01-01

    The catalytic activity of deep sea manganese nodule minerals for the methanation of carbon monoxide was measured with a microcatalytic technique between 200 and 460 degrees C. The manganate minerals were activated at 248 degrees C by immersion into a stream of hydrogen in which pulses of carbon monoxide were injected. Activation energies for the methanation reaction and hydrogen desorption from the manganate minerals were obtained and compared with those of pure nickel. Similar energy values indicate that the activity of the nodule materials for the reaction appears to be related to the amount of reducible transition metals present in the samples (ca. 11 wt.-%). Since the activity of the nodule minerals per gram is comparable to that of pure nickel, most of the transition metal ions located between manganese oxide layers appear to be exposed and available to catalyze the reaction.

  11. Effect of carbon monoxide on plants. [Mimosa pudica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, P.W.; Crocker, W.; Hitchcock, A.E.

    1933-01-01

    Of 108 species of plants treated with one per cent carbon monoxide, 45 showed epinastic growth of leaves. Several species showed hyponasty which caused upward curling of leaves. Other effects included: retarded stem elongation; abnormally small new leaves; abnormal yellowing of the leaves, beginning with the oldest; abscission of leaves usually associated with yellowing; and hypertrophied tissues on stems and roots. During recovery an abnormally large number of side shoots arose from latent buds of many species. Motion pictures of Mimosa pudica showed a loss of correlation, normal equilibrium position to gravity, and sensitiveness to contact or heat stimuli; however, the leaves moved about more rapidly than those of controls. Since carbon monoxide causes growth rigor and loss of sensitiveness to external stimuli, it is here considered as an anesthetic.

  12. Acute Impact of Hourly Ambient Air Pollution on Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shanshan; Guo, Yuming; Williams, Gail

    2016-01-01

    Background: Preterm birth is a major perinatal health problem, but factors leading to it are still not completely understood. Objectives: Our goal was to identify the relation between acute increase in ambient air pollution in a few hours before onset of labor and the risk of preterm birth. Methods: We collected registered birth outcome data and hourly ambient air pollution measurements during 2009‒2013 in Brisbane, Australia. Using a time-stratified case-crossover design and conditional logistic regression models with natural cubic splines, we assessed the shape of air pollution-preterm birth curve, after controlling for potential confounders. We also examined the effect modification of other factors. Results: The association between air pollution [nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and carbon monoxide (CO)] and preterm birth was nonlinear. Threshold concentrations for the mean of 0‒24 hr NO2, 24‒48 hr SO2, and 24‒48 hr CO before onset of labor were 7.6 parts per billion (ppb), 3.8 ppb, and 162.5 ppb, respectively. Increases in air pollution concentrations above thresholds were associated with increased risks of preterm birth. The odds ratios of preterm birth at the 95th percentile of NO2, SO2, and CO against the thresholds were 1.17 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.27), 1.01 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.04), and 1.18 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.32), respectively. The associations were modified by demographic factors, such as maternal smoking and socioeconomic status. Conclusion: Acute increases in ambient air pollution concentrations above certain levels before onset of labor may stimulate preterm birth. Citation: Li S, Guo Y, Williams G. 2016. Acute impact of hourly ambient air pollution on preterm birth. Environ Health Perspect 124:1623–1629; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP200 PMID:27128028

  13. Carbon monoxide poisoning while using a small cooking stove in a tent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomassen, Øyvind; Brattebø, Guttorm; Rostrup, Morten

    2004-05-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is formed wherever incomplete combustion of carbonaceous products occurs.(1) CO is the leading cause of poisoning in the United States, and common sources of CO poisoning include housefires, automobile exhaust, water heaters, kerosene space heaters, and furnaces.(2) Stoves used for cooking and heating during outdoor activities also produce significant amounts of CO. Mountain climbers have been reported to succumb to fumes generated by small cook stoves.(3) The aim of this study was to investigate if burning a cooking stove inside a tent is a potential health hazard. Seven healthy male volunteers used a cooking stove inside a small tent for 120 minutes. CO levels in the ambient tent air were measured in addition to hearth rate (HR) and pulse oximetry (SpO2). Venous blood samples were obtained every 15 minutes for measurement of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb). After 2 hours, all the subjects had significant CO levels in their blood (mean COHb = 21.5%). Mean SpO2, also fell from 98% to 95.3% (P tent. The concentration is high enough to cause significant COHb levels in venous blood after 120 minutes' stay in the tent.

  14. The study of dehumidifying of carbon monoxide and ammonia adsorption by Iranian natural clinoptilolite zeolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehrani, R. M. A.; Salari, A. A.

    2005-10-01

    The natural zeolite (clinoptilolite type) was obtained from the Neibagh region of Mianeh, the city in the west of Iran. The raw zeolite was tested for quality and quantity measurements including surface area and volumetric characteristics as well as thermogravimetry analysis. The acid activation process was used to increase the adsorption rate of zeolite and in order to obtain the optimum conditions: the effect of acid concentration, reaction time and the temperature were studied. A surface area measurement test was performed in each stage to get the best results. Thus, efficient condition was selected according to the produced highest surface area. The reaction was first obtained with hydrochloric acid, and then a comparison was made using the sulfuric acid. The hydrochloric reaction proved to be better. The result of activation was 2.5 times the increase in the surface area in relation to the raw sample. The result of elemental analysis conducted once again on the activated sample showed an increase in the ratio of Si/Al (approximately 0.6). Then, using CO, NH 3 and steam, the gas adsorption capacity of both the raw and activated samples was measured and compared. Since CO was not adsorbed at ambient temperature, but steam was adsorbed relatively well, the natural clinoptilolite zeolite of Iran was suggested as a suitable material for adsorbing humidity form carbon monoxide as well as synthesis gas (H 2 and CO mixture).

  15. Synergistic effect of carbon monoxide with other biologically active injurious factors on the organism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pankow, D.; Ponsold, W.

    1974-09-01

    The combined effects on biological organisms are reported for carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, sodium nitrite, hydrocyanic acid, carbon disulfide, sulfur dioxide, ammonia, hydrogen peroxide, ethanol, trichloroethylene, carbon tetrachloride, methane, benzene, iodine acetate, cholesterol, benzpyrene, hexobarbitol, zoxazolamine, nembutal, luminal, morphine, adrenalin, persantin, cytochrome c, aldrin, carbaryl, cyclodiene epoxide; and physical influences such as ambient temperature, atmospheric pressure, ionizing radiation, noise, and vibration. A literature review shows that with increasing CO/sub 2/ and decreasing oxygen concentration in the inhalation air, the toxicity of CO increased in experiments with mice and canaries. Oxides of nitrogen enhance the toxic effect of CO in an additive way and at times synergistically. At 500 m from a metallurgical plant in the USSR the maximum allowable immission concentrations for CO and SO/sub 2/ were exceeded. In children residing there a higher normal erythrocyte number, hemoglobin content, and catalase activity were found in the blood along with higher concentrations of coproporphyrin and 17-ketosteroids. All values returned to normal after an 8-week stay of these children away from the metallurgical plant.

  16. The phylogenetic distribution and ecological role of carbon monoxide oxidation in the genus Burkholderia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Carolyn F; King, Gary M

    2012-01-01

    Burkholderia is a physiologically and ecologically diverse genus that occurs commonly in assemblages of soil and rhizosphere bacteria. Although Burkholderia is known for its heterotrophic versatility, we demonstrate that 14 distinct environmental isolates oxidized carbon monoxide (CO) and possessed the gene encoding the catalytic subunit of form I CO dehydrogenase (coxL). DNA from a Burkholderia isolate obtained from a passalid beetle also contained coxL as do the genomic sequences of species H160 and Ch1-1. Isolates were able to consume CO at concentrations ranging from 100 ppm (vol/vol) to sub-ambient ( 2.5 mM), but mixotrophic consumption of CO and pyruvate occurred when initial pyruvate concentrations were lower (c. 400 lM). With the exception of an isolate most closely related to Burkholderia cepacia, all CO-oxidizing isolates examined were members of a nonpathogenic clade and were most closely related to Burkholderia species, B. caledonica, B. fungorum, B. oxiphila, B. mimosarum, B. nodosa, B. sacchari, B. bryophila, B. ferrariae, B. ginsengesoli, and B. unamae. However, none of these type strains oxidized CO or contained coxL based on results from PCR analyses. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the presence of CO oxidation within members of the Burkholderia genus is variable but it is most commonly found among rhizosphere inhabitants that are not closely related to B. cepacia.

  17. [Sudden unilateral sensorineural hearing loss after carbon monoxide intoxication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalska-Piechowiak, Teresa; Miarzyńska, Maria; Perlik-Gattner, Irena

    2004-01-01

    A case of unilateral sensorineural hearing loss of the left ear after carbon monoxide intoxication was presented. The diagnosis was based upon an interview, medical examinations and audiometric investigations. Results of diagnostic evaluations, clinical presentation and treatment were discussed. Hearing improvement was obtained after 6 days of treatment and normal hearing returned after 14 days. Patients who suffer from CO intoxication are at risk of hearing impairment, therefore, there is a need for audiometric follow up in these patients.

  18. Pregnancy Hypertenssion and Preeclampsia in Enviromental Expossure to Carbon Monoxide

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: In this study relationship between carbon monoxide (CO) with pregnancy induced hypertension and preeclampsia in mothers in various levels of CO pollution was evaluated. Methods: The study was carried out in three teaching hospitals and 4500 pregnant women living area divided in one low-level CO polluted and as the second level, three moderate to high polluted areas (central, south and west). The subjects, residence places were within 5 kilometers of the air pollution monitoring ...

  19. Mobile Carbon Monoxide Monitoring System Based on Arduino-Matlab for Environmental Monitoring Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azieda Mohd Bakri, Nur; Junid, Syed Abdul Mutalib Al; Razak, Abdul Hadi Abdul; Idros, Mohd Faizul Md; Karimi Halim, Abdul

    2015-11-01

    Nowadays, the increasing level of carbon monoxide globally has become a serious environmental issue which has been highlighted in most of the country globally. The monitoring of carbon monoxide content is one of the approaches to identify the level of carbon monoxide pollution towards providing the solution for control the level of carbon monoxide produced. Thus, this paper proposed a mobile carbon monoxide monitoring system for measuring the carbon monoxide content based on Arduino-Matlab General User Interface (GUI). The objective of this project is to design, develop and implement the real-time mobile carbon monoxide sensor system and interfacing for measuring the level of carbon monoxide contamination in real environment. Four phases or stages of work have been carried out for the accomplishment of the project, which classified as sensor development, controlling and integrating sensor, data collection and data analysis. As a result, a complete design and developed system has been verified with the handheld industrial standard carbon monoxide sensor for calibrating the sensor sensitivity and measurement in the laboratory. Moreover, the system has been tested in real environments by measuring the level of carbon monoxide in three different lands used location; industrial area; residential area and main road (commercial area). In this real environment test, the industrial area recorded the highest reading with 71.23 ppm and 82.59 ppm for sensor 1 and sensor 2 respectively. As a conclusion, the mobile realtime carbon monoxide system based on the Arduino-Matlab is the best approach to measure the carbon monoxide concentration in different land-used since it does not require a manual data collection and reduce the complexity of the existing carbon monoxide level concentration measurement practise at the same time with a complete data analysis facilities.

  20. Reforma constitucional y ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodoro Bustamante

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available América Latina está atravesada por una ola de reformas constitucionales. Sus causas, las expectativas que ellas despiertan, los riesgos que se han asociado al proceso de lucha política en su entorno, son temas de un análisis fundamentalmente político; pero hay algunos aspectos en los cuales ese debate tiene una directa repercusión sobre el tema ambiental. En el caso del Ecuador, esto se refleja en el hecho de que una de las innovaciones que se proponen, se refieren a una nueva forma de abordar los temas ambientales, básicamente se establecen Derechos de la Naturaleza.

  1. Establishment and Revision of National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matters in Europe and US and the Practical Usefulness to China%欧美制订颗粒污染物环境空气质量标准的历程及对我国的借鉴

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨立新

    2015-01-01

    The principles and methodology of formulating ambient air quality objectives and establishing ambient air quality criteria and standards for particulate matters in Euorpe and USA were reviewed.The experience of controlling fine particulates pollution as well as the theories, mothods and progresses of establishing and revising ambient air quality standards for fine particulates in the developed countries were analyzed.Combining with the the charaterisitics of fine particulate pollution and the current status of research and development, it is suggested that multi-disciplines research organizations could be organized and supported by administration agency to carry out joint key research projects, provide scientific research conclussions and then publish China′s own national ambient air quality criteria documents for particulate matters reflecting the latest scientific knowledge.%通过回顾欧美制订空气质量目标、建立颗粒物环境空气质量基准和标准的原则和方法,借鉴发达国家治理大气细颗粒污染物的成功经验和制(修)订大气细颗粒物环境质量标准的理论、方法和历程,结合我国空气颗粒污染物的特征和科学研究的现状,提出应由国家主管部门通过顶层设计,组织相关研究机构开展联合攻关研究,提供科学研究结论,在此基础上出版我国颗粒物环境空气质量基准文件。

  2. CCN activation of ambient and "synthetic ambient" urban aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkart, Julia; Reischl, Georg; Steiner, Gerhard; Bauer, Heidi; Leder, Klaus; Kistler, Magda; Puxbaum, Hans; Hitzenberger, R.

    2013-05-01

    In this study, the Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) activation properties of the urban aerosol in Vienna, Austria, were investigated in a long term (11 month) field study. Filter samples of the aerosol below 100 nm were taken in parallel to these measurements, and later used to generate "synthetic ambient" aerosols. Activation parameters of this "synthetic ambient" aerosol were also obtained. Hygroscopicity parameters κ [1] were calculated both for the urban and the "synthetic ambient" aerosol and also from the chemical composition. Average κ for the "synthetic ambient" aerosol ranged from 0.20 to 0.30 with an average value of 0.24, while the κ from the chemical composition of this "synthetic ambient" aerosol was significantly higher (average 0.43). The full results of the study are given elsewhere [2,3].

  3. Central Diabetes Insipidus and Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar State Following Accidental Carbon Monoxide Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ul Abideen, Zain; Mahmud, Syed Nayer; Rasheed, Amna; Farooq Qasim, Yusaf; Ali, Furqan

    2017-06-03

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is common and carries significant morbidity and mortality. The nervous system, particularly the brain, is frequently affected by it, owing to its high metabolic activity and oxygen requirements. Carbon monoxide damages the nervous system by both hypoxic and inflammatory mechanisms. Central diabetes insipidus is an extremely rare complication of carbon monoxide poisoning. Herein, we report the case of a young lady, who developed this complication and severe hypernatremia after accidental carbon monoxide poisoning. She also developed a hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state during the treatment for hypernatremia. To the best of our knowledge, both these entities have not been reported together in association with carbon monoxide poisoning. The purpose of this article is to emphasize the anticipation and early recognition of central diabetes insipidus in carbon monoxide poisoning. This can prevent severe hypernatremia and complications associated with its presence and treatment.

  4. Foro Ambiental : CEDENMA, Asamblea Constituyente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Lise Naizot

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumen de la Mesa redonda: Orientaciones de la nueva Constitución ecuatoriana en materia ambiental: ¿avances o retrocesos en relación con el marco político y filosófico ambiental vigente en algunos países de la región?

  5. Validating Firewalls in Mobile Ambients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Hansen, René Rydhof

    1999-01-01

    The ambient calculus is a calculus of computation that allows active processes (mobile ambients) to move between sites. A firewall is said to be protective whenever it denies entry to attackers not possessing the required passwords. We devise a polynomial time algorithm for rejecting proposed...

  6. Does spacecraft potential depend on the ambient electron density?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, S. T.; Martinez-Sanchez, M.; Cahoy, K.; Thomsen, M. F.; Shprits, Y.; Lohmeyer, W. Q.; Wong, F.

    2014-12-01

    In a Maxwellian space plasma model, the onset of spacecraft charging at geosynchronous altitudes is due to the ambient electron, ambient ions, and secondary electrons. By using current balance, one can show that the onset of spacecraft charging depends not on the ambient electron density but instead on the critical temperature of the ambient electrons. If the ambient plasma deviates significantly from equilibrium, a non-Maxwellian electron distribution results. For a kappa distribution, the onset of spacecraft charging remains independent of ambient electron density. However, for double Maxwellian distributions, the densities do have a role in the onset of spacecraft charging. For a dielectric spacecraft in sunlight, the trapping of photoelectrons on the sunlit side enhances the local electron density. Using the coordinated environmental satellite data from the Los Alamos National Laboratory geosynchronous satellites, we have obtained results that confirm that the observed spacecraft potential is independent of the ambient electron density during eclipse and that in sunlight charging the low-energy population around the sunlit side of the spacecraft is enhanced by photoelectrons trapped inside the potential barrier.

  7. Carbon monoxide may be an important molecule in migraine and other headaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arngrim, Nanna; Schytz, Henrik W; Hauge, Mette K

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Carbon monoxide was previously considered to just be a toxic gas. A wealth of recent information has, however, shown that it is also an important endogenously produced signalling molecule involved in multiple biological processes. Endogenously produced carbon monoxide may thus play...... an important role in nociceptive processing and in regulation of cerebral arterial tone. DISCUSSION: Carbon monoxide-induced headache shares many characteristics with migraine and other headaches. The mechanisms whereby carbon monoxide causes headache may include hypoxia, nitric oxide signalling and activation...

  8. Time-series analysis for ambient concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Manteiga, W.; Prada-Sanchez, J.M.; Cao, R.; Garcia-Jurado, I.; Febrero-Bande, M.; Lucas-Dominguez, T. (Santiago de Compostela University, Santiago de Compostela (Spain). Dept. of Statistics and Operations Research)

    1993-02-01

    In this paper a dynamic system is presented which has been implemented to predict, every 5 min, the ambient concentrations of SO[sub 2] in the neighbourhood of a power station run by ENDESA, the National Electricity Company of Spain, in As Pontes. This prediction task is very important in order to prevent a high ground-level of concentration of SO[sub 2]. For forecasting a mixed model is used which has a parametric component and a nonparametric one. Confidence intervals are also constructed for future observations using bootstrap and classical techniques. 4 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Thermal Degradation of Lead Monoxide Filled Polymer Composite Radiation Shields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harish, V.; Nagaiah, N.

    2011-07-01

    Lead monoxide filled Isophthalate resin particulate polymer composites were prepared with different filler concentrations and investigated for physical, thermal, mechanical and gamma radiation shielding characteristics. This paper discusses about the thermo gravimetric analysis of the composites done to understand their thermal properties especially the effect of filler concentration on the thermal stability & degradation rate of composites. Pristine polymer exhibits single stage degradation whereas filled composites exhibit two stage degradation processes. Further, the IDT values as well as degradation rates decrease with the increased filler content in the composite.

  10. Modeling of Carbon Monoxide Removal by Corona Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Jingwei; SUN Yabing; ZHAO Dayong; ZHENG Zheng; XU Yuewu; YANG Haifeng; ZHU Hongbiao; ZHOU Xiaoxia

    2009-01-01

    Modeling of carbon monoxide (CO) removal by a corona plasma was conducted in this study.The purification efficiency of CO was calculated theoretically and the factors affecting the removal of CO were analyzed.The results showed that the main removal mechanisms of CO were direct dissociation by generated high-energy electrons and indirect oxidation by generated hydroxyl radicals.The purification efficiency of CO was dependent on the plasma parameters,indoor air humidity and initial concentration of CO.Good consistency between the theoretical calculation and the experimental results was observed.

  11. Pathways and Bioenergetics of Anaerobic Carbon Monoxide Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diender, Martijn; Stams, Alfons J M; Sousa, Diana Z

    2015-01-01

    Carbon monoxide can act as a substrate for different modes of fermentative anaerobic metabolism. The trait of utilizing CO is spread among a diverse group of microorganisms, including members of bacteria as well as archaea. Over the last decade this metabolism has gained interest due to the potential of converting CO-rich gas, such as synthesis gas, into bio-based products. Three main types of fermentative CO metabolism can be distinguished: hydrogenogenesis, methanogenesis, and acetogenesis, generating hydrogen, methane and acetate, respectively. Here, we review the current knowledge on these three variants of microbial CO metabolism with an emphasis on the potential enzymatic routes and bio-energetics involved.

  12. Pathways and bioenergetics of anaerobic carbon monoxide fermentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martijn eDiender

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide can act as a substrate for different modes of fermentative anaerobic metabolism. The trait of utilizing CO is spread among a diverse group of microorganisms, including members of bacteria as well as archaea. Over the last decade this metabolism has gained interest due to the potential of converting CO rich gas, such as synthesis gas, into bio-based products. Three main types of fermentative CO metabolism can be distinguished: hydrogenogenesis, methanogenesis and acetogenesis, generating hydrogen, methane and acetate, respectively. Here, we review the current knowledge on these three variants of microbial CO metabolism with an emphasis on the potential enzymatic routes and bio-energetics involved.

  13. OMI Observations of Bromine Monoxide Emissions from Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleiman, R. M.; Chance, K.; Liu, X.; Gonzalez Abad, G.; Kurosu, T. P.

    2016-12-01

    We analyze bromine monoxide (BrO) data from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) for emissions from various volcanoes. We use OMI data from 2005 to 2014 to investigate BrO signatures from Galapagos, Kasatochi and Eyjafjallajökull volcanoes. Elevated signatures of BrO daily averages were found over Eyjafjallajökull. SO2 cross sections are updated in the operational BrO algorithm and their effect on the volcanic BrO signature is studied. Comparison between two different sets of SO2 cross sections is made and results still show BrO enhancement over the Eyjafjallajökull region.

  14. Studies relevant to the catalytic activation of carbon monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, P.C.

    1992-06-04

    Research activity during the 1991--1992 funding period has been concerned with the following topics relevant to carbon monoxide activation. (1) Exploratory studies of water gas shift catalysts heterogenized on polystyrene based polymers. (2) Mechanistic investigation of the nucleophilic activation of CO in metal carbonyl clusters. (3) Application of fast reaction techniques to prepare and to investigate reactive organometallic intermediates relevant to the activation of hydrocarbons toward carbonylation and to the formation of carbon-carbon bonds via the migratory insertion of CO into metal alkyl bonds.

  15. Dipolar dissociation dynamics in electron collisions with carbon monoxide

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Dipayan; Nandi, Dhananjay

    2016-01-01

    Dipolar dissociation processes in the electron collisions with carbon monoxide have been studied using time of flight (TOF) mass spectroscopy in combination with the highly differential velocity slice imaging (VSI) technique. Probing ion-pair states both positive and/or negative ions may be detected. The ion yield curve of negative ions provides the threshold energy for the ion-pair production. On the other hand, the kinetic energy distributions and angular distributions of the fragment anion provide detailed dynamics of the dipolar dissociation process. Two ion-pair states have been identified based on angular distribution measurements using VSI technique.

  16. Conhecimento, interdisciplinaridade e Psicologia Ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    Ombretta Romice

    2005-01-01

    Responde às questões - como os métodos da Psicologia Ambiental devem ser discutidos em um enquadramento interdisciplinar; a Psicologia Ambiental pede alguma abordagem metodológica especial; como a intervenção ambiental é determinada pela interdisciplinaridade; quais são estas disciplinas e como elas se relacionam entre si - baseando-se em experiências profissionais como orientador em um projeto com comunidade, com habitação popular e exclusão social em vários países da Europa, e como consulto...

  17. Ciencia, cultura y medio ambiente

    OpenAIRE

    Ángel Maya, Augusto

    1991-01-01

    La crisis ambiental no es un fenómeno exclusivamente de orden tecnológico. Interroga por igual las organizaciones socio-políticas y los instrumentos científicos para el estudio de la realidad: posiblemente uno de los obstáculos mayores para el encuentro de soluciones adecuadas a la crisis ambiental, radica no en deficiencias de orden técnico, sino en la incapacidad de los instrumentos teóricos para entenderla. La crisis del medio ambiente ha puesto en claro la ambivalencia no sólo de la organ...

  18. La crisis del medio ambiente

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Quintero Vélez; Clemencia Camacho Delgado

    2013-01-01

    Este artículo, introducción al tema del medio ambiente, pretende proporcionar conceptos básicos para analizar y dimensionar el impacto que genera el hombre sobre los sistemas que soportan la vida. Para entender estos problemas, es indispensable partir de un análisis básico de la relación entre el hombre actual, su medio ambiente, sus necesidades y sus actividades. El autor revisa los antecedentes, las causas y las consecuencias de la crisis ambiental internacional, e intenta dar explicación a...

  19. Sociología ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    Domínguez Gómez, José Andrés; Aledo Tur, Antonio

    2001-01-01

    Este libro pretende ser un manual para los alumnos de las licenciaturas de sociología, ecología, ciencias ambientales o economía y profesionales de esas ramas que estén interesados en el estudio de las relaciones entre medio ambiente y sociedad desde una aproximación sociológica. El manual está divido en dos partes. La primera desarrolla las principales teorías sociológicas sobre el medio ambiente, así como el heterogéneo pensamiento ambiental. La segunda parte, ofrece capítulos diversos en l...

  20. Characteristics and determinants of ambient fungal spores in Hualien, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hsiao-Man; Rao, Carol Y.; Hsu, Hsiao-Hsien; Chiu, Yueh-Hsiu; Liu, Chi-Ming; Chao, H. Jasmine

    Characteristics and determinants of ambient aeroallergens are of much concern in recent years because of the apparent health impacts of allergens. Yet relatively little is known about the complex behaviors of ambient aeroallergens. To address this issue, we monitored ambient fungal spores in Hualien, Taiwan from 1993-1996 to examine the compositions and temporal variations of fungi, and to evaluate possible determinants. We used a Burkard seven-day volumetric spore trap to collect daily fungal spores. Air pollutants, meteorological factors, and Asian dust events were included in the statistical analyses to predict fungal levels. We found that the most dominant fungal categories were ascospores, followed by Cladosporium and Aspergillus/Penicillium. The majority of the fungal categories had significant diurnal and seasonal variations. Total fungi, Cladosporium, Ganoderma, Arthrinium/Papularia, Cercospora, Periconia, Alternaria, Botrytis, and PM 10 had significantly higher concentrations ( p<0.05) during the period affected by Asian dust events. In multiple regression models, we found that temperature was consistently and positively associated with fungal concentrations. Other factors correlated with fungal concentrations included ozone, particulate matters with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM 10), relative humidity, rainfall, atmospheric pressure, total hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide. Most of the fungal categories had higher levels in 1994 than in 1995-96, probably due to urbanization of the study area. In this study, we demonstrated complicated interrelationships between fungi and air pollution/meteorological factors. In addition, long-range transport of air pollutants contributed significantly to local aeroallergen levels. Future studies should examine the health impacts of aeroallergens, as well as the synergistic/antagonistic effects of weather, and local and global-scale air pollutions.

  1. Material processing with hydrogen and carbon monoxide on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, Aloysius F.; Landis, Geoffrey A.; Linne, Diane L.

    1991-01-01

    Several novel proposals are examined for propellant production from carbon dioxide and monoxide and hydrogen. Potential uses were also examined of CO as a fuel or as a reducing agent in metal oxide processing as obtained or further reduced to carbon. Hydrogen can be reacted with CO to produce a wide variety of hydrocarbons, alcohols, and other organic compounds. Methanol, produced by Fischer-Tropsch chemistry may be useful as a fuel; it is easy to store and handle because it is a liquid at Mars temperatures. The reduction of CO2 to hydrocarbons such as methane or acetylene can be accomplished with hydrogen. Carbon monoxide and hydrogen require cryogenic temperatures for storage as liquids. Noncryogenic storage of hydrogen may be accomplished using hydrocarbons, inorganic hydrides, or metal hydrides. Noncryogenic storage of CO may be accomplished in the form of iron carbonyl (FE(CO)5) or other metal carbonyls. Low hydrogen content fuels such as acetylene (C2H2) may be effective propellants with low requirements for earth derived resources. The impact on manned Mars missions of alternative propellant production and utilization is discussed.

  2. A carbon monoxide passive sampler: Research and development needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traynor, G.W.; Apte, M.G.; Diamond, R.C.; Woods, A.L.

    1991-11-01

    In rare instances, carbon monoxide (CO) levels in houses can reach dangerously high concentrations, causing adverse health effects ranging from mild headaches to, under extreme conditions, death. Hundreds of fatal accidental carbon monoxide poisonings occur each year primarily due to the indoor operation of motor vehicles, the indoor use of charcoal for cooking, the operation of malfunctioning vented and unvented combustion appliances, and the misuse combustion appliances. Because there is a lack of simple, inexpensive, and accurate field sampling instrumentation, it is difficult for gas utilities and researchers to conduct field research studies designed to quantify the concentrations of CO in residences. Determining the concentration of CO in residences is the first step towards identifying the high risk appliances and high-CO environments which pose health risks. Thus, there exists an urgent need to develop and field-validate a CO-quantifying technique suitable for affordable field research. A CO passive sampler, if developed, could fulfill these requirements. Existing CO monitoring techniques are discussed as well as three potential CO-detection methods for use in a CO passive sampler. Laboratory and field research needed for the development and validation of an effective and cost-efficient CO passive sampler are also discussed.

  3. Space-based observation of volcanic iodine monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönhardt, Anja; Richter, Andreas; Theys, Nicolas; Burrows, John P.

    2017-04-01

    Volcanic eruptions inject substantial amounts of halogens into the atmosphere. Chlorine and bromine oxides have frequently been observed in volcanic plumes from different instrumental platforms such as from ground, aircraft and satellites. The present study is the first observational evidence that iodine oxides are also emitted into the atmosphere during volcanic eruptions. Large column amounts of iodine monoxide, IO, are observed in satellite measurements following the major eruption of the Kasatochi volcano, Alaska, in 2008. The IO signal is detected in measurements made both by SCIAMACHY (Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric CHartographY) on ENVISAT (Environmental Satellite) and GOME-2 (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2) on MetOp-A (Meteorological Operational Satellite A). Following the eruption on 7 August 2008, strongly elevated levels of IO slant columns of more than 4 × 1013 molec cm-2 are retrieved along the volcanic plume trajectories for several days. The retrieved IO columns from the different instruments are consistent, and the spatial distribution of the IO plume is similar to that of bromine monoxide, BrO. Details in the spatial distribution, however, differ between IO, BrO and sulfur dioxide, SO2. The column amounts of IO are approximately 1 order of magnitude smaller than those of BrO. Using the GOME-2A observations, the total mass of IO in the volcanic plume injected into the atmosphere from the eruption of Kasatochi on 7 August 2008, is determined to be on the order of 10 Mg.

  4. The electric dipole moment of cobalt monoxide, CoO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Xiujuan; Steimle, Timothy C

    2014-03-28

    A number of low-rotational lines of the E(4)Δ7/2 ← X(4)Δ7/2 (1,0) band system of cobalt monoxide, CoO, were recorded field free and in the presence of a static electric field. The magnetic hyperfine parameter, h7/2, and the electron quadrupole parameter, eQq0, for the E(4)Δ7/2(υ = 1) state were optimized from the analysis of the field-free spectrum. The permanent electric dipole moment, μ(→)(el), for the X(4)Δ7/2 (υ = 0) and E(4)Δ7/2 (υ = 1) states were determined to be 4.18 ± 0.05 D and 3.28 ± 0.05 D, respectively, from the analysis of the observed Stark spectra of F' = 7 ← F″ = 6 branch feature in the Q(7/2) line and the F' = 8 ← F″ = 7 branch feature in the R(7/2) line. The measured dipole moments of CoO are compared to those from theoretical predictions and the trend across the 3d-metal monoxide series discussed.

  5. Carbon Monoxide Emissions in Middle Aged Debris Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Morgan; Gorti, Uma; Hales, Antonio; Carpenter, John M.; Hughes, A. Meredith

    2017-01-01

    Circumstellar disks greater than 10 Myr old, referred to as debris disks, are expected to be gas poor. The original gas and dust in these disks is thought to be accreted onto the host stars, used up in the formation of planets and other bodies, or blown out of the disks via stellar radiation. However, recent ALMA observations at millimeter wavelengths have led to the detection of carbon monoxide (J=2-1) emission in a few debris disks, prompting further investigation.Using ALMA data, two separate models of gas genesis were tested against observations of the CO emissions in the disks around HIP 73145, HIP 76310, and HIP 84881 in the Upper Sco association. One of these models was built on the hypothesis that the gas in these debris disks is left over from stellar formation and has persisted over uncommonly long periods of time. The other model is built on the hypothesis that this gas is of secondary nature, produced by collisions between planetary bodies in the debris disks. Model emissions were calculated using the Line Modeling Engine (LIME) radiative transfer code and were compared with observational data to infer gas masses under both production scenarios. The implications of the masses of carbon monoxide in the disks suggested by each of the two models are discussed.

  6. 40 CFR 52.1627 - Control strategy and regulations: Carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...: Carbon monoxide. 52.1627 Section 52.1627 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New Mexico § 52.1627 Control strategy and regulations: Carbon monoxide. (a) Part D Approval. The...

  7. Ambient particulate matter and carbon monoxide at an urban site of India: Influence of anthropogenic emissions and dust storms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Ravi; Sahu, L K; Beig, G; Tripathi, Nidhi; Jaaffrey, S N A

    2017-06-01

    Continuous measurements of PM2.5, PM10 and CO were conducted at an urban site of Udaipur in India from April 2011 to March 2012. The annual mean concentrations of PM2.5, PM10 and CO were 42 ± 17 μg m(-3), 114 ± 31 μg m(-3) and 343 ± 136 ppbv, respectively. Concentrations of both particulate and CO showed high values during winter/pre-monsoon (dry) period and lowest in the monsoon season (wet). Local anthropogenic emission and long-range transport from open biomass burning sources along with favourable synoptic meteorology led to elevated levels of pollutants in the dry season. However, higher values of PM10/PM2.5 ratio during pre-monsoon season were caused by the episodes of dust storm. In the monsoon season, flow of cleaner air, rainfall and negligible emissions from biomass burning resulted in the lowest levels of pollutants. The concentrations of PM2.5, PM10 and CO showed highest values during morning and evening rush hours, while lowest in the afternoon hours. In winter season, reductions of PM2.5, CO and PM10 during weekends were highest of 15%, 13% and 9%, respectively. In each season, the highest PM2.5/PM10 ratio coincided with the highest concentrations of pollutants (CO and NOX) indicating predominant emissions from anthropogenic sources. Exceptionally high concentrations of PM10 during the episode of dust storm were due to transport from the Arabian Peninsula and Thar Desert. Up to ∼32% enhancements of PM10 were observed during strong dust storms. Relatively low levels of O3 and NOx during the storm periods indicate the role of heterogeneous removal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Chronic exposure to carbon monoxide: a possible problem in the Netherlands?; Chronische blootstelling aan koolmonoxide. Is er sprake van een probleem in Nederland?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mooij, M.

    2008-07-01

    Fuel burning appliances in houses that are poorly maintained or have an open flue system carry a risk of exposure to carbon monoxide. However, currently available knowledge and insights have not been able to provide a representative view on the occurrence of chronic, repeated, exposure to carbon monoxide in Dutch buildings. The National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) has concluded this in an exploratory study into the occurrence of chronic exposure to carbon monoxide in Dutch buildings. The VROM-Inspectorate was the commissioning body for this study. Exposure to carbon monoxide can result in a number of symptoms, such as headache, dizziness and concentration disorders. Cases of severe poisoning can even be fatal. From the data available, it appears that the number of accidents each year is extremely variable, ranging from tens up to a few hundred. Approximately 8-12 people die each year as a direct result of carbon monoxide exposure. The information on carbon monoxide poisoning is largely based on cases of acute exposure. Only limited information is available on chronic carbon monoxide exposure. Fuel burning appliances with open flues in Dutch houses can lead to risk situations. These appliances are mainly flueless gas-fired water heaters, fireplaces, gas heaters and gas cookers. But old central heating boilers that have not been properly maintained can also lead to carbon monoxide exposure. The maintenance of fuel burning appliances in the Netherlands has not been compulsory since the early nineteen-nineties and there is little or no monitoring of their safety. Conducting research, inspection and home visits are good methods of gaining better insight into the national situation of exposure to carbon monoxide in Dutch buildings. Replacing fuel burning appliances with open flues, conducting periodic maintenance checks and increasing safety management, are all possible options for avoiding risk situations. [Dutch] Slecht onderhouden en open

  9. Method of removing nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas using a water-soluble iron ion-dithiocarbamate, xanthate or thioxanthate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D. Kwok-Keung; Chang, Shih-Ger

    1987-08-25

    The present invention relates to a method of removing of nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas which method comprises contacting a nitrogen oxide-containing gas with an aqueous solution of water soluble organic compound-iron ion chelate complex. The NO absorption efficiency of ferrous urea-dithiocarbamate and ferrous diethanolamine-xanthate as a function of time, oxygen content and solution ph is presented. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Environmental variables and levels of exhaled carbon monoxide and carboxyhemoglobin in elderly people taking exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salicio, Marcos Adriano; Mana, Viviane Aparecida Martins; Fett, Waléria Christiane Rezende; Gomes, Luciano Teixeira; Botelho, Clovis

    2016-04-01

    This article aims to analyze levels of exhaled carbon monoxide, carboxyhemoglobinand cardiopulmonary variables in old people practicing exercise in external environments, and correlate them with climate and pollution factors. Temporal ecological study with118 active elderly people in the city of Cuiabá, in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Data were obtained on use of medication, smoking, anthropometric measurements, spirometry, peak flow, oxygen saturation, heart rate, exhaled carbon monoxide, carboxyhemoglobin, climate, number of farm fires and pollution. Correlations were found between on the one hand environmental temperature, relative humidity of the air and number of farmers' fires, and on the other hand levels of carbon monoxide exhaled and carboxyhemoglobin (p elderly people, environmental factors influence levels of exhaled carbon monoxide, carboxyhemoglobin and heart rate. There is thus a need for these to be monitored during exercise. The use of a carbon monoxide monitor to evaluate exposure to pollutants is suggested.

  11. 77 FR 12482 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lead Ambient Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lead Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct final rule... Clean Air Act (CAA). This submittal incorporates the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for...

  12. Temperature responses of carbon monoxide and hydrogen uptake by vegetated and unvegetated volcanic cinders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Caitlin E; King, Gary M

    2012-08-01

    Ecosystem succession on a large deposit of volcanic cinders emplaced on Kilauea Volcano in 1959 has resulted in a mosaic of closed-canopy forested patches and contiguous unvegetated patches. Unvegetated and unshaded surface cinders (Bare) experience substantial diurnal temperature oscillations ranging from moderate (16 °C) to extreme (55 °C) conditions. The surface material of adjacent vegetated patches (Canopy) experiences much smaller fluctuations (14-25 °C) due to shading. To determine whether surface material from these sites showed adaptations by carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H(2)) consumption to changes in ambient temperature regimes accompanying succession, we measured responses of CO and H(2) uptake to short-term variations in temperature and long-term incubations at elevated temperature. Based on its broader temperature optimum and lower activation energy, Canopy H(2) uptake was less sensitive than Bare H(2) uptake to temperature changes. In contrast, Bare and Canopy CO uptake responded similarly to temperature during short-term incubations, indicating no differences in temperature sensitivity. However, during extended incubations at 55 °C, CO uptake increased for Canopy but not Bare material, which indicated that the former was capable of thermal adaptation. H(2) uptake for material from both sites was completely inhibited at 55 °C throughout extended incubations. These results indicated that plant development during succession did not elicit differences in short-term temperature responses for Bare and Canopy CO uptake, in spite of previously reported differences in CO oxidizer community composition, and differences in average daily and extreme temperatures. Differences associated with vegetation due to succession did, however, lead to a notable capacity for thermophilic CO uptake by Canopy but not Bare material.

  13. Temperature responses of carbon monoxide and hydrogen uptake by vegetated and unvegetated volcanic cinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Caitlin E; King, Gary M

    2012-01-01

    Ecosystem succession on a large deposit of volcanic cinders emplaced on Kilauea Volcano in 1959 has resulted in a mosaic of closed-canopy forested patches and contiguous unvegetated patches. Unvegetated and unshaded surface cinders (Bare) experience substantial diurnal temperature oscillations ranging from moderate (16 °C) to extreme (55 °C) conditions. The surface material of adjacent vegetated patches (Canopy) experiences much smaller fluctuations (14–25 °C) due to shading. To determine whether surface material from these sites showed adaptations by carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2) consumption to changes in ambient temperature regimes accompanying succession, we measured responses of CO and H2 uptake to short-term variations in temperature and long-term incubations at elevated temperature. Based on its broader temperature optimum and lower activation energy, Canopy H2 uptake was less sensitive than Bare H2 uptake to temperature changes. In contrast, Bare and Canopy CO uptake responded similarly to temperature during short-term incubations, indicating no differences in temperature sensitivity. However, during extended incubations at 55 °C, CO uptake increased for Canopy but not Bare material, which indicated that the former was capable of thermal adaptation. H2 uptake for material from both sites was completely inhibited at 55 °C throughout extended incubations. These results indicated that plant development during succession did not elicit differences in short-term temperature responses for Bare and Canopy CO uptake, in spite of previously reported differences in CO oxidizer community composition, and differences in average daily and extreme temperatures. Differences associated with vegetation due to succession did, however, lead to a notable capacity for thermophilic CO uptake by Canopy but not Bare material. PMID:22258097

  14. Ozone and carbon monoxide at the Ushuaia GAW-WMO global station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adame, Jose; Cupeiro, Manuel; Yela, Margarita; Cuevas, Emilio; Carbajal, Gerardo

    2016-04-01

    Ozone and carbon monoxide have been investigated in the GAW-WMO station of Ushuaia (Argentina), using hourly values during five years (2010-2014). This work has been developed in the framework of HELADO (Halogens in the Antarctic atmosphere and its role in the Ozone distribution) project and under the collaboration between INTA (National Institute for Aerospace Technology - Spain), SMN (National Meteorological Service - Argentina) and AEMET (State Meteorological Agency - Spain). Meteorological features have been analyzed with in-situ observations and meteorological fields from ECMWF 0.5° as spatial resolution model. These fields have been applied to compute back trajectories with HYSPLIT model. Independently of season, mostly atmospheric flows coming from W-SW (South Pacific Ocean), theses westerlies winds are associated with low pressure systems; in addition with lower frequencies are collected winds from South (Antarctic Peninsula and Weddell Sea), polar easterlies. Hourly averages of surface (in-situ) ozone and CO levels were 20±7 and 71±45 ppb respectively, typical values of remote environments. A clear seasonal pattern has been obtained for surface ozone with monthly peaks in winter of 25 ppb and minimum in summer with 12 ppb; a similar behaviour is found for CO, 93 and 48 ppb for maximum and minimum values, respectively. A weak daily cycle has been obtained in both species, amplitude for ozone of 2-4 ppb and 13-20 ppb for CO. The seasonal levels behaviour for surface ozone is also observed in upper levels, approximately from surface up to 5 km. This result has been obtained from 139 ozone profiles launched in the studied period. Since the ozone precursors and carbon monoxide emissions are low in this area, the origin of the values observed could be in the atmospheric transport processes. As hypothesis to explain the behaviour observed, we suggest that in the warm season with solar radiation, the photochemical mechanisms are active, and the elimination

  15. Ambiente juvenil: discurso ambiental entre jóvenes universitarios.

    OpenAIRE

    Quinn-Anderson, William C.

    2008-01-01

    Esta tesis pretende hacer una aportación al conocimiento del medio ambiente del occidente de México, específicamente de la zona metropolitana de Guadalajara, a partir del estudio de la cultura ambiental manifestada en el discurso de los jóvenes universitarios del ITESO. La apuesta es que puede ser provechoso considerar dentro del concepto de “medio ambiente” no solamente componentes bióticos y abióticos, sino también elementos socioculturales como cultura y significado. Es evidente que hay in...

  16. Effects of ambient air pollution on non-elderly asthma hospital admissions in Seattle, Washington, 1987-1994; Effets de la pollution atmospherique ambiante sur les admissions hospitalieres pour asthme de personnes agees de moins de 65 ans a Seattle (Washington), 1987-1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheppard, L.; Levy, D.; Norris, G.; Larson, T.V.; Koenig, J.Q.

    2001-01-01

    This study concerns the short-dated relations between the variations of ambient levels of three particulates, carbon monoxide, ozone and sulfur dioxide measures and the variations of non-elderly people (less than 65 years old) daily admissions, in Seattle surrounding hospitals, for essentially asthma. (A.L.B.)

  17. Evaluation of carbon monoxide in blood samples from the second health and nutrition survey. Progress report No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radford, E.P.

    1976-01-01

    This is a study of carbon monoxide (CO) in the blood of human subjects participating in the Second National Health and Nutrition Survey (HANES II), a detailed study of health indicators in sample populations of many communities throughout the U.S. The purpose of this aspect of the survey is to evaluate the levels of blood carboxyhemoglobin in normal individuals of all ages in typical U.S. communities, from whom accurate histories and clinical studies are available. This report gives results of the first of three years of analyses. A careful calibration of the analytical method has been completed, and more than 3000 blood samples have been analyzed. Although smoking histories are not yet available to permit evaluation of carboxyhemoglobin in non-smokers, in children under 12 years of age, blood COHb has been found to be consistently low, with less than 3% greater than 1.5% COHb. These preliminary results suggest that urban exposure to carbon monoxide among the general population is not now significant in the U.S., at least during the period of these early examinations.

  18. Hypervalence in monoxides and dioxides of superalkali clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Elizabeth; Meloni, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    F2Li3, a superalkali cluster, is characterized as having a lower adiabatic ionization energy than its elemental alkali counterpart and, coupled with the presence of complex molecular orbitals, suggests promise for novel bonding possibilities. CBS-QB3 composite method was used to study three distinct cluster isomers, as well as their cationic (+1) and anionic (-1) species, to identify energetic trends and observe geometric changes. Oxides were then generated from these clusters, of which three distinct monoxides and nine dioxides were obtained upon structure optimization. Identical calculations were performed for the oxide species and their charged counterparts. Some of the most stable oxides produced appear to possess hypervalent lithium and oxygen atoms, forming unique structures with exceptional stability.

  19. Carbon monoxide expedites metabolic exhaustion to inhibit tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegiel, Barbara; Gallo, David; Csizmadia, Eva; Harris, Clair; Belcher, John; Vercellotti, Gregory M; Penacho, Nuno; Seth, Pankaj; Sukhatme, Vikas; Ahmed, Asif; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo; Helczynski, Leszek; Bjartell, Anders; Persson, Jenny Liao; Otterbein, Leo E

    2013-12-01

    One classical feature of cancer cells is their metabolic acquisition of a highly glycolytic phenotype. Carbon monoxide (CO), one of the products of the cytoprotective molecule heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in cancer cells, has been implicated in carcinogenesis and therapeutic resistance. However, the functional contributions of CO and HO-1 to these processes are poorly defined. In human prostate cancers, we found that HO-1 was nuclear localized in malignant cells, with low enzymatic activity in moderately differentiated tumors correlating with relatively worse clinical outcomes. Exposure to CO sensitized prostate cancer cells but not normal cells to chemotherapy, with growth arrest and apoptosis induced in vivo in part through mitotic catastrophe. CO targeted mitochondria activity in cancer cells as evidenced by higher oxygen consumption, free radical generation, and mitochondrial collapse. Collectively, our findings indicated that CO transiently induces an anti-Warburg effect by rapidly fueling cancer cell bioenergetics, ultimately resulting in metabolic exhaustion.

  20. The effect of carbon monoxide on planetary haze formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hörst, S. M.; Tolbert, M. A, E-mail: sarah.horst@colorado.edu [Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2014-01-20

    Organic haze plays a key role in many planetary processes ranging from influencing the radiation budget of an atmosphere to serving as a source of prebiotic molecules on the surface. Numerous experiments have investigated the aerosols produced by exposing mixtures of N{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} to a variety of energy sources. However, many N{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} atmospheres in both our solar system and extrasolar planetary systems also contain carbon monoxide (CO). We have conducted a series of atmosphere simulation experiments to investigate the effect of CO on the formation and particle size of planetary haze analogues for a range of CO mixing ratios using two different energy sources, spark discharge and UV. We find that CO strongly affects both number density and particle size of the aerosols produced in our experiments and indicates that CO may play an important, previously unexplored, role in aerosol chemistry in planetary atmospheres.

  1. Prevention of carbon monoxide exposure in general and recreational aviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelnick, Sanford D; Lischak, Michael W; Young, David G; Massa, Thomas V

    2002-08-01

    Carbon monoxide exposure is an important public health issue that poses a significant, albeit uncommon risk in aviation. Exposure is most common in single engine piston-driven aircraft where air is passed over the exhaust manifold to serve as cabin heat. Effective primary prevention of this exposure is the regular inspection and maintenance of aircraft exhaust systems, as required by law. For situations at special risk should exposure occur, and where there is concern for the public safety, installation of active warning devices for CO intrusion into cockpits may improve secondary prevention. Modern studies should be performed of occupation-specific abilities to support the 50 ppm FAA CO exposure standard and 50-70 ppm FAA Technical Standard Order (TSO) for CO monitors alerting pilots to the possibility of exhaust gas intrusion into their cockpits.

  2. ROLE OF ENDOGENOUS CARBON MONOXIDE IN ENDOTOXIN SHOCK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To study the role of endogenous carbon monoxide (CO) in endotoxin shock. Methods. The changes of CO levels and the effects of zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP),an inhibitor of heme-oxygenase (HO), in endotoxin shock and the efficacy of hemin,an inducer of HO were investigated.Results. The plasma CO levels were found to be significantly increased during the course of endotoxin shock. Injection of ZnPP was shown to abrogate the endotoxin-induced hypotension and metabolic derangements markedly. Administration of hemin to healthy rabbits revealed the hypotension and metabolic derangements similar to the animals given endotoxin.Conclusion.CO is a newly found endogenously produced mediator which may play an important role in the pathogenesis of endotoxin shock.

  3. ROLE OF ENDOGENOUS CARBON MONOXIDE IN ENDOTOXIN SHOCK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史源; 李华强; 潘捷; 覃世文; 潘凤; 蒋东波; 沈际皋

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To study the role of endogenous carbon monoxide (CO) in endotoxin shock. Methods. The changes of CO levels and the effects of zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP), an inhibitor of hemeoxygenase (HO), in endotoxin shock and the efficacy of heroin, an inducer of HO were investigated. Results. The plasma CO levels were found to be significantly increased during the comse of endotoxin shock. Injection of ZnPP was shown to abrogate the endotoxin-induced hypotension and metabolic derangements markedly. Administration of hemin to healthy rabbits revealed the hypotension and metabolic derangements similar to the animsls given endotoxin. Conclusion. CO is a newly found endogenously produced mediator which may play an important role in the pathogenesis of endotoxin shock.

  4. Technique for measuring carbon monoxide uptake in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depledge, M.H.; Collis, C.H.; Chir, B.; Barrett, A.

    1981-04-01

    A new method has been developed for measuring carbon monoxide (CO) uptake in mice. Each animal was placed in a syringe and allowed to rebreathe a mixture of CO and helium (He) for 60 s. CO uptake was detemined from a comparison of CO and He concentrations before and after rebreathing. Weight specific CO uptake increased with body weight in CBA mice weighing between 20 to 35 gr. In larger mice, size dependence was less marked, although a slight fall in CO uptake was observed in older animals. Anaesthesia reduced ventilatory rate and CO uptake to a variable extent. The method is reproducible, non-invasive and does not require anaesthesia; consequently, it can be used to study serial changes in lung function. It is sensitive enough to detect lung damage in CBA mice following 16 Gy total body irradiation. Values of diffusing capacity obtained for mice using this method are consistent with published values.

  5. Terahertz Time Domain Gas-phase Spectroscopy of Carbon Monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilcullen, Patrick; Hartley, I. D.; Jensen, E. T.; Reid, M.

    2015-04-01

    Free induction decay signals emitted from Carbon Monoxide (CO) excited by sub-picosecond pulses of Terahertz (THz) radiation are directly measured in the time domain and compared to model calculations using a linear dispersion model to good agreement. Best fitting techniques of the data using the model allow the self-pressure broadening of CO to be measured across a range of absolute pressures, and the rotational constant to be determined. We find B V = 5.770 ± 0.003 × 1010 Hz in agreement with previous measurements. A partial pressure limit of detection for CO of 7900 ppm is estimated at atmosphere through extrapolating the calculated commensurate echo peaks down to low pressures with respect to the RMS noise floor of our THz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) apparatus, which implies a limit of detection in the range of 40 ppm for commercial THz-TDS systems.

  6. An Unusual Cause of Supraventricular Tachycardia: Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suat Zengin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available      Carbon monoxide (CO is a toxic gas produced by the incomplete combustion of carbon-containing compounds. Exposure to high concentrations of CO can be letha and is the most common cause of death from poisoning worldwide. Cardiac manifestations after exposure to CO, including myocardial ischemia, heart failure, and arrhythmias, have been reported. A 28-year-old a patient was admitted to our emergency department with altered consciousness as a consequence of acute domestic exposure to CO from a stove. His carboxyhemoglobin level was 39%. The oxygen treatment was started promptly, and therapeutic red cell exchange was performed. An electrocardiogram revealed supraventricular tachycardia (SVT, and an echocardiographic examination demonstrated normal cardiac functions. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the second to report a case of SVT attack due to acute CO intoxication. This paper discusses the management of this complication in patients poisoned with CO.

  7. Conhecimento, interdisciplinaridade e Psicologia Ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ombretta Romice

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Responde às questões - como os métodos da Psicologia Ambiental devem ser discutidos em um enquadramento interdisciplinar; a Psicologia Ambiental pede alguma abordagem metodológica especial; como a intervenção ambiental é determinada pela interdisciplinaridade; quais são estas disciplinas e como elas se relacionam entre si - baseando-se em experiências profissionais como orientador em um projeto com comunidade, com habitação popular e exclusão social em vários países da Europa, e como consultora. Conclui que as abordagens usadas pelas diferentes profissões são muito separadas, e que apenas metas comuns não são suficientes, sendo também necessários um treino conjunto e identidade de valores.

  8. Evidence for horizontal gene transfer of anaerobic carbon monoxide dehydrogenases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen eTechtmann

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO is commonly known as a toxic gas, yet it is used by both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and many archaea. In this study, we determined the prevalence of anaerobic carbon monoxide dehydrogenases (anaerobic CODHs, or [Ni,Fe]-CODHs in currently available genomic sequence databases. More than 6% (185 genomes out of 2887 bacterial and archaeal genome sequences in the IMG database possess at least one gene encoding [Ni,Fe]-CODH, the key enzyme for anaerobic CO utilization. The phylogenetic study of this extended protein family revealed nine distinct clades of [Ni,Fe]-CODHs. These clades consisted of [Ni,Fe]-CODHs that, while apparently monophyletic within the clades, were encoded by microorganisms of disparate phylogeny, based on 16S rRNA sequences, and widely ranging physiology. Following this discovery, it was therefore of interest to examine the extent and possible routes of horizontal gene transfer (HGT affecting [Ni,Fe]-CODH genes and gene clusters that include [Ni,Fe]-CODHs.The genome sequence of the extreme thermophile Thermosinus carboxydivorans was used as a case study for HGT. The [Ni,Fe]-CODH operon of T. carboxydivorans differs from its whole genome in its G+C content by 8.2 mol%. Here, we apply statistical methods to establish acquisition by T. carboxydivorans of the gene cluster including [Ni,Fe]-CODH via HGT. Analysis of tetranucleotide frequency and codon usage with application of the Kullback-Leibler divergence metric showed that the [Ni,Fe]-CODH-1 operon of T. carboxidyvorans is quite dissimilar to the whole genome. Using the same metrics, the T. carboxydivorans [Ni,Fe]-CODH-1 operon is highly similar to the genome of the phylogenetically distant anaerobic carboxydotroph Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans. These results allow to assume recent HTG of the gene cluster from a relative of C. hydrogenoformans to T. carboxydivorans or a more ancient transfer from a C. hydrogenoformans ancestor to a T. carboxydivorans

  9. Ambient cosmology and spacetime singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniadis, Ignatios

    2015-01-01

    We present a new approach to the issues of spacetime singularities and cosmic censorship in general relativity. This is based on the idea that standard 4-dimensional spacetime is the conformal infinity of an ambient metric for the 5-dimensional Einstein equations with fluid sources. We then find that the existence of spacetime singularities in four dimensions is constrained by asymptotic properties of the ambient 5-metric, while the non-degeneracy of the latter crucially depends on cosmic censorship holding on the boundary.

  10. Ambient cosmology and spacetime singularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoniadis, Ignatios [Bern University, Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Bern (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France); Cotsakis, Spiros [CERN, Theory Division, Department of Physics, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); National Technical University, School of Applied Mathematics and Physical Sciences, Athens (Greece)

    2015-01-01

    We present a new approach to the issues of spacetime singularities and cosmic censorship in general relativity. This is based on the idea that standard 4-dimensional spacetime is the conformal infinity of an ambient metric for the 5-dimensional Einstein equations with fluid sources. We then find that the existence of spacetime singularities in four dimensions is constrained by asymptotic properties of the ambient 5-metric, while the non-degeneracy of the latter crucially depends on cosmic censorship holding on the boundary. (orig.)

  11. Medio ambiente y responsabilidad social

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Las organizaciones, dentro de los procesos de responsabilidad social y con el fin de mejorar la calidad de vida de las comunidades que impactan, han optado por proteger y preservar el medio ambiente de acuerdo a ciertos protocolos y normas internacionales que generan una cultura al respecto. Este cuaderno de investigación aborda la norma ISO 26000, la cual asume el tema de la Responsabilidad Social Empresarial (RSE) en materia de medio ambiente y es una guía para ser implementada en las orga...

  12. A kinetic study on the adsorption and reaction of hydrogen over silica-supported ruthenium and silver-ruthenium catalysts during the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VanderWiel, D.P.

    1999-02-12

    Although the catalytic hydrogenation of carbon monoxide has been a subject of considerable investigation for many years, its increasing economical attractiveness as an industrial source of hydrocarbons has recently led to a search for more active and selective catalysts. A fundamental problem in the development of such catalysts is an incomplete knowledge of the operative surface processes, due in large part to the inability to accurately measure surface concentrations of reactant species during reaction. Specifically, the concentration of surface hydrogen proves difficult to estimate using normally revealing techniques such as transient isotopic exchange due to kinetic isotope effects. Knowledge of such concentrations is essential to the determination of the mechanisms of adsorption and reaction, since many kinetic parameters are concentration dependent. It is the aim of this research to investigate the mechanism and kinetics of the adsorption and reaction of hydrogen on silica-supported ruthenium and silver-ruthenium catalysts during the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide. By preadsorbing carbon monoxide onto the surface of ruthenium and silver-ruthenium catalysts, the kinetics of hydrogen adsorption and reaction can be monitored upon exposure of this surface to ambient hydrogen gas. This is accomplished by conducting identical experiments on two separate systems. First, the formation of methane is monitored using mass spectroscopy, and specific reaction rates and apparent activation energies are measured. Next, in situ {sup 1}H-NMR is used to monitor the amount of hydrogen present on the catalyst surface during adsorption and reaction. The results for these two sets of experiments are then combined to show a correlation between the rate of reaction and the surface hydrogen concentration. Finally, transition state theory is applied to this system and is used to explain the observed change in the apparent activation energy. The structure sensitivity of hydrogen

  13. A kinetic study on the adsorption and reaction of hydrogen over silica-supported ruthenium and silver-ruthenium catalysts during the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VanderWiel, David P. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1999-02-12

    Although the catalytic hydrogenation of carbon monoxide has been a subject of considerable investigation for many years, its increasing economical attractiveness as an industrial source of hydrocarbons has recently led to a search for more active and selective catalysts. A fundamental problem in the development of such catalysts is an incomplete knowledge of the operative surface processes, due in large part to the inability to accurately measure surface concentrations of reactant species during reaction. Specifically, the concentration of surface hydrogen proves difficult to estimate using normally revealing techniques such as transient isotopic exchange due to kinetic isotope effects. Knowledge of such concentrations is essential to the determination of the mechanisms of adsorption and reaction, since many kinetic parameters are concentration dependent. It is the aim of this research to investigate the mechanism and kinetics of the adsorption and reaction of hydrogen on silica-supported ruthenium and silver-ruthenium catalysts during the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide. By preadsorbing carbon monoxide onto the surface of ruthenium and silver-ruthenium catalysts, the kinetics of hydrogen adsorption and reaction can be monitored upon exposure of this surface to ambient hydrogen gas. This is accomplished by conducting identical experiments on two separate systems. First, the formation of methane is monitored using mass spectroscopy, and specific reaction rates and apparent activation energies are measured. Next, in situ 1H-NMR is used to monitor the amount of hydrogen present on the catalyst surface during adsorption and reaction. The results for these two sets of experiments are then combined to show a correlation between the rate of reaction and the surface hydrogen concentration. Finally, transition state theory is applied to this system and is used to explain the observed change in the apparent activation energy. The structure sensitivity of hydrogen

  14. Los estudios sobre el ambiente y la ciencia ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Nancy Giannuzzo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available La existencia de la ciencia ambiental es reconocida en libros, revistas de publicación científica y carreras de grado y posgrado. Sin embargo, se desconoce su existencia en forma literal o indirecta, al no ser considerado su aporte, por ejemplo, en los planteos referidos sobre la ciencia y la tecnología de la sustentabilidad. En este trabajo se presentan estos antecedentes, relacionándolos con el objetivo del mismo, que es el de aportar a la dilucidación de la existencia y conformación de la ciencia ambiental. Para esto, se analiza la relación de las disciplinas con la dimensión compleja del ambiente como objeto de estudio y aspectos metodológicos derivados. A los fines de aportar al esclarecimiento conceptual, se identifican las distintas acepciones de ambiente comúnmente referidas en la bibliografía. Además, se discuten aspectos relacionados de multidisciplinariedad, interdisciplinariedad y transdisciplinariedad, y sobre el status epistémico de la ciencia ambiental. Se concluye que una mayor precisión conceptual embasada en un marco compartido por las disciplinas que estudian el ambiente, incluida la ciencia ambiental, y los distintos actores involucrados en las problemáticas ambientales, favorecerá el refinamiento de las metodologías tendientes a disminuir la fragmentación de las investigaciones concernientes y las aplicaciones para su resolución.The existence of an environmental science is recognized in books, journals of science as well as in undergraduate and graduate studies. Its existence, however, is unknown either literally or indirectly when, for instance, its contribution to topics connected to the science and technology of sustainability is not considered. This background is presented in this paper and connected to its objective, which is to elucidate the existence and structure of the environmental science. To this goal, I analyse the relationship of the disciplines with the complex dimension of the environment

  15. The Effect of the Hayward Corridor Improvement Project on Carbon Monoxide Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlfelder, M.; Martinez, E.; Maestas, A.; Peek, A.

    2013-12-01

    In August of 2010, construction began on a stretch of road in Downtown Hayward to address a problem with traffic flow. Known as the Hayward Corridor, the project reshaped the flow of traffic, replacing the two way streets of Foothill, Mission, and A Street with a loop between them. This project began with the initiative of reducing congestion in this area and improving access to businesses for pedestrians. The project was expected to have little environmental impact in most common assessments of degree of effect, including particulate matter, ozone and carbon monoxide levels. This report will discuss the effect of the Hayward Corridor Improvement Project on carbon monoxide emission. Data available to the public in the project's Environmental Impact Report shows that carbon monoxide levels before construction began were at an acceptable level according to federal and state standards. Projections for future concentrations both with and without the project show a decrease in carbon monoxide levels due to technological improvements and the gradual replacement of older, less efficient vehicles. The Environmental Impact Report projected that there would be little difference in carbon monoxide levels whether the project took place or not, at an average of 1.67x102 fewer parts per million per 1 hour period of measurement emitted in the case of the project not taking place. While it is not possible to draw a conclusion on what the current carbon monoxide levels would be if the project had not taken place due to the changes in traffic flow and other surrounding roads as a result of the project, the data gathered in June of 2013 suggested that carbon monoxide levels are higher than the values projected in 2007. This report summarizes both the accuracy of these carbon monoxide level projections and the effect of construction on carbon monoxide levels in the Hayward Corridor and the surrounding area.

  16. Shape analysis for mobile ambients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    2001-01-01

    The ambient calculus is a calculus of computation that allows active processes to move between sites. We present an analysis inspired by state-of-the-art pointer analyses that safely and accurately predicts which processes may turn up at what sites during the execution of a composite system...

  17. Abstract Interpretation of Mobile Ambients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, René Rydhof; Jensen, J. G.; Nielson, Flemming

    1999-01-01

    We demonstrate that abstract interpretation is useful for analysing calculi of computation such as the ambient calculus (which is based on the p-calculus); more importantly, we show that the entire development can be expressed in a constraint-based formalism that is becoming exceedingly popular...

  18. Shape analysis for Mobile Ambients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    2000-01-01

    The ambient calculus is a calculus of computation that allows active processes to move between sites. We present an analysis inspired by state-of-the-art pointer analyses that safety and accurately predicts which processes may turn up at what sites during the execution of a composite system...

  19. Digital identity in ambient environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.A.M. Ben Schouten; Onkar Ambekar

    2006-01-01

    Embedded systems and ambient technology enable users to interact at any time and anywhere. In the BASIS project for identity management, CWI investigates transparent biometrics in home environments. Possible application areas are user profiling for shopping , listening to one's favourite music and o

  20. La crisis del medio ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Quintero Vélez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo, introducción al tema del medio ambiente, pretende proporcionar conceptos básicos para analizar y dimensionar el impacto que genera el hombre sobre los sistemas que soportan la vida. Para entender estos problemas, es indispensable partir de un análisis básico de la relación entre el hombre actual, su medio ambiente, sus necesidades y sus actividades. El autor revisa los antecedentes, las causas y las consecuencias de la crisis ambiental internacional, e intenta dar explicación a la problemática nacionalen este campo, y establecer los puntos más críticos en Colombia. Finalmente, con base en los parámetros establecidos por el gobierno, se presenta el concepto de“desarrollo sostenible" como modelo que interrelaciona los procesos económicos, sociales y tecnológicos con el medio ambiente.

  1. Digital identity in ambient environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Ben; Ambekar, Onkar

    2006-01-01

    Embedded systems and ambient technology enable users to interact at any time and anywhere. In the BASIS project for identity management, CWI investigates transparent biometrics in home environments. Possible application areas are user profiling for shopping , listening to one's favourite music and o

  2. Serum S100B level may be correlated with carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Zhang, Yu; Ren, Yan-Bo; Kang, Jian; Xing, Jing; Qi, Qing-Hui; Gao, Dong-Na; Ma, Tao; Liu, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Zhi

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the correlation between serum S100B level and carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning by meta-analysis. By searching both English and Chinese language-based electronic databases (PubMed, EBSCO, Ovid, Springerlink, Wiley, Web of Science, Wanfang databases, China national knowledge infrastructure (CNKI), VIP database, etc.) thoroughly, we tabulated and analyzed the collected data with the use of Comprehensive Meta-analysis 2.0 (CMA 2.0). Totally 108 studies have been searched initially (92 studies in Chinese, 16 studies in English). Nine case-control studies (4 studies in English, 5 in Chinese) were chosen for an updated meta-analysis including 542 patients with CO poising and 236 healthy controls. Results identified that the serum S100B level were obviously higher than that in healthy controls (SMD=1.600, 95% CI=1.055-2.145, P<0.001). A subgroup based on the ethnicities revealed that the serum S100B level in Caucasian and Asian subgroups was clearly higher than serum S100B level in healthy controls (Asians: SMD=2.0624, 95% CI=1.736-3.511, P<0.001; Caucasians: SMD=0.447, 95% CI=0.197-0.697, P<0.001). Serum S100B level may be correlated with the CO poisoning and could be effective biomarker for early diagnosis and treatment monitoring in CO poisoning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of ambient turbulence on a particle plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Adrian C. H.; Er, J. W.; Law, Adrian W. K.; Adams, E. Eric

    2015-11-01

    We investigated experimentally the effects of ambient turbulence on a particle plume. Homogeneous and isotropic turbulent ambient water was generated by a random jet array in a glass tank. Glass beads of different particle diameters were released continuously into this turbulent ambient using a submerged hourglass, forming particle plumes with a constant efflux velocity; different initial velocities were tested for each particle size. We focused on the region in which the integral length scale of the ambient eddies is larger than that of the particle plume size. Following the arguments of Hunt (1994) and the observation of Hubner (2004) on a single-phase plume, it is expected that in this region, the internal structure or Lagrangian spreading of the particle plume, will not be significantly affected, but the plume centerline would meander due to the ambient turbulence leading to an increase in the Eulerian width. In the presentation, first, we will present our preliminary experimental data which showed that this is also true for two-phase particle plumes. Second, based on this observation, we developed a theoretical framework using a stochastic approach to predict the spreading of the plume. Predictions of the model will be compared with our experimental data. This research was supported by the National Research Foundation Singapore through the Singapore MIT Alliance for Research and Technology's Center for Environmental Sensing and Modeling interdisciplinary research program.

  4. Personal Exposure Monitoring of Particulate Matter, Nitrogen Dioxide, and Carbon Monoxide, including Susceptible Groups

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    R. M. Harrison; C. A. Thornton; R. G. Lawrence; D. Mark; R. P. Kinnersley; J. G. Ayres

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the relation between personal exposures to nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, and PM10, and exposures estimated from static concentrations of these pollutants measured within the same...

  5. The influence of tobacco blend composition on carbon monoxide formation in mainstream cigarette smoke

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Djulančić, Nermina; Radojičić, Vesna; Srbinovska, Marija

    2013-01-01

    ...) in the gas phase of mainstream cigarette smoke. The results showed that the type of tobacco examined had a significant impact on the amount of carbon monoxide production in the gas phase of cigarette smoke...

  6. Electronic structure and optical properties of a new type of semiconductor material:graphene monoxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Gui; Zhang Yufeng; Yan Xunwang

    2013-01-01

    The electronic and optical properties of graphene monoxide,a new type of semiconductor material,are theoretically studied by first-principles density functional theory.The calculated band structure shows that graphene monoxide is a semiconductor with a direct band gap of 0.95 eV.The density of states of graphene monoxide and the partial density of states for C and O are given to understand the electronic structure.In addition,we calculate the optical properties of graphene monoxide,including the complex dielectric function,absorption coefficient,complex refractive index,loss-function,reflectivity and conductivity.These results provide a physical basis for potential application in optoelectronic devices.

  7. Regulation of multiple carbon monoxide consumption pathways in anaerobic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M Techtmann

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO, well known as a toxic gas, is increasingly recognized as a key metabolite and signaling molecule. Microbial utilization of CO is quite common, evidenced by the rapid escalation in description of new species of CO-utilizing bacteria and archaea. Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH, the protein complex that enables anaerobic CO utilization has been well-characterized from an increasing number of microorganisms, however the regulation of multiple CO-related gene clusters in single isolates remains unexplored. Many species are extroraordinarily resistant to high CO concentrations, thiriving under pure CO at more than one atmosphere. We hypothesized that, in strains that can grow exclusively on CO, both carbon acquisition via the CODH/Acetyl CoA synthase complex and energy conservation via a CODH-linked hydrogenase must be differentially regulated in response to the availability of CO. The CO-sensing transcriptional activator, CooA is present in most CO-oxidizing bacteria. Here we present a genomic and phylogenetic survey of CODH operons and cooA genes found in CooA-containing bacteria. Two distinct groups of CooA homologs were found: One clade (CooA-1 is found in the majority of CooA containing bacteria, whereas the other clade (CooA-2 is found only in genomes that encode multiple CODH clusters, suggesting that the CooA-2 might be important for cross-regulation of competing CODH operons. Recombinant CooA-1 and CooA-2 regulators from the prototypical CO-utilizing bacterium Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans were purified, and promoter binding analyses revealed that CooA-1 specifically regulates the hydrogenase-linked CODH, whereas CooA-2 is able to regulate both the hydrogenase-linked CODH and the CODH/ACS operons. These studies point to the ability of dual CooA homologs to partition CO into divergent CO-utilizing pathways resulting in efficient consumption of a single limiting growth substrate available across a wide range of

  8. Four-electron deoxygenative reductive coupling of carbon monoxide at a single metal site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Joshua A.; Agapie, Theodor

    2016-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is the ultimate source of the fossil fuels that are both central to modern life and problematic: their use increases atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases, and their availability is geopolitically constrained. Using carbon dioxide as a feedstock to produce synthetic fuels might, in principle, alleviate these concerns. Although many homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts convert carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide, further deoxygenative coupling of carbon monoxide to generate useful multicarbon products is challenging. Molybdenum and vanadium nitrogenases are capable of converting carbon monoxide into hydrocarbons under mild conditions, using discrete electron and proton sources. Electrocatalytic reduction of carbon monoxide on copper catalysts also uses a combination of electrons and protons, while the industrial Fischer-Tropsch process uses dihydrogen as a combined source of electrons and electrophiles for carbon monoxide coupling at high temperatures and pressures. However, these enzymatic and heterogeneous systems are difficult to probe mechanistically. Molecular catalysts have been studied extensively to investigate the elementary steps by which carbon monoxide is deoxygenated and coupled, but a single metal site that can efficiently induce the required scission of carbon-oxygen bonds and generate carbon-carbon bonds has not yet been documented. Here we describe a molybdenum compound, supported by a terphenyl-diphosphine ligand, that activates and cleaves the strong carbon-oxygen bond of carbon monoxide, enacts carbon-carbon coupling, and spontaneously dissociates the resulting fragment. This complex four-electron transformation is enabled by the terphenyl-diphosphine ligand, which acts as an electron reservoir and exhibits the coordinative flexibility needed to stabilize the different intermediates involved in the overall reaction sequence. We anticipate that these design elements might help in the development of efficient catalysts for

  9. Four-electron deoxygenative reductive coupling of carbon monoxide at a single metal site

    OpenAIRE

    Buss, Joshua A.; Agapie, Theodor

    2016-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is the ultimate source of the fossil fuels that are both central to modern life and problematic: their use increases atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases, and their availability is geopolitically constrained. Using carbon dioxide as a feedstock to produce synthetic fuels might, in principle, alleviate these concerns. Although many homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts convert carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide, further deoxygenative coupling of carbon monoxide to generate us...

  10. Delayed neuropsychiatric syndrome after carbon monoxide poisoning: inclusion of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in the recovery protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Dante Lo Pardo; Davide Amedola; Giuliana Senatore; Alberto Damiano; Gabriela Pezzuti; Nicola Pugliese; Gianpiero Locatelli; Alfredo Siani; Nicola Maria Vitola

    2016-01-01

    The delayed neuropsychiatric syndrome can arise in the period from 4 days to 5 weeks following carbon monoxide poisoning, and is characterized by neuropsychological deficits, which in some cases become chronic. This case report describes an adult female who apparently suffered self-inflicted carbon monoxide poisoning. She was not treated with hyperbaric oxygen and developed delayed sequelae on day 20. The treatment started with 40 sessions of hyperbaric oxygen therapy and subsequently with ne...

  11. The Range of 1-3 keV Electrons in Solid Oxygen and Carbon Monoxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oehlenschlæger, M.; Andersen, H.H.; Schou, Jørgen

    1985-01-01

    The range of 1-3 keV electrons in films of solid oxygen and carbon monoxide has been measured by a mirror substrate method. The technique used here is identical to the one previously used for range measurements in solid hydrogen and nitrogen. The range in oxygen is slightly shorter than...... that in nitrogen whereas the range in carbon monoxide is about 20% larger than that in the nitrogen....

  12. National-Scale Air Quality Data Assessment: Initial Findings from the Near-Road NO2 Monitoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWinter, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    In 2010, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) revised the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) to include a primary health-based standard for hourly NO2. NO2 is a reactive gas that is emitted from motor vehicles, such as cars, trucks, and off-road equipment, as well as non-mobile sources, and is known to adversely affect human respiratory health. In conjunction with the NAAQS revision, EPA has mandated air quality monitoring next to selected major roadways throughout the United States that are in large urban areas where peak hourly NO2 concentrations are expected. Monitoring began in phases during 2012-2015 and included nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and particulate matter smaller than 2.5 microns (PM2.5) at 40 monitoring sites nationwide. We conducted a national-scale review of near-road air pollutant concentrations, identified areas where high concentrations of NO2, PM2.5, and CO occurred, and evaluated how concentrations varied by factors such as location, distance to roadway, fleet mix characteristics, and traffic volume. We present the findings from our national near-road data assessment for the 2014 monitoring year.

  13. Evaluation of Commercial Off-the-Shelf Sorbents and Catalysts for Control of Ammonia and Carbon Monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Bernadette; Somi, George; Winchester, J. Parker; Grose, Jeffrey; Mulloth, Lila; Perry, Jay L.

    2013-01-01

    Designers of future space vehicles envision simplifying the Atmosphere Revitalization (AR) system by combining the functions of trace contaminant (TC) control and carbon dioxide removal into one swing-bed system. Flow rates and bed sizes of the TC and CO2 systems have historically been very different. There is uncertainty about the ability of trace contaminant sorbents to adsorb adequately in high-flow or short bed length configurations, and to desorb adequately during short vacuum exposures. There is also concern about ambient ammonia levels in the absence of a condensing heat exchanger. In addition, new materials and formulations have become commercially available, formulations never evaluated by NASA for purposes of trace contaminant control. The optimal air revitalization system for future missions may incorporate a swing-bed system for carbon dioxide (CO2) and partial trace contaminant control, with a reduced-size, low-power, targeted trace contaminant system supplying the remaining contaminant removal capability. This paper describes the results of a comparative experimental investigation into materials for trace contaminant control that might be part of such a system. Ammonia sorbents and low temperature carbon monoxide (CO) oxidation catalysts are the foci. The data will be useful to designers of AR systems for future flexible path missions. This is a continuation of work presented in a prior year, with extended test results.

  14. Historical Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Historical Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory contains measured and estimated data on ambient air pollution for use in assessing air quality, assisting in...

  15. Aspectos del desarrollo institucional ambiental en Argentina

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Susana Julia, Marta

    2010-01-01

    Los problemas ambientales actuales demandan acciones y respuestas por parte de las instituciones que tienen a su cargo la ejecucion de la politica ambiental y que gestionan el ambiente en el territorio que les compete...

  16. Carbon monoxide exposure in households in Ciudad Juárez, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Teresa; Gurian, Patrick L; Velázquez-Angulo, Gilberto; Corella-Barud, Verónica; Rojo, Analila; Graham, Jay P

    2008-03-01

    This study assessed exposure to carbon monoxide from gas and wood heater emissions in a sample of 64 households in peri-urban residential areas in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, México. Indoor and outdoor carbon monoxide concentrations and temperatures were monitored for a continuous period of 1 week at 1 and 6-min intervals, respectively. The moving average carbon monoxide concentrations were compared to the World Health Organization (WHO) standards for carbon monoxide. Sixty-seven percent of households with gas heaters and 60% of households with wood heaters exceeded a health-based standard at some point during the monitoring. The difference between indoor and outdoor temperatures was modestly correlated with average carbon monoxide exposure (r=0.35, p-value <0.01). Heater type may be a stronger determinant of exposure, as households with a particular heater model (the El Sol FM-210) were significantly more likely to be among the more highly exposed households (odds ratio of 4.8, p-value of 0.02). A variety of health effects were pooled and found at elevated frequency in the households that exceeded the 8-h standard of 9ppm (odds ratio=5.1, p-value=0.031). These results highlight the need for further efforts to identify and mitigate potentially hazardous carbon monoxide exposures, particularly in moderate-income countries with cooler climates.

  17. Fiscalidad ambiental (curso 2011-2012)

    OpenAIRE

    Gil Maciá, Lorenzo

    2012-01-01

    Tema fiscalidad ambiental. 1. Necesidad económica y jurídica de la protección del medio ambiente. 2. Características, naturaleza y clasificación de los tributos ambientales. 3. Competencias tributarias en el ámbito estatal, autonómico y local. 4. La fiscalidad ambiental en la legislación fiscal española. 5. Perspectivas de futuro en materia de imposición ambiental.

  18. Responsabilidades municipales en materia ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Pichardo Pagaza

    2009-01-01

    Este trabajo reflexiona en torno a las responsabilidades que la Constitución política impone de manera exclusiva a los municipios y que por su naturaleza tienen efectos directos en el medio ambiente. Se alude aquí a los servicios de agua po ta ble, drenaje, saneamiento, tratamiento de aguas residuales, disposición de residuos sólidos, rastros, panteones y mercados. Ahora son los desafíos ambientales de la autoridad municipal, por lo que deben ser también sus prioridades. Si esos servicios no se atienden oportuna y técnicamente la población sufrirá, se deteriorará gravemente el medio ambiente y disminuirá la calidad de la vida de la comunidad.

  19. GESTIÓN AMBIENTAL METROPOLITANA

    OpenAIRE

    Déctor García, Mtro. Romeo; Correctora de estilo

    2014-01-01

    El artículo aborda la gestión ambiental y metropolitana, a partir de los elementos que han expuesto autores como Raúl Brañes, María del Carmen Carmona Lara, o Martha Schteingart y Clara Eugenia Salazar y otros más que abordan el tema urbano. Se profundiza y detalla con base en la legislación de equilibrio ecológico y protección al ambiente, en la legislación sobre biodiversidad mexiquense como en la atinente a la administración pública local o municipal.Puntos de relieve son las menciones de ...

  20. Tipologia para a contabilidade ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazlhe Faride Chein Schekaiban

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo revê a visão, as propostas e o desenvolvimento da contabilidade ambiental, refletindo sobre suas implicações, com a finalidade de descobrir e encontrar sua importância e situação. Para se chegar a esse resultado foi preciso realizar uma revisão epistemológica moldada e processo reflexivo de sustentabilidade e da aproximação ao usuário, da percepção da realidade contábil no México e da gerência interna das organizações. As conclusões mostram a contabilidade ambiental no México fora da re-alidade operativa do modelo contábil regional, aumentando a importância de se criar uma cultura capaz de examinar o controle da missão deste tipo de contabilidade.

  1. Ambient Art: Creative Information Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Beale

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Ambient art is the aesthetic presentation of information, using artistic techniques to achieve a pleasing image that also contains hidden depths, where exposure to it over time allows a viewer to understand something about the information sources that it represents. This paper reviews the artistic and computational background of ambient systems, and presents two case studies of systems developed by our research team, from their initial design to the experiences of the people encountering them. The first case presents a photo mosaic of images based on the news headlines coupled with a structured picture based on the weather; the second presents stylistic perspectives on activity in a public space. Both are evaluated and demonstrate that different forms of aesthetically pleasing displays can convey information to viewers.

  2. Structural lubricity under ambient conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cihan, Ebru; Ipek, Semran; Durgun, Engin; Baykara, Mehmet Z.

    2016-06-01

    Despite its fundamental importance, physical mechanisms that govern friction are poorly understood. While a state of ultra-low friction, termed structural lubricity, is expected for any clean, atomically flat interface consisting of two different materials with incommensurate structures, some associated predictions could only be quantitatively confirmed under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions so far. Here, we report structurally lubric sliding under ambient conditions at mesoscopic (~4,000-130,000 nm2) interfaces formed by gold islands on graphite. Ab initio calculations reveal that the gold-graphite interface is expected to remain largely free from contaminant molecules, leading to structurally lubric sliding. The experiments reported here demonstrate the potential for practical lubrication schemes for micro- and nano-electromechanical systems, which would mainly rely on an atomic-scale structural mismatch between the slider and substrate components, via the utilization of material systems featuring clean, atomically flat interfaces under ambient conditions.

  3. Ambiente psicologico en las organizaciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damarcy Cortés Baracaldo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El talento humano en las organizaciones se ha convertido en las ultimas decadas en un recurso que se administra de acuerdo al estilo de liderazgo del jefe, lo que implica una marcada relación hacia la tarea, hacia las relaciones con el personal o una combinación de estas dos, que desencadenan en un ambiente psicológico exclusive en cada organización.

  4. Ambiente psicologico en las organizaciones

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    El talento humano en las organizaciones se ha convertido en las ultimas decadas en un recurso que se administra de acuerdo al estilo de liderazgo del jefe, lo que implica una marcada relación hacia la tarea, hacia las relaciones con el personal o una combinación de estas dos, que desencadenan en un ambiente psicológico exclusive en cada organización.

  5. Carbon monoxide inhalation increases microparticles causing vascular and CNS dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiajun; Yang, Ming; Kosterin, Paul; Salzberg, Brian M; Milovanova, Tatyana N; Bhopale, Veena M; Thom, Stephen R

    2013-12-01

    We hypothesized that circulating microparticles (MPs) play a role in pro-inflammatory effects associated with carbon monoxide (CO) inhalation. Mice exposed for 1h to 100 ppm CO or more exhibit increases in circulating MPs derived from a variety of vascular cells as well as neutrophil activation. Tissue injury was quantified as 2000 kDa dextran leakage from vessels and as neutrophil sequestration in the brain and skeletal muscle; and central nervous system nerve dysfunction was documented as broadening of the neurohypophysial action potential (AP). Indices of injury occurred following exposures to 1000 ppm for 1h or to 1000 ppm for 40 min followed by 3000 ppm for 20 min. MPs were implicated in causing injuries because infusing the surfactant MP lytic agent, polyethylene glycol telomere B (PEGtB) abrogated elevations in MPs, vascular leak, neutrophil sequestration and AP prolongation. These manifestations of tissue injury also did not occur in mice lacking myeloperoxidase. Vascular leakage and AP prolongation were produced in naïve mice infused with MPs that had been obtained from CO poisoned mice, but this did not occur with MPs obtained from control mice. We conclude that CO poisoning triggers elevations of MPs that activate neutrophils which subsequently cause tissue injuries.

  6. Carbon monoxide: from toxin to endogenous modulator of cardiovascular functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Johnson

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO is a pollutant commonly recognized for its toxicological attributes, including CNS and cardiovascular effects. But CO is also formed endogenously in mammalian tissues. Endogenously formed CO normally arises from heme degradation in a reaction catalyzed by heme oxygenase. While inhibitors of endogenous CO production can raise arterial pressure, heme loading can enhance CO production and lead to vasodepression. Both central and peripheral tissues possess heme oxygenases and generate CO from heme, but the inability of heme substrate to cross the blood brain barrier suggests the CNS heme-heme oxygenase-CO system may be independent of the periphery. In the CNS, CO apparently acts in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS promoting changes in glutamatergic neurotransmission and lowering blood pressure. At the periphery, the heme-heme oxygenase-CO system can affect cardiovascular functions in a two-fold manner; specifically: 1 heme-derived CO generated within vascular smooth muscle (VSM can promote vasodilation, but 2 its actions on the endothelium apparently can promote vasoconstriction. Thus, it seems reasonable that the CNS-, VSM- and endothelial-dependent actions of the heme-heme oxygenase-CO system may all affect cardiac output and vascular resistance, and subsequently blood pressure.

  7. Acute carbon monoxide poisoning: animal models: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penney, D G

    1990-05-31

    Animals have been used for well over a century in an attempt to understand the toxicology, physiology, and pathology of acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Whether the toxic effects of this gas result from primary hypoxia, as in hypoxic hypoxia to which it is frequently compared, or from direct tissue effects since it enters cells and binds to certain vital components, remains a point of controversy. Acute severe poisoning in man and animals affects primarily the cardiovascular and nervous systems, and frequently produces neurologic dysfunction. Morphologically, tissue damage is usually confined to the white matter. The root cause is at best poorly understood and major investigative efforts have been made toward its elucidation. Many studies with rats, cats and primates indicate a major role for CO-induced hypotension, which serves to compromise blood flow and exacerbate acidosis. The likely cellular mechanisms in this process are only now becoming apparent. This review critically examines the recent as well as a few older CO-animal studies. In scope, they fall into several broad categories: general cardiopulmonary effects, metabolic and tissue effects, general resistance (i.e. tolerance), effects on the central nervous system including blood flow, neurochemistry, morphology and behavior, and finally, experimental therapeutic approaches.

  8. The Role of Oxygen Therapies in Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleyman Metin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to climate and socio-economic issues in Turkey, the incidence of carbon monoxide (CO poisoning is high, especially in winter. Clinical manifestations may vary depending on the type of CO source, concentration and duration of exposure. The symptoms of CO poisoning predominantly manifest in lots of organs and systems with high oxygen utilization, especially the brain and the heart. The primary aim in oxygen therapy is to eliminate CO and to reduce its toxic effects. In this context, normobaric and hyperbaric oxygen therapy are used to achieve these goals. Normobaric oxygen (NBO treatment is an easily accessible and relatively not expensive modality, where hyperbaric oxygen (HBO therapy requires specific equipment, certified staff and is available only in some centers. Additionally, HBO treatment has several additional advantages over NBO treatment. Despite its benefits, it is compulsory to search for some criteria in selecting patients to be treated because of the limited availability and access of hyperbaric facilities. For an effective evaluation and an optimal treatment, advanced education of the healthcare professionals on the use of oxygen delivery modalities in the management of CO poisoning is imperative. In this review, it has been aimed to outline the significance of oxygen treatment modalities and to determine patient selection criteria for HBO treatment in the management of CO poisoning which continues to be an important threat to community health care. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(4.000: 487-494

  9. Carbon monoxide exposures after hurricane Ike - Texas, September 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-14

    During power outages after hurricanes, survivors can be at risk for carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning if they use portable generators improperly. On September 13, 2008, Hurricane Ike struck the coast of Texas, leaving approximately 2.3 million households in the southeastern portion of the state without electricity. Six days later, 1.3 million homes were still without electrical power. To assess the impact of storm-related CO exposures and to enhance prevention efforts, CDC analyzed data from five disparate surveillance sources on CO exposures reported during September 13--26 in counties of southeast Texas that were declared disaster areas by the federal government. This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that one data source, Texas poison centers, received reports of 54 persons with storm-related CO exposures during the surveillance period. Another data source, the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society (UHMS) hyperbaric oxygen treatment database, reported that 15 persons received hyperbaric oxygen treatment for storm-related CO poisoning. Medical examiners, public health officials, and hospitals in Texas reported that seven persons died from storm-related CO poisoning. Among the data sources, the percentage of reported storm-related CO exposures caused by improper generator use ranged from 82% to 87%. These findings underscore the need for effective prevention messages during storm preparation, warnings, and response periods regarding the correct use of generators and the installation and maintenance of battery-powered CO detectors.

  10. The immunomodulatory role of carbon monoxide during transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amano Mariane

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The number of organ and tissue transplants has increased worldwide in recent decades. However, graft rejection, infections due to the use of immunosuppressive drugs and a shortage of graft donors remain major concerns. Carbon monoxide (CO had long been regarded solely as a poisonous gas. Ultimately, physiological studies unveiled the endogenous production of CO, particularly by the heme oxygenase (HO-1 enzyme, recognizing CO as a beneficial gas when used at therapeutic doses. The protective properties of CO led researchers to develop uses for it, resulting in devices and molecules that can deliver CO in vitro and in vivo. The resulting interest in clinical investigations was immediate. Studies regarding the CO/HO-1 modulation of immune responses and their effects on various immune disorders gave rise to transplantation research, where CO was shown to be essential in the protection against organ rejection in animal models. This review provides a perspective of how CO modulates the immune system to improve transplantation and suggests its use as a therapy in the field.

  11. Carbon monoxide and iron modulate plasmatic coagulation in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Vance G; Pretorius, Etheresia; Bester, Janette; Jacobsen, Wayne K; Boyle, Patrick K; Reinhard, Joao P

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a significant source of morbidity and mortality for millions of people worldwide, and multiple potential etiologies have been postulated to contribute to AD. Among these, spontaneous cerebral emboli and increased cerebral and circulating heme oxygenase (Hmox) activity in AD patients are of particular interest, as two of the products of Hmox activity, carbon monoxide (CO) and iron enhance plasmatic coagulation and modify the ultrastructure of thrombi. We hypothesized that patients afflicted with AD would have coagulation kinetics modulated by CO and iron. Using viscoelastic assessments of coagulation, it was determined with a small cohort (n=11) of AD patients that all had enhancement of coagulation by CO, iron, or both. In a complementary fashion, it was determined that a separate cohort (n=12) of AD patients had thrombi with ultrastructural features consistent with iron and CO exposure as assessed with scanning electron microscopy. Further, when stratified by normal or abnormally increased serum ferritin concentrations (which can be increased by Hmox), the AD patients with abnormal ferritin concentrations had significantly thinner fibrin fiber diameters, not unlike that noted when normal plasma is mixed with iron or CO. In sum, AD patients were noted to have plasmatic coagulation kinetic and thrombus ultrastructural changes consistent with exposure to CO and iron. Future investigation of CO and iron in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease is warranted.

  12. Density-functional study of plutonium monoxide monohydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Ruizhi; Lu, Haiyan; Ao, Bingyun; Tang, Tao; Chen, Piheng

    2017-03-01

    The structural, electronic, mechanical, optical, thermodynamic properties of plutonium monoxide monohydride (PuOH) are studied by density-functional calculations within the framework of LDA/GGA and LDA/GGA+U. From the total energy calculation, the lowest-energy crystal structure of PuOH is predicted to have space group F 4 bar 3 m (No. 216). Within the LDA+U framework, the calculated lattice parameter of F 4 bar 3 m -PuOH is in good agreement with the experimental value and the corresponding ground state is predicted to be an antiferromagnetic charge-transfer insulator. Furthermore, we investigate the bonding character of PuOH by analyzing the electron structure and find that there are a stronger Pu-O bond and a weaker Pu-H bond. The mechanical properties including the elastic constants, elastic moduli and Debye's temperature, and the optical properties including the reflectivity and absorption coefficient are also calculated. We then compute the phonon spectrum which verified the dynamical stability of F 4 bar 3 m -PuOH. Some thermodynamic quantities such as the specific heat are evaluated. Finally we calculate the formation energy of PuOH, and the reaction energies for the oxidation of PuOH and PuOH-coated Pu, which are in reasonable agreement with the experimental values.

  13. Carbon monoxide: an emerging regulator of ion channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, William J; Kemp, Paul J

    2011-07-01

    Carbon monoxide is rapidly emerging as an important cellular messenger, regulating a wide range of physiological processes. Crucial to its role in both physiology and disease is its ability differentially to regulate several classes of ion channels, including examples from calcium-activated K(+) (BK(Ca)), voltage-activated K(+) (K(v)) and Ca(2+) channel (L-type) families, ligand-gated P2X receptors (P2X2 and P2X4), tandem P domain K(+) channels (TREK1) and the epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC). The mechanisms by which CO regulates these ion channels are still unclear and remain somewhat controversial. However, available structure-function studies suggest that a limited range of amino acid residues confer CO sensitivity, either directly or indirectly, to particular ion channels and that cellular redox state appears to be important to the final integrated response. Whatever the molecular mechanism by which CO regulates ion channels, endogenous production of this gasotransmitter has physiologically important roles and is currently being explored as a potential therapeutic.

  14. Discovery of carbon monoxide in the upper atmosphere of Pluto

    CERN Document Server

    Greaves, J S; Friberg, P

    2011-01-01

    Pluto's icy surface has changed colour and its atmosphere has swelled since its last closest approach to the Sun in 1989. The thin atmosphere is produced by evaporating ices, and so can also change rapidly, and in particular carbon monoxide should be present as an active thermostat. Here we report the discovery of gaseous CO via the 1.3mm wavelength J=2-1 rotational transition, and find that the line-centre signal is more than twice as bright as a tentative result obtained by Bockelee-Morvan et al. in 2000. Greater surface-ice evaporation over the last decade could explain this, or increased pressure could have caused the atmosphere to expand. The gas must be cold, with a narrow line-width consistent with temperatures around 50 K, as predicted for the very high atmosphere, and the line brightness implies that CO molecules extend up to approximately 3 Pluto radii above the surface. The upper atmosphere must have changed markedly over only a decade since the prior search, and more alterations could occur by the...

  15. Regulation of ROS Production and Vascular Function by Carbon Monoxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Kyung Choi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO is a gaseous molecule produced from heme by heme oxygenase (HO. CO interacts with reduced iron of heme-containing proteins, leading to its involvement in various cellular events via its production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS. CO-mediated ROS production initiates intracellular signal events, which regulate the expression of adaptive genes implicated in oxidative stress and functions as signaling molecule for promoting vascular functions, including angiogenesis and mitochondrial biogenesis. Therefore, CO generated either by exogenous delivery or by HO activity can be fundamentally involved in regulating mitochondria-mediated redox cascades for adaptive gene expression and improving blood circulation (i.e., O2 delivery via neovascularization, leading to the regulation of mitochondrial energy metabolism. This paper will highlight the biological effects of CO on ROS generation and cellular redox changes involved in mitochondrial metabolism and angiogenesis. Moreover, cellular mechanisms by which CO is exploited for disease prevention and therapeutic applications will also be discussed.

  16. Heme oxygenase-1 and carbon monoxide in pulmonary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slebos, Dirk-Jan; Ryter, Stefan W; Choi, Augustine M K

    2003-01-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an inducible stress protein, confers cytoprotection against oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo. In addition to its physiological role in heme degradation, HO-1 may influence a number of cellular processes, including growth, inflammation, and apoptosis. By virtue of anti-inflammatory effects, HO-1 limits tissue damage in response to proinflammatory stimuli and prevents allograft rejection after transplantation. The transcriptional upregulation of HO-1 responds to many agents, such as hypoxia, bacterial lipopolysaccharide, and reactive oxygen/nitrogen species. HO-1 and its constitutively expressed isozyme, heme oxygenase-2, catalyze the rate-limiting step in the conversion of heme to its metabolites, bilirubin IXalpha, ferrous iron, and carbon monoxide (CO). The mechanisms by which HO-1 provides protection most likely involve its enzymatic reaction products. Remarkably, administration of CO at low concentrations can substitute for HO-1 with respect to anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects, suggesting a role for CO as a key mediator of HO-1 function. Chronic, low-level, exogenous exposure to CO from cigarette smoking contributes to the importance of CO in pulmonary medicine. The implications of the HO-1/CO system in pulmonary diseases will be discussed in this review, with an emphasis on inflammatory states.

  17. Heme oxygenase-1 and carbon monoxide in pulmonary medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Augustine MK

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, an inducible stress protein, confers cytoprotection against oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo. In addition to its physiological role in heme degradation, HO-1 may influence a number of cellular processes, including growth, inflammation, and apoptosis. By virtue of anti-inflammatory effects, HO-1 limits tissue damage in response to proinflammatory stimuli and prevents allograft rejection after transplantation. The transcriptional upregulation of HO-1 responds to many agents, such as hypoxia, bacterial lipopolysaccharide, and reactive oxygen/nitrogen species. HO-1 and its constitutively expressed isozyme, heme oxygenase-2, catalyze the rate-limiting step in the conversion of heme to its metabolites, bilirubin IXα, ferrous iron, and carbon monoxide (CO. The mechanisms by which HO-1 provides protection most likely involve its enzymatic reaction products. Remarkably, administration of CO at low concentrations can substitute for HO-1 with respect to anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects, suggesting a role for CO as a key mediator of HO-1 function. Chronic, low-level, exogenous exposure to CO from cigarette smoking contributes to the importance of CO in pulmonary medicine. The implications of the HO-1/CO system in pulmonary diseases will be discussed in this review, with an emphasis on inflammatory states.

  18. Heme oxygenase-1/carbon monoxide: from metabolism to molecular therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryter, Stefan W; Choi, Augustine M K

    2009-09-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a ubiquitous inducible stress-response protein, serves a major metabolic function in heme turnover. HO activity cleaves heme to form biliverdin-IXalpha, carbon monoxide (CO), and iron. Genetic experiments have revealed a central role for HO-1 in tissue homeostasis, protection against oxidative stress, and in the pathogenesis of disease. Four decades of research have witnessed not only progress in elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation and function of this illustrious enzyme, but also have opened remarkable translational applications for HO-1 and its reaction products. CO, once regarded as a metabolic waste, can act as an endogenous mediator of cellular signaling and vascular function. Exogenous application of CO by inhalation or pharmacologic delivery can confer cytoprotection in preclinical models of lung/vascular injury and disease, based on anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-proliferative properties. The bile pigments, biliverdin and bilirubin, end products of heme degradation, have also shown potential as therapeutics in vascular disease based on anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities. Further translational and clinical trials research will unveil whether the HO-1 system or any of its reaction products can be successfully applied as molecular medicine in human disease.

  19. Carbon Monoxide Binding by Hemoglobin and Myoglobin under Photodissociating Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunori, Maurizio; Bonaventura, Joseph; Bonaventura, Celia; Antonini, Eraldo; Wyman, Jeffries

    1972-01-01

    Carbon monoxide binding by myoglobin and hemoglobin has been studied under conditions of constant illumination. For hemoglobin, the homotropic heme-heme interaction (cooperativity) and the heterotropic Bohr effect are invariant with light intensity over a 1000-fold change of c½. The dissociation constant, measured as c½, increases linearly with light intensity, indicating that photodissociation is a one-quantum process. At sufficiently high illumination the apparent enthalpy of ligand binding becomes positive, although in the absence of light it is known to be negative. This finding indicates that light acts primarily by increasing the “off” constants by an additive factor. The invariance of both cooperativity and Bohr effect raises a perplexing issue. It would appear to demand either that the “off” constants for the various elementary steps are all alike (which is contrary to current ideas) or that the additive factor is in each case proportional to the particular “off” constant to which it is added (a seemingly improbable alternative). PMID:4502938

  20. Catalytic removal of carbon monoxide over carbon supported palladium catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, Avanish Kumar [Defence Research and Development Establishment, Jhansi Road, Gwalior-474002 (MP) (India); Saxena, Amit [Centre for Fire Explosive and Environmental Safety, Timarpur, Delhi-110054 (India); Shah, Dilip; Mahato, T.H. [Defence Research and Development Establishment, Jhansi Road, Gwalior-474002 (MP) (India); Singh, Beer, E-mail: beerbs5@rediffmail.com [Defence Research and Development Establishment, Jhansi Road, Gwalior-474002 (MP) (India); Shrivastava, A.R.; Gutch, P.K. [Defence Research and Development Establishment, Jhansi Road, Gwalior-474002 (MP) (India); Shinde, C.P. [School of Studies in Chemistry, Jiwaji University, Gwalior-474002 (MP) (India)

    2012-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbon supported palladium (Pd/C) catalyst was prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Catalytic removal of CO over Pd/C catalyst was studied under dynamic conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effects of Pd %, CO conc., humidity, GHSV and reaction environment were studied. - Abstract: Carbon supported palladium (Pd/C) catalyst was prepared by impregnation of palladium chloride using incipient wetness technique, which was followed by liquid phase reduction with formaldehyde. Thereafter, Pd/C catalyst was characterized using X-ray diffractometery, scanning electron microscopy, atomic absorption spectroscopy, thermo gravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry and surface characterization techniques. Catalytic removal of carbon monoxide (CO) over Pd/C catalyst was studied under dynamic conditions. Pd/C catalyst was found to be continuously converting CO to CO{sub 2} through the catalyzed reaction, i.e., CO + 1/2O{sub 2} {yields} CO{sub 2}. Pd/C catalyst provided excellent protection against CO. Effects of palladium wt%, CO concentration, humidity, space velocity and reaction environment were also studied on the breakthrough behavior of CO.

  1. In-utero carbon monoxide poisoning and multiple fetal abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennequin, Y.; Blum, D.; Vamos, E.; Steppe, M.; Goedseels, J.; Cavatorta, E. (Free Univ. of Brussels (Belgium). Queen Fabiola Children' s Hospital)

    1993-01-23

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning during pregnancy can lead to feto-maternal fatalities and stillbirths. Teratogenic effects have been reported. The authors strongly suspected an association between mild but chronic CO poisoning of the mother and major multiple malformations in the baby. Retrospective interviews of the mother disclosed that at 10 weeks' gestation, she had complained of headache and dizziness. At the same time, her 16-month-old daughter had an episode of unconsciousness. A faulty kitchen gas water-heater was suspected but the family did not have it repaired. The mother continued to have headaches regularly. During the 7th month of pregnancy, the daughter was found comatose. In the emergency ward, carboxyhemoglobins levels were 27.5% for the child and 14% for the pregnant mother. Both were treated with hyperbaric oxygen. Investigations by the gas company revealed a highly abnormal CO production from the kitchen and bathroom gas-water heaters: 120 and 100 parts per million, respectively, after 2 minutes of use.

  2. Effect of water on carbon monoxide-oxygen flame velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonald, Glen E

    1954-01-01

    The flame velocities were measured of 20 percent oxygen and 80 percent carbon monoxide mixtures containing either light water or heavy water. The flame velocity increased from 34.5 centimeters per second with no added water to about 104 centimeters per second for a 1.8 percent addition of light water and to 84 centimeters per second for an equal addition of heavy water. The addition of heavy water caused greater increases in flame velocity with equilibrium hydrogen-atom concentration than would be predicted by the Tanford and Pease square-root relation. The ratio of the flame velocity of a mixture containing light water to that of a mixture containing heavy water was found to be 1.4. This value is the same as the ratio of the reaction rate of hydrogen to that of deuterium and oxygen. A ratio of reaction rates of 1.4 would also be required for the square-root law to give the observed ratio of flame-velocity changes.

  3. Tsukamurella carboxydivorans sp. nov., a carbon monoxide-oxidizing actinomycete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sae W; Kim, Sung M; Park, Sang T; Kim, Young M

    2009-06-01

    A Gram-positive, slightly acid-alcohol-fast, carbon monoxide-oxidizing bacterium, strain Y2(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected from a roadside in Seoul, Korea. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence comparative analyses, strain Y2(T) was shown to belong to the genus Tsukamurella and was most closely related to Tsukamurella tyrosinosolvens DSM 44234(T) (GenBank accession no. AY238514; 99.8 %). The predominant fatty acids were C(18 : 1)omega9c and C(16 : 0). The cell-wall peptidoglycan of strain Y2(T) contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. Strain Y2(T) contained galactose and arabinose as the whole cell sugars. The DNA G+C content was 77 mol%. The DNA-DNA relatedness value between strain Y2(T) and T. tyrosinosolvens DSM 44234(T) was 62.7 %. Based on the combination of the carbon source utilization pattern, fatty acid profile, cell-wall chemotype, DNA G+C content and DNA-DNA hybridization experiments, it is proposed that strain Y2(T) (=KCCM 42885(T)=JCM 15482(T)) represents the type strain of a novel species, Tsukamurella carboxydivorans sp. nov.

  4. Mopra Central Molecular Zone Carbon Monoxide Survey Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Rebecca; Burton, Michael; Rowell, Gavin

    2017-01-01

    We present an update on the Mopra Central Molecular Zone Carbon Monoxide (CO) survey, with data taken in 2016 extending the original 3.5° >= l >= 358.5°, +1.0° >= b >= -0.5° to 4.0° >= l >= 358.0°, +1.0° >= b >= -1.0°. Using the four simultaneously observed lines of 12CO, 13CO, C18O, and C17O Nyquist sampled at 0.6' spatial and 0.1 km/s spectral resolution, we are building an optical-thickness-corrected three-dimensional model of the diffuse gas, and making cloud mass estimates. This data, as part of the Mopra Southern Galactic Plane CO Survey (Braiding et al. (2015), Burton et al. (2013)), is at the highest resolution available across such a widespread region, and includes the Sagittarius A, Sagittarius B2, Sagittarius C, and G1.3 cloud complexes, as well as Bania's Clump 2.

  5. The Hydration Structure of Carbon Monoxide by Ab Initio Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Awoonor-Williams, Ernest

    2016-01-01

    The solvation of carbon monoxide (CO) in liquid water is important for understanding its toxicological effects and biochemical roles. In this paper, we use ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) and CCSD(T)-F12 calculations to assess the accuracy of the Straub and Karplus molecular mechanical (MM) model for CO(aq). The CCSD(T)-F12 CO--H2O potential energy surfaces show that the most stable structure corresponds to water donating a hydrogen bond to the C center. The MM-calculated surface it incorrectly predicts that the O atom is a stronger hydrogen bond acceptor than the C atom. The AIMD simulations indicate that CO is solvated like a hydrophobic solute, with very limited hydrogen bonding with water. The MM model tends to overestimate the degree of hydrogen bonding and overestimates the atomic radius of the C atom. The calculated Gibbs energy of hydration is in good agreement with experiment (9.3 kJ/mol calc. vs 10.7 kJ/mol exptl.). The calculated diffusivity of CO(aq) in TIP3P-model water was 5.19 x 10-5 cm2/s ...

  6. Gene expression in rat striatum following carbon monoxide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuichi Hara

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO poisoning causes brain damage, which is attenuated by treatment with hydrogen [1,2], a scavenger selective to hydroxyl radical (·≡OH [3]. This suggests a role of ·≡OH in brain damage due to CO poisoning. Studies have shown strong enhancement of ·≡OH production in rat striatum by severe CO poisoning with a blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb level >70% due to 3000 ppm CO, but not less severe CO poisoning with a blood COHb level at approximately 50% due to 1000 ppm CO [4]. Interestingly, 5% O2 causes hypoxia comparable with that by 3000 ppm CO and produces much less •OH than 3000 ppm CO does [4]. In addition, cAMP production in parallel with ·≡OH production [5] might contribute to ·≡OH production [6]. It is likely that mechanisms other than hypoxia contribute to brain damage due to CO poisoning [7]. To search for the mechanisms, we examined the effects of 1000 ppm CO, 3000 ppm CO and 5% O2 on gene expression in rat striatum. All array data have been deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO database under accession number GSE94780.

  7. Carbon monoxide: silent killer and expert imitator (Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Petrolini

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide is still the most common unintentional poisoning in the Western Countries, and it may often produce potentially serious or lethal acute and delayed clinical manifestations. The considerable variety of symptoms of presentation is the principal reason of the non infrequent diagnostic errors at admission. In emergency medicine it is essential to consider this diagnosis every time a patient is found in state of unconsciousness in an environment with possible exposure to CO, as well as in patients presenting with non-specific syndromes. The prompt identification of the intoxication is essential in order to plan a correct therapy at the proper time, and for prevention of risks of a late neurologic syndrome. Nowadays the diagnosis may be performed through determination of COHb in a fast and non-invasive way, both outside and inside hospitals, thanks to a new generation of specific pulsoxymetrers. After confirmation the patient has to be classified with a grading score for severity depending on clinical presentation, that may be useful also for the choice between normobaric or hyperbaric oxygen treatments. Eventually, it is essential to plan the follow up for the patient during the months following the acute event.

  8. Carbon monoxide: silent killer and expert imitator (Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Petrolini

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide is still the most common unintentional poisoning in the Western Countries, and it may often produce potentially serious or lethal acute and delayed clinical manifestations. The considerable variety of symptoms of presentation is the main reason of the non infrequent diagnostic errors at admission. In emergency medicine it is essential to consider this diagnosis every time a patient is found in state of unconsciousness in an environment with possible exposure to CO, as well as in patients presenting with non-specific syndromes. The prompt identification of the intoxication is essential in order to plan a correct therapy at the proper time, and for preventing of risks of a late neurologic syndrome. After confirmation of the diagnosis through determination of COHb, that may nowadays be performed in a fast and non-invasive way both outside and inside hospitals thanks to a new generation of specific pulsoxyimeters, the patient has to be classified with a grading score for the severity depending on clinical presentation, that may be useful also for choice between normobaric or hyperbaric oxygen treatments. Eventually, it is essential to plan the follow-up for the patient during the months following the acute event.

  9. 40 CFR 1033.505 - Ambient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ambient conditions. 1033.505 Section 1033.505 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS... presumed that combustion air will be drawn from the ambient air. Thus, the ambient temperature limits...

  10. The causal order on the ambient boundary

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniadis, Ignatios; Papadopoulos, Kyriakos

    2016-01-01

    We analyse the causal structure of the ambient boundary, the conformal infinity of the ambient (Poincar\\'e) metric. Using topological tools we show that the only causal relation compatible with the global topology of the boundary spacetime is the horismos order. This has important consequences for the notion of time in the conformal geometry of the ambient boundary.

  11. Estrategia para la sustentabilidad ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Erbiti

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En el contexto de los postulados conceptuales y metodológicos de la planificación estratégica y de sustentabilidad ambiental, el objetivo de esta investigación es describir el proceso de formulación del Plan de Ordenamiento Territorial del Municipio de Tandil (POTM y analizar su potencialidad para avanzar hacia la sustentabilidad ambiental del sistema. Los resultados de la misma muestran que el POTM no sólo prioriza principios, objetivos y estrategias que materializan las diferentes manifestaciones de la sustentabilidad (económica, social, ecológica y política, sino que la totalidad del Plan se fundamenta en el concepto de desarrollo sostenible y, con ello, se establecen prioridades de actuación que posibilitarán la gestión ambiental urbana. Si bien el POTM muestra una gran potencialidad para avanzar hacia la sustentabilidad del territorio, la implementación y cumplimiento del mismo constituye un fuerte desafío para las autoridades de aplicación.

  12. Calibration of water quality index (WQI based on Resolution nº 357/2005 of the Environment National Council (CONAMA Calibração do índice de qualidade da água (IQA com base na Resolução nº 357/2005 do Conselho Nacional do Meio Ambiente (CONAMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Lautert Moretto

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Environmental monitoring studies in the Hydrographical Basin of Pardo River, RS, Brazil, in the time series from 2007 to 2009, showed no agreement between the water quality evaluation obtained through the Water Quality Index (WQI - NSF, which ranged from "regular" to "good", and the Environment National Council (CONAMA Resolution 357/2005, which was bad ("class 4", highlighting as critical variables for this classification the thermotolerant coliforms and the phosphate concentration, indicating process of water eutrophication, related to the large amount of nutrients and organic load from domestic sewage and excess fertilizers used in agriculture. AIM: This research aimed to calibrate the WQI - NSF for the Pardo River Basin, based on the CONAMA Resolution 357/2005. METHODS: Using the database (2007 a 2009 from the Laboratory of Limnology of the University of Santa Cruz do Sul (UNISC, RS, corresponding to the environmental monitoring studies realized in the Hydrographical Basin of Pardo River new weights of the relative importance of the variables used to calculate the WQI were attributed, by means of principal component analysis. RESULTS: There was a significant agreement between the results of the assessment of water quality using the CONAMA Resolution 357/2005 and the new WQI calibrated. CONCLUSION: The results certify the use of the calibrated WQI in environmental monitoring programs in lotic systems belonging to Guaíba Hydrographical Basin, RS.Estudos de monitoramento ambiental na Bacia Hidrográfica do Rio Pardo, RS, Brasil, na série temporal 2007 a 2009, mostraram que não há concordância entre a avaliação da qualidade da água obtida através do Índice da Qualidade da Água (IQA - NSF, que oscilou entre boa e regular, e da Resolução 357/2005 do Conselho Nacional de Meio Ambiente (CONAMA, que foi ruim (classe 4, destacando como variáveis críticas para esta classificação os coliformes termotolerantes e a concentração de

  13. Ambient air quality monitoring at Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (UTAR) Kampar campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Lim Jun; Xinxin, Guo; Ke, Wang

    2017-04-01

    Air Pollutant includes any substance in solid, liquid or gaseous form present in the atmosphere in concentrations which may tend to be injurious to all living creatures, property and environment. In this study, automatic continuous monitoring station was used to monitor concentration of carbon monoxide (CO), non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC), and carbon dioxide (CO2) in the ambient air of Kampar Campus, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman. High-volume air sampler was also used to monitor the concentration of PM2.5 and the collected PM2.5 was further analysed for the heavy metal concentration such as Zinc (Zn), Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu), Arsenic (As), Aluminium (Al), and Lead (Pb) in PM2.5 using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). The overall ambient air quality in the campus area is consider unhealthy as the non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) and carbon dioxide (CO2) average concentration obtained were far exceeding the recommended limit concentration set by United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Meteorological data was found that it does not show much relationship with the air quality data in this study. The concentration of Zn and Al were found the dominant heavy metal in the ambient air. The enrichment factor analysis also shows that the heavy metals contained in PM2.5 mainly origin from the natural source except for the Zn which it is highly contaminated by human activities.

  14. Effect of carbon monoxide, hydrogen and sulfate on thermophilic (55°C) hydrogenogenic carbon monoxide conversion in two anaerobic bioreactor sludges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sipma, J.; Meulepas, R.J.W.; Stams, A.J.M.; Lettinga, G.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2004-01-01

    The conversion routes of carbon monoxide (CO) at 55°C by full-scale grown anaerobic sludges treating paper mill and distillery wastewater were elucidated. Inhibition experiments with 2-bromoethanesulfonate (BES) and vancomycin showed that CO conversion was performed by a hydrogenogenic population an

  15. Exhaled carbon monoxide in asthmatics: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Mao

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The non-invasive assessment of airway inflammation is potentially advantageous in asthma management. Exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO measurement is cheap and has been proposed to reflect airway inflammation and oxidative stress but current data are conflicting. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to determine whether eCO is elevated in asthmatics, is regulated by steroid treatment and reflects disease severity and control. Methods A systematic search for English language articles published between 1997 and 2009 was performed using Medline, Embase and Cochrane databases. Observational studies comparing eCO in non-smoking asthmatics and healthy subjects or asthmatics before and after steroid treatment were included. Data were independently extracted by two investigators and analyzed to generate weighted mean differences using either a fixed or random effects meta-analysis depending upon the degree of heterogeneity. Results 18 studies were included in the meta-analysis. The eCO level was significantly higher in asthmatics as compared to healthy subjects and in intermittent asthma as compared to persistent asthma. However, eCO could not distinguish between steroid-treated asthmatics and steroid-free patients nor separate controlled and partly-controlled asthma from uncontrolled asthma in cross-sectional studies. In contrast, eCO was significantly reduced following a course of corticosteroid treatment. Conclusions eCO is elevated in asthmatics but levels only partially reflect disease severity and control. eCO might be a potentially useful non-invasive biomarker of airway inflammation and oxidative stress in nonsmoking asthmatics.

  16. Carbon Monoxide (CO) Is a Novel Inhibitor of Connexin Hemichannels*

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Paravic, Carmen G.; Figueroa, Vania A.; Guzmán, Diego J.; Valderrama, Carlos F.; Vallejos, Antonio A.; Fiori, Mariana C.; Altenberg, Guillermo A.; Reuss, Luis; Retamal, Mauricio A.

    2014-01-01

    Hemichannels (HCs) are hexamers of connexins that can form gap-junction channels at points of cell contacts or “free HCs” at non-contacting regions. HCs are involved in paracrine and autocrine cell signaling, and under pathological conditions may induce and/or accelerate cell death. Therefore, studies of HC regulation are of great significance. Nitric oxide affects the activity of Cx43 and Cx46 HCs, whereas carbon monoxide (CO), another gaseous transmitter, modulates the activity of several ion channels, but its effect on HCs has not been explored. We studied the effect of CO donors (CORMs) on Cx46 HCs expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes using two-electrode voltage clamp and on Cx43 and Cx46 expressed in HeLa cells using a dye-uptake technique. CORM-2 inhibited Cx46 HC currents in a concentration-dependent manner. The C-terminal domain and intracellular Cys were not necessary for the inhibition. The effect of CORM-2 was not prevented by guanylyl-cyclase, protein kinase G, or thioredoxin inhibitors, and was not due to endocytosis of HCs. However, the effect of CORM-2 was reversed by reducing agents that act extracellularly. Additionally, CO inhibited dye uptake of HeLa cells expressing Cx43 or Cx46, and MCF-7 cells, which endogenously express Cx43 and Cx46. Because CORM-2 carbonylates Cx46 in vitro and induces conformational changes, a direct effect of that CO on Cx46 is possible. The inhibition of HCs could help to understand some of the biological actions of CO in physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:25384983

  17. Carbon monoxide total column retrievals from TROPOMI shortwave infrared measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgraf, Jochen; aan de Brugh, Joost; Scheepmaker, Remco; Borsdorff, Tobias; Hu, Haili; Houweling, Sander; Butz, Andre; Aben, Ilse; Hasekamp, Otto

    2016-10-01

    The Tropospheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) spectrometer is the single payload of the Copernicus Sentinel 5 Precursor (S5P) mission. It measures Earth radiance spectra in the shortwave infrared spectral range around 2.3 µm with a dedicated instrument module. These measurements provide carbon monoxide (CO) total column densities over land, which for clear sky conditions are highly sensitive to the tropospheric boundary layer. For cloudy atmospheres over land and ocean, the column sensitivity changes according to the light path through the atmosphere. In this study, we present the physics-based operational S5P algorithm to infer atmospheric CO columns satisfying the envisaged accuracy ( information on atmospheric scattering. For efficient processing, we deploy a linearized two-stream radiative transfer model as forward model and a profile scaling approach to adjust the CO abundance in the inversion. Based on generic measurement ensembles, including clear sky and cloudy observations, we estimated the CO retrieval precision to be ≤ 11 % for surface albedo ≥ 0.03 and solar zenith angle ≤ 70°. CO biases of ≤ 3 % are introduced by inaccuracies in the methane a priori knowledge. For strongly enhanced CO concentrations in the tropospheric boundary layer and for cloudy conditions, CO errors in the order of 8 % can be introduced by the retrieval of cloud parameters of our algorithm. Moreover, we estimated the effect of a distorted spectral instrument response due to the inhomogeneous illumination of the instrument entrance slit in the flight direction to be < 2 % with pseudo-random characteristics when averaging over space and time. Finally, the CO data exploitation is demonstrated for a TROPOMI orbit of simulated shortwave infrared measurements. Overall, the study demonstrates that for an instrument that performs in compliance with the pre-flight specifications, the CO product will meet the required product performance well.

  18. Carbon monoxide exchange and partitioning of a managed mountain meadow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerle, Albin; Kitz, Florian; Spielmann, Felix; Gerdel, Katharina; Wohlfahrt, Georg

    2016-04-01

    With an average mole fraction of 100 ppb carbon monoxide (CO) plays a critical role in atmospheric chemistry and thus has an indirect global warming potential. While sources/sinks of CO on land at least partially cancel out each other, the magnitude of CO sources and sinks is highly uncertain. Even if direct CO fluxes from/to land ecosystems are very much likely clearly lower in magnitude compared to anthropogenic emissions, biomass burning, emissions from chemical precursors and the OH sink, it may be premature to neglect any direct contributions of land ecosystems to the CO budget. In addition, changes in global climate and resulting changes in global productivity may require re-evaluating older data and assumptions. One major reason for the large uncertainty is a general scarcity of empirical data. An additional factor contributing to the uncertainty is the lack of ecosystem-scale CO exchange measurements, i.e. CO flux data that encompass all sources and sinks within an ecosystem. Here we present data on continuous eddy covariance measurements of CO-fluxes above a managed mountain grassland in combination with soil chamber flux measurements, within- and above-canopy concentration profiles and an inverse Lagrangian analysis to disentangle sinks and sources of CO. Results show the grassland ecosystem to be a net source for CO during daytime, with increasing flux rates at higher solar radiation. At night, if at all, the meadow is a slight sink for CO. The same holds true regarding the soil flux measurements. Additionally, a two-month rainout experiment revealed hardly any differences in CO soil fluxes between rainout- and control-plots unless extremely dry conditions were reached.

  19. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in Chronic Carbon Monoxide Intoxication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durak, A. C.; Coskun, A.; Yikilmaz, A.; Erdogan, F.; Mavili, E.; Guven, M. [Hospital of Erciyes Univ., Kayseri (Turkey). Dept. of Radiology

    2005-05-01

    Purpose: To define the cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of the chronic stage of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning in patients with and without neuropsychiatric sequelae. Material and Methods: Eight patients who had neither symptoms nor neurological sequelae and eight patients with neuropsychiatric sequelae were included in the study. Patients aged between 9 to 57 (mean 32.2 years). All patients had been comatose at initial admittance and awoke after normobaric 100% oxygen therapy within 1-7 days. In this study, the patients were being examined with routine cranial MRI between 1 and 10 years (mean 3.4 years) after exposure to CO. Results: The most common finding was bilateral symmetric hyperintensity of the white matter, which was more significant in the centrum semiovale, with relative sparing of the temporal lobes and anterior parts of the frontal lobes on T2-weighted and FLAIR images in all patients. Cerebral cortical atrophy was seen in 10 patients; mild atrophy of cerebellar hemispheres in 8; and vermian atrophy in 11. Corpus callosum was atrophic in one patient. Bilateral globus pallidus lesions were seen in three patients. The lesions were hypointense on T1-weighted images and hyperintense on T2-weighted and FLAIR images. Conclusion: Patients with severe CO intoxication may develop persistent cerebral changes independently of their neuropsychiatric findings in the chronic stage. They may present with characteristic MRI findings as described here, even if asymptomatic. The history of CO exposure is therefore helpful for recognizing and interpreting the MRI findings of chronic stage CO intoxication.

  20. Carbon monoxide inhalation increases microparticles causing vascular and CNS dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Jiajun; Yang, Ming [Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Kosterin, Paul [Department of Neuroscience, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Salzberg, Brian M. [Department of Physiology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Milovanova, Tatyana N.; Bhopale, Veena M. [Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Thom, Stephen R., E-mail: sthom@smail.umaryland.edu [Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    We hypothesized that circulating microparticles (MPs) play a role in pro-inflammatory effects associated with carbon monoxide (CO) inhalation. Mice exposed for 1 h to 100 ppm CO or more exhibit increases in circulating MPs derived from a variety of vascular cells as well as neutrophil activation. Tissue injury was quantified as 2000 kDa dextran leakage from vessels and as neutrophil sequestration in the brain and skeletal muscle; and central nervous system nerve dysfunction was documented as broadening of the neurohypophysial action potential (AP). Indices of injury occurred following exposures to 1000 ppm for 1 h or to 1000 ppm for 40 min followed by 3000 ppm for 20 min. MPs were implicated in causing injuries because infusing the surfactant MP lytic agent, polyethylene glycol telomere B (PEGtB) abrogated elevations in MPs, vascular leak, neutrophil sequestration and AP prolongation. These manifestations of tissue injury also did not occur in mice lacking myeloperoxidase. Vascular leakage and AP prolongation were produced in naïve mice infused with MPs that had been obtained from CO poisoned mice, but this did not occur with MPs obtained from control mice. We conclude that CO poisoning triggers elevations of MPs that activate neutrophils which subsequently cause tissue injuries. - Highlights: • Circulating microparticles (MPs) increase in mice exposed to 100 ppm CO or more. • MPs are lysed by infusing the surfactant polyethylene glycol telomere B. • CO-induced MPs cause neutrophil activation, vascular leak and CNS dysfunction. • Similar tissue injuries do not arise with MPs obtained from air-exposed, control mice.

  1. Compliance with Washington State's requirement for residential carbon monoxide alarms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil B. Hampson

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO poisoning is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality in the US. In response, a majority of states have passed legislation in recent years requiring the installation of residential CO alarms. There is, however, no published information evaluating compliance with such laws. Employees of a Seattle medical center were surveyed in 2008 regarding home use of CO and smoke alarms. Washington State enacted legislation requiring residential CO alarms by all residences by January 1, 2013. The survey was repeated in mid-2016 to evaluate compliance. In 2016, a total of 354 employees completed the survey and their responses were compared to an equal number of 2008 survey respondents matched by home ownership and ZIP code. Residential CO alarm use rose from 37% to 78% (p < 0.0001. Among homeowners, 78% had alarms while 80% of renters had them. Homeowners with the highest compliance (96% had purchased their homes since January 1, 2013 while those with the lowest compliance (73% had purchased them earlier. A majority (79% of renters without alarms reported the reason was that their landlord did not provide one, a violation of the law. Only one-half to two-thirds of all equipped homes had the required number of either CO or smoke alarms. Use of residential CO alarms increased significantly in this study population three years after law required them. Areas for further improvement include education of landlords, tenants, and longtime homeowners about the law, as well as public education regarding the number of CO and smoke alarms needed.

  2. Identification of the Products of Oxidation of Quercetin by Air Oxygenat Ambient Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor A Utsal

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Oxidation of quercetin by air oxygen takes place in water and aqueous ethanol solutions under mild conditions, namely in moderately-basic media (pH ∼ 8-10 at ambient temperature and in the absence of any radical initiators, without enzymatic catalysis or irradiation of the reaction media by light. The principal reaction products are typical of other oxidative degradation processes of quercetin, namely 3,4-dihydroxy-benzoic (proto-catechuic and 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzoic (phloroglucinic acids, as well as the decarboxylation product of the latter – 1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene (phloroglucinol. In accordance with the literature data, this process involves the cleavage of the γ-pyrone fragment (ring C of the quercetin molecule by oxygen, with primary formation of 4,6-dihydroxy-2-(3,4-dihydroxybenzoyloxybenzoic acid (depside. However under such mild conditions the accepted mechanism of this reaction (oxidative decarbonylation with formation of carbon monoxide, CO should be reconsidered as preferably an oxidative decarboxylation with formation of carbon dioxide, CO2. Direct head-space analysis of the gaseous components formed during quercetin oxidation in aqueous solution at ambient temperature indicates that the ratio of carbon dioxide/carbon monoxide in the gas phase after acidification of the reaction media is ca. 96:4 %. Oxidation under these mild conditions is typical for other flavonols having OH groups at C3 (e.g., kaempferol, but it is completely suppressed if this hydroxyl group is substituted by a glycoside fragment (as in rutin, or a methyl substituent. An alternative oxidation mechanism involving the direct cleavage of the C2-C3 bond in the diketo-tautomer of quercetin is proposed.

  3. 76 FR 67437 - Draft Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Carbaryl-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... AGENCY Draft Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Carbaryl-- 2011 AGENCY: Environmental... availability of draft national recommended water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life from... is today publishing draft national recommended water quality criteria for protecting aquatic life for...

  4. Estados financieros y medio ambiente

    OpenAIRE

    Bischhoffshausen W., Werner von

    2001-01-01

    La contabilización de aspectos ambientales adquiere creciente relevancia para las empresas, en la medida que el deterioro ambiental se convierte en un problema social y político a través de todo el mundo. A todo tipo de organizaciones se les requiere entregar información acerca de sus políticas y objetivos ambientales, de los programas y acciones destinados a lograr estos objetivos, de su generación de riesgos e impactos ambientales y de las medidas para reducirlos o mitigarlos. Si bien es ci...

  5. Responsabilidades municipales en materia ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    Ignacio Pichardo Pagaza

    2009-01-01

    Los municipios tienen una responsabilidad directa, inmediata e ineludible hacia el medio ambiente que hasta hace pocos años no reconocían como pri mor dial sino como una función secundaria. Hoy es más que una obligación jurídica, es un compromiso so cial del nivel de gobierno más cercano a la sociedad. Este trabajo reflexiona en torno a las responsabilidades que la Constitución política impone de manera exclusiva a los municipios y que por su naturaleza tienen efectos directos en el medio ...

  6. Nanomaterials vs Ambient Ultrafine Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stone, Vicki; Miller, Mark R.; Clift, Martin J. D.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A rich literature exists that has demonstrated adverse human health effects following exposure to ambient air particulate matter (PM), with strong support for an important role for ultrafine (nano-sized) particles. At present, relatively little human health or epidemiology data exists...... for engineered nanomaterials (NM) despite clear parallels in their physicochemical properties and biological actions in in vitro models. OBJECTIVES: NMs are available in a range of physicochemical characteristics which allow a more systematic toxicological analysis. Therefore, the study of ultrafine particles...

  7. Ambiente Familiar e Desempenho Escolar

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    O desempenho escolar é um fenómeno multifacetado, que pode ser influenciado por questões individuais, familiares e sociais, fazendo-se necessária a realização de pesquisas que procurem compreender esses aspectos e como eles se inter-relacionam. Nesse sentido, a presente dissertação abordará, especificamente, a relação entre as dimensões do ambiente familiar (coesão familiar, conflito, expressividade, independência, assertividade, interesses culturais/intelectuais e de lazer, religião e nível ...

  8. Educaçao ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    Carneiro,Danielle

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: A idéia desse trabalho surgiu no momento em que me inseri na comunidade de Pontal do Sul, envolvida em distintas atividades educativas com o mesmo público. Uma delas refere-se ao ensino público fundamental e outra à atividades de pesquisa e Educação Ambiental (EA) dentro de um projeto de extensão universitária. A EA vem sendo realizada de forma diversificada, baseada em diferentes concepções, fundamentadas em princípios e diretrizes construídos num momento de difusão da Ecologia e de ...

  9. Compact Instrument for Measurement of Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Southwest Sciences proposes to continue the development of a rugged, compact, and automated instrument for the high sensitivity measurement of tropospheric carbon...

  10. A satellite observation system simulation experiment for carbon monoxide in the lowermost troposphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, David P.; Arellano, Avelino F.; Deeter, Merritt N.

    2009-07-01

    We demonstrate the feasibility of using observing system simulation experiment (OSSE) studies to help define quantitative trace gas measurement requirements for satellite missions and to evaluate the expected performance of proposed observing strategies. The 2007 U.S. National Research Council Decadal Survey calls for a geostationary (GEO) satellite mission for atmospheric composition and air quality applications (Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events Mission (GEO-CAPE)). The requirement includes a multispectral (near-infrared and thermal infrared) measurement of carbon monoxide (CO) at high spatiotemporal resolution with information on lowermost troposphere concentration. We present an OSSE to assess the improvement in surface CO characterization that would result from the addition of a GEO-CAPE CO measurement to current low Earth orbit (LEO) thermal infrared-only measurements. We construct instrument simulators for these two measurement scenarios and study the case of July 2004 when wildfires in Alaska and Canada led to significant CO pollution over the contiguous United States. Compared to a control experiment, an ensemble-based data assimilation of simulated satellite observations in a global model leads to improvements in both the surface CO distributions and the time evolution of CO profiles at locations affected by wildfire plumes and by urban emissions. In all cases, an experiment with the GEO-CAPE CO measurement scenario (overall model skill of 0.84) performed considerably better than the experiment with the current LEO/thermal infrared measurement (skill of 0.58) and the control (skill of 0.07). This demonstrates the advantages of increased sampling from GEO and enhanced measurement sensitivity to the lowermost troposphere with a multispectral retrieval.

  11. Long-term trend in tropospheric carbon monoxide over the globe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girach, I. A.; Nair, Prabha R.

    2016-05-01

    Tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) is an air pollutant and indirect greenhouse gas which plays a major role in atmospheric chemistry involving hydroxyl (OH) radical. We utilised the remote-sensing retrievals of lower-tropospheric CO (at 900 hPa) from Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) aboard Terra-satellite for the period of ~15 years. Using simple linear regression model, we estimated the decreasing trend of ~0-2 %year-1 in the lowertropospheric CO over the globe. Utilising the in-situ measurements of surface-CO over 83 locations carried out by the NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) network, we confirmed the observed negative trend as surface-CO showed decreasing trend over most of the locations. To estimate the trend in columnar CO, we utilised multiple retrievals of from different satellites, MOPITT, AIRS (Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder), and TES (Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer). All data sets show the decreasing trend of 0.2-0.5 %year-1 in columnar CO when averaged over entire globe. However, the heterogeneity in the trend is observed on regional basis. The retrievals of upper-tropospheric CO (at 200 hPa) from MOPITT and AIRS show an increasing trend of 1-4 %year-1 over the globe. However, the retrievals of upper-tropospheric CO from MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder) show decreasing trend. Further investigations are needed to confirm the trend in the upper-tropospheric CO over the globe. The decreasing trend in lower-tropospheric CO and columnar CO could be due to moistening of troposphere and/or increase in tropospheric ozone, causing increase in OH radical (strengthening the depletion of lower-tropospheric CO).

  12. Carbon monoxide formation and emissions during waste incineration in a grate-circulating fluidized bed incinerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanguo Zhang; Qinghai Li; Aihong Meng; Changhe Chen

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of carbon monoxide (CO) formation and emissions in both grate drying bed incinerators and circulating fluidized bed (CFB) incinerators to simulate the two key parts of a combined grate and circulating fluidized bed (grate-CFB) incinerator in order to investigate pollutant emission control in municipal solid waste (MSW) combustion that occurs in a grate-CFB incinerator utilizing a patented technology. Polyvinyl chloride, polystyrene, kitchen waste, paper, textile, etc. were chosen to simulate the MSW. The effects of temperature, air staging, and moisture on the CO formation and emissions were analysed for both the grate drying bed combustion and the CFB combustion. In the grate drying bed, the low temperatures increased the carbon to CO conversion rate which also increased slightly with the moisture content. Industrial field tests in a commercial grate-CFB incinerator showed that the CO concentration at the grate drying bed exit was very high and decreased along furnace height. The carbon to CO conversion rates were 0-20% for the grate drying bed which exceeded the range of 0.8-16% measured in a grate drying bed exit of the commercial grate-CFB incinerator tests. In the commercial grate-CFB incinerator tests, at excess air ratios ranging from 1.5-2.0 or more, the CO emissions decreased to a low and stable level, whose corresponding carbon to CO conversion rates were far lower than 0-10%. The low CO emission is one of the factors enabling the polychlorinated dibenzodioxin/polychlorinated dibenzofuran emissions to satisfy the Chinese national regulations.

  13. A Fire Department Community Health Intervention to Prevent Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Following a Hurricane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Matthew; Jenkins, J Lee; Seaman, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Portable generators are commonly used during electrical service interruptions that occur following large storms such as hurricanes. Nearly all portable generators use carbon based fuels and produce deadly carbon monoxide gas. Despite universal warnings to operate these generators outside only, the improper placement of generators makes these devices the leading cause of engine related carbon monoxide deaths in the United States. The medical literature reports many cases of Carbon Monoxide (CO) toxicity associated with generator use following hurricanes and other weather events. This paper describes how Howard County, Maryland Fire and Rescue (HCFR) Services implemented a public education program that focused on prevention of Carbon Monoxide poisoning from portable generator use in the wake of events where electrical service interruptions occurred or had the potential to occur. A major challenge faced was communication with those members of the population who were almost completely dependent upon electronic and wireless technologies and were without redundancies. HCFR utilized several tactics to overcome this challenge including helicopter based surveillance and the use of geocoded information from the electrical service provider to identify outage areas. Once outage areas were identified, HCFR personnel conducted a door-to-door canvasing of effected communities, assessing for hazards and distributing information flyers about the dangers of generator use. This effort represents one of the first reported examples of a community-based endeavor by a fire department to provide proactive interventions designed to prevent carbon monoxide illness. PMID:24596660

  14. Correlation of computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and clinical outcome in acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Namik; Ozcam, Giray; Kosar, Pinar; Ozcan, Ayse; Basar, Hulya; Kaymak, Cetin

    2016-01-01

    Carbon monoxide is a toxic gas for humans and is still a silent killer in both developed and developing countries. The aim of this case series was to evaluate early radiological images as a predictor of subsequent neuropsychological sequelae, following carbon monoxide poisoning. After carbon monoxide exposure, early computed tomography scans and magnetic resonance imaging findings of a 52-year-old woman showed bilateral lesions in the globus pallidus. This patient was discharged and followed for 90 days. The patient recovered without any neurological sequela. In a 58-year-old woman exposed to carbon monoxide, computed tomography showed lesions in bilateral globus pallidus and periventricular white matter. Early magnetic resonance imaging revealed changes similar to that like in early tomography images. The patient recovered and was discharged from hospital. On the 27th day of exposure, the patient developed disorientation and memory impairment. Late magnetic resonance imaging showed diffuse hyperintensity in the cerebral white matter. White matter lesions which progress to demyelination and end up in neuropsychological sequelae cannot always be diagnosed by early computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in carbon monoxide poisoning. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer Observations of Water Vapor and Carbon Monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael D.; Wolff, Michael J.; Clancy, R. Todd; Murchie, Scott L.

    2009-01-01

    The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) spacecraft began taking observations in September 2006 and has now collected more than a full Martian year of data. Retrievals performed using the near-infrared spectra obtained by CRISM are used to characterize the seasonal and spatial variation of the column abundance of water vapor and the column-averaged mixing ratio of carbon monoxide. CRISM retrievals show nominal behavior in water vapor during northern hemisphere spring and summer with maximum abundance reaching 50 precipitable micrometers. Water vapor abundance during the southern hemisphere spring and summer appears significantly reduced compared to observations by other instruments taken during previous years. The CRISM retrievals show the seasonally and globally averaged carbon monoxide mixing ratio to be 700 ppm, but with strong seasonal variations at high latitudes. The summertime near-polar carbon monoxide mixing ratio falls to 200 ppm in the south and 400 ppm in the north as carbon dioxide sublimates from the seasonal polar ice caps and dilutes noncondensable species including carbon monoxide. At low latitudes, the carbon monoxide mixing ratio varies in response to the mean seasonal cycle of surface pressure.

  16. Vapor Pressure and Evaporation Coefficient of Silicon Monoxide over a Mixture of Silicon and Silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Frank T.; Nuth, Joseph A., III

    2012-01-01

    The evaporation coefficient and equilibrium vapor pressure of silicon monoxide over a mixture of silicon and vitreous silica have been studied over the temperature range (1433 to 1608) K. The evaporation coefficient for this temperature range was (0.007 plus or minus 0.002) and is approximately an order of magnitude lower than the evaporation coefficient over amorphous silicon monoxide powder and in general agreement with previous measurements of this quantity. The enthalpy of reaction at 298.15 K for this reaction was calculated via second and third law analyses as (355 plus or minus 25) kJ per mol and (363.6 plus or minus 4.1) kJ per mol respectively. In comparison with previous work with the evaporation of amorphous silicon monoxide powder as well as other experimental measurements of the vapor pressure of silicon monoxide gas over mixtures of silicon and silica, these systems all tend to give similar equilibrium vapor pressures when the evaporation coefficient is correctly taken into account. This provides further evidence that amorphous silicon monoxide is an intimate mixture of small domains of silicon and silica and not strictly a true compound.

  17. Correlation of computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and clinical outcome in acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namik Ozcan

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objectives: Carbon monoxide is a toxic gas for humans and is still a silent killer in both developed and developing countries. The aim of this case series was to evaluate early radiological images as a predictor of subsequent neuropsychological sequelae, following carbon monoxide poisoning. Case 1: After carbon monoxide exposure, early computed tomography scans and magnetic resonance imaging findings of a 52-year-old woman showed bilateral lesions in the globus pallidus. This patient was discharged and followed for 90 days. The patient recovered without any neurological sequela. Case 2: In a 58-year-old woman exposed to carbon monoxide, computed tomography showed lesions in bilateral globus pallidus and periventricular white matter. Early magnetic resonance imaging revealed changes similar to that like in early tomography images. The patient recovered and was discharged from hospital. On the 27th day of exposure, the patient developed disorientation and memory impairment. Late magnetic resonance imaging showed diffuse hyperintensity in the cerebral white matter. Conclusion: White matter lesions which progress to demyelination and end up in neuropsychological sequelae cannot always be diagnosed by early computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in carbon monoxide poisoning.

  18. The Effect of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning on Platelet Volume in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halise Akça

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Carbon monoxide poisoning is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality. There is increasing evidence supporting the important role of mean platelet volume (MPV as a marker of hypoxia and inflammation. In this study, we aimed to determine changes in MPV values in pediatric patients with carbon monoxide poisoning. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated children who were diagnosed with carbon monoxide poisoning in our hospital between January 2005 and 2014. Results: We included 228 children with carbon monoxide poisoning (49% male in this retrospective, controlled study. The mean age of the patients was 88±56 months. Control group consisted of 200 age-matched healthy children. There was no statistically significant difference in MPV levels between the study and control groups (8.43±1.1 fL and 8.26±0.7 fL, respectively. No correlation of MPV and platelet count with carboxyhemoglobin (COHb was found. Conclusion: In our study, it was determined that MPV value was not a helpful parameter for predicting the diagnosis of acute carbon monoxide poisoning in childhood. The difference between the MPV values and the lack of significance and the absence of correlation between MPV value and COHb level led to the fact that MPV was not a guide indicating the clinical severity of the condition.

  19. Turbine airfoil with ambient cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jr, Christian X.; Marra, John J.; Marsh, Jan H.

    2016-06-07

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and having at least one ambient air cooling system is disclosed. At least a portion of the cooling system may include one or more cooling channels configured to receive ambient air at about atmospheric pressure. The ambient air cooling system may have a tip static pressure to ambient pressure ratio of at least 0.5, and in at least one embodiment, may include a tip static pressure to ambient pressure ratio of between about 0.5 and about 3.0. The cooling system may also be configured such that an under root slot chamber in the root is large to minimize supply air velocity. One or more cooling channels of the ambient air cooling system may terminate at an outlet at the tip such that the outlet is aligned with inner surfaces forming the at least one cooling channel in the airfoil to facilitate high mass flow.

  20. Neurological Effects of Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coskun YARAR

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide poisoning (COP is one of the most common causes of mortality and morbidity due to poisoning in all over the world. Although the incidence of COP has not been known exactly in the childhood, almost one-third of CO exposures occurred in children. The data regarding COP in children are inconclusive. Children may be more vulnerable to CO exposure than adults as a result of their high respiration and metabolic rates, high oxygen metabolism, and immature central nervous system. Recent researches proposed new theories about neurological effects of CO toxicity. The clinical presentations associated acute COP may be various and nonspecific. Unrecognized CO exposure may lead to significant morbidity and mortality. CO exposed children often become symptomatic earlier, and recover more rapidly, than similarly CO exposed adults. Mild clinical signs and symptoms associated with COP are headache, dizziness, weakness, lethargy, and myalgia; however, severe signs and symptoms such as blurred vision, syncope, convulsion, coma, cardiopulmonary arrest and death can also accompany with COP. Neurologic manifestations can include altered mental status at different degrees, neck stiffness, tremor, ataxia, and positive Babinski's sign. Delayed neurologic sequels (DNS of COP might be seen in children like adults. DNS symptoms and signs in children include memory problems, mental retardation, mutism, fecal and urinary incontinence, motor deficits, facial palsy, psychosis, chronic headache, seizures, and epilepsy. After CO exposure children must be cared to detect and treat DNS. Although hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT is reported to prevent development of DNS, its indications, application duration and procedures are controversial in both of the children and adults. Although their predictive values are limited, exposing to CO more than eight hours and suffering from CO-induced coma, cardiac arrest, lactic acidosis, high COHb levels, and pathologic findings

  1. Carbon Monoxide Promotes Lateral Root Formation in Rapeseed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO), an odorless, tasteless and colorless gas, has recently proved to be an important bioactive or signal molecule in mammalian cells, with its effects mediated mainly by nitric oxide (NO). In the present report, we show that exogenous CO induces lateral root (LR) formation, an NO-dependent process. Administration of the CO donor hematin to rapeseed (Brassica napus L. Yangyou 6) seedlings for 3 days, dose-dependently promoted the total length and number of LRs. These responses were also seen following the application of gaseous CO aqueous solutions of different saturated concentrations. Furthermore, the actions of CO on seedlings were fully reversed when the CO scavenger hemoglobin (Hb)or the CO-specific synthetic inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin-Ⅸ (ZnPPIX) were added. Interestingly, depletion of endogenous NO using its specific scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide potassium salt (cPTIO)or the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), led to the complete abolition of LR development, illustrating an important role for endogenous NO in the action of CO on LR formation. However, the or absence of ZnPPIX. Furthermore, using an anatomical approach combined with laser scanning confocal microscopy with the NO-specific fluorophore 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate, we observed that both hematin and SNP increased NO release compared with control samples and that the NO signal was mainly distributed in the LR primordia (LRP), especially after 36 h treatment. The LRP were found to have similar morphology in control, SNP- and hematin-treated seedlings.Similarly, the enhancement of the NO signal by CO at 36 h was differentially quenched by the addition of cPTIO, L-NAME,ZnPPIX and Hb. In contrast, the induction of NO caused by SNP was not affected by the application of ZnPPIX. Therefore,we further deduced that CO induces LR formation probably mediated by the NO/NOS pathway and NO may act

  2. Snowmelt onset hinders bromine monoxide heterogeneous recycling in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burd, Justine A.; Peterson, Peter K.; Nghiem, Son V.; Perovich, Don K.; Simpson, William R.

    2017-08-01

    Reactive bromine radicals (bromine atoms, Br, and bromine monoxide, BrO) deplete ozone and alter tropospheric oxidation chemistry during the Arctic springtime (February-June). As spring transitions to summer (May-June) and snow begins to melt, reactive bromine events cease and BrO becomes low in summer. In this study, we explore the relationship between the end of the reactive bromine season and snowmelt timing. BrO was measured by Multi-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectrometer at Utqiaġvik (Barrow), AK, from 2012 to 2016 and on drifting buoys deployed in Arctic sea ice from 2011 to 2016, a total of 13 site and year combinations. The BrO seasonal end date (SED) was objectively determined and was compared to surface-air-temperature-derived melt onset date (MOD). The SED was highly correlated with the MOD (N = 13, R2 = 0.983, RMS = 1.9 days), and BrO is only observed at subfreezing temperatures. In subsets of these sites and years where ancillary data were available, we observed that snowpack depth reduced and rain precipitation occurred within a few days of the SED. These data are consistent with snowpack melting hindering BrO recycling, which is necessary to maintain enhanced BrO concentrations. With a projected warmer Arctic, a shift to earlier snowmelt seasons could alter the timing and role of halogen chemical reactions in the Arctic with impacts on ozone depletion and mercury deposition.Plain Language SummaryReactive bromine events in the Arctic are common in spring and deplete ozone and cause mercury deposition. These events are affected by snow and ice, which are changing in the Arctic; therefore, we need to understand how environmental conditions affect reactive bromine chemistry. We find that the reactive bromine season ends when snowpack begins to melt. Through these full seasonal observations, we find that reactive bromine events occur to warmer temperatures than previously reported, with 0°C being the observed threshold above which reactive

  3. Multimodality evoked potentials in patients with delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiahong Wang; Bo Xiao; Renjun Gu; Lan Xiao; Yi Yang; Yinhui Hao; Nini Wang; Junlin Mu; Jinggang Yin

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic values in patients with delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Methods: The tibial nerve somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs), vision evoked potentials (VEPs), and brain stem audition evoked potentials(BAEPs) were performed in 32 healthy adults and 43 patients with delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Results: This paper indicated abnormalities of tibial nerve SEPs in 31 patients (31/43, 72.1%), VEPs in 17 patients (17/28, 60.7%), and BAEPs in 14 patients (14/43, 32.6%). These results showed that the greatest diagnostic value was SEPs, followed by VEPs and, BAEPs with the lowest sensitivity. Conclusion: Multimodality evoked potentials (EPs) can be used for evaluating the diagnostic and prognostic values in cases of delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

  4. Effect of carbon monoxide inhibition on the growth of an aquatic streptomycete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francisco, D.E.; Silvey, J.K.G.

    1971-01-01

    A recent investigation has shown that the primary mycelium of aquatic streptomycetes is facultatively aerobic while the secondary mycelium is obligately aerobic. The nature of the differences in aerobic metabolism of various morphological phases in the life history was determined by carbon monoxide inhibition. A slide culture chamber technique which allowed continuous microscopic observation of the growing organism while in various gas environments was used. Two distinct patterns of inhibition were observed. The development of early stages of the life history was inhibited by carbon monoxide in the light and the dark. The site of this inhibition could not be determined. The later stages were inhibited only by carbon monoxide in the dark. This suggested a dependence of the secondary mycelium on the activity of cytochrome oxidase. Thus, the primary and secondary mycelial stages were found to be physiologically distinct.

  5. St. Mary's Villa carbon monoxide accumulation incident review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-05-15

    On December 26th 2010, carbon monoxide accumulation within St. Mary's Villa led to the deaths of 3 residents. This extended care facility, located in Humboldt, Saskatchewan, was constructed in 1962 and periodic additions to the building were made up to 1990. The Saskatoon Health Region, which operates the facility, hired March Consulting Associates Inc. to perform a review of the investigation reports of the incident. This review demonstrated that during the night of December 25th to December 26th, 2010, several factors, including large gaps in the make-up air unit and extreme wind, led to backdraft conditions in a boiler of the dust wing mechanical room. Exhaust gases, including carbon monoxide, then built up in the room and were blown into the dust wing by the supply air fan. The report indicates the accumulation of carbon monoxide was not caused by one factor but several.

  6. Substantially isotactic, linear, alternating copolymers of carbon monoxide and an olefin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Ayusman; Jiang, Zhaozhong

    1996-01-01

    The compound, [Pd(Me-DUPHOS)(MeCN).sub.2 ](BF.sub.4).sub.2, [Me-DUPHOS: 1,2-bis(2,5-dimethylphospholano)benzene] is an effective catalyst for the highly enantioselective, alternating copolymerization of olefins, such as aliphatic .alpha.-olefins, with carbon monoxide to form optically active, isotactic polymers which can serve as excellent starting materials for the synthesis of other classes of chiral polymers. For example, the complete reduction of a propylene-carbon monoxide copolymer resulted in the formation of a novel, optically active poly(1,4-alcohol). Also, the previously described catalyst is a catalyst for the novel alternating isomerization cooligomerization of 2-butene with carbon monoxide to form optically active, isotactic poly(1,5-ketone)

  7. Carbon Dioxide in Exoplanetary Atmospheres: Rarely Dominant Compared to Carbon Monoxide and Water

    CERN Document Server

    Heng, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the abundance of carbon dioxide in exoplanetary atmospheres. We construct analytical models of systems in chemical equilibrium that include carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, water, methane and acetylene and relate the equilibrium constants of the chemical reactions to temperature and pressure via the tabulated Gibbs free energies. We prove that such chemical systems may be described by a quintic equation for the mixing ratio of methane. By examining the abundances of these molecules across a broad range of temperatures (spanning equilibrium temperatures from 600 to 2500 K), pressures (via temperature-pressure profiles that explore albedo and opacity variations) and carbon-to-oxygen ratios (from 0.1 to 100), we conclude that carbon dioxide is subdominant compared to carbon monoxide and water. Atmospheric mixing does not alter this conclusion if carbon dioxide is subdominant everywhere in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide may attain comparable abundances if th...

  8. Predicateμ-Calculus for Mobile Ambients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-Min Lin

    2005-01-01

    Ambient logics have been proposed to describe properties for mobile agents which may evolve over time as well as space. This paper takes a predicate-based approach to extending an ambient logic with recursion, yielding a predicate t-calculus in which fixpoint formulas are formed using predicate variables. An algorithm is developed for model checking finite-control mobile ambients against formulas of the logic, providing the first decidability result for model checking a spatial logic with recursion.

  9. Det ambientes fænomenologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther-Hansen, Mads

    2014-01-01

    Det ambiente: sansning, medialisering, omgivelse er et aktuelt og ambitiøst værk. Bogen skildrer hvordan ambiente fænomener har fået en stigende betydning i den moderne verden, og redegør for måden hvorpå det ambiente virker ind på hele vores oplevelseskultur. Det er en levende, uprætentiøs og frem...

  10. Intellectual productivity under task ambient lighting

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    A subjective experiment was conducted to evaluate intellectual productivity in three lighting conditions: (a) conventional ambient lighting, (b) task ambient lighting with normal colour temperature (5000 K), and (c) task ambient lighting with high colour temperature (6200 K). In the experiment, cognitive tasks were given to 24 participants. The concentration time ratio, which is a quantitative and objective evaluation index of the degree of concentration, was measured. The results showed that...

  11. Det ambientes fænomenologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther-Hansen, Mads

    2014-01-01

    Det ambiente: sansning, medialisering, omgivelse er et aktuelt og ambitiøst værk. Bogen skildrer hvordan ambiente fænomener har fået en stigende betydning i den moderne verden, og redegør for måden hvorpå det ambiente virker ind på hele vores oplevelseskultur. Det er en levende, uprætentiøs og frem...

  12. 75 FR 2938 - National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ... respiratory symptoms to serious indicators of respiratory morbidity including emergency department visits and hospital admissions for respiratory causes, and possibly cardiovascular-related morbidity as well as total... management techniques. The EPA recognizes that USDA has been working with the agricultural community to...

  13. II National Environment Congress; II Congreso Nacional de Medio Ambiente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camacho Serna, F.

    1994-12-31

    The paper summarizes the most relevant opinions expressed during the opening act of the II Natural Environment Congress, which took place in Madrid from the 21 ``st to the 25``st of November 1994. The objective of the Congress was the analysis of the environmental situation in Spain. (Author)

  14. Assessment of exposure to carbon monoxide group of firefighters from fire fighting and rescue units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadwiga Lembas-Bogaczyk

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Firemen threat during fire burning of chemical substances indicated presence of carbon monoxide (CO in all cases. Carbon monoxide causes death of fire. Inhaled through respiratory system, links with hemoglobin, thus blocking transport and distribution of oxygen in the body. This leads to tissue anoxia, which is a direct threat to firefighters’ life. The purpose of this study was to assess the exposure to carbon monoxide of participating firefighters extinguishing fire. Estimation of carbon monoxide quantity absorbed by firefighters was isolated in a group of 40 firefighters from Fire Extinguishing and Rescue Unit of State Fire in Nysa. The study was conducted by measuring carbon monoxide in exhaled air. For measurement of carbon monoxide concentration in exhaled air Micro CO meter was used. Results were demonstrated separately for nonsmokers (n425 and smokers (n415. Mean COHb[%] levels in nonsmokers, measured prior the rescue action was 0,3950,3% and increased statistically significant after the action to 0,6150,34%, while in the group smokers, this level was 2,1750,64% before the action and increased insignificantly after the action to 2,3350,63%. The average COHb level in the same groups before and after exercise, was respectively: for nonsmokers prior to exercise was 0,4850,28% and after exercise decreased statistically significant to 0,3050,27%. In the group of smokers before exercise was 2,2350,61% and decreased statistically significant up to 1,5450,71%. It was no difference between the group of age and time of employment.

  15. Ambient noise near the sea-route

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Ambient noise data measured in an experiment conducted in shallow water near a sea-route were analyzed. It was observed that, at low frequency, the horizontal correlation has an obvious difference from that predicted by the classical ambient noise model. The theoretical analyses show that this phenomenon is caused by wind noise together with the discrete shipping noise nearby. An ambient noise model was proposed to include the effects caused by both the noise sources. Data measured at different times verify that the proposed model can be used to forecast the ambient noise field in shallow water near the sea-route.

  16. Ambient noise near the sea-route

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Li; LI ZhengLin; PENG ZhaoHui

    2009-01-01

    Ambient noise data measured in an experiment conducted in shallow water near a sea-route were analyzed. It was observed that, at low frequency, the horizontal correlation has an obvious difference from that predicted by the classical ambient noise model. The theoretical analyses show that this phenomenon is caused by wind noise together with the discrete shipping noise nearby. An ambient noise model was proposed to include the effects caused by both the noise sources. Data measured at different times verify that the proposed model can be used to forecast the ambient noise field in shal-low water near the sea-route.

  17. Ambient temperature signalling in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigge, Philip A

    2013-10-01

    Plants are exposed to daily and seasonal fluctuations in temperature. Within the 'ambient' temperature range (about 12-27°C for Arabidopsis) temperature differences have large effects on plant growth and development, disease resistance pathways and the circadian clock without activating temperature stress pathways. It is this developmental sensing and response to non-stressful temperatures that will be covered in this review. Recent advances have revealed key players in mediating temperature signals. The bHLH transcription factor PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR4 (PIF4) has been shown to be a hub for multiple responses to warmer temperature in Arabidopsis, including flowering and hypocotyl elongation. Changes in chromatin state are involved in transmitting temperature signals to the transcriptome. Determining the precise mechanisms of temperature perception represents an exciting goal for the field.

  18. Cyclic process for producing methane from carbon monoxide with heat removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Albert C.; Yang, Chang-lee

    1982-01-01

    Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams are converted to methane by a cyclic, essentially two-step process in which said carbon monoxide is disproportionated to form carbon dioxide and active surface carbon deposited on the surface of a catalyst, and said carbon is reacted with steam to form product methane and by-product carbon dioxide. The exothermic heat of reaction generated in each step is effectively removed during each complete cycle so as to avoid a build up of heat from cycle-to-cycle, with particularly advantageous techniques being employed for fixed bed, tubular and fluidized bed reactor operations.

  19. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulation study of successive hydrogenation reactions of carbon monoxide producing methanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Thi Nu; Ono, Shota; Ohno, Kaoru

    2016-04-01

    Doing ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, we demonstrate a possibility of hydrogenation of carbon monoxide producing methanol step by step. At first, the hydrogen atom reacts with the carbon monoxide molecule at the excited state forming the formyl radical. Formaldehyde was formed after adding one more hydrogen atom to the system. Finally, absorption of two hydrogen atoms to formaldehyde produces methanol molecule. This study is performed by using the all-electron mixed basis approach based on the time dependent density functional theory within the adiabatic local density approximation for an electronic ground-state configuration and the one-shot GW approximation for an electronic excited state configuration.

  20. [Effect of lead and carbon monoxide under the condition of diabetic metabolism (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlipköter, H W; Klitzke, M; Unnewehr, J

    1979-06-01

    The NZO-Mice were used to study the influence of carbon monoxide and lead under the condition of diabetic metabolism. The animals treated with 80 ppm (COHb 10.81) showed significantly lower tolerance for glucose. Even after removing the burden of carbon monoxide for 50 days, the blood sugar level after glucose tolerance test remained in experimental animals significantly higher than in controls (20-min-value). The NZO-Mice after enteral lead exposition showed no significant changes of the condition of the diabetic metabolism after the glucose tolerance test. However, the NZO-Mice, compared to NMRI mice and rats, reached significantly higher level of blood sugar.

  1. Toward Carbon Monoxide-Based Therapeutics: Critical Drug Delivery and Developability Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xingyue; Damera, Krishna; Zheng, Yueqin; Yu, Bingchen; Otterbein, Leo E; Wang, Binghe

    2016-02-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is an intrinsic signaling molecule with importance on par with that of nitric oxide. During the past decade, pharmacologic studies have amply demonstrated the therapeutic potential of carbon monoxide. However, such studies were mostly based on CO inhalation and metal-based CO-releasing molecules. The field is now at the stage that a major effort is needed to develop pharmaceutically acceptable forms of CO for delivery via various routes such as oral, injection, infusion, or topical applications. This review examines the state of the art, discusses the existing hurdles to overcome, and proposes developmental strategies necessary to address remaining drug delivery issues.

  2. Range Measurements of keV Hydrogen Ions in Solid Oxygen and Carbon Monoxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jørgen; Sørensen, H.; Andersen, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    Ranges of 1.3–3.5 keV/atom hydrogen and deuterium molecular ions have been measured by a thin-film reflection method. The technique, used here for range measurements in solid oxygen and carbon monoxide targets, is identical to the one used previously for range measurements in hydrogen and nitrogen....... The main aim was to look for phase-effects, i.e. gas-solid differences in the stopping processes. While measured ranges in solid oxygen were in agreement with known gas data, the ranges in solid carbon monoxide were up to 50% larger than those calculated from gas-stopping data. The latter result agrees...

  3. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning during Pregnancy: Presentation of a Rare Severe Case with Fetal Bladder Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Delomenie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide poisoning during pregnancy is a rare and potentially serious condition. Fetal complications are uncommon, related to anoxic lesions. The severity of these complications does not depend on the level of maternal COHb. We report the case of a 22-year-old pregnant woman who at 30 weeks of gestation had carbon monoxide poisoning secondary to a fire in her home, complicated by cardiac arrest and severe fetal damage. The child had not brain damage, but presented bladder lesions not previously described, with urinary ascites complicating megacystis.

  4. Isolated symmetrical bilateral basal ganglia T2 hyperintensity in carbon monoxide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhaschandra S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide poisoning is not uncommon during the winter months. To make a diagnosis, strong clinical suspicion and acumen, and history of the exposure are necessary. Many a time, the presenting complaints may fail to help reach a diagnosis, in the absence of history. Imaging plays a role in the diagnosis of brain injury with the characteristic features, which are correlated with the clinical profile. Isolated bilateral basal ganglia injury revealing T2 hyperintensity in MRI may be observed in acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

  5. Untangling the Energetics and Dynamics of Boron Monoxide Radical Reactions (11BO; X2Sigma+)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-15

    energy-density molecules and builds up on our previously successful synthesis of higher carbon oxides COx (x=3-6). Higher-order carbon sulfides - carbon...3.1. Crossed Beam Reactions of Boron Monoxide with Acetylene anmd Ethylene (P1, P8) The reaction dynamics of boron monoxide (BO; X2Σ...with acetylene (C2H2; X1Σg+) and with ethylene (C2H4; X1Ag) were investigated under single collision conditions at collision energy of 12 to 13 kJ mol

  6. Utility of the Measurement of Carboxyhemoglobin Level at the Site of Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Onodera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study examined the hypothesis that correlations exist between the carbon monoxide exposure time and the carboxyhemoglobin concentration at the site of carbon monoxide poisoning, using a pulse carbon monoxide oximeter in rural areas or the carboxyhemoglobin concentration measured at a given medical institution. Background. In previous studies, no definitive relationships between the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin level and the severity of carbon monoxide poisoning have been observed. Method. The subjects included patients treated for acute carbon monoxide poisoning in whom a medical emergency team was able to measure the carboxyhemoglobin level at the site of poisoning. We examined the relationship between the carboxyhemoglobin level at the site of poisoning and carbon monoxide exposure time and the relationships between the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin level and carbon monoxide exposure time. Results. A total of 10 patients met the above criteria. The carboxyhemoglobin levels at the site of poisoning were significantly and positively correlated with the exposure time (rs = 0.710, p=0.021, but the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin levels were not correlated with the exposure time. Conclusion. In rural areas, the carboxyhemoglobin level measured at the site of carbon monoxide poisoning correlated with the exposure time.

  7. Electrochemical oxidation of carbon monoxide: from platinum single crystals to low temperature fuel cells catalysts. Part I: Carbon monoxide oxidation onto low index platinum single crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PHILIP N. ROSS JR

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical oxidation of carbon monoxide and the interfacial structure of the CO adlayer (COads on platinum low index single crystals, Pt(111, Pt(100 and two reconstruction of Pt(110, were examined using the rotation disk electrode method in combination with the in situ surface X-ray diffraction scattering technique. The mechanism of CO oxidation is discussed on the basis of the findings that, depending on the potential, two energetic states of COads exist on the platinum surfaces. Thus, at lower potentials, weakly bonded states (COads,w and at higher potentials strongly bonded states (COads,s are formed. The mechanism of the oxidation of hydrogen-carbon monoxide mixtures is also proposed.

  8. THE NATIONAL PROGRAM OF TRAINING SYSTEMS QUALITY AND ENVIRONMENT. CURRICULAR TRANSFORMATION AN EXPERIENCE IN UNDER THE UNIVERSITY NEW VENEZUELAN / EL PROGRAMA NACIONAL DE FORMACIÓN EN SISTEMAS DE CALIDAD Y AMBIENTE. UNA EXPERIENCIA DE TRANSFORMACIÓN CURRICULAR EN EL MARCO DE LA NUEVA UNIVERSIDAD VENEZOLANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Rosario Moreno Pino

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The Venezuelan university before the Bolivarian Revolution was characterized by institutional behavior that essentially promoted the exclusion for income level, university management linked to capitalist bourgeois interests, outdated laws remained in force and decontextualized, in its generality, the practice of university graduates was reproductive foreign models characteristic of the capitalist system. This reality has been changing radically progressive and after the enactment of the Constitution of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela in 1999, the creation of the Bolivarian University, the Sucre Mission, Mission Alma Mater, the decree of Education Law, among other initiatives of the Bolivarian government. In this reality, originates the National Training Program in Quality Systems and Environment (PNFSCA as a college project, designed for a social, political, economic and cultural different: XXI century socialism. This paper aims to present the experience of reconstruction curriculum of this PNFSCA, through the joint efforts of Venezuelan and Cuban specialists in the areas of quality, environment and curriculum. As main results are, first, the determination of PNFSCA links with the Simón Bolívar National Project 2007-2013, curricular reconstruction of their goals, objectives, structure, curriculum, professional profiles and development of several programs Synoptics. Finally done, as a proposal, design and presentation of a master in the same program, aimed at teachers who administer it.RESUMENLa universidad venezolana antes de la Revolución Bolivariana se caracterizó por un comportamiento institucional que esencialmente promovía la exclusión para el ingreso al nivel, una gestión universitaria ligada a intereses de la burguesía capitalista, mantuvo en vigencia leyes obsoletas y descontextualizadas; en su generalidad, la práctica de los egresados universitarios era reproductora de modelos foráneos característicos del sistema

  9. Rol del tribunal ambiental administrativo: proteccion y prevencion en materia ambiental

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rojas, Heilin; Garcia, Ma. Graciela

    2008-01-01

    A traves de este articulo, se pretende difundir la existencia de un organo llamado "Tribunal Ambiental Administrativo" que tutela la legislacion ambiental y los recursos naturales donde todo ciudadano...

  10. Disputas pela legitimação de lógicas de uso e apropriação do meio natural: conservação ambiental, representações e conflitos no entorno do Parque Nacional das Emas – GO Disputes for the legitimisation of logics of use and ownership of the natural environment: environmental conservation, representations and conflicts in the surroundings of Emas National Park - GO Disputas por la legitimación de lógicas de uso y apropiación del medio natural: conservación ambiental, representaciones y conflictos en el entorno del Parque Nacional de las Emas – GO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Cândido Fleury

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available PortuguêsEste artigo visa discutir reconfigurações nas dinâmicas sociais a partir da incorporação de demandas provenientes da “questão ambiental”, tomando por base empírica o conflito no entorno do Parque Nacional das Emas, unidade de conservação ambiental localizada na divisa entre os estados de Goiás, Mato Grosso e Mato Grosso do Sul. Após observação direta, pesquisa documental, técnicas de associações livres de palavras e entrevistas semiestruturadas com 51 agentes na área de estudo, constata-se que a vivência coletiva da unidade de conservação possibilita uma atualização dos conflitos anteriormente existentes, podendo-se concluir que, nos embates pela apropriação do ambiente, estão em disputa sentidos culturais, pautados não apenas pelos interesses objetivos, mas também pelos significados que os distintos grupos sociais projetam para a construção comum do mundo ao seu redor.EnglishThis article aims to discuss reconfigurations in social dynamics starting from the incorporation of demands from "environmental issues", taking, on an empirical base, the conflict in the surroundings of EMAS National Park, environmental conservation unit located on the border of the States of Goiás, Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul. After direct observation, desk research, techniques of free associations of words and semi structured interviews with 51 agents in the area of study, it is noted that the collective experience of the conservation unit enables an update of previously existing conflicts. One can therefore conclude that in collisions by ownership of the environment, cultural senses are in dispute, guided not only by objective interests, but also by the meanings that different social groups design for the collective construction of the world around them.EspañolEste artículo visa discutir reconfiguraciones en las dinámicas sociales a partir de la incorporación de demandas provenientes de la “cuestión ambiental

  11. Temperature-dependent association between mortality rate and carbon monoxide level in a subtropical city: Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Ming; Liao, Chen-Mao

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the combined effect of temperature and air pollutant levels on daily non-accidental deaths and cardiovascular causes of mortality. In this study, associations were assessed by means of time-series analyses over the period 1995-1999 for Kaohsiung, Taiwan's largest industrial city, which has a subtropical climate. Ambient exposures to various air pollutants, including carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), ozone (O(3)), nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), and particulate matter (PM(10)), were estimated from the arithmetic means of all daily measurements taken by an air quality monitoring station nearest to the residential district. Generalized additive models with non-parametric spline were used to identify associations between daily mortality and air pollutants as well as the air pollutant-temperature interaction correlation. Our findings indicate that CO is associated with increased risks of non-accidental and cardiovascular mortality. For a 0.2 ppm increase in CO, the increased relative daily risk of non-accidental death is at least 4% on the same day, when the mean temperature is above 24.8 degrees C, while the increased relative risk of mortality due to cardiovascular diseases is 7% two days later at 19.7 degrees C. The study also suggests a statistically significant interaction between CO concentration and daily mean temperature, with non-accidental mortality increasing with a warm outdoor temperature and the effect of CO on cardiovascular mortality being modified by a cold climate. Further reduction of CO pollution is thus deemed crucial for the benefit of public health.

  12. Carbon Monoxide Accumulation in the Extravehicular Mobility Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conkin, J.; Norcrosss, J. R.; Alexander, D. J.; Sanders, R. W.; Makowski, M. S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Life support technology in large closed systems like submarines and space stations catalyzes carbon monoxide (CO) to carbon dioxide, which is easily removed. However, in a small system like the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), spacesuit, CO from exogenous (contaminated oxygen (O (sub 2) supply) and endogenous (human metabolism) sources will accumulate in the free suit volume. The free volume becomes a sink for CO that is rebreathed by the astronaut. The accumulation through time depends on many variables: the amount absorbed by the astronaut, the amount produced by the astronaut (between 0.28 and 0.34 ?moles per hour per kilogram)[1], the amount that enters the suit from contaminated O (sub 2), the amount removed through suit leak, the free volume of the suit, and the O (sub 2) partial pressure[2], just to list a few. Contamination of the EMU O (sub 2) supply with no greater than 1 part per million CO was the motivation for empirical measurements from CO pulse oximetry (SpCO) as well as mathematical modeling of the EMU as a rebreather for CO. Methods: We developed a first-order differential mixing equation as well as an iterative method to compute CO accumulation in the EMU. Pre-post measurements of SpCO (Rad-57, Masimo Corporation) from EMU ground training and on-orbit extravehicular activities (EVAs) were collected. Results: Initial modeling without consideration of the astronaut as a sink but only the source of CO showed that after 8 hours breathing 100 percent O (sub 2) with a 10 milliliter per minute (760 millimeters Hg at 21 degrees Centigrade standard) suit leak, an endogenous production rate of 0.23 moles per hour per kilogram for a 70 kilogram person with 42 liters (1.5 cubic feet) free suit volume resulted in a peak CO partial pressure (pCO) of 0.047 millimeters Hg at 4.3 pounds per square inch absolute (222 millimeters Hg). Preliminary results based on a 2008 model[3] with consideration of the astronaut as a sink and source of CO

  13. Spatial Analysis of BioAmbients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming; Pilegaard, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    Programming language technology can contribute to the development and understanding of Systems Biology by providing formal calculi for specifying and analysing the dynamic behaviour of biological systems. Our focus is on BioAmbients, a variation of the ambient calculi developed for modelling...

  14. Hybrid Logical Analyses of the Ambient Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolander, Thomas; Hansen, Rene Rydhof

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, hybrid logic is used to formulate three control flow analyses for Mobile Ambients, a process calculus designed for modelling mobility. We show that hybrid logic is very well-suited to express the semantic structure of the ambient calculus and how features of hybrid logic can...

  15. Control Flow Analysis for BioAmbients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Priami, C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a static analysis for investigating properties of biological systems specified in BioAmbients. We exploit the control flow analysis to decode the bindings of variables induced by communications and to build a relation of the ambients that can interact with each other. We...

  16. Spatial Analysis of BioAmbients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming; Pilegaard, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    Programming language technology can contribute to the development and understanding of Systems Biology by providing formal calculi for specifying and analysing the dynamic behaviour of biological systems. Our focus is on BioAmbients, a variation of the ambient calculi developed for modelling...

  17. Ambiente e salute nei siti inquinati

    OpenAIRE

    Cori, Liliana

    2007-01-01

    Il 14 dicembre scorso si ? svolto a Roma il seminario "Studi su ambiente e salute nei siti inquinati: prospettive di sviluppo metodologico e applicativo" organizzato dall'istituto di fisiologia clinica del CNR e dal Dipartimento ambiente e connessa prevenzione primaria dell'Istituto Superiore di sanit?

  18. Evaluating Ambient Displays in the Wild

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Messeter, Jörn; Molenaar, Daryn

    A prominent issue for evaluating ambient displays has been the conflict between the relative intrusiveness of evaluation methods and the intention to keep the display at the periphery of the user’s attention. There is a general lack of research discussing the difficulties of evaluating ambient...... displays in the wild, and in particular social aspects of use has received little attention. This paper presents a case study of an ambient light display designed for a public setting. Based on results from a non-intrusive in situ evaluation, we argue that viewing ambient displays as features of a broader...... social setting may aid our understanding of issues regarding the evaluation of ambient displays in the wild....

  19. Ambient air pollution and risk of birth defects in Southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, Beate; Yu, Fei; Fruin, Scott; Chapa, Guadalupe; Shaw, Gary M; Harris, John A

    2002-01-01

    The authors evaluated the effect of air pollution on the occurrence of birth defects ascertained by the California Birth Defects Monitoring Program in neonates and fetuses delivered in southern California in 1987-1993. By using measurements from ambient monitoring stations of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and particulate matter <10 microm in aerodynamic diameter, they calculated average monthly exposure estimates for each pregnancy. Conventional, polytomous, and hierarchical logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios for subgroups of cardiac and orofacial defects. Odds ratios for cardiac ventricular septal defects increased in a dose-response fashion with increasing second-month CO exposure (odds ratio (OR)(2nd quartile) CO = 1.62, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05, 2.48; OR(3rd quartile) CO = 2.09, 95% CI: 1.19, 3.67; OR(4th quartile) CO = 2.95, 95% CI: 1.44, 6.05). Similarly, risks for aortic artery and valve defects, pulmonary artery and valve anomalies, and conotruncal defects increased with second-month ozone exposure. The study was inconclusive for other air pollutants. The authors' results are supported by the specificity of the timing of the effect and some evidence from animal data; however, this is the first known study to link ambient air pollution during a vulnerable window of development to human malformations. Confirmation by further studies is needed.

  20. Ambient air monitoring plan for Ciudad Acuna and Piedra Negras, Coahuila, Mexico. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winberry, J.; Henning, L.; Crume, R.

    1998-01-01

    The Cities of Ciudad Acuna and Piedras Negras and the State of Coahuila in Mexico are interested in improving ambient air quality monitoring capabilities in the two cities through the establishment of a network of ambient air monitors. The purpose of the network is to characterize population exposure to potentially harmful air contaminants, possibly including sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), ozone (O{sub 3}), carbon monoxide (CO), total suspended particulate matter (TSP), particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 100 micrometers PM-10, and lead. This report presents the results of an evaluation of existing air quality monitoring equipment and facilities in Ciudad Acuna and Piedras Negras. Additionally, the report presents recommendations for developing an air quality monitoring network for PM-10, SO{sub 2}, lead, and ozone in these cities, using a combination of both new and existing equipment. The human resources currently available and ultimately needed to operate and maintain the network are also discussed.

  1. Ambient Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Malformations in Atlanta, Georgia, 1986–2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Mitchel; Correa, Adolfo; Reller, Mark D.; Mahle, William T.; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany J.; Botto, Lorenzo D.; Flanders, W. Dana; Mulholland, James A.; Siffel, Csaba; Marcus, Michele; Tolbert, Paige E.

    2009-01-01

    Associations between ambient air pollution levels during weeks 3–7 of pregnancy and risks of cardiovascular malformations were investigated among the cohort of pregnancies reaching at least 20 weeks’ gestation that were conceived during January 1, 1986–March 12, 2003, in Atlanta, Georgia. Surveillance records obtained from the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program, which conducts active, population-based surveillance on this cohort, were reviewed to classify cardiovascular malformations. Ambient 8-hour maximum ozone and 24-hour average carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter with an average aerodynamic diameter of <10 μm (PM10), and sulfur dioxide measurements were obtained from centrally located stationary monitors. Temporal associations between these pollutants and daily risks of secundum atrial septal defect, aortic coarctation, hypoplastic left heart syndrome, patent ductus arteriosus, valvar pulmonary stenosis, tetralogy of Fallot, transposition of the great arteries, muscular ventricular septal defect, perimembranous ventricular septal defect, conotruncal defects, left ventricular outflow tract defect, and right ventricular outflow defect were modeled by using Poisson generalized linear models. A statistically significant association was observed between PM10 and patent ductus arteriosus (for an interquartile range increase in PM10 levels, risk ratio = 1.60, 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 2.31). Of the 60 associations examined in the primary analysis, no other significant associations were observed. PMID:19258486

  2. Ambient air pollution exposure and full-term birth weight in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadd James L

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have identified relationships between air pollution and birth weight, but have been inconsistent in identifying individual pollutants inversely associated with birth weight or elucidating susceptibility of the fetus by trimester of exposure. We examined effects of prenatal ambient pollution exposure on average birth weight and risk of low birth weight in full-term births. Methods We estimated average ambient air pollutant concentrations throughout pregnancy in the neighborhoods of women who delivered term singleton live births between 1996 and 2006 in California. We adjusted effect estimates of air pollutants on birth weight for infant characteristics, maternal characteristics, neighborhood socioeconomic factors, and year and season of birth. Results 3,545,177 singleton births had monitoring for at least one air pollutant within a 10 km radius of the tract or ZIP Code of the mother's residence. In multivariate models, pollutants were associated with decreased birth weight; -5.4 grams (95% confidence interval -6.8 g, -4.1 g per ppm carbon monoxide, -9.0 g (-9.6 g, -8.4 g per pphm nitrogen dioxide, -5.7 g (-6.6 g, -4.9 g per pphm ozone, -7.7 g (-7.9 g, -6.6 g per 10 μg/m3 particulate matter under 10 μm, -12.8 g (-14.3 g, -11.3 g per 10 μg/m3 particulate matter under 2.5 μm, and -9.3 g (-10.7 g, -7.9 g per 10 μg/m3 of coarse particulate matter. With the exception of carbon monoxide, estimates were largely unchanged after controlling for co-pollutants. Effect estimates for the third trimester largely reflect the results seen from full pregnancy exposure estimates; greater variation in results is seen in effect estimates specific to the first and second trimesters. Conclusions This study indicates that maternal exposure to ambient air pollution results in modestly lower infant birth weight. A small decline in birth weight is unlikely to have clinical relevance for individual infants, and there is debate about whether

  3. Feasibility study of a lead monoxide-based dosimeter for quality assurance in radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K. T.; Han, M. J.; Heo, Y. J.; Park, J. E.; Lee, Y. K.; Kim, J. N.; Oh, K. M.; Cho, H. L.; Choi, Y. S.; Kim, J. Y.; Nam, S. H.; Park, S. K.

    2016-11-01

    Lately, cancer has been treated using high-energy radiation, and this requires highly reliable treatment plans. Therefore, a dosimeter with excellent performance, which is capable of precise dose measurement, is critical. In current clinical practices, an ionization chamber and diode utilizing the ionization reaction mechanism are widely used. Several studies have been carried out to determine optimal materials for the detector in a dosimeter to enable diagnostic imaging. Recently, studies with lead monoxide, which was shown to have low drift current and high resolving power at a high bias, were reported with the dosimeter exhibiting a fast response time against incident photons. This research aims to investigate the feasibility of a lead monoxide-based dosimeter for QA (quality assurance) in radiotherapy. In this paper, we report that the manufactured dosimeter shows similar linearity to a silicon diode and demonstrates similar characteristics in terms of PDD (percent depth dose) results for the thimble ionization chamber. Based on these results, it is demonstrated that the lead monoxide-based dosimeter complies with radiotherapy QA requirements, namely rapid response time, dose linearity, dose rate independence. Thus, we expect the lead monoxide-based dosimeter to be used commercially in the future.

  4. CARBON MONOXIDE FLUXES OF DIFFERENT SOIL LAYERS IN UPLAND CANADIAN BOREAL FORESTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dark or low-light carbon monoxide fluxes at upland Canadian boreal forest sites were measured on-site with static chambers and with a laboratory incubation technique using cores from different depths at the same sites. Three different upland black spruce sites, burned in 1987,199...

  5. An infrared spectroscopic study of the adsorption of carbon monoxide on silica-supported copper oxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, K.P. de; Geus, John W.; Joziasse, J.

    1980-01-01

    Adsorption of carbon monoxide at room temperature (0.1–50 Torr) on silica-supported copper oxide was studied by infrared spectroscopy. Catalysts were prepared by deposition-precipitation or impregnation. After calcination two types of adsorbed CO were identified showing absorption bands at 2136 ± 3

  6. Palladium-catalyzed carbonylative sonogashira coupling of aryl bromides using near stoichiometric carbon monoxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Karoline T.; Laursen, Simon R.; Lindhardt, Anders T.

    2014-01-01

    A general procedure for the palladium-catalyzed carbonylative Sonogashira coupling of aryl bromides is reported, using near stoichiometric amounts of carbon monoxide. The method allows a broad substrate scope in moderate to excellent yields. The formed alkynone motive serves as a platform...

  7. Characterization of Fe-Co-Mn catalysts after carbon monoxide hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez C, S.L.; Serbia, M.A.; Baechler, R.; Orozco, J. [Laboratorio de Cinetica y Catalisis, Departamento de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Los Andes, Merida 5101A (Venezuela); e-mail: goncor@ula.ve

    2003-07-01

    An Fe-Co-Mn catalysts series after hydrogenation of carbon monoxide has been characterized. The XRD analysis shows the magnetite as main crystalline phase after reaction, in addition of carbon and carbide phases. All these phases lead to hydrogen consumption and oxidation rate changes on Fe-Co-Mn catalysts. A phase transformation superficial diagram is analysed. (Author)

  8. Synthesis of Diethyl Oxalate by a Coupling-Regeneration Reaction of Carbon Monoxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fandong Meng; Genhui Xu; Baowei Wang; Xinbin Ma

    2002-01-01

    This article describes a process for the synthesis of diethyl oxalate by a coupling reaction ofcarbon monoxide, catalyzed by palladium in the presence of ethyl nitrite. The kinetics and mechanism ofthe coupling and regeneration reaction are also discussed. This paper presents the results of a scale-uptest of the catalyst and the process based on an a priori computer simulation.

  9. Short-term effects of carbon monoxide on mortality : An analysis within the APHEA project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samoli, Evangelia; Touloumi, Giota; Schwartz, Joel; Anderson, Hugh Ross; Schindler, Christian; Forsberg, Bertil; Vigotti, Maria Angela; Vonk, Judith; Kosnik, Mitja; Skorkovsky, Jiri; Katsouyanni, Klea

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We investigated the short-term effects of carbon monoxide on total and cardiovascular mortality in 19 European cities participating in the APHEA-2 (Air Pollution and Health: A European Approach) project. METHODS: We examined the association using hierarchical models implemented in two st

  10. The impacts of temperature on the absorption spectral lines of carbon monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Jianqiang; Xu Yuanze; Gao Xiaorong; Wang Li; Wang Zeyong, E-mail: jianqguo@home.swjtu.edu.cn [College of Physical Science and Technology, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China)

    2011-02-01

    In order to study the change of temperature on the effects of carbon monoxide absorption spectral lines, first of all proceed from the principle of absorption spectra, using theoretical analysis method, and the transmission and absorption database of the high-resolution molecular educed the carbon monoxide absorption spectrum intensity of spectral lines, integrated widening line type function and absorption coefficient concerned with temperature, then we got the change curve between carbon monoxide absorption spectrum intensity of spectral lines, integrated widening line type function and absorption coefficient with temperature by the numerical simulation of MATLAB, and analyzed and discussed the relationship between the temperature and them. The results showed that the temperature on the effects of carbon monoxide absorption spectral lines, especially on an Integrated widening line type function is complex, and different laser frequencies will also affect the relationship of the line type function and the absorption coefficient change with temperature, which has important reference value for the absorption and measurement of carbon in practical application.

  11. Separation of hydrogen from carbon monoxide using a hollow fiber polyimide membrane: experimental and simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peer, M.; Mehdi Kamali, S.; Mahdeyarfar, M.; Mohammadi, T. [Research Laboratory for Separation Processes, Chemical Engineering Department, Tehran (Iran)

    2007-10-15

    The separation of hydrogen from carbon monoxide (syngas ratio adjustment) with polymeric membranes was investigated in this work. A polyimide hollow fiber membrane module was used for hydrogen separation. This polymer has shown large permeability and selectivity for hydrogen separation (selectivity of ca. 30). Permeation tests were carried out at different feed conditions. Feed flow rates were varied between 150-300 mL/min, temperature was varied in the range of 20-80 C and feed pressure was varied between 5-9 bar. Mixtures containing 0-50 % carbon monoxide were used when carrying out experiments. Measured membrane permeances for hydrogen and carbon monoxide were about 70-100 GPU (gas permeation units) and 3-5.5 GPU, respectively. In addition, a mathematical model for simulation of gas separation in hollow fiber membrane modules with all flow patterns (crossflow, countercurrent and cocurrent) was presented. This model can be used for calculation of membrane performance or its required surface area for a specific separation. Experimental results have shown good correlation with simulation results. Plasticization, competitive sorption and concentration polarization effect of carbon monoxide on membrane performance is shown with experimental results. This effect reduced hydrogen permeances in mixed gas experiments. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  12. Chemical production from waste carbon monoxide: its potential for energy conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrmann, C.A.; Schiefelbein, G.F.; Molton, P.M.; Li, C.T.; Elliott, D.C.; Baker, E.G.

    1977-11-01

    Results of a study of the potential for energy conservation by producing chemicals from by-product or waste carbon monoxide (CO) from industrial sources are summarized. Extensive compilations of both industrial sources and uses for carbon monoxide were developed and included. Reviews of carbon monoxide purification and concentration technology and preliminary economic evaluations of carbon monoxide concentration, pipeline transportation and utilization of CO in the synthesis of ammonia and methanol are included. Preliminary technical and economic feasibility studies were made of producing ammonia and methanol from the by-product CO produced by a typical elemental phosphorus plant. Methanol synthesis appears to be more attractive than ammonia synthesis when using CO feedstock because of reduced water gas shift and carbon dioxide removal requirements. The economic studies indicate that methanol synthesis from CO appears to be competitive with conventional technology when the price of natural gas exceeds $0.82/million Btu, while ammonia synthesis from CO is probably not competitive until the price of natural gas exceeds $1.90/million Btu. It is concluded that there appears to be considerable potential for energy conservation in the chemical industry, by collecting CO rather than flaring it, and using it to make major chemicals such as ammonia and methanol.

  13. Characteristics of Photoacoustic Spectroscopy Detection for Carbon Monoxide Gas Based on DFB Diode Laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Weigen; PENG Xiaojuan; LIU Bingjie; SUN Caixin

    2012-01-01

    The dissolved gas analysis is one of the most effective and convenient methods to diagnose the early discharge faults of transformers. When the fault involves the solid insulation, oil-paper insulation cracks and releases carbon monoxide (CO) gas. Therefore, the detection of CO can forecast the potential inner faults of oil-filled transformers.

  14. Effects of chemical modifications of heme on kinetics of carbon monoxide binding to free home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sono, M.; McCray, J.A.; Asakura, T.

    1977-11-10

    The rates of carbon monoxide recombination to six different kinds of chemically modified heme with various substituents at positions 2 and 4 have been studied in the protein-free state (free heme) by the laser flash photolysis method in a mixture of ethylene glycol and 0.02 N NaOH (80:20, v/v) (80% ethylene glycol). The carbon monoxide combination rate constants to the various free hemes obtained in 80% ethylene glycol at 22/sup 0/ were 1.4, 2.1, 2.1, 3.7, 4.5, and 6.4 x 10/sup 7/ M/sup -1/ s/sup -1/ for 2,4-diformyl-, spirographis (2-formyl-4-vinyl-), isospirographis (2-vinyl-4-formyl-) proto-(2,4-divinyl-), deutero-(2,4-dihydrogen-), and meso-(2,4-diethyl-), hemes, respectively. This order of increase in carbon monoxide combination rate constants for these hemes correlates exactly with decrease in electron attractivity of heme side chains (i.e., increase in pK/sub 3/, basicity of nitrogen base of prophyrin) and is completely opposite to that obtained for carbon monoxide binding to these hemes reconstituted with apomyoglobin. Contrary to the results for myoglobin, the two isomers of monoformyl-monovinylheme exhibited similar optical properties and the same combination rate constant indicating that the differences in the optical and kinetic results observed in myoglobin are due to different interactions of these isomeric hemes with protein.

  15. Calculated Specific Volumes and Magnetic Moments of the 3d Transition Metal Monoxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Hans Lomholt; Andersen, O. K.; Johansson, B.

    1980-01-01

    We have performed self-consistent, spin-polarized band structure calculations as a function of the lattice spacing for the 3d metal monoxides in order to obtain the equilibrium lattice constants. The calculated binding from the 3d electrons and the occurrence of antiferromagnetism account...

  16. Gaseous persufflation with carbon monoxide during ischemia protects the isolated liver and enhances energetic recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetting, Martina; Leuvenink, Henri; Dombrowski, Frank; Minor, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Background: The benefit of carbon monoxide as applied by controlled, continuous gaseous persufflation during liver preservation on postischemic graft recovery was investigated in an isolated rat liver model. Methods: Livers from male Wistar rats were retrieved 30 min after cardiac arrest of the dono

  17. Multimodel simulations of carbon monoxide: comparison with observations and projected near-future changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shindell, D.T.; Krol, M.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/078760410

    2006-01-01

    We analyze present-day and future carbon monoxide (CO) simulations in 26 state-ofthe- art atmospheric chemistry models run to study future air quality and climate change. In comparison with near-global satellite observations from the MOPITT instrument and local surface measurements, the models show

  18. Multimodel simulations of carbon monoxide: Comparison with observations and projected near-future changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shindell, D.T.; Faluvegi, G.; Stevenson, D.S.; Krol, M.C.; Emmons, L.K.; Lamarque, J.F.; Petron, G.; Dentener, F.J.; Ellingsen, K.; Schultz, M.G.; Wild, O.; Amann, M.; Atherton, C.S.; Bergmann, D.J.; Bey, I.; Butler, T.; Cofala, J.; Collins, W.J.; Derwent, R.G.; Doherty, R.M.; Drevet, J.; Eskes, H.J.; Fiore, A.M.; Gauss, M.; Hauglustaine, D.A.; Horowitz, L.W.; Isaksen, I.S.A.; Lawrence, M.G.; Montanaro, V.; Muller, J.F.; Pitari, G.; Prather, M.J.; Pyle, J.A.; Rast, S.; Rodriguez, J.M.; Sanderson, M.G.; Savage, N.H.; Strahan, S.E.; Sudo, K.; Szopa, S.; Unger, N.; Noije, van T.P.C.; Zeng, G.

    2006-01-01

    We analyze present-day and future carbon monoxide (CO) simulations in 26 state-of-the-art atmospheric chemistry models run to study future air quality and climate change. In comparison with near-global satellite observations from the MOPITT instrument and local surface measurements, the models show

  19. Short-term effects of carbon monoxide on mortality : An analysis within the APHEA project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samoli, Evangelia; Touloumi, Giota; Schwartz, Joel; Anderson, Hugh Ross; Schindler, Christian; Forsberg, Bertil; Vigotti, Maria Angela; Vonk, Judith; Kosnik, Mitja; Skorkovsky, Jiri; Katsouyanni, Klea

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We investigated the short-term effects of carbon monoxide on total and cardiovascular mortality in 19 European cities participating in the APHEA-2 (Air Pollution and Health: A European Approach) project. METHODS: We examined the association using hierarchical models implemented in two

  20. Microwave Radiometer for Spectral Observations of Mesospheric Carbon Monoxide at 115 GHz Over Kharkiv, Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piddyachiy, Valeriy; Shulga, Valerii; Myshenko, Valeriy; Korolev, Alexey; Antyufeyev, Oleksandr; Shulga, Dmytro; Forkman, Peter

    2016-11-01

    We present the results of the development of high sensitivity microwave radiometer designed for observation of the atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO) emission lines at 115 GHz. The receiver of this radiometer has the double-sideband noise temperature of 250 K at a temperature of 10°C. To date, this is the best noise performance for uncooled Schottky diode mixer receiver systems. The designed radiometer was tested during the 2014-2015 period at observations of the carbon monoxide emission lines over Kharkiv, Ukraine (50° N, 36.3° E). These tests have shown the reliability of the receiver system, which allows us in the future to use designed radiometer for continuous monitoring of carbon monoxide. The first observations of the atmospheric carbon monoxide spectral lines over Kharkiv have confirmed seasonal changes in the CO abundance and gave us reasons to assume the spread of the influence of the polar vortex on the state of the atmosphere up to the latitude of 50° N where our measurement system is located.

  1. Carbon monoxide oxidation using Zn-Cu-Ti hydrotalcite-derived catalysts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    O Saber; T Zaki

    2014-07-01

    Multioxide catalysts of zinc, copper and titanium with different ratios obtained from layered double hydroxide (LDH) precursors were used in the oxidation of carbon monoxide. The catalysts were characterized by energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, thermal analyses (TG, DTG and DTA) and scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction showed different phases of double hydroxide structures. On increasing the percentage of zinc, hydrotalcite structure became the main phase in these samples. SEM images confirmed the presence of layered double hydroxide as plate-like structure. Experimental results indicated a sharp increase in the catalytic activities of the calcined samples towards the oxidation of carbon monoxide at temperatures in the range of 225-275°C. High conversion of carbon monoxide (90 ∼ 95%) was achieved at reaction temperature of 275°C by samples having ZnTiO3 as a main phase. These results suggested that hydrotalcite structure of Zn-Ti has a positive catalytic effect towards carbon monoxide oxidation.

  2. MODELLING OF CARBON MONOXIDE AIR POLLUTION IN LARG CITIES BY EVALUETION OF SPECTRAL LANDSAT8 IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hamzelo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution in large cities is one of the major problems that resolve and reduce it need multiple applications and environmental management. Of The main sources of this pollution is industrial activities, urban and transport that enter large amounts of contaminants into the air and reduces its quality. With Variety of pollutants and high volume manufacturing, local distribution of manufacturing centers, Testing and measuring emissions is difficult. Substances such as carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and unburned hydrocarbons and lead compounds are substances that cause air pollution and carbon monoxide is most important. Today, data exchange systems, processing, analysis and modeling is of important pillars of management system and air quality control. In this study, using the spectral signature of carbon monoxide gas as the most efficient gas pollution LANDSAT8 images in order that have better spatial resolution than appropriate spectral bands and weather meters،SAM classification algorithm and Geographic Information System (GIS , spatial distribution of carbon monoxide gas in Tehran over a period of one year from the beginning of 2014 until the beginning of 2015 at 11 map have modeled and then to the model valuation ،created maps were compared with the map provided by the Tehran quality comparison air company. Compare involved plans did with the error matrix and results in 4 types of care; overall, producer, user and kappa coefficient was investigated. Results of average accuracy were about than 80%, which indicates the fit method and data used for modeling.

  3. Inhalation Toxicology. 11. The Effect of Elevated Temperature on Carbon Monoxide Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    TEMPERATURE ON CARBON MONOXIDE TOXICITY INTRODUCTION The use of the laboratory rat as an animal model for determining the toxicity of combustion gases is...response of rats during exercise. J Appl Physiol. 1968; 24:747-50. 7. Hubbard RW, Matthew WT, Linduska JD, et al. The laboratory rat as a model for

  4. 40 CFR 52.1164 - Localized high concentrations-carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... have developed and have begun to implement a program to identify urban and suburban core areas and... control strategies to insure that such air quality standards will be achieved at such areas. Plans shall... implemented strategies will not create carbon monoxide violations elsewhere in the vicinity after the measures...

  5. Modelling of Carbon Monoxide Air Pollution in Larg Cities by Evaluetion of Spectral LANDSAT8 Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzelo, M.; Gharagozlou, A.; Sadeghian, S.; Baikpour, S. H.; Rajabi, A.

    2015-12-01

    Air pollution in large cities is one of the major problems that resolve and reduce it need multiple applications and environmental management. Of The main sources of this pollution is industrial activities, urban and transport that enter large amounts of contaminants into the air and reduces its quality. With Variety of pollutants and high volume manufacturing, local distribution of manufacturing centers, Testing and measuring emissions is difficult. Substances such as carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and unburned hydrocarbons and lead compounds are substances that cause air pollution and carbon monoxide is most important. Today, data exchange systems, processing, analysis and modeling is of important pillars of management system and air quality control. In this study, using the spectral signature of carbon monoxide gas as the most efficient gas pollution LANDSAT8 images in order that have better spatial resolution than appropriate spectral bands and weather meters،SAM classification algorithm and Geographic Information System (GIS ), spatial distribution of carbon monoxide gas in Tehran over a period of one year from the beginning of 2014 until the beginning of 2015 at 11 map have modeled and then to the model valuation ،created maps were compared with the map provided by the Tehran quality comparison air company. Compare involved plans did with the error matrix and results in 4 types of care; overall, producer, user and kappa coefficient was investigated. Results of average accuracy were about than 80%, which indicates the fit method and data used for modeling.

  6. Statistical parametric mapping in brain single photon computed emission tomography after carbon monoxide intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, N; Nohara, S; Matsuda, H; Sumiya, H; Noguchi, K; Shimizu, M; Tsuji, S; Kinuya, S; Shuke, N; Yokoyama, K; Seto, H

    2002-04-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to assess regional cerebral blood flow in patients after carbon monoxide intoxication by using brain single photon emission computed tomography and statistical parametric mapping. Eight patients with delayed neuropsychiatric sequelae and ten patients with no neuropsychiatric symptoms after carbon monoxide intoxication were studied with brain single photon emission tomography imaging with 99mTc-hexamethyl-propyleneamine oxime. Forty-four control subjects were also studied. We used the adjusted regional cerebral blood flow images in relative flow distribution (normalization of global cerebral blood flow for each subject to 50 ml x 100 g(-1) x min(-1) with proportional scaling) to compare these groups with statistical parametric mapping. Using this technique, significantly decreased regional cerebral blood flow was noted extensively in the bilateral frontal lobes as well as the bilateral insula and a part of the right temporal lobe in the patients with delayed neuropsychiatric sequelae as compared with normal volunteers (Pparametric mapping is a useful technique for highlighting differences in regional cerebral blood flow in patients following carbon monoxide intoxication as compared with normal volunteers. The selectively reduced blood flow noted in this investigation supports the contention that the decrease following carbon monoxide intoxication may be prolonged and further worsen in the frontal lobe. In addition, the present study may help to clarify the characteristics of the pathophysiological alteration underlying delayed neuropsychiatric sequelae.

  7. Microwave Radiometer for Spectral Observations of Mesospheric Carbon Monoxide at 115 GHz Over Kharkiv, Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piddyachiy, Valeriy; Shulga, Valerii; Myshenko, Valeriy; Korolev, Alexey; Antyufeyev, Oleksandr; Shulga, Dmytro; Forkman, Peter

    2017-03-01

    We present the results of the development of high sensitivity microwave radiometer designed for observation of the atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO) emission lines at 115 GHz. The receiver of this radiometer has the double-sideband noise temperature of 250 K at a temperature of 10°C. To date, this is the best noise performance for uncooled Schottky diode mixer receiver systems. The designed radiometer was tested during the 2014-2015 period at observations of the carbon monoxide emission lines over Kharkiv, Ukraine (50° N, 36.3° E). These tests have shown the reliability of the receiver system, which allows us in the future to use designed radiometer for continuous monitoring of carbon monoxide. The first observations of the atmospheric carbon monoxide spectral lines over Kharkiv have confirmed seasonal changes in the CO abundance and gave us reasons to assume the spread of the influence of the polar vortex on the state of the atmosphere up to the latitude of 50° N where our measurement system is located.

  8. [Suicidal carbon monoxide poisoning in an electric car. An unusual case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, M; Zollinger, U

    1994-01-01

    The authors report a case of a man who committed suicide by poisoning with carbon monoxide in his electric vehicle. He applied a small motor generator with no exhaust normally used for charging the vehicle's batteries at home, that was found on the loading space behind the seat. This demonstrates the value of a thorough scene investigation.

  9. Anaesthetic properties of carbon monoxide and other gases in relation to plants, insects, and centipedes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, P.W.

    1935-01-01

    The anaesthetic effect of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, propylene, butylene, ethylene, and acetylene, when mixed with oxygen, was tested on ten different species of insects and centipedes. The lowest concentrations found to cause anaesthesia are given in per cent by volume as follows: propylene, for centipede, 30; katydid, 75; rose chafer, 60. Carbon monoxide, for centipede, 81.5; katydid, 89, rose chafer, 85. Butylene, for centipede, 5; katydid, 10; rose chafer, 40. Ethylene or acetylene, for centipede, katydid, and rose chafer, 100. Carbon dioxide, for rose chafer, 30. Ethylene was the most effective plant anaesthetic, 0.0005 per cent stopping growth movements of tomato and sunflower plants as shown by motion pictures; 0.001 per cent stopped elongation of sweet pea seedlings, while 0.00001 per cent retarded elongation nearly 50 per cent. The degree of retardation in growth from ethylene gas varied with the concentration and the plant species. Acetylene and propylene were about equally effective as plant anaesthetics. Both were approximately 10 times as effective as carbon monoxide. Mimosa pudica lost its capacity to respond to external stimuli while being exposed to 0.25 per cent of carbon monoxide, but became normal again upon being removed from the gas. 3 references, 4 tables.

  10. Oxalyl chloride as a practical carbon monoxide source for carbonylation reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen V F; Ulven, Trond

    2015-01-01

    A method for generation of high-quality carbon monoxide by decomposition of oxalyl chloride in an aqueous hydroxide solution is described. The usefulness of the method is demonstrated in the synthesis of heterocycles and for hydroxy-, alkoxy-, amino-, and reductive carbonylation reactions...

  11. Carbon Monoxide Releasing Molecule-A1 (CORM-A1) Improves Neurogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeida, Ana S; Soares, Nuno L; Vieira, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia and neurodegenerative diseases lead to impairment or death of neurons in the central nervous system. Stem cell based therapies are promising strategies currently under investigation. Carbon monoxide (CO) is an endogenous product of heme degradation by heme oxygenase (HO) activity...

  12. Rapid Evaluation of the Severity and Prognosis of Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. N. Marupov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess whether cardiointervalography (CIG might be used to define the health status of patients with carbon monoxide poisoning. Subjects and methods. The autonomic nervous system (ANS was studied in 114 patients aged 16 to 80 years with carbon monohydrate poisoning who were treated at the N. V. Sklifosovsky Research Institute of Emergency Care, Moscow, in 2004—2009. Cardiointervalographic readings were analyzed in relation to condition severity and disease outcome. Results. Within the first hours after carbon monoxide poisoning, the function of the ANS was found to be impaired, which was associated with the development of hypersym-pathicotonia caused by the increased activity of its sympathetic part and the decreased tone of the parasympathet-ic one. The magnitude of hypersympathicotonia depended on the severity of poisoning and the outcome of the disease. The preponderance of ANS parasympathetic part tone suggests disturbed adaptive and compensatory mechanisms and poor prognosis. Conclusion. Cardiointervalography is recommended for the objective evaluation of the severity of carbon monoxide poisoning and the efficiency of performed treatment and prediction of the outcome of the disease. Key words: carbon monoxide, autonomic nervous system, cardiointervalography, adaptive and compensatory mechanisms.

  13. Occupational poisoning by carbon monoxide aboard a gas carrier. Report on 8 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, David; Loddé, Brice; Jegaden, Dominique; Bronstein, Jean-Ariel; Pougnet, Richard; Bell, S; Dewitte, Jean-Dominique

    2010-01-01

    - To determine the accidental factors and the clinical symptoms in eight cases of occupational poisoning of port workers by carbon monoxide. - To consider the primary prevention of this serious pathology occurring at work. - To analyze the circumstances of the exposure to carbon monoxide in the employees in the naval repair sector. - To indicate the systemic failures causing this accidental poisoning, the means for early diagnosis and appropriate treatment, and to discuss the prevention of such accidents. The poisoning occurred in eight mechanics and electricians working without any protective means in a gas carrier tank in dry dock. The employees, unaware of carbon monoxide exposure, stayed for 45 minutes in an atmosphere polluted with carbon monoxide concentrations of over 500 ppm. The main complaints were of headache, muscular weakness, and drowsiness. No post-interval syndrome was found three weeks after poisoning. The levels of carboxyhaemoglobin varied from 1.8 to 31.2%. Early normal pressure oxygen therapy reduced the symptoms. No delayed syndrome was found three weeks after poisoning. The inclusion of poisonous gas in gas-free certification, adherence to maritime harbour regulations, greater respect for working instructions in hazardous environments, and the use of detectors appropriate to the conditions for each ship would avoid exposure and decrease the risk of poisoning.

  14. EL RACISMO AMBIENTAL EN CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATÍAS MEZA-LOPEHANDÍA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El problema de la desigualdad en Chile ha sido abordado desde diferentes puntos de vista como la cuestión de la distribución de la riqueza o el acceso a los derechos sociales. Es este trabajo se observa el mismo problema pero desde la perspectiva recientemente esbozada por los movimientos sociales: la del racismo ambiental o la desigual distribución de los deshechos del desarrollo y el consumo. De esta manera se revisan sucintamente los principales conflictos que han surgido en el último tiempo a lo largo del país entre empresas públicas y privadas y comunidades locales y originarias. Así mismo se examinan las formas de organización que estas últimas han asumido y el estado actual de articulación entre ellas. De la revisión de la situación se concluye que estamos ante el surgimiento de un actor de nuevo tipo, que surge de las contradicciones del Chile neoliberal y que se diferencia del movimiento ecologista por vincular sus reivindicaciones a la defensa del territorio y al derecho a la autodeterminación de los pueblos.

  15. Ambient clumsiness in virtual environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzanka, Silvia; Behar, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    A fundamental pursuit of Virtual Reality is the experience of a seamless connection between the user's body and actions within the simulation. Virtual worlds often mediate the relationship between the physical and virtual body through creating an idealized representation of the self in an idealized space. This paper argues that the very ubiquity of the medium of virtual environments, such as the massively popular Second Life, has now made them mundane, and that idealized representations are no longer appropriate. In our artwork we introduce the attribute of clumsiness to Second Life by creating and distributing scripts that cause users' avatars to exhibit unpredictable stumbling, tripping, and momentary poor coordination, thus subtly and unexpectedly intervening with, rather than amplifying, a user's intent. These behaviors are publicly distributed, and manifest only occasionally - rather than intentional, conscious actions, they are involuntary and ambient. We suggest that the physical human body is itself an imperfect interface, and that the continued blurring of distinctions between the physical body and virtual representations calls for the introduction of these mundane, clumsy elements.

  16. GENES, POBLACIONES, AMBIENTES Y NACIONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noem\\u00ED Acreche

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la estructura genética de 32 poblaciones de Argentina, Bolivia y Paraguay en función de las frecuencias génicas de ocho sistemas de grupos eritocitarios. Los sistemas incluidos son: ABO, MN, Ss, DI, P, Cc, Dd y Ee. En el caso de Bolivia, Paraguay y el Chaco Argentino, los datos fueron obtenidos de la bibliografía. La relación entre las poblaciones y diferentes criterios de agrupación (Ambiente, País, Grupo Lingüístico y Altitud fueron evaluadas por medio de Análisis Discriminante. Se consideró el porcentaje de casos correctamente clasificados como medida de la relación entre el conjunto de variables analizadas y el criterio de agrupación. Se encontró que tanto las categorías geoestructurales como lingüísticas establecidas tienen mayor relación con la estructura genética de las poblaciones incluidas en el análisis que las fronteras nacionales, por lo que se concluye que el aislamiento reproductivo entre poblaciones, necesario para la diferenciación, se produce por diferencias culturales o del territorio de ocupación antes que por las fronteras políticas establecidas.

  17. Five-year measurements of ambient ammonia and its relationships with other trace gases at an urban site of Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswati; Sharma, S. K.; Mandal, T. K.

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we present the 5-year measurements of ambient ammonia (NH3), oxides of nitrogen (NO and NO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) along with the meteorological parameters at an urban site of Delhi, India from January 2011 to December 2015. The average mixing ratios of ambient NH3, NO, NO2 and CO over the entire period of observations were recorded as 19.3 ± 4.4 (ppb), 20.1 ± 5.9 (ppb), 18.6 ± 4.6 (ppb) and 1.8 ± 0.5 (ppm), respectively. The mixing ratios of NH3, NO, NO2 and CO were recorded highest during winter season, followed by summer and monsoon season. In the present case, a substantial seasonal variation of NH3 was observed during all the seasons except NO, NO2 and CO. The results emphasized that the traffic could be one of the significant sources of ambient NH3 at the urban site of Delhi as illustrated by positive correlations of NH3 with traffic related pollutants (NO x and CO). Surface wind as well as back trajectory analysis also supports the road side traffic and agricultural activities at the nearby area indicating possible major sources of ambient NH3 at observational site. Trajectory analysis, potential source contribution function and concentration weighted trajectory analysis indicated the surrounding nearby areas (NCR, Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh) as a significant source region of ambient NH3 at the observational site of Delhi.

  18. The relationship between the disability prevalence of cataracts and ambient erythemal ultraviolet radiation in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Yu, Jiaming; Gao, Qian; Hu, Liwen; Gao, Na; Gong, Huizhi; Liu, Yang

    2012-01-01

    In Western countries, ultraviolet (UV)-induced skin cancer has been studied extensively regarding the high incidence of skin cancers in the white population; however, for people of color, cataracts are the main public health issue in relation to increased ambient ultraviolet radiation (UVR). To our knowledge, few studies have been conducted examining the relationship between cataracts and ambient UVR in China. In this study, we aimed to explore the relationship between and the factors influencing the disability prevalence of cataracts and annual ambient erythemal UVR exposure in 31 regions of China. The data used to determine the disability prevalence of cataracts was obtained from the Second China National Sample Survey on Disability. The regional annual erythemal UVR was calculated using Geographic Information System (GIS) methods based on data from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) database. The relationship between the disability prevalence of cataracts and the annual ambient erythemal UVR was examined by using logistic regression. Both the age-standardized disability prevalence of cataracts (OR = 3.97, 95%CI 1.30-12.13, per 100KJ/m(2) increase in annual ambient erythemal UVR) and the disability prevalence of cataracts among a population ≥65 years old (OR = 3.97, 95%CI 1.30-12.13, per 100KJ/m(2) increase in annual ambient erythemal UVR) were higher in association with higher ambient erythemal UVR. Regions with higher urbanization and educational levels had lower disability prevalence of cataracts. We found positive associations of the age-standardized disability prevalence of cataracts and the disability prevalence of cataracts among a population ≥65 years old with ambient erythemal UVR in 31 regions of China.

  19. Disulfide S-monoxides convert xanthine dehydrogenase into oxidase in rat liver cytosol more potently than their respective disulfides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, Satoru; Fujita, Junko; Nakanishi, Masahiko; Wada, Shun-ich; Fujimoto, Yohko

    2008-05-01

    Xanthine oxidase (XO)/xanthine dehydrogenase (XD) oxidizes oxypurines to uric acid, with only the XO form producing reactive oxygen species. In the present study, the effects of cystamine S-monoxide and cystine S-monoxide (disulfide S-monoxides) on the conversion of XD to XO in rat liver were examined. A partially purified enzyme fraction from the rat liver was incubated with xanthine in the presence or absence of NAD+, and the uric acid formed was measured by HPLC. Under basal conditions, XO activity represented about 15% of the total XO plus XD activity. Cystamine S-monoxide and cystine S-monoxide converted XD into XO in a dose-dependent manner, and the concentrations required to increase XO activity by 50% were approximately 1 and 2 microM, respectively. Their respective thiols (cysteamine and cysteine) and disulfides (cystamine and cystine) up to 10 microM showed weak or no effects on the activities of XO and XD and their conversion. Experiments utilizing a sulfhydryl reducing reagent (dithiothreitol) and sulfhydryl modifiers (4,4'-dithiodipyridine and 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene) indicated that disulfide S-monoxides-induced conversion of XD to XO occurs via disulfide bridge formation in XD, but not the modification of sulfhydryl groups. These results suggest that disulfide S-monoxides have the potential to increase the generation of reactive oxygen species through the conversion of XD to XO in liver.

  20. Calidad ambiental interior: bienestar, confort y salud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Vargas Marcos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Distintas formas de interpretar las condiciones ambientales han llevado al desarrollo de conceptos tales como edificio enfermo, calidad del aire o calidad ambiental interior, todos ellos encaminados a entender la complejidad de los contaminantes en los ambientes cerrados y las implicaciones sobre la salud de la población. La propuesta de "Calidad ambiental interior" es un avance conceptual y operativo que supera ampliamente a los anteriores, puesto que orienta las acciones hacia ambientes saludables sin limitar al aire la idea de contaminación. El objetivo del trabajo es identificar las competencias y el marco legislativo que permiten actuar en la prevención de riesgos asociados a la exposición de contaminantes en ambientes interiores. Óptimas condiciones en los ambientes interiores deben redundar en salud, bienestar y confort, tanto en lo que respecta a la vida laboral como a los ámbitos donde se desarrollan las actividades cotidianas extralaborales, escolares, de descanso y de ocio. La sociedad actual exige lugares seguros, limpios y bien climatizados, para lo que es necesario integrar percepciones y exigencias de los habitantes y alcanzar un óptimo equilibrio entre estándares sociales, uso de la energía y desarrollo sostenible, buscando confort sin contaminar y sin aumentar el consumo de fuentes energéticas que degraden el medio ambiente. El desarrollo legislativo se orienta a la seguridad y la salud en los lugares de trabajo y la regulación de las sustancias químicas. La Sanidad Ambiental lleva a cabo tareas de prevención y control, participa en la ejecución de convenios internacionales de reducción de contaminantes y desechos y promueve acciones para el desarrollo de la Estrategia Europea de Salud y Medio Ambiente.

  1. Stable isotope composition of atmospheric carbon monoxide. A modelling study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gromov, Sergey S.

    2014-11-01

    This study aims at an improved understanding of the stable carbon and oxygen isotope composition of the carbon monoxide (CO) in the global atmosphere by means of numerical simulations. At first, a new kinetic chemistry tagging technique for the most complete parameterisation of isotope effects has been introduced into the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) framework. Incorporated into the ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) general circulation model, an explicit treatment of the isotope effects on the global scale is now possible. The expanded model system has been applied to simulate the chemical system containing up to five isotopologues of all carbon- and oxygen-bearing species, which ultimately determine the δ{sup 13}C, δ{sup 18}O and Δ{sup 17}O isotopic signatures of atmospheric CO. As model input, a new stable isotope-inclusive emission inventory for the relevant trace gases has been compiled. The uncertainties of the emission estimates and of the resulting simulated mixing and isotope ratios have been analysed. The simulated CO mixing and stable isotope ratios have been compared to in-situ measurements from ground-based observatories and from the civil-aircraft-mounted CARIBIC-1 measurement platform. The systematically underestimated {sup 13}CO/{sup 12}CO ratios of earlier, simplified modelling studies can now be partly explained. The EMAC simulations do not support the inferences of those studies, which suggest for CO a reduced input of the highly depleted in {sup 13}C methane oxidation source. In particular, a high average yield of 0.94 CO per reacted methane (CH{sub 4}) molecule is simulated in the troposphere, to a large extent due to the competition between the deposition and convective transport processes affecting the CH{sub 4} to CO reaction chain intermediates. None of the other factors, assumed or disregarded in previous studies, however hypothesised to have the potential in enriching tropospheric CO in {sup 13}C, were found significant

  2. Effect of different emission inventories on modeled ozone and carbon monoxide in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amnuaylojaroen, T.; Barth, M. C.; Emmons, L. K.; Carmichael, G. R.; Kreasuwun, J.; Prasitwattanaseree, S.; Chantara, S.

    2014-12-01

    In order to improve our understanding of air quality in Southeast Asia, the anthropogenic emissions inventory must be well represented. In this work, we apply different anthropogenic emission inventories in the Weather Research and Forecasting Model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) version 3.3 using Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers (MOZART) gas-phase chemistry and Global Ozone Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) aerosols to examine the differences in predicted carbon monoxide (CO) and ozone (O3) surface mixing ratios for Southeast Asia in March and December 2008. The anthropogenic emission inventories include the Reanalysis of the TROpospheric chemical composition (RETRO), the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-Phase B (INTEX-B), the MACCity emissions (adapted from the Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate and megacity Zoom for the Environment projects), the Southeast Asia Composition, Cloud, Climate Coupling Regional Study (SEAC4RS) emissions, and a combination of MACCity and SEAC4RS emissions. Biomass-burning emissions are from the Fire Inventory from the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) (FINNv1) model. WRF-Chem reasonably predicts the 2 m temperature, 10 m wind, and precipitation. In general, surface CO is underpredicted by WRF-Chem while surface O3 is overpredicted. The NO2 tropospheric column predicted by WRF-Chem has the same magnitude as observations, but tends to underpredict the NO2 column over the equatorial ocean and near Indonesia. Simulations using different anthropogenic emissions produce only a slight variability of O3 and CO mixing ratios, while biomass-burning emissions add more variability. The different anthropogenic emissions differ by up to 30% in CO emissions, but O3 and CO mixing ratios averaged over the land areas of the model domain differ by ~4.5% and ~8%, respectively, among the simulations. Biomass-burning emissions create a substantial increase for both O3 and CO by ~29% and ~16

  3. Context Dependent Analysis of BioAmbients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Henrik; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2006-01-01

    BioAmbients is a derivative of mobile ambients that has shown promise of describing interesting features of the behaviour of biological systems. The technical contribution of this paper is to extend the Flow Logic approach to static analysis with a couple of new techniques in order to give precise...... information about the behaviour of systems written in BioAmbients. Applying the development to a simple model of a cell releasing nutrients from food compunds we illustrate how the proposed analysis does indeed improve on previous efforts....

  4. Context Dependent Analysis of BioAmbients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Henrik; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2006-01-01

    BioAmbients is a derivative of mobile ambients that has shown promise of describing interesting features of the behaviour of biological systems. The technical contribution of this paper is to extend the Flow Logic approach to static analysis with a couple of new techniques in order to give precise...... information about the behaviour of systems written in BioAmbients. Applying the development to a simple model of a cell releasing nutrients from food compunds we illustrate how the proposed analysis does indeed improve on previous efforts....

  5. MUVA: a MUltimodal Visceral design Ambient device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kivac, Robert; Klem, Sune Øllgaard; Olsen, Sophus Béneé

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents MUVA (MUltimodal Visceral design Ambient device), a prototype for a storytelling light- and sound-based ambient device. The aim of this device is to encourage social interaction and expand the emotional closeness in families with children where at least one parent has irregular...... work schedule. MUVA differs from the other ambient devices, because it is targeted to children, and it adopts a visceral design approach in order to be appealing to its users. It is a raindrop-shaped lamp, which features audio playing, while its light color is affected by the audio playing. MUVA can...

  6. Cold-start emissions of modern passenger cars at different low ambient temperatures and their evolution over vehicle legislation categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weilenmann, Martin; Favez, Jean-Yves; Alvarez, Robert

    The emissions of modern gasoline and diesel passenger cars are reduced by catalysts except in cold-starting. Since catalysts require a certain temperature (typically above 300 °C) to work to full efficiency, emissions are significantly higher during the warm-up phase of the car. The duration of this period and the emissions produced depend on the ambient temperature as well as on the initial temperature of the car's propulsion systems. The additional emissions during a warm-up phase, known as "cold-start extra emissions" (CSEEs) for emission inventory modelling, are mostly assessed by emission measurements at an ambient temperature of 23 °C. However, in many European countries average ambient temperatures are below 23 °C. This necessitates emission measurements at lower temperatures in order to model and assess cold-start emissions for real-world temperature conditions. This paper investigates the influence of regulated pollutants and CO 2 emissions of recent gasoline and diesel car models (Euro-4 legislation) at different ambient temperatures, 23, -7 and -20 °C. We present a survey and model of the evolution of cold-start emissions as a function of different car generations (pre-Euro-1 to Euro-4 legislations). In addition the contribution of CSEEs to total fleet running emissions is shown to highlight their increasing importance. For gasoline cars, it turns out that in average real-world driving the majority of the CO (carbon monoxide) and HC (hydrocarbon) total emissions are due to cold-start extra emissions. Moreover, the cold-start emissions increase considerably at lower ambient temperatures. In contrast, cold-start emissions of diesel cars are significantly lower than those of gasoline cars. Furthermore, the transition from Euro-3 to Euro-4 gasoline vehicles shows a trend for a smaller decline for cold-start extra emissions than for legislative limits. Particle and NO x emission of cold-starts are less significant.

  7. Carbon monoxide is not always a poison gas for human organism: Physiological and pharmacological features of CO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olas, Beata

    2014-10-05

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is an odorless, colorless and non-irritating gas. Even a small amount of CO exposure is possibly associated with specific toxic effects. CO is also produced endogenously in the body as a byproduct of heme degradation catalyzed by heme oxygenase. More recently CO has been identified as a gasotransmitter in various biological systems. However, the biological role and the therapeutic potential of carbon monoxide is not clear. This review summarizes the negative and the positive functions of carbon monoxide in various biological systems, including cardiovascular system.

  8. Estudo do uso público e análise ambiental das trilhas em uma unidade de conservação de uso sustentável: Floresta Nacional de Ipanema, Iperó - SP Public utility study and environmental analysis of tracks at a sustainable conservation unit: Ipanema National Forest in Ipero-SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Cristina de Souza

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo analisar o uso público das trilhas ecoturísticas da Floresta Nacional de Ipanema. Para tanto, foram entrevistados 112 visitantes, quando se levantaram o perfil sociocultural e também suas expectativas quanto às trilhas visitadas. Também, foram verificadas as alterações ambientais nas trilhas causadas pelas visitas, bem como, a atuação dos monitores ambientais. Foi analisado o plano de manejo da unidade, no que se refere ao uso público. Os resultados apontaram que os visitantes são, em sua maioria, jovens com bom nível cultural e econômico, provindos da região do entorno de espaço protegido, com expectativas de contato com a natureza e preocupações com à manutenção da qualidade ambiental local. Os monitores cumpriam bem suas funções. Verificou-se que as trilhas estavam em bom estado de conservação. O plano de manejo deixa muito a desejar no que se trata do uso público. Conclui-se que, com um melhor planejamento, a Flona de Ipanema poderia prestar melhores serviços ambientais e de ócio à sociedade regional.This work aimed to study public use of eco-tourism tracks of the National Forest of Ipanema. Thus, 112 visitors were interviewed to verify their social and cultural life profile as well as expectations related to the tracks. Environmental changes in the tracks caused by tourists' walking environmental monitor actins were also checked. The interviews revealed that most visitors were young people from good cultural and economic level of life, originally from protected neighbourhoods, looking forward to a contact with nature and concerned about quality environmental protection. It was also verified that the environmental monitors did their job very well and the tracks were in a good state of conservation. Public use of the tracks was not satisfactory. It was concluded that a better Flora Ipanema management could provide better environmental and leisure services to the regional community.

  9. Nonverbal and Bodily Interaction in Ambient Entertainment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Reidsma, Dennis; Ruttkay, Z.M.; van Welbergen, H.; Bos, Pieter; Esposito, Anna; Bratanic, Maja; Keller, Eric; Marinaro, Maria

    2007-01-01

    In future Ambient Intelligence environments we assume intelligence embedded in the environment and its virtual, sometimes visualized agents (virtual humans). These environments support the human inhabitants or visitors in their activities and interactions by perceiving them through their sensors. In

  10. Economía y medio ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Alfonso Serna Mendoza

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En ciertos escenarios académicos, políticos, sociales y ambientales se declara que el modelo económico dominante o los conceptos que lo integran son responsables de que el bienestar económico implique malestar ecológico.Al partir de este supuesto, una forma de comprender las causas y de contribuir a la solución de la problemática ambiental es develar en qué consisten, en qué términos plantean la relación ombre-medio ambiente, las propuestas que incluyen la dimensión ambiental en el campo de la economía. Y si, al igual que las teorías ambientales, acuden a la ética como factor adecuado para disminuir las externalidades negativas generadas en el ambiente por la actividad económica.

  11. Outcome of patients with carbon monoxide poisoning at a far-east poison center.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Hsuan Ku

    Full Text Available Many cases of carbon monoxide poisoning in Taiwan are due to burning charcoal. Nevertheless, few reports have analyzed the mortality rate of these patients who survive to reach a hospital and die despite intensive treatment. Therefore, this study examined the clinical features, physiological markers, and outcomes after carbon monoxide poisoning and the associations between these findings.We analyzed the records of 261 patients who were referred for management of carbon monoxide intoxication between 2000 and 2010. Patients were grouped according to status at discharge as alive (survivor, n = 242 or dead (non-survivor, n = 19. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, and mortality data were obtained for analysis.Approximately half of the cases (49.4% attempted suicide by burning charcoal. Most of the patients were middle-aged adults (33±19 years, and were referred to our hospital in a relatively short period of time (6±10 hours. Carbon monoxide produced many serious complications after exposure: fever (26.1%, hypothermia (9.6%, respiratory failure (34.1%, shock (8.4%, myocardial infarction (8.0%, gastrointestinal upset (34.9%, hepatitis (18.4%, renal failure (25.3%, coma (18.0% and rhabdomyolysis (21.8%. Furthermore, the non-survivors suffered greater incidences of hypothermia (P<0.001, respiratory failure (P<0.001, shock (P<0.001, hepatitis ((P=0.016, renal failure (P=0.003, coma (P<0.001 than survivors. All patients were treated with high concentration of oxygen therapy using non-rebreather mask. However, hyperbaric oxygen therapy was only used in 18.8% of the patients. In a multivariate-Cox-regression model, it was revealed that shock status was a significant predictor for mortality after carbon monoxide poisoning (OR 8.696, 95% CI 2.053-37.370, P=0.003. Finally, Kaplan-Meier analysis confirmed that patients with shock suffered greater cumulative mortality than without shock (Log-rank test, Chi-square 147.404, P<0.001.The mortality rate for

  12. ambientes mediterráneos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Escribano-Ávila

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A nivel global, dos tendencias opuestas gobiernan el uso de la tierra: la intensificación y el abandono. Esta última supone una oportunidad para larecuperación de los ecosistemas, una necesidad urgente dada la actual crisis ambiental. La comunidad de dispersores frugívoros es determinantepara recuperar la estructura y complejidad de la vegetación en campos abandonados, ya que éstos suelen estar desprovistos de propágulos.Recientes estudios han resaltado la especial relevancia de los mamíferos frugívoros en el proceso de dispersión de semillas en ambientesdegradados como los campos abandonados. Esto es debido a una serie de rasgos morfológicos y de comportamiento que caracterizan a losfrugívoros mamíferos y que les hace ser dispersores especialmente efectivos. Generalmente los mamíferos frugívoros tienen un mayor tamañocorporal, mayores áreas de campeo y distancias de dispersión, frecuente uso de hábitats abiertos, movilizando así más semillas hasta los camposabandonados que otros grupos de frugívoros (e.g. aves. Una vez que una semilla ha sido depositada tiene que superar las sucesivas etapas hastael establecimiento (depredación post-dispersiva, germinación, supervivencia y crecimiento. Los mamíferos frugívoros favorecen todo este procesoen mayor medida que otros dispersores. A nivel interespecífico pueden dispersar mayor diversidad de especies al estar generalmente menoslimitados por el tamaño de fruto, y a nivel intra-especifico no seleccionan semillas de pequeño tamaño. Además, suelen depositar las semillas enmicrohábitats que resultan especialmente adecuados para el reclutamiento. En consecuencia, los mamíferos son un elemento clave en los ensamblesde frugívoros que propician la regeneración de los campos abandonados y su función ecológica debe ser considerada en la restauración y manejode hábitats degradados.Palabras clave: áreas degradadas; bosque remanente; cambio de los usos del suelo; dispersi

  13. A Smart Kitchen for Ambient Assisted Living

    OpenAIRE

    Rubén Blasco; Álvaro Marco; Roberto Casas; Diego Cirujano; Richard Picking

    2014-01-01

    The kitchen environment is one of the scenarios in the home where users can benefit from Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) applications. Moreover, it is the place where old people suffer from most domestic injuries. This paper presents a novel design, implementation and assessment of a Smart Kitchen which provides Ambient Assisted Living services; a smart environment that increases elderly and disabled people’s autonomy in their kitchen-related activities through context and user awareness, appr...

  14. Ambient air pollution and low birthweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; Giorgis-Allemand, Lise; Bernard, Claire

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ambient air pollution has been associated with restricted fetal growth, which is linked with adverse respiratory health in childhood. We assessed the effect of maternal exposure to low concentrations of ambient air pollution on birthweight. METHODS: We pooled data from 14 population...... air pollutants and traffic during pregnancy is associated with restricted fetal growth. A substantial proportion of cases of low birthweight at term could be prevented in Europe if urban air pollution was reduced. FUNDING: The European Union....

  15. Weekday/Weekend differences in ambient air pollutant concentrations in atlanta and the southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Charles L; Tanenbaum, Shelley

    2006-03-01

    The authors quantified changes between mean weekday and weekend ambient concentrations of ozone (O3) precursors (volatile organic compounds [VOC], carbon monoxide [CO], nitric oxide, and oxides of nitrogen [NOx]) in Atlanta and surrounding areas to observe how weekend precursor emission levels influenced ambient O3 levels. The authors analyzed CO, nitric oxide (NO), and NO, measurements from 1998 to 2002 and speciated VOC from 1996 to 2003. They observed a strong weekend effect in the Atlanta region, with median daytime (6:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m. Eastern Standard Time) decreases of 62%, 57%, and 31%, respectively, in the ambient levels of NO, NOx, and CO from Wednesdays to Sundays, during the ozone season (March to October). They also observed significant decreases in ambient VOC levels between Wednesdays and Sundays, with decreases of 28% for the sum of aromatic compounds and 19% for the sum of Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations target compounds. Despite large reductions in O3 precursor levels on weekends, day-of-week differences in O3 mixing ratios in and near Atlanta were much smaller. Averaging overall O3-season days, the 1-hr and 8-hr mean peak daily O3 maxima on Sundays were 4.5% and 2.3% lower, respectively, than their mean levels on Wednesdays (median of 14 site differences), with no sites showing statistically significant Wednesday-to-Sunday differences. When restricted to high-O3 days (highest 3 peak O3 days per day of week per site per year), the 1-hr and 8-hr Sunday O3 mixing ratios were 11% and 10% lower, respectively, than their mean peak levels on Wednesdays (median of 14 site differences), with 6 of 14 sites showing statistically significant Wednesday-to-Sunday differences. The analyses of weekday/weekend differences in O3 precursor concentrations show that different emission reductions than normally take place each weekend will be required to achieve major reductions in ambient ozone levels in the Atlanta area.

  16. Agreements for energy and environment; Patto per l'energia e l'ambiente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    In this paper are reported in ambit of italian national conference of energy and environment, an agreement undersigned by deputy of political and social forces. [Italian] In questo documento e' illustrato il patto per l'energia e l'ambiente cui hanno aderito forze sociali e politiche del paese.

  17. Ambient ionization mass spectrometry: A tutorial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Min-Zong; Cheng, Sy-Chi; Cho, Yi-Tzu [Department of Chemistry, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Shiea, Jentaie, E-mail: jetea@fac.nsysu.edu.tw [Department of Chemistry, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Cancer Center, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

    2011-09-19

    Highlights: {yields} Ambient ionization technique allows the direct analysis of sample surfaces with little or no sample pretreatment. {yields} We sort ambient ionization techniques into three main analytical strategies, direct ionization, direct desorption/ionization, and two-step ionization. {yields} The underlying principles of operation, ionization processes, detecting mass ranges, sensitivity, and representative applications of these techniques are described and compared. - Abstract: Ambient ionization is a set of mass spectrometric ionization techniques performed under ambient conditions that allows the direct analysis of sample surfaces with little or no sample pretreatment. Using combinations of different types of sample introduction systems and ionization methods, several novel techniques have been developed over the last few years with many applications (e.g., food safety screening; detection of pharmaceuticals and drug abuse; monitoring of environmental pollutants; detection of explosives for antiterrorism and forensics; characterization of biological compounds for proteomics and metabolomics; molecular imaging analysis; and monitoring chemical and biochemical reactions). Electrospray ionization and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization are the two main ionization principles most commonly used in ambient ionization mass spectrometry. This tutorial paper provides a review of the publications related to ambient ionization techniques. We describe and compare the underlying principles of operation, ionization processes, detecting mass ranges, sensitivity, and representative applications of these techniques.

  18. Towards New Ambient Light Systems: a Close Look at Existing Encodings of Ambient Light Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrii Matviienko

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ambient systems provide information in the periphery of a user’s attention. Their aim is to present information as unobtrusively as possible to avoid interrupting primary tasks (e.g. writing or reading. In recent years, light has been used to create ambient systems to display information. Examples of ambient light systems range from simple notification systems such as displaying messages or calendar event reminders, to more complex systems such as focusing on conveying information regarding health activity tracking. However, for ambient light systems, there is a broad design space that lacks guidelines on when to make use of light displays and how to design them. In this paper we provide a systematic overview of existing ambient light systems over four identified information classes derived from 72 existing ambient light systems. The most prominent encoding parameters among the surveyed ambient light systems are color, brightness, and their combination. By analyzing existing ambient light systems, we provide a first step towards developing guidelines for designing future ambient light systems.

  19. Empresas e meio ambiente: contribuições da legislação ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielly Ferreira Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1807-1384.2013v10n2p334A relação empresa-meio ambiente tem sido, ao longo da história, bastante conflitante. Entretanto, o fortalecimento do debate ambiental, pressões políticas, sociais e econômicas estão, cada vez mais, desencadeando uma mudança na conduta ambiental das empresas. Nesse contexto, o direito ambiental surge como um forte aliado para o alcance de uma nova conduta ambiental empresarial, através de seu papel inicial como regulador, até sua atuação como instrumento no processo de gestão ambiental da empresa. Desse modo, o presente artigo pretende fazer uma reflexão a respeito da importância da legislação ambiental para a evolução da inserção da variável ambiental, nas estratégias das organizações, ressaltando a conformidade legal como um pressuposto básico a ser atendido pelas empresas, independentemente do tipo de estratégias que estas utilizem no caminho pela busca de uma gestão ambiental efetiva.

  20. Biotecnologia Ambiental. Aplicacions biotecnològiques a la millora del medi ambient

    OpenAIRE

    Blanch i Gisbert, Anicet

    2010-01-01

    La biotecnología ambiental comprende el conjunto de actividades tecnológicas que facilitan la comprensión y la gestión de los sistemas biológicos en el medio ambiente, con el fin de proveer productos y servicios. Actualmente, la gestión del medio ambiente y de sus recursos naturales no se comprende si no se realiza de manera sostenible. Los avances científicos y tecnológicos le están permitiendo a la biotecnología ambiental, el desarrollo de nuevas herramientas y aplicaciones con los que resp...