WorldWideScience

Sample records for monoxide hipco process

  1. Gas-phase production of single-walled carbon nanotubes from carbon monoxide: a review of the hipco process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, Pavel

    2004-01-01

    The latest process for producing large quantities of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) to emerge from the Rice University, dubbed HiPco, is living up to its promise. The current production rates approach 450 mg/h (or 10 g/day), and nanotubes typically have no more than 7 mol % of iron impurities. Second-generation HiPco apparatus can run continuously for 7-10 days at a time. In the HiPco process nanotubes grow in high-pressure, high-temperature flowing CO on catalytic clusters of iron. Catalyst is formed in situ by thermal decomposition of iron pentacarbonyl, which is delivered intact within a cold CO flow and then rapidly mixed with hot CO in the reaction zone. Upon heating, the Fe(CO)5 decomposes into atoms that condense into larger clusters. SWNTs nucleate and grow on these particles in the gas phase via CO disproportionation: CO + CO --> CO2 + C (SWNT), catalyzed by the Fe surface. The concentration of CO2 produced in this reaction is equal to that of carbon and can therefore serve as a useful real-time feedback parameter. It was used to study and optimize SWNT production as a function of temperature, pressure, and Fe(CO)5 concentration. The results of the parametric study are in agreement with current understanding of the nanotube formation mechanism.

  2. Modeling of HiPco Process for Carbon Nanotube Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokcen, T.; Dateo, C. E.; Meyyappan, M.; Colbert, D. T.; Smith, D. T.; Smith, K.; Smalley, R. E.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    High-pressure carbon monoxide (HiPco) reactor, developed at Rice University, is used to produce single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) from gas-phase reactions of iron carbonyl and nickel carbonyl in carbon monoxide at high pressures (10 - 100 atm). Computational modeling is used to better understand the HiPco process. In the present model, decomposition of the precursor, metal cluster formation and growth, and carbon nanotube growth are addressed. Decomposition of precursor molecules is necessary to initiate metal cluster formation. The metal clusters serve as catalysts for carbon nanotube growth. Diameter of metal clusters and number of atoms in these clusters are some of the essential information for predicting carbon nanotube formation and growth, which is then modeled by Boudouard reaction (2CO ---> C(s) + CO2) with metal catalysts. The growth kinetic model is integrated with a two-dimensional axisymmetric reactor flow model to predict reactor performance.

  3. Modeling of the HiPco process for carbon nanotube production. II. Reactor-scale analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokcen, Tahir; Dateo, Christopher E.; Meyyappan, M.

    2002-01-01

    The high-pressure carbon monoxide (HiPco) process, developed at Rice University, has been reported to produce single-walled carbon nanotubes from gas-phase reactions of iron carbonyl in carbon monoxide at high pressures (10-100 atm). Computational modeling is used here to develop an understanding of the HiPco process. A detailed kinetic model of the HiPco process that includes of the precursor, decomposition metal cluster formation and growth, and carbon nanotube growth was developed in the previous article (Part I). Decomposition of precursor molecules is necessary to initiate metal cluster formation. The metal clusters serve as catalysts for carbon nanotube growth. The diameter of metal clusters and number of atoms in these clusters are some of the essential information for predicting carbon nanotube formation and growth, which is then modeled by the Boudouard reaction with metal catalysts. Based on the detailed model simulations, a reduced kinetic model was also developed in Part I for use in reactor-scale flowfield calculations. Here this reduced kinetic model is integrated with a two-dimensional axisymmetric reactor flow model to predict reactor performance. Carbon nanotube growth is examined with respect to several process variables (peripheral jet temperature, reactor pressure, and Fe(CO)5 concentration) with the use of the axisymmetric model, and the computed results are compared with existing experimental data. The model yields most of the qualitative trends observed in the experiments and helps to understanding the fundamental processes in HiPco carbon nanotube production.

  4. Modeling of the HiPco process for carbon nanotube production. I. Chemical kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dateo, Christopher E.; Gokcen, Tahir; Meyyappan, M.

    2002-01-01

    A chemical kinetic model is developed to help understand and optimize the production of single-walled carbon nanotubes via the high-pressure carbon monoxide (HiPco) process, which employs iron pentacarbonyl as the catalyst precursor and carbon monoxide as the carbon feedstock. The model separates the HiPco process into three steps, precursor decomposition, catalyst growth and evaporation, and carbon nanotube production resulting from the catalyst-enhanced disproportionation of carbon monoxide, known as the Boudouard reaction: 2 CO(g)-->C(s) + CO2(g). The resulting detailed model contains 971 species and 1948 chemical reactions. A second model with a reduced reaction set containing 14 species and 22 chemical reactions is developed on the basis of the detailed model and reproduces the chemistry of the major species. Results showing the parametric dependence of temperature, total pressure, and initial precursor partial pressures are presented, with comparison between the two models. The reduced model is more amenable to coupled reacting flow-field simulations, presented in the following article.

  5. Temperature Dependent Spectroscopic Studies of HiPco SWNT Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Keogh, Sinead; Hedderman, Theresa; Farrell, Gerald; Ruether, M.; Gregan, Elizabeth; McNamara, Mary; Chambers, Gordon; Byrne, Hugh

    2005-01-01

    Hybrid systems of the conjugated organic polymer poly(p-phenylene vinylene-co-2,5-dioctyIoxy-m-phenylene vinylene)(PmPV) and HiPco SWNTs are explored using spectroscopic and thermal techniques to determine specific interactions. Vibrational spectroscopy indicates a weak interaction and this is further elucidated using Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Temperature Dependent Raman Spectroscopy and Temperature Dependent Infrared Spectroscopy of the raw materials and the composite. An endothermi...

  6. Material processing with hydrogen and carbon monoxide on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, Aloysius F.; Landis, Geoffrey A.; Linne, Diane L.

    1991-01-01

    Several novel proposals are examined for propellant production from carbon dioxide and monoxide and hydrogen. Potential uses were also examined of CO as a fuel or as a reducing agent in metal oxide processing as obtained or further reduced to carbon. Hydrogen can be reacted with CO to produce a wide variety of hydrocarbons, alcohols, and other organic compounds. Methanol, produced by Fischer-Tropsch chemistry may be useful as a fuel; it is easy to store and handle because it is a liquid at Mars temperatures. The reduction of CO2 to hydrocarbons such as methane or acetylene can be accomplished with hydrogen. Carbon monoxide and hydrogen require cryogenic temperatures for storage as liquids. Noncryogenic storage of hydrogen may be accomplished using hydrocarbons, inorganic hydrides, or metal hydrides. Noncryogenic storage of CO may be accomplished in the form of iron carbonyl (FE(CO)5) or other metal carbonyls. Low hydrogen content fuels such as acetylene (C2H2) may be effective propellants with low requirements for earth derived resources. The impact on manned Mars missions of alternative propellant production and utilization is discussed.

  7. Cyclic process for producing methane from carbon monoxide with heat removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Albert C.; Yang, Chang-lee

    1982-01-01

    Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams are converted to methane by a cyclic, essentially two-step process in which said carbon monoxide is disproportionated to form carbon dioxide and active surface carbon deposited on the surface of a catalyst, and said carbon is reacted with steam to form product methane and by-product carbon dioxide. The exothermic heat of reaction generated in each step is effectively removed during each complete cycle so as to avoid a build up of heat from cycle-to-cycle, with particularly advantageous techniques being employed for fixed bed, tubular and fluidized bed reactor operations.

  8. High-resolution fiber carbon monoxide sensing system and its data processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tingting; Wei, Yubin; Li, Yanfang; Zhao, Yanjie; Liu, Tongyu; Wang, Chang

    2013-09-01

    Carbon monoxide is one of the important gases need to be detected in coal mine safety. Detection technology based on signature gas is the primary means of spontaneous combustion forecasting of coal goaf area. Because of the high accuracy requirement of CO concentration in the coal mining applications, we had to introduce more data processig methods to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), finally to achieve the requirements of coal mining. Therefore, we used three data processing methods to eliminate noises of the CO sensing system which based on the tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS): Fourier transform, least-squares fitting and Kalman filter. The results show that the combination of three data processing methods had a good inhibitory effect of random noise and interference fringes, etc. and significantly improved the system detection accuracy, the minimum detectable spectral absorption rate could be increased by an order of magnitude. So this high-resolution fiber CO sensing system can better meet the needs of coal mine safety.

  9. Effects of carbonyl bond, metal cluster dissociation, and evaporation rates on predictions of nanotube production in high-pressure carbon monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Carl D.; Smalley, Richard E.

    2003-01-01

    The high-pressure carbon monoxide (HiPco) process for producing single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) uses iron pentacarbonyl as the source of iron for catalyzing the Boudouard reaction. Attempts using nickel tetracarbonyl led to no production of SWNTs. This paper discusses simulations at a constant condition of 1300 K and 30 atm in which the chemical rate equations are solved for different reaction schemes. A lumped cluster model is developed to limit the number of species in the models, yet it includes fairly large clusters. Reaction rate coefficients in these schemes are based on bond energies of iron and nickel species and on estimates of chemical rates for formation of SWNTs. SWNT growth is measured by the conformation of CO2. It is shown that the production of CO2 is significantly greater for FeCO because of its lower bond energy as compared with that of NiCO. It is also shown that the dissociation and evaporation rates of atoms from small metal clusters have a significant effect on CO2 production. A high rate of evaporation leads to a smaller number of metal clusters available to catalyze the Boudouard reaction. This suggests that if CO reacts with metal clusters and removes atoms from them by forming MeCO, this has the effect of enhancing the evaporation rate and reducing SWNT production. The study also investigates some other reactions in the model that have a less dramatic influence.

  10. Kinetics of carbon monoxide binding to phenobarbital-induced cytochrome P-450 from rat liver microsomes: a simple bimolecular process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oertle, M; Richter, C; Winterhalter, K H; Di Iorio, E E

    1985-01-01

    The kinetics of carbon monoxide binding to phenobarbital-induced cytochrome P-450 (P-450PB) and to its enzymatically inactive form P-420PB have been investigated by both stopped-flow and flash-photolysis spectrophotometry. When the simultaneous presence of both forms of the enzyme is taken into account, the binding of CO to these two proteins can be described in terms of two bimolecular processes with rate constants of 4.5 X 10(6) M-1.S-1 and 4.7 X 10(5) M-1.S-1 for P-450PB and 1.7 X 10(7) M-1.S-1 and 1.5 X 10(6) M-1.S-1 for P-420PB. From kinetic studies of the binding of CO to P-450PB under different experimental conditions, investigations of the homogeneity of our P-450PB preparations, and comparative kinetic investigations of P-450s from different sources, we conclude that CO binding to reduced P-450PB is a simple bimolecular process and that the observed biphasic traces are due to heterogeneity of the proteins. This conclusion is in contrast with previous reports of complex reaction mechanisms for the binding of CO to P-450PB. Optical spectroscopy studies indicate the existence of an equilibrium between P-450PB and P-420PB, at least for the reduced carbonyl derivatives of the enzymes. The interconversion is strongly influenced by the aggregation state of the protein. Large differences between the CO binding properties of P-450PB and those of P-420PB are found. These are discussed in terms of possible effects of the proximal ligation state of the iron on heme reactivity. PMID:3860832

  11. Selective catalytic two-step process for ethylene glycol from carbon monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Kaiwu; Elangovan, Saravanakumar; Sang, Rui; Spannenberg, Anke; Jackstell, Ralf; Junge, Kathrin; Li, Yuehui; Beller, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Upgrading C1 chemicals (for example, CO, CO/H2, MeOH and CO2) with C–C bond formation is essential for the synthesis of bulk chemicals. In general, these industrially important processes (for example, Fischer Tropsch) proceed at drastic reaction conditions (>250 °C; high pressure) and suffer from low selectivity, which makes high capital investment necessary and requires additional purifications. Here, a different strategy for the preparation of ethylene glycol (EG) via initial oxidative coupling and subsequent reduction is presented. Separating coupling and reduction steps allows for a completely selective formation of EG (99%) from CO. This two-step catalytic procedure makes use of a Pd-catalysed oxycarbonylation of amines to oxamides at room temperature (RT) and subsequent Ru- or Fe-catalysed hydrogenation to EG. Notably, in the first step the required amines can be efficiently reused. The presented stepwise oxamide-mediated coupling provides the basis for a new strategy for selective upgrading of C1 chemicals. PMID:27377550

  12. Carbon monoxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and smokers. Carbon monoxide can harm a fetus (unborn baby still in the womb). Symptoms of carbon ... symptoms Outlook (Prognosis) Carbon monoxide poisoning can cause death. For those who survive, recovery is slow. How ...

  13. CARBON MONOXIDE TREATMENT GUIDELINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miran Brvar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide is the leading cause of unintentional poisoning-related death in Slovenia. It is an odorless, colorless gas that usually remains undetectable until exposures result in injury or death. Exposure to carbon monoxide is most commonly accompanied by headache, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, confusion, drowsiness, fatigue and collapse. Carbon monoxide poisoning management includes normobaric oxygen therapy. Hyperbaric-oxygen treatments reduce the risk of cognitive sequelae after carbon monoxide poisoning. 

  14. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... main content Languages 简体中文 English Bahasa Indonesia 한국어 Español ภาษาไทย Tiếng Việt Text Size: Decrease Font Increase ... Monoxide Information Center Carbon Monoxide Information Center En Español The Invisible Killer Carbon monoxide, also known as ...

  15. Toxic response of HIPCO single-walled carbon nanotubes in mice and RAW264.7 macrophage cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Jung; Zahari, Nur Elida M; Kang, Min-Sung; Lee, Sang jin; Lee, Kyuhong; Lee, Byoung-Seok; Yoon, Cheolho; Cho, Myung-Haing; Kim, Younghun; Kim, Jae-Ho

    2014-08-17

    In this study, we identified the toxic response of pristine single-walled carbon nanotubes (P-SWCNTs) synthesized by HIPCO method in mice and RAW264.7 cells, a murine peritoneal macrophage cell line. P-SWCNT contained a large amount of Fe ion (36 wt%). In the lungs of mice 24 h after intratracheal administration, P-SWCNTs increased the secretion of IL-6 and MCP-1, and the number of total cells, the portion of neutrophils, lymphocytes, and eosinophils, also significantly increased at a 100 μg/mL of concentration. In RAW264.7 cells, cell viability and ATP production decreased in a dose-dependent manner at 24 h after exposure, whereas the generations of ROS and NO were enhanced at all concentrations together with the activation of the MAP kinase pathway. Moreover, the levels of both apoptosis- and autophagy-related proteins and ER stress-related proteins clearly increased, and the concentrations of Fe, Cu, and Zn ions, but not of Mn ions, increased in a dose-dependent manner. TEM images also revealed that P-SWCNTs induced the formation of autophagosome-like vacuoles, the dilatation of the ER, the generation of mitochondrial flocculent densities, and the separation of organelle by disappearance of the cell membrane. Taken together, we suggest that P-SWCNTs cause acute inflammatory response in the lungs of mice, and induce autophagy accompanied with apoptosis through mitochondrial dysfunction and ER stress in RAW264.7 cells. Furthermore, further study is required to elucidate how the physicochemical properties of SWCNTs determine the cell death pathway and an immune response.

  16. Engineering evidence for carbon monoxide toxicity cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galatsis, Kosmas

    2016-07-01

    Unintentional carbon monoxide poisonings and fatalities lead to many toxicity cases. Given the unusual physical properties of carbon monoxide-in that the gas is odorless and invisible-unorganized and erroneous methods in obtaining engineering evidence as required during the discovery process often occurs. Such evidence gathering spans domains that include building construction, appliance installation, industrial hygiene, mechanical engineering, combustion and physics. In this paper, we attempt to place a systematic framework that is relevant to key aspects in engineering evidence gathering for unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning cases. Such a framework aims to increase awareness of this process and relevant issues to help guide legal counsel and expert witnesses.

  17. Process for the manufacture of a monolithic support for catalysts suitable for use in controlling carbon monoxide emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paolasini, S.

    1981-07-07

    A monolithic support for a catalyst suitable for use in controlling carbon monoxide emission is prepared by forming a homogeneous, fluid semi-solid mass by admixing colloidal gamma alumina, alpha alumina monohydrate and ceramic fibres with fluidizing and binding agents, water and a mineral acid, said acid being used in an amount sufficient to convert said alpha Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ monohydrate into a gel, forming the mass into a body of the desired shape, drying the body to substantially remove the added water, at least 10% of said added water being removed at a temperature lower than 50/sup 0/ C., and heat-treating the dried body at 800/sup 0/-1000/sup 0/ C.

  18. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Estimates OCTOBER 13, 2015 Incidents, Deaths, and In-Depth Investigations Associated with Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide from Engine-Driven Generators and ... Engine-Driven Tools, 2004–2014 JANUARY 08, 2015 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths Associated with the Use of Consumer Products 2011 Annual Estimates View All ... Inside CPSC Accessibility ...

  19. Research to lessen the amounts of curing agents in processed meat through use of rock salt and carbon monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, R.; Takeda, S.; Kinoshita, Y.; Waga, M.

    2017-09-01

    This study was carried out to examine the reddening of meat products due to the addition of natural yellow salt (YS) and carbon monoxide (CO). Following YS or NaCl addition at 2% to pork subsequent to nitrite (0∼100 ppm) treatment, color development due to this addition was analyzed visually. Heme pigment content in the meat was also determined spectrophotometrically. YS was found to bring about greater reddening than NaCl, indicating residual nitrite and nitrate content to be significantly higher in meat containing YS, through the amount of either was quite small. The amount of nitrite required for a red color to develop was noted to vary significantly from one meat product to another. CO treatment of pork caused the formation of carboxy myoglobin (COMb) with consequent reddening of the meat. COMb was shown to be heat-stable and form stably at pH 5.0 to ∼8.0 and to be extractable with water, but was barely extractable at all with acetone. Nitric oxide was found to have greater affinity toward myoglobin (Mb) than CO. Nitrosyl Mb was noted to be stable in all meat products examined. CO was seen to be capable of controlling the extent of lipid oxidation.

  20. Integrated electricity and carbon monoxide production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, J.

    1994-03-23

    In a process for the production of carbon monoxide and electric power in an IGCC with the removal of sulphur compounds, between the outlet of quenched gas from a partial oxidation unit and a fuel inlet to a combined cycle gas turbine there is a permeable membrane unit to separate a non-permeable stream, which is utilised as a source of carbon monoxide, and a permeate stream, which is used as fuel for the gas turbine of the combined cycle unit. (author)

  1. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION Search CPSC Search Menu Home Recalls Recall List CPSC Recall API Recall Lawsuits ... and Bans Report an Unsafe Product Consumers Businesses Home Safety Education Safety Education Centers Carbon Monoxide Information ...

  2. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Safety Blogs: CO Safety More CO Blogs Research & Statistics JANUARY 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths ... 2011 Annual Estimates View All CO-Related Injury Statistics and Technical Reports Related Links Recalls Safety Education ...

  3. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... On Safety Blogs: CO Safety More CO Blogs Research & Statistics JANUARY 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide ... Related Links Recalls Safety Education Regulations, Laws & Standards Research & Statistics Business & Manufacturing Small Business Resources OnSafety Blogs ...

  4. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Community Outreach Resource Center Toy Recall Statistics CO Poster Contest Pool Safely Business & Manufacturing Business & Manufacturing Business ... Featured Resources CPSC announces winners of carbon monoxide poster contest Video View the blog Clues You Can ...

  5. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Criminal Penalties Federal Court Orders & Decisions Research & Statistics Research & Statistics Technical Reports Injury Statistics NEISS Injury Data ... On Safety Blogs: CO Safety More CO Blogs Research & Statistics JANUARY 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths ...

  6. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Statistics JANUARY 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths Associated with the Use of Consumer Products 2012 Annual Estimates OCTOBER 13, 2015 Incidents, Deaths, and In-Depth Investigations Associated with Non-Fire ...

  7. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Unites States die every year from accidental non-fire related CO poisoning associated with consumer products, including ... CO Blogs Research & Statistics JANUARY 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths Associated with the Use of ...

  8. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Import Safety International Recall Guidance Civil and Criminal Penalties Federal Court Orders & ... 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths Associated with the Use of Consumer Products 2012 ...

  9. Carbon Monoxide Nonattainment Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies areas in the U.S. where air pollution levels have not met the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Carbon Monoxide and have...

  10. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Unites States die every year from accidental non-fire related CO poisoning associated with consumer products, including ... CO Blogs Research & Statistics JANUARY 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths Associated with the Use of ...

  11. The Carbon Monoxide Tape Recorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeberl, M. R.; Duncan, B. N.; Douglass, A. R.; Waters, J.; Livesey, N.; Read, W.; Filipiak, M.

    2006-01-01

    Using Aura MLS data we have identified the stratospheric tape recorder in carbon monoxide (CO). Unlike the water vapor tape recorder, which is controlled by upper troposphere processes, the CO tape recorder is linked to seasonal biomass burning. Since CO has a lifetime of only a few months, the CO tape recorder barely extends above 20 km. The tape head for CO appears to be close to 360K near the same location as the water vapor tape head [Read et al, 20041. Both tape heads are below the equatorial cold point tropopause but above the base of the tropical tropopause layer. The tape recorder signal becomes more distinct from 360K to 380K suggesting that convective detrainment of plays a decreasingly important role with altitude. The Global Modeling Initiative chemical transport model forced by the climatology of biomass burning reproduces the CO tape recorder.

  12. Carbon Monoxide (CO) Poisoning Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir When power outages occur after severe weather (such as winter storms, hurricanes or tornadoes), using alternative sources of power can cause carbon monoxide (CO) to build up in a ...

  13. Carbon Monoxide Mixing Ratio System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory — The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Carbon Monoxide (CO) system provides high-precision atmospheric concentration measurements of CO mixing ratio (ppbv dry air) every 10...

  14. Carbon monoxide may be an important molecule in migraine and other headaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arngrim, Nanna; Schytz, Henrik W; Hauge, Mette K

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Carbon monoxide was previously considered to just be a toxic gas. A wealth of recent information has, however, shown that it is also an important endogenously produced signalling molecule involved in multiple biological processes. Endogenously produced carbon monoxide may thus play...... an important role in nociceptive processing and in regulation of cerebral arterial tone. DISCUSSION: Carbon monoxide-induced headache shares many characteristics with migraine and other headaches. The mechanisms whereby carbon monoxide causes headache may include hypoxia, nitric oxide signalling and activation...

  15. (Carbon monoxide metabolism by photosynthetic bacteria)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    Research continued on the metabolism of carbon monoxide by Rhodospirillum rubrum. This report discusses progress on the activity, induction, inhibition, and spectroscopic analysis of the enzyme Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase. (CBS)

  16. Carbon Monoxide Silicate Reduction System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Carbon Monoxide Silicate Reduction System (COSRS) is an innovative method that for the first time uses the strong reductant carbon monoxide to both reduce iron...

  17. Carbon monoxide formation in tomatoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gladon, R.J.; Staby, G.L.

    1979-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is not emanated to any large extent from tomato fruits (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill. cvs. Rutgers and Ohio MR-13), but is retained within the internal atmosphere. CO is found during all stages of fruit development, but no set pattern of CO concentration is evident.

  18. MOPITT Carbon Monoxide Over India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    MOPITT observed high levels of carbon monoxide (red and yellow pixels) over the Indian sub-continent during March. These values are associated with industrial activity in the region just south of the Himalayan Mountains. Notice that to the north, the Himalayas are characterized by low values (blue pixels).

  19. Carbon monoxide kinetics following simulated cigarette smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karnik, A.S. (Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI); Coin, E.J.

    1980-05-01

    Carbon monoxide kinetics were measured in the blood (% carboxyhemoglobin) and alveolar phase (ppM carbon monoxide) after simulated cigarette smoking. Cigarette smoking was siumlated using the same amount of carbon monoxide that 2R1F cigarettes manufactured by the Tobacco Research Institute would contain. Ten boluses of air containing carbon monoxide equivalent to smoking one cigarette were inhaled by six healthy nonsmoker volunteers. Carbon monoxide in the air phase was measured by an Ecolyzer and carboxyhemoglobin was measured by a CO-Oximeter. The mean rise in alveolar carbon monoxide immediately and 20 min after inhaling the last bolus was 3.3 and 3.1 ppM, respectively (p<.005). The mean rise in carboxyhemoglobin immediately and 20 min after inhalation of the last bolus was 0.8 and 0.5% respectively (P<.005). The changes in carboxyhemoglobin were found to be similar to changes that occur when one cigarette is actually smoked.

  20. Carbon monoxide conversion by anaerobic bioreactor sludges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sipma, J.; Stams, A.J.M.; Lens, P.N.L.; Lettinga, G.

    2003-01-01

    Seven different anaerobic sludges from wastewater treatment reactors were screened for their ability to convert carbon monoxide (CO) at 30 and 55degreesC
    Seven different anaerobic sludges from wastewater treatment reactors were screened for their ability to convert carbon monoxide (CO) at 30 and

  1. 77 FR 31351 - Adequacy Determination for Aspen PM10 and Fort Collins Carbon Monoxide Maintenance Plans' Motor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... 93.118(e)(4), which was promulgated August 15, 1997 (62 FR 43780). We described our process for... (69 FR 40004). In addition, in certain areas with monitored ambient carbon monoxide (CO) values... AGENCY Adequacy Determination for Aspen PM and Fort Collins Carbon Monoxide Maintenance Plans'...

  2. Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet İbrahim Turan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide poisoning is a major cause of death following attempted suicide and accidental exposures. Although clinical presentation depends on the duration and the intensity of exposure, the assessment of the severity of intoxication is difficult. A small percentage of patients who show complete initial recovery may develop delayed neurological deficits. Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning is a rare and poor prognosis neurologic disorders and there is no specific treatment. We present a case with early onset of delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning with typical cranial imaging findings in a child with atypical history and clinical presentation.

  3. Carbon Monoxide Silicate Reduction System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Carbon Monoxide Silicate Reduction System (COSRS) is a novel technology for producing large quantities of oxygen on the Moon. Oxygen yields of 15 kilograms per...

  4. Protect Yourself from Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-20

    Learn about carbon monoxide - a colorless, odorless gas - and how to protect yourself and your family.  Created: 11/20/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 12/4/2007.

  5. Hearing Loss due to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Houshang Mehrparvar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide poisoning is one of the rare causes of hearing loss which may cause reversible or irreversible, unilateral or bilateral hearing loss after acute or chronic exposure. In this report, we present a case of bilateral sensorineural hearing loss in a secondary smelting workshop worker after an acute exposure to carbon monoxide. This complication was diagnosed by pure-tone audiometry and confirmed by transient evoked otoacoustic emissions. Hearing loss has not improved after 3 months of followup.

  6. Four-electron deoxygenative reductive coupling of carbon monoxide at a single metal site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Joshua A.; Agapie, Theodor

    2016-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is the ultimate source of the fossil fuels that are both central to modern life and problematic: their use increases atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases, and their availability is geopolitically constrained. Using carbon dioxide as a feedstock to produce synthetic fuels might, in principle, alleviate these concerns. Although many homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts convert carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide, further deoxygenative coupling of carbon monoxide to generate useful multicarbon products is challenging. Molybdenum and vanadium nitrogenases are capable of converting carbon monoxide into hydrocarbons under mild conditions, using discrete electron and proton sources. Electrocatalytic reduction of carbon monoxide on copper catalysts also uses a combination of electrons and protons, while the industrial Fischer-Tropsch process uses dihydrogen as a combined source of electrons and electrophiles for carbon monoxide coupling at high temperatures and pressures. However, these enzymatic and heterogeneous systems are difficult to probe mechanistically. Molecular catalysts have been studied extensively to investigate the elementary steps by which carbon monoxide is deoxygenated and coupled, but a single metal site that can efficiently induce the required scission of carbon-oxygen bonds and generate carbon-carbon bonds has not yet been documented. Here we describe a molybdenum compound, supported by a terphenyl-diphosphine ligand, that activates and cleaves the strong carbon-oxygen bond of carbon monoxide, enacts carbon-carbon coupling, and spontaneously dissociates the resulting fragment. This complex four-electron transformation is enabled by the terphenyl-diphosphine ligand, which acts as an electron reservoir and exhibits the coordinative flexibility needed to stabilize the different intermediates involved in the overall reaction sequence. We anticipate that these design elements might help in the development of efficient catalysts for

  7. Dipolar dissociation dynamics in electron collisions with carbon monoxide

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Dipayan; Nandi, Dhananjay

    2016-01-01

    Dipolar dissociation processes in the electron collisions with carbon monoxide have been studied using time of flight (TOF) mass spectroscopy in combination with the highly differential velocity slice imaging (VSI) technique. Probing ion-pair states both positive and/or negative ions may be detected. The ion yield curve of negative ions provides the threshold energy for the ion-pair production. On the other hand, the kinetic energy distributions and angular distributions of the fragment anion provide detailed dynamics of the dipolar dissociation process. Two ion-pair states have been identified based on angular distribution measurements using VSI technique.

  8. Is carbon monoxide-mediated cyclic guanosine monophosphate production responsible for low blood pressure in neonatal respiratory distress syndrome?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bel, F; Latour, [No Value; Vreman, HJ; Wong, RJ; Stevenson, DK; Steendijk, P; Egberts, J; Krediet, TG

    Infant respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) involves inflammatory processes, causing an increased expression of inducible heme oxygenase with subsequent production of carbon monoxide (CO). We hypothesized that increased production of CO during RDS might be responsible for increased plasma levels of

  9. Pulmonary edema in acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kun Sang; Chang, Kee Hyun; Lee, Myung Uk [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1974-10-15

    Acute carbon monoxide poisoning has frequently occurred in Korean, because of the coal briquette being widely used as fuel in Korean residences. Carbon monoxide poisoning has been extensively studied, but it has been sparsely reported that pulmonary edema may develop in acute CO poisoning. We have noticed nine cases of pulmonary edema in acute CO poisoning last year. Other possible causes of pulmonary edema could be exclude in all cases but one. The purpose of this paper is to describe nine cases of pulmonary edema complicated in acute CO poisoning and discuss the pathogenesis and the prognosis.

  10. 40 CFR 60.103 - Standard for carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Refineries § 60.103 Standard for carbon monoxide. Each owner or operator of any fluid catalytic cracking unit... regenerator any gases that contain carbon monoxide (CO) in excess of 500 ppm by volume (dry basis)....

  11. [Carbon monoxide metabolism by photosynthetic bacteria]. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-31

    Research continued on the metabolism of carbon monoxide by Rhodospirillum rubrum. This report discusses progress on the activity, induction, inhibition, and spectroscopic analysis of the enzyme Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase. (CBS)

  12. Carbon Monoxide Hazards from Small Gasoline Powered Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topics Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH CARBON MONOXIDE Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this Page Recommendations NIOSH Publications Worker Notification Program Carbon Monoxide Hazards from Small Gasoline Powered Engines Many ...

  13. Effect of Source, Surfactant, and Deposition Process on Electronic Properties of Nanotube Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dheeraj Jain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The electronic properties of arrays of carbon nanotubes from several different sources differing in the manufacturing process used with a variety of average properties such as length, diameter, and chirality are studied. We used several common surfactants to disperse each of these nanotubes and then deposited them on Si wafers from their aqueous solutions using dielectrophoresis. Transport measurements were performed to compare and determine the effect of different surfactants, deposition processes, and synthesis processes on nanotubes synthesized using CVD, CoMoCAT, laser ablation, and HiPCO.

  14. Thermal Degradation of Lead Monoxide Filled Polymer Composite Radiation Shields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harish, V.; Nagaiah, N.

    2011-07-01

    Lead monoxide filled Isophthalate resin particulate polymer composites were prepared with different filler concentrations and investigated for physical, thermal, mechanical and gamma radiation shielding characteristics. This paper discusses about the thermo gravimetric analysis of the composites done to understand their thermal properties especially the effect of filler concentration on the thermal stability & degradation rate of composites. Pristine polymer exhibits single stage degradation whereas filled composites exhibit two stage degradation processes. Further, the IDT values as well as degradation rates decrease with the increased filler content in the composite.

  15. Synthesis of Diethyl Oxalate by a Coupling-Regeneration Reaction of Carbon Monoxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fandong Meng; Genhui Xu; Baowei Wang; Xinbin Ma

    2002-01-01

    This article describes a process for the synthesis of diethyl oxalate by a coupling reaction ofcarbon monoxide, catalyzed by palladium in the presence of ethyl nitrite. The kinetics and mechanism ofthe coupling and regeneration reaction are also discussed. This paper presents the results of a scale-uptest of the catalyst and the process based on an a priori computer simulation.

  16. Assessment of carbon monoxide values in smokers: a comparison of carbon monoxide in expired air and carboxyhaemoglobin in arterial blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Mette F; Møller, Ann M

    2010-01-01

    Smoking increases perioperative complications. Carbon monoxide concentrations can estimate patients' smoking status and might be relevant in preoperative risk assessment. In smokers, we compared measurements of carbon monoxide in expired air (COexp) with measurements of carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb...

  17. Hearing Loss due to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Davari, Mohammad Hossein; Mollasadeghi, Abolfazl

    2013-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is one of the rare causes of hearing loss which may cause reversible or irreversible, unilateral or bilateral hearing loss after acute or chronic exposure. In this report, we present a case of bilateral sensorineural hearing loss in a secondary smelting workshop worker...

  18. Mixing ratios of carbon monoxide in the troposphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novelli, P.C.; Steele, L.P. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (United States)); Tans, P.P. (NOAA, Boulder, CO (United States))

    1992-12-20

    Carbon monoxide (CO) mixing ratios were measured in air samples collected weekly at eight locations. The air was collected as part of the CMDL/NOAA cooperative flask sampling program (Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory, formerly Geophysical Monitoring for Climatic Change, Air Resources Laboratory/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) at Point Barrow, Alaska, Niwot Ridge, Colorado, Mauna Loa and Cape Kumakahi, Hawaii, Guam, Marianas Islands, Christmas Island, Ascension Island and American Samoa. Half-liter or 3-L glass flasks fitted with glass piston stopcocks holding teflon O rings were used for sample collection. CO levels were determined within several weeks of collection using gas chromatography followed by mercuric oxide reduction detection, and mixing ratios were referenced against the CMDL/NOAA carbon monoxide standard scale. During the period of study (mid-1988 through December 1990) CO levels were greatest in the high latitudes of the northern hemisphere (mean mixing ratio from January 1989 to December 1990 at Point Barrow was approximately 154 ppb) and decreased towards the south (mean mixing ratio at Samoa over a similar period was 65 ppb). Mixing ratios varied seasonally, the amplitude of the seasonal cycle was greatest in the north and decreased to the south. Carbon monoxide levels were affected by both local and regional scale processes. The difference in CO levels between northern and southern latitudes also varied seasonally. The greatest difference in CO mixing ratios between Barrow and Samoa was observed during the northern winter (about 150 ppb). The smallest difference, 40 ppb, occurred during the austral winter. The annually averaged CO difference between 71[degrees]N and 14[degrees]S was approximately 90 ppb in both 1989 and 1990; the annually averaged interhemispheric gradient from 71[degrees]N to 41[degrees]S is estimated as approximately 95 ppb. 66 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Range Measurements of keV Hydrogen Ions in Solid Oxygen and Carbon Monoxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jørgen; Sørensen, H.; Andersen, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    Ranges of 1.3–3.5 keV/atom hydrogen and deuterium molecular ions have been measured by a thin-film reflection method. The technique, used here for range measurements in solid oxygen and carbon monoxide targets, is identical to the one used previously for range measurements in hydrogen and nitrogen....... The main aim was to look for phase-effects, i.e. gas-solid differences in the stopping processes. While measured ranges in solid oxygen were in agreement with known gas data, the ranges in solid carbon monoxide were up to 50% larger than those calculated from gas-stopping data. The latter result agrees...

  20. Photosynthetic carbon monoxide metabolism by sugarcane leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortschak, H.P.; Nickell, L.G.

    1973-01-01

    The photosynthetic carbon monoxide metabolism by sugarcane was studied to determine whether substantial quantities of CO are removed from the air by fields in Hawaii. Leaves metabolized low CO concentrations photosynthetically, with sucrose as an end product. Rates of uptake were of the order of 10/sup -4/ power mg/d sq m/hr. This was to low to be significant in removing CO from the atmosphere.

  1. Sensorineural Hearing Loss following Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph P. Pillion

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A case study is presented of a 17-year-old male who sustained an anoxic brain injury and sensorineural hearing loss secondary to carbon monoxide poisoning. Audiological data is presented showing a slightly asymmetrical hearing loss of sensorineural origin and mild-to-severe degree for both ears. Word recognition performance was fair to poor bilaterally for speech presented at normal conversational levels in quiet. Management considerations of the hearing loss are discussed.

  2. Compact Instrument for Measurement of Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Southwest Sciences proposed the development of a rugged, compact, and automated instrument for the high sensitivity measurement of tropospheric carbon monoxide...

  3. Spectroscopic Characterisation of SWNT Polymer Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Keogh, Sinead

    2006-01-01

    In this study hybrid systems of the conjugated organic polymer poly(p-phenylene vinylene-co-2,5-dioctyloxy-m-phenylene vinylene) (PmPV) with single-walled carbon nanotubes synthesised by the Arc discharge method and by gas-phase catalytic decomposition of carbon monoxide at high pressure (HiPco process) are explored using a wide variety of spectroscopic, microscopic and thermal techniques. Diameter dependent solubilisation has been previously shown in solutions of such composites. Firstly the...

  4. Analysis of Carbon Monoxide in Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddle, Benjamin P.; Stephens, Joseph C.

    2003-04-01

    Forensic tests used to perform the qualitative and quantitative analyses of carbon monoxide in blood are described. The qualitative test uses the diffusion of CO, which is released from blood by reaction with H2SO4, into a PdCl2 solution in a Conway cell and the resultant formation of a palladium mirror. The quantitative analysis is based on the absorption of visible light by carboxyhemoglobin at 541 nm and reduced hemoglobin at 555 nm. Both procedures are suitable for undergraduate chemistry experiments.

  5. MODELLING OF CARBON MONOXIDE AIR POLLUTION IN LARG CITIES BY EVALUETION OF SPECTRAL LANDSAT8 IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hamzelo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution in large cities is one of the major problems that resolve and reduce it need multiple applications and environmental management. Of The main sources of this pollution is industrial activities, urban and transport that enter large amounts of contaminants into the air and reduces its quality. With Variety of pollutants and high volume manufacturing, local distribution of manufacturing centers, Testing and measuring emissions is difficult. Substances such as carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and unburned hydrocarbons and lead compounds are substances that cause air pollution and carbon monoxide is most important. Today, data exchange systems, processing, analysis and modeling is of important pillars of management system and air quality control. In this study, using the spectral signature of carbon monoxide gas as the most efficient gas pollution LANDSAT8 images in order that have better spatial resolution than appropriate spectral bands and weather meters،SAM classification algorithm and Geographic Information System (GIS , spatial distribution of carbon monoxide gas in Tehran over a period of one year from the beginning of 2014 until the beginning of 2015 at 11 map have modeled and then to the model valuation ،created maps were compared with the map provided by the Tehran quality comparison air company. Compare involved plans did with the error matrix and results in 4 types of care; overall, producer, user and kappa coefficient was investigated. Results of average accuracy were about than 80%, which indicates the fit method and data used for modeling.

  6. Modelling of Carbon Monoxide Air Pollution in Larg Cities by Evaluetion of Spectral LANDSAT8 Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzelo, M.; Gharagozlou, A.; Sadeghian, S.; Baikpour, S. H.; Rajabi, A.

    2015-12-01

    Air pollution in large cities is one of the major problems that resolve and reduce it need multiple applications and environmental management. Of The main sources of this pollution is industrial activities, urban and transport that enter large amounts of contaminants into the air and reduces its quality. With Variety of pollutants and high volume manufacturing, local distribution of manufacturing centers, Testing and measuring emissions is difficult. Substances such as carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and unburned hydrocarbons and lead compounds are substances that cause air pollution and carbon monoxide is most important. Today, data exchange systems, processing, analysis and modeling is of important pillars of management system and air quality control. In this study, using the spectral signature of carbon monoxide gas as the most efficient gas pollution LANDSAT8 images in order that have better spatial resolution than appropriate spectral bands and weather meters،SAM classification algorithm and Geographic Information System (GIS ), spatial distribution of carbon monoxide gas in Tehran over a period of one year from the beginning of 2014 until the beginning of 2015 at 11 map have modeled and then to the model valuation ،created maps were compared with the map provided by the Tehran quality comparison air company. Compare involved plans did with the error matrix and results in 4 types of care; overall, producer, user and kappa coefficient was investigated. Results of average accuracy were about than 80%, which indicates the fit method and data used for modeling.

  7. Carbon monoxide expedites metabolic exhaustion to inhibit tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegiel, Barbara; Gallo, David; Csizmadia, Eva; Harris, Clair; Belcher, John; Vercellotti, Gregory M; Penacho, Nuno; Seth, Pankaj; Sukhatme, Vikas; Ahmed, Asif; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo; Helczynski, Leszek; Bjartell, Anders; Persson, Jenny Liao; Otterbein, Leo E

    2013-12-01

    One classical feature of cancer cells is their metabolic acquisition of a highly glycolytic phenotype. Carbon monoxide (CO), one of the products of the cytoprotective molecule heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in cancer cells, has been implicated in carcinogenesis and therapeutic resistance. However, the functional contributions of CO and HO-1 to these processes are poorly defined. In human prostate cancers, we found that HO-1 was nuclear localized in malignant cells, with low enzymatic activity in moderately differentiated tumors correlating with relatively worse clinical outcomes. Exposure to CO sensitized prostate cancer cells but not normal cells to chemotherapy, with growth arrest and apoptosis induced in vivo in part through mitotic catastrophe. CO targeted mitochondria activity in cancer cells as evidenced by higher oxygen consumption, free radical generation, and mitochondrial collapse. Collectively, our findings indicated that CO transiently induces an anti-Warburg effect by rapidly fueling cancer cell bioenergetics, ultimately resulting in metabolic exhaustion.

  8. The effect of carbon monoxide on planetary haze formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hörst, S. M.; Tolbert, M. A, E-mail: sarah.horst@colorado.edu [Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2014-01-20

    Organic haze plays a key role in many planetary processes ranging from influencing the radiation budget of an atmosphere to serving as a source of prebiotic molecules on the surface. Numerous experiments have investigated the aerosols produced by exposing mixtures of N{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} to a variety of energy sources. However, many N{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} atmospheres in both our solar system and extrasolar planetary systems also contain carbon monoxide (CO). We have conducted a series of atmosphere simulation experiments to investigate the effect of CO on the formation and particle size of planetary haze analogues for a range of CO mixing ratios using two different energy sources, spark discharge and UV. We find that CO strongly affects both number density and particle size of the aerosols produced in our experiments and indicates that CO may play an important, previously unexplored, role in aerosol chemistry in planetary atmospheres.

  9. Synthesis of Diethyl Oxalate by a Coupling—Regeneration Reaction of Carbon Monoxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FandongMeng; GenhuiXu; 等

    2002-01-01

    This article describes a process for the synthesis of diethyl oxalate by a copling reaction of carbon monoxide,catalyzed by palladium in the presence of ethyl nitrite ,The kinetics and mechanism of the coupling and regeneration reaction are also discussed ,This paper presents the results of a scale-up test of the catalyst and the process based on an a priori computer simulation.

  10. [Carbon monoxide poisoning by a heating system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Eric; Gehl, Axel; Friedrich, Peter; Kappus, Stefan; Petter, Franz; Maurer, Klaus; Püschel, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    A case of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning in several occupants of two neighboring residential buildings in Hamburg-Harburg (Germany) caused by a defective gas central heating system is described. Because of leaks in one of the residential buildings and the directly adjacent wall of the neighboring house, the gas could spread and accumulated in both residential buildings, which resulted in a highly dangerous situation. Exposure to the toxic gas caused mild to severe intoxication in 15 persons. Three victims died still at the site of the accident. Measures to protect the occupants were taken only with a great delay. As symptoms were unspecific, it was not realized that the various alarms given by persons involved in the accident were related to the same cause. In order to take appropriate measures in time it is indispensible to recognize, assess and check potential risks, which can be done by using carbon monoxide warning devices and performing immediate COHb measurements with special pulse oximeters on site. Moreover, the COHb content in the blood should be routinely determined in all patients admitted to an emergency department with unspecific symptoms.

  11. Observations of iodine monoxide columns from satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Schönhardt

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Iodine species in the troposphere are linked to ozone depletion and new particle formation. In this study, a full year of iodine monoxide (IO columns retrieved from measurements of the SCIAMACHY satellite instrument is presented, coupled with a discussion of their uncertainties and the detection limits. The largest amounts of IO are found near springtime in the Antarctic. A seasonal variation of iodine monoxide in Antarctica is revealed with high values in springtime, slightly less IO in the summer period and again larger amounts in autumn. In winter, no elevated IO levels are found in the areas accessible to satellite measurements. This seasonal cycle is in good agreement with recent ground-based measurements in Antarctica. In the Arctic region, no elevated IO levels were found in the period analysed. This implies that different conditions with respect to iodine release exist in the two Polar Regions. To investigate possible release mechanisms, comparisons of IO columns with those of tropospheric BrO, and ice coverage are described and discussed. Some parallels and interesting differences between IO and BrO temporal and spatial distributions are identified. Overall, the large spatial coverage of satellite retrieved IO data and the availability of a long-term dataset provide new insight about the abundances and distributions of iodine compounds in the troposphere.

  12. Nitric oxide and carbon monoxide diffusing capacity of the lung

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, I. van der

    2006-01-01

    The single breath diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) is measure for gas uptake by the lung, and consists of a membrane and a vascular component. Nitric oxide (NO) binds 400 times faster to hemoglobin than carbon monoxide, thus the uptake of NO by the blood is very large.

  13. Nitric oxide and carbon monoxide diffusing capacity of the lung

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, I. van der

    2006-01-01

    The single breath diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) is measure for gas uptake by the lung, and consists of a membrane and a vascular component. Nitric oxide (NO) binds 400 times faster to hemoglobin than carbon monoxide, thus the uptake of NO by the blood is very large. There

  14. Fatal carbon monoxide intoxication after acetylene gas welding of pipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonsson, Ann-Beth; Christensson, Bengt; Berge, Johan; Sjögren, Bengt

    2013-06-01

    Acetylene gas welding of district heating pipes can result in exposure to high concentrations of carbon monoxide. A fatal case due to intoxication is described. Measurements of carbon monoxide revealed high levels when gas welding a pipe with closed ends. This fatality and these measurements highlight a new hazard, which must be promptly prevented.

  15. Real World of Industrial Chemistry: Organic Chemicals from Carbon Monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Kenneth E.; Kolb, Doris

    1983-01-01

    Carbon Monoxide obtained from coal may serve as the source for a wide variety of organic compounds. Several of these compounds are discussed, including phosgene, benzaldehyde, methanol, formic acid and its derivatives, oxo aldehydes, acrylic acids, and others. Commercial reactions of carbon monoxide are highlighted in a table. (JN)

  16. Search of medical literature for indoor carbon monoxide exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan, T.; Ivanovich, M.

    1995-12-01

    This report documents a literature search on carbon monoxide. The search was limited to the medical and toxicological databases at the National Library of Medicine (MEDLARS). The databases searched were Medline, Toxline and TOXNET. Searches were performed using a variety of strategies. Combinations of the following keywords were used: carbon, monoxide, accidental, residential, occult, diagnosis, misdiagnosis, heating, furnace, and indoor. The literature was searched from 1966 to the present. Over 1000 references were identified and summarized using the following abbreviations: The major findings of the search are: (1) Acute and subacute carbon monoxide exposures result in a large number of symptoms affecting the brain, kidneys, respiratory system, retina, and motor functions. (2) Acute and subacute carbon monoxide (CO) poisonings have been misdiagnosed on many occasions. (3) Very few systematic investigations have been made into the frequency and consequences of carbon monoxide poisonings.

  17. Electricity generation from carbon monoxide and syngas in a microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Abid; Guiot, Serge R; Mehta, Punita; Raghavan, Vijaya; Tartakovsky, Boris

    2011-05-01

    Electricity generation in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) has been a subject of significant research efforts. MFCs employ the ability of electricigenic bacteria to oxidize organic substrates using an electrode as an electron acceptor. While MFC application for electricity production from a variety of organic sources has been demonstrated, very little research on electricity production from carbon monoxide and synthesis gas (syngas) in an MFC has been reported. Although most of the syngas today is produced from non-renewable sources, syngas production from renewable biomass or poorly degradable organic matter makes energy generation from syngas a sustainable process, which combines energy production with the reprocessing of solid wastes. An MFC-based process of syngas conversion to electricity might offer a number of advantages such as high Coulombic efficiency and biocatalytic activity in the presence of carbon monoxide and sulfur components. This paper presents a discussion on microorganisms and reactor designs that can be used for operating an MFC on syngas.

  18. Reduction of carbon monoxide. Past research summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrock, R.R.

    1981-10-01

    Research programs for the year on the preparation, characterization, and reactions of binuclear tantalum complexes are described. All evidence to date suggest the following of these dimeric molecules: (1) the dimer does not break into monomers under mild conditions; (2) intermolecular hydride exchange is not negligible, but it is slow; (3) intermolecular non-ionic halide exchange is fast; (4) the ends of the dimers can rotate partially with respect to one another. The binuclear tantalum hydride complexes were found to react with carbon monoxide to give a molecule which is the only example of reduction of CO by a transition metal hydride to give a complex containing a CHO ligand. Isonitrides also reacted in a similar manner with dimeric tantalum hydride. (ATT)

  19. Syncope Associated with Carbon Monoxide Poisoning due to Narghile Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seda Ozkan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Narghile smoking is a traditional method of tobacco use, and it has been practiced extensively for 400 years. Traditionally, narghile smoking is a matter of culture mainly in Middle East, Asia, and Africa. In recent years, its use as a social activity has increased worldwide, especially among young people. Narghile smoking is an unusual cause of carbon monoxide poisoning. Narghile smoking, compared to cigarette smoking, can result in more smoke exposure and greater levels of carbon monoxide. We present an acute syncope case of a 19-year-old male patient who had carbon monoxide poisoning after narghile smoking.

  20. Vibrationally Excited Carbon Monoxide Produced via a Chemical Reaction Between Carbon Vapor and Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jans, Elijah R.; Eckert, Zakari; Frederickson, Kraig; Rich, Bill; Adamovich, Igor V.

    2017-06-01

    Measurements of the vibrational distribution function of carbon monoxide produced via a reaction between carbon vapor and molecular oxygen has shown a total population inversion on vibrational levels 4-7. Carbon vapor, produced using an arc discharge to sublimate graphite, is mixed with an argon oxygen flow. The excited carbon monoxide is vibrationally populated up to level v=14, at low temperatures, T=400-450 K, in a collision-dominated environment, 15-20 Torr, with total population inversions between v=4-7. The average vibrational energy per CO molecule formed by the reaction is 0.6-1.2 eV/molecule, which corresponds to 10-20% of the reaction enthalpy. Kinetic modeling of the flow reactor, including state specific vibrational processes, was performed to infer the vibrational distribution of the products of the reaction. The results show viability of developing of a new chemical CO laser from the reaction of carbon vapor and oxygen.

  1. Research progress in immunological mechanism of delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai FENG

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning (DEACMP is a syndrome constituted by acute dementia, psychiatric symptoms, pyramidal and extrapyramidal symptoms, which can be developed after the original clinical symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning recovered. Lots of studies have been done to explain the mechanisms of DEACMP, and more and more researches have demonstrated that the immunological mechanism may be involved in or play an important role on the pathogenesis of the process. This article will review the researches of immunological mechanism of DEACMP in recent years and give some prompts to clinical study in the future. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.10.006

  2. An interesting cause of pulmonary emboli: Acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevinc, A.; Savli, H.; Atmaca, H. [Gaziantep University, Gaziantep (Turkey). School of Medicine

    2005-07-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning, a public health problem of considerable significance, is a relatively frequent event today, resulting in thousands of hospitalizations annually. A 70-year-old lady was seen in the emergency department with a provisional diagnosis of carbon monoxide poisoning. The previous night, she slept in a tightly closed room heated with coal ember. She was found unconscious in the morning with poor ventilation. She had a rare presentation of popliteal vein thrombosis, pulmonary emboli, and possible tissue necrosis with carbon monoxide poisoning. Oxygen treatment with low-molecular-weight heparin (nadroparine) and warfarin therapy resulted in an improvement in both popliteal and pulmonary circulations. In conclusion, the presence of pulmonary emboli should be sought in patients with carbon monoxide poisoning.

  3. US EPA Region 9 carbon monoxide designated areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Polygon Feature class of Nonattainment Areas for Carbon Monoxide. Nonattainment areas are geographic areas which have not met National Ambient Air Quality Standards...

  4. Carbon monoxide poisoning in the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Kaabi, Juma M; Wheatley, Andrew D; Barss, Peter; Al Shamsi, Mariam; Lababidi, Anis; Mushtaq, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is rare in the Arabian Peninsula and occurs almost exclusively during the winter months. Knowledge and perception of the hazards of carbon monoxide is limited. Migrant workers from warm climates appear particularly at risk. We investigated 46 cases of carbon monoxide poisoning presenting at emergency departments from 2007-2009 of the two main hospitals in Al Ain city, United Arab Emirates. Interviews, hospital records, and administered questionnaires were used to collect the data. Among the 46 cases investigated, 24 (52%) were males. Foreign nationals compromised 80% of the cases and the incidence was 3.1 cases per 100,000 residents per year. Burning charcoal in poorly ventilated residences was the predominant source of the carbon monoxide poisoning. Almost all cases (98%) were admitted during the winter months, most in the early morning hours. Carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) was significantly increased in cases with loss of consciousness and depressed consciousness. There were no reported fatalities.

  5. Same Exposure, Various Clinical Pictures: The Carbon Monoxide Enigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Salmanoglu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available -Children and adolescents exposed to the same source of carbon monoxide have been shown to demonstrate different clinical pictures (1,2. The same condition probably may be extrapolated between children with varying ages and hence lung surface areas. Smaller children will receive larger doses of carbon monoxide, because they have greater lung surface area/body weight ratios and increased minute volumes/weight ratios. As carbon monoxide accumulation is expected to be more significant nearer to the ground, another explanation for varying clinical pictures in poisoning events may be the different level of sleeping positions of the casualties. Herein, we report a cluster poisoning of carbon monoxide affecting 5 children from the same family at the same time but in different clinical pictures. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2013; 12(1.000: 118-118

  6. Carbon monoxide exposure in blast furnace workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, S; Mason, C; Srna, J

    1992-09-01

    This study investigated the occupational exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) of a group of blast furnace workers from an integrated steelworks, compared to a control group having no significant occupational CO exposure from other areas in the same works. The study was undertaken in 1984 at Port Kembla, New South Wales. Carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) levels before and after an eight-hour work shift were measured in 98 male steelworkers: 52 from two CO-exposed iron blast furnaces and 46 controls from production areas in the same steelworks. The sample was stratified by smoking habits. Environmental air CO levels had been found to be consistently higher on one furnace than on the other. Absorption of CO from the working environment occurred in workers on the blast furnace with higher CO levels, regardless of smoking habits. On this blast furnace, some readings of COHb levels after a workshift in nonsmokers approached the proposed Australian occupational limit of 5 per cent COHb saturation. Overall, workers with the highest occupational exposure who smoked most heavily had the highest absorption of CO over a work shift. Biological monitoring gives an accurate measure of individual worker 'dose' of CO from all sources. Both environmental monitoring and biological monitoring need to be included as part of a program for controlling occupational CO exposure.

  7. Carbon Monoxide: An Essential Signalling Molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Brian E.

    Carbon monoxide (CO), like nitric oxide (NO), is an essential signalling molecule in humans. It is active in the cardiovascular system as a vasodilator. In addition, CO possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and anti-proliferative properties and protects tissues from hypoxia and reperfusion injury. Some of its applications in animal models include suppression of organ graft rejection and safeguarding the heart during reperfusion after cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. CO also suppresses arteriosclerotic lesions following angioplasty, reverses established pulmonary hypertension and mitigates the development of post-operative ileus in the murine small intestine and the development of cerebral malaria in mice as well as graft-induced intimal hyperplasia in pigs. There have been several clinical trials using air-CO mixtures for the treatment of lung-, heart-, kidney- and abdominal-related diseases. This review examines the research involving the development of classes of compounds (with particular emphasis on metal carbonyls) that release CO, which could be used in clinically relevant conditions. The review is drawn not only from published papers in the chemical literature but also from the extensive biological literature and patents on CO-releasing molecules (CO-RMs).

  8. First-Principles Investigations on Europium Monoxide

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hao

    2011-05-01

    Europium monoxide is both an insulator and a Heisenberg ferromagnet (Tc=69 K). In the present thesis, the author has investigated the electronic structure of different types of EuO by density functional theory. The on-site Coulomb interaction of the localized Eu 4f and 5d electrons, which is wrongly treated in the standard generalized gradient approximation method, is found to be crucial to obtain the correct insulating ground state as observed in experiments. Our results show that the ferromagnetism is stable under pressure, both hydrostatic and uniaxial. For both types of pressure an insulator-metal transition is demonstrated. Moreover, the experimentally observed insulator-metal transition in oxygen deficient and gadolinium-doped EuO is reproduced in our calculations for impurity concentrations of 6.25% and 25%. Furthermore, a 10- layer EuO thin film is theoretically predicted to be an insulator with a narrow band gap of around 0.08 eV, while the Si/EuO interface shows metallic properties with the Si and O 2p as well as Eu 5d bands crossing the Fermi level.

  9. Chlorine Monoxide in the Antarctic Spring Stratosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo-Ayerbe, Mauricio

    1988-06-01

    A series of observations of stratospheric chlorine monoxide (ClO) were carried out during the austral springs of 1986 and 1987 in McMurdo Station, Antarctica, as part of two experimental campaigns sent to investigate the seasonal decrease in ozone over the antarctic continent (the ozone "hole"). Measurements of the vertical distribution of ClO were obtained by high resolution ground-based emission spectroscopy at 278 GHz, using the Stony Brook mm-wave receiver. They show the presence of an anomalous layer of lower stratospheric ClO which is not observed at other latitudes. This anomalous layer is centered at ~20 km altitude and exhibits a pronounced diurnal variation, reaching a maximum at midday and disappearing at night. During the period of Sep. 20-24, 1987, the lower-stratospheric ClO had a maximum volume mixing ratio of 1.8_sp{+0cdot5}{ -0cdot9} ppbv. A normal ClO layer centered at ~36 km was also observed, with concentrations and diurnal behavior similar to those seen in tropical latitudes. These findings are evidence of anomalous chlorine chemistry taking place in the lower stratosphere during the antarctic spring, and indicate that increasing anthropogenic chlorine is a prime causative agent in the formation of the ozone hole.

  10. Assessment of carbon monoxide values in smokers: a comparison of carbon monoxide in expired air and carboxyhaemoglobin in arterial blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Mette F; Møller, Ann M

    2010-01-01

    Smoking increases perioperative complications. Carbon monoxide concentrations can estimate patients' smoking status and might be relevant in preoperative risk assessment. In smokers, we compared measurements of carbon monoxide in expired air (COexp) with measurements of carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) ......) in arterial blood. The objectives were to determine the level of correlation and to determine whether the methods showed agreement and evaluate them as diagnostic tests in discriminating between heavy and light smokers....

  11. Acute carbon monoxide poisoning: animal models: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penney, D G

    1990-05-31

    Animals have been used for well over a century in an attempt to understand the toxicology, physiology, and pathology of acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Whether the toxic effects of this gas result from primary hypoxia, as in hypoxic hypoxia to which it is frequently compared, or from direct tissue effects since it enters cells and binds to certain vital components, remains a point of controversy. Acute severe poisoning in man and animals affects primarily the cardiovascular and nervous systems, and frequently produces neurologic dysfunction. Morphologically, tissue damage is usually confined to the white matter. The root cause is at best poorly understood and major investigative efforts have been made toward its elucidation. Many studies with rats, cats and primates indicate a major role for CO-induced hypotension, which serves to compromise blood flow and exacerbate acidosis. The likely cellular mechanisms in this process are only now becoming apparent. This review critically examines the recent as well as a few older CO-animal studies. In scope, they fall into several broad categories: general cardiopulmonary effects, metabolic and tissue effects, general resistance (i.e. tolerance), effects on the central nervous system including blood flow, neurochemistry, morphology and behavior, and finally, experimental therapeutic approaches.

  12. Carbon monoxide: an emerging regulator of ion channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, William J; Kemp, Paul J

    2011-07-01

    Carbon monoxide is rapidly emerging as an important cellular messenger, regulating a wide range of physiological processes. Crucial to its role in both physiology and disease is its ability differentially to regulate several classes of ion channels, including examples from calcium-activated K(+) (BK(Ca)), voltage-activated K(+) (K(v)) and Ca(2+) channel (L-type) families, ligand-gated P2X receptors (P2X2 and P2X4), tandem P domain K(+) channels (TREK1) and the epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC). The mechanisms by which CO regulates these ion channels are still unclear and remain somewhat controversial. However, available structure-function studies suggest that a limited range of amino acid residues confer CO sensitivity, either directly or indirectly, to particular ion channels and that cellular redox state appears to be important to the final integrated response. Whatever the molecular mechanism by which CO regulates ion channels, endogenous production of this gasotransmitter has physiologically important roles and is currently being explored as a potential therapeutic.

  13. Heme oxygenase-1 and carbon monoxide in pulmonary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slebos, Dirk-Jan; Ryter, Stefan W; Choi, Augustine M K

    2003-01-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an inducible stress protein, confers cytoprotection against oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo. In addition to its physiological role in heme degradation, HO-1 may influence a number of cellular processes, including growth, inflammation, and apoptosis. By virtue of anti-inflammatory effects, HO-1 limits tissue damage in response to proinflammatory stimuli and prevents allograft rejection after transplantation. The transcriptional upregulation of HO-1 responds to many agents, such as hypoxia, bacterial lipopolysaccharide, and reactive oxygen/nitrogen species. HO-1 and its constitutively expressed isozyme, heme oxygenase-2, catalyze the rate-limiting step in the conversion of heme to its metabolites, bilirubin IXalpha, ferrous iron, and carbon monoxide (CO). The mechanisms by which HO-1 provides protection most likely involve its enzymatic reaction products. Remarkably, administration of CO at low concentrations can substitute for HO-1 with respect to anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects, suggesting a role for CO as a key mediator of HO-1 function. Chronic, low-level, exogenous exposure to CO from cigarette smoking contributes to the importance of CO in pulmonary medicine. The implications of the HO-1/CO system in pulmonary diseases will be discussed in this review, with an emphasis on inflammatory states.

  14. Heme oxygenase-1 and carbon monoxide in pulmonary medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Augustine MK

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, an inducible stress protein, confers cytoprotection against oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo. In addition to its physiological role in heme degradation, HO-1 may influence a number of cellular processes, including growth, inflammation, and apoptosis. By virtue of anti-inflammatory effects, HO-1 limits tissue damage in response to proinflammatory stimuli and prevents allograft rejection after transplantation. The transcriptional upregulation of HO-1 responds to many agents, such as hypoxia, bacterial lipopolysaccharide, and reactive oxygen/nitrogen species. HO-1 and its constitutively expressed isozyme, heme oxygenase-2, catalyze the rate-limiting step in the conversion of heme to its metabolites, bilirubin IXα, ferrous iron, and carbon monoxide (CO. The mechanisms by which HO-1 provides protection most likely involve its enzymatic reaction products. Remarkably, administration of CO at low concentrations can substitute for HO-1 with respect to anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects, suggesting a role for CO as a key mediator of HO-1 function. Chronic, low-level, exogenous exposure to CO from cigarette smoking contributes to the importance of CO in pulmonary medicine. The implications of the HO-1/CO system in pulmonary diseases will be discussed in this review, with an emphasis on inflammatory states.

  15. Carbon Monoxide Binding by Hemoglobin and Myoglobin under Photodissociating Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunori, Maurizio; Bonaventura, Joseph; Bonaventura, Celia; Antonini, Eraldo; Wyman, Jeffries

    1972-01-01

    Carbon monoxide binding by myoglobin and hemoglobin has been studied under conditions of constant illumination. For hemoglobin, the homotropic heme-heme interaction (cooperativity) and the heterotropic Bohr effect are invariant with light intensity over a 1000-fold change of c½. The dissociation constant, measured as c½, increases linearly with light intensity, indicating that photodissociation is a one-quantum process. At sufficiently high illumination the apparent enthalpy of ligand binding becomes positive, although in the absence of light it is known to be negative. This finding indicates that light acts primarily by increasing the “off” constants by an additive factor. The invariance of both cooperativity and Bohr effect raises a perplexing issue. It would appear to demand either that the “off” constants for the various elementary steps are all alike (which is contrary to current ideas) or that the additive factor is in each case proportional to the particular “off” constant to which it is added (a seemingly improbable alternative). PMID:4502938

  16. High temperature thermodynamics and vaporization of stoichiometric titanium monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheldon, R.I.; Gilles, P.W.

    1976-08-17

    Three vaporization experiments were performed on samples of nearly stoichiometric titanium monoxide. Two experiments were constant temperature experiments (1806/sup 0/K) designed to measure the equilibrium vapor pressures of Ti(g) and TiO(g). In one experiment titanium monoxide was vaporized from a tungsten Knudsen effusion cell; the vapor was collected on a water cooled quartz cap surrounding the cell; and the total amount of titanium deposited on the cap was analyzed colorimetrically. In the second constant temperature experiment (1806/sup 0/K) the vapor composition in equilibrium with nearly stoichiometric titanium monoxide was measured mass spectrometrically. The mass spectrometer results were used to apportion the total titanium collected in the first experiment to Ti(g) and TiO(g). In the third experiment the temperature dependence of the ions Ti/sup +/(48) and TiO(64) was measured spectrometrically. The results obtained in this work are compared with published thermodynamic properties of the titanium oxygen system, and indicate the standard free energy of formation of titanium monoxide obtained from the earliest calorimetric measurements yielded a result not negative enough and also oxygen pressures obtained by emf measurements for stoichiometric titanium monoxide at 1806/sup 0/K are high by a factor of 42.6. The present results are in good agreement with the thermodynamic properties reported in recently issued pages of the JANAF Thermochemical Tables.

  17. [Massive poisoning with carbon monoxide: an update from a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Mariano; Crapanzano, Gabriel; Cabrerizo, Silvia; Aichele, Cristina; Deurtiaga, Alejandra; Vallejos, Yamila

    2017-02-01

    Carbon monoxide is known as the "silent murderer" because it is a colorless and odorless gas. According to these characteristics, toxicity goes unnoticed which makes the diagnosis difficult. In most cases, the cold periods and group poisoning make suspect its presence because inappropriate heat both in home or public environments. Our goal is to inform about a mass carbon monoxide poisoning in a children's parties room using a combustion source installed, not for the purpose of heating, but as a supply of light (generator), emphasizing that it can occur in any time of the year.

  18. Structural and magnetic properties of mechanochemically synthesized nanocrystalline titanium monoxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barudžija Tanja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nano-sized titanium monoxide (TiO powder was prepared by mechanochemical synthesis. A mixture of commercial Ti and TiO2 (rutile powders with the molar ratio of 1:1 was milled in a planetary ball mill for 5, 10, 20, 30 and 60 min under argon atmosphere. The final single-phase titanium monoxide sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, magnetic measurements using a superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer (SQUID and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The temperature dependency of the magnetic susceptibility is characterized by significant contribution of Pauli paramagnetism due to conduction electrons.

  19. Carbon nanotube prepared from carbon monoxide by CVD method and its application as electrode materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AN Yuliang; YUAN Xia; CHENG Shinan; GEN Xin

    2006-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes with larger inner diameter were synthesized by the chemical vapor deposition of carbon monoxide (CO) on iron catalyst using H2S as promoting agent.It is found that the structure and morphology of carbon nanotubes can be tailored, to some degree, by varying the experimental conditions such as precursor components and process parameters.The results show that the presence of H2S may play key role for growing Y-branched carbon nanotubes.The products were characterized by SEM, TEM, and Raman spectroscopy, respectively.Furthermore, the obtained carbon nanotubes were explored as electrode materials for supercapacitor.

  20. The Effects of Low Level Prenatal Carbon Monoxide on Neocortical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    378.1958). Ginsberg MD, Myers RE (Fetal brain damage following maternal carbon monoxide intoxication: an experimental study. Acta obstetricia et...monoxide production and blood loss at delivery. Acta obstetricia et gynecologica Scandinavica 48:362-370.1969). Longo LD (Carbon monoxide in the

  1. Carbon monoxide total column retrievals from TROPOMI shortwave infrared measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgraf, Jochen; aan de Brugh, Joost; Scheepmaker, Remco; Borsdorff, Tobias; Hu, Haili; Houweling, Sander; Butz, Andre; Aben, Ilse; Hasekamp, Otto

    2016-10-01

    The Tropospheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) spectrometer is the single payload of the Copernicus Sentinel 5 Precursor (S5P) mission. It measures Earth radiance spectra in the shortwave infrared spectral range around 2.3 µm with a dedicated instrument module. These measurements provide carbon monoxide (CO) total column densities over land, which for clear sky conditions are highly sensitive to the tropospheric boundary layer. For cloudy atmospheres over land and ocean, the column sensitivity changes according to the light path through the atmosphere. In this study, we present the physics-based operational S5P algorithm to infer atmospheric CO columns satisfying the envisaged accuracy ( information on atmospheric scattering. For efficient processing, we deploy a linearized two-stream radiative transfer model as forward model and a profile scaling approach to adjust the CO abundance in the inversion. Based on generic measurement ensembles, including clear sky and cloudy observations, we estimated the CO retrieval precision to be ≤ 11 % for surface albedo ≥ 0.03 and solar zenith angle ≤ 70°. CO biases of ≤ 3 % are introduced by inaccuracies in the methane a priori knowledge. For strongly enhanced CO concentrations in the tropospheric boundary layer and for cloudy conditions, CO errors in the order of 8 % can be introduced by the retrieval of cloud parameters of our algorithm. Moreover, we estimated the effect of a distorted spectral instrument response due to the inhomogeneous illumination of the instrument entrance slit in the flight direction to be < 2 % with pseudo-random characteristics when averaging over space and time. Finally, the CO data exploitation is demonstrated for a TROPOMI orbit of simulated shortwave infrared measurements. Overall, the study demonstrates that for an instrument that performs in compliance with the pre-flight specifications, the CO product will meet the required product performance well.

  2. Carbon monoxide pollution and neurodevelopment: A public health concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Although an association between air pollution and adverse systemic health effects has been known for years, the effect of pollutants on neurodevelopment has been underappreciated. Recent evidence suggests a possible link between air pollution and neurocognitive impairment and behavioral disorders in children, however, the exact nature of this relationship remains poorly understood. Infants and children are uniquely vulnerable due to the potential for exposure in both the fetal and postnatal environments during critical periods in development. Carbon monoxide (CO), a common component of indoor and outdoor air pollution, can cross the placenta to gain access to the fetal circulation and the developing brain. Thus, CO is of particular interest as a known neurotoxin and a potential public health threat. Here we review overt CO toxicity and the policies regulating CO exposure, detail the evidence suggesting a potential link between CO-associated ambient air pollution, tobacco smoke, and learning and behavioral abnormalities in children, describe the effects of subclinical CO exposure on the brain during development, and provide mechanistic insight into a potential connection between CO exposure and neurodevelopmental outcome. CO can disrupt a number of critical processes in the developing brain, providing a better understanding of how this specific neurotoxin may impair neurodevelopment. However, further investigation is needed to better define the effects of perinatal CO exposure on the immature brain. Current policies regarding CO standards were established based on evidence of cardiovascular risk in adults with pre-existing comorbidities. Thus, recent and emerging data highlighted in this review regarding CO exposure in the fetus and developing child may be important to consider when the standards and guidelines are evaluated and revised in the future.

  3. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Amharic (amarunya) Arabic (العربية) Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) French (français) ... Kiswahili) Tagalog (Tagalog) Tigrinya (tigrinya) Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) Amharic (amarunya) Prevention Guidelines: You Can Prevent Carbon Monoxide ...

  4. Pathways and bioenergetics of anaerobic carbon monoxide fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diender, Martijn; Stams, Fons; Machado de Sousa, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Carbon monoxide can act as a substrate for different modes of fermentative anaerobic metabolism. The trait of utilizing CO is spread among a diverse group of microorganisms, including members of bacteria as well as archaea. Over the last decade this metabolism has gained interest due to the poten

  5. UV-induced carbon monoxide emission from living vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Dan; Albert, Kristian Rost; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard

    2013-01-01

    The global burden of carbon monoxide (CO) is rather uncertain. In this paper we address the potential for UV-induced CO emission by living terrestrial vegetation surfaces. Real-time measurements of CO concentrations were made with a cavity enhanced laser spectrometer connected in closed loop...

  6. Study on Response Time of SPE Carbon Monoxide Sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The influence of structural design and the parameters of the working electrode on the response time of a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) carbon monoxide sensor has been studied. Results show that the response time is mainly determined by the RC time constant of the catalyst layer and also related with the working electrode potential.

  7. Carbon monoxide : A quantitative tracer for fossil fuel CO2?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gamnitzer, Ulrike; Karstens, Ute; Kromer, Bernd; Neubert, Rolf E. M.; Meijer, Harro A. J.; Schroeder, Hartwig; Levin, Ingeborg

    2006-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and radiocarbon ((CO2)-C-14) measurements have been made in Heidelberg from 2001 to 2004 in order to determine the regional fossil fuel CO2 component and to investigate the application of CO as a quantitative tracer for fossil fuel CO2 (CO2(foss)). The obs

  8. Hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and methane in the marine environment

    OpenAIRE

    Bullister, John Logan

    1980-01-01

    EXTRACT (SEE PDF FOR FULL ABSTRACT): The horizontal and vertical distribution of three dissolved trace gases, namely molecular hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and methane, was measured in coastal and oceanic areas. Atmospheric concentrations of these gases were measured both at locations influenced by nearby human activity, and in areas far removed from these inputs.

  9. Carbon monoxide poisoning mimicking long-QT induced syncope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.M. Onvlee-Dekker (Irene); A.C.H. de Vries (Andrica); A.D.J. ten Harkel (Arend)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractCarbon monoxide (CO)poisoning is a rare cause of QT prolongation, and is therefore easily missed. The case of a patient with unexplained syncope and QT prologation on the electrocardiogram that turned out to be related to CO poisoning is reported here. In patients with QT prolongation,

  10. Optimization of Treatment Policy for Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. N. Akalayev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the efficiency of combination use of hyperbaric oxygenation, succinate-containing solutions, and anti-edematous agents in patients with acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Subjects and methods. The results of treatment were analyzed in 32 patients admitted in 2009—2011 for severe acute carbon monoxide poisoning and a Glasgow coma score of 6—8. The patients were divided into 2 groups: 1 patients whose combination therapy involved hyperbaric oxygenation, Succinasol infusions, and L-lysine-aescinate injections; 2 those who received traditional therapy. All the patients underwent complex clinical, laboratory, and neurophysiologic examinations. Results. Just 24 hours after the combination use of Succinasol and L-lysine-aescinate, Group I patients were observed to have substantially reduced lactate, the content of the latter approached the normal value following 48 hours, which was much below the values in the control group. The similar pattern was observed when endogenous intoxication parameters were examined. During the performed therapy, the level of consciousness and that of intellect according to the MMSE and FAB scales were restored more rapidly in the study group patients than in Group 2. Conclusion. The combination use of hyperbaric oxygenation, the succinate-containing solution Succinasol, and the anti-edematous agent L-lysine-aescinate considerably enhances the efficiency of intensive therapy for acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Key words: carbon monoxide, toxic hypoxic encephalopathy, combination therapy, hyperbaric oxygenation, succinic acid, L-lysine-aescinate.

  11. Interaction and reactivity of nitric oxide and carbon monoxide on ruthenium surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quick, E.E.

    1980-03-01

    A multifaceted investigation of the reduction of nitric oxide by carbon monoxide using a ruthenium (102) single crystal catalyst in the pressure range 10/sup -3/ to 10 Torr and temperature range of 300 to 475/sup 0/C has been undertaken. Kinetic and isotopic results indicate that the reaction products CO/sub 2/ and N/sub 2/ were produced via two reaction mechanisms. Using a reducing gas mixture (low P/sub NO//P/sub CO/ ratio) a two site mechanism was operative involving NO dissociation. The carbon monoxide kinetic order varied from +1 to -3 and the nitric oxide order varied from +1 to 0. The catalyst under these conditions was determined to be metallic ruthenium with oxygen bonded within the first surface layer. The oxygen was unreactive and formed a (1 x 3)-0 LEED pattern. Under oxidizing conditions (high P/sub NO//P/sub CO/ ratio) the catalyst was ruthenium dioxide and the functional mechanism under these reaction conditions yielded a nitric oxide order of +2 to -4. Inclusion of a site poisoning mechanism under reducing conditions and an RuO/sub 2/ growth mechanism involving ruthenium cation transfer under oxidizing conditions into the kinetic rate laws led to an overall rate law which could be fit to the carbon monoxide and nitric oxide order plots. Using isotopically oxygen labelled reactants, it was observed that the three possible isotopes of carbon dioxide were produced. A ..gamma..-CO surface species is postulated as an intermediate in the exchange process. The reaction was observed to be initially surface structure insensitive and the reaction kinetics were derived using a Langmuir-Hinshelwood formalism.

  12. The carbon monoxide releasing molecule (CORM-3) inhibits expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and E-selectin independently of haem oxygenase-1 expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, H.; Bergstrasser, C.; Rafat, N.; Hoeger, S.; Schmidt, M.; Endres, N.; Goebeler, M.; Hillebrands, J. L.; Brigelius-Flohe, R.; Banning, A.; Beck, G.; Loesel, R.; Yard, B. A.

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Although carbon monoxide (CO) can modulate inflammatory processes, the influence of CO on adhesion molecules is less clear. This might be due to the limited amount of CO generated by haem degradation. We therefore tested the ability of a CO releasing molecule (CORM-3), used i

  13. Digit and letter alexia in carbon monoxide poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingyu Shen; Xiaoming Rong; Rui Pan; Ying Peng; Wei Peng; Yamei Tang

    2012-01-01

    This study examined a 24-year-old patient with delayed encephalopathy, who was admitted to hospital with complaints of headache and visual impairment 1 week after acute carbon monoxide poisoning. The results of a visual field assessment, electroencephalography and head magnetic resonance imaging indicated damage to the cerebral cortex. After a 2-week treatment period, the patient had recovered from the visual impairment, but exhibited digit- and letter-reading difficulty. The Chinese aphasia battery and the number and letter battery supplement were conducted. The results revealed that the patient exhibited digit and letter alexia, while the ability to read Chinese characters was preserved. In contrast, the patient exhibited a deficit in Chinese character writing, while number and letter writing remained intact. Following treatment, reading and writing ability was improved and electroencephalographic abnormalities were ameliorated. Overall, our experimental findings demonstrated that delayed encephalopathy following acute carbon monoxide poisoning was characterized by digit and letter alexia.

  14. Catalysis of carbon monoxide methanation by deep sea manganate minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, A. L.; Maple, M. B.; Arrhenius, G.

    1990-01-01

    The catalytic activity of deep sea manganese nodule minerals for the methanation of carbon monoxide was measured with a microcatalytic technique between 200 and 460 degrees C. The manganate minerals were activated at 248 degrees C by immersion into a stream of hydrogen in which pulses of carbon monoxide were injected. Activation energies for the methanation reaction and hydrogen desorption from the manganate minerals were obtained and compared with those of pure nickel. Similar energy values indicate that the activity of the nodule materials for the reaction appears to be related to the amount of reducible transition metals present in the samples (ca. 11 wt.-%). Since the activity of the nodule minerals per gram is comparable to that of pure nickel, most of the transition metal ions located between manganese oxide layers appear to be exposed and available to catalyze the reaction.

  15. Effect of carbon monoxide on plants. [Mimosa pudica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, P.W.; Crocker, W.; Hitchcock, A.E.

    1933-01-01

    Of 108 species of plants treated with one per cent carbon monoxide, 45 showed epinastic growth of leaves. Several species showed hyponasty which caused upward curling of leaves. Other effects included: retarded stem elongation; abnormally small new leaves; abnormal yellowing of the leaves, beginning with the oldest; abscission of leaves usually associated with yellowing; and hypertrophied tissues on stems and roots. During recovery an abnormally large number of side shoots arose from latent buds of many species. Motion pictures of Mimosa pudica showed a loss of correlation, normal equilibrium position to gravity, and sensitiveness to contact or heat stimuli; however, the leaves moved about more rapidly than those of controls. Since carbon monoxide causes growth rigor and loss of sensitiveness to external stimuli, it is here considered as an anesthetic.

  16. [Sudden unilateral sensorineural hearing loss after carbon monoxide intoxication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalska-Piechowiak, Teresa; Miarzyńska, Maria; Perlik-Gattner, Irena

    2004-01-01

    A case of unilateral sensorineural hearing loss of the left ear after carbon monoxide intoxication was presented. The diagnosis was based upon an interview, medical examinations and audiometric investigations. Results of diagnostic evaluations, clinical presentation and treatment were discussed. Hearing improvement was obtained after 6 days of treatment and normal hearing returned after 14 days. Patients who suffer from CO intoxication are at risk of hearing impairment, therefore, there is a need for audiometric follow up in these patients.

  17. Pregnancy Hypertenssion and Preeclampsia in Enviromental Expossure to Carbon Monoxide

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: In this study relationship between carbon monoxide (CO) with pregnancy induced hypertension and preeclampsia in mothers in various levels of CO pollution was evaluated. Methods: The study was carried out in three teaching hospitals and 4500 pregnant women living area divided in one low-level CO polluted and as the second level, three moderate to high polluted areas (central, south and west). The subjects, residence places were within 5 kilometers of the air pollution monitoring ...

  18. Carbon Monoxide Promotes Lateral Root Formation in Rapeseed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO), an odorless, tasteless and colorless gas, has recently proved to be an important bioactive or signal molecule in mammalian cells, with its effects mediated mainly by nitric oxide (NO). In the present report, we show that exogenous CO induces lateral root (LR) formation, an NO-dependent process. Administration of the CO donor hematin to rapeseed (Brassica napus L. Yangyou 6) seedlings for 3 days, dose-dependently promoted the total length and number of LRs. These responses were also seen following the application of gaseous CO aqueous solutions of different saturated concentrations. Furthermore, the actions of CO on seedlings were fully reversed when the CO scavenger hemoglobin (Hb)or the CO-specific synthetic inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin-Ⅸ (ZnPPIX) were added. Interestingly, depletion of endogenous NO using its specific scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide potassium salt (cPTIO)or the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), led to the complete abolition of LR development, illustrating an important role for endogenous NO in the action of CO on LR formation. However, the or absence of ZnPPIX. Furthermore, using an anatomical approach combined with laser scanning confocal microscopy with the NO-specific fluorophore 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate, we observed that both hematin and SNP increased NO release compared with control samples and that the NO signal was mainly distributed in the LR primordia (LRP), especially after 36 h treatment. The LRP were found to have similar morphology in control, SNP- and hematin-treated seedlings.Similarly, the enhancement of the NO signal by CO at 36 h was differentially quenched by the addition of cPTIO, L-NAME,ZnPPIX and Hb. In contrast, the induction of NO caused by SNP was not affected by the application of ZnPPIX. Therefore,we further deduced that CO induces LR formation probably mediated by the NO/NOS pathway and NO may act

  19. Mobile Carbon Monoxide Monitoring System Based on Arduino-Matlab for Environmental Monitoring Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azieda Mohd Bakri, Nur; Junid, Syed Abdul Mutalib Al; Razak, Abdul Hadi Abdul; Idros, Mohd Faizul Md; Karimi Halim, Abdul

    2015-11-01

    Nowadays, the increasing level of carbon monoxide globally has become a serious environmental issue which has been highlighted in most of the country globally. The monitoring of carbon monoxide content is one of the approaches to identify the level of carbon monoxide pollution towards providing the solution for control the level of carbon monoxide produced. Thus, this paper proposed a mobile carbon monoxide monitoring system for measuring the carbon monoxide content based on Arduino-Matlab General User Interface (GUI). The objective of this project is to design, develop and implement the real-time mobile carbon monoxide sensor system and interfacing for measuring the level of carbon monoxide contamination in real environment. Four phases or stages of work have been carried out for the accomplishment of the project, which classified as sensor development, controlling and integrating sensor, data collection and data analysis. As a result, a complete design and developed system has been verified with the handheld industrial standard carbon monoxide sensor for calibrating the sensor sensitivity and measurement in the laboratory. Moreover, the system has been tested in real environments by measuring the level of carbon monoxide in three different lands used location; industrial area; residential area and main road (commercial area). In this real environment test, the industrial area recorded the highest reading with 71.23 ppm and 82.59 ppm for sensor 1 and sensor 2 respectively. As a conclusion, the mobile realtime carbon monoxide system based on the Arduino-Matlab is the best approach to measure the carbon monoxide concentration in different land-used since it does not require a manual data collection and reduce the complexity of the existing carbon monoxide level concentration measurement practise at the same time with a complete data analysis facilities.

  20. Characteristics of autoignited laminar lifted flames in heated coflow jets of carbon monoxide/hydrogen mixtures

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Byungchul

    2012-06-01

    The characteristics of autoignited lifted flames in laminar jets of carbon monoxide/hydrogen fuels have been investigated experimentally in heated coflow air. In result, as the jet velocity increased, the blowoff was directly occurred from the nozzle-attached flame without experiencing a stabilized lifted flame, in the non-autoignited regime. In the autoignited regime, the autoignited lifted flame of carbon monoxide diluted by nitrogen was affected by the water vapor content in the compressed air oxidizer, as evidenced by the variation of the ignition delay time estimated by numerical calculation. In particular, in the autoignition regime at low temperatures with added hydrogen, the liftoff height of the autoignited lifted flames decreased and then increased as the jet velocity increased. Based on the mechanism in which the autoignited laminar lifted flame is stabilized by ignition delay time, the liftoff height can be influenced not only by the heat loss, but also by the preferential diffusion between momentum and mass diffusion in fuel jets during the autoignition process. © 2012 The Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers.

  1. Highly selective dry etching of polystyrene-poly(methyl methacrylate) block copolymer by gas pulsing carbon monoxide-based plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazoe, Hiroyuki; Jagtiani, Ashish V.; Tsai, Hsin-Yu; Engelmann, Sebastian U.; Joseph, Eric A.

    2017-05-01

    We propose a very selective PMMA removal method from poly(styrene-block-methyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA) copolymer using gas pulsing cyclic etching. Flow ratio of hydrogen (H2) added to carbon monoxide (CO) plasma was periodically changed to control etch and deposition processes on PS. By controlling the process time of each etch and deposition step, full PMMA removal including etching of the neutral layer was demonstrated at 28 nm pitch, while PS thickness remained intact. This is more than 10 times higher etch selectivity than conventional continuous plasma etch processes using standard oxygen (O2), CO-H2 and CO-O2-based chemistries.

  2. Central Diabetes Insipidus and Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar State Following Accidental Carbon Monoxide Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ul Abideen, Zain; Mahmud, Syed Nayer; Rasheed, Amna; Farooq Qasim, Yusaf; Ali, Furqan

    2017-06-03

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is common and carries significant morbidity and mortality. The nervous system, particularly the brain, is frequently affected by it, owing to its high metabolic activity and oxygen requirements. Carbon monoxide damages the nervous system by both hypoxic and inflammatory mechanisms. Central diabetes insipidus is an extremely rare complication of carbon monoxide poisoning. Herein, we report the case of a young lady, who developed this complication and severe hypernatremia after accidental carbon monoxide poisoning. She also developed a hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state during the treatment for hypernatremia. To the best of our knowledge, both these entities have not been reported together in association with carbon monoxide poisoning. The purpose of this article is to emphasize the anticipation and early recognition of central diabetes insipidus in carbon monoxide poisoning. This can prevent severe hypernatremia and complications associated with its presence and treatment.

  3. Intelligent Monitoring System For Carbon Monoxide Poisoning And Leakage In Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshul Thakur

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a feasibility study of a wearable helmet in order to protect mine workers specially of goldmines from carbon monoxide poisoning and cyanidation. Carbon monoxide(CO poisoning is a common problem faced by the workers of coal, gold and many other mines. On the other hand cyanidation problem occurs in gold mines only during ore processing. Current safety systems for mine workers, only monitors environmental concentrations of gas. This is insufficient because toxic exposures effects people at different levels based on their immunity levels. During mining process CO can be emitted which is a odorless gas and lighter than air, it cannot be sensed by workers and effects the hemoglobin range in the body so a CO gas sensor is implemented here in order to detect CO, if the density of CO exceeds inside the mines then the exhaust fan can be switched ON automatically. The key feature of this system is pulse oximetery sensor which will be checking the health parameters of each and every person employed there. During ore processing sodium cyanide is added to the ore in order to extract the gold from its ore which is a acidic substance. If acidity increases beyond a certain level then system will automatically pump sodium hydroxide into the ore to make it less acidic. All these three parameters will be displayed on LCD in the central location which will contain buzzer also for emergency. So in this system we are monitoring three parameters of workers as compare to one in previous systems and hence the security of workers is enhanced.

  4. Modeling of Carbon Monoxide Removal by Corona Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Jingwei; SUN Yabing; ZHAO Dayong; ZHENG Zheng; XU Yuewu; YANG Haifeng; ZHU Hongbiao; ZHOU Xiaoxia

    2009-01-01

    Modeling of carbon monoxide (CO) removal by a corona plasma was conducted in this study.The purification efficiency of CO was calculated theoretically and the factors affecting the removal of CO were analyzed.The results showed that the main removal mechanisms of CO were direct dissociation by generated high-energy electrons and indirect oxidation by generated hydroxyl radicals.The purification efficiency of CO was dependent on the plasma parameters,indoor air humidity and initial concentration of CO.Good consistency between the theoretical calculation and the experimental results was observed.

  5. Pathways and Bioenergetics of Anaerobic Carbon Monoxide Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diender, Martijn; Stams, Alfons J M; Sousa, Diana Z

    2015-01-01

    Carbon monoxide can act as a substrate for different modes of fermentative anaerobic metabolism. The trait of utilizing CO is spread among a diverse group of microorganisms, including members of bacteria as well as archaea. Over the last decade this metabolism has gained interest due to the potential of converting CO-rich gas, such as synthesis gas, into bio-based products. Three main types of fermentative CO metabolism can be distinguished: hydrogenogenesis, methanogenesis, and acetogenesis, generating hydrogen, methane and acetate, respectively. Here, we review the current knowledge on these three variants of microbial CO metabolism with an emphasis on the potential enzymatic routes and bio-energetics involved.

  6. Pathways and bioenergetics of anaerobic carbon monoxide fermentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martijn eDiender

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide can act as a substrate for different modes of fermentative anaerobic metabolism. The trait of utilizing CO is spread among a diverse group of microorganisms, including members of bacteria as well as archaea. Over the last decade this metabolism has gained interest due to the potential of converting CO rich gas, such as synthesis gas, into bio-based products. Three main types of fermentative CO metabolism can be distinguished: hydrogenogenesis, methanogenesis and acetogenesis, generating hydrogen, methane and acetate, respectively. Here, we review the current knowledge on these three variants of microbial CO metabolism with an emphasis on the potential enzymatic routes and bio-energetics involved.

  7. OMI Observations of Bromine Monoxide Emissions from Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleiman, R. M.; Chance, K.; Liu, X.; Gonzalez Abad, G.; Kurosu, T. P.

    2016-12-01

    We analyze bromine monoxide (BrO) data from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) for emissions from various volcanoes. We use OMI data from 2005 to 2014 to investigate BrO signatures from Galapagos, Kasatochi and Eyjafjallajökull volcanoes. Elevated signatures of BrO daily averages were found over Eyjafjallajökull. SO2 cross sections are updated in the operational BrO algorithm and their effect on the volcanic BrO signature is studied. Comparison between two different sets of SO2 cross sections is made and results still show BrO enhancement over the Eyjafjallajökull region.

  8. Studies relevant to the catalytic activation of carbon monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, P.C.

    1992-06-04

    Research activity during the 1991--1992 funding period has been concerned with the following topics relevant to carbon monoxide activation. (1) Exploratory studies of water gas shift catalysts heterogenized on polystyrene based polymers. (2) Mechanistic investigation of the nucleophilic activation of CO in metal carbonyl clusters. (3) Application of fast reaction techniques to prepare and to investigate reactive organometallic intermediates relevant to the activation of hydrocarbons toward carbonylation and to the formation of carbon-carbon bonds via the migratory insertion of CO into metal alkyl bonds.

  9. Simultaneous measurements of carbon monoxide and ozone in the NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, R. E.; Wu, M.-F.

    1985-01-01

    It is noted that the Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) was intended to establish global baseline values of selected atmospheric constituents that could be used for studies of the dynamics of the sampled region as well as for modeling purposes. Instrument packages were carried on four Boeing 747 aircraft in routine commercial service. Carbon monoxide and ozone data were collected simultaneously from early 1977 to early 1979 when GASP terminated. CO was measured with an infrared absorption analyzer using dual isotope fluorescence. Ozone was measured via absorption of UV light. Correlations between the CO and the O3 are tabulated; they are clearly negative for both troposphere and stratosphere in middle latitudes, indicating that transport processes between the stratosphere and troposphere (discussed) dominate. But in the low latitude troposphere the correlations are positive, indicating the possible influence of photochemical effects.

  10. Carbon monoxide: an old poison with a new way of poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Cheng-Hsiu; Lai, Ching-Huang; Liou, Saou-Hsing; Loh, Ching-Hui

    2012-08-01

    We present two events of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, which spread out through ventilation pipes to kill or injure neighbors. This is a previously undocumented poisoning process. In the first event, three people died and eight others suffered CO poisoning from a gas-powered water heater in an apartment building. Similar to the first event, three people expired and three others were injured by CO poisoning in the second event. We subsequently determined the cause of these tragedies were due to obstructions at the openings of ventilation pipes. CO is one of the most common causes of poisoning worldwide and these cases often result in tragedy. Early recognition of CO poisoning resulting from obstructed ventilation pipes will facilitate proper management and prevent possible lethal disasters. Additionally, all clinicians and other paramedical personnel ought to raise the suspicion of chemical-related casualties when encountering clusters of patients from a single locale.

  11. Conversion of carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide by pulse dielectric barrier discharge plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Taobo; Liu, Hongxia; Xiong, Xiang; Feng, Xinxin

    2017-01-01

    The conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) to carbon monoxide (CO) was investigated in a non-thermal plasma dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor, and the effects of different process conditions on the CO2 conversion were investigated. The results showed that the increase of input power could optimize the conversion of CO2 to CO. The CO2 conversion and CO yield were negatively correlated with the gas flow rate, but there was an optimum gas flow rate, that made the CO selectivity best. The carrier gas (N2, Ar) was conducive to the conversion of CO2, and the effect of N2 as carrier gas was better than Ar. The conversion of CO2 to CO was enhanced by addition of the catalyst (5A molecular sieve).

  12. Carbon monoxide: An old poison with a new way of poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Hsiu Chou

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We present two events of carbon monoxide (CO poisoning, which spread out through ventilation pipes to kill or injure neighbors. This is a previously undocumented poisoning process. In the first event, three people died and eight others suffered CO poisoning from a gas-powered water heater in an apartment building. Similar to the first event, three people expired and three others were injured by CO poisoning in the second event. We subsequently determined the cause of these tragedies were due to obstructions at the openings of ventilation pipes. CO is one of the most common causes of poisoning worldwide and these cases often result in tragedy. Early recognition of CO poisoning resulting from obstructed ventilation pipes will facilitate proper management and prevent possible lethal disasters. Additionally, all clinicians and other paramedical personnel ought to raise the suspicion of chemical-related casualties when encountering clusters of patients from a single locale.

  13. Formation of orthorhombic tin dioxide from mechanically milled monoxide powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamelas, F. J.

    2004-12-01

    X-ray scattering measurements are used to show that the metastable orthorhombic phase of tin dioxide is produced by the oxidation of mechanically milled litharge-phase tin monoxide. After milling to a grain size of approximately 20nm, followed by heating to 575°C, the fraction of the orthorhombic phase is approximately 80%. The orthorhombic phase was originally observed in high-pressure experiments, but more recently, it has been produced in a wide variety of thin-film and nanoparticle samples. The data presented here demonstrate the importance of small-grain-size tin monoxide as a precursor in the ambient-pressure synthesis of the orthorhombic phase. This result has practical importance in the production of tin dioxide gas sensors. A more fundamental observation is that the particle size of a precursor phase can have a marked effect on subsequent phases produced during oxidation. Lastly, a formula for determining the orthorhombic fraction in two-phase tin dioxide samples is developed using the method of standard additions.

  14. A carbon monoxide passive sampler: Research and development needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traynor, G.W.; Apte, M.G.; Diamond, R.C.; Woods, A.L.

    1991-11-01

    In rare instances, carbon monoxide (CO) levels in houses can reach dangerously high concentrations, causing adverse health effects ranging from mild headaches to, under extreme conditions, death. Hundreds of fatal accidental carbon monoxide poisonings occur each year primarily due to the indoor operation of motor vehicles, the indoor use of charcoal for cooking, the operation of malfunctioning vented and unvented combustion appliances, and the misuse combustion appliances. Because there is a lack of simple, inexpensive, and accurate field sampling instrumentation, it is difficult for gas utilities and researchers to conduct field research studies designed to quantify the concentrations of CO in residences. Determining the concentration of CO in residences is the first step towards identifying the high risk appliances and high-CO environments which pose health risks. Thus, there exists an urgent need to develop and field-validate a CO-quantifying technique suitable for affordable field research. A CO passive sampler, if developed, could fulfill these requirements. Existing CO monitoring techniques are discussed as well as three potential CO-detection methods for use in a CO passive sampler. Laboratory and field research needed for the development and validation of an effective and cost-efficient CO passive sampler are also discussed.

  15. Space-based observation of volcanic iodine monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönhardt, Anja; Richter, Andreas; Theys, Nicolas; Burrows, John P.

    2017-04-01

    Volcanic eruptions inject substantial amounts of halogens into the atmosphere. Chlorine and bromine oxides have frequently been observed in volcanic plumes from different instrumental platforms such as from ground, aircraft and satellites. The present study is the first observational evidence that iodine oxides are also emitted into the atmosphere during volcanic eruptions. Large column amounts of iodine monoxide, IO, are observed in satellite measurements following the major eruption of the Kasatochi volcano, Alaska, in 2008. The IO signal is detected in measurements made both by SCIAMACHY (Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric CHartographY) on ENVISAT (Environmental Satellite) and GOME-2 (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2) on MetOp-A (Meteorological Operational Satellite A). Following the eruption on 7 August 2008, strongly elevated levels of IO slant columns of more than 4 × 1013 molec cm-2 are retrieved along the volcanic plume trajectories for several days. The retrieved IO columns from the different instruments are consistent, and the spatial distribution of the IO plume is similar to that of bromine monoxide, BrO. Details in the spatial distribution, however, differ between IO, BrO and sulfur dioxide, SO2. The column amounts of IO are approximately 1 order of magnitude smaller than those of BrO. Using the GOME-2A observations, the total mass of IO in the volcanic plume injected into the atmosphere from the eruption of Kasatochi on 7 August 2008, is determined to be on the order of 10 Mg.

  16. The electric dipole moment of cobalt monoxide, CoO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Xiujuan; Steimle, Timothy C

    2014-03-28

    A number of low-rotational lines of the E(4)Δ7/2 ← X(4)Δ7/2 (1,0) band system of cobalt monoxide, CoO, were recorded field free and in the presence of a static electric field. The magnetic hyperfine parameter, h7/2, and the electron quadrupole parameter, eQq0, for the E(4)Δ7/2(υ = 1) state were optimized from the analysis of the field-free spectrum. The permanent electric dipole moment, μ(→)(el), for the X(4)Δ7/2 (υ = 0) and E(4)Δ7/2 (υ = 1) states were determined to be 4.18 ± 0.05 D and 3.28 ± 0.05 D, respectively, from the analysis of the observed Stark spectra of F' = 7 ← F″ = 6 branch feature in the Q(7/2) line and the F' = 8 ← F″ = 7 branch feature in the R(7/2) line. The measured dipole moments of CoO are compared to those from theoretical predictions and the trend across the 3d-metal monoxide series discussed.

  17. Carbon Monoxide Emissions in Middle Aged Debris Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Morgan; Gorti, Uma; Hales, Antonio; Carpenter, John M.; Hughes, A. Meredith

    2017-01-01

    Circumstellar disks greater than 10 Myr old, referred to as debris disks, are expected to be gas poor. The original gas and dust in these disks is thought to be accreted onto the host stars, used up in the formation of planets and other bodies, or blown out of the disks via stellar radiation. However, recent ALMA observations at millimeter wavelengths have led to the detection of carbon monoxide (J=2-1) emission in a few debris disks, prompting further investigation.Using ALMA data, two separate models of gas genesis were tested against observations of the CO emissions in the disks around HIP 73145, HIP 76310, and HIP 84881 in the Upper Sco association. One of these models was built on the hypothesis that the gas in these debris disks is left over from stellar formation and has persisted over uncommonly long periods of time. The other model is built on the hypothesis that this gas is of secondary nature, produced by collisions between planetary bodies in the debris disks. Model emissions were calculated using the Line Modeling Engine (LIME) radiative transfer code and were compared with observational data to infer gas masses under both production scenarios. The implications of the masses of carbon monoxide in the disks suggested by each of the two models are discussed.

  18. 40 CFR 52.1627 - Control strategy and regulations: Carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...: Carbon monoxide. 52.1627 Section 52.1627 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New Mexico § 52.1627 Control strategy and regulations: Carbon monoxide. (a) Part D Approval. The...

  19. Method of removing nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas using a water-soluble iron ion-dithiocarbamate, xanthate or thioxanthate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D. Kwok-Keung; Chang, Shih-Ger

    1987-08-25

    The present invention relates to a method of removing of nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas which method comprises contacting a nitrogen oxide-containing gas with an aqueous solution of water soluble organic compound-iron ion chelate complex. The NO absorption efficiency of ferrous urea-dithiocarbamate and ferrous diethanolamine-xanthate as a function of time, oxygen content and solution ph is presented. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Environmental variables and levels of exhaled carbon monoxide and carboxyhemoglobin in elderly people taking exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salicio, Marcos Adriano; Mana, Viviane Aparecida Martins; Fett, Waléria Christiane Rezende; Gomes, Luciano Teixeira; Botelho, Clovis

    2016-04-01

    This article aims to analyze levels of exhaled carbon monoxide, carboxyhemoglobinand cardiopulmonary variables in old people practicing exercise in external environments, and correlate them with climate and pollution factors. Temporal ecological study with118 active elderly people in the city of Cuiabá, in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Data were obtained on use of medication, smoking, anthropometric measurements, spirometry, peak flow, oxygen saturation, heart rate, exhaled carbon monoxide, carboxyhemoglobin, climate, number of farm fires and pollution. Correlations were found between on the one hand environmental temperature, relative humidity of the air and number of farmers' fires, and on the other hand levels of carbon monoxide exhaled and carboxyhemoglobin (p elderly people, environmental factors influence levels of exhaled carbon monoxide, carboxyhemoglobin and heart rate. There is thus a need for these to be monitored during exercise. The use of a carbon monoxide monitor to evaluate exposure to pollutants is suggested.

  1. Effect of Combustion Air Pre-Heating In Carbon Monoxide Emission in Diesel Fired Heat Treatment Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E B Muhammed Shafi,

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the effect of combustion air pre- heating in Diesel fired heat Treatment Furnace. The main heat treatment processes are Normalizing, Tempering, Hardening, Annealing, Solution Annealing and Stress Relieving. The emission of carbon monoxide is measured with combustion air pre-heating and without preheating. The results are then compared and it is found that the emission of CO is reduced by 29.12%. With the Combustion air pre-heating a considerable reduction in Specific Furnace Fuel Consumption (SFFC is obtained. The test was caaried out at Peekay Steels Casting (P ltd, Nallalam, Calicut.

  2. Carbon Monoxide Distribution over Peninsular Malaysia from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajab, Jaso M.; MatJafri, M. Z.; Lim, H. S.; Abdullah, K.

    2009-07-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) onboard NASA's Aqua satellite. It daily coverage of ˜70% of the planet represents a significant evolutionary advance in satellite traces gas remote sensing. AIRS, the part of a large international investment to upgrade the operational meteorological satellite systems, is first of the new generation of meteorological advanced sounders for operational and research use, Providing New Insights into Weather and Climate for the 21st Century. Carbon monoxide (CO) is a ubiquitous, an indoor and outdoor air pollutant, is not a significant greenhouse gas as it absorbs little infrared radiation from the Earth. However, it does have an influence on oxidization in the atmosphere through interaction with hydroxyl radicals (OH), which also react with methane, halocarbons and tropospheric ozone. It produced by the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and biomass burning, and that it has a role as a smog. The aim of this investigation is to study the (CO) carbon monoxide distribution over Peninsular Malaysia. The land use map of the Peninsular Malaysia was conducted by using CO total column amount, obtained from AIRS data, the map & data was processed and analyzed by using Photoshop & SigmaPlot 11.0 programs and compared for timing of various (day time) (28 August 2005 & 29 August 2007) for both direct comparison and the comparison using the same a priori profile, the CO concentrations in 28/8/2005 higher. The CO maps were generated using Kriging Interpolation technique. This interpolation technique produced high correlation coefficient, R2 and low root mean square error, RMS for CO. This study provided useful information for influence change of CO concentration on varies temperature.

  3. Hypervalence in monoxides and dioxides of superalkali clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Elizabeth; Meloni, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    F2Li3, a superalkali cluster, is characterized as having a lower adiabatic ionization energy than its elemental alkali counterpart and, coupled with the presence of complex molecular orbitals, suggests promise for novel bonding possibilities. CBS-QB3 composite method was used to study three distinct cluster isomers, as well as their cationic (+1) and anionic (-1) species, to identify energetic trends and observe geometric changes. Oxides were then generated from these clusters, of which three distinct monoxides and nine dioxides were obtained upon structure optimization. Identical calculations were performed for the oxide species and their charged counterparts. Some of the most stable oxides produced appear to possess hypervalent lithium and oxygen atoms, forming unique structures with exceptional stability.

  4. Prevention of carbon monoxide exposure in general and recreational aviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelnick, Sanford D; Lischak, Michael W; Young, David G; Massa, Thomas V

    2002-08-01

    Carbon monoxide exposure is an important public health issue that poses a significant, albeit uncommon risk in aviation. Exposure is most common in single engine piston-driven aircraft where air is passed over the exhaust manifold to serve as cabin heat. Effective primary prevention of this exposure is the regular inspection and maintenance of aircraft exhaust systems, as required by law. For situations at special risk should exposure occur, and where there is concern for the public safety, installation of active warning devices for CO intrusion into cockpits may improve secondary prevention. Modern studies should be performed of occupation-specific abilities to support the 50 ppm FAA CO exposure standard and 50-70 ppm FAA Technical Standard Order (TSO) for CO monitors alerting pilots to the possibility of exhaust gas intrusion into their cockpits.

  5. ROLE OF ENDOGENOUS CARBON MONOXIDE IN ENDOTOXIN SHOCK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To study the role of endogenous carbon monoxide (CO) in endotoxin shock. Methods. The changes of CO levels and the effects of zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP),an inhibitor of heme-oxygenase (HO), in endotoxin shock and the efficacy of hemin,an inducer of HO were investigated.Results. The plasma CO levels were found to be significantly increased during the course of endotoxin shock. Injection of ZnPP was shown to abrogate the endotoxin-induced hypotension and metabolic derangements markedly. Administration of hemin to healthy rabbits revealed the hypotension and metabolic derangements similar to the animals given endotoxin.Conclusion.CO is a newly found endogenously produced mediator which may play an important role in the pathogenesis of endotoxin shock.

  6. ROLE OF ENDOGENOUS CARBON MONOXIDE IN ENDOTOXIN SHOCK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史源; 李华强; 潘捷; 覃世文; 潘凤; 蒋东波; 沈际皋

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To study the role of endogenous carbon monoxide (CO) in endotoxin shock. Methods. The changes of CO levels and the effects of zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP), an inhibitor of hemeoxygenase (HO), in endotoxin shock and the efficacy of heroin, an inducer of HO were investigated. Results. The plasma CO levels were found to be significantly increased during the comse of endotoxin shock. Injection of ZnPP was shown to abrogate the endotoxin-induced hypotension and metabolic derangements markedly. Administration of hemin to healthy rabbits revealed the hypotension and metabolic derangements similar to the animsls given endotoxin. Conclusion. CO is a newly found endogenously produced mediator which may play an important role in the pathogenesis of endotoxin shock.

  7. Technique for measuring carbon monoxide uptake in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depledge, M.H.; Collis, C.H.; Chir, B.; Barrett, A.

    1981-04-01

    A new method has been developed for measuring carbon monoxide (CO) uptake in mice. Each animal was placed in a syringe and allowed to rebreathe a mixture of CO and helium (He) for 60 s. CO uptake was detemined from a comparison of CO and He concentrations before and after rebreathing. Weight specific CO uptake increased with body weight in CBA mice weighing between 20 to 35 gr. In larger mice, size dependence was less marked, although a slight fall in CO uptake was observed in older animals. Anaesthesia reduced ventilatory rate and CO uptake to a variable extent. The method is reproducible, non-invasive and does not require anaesthesia; consequently, it can be used to study serial changes in lung function. It is sensitive enough to detect lung damage in CBA mice following 16 Gy total body irradiation. Values of diffusing capacity obtained for mice using this method are consistent with published values.

  8. Terahertz Time Domain Gas-phase Spectroscopy of Carbon Monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilcullen, Patrick; Hartley, I. D.; Jensen, E. T.; Reid, M.

    2015-04-01

    Free induction decay signals emitted from Carbon Monoxide (CO) excited by sub-picosecond pulses of Terahertz (THz) radiation are directly measured in the time domain and compared to model calculations using a linear dispersion model to good agreement. Best fitting techniques of the data using the model allow the self-pressure broadening of CO to be measured across a range of absolute pressures, and the rotational constant to be determined. We find B V = 5.770 ± 0.003 × 1010 Hz in agreement with previous measurements. A partial pressure limit of detection for CO of 7900 ppm is estimated at atmosphere through extrapolating the calculated commensurate echo peaks down to low pressures with respect to the RMS noise floor of our THz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) apparatus, which implies a limit of detection in the range of 40 ppm for commercial THz-TDS systems.

  9. An Unusual Cause of Supraventricular Tachycardia: Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suat Zengin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available      Carbon monoxide (CO is a toxic gas produced by the incomplete combustion of carbon-containing compounds. Exposure to high concentrations of CO can be letha and is the most common cause of death from poisoning worldwide. Cardiac manifestations after exposure to CO, including myocardial ischemia, heart failure, and arrhythmias, have been reported. A 28-year-old a patient was admitted to our emergency department with altered consciousness as a consequence of acute domestic exposure to CO from a stove. His carboxyhemoglobin level was 39%. The oxygen treatment was started promptly, and therapeutic red cell exchange was performed. An electrocardiogram revealed supraventricular tachycardia (SVT, and an echocardiographic examination demonstrated normal cardiac functions. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the second to report a case of SVT attack due to acute CO intoxication. This paper discusses the management of this complication in patients poisoned with CO.

  10. Evidence for horizontal gene transfer of anaerobic carbon monoxide dehydrogenases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen eTechtmann

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO is commonly known as a toxic gas, yet it is used by both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and many archaea. In this study, we determined the prevalence of anaerobic carbon monoxide dehydrogenases (anaerobic CODHs, or [Ni,Fe]-CODHs in currently available genomic sequence databases. More than 6% (185 genomes out of 2887 bacterial and archaeal genome sequences in the IMG database possess at least one gene encoding [Ni,Fe]-CODH, the key enzyme for anaerobic CO utilization. The phylogenetic study of this extended protein family revealed nine distinct clades of [Ni,Fe]-CODHs. These clades consisted of [Ni,Fe]-CODHs that, while apparently monophyletic within the clades, were encoded by microorganisms of disparate phylogeny, based on 16S rRNA sequences, and widely ranging physiology. Following this discovery, it was therefore of interest to examine the extent and possible routes of horizontal gene transfer (HGT affecting [Ni,Fe]-CODH genes and gene clusters that include [Ni,Fe]-CODHs.The genome sequence of the extreme thermophile Thermosinus carboxydivorans was used as a case study for HGT. The [Ni,Fe]-CODH operon of T. carboxydivorans differs from its whole genome in its G+C content by 8.2 mol%. Here, we apply statistical methods to establish acquisition by T. carboxydivorans of the gene cluster including [Ni,Fe]-CODH via HGT. Analysis of tetranucleotide frequency and codon usage with application of the Kullback-Leibler divergence metric showed that the [Ni,Fe]-CODH-1 operon of T. carboxidyvorans is quite dissimilar to the whole genome. Using the same metrics, the T. carboxydivorans [Ni,Fe]-CODH-1 operon is highly similar to the genome of the phylogenetically distant anaerobic carboxydotroph Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans. These results allow to assume recent HTG of the gene cluster from a relative of C. hydrogenoformans to T. carboxydivorans or a more ancient transfer from a C. hydrogenoformans ancestor to a T. carboxydivorans

  11. Cobalt Oxide Nanosheet and CNT Micro Carbon Monoxide Sensor Integrated with Readout Circuit on Chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ching-Liang; Chen, Yen-Chi; Wu, Chyan-Chyi; Kuo, Chin-Fu

    2010-01-01

    The study presents a micro carbon monoxide (CO) sensor integrated with a readout circuit-on-a-chip manufactured by the commercial 0.35 μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process and a post-process. The sensing film of the sensor is a composite cobalt oxide nanosheet and carbon nanotube (CoOOH/CNT) film that is prepared by a precipitation-oxidation method. The structure of the CO sensor is composed of a polysilicon resistor and a sensing film. The sensor, which is of a resistive type, changes its resistance when the sensing film adsorbs or desorbs CO gas. The readout circuit is used to convert the sensor resistance into the voltage output. The post-processing of the sensor includes etching the sacrificial layers and coating the sensing film. The advantages of the sensor include room temperature operation, short response/recovery times and easy post-processing. Experimental results show that the sensitivity of the CO sensor is about 0.19 mV/ppm, and the response and recovery times are 23 s and 34 s for 200 ppm CO, respectively. PMID:22294897

  12. Cobalt Oxide Nanosheet and CNT Micro Carbon Monoxide Sensor Integrated with Readout Circuit on Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Liang Dai

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The study presents a micro carbon monoxide (CO sensor integrated with a readout circuit-on-a-chip manufactured by the commercial 0.35 μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS process and a post-process. The sensing film of the sensor is a composite cobalt oxide nanosheet and carbon nanotube (CoOOH/CNT film that is prepared by a precipitation-oxidation method. The structure of the CO sensor is composed of a polysilicon resistor and a sensing film. The sensor, which is of a resistive type, changes its resistance when the sensing film adsorbs or desorbs CO gas. The readout circuit is used to convert the sensor resistance into the voltage output. The post-processing of the sensor includes etching the sacrificial layers and coating the sensing film. The advantages of the sensor include room temperature operation, short response/recovery times and easy post-processing. Experimental results show that the sensitivity of the CO sensor is about 0.19 mV/ppm, and the response and recovery times are 23 s and 34 s for 200 ppm CO, respectively.

  13. The Effect of the Hayward Corridor Improvement Project on Carbon Monoxide Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlfelder, M.; Martinez, E.; Maestas, A.; Peek, A.

    2013-12-01

    In August of 2010, construction began on a stretch of road in Downtown Hayward to address a problem with traffic flow. Known as the Hayward Corridor, the project reshaped the flow of traffic, replacing the two way streets of Foothill, Mission, and A Street with a loop between them. This project began with the initiative of reducing congestion in this area and improving access to businesses for pedestrians. The project was expected to have little environmental impact in most common assessments of degree of effect, including particulate matter, ozone and carbon monoxide levels. This report will discuss the effect of the Hayward Corridor Improvement Project on carbon monoxide emission. Data available to the public in the project's Environmental Impact Report shows that carbon monoxide levels before construction began were at an acceptable level according to federal and state standards. Projections for future concentrations both with and without the project show a decrease in carbon monoxide levels due to technological improvements and the gradual replacement of older, less efficient vehicles. The Environmental Impact Report projected that there would be little difference in carbon monoxide levels whether the project took place or not, at an average of 1.67x102 fewer parts per million per 1 hour period of measurement emitted in the case of the project not taking place. While it is not possible to draw a conclusion on what the current carbon monoxide levels would be if the project had not taken place due to the changes in traffic flow and other surrounding roads as a result of the project, the data gathered in June of 2013 suggested that carbon monoxide levels are higher than the values projected in 2007. This report summarizes both the accuracy of these carbon monoxide level projections and the effect of construction on carbon monoxide levels in the Hayward Corridor and the surrounding area.

  14. REDUCTION OF NITRIC OXIDE BY CARBON MONOXIDE OVER A SILICA SUPPORTED PLATINUM CATALYST: INFRARED AND KINETIC STUDIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorimer, D.H.

    1978-08-01

    The reduction of nitric oxide by carbon monoxide over a 4.5 weight precent platinum catalyst supported on silica was studied at 300 C. Reaction rate data was obtained together with in situ infrared spectra of species on the catalyst surface. The kinetics of the system were found to exhibit two distinct trends, depending on the molar ratio of CO/NO in the reactor. For net reducing conditions (CO/NO> 1) the catalyst underwent a transient deactivation, the extent of which was dependent on the specific CO/NO ratio during reaction. Reactivation of the catalyst was obtained with both oxidizing and reducing pretreatments. For molar feed ratios of CO/NO less than one, carbon monoxide conversion was typically 95 to 100%, resulting in strongly oxidizing conditions over the catalyst. Under these conditions no deactivation was apparent. Infrared spectra recorded under reaction conditions revealed intense bands at 2075 and 2300 cm{sup -1} , which were identified as carbon monoxide adsorbed on Pt and Si-NCO, respectively. Isocyanate bands formed under reducing conditions were more intense and exhibited greater stability than those formed under oxidizing conditions. A reaction mechanism based on the dissociation of nitric oxide as the rate-limiting step was used to correlate nitric oxide reaction rates and nitrous oxide selectivities observed under reducing conditions. As part of this mechanism it is assumed that nitrous bxide is formed via a Langmuir-Hinshelwood process in which an adsorbed nitrogen atom reacts with an adsorbed nitric oxide molecule. The nitric oxide reaction rate was found to be first order in nitric oxide partial pressure, and inverse second order in carbon monoxide partial pressure. A mechanism is proposed to qualitatively explain the deactivation process observed under reducing conditions. The essential part of this mechanism is the formation of an isocyanate species on the Pt crystallites of the catalyst and the subsequent transient diffusion of these

  15. Adsorption of nitrogen and carbon monoxide on clinoptilolite: determination and prediction of pure and binary isotherms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triebe, R.W.; Tezel, F.H. [University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Department of Chemical Engineering

    1995-10-01

    The adsorption of carbon monoxide and nitrogen on clinoptilolite is studied to determine the natural zeolite`s potential for air purification. Pure and binary isotherms were determined for nitrogen and carbon monoxide on a natural Turkish clinoptilolite under near ambient conditions. Experimentally determined isotherms are compared to predictions based on various models from the literature. The Wilson form of the Vacancy Solution Theory is the only model that provides reasonable agreement with the binary isotherm. Clinoptilolite is concluded to be a promising sorbent for separation of carbon monoxide and nitrogen. 30 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Activation of locus coeruleus heme oxygenase-carbon monoxide pathway promoted an anxiolytic-like effect in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.G. Carvalho-Costa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The heme oxygenase-carbon monoxide pathway has been shown to play an important role in many physiological processes and is capable of altering nociception modulation in the nervous system by stimulating soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC. In the central nervous system, the locus coeruleus (LC is known to be a region that expresses the heme oxygenase enzyme (HO, which catalyzes the metabolism of heme to carbon monoxide (CO. Additionally, several lines of evidence have suggested that the LC can be involved in the modulation of emotional states such as fear and anxiety. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the activation of the heme oxygenase-carbon monoxide pathway in the LC in the modulation of anxiety by using the elevated plus maze test (EPM and light-dark box test (LDB in rats. Experiments were performed on adult male Wistar rats weighing 250-300 g (n=182. The results showed that the intra-LC microinjection of heme-lysinate (600 nmol, a substrate for the enzyme HO, increased the number of entries into the open arms and the percentage of time spent in open arms in the elevated plus maze test, indicating a decrease in anxiety. Additionally, in the LDB test, intra-LC administration of heme-lysinate promoted an increase on time spent in the light compartment of the box. The intracerebroventricular microinjection of guanylate cyclase, an sGC inhibitor followed by the intra-LC microinjection of the heme-lysinate blocked the anxiolytic-like reaction on the EPM test and LDB test. It can therefore be concluded that CO in the LC produced by the HO pathway and acting via cGMP plays an anxiolytic-like role in the LC of rats.

  17. Activation of locus coeruleus heme oxygenase-carbon monoxide pathway promoted an anxiolytic-like effect in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho-Costa, P G; Branco, L G S; Leite-Panissi, C R A

    2016-01-01

    The heme oxygenase-carbon monoxide pathway has been shown to play an important role in many physiological processes and is capable of altering nociception modulation in the nervous system by stimulating soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC). In the central nervous system, the locus coeruleus (LC) is known to be a region that expresses the heme oxygenase enzyme (HO), which catalyzes the metabolism of heme to carbon monoxide (CO). Additionally, several lines of evidence have suggested that the LC can be involved in the modulation of emotional states such as fear and anxiety. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the activation of the heme oxygenase-carbon monoxide pathway in the LC in the modulation of anxiety by using the elevated plus maze test (EPM) and light-dark box test (LDB) in rats. Experiments were performed on adult male Wistar rats weighing 250-300 g (n=182). The results showed that the intra-LC microinjection of heme-lysinate (600 nmol), a substrate for the enzyme HO, increased the number of entries into the open arms and the percentage of time spent in open arms in the elevated plus maze test, indicating a decrease in anxiety. Additionally, in the LDB test, intra-LC administration of heme-lysinate promoted an increase on time spent in the light compartment of the box. The intracerebroventricular microinjection of guanylate cyclase, an sGC inhibitor followed by the intra-LC microinjection of the heme-lysinate blocked the anxiolytic-like reaction on the EPM test and LDB test. It can therefore be concluded that CO in the LC produced by the HO pathway and acting via cGMP plays an anxiolytic-like role in the LC of rats.

  18. Stable isotope composition of atmospheric carbon monoxide. A modelling study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gromov, Sergey S.

    2014-11-01

    This study aims at an improved understanding of the stable carbon and oxygen isotope composition of the carbon monoxide (CO) in the global atmosphere by means of numerical simulations. At first, a new kinetic chemistry tagging technique for the most complete parameterisation of isotope effects has been introduced into the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) framework. Incorporated into the ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) general circulation model, an explicit treatment of the isotope effects on the global scale is now possible. The expanded model system has been applied to simulate the chemical system containing up to five isotopologues of all carbon- and oxygen-bearing species, which ultimately determine the δ{sup 13}C, δ{sup 18}O and Δ{sup 17}O isotopic signatures of atmospheric CO. As model input, a new stable isotope-inclusive emission inventory for the relevant trace gases has been compiled. The uncertainties of the emission estimates and of the resulting simulated mixing and isotope ratios have been analysed. The simulated CO mixing and stable isotope ratios have been compared to in-situ measurements from ground-based observatories and from the civil-aircraft-mounted CARIBIC-1 measurement platform. The systematically underestimated {sup 13}CO/{sup 12}CO ratios of earlier, simplified modelling studies can now be partly explained. The EMAC simulations do not support the inferences of those studies, which suggest for CO a reduced input of the highly depleted in {sup 13}C methane oxidation source. In particular, a high average yield of 0.94 CO per reacted methane (CH{sub 4}) molecule is simulated in the troposphere, to a large extent due to the competition between the deposition and convective transport processes affecting the CH{sub 4} to CO reaction chain intermediates. None of the other factors, assumed or disregarded in previous studies, however hypothesised to have the potential in enriching tropospheric CO in {sup 13}C, were found significant

  19. Gas Sensing Properties and Mechanism of Nano-SnO2-Based Sensor for Hydrogen and Carbon Monoxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weigen Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nano-SnO2 powder was prepared by the hydrothermal method in this paper. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM were used to characterize the composition of the crystalline phase and the morphology of the prepared gas-sensitive materials, respectively. In particular, the study focused on the sensing behaviors of nano-SnO2-based sensor towards power transformer fault gases such as hydrogen and carbon monoxide. The optimum working temperature for hydrogen and carbon monoxide is about 400∘C and 360∘C, separately. Further investigations into the adsorption process of gas molecule on SnO2 (110 surface based on the first principles were conducted. The calculations indicated that 1σ orbits of H2 split into several new electronic peaks and 5σ orbits of CO almost degenerated completely in the adsorption process, which promoted charge transfer between gas molecule and SnO2 (110 surface. It provides a qualitative explanation for the prepared nano-SnO2-based sensor exhibiting different gas sensing properties towards H2 and CO.

  20. Carbon monoxide toxicity. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). NewSearch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the mechanism and clinical manifestations of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure, including the effects on the liver, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Topics include studies of the carbon monoxide binding affinity with hemoglobin, measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in humans and various animal species, carbon monoxide levels resulting from tobacco and marijuana smoke, occupational exposure and the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) biological exposure index, symptomology and percent of blood CO, and intrauterine exposure. Air pollution, tobacco smoking, and occupational exposure are discussed as primary sources of carbon monoxide exposure. The effects of cigarette smoking on fetal development and health are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 137 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  1. Carbon monoxide toxicity. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection data base). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the mechanism and clinical manifestations of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure, including the effects on the liver, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Topics include studies of the carbon monoxide binding affinity with hemoglobin, measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in humans and various animal species, carbon monoxide levels resulting from tobacco and marijuana smoke, occupational exposure and the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) biological exposure index, symptomology and percent of blood CO, and intrauterine exposure. Air pollution, tobacco smoking, and occupational exposure are discussed as primary sources of carbon monoxide exposure. The effects of cigarette smoking on fetal development and health are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 172 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  2. Personal Exposure Monitoring of Particulate Matter, Nitrogen Dioxide, and Carbon Monoxide, including Susceptible Groups

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    R. M. Harrison; C. A. Thornton; R. G. Lawrence; D. Mark; R. P. Kinnersley; J. G. Ayres

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the relation between personal exposures to nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, and PM10, and exposures estimated from static concentrations of these pollutants measured within the same...

  3. Carbon monoxide toxicity. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the mechanism and clinical manifestations of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure, including the effects on the liver, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Topics include studies of the carbon monoxide binding affinity with hemoglobin, measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in humans and various animal species, carbon monoxide levels resulting from tobacco and marijuana smoke, occupational exposure and the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) biological exposure index, symptomology and percent of blood CO, and intrauterine exposure. Air pollution, tobacco smoking, and occupational exposure are discussed as primary sources of carbon monoxide exposure. The effects of cigarette smoking on fetal development and health are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  4. Carbon monoxide toxicity. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the mechanism and clinical manifestations of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure, including the effects on the liver, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Topics include studies of the carbon monoxide binding affinity with hemoglobin, measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in humans and various animal species, carbon monoxide levels resulting from tobacco and marijuana smoke, occupational exposure and the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) biological exposure index, symptomology and percent of blood CO, and intrauterine exposure. Air pollution, tobacco smoking, and occupational exposure are discussed as primary sources of carbon monoxide exposure. The effects of cigarette smoking on fetal development and health are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  5. The influence of tobacco blend composition on carbon monoxide formation in mainstream cigarette smoke

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Djulančić, Nermina; Radojičić, Vesna; Srbinovska, Marija

    2013-01-01

    ...) in the gas phase of mainstream cigarette smoke. The results showed that the type of tobacco examined had a significant impact on the amount of carbon monoxide production in the gas phase of cigarette smoke...

  6. Cobalt promoted copper manganese oxide catalysts for ambient temperature carbon monoxide oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher; Taylor, Stuart H; Burrows, Andrew; Crudace, Mandy J; Kiely, Christopher J; Hutchings, Graham J

    2008-04-14

    Low levels of cobalt doping (1 wt%) of copper manganese oxide enhances its activity for carbon monoxide oxidation under ambient conditions and the doped catalyst can display higher activity than current commercial catalysts.

  7. Electronic structure and optical properties of a new type of semiconductor material:graphene monoxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Gui; Zhang Yufeng; Yan Xunwang

    2013-01-01

    The electronic and optical properties of graphene monoxide,a new type of semiconductor material,are theoretically studied by first-principles density functional theory.The calculated band structure shows that graphene monoxide is a semiconductor with a direct band gap of 0.95 eV.The density of states of graphene monoxide and the partial density of states for C and O are given to understand the electronic structure.In addition,we calculate the optical properties of graphene monoxide,including the complex dielectric function,absorption coefficient,complex refractive index,loss-function,reflectivity and conductivity.These results provide a physical basis for potential application in optoelectronic devices.

  8. Regulation of multiple carbon monoxide consumption pathways in anaerobic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M Techtmann

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO, well known as a toxic gas, is increasingly recognized as a key metabolite and signaling molecule. Microbial utilization of CO is quite common, evidenced by the rapid escalation in description of new species of CO-utilizing bacteria and archaea. Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH, the protein complex that enables anaerobic CO utilization has been well-characterized from an increasing number of microorganisms, however the regulation of multiple CO-related gene clusters in single isolates remains unexplored. Many species are extroraordinarily resistant to high CO concentrations, thiriving under pure CO at more than one atmosphere. We hypothesized that, in strains that can grow exclusively on CO, both carbon acquisition via the CODH/Acetyl CoA synthase complex and energy conservation via a CODH-linked hydrogenase must be differentially regulated in response to the availability of CO. The CO-sensing transcriptional activator, CooA is present in most CO-oxidizing bacteria. Here we present a genomic and phylogenetic survey of CODH operons and cooA genes found in CooA-containing bacteria. Two distinct groups of CooA homologs were found: One clade (CooA-1 is found in the majority of CooA containing bacteria, whereas the other clade (CooA-2 is found only in genomes that encode multiple CODH clusters, suggesting that the CooA-2 might be important for cross-regulation of competing CODH operons. Recombinant CooA-1 and CooA-2 regulators from the prototypical CO-utilizing bacterium Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans were purified, and promoter binding analyses revealed that CooA-1 specifically regulates the hydrogenase-linked CODH, whereas CooA-2 is able to regulate both the hydrogenase-linked CODH and the CODH/ACS operons. These studies point to the ability of dual CooA homologs to partition CO into divergent CO-utilizing pathways resulting in efficient consumption of a single limiting growth substrate available across a wide range of

  9. Four-electron deoxygenative reductive coupling of carbon monoxide at a single metal site

    OpenAIRE

    Buss, Joshua A.; Agapie, Theodor

    2016-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is the ultimate source of the fossil fuels that are both central to modern life and problematic: their use increases atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases, and their availability is geopolitically constrained. Using carbon dioxide as a feedstock to produce synthetic fuels might, in principle, alleviate these concerns. Although many homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts convert carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide, further deoxygenative coupling of carbon monoxide to generate us...

  10. Delayed neuropsychiatric syndrome after carbon monoxide poisoning: inclusion of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in the recovery protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Dante Lo Pardo; Davide Amedola; Giuliana Senatore; Alberto Damiano; Gabriela Pezzuti; Nicola Pugliese; Gianpiero Locatelli; Alfredo Siani; Nicola Maria Vitola

    2016-01-01

    The delayed neuropsychiatric syndrome can arise in the period from 4 days to 5 weeks following carbon monoxide poisoning, and is characterized by neuropsychological deficits, which in some cases become chronic. This case report describes an adult female who apparently suffered self-inflicted carbon monoxide poisoning. She was not treated with hyperbaric oxygen and developed delayed sequelae on day 20. The treatment started with 40 sessions of hyperbaric oxygen therapy and subsequently with ne...

  11. The Range of 1-3 keV Electrons in Solid Oxygen and Carbon Monoxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oehlenschlæger, M.; Andersen, H.H.; Schou, Jørgen

    1985-01-01

    The range of 1-3 keV electrons in films of solid oxygen and carbon monoxide has been measured by a mirror substrate method. The technique used here is identical to the one previously used for range measurements in solid hydrogen and nitrogen. The range in oxygen is slightly shorter than...... that in nitrogen whereas the range in carbon monoxide is about 20% larger than that in the nitrogen....

  12. Selected constituents in the smokes of foreign commercial cigaretts: tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, R.A.; Quincy, R.B.; Guerin, M.R.

    1979-05-01

    The tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide contents of the smokes of 220 brands of foreign commercial cigarettes are reported. In some instances, filter cigarettes of certain brands were found to deliver as much or more smoke constituents than their nonfilter counterparts. Also, data indicated that there can be a great variation in the tar, nicotine, or carbon monoxide content of the smoke of samples of a given brand of cigarettes, depending on the nation in which they are purchased. 24 tables.

  13. Ozone and carbon monoxide at the Ushuaia GAW-WMO global station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adame, Jose; Cupeiro, Manuel; Yela, Margarita; Cuevas, Emilio; Carbajal, Gerardo

    2016-04-01

    Ozone and carbon monoxide have been investigated in the GAW-WMO station of Ushuaia (Argentina), using hourly values during five years (2010-2014). This work has been developed in the framework of HELADO (Halogens in the Antarctic atmosphere and its role in the Ozone distribution) project and under the collaboration between INTA (National Institute for Aerospace Technology - Spain), SMN (National Meteorological Service - Argentina) and AEMET (State Meteorological Agency - Spain). Meteorological features have been analyzed with in-situ observations and meteorological fields from ECMWF 0.5° as spatial resolution model. These fields have been applied to compute back trajectories with HYSPLIT model. Independently of season, mostly atmospheric flows coming from W-SW (South Pacific Ocean), theses westerlies winds are associated with low pressure systems; in addition with lower frequencies are collected winds from South (Antarctic Peninsula and Weddell Sea), polar easterlies. Hourly averages of surface (in-situ) ozone and CO levels were 20±7 and 71±45 ppb respectively, typical values of remote environments. A clear seasonal pattern has been obtained for surface ozone with monthly peaks in winter of 25 ppb and minimum in summer with 12 ppb; a similar behaviour is found for CO, 93 and 48 ppb for maximum and minimum values, respectively. A weak daily cycle has been obtained in both species, amplitude for ozone of 2-4 ppb and 13-20 ppb for CO. The seasonal levels behaviour for surface ozone is also observed in upper levels, approximately from surface up to 5 km. This result has been obtained from 139 ozone profiles launched in the studied period. Since the ozone precursors and carbon monoxide emissions are low in this area, the origin of the values observed could be in the atmospheric transport processes. As hypothesis to explain the behaviour observed, we suggest that in the warm season with solar radiation, the photochemical mechanisms are active, and the elimination

  14. Bromine monoxide / sulphur dioxide ratios in relation to volcanological observations at Mt. Etna 2006–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Giuffrida

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Over a 3-yr period, from 2006 to 2009, frequent scattered sunlight DOAS measurements were conducted at Mt. Etna at a distance of around 6 km downwind from the summit craters. During the same period and in addition to these measurements, volcanic observations were made by regularly visiting various parts of Mt. Etna. Here, results from these measurements and observations are presented and their relation is discussed. The focus of the investigation is the bromine monoxide/sulphur dioxide (BrO / SO2 ratio, and its variability in relation to volcanic processes. That the halogen/sulphur ratio can serve as a precursor or indicator for the onset of eruptive activity was already proposed by earlier works (e.g. Noguchi and Kamiya 1963; Menyailov, 1975; Pennisi and Cloarec, 1998; Aiuppa et al., 2002. However, there is still a limited understanding today because of the complexity with which halogens are released, depending on magma composition and degassing conditions. Our understanding of these processes is far from complete, for example of the rate and mechanism of bubble nucleation, growth and ascent in silicate melts (Carroll and Holloway, 1994, the halogen vapour-melt partitioning and the volatile diffusivity in the melt (Aiuppa et al., 2009. With this study we aim to add one more piece to the puzzle of what halogen/sulphur ratios might tell about volcanic activities. Our data set shows an increase of the BrO / SO2 ratio several weeks prior to an eruption, followed by a decline before and during the initial phase of eruptive activities. Towards the end of activity or shortly thereafter, the ratio increases to baseline values again and remains more or less constant during quiet phases. To explain the observed evolution of the BrO / SO2 ratio, a first empirical model is proposed. This model suggests that bromine, unlike chlorine and fluorine, is less soluble in the magmatic melt than sulphur. By using the DOAS method to determine SO2, we actually

  15. Carbon monoxide exposure in households in Ciudad Juárez, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Teresa; Gurian, Patrick L; Velázquez-Angulo, Gilberto; Corella-Barud, Verónica; Rojo, Analila; Graham, Jay P

    2008-03-01

    This study assessed exposure to carbon monoxide from gas and wood heater emissions in a sample of 64 households in peri-urban residential areas in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, México. Indoor and outdoor carbon monoxide concentrations and temperatures were monitored for a continuous period of 1 week at 1 and 6-min intervals, respectively. The moving average carbon monoxide concentrations were compared to the World Health Organization (WHO) standards for carbon monoxide. Sixty-seven percent of households with gas heaters and 60% of households with wood heaters exceeded a health-based standard at some point during the monitoring. The difference between indoor and outdoor temperatures was modestly correlated with average carbon monoxide exposure (r=0.35, p-value <0.01). Heater type may be a stronger determinant of exposure, as households with a particular heater model (the El Sol FM-210) were significantly more likely to be among the more highly exposed households (odds ratio of 4.8, p-value of 0.02). A variety of health effects were pooled and found at elevated frequency in the households that exceeded the 8-h standard of 9ppm (odds ratio=5.1, p-value=0.031). These results highlight the need for further efforts to identify and mitigate potentially hazardous carbon monoxide exposures, particularly in moderate-income countries with cooler climates.

  16. Multi-objective optimisation in carbon monoxide gas management at TRONOX KXN Sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stadler, Johan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO is a by-product of the ilmenite smelting process from which titania slag and pig iron are produced. Prior to this project, the CO at Tronox KZN Sands in South Africa was burnt to get rid of it, producing carbon dioxide (CO2. At this plant, unprocessed materials are pre-heated using methane gas from an external supplier. The price of methane gas has increased significantly; and so this research considers the possibility of recycling CO gas and using it as an energy source to reduce methane gas demand. It is not possible to eliminate the methane gas consumption completely due to the energy demand fluctuation, and sub-plants have been assigned either CO gas or methane gas over time. Switching the gas supply between CO and methane gas involves production downtime to purge supply lines. Minimising the loss of production time while maximising the use of CO arose as a multi-objective optimisation problem (MOP with seven decision variables, and computer simulation was used to evaluate scenarios. We applied computer simulation and the multi-objective optimisation cross-entropy method (MOO CEM to find good solutions while evaluating the minimum number of scenarios. The proposals in this paper, which are in the process of being implemented, could save the company operational expenditure while reducing the carbon footprint of the smelter.

  17. Photodissociation of the carbon monoxide dication in the 3Σ- manifold: Quantum control simulation towards the C2+ + O channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranckx, S.; Loreau, J.; Vaeck, N.; Meier, C.; Desouter-Lecomte, M.

    2015-10-01

    The photodissociation and laser assisted dissociation of the carbon monoxide dication X3Π CO2+ into the 3Σ- states are investigated. Ab initio electronic structure calculations of the adiabatic potential energy curves, radial nonadiabatic couplings, and dipole moments for the X 3Π state are performed for 13 excited 3Σ- states of CO2+. The photodissociation cross section, calculated by time-dependent methods, shows that the C+ + O+ channels dominate the process in the studied energy range. The carbon monoxide dication CO2+ is an interesting candidate for control because it can be produced in a single, long lived, v = 0 vibrational state due to the instability of all the other excited vibrational states of the ground 3Π electronic state. In a spectral range of about 25 eV, perpendicular transition dipoles couple this 3Π state to a manifold of 3Σ- excited states leading to numerous C+ + O+ channels and a single C2+ + O channel. This unique channel is used as target for control calculations using local control theory. We illustrate the efficiency of this method in order to find a tailored electric field driving the photodissociation in a manifold of strongly interacting electronic states. The selected local pulses are then concatenated in a sequence inspired by the "laser distillation" strategy. Finally, the local pulse is compared with optimal control theory.

  18. Carbon monoxide inhalation increases microparticles causing vascular and CNS dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiajun; Yang, Ming; Kosterin, Paul; Salzberg, Brian M; Milovanova, Tatyana N; Bhopale, Veena M; Thom, Stephen R

    2013-12-01

    We hypothesized that circulating microparticles (MPs) play a role in pro-inflammatory effects associated with carbon monoxide (CO) inhalation. Mice exposed for 1h to 100 ppm CO or more exhibit increases in circulating MPs derived from a variety of vascular cells as well as neutrophil activation. Tissue injury was quantified as 2000 kDa dextran leakage from vessels and as neutrophil sequestration in the brain and skeletal muscle; and central nervous system nerve dysfunction was documented as broadening of the neurohypophysial action potential (AP). Indices of injury occurred following exposures to 1000 ppm for 1h or to 1000 ppm for 40 min followed by 3000 ppm for 20 min. MPs were implicated in causing injuries because infusing the surfactant MP lytic agent, polyethylene glycol telomere B (PEGtB) abrogated elevations in MPs, vascular leak, neutrophil sequestration and AP prolongation. These manifestations of tissue injury also did not occur in mice lacking myeloperoxidase. Vascular leakage and AP prolongation were produced in naïve mice infused with MPs that had been obtained from CO poisoned mice, but this did not occur with MPs obtained from control mice. We conclude that CO poisoning triggers elevations of MPs that activate neutrophils which subsequently cause tissue injuries.

  19. Carbon monoxide: from toxin to endogenous modulator of cardiovascular functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Johnson

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO is a pollutant commonly recognized for its toxicological attributes, including CNS and cardiovascular effects. But CO is also formed endogenously in mammalian tissues. Endogenously formed CO normally arises from heme degradation in a reaction catalyzed by heme oxygenase. While inhibitors of endogenous CO production can raise arterial pressure, heme loading can enhance CO production and lead to vasodepression. Both central and peripheral tissues possess heme oxygenases and generate CO from heme, but the inability of heme substrate to cross the blood brain barrier suggests the CNS heme-heme oxygenase-CO system may be independent of the periphery. In the CNS, CO apparently acts in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS promoting changes in glutamatergic neurotransmission and lowering blood pressure. At the periphery, the heme-heme oxygenase-CO system can affect cardiovascular functions in a two-fold manner; specifically: 1 heme-derived CO generated within vascular smooth muscle (VSM can promote vasodilation, but 2 its actions on the endothelium apparently can promote vasoconstriction. Thus, it seems reasonable that the CNS-, VSM- and endothelial-dependent actions of the heme-heme oxygenase-CO system may all affect cardiac output and vascular resistance, and subsequently blood pressure.

  20. The Role of Oxygen Therapies in Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleyman Metin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to climate and socio-economic issues in Turkey, the incidence of carbon monoxide (CO poisoning is high, especially in winter. Clinical manifestations may vary depending on the type of CO source, concentration and duration of exposure. The symptoms of CO poisoning predominantly manifest in lots of organs and systems with high oxygen utilization, especially the brain and the heart. The primary aim in oxygen therapy is to eliminate CO and to reduce its toxic effects. In this context, normobaric and hyperbaric oxygen therapy are used to achieve these goals. Normobaric oxygen (NBO treatment is an easily accessible and relatively not expensive modality, where hyperbaric oxygen (HBO therapy requires specific equipment, certified staff and is available only in some centers. Additionally, HBO treatment has several additional advantages over NBO treatment. Despite its benefits, it is compulsory to search for some criteria in selecting patients to be treated because of the limited availability and access of hyperbaric facilities. For an effective evaluation and an optimal treatment, advanced education of the healthcare professionals on the use of oxygen delivery modalities in the management of CO poisoning is imperative. In this review, it has been aimed to outline the significance of oxygen treatment modalities and to determine patient selection criteria for HBO treatment in the management of CO poisoning which continues to be an important threat to community health care. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(4.000: 487-494

  1. Carbon monoxide exposures after hurricane Ike - Texas, September 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-14

    During power outages after hurricanes, survivors can be at risk for carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning if they use portable generators improperly. On September 13, 2008, Hurricane Ike struck the coast of Texas, leaving approximately 2.3 million households in the southeastern portion of the state without electricity. Six days later, 1.3 million homes were still without electrical power. To assess the impact of storm-related CO exposures and to enhance prevention efforts, CDC analyzed data from five disparate surveillance sources on CO exposures reported during September 13--26 in counties of southeast Texas that were declared disaster areas by the federal government. This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that one data source, Texas poison centers, received reports of 54 persons with storm-related CO exposures during the surveillance period. Another data source, the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society (UHMS) hyperbaric oxygen treatment database, reported that 15 persons received hyperbaric oxygen treatment for storm-related CO poisoning. Medical examiners, public health officials, and hospitals in Texas reported that seven persons died from storm-related CO poisoning. Among the data sources, the percentage of reported storm-related CO exposures caused by improper generator use ranged from 82% to 87%. These findings underscore the need for effective prevention messages during storm preparation, warnings, and response periods regarding the correct use of generators and the installation and maintenance of battery-powered CO detectors.

  2. The immunomodulatory role of carbon monoxide during transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amano Mariane

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The number of organ and tissue transplants has increased worldwide in recent decades. However, graft rejection, infections due to the use of immunosuppressive drugs and a shortage of graft donors remain major concerns. Carbon monoxide (CO had long been regarded solely as a poisonous gas. Ultimately, physiological studies unveiled the endogenous production of CO, particularly by the heme oxygenase (HO-1 enzyme, recognizing CO as a beneficial gas when used at therapeutic doses. The protective properties of CO led researchers to develop uses for it, resulting in devices and molecules that can deliver CO in vitro and in vivo. The resulting interest in clinical investigations was immediate. Studies regarding the CO/HO-1 modulation of immune responses and their effects on various immune disorders gave rise to transplantation research, where CO was shown to be essential in the protection against organ rejection in animal models. This review provides a perspective of how CO modulates the immune system to improve transplantation and suggests its use as a therapy in the field.

  3. Carbon monoxide and iron modulate plasmatic coagulation in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Vance G; Pretorius, Etheresia; Bester, Janette; Jacobsen, Wayne K; Boyle, Patrick K; Reinhard, Joao P

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a significant source of morbidity and mortality for millions of people worldwide, and multiple potential etiologies have been postulated to contribute to AD. Among these, spontaneous cerebral emboli and increased cerebral and circulating heme oxygenase (Hmox) activity in AD patients are of particular interest, as two of the products of Hmox activity, carbon monoxide (CO) and iron enhance plasmatic coagulation and modify the ultrastructure of thrombi. We hypothesized that patients afflicted with AD would have coagulation kinetics modulated by CO and iron. Using viscoelastic assessments of coagulation, it was determined with a small cohort (n=11) of AD patients that all had enhancement of coagulation by CO, iron, or both. In a complementary fashion, it was determined that a separate cohort (n=12) of AD patients had thrombi with ultrastructural features consistent with iron and CO exposure as assessed with scanning electron microscopy. Further, when stratified by normal or abnormally increased serum ferritin concentrations (which can be increased by Hmox), the AD patients with abnormal ferritin concentrations had significantly thinner fibrin fiber diameters, not unlike that noted when normal plasma is mixed with iron or CO. In sum, AD patients were noted to have plasmatic coagulation kinetic and thrombus ultrastructural changes consistent with exposure to CO and iron. Future investigation of CO and iron in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease is warranted.

  4. Density-functional study of plutonium monoxide monohydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Ruizhi; Lu, Haiyan; Ao, Bingyun; Tang, Tao; Chen, Piheng

    2017-03-01

    The structural, electronic, mechanical, optical, thermodynamic properties of plutonium monoxide monohydride (PuOH) are studied by density-functional calculations within the framework of LDA/GGA and LDA/GGA+U. From the total energy calculation, the lowest-energy crystal structure of PuOH is predicted to have space group F 4 bar 3 m (No. 216). Within the LDA+U framework, the calculated lattice parameter of F 4 bar 3 m -PuOH is in good agreement with the experimental value and the corresponding ground state is predicted to be an antiferromagnetic charge-transfer insulator. Furthermore, we investigate the bonding character of PuOH by analyzing the electron structure and find that there are a stronger Pu-O bond and a weaker Pu-H bond. The mechanical properties including the elastic constants, elastic moduli and Debye's temperature, and the optical properties including the reflectivity and absorption coefficient are also calculated. We then compute the phonon spectrum which verified the dynamical stability of F 4 bar 3 m -PuOH. Some thermodynamic quantities such as the specific heat are evaluated. Finally we calculate the formation energy of PuOH, and the reaction energies for the oxidation of PuOH and PuOH-coated Pu, which are in reasonable agreement with the experimental values.

  5. Discovery of carbon monoxide in the upper atmosphere of Pluto

    CERN Document Server

    Greaves, J S; Friberg, P

    2011-01-01

    Pluto's icy surface has changed colour and its atmosphere has swelled since its last closest approach to the Sun in 1989. The thin atmosphere is produced by evaporating ices, and so can also change rapidly, and in particular carbon monoxide should be present as an active thermostat. Here we report the discovery of gaseous CO via the 1.3mm wavelength J=2-1 rotational transition, and find that the line-centre signal is more than twice as bright as a tentative result obtained by Bockelee-Morvan et al. in 2000. Greater surface-ice evaporation over the last decade could explain this, or increased pressure could have caused the atmosphere to expand. The gas must be cold, with a narrow line-width consistent with temperatures around 50 K, as predicted for the very high atmosphere, and the line brightness implies that CO molecules extend up to approximately 3 Pluto radii above the surface. The upper atmosphere must have changed markedly over only a decade since the prior search, and more alterations could occur by the...

  6. Regulation of ROS Production and Vascular Function by Carbon Monoxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Kyung Choi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO is a gaseous molecule produced from heme by heme oxygenase (HO. CO interacts with reduced iron of heme-containing proteins, leading to its involvement in various cellular events via its production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS. CO-mediated ROS production initiates intracellular signal events, which regulate the expression of adaptive genes implicated in oxidative stress and functions as signaling molecule for promoting vascular functions, including angiogenesis and mitochondrial biogenesis. Therefore, CO generated either by exogenous delivery or by HO activity can be fundamentally involved in regulating mitochondria-mediated redox cascades for adaptive gene expression and improving blood circulation (i.e., O2 delivery via neovascularization, leading to the regulation of mitochondrial energy metabolism. This paper will highlight the biological effects of CO on ROS generation and cellular redox changes involved in mitochondrial metabolism and angiogenesis. Moreover, cellular mechanisms by which CO is exploited for disease prevention and therapeutic applications will also be discussed.

  7. Heme oxygenase-1/carbon monoxide: from metabolism to molecular therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryter, Stefan W; Choi, Augustine M K

    2009-09-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a ubiquitous inducible stress-response protein, serves a major metabolic function in heme turnover. HO activity cleaves heme to form biliverdin-IXalpha, carbon monoxide (CO), and iron. Genetic experiments have revealed a central role for HO-1 in tissue homeostasis, protection against oxidative stress, and in the pathogenesis of disease. Four decades of research have witnessed not only progress in elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation and function of this illustrious enzyme, but also have opened remarkable translational applications for HO-1 and its reaction products. CO, once regarded as a metabolic waste, can act as an endogenous mediator of cellular signaling and vascular function. Exogenous application of CO by inhalation or pharmacologic delivery can confer cytoprotection in preclinical models of lung/vascular injury and disease, based on anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-proliferative properties. The bile pigments, biliverdin and bilirubin, end products of heme degradation, have also shown potential as therapeutics in vascular disease based on anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities. Further translational and clinical trials research will unveil whether the HO-1 system or any of its reaction products can be successfully applied as molecular medicine in human disease.

  8. Catalytic removal of carbon monoxide over carbon supported palladium catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, Avanish Kumar [Defence Research and Development Establishment, Jhansi Road, Gwalior-474002 (MP) (India); Saxena, Amit [Centre for Fire Explosive and Environmental Safety, Timarpur, Delhi-110054 (India); Shah, Dilip; Mahato, T.H. [Defence Research and Development Establishment, Jhansi Road, Gwalior-474002 (MP) (India); Singh, Beer, E-mail: beerbs5@rediffmail.com [Defence Research and Development Establishment, Jhansi Road, Gwalior-474002 (MP) (India); Shrivastava, A.R.; Gutch, P.K. [Defence Research and Development Establishment, Jhansi Road, Gwalior-474002 (MP) (India); Shinde, C.P. [School of Studies in Chemistry, Jiwaji University, Gwalior-474002 (MP) (India)

    2012-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbon supported palladium (Pd/C) catalyst was prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Catalytic removal of CO over Pd/C catalyst was studied under dynamic conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effects of Pd %, CO conc., humidity, GHSV and reaction environment were studied. - Abstract: Carbon supported palladium (Pd/C) catalyst was prepared by impregnation of palladium chloride using incipient wetness technique, which was followed by liquid phase reduction with formaldehyde. Thereafter, Pd/C catalyst was characterized using X-ray diffractometery, scanning electron microscopy, atomic absorption spectroscopy, thermo gravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry and surface characterization techniques. Catalytic removal of carbon monoxide (CO) over Pd/C catalyst was studied under dynamic conditions. Pd/C catalyst was found to be continuously converting CO to CO{sub 2} through the catalyzed reaction, i.e., CO + 1/2O{sub 2} {yields} CO{sub 2}. Pd/C catalyst provided excellent protection against CO. Effects of palladium wt%, CO concentration, humidity, space velocity and reaction environment were also studied on the breakthrough behavior of CO.

  9. In-utero carbon monoxide poisoning and multiple fetal abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennequin, Y.; Blum, D.; Vamos, E.; Steppe, M.; Goedseels, J.; Cavatorta, E. (Free Univ. of Brussels (Belgium). Queen Fabiola Children' s Hospital)

    1993-01-23

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning during pregnancy can lead to feto-maternal fatalities and stillbirths. Teratogenic effects have been reported. The authors strongly suspected an association between mild but chronic CO poisoning of the mother and major multiple malformations in the baby. Retrospective interviews of the mother disclosed that at 10 weeks' gestation, she had complained of headache and dizziness. At the same time, her 16-month-old daughter had an episode of unconsciousness. A faulty kitchen gas water-heater was suspected but the family did not have it repaired. The mother continued to have headaches regularly. During the 7th month of pregnancy, the daughter was found comatose. In the emergency ward, carboxyhemoglobins levels were 27.5% for the child and 14% for the pregnant mother. Both were treated with hyperbaric oxygen. Investigations by the gas company revealed a highly abnormal CO production from the kitchen and bathroom gas-water heaters: 120 and 100 parts per million, respectively, after 2 minutes of use.

  10. Effect of water on carbon monoxide-oxygen flame velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonald, Glen E

    1954-01-01

    The flame velocities were measured of 20 percent oxygen and 80 percent carbon monoxide mixtures containing either light water or heavy water. The flame velocity increased from 34.5 centimeters per second with no added water to about 104 centimeters per second for a 1.8 percent addition of light water and to 84 centimeters per second for an equal addition of heavy water. The addition of heavy water caused greater increases in flame velocity with equilibrium hydrogen-atom concentration than would be predicted by the Tanford and Pease square-root relation. The ratio of the flame velocity of a mixture containing light water to that of a mixture containing heavy water was found to be 1.4. This value is the same as the ratio of the reaction rate of hydrogen to that of deuterium and oxygen. A ratio of reaction rates of 1.4 would also be required for the square-root law to give the observed ratio of flame-velocity changes.

  11. Tsukamurella carboxydivorans sp. nov., a carbon monoxide-oxidizing actinomycete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sae W; Kim, Sung M; Park, Sang T; Kim, Young M

    2009-06-01

    A Gram-positive, slightly acid-alcohol-fast, carbon monoxide-oxidizing bacterium, strain Y2(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected from a roadside in Seoul, Korea. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence comparative analyses, strain Y2(T) was shown to belong to the genus Tsukamurella and was most closely related to Tsukamurella tyrosinosolvens DSM 44234(T) (GenBank accession no. AY238514; 99.8 %). The predominant fatty acids were C(18 : 1)omega9c and C(16 : 0). The cell-wall peptidoglycan of strain Y2(T) contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. Strain Y2(T) contained galactose and arabinose as the whole cell sugars. The DNA G+C content was 77 mol%. The DNA-DNA relatedness value between strain Y2(T) and T. tyrosinosolvens DSM 44234(T) was 62.7 %. Based on the combination of the carbon source utilization pattern, fatty acid profile, cell-wall chemotype, DNA G+C content and DNA-DNA hybridization experiments, it is proposed that strain Y2(T) (=KCCM 42885(T)=JCM 15482(T)) represents the type strain of a novel species, Tsukamurella carboxydivorans sp. nov.

  12. A Wireless and Batteryless Intelligent Carbon Monoxide Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen-Chia; Sung, Gang-Neng; Chen, Wen-Ching; Kuo, Chih-Ting; Chue, Jin-Ju; Wu, Chieh-Ming; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2016-09-23

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning from natural gas water heaters is a common household accident in Taiwan. We propose a wireless and batteryless intelligent CO sensor for improving the safety of operating natural gas water heaters. A micro-hydropower generator supplies power to a CO sensor without battery (COSWOB) (2.5 W at a flow rate of 4.2 L/min), and the power consumption of the COSWOB is only ~13 mW. The COSWOB monitors the CO concentration in ambient conditions around natural gas water heaters and transmits it to an intelligent gateway. When the CO level reaches a dangerous level, the COSWOB alarm sounds loudly. Meanwhile, the intelligent gateway also sends a trigger to activate Wi-Fi alarms and sends notifications to the mobile device through the Internet. Our strategy can warn people indoors and outdoors, thereby reducing CO poisoning accidents. We also believe that our technique not only can be used for home security but also can be used in industrial applications (for example, to monitor leak occurrence in a pipeline).

  13. Mopra Central Molecular Zone Carbon Monoxide Survey Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Rebecca; Burton, Michael; Rowell, Gavin

    2017-01-01

    We present an update on the Mopra Central Molecular Zone Carbon Monoxide (CO) survey, with data taken in 2016 extending the original 3.5° >= l >= 358.5°, +1.0° >= b >= -0.5° to 4.0° >= l >= 358.0°, +1.0° >= b >= -1.0°. Using the four simultaneously observed lines of 12CO, 13CO, C18O, and C17O Nyquist sampled at 0.6' spatial and 0.1 km/s spectral resolution, we are building an optical-thickness-corrected three-dimensional model of the diffuse gas, and making cloud mass estimates. This data, as part of the Mopra Southern Galactic Plane CO Survey (Braiding et al. (2015), Burton et al. (2013)), is at the highest resolution available across such a widespread region, and includes the Sagittarius A, Sagittarius B2, Sagittarius C, and G1.3 cloud complexes, as well as Bania's Clump 2.

  14. The Hydration Structure of Carbon Monoxide by Ab Initio Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Awoonor-Williams, Ernest

    2016-01-01

    The solvation of carbon monoxide (CO) in liquid water is important for understanding its toxicological effects and biochemical roles. In this paper, we use ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) and CCSD(T)-F12 calculations to assess the accuracy of the Straub and Karplus molecular mechanical (MM) model for CO(aq). The CCSD(T)-F12 CO--H2O potential energy surfaces show that the most stable structure corresponds to water donating a hydrogen bond to the C center. The MM-calculated surface it incorrectly predicts that the O atom is a stronger hydrogen bond acceptor than the C atom. The AIMD simulations indicate that CO is solvated like a hydrophobic solute, with very limited hydrogen bonding with water. The MM model tends to overestimate the degree of hydrogen bonding and overestimates the atomic radius of the C atom. The calculated Gibbs energy of hydration is in good agreement with experiment (9.3 kJ/mol calc. vs 10.7 kJ/mol exptl.). The calculated diffusivity of CO(aq) in TIP3P-model water was 5.19 x 10-5 cm2/s ...

  15. Gene expression in rat striatum following carbon monoxide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuichi Hara

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO poisoning causes brain damage, which is attenuated by treatment with hydrogen [1,2], a scavenger selective to hydroxyl radical (·≡OH [3]. This suggests a role of ·≡OH in brain damage due to CO poisoning. Studies have shown strong enhancement of ·≡OH production in rat striatum by severe CO poisoning with a blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb level >70% due to 3000 ppm CO, but not less severe CO poisoning with a blood COHb level at approximately 50% due to 1000 ppm CO [4]. Interestingly, 5% O2 causes hypoxia comparable with that by 3000 ppm CO and produces much less •OH than 3000 ppm CO does [4]. In addition, cAMP production in parallel with ·≡OH production [5] might contribute to ·≡OH production [6]. It is likely that mechanisms other than hypoxia contribute to brain damage due to CO poisoning [7]. To search for the mechanisms, we examined the effects of 1000 ppm CO, 3000 ppm CO and 5% O2 on gene expression in rat striatum. All array data have been deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO database under accession number GSE94780.

  16. A Wireless and Batteryless Intelligent Carbon Monoxide Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Chia Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO poisoning from natural gas water heaters is a common household accident in Taiwan. We propose a wireless and batteryless intelligent CO sensor for improving the safety of operating natural gas water heaters. A micro-hydropower generator supplies power to a CO sensor without battery (COSWOB (2.5 W at a flow rate of 4.2 L/min, and the power consumption of the COSWOB is only ~13 mW. The COSWOB monitors the CO concentration in ambient conditions around natural gas water heaters and transmits it to an intelligent gateway. When the CO level reaches a dangerous level, the COSWOB alarm sounds loudly. Meanwhile, the intelligent gateway also sends a trigger to activate Wi-Fi alarms and sends notifications to the mobile device through the Internet. Our strategy can warn people indoors and outdoors, thereby reducing CO poisoning accidents. We also believe that our technique not only can be used for home security but also can be used in industrial applications (for example, to monitor leak occurrence in a pipeline.

  17. Carbon monoxide: silent killer and expert imitator (Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Petrolini

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide is still the most common unintentional poisoning in the Western Countries, and it may often produce potentially serious or lethal acute and delayed clinical manifestations. The considerable variety of symptoms of presentation is the principal reason of the non infrequent diagnostic errors at admission. In emergency medicine it is essential to consider this diagnosis every time a patient is found in state of unconsciousness in an environment with possible exposure to CO, as well as in patients presenting with non-specific syndromes. The prompt identification of the intoxication is essential in order to plan a correct therapy at the proper time, and for prevention of risks of a late neurologic syndrome. Nowadays the diagnosis may be performed through determination of COHb in a fast and non-invasive way, both outside and inside hospitals, thanks to a new generation of specific pulsoxymetrers. After confirmation the patient has to be classified with a grading score for severity depending on clinical presentation, that may be useful also for the choice between normobaric or hyperbaric oxygen treatments. Eventually, it is essential to plan the follow up for the patient during the months following the acute event.

  18. Carbon monoxide: silent killer and expert imitator (Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Petrolini

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide is still the most common unintentional poisoning in the Western Countries, and it may often produce potentially serious or lethal acute and delayed clinical manifestations. The considerable variety of symptoms of presentation is the main reason of the non infrequent diagnostic errors at admission. In emergency medicine it is essential to consider this diagnosis every time a patient is found in state of unconsciousness in an environment with possible exposure to CO, as well as in patients presenting with non-specific syndromes. The prompt identification of the intoxication is essential in order to plan a correct therapy at the proper time, and for preventing of risks of a late neurologic syndrome. After confirmation of the diagnosis through determination of COHb, that may nowadays be performed in a fast and non-invasive way both outside and inside hospitals thanks to a new generation of specific pulsoxyimeters, the patient has to be classified with a grading score for the severity depending on clinical presentation, that may be useful also for choice between normobaric or hyperbaric oxygen treatments. Eventually, it is essential to plan the follow-up for the patient during the months following the acute event.

  19. Effect of carbon monoxide, hydrogen and sulfate on thermophilic (55°C) hydrogenogenic carbon monoxide conversion in two anaerobic bioreactor sludges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sipma, J.; Meulepas, R.J.W.; Stams, A.J.M.; Lettinga, G.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2004-01-01

    The conversion routes of carbon monoxide (CO) at 55°C by full-scale grown anaerobic sludges treating paper mill and distillery wastewater were elucidated. Inhibition experiments with 2-bromoethanesulfonate (BES) and vancomycin showed that CO conversion was performed by a hydrogenogenic population an

  20. Factors affecting exposure to nicotine and carbon monoxide in adult cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad-Kah, Raheema; Liang, Qiwei; Frost-Pineda, Kimberly; Mendes, Paul E; Roethig, Hans J; Sarkar, Mohamadi

    2011-10-01

    Exposure to cigarette smoke among smokers is highly variable. This variability has been attributed to differences in smoking behavior as measured by smoking topography, as well as other behavioral and subjective aspects of smoking. The objective of this study was to determine the factors affecting smoke exposure as estimated by biomarkers of exposure to nicotine and carbon monoxide (CO). In a multi-center cross-sectional study of 3585 adult smokers and 1077 adult nonsmokers, exposure to nicotine and CO was estimated by 24h urinary excretion of nicotine and five of its metabolites and by blood carboxyhemoglobin, respectively. Number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) was determined from cigarette butts returned. Puffing parameters were determined through a CreSS® micro device and a 182-item adult smoker questionnaire (ASQ) was administered. The relationship between exposure and demographic factors, smoking machine measured tar yield and CPD was examined in a statistical model (Model A). Topography parameters were added to this model (Model B) which was further expanded (Model C) by adding selected questions from the ASQ identified by a data reduction process. In all the models, CPD was the most important and highest ranking factor determining daily exposure. Other statistically significant factors were number of years smoked, questions related to morning smoking, topography and tar yield categories. In conclusion, the models investigated in this analysis, explain about 30-40% of variability in exposure to nicotine and CO.

  1. [Carbon monoxide in human physiology--its role in the gastrointestinal tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasnos, Katarzyna; Magierowski, Marcin; Kwiecień, Sławomir; Brzozowski, Tomasz

    2014-01-30

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is produced endogenously in the body as a byproduct of heme degradation catalyzed by the action of heme oxygenase (HO) enzymes. An inducible form, HO-1, responds to many factors such as oxidative stress, hypoxia, heme, bacterial endotoxins, proinflammatory cytokines and heavy metals. HO-2 is constitutively expressed under basal conditions in most human tissues including brain and gonads. Recent data show that CO is a gaseous mediator with multidirectional biological activity. It is involved in maintaining cellular homeostasis and many physiological and pathophysiological processes. CO shares many properties with another established vasodilatator and neurotransmitter - nitric oxide (NO). Both CO and NO are involved in neural transmission, modulation of blood vessel function and inhibition of platelet aggregation. The binding to guanylate cyclase, stimulation of the production of cGMP, activation of Ca2+-dependent potassium channels and stimulation of mitogen-activated protein kinases are well known cellular targets of CO action. Since CO is nowadays a subject of extensive investigation in many centers worldwide, the aim of the present study was to present the role of CO in various aspects of human physiology with special focus on its activity in the gastrointestinal tract.

  2. The study of dehumidifying of carbon monoxide and ammonia adsorption by Iranian natural clinoptilolite zeolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehrani, R. M. A.; Salari, A. A.

    2005-10-01

    The natural zeolite (clinoptilolite type) was obtained from the Neibagh region of Mianeh, the city in the west of Iran. The raw zeolite was tested for quality and quantity measurements including surface area and volumetric characteristics as well as thermogravimetry analysis. The acid activation process was used to increase the adsorption rate of zeolite and in order to obtain the optimum conditions: the effect of acid concentration, reaction time and the temperature were studied. A surface area measurement test was performed in each stage to get the best results. Thus, efficient condition was selected according to the produced highest surface area. The reaction was first obtained with hydrochloric acid, and then a comparison was made using the sulfuric acid. The hydrochloric reaction proved to be better. The result of activation was 2.5 times the increase in the surface area in relation to the raw sample. The result of elemental analysis conducted once again on the activated sample showed an increase in the ratio of Si/Al (approximately 0.6). Then, using CO, NH 3 and steam, the gas adsorption capacity of both the raw and activated samples was measured and compared. Since CO was not adsorbed at ambient temperature, but steam was adsorbed relatively well, the natural clinoptilolite zeolite of Iran was suggested as a suitable material for adsorbing humidity form carbon monoxide as well as synthesis gas (H 2 and CO mixture).

  3. Efficient photosynthesis of carbon monoxide from CO2 using perovskite photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, Marcel; Curvat, Laura; Giordano, Fabrizio; Steier, Ludmilla; Abate, Antonio; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M; Luo, Jingshan; Mayer, Matthew T; Grätzel, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Artificial photosynthesis, mimicking nature in its efforts to store solar energy, has received considerable attention from the research community. Most of these attempts target the production of H2 as a fuel and our group recently demonstrated solar-to-hydrogen conversion at 12.3% efficiency. Here, in an effort to take this approach closer to real photosynthesis, which is based on the conversion of CO2, we demonstrate the efficient reduction of CO2 to carbon monoxide driven solely by simulated sunlight using water as the electron source. Employing series-connected perovskite photovoltaics and high-performance catalyst electrodes, we reach a solar-to-CO efficiency exceeding 6.5%, which represents a new benchmark in sunlight-driven CO2 conversion. Considering hydrogen as a secondary product, an efficiency exceeding 7% is observed. Furthermore, this study represents one of the first demonstrations of extended, stable operation of perovskite photovoltaics, whose large open-circuit voltage is shown to be particularly suited for this process.

  4. Therapeutic Potential of Heme Oxygenase-1/Carbon Monoxide in Lung Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna Constantin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Heme oxygenase (HO, a catabolic enzyme, provides the rate-limiting step in the oxidative breakdown of heme, to generate carbon monoxide (CO, iron, and biliverdin-IXα. Induction of the inducible form, HO-1, in tissues is generally regarded as a protective mechanism. Over the last decade, considerable progress has been made in defining the therapeutic potential of HO-1 in a number of preclinical models of lung tissue injury and disease. Likewise, tissue-protective effects of CO, when applied at low concentration, have been observed in many of these models. Recent studies have expanded this concept to include chemical CO-releasing molecules (CORMs. Collectively, salutary effects of the HO-1/CO system have been demonstrated in lung inflammation/acute lung injury, lung and vascular transplantation, sepsis, and pulmonary hypertension models. The beneficial effects of HO-1/CO are conveyed in part through the inhibition or modulation of inflammatory, apoptotic, and proliferative processes. Recent advances, however, suggest that the regulation of autophagy and the preservation of mitochondrial homeostasis may serve as additional candidate mechanisms. Further preclinical and clinical trials are needed to ascertain the therapeutic potential of HO-1/CO in human clinical disease.

  5. Oxygen isotope fractionation in the vacuum ultraviolet photodissociation of carbon monoxide: Wavelength, pressure and temperature dependency.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Subrata; Davis, Ryan; Ahmed, Musahid; Jackson, Teresa L.; Thiemens, Mark H.

    2012-01-03

    Several absorption bands exist in the VUV region of Carbon monoxide (CO). Emission spectra indicate that these bands are all predissociative. An experimental investigation of CO photodissociation by vacuum ultraviolet photons (90 to 108 nm; ~13 to 11 eV) from the Advanced Light Source Synchrotron and direct measurement of the associated oxygen isotopic composition of the products are presented here. A wavelength dependency of the oxygen isotopic composition in the photodissociation product was observed. Slope values (δ'{sup 18}O/ δ'{sup 17}O) ranging from 0.76 to 1.32 were observed in oxygen three-isotope space (δ'{sup 18}O vs. δ'{sup 17}O) which correlated with increasing synchrotron photon energy, and indicate a dependency of the upper electronic state specific dissociation dynamics (e.g., perturbation and coupling associated with a particular state). An unprecedented magnitude in isotope separation was observed for photodissociation at the 105 and 107 nm synchrotron bands and are found to be associated with accidental predissociation of the vibrational states ({nu} = 0 and 1) of the upper electronic state E{sup 1}Π. For each synchrotron band, a large (few hundred per mil) extent of isotopic fractionation was observed and the range of fractionation is a combination of column density and exposure time. A significant temperature dependency in oxygen isotopic fractionation was observed, indicating a rotational level dependency in the predissociation process.

  6. Satellite Carbon Monoxide Measurements as Top-Down Constraints on Fire Trace Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasibhatla, P.; Randerson, J.; van der Werf, G.; Giglio, L.; Collatz, J.; Defries, R.; Morton, D.

    2008-12-01

    There has been considerable progress in recent years in characterizing trace gas emissions from vegetation fires on a global scale. This progress has been driven by the availability of remotely-sensed vegetation and fire products, combined with the development of global-scale, process-based terrestrial biogeochemistry models that explicitly include fire. Nevertheless, significant uncertainties remain in our understanding of the spatial and temporal variability of trace gas emissions from fires, and in the underlying climatic and human factors that drive this variability. Here, we examine the extent to which remote sensing measurements of atmospheric trace gas concentrations can provide additional constraints of emissions from fires. Specifically, we focus on using the multi-year record of carbon monoxide measurements from the MOPITT instrument on the Terra platform in an inverse modeling framework to elucidate the reduction in uncertainty in fire emissions at regional scales afforded by these measurements. We further examine the sensitivity of our estimates to various aspects of the inverse modeling set-up in an attempt to characterize the robustness of the derived uncertainty estimates, with a specific emphasis on regions with high deforestation rates in South America and Equatorial Asia.

  7. Carbon monoxide tolerant platinum electrocatalysts on niobium doped titania and carbon nanotube composite supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigdon, William A.; Huang, Xinyu

    2014-12-01

    In the anode of electrochemical cells operating at low temperature, the hydrogen oxidation reaction is susceptible to poisoning from carbon monoxide (CO) which strongly adsorbs on platinum (Pt) catalysts and increases activation overpotential. Adsorbed CO is removed by oxidative processes such as electrochemical stripping, though cleaning can also cause corrosion. One approach to improve the tolerance of Pt is through alloying with less-noble metals, but the durability of alloyed electrocatalysts is a critical concern. Without sacrificing stability, tolerance can be improved by careful design of the support composition using metal oxides. The bifunctional mechanism is promoted at junctions of the catalyst and metal oxides used in the support. Stable metal oxides can also form strong interactions with catalysts, as is the case for platinum on titania (TiOx). In this study, niobium (Nb) serves as an electron donor dopant in titania. The transition metal oxides are joined to functionalized multi-wall carbon nanotube (CNT) supports in order to synthesize composite supports. Pt is then deposited to form electrocatalysts which are characterized before fabrication into anodes for tests as an electrochemical hydrogen pump. Comparisons are made between the control from Pt-CNT to Pt-TiOx-CNT and Pt-Ti0.9Nb0.1Ox-CNT in order to demonstrate advantages.

  8. Exhaled carbon monoxide in asthmatics: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Mao

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The non-invasive assessment of airway inflammation is potentially advantageous in asthma management. Exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO measurement is cheap and has been proposed to reflect airway inflammation and oxidative stress but current data are conflicting. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to determine whether eCO is elevated in asthmatics, is regulated by steroid treatment and reflects disease severity and control. Methods A systematic search for English language articles published between 1997 and 2009 was performed using Medline, Embase and Cochrane databases. Observational studies comparing eCO in non-smoking asthmatics and healthy subjects or asthmatics before and after steroid treatment were included. Data were independently extracted by two investigators and analyzed to generate weighted mean differences using either a fixed or random effects meta-analysis depending upon the degree of heterogeneity. Results 18 studies were included in the meta-analysis. The eCO level was significantly higher in asthmatics as compared to healthy subjects and in intermittent asthma as compared to persistent asthma. However, eCO could not distinguish between steroid-treated asthmatics and steroid-free patients nor separate controlled and partly-controlled asthma from uncontrolled asthma in cross-sectional studies. In contrast, eCO was significantly reduced following a course of corticosteroid treatment. Conclusions eCO is elevated in asthmatics but levels only partially reflect disease severity and control. eCO might be a potentially useful non-invasive biomarker of airway inflammation and oxidative stress in nonsmoking asthmatics.

  9. Carbon Monoxide (CO) Is a Novel Inhibitor of Connexin Hemichannels*

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Paravic, Carmen G.; Figueroa, Vania A.; Guzmán, Diego J.; Valderrama, Carlos F.; Vallejos, Antonio A.; Fiori, Mariana C.; Altenberg, Guillermo A.; Reuss, Luis; Retamal, Mauricio A.

    2014-01-01

    Hemichannels (HCs) are hexamers of connexins that can form gap-junction channels at points of cell contacts or “free HCs” at non-contacting regions. HCs are involved in paracrine and autocrine cell signaling, and under pathological conditions may induce and/or accelerate cell death. Therefore, studies of HC regulation are of great significance. Nitric oxide affects the activity of Cx43 and Cx46 HCs, whereas carbon monoxide (CO), another gaseous transmitter, modulates the activity of several ion channels, but its effect on HCs has not been explored. We studied the effect of CO donors (CORMs) on Cx46 HCs expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes using two-electrode voltage clamp and on Cx43 and Cx46 expressed in HeLa cells using a dye-uptake technique. CORM-2 inhibited Cx46 HC currents in a concentration-dependent manner. The C-terminal domain and intracellular Cys were not necessary for the inhibition. The effect of CORM-2 was not prevented by guanylyl-cyclase, protein kinase G, or thioredoxin inhibitors, and was not due to endocytosis of HCs. However, the effect of CORM-2 was reversed by reducing agents that act extracellularly. Additionally, CO inhibited dye uptake of HeLa cells expressing Cx43 or Cx46, and MCF-7 cells, which endogenously express Cx43 and Cx46. Because CORM-2 carbonylates Cx46 in vitro and induces conformational changes, a direct effect of that CO on Cx46 is possible. The inhibition of HCs could help to understand some of the biological actions of CO in physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:25384983

  10. Carbon monoxide exchange and partitioning of a managed mountain meadow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerle, Albin; Kitz, Florian; Spielmann, Felix; Gerdel, Katharina; Wohlfahrt, Georg

    2016-04-01

    With an average mole fraction of 100 ppb carbon monoxide (CO) plays a critical role in atmospheric chemistry and thus has an indirect global warming potential. While sources/sinks of CO on land at least partially cancel out each other, the magnitude of CO sources and sinks is highly uncertain. Even if direct CO fluxes from/to land ecosystems are very much likely clearly lower in magnitude compared to anthropogenic emissions, biomass burning, emissions from chemical precursors and the OH sink, it may be premature to neglect any direct contributions of land ecosystems to the CO budget. In addition, changes in global climate and resulting changes in global productivity may require re-evaluating older data and assumptions. One major reason for the large uncertainty is a general scarcity of empirical data. An additional factor contributing to the uncertainty is the lack of ecosystem-scale CO exchange measurements, i.e. CO flux data that encompass all sources and sinks within an ecosystem. Here we present data on continuous eddy covariance measurements of CO-fluxes above a managed mountain grassland in combination with soil chamber flux measurements, within- and above-canopy concentration profiles and an inverse Lagrangian analysis to disentangle sinks and sources of CO. Results show the grassland ecosystem to be a net source for CO during daytime, with increasing flux rates at higher solar radiation. At night, if at all, the meadow is a slight sink for CO. The same holds true regarding the soil flux measurements. Additionally, a two-month rainout experiment revealed hardly any differences in CO soil fluxes between rainout- and control-plots unless extremely dry conditions were reached.

  11. Inhibition of cellular respiration by endogenously produced carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Gabriela; Lam, Francis; Hagen, Thilo; Moncada, Salvador

    2006-06-01

    Endogenously produced nitric oxide (NO) interacts with mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase, leading to inhibition of cellular respiration. This interaction has been shown to have important physiological and pathophysiological consequences. Exogenous carbon monoxide (CO) is also known to inhibit cytochrome c oxidase in vitro; however, it is not clear whether endogenously produced CO can inhibit cellular respiration and, if so, what the significance of this might be. In this study, we show that exogenous CO inhibits respiration in a moderate but persistent manner in HEK293 cells under ambient (21%) oxygen concentrations (K(i) = 1.44 microM). This effect of CO was increased (K(i) = 0.35 microM) by incubation in hypoxic conditions (1% oxygen). Endogenous CO, generated by HEK293 cells transfected with the inducible isoform of haem oxygenase (haem oxygenase-1; HO-1), also inhibited cellular respiration moderately (by 12%) and this was accompanied by inhibition (23%) of cytochrome c oxidase activity. When the cells were incubated in hypoxic conditions during HO-1 induction, the inhibitory effect of CO on cell respiration was markedly increased to 70%. Furthermore, endogenously produced CO was found to be responsible for the respiratory inhibition that occurs in RAW264.7 cells activated in hypoxic conditions with lipopolysaccharide and interferon-gamma, in the presence of N-(iminoethyl)-L-ornithine to prevent the synthesis of NO. Our results indicate that CO contributes significantly to the respiratory inhibition in activated cells, particularly under hypoxic conditions. Inhibition of cell respiration by endogenous CO through its interaction with cytochrome c oxidase might have an important role in inflammatory and hypoxic conditions.

  12. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in Chronic Carbon Monoxide Intoxication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durak, A. C.; Coskun, A.; Yikilmaz, A.; Erdogan, F.; Mavili, E.; Guven, M. [Hospital of Erciyes Univ., Kayseri (Turkey). Dept. of Radiology

    2005-05-01

    Purpose: To define the cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of the chronic stage of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning in patients with and without neuropsychiatric sequelae. Material and Methods: Eight patients who had neither symptoms nor neurological sequelae and eight patients with neuropsychiatric sequelae were included in the study. Patients aged between 9 to 57 (mean 32.2 years). All patients had been comatose at initial admittance and awoke after normobaric 100% oxygen therapy within 1-7 days. In this study, the patients were being examined with routine cranial MRI between 1 and 10 years (mean 3.4 years) after exposure to CO. Results: The most common finding was bilateral symmetric hyperintensity of the white matter, which was more significant in the centrum semiovale, with relative sparing of the temporal lobes and anterior parts of the frontal lobes on T2-weighted and FLAIR images in all patients. Cerebral cortical atrophy was seen in 10 patients; mild atrophy of cerebellar hemispheres in 8; and vermian atrophy in 11. Corpus callosum was atrophic in one patient. Bilateral globus pallidus lesions were seen in three patients. The lesions were hypointense on T1-weighted images and hyperintense on T2-weighted and FLAIR images. Conclusion: Patients with severe CO intoxication may develop persistent cerebral changes independently of their neuropsychiatric findings in the chronic stage. They may present with characteristic MRI findings as described here, even if asymptomatic. The history of CO exposure is therefore helpful for recognizing and interpreting the MRI findings of chronic stage CO intoxication.

  13. Carbon monoxide inhalation increases microparticles causing vascular and CNS dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Jiajun; Yang, Ming [Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Kosterin, Paul [Department of Neuroscience, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Salzberg, Brian M. [Department of Physiology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Milovanova, Tatyana N.; Bhopale, Veena M. [Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Thom, Stephen R., E-mail: sthom@smail.umaryland.edu [Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    We hypothesized that circulating microparticles (MPs) play a role in pro-inflammatory effects associated with carbon monoxide (CO) inhalation. Mice exposed for 1 h to 100 ppm CO or more exhibit increases in circulating MPs derived from a variety of vascular cells as well as neutrophil activation. Tissue injury was quantified as 2000 kDa dextran leakage from vessels and as neutrophil sequestration in the brain and skeletal muscle; and central nervous system nerve dysfunction was documented as broadening of the neurohypophysial action potential (AP). Indices of injury occurred following exposures to 1000 ppm for 1 h or to 1000 ppm for 40 min followed by 3000 ppm for 20 min. MPs were implicated in causing injuries because infusing the surfactant MP lytic agent, polyethylene glycol telomere B (PEGtB) abrogated elevations in MPs, vascular leak, neutrophil sequestration and AP prolongation. These manifestations of tissue injury also did not occur in mice lacking myeloperoxidase. Vascular leakage and AP prolongation were produced in naïve mice infused with MPs that had been obtained from CO poisoned mice, but this did not occur with MPs obtained from control mice. We conclude that CO poisoning triggers elevations of MPs that activate neutrophils which subsequently cause tissue injuries. - Highlights: • Circulating microparticles (MPs) increase in mice exposed to 100 ppm CO or more. • MPs are lysed by infusing the surfactant polyethylene glycol telomere B. • CO-induced MPs cause neutrophil activation, vascular leak and CNS dysfunction. • Similar tissue injuries do not arise with MPs obtained from air-exposed, control mice.

  14. Compliance with Washington State's requirement for residential carbon monoxide alarms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil B. Hampson

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO poisoning is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality in the US. In response, a majority of states have passed legislation in recent years requiring the installation of residential CO alarms. There is, however, no published information evaluating compliance with such laws. Employees of a Seattle medical center were surveyed in 2008 regarding home use of CO and smoke alarms. Washington State enacted legislation requiring residential CO alarms by all residences by January 1, 2013. The survey was repeated in mid-2016 to evaluate compliance. In 2016, a total of 354 employees completed the survey and their responses were compared to an equal number of 2008 survey respondents matched by home ownership and ZIP code. Residential CO alarm use rose from 37% to 78% (p < 0.0001. Among homeowners, 78% had alarms while 80% of renters had them. Homeowners with the highest compliance (96% had purchased their homes since January 1, 2013 while those with the lowest compliance (73% had purchased them earlier. A majority (79% of renters without alarms reported the reason was that their landlord did not provide one, a violation of the law. Only one-half to two-thirds of all equipped homes had the required number of either CO or smoke alarms. Use of residential CO alarms increased significantly in this study population three years after law required them. Areas for further improvement include education of landlords, tenants, and longtime homeowners about the law, as well as public education regarding the number of CO and smoke alarms needed.

  15. A Fire Department Community Health Intervention to Prevent Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Following a Hurricane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Matthew; Jenkins, J Lee; Seaman, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Portable generators are commonly used during electrical service interruptions that occur following large storms such as hurricanes. Nearly all portable generators use carbon based fuels and produce deadly carbon monoxide gas. Despite universal warnings to operate these generators outside only, the improper placement of generators makes these devices the leading cause of engine related carbon monoxide deaths in the United States. The medical literature reports many cases of Carbon Monoxide (CO) toxicity associated with generator use following hurricanes and other weather events. This paper describes how Howard County, Maryland Fire and Rescue (HCFR) Services implemented a public education program that focused on prevention of Carbon Monoxide poisoning from portable generator use in the wake of events where electrical service interruptions occurred or had the potential to occur. A major challenge faced was communication with those members of the population who were almost completely dependent upon electronic and wireless technologies and were without redundancies. HCFR utilized several tactics to overcome this challenge including helicopter based surveillance and the use of geocoded information from the electrical service provider to identify outage areas. Once outage areas were identified, HCFR personnel conducted a door-to-door canvasing of effected communities, assessing for hazards and distributing information flyers about the dangers of generator use. This effort represents one of the first reported examples of a community-based endeavor by a fire department to provide proactive interventions designed to prevent carbon monoxide illness. PMID:24596660

  16. Correlation of computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and clinical outcome in acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Namik; Ozcam, Giray; Kosar, Pinar; Ozcan, Ayse; Basar, Hulya; Kaymak, Cetin

    2016-01-01

    Carbon monoxide is a toxic gas for humans and is still a silent killer in both developed and developing countries. The aim of this case series was to evaluate early radiological images as a predictor of subsequent neuropsychological sequelae, following carbon monoxide poisoning. After carbon monoxide exposure, early computed tomography scans and magnetic resonance imaging findings of a 52-year-old woman showed bilateral lesions in the globus pallidus. This patient was discharged and followed for 90 days. The patient recovered without any neurological sequela. In a 58-year-old woman exposed to carbon monoxide, computed tomography showed lesions in bilateral globus pallidus and periventricular white matter. Early magnetic resonance imaging revealed changes similar to that like in early tomography images. The patient recovered and was discharged from hospital. On the 27th day of exposure, the patient developed disorientation and memory impairment. Late magnetic resonance imaging showed diffuse hyperintensity in the cerebral white matter. White matter lesions which progress to demyelination and end up in neuropsychological sequelae cannot always be diagnosed by early computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in carbon monoxide poisoning. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer Observations of Water Vapor and Carbon Monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael D.; Wolff, Michael J.; Clancy, R. Todd; Murchie, Scott L.

    2009-01-01

    The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) spacecraft began taking observations in September 2006 and has now collected more than a full Martian year of data. Retrievals performed using the near-infrared spectra obtained by CRISM are used to characterize the seasonal and spatial variation of the column abundance of water vapor and the column-averaged mixing ratio of carbon monoxide. CRISM retrievals show nominal behavior in water vapor during northern hemisphere spring and summer with maximum abundance reaching 50 precipitable micrometers. Water vapor abundance during the southern hemisphere spring and summer appears significantly reduced compared to observations by other instruments taken during previous years. The CRISM retrievals show the seasonally and globally averaged carbon monoxide mixing ratio to be 700 ppm, but with strong seasonal variations at high latitudes. The summertime near-polar carbon monoxide mixing ratio falls to 200 ppm in the south and 400 ppm in the north as carbon dioxide sublimates from the seasonal polar ice caps and dilutes noncondensable species including carbon monoxide. At low latitudes, the carbon monoxide mixing ratio varies in response to the mean seasonal cycle of surface pressure.

  18. Vapor Pressure and Evaporation Coefficient of Silicon Monoxide over a Mixture of Silicon and Silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Frank T.; Nuth, Joseph A., III

    2012-01-01

    The evaporation coefficient and equilibrium vapor pressure of silicon monoxide over a mixture of silicon and vitreous silica have been studied over the temperature range (1433 to 1608) K. The evaporation coefficient for this temperature range was (0.007 plus or minus 0.002) and is approximately an order of magnitude lower than the evaporation coefficient over amorphous silicon monoxide powder and in general agreement with previous measurements of this quantity. The enthalpy of reaction at 298.15 K for this reaction was calculated via second and third law analyses as (355 plus or minus 25) kJ per mol and (363.6 plus or minus 4.1) kJ per mol respectively. In comparison with previous work with the evaporation of amorphous silicon monoxide powder as well as other experimental measurements of the vapor pressure of silicon monoxide gas over mixtures of silicon and silica, these systems all tend to give similar equilibrium vapor pressures when the evaporation coefficient is correctly taken into account. This provides further evidence that amorphous silicon monoxide is an intimate mixture of small domains of silicon and silica and not strictly a true compound.

  19. Correlation of computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and clinical outcome in acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namik Ozcan

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objectives: Carbon monoxide is a toxic gas for humans and is still a silent killer in both developed and developing countries. The aim of this case series was to evaluate early radiological images as a predictor of subsequent neuropsychological sequelae, following carbon monoxide poisoning. Case 1: After carbon monoxide exposure, early computed tomography scans and magnetic resonance imaging findings of a 52-year-old woman showed bilateral lesions in the globus pallidus. This patient was discharged and followed for 90 days. The patient recovered without any neurological sequela. Case 2: In a 58-year-old woman exposed to carbon monoxide, computed tomography showed lesions in bilateral globus pallidus and periventricular white matter. Early magnetic resonance imaging revealed changes similar to that like in early tomography images. The patient recovered and was discharged from hospital. On the 27th day of exposure, the patient developed disorientation and memory impairment. Late magnetic resonance imaging showed diffuse hyperintensity in the cerebral white matter. Conclusion: White matter lesions which progress to demyelination and end up in neuropsychological sequelae cannot always be diagnosed by early computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in carbon monoxide poisoning.

  20. The Effect of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning on Platelet Volume in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halise Akça

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Carbon monoxide poisoning is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality. There is increasing evidence supporting the important role of mean platelet volume (MPV as a marker of hypoxia and inflammation. In this study, we aimed to determine changes in MPV values in pediatric patients with carbon monoxide poisoning. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated children who were diagnosed with carbon monoxide poisoning in our hospital between January 2005 and 2014. Results: We included 228 children with carbon monoxide poisoning (49% male in this retrospective, controlled study. The mean age of the patients was 88±56 months. Control group consisted of 200 age-matched healthy children. There was no statistically significant difference in MPV levels between the study and control groups (8.43±1.1 fL and 8.26±0.7 fL, respectively. No correlation of MPV and platelet count with carboxyhemoglobin (COHb was found. Conclusion: In our study, it was determined that MPV value was not a helpful parameter for predicting the diagnosis of acute carbon monoxide poisoning in childhood. The difference between the MPV values and the lack of significance and the absence of correlation between MPV value and COHb level led to the fact that MPV was not a guide indicating the clinical severity of the condition.

  1. A population-based exposure assessment methodology for carbon monoxide: Development of a carbon monoxide passive sampler and occupational dosimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apte, M.G.

    1997-09-01

    Two devices, an occupational carbon monoxide (CO) dosimeter (LOCD), and an indoor air quality (IAQ) passive sampler were developed for use in population-based CO exposure assessment studies. CO exposure is a serious public health problem in the U.S., causing both morbidity and mortality (lifetime mortality risk approximately 10{sup -4}). Sparse data from population-based CO exposure assessments indicate that approximately 10% of the U.S. population is exposed to CO above the national ambient air quality standard. No CO exposure measurement technology is presently available for affordable population-based CO exposure assessment studies. The LOCD and IAQ Passive Sampler were tested in the laboratory and field. The palladium-molybdenum based CO sensor was designed into a compact diffusion tube sampler that can be worn. Time-weighted-average (TWA) CO exposure of the device is quantified by a simple spectrophotometric measurement. The LOCD and IAQ Passive Sampler were tested over an exposure range of 40 to 700 ppm-hours and 200 to 4200 ppm-hours, respectively. Both devices were capable of measuring precisely (relative standard deviation <20%), with low bias (<10%). The LOCD was screened for interferences by temperature, humidity, and organic and inorganic gases. Temperature effects were small in the range of 10{degrees}C to 30{degrees}C. Humidity effects were low between 20% and 90% RH. Ethylene (200 ppm) caused a positive interference and nitric oxide (50 ppm) caused a negative response without the presence of CO but not with CO.

  2. A population-based exposure assessment methodology for carbon monoxide: Development of a carbon monoxide passive sampler and occupational dosimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apte, Michael G. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1997-09-01

    Two devices, an occupational carbon monoxide (CO) dosimeter (LOCD), and an indoor air quality (IAQ) passive sampler were developed for use in population-based CO exposure assessment studies. CO exposure is a serious public health problem in the U.S., causing both morbidity and mortality (lifetime mortality risk approximately 10{sup -4}). Sparse data from population-based CO exposure assessments indicate that approximately 10% of the U.S. population is exposed to CO above the national ambient air quality standard. No CO exposure measurement technology is presently available for affordable population-based CO exposure assessment studies. The LOCD and IAQ Passive Sampler were tested in the laboratory and field. The palladium-molybdenum based CO sensor was designed into a compact diffusion tube sampler that can be worn. Time-weighted-average (TWA) CO exposure of the device is quantified by a simple spectrophotometric measurement. The LOCD and IAQ Passive Sampler were tested over an exposure range of 40 to 700 ppm-hours and 200 to 4200 ppm-hours, respectively. Both devices were capable of measuring precisely (relative standard deviation <20%), with low bias (<10%). The LOCD was screened for interferences by temperature, humidity, and organic and inorganic gases. Temperature effects were small in the range of 10°C to 30°C. Humidity effects were low between 20% and 90% RH. Ethylene (200 ppm) caused a positive interference and nitric oxide (50 ppm) caused a negative response without the presence of CO but not with CO.

  3. (CdTe)0.05(ZnSe)0.95 solid solution application in carbon monoxide diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgornyi, S. O.; Podgornaya, O. T.; Demeshko, I. P.; Lukoyanova, O. V.; Muromtsev, I. V.

    2017-08-01

    The research centered on (CdTe)0.05(ZnSe)0.95 solid solutions. The article is aimed at developing innovative primary transducer material for semi-conductor sensors, investigating their surface physicochemical properties and evaluation their applicability in carbon monoxide diagnostics. Powders and nanofilms of (CdTe)0.05(ZnSe)0.95 solid solutions were obtained by isothermal diffusion and discrete thermal evaporation in vacuum. (CdTe)0.05(ZnSe)0.95 applicability in gas analysis was investigated. Adsorption properties of the given material for carbon oxide (II) were studied by the piezoquartz microweighing, volumetrically and IR spectroscopy of multiple disturbed complete internal reflections. The principles of adsorption, depending on the process conditions, were established. Based on the obtained experimental data, CO micro-impurities sensors were developed, the laboratory tests passed successfully.

  4. Deep Conversion of Carbon Monoxide to Hydrogen and Formation of Acetate by the Anaerobic Thermophile Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M. Henstra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans is a thermophilic strictly anaerobic bacterium that catalyses the water gas shift reaction, the conversion of carbon monoxide with water to molecular hydrogen and carbon dioxide. The thermodynamically favorable growth temperature, compared to existing industrial catalytic processes, makes this organism an interesting alternative for production of cheap hydrogen gas suitable to fuel CO-sensitive fuel cells in a future hydrogen economy, provided sufficiently low levels of CO are reached. Here we study CO conversion and final CO levels in cultures of C. hydrogenoformans grown in batch cultures that were started with a 100% CO gas phase with and without removal of formed CO2. Final CO levels were 117 ppm without CO2 removal and below 2 ppm with CO2 removal. The Gibbs free energy change calculated with measured end concentrations and the detection of acetate suggest that C. hydrogenoformans shifted from a hydrogenogenic to an acetogenic metabolism.

  5. Neurological Effects of Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coskun YARAR

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide poisoning (COP is one of the most common causes of mortality and morbidity due to poisoning in all over the world. Although the incidence of COP has not been known exactly in the childhood, almost one-third of CO exposures occurred in children. The data regarding COP in children are inconclusive. Children may be more vulnerable to CO exposure than adults as a result of their high respiration and metabolic rates, high oxygen metabolism, and immature central nervous system. Recent researches proposed new theories about neurological effects of CO toxicity. The clinical presentations associated acute COP may be various and nonspecific. Unrecognized CO exposure may lead to significant morbidity and mortality. CO exposed children often become symptomatic earlier, and recover more rapidly, than similarly CO exposed adults. Mild clinical signs and symptoms associated with COP are headache, dizziness, weakness, lethargy, and myalgia; however, severe signs and symptoms such as blurred vision, syncope, convulsion, coma, cardiopulmonary arrest and death can also accompany with COP. Neurologic manifestations can include altered mental status at different degrees, neck stiffness, tremor, ataxia, and positive Babinski's sign. Delayed neurologic sequels (DNS of COP might be seen in children like adults. DNS symptoms and signs in children include memory problems, mental retardation, mutism, fecal and urinary incontinence, motor deficits, facial palsy, psychosis, chronic headache, seizures, and epilepsy. After CO exposure children must be cared to detect and treat DNS. Although hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT is reported to prevent development of DNS, its indications, application duration and procedures are controversial in both of the children and adults. Although their predictive values are limited, exposing to CO more than eight hours and suffering from CO-induced coma, cardiac arrest, lactic acidosis, high COHb levels, and pathologic findings

  6. Snowmelt onset hinders bromine monoxide heterogeneous recycling in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burd, Justine A.; Peterson, Peter K.; Nghiem, Son V.; Perovich, Don K.; Simpson, William R.

    2017-08-01

    Reactive bromine radicals (bromine atoms, Br, and bromine monoxide, BrO) deplete ozone and alter tropospheric oxidation chemistry during the Arctic springtime (February-June). As spring transitions to summer (May-June) and snow begins to melt, reactive bromine events cease and BrO becomes low in summer. In this study, we explore the relationship between the end of the reactive bromine season and snowmelt timing. BrO was measured by Multi-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectrometer at Utqiaġvik (Barrow), AK, from 2012 to 2016 and on drifting buoys deployed in Arctic sea ice from 2011 to 2016, a total of 13 site and year combinations. The BrO seasonal end date (SED) was objectively determined and was compared to surface-air-temperature-derived melt onset date (MOD). The SED was highly correlated with the MOD (N = 13, R2 = 0.983, RMS = 1.9 days), and BrO is only observed at subfreezing temperatures. In subsets of these sites and years where ancillary data were available, we observed that snowpack depth reduced and rain precipitation occurred within a few days of the SED. These data are consistent with snowpack melting hindering BrO recycling, which is necessary to maintain enhanced BrO concentrations. With a projected warmer Arctic, a shift to earlier snowmelt seasons could alter the timing and role of halogen chemical reactions in the Arctic with impacts on ozone depletion and mercury deposition.Plain Language SummaryReactive bromine events in the Arctic are common in spring and deplete ozone and cause mercury deposition. These events are affected by snow and ice, which are changing in the Arctic; therefore, we need to understand how environmental conditions affect reactive bromine chemistry. We find that the reactive bromine season ends when snowpack begins to melt. Through these full seasonal observations, we find that reactive bromine events occur to warmer temperatures than previously reported, with 0°C being the observed threshold above which reactive

  7. Multimodality evoked potentials in patients with delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiahong Wang; Bo Xiao; Renjun Gu; Lan Xiao; Yi Yang; Yinhui Hao; Nini Wang; Junlin Mu; Jinggang Yin

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic values in patients with delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Methods: The tibial nerve somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs), vision evoked potentials (VEPs), and brain stem audition evoked potentials(BAEPs) were performed in 32 healthy adults and 43 patients with delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Results: This paper indicated abnormalities of tibial nerve SEPs in 31 patients (31/43, 72.1%), VEPs in 17 patients (17/28, 60.7%), and BAEPs in 14 patients (14/43, 32.6%). These results showed that the greatest diagnostic value was SEPs, followed by VEPs and, BAEPs with the lowest sensitivity. Conclusion: Multimodality evoked potentials (EPs) can be used for evaluating the diagnostic and prognostic values in cases of delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

  8. Effect of carbon monoxide inhibition on the growth of an aquatic streptomycete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francisco, D.E.; Silvey, J.K.G.

    1971-01-01

    A recent investigation has shown that the primary mycelium of aquatic streptomycetes is facultatively aerobic while the secondary mycelium is obligately aerobic. The nature of the differences in aerobic metabolism of various morphological phases in the life history was determined by carbon monoxide inhibition. A slide culture chamber technique which allowed continuous microscopic observation of the growing organism while in various gas environments was used. Two distinct patterns of inhibition were observed. The development of early stages of the life history was inhibited by carbon monoxide in the light and the dark. The site of this inhibition could not be determined. The later stages were inhibited only by carbon monoxide in the dark. This suggested a dependence of the secondary mycelium on the activity of cytochrome oxidase. Thus, the primary and secondary mycelial stages were found to be physiologically distinct.

  9. St. Mary's Villa carbon monoxide accumulation incident review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-05-15

    On December 26th 2010, carbon monoxide accumulation within St. Mary's Villa led to the deaths of 3 residents. This extended care facility, located in Humboldt, Saskatchewan, was constructed in 1962 and periodic additions to the building were made up to 1990. The Saskatoon Health Region, which operates the facility, hired March Consulting Associates Inc. to perform a review of the investigation reports of the incident. This review demonstrated that during the night of December 25th to December 26th, 2010, several factors, including large gaps in the make-up air unit and extreme wind, led to backdraft conditions in a boiler of the dust wing mechanical room. Exhaust gases, including carbon monoxide, then built up in the room and were blown into the dust wing by the supply air fan. The report indicates the accumulation of carbon monoxide was not caused by one factor but several.

  10. Substantially isotactic, linear, alternating copolymers of carbon monoxide and an olefin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Ayusman; Jiang, Zhaozhong

    1996-01-01

    The compound, [Pd(Me-DUPHOS)(MeCN).sub.2 ](BF.sub.4).sub.2, [Me-DUPHOS: 1,2-bis(2,5-dimethylphospholano)benzene] is an effective catalyst for the highly enantioselective, alternating copolymerization of olefins, such as aliphatic .alpha.-olefins, with carbon monoxide to form optically active, isotactic polymers which can serve as excellent starting materials for the synthesis of other classes of chiral polymers. For example, the complete reduction of a propylene-carbon monoxide copolymer resulted in the formation of a novel, optically active poly(1,4-alcohol). Also, the previously described catalyst is a catalyst for the novel alternating isomerization cooligomerization of 2-butene with carbon monoxide to form optically active, isotactic poly(1,5-ketone)

  11. Carbon Dioxide in Exoplanetary Atmospheres: Rarely Dominant Compared to Carbon Monoxide and Water

    CERN Document Server

    Heng, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the abundance of carbon dioxide in exoplanetary atmospheres. We construct analytical models of systems in chemical equilibrium that include carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, water, methane and acetylene and relate the equilibrium constants of the chemical reactions to temperature and pressure via the tabulated Gibbs free energies. We prove that such chemical systems may be described by a quintic equation for the mixing ratio of methane. By examining the abundances of these molecules across a broad range of temperatures (spanning equilibrium temperatures from 600 to 2500 K), pressures (via temperature-pressure profiles that explore albedo and opacity variations) and carbon-to-oxygen ratios (from 0.1 to 100), we conclude that carbon dioxide is subdominant compared to carbon monoxide and water. Atmospheric mixing does not alter this conclusion if carbon dioxide is subdominant everywhere in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide may attain comparable abundances if th...

  12. Assessment of exposure to carbon monoxide group of firefighters from fire fighting and rescue units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadwiga Lembas-Bogaczyk

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Firemen threat during fire burning of chemical substances indicated presence of carbon monoxide (CO in all cases. Carbon monoxide causes death of fire. Inhaled through respiratory system, links with hemoglobin, thus blocking transport and distribution of oxygen in the body. This leads to tissue anoxia, which is a direct threat to firefighters’ life. The purpose of this study was to assess the exposure to carbon monoxide of participating firefighters extinguishing fire. Estimation of carbon monoxide quantity absorbed by firefighters was isolated in a group of 40 firefighters from Fire Extinguishing and Rescue Unit of State Fire in Nysa. The study was conducted by measuring carbon monoxide in exhaled air. For measurement of carbon monoxide concentration in exhaled air Micro CO meter was used. Results were demonstrated separately for nonsmokers (n425 and smokers (n415. Mean COHb[%] levels in nonsmokers, measured prior the rescue action was 0,3950,3% and increased statistically significant after the action to 0,6150,34%, while in the group smokers, this level was 2,1750,64% before the action and increased insignificantly after the action to 2,3350,63%. The average COHb level in the same groups before and after exercise, was respectively: for nonsmokers prior to exercise was 0,4850,28% and after exercise decreased statistically significant to 0,3050,27%. In the group of smokers before exercise was 2,2350,61% and decreased statistically significant up to 1,5450,71%. It was no difference between the group of age and time of employment.

  13. ENDOGENOUS HEME OXYGENASE/CARBON MONOXIDE SYSTEM MEDIATES LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE- INDUCED INTUSSUSCEPTION IN RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王平; 余奇志; 欧和生; 佟利家; 杨军; 唐朝枢

    2000-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the role d endogenous heine oxygenase ( HO )/carbon monoxide ( CO ) system in regulating the process of intussusception (IN) induced by administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in rats. Methods. IN model of rats were induced by lipopolysaccharide. HO activity was determined by the amonnl of bilirubin formation which was measured with a double-beam spectrophotometer, and HbCO formation was measured by CO-aximeter. Results. The results showed that LPS (10mg/kg) caused IN in up to 40% d the rats at 6h after treatment of LPS. The incidence dIN were significantly increased by50% (P<0.05) and by83.2%(P<0.01) in HO substrate (heme-L-lysinate)-treated rats and in exogenous CO-treated rats, respectively; but it was significantly decreased by 41.8%(P <0.05) after administration dZnDPBG, an inhibitor dheme oxygenase (HO) activity. Furthermore, LPS increased HO activity, HbCO formation cGMP content within colic smooth muscle and the plasma level d cGMP, and these parameters were significantly elevated by 62.6% (P < 0.01), 40.0% (P < 0.01), 49.3% (P < 0.05) and 38.9%(P< 0.05), respectively, compared with LPS-non-IN rats. Conclusion. It is suggested that endogenous HO/CO system plays an important role in the process d IN induced by LPS, and inhibition d HO activity may decrease the formation of IN.

  14. REFORMULATION OF COAL-DERIVED TRANSPORTATION FUELS: SELECTIVE OXIDATION OF CARBON MONOXIDE ON METAL FOAM CATALYSTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mr. Paul Chin; Dr. Xiaolei Sun; Professor George W. Roberts; Professor James J. Spivey; Mr. Amornmart Sirijarhuphan; Dr. James G. Goodwin, Jr.; Dr. Richard W. Rice

    2002-12-31

    Several different catalytic reactions must be carried out in order to convert hydrocarbons (or alcohols) into hydrogen for use as a fuel for polyelectrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells. Each reaction in the fuel-processing sequence has a different set of characteristics, which influences the type of catalyst support that should be used for that particular reaction. A wide range of supports are being evaluated for the various reactions in the fuel-processing scheme, including porous and non-porous particles, ceramic and metal straight-channel monoliths, and ceramic and metal monolithic foams. These different types of support have distinctly different transport characteristics. The best choice of support for a given reaction will depend on the design constraints for the system, e.g., allowable pressure drop, and on the characteristics of the reaction for which the catalyst is being designed. Three of the most important reaction characteristics are the intrinsic reaction rate, the exothermicity/endothermicity of the reaction, and the nature of the reaction network, e.g., whether more than one reaction takes place and, in the case of multiple reactions, the configuration of the network. Isotopic transient kinetic analysis was used to study the surface intermediates. The preferential oxidation of low concentrations of carbon monoxide in the presence of high concentrations of hydrogen (PROX) is an important final step in most fuel processor designs. Data on the behavior of straight-channel monoliths and foam monolith supports will be presented to illustrate some of the factors involved in choosing a support for this reaction.

  15. ENDOGENOUS HEME OXYGENASE/CARBON MONOXIDE SYSTEM MEDIATES LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE-INDUCED INTUSSUSCEPTION IN RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the role of endogenous heme oxygenase (HO)/carbon monoxide (CO) system in regulating the process of intussusception (IN) induced by administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in rats.Methods. IN model of rats were induced by lipopolysaccharide. HO activity was determined by the amount of bilirubin formation which was measured with a double-beam spectrophotometer, and HbCO formation was measured by CO-oximeter.Results. The results showed that LPS (10mg/kg) caused IN in up to 40% of the rats at 6h after treatment of LPS. The incidence of IN were significantly increased by 50% (P<0.05) and by 83.2%(P<0.01) in HO substrate(heme-L-lysinate)-treated rats and in exogenous CO-treated rats, respectively; but it was significantly decreased by 41.8%(P<0.05) after administration of ZnDPBG, an inhibitor of heme oxygenase (HO) activity. Furthermore, LPS increased HO activity, HbCO formation cGMP content within colic smooth muscle and the plasma level of cGMP, and these parameters were significantly elevated by 62.6%(P<0.01), 40.0%(P<0.01), 49.3%(P<0.05) and 38.9%(P<0.05), respectively, compared with LPS-non-IN rats.Conclusion. It is suggested that endogenous HO/CO system plays an important role in the process of IN induced by LPS, and inhibition of HO activity may decrease the formation of IN.

  16. The Development and Application of Two-Chamber Reactors and Carbon Monoxide Precursors for Safe Carbonylation Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friis, Stig D; Lindhardt, Anders T; Skrydstrup, Troels

    2016-04-19

    Low molecular weight gases (e.g., carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and ethylene) represent vital building blocks for the construction of a wide array of organic molecules. Whereas experimental organic chemists routinely handle solid and liquid reagents, the same is not the case for gaseous reagents. Synthetic transformations employing such reagents are commonly conducted under pressure in autoclaves or under atmospheric pressure with a balloon setup, which necessitates either specialized equipment or potentially hazardous and nonrecommended installations. Other safety concerns associated with gaseous reagents may include their toxicity and flammability and, with certain gases, their inability to be detected by human senses. Despite these significant drawbacks, industrial processes apply gaseous building blocks regularly due to their low cost and ready availability but nevertheless under a strictly controlled manner. Carbon monoxide (CO) fits with all the parameters for being a gas of immense industrial importance but with severe handling restrictions due to its inherent toxicity and flammability. In academia, as well as research and development laboratories, CO is often avoided because of these safety issues, which is a limitation for the development of new carbonylation reactions. With our desire to address the handling of CO in a laboratory setting, we designed and developed a two-chamber reactor (COware) for the controlled delivery and utilization of stoichiometric amounts of CO for Pd-catalyzed carbonylation reactions. In addition to COware, two stable and solid CO-releasing molecules (COgen and SilaCOgen) were developed, both of which release CO upon activation by either Pd catalysis or fluoride addition, respectively. The unique combination of COware with either COgen or SilaCOgen provides a simple reactor setup enabling synthetic chemists to easily perform safe carbonylation chemistry without the need for directly handling the gaseous reagent. With this technology

  17. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulation study of successive hydrogenation reactions of carbon monoxide producing methanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Thi Nu; Ono, Shota; Ohno, Kaoru

    2016-04-01

    Doing ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, we demonstrate a possibility of hydrogenation of carbon monoxide producing methanol step by step. At first, the hydrogen atom reacts with the carbon monoxide molecule at the excited state forming the formyl radical. Formaldehyde was formed after adding one more hydrogen atom to the system. Finally, absorption of two hydrogen atoms to formaldehyde produces methanol molecule. This study is performed by using the all-electron mixed basis approach based on the time dependent density functional theory within the adiabatic local density approximation for an electronic ground-state configuration and the one-shot GW approximation for an electronic excited state configuration.

  18. [Effect of lead and carbon monoxide under the condition of diabetic metabolism (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlipköter, H W; Klitzke, M; Unnewehr, J

    1979-06-01

    The NZO-Mice were used to study the influence of carbon monoxide and lead under the condition of diabetic metabolism. The animals treated with 80 ppm (COHb 10.81) showed significantly lower tolerance for glucose. Even after removing the burden of carbon monoxide for 50 days, the blood sugar level after glucose tolerance test remained in experimental animals significantly higher than in controls (20-min-value). The NZO-Mice after enteral lead exposition showed no significant changes of the condition of the diabetic metabolism after the glucose tolerance test. However, the NZO-Mice, compared to NMRI mice and rats, reached significantly higher level of blood sugar.

  19. Toward Carbon Monoxide-Based Therapeutics: Critical Drug Delivery and Developability Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xingyue; Damera, Krishna; Zheng, Yueqin; Yu, Bingchen; Otterbein, Leo E; Wang, Binghe

    2016-02-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is an intrinsic signaling molecule with importance on par with that of nitric oxide. During the past decade, pharmacologic studies have amply demonstrated the therapeutic potential of carbon monoxide. However, such studies were mostly based on CO inhalation and metal-based CO-releasing molecules. The field is now at the stage that a major effort is needed to develop pharmaceutically acceptable forms of CO for delivery via various routes such as oral, injection, infusion, or topical applications. This review examines the state of the art, discusses the existing hurdles to overcome, and proposes developmental strategies necessary to address remaining drug delivery issues.

  20. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning during Pregnancy: Presentation of a Rare Severe Case with Fetal Bladder Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Delomenie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide poisoning during pregnancy is a rare and potentially serious condition. Fetal complications are uncommon, related to anoxic lesions. The severity of these complications does not depend on the level of maternal COHb. We report the case of a 22-year-old pregnant woman who at 30 weeks of gestation had carbon monoxide poisoning secondary to a fire in her home, complicated by cardiac arrest and severe fetal damage. The child had not brain damage, but presented bladder lesions not previously described, with urinary ascites complicating megacystis.

  1. Isolated symmetrical bilateral basal ganglia T2 hyperintensity in carbon monoxide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhaschandra S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide poisoning is not uncommon during the winter months. To make a diagnosis, strong clinical suspicion and acumen, and history of the exposure are necessary. Many a time, the presenting complaints may fail to help reach a diagnosis, in the absence of history. Imaging plays a role in the diagnosis of brain injury with the characteristic features, which are correlated with the clinical profile. Isolated bilateral basal ganglia injury revealing T2 hyperintensity in MRI may be observed in acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

  2. Untangling the Energetics and Dynamics of Boron Monoxide Radical Reactions (11BO; X2Sigma+)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-15

    energy-density molecules and builds up on our previously successful synthesis of higher carbon oxides COx (x=3-6). Higher-order carbon sulfides - carbon...3.1. Crossed Beam Reactions of Boron Monoxide with Acetylene anmd Ethylene (P1, P8) The reaction dynamics of boron monoxide (BO; X2Σ...with acetylene (C2H2; X1Σg+) and with ethylene (C2H4; X1Ag) were investigated under single collision conditions at collision energy of 12 to 13 kJ mol

  3. Utility of the Measurement of Carboxyhemoglobin Level at the Site of Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Onodera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study examined the hypothesis that correlations exist between the carbon monoxide exposure time and the carboxyhemoglobin concentration at the site of carbon monoxide poisoning, using a pulse carbon monoxide oximeter in rural areas or the carboxyhemoglobin concentration measured at a given medical institution. Background. In previous studies, no definitive relationships between the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin level and the severity of carbon monoxide poisoning have been observed. Method. The subjects included patients treated for acute carbon monoxide poisoning in whom a medical emergency team was able to measure the carboxyhemoglobin level at the site of poisoning. We examined the relationship between the carboxyhemoglobin level at the site of poisoning and carbon monoxide exposure time and the relationships between the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin level and carbon monoxide exposure time. Results. A total of 10 patients met the above criteria. The carboxyhemoglobin levels at the site of poisoning were significantly and positively correlated with the exposure time (rs = 0.710, p=0.021, but the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin levels were not correlated with the exposure time. Conclusion. In rural areas, the carboxyhemoglobin level measured at the site of carbon monoxide poisoning correlated with the exposure time.

  4. Electrochemical oxidation of carbon monoxide: from platinum single crystals to low temperature fuel cells catalysts. Part I: Carbon monoxide oxidation onto low index platinum single crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PHILIP N. ROSS JR

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical oxidation of carbon monoxide and the interfacial structure of the CO adlayer (COads on platinum low index single crystals, Pt(111, Pt(100 and two reconstruction of Pt(110, were examined using the rotation disk electrode method in combination with the in situ surface X-ray diffraction scattering technique. The mechanism of CO oxidation is discussed on the basis of the findings that, depending on the potential, two energetic states of COads exist on the platinum surfaces. Thus, at lower potentials, weakly bonded states (COads,w and at higher potentials strongly bonded states (COads,s are formed. The mechanism of the oxidation of hydrogen-carbon monoxide mixtures is also proposed.

  5. The Design of Mine-used Electrochemistry Carbon Monoxide Sensor Based on STM32%基于STM32的矿用电化学一氧化碳传感器的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方长青; 叶桦; 尤卫卫

    2013-01-01

    For the detection and alarm of the concentration of carbon monoxide gas in coal mine, we design a mine electrochemical carbon monoxide sensor. The design is using STM32F103C8 microcontroller as processing core, including 4cm-monoxide sensor produced by City Technology , weak signal ampliifer and DS18B20 temperature sensor, nRF24L01 and other devices, to achieve a hardware and software design of the carbon monoxide sensor. The collected data of carbon monoxide concentration is output to the host computer through RS485 for display and alarm after ifltering and revising . The sensor parameters can be set via RS485 communication or wireless communication. Actual tests show that the carbon monoxide sensor has high precision, good stability, and is also convenient to set parameters. It is suitable for coal mine where needs to monitor the carbon monoxide.%针对煤矿安全生产中对一氧化碳气体浓度的检测与报警,提出了一种矿用电化学一氧化碳传感器的设计方案。该方案以STM32F103C8单片机为处理核心,利用City Technology生产的4cm一氧化碳敏感元件、微弱信号放大器与DS18B20温度传感器、nRF24L01等器件,实现了矿用一氧化碳传感器的软硬件设计。采集的一氧化碳浓度数据经滤波、校标后由RS485输出给上位机,用于显示与报警,传感器参数可以通过RS485通讯或者无线通讯设定。实际测试表明,该一氧化碳传感器精度高、稳定性好、参数设定方便,适宜于矿井下需要监测一氧化碳的场所使用。

  6. Minimizing the wintertime low bias of Northern Hemisphere carbon monoxide in global model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Olaf; Schultz, Martin G.; Bouarar, Idir; Clark, Hannah; Huijnen, Vincent; Gaudel, Audrey; George, Maya; Clerbaux, Cathy

    2015-04-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a product of incomplete combustion and is also produced from oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the atmosphere. It is of interest as an indirect greenhouse gas and an air pollutant causing health effects and is thus subject to emission restrictions. CO acts as a major sink for the OH radical and as a precursor for tropospheric ozone and affects the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere as well as regional air quality. Despite the developments in the global modelling of chemistry and of the parameterization of the physical processes, CO concentrations remain underestimated during NH winter by most state-of-the-art chemical transport models. The resulting model bias can in principle originate from either an underestimation of CO sources or an overestimation of its sinks. We address both the role of sources and sinks with a series of MOZART chemistry transport model sensitivity simulations for the year 2008 and compare our results to observational data from ground-based stations, satellite observations, and from MOZAIC tropospheric profile measurements on passenger aircraft. Our base case simulation using the MACCity emission inventory (Granier et al. 2011) underestimates the near-surface Northern Hemispheric CO mixing ratios by more than 20 ppb from December to April with a maximal bias of 40 ppb in January. The bias is strongest for the European region (up to 75 ppb in January). From our sensitivity studies the mismatch between observed and modelled atmospheric CO concentrations can be explained by a combination of the following emission inventory shortcuts: (i) missing anthropogenic wintertime CO emissions from traffic or other combustion processes, (ii) missing anthropogenic VOC emissions, (iii) an exaggerated downward trend in the RCP8.5 scenario underlying the MACCity inventory, (iv) a lack of knowledge about the seasonality of emissions. Deficiencies in the parameterization of the dry deposition velocities can also lead to

  7. Carbon Monoxide Accumulation in the Extravehicular Mobility Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conkin, J.; Norcrosss, J. R.; Alexander, D. J.; Sanders, R. W.; Makowski, M. S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Life support technology in large closed systems like submarines and space stations catalyzes carbon monoxide (CO) to carbon dioxide, which is easily removed. However, in a small system like the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), spacesuit, CO from exogenous (contaminated oxygen (O (sub 2) supply) and endogenous (human metabolism) sources will accumulate in the free suit volume. The free volume becomes a sink for CO that is rebreathed by the astronaut. The accumulation through time depends on many variables: the amount absorbed by the astronaut, the amount produced by the astronaut (between 0.28 and 0.34 ?moles per hour per kilogram)[1], the amount that enters the suit from contaminated O (sub 2), the amount removed through suit leak, the free volume of the suit, and the O (sub 2) partial pressure[2], just to list a few. Contamination of the EMU O (sub 2) supply with no greater than 1 part per million CO was the motivation for empirical measurements from CO pulse oximetry (SpCO) as well as mathematical modeling of the EMU as a rebreather for CO. Methods: We developed a first-order differential mixing equation as well as an iterative method to compute CO accumulation in the EMU. Pre-post measurements of SpCO (Rad-57, Masimo Corporation) from EMU ground training and on-orbit extravehicular activities (EVAs) were collected. Results: Initial modeling without consideration of the astronaut as a sink but only the source of CO showed that after 8 hours breathing 100 percent O (sub 2) with a 10 milliliter per minute (760 millimeters Hg at 21 degrees Centigrade standard) suit leak, an endogenous production rate of 0.23 moles per hour per kilogram for a 70 kilogram person with 42 liters (1.5 cubic feet) free suit volume resulted in a peak CO partial pressure (pCO) of 0.047 millimeters Hg at 4.3 pounds per square inch absolute (222 millimeters Hg). Preliminary results based on a 2008 model[3] with consideration of the astronaut as a sink and source of CO

  8. Anaerobic transformation of carbon monoxide by microbial communities of Kamchatka hot springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochetkova, Tatiana V; Rusanov, Igor I; Pimenov, Nikolay V; Kolganova, Tatyana V; Lebedinsky, Alexander V; Bonch-Osmolovskaya, Elizaveta A; Sokolova, Tatyana G

    2011-05-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is one of the common gaseous compounds found in hot volcanic environments. It is known to serve as the growth substrate for a number of thermophilic prokaryotes, both aerobic and anaerobic. The goal of this work was to study the process of anaerobic transformation of CO by microbial communities inhabiting natural thermal environments: hot springs of Uzon Caldera, Kamchatka. The anaerobic microbial community of Treshchinny Spring (80°C, pH 6.5) was found to exhibit two peaks of affinity for CO (K (S1) = 54 nM and K (S2) = 1 μM). The actual rate of anaerobic CO transformation by the microbial community of this spring, calculated after obtaining the concentration dependence curve and extrapolated to the natural concentration of CO dissolved in the hot spring water (20 nM), was found to be 120 μmol l(-1) of sediment day(-1). In all the hot springs studied, more than 90% of the carbon of (14)CO upon anaerobic incubation was recovered as (14)CO(2). From 1 to 5% of (14)CO was transformed to volatile fatty acids (VFA). The number of microorganisms capable of anaerobic CO oxidation determined by dilution-to-extinction method reached 10(6) cells ml(-1) of sediment. CO-transforming anaerobic thermophilic microorganisms isolated from the springs under study exhibited hydrogenogenic type of CO oxidation and belonged to the bacterial genera Carboxydocella and Dictyoglomus. These data suggest a significant role of hydrogenogenic carboxydotrophic prokaryotes in anaerobic CO transformation in Uzon Caldera hot springs.

  9. Black carbon and carbon monoxide over Bay of Bengal during W_ICARB: Source characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girach, I. A.; Nair, Vijayakumar S.; Babu, S. Suresh; Nair, Prabha R.

    2014-09-01

    The ship borne measurements of near-surface black carbon (BC) and carbon monoxide (CO) were carried out over Bay of Bengal (BoB) during the winter period of 2009 under W_ICARB, the second phase of ‘Integrated Campaign for Aerosols, gases and Radiation Budget (ICARB)'. The CO mixing ratio and BC mass concentration varied in the ranges of 80-480 ppbv and 75-10,000 ng m-3, respectively over this marine region. The BC and CO showed similar variations over northern BoB where airmass from Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) region prevailed during the observations period leading to a very strong positive correlation. The association of BC and CO was poor over the eastern and southern part of BoB could be due to the removal of BC aerosols by rain and/or processes of dilution and mixing while transported over to BoB. The highest value of CO observed over eastern BoB was partially due to biomass burning over East Asia. The BC/CO ratio for IGP airmass found to be 20.3 ng m-3 ppb-1 and ∼16 ng m-3 ppb-1 during winter and pre-monsoon, respectively which indicate the role of biomass burning as the source of BC over the region. Based on the emission flux of CO from various inventories and observed BC/CO ratios during pre-monsoon and winter, the BC emission for India is estimated to be in the range of 0.78-1.23 Tg year-1. The analysis of scavenging of BC revealed the loss rate of BC due to relative humidity 0.39 ± 0.08 ng m-3 ppb-1 RH (%)-1 over northern BoB and 0.53 ± 0.04 ng m-3 ppb-1 RH (%)-1 over the southern-BoB during winter.

  10. Feasibility study of a lead monoxide-based dosimeter for quality assurance in radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K. T.; Han, M. J.; Heo, Y. J.; Park, J. E.; Lee, Y. K.; Kim, J. N.; Oh, K. M.; Cho, H. L.; Choi, Y. S.; Kim, J. Y.; Nam, S. H.; Park, S. K.

    2016-11-01

    Lately, cancer has been treated using high-energy radiation, and this requires highly reliable treatment plans. Therefore, a dosimeter with excellent performance, which is capable of precise dose measurement, is critical. In current clinical practices, an ionization chamber and diode utilizing the ionization reaction mechanism are widely used. Several studies have been carried out to determine optimal materials for the detector in a dosimeter to enable diagnostic imaging. Recently, studies with lead monoxide, which was shown to have low drift current and high resolving power at a high bias, were reported with the dosimeter exhibiting a fast response time against incident photons. This research aims to investigate the feasibility of a lead monoxide-based dosimeter for QA (quality assurance) in radiotherapy. In this paper, we report that the manufactured dosimeter shows similar linearity to a silicon diode and demonstrates similar characteristics in terms of PDD (percent depth dose) results for the thimble ionization chamber. Based on these results, it is demonstrated that the lead monoxide-based dosimeter complies with radiotherapy QA requirements, namely rapid response time, dose linearity, dose rate independence. Thus, we expect the lead monoxide-based dosimeter to be used commercially in the future.

  11. CARBON MONOXIDE FLUXES OF DIFFERENT SOIL LAYERS IN UPLAND CANADIAN BOREAL FORESTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dark or low-light carbon monoxide fluxes at upland Canadian boreal forest sites were measured on-site with static chambers and with a laboratory incubation technique using cores from different depths at the same sites. Three different upland black spruce sites, burned in 1987,199...

  12. An infrared spectroscopic study of the adsorption of carbon monoxide on silica-supported copper oxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, K.P. de; Geus, John W.; Joziasse, J.

    1980-01-01

    Adsorption of carbon monoxide at room temperature (0.1–50 Torr) on silica-supported copper oxide was studied by infrared spectroscopy. Catalysts were prepared by deposition-precipitation or impregnation. After calcination two types of adsorbed CO were identified showing absorption bands at 2136 ± 3

  13. Palladium-catalyzed carbonylative sonogashira coupling of aryl bromides using near stoichiometric carbon monoxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Karoline T.; Laursen, Simon R.; Lindhardt, Anders T.

    2014-01-01

    A general procedure for the palladium-catalyzed carbonylative Sonogashira coupling of aryl bromides is reported, using near stoichiometric amounts of carbon monoxide. The method allows a broad substrate scope in moderate to excellent yields. The formed alkynone motive serves as a platform...

  14. Characterization of Fe-Co-Mn catalysts after carbon monoxide hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez C, S.L.; Serbia, M.A.; Baechler, R.; Orozco, J. [Laboratorio de Cinetica y Catalisis, Departamento de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Los Andes, Merida 5101A (Venezuela); e-mail: goncor@ula.ve

    2003-07-01

    An Fe-Co-Mn catalysts series after hydrogenation of carbon monoxide has been characterized. The XRD analysis shows the magnetite as main crystalline phase after reaction, in addition of carbon and carbide phases. All these phases lead to hydrogen consumption and oxidation rate changes on Fe-Co-Mn catalysts. A phase transformation superficial diagram is analysed. (Author)

  15. Short-term effects of carbon monoxide on mortality : An analysis within the APHEA project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samoli, Evangelia; Touloumi, Giota; Schwartz, Joel; Anderson, Hugh Ross; Schindler, Christian; Forsberg, Bertil; Vigotti, Maria Angela; Vonk, Judith; Kosnik, Mitja; Skorkovsky, Jiri; Katsouyanni, Klea

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We investigated the short-term effects of carbon monoxide on total and cardiovascular mortality in 19 European cities participating in the APHEA-2 (Air Pollution and Health: A European Approach) project. METHODS: We examined the association using hierarchical models implemented in two st

  16. The impacts of temperature on the absorption spectral lines of carbon monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Jianqiang; Xu Yuanze; Gao Xiaorong; Wang Li; Wang Zeyong, E-mail: jianqguo@home.swjtu.edu.cn [College of Physical Science and Technology, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China)

    2011-02-01

    In order to study the change of temperature on the effects of carbon monoxide absorption spectral lines, first of all proceed from the principle of absorption spectra, using theoretical analysis method, and the transmission and absorption database of the high-resolution molecular educed the carbon monoxide absorption spectrum intensity of spectral lines, integrated widening line type function and absorption coefficient concerned with temperature, then we got the change curve between carbon monoxide absorption spectrum intensity of spectral lines, integrated widening line type function and absorption coefficient with temperature by the numerical simulation of MATLAB, and analyzed and discussed the relationship between the temperature and them. The results showed that the temperature on the effects of carbon monoxide absorption spectral lines, especially on an Integrated widening line type function is complex, and different laser frequencies will also affect the relationship of the line type function and the absorption coefficient change with temperature, which has important reference value for the absorption and measurement of carbon in practical application.

  17. Separation of hydrogen from carbon monoxide using a hollow fiber polyimide membrane: experimental and simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peer, M.; Mehdi Kamali, S.; Mahdeyarfar, M.; Mohammadi, T. [Research Laboratory for Separation Processes, Chemical Engineering Department, Tehran (Iran)

    2007-10-15

    The separation of hydrogen from carbon monoxide (syngas ratio adjustment) with polymeric membranes was investigated in this work. A polyimide hollow fiber membrane module was used for hydrogen separation. This polymer has shown large permeability and selectivity for hydrogen separation (selectivity of ca. 30). Permeation tests were carried out at different feed conditions. Feed flow rates were varied between 150-300 mL/min, temperature was varied in the range of 20-80 C and feed pressure was varied between 5-9 bar. Mixtures containing 0-50 % carbon monoxide were used when carrying out experiments. Measured membrane permeances for hydrogen and carbon monoxide were about 70-100 GPU (gas permeation units) and 3-5.5 GPU, respectively. In addition, a mathematical model for simulation of gas separation in hollow fiber membrane modules with all flow patterns (crossflow, countercurrent and cocurrent) was presented. This model can be used for calculation of membrane performance or its required surface area for a specific separation. Experimental results have shown good correlation with simulation results. Plasticization, competitive sorption and concentration polarization effect of carbon monoxide on membrane performance is shown with experimental results. This effect reduced hydrogen permeances in mixed gas experiments. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  18. Chemical production from waste carbon monoxide: its potential for energy conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrmann, C.A.; Schiefelbein, G.F.; Molton, P.M.; Li, C.T.; Elliott, D.C.; Baker, E.G.

    1977-11-01

    Results of a study of the potential for energy conservation by producing chemicals from by-product or waste carbon monoxide (CO) from industrial sources are summarized. Extensive compilations of both industrial sources and uses for carbon monoxide were developed and included. Reviews of carbon monoxide purification and concentration technology and preliminary economic evaluations of carbon monoxide concentration, pipeline transportation and utilization of CO in the synthesis of ammonia and methanol are included. Preliminary technical and economic feasibility studies were made of producing ammonia and methanol from the by-product CO produced by a typical elemental phosphorus plant. Methanol synthesis appears to be more attractive than ammonia synthesis when using CO feedstock because of reduced water gas shift and carbon dioxide removal requirements. The economic studies indicate that methanol synthesis from CO appears to be competitive with conventional technology when the price of natural gas exceeds $0.82/million Btu, while ammonia synthesis from CO is probably not competitive until the price of natural gas exceeds $1.90/million Btu. It is concluded that there appears to be considerable potential for energy conservation in the chemical industry, by collecting CO rather than flaring it, and using it to make major chemicals such as ammonia and methanol.

  19. Characteristics of Photoacoustic Spectroscopy Detection for Carbon Monoxide Gas Based on DFB Diode Laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Weigen; PENG Xiaojuan; LIU Bingjie; SUN Caixin

    2012-01-01

    The dissolved gas analysis is one of the most effective and convenient methods to diagnose the early discharge faults of transformers. When the fault involves the solid insulation, oil-paper insulation cracks and releases carbon monoxide (CO) gas. Therefore, the detection of CO can forecast the potential inner faults of oil-filled transformers.

  20. Effects of chemical modifications of heme on kinetics of carbon monoxide binding to free home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sono, M.; McCray, J.A.; Asakura, T.

    1977-11-10

    The rates of carbon monoxide recombination to six different kinds of chemically modified heme with various substituents at positions 2 and 4 have been studied in the protein-free state (free heme) by the laser flash photolysis method in a mixture of ethylene glycol and 0.02 N NaOH (80:20, v/v) (80% ethylene glycol). The carbon monoxide combination rate constants to the various free hemes obtained in 80% ethylene glycol at 22/sup 0/ were 1.4, 2.1, 2.1, 3.7, 4.5, and 6.4 x 10/sup 7/ M/sup -1/ s/sup -1/ for 2,4-diformyl-, spirographis (2-formyl-4-vinyl-), isospirographis (2-vinyl-4-formyl-) proto-(2,4-divinyl-), deutero-(2,4-dihydrogen-), and meso-(2,4-diethyl-), hemes, respectively. This order of increase in carbon monoxide combination rate constants for these hemes correlates exactly with decrease in electron attractivity of heme side chains (i.e., increase in pK/sub 3/, basicity of nitrogen base of prophyrin) and is completely opposite to that obtained for carbon monoxide binding to these hemes reconstituted with apomyoglobin. Contrary to the results for myoglobin, the two isomers of monoformyl-monovinylheme exhibited similar optical properties and the same combination rate constant indicating that the differences in the optical and kinetic results observed in myoglobin are due to different interactions of these isomeric hemes with protein.

  1. Calculated Specific Volumes and Magnetic Moments of the 3d Transition Metal Monoxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Hans Lomholt; Andersen, O. K.; Johansson, B.

    1980-01-01

    We have performed self-consistent, spin-polarized band structure calculations as a function of the lattice spacing for the 3d metal monoxides in order to obtain the equilibrium lattice constants. The calculated binding from the 3d electrons and the occurrence of antiferromagnetism account...

  2. Gaseous persufflation with carbon monoxide during ischemia protects the isolated liver and enhances energetic recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetting, Martina; Leuvenink, Henri; Dombrowski, Frank; Minor, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Background: The benefit of carbon monoxide as applied by controlled, continuous gaseous persufflation during liver preservation on postischemic graft recovery was investigated in an isolated rat liver model. Methods: Livers from male Wistar rats were retrieved 30 min after cardiac arrest of the dono

  3. Multimodel simulations of carbon monoxide: comparison with observations and projected near-future changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shindell, D.T.; Krol, M.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/078760410

    2006-01-01

    We analyze present-day and future carbon monoxide (CO) simulations in 26 state-ofthe- art atmospheric chemistry models run to study future air quality and climate change. In comparison with near-global satellite observations from the MOPITT instrument and local surface measurements, the models show

  4. Multimodel simulations of carbon monoxide: Comparison with observations and projected near-future changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shindell, D.T.; Faluvegi, G.; Stevenson, D.S.; Krol, M.C.; Emmons, L.K.; Lamarque, J.F.; Petron, G.; Dentener, F.J.; Ellingsen, K.; Schultz, M.G.; Wild, O.; Amann, M.; Atherton, C.S.; Bergmann, D.J.; Bey, I.; Butler, T.; Cofala, J.; Collins, W.J.; Derwent, R.G.; Doherty, R.M.; Drevet, J.; Eskes, H.J.; Fiore, A.M.; Gauss, M.; Hauglustaine, D.A.; Horowitz, L.W.; Isaksen, I.S.A.; Lawrence, M.G.; Montanaro, V.; Muller, J.F.; Pitari, G.; Prather, M.J.; Pyle, J.A.; Rast, S.; Rodriguez, J.M.; Sanderson, M.G.; Savage, N.H.; Strahan, S.E.; Sudo, K.; Szopa, S.; Unger, N.; Noije, van T.P.C.; Zeng, G.

    2006-01-01

    We analyze present-day and future carbon monoxide (CO) simulations in 26 state-of-the-art atmospheric chemistry models run to study future air quality and climate change. In comparison with near-global satellite observations from the MOPITT instrument and local surface measurements, the models show

  5. Short-term effects of carbon monoxide on mortality : An analysis within the APHEA project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samoli, Evangelia; Touloumi, Giota; Schwartz, Joel; Anderson, Hugh Ross; Schindler, Christian; Forsberg, Bertil; Vigotti, Maria Angela; Vonk, Judith; Kosnik, Mitja; Skorkovsky, Jiri; Katsouyanni, Klea

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We investigated the short-term effects of carbon monoxide on total and cardiovascular mortality in 19 European cities participating in the APHEA-2 (Air Pollution and Health: A European Approach) project. METHODS: We examined the association using hierarchical models implemented in two

  6. Microwave Radiometer for Spectral Observations of Mesospheric Carbon Monoxide at 115 GHz Over Kharkiv, Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piddyachiy, Valeriy; Shulga, Valerii; Myshenko, Valeriy; Korolev, Alexey; Antyufeyev, Oleksandr; Shulga, Dmytro; Forkman, Peter

    2016-11-01

    We present the results of the development of high sensitivity microwave radiometer designed for observation of the atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO) emission lines at 115 GHz. The receiver of this radiometer has the double-sideband noise temperature of 250 K at a temperature of 10°C. To date, this is the best noise performance for uncooled Schottky diode mixer receiver systems. The designed radiometer was tested during the 2014-2015 period at observations of the carbon monoxide emission lines over Kharkiv, Ukraine (50° N, 36.3° E). These tests have shown the reliability of the receiver system, which allows us in the future to use designed radiometer for continuous monitoring of carbon monoxide. The first observations of the atmospheric carbon monoxide spectral lines over Kharkiv have confirmed seasonal changes in the CO abundance and gave us reasons to assume the spread of the influence of the polar vortex on the state of the atmosphere up to the latitude of 50° N where our measurement system is located.

  7. Carbon monoxide oxidation using Zn-Cu-Ti hydrotalcite-derived catalysts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    O Saber; T Zaki

    2014-07-01

    Multioxide catalysts of zinc, copper and titanium with different ratios obtained from layered double hydroxide (LDH) precursors were used in the oxidation of carbon monoxide. The catalysts were characterized by energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, thermal analyses (TG, DTG and DTA) and scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction showed different phases of double hydroxide structures. On increasing the percentage of zinc, hydrotalcite structure became the main phase in these samples. SEM images confirmed the presence of layered double hydroxide as plate-like structure. Experimental results indicated a sharp increase in the catalytic activities of the calcined samples towards the oxidation of carbon monoxide at temperatures in the range of 225-275°C. High conversion of carbon monoxide (90 ∼ 95%) was achieved at reaction temperature of 275°C by samples having ZnTiO3 as a main phase. These results suggested that hydrotalcite structure of Zn-Ti has a positive catalytic effect towards carbon monoxide oxidation.

  8. 75 FR 54773 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Minnesota; Carbon Monoxide (CO...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... ambient monitoring data collected between 1998 and July of 2009, that the Twin Cities area is meeting both... Monoxide (CO) Limited Maintenance Plan for the Twin Cities Area AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... Minneapolis-St. Paul (Twin Cities) area. The one hour CO NAAQS and eight hour CO NAAQS are 35 parts...

  9. Inhalation Toxicology. 11. The Effect of Elevated Temperature on Carbon Monoxide Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    TEMPERATURE ON CARBON MONOXIDE TOXICITY INTRODUCTION The use of the laboratory rat as an animal model for determining the toxicity of combustion gases is...response of rats during exercise. J Appl Physiol. 1968; 24:747-50. 7. Hubbard RW, Matthew WT, Linduska JD, et al. The laboratory rat as a model for

  10. 40 CFR 52.1164 - Localized high concentrations-carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... have developed and have begun to implement a program to identify urban and suburban core areas and... control strategies to insure that such air quality standards will be achieved at such areas. Plans shall... implemented strategies will not create carbon monoxide violations elsewhere in the vicinity after the measures...

  11. Statistical parametric mapping in brain single photon computed emission tomography after carbon monoxide intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, N; Nohara, S; Matsuda, H; Sumiya, H; Noguchi, K; Shimizu, M; Tsuji, S; Kinuya, S; Shuke, N; Yokoyama, K; Seto, H

    2002-04-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to assess regional cerebral blood flow in patients after carbon monoxide intoxication by using brain single photon emission computed tomography and statistical parametric mapping. Eight patients with delayed neuropsychiatric sequelae and ten patients with no neuropsychiatric symptoms after carbon monoxide intoxication were studied with brain single photon emission tomography imaging with 99mTc-hexamethyl-propyleneamine oxime. Forty-four control subjects were also studied. We used the adjusted regional cerebral blood flow images in relative flow distribution (normalization of global cerebral blood flow for each subject to 50 ml x 100 g(-1) x min(-1) with proportional scaling) to compare these groups with statistical parametric mapping. Using this technique, significantly decreased regional cerebral blood flow was noted extensively in the bilateral frontal lobes as well as the bilateral insula and a part of the right temporal lobe in the patients with delayed neuropsychiatric sequelae as compared with normal volunteers (Pparametric mapping is a useful technique for highlighting differences in regional cerebral blood flow in patients following carbon monoxide intoxication as compared with normal volunteers. The selectively reduced blood flow noted in this investigation supports the contention that the decrease following carbon monoxide intoxication may be prolonged and further worsen in the frontal lobe. In addition, the present study may help to clarify the characteristics of the pathophysiological alteration underlying delayed neuropsychiatric sequelae.

  12. 40 CFR 50.8 - National primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.8 National primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide. (a) The national primary ambient air quality standards... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National primary ambient air...

  13. 40 CFR 52.269 - Control strategy and regulations: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons) and carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons) and carbon monoxide. 52.269 Section 52.269 Protection of Environment... PLANS California § 52.269 Control strategy and regulations: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons) and... provide for attainment and maintenance of the national standards for photochemical oxidants...

  14. Microwave Radiometer for Spectral Observations of Mesospheric Carbon Monoxide at 115 GHz Over Kharkiv, Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piddyachiy, Valeriy; Shulga, Valerii; Myshenko, Valeriy; Korolev, Alexey; Antyufeyev, Oleksandr; Shulga, Dmytro; Forkman, Peter

    2017-03-01

    We present the results of the development of high sensitivity microwave radiometer designed for observation of the atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO) emission lines at 115 GHz. The receiver of this radiometer has the double-sideband noise temperature of 250 K at a temperature of 10°C. To date, this is the best noise performance for uncooled Schottky diode mixer receiver systems. The designed radiometer was tested during the 2014-2015 period at observations of the carbon monoxide emission lines over Kharkiv, Ukraine (50° N, 36.3° E). These tests have shown the reliability of the receiver system, which allows us in the future to use designed radiometer for continuous monitoring of carbon monoxide. The first observations of the atmospheric carbon monoxide spectral lines over Kharkiv have confirmed seasonal changes in the CO abundance and gave us reasons to assume the spread of the influence of the polar vortex on the state of the atmosphere up to the latitude of 50° N where our measurement system is located.

  15. [Suicidal carbon monoxide poisoning in an electric car. An unusual case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, M; Zollinger, U

    1994-01-01

    The authors report a case of a man who committed suicide by poisoning with carbon monoxide in his electric vehicle. He applied a small motor generator with no exhaust normally used for charging the vehicle's batteries at home, that was found on the loading space behind the seat. This demonstrates the value of a thorough scene investigation.

  16. Anaesthetic properties of carbon monoxide and other gases in relation to plants, insects, and centipedes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, P.W.

    1935-01-01

    The anaesthetic effect of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, propylene, butylene, ethylene, and acetylene, when mixed with oxygen, was tested on ten different species of insects and centipedes. The lowest concentrations found to cause anaesthesia are given in per cent by volume as follows: propylene, for centipede, 30; katydid, 75; rose chafer, 60. Carbon monoxide, for centipede, 81.5; katydid, 89, rose chafer, 85. Butylene, for centipede, 5; katydid, 10; rose chafer, 40. Ethylene or acetylene, for centipede, katydid, and rose chafer, 100. Carbon dioxide, for rose chafer, 30. Ethylene was the most effective plant anaesthetic, 0.0005 per cent stopping growth movements of tomato and sunflower plants as shown by motion pictures; 0.001 per cent stopped elongation of sweet pea seedlings, while 0.00001 per cent retarded elongation nearly 50 per cent. The degree of retardation in growth from ethylene gas varied with the concentration and the plant species. Acetylene and propylene were about equally effective as plant anaesthetics. Both were approximately 10 times as effective as carbon monoxide. Mimosa pudica lost its capacity to respond to external stimuli while being exposed to 0.25 per cent of carbon monoxide, but became normal again upon being removed from the gas. 3 references, 4 tables.

  17. Oxalyl chloride as a practical carbon monoxide source for carbonylation reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen V F; Ulven, Trond

    2015-01-01

    A method for generation of high-quality carbon monoxide by decomposition of oxalyl chloride in an aqueous hydroxide solution is described. The usefulness of the method is demonstrated in the synthesis of heterocycles and for hydroxy-, alkoxy-, amino-, and reductive carbonylation reactions...

  18. Carbon Monoxide Releasing Molecule-A1 (CORM-A1) Improves Neurogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeida, Ana S; Soares, Nuno L; Vieira, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia and neurodegenerative diseases lead to impairment or death of neurons in the central nervous system. Stem cell based therapies are promising strategies currently under investigation. Carbon monoxide (CO) is an endogenous product of heme degradation by heme oxygenase (HO) activity...

  19. Rapid Evaluation of the Severity and Prognosis of Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. N. Marupov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess whether cardiointervalography (CIG might be used to define the health status of patients with carbon monoxide poisoning. Subjects and methods. The autonomic nervous system (ANS was studied in 114 patients aged 16 to 80 years with carbon monohydrate poisoning who were treated at the N. V. Sklifosovsky Research Institute of Emergency Care, Moscow, in 2004—2009. Cardiointervalographic readings were analyzed in relation to condition severity and disease outcome. Results. Within the first hours after carbon monoxide poisoning, the function of the ANS was found to be impaired, which was associated with the development of hypersym-pathicotonia caused by the increased activity of its sympathetic part and the decreased tone of the parasympathet-ic one. The magnitude of hypersympathicotonia depended on the severity of poisoning and the outcome of the disease. The preponderance of ANS parasympathetic part tone suggests disturbed adaptive and compensatory mechanisms and poor prognosis. Conclusion. Cardiointervalography is recommended for the objective evaluation of the severity of carbon monoxide poisoning and the efficiency of performed treatment and prediction of the outcome of the disease. Key words: carbon monoxide, autonomic nervous system, cardiointervalography, adaptive and compensatory mechanisms.

  20. Occupational poisoning by carbon monoxide aboard a gas carrier. Report on 8 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, David; Loddé, Brice; Jegaden, Dominique; Bronstein, Jean-Ariel; Pougnet, Richard; Bell, S; Dewitte, Jean-Dominique

    2010-01-01

    - To determine the accidental factors and the clinical symptoms in eight cases of occupational poisoning of port workers by carbon monoxide. - To consider the primary prevention of this serious pathology occurring at work. - To analyze the circumstances of the exposure to carbon monoxide in the employees in the naval repair sector. - To indicate the systemic failures causing this accidental poisoning, the means for early diagnosis and appropriate treatment, and to discuss the prevention of such accidents. The poisoning occurred in eight mechanics and electricians working without any protective means in a gas carrier tank in dry dock. The employees, unaware of carbon monoxide exposure, stayed for 45 minutes in an atmosphere polluted with carbon monoxide concentrations of over 500 ppm. The main complaints were of headache, muscular weakness, and drowsiness. No post-interval syndrome was found three weeks after poisoning. The levels of carboxyhaemoglobin varied from 1.8 to 31.2%. Early normal pressure oxygen therapy reduced the symptoms. No delayed syndrome was found three weeks after poisoning. The inclusion of poisonous gas in gas-free certification, adherence to maritime harbour regulations, greater respect for working instructions in hazardous environments, and the use of detectors appropriate to the conditions for each ship would avoid exposure and decrease the risk of poisoning.

  1. Disulfide S-monoxides convert xanthine dehydrogenase into oxidase in rat liver cytosol more potently than their respective disulfides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, Satoru; Fujita, Junko; Nakanishi, Masahiko; Wada, Shun-ich; Fujimoto, Yohko

    2008-05-01

    Xanthine oxidase (XO)/xanthine dehydrogenase (XD) oxidizes oxypurines to uric acid, with only the XO form producing reactive oxygen species. In the present study, the effects of cystamine S-monoxide and cystine S-monoxide (disulfide S-monoxides) on the conversion of XD to XO in rat liver were examined. A partially purified enzyme fraction from the rat liver was incubated with xanthine in the presence or absence of NAD+, and the uric acid formed was measured by HPLC. Under basal conditions, XO activity represented about 15% of the total XO plus XD activity. Cystamine S-monoxide and cystine S-monoxide converted XD into XO in a dose-dependent manner, and the concentrations required to increase XO activity by 50% were approximately 1 and 2 microM, respectively. Their respective thiols (cysteamine and cysteine) and disulfides (cystamine and cystine) up to 10 microM showed weak or no effects on the activities of XO and XD and their conversion. Experiments utilizing a sulfhydryl reducing reagent (dithiothreitol) and sulfhydryl modifiers (4,4'-dithiodipyridine and 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene) indicated that disulfide S-monoxides-induced conversion of XD to XO occurs via disulfide bridge formation in XD, but not the modification of sulfhydryl groups. These results suggest that disulfide S-monoxides have the potential to increase the generation of reactive oxygen species through the conversion of XD to XO in liver.

  2. Carbon monoxide is not always a poison gas for human organism: Physiological and pharmacological features of CO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olas, Beata

    2014-10-05

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is an odorless, colorless and non-irritating gas. Even a small amount of CO exposure is possibly associated with specific toxic effects. CO is also produced endogenously in the body as a byproduct of heme degradation catalyzed by heme oxygenase. More recently CO has been identified as a gasotransmitter in various biological systems. However, the biological role and the therapeutic potential of carbon monoxide is not clear. This review summarizes the negative and the positive functions of carbon monoxide in various biological systems, including cardiovascular system.

  3. A kinetic study on the adsorption and reaction of hydrogen over silica-supported ruthenium and silver-ruthenium catalysts during the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VanderWiel, D.P.

    1999-02-12

    Although the catalytic hydrogenation of carbon monoxide has been a subject of considerable investigation for many years, its increasing economical attractiveness as an industrial source of hydrocarbons has recently led to a search for more active and selective catalysts. A fundamental problem in the development of such catalysts is an incomplete knowledge of the operative surface processes, due in large part to the inability to accurately measure surface concentrations of reactant species during reaction. Specifically, the concentration of surface hydrogen proves difficult to estimate using normally revealing techniques such as transient isotopic exchange due to kinetic isotope effects. Knowledge of such concentrations is essential to the determination of the mechanisms of adsorption and reaction, since many kinetic parameters are concentration dependent. It is the aim of this research to investigate the mechanism and kinetics of the adsorption and reaction of hydrogen on silica-supported ruthenium and silver-ruthenium catalysts during the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide. By preadsorbing carbon monoxide onto the surface of ruthenium and silver-ruthenium catalysts, the kinetics of hydrogen adsorption and reaction can be monitored upon exposure of this surface to ambient hydrogen gas. This is accomplished by conducting identical experiments on two separate systems. First, the formation of methane is monitored using mass spectroscopy, and specific reaction rates and apparent activation energies are measured. Next, in situ {sup 1}H-NMR is used to monitor the amount of hydrogen present on the catalyst surface during adsorption and reaction. The results for these two sets of experiments are then combined to show a correlation between the rate of reaction and the surface hydrogen concentration. Finally, transition state theory is applied to this system and is used to explain the observed change in the apparent activation energy. The structure sensitivity of hydrogen

  4. A kinetic study on the adsorption and reaction of hydrogen over silica-supported ruthenium and silver-ruthenium catalysts during the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VanderWiel, David P. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1999-02-12

    Although the catalytic hydrogenation of carbon monoxide has been a subject of considerable investigation for many years, its increasing economical attractiveness as an industrial source of hydrocarbons has recently led to a search for more active and selective catalysts. A fundamental problem in the development of such catalysts is an incomplete knowledge of the operative surface processes, due in large part to the inability to accurately measure surface concentrations of reactant species during reaction. Specifically, the concentration of surface hydrogen proves difficult to estimate using normally revealing techniques such as transient isotopic exchange due to kinetic isotope effects. Knowledge of such concentrations is essential to the determination of the mechanisms of adsorption and reaction, since many kinetic parameters are concentration dependent. It is the aim of this research to investigate the mechanism and kinetics of the adsorption and reaction of hydrogen on silica-supported ruthenium and silver-ruthenium catalysts during the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide. By preadsorbing carbon monoxide onto the surface of ruthenium and silver-ruthenium catalysts, the kinetics of hydrogen adsorption and reaction can be monitored upon exposure of this surface to ambient hydrogen gas. This is accomplished by conducting identical experiments on two separate systems. First, the formation of methane is monitored using mass spectroscopy, and specific reaction rates and apparent activation energies are measured. Next, in situ 1H-NMR is used to monitor the amount of hydrogen present on the catalyst surface during adsorption and reaction. The results for these two sets of experiments are then combined to show a correlation between the rate of reaction and the surface hydrogen concentration. Finally, transition state theory is applied to this system and is used to explain the observed change in the apparent activation energy. The structure sensitivity of hydrogen

  5. Outcome of patients with carbon monoxide poisoning at a far-east poison center.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Hsuan Ku

    Full Text Available Many cases of carbon monoxide poisoning in Taiwan are due to burning charcoal. Nevertheless, few reports have analyzed the mortality rate of these patients who survive to reach a hospital and die despite intensive treatment. Therefore, this study examined the clinical features, physiological markers, and outcomes after carbon monoxide poisoning and the associations between these findings.We analyzed the records of 261 patients who were referred for management of carbon monoxide intoxication between 2000 and 2010. Patients were grouped according to status at discharge as alive (survivor, n = 242 or dead (non-survivor, n = 19. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, and mortality data were obtained for analysis.Approximately half of the cases (49.4% attempted suicide by burning charcoal. Most of the patients were middle-aged adults (33±19 years, and were referred to our hospital in a relatively short period of time (6±10 hours. Carbon monoxide produced many serious complications after exposure: fever (26.1%, hypothermia (9.6%, respiratory failure (34.1%, shock (8.4%, myocardial infarction (8.0%, gastrointestinal upset (34.9%, hepatitis (18.4%, renal failure (25.3%, coma (18.0% and rhabdomyolysis (21.8%. Furthermore, the non-survivors suffered greater incidences of hypothermia (P<0.001, respiratory failure (P<0.001, shock (P<0.001, hepatitis ((P=0.016, renal failure (P=0.003, coma (P<0.001 than survivors. All patients were treated with high concentration of oxygen therapy using non-rebreather mask. However, hyperbaric oxygen therapy was only used in 18.8% of the patients. In a multivariate-Cox-regression model, it was revealed that shock status was a significant predictor for mortality after carbon monoxide poisoning (OR 8.696, 95% CI 2.053-37.370, P=0.003. Finally, Kaplan-Meier analysis confirmed that patients with shock suffered greater cumulative mortality than without shock (Log-rank test, Chi-square 147.404, P<0.001.The mortality rate for

  6. Variation characteristics of carbon monoxide and ozone over the course of the 2014 Chinese National Arctic Research Expedition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Bokun; BIAN Lingen; ZHENG Xiangdong; DING Minghu; XIE Zhouqing

    2015-01-01

    The concentrations of carbon monoxide and ozone in the marine boundary layer were measured during the 6th Chinese National Arctic Research Expedition (from July to September, 2014). Carbon monoxide concentration ranged between 47.00 and 528.52 ppbv with an average of 103.59 ± 40.37 ppbv. A slight decrease with increasing latitude was observed, except for the extremely high values over the East China Sea which may be attributed to anthropogenic emissions. Ozone concentration ranged between 3.27 and 77.82 ppbv with an average of 29.46±10.48 ppbv. Ozone concentration decreased sharply with increasing latitude outside the Arctic Ocean (during both the northward and the southward course), while no significant variation was observed over the Arctic Ocean. The positive correlation between carbon monoxide and ozone in most sections suggests that the ozone in the marine boundary layer mainly originated from photochemical reactions involving carbon monoxide.

  7. Non-convulsive status epilepticus in a patient with carbon-monoxide poisoning treated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marziali, Simone; Di Giuliano, Francesca; Picchi, Eliseo; Natoli, Silvia; Leonardis, Carlo; Leonardis, Francesca; Garaci, Francesco; Floris, Roberto

    2016-12-01

    The presentation of carbon monoxide poisoning is non-specific and highly variable. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is used for the treatment of this condition. Various reports show the occurrence of self-limiting seizures after carbon monoxide poisoning and as a consequence of hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Contrary to the seizures, status epilepticus has been rarely observed in these conditions. The exact pathophysiology underlying seizures and status epilepticus associated with carbon monoxide poisoning and hyperbaric oxygen therapy is not really clear, and some elements appear to be common to both conditions. We describe a case of non-convulsive status epilepticus in a patient with carbon monoxide poisoning treated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy. The mechanism, MRI findings and implications are discussed.

  8. Scanning imaging absorption spectrometer for atmospheric chartography carbon monoxide total columns: statistical evaluation and comparison with chemistry transport model results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Laat, A.T.J.; Gloudemans, A.M.S.; Aben, I.; Krol, M.C.; Meirink, J.F.; van der Werf, G.R.; Schrijver, H.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed statistical analysis of one year (September 2003 to August 2004) of global Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY) carbon monoxide (CO) total column retrievals from the Iterative Maximum Likelihood Method (IMLM) algorithm, vers

  9. Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography carbon monoxide total columns: Statistical evaluation and comparison with chemistry transport model results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laat, de A.T.J.; Gloudemans, A.M.S.; Aben, I.; Krol, M.C.; Meirink, J.F.; Werf, van der G.R.; Schrijver, H.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed statistical analysis of one year (September 2003 to August 2004) of global Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY) carbon monoxide (CO) total column retrievals from the Iterative Maximum Likelihood Method (IMLM) algorithm, vers

  10. Hydrogen Oxidation on Gas Diffusion Electrodes for Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells in the Presence of Carbon Monoxide and Oxygen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gang, Xiao; Li, Qingfeng; Hjuler, Hans Aage

    1995-01-01

    Hydrogen oxidation has been studied on a carbon-supported platinum gas diffusion electrode in a phosphoric acidelectrolyte in the presence of carbon monoxide and oxygen in the feed gas. The poisoning effect of carbon monoxide presentin the feed gas was measured in the temperature range from 80...... to 150°C. It was found that throughout the temperaturerange, the potential loss due to the CO poisoning can be reduced to a great extent by the injection of small amounts ofgaseous oxygen into the hydrogen gas containing carbon monoxide. By adding 5 volume percent (v/o) oxygen, an almost......CO-free performance can be obtained for carbon monoxide concentrations up to 0.5 v/o CO at 130°C, 0.2 v/o CO at 100°C,and 0.1 v/o CO at 80°C, respectively....

  11. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in the Region of Fez-Boulemane, Morocco: Epidemiological Profile and Risk Factors (2009-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awatef Tahouri

    2013-12-01

    How to cite this article: Tahouri A, Lyoussi B, Achour S. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in the Region of Fez-Boulemane, Morocco: Epidemiological Profile and Risk Factors (2009-2012. Asia Pac J Med Toxicol 2013;2:131-5.

  12. Selective oxidation of carbon monoxide in the presence of butane and maleic anhydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbin, D.R.; Bonifaz, C. (DuPont Company, Wilmington, DE (United States))

    1994-03-01

    The selective oxidation of carbon monoxide in the presence of butane and maleic anhydride has been studied over platinum- and palladium-containing zeolites as well as palladium-on-silica (Pd/SiO[sub 2]) catalysts. The results show that although a zeolite support is needed in many systems to effect a kinetic control to improve selectivity, thermodynamic control using Pd([approximately]2-4 ppm)/SiO[sub 2] is sufficient to give the desired selectivities in this system. In addition, a palladium-containing vanadium-phosphate catalyst was prepared that showed complete oxidation of carbon monoxide, conversion of butane to maleic anhydride, and no observable decomposition of the maleic anhydride. 14 refs., 4 tabs.

  13. Hydrogen bonding of formamide, urea, urea monoxide and their thio-analogs with water and homodimers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Damanjit Kaur; Shweta Khanna

    2014-11-01

    Ab initio and DFT methods have been employed to study the hydrogen bonding ability of formamide, urea, urea monoxide, thioformamide, thiourea and thiourea monoxide with one water molecule and the homodimers of the selected molecules. The stabilization energies associated with themonohydrated adducts and homodimers’ formation were evaluated at B3LYP/6-311++G** and MP2/6-311++G∗∗ levels. The energies were corrected for zero-point vibrational energies and basis set superposition error using counterpoise method. Atoms in molecules study has been carried out in order to characterize the hydrogen bonds through the changes in electron density and laplacian of electron density. A natural energy decomposition and natural bond orbital analysis was performed to understand the nature of hydrogen bonding.

  14. Unique case of fatal carbon monoxide poisoning in the absence of a combustible fossil fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, D R; Poon, P; Titley, J; Jagger, S F; Rutty, G N

    2001-09-01

    A 37-year-old man died as a result of exposure to carbon monoxide within an apartment. An investigation of the apartment showed no gas appliances or gas supply to the apartment and no evidence of any combustion event to any part of the apartment or roof space. Inhalation of dichloromethane was excluded. Heating to the apartment was found to be via an electrical storage heater, the examination of which revealed that the cast-iron core and insulating material showed evidence of heat damage with significant areas devoid of carbon. This electric storage heater is hypothesized to be the source of carbon for the fatal production of carbon monoxide within the apartment.

  15. The Effect of Water Vapor on Flame Velocity in Equivalent Carbon Monoxide and Oxygen Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiock, Ernest F; King, H Kendall

    1936-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation to study the effect of water vapor upon the spatial speed of flame in equivalent mixtures of carbon monoxide and oxygen at various total pressures from 100 to 780 mm.hg. These results show that, within this pressure range, an increase in flame speed is produced by increasing the mole fraction of water vapor at least as far as saturation at 25 degrees c., and that the rate of this increase is greater the higher the pressure. It is evident that water vapor plays an important part in the explosive oxidation of carbon monoxide; the need for further experimental evidence as to the nature of its action is indicated.

  16. Alexithymia Associated With Bilateral Globus Pallidus Lesions After Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Feng Huang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Alexithymia refers to a person's inability to identify and describe feelings. We present a patient who developed alexithymia after carbon monoxide poisoning following a suicide attempt by burning charcoal in an enclosed space. Brain computed tomography revealed bilateral globus pallidus hypoxic lesions. Because of the time frame and the presence of brain structural lesions, the alexithymia in this patient was thought to be caused by bilateral globus pallidus hypoxic lesions resulting from carbon monoxide poisoning. The alexithymia in this patient did not respond to a variety of psychotropic drugs, including sertraline, venalfaxine, bupropion or methylphenidate. We suggest that alexithymia, which was associated with brain hypoxic lesions in this case, is resistant to treatment.

  17. Delayed neuropsychiatric syndrome after carbon monoxide poisoning: inclusion of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in the recovery protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dante Lo Pardo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The delayed neuropsychiatric syndrome can arise in the period from 4 days to 5 weeks following carbon monoxide poisoning, and is characterized by neuropsychological deficits, which in some cases become chronic. This case report describes an adult female who apparently suffered self-inflicted carbon monoxide poisoning. She was not treated with hyperbaric oxygen and developed delayed sequelae on day 20. The treatment started with 40 sessions of hyperbaric oxygen therapy and subsequently with neuropsychological rehabilitation and physiotherapy. The treatment resulted in a progressive and almost complete physical and psychological recovery as evidenced by neuropsychometric tests and diagnostic imaging performed in the follow-up. Recovery was attributed to hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Although further research is required, we propose hyperbaric oxygen therapy also in the recovery protocol in the treatment of delayed neuropsychiatric syndrome.

  18. Diverse mechanisms underlying the regulation of ion channels by carbon monoxide

    OpenAIRE

    Peers, C; Boyle, J. P.; Scragg, J. L.; Dallas, M L; Al-Owais, M. M.; Hettiarachichi, N T; Elies, J; Johnson, E.; Gamper, N; Steele, D S

    2014-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is firmly established as an important, physiological signalling molecule as well as a potent toxin. Through its ability to bind metal-containing proteins, it is known to interfere with a number of intracellular signalling pathways, and such actions can account for its physiological and pathological effects. In particular, CO can modulate the intracellular production of reactive oxygen species, NO and cGMP levels, as well as regulate MAPK signalling. In this review, we con...

  19. Resveratrol Induces Hepatic Mitochondrial Biogenesis Through the Sequential Activation of Nitric Oxide and Carbon Monoxide Production

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seul-Ki; Joe, Yeonsoo; Min ZHENG; Kim, Hyo Jeong; Yu, Jae-Kyoung; Cho, Gyeong Jae; Chang, Ki Churl; Kim, Hyoung Kyu; Han, Jin; Ryter, Stefan W.; Chung, Hun Taeg

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Nitric oxide (NO) can induce mitochondrial biogenesis in cultured cells, through increased guanosine 3′,5′-monophosphate (cGMP), and activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α). We sought to determine the role of NO, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and its reaction product (carbon monoxide [CO]) in the induction of mitochondrial biogenesis by the natural antioxidant resveratrol. Results: S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP), an NO donor, induced ...

  20. Hemeoxygenase-1 inhibits human myometrial contractility via carbon monoxide and is upregulated by progesterone during pregnancy.

    OpenAIRE

    Acevedo, C H; Ahmed, A

    1998-01-01

    Nitric oxide was proposed as an endogenous inhibitor of myometrial contractility during pregnancy. Carbon monoxide (CO) like nitric oxide increases cGMP and is generated during the degradation of heme to biliverdin IX by hemeoxygenases (HO). Here we report that the expression of both HO-1 (inducible) and HO-2 (constitutive) were > 15-fold higher in pregnant myometrium compared to nonpregnant myometrium (n = 4, P < 0.001, P < 0.005, respectively). Moreover, the activation of the HO-CO pathway ...

  1. Dielectric Properties of Lead Monoxide Filled Unsaturated Polyester Based Polymer Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harish, V.; Kumar, H. G. Harish; Nagaiah, N.

    2011-07-01

    Lead monoxide filled isophthalate resin particulate polymer composites were prepared with different filler concentrations and investigated for physical, thermal, mechanical and gamma radiation shielding characteristics. This paper discusses about the dielectric properties of the composites. The present study showed that the dielectric constant (ɛ'), dielectric loss (ɛ″) and ac conductivity (σac) of isopthalate based unsaturated polyester resin increases with the increase in wt% PbO filler in polymer matrix.

  2. Carbon Monoxide Releasing Molecule-A1 (CORM-A1) Improves Neurogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeida, Ana S; Soares, Nuno L; Vieira, Melissa;

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia and neurodegenerative diseases lead to impairment or death of neurons in the central nervous system. Stem cell based therapies are promising strategies currently under investigation. Carbon monoxide (CO) is an endogenous product of heme degradation by heme oxygenase (HO) activit...... cell mechanisms involved in neuronal differentiation. In summary, CO appears as a promising therapeutic molecule to stimulate endogenous neurogenesis or to improve in vitro neuronal production for cell therapy strategies....

  3. Extended Molecular Dynamics Simulation of the Carbon Monoxide Migration in Sperm Whale Myoglobin

    OpenAIRE

    Bossa, Cecilia; Anselmi, Massimiliano; Roccatano, Danilo; Amadei, Andrea; Vallone, Beatrice; Brunori, Maurizio; Di Nola, Alfredo

    2004-01-01

    We report the results of an extended molecular dynamics simulation on the migration of photodissociated carbon monoxide in wild-type sperm whale myoglobin. Our results allow following one possible ligand migration dynamics from the distal pocket to the Xe1 cavity via a path involving the other xenon binding cavities and momentarily two additional packing defects along the pathway. Comparison with recent time resolved structural data obtained by Laue crystallography with subnanosecond to milli...

  4. UV-induced carbon monoxide emission from sand and living vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Dan; Albert, Kristian Rost; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard

    2012-01-01

    The global burden of carbon monoxide, CO, is rather uncertain. In this paper we address the potential of UV-induced CO emission by terrestrial surfaces. Real-time measurements of [CO] were made with a cavity enhanced laser connected in closed loop to either an ecosystem chamber or a leaf scale......−1, almost two-thirds of the latest estimated global CO burden of 360 Tg yr−1 (IPCC, 2001)....

  5. Recovery of energy metabolism in rat brain after carbon monoxide hypoxia.

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, S D; Piantadosi, C. A.

    1992-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) may inhibit mitochondrial electron transport in the brain and increase the toxic effects of the gas. This hypothesis was investigated in anesthetized rats during CO exposure and recovery at either normobaric or hyperbaric O2 concentrations. During exposure and recovery, we measured the oxidation level of cerebrocortical cytochrome c oxidase by differential spectroscopy and biochemical metabolites known to reflect aerobic energy provision in the brain. CO exposure (HbCO = ...

  6. Carbon Monoxide Effects onHuman Ventricle Action PotentialAssessed by Mathematical Simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Beatriz eTrenor; Karen eCardona; Javier eSaiz; Sridharan eRajamani; Luiz eBelardinelli; Wayne Rodney Giles

    2013-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) that is produced in a number of different mammalian tissues is now known to have significant effects on the cardiovascular system. These include: i) vasodilation, ii) changes in heart rate and strength of contractions and iii) modulation of autonomic nervous system input to both the pacemaker and the working myocardium. Excessive CO in the environment is toxic and can initiate or mediate life threatening cardiac rhythm disturbances. Recent reports link these ventricular...

  7. Noninvasive Ambulatory Assessment of Cardiac Function and Myocardial Ischemia in Healthy Subjects Exposed to Carbon Monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-30

    1007 by Paul N. Kizakevich, M.S., P.E. Principal Investigator with Linda Van Hoose, B.S.M.T., Michael L. McCartney, Sc.D., Karen Bolick, M.D., Warren...Calabro and D.E. Hutcheon . "Effects of Carbon Monoxide on the Vulnerability of the Ventricles to Drug-Induced Arrhythmias." J of Clin Pharma 1974;14(1):25

  8. P-chiral phosphine-sulfonate/palladium-catalyzed asymmetric copolymerization of vinyl acetate with carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Akifumi; Kageyama, Takeharu; Goto, Hiroki; Carrow, Brad P; Ito, Shingo; Nozaki, Kyoko

    2012-08-01

    Utilization of palladium catalysts bearing a P-chiral phosphine-sulfonate ligand enabled asymmetric copolymerization of vinyl acetate with carbon monoxide. The obtained γ-polyketones have head-to-tail and isotactic polymer structures. The origin of the regio- and stereoregularities was elucidated by stoichiometric reactions of acylpalladium complexes with vinyl acetate. The present report for the first time demonstrates successful asymmetric coordination-insertion (co)polymerization of vinyl acetate.

  9. Reactions of Vanadocene-Carbyls with Carbon Monoxide, Xylylisocyanide and Carbon Dioxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieman, J.; Teuben, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    Vanadocene-allyl Cp2V(η1-C3H5) (1a) reacts with strong π-acceptor substrate ligands such as carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and isonitriles. No reactions are observed with poorer π-acceptor substrates such as alkynes and nitriles. Reaction of 1a with CO gives Cp[η4-C5H5(C3H5)]V(CO)2, showing that

  10. Carbon monoxide inhalation ameliorates conditions of lung grafts from rat brain death donors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Hua-cheng; DING Wen-gang; CUI Xiao-guang; PAN Peng; ZHANG Bing; LI Wen-zhi

    2008-01-01

    Background Successful lung transplantation has been limited by the scarcity of donors. Brain death (BD) donors are major source of lung transplantation. Whereas BD process induces acute lung injury and aggravates lung ischemia reperfusion injury. Carbon monoxide (CO) inhalation at 50-500 parts per million (ppm) can ameliorate lung injury in several models. We examined in rats whether CO inhalation in BD donor would show favorable effects on lung grafts.Methods Rats were randomly divided into 4 groups. In sham group, donor rats received insertion of a balloon catheter into the cranial cavity, but the balloon was not inflated. In BD-only group, donor rats were ventilated with 40% oxygen after BD confirmation. In BD+CO250 and BD+CO500 groups, donor rats inhaled, after BD confirmation, 250 ppm or 500 ppm CO for 120 minutes prior to lung procurement, and orthotopic lung transplantation was performed. The rats were sacrificed 120 minutes after the lung transplantation by exsanguination, and their blood and lung graft samples were obtained. A total of 8 rats fulfilling the criteria were included in each group.Results The inhalation decreased the severity of lung injury in grafts from BD donors checked by histological examination. CO pretreatment reversed the aggravation of PaO2/FiO2 in recipients from BD donors. The CO inhalation down-regulated pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6) along with the increase of anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) in recipient serum, and inhibited the activity of myeloperoxidase in grafts tissue. The inhalation significantly decreased cell apoptosis in lung grafts, inhibiting mRNA and protein expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and caspase-3 in lung grafts. Further, the inhalation activated phosphorylation of p38 expression and inhibited phosphorylation of anti-extraceUular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) expression in lung grafts. The effects of CO at 500 ppm were greater than those at 250 ppm.Conclusions CO exerts

  11. The influence of traffic and wood combustion on the stable isotopic composition of carbon monoxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Saurer

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide in the atmosphere is originating from various combustion and oxidation processes. Recently, the proportion of CO resulting from the combustion of wood for domestic heating may have increased due to political measures promoting this renewable energy source. Here, we used the stable isotope composition of CO (δ13C and δ18O for the characterization of different CO sources in Switzerland, along with other indicators for traffic and wood combustion (NOx-concentration, aerosol light absorption at different wavelengths. We assessed diurnal variations of the isotopic composition of CO at 3 sites during winter: a village site dominated by domestic heating, a site close to a motorway and a rural site. The isotope ratios of wood combustion emissions were studied at a test facility, indicating significantly lower δ18O of CO from wood combustion compared to traffic emissions. At the village and the motorway site, we observed very pronounced diurnal δ18O-variations of CO with an amplitude of up to 8‰. Solving the isotope mass balance equation for three distinct sources (wood combustion, traffic, clean background air resulted in diurnal patterns consistent with other indicators for wood burning and traffic. The average night-time contribution of wood-burning to total CO was 70% at the village site, 49% at the motorway site and 29% at the rural site based on the isotope mass balance. The results, however, depend strongly on the pure source isotope values, which are not very well known. We therefore additionally applied a combined CO/NOx-isotope model for verification. Here, we separated the CO emissions into different sources based on distinct CO/NOx emissions ratios for wood combustion and traffic, and inserted this information in the isotope mass balance equation. Accordingly, a highly significant agreement between measured and calculated δ18

  12. Zeeman effect in sulfur monoxide. A tool to probe magnetic fields in star forming regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzoli, Gabriele; Lattanzi, Valerio; Coriani, Sonia; Gauss, Jürgen; Codella, Claudio; Ramos, Andrés Asensio; Cernicharo, José; Puzzarini, Cristina

    2017-09-01

    Context. Magnetic fields play a fundamental role in star formation processes and the best method to evaluate their intensity is to measure the Zeeman effect of atomic and molecular lines. However, a direct measurement of the Zeeman spectral pattern from interstellar molecular species is challenging due to the high sensitivity and high spectral resolution required. So far, the Zeeman effect has been detected unambiguously in star forming regions for very few non-masing species, such as OH and CN. Aims: We decided to investigate the suitability of sulfur monoxide (SO), which is one of the most abundant species in star forming regions, for probing the intensity of magnetic fields via the Zeeman effect. Methods: We investigated the Zeeman effect for several rotational transitions of SO in the (sub-)mm spectral regions by using a frequency-modulated, computer-controlled spectrometer, and by applying a magnetic field parallel to the radiation propagation (i.e., perpendicular to the oscillating magnetic field of the radiation). To support the experimental determination of the g factors of SO, a systematic quantum-chemical investigation of these parameters for both SO and O2 has been carried out. Results: An effective experimental-computational strategy for providing accurate g factors as well as for identifying the rotational transitions showing the strongest Zeeman effect has been presented. Revised g factors have been obtained from a large number of SO rotational transitions between 86 and 389 GHz. In particular, the rotational transitions showing the largest Zeeman shifts are: N,J = 2, 2 ← 1, 1 (86.1 GHz), N,J = 4, 3 ← 3, 2 (159.0 GHz), N,J = 1, 1 ← 0, 1 (286.3 GHz), N,J = 2, 2 ← 1, 2 (309.5 GHz), and N,J = 2, 1 ← 1, 0 (329.4 GHz). Our investigation supports SO as a good candidate for probing magnetic fields in high-density star forming regions. The complete list of measured Zeeman components is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http

  13. Aircraft-borne DOAS limb observations of iodine monoxide around Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Großmann, Katja; Hossaini, Ryan; Mantle, Hannah; Chipperfield, Martyn; Wittrock, Folkard; Peters, Enno; Lampel, Johannes; Walker, Hannah; Heard, Dwayne; Krystofiak, Gisèle; Catoire, Valéry; Dorf, Marcel; Werner, Bodo; Pfeilsticker, Klaus

    2015-04-01

    Iodine monoxide (IO) has a major impact on the photochemistry of the troposphere. It can for example catalytically destroy ozone, influence the atmospheric oxidation capacity by changing the partitioning of the HOx and NOx species, or contribute to the formation of ultrafine particles. Information regarding the vertical distribution of IO is still sparse since only few vertical profiles of IO exist for the troposphere. Spectroscopic measurements were carried out from aboard the research aircraft DLR-Falcon during the SHIVA (Stratospheric ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) campaign at Malaysian Borneo in November and December 2011 to study the abundance and transport of trace gases in the lower atmosphere. Sixteen research flights were performed covering legs near the surface in the marine boundary layer (MBL) as well as in the free troposphere (FT) up to an altitude of 13 km. The spectroscopic measurements were evaluated using the Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) technique in limb geometry, which supports observations of UV/visible absorbing trace gases, such as O4, BrO, IO, NO2, HCHO, CHOCHO, HONO and H2O, and altitude information was gained via the O4 scaling technique and/or full inversion. The inferred vertical profiles of IO showed mixing ratios of 0.5-1.5 ppt in the MBL, which decreased to 0.1-0.3 ppt in the FT. Occasionally, the IO observed in the FT of the marine environment coincided with elevated amounts of CO, but no IO was observed over land, neither in the boundary layer, nor in the FT. This behavior strongly indicated that the major sources for IO were organic and inorganic precursor molecules emitted from the ocean, which during daytime rapidly formed a sizable amount of IO in the MBL that was occasionally transported into the FT where efficient loss processes for IO must exist. The inferred vertical profiles of IO are compared to simulations using the global 3-D chemistry transport model TOMCAT including recent fluxes

  14. Heme oxygenase-1 and carbon monoxide in pulmonary medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slebos, DJ; Ryter, SW; Choi, AMK

    2003-01-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an inducible stress protein, confers cytoprotection against oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo. In addition to its physiological role in heme degradation, HO-1 may influence a number of cellular processes, including growth, inflammation, and apoptosis. By virtue of anti-i

  15. Ferromagnetic semiconductor-metal transition in heterostructures of electron doped europium monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stollenwerk, Tobias

    2013-09-15

    In the present work, we develop and solve a self-consistent theory for the description of the simultaneous ferromagnetic semiconductor-metal transition in electron doped Europium monoxide. We investigate two different types of electron doping, Gadolinium impurities and Oxygen vacancies. Besides the conduction band occupation, we can identify low lying spin fluctuations on magnetic impurities as the driving force behind the doping induced enhancement of the Curie temperature. Moreover, we predict the signatures of these magnetic impurities in the spectra of scanning tunneling microscope experiments. By extending the theory to allow for inhomogeneities in one spatial direction, we are able to investigate thin films and heterostructures of Gadolinium doped Europium monoxide. Here, we are able to reproduce the experimentally observed decrease of the Curie temperature with the film thickness. This behavior is attributed to missing coupling partners of the localized 4f moments as well as to an electron depletion at the surface which leads to a reduction of the number of itinerant electrons. By investigating the influence of a metallic substrate onto the phase transition in Gadolinium doped Europium monoxide, we find that the Curie temperature can be increased up to 20%. However, as we show, the underlying mechanism of metal-interface induced charge carrier accumulation is inextricably connected to a suppression of the semiconductor-metal transition.

  16. CHANGE OF CARBON MONOXIDE IN PLASMA AND TISSUE DURING ACUTE HYPOXIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁学琴; 刘贵明; 王俊科; 盛卓人

    2003-01-01

    Objective.To investigate the role of endogenous carbon monoxide(CO)in hypoxia. Methods. After rats were inhaled with hypoxic gases and the heme oxygenase inhibitor ZnPPIX was administered,we measured the CO levels in plasma,liver,lung and kidney. Meanwhile plasma cGMP levels were observed. Furthermore,we recorded the changes of hemodynamic and blood gases. Results. Acute mild hypoxia(10%O2)significantly increased CO levels in plasma as well as liver,kidney and lung,while acute severe hypoxia(5%O2)significantly decreased CO levels in plasma as well as liver,kidney and lung. In addition,the former significantly elevated cGMP levels in plasma while the latter markedly reduced cGMP levels in plasma. The hemodynamic changes occurred in accordance with the changes of carbon monoxide. Conclusions. Our results indicate,for the first time ,that the endogenous carbon monoxide plays an important role in regulating the vessel tone during hypoxia.

  17. Evidence for iodine monoxide in the Antarctic snowpack from spectroscopic measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friess, Udo; Deutschmann, Tim; Platt, Ulrich [Institut fuer Umweltphysik, Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany); Gilfedder, Ben [Institut fuer Umweltgeologie, TU-Braunschweig (Germany); Weller, Rolf [Alfred Wegener Institut fuer Polar- und Meeresforschung, Bremerhaven (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Recent ground-based and space borne observations suggest the presence of significant amounts of iodine monoxide in the boundary layer of Antarctica, which are expected to have an impact on the ozone budget and might contribute to the formation of new airborne particles. So far, the source of these iodine radicals has been unknown. Here we present long-term measurements of iodine monoxide at the German Antarctic research station Neumayer, which indicate that the snowpack is the main source for iodine radicals. The measurements have been performed using multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS). Using a coupled atmosphere - snowpack radiative transfer model, the comparison of the signals observed from scattered skylight and from light reflected by the snowpack yields several ppb of iodine monoxide in the upper layers of the sunlit snowpack throughout the year. Snow pit samples from Neumayer Station contain up to 700 ng/l of total iodine, representing a sufficient reservoir for these extraordinarily high IO concentrations.

  18. Natural clinoptilolite exchanged with iron: characterization and catalytic activity in nitrogen monoxide reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Tito-Ferro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to characterize the natural clinoptilolite from Tasajeras deposit, Cuba, modified by hydrothermal ion-exchange with solutions of iron (II sulfate and iron (III nitrate in acid medium. Besides this, its catalytic activity to reduce nitrogen monoxide with carbon monoxide/propene in the presence of oxygen was evaluated. The characterization was performed by Mössbauer and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopies and adsorption measurements. The obtained results lead to conclude that in exchanged samples, incorporated divalent and trivalent irons are found in octahedral coordination. Both irons should be mainly in cationic extra-framework positions inside clinoptilolite channels as charge compensating cations, and also as iron oxy-hydroxides resulting from limited hydrolysis of these cations. The iron (III exchanged samples has a larger amount of iron oxy-hydroxides agglomerates. The iron (II exchanged samples have additionally iron (II sulfate adsorbed. The catalytic activity in the nitrogen monoxide reduction is higher in the exchanged zeolites than starting. Among all samples, those exchanged of iron (II has the higher catalytic activity. This lead to outline that, main catalytically active centers are associated with divalent iron.

  19. Changes in the Autonomic Nervous System in Patients with Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Badalyan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to examine changes in the autonomic nervous system (ANS function in patients with carbon monoxide poisoning in relation to the condition severity. Subjects and methods. The ANS was studied in 114 patients aged 15 to 82 years with carbon monohydrate poisoning who were treated at the N. V. Sklifosovsky Research Institute of Emergency Care, Moscow, in 2004—2008. Cardiointervalographic readings were analyzed in relation to the condition severity, the presence of thermal damages to the skin and upper airway, and that of blood alcohol. Results. Within the first hours after poisoning, the function of the ANS was found to be impaired, which was associated with the development of hypersympathicotonia caused by the increased activity of its sympathetic part and the decreased tone of the parasympathetic one. The magnitude of hypersympathicotonia depends on the severity of poisoning, on the presence of thermal damages to the upper respiratory tract and that of blood alcohol. The preponderance of the tone of the ANS parasympathetic part suggests the disturbance of adaptive and compensatory mechanisms and the likely poor prognosis of the poisoning. Conclusion. Cardiointervalography is recommended for the objective evaluation of the severity of carbon monoxide poisoning. Key words: carbon monoxide, autonomic nervous system, cardiointervalog-raphy, adaptive and compensatory mechanisms.

  20. Accidental carbon monoxide poisoning presenting without a history of exposure: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennetto Luke

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Carbon monoxide poisoning is easy to diagnose when there is a history of exposure. When the exposure history is absent, or delayed, the diagnosis is more difficult and relies on recognising the importance of multi-system disease. We present a case of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning. Case presentation A middle-aged man, who lived alone in his mobile home was found by friends in a confused, incontinent state. Initial signs included respiratory failure, cardiac ischaemia, hypotension, encephalopathy and a rash, whilst subsequent features included rhabdomyolysis, renal failure, amnesia, dysarthria, parkinsonism, peripheral neuropathy, supranuclear gaze palsy and cerebral haemorrhage. Despite numerous investigations including magnetic resonance cerebral imaging, lumbar puncture, skin biopsy, muscle biopsy and electroencephalogram a diagnosis remained elusive. Several weeks after admission, diagnostic breakthrough was achieved when the gradual resolution of the patient's amnesia, encephalopathy and dysarthria allowed an accurate history to be taken for the first time. The patient's last recollection was turning on his gas heating for the first time since the spring. A gas heating engineer found the patient's gas boiler to be in a dangerous state of disrepair and it was immediately decommissioned. Conclusion This case highlights several important issues: the bewildering myriad of clinical features of carbon monoxide poisoning, the importance of making the diagnosis even at a late stage and preventing the patient's return to a potentially fatal toxic environment, and the paramount importance of the history in the diagnostic method.

  1. Toxicological Investigation of Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Four Occupants of a Fuming Sport Utility Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Nnoli

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: This toxicological investigation involves a report on the death of four occupants of a sport utility vehicle on one of the major busy Federal roads of Nigeria where they were held for up to three hours in a traffic jam while the car was steaming. Methods: Autopsy was executed using the standard procedure and toxicological analysis was done using simple spectrophotometric method to establish the level of carboxyhaemoglobin (HbCO in peripheral blood in the four occupants. Results: The autopsy report indicated generalized cyanosis, sub-conjuctival hemorrhages, marked laryngo-trachea edema with severe hyperemia with frothy fluid discharges characteristic of carbon monoxide poisoning. Toxicological report of the level of HbCO in part per million (ppm in the peripheral blood of the four occupants was A= 650 ppm; B= 500 ppm; C= 480 ppm, and D= 495 ppm against the maximum permissible level of 50 ppm. Conclusion: The sudden death of the four occupants was due to excessive inhalation of the carbon monoxide gas from the exhaust fumes leaking into the cabin of the car. The poor road network, numerous potholes, and traffic jam in most of roads in Nigeria could have exacerbated a leaky exhaust of the smoky second hand SUV car leading to the acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

  2. Exploration of the labeling of [11C]Tubastatin A at the hydroxamic acid site with [11C]carbon monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shuiyu; Zhang, Yi; Kalin, Jay; Cai, Lisheng; Kozikowski, Alan P.; Pike, Victor W.

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to label tubastatin A (1) with carbon-11 (t1/2 = 20.4 min) in the hydroxamic acid site to provide a potential radiotracer for imaging histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) in vivo with positron emission tomography (PET). Initial attempts at a one-pot Pd-mediated insertion of [11C]carbon monoxide between the aryl iodide (2) and hydroxylamine gave low radiochemical yields (< 5%) of [11C]1. Labeling was achieved in useful radiochemical yields (16.1 ± 5.6%, n = 4) through a two-step process based on Pd-mediated insertion of [11C]carbon monoxide between the aryl iodide (2) and p-nitrophenol to give the [11C]p-nitrophenyl ester ([11C]5), followed by ultrasound-assisted hydroxyaminolysis of the activated ester with excess hydroxylamine in DMSO/THF mixture in the presence of a strong phosphazene base P1-t-Bu. However, the success in labeling the hydroxamic acid group of [11C]tubastatin A was not transferable to the labeling of three other model hydroxamic acids. PMID:26647018

  3. Diffusion Reaction of Carbon Monoxide in the Human Lung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, M.-Y.; Guénard, H.; Sapoval, B.

    2017-08-01

    The capture of CO, a standard lung function test, results from diffusion-reaction processes of CO with hemoglobin inside red blood cells (RBCs). In its current understanding, suggested by Roughton and Forster in 1957, the capture is represented by two independent resistances in series, one for diffusion from the gas to the RBC periphery, the second for internal diffusion reaction. Numerical studies in 3D model structures described here contradict the independence hypothesis. This results from two different theoretical reasons: (i) The RBC peripheries are not equi-concentrations; (ii) diffusion times in series are not additive.

  4. Improved Ozone and Carbon Monoxide Profile Retrievals Using Multispectral Measurements from NASA "A Train", NPP, and TROPOMI Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, D.; Bowman, K. W.; Kulawik, S. S.; Miyazaki, K.; Worden, J. R.; Worden, H. M.; Livesey, N. J.; Payne, V.; Luo, M.; Natraj, V.; Veefkind, P.; Aben, I.; Landgraf, J.; Flynn, L. E.; Han, Y.; Liu, X.; Strow, L. L.; Kuai, L.

    2015-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone is at the juncture of air quality and climate. Ozone directly impacts human and plant health, and directly forces the climate system through absorption of thermal radiation. Carbon monoxide is a chemical precursor of greenhouse gases CO2 and tropospheric O3, and is also an ideal tracer of transport processes due to its medium life time (weeks to months). The Aqua-AIRS and Aura-OMI instruments in the NASA "A-Train", CrIS and OMPS instruments on the NOAA Suomi-NPP, IASI and GOME-2 on METOP and TROPOMI aboard the Sentinel 5 precursor (S5p) have the potential to provide the synoptic chemical and dynamical context for ozone necessary to quantify long-range transport at global scales and to provide an anchor to the near-term constellation of geostationary sounders: NASA TEMPO, ESA Sentinel 4, and the Korean GEMS. We introduce the JPL MUlti-SpEctral, MUlti-SpEcies, MUlti-SatEllite (MUSES) retrieval algorithm, which ingests panspectral observations across multiple platforms in a non-linear optimal estimation framework. MUSES incorporates advances in remote sensing science developed during the EOS-Aura era including rigorous error analysis diagnostics and observation operators needed for trend analysis, climate model evaluation, and data assimilation. Its performance has been demonstrated through prototype studies for multi-satellite missions (AIRS, CrIS, TROPOMI, TES, OMI, and OMPS). We present joint tropospheric ozone retrievals from AIRS/OMI and CrIS/OMPS over global scales, and demonstrate the potential of joint carbon monoxide profiles from TROPOMI/CrIS. These results indicate that ozone can be retrieved with ~2 degrees of freedom for signal (dofs) in the troposphere, which is similar to TES. Joint CO profiles have dofs similar to the MOPITT multispectral retrieval but with higher spatial resolution and coverage. Consequently, multispectral retrievals show promise in providing continuity with NASA EOS observations and pave the way towards a new

  5. Impact of spaceborne carbon monoxide observations from the S-5P platform on tropospheric composition analyses and forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abida, Rachid; Attié, Jean-Luc; El Amraoui, Laaziz; Ricaud, Philippe; Lahoz, William; Eskes, Henk; Segers, Arjo; Curier, Lyana; de Haan, Johan; Kujanpää, Jukka; Oude Nijhuis, Albert; Tamminen, Johanna; Timmermans, Renske; Veefkind, Pepijn

    2017-01-01

    We use the technique of Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) to quantify the impact of spaceborne carbon monoxide (CO) total column observations from the Sentinel-5 Precursor (S-5P) platform on tropospheric analyses and forecasts. We focus on Europe for the period of northern summer 2003, when there was a severe heat wave episode associated with extremely hot and dry weather conditions. We describe different elements of the OSSE: (i) the nature run (NR), i.e., the truth; (ii) the CO synthetic observations; (iii) the assimilation run (AR), where we assimilate the observations of interest; (iv) the control run (CR), in this study a free model run without assimilation; and (v) efforts to establish the fidelity of the OSSE results. Comparison of the results from AR and the CR, against the NR, shows that CO total column observations from S-5P provide a significant benefit (at the 99 % confidence level) at the surface, with the largest benefit occurring over land in regions far away from emission sources. Furthermore, the S-5P CO total column observations are able to capture phenomena such as the forest fires that occurred in Portugal during northern summer 2003. These results provide evidence of the benefit of S-5P observations for monitoring processes contributing to atmospheric pollution.

  6. A new CF-IRMS system for quantifying stable isotopes of carbon monoxide from ice cores and small air samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Wang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a new analysis technique for stable isotope ratios (δ13C and δ18O of atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO from ice core samples. The technique is an online cryogenic vacuum extraction followed by continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry (CF-IRMS; it can also be used with small air samples. The CO extraction system includes two multi-loop cryogenic cleanup traps, a chemical oxidant for oxidation to CO2, a cryogenic collection trap, a cryofocusing unit, gas chromatography purification, and subsequent injection into a Finnigan Delta Plus IRMS. Analytical precision of 0.2‰ (±1δ for δ13C and 0.6‰ (±1δ for δ18O can be obtained for 100 mL (STP air samples with CO mixing ratios ranging from 60 ppbv to 140 ppbv (~268–625 pmol CO. Six South Pole ice core samples from depths ranging from 133 m to 177 m were processed for CO isotope analysis after wet extraction. To our knowledge, this is the first measurement of stable isotopes of CO in ice core air.

  7. A mid-infrared carbon monoxide sensor system using wideband absorption spectroscopy and a single-reflection spherical optical chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ming; Zheng, Chuantao; Miao, Shuzhuo; Song, Fang; Wang, Yiding

    2017-09-01

    A mid-infrared carbon monoxide (CO) sensor system based on a dual-channel differential detection method was developed using a broadband light source in the 4.60 μm wavelength region and a single-reflection spherical optical chamber with ∼0.373 m absorption path length. CO detection was realized by targeting the wideband strong absorption lines within 4.55-4.65 μm. A dual-channel pyroelectric detector as well as a self-developed digital signal processor (DSP) based orthogonal lock-in amplifier was employed to process CO sensing signal. A minimum detection limit of ∼0.5 ppm in volume (ppmv) was achieved with a measurement time of 6 s, based on an Allan deviation analysis of the sensor system. The response time (1000 → 0 ppmv) was determined to be ∼7 s for the CO sensor operation. Due to the characteristics of low detection limit, fast response time and high cost performance, the proposed sensor has relatively good prospect in coal-mining operation.

  8. Unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning hospitalization and emergency department counts and rates by county, year, and fire-relatedness among California residents,2000-2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Environmental Health Tracking Program — This dataset contains case counts, rates, and confidence intervals of unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning (CO) inpatient hospitalizations and emergency...

  9. Aspiration Pneumonia in Patients with Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Who Had Loss of Consciousness: Prevalence, Outcomes, and Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Chang Hwan; Huh, Jin Won; Seo, Dong Woo; Oh, Bum Jin; Lim, Kyoung Soo; Kim, Won Young

    2017-08-09

    Aspiration pneumonia is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, however little is known about in patients with carbon monoxide intoxication which is the leading cause of poisoning-related death. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence, clinical impacts and risk factors for developing aspiration pneumonia in carbon monoxide poisoning patients with loss of consciousness. A retrospective analysis of a carbon monoxide poisoning registry was performed at our emergency department from January, 2008 to December, 2015. All adult carbon monoxide poisoning patients with loss of consciousness were included. Aspiration pneumonia developed in 103 (19.2%) of 537 patients. It was associated with increased ventilator use (52.4 vs. 3.2%), length of hospital stay (3.6 (2.1-5.1) vs. 1.3 (0.6-2.1) days), and in-hospital mortality (5.8 vs. 0.0%) (all, P 12,000/mm(3), odds ratio was increased up to 17.75 (95% CI, 10.65-29.59; P < .001). The prevalence of aspiration pneumonia was 19.2% in carbon monoxide poisoning patients with loss of consciousness and was associated with poor outcomes. Also, altered mental status on emergency department arrival, white blood cells, and increased exposure duration were independently associated with the development of aspiration pneumonia. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Effect of N-Acetylcysteine in Protecting from Simultaneous Noise and Carbon Monoxide Induced Hair Cell Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Pourbakht

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: N-acetylcysteine, a glutathione precursor and reactive oxygen species scavenger, is reported to be effective in reducing noise-induced hearing loss. Many workers in industry are exposed simultaneously to noise and chemical pollutants such as carbon monoxide. We investigated effectiveness of N-acetylcysteine in protecting the cochlea from simultaneous noise and carbon monoxide damages.Methods: Twelve rabbits were exposed simeltaneously to 100 dB sound pressure level of broad band noise and carbon monoxide 8 hours a day for 5 days. One hour before exposure, experimental group received 325 mg/kg of N-acetylcysteine while normal saline was administered for the control group. The protective effect of N-acetylcysteine was evaluated 3 weeks after exposure by histological assessment of the hair cells.Results: Simultaneous exposure to noise and carbon monoxide resulted in a considerable damage to the outer hair cells; however, the inner hair cells and the pillar cells remained intact. Use of N-acetylcysteine in the experimental group significantly reduced the extent of outer hair cell loss.Conclusion: N-acetylcysteine attenuates simultaneous noise and carbon monoxide induced hair cell damage in rabbits.

  11. A Southern Hemisphere atmospheric history of carbon monoxide from South Pole firn air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhulst, K. R.; Aydin, M.; Novelli, P. C.; Holmes, C. D.; Prather, M. J.; Saltzman, E. S.

    2013-12-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a reactive trace gas and is important to tropospheric photochemistry as a major sink of hydroxyl radicals (OH). Major sources of CO are fossil fuel combustion, linked mostly to automotive emissions, biomass burning, and oxidation of atmospheric methane. Understanding changes in carbon monoxide over the past century will improve our understanding of man's influence on the reactivity of the atmosphere. Little observational information is available about CO levels and emissions prior to the 1990s, particularly for the Southern Hemisphere. The NOAA global flask network provides the most complete instrumental record of CO, extending back to 1988. Annually averaged surface flask measurements suggest atmospheric CO levels at South Pole were relatively stable from 2004-2009 at about 51 nmol mol-1 [Novelli and Masarie, 2013]. In this study, a 20th century atmospheric history of CO is reconstructed from South Pole firn air measurements, using a 1-D firn air diffusion model. Firn air samples were collected in glass flasks from two adjacent holes drilled from the surface to 118 m at South Pole, Antarctica during the 2008/2009 field season and CO analysis was carried out by NOAA/CCG. Carbon monoxide levels increase from about 45 nmol mol-1 in the deepest firn sample at 116 m to 52 nmol mol-1 at 107 m, and remain constant at about 51-52 nmol mol-1 at shallower depths. Atmospheric histories based on the firn air reconstructions suggest that CO levels over Antarctica increased by roughly 40% (from about 36 to 50 nmol mol-1) between 1930-1990, at a rate of about 0.18 nmol mol-1 yr-1. Firn air and surface air results suggest the rate of CO increase at South Pole slowed considerably after 1990. The firn air-based atmospheric history is used to infer changes in Southern Hemisphere CO emissions over the 20th century.

  12. Exposure assessment for nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide in German hard coal mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahmann, Dirk; Morfeld, Peter; Monz, Christian; Noll, Birgit; Gast, Frank

    2009-11-01

    The exposure situation of German hard coal miners with respect to the components nitrogen monoxide and nitrogen dioxide. Carbon monoxide was measured additionally and the results are displayed but not discussed in detail in this paper. The data were used to estimate personal long-term exposures in an inception cohort. For all three components, time weighted 8-h shift values were determined for typical groups of coalminers according to the European measurement standard. An expert panel from the coal mining company made an effort to estimate major potential changes in the exposure situation. The main sources of nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide in hard coal mining were the diesel engines. Blasting fumes contributed only to a lesser degree and with different exposure characteristics, e.g. much reduced NO(2) levels compared to the mines' rear areas. As rough 8 h-shift averages describing the current exposure situation, we found 1.35 ppm NO and 0.21 ppm NO(2) for the diesel engine drivers. Blasting specialists were more difficult to evaluate but rough 8 h-shift averages of 0.84 ppm NO and 0.014 ppm NO(2) could be estimated from our measurement series. By applying these data and the estimates of experts about the retrospective exposure situation to a cohort of 1,369 coalminers, we derived mean (max) cumulative exposures in ppm x number of shifts of 1,748 (5,928) for NO and 19.6 (1,013) for NO(2) when summarizing over the follow-up period from 1974 until 1998. Especially for the diesel engine drivers, exposure can be regarded as rather high, in particular, when compared to recommended limits by SCOEL and MAK, though the exposures have been in line with the enforced German occupational exposure limits. Whether this exposure situation has caused adverse health effects will be investigated epidemiologically.

  13. Silicon Monoxide at 1 atm and Elevated Pressures: Crystalline or Amorphous?

    KAUST Repository

    AlKaabi, Khalid

    2014-03-05

    The absence of a crystalline SiO phase under ordinary conditions is an anomaly in the sequence of group 14 monoxides. We explore theoretically ordered ground-state and amorphous structures for SiO at P = 1 atm, and crystalline phases also at pressures up to 200 GPa. Several competitive ground-state P = 1 atm structures are found, perforce with Si-Si bonds, and possessing Si-O-Si bridges similar to those in silica (SiO2) polymorphs. The most stable of these static structures is enthalpically just a little more stable than a calculated random bond model of amorphous SiO. In that model we find no segregation into regions of amorphous Si and amorphous SiO2. The P = 1 atm structures are all semiconducting. As the pressure is increased, intriguing new crystalline structures evolve, incorporating Si triangular nets or strips and stishovite-like regions. A heat of formation of crystalline SiO is computed; it is found to be the most negative of all the group 14 monoxides. Yet, given the stability of SiO2, the disproportionation 2SiO (s) → Si(s)+SiO2(s) is exothermic, falling right into the series of group 14 monoxides, and ranging from a highly negative ΔH of disproportionation for CO to highly positive for PbO. There is no major change in the heat of disproportionation with pressure, i.e., no range of stability of SiO with respect to SiO2. The high-pressure SiO phases are metallic. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  14. Smooth muscle cell-derived carbon monoxide is a regulator of vascular cGMP.

    OpenAIRE

    Morita, T.; Perrella, M A; Lee, M E; Kourembanas, S

    1995-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a product of the enzyme heme oxygenase (HO; EC 1.14.99.3). In vascular smooth muscle cells, exogenously administered CO increases cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP), which is an important regulator of vessel tone. We report here that smooth muscle cells produce CO via HO and that it regulates cGMP levels in these cells. Hypoxia, which has profound effects on vessel tone, significantly increased the transcriptional rate of the HO-1 gene resulting in correspondi...

  15. The Effect of Carbon Monoxide Co-Adsorption on Ni-Catalysed Water Dissociation

    OpenAIRE

    Abas Mohsenzadeh; Anders Borjesson; Jeng-Han Wang; Tobias Richards; Kim Bolton

    2013-01-01

    The effect of carbon monoxide (CO) co-adsorption on the dissociation of water on the Ni(111) surface has been studied using density functional theory. The structures of the adsorbed water molecule and of the transition state are changed by the presence of the CO molecule. The water O–H bond that is closest to the CO is lengthened compared to the structure in the absence of the CO, and the breaking O–H bond in the transition state structure has a larger imaginary frequency in the presence of C...

  16. Detection of the Carbon Monoxide Ion (CO+) in the Interstellar Medium and a Planetary Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latter, William B.; Walker, Christopher K.; Maloney, Philip R.

    1993-01-01

    We report detection of the carbon monoxide ion (CO+) in the interstellar medium (Ml7SW) and a planetary nebula (NGC 7027). These detections are based on observations of three millimeter and submillimeter transitions in M17SW and one in NGC 7027. Chemical models suggest that CO+ should be most abundant where complex molecules are least likely to be present. In our search for CO+ we therefore minimized the chance of confusion while maximizing the probability of detection by observing regions whose chemistry is dominated by the effects of ultraviolet radiation.

  17. Selective methanation of carbon monoxide in hydrogen rich stream over Ni/CeO2 nanocatalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Behzad Nematollahi; Mehran Rezaei; Ebrahim Nemati Lay

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, selective methanation of carbon monoxide in hydrogen rich stream was investigated over Ni/CeO2 nanocatalysts. The obtained results revealed that increasing in nickel loading decreased the BET surface area, pore volume and nickel dispersion. The 25%Ni/CeO2 with a NiO crystal size of 12 nm exhibited the highest activity in CO methanation reaction and reached to maximum CO conversion and CH4 selectivity at temperatures above 230 ºC. The catalytic results revealed that CO selective methanation well progressed at lower temperatures while CO2 methanation was completely suppressed until CO conversion reached to maximum value.

  18. Forensic aspects of carbon monoxide poisoning by charcoal burning in Denmark, 2008-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Pia Rude; Gheorghe, Alexandra; Lynnerup, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) inhalation is a well-known method of committing suicide. There has been a drastic increase in suicide by inhalation of CO, produced from burning charcoal, in some parts of Asia, and a few studies have reported an increased number of these deaths in Europe. CO-related deaths...... found in 9 cases. Data suggest that this method of death has increased significantly in Denmark. Therefore, it is highly relevant to draw attention to the subject, to increase awareness as well as prevent future escalation....

  19. DFT studies on the SCR reaction mechanism of nitrogen monoxide with propylene catalyzed by copper oxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Ying; XU Jing; ZHAO Jing-xiang

    2007-01-01

    The SCR reaction mechanism of NO with C3H6catalyzed by CuO was studied by the method of Density Functional Theory (DFT) at the B3LYP/LanL2DZ levels. The optimized geometries of the stationary points on the potential surface were obtained and the transition state was confirmed by IRC and vibration analysis. The activation energy was calculated being 34. 26 kJ/mol. It was shown that propylene reacted firstly with Cu forming intermediate, and then nitrogen monoxide immediately reacted with the intermediate to be reduced. It was proved to be a direct interaction mechanism.

  20. Carbon monoxide poisoning at a lowered myocardial adaptation capacity: animal ECG models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikisková, H; Frantík, E

    1988-12-01

    Two animal models for testing foreign substances for the hypoxic type of cardiotoxicity proved to be valid and reproducible: i.e. decreased reserve capacity of the heart in rats recovered from the calciferol cardiopathy and increased heart work provoked by isoproterenol (5 mg/kg i.p.). In both cases obvious hypoxic ECG changes appeared at lower levels of exposure to carbon monoxide (500 ppm, 572 mg.m-3) and carboxyhemoglobin (18%), when compared with nonpretreated animals. The models have shown, that injured or overloaded heart displays a substantially increased sensitivity to CO poisoning.

  1. Diurnal variation of stratospheric chlorine monoxide - A critical test of chlorine chemistry in the ozone layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, P. M.; De Zafra, R.; Parrish, A.; Barrett, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    Ground-based observations of a mm-wave spectral line at 278 GHz have yielded stratospheric chlorine monoxide column density diurnal variation records which indicate that the mixing ratio and column density of this compound above 30 km are about 20 percent lower than model predictions based on 2.1 parts/billion of total stratospheric chlorine. The observed day-to-night variation is, however, in good agreement with recent model predictions, both confirming the existence of a nighttime reservoir for chlorine and verifying the predicted general rate of its storage and retrieval.

  2. Surveillance for the effects of carbon monoxide on health in a Tianjin gas factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xin-xin [Tianjiin Lab. of Health and Occupational Diseases Prevention and Treatment Hospital, Tianjiin (China); Ma, Xiang-min; Dong, Zi-zhen; Xie, Ping [Sanitation and Diseases Prevention Centre, Tianjin (China); Li, Gang [First Tianjin Gas Factory, Tianjin (China)

    1997-12-31

    This report describes the surveillance over the past 8 years of carbon monoxide (CO) levels in a factory producing gas from coal. Where workers were working in areas of the factory where the air might be polluted by CO we found that measurement of carboxyhaemoglobin (HbCO) levels in their blood was a sufficiently sensitive test of exposure. Measurements on samples taken before and after a shift showed a significant difference. Our measurements of a HbCO blank control in two normal population groups was very close to the biological limit value of that for normal groups in the USA and Germany. (author) 1 fig., 3 tabs., 3 refs.

  3. Effects of carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide on garden pea and string bean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakrabarti, A.G.

    1976-02-01

    Garden Peas (Pisum Sativum) and beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) were exposed to 24 ppM of carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/). Germination of bean seeds was delayed about 48 hours. On the 18th day after exposure none of the bean seedlings exposed to NO/sub 2/ survived while about 30 percent of the beans exposed to CO survived. The survival of the pea seedlings was not affected. No effect was noted on stem length. Formation of new leaves was decreased and dropping of old leaves was increased in both test species with more drastic effects noted in the beans. (JTE)

  4. Surface structure and relaxation during the oxidation of carbon monoxide on Pt Pd bimetallic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, C. A.; Markovic, N. M.; Ball, M.; Stamenkovic, V.; Climent, V.; Ross, P. N.

    2001-05-01

    The atomic structure and surface relaxation of Pd monolayer on Pt(1 1 1) has been studied by surface X-ray scattering, in an aqueous environment under electrostatic potential control, during the adsorption and oxidation of carbon monoxide. The results show that the Pd-Pt layer spacing contracts at the onset of CO oxidation before the Pd adlayer forms an oxide structure that is incommensurate with the Pt lattice. Both the oxide formation and the lattice contraction are fully reversible over many cycles of the applied electrode potential.

  5. FTIR study of carbon monoxide adsorption on ion-exchanged X, Y and mordenite type zeolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. HERCIGONJA

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work Fourier transform infrared (FTIR study has been applied to study the adsorption of carbon monoxide on transition metal (Mn+, Co2+, Ni2+ ion-exchanged zeolites type Y, X and mordenites. The adsorption of CO at room temperature produces overlapping IR absorption bands in the 2120–2200 cm-1 region. The frequency of the band around 2200 cm-1 is found to be dependent not only on the charge-balancing transition metal cation, but also on the framework composition. The frequencies of the band near 1600 cm-1 was found to be dependent on the Si/Al ratio of the investigated zeolites.

  6. Synthesis of acetyl coenzyme A by carbon monoxide dehydrogenase complex from acetate-grown Methanosarcina thermophila.

    OpenAIRE

    Abbanat, D R; Ferry, J G

    1990-01-01

    The carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH) complex from Methanosarcina thermophila catalyzed the synthesis of acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) from CH3I, CO, and coenzyme A (CoA) at a rate of 65 nmol/min/mg at 55 degrees C. The reaction ended after 5 min with the synthesis of 52 nmol of acetyl-CoA per nmol of CODH complex. The optimum temperature for acetyl-CoA synthesis in the assay was between 55 and 60 degrees C; the rate of synthesis at 55 degrees C was not significantly different between pHs...

  7. Lead Monoxide: Two-Dimensional Ferromagnetic Semiconductor Induced by Hole-Doping

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yao

    2017-04-12

    We employ first-principles calculations to demonstrate ferromagnetic ground states for single- and multi-layer lead monoxide (PbO) under hole-doping, originating from a van Hove singularity at the valence band edge. Both the sample thickness and applied strain are found to have huge effects on the electronic and magnetic properties. Multi-layer PbO is an indirect band gap semiconductor, while a direct band gap is realized in the single-layer limit. In hole-doped single-layer PbO, biaxial tensile strain can enhance the stability of the ferromagnetic state.

  8. Atomic hydrogen and diatomic titanium-monoxide molecular spectroscopy in laser-induced plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parigger, Christian G.; Woods, Alexander C.

    2017-03-01

    This article gives a brief review of experimental studies of hydrogen Balmer series emission spectra. Ongoing research aims to evaluate early plasma evolution following optical breakdown in laboratory air. Of interest is as well laser ablation of metallic titanium and characterization of plasma evolution. Emission of titanium monoxide is discussed together with modeling of diatomic spectra to infer temperature. The behavior of titanium particles in plasma draws research interests ranging from the modeling of stellar atmospheres to the enhancement of thin film production via pulsed laser deposition.

  9. Sublimation rates of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide from comets at large heliocentric distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekanina, Zdenek

    1992-01-01

    Using a simple model for outgassing from a small flat surface area, the sublimation rates of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, two species more volatile than water ice that are known to be present in comets, are calculated for a suddenly activated discrete source on the rotating nucleus. The instantaneous sublimation rate depends upon the comet's heliocentric distance and the Sun's zenith angle at the location of the source. The values are derived for the constants of CO and CO2 in an expression that yields the local rotation-averaged sublimation rate as a function of the comet's spin parameters and the source's cometocentric latitude.

  10. Chemical Reactions and Kinetics of the Carbon Monoxide Coupling in the Presence of Hydrogen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fandong Meng; Genhui Xu; Zhenhua Li; Pa Du

    2002-01-01

    The chemical reactions and kinetics of the catalytic coupling reaction of carbon monoxide to diethyl oxalate were studied in the presence of hydrogen over a supported palladium catalyst in the gaseous phase at the typical coupling reaction conditions. The experiments were performed in a continuous flow fixed-bed reactor. The results indicated that hydrogen only reacts with ethyl nitrite to form ethanol, and kinetic studies revealed that the rate-determining step is the surface reaction of adsorbed hydrogen and the ethoxy radical (EtO-). A kinetic model is proposed and a comparison of the observed and calculated conversions showed that the rate expressions are of rather high confidence.

  11. Carbon monoxide, skeletal muscle oxidative stress, and mitochondrial biogenesis in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Rhodes, Michael A.; Carraway, Martha Sue; Piantadosi, Claude A.; Reynolds, Crystal M; Cherry, Anne D.; Wester, T. E.; Natoli, Michael J.; Massey, E. Wayne; Moon, Richard E.; Suliman, Hagir B.

    2009-01-01

    Given that the physiology of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) encompasses mitochondrial biogenesis, we tested the hypothesis that the HO-1 product, carbon monoxide (CO), activates mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle and enhances maximal oxygen uptake (V̇o2max) in humans. In 10 healthy subjects, we biopsied the vastus lateralis and performed V̇o2max tests followed by blinded randomization to air or CO breathing (1 h/day at 100 parts/million for 5 days), a contralateral muscle biopsy on day 5, a...

  12. Selective catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide by carbon monoxide over iron oxide supported on activated carbon

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The selective reduction of sulfur dioxide with carbon monoxide to elemental sulfur was studied over AC-supported transition-metal oxide catalysts. According to the study, Fe2O3/AC was the most active catalyst among the 4 AC-supported catalysts tested. By using Fe2O3/AC, the best catalyst, when the feed conditions were properly optimized (CO/SO2 molar ratio = 2:1; sulfidation temperature, 400 °C; Fe content, 20 wt%; GHSV = 7000 mL g-1 h-1), 95.43% sulfur dioxide conversion and 86.59% sulfur yi...

  13. Studies relevant to the catalytic activation of carbon monoxide. Technical progress report, September 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, P.C.

    1992-06-04

    Research activity during the 1991--1992 funding period has been concerned with the following topics relevant to carbon monoxide activation. (1) Exploratory studies of water gas shift catalysts heterogenized on polystyrene based polymers. (2) Mechanistic investigation of the nucleophilic activation of CO in metal carbonyl clusters. (3) Application of fast reaction techniques to prepare and to investigate reactive organometallic intermediates relevant to the activation of hydrocarbons toward carbonylation and to the formation of carbon-carbon bonds via the migratory insertion of CO into metal alkyl bonds.

  14. Detection of the J = 6 - 5 transition of carbon monoxide. [in Orion molecular cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, P. F.; Erickson, N. R.; Fetterman, H. R.; Clifton, B. J.; Peck, D. D.; Tannenwald, P. E.; Koepf, G. A.; Buhl, D.; Mcavoy, N.

    1981-01-01

    The J = 6 - 5 rotational transition of carbon monoxide has been detected in emission from the KL 'plateau source' in the Orion molecular cloud. The corrected peak antenna temperature is 100 K, and the FWHM line width is 26 km/sec. These observations were carried out using the 3 m telescope of the NASA IRTF (Infrared Telescope Facility) on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, and constitute the first astronomical data obtained at submillimeter wavelengths with a heterodyne system using a laser local oscillator. The data support the idea that the high-velocity dispersion CO in Orion is optically thin and set a lower limit to its temperature of approximately 180 K.

  15. Neurobehavioral Aspects of the Delayed Encephalopathy of Carbon Monoxide Intoxication: Case Report and Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Mendez

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the neurobehavioral aspects of the delayed encephalopathy of carbon monoxide (CO intoxication in a 29 year old woman and review the literature. Four weeks after CO poisoning, the patient developed a frontal lobe syndrome, visuoperceptual impairment, and diffuse white matter lesions with an otherwise normal neurological examination. In contrast, patients with the classical syndrome also have a parkinsonian state or an akinetic–mute state. The delayed encephalopathy of CO poisoning usually results from demyelination of subcortical white matter, necrosis of the globus pallidus, or both. The clinical aspects, risk factors, neurobiological features, and therapy and prognosis are discussed.

  16. Shock tube measurements of growth constants in the branched chain formaldehyde-carbon monoxide-oxygen system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabbs, T. A.; Brokaw, R. S.

    1982-01-01

    Exponential free radical growth constants were measured for formaldehyde carbon monoxide-oxygen systems by monitoring the growth of oxygen atom concentration as manifested by CO flame band emission. Data were obtained over the temperature range of 1200 to 2000 K. The data were analyzed using a formaldehyde oxidation mechanism involving 12 elementary reaction steps. The computed growth constants are roughly in accord with experimental values, but are much more temperature dependent. The data was also analyzed assuming formaldehyde is rapidly decomposed to carbon monoxide and hydrogen. Growth constants computed for the resulting carbon monoxide hydrogen oxygen mixtures have a temperature dependence similar to experiments; however, for most mixtures, the computed growth constants were larger than experimental values.

  17. On the wintertime low bias of Northern Hemisphere carbon monoxide found in global model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, O.; Schultz, M. G.; Bouarar, I.; Clark, H.; Huijnen, V.; Gaudel, A.; George, M.; Clerbaux, C.

    2014-09-01

    Despite the developments in the global modelling of chemistry and of the parameterization of the physical processes, carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations remain underestimated during Northern Hemisphere (NH) winter by most state-of-the-art chemistry transport models. The consequential model bias can in principle originate from either an underestimation of CO sources or an overestimation of its sinks. We address both the role of surface sources and sinks with a series of MOZART (Model for Ozone And Related Tracers) model sensitivity studies for the year 2008 and compare our results to observational data from ground-based stations, satellite observations, and vertical profiles from measurements on passenger aircraft. In our base case simulation using MACCity (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate project) anthropogenic emissions, the near-surface CO mixing ratios are underestimated in the Northern Hemisphere by more than 20 ppb from December to April, with the largest bias of up to 75 ppb over Europe in January. An increase in global biomass burning or biogenic emissions of CO or volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is not able to reduce the annual course of the model bias and yields concentrations over the Southern Hemisphere which are too high. Raising global annual anthropogenic emissions with a simple scaling factor results in overestimations of surface mixing ratios in most regions all year round. Instead, our results indicate that anthropogenic CO and, possibly, VOC emissions in the MACCity inventory are too low for the industrialized countries only during winter and spring. Reasonable agreement with observations can only be achieved if the CO emissions are adjusted seasonally with regionally varying scaling factors. A part of the model bias could also be eliminated by exchanging the original resistance-type dry deposition scheme with a parameterization for CO uptake by oxidation from soil bacteria and microbes, which reduces the boreal winter dry

  18. Search for aluminium monoxide in the winds of oxygen-rich AGB stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Beck, E.; Decin, L.; Ramstedt, S.; Olofsson, H.; Menten, K. M.; Patel, N. A.; Vlemmings, W. H. T.

    2017-01-01

    Context. Aluminium monoxide (AlO) is likely efficiently depleted from the gas around oxygen-rich evolved stars to form alumina (Al2O3) clusters and dust seeds. The presence of AlO gas in the extended atmospheres of evolved stars has been derived from optical spectroscopy. More recently, AlO gas was also detected at long wavelengths around the supergiant VY CMa and the oxygen-rich asymptotic giant branch star o Cet (Mira A). The central role aluminium might play in dust formation and wind driving, in combination with these first detections of AlO at long wavelengths, shows the need for a wider search for this molecule in the winds of evolved stars. Aims: The detection at long wavelengths of emission in rotational transitions of AlO towards asymptotic giant branch stars can help constrain the presence and location of AlO gas in the outflows and ultimately also the efficiency of the depletion process. Methods: In search of AlO, we mined data obtained with APEX, the IRAM 30 m telescope, Herschel/HIFI, SMA, and ALMA, which were primarily aimed at studying other species around asymptotic giant branch stars. We report here on observations of AlO towards a sample of eight oxygen-rich asymptotic giant branch stars in different rotational transitions, up to seven for some stars. Results: We present definite detections of one rotational transition of AlO for o Cet and R Aqr, and tentative detections of one transition for R Dor and o Cet and two transitions for IK Tau and W Hya. The presented spectra of WX Psc, R Cas, and TX Cam show no signature of AlO. For o Cet, R Aqr, and IK Tau, we find that the AlO (N = 9-8) emission likely traces the inner parts of the wind, out to only a few tens of AU, where the gas has not yet been accelerated to its terminal velocity. This is in agreement with recently published results from a detailed study on o Cet. Conclusions: The conclusive detections of AlO emission in the case of o Cet and R Aqr confirm the presence of AlO in the gas phase in

  19. An overview of carbon monoxide generation and release by home appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batey, J. [Energy Research Center, Inc., Easton, CT (United States)

    1997-09-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is an odorless, colorless and tasteless gas which is highly toxic and can be produced by many combustion sources commonly found within homes. Potential sources include boilers and furnaces, water heaters, space heaters, stoves, ovens, clothes dryers, wood stoves, fireplaces, charcoal grilles, automobiles, cigarettes, oil lamps, and candles. Any fuel that contains carbon can form CO including, natural gas, propane, kerosene, fuel oil, wood, and coal. Exposure to elevated CO levels typically requires its production by a combustion source and its release into the home through a venting system malfunction. The health effects of CO range from headaches and flue-like symptoms to loss of concentration, coma and death depending on the concentration of CO and the exposure time. At levels of only 1%, which is the order of magnitude produced by automobile exhaust, carbon monoxide can cause death in less than 3 minutes. While most combustion equipment operate with low CO levels, many operating factors can contribute to elevated CO levels in the home including: burner adjustment, combustion air supply, house air-tightness, exhaust fan operation, cracked heat exchangers, vent blockages, and flue pipe damage. Test data on CO emissions is presented from a wide range of sources including Brookhaven National Laboratory, Gas Research Institute, American Gas Association, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the US Consumer Product Safety Commission for many potential CO sources in and near the home.

  20. Reduction of nitric oxide with carbon monoxide on the Al-Mo(110) surface alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorkina, G. S.; Tvauri, I. V.; Kaloeva, A. G.; Burdzieva, O. G.; Sekiba, D.; Ogura, S.; Fukutani, K.; Magkoev, T. T.

    2016-05-01

    Coadsorption and reaction of carbon monoxide (CO) and nitric oxide (NO) on Al-Mo(110) surface alloy have been studied by means of Auger electron, reflection-absorption infrared and temperature programmed desorption spectroscopies (AES, RAIRS, TPD), low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and work function measurements. The Al-Mo(110) surface alloy was obtained by thermal annealing at 800 K of aluminum film deposited on Mo(110) held at room temperature. Upon annealing Al penetrates the surface, most likely forming stoichiometric hexagonal surface monolayer of the compound Al2Mo. The NO and CO adsorb molecularly on this alloy surface at 200 K, unlike totally dissociative adsorption on bare Mo(110) and Al(111) film. Adsorption of CO on NO precovered Al-Mo(110) substrate dramatically affects the state of NO molecules, most probably displacing them to higher-coordinated sites with their simultaneous tilting to the surface plane. Heating to about room temperature (320 K) causes reduction of nitric oxide with carbon monoxide, yielding CO2, and substrate nitridation. This behavior can be associated with the surface reconstruction providing additional Al/Mo interface reaction sites and change of the d-band upon alloying.

  1. Carbon monoxide residues in vacuum-packed yellowfin tuna loins (Thunnus Albacares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Marrone

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of carbon monoxide (CO in fresh fish has generated considerable debate. Carbon monoxide is used to treat fresh fish in order to retain its fresh red appearance for a longer period. It reacts with the oxy-myoglobin to form a fairly stable cherry red carboxy-myoglobin complex that may mask spoilage, because the CO-complex can be stable beyond the microbiological shelf life of the meat. The presence of CO in tuna fish (Thunnus Albacares has been investigated by means of optical spectroscopy. Formation of the CO adduct can be easily detected by the combined analysis of electronic absorption spectra in their normal and second derivative modes, monitoring the intense Soret band at 420 nm. Samples were judged as CO treated when their levels were higher than 200 ng/g. Only two positive samples out of 29 analyzed were detected. The high level of uncertainty (0.30 of the method requires the use of more specific and sensitive methods for confirmatory analysis.

  2. Carbon Monoxide Residues in Vacuum-Packed Yellowfin Tuna Loins (Thunnus Albacares)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascolo, Celestina; Palma, Giuseppe; Smaldone, Giorgio; Girasole, Mariagrazia; Anastasio, Aniello

    2015-01-01

    The use of carbon monoxide (CO) in fresh fish has generated considerable debate. Carbon monoxide is used to treat fresh fish in order to retain its fresh red appearance for a longer period. It reacts with the oxy-myoglobin to form a fairly stable cherry red carboxy-myoglobin complex that may mask spoilage, because the CO-complex can be stable beyond the microbiological shelf life of the meat. The presence of CO in tuna fish (Thunnus Albacares) has been investigated by means of optical spectroscopy. Formation of the CO adduct can be easily detected by the combined analysis of electronic absorption spectra in their normal and second derivative modes, monitoring the intense Soret band at 420 nm. Samples were judged as CO treated when their levels were higher than 200 ng/g. Only two positive samples out of 29 analyzed were detected. The high level of uncertainty (0.30) of the method requires the use of more specific and sensitive methods for confirmatory analysis. PMID:27800404

  3. Compositional variability of the Venusian atmosphere above the clouds: sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcq, Emmanuel; Belyaev, Denis; Lellouch, Emmanuel; Encrenaz, Therese; Montmessin, Franck; Bertaux, Jean-Loup

    The layers of the Venusian atmosphere located at cloud top level is a complex transitional region where intense solar radiation interacts with a fairly dense gaseous medium and particulate matter - ultimately, the cloud particles themselves are a by-product of this interaction. In a stark contrast with the lowermost troposphere, spatial and temporal variations in temperature and composition are easily noticeable. In this talk we will focus on two gaseous species, carbon monoxide (CO) and sulphur dioxide (SO _{2}), whose sources and sinks are reversed: whereas carbon monoxide is produced by photo-dissociation of the main atmospheric constituent CO _{2} and oxidised below the clouds, SO _{2} is destroyed by UV solar radiation above the clouds and replenished from the lower atmosphere. Yet, these two species exhibit very different variation patterns. SO _{2} temporal variations range from very rapid (within a few hours) and large (by a relative factor exceeding 10) variations to secular phases of increases and decreases spanning decades. Its average latitudinal distribution ranges from a decrease with increasing latitude during SO _{2}-rich phases and a possible reversal during SO _{2}-poor phases. In contrast, CO does not exhibit significant secular, nor short-term variability, but clear horizontal trends have been measured, both with respect to latitude and local solar time.

  4. Field surveys of carbon monoxide in commercial settings using personal exposure monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flachsbart, P. G.; Ott, W. R.

    1984-02-01

    Miniaturized personal exposure monitors (PEMs) were employed to measure carbon monoxide (CO) in 588 different commercial settings (e.g., retail stores, office buildings, hotels, restaurants) in five California cities. Altogether, 5000 CO observations were made by recording the instantaneous instrument reading at 1-minute intervals as the investigators walked along sidewalks and into buildings. For 11 of 15 survey dates, two investigators walked side-by-side, permitting two adjacent PEMs to be compared. Quality assurance tests for 1706 pairs of values showed a very high degree of agreement. CO levels for indoor commercial settings were similar to those measured outdoors on sidewalks, apparently because the pollutant seeps into the structures from traffic outside. Although indoor levels usually were above 0 ppm, they seldom were above 9 ppm (the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for an 8-hour exposure), unless some indoor source could be identified. Carbon monoxide levels on outdoor streets did not vary greatly on different sides of the street, on corners and faces of blocks, and intersections.

  5. Rare isotopic species of sulphur monoxide: the rotational spectrum in the THz region

    CERN Document Server

    Lattanzi, Valerio; Puzzarini, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Many sulphur-bearing species have been detected in different astronomical environments and have allowed to derive important information about the chemical and physical composition of interstellar regions. In particular, these species have also been showed to trace and probe hot-core environment time evolution. Among the most prominent sulphur-bearing molecules, SO, sulphur monoxide radical, is one of the more ubiquitous and abundant, observed also in its isotopic substituted species such as $^{34}$SO and S$^{18}$O. Due to the importance of this simple diatomic system and to face the challenge of modern radioastronomical facilities, an extension to THz range of the rare isotopologues of sulphur monoxide has been performed. High-resolution rotational molecular spectroscopy has been employed to extend the available dataset of four isotopic species, SO, $^{34}$SO, S$^{17}$O, and S$^{18}$O up to the 1.5 THz region. The frequency coverage and the spectral resolution of our measurements allowed a better constraint o...

  6. Acute toxicity when concentration varies with time: A case study with carbon monoxide inhalation by rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Lisa M; Sommerville, Douglas R; Goodwin, Michelle R; James, R Arden; Channel, Stephen R

    2016-10-01

    Exposure to time-varying concentrations of toxic compounds is the norm in both occupational settings and daily human life, but little has been done to investigate the impact of variations in concentration on toxic outcomes; this case study with carbon monoxide helps fill that gap. Median acute lethality of 10-, 20-, 40-, and 60-min continuous exposures of rats to carbon monoxide was well described by the toxic load model (k = C(n) × t; k is constant, C = test concentration, n = toxic load exponent, and t = exposure duration) with n = 1.74. Dose response-relationships for 1-h exposures including a recovery period between 10- or 20-min pulses showed greater similarity (in both median lethality and steepness of dose-response curve) to continuous exposures with equivalent pulse duration and concentration, rather than a 60-min exposure with equivalent time-weighted average concentrations or toxic load. When pulses were of unequal concentration (3:1 ratio), only the high concentration pulse contributed to lethality. These findings show that fluctuations or interruptions in exposure over a short time scale (60 min or less) can have a substantial impact on outcomes (when n > 1), and thus high-resolution monitoring data are needed to aid interpretation of resulting outcomes.

  7. On the photoelectron velocity-map imaging of lutetium monoxide anion LuO(-).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiling; Xie, Hua; Li, Quanjiang; Qin, Zhengbo; Cong, Ran; Wu, Xia; Tang, Zichao; Fan, Hongjun

    2014-01-21

    We report a combined photoelectron velocity-map imaging spectroscopy and density functional theory investigation on lutetium monoxide anion. Transition between the X (1)Σ(+) anion electronic ground state and the neutral X (2)Σ(+) electronic ground state is observed. Vibrationally resolved spectra were obtained at four different photon energies, providing a wealth of spectroscopic information for the electronic ground states of the anionic lutetium monoxide and corresponding neutral species. Franck-Condon simulations of the ground-state transition are performed to assign vibrational structure in the spectra and to assist in identifying the observed spectral bands. The electronic ground state of LuO(-) is found to have a vibrational frequency of 743 ± 10 cm(-1) and an equilibrium bond length of 1.841 Å. The electron affinity of LuO is measured to be 1.624 ± 0.002 eV. The fundamental frequency of ground-state LuO is estimated to be 839 ± 10 cm(-1).

  8. Carbon monoxide gas sensing using zinc oxide film deposited by spray pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leano, J. M. G.; Villapando, J. M. L. A.; Balaaldia, A. E.; Gianan, G.; Manalo, F. K. B.; Florido, E. A.

    2017-05-01

    This study was aimed to determine the carbon monoxide (CO) gas sensing ability of zinc oxide (ZnO) film fabricated by spray pyrolysis on glass substrate heated at 3000C using 0.2 M zinc acetate precursor solution. The temperature of the precursor solution was maintained at room temperature. Carbon monoxide gas was synthesized by mixing the required amount of formic acid and excess sulfuric acid in the ratio of 1:6 to produce CO gas concentrations of 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 parts per million (ppm) v/v. There were five trials for each concentration. The films produced exhibited good sensor characteristics such as high linearity in current voltage relationship and voltage response versus concentration. Electrical characterization using the four-point probe showed a linear relationship between current and voltage with resistivity of 0.49 ohm-cm and R2 value of 0.994 The zinc oxide film exhibited a sensitivity of 0.19 Volt per 100 ppm of CO gas and linearity R2 value of 0.993.

  9. A positive Babinski reflex predicts delayed neuropsychiatric sequelae in Chinese patients with carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jian-Fang; Guo, Qiming; Shao, Hua; Li, Bin; Du, Yuxiu; Liu, Maofeng; Liu, Fengling; Dai, Lixin; Chung, Min-Hsien; Lin, Hung-Jung; Guo, How-Ran; Yang, Tzu-Meng; Huang, Chien-Cheng; Hsu, Chien-Chin

    2014-01-01

    As the human population increased in China, the carbon monoxide is a serious environmental toxin in public health. However, predicting the delayed neuropsychiatric sequelae (DNS) of carbon monoxide poisoning (COP) has not been well studied. We investigated the independent predictors of DNS in patients with COP. This study was conducted at four hospitals in China. Data were retrospectively collected from 258 patients with COP between November 1990 and October 2011. DNS was the primary endpoint. A positive Babinski reflex was the independent predictor for DNS: sensitivity = 53.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 26.1-79.6), specificity = 88.6% (95% CI: 83.7-92.1), positive predictive value (PPV) = 20.0% (95% CI: 9.1-37.5), and negative predictive value (NPV) = 97.3% (95% CI: 94.0-98.9). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.712 (95% CI: 0.544-0.880). A positive Babinski reflex was very memorable, immediately available, and applicable in clinical practice. Even when the sensitivity and PPV of a positive Babinski reflex were unsatisfactory, it had a good specificity and NPV for excluding the risk of DNS. In patients without a positive Babinski reflex, the risk for DNS was only 2.7%. This finding may help physicians make decisions about dispositions for patients with COP.

  10. Enhanced acute anti-inflammatory effects of CORM-2-loaded nanoparticles via sustained carbon monoxide delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Omer Salman; Zeb, Alam; Akram, Muhammad; Kim, Myung-Sic; Kang, Jong-Ho; Kim, Hoo-Seong; Majid, Arshad; Han, Inbo; Chang, Sun-Young; Bae, Ok-Nam; Kim, Jin-Ki

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to enhance the anti-inflammatory effects of carbon monoxide (CO) via sustained release of CO from carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-2-loaded lipid nanoparticles (CORM-2-NPs). CORM-2-NPs were prepared by hot high pressure homogenization method using trilaurin as a solid lipid core and Tween 20/Span 20/Myrj S40 as surfactant mixture. The physicochemical properties of CORM-2-NPs were characterized and CO release from CORM-2-NPs was assessed by myoglobin assay. In vitro anti-inflammatory effects were evaluated by nitric oxide assay in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. In vivo anti-inflammatory activity was investigated by measuring paw volumes and histological examination in carrageenan-induced rat paw edema. Spherical CORM-2-NPs were around 100nm with narrow particle size distribution. The sustained CO release from CORM-2-NPs was observed and the half-life of CO release increased up to 10 times compared with CORM-2 solution. CORM-2-NPs showed enhanced in vitro anti-inflammatory effects by inhibition of nitric oxide production. Edema volume in rat paw was significantly reduced after treatment with CORM-2-NPs. Taken together, CORM-2-NPs have a great potential for CO therapeutics against inflammation via sustained release of CO. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Quantum cascade laser-based sensors for the detection of exhaled carbon monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakmanesh, Nahid; Cristescu, Simona M.; Ghorbanzadeh, Atamalek; Harren, Frans J. M.; Mandon, Julien

    2016-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is an important biomarker as it originates in the human body from the heme (component of hemoglobin) degradation. Tunable laser absorption spectroscopy in the mid-infrared wavelength region is used for sensitive trace gas sensing of exhaled carbon monoxide (CO). Based on a quantum cascade laser emitting at 4.61 µm, two different spectroscopic methods are investigated: off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (OA-ICOS) and wavelength modulation 2f/1f spectroscopy (WMS). The optical sensors integrate a slow feedback system to correct for wavelength drifts improving their stability over days. Both approaches demonstrate a high reproducibility and sensitivity during online measurements of exhaled human breath. Considering the detection limit to be the equal to the standard deviation of the background fluctuations, the noise-equivalent detection limit for both OA-ICOS and WMS is 7 ppbv (1-s averaging time), leading to a noise-equivalent absorption sensitivity of 3.1 × 10-7 cm-1 Hz-1/2, which is sufficient for measurements of exhaled CO (eCO). Collection and measurements of eCO samples were investigated, and different exhalation flow rates and breath-holding time were explored, to provide a reliable sampling method for future medical investigations.

  12. Carbon monoxide measurement by gas chromatography; Mesure du monoxyde de carbone par chromatographie en phase gazeuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gros, V.; Sarda-Esteve, R.; Bonsang, B.; Ramonet, M.

    1998-09-01

    Although carbon monoxide (CO) is present in trace quantities in the atmosphere (0.1 ppm -or parts per million in volume- on average), the study of this gas is important. Indeed, its impact on human can be dangerous at high level of concentration on the hand and it constitutes one of the main precursor of ozone in presence of concentration on the one hand and it constitutes one of the main precursor of ozone in presence of other pollutants on the other hand. Finally, CO affects the levels of several important greenhouse gases, through its reaction with hydroxyl radicals (OH). CO is measured in the atmosphere since the mid 60's by various methods. Among them, gas chromatography has the advantage to combine a low detection limit with a high precision. This report details the improvements made on the measurement analyser which allowed to perform automatic CO measurements in remote areas with low mixing ratios of carbon monoxide. This report describes some quality tests and the results of various applications. (authors)

  13. Lithium-free transition metal monoxides for positive electrodes in lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sung-Kyun; Kim, Hyunchul; Cho, Min Gee; Cho, Sung-Pyo; Lee, Byungju; Kim, Hyungsub; Park, Young-Uk; Hong, Jihyun; Park, Kyu-Young; Yoon, Gabin; Seong, Won Mo; Cho, Yongbeom; Oh, Myoung Hwan; Kim, Haegyeom; Gwon, Hyeokjo; Hwang, Insang; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Yoon, Won-Sub; Kang, Kisuk

    2017-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries based on intercalation compounds have dominated the advanced portable energy storage market. The positive electrode materials in these batteries belong to a material group of lithium-conducting crystals that contain redox-active transition metal and lithium. Materials without lithium-conducting paths or lithium-free compounds could be rarely used as positive electrodes due to the incapability of reversible lithium intercalation or the necessity of using metallic lithium as negative electrodes. These constraints have significantly limited the choice of materials and retarded the development of new positive electrodes in lithium-ion batteries. Here, we demonstrate that lithium-free transition metal monoxides that do not contain lithium-conducting paths in their crystal structure can be converted into high-capacity positive electrodes in the electrochemical cell by initially decorating the monoxide surface with nanosized lithium fluoride. This unusual electrochemical behaviour is attributed to a surface conversion reaction mechanism in contrast with the classic lithium intercalation reaction. Our findings will offer a potential new path in the design of positive electrode materials in lithium-ion batteries.

  14. Validation of Carbon Monoxide and Methane Vertical Column Densities Retrieved from SCIAMACHY Infrared Nadir Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochstaffl, Philipp; Hamidouche, Mourad; Schreier, Franz; Gimeno Garcia, Sebastian; Lichtenberg, Günter

    2016-04-01

    Carbon monoxide and methane are key species of Earth's atmosphere, highly relevant for climate and air quality. Accordingly, a large number of spaceborne sensors are observing these species in the microwave, thermal and near infrared. For the analysis of short wave infrared spectra measured by SCIAMACHY aboard the ENVISAT satellite and similar instrument(s) we had developed the Beer InfraRed Retrieval Algorithm: BIRRA is a separable least squares fit of the measured radiance with respect to molecular column densities and auxiliary parameters (optional: surface albedo, baseline, slit function width, and wavenumber shift). BIRRA has been implemented in the operational SCIAMACHY L1 to 2 processor for the retrieval of CO and CH4 from channel 8 (2.3 mue) and 6 (1.6 mue), respectively. Our tests are based on separate comparisons with existing space or ground-based measurements of carbon monoxide and methane column densities. In this poster intercomparisons of CO and CH4 columns estimated from SCIAMACHY with coincident and co-located retrievals provided by ground-based Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy are provided. More specifically, we have used data from several NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change) and TCCON (Total Carbon Column Observing Network) stations. Our strategy for quality check of these products and the selection of specific geographical areas will be discussed.

  15. A Positive Babinski Reflex Predicts Delayed Neuropsychiatric Sequelae in Chinese Patients with Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Fang Zou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As the human population increased in China, the carbon monoxide is a serious environmental toxin in public health. However, predicting the delayed neuropsychiatric sequelae (DNS of carbon monoxide poisoning (COP has not been well studied. We investigated the independent predictors of DNS in patients with COP. This study was conducted at four hospitals in China. Data were retrospectively collected from 258 patients with COP between November 1990 and October 2011. DNS was the primary endpoint. A positive Babinski reflex was the independent predictor for DNS: sensitivity = 53.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 26.1–79.6, specificity = 88.6% (95% CI: 83.7–92.1, positive predictive value (PPV = 20.0% (95% CI: 9.1–37.5, and negative predictive value (NPV = 97.3% (95% CI: 94.0–98.9. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.712 (95% CI: 0.544–0.880. A positive Babinski reflex was very memorable, immediately available, and applicable in clinical practice. Even when the sensitivity and PPV of a positive Babinski reflex were unsatisfactory, it had a good specificity and NPV for excluding the risk of DNS. In patients without a positive Babinski reflex, the risk for DNS was only 2.7%. This finding may help physicians make decisions about dispositions for patients with COP.

  16. Influence of Gas Composition on the Resisting Ability of Gunning Material for Blast Furnace to Carbon Monoxide Corrosion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Lihong; LIU Liu; GUO Yanling; CAO Feng; MENG Qingmin; LONG Shigang

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the resisting ability of gunning material for blast furnace to carbon monoxide corrosion under the mixed gas condition through inletting hydrogen into pure CO.A standard for testing the resisting ability of refractory to Co corrosion with mixed gas instead of pure CO has also been discussed. The results show:the addition of hydrogen accelerates the CO corrosion on gunning material;the same results has been reached with the CO,200 hours to test the resisting ability of refractory to carbon monoxide corrosion.

  17. Selected constituents in the smokes of U. S. commercial cigaretts: tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, R.A.; Quincy, R.B.; Guerin, M.R.

    1979-05-01

    One hundred twenty-one brands of United States commercial cigarettes were analyzed for their deliveries of tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide under standard analytical smoking conditions. The sample included both filter and nonfilter cigarettes. Comparisons of carbon monoxide deliveries over the range of observed tar deliveries indicated a very high correlation between CO and tar for filter cigarettes, but nonfilter cigarettes tended to produce much less CO than would have been predicted from their tar deliveries. Comparison of ORNL nicotine values for specific brands with those determined by the Federal Trade Commission yield no statistically significant differences between laboratories. 4 figures, 6 tables.

  18. POLYKETONE FROM ETHYLENE WITH CARBON MONOXIDE CATALYZED BY NOVEL CATALYST SYSTEMS BASED ON COPPER WITH BIDENTATE PHOSPHORUS CHELATING LIGANDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Huang; Feng-bo Li; Jin Zou; Guo-qing Yuan; Xiu-li Shi; Ding-sheng Yu

    2003-01-01

    Copolymerization of ethylene with carbon monoxide was performed with Cu catalyst systems. Novel catalyst systems based on Cu (Cu(CH3COO)2/ligand/acid) were firstly reported for the copolymerization of ethylene with carbon monoxide, in which the ligand was a bidentate phosphorus chelating ligand. The experimental results showed that this kind of Cu catalyst system exhibited high activity. When DPPP (1,3-bis(diphenylphosphine)propane) and CH3COOH were used catalyst system had the advantages of high stability and low cost.

  19. Effect of carbon monoxide, hydrogen and sulfate on thermophilic (55 degrees C) hydrogenogenic carbon monoxide conversion in two anaerobic bioreactor sludges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipma, J; Meulepas, R J W; Parshina, S N; Stams, A J M; Lettinga, G; Lens, P N L

    2004-04-01

    The conversion routes of carbon monoxide (CO) at 55 degrees C by full-scale grown anaerobic sludges treating paper mill and distillery wastewater were elucidated. Inhibition experiments with 2-bromoethanesulfonate (BES) and vancomycin showed that CO conversion was performed by a hydrogenogenic population and that its products, i.e. hydrogen and CO2, were subsequently used by methanogens, homo-acetogens or sulfate reducers depending on the sludge source and inhibitors supplied. Direct methanogenic CO conversion occurred only at low CO concentrations [partial pressure of CO (PCO) paper mill sludge. The presence of hydrogen decreased the CO conversion rates, but did not prevent the depletion of CO to undetectable levels (sludges showed interesting potential for hydrogen production from CO, especially since after 30 min exposure to 95 degrees C, the production of CH4 at 55 degrees C was negligible. The paper mill sludge was capable of sulfate reduction with hydrogen, tolerating and using high CO concentrations (PCO>1.6 bar), indicating that CO-rich synthesis gas can be used efficiently as an electron donor for biological sulfate reduction.

  20. Effective technique for numerical kinetics calculations in a system of anharmonic oscillators. Application to study of the influence of the isotopic composition of molecules on the properties of a carbon monoxide active medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunkin, S.B.; Islamov, R.S.; Konev, Y.B.; Kochetov, I.V.

    1982-07-01

    A technique is described for numerical analysis of kinetic processes in a system of anharmonic oscillators, based on using implicit numerical integration and replacement of derivatives by means of backward differentiation expressions. A comparison is made with calculations by the Runge--Kutta method, and it is shown that the computer time is reduced by a factor of more than 10 when the backward differentiation method is used. The influence of the natural isotopic composition of carbon monoxide molecules on the gain and lasing properties is investigated and shown to be only slight.

  1. Photodissociation of the carbon monoxide dication in the {sup 3}Σ{sup −} manifold: Quantum control simulation towards the C{sup 2+} + O channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vranckx, S. [Service de Chimie Quantique et Photophysique, Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), CP 160/09, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Laboratoire de Chimie Physique (UMR 8000), Université Paris-Sud, Orsay 91405 (France); Loreau, J.; Vaeck, N. [Service de Chimie Quantique et Photophysique, Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), CP 160/09, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Meier, C. [Laboratoire Collisions Agrégats Réactivité, UMR 5589, IRSAMC, Université Toulouse III Paul Sabatier, Bât. 3R1b4, Toulouse (France); Desouter-Lecomte, M., E-mail: michele.desouter-lecomte@u-psud.fr [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique (UMR 8000), Univ. Paris Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, Orsay 91405 (France); Département de Chimie, B6c Université de Liège, Sart Tilman, 4000 Liège (Belgium)

    2015-10-28

    The photodissociation and laser assisted dissociation of the carbon monoxide dication X{sup 3}Π CO{sup 2+} into the {sup 3}Σ{sup −} states are investigated. Ab initio electronic structure calculations of the adiabatic potential energy curves, radial nonadiabatic couplings, and dipole moments for the X {sup 3}Π state are performed for 13 excited {sup 3}Σ{sup −} states of CO{sup 2+}. The photodissociation cross section, calculated by time-dependent methods, shows that the C{sup +} + O{sup +} channels dominate the process in the studied energy range. The carbon monoxide dication CO{sup 2+} is an interesting candidate for control because it can be produced in a single, long lived, v = 0 vibrational state due to the instability of all the other excited vibrational states of the ground {sup 3}Π electronic state. In a spectral range of about 25 eV, perpendicular transition dipoles couple this {sup 3}Π state to a manifold of {sup 3}Σ{sup −} excited states leading to numerous C{sup +} + O{sup +} channels and a single C{sup 2+} + O channel. This unique channel is used as target for control calculations using local control theory. We illustrate the efficiency of this method in order to find a tailored electric field driving the photodissociation in a manifold of strongly interacting electronic states. The selected local pulses are then concatenated in a sequence inspired by the “laser distillation” strategy. Finally, the local pulse is compared with optimal control theory.

  2. Probing into the aging dynamics of biomass burning aerosol by using satellite measurements of aerosol optical depth and carbon monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovalov, Igor B.; Beekmann, Matthias; Berezin, Evgeny V.; Formenti, Paola; Andreae, Meinrat O.

    2017-04-01

    Carbonaceous aerosol released into the atmosphere from open biomass burning (BB) is known to undergo considerable chemical and physical transformations (aging). However, there is substantial controversy about the nature and observable effects of these transformations. A shortage of consistent observational evidence on BB aerosol aging processes under different environmental conditions and at various temporal scales hinders development of their adequate representations in chemistry transport models (CTMs). In this study, we obtain insights into the BB aerosol dynamics by using available satellite measurements of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and carbon monoxide (CO). The basic concept of our method is to consider AOD as a function of the BB aerosol photochemical age (that is, the time period characterizing the exposure of BB aerosol emissions to atmospheric oxidation reactions) predicted by means of model tracers. We evaluate the AOD enhancement ratio (ER) defined as the ratio of optical depth of actual BB aerosol with respect to that of a modeled aerosol tracer that is assumed to originate from the same fires as the real BB aerosol but that is not affected by any aging processes. To limit possible effects of model transport errors, the AOD measurements are normalized to CO column amounts that are also retrieved from satellite measurements. The method is applied to the analysis of the meso- and synoptic-scale evolution of aerosol in smoke plumes from major wildfires that occurred in Siberia in summer 2012. AOD and CO retrievals from MODIS and IASI measurements, respectively, are used in combination with simulations performed with the CHIMERE CTM. The analysis indicates that aging processes strongly affected the evolution of BB aerosol in the situation considered, especially in dense plumes (with spatial average PM2. 5 concentration exceeding 100 µg m-3). For such plumes, the ER is found to increase almost 2-fold on the scale of ˜ 10 h of daytime aerosol evolution

  3. Meteorological controls on the diurnal variability of carbon monoxide mixing ratio at a mountaintop monitoring site in the Appalachian Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temple R. Lee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The variability of trace gases such as carbon monoxide (CO at surface monitoring stations is affected by meteorological forcings that are particularly complicated over mountainous terrain. A detailed understanding of the impact of meteorological forcings on trace gas variability is challenging, but is vital to distinguish trace gas measurements affected by local pollutant sources from measurements representative of background mixing ratios. In the present study, we investigate the meteorological and CO characteristics at Pinnacles (38.61 N, 78.35 W, 1017 m above mean sea level, a mountaintop monitoring site in northwestern Virginia, USA, in the Appalachian Mountains, from 2009 to 2012, and focus on understanding the dominant meteorological forcings affecting the CO variability on diurnal timescales. The annual mean diurnal CO cycle shows a minimum in the morning between 0700 and 0900 LST and a maximum in the late afternoon between 1600 and 2000 LST, with a mean (median daily CO amplitude of 39.2±23.7 ppb (33.2 ppb. CO amplitudes show large day-to-day variability. The largest CO amplitudes, in which CO mixing ratios can change >100 ppb in <3 h, occur in the presence of synoptic disturbances. Under fair weather conditions, local- to regional-scale transport processes are found to be more important drivers of the diurnal CO variability. On fair weather days with northwesterly winds, boundary layer dilution causes a daytime CO decrease, resembling the variability observed atop tall towers in flat terrain. Fair weather days with a wind shift from the northwest to the south are characterised by an afternoon CO increase and resemble the variability observed at mountaintops influenced by the vertical transport of polluted air from adjacent valleys.

  4. Molecular simulation and macroscopic modeling of the diffusion of hydrogen, carbon monoxide and water in heavy n-alkane mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makrodimitri, Zoi A; Unruh, Dominik J M; Economou, Ioannis G

    2012-03-28

    The self-diffusion coefficient of hydrogen (H(2)), carbon monoxide (CO) and water (H(2)O) in n-alkanes was studied by molecular dynamics simulation. Diffusion in a few pure n-alkanes (namely n-C(8), n-C(20), n-C(64) and n-C(96)) was examined. In addition, binary n-C(12)-n-C(96) mixtures with various compositions as well as more realistic five- and six-n-alkane component mixtures were simulated. In all cases, the TraPPE united atom force field was used for the n-alkane molecules. The force field for the mixture of n-alkanes was initially validated against experimental density values and was shown to be accurate. Moreover, macroscopic correlations for predicting diffusion coefficient of H(2), CO and H(2)O in n-alkanes and mixtures of n-alkanes were developed. The functional form of the correlation was based on the rough hard sphere theory (RHS). The correlation was applied to simulation data and an absolute average deviation (AAD) of 5.8% for pure n-alkanes and 3.4% for n-alkane mixtures was obtained. Correlation parameters vary in a systematic way with carbon number and so they can be used to provide predictions in the absence of any experimental or molecular simulation data. Finally, in order to reduce the number of adjustable parameters, for the n-alkane mixtures the "pseudo-carbon number" approach was used. This approach resulted in relatively higher deviation from MD simulation data (AAD of 18.2%); however, it provides a convenient and fast method to predict diffusion coefficients. The correlations developed here are expected to be useful for engineering calculations related to the design of the Gas-to-Liquid process.

  5. De-etiolation of wheat seedling leaves: cross talk between heme oxygenase/carbon monoxide and nitric oxide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahui Liu

    Full Text Available Greening of etiolated plants is predominantly stimulated by light but the complete molecular mechanism is still unknown. Multiple studies currently focus on the important physiological effects of heme oxygenase (HO/carbon monoxide (CO in plants. In this report, firstly, the role of HO/CO in light-induced de-etiolation process was investigated. We discovered that light could significantly increase HO activities, HO-1 gene expression, CO release, and chlorophyll accumulation, all of which were sensitive to zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPPIX, the potent inhibitor of HO-1, respectively. Both HO-1 inducer hematin (H and CO aqueous solution were able to relieve etiolation in wheat seedling leaves under completely darkness by up-regulating endogenous HO/CO system, so as nitric oxide (NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP did. Similarly, endogenous NO production was also boost in response to light, SNP, hematin and CO aqueous solution in wheat seedling leaves. Additionally, the restoration of chlorophyll contents was blocked, when the inhibitor of mammalian nitric oxide synthase N(G-nitro-L-arginine methylester hydrochloride (L-NAME or the specific scavenger of NO 2-(4-carboxyphenyl-4, 4, 5, 5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide potassium salt (cPTIO was added, respectively. Furthermore, the inducible effects of light were different from those of SNP, hematin, and CO on Pfr accumulation and PHYA transcripts. However, all of sodium nitroprusside (SNP, hematin, and CO could accelerate NO emission, which suggested that HO/CO in wheat seedlings de-etiolation under dark-light transition may have a cross talk with NO.

  6. Nitrogen-monoxide gas-sensing properties of transparent p-type copper-oxide nanorod arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Soojeong; Kim, Hyojin; Kim, Dojin [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    We report the nitrogen-monoxide (NO) gas-sensing properties of transparent p-type copper-oxide (CuO) nanorod arrays synthesized by using the hydrothermal method with a CuO nanoparticle seed layer deposited on a glass substrate via sputtering process. We synthesized polycrystalline CuO nanorods measuring 200 to 300 nm in length and 20 to 30 nm in diameter for three controlled molarity ratios of 1:1, 1:2 and 1:4 between copper nitrate trihydrate [Cu(NO{sub 2}){sub 2}·3H{sub 2}O] and hexamethylenetetramine (C{sub 6}H{sub 12}N{sub 4}). The crystal structures and morphologies of the synthesized CuO nanorod arrays were examined using grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The gas-sensing measurements for NO gas in dry air indicated that the CuO nanorodarray-based gas sensors synthesized under hydrothermal condition at a molarity ratio of 1:2 showed the best gas sensing response to NO gas. These CuO nanorod-array gas sensors exhibited a highly sensitive response to NO gas, with a maximum sensitivity of about 650% for 10 ppm NO in dry air at an operating temperature of 100 .deg. C. These transparent p-type CuO nanorod-array gas sensors have shown a reversible and reliable response to NO gas over a range of operating temperatures. These results indicate certain potential use of p-type oxide semiconductor CuO nanorods as sensing materials for several types of gas sensors, including p - n junction gas sensors.

  7. Satellite observations of tropospheric ammonia and carbon monoxide: Global distributions, regional correlations and comparisons to model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonia (NH3) and carbon monoxide (CO) are primary pollutants emitted to the Earth's atmosphere from common as well as distinct sources associated with anthropogenic and natural activities. The seasonal and global distributions and correlations of NH3 and CO from the Tropospheric...

  8. Beneficial effects of diminished production of hydrogen sulfide or carbon monoxide on hypertension and renal injury induced by NO withdrawal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesseling, Sebastiaan; Fledderus, Joost O.; Verhaar, Marianne C.; Joles, Jaap A.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Whether NO, carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) compensate for each other when one or more is depleted is unclear. Inhibiting NOS causes hypertension and kidney injury. Both global depletion of H2S by cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) gene deletion

  9. Low concentration of exogenous carbon monoxide protects mammalian cells against proliferation induced by radiation-induced bystander effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, Liping [Center of Medical Physics and Technology, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Yu, K.N. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Center of Medical Physics and Technology, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Bao, Lingzhi; Wu, Wenqing; Wang, Hongzhi [Center of Medical Physics and Technology, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Han, Wei, E-mail: hanw@hfcas.cn [Center of Medical Physics and Technology, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • We show the possibility of modulate proliferation induced by radiation-induced bystander effect with low concentration carbon monoxide. • Carbon monoxide inhibited proliferation via modulating the transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1)/nitric oxide (NO) signaling pathway. • Exogenous carbon monoxide has potential application in clinical radiotherapy. - Abstract: Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) has been proposed to have tight relationship with the irradiation-caused secondary cancers beyond the irradiation-treated area after radiotherapy. Our previous studies demonstrated a protective effect of low concentration carbon monoxide (CO) on the genotoxicity of RIBE after α-particle irradiation. In the present work, a significant inhibitory effect of low-dose exogenous CO, generated by tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (II) dimer [CO-releasing molecule (CORM-2)], on both RIBE-induced proliferation and chromosome aberration was observed. Further studies on the mechanism revealed that the transforming growth factor β1/nitric oxide (NO) signaling pathway, which mediated RIBE signaling transduction, could be modulated by CO involved in the protective effects. Considering the potential of exogenous CO in clinical applications and its protective effect on RIBE, the present work aims to provide a foundation for potential application of CO in radiotherapy.

  10. Carbon monoxide gas is not inert, but global, in its consequences for bacterial gene expression, iron acquisition and antibiotic resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wareham, L.K.; Begg, R.; Jesse, H.E.; van Beilen, J.W.A.; Ali, S.; Svistunenko, D.; McLean, S.; Hellingwerf, K.J.; Sanguinetti, G.; Poole, R.K.

    2016-01-01

    Carbon monoxide is a respiratory poison and gaseous signaling molecule. Although CO-releasing molecules (CORMs) deliver CO with temporal and spatial specificity in mammals, and are proven antimicrobial agents, we do not understand the modes of CO toxicity. Our aim was to explore the impact of CO gas

  11. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Jjj of... - Carbon Monoxide Emission Limits for Existing Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon Monoxide Emission Limits for Existing Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units 5 Table 5 to Subpart JJJ of Part 62 Protection of... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Pt. 62, Subpt. JJJ, Table 5 Table 5 to Subpart JJJ...

  12. Simulations of exercise and brain effects of acute exposure to carbon monoxide in normal and vascular-diseased persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    At some level, carboxyhemoglobin (RbCO) due to inhalation of carbon monoxide (CO) reduces maximum exercise duration in normal and ischemic heart patients. At high RbCO levels in normal subjects, brain function is also affected and behavioral performance is impaired. These are fin...

  13. Recovery of cognitive dysfunction in a case of delayed encephalopathy of carbon monoxide poisoning after treatment with donepezil hydrochloride

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Pin; Zeng Tao; Chi Zhao-fu

    2009-01-01

    Delayed encephalopathy following carbon monoxide poisoning is a serious complication. Here, we report a patient with delayed encephalopathy who suffered from cognitive disorders and urinary incontinence after a temporal normal period of 15 days after acute intoxication, and his cognitive function recovered gradually following donepezil hydrochloride treatment. Now, he can undertake slight farming work.

  14. Recovery of cognitive dysfunction in a case of delayed encephalopathy of carbon monoxide poisoning after treatment with donepezil hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Pin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Delayed encephalopathy following carbon monoxide poisoning is a serious complication. Here, we report a patient with delayed encephalopathy who suffered from cognitive disorders and urinary incontinence after a temporal normal period of 15 days after acute intoxication, and his cognitive function recovered gradually following donepezil hydrochloride treatment. Now, he can undertake slight farming work.

  15. Oxygen permeation flux through La1-ySryFeO3 limited by the carbon monoxide oxidation rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hassel, B.A.; van Hassel, B.A.; ten Elshof, Johan E.; Bouwmeester, Henricus J.M.

    1995-01-01

    The oxygen permeation flux through La1-ySryFeO3-δ (y = 0.1, 0.2) in a large oxygen partial pressure gradient (air/CO, CO2 mixture) was found to be limited by the carbon monoxide oxidation rate at the low oxygen partial pressure side of the membrane. The oxygen permeation flux through the membrane

  16. 卷烟烟气中一氧化碳的简易测试方法%A simple method for carbon monoxide testing in the cigarette smoke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兆东; 胡秀峰; 霍晓晖; 王玉林; 李占臣; 韦丽红; 康晓鸥; 崔立娟

    2013-01-01

    为了降低烟气中CO吸附材料的筛选成本,组装了一套烟气采集装置,该装置能够直接采集点燃卷烟的烟气,也能采集经过吸附材料后的烟气.对所采集烟气的CO体积分数进行检测,考察吸附材料或添加剂吸附CO的效果.结果表明,该装置适宜的采样时间为烟支燃烧后3~5 min,所需吸附材料仅约1 g,所需测试时间为50 min,具有组装容易、操作简单和价格低廉的特点.但因为采集烟气的针孔有泄露,再加上手工操作导致不确定性,该方法仅适用于定性筛选吸附材料或添加剂.%This article is aimed to present an easy and practical method for testing carbon monoxide in the cigarette smoke.First of all,we have collected the cigarette smoke sample by using a smoke sample assembling device.The sample can be collected directly by lighting a cigarette in the device in a time length of about 3-5 min after the cigarette was lit up.Then,we can study the CO-adsorbed features of the adsorbed material by comparing the results of carbon monoxide testing in the smoke sample.A test can thus be finished with the adsorbing material 1 g or so in 50 minutes at a time.The method we have worked out is characterized by its easy assembling,low price and simple operation.The application results of the experiment with the method demonstrate that it can improve the smoke sample preparation and processing line of the absorbing material or addifives greatly due to producing less reaction products.The advantages of the method also lie in its screening of the absorbing materials or additives qualitatively,for the smoke leakage occurred just through a small pinhole when the sample is collected by using a syringe and for the particular uncertainty manually.In order to reduce the cost of research and development to screen adsorption material for adsorbing the carbon monoxide,the method we have worked out is simple in application,convenient in collecting the testing sample and testing

  17. First principles description of the insulator-metal transition in europium monoxide

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hao

    2012-02-01

    Europium monoxide, EuO, is a ferromagnetic insulator. Its electronic structure under pressure and doping is investigated by means of density functional theory. We employ spin polarized electronic structure calculations including onsite electron-electron interaction for the localized Eu 4f and 5d electrons. Our results show that under pressure the ferromagnetism is stable, both for hydrostatic and uniaxial pressure, while the compound undergoes an insulator-metal transition. The insulator-metal transition in O deficient and Gd doped EuO is reproduced for an impurity concentration of 6.25%. A 10 monolayer thick EuO(1 0 0) thin film is predicted to be an insulator with a narrow band gap of 0.08 eV. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A Real-Time Monitoring System of Industry Carbon Monoxide Based on Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiachen Yang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO burns or explodes at over-standard concentration. Hence, in this paper, a Wifi-based, real-time monitoring of a CO system is proposed for application in the construction industry, in which a sensor measuring node is designed by low-frequency modulation method to acquire CO concentration reliably, and a digital filtering method is adopted for noise filtering. According to the triangulation, the Wifi network is constructed to transmit information and determine the position of nodes. The measured data are displayed on a computer or smart phone by a graphical interface. The experiment shows that the monitoring system obtains excellent accuracy and stability in long-term continuous monitoring.

  19. Foucault, surveillance, and carbon monoxide testing within stop-smoking services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Aimee; Ashton, Kathryn; Phillips, Rhiannon

    2015-07-01

    Health professionals have adopted proactive testing for early evidence of disease. Researchers have identified that this leads to enumerated understandings and shapes behavior in productive ways. Smoking-cessation advisors regularly test clients for carbon monoxide (CO), but client views of this had not previously been explored. We interviewed 23 clients of a United Kingdom-based stop-smoking service regarding their experiences of CO testing. The majority of participants were successful quitters. We used ATLAS.ti 7 as a data-management tool during structured qualitative analysis. Our findings reveal that clients believed the results of their CO tests. Many became enumerated in their understanding, and thus placed themselves in a hierarchy with other members of their group. Almost all clients found that knowing their CO test score was motivating. We conclude that additional research is needed to understand the experiences of CO testing among clients who do not quit.

  20. Hemeoxygenase-1 inhibits human myometrial contractility via carbon monoxide and is upregulated by progesterone during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, C H; Ahmed, A

    1998-03-01

    Nitric oxide was proposed as an endogenous inhibitor of myometrial contractility during pregnancy. Carbon monoxide (CO) like nitric oxide increases cGMP and is generated during the degradation of heme to biliverdin IX by hemeoxygenases (HO). Here we report that the expression of both HO-1 (inducible) and HO-2 (constitutive) were > 15-fold higher in pregnant myometrium compared to nonpregnant myometrium (n = 4, P synthesis (n = 4, P tin protoporphyrin IX (20 microM). This study clearly demonstrates the expression of HO in the human myometrium and shows that its induction produces CO that limits uterine contractility in pregnant myometrium indicating a role for the HO-CO-cGMP pathway in the maintenance of the quiescent state of the uterus during pregnancy.

  1. Foliage plants for indoor removal of the primary combustion gases carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.; Mesick, H. H.

    1985-01-01

    Foliage plants were evaluated for their ability to sorb carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide, the two primary gases produced during the combustion of fossil fuels and tobacco. The spider plant (Chlorophytum elatum var. vittatum) could sorb 2.86 micrograms CO/sq cm leaf surface in a 6 h photoperiod. The golden pothos (Scindapsus aureus) sorbed 0.98 micrograms CO/sq cm leaf surface in the same time period. In a system with the spider plant, greater than or equal to 99 percent of an initial concentration of 47 ppm NO2 could be removed in 6 h from a void volume of approximately 0.35 cu m. One spider plant potted in a 3.8 liter container can sorb 3300 micrograms CO and effect the removal of 8500 micrograms NO2/hour, recognizing the fact that a significant fraction of NO2 at high concentrations will be lost by surface sorption, dissolving in moisture, etc.

  2. Detection of carbon monoxide and water absorption lines in an exoplanet atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopacky, Quinn M; Barman, Travis S; Macintosh, Bruce A; Marois, Christian

    2013-03-22

    Determining the atmospheric structure and chemical composition of an exoplanet remains a formidable goal. Fortunately, advancements in the study of exoplanets and their atmospheres have come in the form of direct imaging--spatially resolving the planet from its parent star--which enables high-resolution spectroscopy of self-luminous planets in jovian-like orbits. Here, we present a spectrum with numerous, well-resolved molecular lines from both water and carbon monoxide from a massive planet orbiting less than 40 astronomical units from the star HR 8799. These data reveal the planet's chemical composition, atmospheric structure, and surface gravity, confirming that it is indeed a young planet. The spectral lines suggest an atmospheric carbon-to-oxygen ratio that is greater than that of the host star, providing hints about the planet's formation.

  3. On Estimation of Contamination from Hydrogen Cyanide in Carbon Monoxide Line-intensity Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Dongwoo T.; Li, Tony Y.; Viero, Marco P.; Church, Sarah E.; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2017-09-01

    Line-intensity mapping surveys probe large-scale structure through spatial variations in molecular line emission from a population of unresolved cosmological sources. Future such surveys of carbon monoxide line emission, specifically the CO(1-0) line, face potential contamination from a disjointed population of sources emitting in a hydrogen cyanide emission line, HCN(1-0). This paper explores the potential range of the strength of HCN emission and its effect on the CO auto power spectrum, using simulations with an empirical model of the CO/HCN–halo connection. We find that effects on the observed CO power spectrum depend on modeling assumptions but are very small for our fiducial model, which is based on current understanding of the galaxy–halo connection. Given the fiducial model, we expect the bias in overall CO detection significance due to HCN to be less than 1%.

  4. Carbon monoxide analysis: a comparison of two co-oximeters and headspace gas chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costantino, A.G.; Park, J.; Caplan, Y.H.

    Three methods (lL-182 Co-Oximeter, lL-282 Co-Oximeter, and headspace gas chromatography) for the analysis of carbon monoxide in postmortem blood were studied and compared using a prepared reference standard, Quantra control materials, and 62 postmortem blood specimens. The methods compared favorably with one another. The linear regression equations for the 62 postmortem blood samples (range = 1.0 to 86% saturation) were: lL-282 vs. lL-182, y = 1.11x - 3.10, r = 0.981; lL-182 vs. GC, y = 0.88x + 2.97, r = 0.973; lL-282 vs. GC, y = 1.00x - 1.24, r = 0.986.

  5. Carbon monoxide poisoning from hurricane-associated use of portable generators--Florida, 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-22

    The four major hurricanes that struck Florida during August 13-September 25, 2004, produced electric power outages in several million homes. After the hurricanes, the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) investigated six deaths in Florida attributed to carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning (CPSC, unpublished data, 2004). The Florida Department of Health and CDC analyzed demographic and CO exposure data from these fatal poisoning cases and from nonfatal poisoning cases among 167 persons treated at 10 hospitals, including two with hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) chambers. This report describes the results of that analysis, which determined that misplacement of portable, gasoline-powered generators (e.g., indoors, in garages, or outdoors near windows) was responsible for nearly all of these CO exposures. Public health practitioners should recognize that post-hurricane environments present challenges to the safe operation of portable generators and should educate the public on the hazards of CO poisoning in these settings.

  6. Dinitrogen cleavage and functionalization by carbon monoxide promoted by a hafnium complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobloch, Donald J; Lobkovsky, Emil; Chirik, Paul J

    2010-01-01

    Molecular nitrogen (N(2)) and carbon monoxide (CO) have the two strongest bonds in chemistry and present significant challenges in developing new transformations that exploit these two abundant feedstocks. At the core of this objective is the discovery of transition-metal compounds that promote the six-electron reductive cleavage of N(2) at ambient temperature and pressure and also promote new nitrogen-element bond formation. Here we show that an organometallic hafnium compound induces N(2) cleavage on the addition of CO, with a simultaneous assembly of new nitrogen-carbon and carbon-carbon bonds. Subsequent addition of a weak acid liberates oxamide, which demonstrates that an important agrochemical can be synthesized directly from N(2) and CO. These studies introduce an alternative paradigm for N(2) cleavage and functionalization in which the six-electron reductive cleavage is promoted by both the transition metal and the incoming ligand, CO, used for the new bond formations.

  7. Enhancement of p-type mobility in tin monoxide by native defects

    KAUST Repository

    Granato, D. B.

    2013-05-31

    Transparent p-type materials with good mobility are needed to build completely transparent p-n junctions. Tin monoxide (SnO) is a promising candidate. A recent study indicates great enhancement of the hole mobility of SnO grown in Sn-rich environment [E. Fortunato et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 052105 (2010)]. Because such an environment makes the formation of defects very likely, we study defect effects on the electronic structure to explain the increased mobility. We find that Sn interstitials and O vacancies modify the valence band, inducing higher contributions of the delocalized Sn 5p orbitals as compared to the localized O 2p orbitals, thus increasing the mobility. This mechanism of valence band modification paves the way to a systematic improvement of transparent p-type semiconductors.

  8. A role for reactive oxygen species in the antibacterial properties of carbon monoxide-releasing molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Ana Filipa N; Nobre, Lígia S; Saraiva, Lígia M

    2012-11-01

    Carbon monoxide-releasing molecules (CO-RMs) are, in general, transition metal carbonyl complexes that liberate controlled amounts of CO. In animal models, CO-RMs have been shown to reduce myocardial ischaemia, inflammation and vascular dysfunction, and to provide a protective effect in organ transplantation. Moreover, CO-RMs are bactericides that kill both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Herein are reviewed the microbial genetic and biochemical responses associated with CO-RM-mediated cell death. Particular emphasis is given to the data revealing that CO-RMs induce the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which contribute to the antibacterial activity of these compounds.

  9. Cobalt--zirconia catalysts for the synthesis of hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide and hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulanova, T.F.; Lapidus, A.L.

    1972-01-01

    Laboratory and pilot plant experiments were done in order to replace thoria by more readily available and biologically inactive promoters in kieselguhr-supported cobalt and cobalt-magnesia catalysts. Maximum activity, stability, and yields of ceresins boiling above 460/sup 0/C were obtained with a zirconia-cobalt weight ratio of 1:10. The activity of this catalyst remained spectacularly high for five months. The optimum reaction temperature was 190/sup 0/C at 8 to 9 atm pressure of the carbon monoxide-hydrogen mixture. The experimental procedures and the chemical and grain-size composition of five catalysts are given, as well as the yields of methane, C/sub 2-4/fraction, gasoline, oils, and ceresin.

  10. Predicting Cardiotoxic Effects of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Using Speckle Tracking Echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraçoğlu, Erhan; Vuruşkan, Ertan; Kılıç, Salih; Çekici, Yusuf; Onur, Bahaeddin; Arslan, Yavuz; Kılıç, Ertuğrul; Aykut, Ömer

    2017-10-06

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning could cause significant cardiac injury. This study aimed to evaluate patients with CO poisoning by using speckle tracking echocardiography (STE), a potentially more sensitive technique, to identify left systolic ventricular dysfunction for the first time in the literature. Seventy-two patients who were exposed to CO poisoning were studied. Blood collection and echocardiography were performed at admission and after patients' discharge on days 10-15 (mean 12 days). Global longitudinal strain (GLS) and global circumferential strain (GCS) were calculated using STE. In order to find the normal strain levels and to compare it to the patient with CO poisoning, 35 healthy subjects were included in the study. Left ventricular ejection fraction was analyzed according to Simpson's method. Patients were divided into two groups based on their LVEF values. LVEF Speckle tracking echocardiography has the potential of demonstrating subtle LV systolic dysfunction even in CO poisoning patients with preserved EF.

  11. Electric impedance study of elastic alternating propylene-carbon monoxide copolymer (PCO-200)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Jawad, Saadi; Abu-Surrah, Adnan S.; Maghrabi, Mufeed; Khattari, Ziad

    2011-07-01

    The electrical properties of elastic alternating propylene-carbon monoxide copolymer (PCO-200) were investigated using the impedance spectroscopy technique. The results revealed a phase transition at about 70 °C where the material transforms from its insulating phase of conductivity in the order of 6×10-9 to about 9×10-5 (Ω m)-1, The second phase is characterized by temperature dependent electrical relaxation phenomena. The plot of the complex electric modulus and the complex impedance yields semicircles in the temperature range 70 up to 110 °C and a decreasing radius with increasing temperature. The activation energy was found to be in the order of 0.8 eV.

  12. Mapping Air Quality Index of Carbon Monoxide (CO) in Medan City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryati, I.; Khair, H.

    2017-03-01

    This study aims to map and analyze air quality index of carbon monoxide (CO) in Medan City. This research used 12 (twelve) sampling points around in Medan with an hour duration each point. CO concentration was analyzed using the NDIR CO Analyzer sampling tool. The concentration CO was obtained between 1 ppm - 23 ppm, with an average concentration was 9.5 ppm. This condition is still below the national ambient air quality standard set by Government Regulation of Indonesian Republic Number 41-1999 amounted to 29 ppm. The result of CO concentration measurements was converted into air pollutant standard index, obtained the index value of 58 - 204. Surfer 10 was used to create map of air pollutant standard index for CO. The map illustrates very unhealthy area where located in the Medan Belawan district. The main factors affecting the concentration of CO are from transportation and meteorological factors.

  13. Nd:YGG crystal laser at 1110 nm: a potential source for detecting carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haohai; Wu, Kui; Zhang, Huaijin; Wang, Zhengping; Wang, Jiyang; Jiang, Minhua

    2011-04-01

    We demonstrated a laser-diode pumped Nd-doped yttrium gallium garnet crystal laser at 1110 nm for the first time to our knowledge. By suppressing the oscillation at about 1.06 μm, continuous-wave output power of 2.1 W at 1110 nm was achieved. With a Cr:YAG as the saturable absorber, the passive Q-switching performance at this wavelength was obtained. The shortest pulse width and largest pulse energy were 31.5 ns and 22.7 μJ, respectively. Laser radiation at this wavelength is an important source for detecting carbon monoxide poisoning by simple frequency doubling with a nonlinear crystal.

  14. Evidence for significant photochemical production of carbon monoxide by particles in coastal and oligotrophic marine waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Huixiang; Zafiriou, Oliver C.

    2009-12-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) photoproduction from particulate and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) was determined in seawater from open-ocean and coastal areas. In confirmatory tests, poisoned or non-poisoned filtered and unfiltered blue-water samples, were exposed to sunlight. CO photoproduction was 21-42% higher in the unfiltered than in the filtered samples. In a more thorough study utilizing concentrated particles prepared by 0.2-μm cross-flow filtration, samples containing varying levels of particles were irradiated under simulated solar radiation. Their CO photoproduction rates increased linearly with particle concentration factor. Particulate CO production was 11-35% of CDOM-based CO production. On an absorbed-photons basis, the former was 30-108% more efficient than the latter. This study suggests that in both coastal and blue waters these new-found particulate photoprocesses are of similar biogeochemical importance to the well-known CDOM photoproduction term.

  15. A Density Functional Theory Study of Doped Tin Monoxide as a Transparent p-type Semiconductor

    KAUST Repository

    Bianchi Granato, Danilo

    2012-05-01

    In the pursuit of enhancing the electronic properties of transparent p-type semiconductors, this work uses density functional theory to study the effects of doping tin monoxide with nitrogen, antimony, yttrium and lanthanum. An overview of the theoretical concepts and a detailed description of the methods employed are given, including a discussion about the correction scheme for charged defects proposed by Freysoldt and others [Freysoldt 2009]. Analysis of the formation energies of the defects points out that nitrogen substitutes an oxygen atom and does not provide charge carriers. On the other hand, antimony, yttrium, and lanthanum substitute a tin atom and donate n-type carriers. Study of the band structure and density of states indicates that yttrium and lanthanum improves the hole mobility. Present results are in good agreement with available experimental works and help to improve the understanding on how to engineer transparent p-type materials with higher hole mobilities.

  16. Investigation of the Carbon Monoxide Gas Sensing Characteristics of Tin Oxide Mixed Cerium Oxide Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad B. Haider

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Thin films of tin oxide mixed cerium oxide were grown on unheated substrates by physical vapor deposition. The films were annealed in air at 500 °C for two hours, and were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and optical spectrophotometry. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy results reveal that the films were highly porous and porosity of our films was found to be in the range of 11.6–21.7%. The films were investigated for the detection of carbon monoxide, and were found to be highly sensitive. We found that 430 °C was the optimum operating temperature for sensing CO gas at concentrations as low as 5 ppm. Our sensors exhibited fast response and recovery times of 26 s and 30 s, respectively.

  17. Smoke-inhalation injury and the effect of carbon monoxide in the sheep model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimazu, T.; Ikeuchi, H.; Hubbard, G.B.; Langlinais, P.C.; Mason, A.D.

    1990-01-01

    The role of carbon monoxide (CO) in causing the physiologic and anatomic changes characteristic of smoke inhalation injury was evaluated in 34 sheep. The smoke-exposed group received a dose of smoke known to produce mild inhalation injury. The CO group received a pure gas mixture that contained concentrations of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and CO similar to those in the smoke. Cardiopulmonary function was measured immediately after exposure, and 24 and 72 hours after exposure. The CO group showed a transient increase in cardiac output, but the smoke group showed no such response. The CO group maintained normal PaO2 levels during the 72-hour study period; the smoke group gradually developed hypoxemia. The lungs of the CO exposed animals had no discernible histologic changes. These results indicate that CO per se is not the primary etiologic agent of smoke inhalation injury.

  18. Delayed Encephalopathy of Carbon Monoxide Intoxication and Treatment with Hyperbaric Oxygen: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Polat

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Delayed encephalopathy (DE is a neuropsychiatric syndrome that can arise generally within 20 days of acute carbon monoxide (CO intoxication after apparent recovery and involves variable degrees of cognitive deficits, personality changes, movement disorders and focal neurologic deficits. We report a 35-year-old female patient with delayed encephalopathy due to CO intoxication, presenting with cognitive impairment and mild parkinsonism despite receiving hyberbaric oxigen therapy (HBO. Magnetic resonance imaging showed abnormal signal intensity and decreased diffusivity at both caudate nuclei and globus pallidus. She continued to receive additional HBO therapy and complete recovery was reached within six months. The positive effect of early HBO therapy of selected patients in reversing the acute effects of CO intoxication is appearant. We here also review the beneficial effect of HBO in preventing or limitating the late neurocognitive deficits associated with severe CO intoxication.

  19. Density function theory study of the adsorption and dissociation of carbon monoxide on tungsten nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Meng-Hsiung; Ju, Shin-Pon; Chen, Hsin-Tsung; Chen, Hui-Lung; Lu, Jian-Ming; Lin, Ken-Huang; Lin, Jenn-Sen; Hsieh, Jin-Yuan; Yang, Hsi-Wen

    2013-02-01

    The adsorption and dissociation properties of carbon monoxide (CO) molecule on tungsten W(n) (n = 10-15) nanoparticles have been investigated by density-functional theory (DFT) calculations. The lowest-energy structures for W(n) (n = 10-15) nanoparticles are found by the basin-hopping method and big-bang method with the modified tight-binding many-body potential. We calculated the corresponding adsorption energies, C-O bond lengths and dissociation barriers for adsorption of CO on nanoparticles. The electronic properties of CO on nanoparticles are studied by the analysis of density of state and charge density. The characteristic of CO on W(n) nanoparticles are also compared with that of W bulk.

  20. Ab initio calculations to support accurate modelling of the rovibronic spectroscopy calculations of vanadium monoxide (VO)

    CERN Document Server

    McKemmish, Laura K; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Accurate knowledge of the rovibronic near-infrared and visible spectra of vanadium monoxide (VO) is very important for studies of cool stellar and hot planetary atmospheres. Here, the required ab initio dipole moment and spin-orbit coupling curves for VO are produced. This data forms the basis of a new VO line list considering 13 different electronic states and containing over 277 million transitions. Open shell transition, metal diatomics are challenging species to model through ab initio quantum mechanics due to the large number of low-lying electronic states, significant spin-orbit coupling and strong static and dynamic electron correlation. Multi-reference configuration interaction methodologies using orbitals from a complete active space self-consistent-field (CASSCF) calculation are the standard technique for these systems. We use different state-specific or minimal-state CASSCF orbitals for each electronic state to maximise the calculation accuracy. The off-diagonal dipole moment controls the intensity...

  1. Polymeric Framboidal Nanoparticles Loaded with a Carbon Monoxide Donor via Phenylboronic Acid-Catechol Complexation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Vlies, André J; Inubushi, Ryosuke; Uyama, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Urara

    2016-06-15

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is an essential gaseous signaling molecule in the human body. Toward the controlled delivery of CO to the target tissues or cells, nanomaterial-based CO donors have attracted growing attention. Here, we present CO-releasing polymeric nanoparticles (CONPs) prepared by simple mixing of phenylboronic acid-containing framboidal nanoparticles with the catechol-bearing CO-donor Ru(CO)3Cl(L-DOPA) via phenylboronic acid-catechol complexation. The CONPs release CO in response to cysteine and suppress the production of the pro-inflammatory mediators interleukin 6 (IL-6) and nitric oxide (NO) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine macrophages. This CONP platform may show promise in therapeutic applications of CO.

  2. Dense Carbon Monoxide to 160 GPa: Stepwise Polymerization to Two-Dimensional Layered Solid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Young-Jay; Kim, Minseob; Lim, Jinhyuk; Dias, Ranga; Klug, Dennis; Yoo, Choong-Shik

    2016-11-14

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is the first molecular system found to transform into a nonmolecular “polymeric” solid above 5.5 GPa, yet been studied beyond 10 GPa. Here, we show a series of pressure-induced phase transformations in CO to 160 GPa: from a molecular solid to a highly colored, low-density polymeric phase I to translucent, high-density phase II to transparent, layered phase III. The properties of these phases are consistent with those expected from recently predicted 1D P21/m, 3D I212121, and 2D Cmcm structures, respectively. Thus, the present results advocate a stepwise polymerization of CO triple bonds to ultimately a 2D singly bonded layer structure with an enhanced ionic character.

  3. A carbon monoxide gas sensor using oxygen plasma modified carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Weiyun; Fam, Derrick Wen Hui; Yin, Zongyou; Sun, Ting; Tan, Hui Teng; Liu, Weiling; Iing Yoong Tok, Alfred; Boey, Yin Chiang Freddy; Zhang, Hua; Hng, Huey Hoon; Yan, Qingyu

    2012-10-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a highly toxic gas that can be commonly found in many places. However, it is not easily detected by human olfaction due to its colorless and odorless nature. Therefore, highly sensitive sensors need to be developed for this purpose. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have an immense potential in gas sensing. However, CNT-based gas sensors for sensing CO are seldom reported due to the lack of reactivity between CO and CNTs. In this work, O2 plasma modified CNT was used to fabricate a CNT gas sensor. The plasma treated CNTs showed selectively towards CO, with the capability of sensing low concentrations of CO (5 ppm) at room temperature, while the pristine CNTs showed no response. UV spectra and oxygen reduction reaction provided evidence that the difference in sensing property was due to the elimination of metallic CNTs and enhancement of the oxygen reduction property.

  4. Size-controlled synthesis of monodispersed gold nanoparticles via carbon monoxide gas reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewinski Nastassja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An in depth analysis of gold nanoparticle (AuNP synthesis and size tuning, utilizing carbon monoxide (CO gas as a reducing agent, is presented for the first time. The sizes of the AuNPs are tunable from ~4 to 100 nm by altering the concentration of HAuCl4 and inlet CO gas-injection flow rate. It is also found that speciation of aqueous HAuCl4, prior to reduction, influences the size, morphology, and properties of AuNPs when reduced with CO gas. Ensemble extinction spectra and TEM images provide clear evidence that CO reduction offers a high level of monodispersity with standard deviations as low as 3%. Upon synthesis, no excess reducing agent remains in solution eliminating the need for purification. The time necessary to synthesize AuNPs, using CO, is less than 2 min.

  5. A Real-Time Monitoring System of Industry Carbon Monoxide Based on Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiachen; Zhou, Jianxiong; Lv, Zhihan; Wei, Wei; Song, Houbing

    2015-11-20

    Carbon monoxide (CO) burns or explodes at over-standard concentration. Hence, in this paper, a Wifi-based, real-time monitoring of a CO system is proposed for application in the construction industry, in which a sensor measuring node is designed by low-frequency modulation method to acquire CO concentration reliably, and a digital filtering method is adopted for noise filtering. According to the triangulation, the Wifi network is constructed to transmit information and determine the position of nodes. The measured data are displayed on a computer or smart phone by a graphical interface. The experiment shows that the monitoring system obtains excellent accuracy and stability in long-term continuous monitoring.

  6. Carbon monoxide intoxication: an event to be detected by the emergency service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnulfo Orobio-Quiñones

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The carbon monoxide poisoning (CO is a common condition. It is presented in 17.5 per 100,000 habitants. It is the main cause of poisoning mortality in developed countries. The condition requires a high index of suspicion and exhaustive evaluation of the patient circumstances. The diagnosis is complicated by the unspecific symptoms and lack of reliable markers. CO-oximetry is a tool that helps the diagnosis, therapeutic decision-making and monitoring. Although the evidence is still controversial, the best opportunity for patients intoxicated with CO is the use of oxygen at high concentrations in a hyperbaric chamber. Considering the difficult access to hyperbaric chamber in our setting, we must consider alternative therapies that can help reduce acute complications and chronic consequences.

  7. Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Resulting in ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction: A Rare Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Chao Hsu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Acute carbon monoxide (CO poisoning with cardiac complications is well documented in the literature. However, ST segment elevation is a rare presentation, and most of these cases with ST elevation have revealed non-occlusive or normal coronary arteries. We report a case of CO poisoning complicated with ST elevation myocardial infarction. Emergency coronary angiography revealed total occlusion of the left anterior descending artery and primary percutaneous coronary intervention was performed. This report of a rare case should remind physicians that cardiovascular investigations, including electrocardiography, must be performed in cases with CO poisoning because mortality might increase if reperfusion therapy or appropriate medical treatments are not performed in patients with acute coronary artery occlusion.

  8. [Family suicide by carbon monoxide poisoning, Paris 1890-1899. Role of popular illustrations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luauté, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    History has nearly forgotten a series of six suicides by family groups composed of parents and children residing in the same household, which received wide attention in the 1890s. This period saw the launch of illustrated supplements to Parisian daily newspapers, several of which produced dramatic depictions of these tragedies. The cause of the suicides was believed to be extreme poverty or the fear thereof. In the latter cases, it is argued that newspaper illustrations facilitated the carrying out of suicidal acts by persons whose circumstances placed them at risk for suicide. The choice of death by carbon monoxide poisoning was due to a wish by parents to die together with their children and to the hope of a peaceful death.

  9. A Review on Preferential Oxidation of Carbon Monoxide in Hydrogen Rich Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mishra

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this review, recent works on the preferential oxidation of carbon monoxide in hydrogen rich gases for fuel cell applications are summarized. H2 is used as a fuel for polymer-electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC. It is produced by reforming of natural gas or liquid fuels followed by water gas shift reaction. The produced gas consists of H2, CO, and CO2. In which CO content is around 1%, which is highly poisonous for the Pt anode of the PEMFC so that further removal of CO is needed. Catalytic preferential oxidation of CO (CO-PROX is one of the most suitable methods of purification of H2 because of high CO conversion rate at low temperature range, which is preferable for PEMFC operating conditions. Catalysts used for COPROX are mainly noble metal based; gold based and base metal oxide catalysts among them Copper-Ceria based catalysts are the most appropriate due to its low cost, easy availability and result obtained by these catalysts are comparable with the conventional noble metal catalysts. Copyright © 2011 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved(Received: 22nd October 2010, Revised: 12nd January 2011, Accepted: 19th January 2011[How to Cite: A. Mishra, R. Prasad. (2011. A Review on Preferential Oxidation of Carbon Monoxide in Hydrogen Rich Gases. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 6 (1: 1-14. doi:10.9767/bcrec.6.1.191.1-14][How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.6.1.191.1-14 || or local:  http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/191] | View in 

  10. Heterologous Production of an Energy-Conserving Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase Complex in the Hyperthermophile Pyrococcus furiosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit Jan Schut

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO is an important intermediate in anaerobic carbon fixation pathways in acetogenesis and methanogenesis. In addition, some anaerobes can utilize CO as an energy source. In the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus onnurineus, which grows optimally at 80°C, CO oxidation and energy conservation is accomplished by a respiratory complex encoded by a 16-gene cluster containing a carbon monoxide dehydrogenase, a membrane-bound [NiFe]-hydrogenase and a Na+/H+ antiporter module. This complex oxidizes CO, evolves CO2 and H2, and generates a Na+ motive force that is used to conserve energy by a Na+-dependent ATP synthase. Herein we used a bacterial artificial chromosome to insert the 13.2 kb gene cluster encoding the CO-oxidizing respiratory complex of T. onnurineus into the genome of the heterotrophic archaeon, Pyrococcus furiosus, which grows optimally at 100°C. P. furiosus is normally unable to utilize CO, however, the recombinant strain readily oxidized CO and generated H2 at 80°C. Moreover, CO also served as an energy source and allowed the P. furiosus strain to grow with a limiting concentration of sugar or with peptides as the carbon source. Moreover, CO oxidation by P. furiosus was also coupled to the re-utilization, presumably for biosynthesis, of acetate generated by fermentation. The functional transfer of CO utilization between Thermococcus and Pyrococcus species demonstrated herein is representative of the horizontal gene transfer of an environmentally-relevant metabolic capability. The transfer of CO utilizing, hydrogen-producing genetic modules also has applications for biohydrogen production and a CO-based industrial platform for various thermophilic organisms.

  11. Observation of black carbon, ozone and carbon monoxide in the Kali Gandaki Valley Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhungel, S.; Panday, A. K.; Kathayat, B.

    2014-12-01

    The increased melting of snow and ice in the arctic and the Himalaya is a growing concern for all of the earth's population. Deposition of black carbon (BC) on the snow and ice surface accelerates melting by absorbing the radiative energy and directly transferring all that energy onto the underlying surface. During pre-monsoon season, satellite images show a thick layer of haze covering the Indo-Gangetic plain (IGP) and the Himalayan foothills. Sub-micron particles are transported to the Himalaya from the IGP predominantly driven by the thermal valley wind system. The Himalayas consist of some of the tallest mountain ranges in the world, over 8000m tall that reach the stratosphere. The Kali Gandaki Valley in Nepal is one of the deepest gorges in the world, and has some of the highest up-valley winds in the world. It is also one of the most open connecting points for air from IGP to reach the Tibetan Plateau. In 2010 the University of Virginia, in collaboration with ICIMOD and Nepal Wireless, established an atmospheric research station in Jomsom, Nepal (28.78N, 83.42E, 2900 m.a.s.l.) half-way along the Kali Gandaki valley. The station is equipped to measure black carbon (BC), carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone concentrations. It also has an automated weather station, a filter sampler, and a NASA Aeronet Sunphotometer. Here we present our observations of black carbon, ozone, carbon monoxide at Jomsom to show the diurnal and seasonal variability of the pollutants. The results show diurnal patterns in the concentration of these pollutants and also episodes of high pollutant transport along the valley. These transport episodes are more common during the pre-monsoon season which indicates that deep mountain valleys like the Kali Gandaki valley facilitate the transport of pollutants and thus promote snow and glacial melting.

  12. RARE ISOTOPIC SPECIES OF SULFUR MONOXIDE: THE ROTATIONAL SPECTRUM IN THE THz REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lattanzi, Valerio; Cazzoli, Gabriele; Puzzarini, Cristina, E-mail: lattanzi@mpe.mpg.de [Dipartimento di Chimica “Giacomo Ciamician,” Università di Bologna, Via Selmi 2, I-40126 Bologna (Italy)

    2015-11-01

    Many sulfur-bearing species have been detected in different astronomical environments and have allowed us to derive important information about the chemical and physical composition of interstellar regions. In particular, these species have also been shown to trace and probe hot-core environment time evolution. Among the most prominent sulfur-bearing molecules is SO, the sulfur monoxide radical, one of the more ubiquitous and abundant, which is also observed in its isotopic substituted species such as {sup 34}SO and S{sup 18}O. Due to the importance of this simple diatomic system, and in order to face the challenge of modern radioastronomical facilities, an extension to the THz range of the rare isotopologues of sulfur monoxide has been performed. High-resolution rotational molecular spectroscopy has been employed to extend the available data set of four isotopic species, SO, {sup 34}SO, S{sup 17}O, and S{sup 18}O, up to the 1.5 THz region. The frequency coverage and spectral resolution of our measurements allowed a better constraint of the molecular constants of the four species considered, specifically focusing on the two oxygen-substituted isotopologues. Our measurements were also employed in an isotopically invariant fit including all of the available pure rotational and ro-vibrational transitions for all of the SO isotopologues, thus enabling accurate predictions of the rotational transitions at higher frequencies. We also provide comparisons with recent works performed on the same system, demonstrating the quality of our experiment and the improvement of the data sets for all of the species considered. Transition frequencies for this system can now be used with confidence by the astronomical community well into the THz spectral region.

  13. Arctic chlorine monoxide observations during spring 1993 over Thule, Greenland, and implications for ozone depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindell, D. T.; Reeves, J. M.; Emmons, L. K.; De Zafra, R. L.

    1994-01-01

    We have determined the vertical distribution of chlorine monoxide (ClO), from measurements of pressure-broadened molecular-emission spectra made over Thule, Greenland, during the 1993 Arctic spring. The measurements show a weak lower stratospheric layer of chlorine monoxide inside the vortex in late February, which was, however, significantly greater in mixing ratio than that seen in observations we made in the spring of 1992. ClO was also observed in much smaller quantities in early to mid-March 1993 when Thule was outside the vortex. The amount of ClO within the vortex was severely reduced by the time it returned over Thule in late March. This reduction occurred several weeks earlier relative to the winter solstice than the decline of ClO inside the Antarctic vortex in 1993. The enhanced Arctic lower stratospheric layer seen in late February 1993 at a nearly equivalent photochemical period, and beyond. We have calculated daily ozone loss rates, due primarily to the dimer chlorine catalytic cycle, from both sets of measurements. The vertical integral of the Arctic daily percentage ozone loss when the largest ClO levels were present, at the end of February, is found to be approximately one quarter of that in the Antarctic at a photochemical period only 1 week later. The relative weakness of daily ozone depletion, combined with the early disappearance of ClO in the Arctic, suggests that hemispheric dilution by ozone-poor air from within the Arctic vortex is unlikely to be sufficient to explain the historically extreme loss of midlatitude northern hemisphere ozone which began in 1992 and persisted throughout 1993.

  14. Thermal degradation kinetics of polyketone based on styrene and carbon monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mu, Jiali, E-mail: jiaqm411@163.com; Fan, Wenjun; Shan, Shaoyun; Su, Hongying; Wu, Shuisheng; Jia, Qingming

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • The PK were synthesized from carbon monoxide and styrene in the presence of PANI-PdCl{sub 2} catalyst and PdCl{sub 2} catalyst. • The structures and thermal behaviors of PK prepared by homogenous and the supported catalyst were investigated. • The microstructures of PK were changed in the supported catalyst system. • The alternating PK copolymer (PANI-PdCl{sub 2} catalyst) was more thermally stable than PK (PdCl{sub 2} catalyst). • The degradation activation energy values were estimated by Flynn–Wall–Ozawa method and Kissinger method. - Abstract: Copolymerization of styrene with carbon monoxide to give polyketones (PK) was carried out under homogeneous palladium catalyst and polyaniline (PANI) supported palladium(II) catalyst, respectively. The copolymers were characterized by {sup 1}H NMR, {sup 13}C NMR and GPC. The results indicated that the PK catalyzed by the supported catalyst has narrow molecular weight distribution (PDI = 1.18). For comparison purpose of thermal behaviors of PK prepared by the homogeneous and the supported catalyst, thermogravimetric (TG) analysis and derivative thermogravimetric (DTG) were conducted at different heating rates. The peak temperatures (396–402 °C) for PK prepared by the supported catalyst are higher than those (387–395 °C) of PK prepared by the homogeneous catalyst. The degradation activation energy (E{sub k}) values were estimated by Flynn–Wall–Ozawa method and Kissinger method, respectively. The E{sub k} values, as determined by two methods, were found to be in the range 270.72 ± 0.03–297.55 ± 0.10 kJ mol{sup −1}. Structures analysis and thermal degradation analysis revealed that the supported catalyst changed the microstructures of PK, resulting in improving thermal stability of PK.

  15. Human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cell transplantation for delayed encephalopathy after carbon monoxide intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong D

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Dianrong Gong,1 Haiyan Yu,1 Weihua Wang,2 Haixin Yang,1 Fabin Han1,21Department of Neurology, 2Centre for Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine, Liaocheng People's Hospital, The Affiliated Liaocheng Hospital, Taishan Medical University, Shandong, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: Stem cell transplantation is one of the potential treatments for neurological disorders. Since human umbilical cord stem cells have been shown to provide neuroprotection and promote neural regeneration, we have attempted to transplant the human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (hUCB-MNCs to treat patients with delayed encephalopathy after carbon monoxide intoxication (DEACOI. The hUCB-MNCs were isolated from fresh umbilical cord blood and were given to patients subarachnoidally. Physical examinations, mini-mental state examination scores, and computed tomography scans were used to evaluate the improvement of symptoms, signs, and pathological changes of the patient's brain before and after hUCB-MNC transplantation. A total of 12 patients with DEACOI were treated with hUCB-MNCs in this study. We found that most of the patients have shown significant improvements in movement, behavior, and cognitive function, and improved brain images in 1–4 months from the first transplantation of hUCB-MNCs. None of these patients have been observed to have any severe adverse effects. Our study suggests that the hUCB-MNC transplantation may be a safe and effective treatment for DEACOI. Further studies and clinical trials with more cases, using more systematic scoring methods, are needed to evaluate brain structural and functional improvements in patients with DEACOI after hUCB-MNC therapy.Keywords: human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells, transplantation, delayed encephalopathy after carbon monoxide intoxication, MMSE

  16. The deployment of carbon monoxide wireless sensor network (CO-WSN) for ambient air monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiwatpongsakorn, Chaichana; Lu, Mingming; Keener, Tim C; Khang, Soon-Jai

    2014-06-16

    Wireless sensor networks are becoming increasingly important as an alternative solution for environment monitoring because they can reduce cost and complexity. Also, they can improve reliability and data availability in places where traditional monitoring methods are difficult to site. In this study, a carbon monoxide wireless sensor network (CO-WSN) was developed to measure carbon monoxide concentrations at a major traffic intersection near the University of Cincinnati main campus. The system has been deployed over two weeks during Fall 2010, and Summer 2011-2012, traffic data was also recorded by using a manual traffic counter and a video camcorder to characterize vehicles at the intersection 24 h, particularly, during the morning and evening peak hour periods. According to the field test results, the 1 hr-average CO concentrations were found to range from 0.1-1.0 ppm which is lower than the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) 35 ppm on a one-hour averaging period. During rush hour periods, the traffic volume at the intersection varied from 2,067 to 3,076 vehicles per hour with 97% being passenger vehicles. Furthermore, the traffic volume based on a 1-h average showed good correlation (R2 = 0.87) with the 1-h average CO-WSN concentrations for morning and evening peak time periods whereas CO-WSN results provided a moderate correlation (R2 = 0.42) with 24 hours traffic volume due to fluctuated changes of meteorological conditions. It is concluded that the performance and the reliability of wireless ambient air monitoring networks can be used as an alternative method for real time air monitoring.

  17. Arctic chlorine monoxide observations during spring 1993 over Thule, Greenland, and implications for ozone depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindell, D. T.; Reeves, J. M.; Emmons, L. K.; de Zafra, R. L.

    1994-12-01

    We have determined the vertical distribution of chlorine monoxide (ClO), from measurements of pressure-broadened molecular-emission spectra made over Thule, Greenland, during the 1993 Arctic spring. The measurements show a weak lower stratospheric layer of chlorine monoxide inside the vortex in late February, which was, however, significantly greater in mixing ratio than that seen in observations we made in the spring of 1992. ClO was also observed in much smaller quantities in early to mid-March 1993 when Thule was outside the vortex. The amount of ClO within the vortex was severely reduced by the time it returned over Thule in late March. This reduction occurred several weeks earlier relative to the winter solstice than the decline of ClO inside the Antarctic vortex in 1993. The enhanced Arctic lower stratospheric layer seen in late February 1993 had a peak mixing ratio of about 0.5 parts per billion by volume (ppbv), slightly less than a factor of 3 smaller than that observed in the Antarctic in 1993 at a nearly equivalent photochemical period, and beyond. We have calculated daily ozone loss rates, due primarily to the dimer chlorine catalytic cycle, from both sets of measurements. The vertical integral of the Arctic daily percentage ozone loss when the largest ClO levels were present, at the end of February, is found to be approximately one quarter of that in the Antarctic at a photochemical period only 1 week later. The relative weakness of daily ozone depletion, combined with the early disappearance of ClO in the Arctic, suggests that hemispheric dilution by ozone-poor air from within the Arctic vortex is unlikely to be sufficient to explain the historically extreme loss of midlatitude northern hemisphere ozone which began in 1992 and persisted throughout 1993.

  18. Electrocardiographic Findings and Serum Troponin I in Carbon Monoxide Poisoned Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Reza Jafarian Kerman

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO poisoning, though with different sources, is one of the most deadly emergencies in all countries. CO can threaten men's life by several paths especially cardiac complications, which can mimic other cardiac problems such as myocardial infarction. The objective of this study was to determine ECG findings and serum troponin I levels in CO poisoned patients. In this analytical cross-sectional study, 63 CO poisoning patients were consecutively included from hospital's emergency departments. CO content was measured by a CO-oximeter and an electrocardiography was taken first thing on admission. Arterial blood gas (ABG, troponin I and other data was collected afterwards. Data were divided by age groups (adults and children and gender. CO content was significantly higher only in subjects with normal T wave compared to patients with inverted T wave in their initial ECG (P=0.016. No other significant difference was noticed. None of the ABG findings correlated significantly with CO content. Also no significant correlation was found with CO content after stratification by gender and age groups, but pH in children (r=-0.484, P=0.026. CO content was significantly higher in adults (P=0.023, but other ABG data were not significantly different. Only 3 patients had elevated troponin I. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis showed no significant cutoff points in CO content for ECG changes. No significant specific change in electrocardiograms (ECG could contribute carboxyhemoglobin content in carbon monoxide poisoned patients. In addition, no specific difference was found between adults and pediatric subjects' ECGs. All other findings seemed to be accidental.

  19. Aircraft measurements of bromine monoxide, iodine monoxide, and glyoxal profiles in the tropics: comparison with ship-based and in situ measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkamer, R.; Baidar, S.; Campos, T. L.; Coburn, S.; DiGangi, J. P.; Dix, B.; Koenig, T. K.; Ortega, I.; Pierce, B. R.; Reeves, M.; Sinreich, R.; Wang, S.; Zondlo, M. A.; Romashkin, P. A.

    2015-01-01

    Tropospheric chemistry of halogens and organic carbon over tropical oceans modifies ozone and atmospheric aerosols, yet atmospheric models remain largely untested for lack of vertically resolved measurements of bromine monoxide (BrO), iodine monoxide (IO), and small oxygenated hydrocarbons like glyoxal (CHOCHO) in the tropical troposphere. BrO, IO, glyoxal, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), water vapor (H2O) and O2-O2 collision complexes (O4) were measured by the CU Airborne Multi AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (CU AMAX-DOAS) instrument, in situ aerosol size distributions by an Ultra High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer (UHSAS), and in situ H2O by Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser hygrometer (VCSEL). Data are presented from two research flights (RF12, RF17) aboard the NSF/NCAR GV aircraft over the tropical Eastern Pacific Ocean (tEPO) as part of the "Tropical Ocean tRoposphere Exchange of Reactive halogens and Oxygenated hydrocarbons" (TORERO) project. We assess the accuracy of O4 slant column density (SCD) measurements in the presence and absence of aerosols, and find O4-inferred aerosol extinction profiles at 477 nm agree within 5% with Mie calculations of extinction profiles constrained by UHSAS. CU AMAX-DOAS provides a flexible choice of geometry which we exploit to minimize the SCD in the reference spectrum (SCDREF, maximize signal-to-noise), and to test the robustness of BrO, IO, and glyoxal differential SCDs. The RF12 case study was conducted in pristine marine and free tropospheric air. The RF17 case study was conducted above the NOAA RV Ka'imimoana (TORERO cruise, KA-12-01), and provides independent validation data from ship-based in situ Cavity Enhanced- and MAX-DOAS. Inside the marine boundary layer (MBL) no BrO was detected (smaller than 0.5 pptv), and 0.2-0.55 pptv IO and 32-36 pptv glyoxal were observed. The near surface concentrations agree within 20% (IO) and 10% (glyoxal) between ship and aircraft. The BrO concentration strongly

  20. Aircraft measurements of bromine monoxide, iodine monoxide, and glyoxal profiles in the tropics: comparison with ship-based and in situ measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Volkamer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropospheric chemistry of halogens and organic carbon over tropical oceans modifies ozone and atmospheric aerosols, yet atmospheric models remain largely untested for lack of vertically resolved measurements of bromine monoxide (BrO, iodine monoxide (IO, and small oxygenated hydrocarbons like glyoxal (CHOCHO in the tropical troposphere. BrO, IO, glyoxal, nitrogen dioxide (NO2, water vapor (H2O and O2-O2 collision complexes (O4 were measured by the CU Airborne Multi AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (CU AMAX-DOAS instrument, in situ aerosol size distributions by an Ultra High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer (UHSAS, and in situ H2O by Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser hygrometer (VCSEL. Data are presented from two research flights (RF12, RF17 aboard the NSF/NCAR GV aircraft over the tropical Eastern Pacific Ocean (tEPO as part of the "Tropical Ocean tRoposphere Exchange of Reactive halogens and Oxygenated hydrocarbons" (TORERO project. We assess the accuracy of O4 slant column density (SCD measurements in the presence and absence of aerosols, and find O4-inferred aerosol extinction profiles at 477 nm agree within 5% with Mie calculations of extinction profiles constrained by UHSAS. CU AMAX-DOAS provides a flexible choice of geometry which we exploit to minimize the SCD in the reference spectrum (SCDREF, maximize signal-to-noise, and to test the robustness of BrO, IO, and glyoxal differential SCDs. The RF12 case study was conducted in pristine marine and free tropospheric air. The RF17 case study was conducted above the NOAA RV Ka'imimoana (TORERO cruise, KA-12-01, and provides independent validation data from ship-based in situ Cavity Enhanced- and MAX-DOAS. Inside the marine boundary layer (MBL no BrO was detected (smaller than 0.5 pptv, and 0.2–0.55 pptv IO and 32–36 pptv glyoxal were observed. The near surface concentrations agree within 20% (IO and 10% (glyoxal between ship and aircraft. The BrO concentration strongly

  1. Inter-comparison of four different carbon monoxide measurements techniques and evaluation of the long-term carbon monoxide time series of Jungfraujoch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Zellweger

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The 12-year record (1996–2007 of continuous carbon monoxide (CO measurements of the high-alpine site Jungfraujoch (JFJ, Switzerland, was investigated with a focus on trend analysis. To date this is one of the longest time series of continuous CO measurements in the free troposphere over Central Europe. A significant negative trend was observed at JFJ with a decrease of 21.4±0.3% in the investigated period, or an average annual decrease of 2.65±0.04 ppb/yr (1.78%/yr. These results were compared with emission inventory data reported to the Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP Convention. It could be shown that long range transport significantly influences the CO levels observed at JFJ, with air masses of non-European origin contributing to at least a third to observed mixing ratios.

    Such trend analysis and inter-comparison with emission inventories are only possible with data of known quality. To this end, the Non-dispersive Infrared Absorption (NDIR technique used for CO measurements at JFJ was inter-compared over two months using three additional analytical techniques, namely Vacuum UV Resonance Fluorescence (VURF, gas chromatographic separation with a mercuric oxide reduction detector (GC/HgO, and gas chromatographic separation followed by reduction on a nickel catalyst and analysis by a flame ionization detector (GC/FID. The agreement among all techniques was better than 2% for one-hourly averages which confirmed the suitability of the NDIR method for CO measurements even at remote sites.

  2. Pre-hospital emergency and nursing measures of acute carbon monoxide poisoning%急性一氧化碳中毒的院前急救及护理对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎秀英

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the pre-hospital emergency and nursing measures of acute carbon monoxide poisoning.Methods:57 patients with acute carbon monoxide poisoning were given pre-hospital emergency and nursing measures,treatment and nursing measures at the poisoning scene,treatment and nursing measures in the transport process,treatment after admission. Results:In addition to 4 patients were died before the medical personnel arrived at the poisoning scene,other patients were significantly improved and discharged after the treatment,did not appear serious sequelae.Conclusion:Timely taking effective pre-hospital emergency and nursing measures can significantly reduce the disability and mortality of patients with acute carbon monoxide poisoning.%目的:探讨急性一氧化碳(CO)中毒的院前急救及护理对策。方法:对57例急性CO中毒患者采取院外急救及护理措施,中毒现场救治及护理措施,转运过程中救治及护理措施,入院后的治疗。结果:除4例患者在医务人员到达中毒现场前已死亡外,其余患者经治疗,均明显好转出院,未出现严重后遗症。结论:及时采取有效的院前急救及护理对策可明显降低急性CO中毒患者的伤残及死亡率。

  3. Kinetics of Carbon Monoxide Electro-Oxidation in Solid-Oxide Fuel Cells from Ni-YSZ Patterned-Anode Measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Hanna, J.

    2013-04-17

    A mathematical model is developed around the framework of a reduced mechanism describing electrochemical oxidation of carbon monoxide on Ni-YSZ patterned anodes. The electro-oxidation mechanism involves three reactions, one describing adsorption/ desorption of COonNi, and two single-electron charge-transfer steps inwhich the surface adsorbate CO(Ni) participates directly. These steps are coupled with surface transport in a reaction-diffusion model for which analytic equilibrium and steady-state solutions are derived. As much as possible, we make use of existing, independent, published information about heterogeneous chemistry, surface transport, and other model parameters. The only unknowns in our model are taken to be the kinetic rate constants of the electrochemical reactions, which we evaluate by fitting the model predictions to previously published patterned-anode experiments [B. Habibzadeh, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA (2007)]. The results show that diffusion of CO on the Ni surface to the three-phase boundary is the rate-controlling process for CO electro-oxidation. Moreover, from a reaction standpoint, the charge-transfer process is dominated by a slow step involving CO(Ni). These findings collectively demonstrate the critical dependence of the electro-oxidation process to the direct participation of CO. © 2013 The Electrochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  4. Inhalation exposures to particulate matter and carbon monoxide during Ethiopian coffee ceremonies in Addis Ababa: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Chris; Kassa, Hailu; Brown, Alexander; Kumie, Abera; Tefera, Worku

    2010-01-01

    The unique Ethiopian cultural tradition of the coffee ceremony increases inhalation exposures to combustion byproducts. This pilot study evaluated exposures to particulate matter and carbon monoxide in ten Addis Ababa homes during coffee ceremonies. For coffee preparers the geometric mean (57 μg/m³) and median (72 μg/m³) contributions to an increase in a 24-hour time-weighted average exposure were above World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. At 40% of the study sites the contribution to the 24-hour average exposure was greater than twice the WHO guideline. Similar exposure increases existed for ceremony participants. Particulate matter concentrations may be related to the use of incense during the ceremony. In nearly all homes the WHO guideline for a 60-minute exposure to carbon monoxide was exceeded. Finding control measures to reduce these exposures will be challenging due to the deeply engrained nature of this cultural practice and the lack of availability of alternative fuels.

  5. New approach to carbon monoxide poisoning treatment by laser-induced photodissociation of carboxyhemoglobin of cutaneous blood vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asimov, Mustafo M.; Asimov, Rustam M.; Gisbrecht, Alexander

    2005-04-01

    A new approach to carbon monoxide poisoning treatment based on laser-induced photodissociation of the carboxyhemoglobin is proposed. Using the simple model of laser tissue interaction the action spectra of laser radiation on carboxyhemoglobin of cutaneous blood vessels has been calculated. The results of the calculatoins indicate that there is a relatively narrow spectral range in the visible region where one could effectively irradiate carboxyhemoglobin through the tissue not in a deep distances. In the case of deeper penetration, the action spectra of laser radiation shifts toward the longer wavelength region. Despite the similarity of the carboxyhemoglobin and oxyhemoglobin action spectra, the significant difference in quantum yields of photodissociation makes possible to develop an effective method of carbon monoxide poisoning treatment.

  6. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Pt-, Fe-, and Zn-doped SnO2 Nanospheres and Carbon Monoxide Sensing Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weigen Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pure and M-doped (M = Pt, Fe, and Zn SnO2 nanospheres were successfully synthesized via a simple and facile hydrothermal method and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Chemical gas sensors were fabricated based on the as-synthesized nanostructures, and carbon monoxide sensing properties were systematically measured. Compared to pure, Fe-, and Zn-doped SnO2 nanospheres, the Pt-doped SnO2 nanospheres sensor exhibits higher sensitivity, lower operating temperature, more rapid response and recovery, better stability, and excellent selectivity. In addition, a theoretical study based on the first principles calculation was conducted. All results demonstrate the potential of Pt dopant for improving the gas sensing properties of SnO2-based sensors to carbon monoxide.

  7. Research progress on delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning%急性一氧化碳中毒迟发性脑病研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛桂荣

    2010-01-01

    @@ 急性一氧化碳(CO)中毒迟发性脑病(Delayed encephalopathy after acute canbon monoxide poisoning,DEACMP)系指急性CO中毒(Acute carbon monoxide poisoning,ACOP)患者经抢救,中毒症状缓解或消失2~30 d后,再度出现的神经精神症状.

  8. Status epilepticus and cardiopulmonary arrest in a patient with carbon monoxide poisoning with full recovery after using a neuroprotective strategy: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulaziz Salman; Dabbagh Ousama; Arabi Yaseen; Kojan Suleiman; Hassan Imad

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Carbon monoxide poisoning can be associated with life-threatening complications, including significant and disabling cardiovascular and neurological sequelae. Case presentation We report a case of carbon monoxide poisoning in a 25-year-old Saudi woman who presented to our facility with status epilepticus and cardiopulmonary arrest. Her carboxyhemoglobin level was 21.4 percent. She made a full recovery after we utilized a neuroprotective strategy and normobaric oxygen the...

  9. Effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on whole blood cyanide concentrations in carbon monoxide intoxicated patients from fire accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawson-Smith, Pia; Jansen, Erik C; Hilsted, Linda;

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and carbon monoxide (CO) may be important components of smoke from fire accidents. Accordingly, patients admitted to hospital from fire accidents may have been exposed to both HCN and CO. Cyanide (CN) intoxication results in cytotoxic hypoxia leading to organ dysfunction...... and animal experiments have shown that in rats exposed to CN intoxication, HBO can increase the concentration of CN in whole blood....

  10. Molten metal reactor and method of forming hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide using the molten alkaline metal reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Dennis N.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Turner, Terry D.; Wilding, Bruce M.

    2012-11-13

    A molten metal reactor for converting a carbon material and steam into a gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide is disclosed. The reactor includes an interior crucible having a portion contained within an exterior crucible. The interior crucible includes an inlet and an outlet; the outlet leads to the exterior crucible and may comprise a diffuser. The exterior crucible may contain a molten alkaline metal compound. Contained between the exterior crucible and the interior crucible is at least one baffle.

  11. Carbon Monoxide Induces Cytoprotection in Rat Orthotopic Lung Transplantation via Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Apoptotic Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Ruiping; KUBO, Masatoshi; Morse, Danielle; Zhou, Zhihong; Zhang, Xuchen; Dauber, James H.; Fabisiak, James; Alber, Sean M.; Watkins, Simon C.; Zuckerbraun, Brian S.; Otterbein, Leo E.; Ning, Wen; Oury, Tim D; Patty J. Lee; McCurry, Kenneth R.

    2003-01-01

    Successful lung transplantation has been limited by the high incidence of acute graft rejection. There is mounting evidence that the stress response gene heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and/or its catalytic by-product carbon monoxide (CO) confers cytoprotection against tissue and cellular injury. This led us to hypothesize that CO may protect against lung transplant rejection via its anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic effects. Orthotopic left lung transplantation was performed in Lewis rat recipient...

  12. Gas-phase energies of actinide oxides -- an assessment of neutral and cationic monoxides and dioxides from thorium to curium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcalo, Joaquim; Gibson, John K.

    2009-08-10

    An assessment of the gas-phase energetics of neutral and singly and doubly charged cationic actinide monoxides and dioxides of thorium, protactinium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium, and curium is presented. A consistent set of metal-oxygen bond dissociation enthalpies, ionization energies, and enthalpies of formation, including new or revised values, is proposed, mainly based on recent experimental data and on correlations with the electronic energetics of the atoms or cations and with condensed-phase thermochemistry.

  13. Palladium-Catalyzed Addition of Carbon Monoxide and Carbon Tetrachloride to 1-Octene in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张群健; 孙均华; 江焕峰; 欧阳小月; 程金生

    2003-01-01

    The Pd-catalyzed addition of carbon monoxide and carbon tetrachloride to 1-octene gave coadduct [alkyl 2-( 2, 2, 2-trichloroethyl)octanoate] as the major product in supercritical carbon dioxide by using pyridine as the base. It was found that the selectivity and the yield of coadduct were greatly affected by the pressure of carbon dioxide, the reaction temperature and the amounts of alcohol and base used.

  14. Experimental determination of the 1 Sigma(+) state electric dipole moment function of carbon monoxide up to a large internuclear separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chackerian, C., Jr.; Farrenq, R.; Guelachvili, G.; Rossetti, C.; Urban, W.

    1984-01-01

    Experimental intensity information is combined with numerically obtained vibrational wave functions in a nonlinear least-squares fitting procedure to obtain the ground electronic state electric dipole moment function of carbon monoxide valid in the range of nuclear oscillation (0.87-1.91 A) of about the V = 38th vibrational level. Vibrational transition matrix elements are computed from this function for Delta V = 1, 2, 3 with V not more than 38.

  15. Modeling Potential Carbon Monoxide Exposure Due to Operation of a Major Rocket Engine Altitude Test Facility Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blotzer, Michael J.; Woods, Jody L.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews computational fluid dynamics as a tool for modelling the dispersion of carbon monoxide at the Stennis Space Center's A3 Test Stand. The contents include: 1) Constellation Program; 2) Constellation Launch Vehicles; 3) J2X Engine; 4) A-3 Test Stand; 5) Chemical Steam Generators; 6) Emission Estimates; 7) Located in Existing Test Complex; 8) Computational Fluid Dynamics; 9) Computational Tools; 10) CO Modeling; 11) CO Model results; and 12) Next steps.

  16. Carbon monoxide and respiratory symptoms in young adult passive smokers: A pilot study comparing waterpipe to cigarette

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouba Zeidan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Studies have correlated second hand smoke (SHS with many diseases, especially respiratory effects. The goal of this study was to measure the impact of SHS on the respiratory symptoms and exhaled carbon monoxide. Material and Methods: The study population consisted of 50 young workers in restaurants serving waterpipes, 48 university students who sit frequently in the university cafeteria where cigarette smoking is allowed and 49 university students spending time in places where smoking is not allowed. Subjects completed questionnaires on socio-demographic characteristics, respiratory symptoms and exposure to SHS. Exhaled carbon monoxide levels were measured. ANOVA and Chi-square tests were used when applicable as well as linear and logistic regression analysis. Results: Exposure to cigarette smoke in university (adjusted odds ratio (ORa = 6.06 and occupational exposure to waterpipe smoke (ORa = 7.08 were predictors of chronic cough. Being married (ORa = 6.40, living near a heavy traffic road (ORa = 9.49 or near a local power generator (ORa = 7.54 appeared responsible for chronic sputum production. Moreover, predictors of chronic allergies were: being male (ORa = 7.81, living near a local power generator (ORa = 5.52 and having a family history of chronic respiratory diseases (ORa = 17.01. Carbon monoxide levels were augmented by the number of weekly hours of occupational exposure to waterpipe smoke (β = 1.46 and the number of daily hours of exposure to cigarette smoke (β = 1.14. Conclusions: In summary, young non-smoker subjects demonstrated more chronic cough and elevated carbon monoxide levels when exposed to SHS while the effect of waterpipe was even more evident.

  17. Effect of carbon monoxide on gene expression in cerebrocortical astrocytes: Validation of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Sara R; Vieira, Helena L A; Duarte, Carlos B

    2015-09-15

    Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a widely used technique to characterize changes in gene expression in complex cellular and tissue processes, such as cytoprotection or inflammation. The accurate assessment of changes in gene expression depends on the selection of adequate internal reference gene(s). Carbon monoxide (CO) affects several metabolic pathways and de novo protein synthesis is crucial in the cellular responses to this gasotransmitter. Herein a selection of commonly used reference genes was analyzed to identify the most suitable internal control genes to evaluate the effect of CO on gene expression in cultured cerebrocortical astrocytes. The cells were exposed to CO by treatment with CORM-A1 (CO releasing molecule A1) and four different algorithms (geNorm, NormFinder, Delta Ct and BestKeeper) were applied to evaluate the stability of eight putative reference genes. Our results indicate that Gapdh (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) together with Ppia (peptidylpropyl isomerase A) is the most suitable gene pair for normalization of qRT-PCR results under the experimental conditions used. Pgk1 (phosphoglycerate kinase 1), Hprt1 (hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase I), Sdha (Succinate Dehydrogenase Complex, Subunit A), Tbp (TATA box binding protein), Actg1 (actin gamma 1) and Rn18s (18S rRNA) genes presented less stable expression profiles in cultured cortical astrocytes exposed to CORM-A1 for up to 60 min. For validation, we analyzed the effect of CO on the expression of Bdnf and bcl-2. Different results were obtained, depending on the reference genes used. A significant increase in the expression of both genes was found when the results were normalized with Gapdh and Ppia, in contrast with the results obtained when the other genes were used as reference. These findings highlight the need for a proper and accurate selection of the reference genes used in the quantification of qRT-PCR results

  18. Effects of carbon monoxide treatment before vacuum packaging on the physical parameters and consumer evaluations of raw beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna SAKOWSKA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study examined the color changes of packaged beef due to the effects of carbon monoxide exposure before vacuum packing and storage time, as well as consumers’ evaluations of that beef. In the experiment, 400 striploin steaks (M. longissimus dorsi were vacuum packed or after 48 hours of exposure to different concentrations of CO (0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5% vacuum packed. The color measurements and consumer evaluations were conducted after 7, 10, 14, 17, and 21 days of storage in the dark at 2 ± 1 °C. Consumers evaluated the color, surface discoloration, attractiveness, and their willingness to buy the meat. The results showed that regardless of storage time, the color parameters (L*, a*, b*, C* were significantly higher for the steaks vacuum packed after exposure to carbon monoxide in comparison to those packaged in a vacuum without the use of CO. Based on the consumer evaluations, the most attractive steaks were those that had been exposed to 0.3% and 0.5% CO, which were characterized by bright red or cherry-red colors. Consumers did not accept the appearance of steaks packaged without the carbon monoxide pretreatment. Exposing meat to CO before packaging allows to obtain the attractive color of vacuum packed beef.

  19. Gold catalysts supported on nanosized iron oxide for low-temperature oxidation of carbon monoxide and formaldehyde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zheng; Zhang, Weidong; Li, Yi; Huang, Zuming; Guo, Huishan; Wu, Feng; Li, Jinjun

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to optimize synthesis of gold catalyst supported on nanosized iron oxide and to evaluate the activity in oxidation of carbon monoxide and formaldehyde. Nanosized iron oxide was prepared from a colloidal dispersion of hydrous iron oxide through a dispersion-precipitation method. Gold was adsorbed onto nanosized iron oxide under self-generated basic conditions. Characterization results indicate that the iron oxide consisted of hematite/maghemite composite with primary particle sizes of 6-8 nm. Gold was highly dispersed on the surface of the support. The catalysts showed good activity in the oxidation of airborne carbon monoxide and formaldehyde. The optimal pH for their synthesis was ∼7. The catalytic performance could be enhanced by extending the adsorption time of gold species on the support within 21 h. The optimized catalyst was capable of achieving complete oxidation of 1% carbon monoxide at -20 °C and 33% conversion of 450 ppm formaldehyde at ambient temperature. The catalyst may be applicable to indoor air purification.

  20. A cross-sectional study of exhaled carbon monoxide as a biomarker of recent household air pollution exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alison; Sanchez, Tiffany R; Shahriar, Muhammad Hasan; Eunus, Mahbubul; Perzanowski, Matthew; Graziano, Joseph

    2015-11-01

    Household air pollution causes 3.5 million deaths annually. Personal exposure assessments required for examining health associations are expensive and require technical expertize, limiting the quality of research in resource-poor settings To assess the feasibility of exhaled carbon monoxide and its relationship to continuous personal carbon monoxide monitoring and markers of respiratory health in female cooks primarily cooking with biomass fuels in Araihazar, Bangladesh METHODS AND MEASURE: For a 24-h period, exhaled carboxyhemoglobin (eCOHb) % saturation was measured before and after each cooking episode while simultaneous 24-h personal carbon monoxide monitoring was conducted. The Coburn-Forester-Kane (CFK) equation was used to convert continuous personal CO exposures to predicted COHb % saturation. Respiratory symptoms were assessed by St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire, airway inflammation measured by exhaled breath condensate pH, and lung function determined by spirometry. Spearman's correlation was used to examine the relationship between eCOHb and CKF-derived COHb, EBC pH, and lung function variables. eCOHb % saturation was dichotomized around the median and odds ratios calculated for each respiratory symptom Measurement of eCOHb % saturation is feasible in a resource-poor setting. eCOHb % saturation responds to cooking episodes and demonstrates consistency when measured at the same time point 24-h later, suggesting that eCOHb may be a sensitive biomarker of recent HAP exposures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Transient kinetic modeling of the ethylene and carbon monoxide oxidation over a commercial automotive exhaust gas catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmsen, J.M.A.; Hoebink, J.H.B.J.; Schouten, J.C.

    2000-03-01

    The transient kinetics of ethylene oxidation by oxygen over a commercial Pt/Rh/CeO{sub 2}/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} three-way catalyst were modeled. Experiments were carried out in a fixed-bed microreactor with two separate inlets, enabling alternate feeding of ethylene and oxygen with frequencies up to {1/4} Hz. The experimental conditions resemble the cold-start period of an Otto engine in a car. Two types of adsorbed ethylene species seem to exist. A selective catalyst deactivation for oxygen adsorption, due to deposition of carbonaceous species, was found. A kinetic model was developed, based on elementary reaction steps, that allows one to describe the experiments quantitatively. Furthermore, this model was combined with the published model for transient carbon monoxide oxidation over the same catalyst, which enables one to predict the results of simultaneous ethylene and carbon monoxide oxidation. Both components react in rather distinct zones, with ethylene being converted only when carbon monoxide oxidation is almost complete.

  2. Serum bilirubin value predicts hospital admission in carbon monoxide-poisoned patients. Active player or simple bystander?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Cervellin

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Although carbon monoxide poisoning is a major medical emergency, the armamentarium of recognized prognostic biomarkers displays unsatisfactory diagnostic performance for predicting cumulative endpoints. METHODS: We performed a retrospective and observational study to identify all patients admitted for carbon monoxide poisoning during a 2-year period. Complete demographical and clinical information, along with the laboratory data regarding arterial carboxyhemoglobin, hemoglobin, blood lactate and total serum bilirubin, was retrieved. RESULTS: The study population consisted of 38 poisoned patients (23 females and 15 males; mean age 39±21 years. Compared with discharged subjects, hospitalized patients displayed significantly higher values for blood lactate and total serum bilirubin, whereas arterial carboxyhemoglobin and hemoglobin did not differ. In a univariate analysis, hospitalization was significantly associated with blood lactate and total serum bilirubin, but not with age, sex, hemoglobin or carboxyhemoglobin. The diagnostic performance obtained after combining the blood lactate and total serum bilirubin results (area under the curve, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.81-0.99; p<0.001 was better than that obtained for either parameter alone. CONCLUSION: Although it remains unclear whether total serum bilirubin acts as an active player or a bystander, we conclude that the systematic assessment of bilirubin may, alongside lactate levels, provide useful information for clinical decision making regarding carbon monoxide poisoning.

  3. Formation of ketene (H{sub 2}CCO) in interstellar analogous methane (CH{sub 4})-carbon monoxide (CO) ices: A combined FTIR and reflectron time-of-flight mass spectroscopic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maity, Surajit; Kaiser, Ralf I.; Jones, Brant M. [W. M. Keck Research Laboratory in Astrochemistry, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii, HI 96822 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The formation of ketene (H{sub 2}CCO) in methane-carbon monoxide (CH{sub 4}-CO) ices was investigated upon its exposure to ionizing radiation in the form of energetic electrons at 5.5 K. The radiation-induced nonthermal equilibrium processing of these ices was monitored online and in situ via infrared spectroscopy complimented with post-irradiation temperature programmed desorption studies exploiting highly sensitive reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ReTOF) coupled with single photon fragment-free photo ionization (PI) at 10.49 eV. The detection of ketene in irradiated (isotopically labeled) methane-carbon monoxide ices was confirmed via the ν{sub 2} infrared absorption band and substantiated during the warm-up phase based on sublimation profiles obtained from the ReTOF-PI spectra of the corresponding isotopic masses. The experiments conducted with the mixed isotopic ices of {sup 12}CD{sub 4}-{sup 13}CO provide clear evidence of the formation of at least two ketene isotopomers (D{sub 2} {sup 12}C{sup 13}CO and D{sub 2} {sup 13}C{sup 13}CO), allowing for the derivation of two competing formation pathways. We have also proposed underlying reaction mechanisms to the formation of ketene based on kinetic fitting of the temporal evolution of the ketene isotopomers.

  4. Performance of a carbon monoxide sensor based on zirconia-doped ceria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriya Izu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Resistive-type carbon monoxide sensors were fabricated using zirconia-doped ceria, and their sensing properties were evaluated and compared with equivalent devices based on non-doped ceria. The response of both sensor types was found to increase with decreasing temperature, while the response at 450 °C of a sensor fired at 950 °C was greater than that of a sensor fired at 1100 °C. When fired at 950 °C, however, the response at 450 °C of a sensor created using zirconia-doped ceria was slightly less than that of a sensor constructed from non-doped ceria. Multivariate analysis confirmed that the response of both sensor types is proportional to the resistance raised to the power of about 0.5, and inversely proportional to the particle size raised to a power of about 0.8. The sensor response time can be considered almost the same regardless of whether zirconia doping is used or not.

  5. Diverse mechanisms underlying the regulation of ion channels by carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peers, C; Boyle, J P; Scragg, J L; Dallas, M L; Al-Owais, M M; Hettiarachichi, N T; Elies, J; Johnson, E; Gamper, N; Steele, D S

    2015-03-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is firmly established as an important, physiological signalling molecule as well as a potent toxin. Through its ability to bind metal-containing proteins, it is known to interfere with a number of intracellular signalling pathways, and such actions can account for its physiological and pathological effects. In particular, CO can modulate the intracellular production of reactive oxygen species, NO and cGMP levels, as well as regulate MAPK signalling. In this review, we consider ion channels as more recently discovered effectors of CO signalling. CO is now known to regulate a growing number of different ion channel types, and detailed studies of the underlying mechanisms of action are revealing unexpected findings. For example, there are clear areas of contention surrounding its ability to increase the activity of high conductance, Ca(2+) -sensitive K(+) channels. More recent studies have revealed the ability of CO to inhibit T-type Ca(2+) channels and have unveiled a novel signalling pathway underlying tonic regulation of this channel. It is clear that the investigation of ion channels as effectors of CO signalling is in its infancy, and much more work is required to fully understand both the physiological and the toxic actions of this gas. Only then can its emerging use as a therapeutic tool be fully and safely exploited.

  6. Carbon Monoxide Fumigation Improved the Quality, Nutrients, and Antioxidant Activities of Postharvest Peach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoying Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Peaches (Prunus persica cv. Yanhong were fumigated with carbon monoxide (CO at 0, 0.5, 5, 10, and 20 μmol/L for 2 hours. The result showed that low concentration CO (0.5–10 μmol/L might delay the decrease of firmness and titrable acid content, restrain the increase of decay incidence, and postpone the variation of soluble solids content, but treating peaches with high concentration CO (20 μmol/L demonstrated adverse effects. Further research exhibited that exogenous CO could induce the phenylalnine ammonialyase activity, maintain nutrient contents such as Vitamin C, total flavonoid, and polyphenol, and enhance antioxidant activity according to reducing power and 2,2-diphenyl-1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl hydrazyl radical scavenging activity. Treating peaches with appropriate concentration CO was beneficial to the quality, nutrients, and antioxidant activity of postharvest peaches during storage time. Therefore, CO fumigation might probably become a novel method to preserve postharvest peach and other fruits in the future.

  7. Cerebrovasodilatory contribution of endogenous carbon monoxide during seizures in newborn pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourcyrous, Massroor; Bada, Henrietta S; Parfenova, Helena; Daley, Michael L; Korones, Sheldon B; Leffler, Charles W

    2002-05-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) and the excitatory amino acid glutamate both dilate cerebral arterioles in newborn pigs. The key enzyme in CO synthesis is heme oxygenase, which is highly expressed in neurons with glutamatergic receptor activity as well as cerebral microvessels. During seizures the extracellular level of glutamate is increased, which results in excessive depolarization of neurons. We hypothesized that CO is a mediator of excitatory amino acid-induced dilation of the cerebral microvasculature during seizures. Three groups of piglets were examined: 1) i.v. normal saline (sham control), 2) topical chromium mesoporphyrin (Cr-MP, 15 x 10(-6) M), and 3) i.v. tin-protoporphyrin (Sn-PP, 4 mg/kg). Synthetic metalloporphyrins (Cr-MP and Sn-PP) are heme oxygenase inhibitors, thereby reducing CO synthesis. Implanted closed cranial windows were used to monitor changes in pial arteriolar diameters. Seizures were induced by administration of i.v. bicuculline. Changes in pial arteriolar diameters were monitored during 30 min of status epilepticus. The percent increase in pial arteriolar dilation in the saline group during seizures was 68 +/- 3%. In the metalloporphyrin groups, the pial arteriolar dilation was markedly reduced (35 +/- 3% and 13 +/- 1%, for Cr-MP and Sn-PP, respectively; p synthesis attenuate pial arteriolar dilation during seizures. Therefore, CO appears to be involved in cerebral vasodilation caused by glutamatergic seizures.

  8. The effect of carbon monoxide Co-adsorption on Ni-catalysed water dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsenzadeh, Abas; Borjesson, Anders; Wang, Jeng-Han; Richards, Tobias; Bolton, Kim

    2013-01-01

    The effect of carbon monoxide (CO) co-adsorption on the dissociation of water on the Ni(111) surface has been studied using density functional theory. The structures of the adsorbed water molecule and of the transition state are changed by the presence of the CO molecule. The water O-H bond that is closest to the CO is lengthened compared to the structure in the absence of the CO, and the breaking O-H bond in the transition state structure has a larger imaginary frequency in the presence of CO. In addition, the distances between the Ni surface and H2O reactant and OH and H products decrease in the presence of the CO. The changes in structures and vibrational frequencies lead to a reaction energy that is 0.17 eV less exothermic in the presence of the CO, and an activation barrier that is 0.12 eV larger in the presence of the CO. At 463 K the water dissociation rate constant is an order of magnitude smaller in the presence of the CO. This reveals that far fewer water molecules will dissociate in the presence of CO under reaction conditions that are typical for the water-gas-shift reaction.

  9. Evaluation of three new laser spectrometer techniques for in-situ carbon monoxide measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Zellweger

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Long-term time series of the atmospheric composition are essential for environmental research and thus require compatible, multi-decadal monitoring activities. However, the current data quality objectives of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO for carbon monoxide (CO in the atmosphere are very challenging to meet with the measurement techniques that have been used until recently. During the past few years, new spectroscopic techniques came on the market with promising properties for trace gas analytics. The current study compares three instruments that are recently commercially available (since 2011 with the up to now best available technique (vacuum UV fluorescence and provides a link to previous comparison studies. The instruments were investigated for their performance regarding repeatability, reproducibility, drift, temperature dependence, water vapour interference and linearity. Finally, all instruments were examined during a short measurement campaign to assess their applicability for long-term field measurements. It could be shown that the new techniques provide a considerably better performance compared to previous techniques, although some issues such as temperature influence and cross sensitivities need further attention.

  10. A 60-yr record of atmospheric carbon monoxide reconstructed from Greenland firn air

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    V. V. Petrenko

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a reconstruction of the Northern Hemisphere (NH high latitude atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO mole fraction from Greenland firn air. Firn air samples were collected at three deep ice core sites in Greenland (NGRIP in 2001, Summit in 2006 and NEEM in 2008. CO records from the three sites agree well with each other as well as with recent atmospheric measurements, indicating that CO is well preserved in the firn at these sites. CO atmospheric history was reconstructed back to the year 1950 from the measurements using a combination of two forward models of gas transport in firn and an inverse model. The reconstructed history suggests that Arctic CO was already higher in 1950 than it is today. CO mole fractions rose gradually until the 1970s and peaked in the 1970s or early 1980s, followed by a decline to today's levels. We compare the CO history with the atmospheric histories of methane, light hydrocarbons, molecular hydrogen, CO stable isotopes and hydroxyl radical (OH, as well as with published CO emission inventories and results of a historical run from a chemistry-transport model. We find that the reconstructed Greenland CO history cannot be reconciled with available emission inventories unless large changes in OH are assumed. We argue that the available CO emission inventories chronically underestimate NH emissions, and fail to capture the emission decline starting in the late 1970s, which was most likely due to reduced emissions from road transportation in North America and Europe.

  11. Carbon monoxide pollution aggravates ischemic heart failure through oxidative stress pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboul, Cyril; Boissière, Julien; André, Lucas; Meyer, Gregory; Bideaux, Patrice; Fouret, Gilles; Feillet-Coudray, Christine; Obert, Philippe; Lacampagne, Alain; Thireau, Jérôme; Cazorla, Olivier; Richard, Sylvain

    2017-01-03

    Risk of hospital readmission and cardiac mortality increases with atmospheric pollution for patients with heart failure. The underlying mechanisms are unclear. Carbon monoxide (CO) a ubiquitous environmental pollutant could be involved. We explored the effect of daily exposure of CO relevant to urban pollution on post-myocardial infarcted animals. Rats with ischemic heart failure were exposed 4 weeks to daily peaks of CO mimicking urban exposure or to standard filtered air. CO exposure worsened cardiac contractile dysfunction evaluated by echocardiography and at the cardiomyocyte level. In line with clinical reports, the animals exposed to CO also exhibited a severe arrhythmogenic phenotype with numerous sustained ventricular tachycardias as monitored by surface telemetric electrocardiograms. CO did not affect cardiac β-adrenergic responsiveness. Instead, mitochondrial dysfunction was exacerbated leading to additional oxidative stress and Ca(2+) cycling alterations. This was reversed following acute antioxidant treatment of cardiomyocytes with N-acetylcysteine confirming involvement of CO-induced oxidative stress. Exposure to daily peaks of CO pollution aggravated cardiac dysfunction in rats with ischemic heart failure by specifically targeting mitochondria and generating ROS-dependent alterations. This pathway may contribute to the high sensibility and vulnerability of individuals with cardiac disease to environmental outdoor air quality.

  12. Colonic insufflation with carbon monoxide gas inhibits the development of intestinal inflammation in rats

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    Takagi Tomohisa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is complex, and an effective therapeutic strategy has yet to be established. Recently, carbon monoxide (CO has been reported to be capable of reducing inflammation by multiple mechanisms. In this study, we evaluated the role of colonic CO insufflation in acute colitis induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS in rats. Methods Acute colitis was induced with TNBS in male Wistar rats. Following TNBS administration, the animals were treated daily with 200 ppm of intrarectal CO gas. The distal colon was removed to evaluate various parameters of inflammation, including thiobarbituric acid (TBA-reactive substances, tissue-associated myeloperoxidase (MPO activity, and the expression of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC-1 in colonic mucosa 7 days after TNBS administration. Results The administration of TNBS induced ulceration with surrounding edematous swelling in the colon. In rats treated with CO gas, the colonic ulcer area was smaller than that of air-treated rats 7 days after TNBS administration. The wet colon weight was significantly increased in the TNBS-induced colitis group, which was markedly abrogated by colonic insufflation with CO gas. The increase of MPO activity, TBA-reactive substances, and CINC-1 expression in colonic mucosa were also significantly inhibited by colonic insufflation with CO gas. Conclusions Colonic insufflation with CO gas significantly ameliorated TNBS-induced colitis in rats. Clinical application of CO gas to improve colonic inflammatory conditions such as IBD might be useful.

  13. Effects of acute hypoventilation and hyperventilation on exhaled carbon monoxide measurement in healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Donato Michele

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High levels of exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO are a marker of airway or lung inflammation. We investigated whether hypo- or hyperventilation can affect measured values. Methods Ten healthy volunteers were trained to achieve sustained end-tidal CO2 (etCO2 concentrations of 30 (hyperventilation, 40 (normoventilation, and 50 mmHg (hypoventilation. As soon as target etCO2 values were achieved for 120 sec, exhaled breath was analyzed for eCO with a photoacoustic spectrometer. At etCO2 values of 30 and 40 mmHg exhaled breath was sampled both after a deep inspiration and after a normal one. All measurements were performed in two different environmental conditions: A ambient CO concentration = 0.8 ppm and B ambient CO concentration = 1.7 ppm. Results During normoventilation, eCO mean (standard deviation was 11.5 (0.8 ppm; it decreased to 10.3 (0.8 ppm during hyperventilation (p 2 changes (hyperventilation: 10% Vs 25% decrease; hypoventilation 3% Vs 25% increase. Taking a deep inspiration before breath sampling was associated with lower eCO values (p Conclusions eCO measurements should not be performed during marked acute hyperventilation, like that induced in this study, but the influence of less pronounced hyperventilation or of hypoventilation is probably negligible in clinical practice

  14. Carbon Monoxide Inhibits Receptor Activator of NF-κB (RANKL-Induced Osteoclastogenesis

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    Feng-Jen Tseng

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO have anti-inflammatory effects and can reduce bone erosion in a murine collagen-induced arthritis model. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of CO on receptor activator of NF-γB ligand (RANKL, one of the key stimulators of osteoclastogenesis. Methods: The in vivo effects of CO on RANKL expression were assessed in a collagen antibody-induced arthritis model in mice. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were assessed in the RAW246.7 cell line stimulated with RANKL and exposed to either air or CO. The number of tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP-positive RAW246.7 cells was also examined after treatment with RANKL and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ agonist, Troglitazone. Results: CO reduced RANKL expression in the synovium of arthritic mice. Although CO slightly increased RAW246.7 cell proliferation, no differences in activated caspase 3 levels were detected. In addition, Troglitazone ameliorated the inhibitory effects of CO on RANKL-induced TRAP expression by RAW246.7 cells. Conclusions: CO suppresses osteoclast differentiation by inhibiting the RANKL-induced activation of PPAR-γ. Given the role of the PPAR-γ/cFos (AP-1 pathway in regulating the transcription factor, NFATc1, the master regulator of osteoclastogenesis, further studies are warranted to explore CO in treating inflammatory bone disorders.

  15. Changing distributions of carbon monoxide (CO) over Africa from climate and land use driven fire patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worden, Helen; Bloom, Anthony; Worden, John

    2017-04-01

    Satellite measurements of atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO) provide a signature for biomass burning and anthropogenic combustion-related pollution emissions. CO plays an important role in both air quality and climate as a precursor for tropospheric ozone and as a major sink of OH, the atmospheric "detergent" that affects the lifetime of methane and other pollutants. Worden et al., [2013] showed decreasing global CO values in time series of satellite total column CO measurements over the past decade. All of the satellite instruments that measure CO in the thermal infrared showed consistent inter-annual variability due to fires and possibly the global recession in late 2008. Observed decreases in CO over N. America and Europe were consistent with expected decreases in CO emissions inventories [Granier et al., 2011], however, the decrease is not uniform globally. In particular, some regions of Africa show negligible trends in CO. Here we examine the 14-year time series (2002-2015) of surface and total column CO concentrations from MOPITT and fire radiative power (FRP) from MODIS over Africa to study the attribution of changes in CO. We are interested in changes in fires due to climate variability (El Nino) and land-use, including urbanization, and their effect on atmospheric CO burden.

  16. Changing distributions of carbon monoxide (CO) from climate and land use driven fire patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worden, H. M.

    2016-12-01

    Satellite measurements of atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO) provide a signature for biomass burning and anthropogenic combustion-related pollution emissions. CO plays an important role in both air quality and climate as a precursor for tropospheric ozone and as a major sink of OH, the atmospheric "detergent" that affects the lifetime of methane and other pollutants. Worden et al., [2013] showed decreasing global CO values in time series of satellite total column CO measurements over the past decade. All of the satellite instruments that measure CO in the thermal infrared showed consistent inter-annual variability due to fires and possibly the global recession in late 2008. Observed decreases in CO over N. America and Europe were consistent with expected decreases in CO emissions inventories [Granier et al., 2011], however, the decrease is not uniform globally. In particular, some regions of Africa show negligible trends in CO. Here we examine the 14-year time series (2002-2015) of surface and total column CO concentrations from MOPITT and fire radiative power (FRP) from MODIS over Africa and Indonesia to study the attribution of changes in CO. We are interested in changes in fires due to climate variability (El Nino) and land-use, including urbanization, and their effect on atmospheric CO burden.

  17. Carbon monoxide poisoning while using a small cooking stove in a tent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomassen, Øyvind; Brattebø, Guttorm; Rostrup, Morten

    2004-05-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is formed wherever incomplete combustion of carbonaceous products occurs.(1) CO is the leading cause of poisoning in the United States, and common sources of CO poisoning include housefires, automobile exhaust, water heaters, kerosene space heaters, and furnaces.(2) Stoves used for cooking and heating during outdoor activities also produce significant amounts of CO. Mountain climbers have been reported to succumb to fumes generated by small cook stoves.(3) The aim of this study was to investigate if burning a cooking stove inside a tent is a potential health hazard. Seven healthy male volunteers used a cooking stove inside a small tent for 120 minutes. CO levels in the ambient tent air were measured in addition to hearth rate (HR) and pulse oximetry (SpO2). Venous blood samples were obtained every 15 minutes for measurement of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb). After 2 hours, all the subjects had significant CO levels in their blood (mean COHb = 21.5%). Mean SpO2, also fell from 98% to 95.3% (P tent. The concentration is high enough to cause significant COHb levels in venous blood after 120 minutes' stay in the tent.

  18. The high redshift star-formation history from carbon-monoxide intensity maps

    CERN Document Server

    Breysse, Patrick C; Kamionkowski, Marc

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate how cosmic star-formation history can be measured with one-point statistics of carbon-monoxide intensity maps. Using a P(D) analysis, the luminosity function of CO-emitting sources can be inferred from the measured one-point intensity PDF. The star-formation rate density (SFRD) can then be obtained, at several redshifts, from the CO luminosity density. We study the effects of instrumental noise, line foregrounds, and target redshift, and obtain constraints on the CO luminosity density of order 10%. We show that the SFRD uncertainty is dominated by that of the model connecting CO luminosity and star formation. For pessimistic estimates of this model uncertainty, we obtain an error of order 50% on SFRD for surveys targeting redshifts between 2 and 7 with reasonable noise and foregrounds included. However, comparisons between intensity maps and galaxies could substantially reduce this model uncertainty. In this case our constraints on SFRD at these redshifts improve to roughly 5-10%, which is high...

  19. The high-redshift star formation history from carbon-monoxide intensity maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breysse, Patrick C.; Kovetz, Ely D.; Kamionkowski, Marc

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate how cosmic star formation history can be measured with one-point statistics of carbon-monoxide intensity maps. Using a P(D) analysis, the luminosity function of CO-emitting sources can be inferred from the measured one-point intensity PDF. The star formation rate density (SFRD) can then be obtained, at several redshifts, from the CO luminosity density. We study the effects of instrumental noise, line foregrounds, and target redshift, and obtain constraints on the CO luminosity density of the order of 10 per cent. We show that the SFRD uncertainty is dominated by that of the model connecting CO luminosity and star formation. For pessimistic estimates of this model uncertainty, we obtain an error of the order of 50 per cent on SFRD for surveys targeting redshifts between two and seven with reasonable noise and foregrounds included. However, comparisons between intensity maps and galaxies could substantially reduce this model uncertainty. In this case, our constraints on SFRD at these redshifts improve to roughly 5 - 10 per cent, which is highly competitive with current measurements.

  20. Monitoring carbon monoxide pollution over the largest ten cities in the US using satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, B.; de Beurs, K.; Owsley, B.; Krehbiel, C. P.; Henebry, G. M.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is one of the several air pollutants that are largely produced by anthropogenic activities in urban areas as a result of incomplete combustion of carbon-containing fuels. Long-term satellite data can monitor spatial and temporal changes in CO globally. Here we investigated spatial, vertical, and temporal changes in CO concentrations over the largest ten US metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) using Version 6 MOPITT TIR-only CO retrievals. The 15-year average of MOPITT Surface CO concentrations over urban areas were highest (388 ppbv) over New York City and lowest (151 ppbv) over Miami. The influence of cities on elevated CO levels extends well beyond the immediate urban area. The CO seasonal profiles above the surface show distinct seasonality with peaks March-April and troughs September-October. However, larger cities show a lack of CO seasonality near the surface. We applied the nonparametric Seasonal Kendall (SK) trend test to the CO time series. Results revealed significant decreasing trends in CO concentration, with stronger trends in the lower atmosphere (>700 hPa) than in the mid-troposphere (500-700 hPa). Our results demonstrate the strong influence of local urban emissions on (near-) surface CO concentrations. Decreasing urban CO over the past 15 years reflects improved urban metabolism through improved energy efficiency, and increasing use of alternative transportation and zero-emission vehicles.

  1. Improving Outreach and Surveillance Efforts Following a Large-Scale Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, Paul D; Vogt, Christy M; Wozniak, Ryan J; Camponeschi, Jenny; Werner, Mark A; Meiman, Jonathan G

    In December 2014, the largest carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning in Wisconsin's history occurred at an ice arena. Following this event, the Wisconsin Environmental Public Health Tracking (WI EPHT) Program sought to improve outreach and surveillance efforts. WI EPHT designed and distributed educational materials on CO poisoning prevention and surveyed stakeholders to gauge the effectiveness of outreach efforts. To enhance surveillance, WI EPHT utilized data from the Wisconsin Poison Center (WPC) to generate real-time alerts of anomalous numbers of CO-related calls. WI EPHT found that 42% of stakeholders reviewed the outreach materials, and 1 ice arena had installed a CO detector as a result. CO alerts were developed using WPC data and are now routinely used in statewide public health surveillance. WI EPHT staff improved CO poisoning prevention outreach and saw a positive response among stakeholders. This work demonstrates ways that health agencies can improve outreach and surveillance for CO poisoning. Improvements in these areas can bolster public health response and may prevent CO-related illness and injury.

  2. Two test-cases for synergistic detections in the Martian atmosphere: Carbon monoxide and methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, S.; Camy-Peyret, C.; Daerden, F.; De Mazière, M.; De Wachter, E.; Neary, L.; Vandenbussche, S.; Vandaele, A. C.

    2017-03-01

    In the frame of the scientific preparation of ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter (EMTGO), synergistic retrievals were performed on synthetic spectra of two different remote sensing instruments of the Martian atmosphere. To benefit from their diversity, we have simulated spectra of a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS), working in the middle to far infrared and of a grating spectrometer (GA) working in the middle infrared. As control runs, non-synergistic retrievals were performed as well. Two molecules of interest in the Martian atmosphere were chosen to test this method: carbon monoxide and methane. Scenarios were selected and two different vibrational bands for each molecule were used to retrieve molecular volume mixing ratios. Synergistic retrievals for CO are useful both in solar occultation and in nadir, while for CH4, the concentration of which is expected to be very low, the results for FTS and GA in synergy are not as conclusive due to the weak signal in the ν4 vibrational band (covered by FTS) compared to the stronger ν3 band (covered by GA). Our results represent a first step to an optimized use of infrared spectra to be recorded in Martian orbit by two instruments of EMTGO.

  3. A modern literature review of carbon monoxide poisoning theories, therapies, and potential targets for therapy advancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roderique, Joseph D; Josef, Christopher S; Feldman, Michael J; Spiess, Bruce D

    2015-08-06

    The first descriptions of carbon monoxide (CO) and its toxic nature appeared in the literature over 100 years ago in separate publications by Drs. Douglas and Haldane. Both men ascribed the deleterious effects of this newly discovered gas to its strong interaction with hemoglobin. Since then the adverse sequelae of CO poisoning has been almost universally attributed to hypoxic injury secondary to CO occupation of oxygen binding sites on hemoglobin. Despite a mounting body of literature suggesting other mechanisms of injury, this pathophysiology and its associated oxygen centric therapies persists. This review attempts to elucidate the remarkably complex nature of CO as a gasotransmitter. While CO's affinity for hemoglobin remains undisputed, new research suggests that its role in nitric oxide release, reactive oxygen species formation, and its direct action on ion channels is much more significant. In the course of understanding the multifaceted character of this simple molecule it becomes apparent that current oxygen based therapies meant to displace CO from hemoglobin may be insufficient and possibly harmful. Approaching CO as a complex gasotransmitter will help guide understanding of the complex and poorly understood sequelae and illuminate potentials for new treatment modalities.

  4. Global carbon monoxide products from combined AIRS, TES and MLS measurements on A-train satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. X. Warner

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study tests a novel methodology to add value to satellite datasets. This methodology, data fusion, is similar to data assimilation, except that the background model-based field is replaced by a satellite dataset, in this case AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder carbon monoxide (CO measurements. The observational information comes from CO measurements with lower spatial coverage than AIRS, namely, from TES (Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer and MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder. We show that combining these datasets with data fusion uses the higher spectral resolution of TES to extend AIRS CO observational sensitivity to the lower troposphere, a region especially important for air quality studies. We also show that combined CO measurements from AIRS and MLS provide enhanced information in the UTLS (upper troposphere/lower stratosphere region compared to each product individually. The combined AIRS/TES and AIRS/MLS CO products are validated against DACOM (differential absorption mid-IR diode laser spectrometer in situ CO measurements from the INTEX-B (Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment: MILAGRO and Pacific phases field campaign and in situ data from HIPPO (HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations flights. The data fusion results show improved sensitivities in the lower and upper troposphere (20–30% and above 20%, respectively as compared with AIRS-only retrievals, and improved coverage compared with TES and MLS CO data.

  5. Evaluation of new laser spectrometer techniques for in-situ carbon monoxide measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellweger, C.; Steinbacher, M.; Buchmann, B.

    2012-10-01

    Long-term time series of the atmospheric composition are essential for environmental research and thus require compatible, multi-decadal monitoring activities. The current data quality objectives of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) for carbon monoxide (CO) in the atmosphere are very challenging to meet with the measurement techniques that have been used until recently. During the past few years, new spectroscopic techniques came to market with promising properties for trace gas analytics. The current study compares three instruments that have recently become commercially available (since 2011) with the best currently available technique (Vacuum UV Fluorescence) and provides a link to previous comparison studies. The instruments were investigated for their performance regarding repeatability, reproducibility, drift, temperature dependence, water vapour interference and linearity. Finally, all instruments were examined during a short measurement campaign to assess their applicability for long-term field measurements. It could be shown that the new techniques perform considerably better compared to previous techniques, although some issues, such as temperature influence and cross sensitivities, need further attention.

  6. Evaluation of three new laser spectrometer techniques for in-situ carbon monoxide measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellweger, C.; Steinbacher, M.; Buchmann, B.

    2012-07-01

    Long-term time series of the atmospheric composition are essential for environmental research and thus require compatible, multi-decadal monitoring activities. However, the current data quality objectives of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) for carbon monoxide (CO) in the atmosphere are very challenging to meet with the measurement techniques that have been used until recently. During the past few years, new spectroscopic techniques came on the market with promising properties for trace gas analytics. The current study compares three instruments that are recently commercially available (since 2011) with the up to now best available technique (vacuum UV fluorescence) and provides a link to previous comparison studies. The instruments were investigated for their performance regarding repeatability, reproducibility, drift, temperature dependence, water vapour interference and linearity. Finally, all instruments were examined during a short measurement campaign to assess their applicability for long-term field measurements. It could be shown that the new techniques provide a considerably better performance compared to previous techniques, although some issues such as temperature influence and cross sensitivities need further attention.

  7. Bio-Inspired Carbon Monoxide Sensors with Voltage-Activated Sensitivity

    KAUST Repository

    Savagatrup, Suchol

    2017-09-27

    Carbon monoxide (CO) outcompetes oxygen when binding to the iron center of hemeproteins, leading to a reduction in blood oxygen level and acute poisoning. Harvesting the strong specific interaction between CO and the iron porphyrin provides a highly selective and customizable sensor. We report the development of chemiresistive sensors with voltage-activated sensitivity for the detection of CO comprising iron porphyrin and functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (F-SWCNTs). Modulation of the gate voltage offers a predicted extra dimension for sensing. Specifically, the sensors show a significant increase in sensitivity toward CO when negative gate voltage is applied. The dosimetric sensors are selective to ppm levels of CO and functional in air. UV/Vis spectroscopy, differential pulse voltammetry, and density functional theory reveal that the in situ reduction of FeIII to FeII enhances the interaction between the F-SWCNTs and CO. Our results illustrate a new mode of sensors wherein redox active recognition units are voltage-activated to give enhanced and highly specific responses.

  8. Carbon monoxide photoproduction: implications for photoreactivity of Arctic permafrost-derived soil dissolved organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jun; Xie, Huixiang; Guo, Laodong; Song, Guisheng

    2014-08-19

    Apparent quantum yields of carbon monoxide (CO) photoproduction (AQY(CO)) for permafrost-derived soil dissolved organic matter (SDOM) from the Yukon River Basin and Alaska coast were determined to examine the dependences of AQY(CO) on temperature, ionic strength, pH, and SDOM concentration. SDOM from different locations and soil depths all exhibited similar AQY(CO) spectra irrespective of soil age. AQY(CO) increased by 68% for a 20 °C warming, decreased by 25% from ionic strength 0 to 0.7 mol L(-1), and dropped by 25-38% from pH 4 to 8. These effects combined together could reduce AQY(CO) by up to 72% when SDOM transits from terrestrial environemnts to open-ocean conditions during summer in the Arctic. A Michaelis-Menten kinetics characterized the influence of SDOM dilution on AQY(CO) with a very low substrate half-saturation concentration. Generalized global-scale relationships between AQY(CO) and salinity and absorbance demostrate that the CO-based photoreactivity of ancient permaforst SDOM is comparable to that of modern riverine DOM and that the effects of the physicochemical variables revealed here alone could account for the seaward decline of AQY(CO) observed in diverse estuarine and coastal water bodies.

  9. Otoneurological symptoms in Brazilian fishermen exposed over a long period to carbon monoxide and noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Simone Zeigelboim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fishing, one of the oldest productive activities, is an important sector of the Brazilian economy as well as the world economy. To evaluate the vestibular behavior in population of fishermen. It was realized as a retrospective and cross-sectional study. Thirty fishermen [mean age 49.5 (±8.5 years] whose age ranged from 33 years to 67 years were submitted to anamnesis, otorhinolaryngological evaluation, and vestibular examination through the electronystagmography (ENG. The most evident otoneurological symptoms were: Tinnitus (66.7%, dizziness (63.3%, and hearing loss (53.3%. The most evident clinical symptoms were: Fatigue (36.7%, anxiety (23.3%, and depression (16.7%. There were alterations in the vestibular examination of 13 (43.3% fishermen in the caloric test. There was a prevalence of alteration in the peripheral vestibular system and there was a major frequency of the peripheral vestibular irritative syndrome (30.0%. Conclusion: The otoneurological complaints were frequent in the population studied that verifies the importance of allowing labyrinth examinations and the need for adopting preventive measures related to noise exposure to carbon monoxide (CO, since they can cause and/enhance various manifestations of labyrinthine vestibular impairment that can affect the quality of life of these workers.

  10. Use of carbon monoxide and hydrogen by a bacteria-animal symbiosis from seagrass sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiner, Manuel; Wentrup, Cecilia; Holler, Thomas; Lavik, Gaute; Harder, Jens; Lott, Christian; Littmann, Sten; Kuypers, Marcel M M; Dubilier, Nicole

    2015-12-01

    The gutless marine worm Olavius algarvensis lives in symbiosis with chemosynthetic bacteria that provide nutrition by fixing carbon dioxide (CO2 ) into biomass using reduced sulfur compounds as energy sources. A recent metaproteomic analysis of the O. algarvensis symbiosis indicated that carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2 ) might also be used as energy sources. We provide direct evidence that the O. algarvensis symbiosis consumes CO and H2 . Single cell imaging using nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry revealed that one of the symbionts, the γ3-symbiont, uses the energy from CO oxidation to fix CO2 . Pore water analysis revealed considerable in-situ concentrations of CO and H2 in the O. algarvensis environment, Mediterranean seagrass sediments. Pore water H2 concentrations (89-2147 nM) were up to two orders of magnitude higher than in seawater, and up to 36-fold higher than previously known from shallow-water marine sediments. Pore water CO concentrations (17-51 nM) were twice as high as in the overlying seawater (no literature data from other shallow-water sediments are available for comparison). Ex-situ incubation experiments showed that dead seagrass rhizomes produced large amounts of CO. CO production from decaying plant material could thus be a significant energy source for microbial primary production in seagrass sediments.

  11. The complex analytical method for assessment of passive smokers' exposure to carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czogala, Jan; Goniewicz, Maciej Lukasz

    2005-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is one of the toxic constituents in tobacco smoke. The aim of the study was to evaluate a complex analytical method that allows quantification of the exposure of passive smokers to CO. The exposed volunteers were placed in the model room where portions of cigarettes (5, 10, or 15 cigarettes every 30 or 60 min over 4 h) were smoked using a homemade smoking machine. The concentrations of CO and of the ventilation marker (methane) were monitored for the duration of each experiment. CO and methane were analyzed on-line using GC-FID with methanization. Carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) was analyzed twice: just before and after the experiment. After hemolysis of a 100-microL blood sample, CO was quantitatively released by adding 10% K3[Fe(CN)6] inside a small reactor and under stable pressure transported through a microtube with an absorbing agent on a chromatography loop. The proposed analytical method allows us to quantify exposure of passive smokers by measuring the dose-effect correlation. We observed that increasing COHb levels were directly correlated with the CO concentration in the air, but were also intermediately correlated with the frequency and number of smoked cigarettes and with the ventilation coefficient.

  12. Carbon monoxide from neighbouring restaurants: the need for an integrated multi-agency response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshishian, C; Sandle, H; Meltzer, M; Young, Y; Ward, R; Balasegaram, S

    2012-12-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colourless, odourless toxic gas produced during incomplete combustion of carbon-based fuels. Most CO incidents reported to the UK Health Protection Agency (HPA) are due to faulty gas appliances, and legislation exists to ensure gas appliances are properly installed. We present three CO poisoning incidents of unusual origin reported to the HPA. In each, residents living above restaurants were poisoned after workers left charcoal smouldering overnight in specialist or traditional ovens whilst ventilation systems were turned off. This led to production of CO, which travelled through floorboards and built up to dangerous concentrations in the flats. Working with local authorities, these incidents were investigated and resolved, and work was conducted to prevent further occurrences. The novel nature of these CO incidents led to delays in recognition and subsequent remedial action. Although previously undescribed, it is likely that due to the number of residences built above restaurants and the rising popularity of traditional cooking methods, similar incidents may be occurring and could increase in frequency. Multi-agency response and reporting mechanisms could be strengthened. Awareness raising in professional groups and the public on the importance of correct ventilation of such appliances is vital.

  13. Response of Hepatoma 9618a and Normal Liver to Host Carbogen and Carbon Monoxide Breathing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon P. Robinson

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of hyperoxia (induced by host carbogen 95% oxygen/5% carbon dioxide breathing. and hypoxia (induced by host carbon monoxide CO at 660 ppm. breathing were compared by using noninvasive magnetic resonance (MR methods to gain simultaneous information on blood flow/oxygenation and the bioenergetic status of rat Morris H9618a hepatomas. Both carbogen and CO breathing induced a 1.5- to 2-fold increase in signal intensity in blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD MR images. This was due to a decrease in deoxyhemoglobin (deoxyHb, which acts as an endogenous contrast agent, caused either by formation of oxyhemoglobin in the case of carbogen breathing, or carboxyhemoglobin with CO breathing. The results were confirmed by observation of similar changes in deoxyHb in arterial blood samples examined ex vivo after carbogen or CO breathing. There was no change in nucleoside triphosphates (NTP/PI in either tumor or liver after CO breathing, whereas NTP/Pl increased twofold in the hepatoma (but not in the liver after carbogen breathing. No changes in tumor intracellular pH were seen after either treatment, whereas extracellular pH became more alkaline after CO breathing and more acid after carbogen breathing, respectively. This tumor type and the liver are unaffected by CO breathing at 660 ppm, which implies an adequate oxygen supply.

  14. Light irradiation for treatment of acute carbon monoxide poisoning: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Taku; Kashimura, Takeshi; Ise, Marii; Lohman, Brandon D; Taira, Yasuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Because treatment modalities for carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, especially normobaric oxygen and hyperbaric oxygen therapies, have limited effects and hyperbaric oxygen is not available at the scene where treatment is most needed, we conducted a study to determine and compare rates of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) dissociation achieved in human in vitro blood samples under light radiation emitted at three levels of illuminance. This was done with a view toward eventual on-site application. We drew blood from 10 volunteers, prepared 10 red blood cell solutions, and subjected each solution to a CO bubbling procedure to increase the COHb saturation. Samples of each bubbled solution were then divided between 3 beakers (beakers A, B, and C) for a total of 30 beakers. The solution in each beaker was exposed to a continuous flow of oxygen at 50 mL/min, and simultaneously for a period of 15 min, the beaker A and B solutions were irradiated with light emitted at 500,000 and 100,000 lux, respectively, from a halogen light source. The beaker C solutions were exposed to room light. At 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 min, a 50-μL sample was pipetted from each of the 30 beakers for determination of its light absorbance and the COHb dissociation rate. Under each of the experimental conditions, dissociation progressed but at different rates, and starting at 3 min, the differences in rates between conditions were significant (P poisoning.

  15. Indoor Carbon Monoxide: A Case Study in England for Detection and Interventions to Reduce Population Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. J. McCann

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Potential exposure to carbon monoxide (CO in private homes is largely unquantified. Aim. To estimate prevalence of potential exposure to CO in residential dwellings and describe associated interventions in an inner-city community. Methods. A housing association in London, Hackney Homes, began fitting CO alarms in the 22,831 local authority homes it is responsible for in January 2010. A gas engineer investigated each alarm activation and recorded the information on a standard form. We undertook a cross-sectional study of all 22,831 homes, using data from these forms. Descriptive analysis was performed, including incidence, monthly variation, cause of alarm activation, and actions taken. Results. Between November 2011 and April 2012, 106 incidents were reported. Of these, 34.6% identified an issue with a gas appliance, and 10.6% identified misuse of cooking methods as the cause of activation. Relevant interventions were put in place, including disconnection of the gas appliance and education around cooking methods. Discussion. Little is known about the burden of CO poisoning in residential dwellings. This study provides important information on the path to quantifying population exposure to CO as well as establishing a possible approach to access this key information and realistic interventions to reduce potential exposure.

  16. Synergistic effect of carbon monoxide with other biologically active injurious factors on the organism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pankow, D.; Ponsold, W.

    1974-09-01

    The combined effects on biological organisms are reported for carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, sodium nitrite, hydrocyanic acid, carbon disulfide, sulfur dioxide, ammonia, hydrogen peroxide, ethanol, trichloroethylene, carbon tetrachloride, methane, benzene, iodine acetate, cholesterol, benzpyrene, hexobarbitol, zoxazolamine, nembutal, luminal, morphine, adrenalin, persantin, cytochrome c, aldrin, carbaryl, cyclodiene epoxide; and physical influences such as ambient temperature, atmospheric pressure, ionizing radiation, noise, and vibration. A literature review shows that with increasing CO/sub 2/ and decreasing oxygen concentration in the inhalation air, the toxicity of CO increased in experiments with mice and canaries. Oxides of nitrogen enhance the toxic effect of CO in an additive way and at times synergistically. At 500 m from a metallurgical plant in the USSR the maximum allowable immission concentrations for CO and SO/sub 2/ were exceeded. In children residing there a higher normal erythrocyte number, hemoglobin content, and catalase activity were found in the blood along with higher concentrations of coproporphyrin and 17-ketosteroids. All values returned to normal after an 8-week stay of these children away from the metallurgical plant.

  17. Effects of exogenous carbon monoxide on radiation-induced bystander effect in zebrafish embryos in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, V.W.Y.; Wong, M.Y.P. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Cheng, S.H. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Yu, K.N., E-mail: appetery@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong)

    2012-07-15

    In the present work, the influence of a low concentration of exogenous carbon monoxide (CO) liberated from tricarbonylchloro(glycinato)ruthenium (II) (CORM-3) on the radiation induced bystander effect (RIBE) in vivo between embryos of the zebrafish was studied. RIBE was assessed through the number of apoptotic signals revealed on embryos at 25 h post fertilization (hpf). A significant attenuation of apoptosis on the bystander embryos induced by RIBE in a CO concentration dependent manner was observed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RIBE between zebrafish embryos in vivo was assessed by the level of apoptosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CO from 10 and 20 {mu}M CORM-3 entirely suppressed the RIBE. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CO from 5 {mu}M CORM-3 significantly attenuated the level of apoptosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inactive CORM-3 did not lead to suppression of RIBE. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Suppression of RIBE by CO depended on the concentration of CORM-3.

  18. Carbon Monoxide Attenuates Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis via Inhibition of GSK-3β Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Jamal Uddin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous carbon monoxide (CO is produced by heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 which mediates the degradation of heme into CO, iron, and biliverdin. Also, CO ameliorates the human inflammatory bowel diseases and ulcerative colitis. However, the mechanism for the effect of CO on the inflammatory bowel disease has not yet been known. In this study, we showed that CO significantly increases survival percentage, body weight, colon length as well as histologic parameters in DSS-treated mice. In addition, CO inhalation significantly decreased DSS induced pro-inflammatory cytokines by inhibition of GSK-3β in mice model. To support the in vivo observation, TNF-α, iNOS and IL-10 after CO and LiCl treatment were measured in mesenteric lymph node cells (MLNs and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs from DSS treated mice. In addition, we determined that CO potentially inhibited GSK-3β activation and decreased TNF-α and iNOS expression by inhibition of NF-κB activation in LPS-stimulated U937 and MLN cells pretreated with CO. Together, our findings indicate that CO attenuates DSS-induced colitis via inhibition of GSK-3β signaling in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, this is the first report that investigated the molecular mechanisms mediated the novel effects of CO via inhibition GSK-3β in DSS-induced colitis model.

  19. [Heme oxygenase and carbon monoxide in the physiology and pathology of the cardiovascular system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bełtowski, Jerzy; Jamroz, Anna; Borkowska, Ewelina

    2004-03-03

    Heme oxygenase (HO) degrades heme to carbon monoxide (CO), ferrous ions, and the bile pigment biliverdin, which is subsequently reduced to the other important bile pigment, bilirubin, by biliverdin reductase. Fe2+ liberated from the heme molecule upregulates ferritin production, and bile pigments are potent endogenous antioxidants. The HO enzyme exists in three isophorms: HO-1 is expressed at low levels under physiological conditions, but is induced by numerous factors, including oxidative stress, inflammation, nitric oxide, an elevated level of substrate, and hypoxia. HO-2 is a constitutive enzyme involved in the baseline production of CO in the cardiovascular and nervous systems, whereas HO-3 is also ubiquitously expressed, but possesses low catalytic activity. Like nitric oxide, CO activates soluble guanylate cyclase and elevates cGMP in target tissues, which dilates blood vessels. It also does this by directly activating potassium channels in vascular smooth muscle cells. In addition, CO inhibits platelet aggregation and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells, inhibits apoptosis, and stimulates angiogenesis. Both deficiency, and excess of HO-1 may be involved in the pathogenesis of arterial hypertension. Induction of HO-1 attenuates atherosclerosis and myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Pharmacological and genetic induction of HO-1 as well as the delivery of exogenous CO are promising therapeutic strategies for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  20. Heme oxygenase-1/carbon monoxide: from basic science to therapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryter, Stefan W; Alam, Jawed; Choi, Augustine M K

    2006-04-01

    The heme oxygenases, which consist of constitutive and inducible isozymes (HO-1, HO-2), catalyze the rate-limiting step in the metabolic conversion of heme to the bile pigments (i.e., biliverdin and bilirubin) and thus constitute a major intracellular source of iron and carbon monoxide (CO). In recent years, endogenously produced CO has been shown to possess intriguing signaling properties affecting numerous critical cellular functions including but not limited to inflammation, cellular proliferation, and apoptotic cell death. The era of gaseous molecules in biomedical research and human diseases initiated with the discovery that the endothelial cell-derived relaxing factor was identical to the gaseous molecule nitric oxide (NO). The discovery that endogenously produced gaseous molecules such as NO and now CO can impart potent physiological and biological effector functions truly represented a paradigm shift and unraveled new avenues of intense investigations. This review covers the molecular and biochemical characterization of HOs, with a discussion on the mechanisms of signal transduction and gene regulation that mediate the induction of HO-1 by environmental stress. Furthermore, the current understanding of the functional significance of HO shall be discussed from the perspective of each of the metabolic by-products, with a special emphasis on CO. Finally, this presentation aspires to lay a foundation for potential future clinical applications of these systems.