WorldWideScience

Sample records for monoxide dissociation rate

  1. Effects of carbonyl bond, metal cluster dissociation, and evaporation rates on predictions of nanotube production in high-pressure carbon monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Carl D.; Smalley, Richard E.

    2003-01-01

    The high-pressure carbon monoxide (HiPco) process for producing single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) uses iron pentacarbonyl as the source of iron for catalyzing the Boudouard reaction. Attempts using nickel tetracarbonyl led to no production of SWNTs. This paper discusses simulations at a constant condition of 1300 K and 30 atm in which the chemical rate equations are solved for different reaction schemes. A lumped cluster model is developed to limit the number of species in the models, yet it includes fairly large clusters. Reaction rate coefficients in these schemes are based on bond energies of iron and nickel species and on estimates of chemical rates for formation of SWNTs. SWNT growth is measured by the conformation of CO2. It is shown that the production of CO2 is significantly greater for FeCO because of its lower bond energy as compared with that of NiCO. It is also shown that the dissociation and evaporation rates of atoms from small metal clusters have a significant effect on CO2 production. A high rate of evaporation leads to a smaller number of metal clusters available to catalyze the Boudouard reaction. This suggests that if CO reacts with metal clusters and removes atoms from them by forming MeCO, this has the effect of enhancing the evaporation rate and reducing SWNT production. The study also investigates some other reactions in the model that have a less dramatic influence.

  2. Dipolar dissociation dynamics in electron collisions with carbon monoxide

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Dipayan; Nandi, Dhananjay

    2016-01-01

    Dipolar dissociation processes in the electron collisions with carbon monoxide have been studied using time of flight (TOF) mass spectroscopy in combination with the highly differential velocity slice imaging (VSI) technique. Probing ion-pair states both positive and/or negative ions may be detected. The ion yield curve of negative ions provides the threshold energy for the ion-pair production. On the other hand, the kinetic energy distributions and angular distributions of the fragment anion provide detailed dynamics of the dipolar dissociation process. Two ion-pair states have been identified based on angular distribution measurements using VSI technique.

  3. Carbon monoxide dissociative attachment and resonant dissociation by electron-impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporta, V.; Tennyson, J.; Celiberto, R.

    2016-02-01

    Low-energy dissociative electron attachment and resonant electron impact dissociation of CO molecule are considered. Ro-vibrationally resolved cross sections and rate coefficients for both the processes are calculated using an ab-initio model based on the low-lying \\text{X}{{}2}\\Pi resonance of CO-. Final results show that the cross sections increases very rapidly as a function of the ro-vibrational level; these cross sections should be useful for understanding kinetic dissociation of CO in strongly non-equilibrium plasmas.

  4. The effect of carbon monoxide Co-adsorption on Ni-catalysed water dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsenzadeh, Abas; Borjesson, Anders; Wang, Jeng-Han; Richards, Tobias; Bolton, Kim

    2013-01-01

    The effect of carbon monoxide (CO) co-adsorption on the dissociation of water on the Ni(111) surface has been studied using density functional theory. The structures of the adsorbed water molecule and of the transition state are changed by the presence of the CO molecule. The water O-H bond that is closest to the CO is lengthened compared to the structure in the absence of the CO, and the breaking O-H bond in the transition state structure has a larger imaginary frequency in the presence of CO. In addition, the distances between the Ni surface and H2O reactant and OH and H products decrease in the presence of the CO. The changes in structures and vibrational frequencies lead to a reaction energy that is 0.17 eV less exothermic in the presence of the CO, and an activation barrier that is 0.12 eV larger in the presence of the CO. At 463 K the water dissociation rate constant is an order of magnitude smaller in the presence of the CO. This reveals that far fewer water molecules will dissociate in the presence of CO under reaction conditions that are typical for the water-gas-shift reaction.

  5. The Effect of Carbon Monoxide Co-Adsorption on Ni-Catalysed Water Dissociation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abas Mohsenzadeh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of carbon monoxide (CO co-adsorption on the dissociation of water on the Ni(111 surface has been studied using density functional theory. The structures of the adsorbed water molecule and of the transition state are changed by the presence of the CO molecule. The water O–H bond that is closest to the CO is lengthened compared to the structure in the absence of the CO, and the breaking O–H bond in the transition state structure has a larger imaginary frequency in the presence of CO. In addition, the distances between the Ni surface and H2O reactant and OH and H products decrease in the presence of the CO. The changes in structures and vibrational frequencies lead to a reaction energy that is 0.17 eV less exothermic in the presence of the CO, and an activation barrier that is 0.12 eV larger in the presence of the CO. At 463 K the water dissociation rate constant is an order of magnitude smaller in the presence of the CO. This reveals that far fewer water molecules will dissociate in the presence of CO under reaction conditions that are typical for the water-gas-shift reaction.

  6. The Effect of Carbon Monoxide Co-Adsorption on Ni-Catalysed Water Dissociation

    OpenAIRE

    Abas Mohsenzadeh; Anders Borjesson; Jeng-Han Wang; Tobias Richards; Kim Bolton

    2013-01-01

    The effect of carbon monoxide (CO) co-adsorption on the dissociation of water on the Ni(111) surface has been studied using density functional theory. The structures of the adsorbed water molecule and of the transition state are changed by the presence of the CO molecule. The water O–H bond that is closest to the CO is lengthened compared to the structure in the absence of the CO, and the breaking O–H bond in the transition state structure has a larger imaginary frequency in the presence of C...

  7. Density function theory study of the adsorption and dissociation of carbon monoxide on tungsten nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Meng-Hsiung; Ju, Shin-Pon; Chen, Hsin-Tsung; Chen, Hui-Lung; Lu, Jian-Ming; Lin, Ken-Huang; Lin, Jenn-Sen; Hsieh, Jin-Yuan; Yang, Hsi-Wen

    2013-02-01

    The adsorption and dissociation properties of carbon monoxide (CO) molecule on tungsten W(n) (n = 10-15) nanoparticles have been investigated by density-functional theory (DFT) calculations. The lowest-energy structures for W(n) (n = 10-15) nanoparticles are found by the basin-hopping method and big-bang method with the modified tight-binding many-body potential. We calculated the corresponding adsorption energies, C-O bond lengths and dissociation barriers for adsorption of CO on nanoparticles. The electronic properties of CO on nanoparticles are studied by the analysis of density of state and charge density. The characteristic of CO on W(n) nanoparticles are also compared with that of W bulk.

  8. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Evidence for the Dissociation of Carbon Monoxide on Ruthenium Steps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tison, Yann; Nielsen, Kenneth; Mowbray, Duncan J.

    2012-01-01

    In heterogeneous catalysis, identifying the active site for key reaction steps is an important contribution for the optimization of industrial synthesis. The structure sensitivity of CO dissociation on a metal catalyst, which is the rate-limiting step for the methanation and the Fischer–Tropsch p...

  9. Charmonium dissociation cross sections and charmonium dissociation rates in hadronic matter

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Feng-Rong; Xu, Xiao-Ming

    2016-01-01

    K*-charmonium dissociation reactions in hadronic matter are studied in the Born approximation, in the quark-interchange mechanism, and with a temperature-dependent quark potential. We obtain the temperature dependence of unpolarized cross sections for K*-charmonium dissociation reactions which produce charmed mesons and charmed strange mesons. We use the cross sections for charmonium dissociation in collisions with pion, rho meson, kaon, vector kaon, and eta meson to calculate dissociation rates of charmonium with the five types of mesons. Because of the temperature dependence of the meson masses, dissociation cross sections, and meson distribution functions, the charmonium dissociation rates generally increase with the increase of temperature and decrease with the increase of charmonium momentum from 2.2 GeV/c. We find that the first derivative of the dissociation rate with respect to the charmonium momentum is zero when the charmonium is at rest. While the eta + psi' and eta + chi_c dissociation reactions c...

  10. Nonequilibrium dissociation mechanisms in low temperature nitrogen and carbon monoxide plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capitelli, Mario [Department of Chemistry, University of Bari (Italy); CNR IMIP, Bari (Italy); Colonna, Gianpiero, E-mail: gianpiero.colonna@ba.imip.cnr.it [CNR IMIP, Bari (Italy); D’Ammando, Giuliano [Department of Chemistry, University of Bari (Italy); Laporta, Vincenzo [CNR IMIP, Bari (Italy); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College of London (United Kingdom); Laricchiuta, Annarita [CNR IMIP, Bari (Italy)

    2014-06-25

    Highlights: • The role of vibrational excitation in affecting N{sub 2} dissociation is put in evidence. • Calculations with new complete sets of e-N{sub 2} cross sections have been performed. • Vibrational mechanism dominates e-N{sub 2} dissociation for E/N < 50 Td. • Vibrational and electron dissociation mechanisms are competitive for E/N > 50 Td. - Abstract: The role of vibrational excitation in affecting the dissociation under discharge conditions characterized by reduced electric field E/N ⩽ 80 Td has been investigated in N{sub 2}. The kinetic calculations have been performed using a self-consistent approach, solving at the same time the master equation for the composition and the distribution of internal states (vibrational and electronic) and the Boltzmann equation for the electron energy distribution function. The results show that vibrational mechanisms involving heavy particle excited states dominate electron impact dissociation mechanisms involving the whole vibrational ladder for E/N < 50 Td, the two mechanisms being competitive for E/N > 50 Td.

  11. Rate coefficients for dissociative attachment and resonant electron-impact dissociation involving vibrationally excited O{sub 2} molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laporta, V. [Istituto di Metodologie Inorganiche e dei Plasmi, CNR, Bari, Italy and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Celiberto, R. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Ambientale, del Territorio, Edile e di Chimica, Politecnico di Bari, Italy and Istituto di Metodologie Inorganiche e dei Plasmi, CNR, Bari (Italy); Tennyson, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-09

    Rate coefficients for dissociative electron attachment and electron-impact dissociation processes, involving vibrationally excited molecular oxygen, are presented. Analytical fits of the calculated numerical data, useful in the applications, are also provided.

  12. O{sub 2}-mediated oxidation of ferrous nitrosylated human serum heme-albumin is limited by nitrogen monoxide dissociation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ascenzi, Paolo, E-mail: ascenzi@uniroma3.it [Interdepartmental Laboratory of Electron Microscopy, University Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 79, I-00146 Roma (Italy); National Institute for Infectious Diseases I.R.C.C.S. ' Lazzaro Spallanzani' , Via Portuense 292, I-00149 Roma (Italy); Gullotta, Francesca; Gioia, Magda; Coletta, Massimo [Department of Experimental Medicine and Biochemical Sciences, University of Roma ' Tor Vergata' , Via Montpellier 1, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Interuniversity Consortium for the Research on the Chemistry of Metals in Biological Systems, Piazza Umberto I 1, I-87100 Bari (Italy); Fasano, Mauro [Department of Structural and Functional Biology, and Center of Neuroscience, University of Insubria, Via Alberto da Giussano 12a, I-21052 Busto Arsizio, VA (Italy)

    2011-03-04

    Research highlights: {yields} Human serum heme-albumin displays globin-like properties. {yields} O{sub 2}-mediated oxidation of ferrous nitrosylated human serum heme-albumin. {yields} Allosteric modulation of human serum heme-albumin reactivity. {yields} Rifampicin is an allosteric effector of human serum heme-albumin. {yields} Human serum heme-albumin is a ROS and NOS scavenger. -- Abstract: Human serum heme-albumin (HSA-heme-Fe) displays globin-like properties. Here, kinetics of O{sub 2}-mediated oxidation of ferrous nitrosylated HSA-heme-Fe (HSA-heme-Fe(II)-NO) is reported. Values of the first-order rate constants for O{sub 2}-mediated oxidation of HSA-heme-Fe(II)-NO (i.e., for ferric HSA-heme-Fe formation) and for NO dissociation from HSA-heme-Fe(II)-NO (i.e., for NO replacement by CO) are k = 9.8 x 10{sup -5} and 8.3 x 10{sup -4} s{sup -1}, and h = 1.3 x 10{sup -4} and 8.5 x 10{sup -4} s{sup -1}, in the absence and presence of rifampicin, respectively, at pH = 7.0 and T = 20.0 {sup o}C. The coincidence of values of k and h indicates that NO dissociation represents the rate limiting step of O{sub 2}-mediated oxidation of HSA-heme-Fe(II)-NO. Mixing HSA-heme-Fe(II)-NO with O{sub 2} does not lead to the formation of the transient adduct(s), but leads to the final ferric HSA-heme-Fe derivative. These results reflect the fast O{sub 2}-mediated oxidation of ferrous HSA-heme-Fe and highlight the role of drugs in modulating allosterically the heme-Fe-atom reactivity.

  13. The HD+ dissociative recombination rate coefficient at low temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the rotational temperature of the ions is considered for low-energy dissociative recombination (DR of HD+. Merged beams measurements with HD+ ions of a rotational temperature near 300 K are compared to multichannel quantum defect theory calculations. The thermal DR rate coefficient for a Maxwellian electron velocity distribution is derived from the merged-beams data and compared to theoretical results for a range of rotational temperatures. Good agreement is found for the theory with 300 K rotational temperature. For a low-temperature plasma environment where also the rotational temperature assumes 10 K, theory predicts a considerably higher thermal DR rate coefficient. The origin of this is traced to predicted resonant structures of the collision-energy dependent DR cross section at few-meV collision energies for the particular case of HD+ ions in the rotational ground state.

  14. Sublimation rates of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide from comets at large heliocentric distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekanina, Zdenek

    1992-01-01

    Using a simple model for outgassing from a small flat surface area, the sublimation rates of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, two species more volatile than water ice that are known to be present in comets, are calculated for a suddenly activated discrete source on the rotating nucleus. The instantaneous sublimation rate depends upon the comet's heliocentric distance and the Sun's zenith angle at the location of the source. The values are derived for the constants of CO and CO2 in an expression that yields the local rotation-averaged sublimation rate as a function of the comet's spin parameters and the source's cometocentric latitude.

  15. Differences in brain 5-HT transporter dissociation rates among animal species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erreboe, I.; Plenge, P.; Mellerup, E.T. [Univ. of Copenhagen, Dept. of Pharmacology, Lab. of Neuropsychiatry, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    1995-06-01

    The potential of using receptor-ligand dissociation rates as a model for investigating molecular changes in receptors was tested using the dissociation of [{sup 3}H]citalopram, [{sup 3}H]paroxetine and [{sup 3}H]imipramine from the brain 5-HT transporter of four different species (mouse, rat, pig and man). Since the dissociation rates of each of the three ligands differed in most of the species investigated, receptor-ligand dissociation rate constants would seem to be a sensitive measure of receptor conformation. The model could be useful in the search of structural variation in receptors whether attributable to genetic factors or to posttranslational modification. (au) (12 refs.).

  16. Measurement of Calcium Dissociation Rates from Troponin C in Rigor Skeletal Myofibrils

    OpenAIRE

    Little, Sean C.; Tikunova, Svetlana B.; Norman, Catalina; Swartz, Darl R.; Davis, Jonathan P.

    2011-01-01

    Ca2+ dissociation from the regulatory domain of troponin C may influence the rate of striated muscle relaxation. However, Ca2+ dissociation from troponin C has not been measured within the geometric and stoichiometric constraints of the muscle fiber. Here we report the rates of Ca2+ dissociation from the N-terminal regulatory and C-terminal structural domains of fluorescent troponin C constructs reconstituted into rabbit rigor psoas myofibrils using stopped-flow technology. Chicken skeletal t...

  17. Unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning hospitalization and emergency department counts and rates by county, year, and fire-relatedness among California residents,2000-2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Environmental Health Tracking Program — This dataset contains case counts, rates, and confidence intervals of unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning (CO) inpatient hospitalizations and emergency...

  18. Oxygen permeation flux through La1-ySryFeO3 limited by the carbon monoxide oxidation rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hassel, B.A.; van Hassel, B.A.; ten Elshof, Johan E.; Bouwmeester, Henricus J.M.

    1995-01-01

    The oxygen permeation flux through La1-ySryFeO3-δ (y = 0.1, 0.2) in a large oxygen partial pressure gradient (air/CO, CO2 mixture) was found to be limited by the carbon monoxide oxidation rate at the low oxygen partial pressure side of the membrane. The oxygen permeation flux through the membrane

  19. Rate of formation of carboxyhemoglobin in exercising humans exposed to carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikuisis, P; Kane, D M; McLellan, T M; Buick, F; Fairburn, S M

    1992-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the CFK equation for its prediction of the rate of formation of carboxyhemoglobin (HbCO) in exercising humans by use of measured values of the respiratory variables and to characterize the rate of appearance of HbCO with frequent blood sampling. Ten nonsmoking male subjects were exposed to carbon monoxide (CO) on two separate occasions distinguished by the level of activity. Steady-state exercise was conducted on a cycle ergometer at either a low (approximately 45 W) or moderate (approximately 90 W) power output. Each experiment began with an exposure of 3,000 ppm CO for 3 min during a rest period followed by three intermittent exposures ranging from 3,000 ppm CO for 1 min at low exercise to 667 ppm CO for 3 min at moderate exercise. Increases in HbCO were normalized against predicted values to account for individual differences in the variables that govern CO uptake. No difference in the normalized uptake of CO was found between the low- and moderate-exercise trials. However, the CFK equation underpredicted the increase in HbCO for the exposures at rest and the first exposure at exercise, whereas it overpredicted for the latter two exposures at exercise. The net increase in HbCO after all exposures (approximately 10% HbCO) deviated by less than 1% HbCO between the measured and predicted values. The rate of appearance of HbCO fits a sigmoidal shape with considerable overshoot at the end of exposure. This can be explained by delays in the delivery of CO to the blood sampling point (dorsal hand vein) and by a relatively small blood circulation time compared with other regions of the body. A simple circulation model is used to demonstrate the overshoot phenomenon.

  20. Rate of formation of carboxyhemoglobin in exercising humans exposed to carbon monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tikuisis, P.; Kane, D.M.; McLellan, T.M.; Buick, F.; Fairburn, S.M. (Defence and Civil Institute of Environmental Medicine, North York, Ontario (Canada))

    1992-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the CFK equation for its prediction of the rate of formation of carboxyhemoglobin (HbCO) in exercising humans by use of measured values of the respiratory variables and to characterize the rate of appearance of HbCO with frequent blood sampling. Ten nonsmoking male subjects were exposed to carbon monoxide (CO) on two separate occasions distinguished by the level of activity. Steady-state exercise was conducted on a cycle ergometer at either a low ([approximately]45 W) or moderate ([approximately]90W) power output. Each experiment began with an exposure of 3,000 ppm CO for 3 min during a rest period followed by three intermittent exposures ranging from 3,000 ppm CO for 1 min at low exercise to 667 ppm CO for 3 min at moderate exercise. Increases in HbCO were normalized against predicted values to account for individual differences in the variables that govern CO uptake. No difference in the normalized uptake of CO was found between the low-and moderate-exercise trials. However, the CFK equation underpredicted the increase in HbCO for the exposures at rest and the first exposure at exercise, whereas it overpredicted for the latter two exposures at exercise. The net increase in HbCO after all exposures ([approximately]10% HbCO) deviated by <1% HbCO between the measured and predicted values. The rate of appearance of HbCO fits a sigmoidal shape with considerable overshoot at the end of exposure. This can be explained by delays in the delivery of CO to the blood sampling point (dorsal hand vein) and by a relatively small blood circulation time compared with other regions of the body. A simple circulation model is used to demonstrate the overshoot phenomenon. 26 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Dissociation of Axonal Neurofilament Content from Its Transport Rate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidong Yuan

    Full Text Available The axonal cytoskeleton of neurofilament (NF is a long-lived network of fibrous elements believed to be a stationary structure maintained by a small pool of transported cytoskeletal precursors. Accordingly, it may be predicted that NF content in axons can vary independently from the transport rate of NF. In the present report, we confirm this prediction by showing that human NFH transgenic mice and transgenic mice expressing human NFL Ser55 (Asp develop nearly identical abnormal patterns of NF accumulation and distribution in association with opposite changes in NF slow transport rates. We also show that the rate of NF transport in wild-type mice remains constant along a length of the optic axon where NF content varies 3-fold. Moreover, knockout mice lacking NFH develop even more extreme (6-fold proximal to distal variation in NF number, which is associated with a normal wild-type rate of NF transport. The independence of regional NF content and NF transport is consistent with previous evidence suggesting that the rate of incorporation of transported NF precursors into a metabolically stable stationary cytoskeletal network is the major determinant of axonal NF content, enabling the generation of the striking local variations in NF number seen along axons.

  2. Sublimation rates of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide from comet nuclei at large distances from the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekanina, Zdenek

    1991-01-01

    One of the more attractive among the plausible scenarios for the major emission event recently observed on Comet Halley at a heliocentric distance of 14.3 AU is activation of a source of ejecta driven by an icy substance much more volatile than water. As prerequisite for the forthcoming detailed analysis of the imaging observations of this event, a simple model is proposed that yields the sublimation rate versus time at any location on the surface of a rotating cometary nucleus for two candidate ices: carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. The model's variable parameters are the comet's heliocentric distance r and the Sun's instantaneous zenith angle z.

  3. Dissociative amnesia in dissociative disorders and borderline personality disorder: self-rating assessment in a college population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sar, Vedat; Alioğlu, Firdevs; Akyuz, Gamze; Karabulut, Sercan

    2014-01-01

    Dissociative amnesia (DA) among subjects with a dissociative disorder and/or borderline personality disorder (BPD) recruited from a nonclinical population was examined. The Steinberg Dissociative Amnesia Questionnaire (SDAQ), the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and the self-report screening tool of the BPD section of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV(SCID-BPD) were administered to 1,301 college students. A total of 80 participants who were diagnosed with BPD according to the clinician-administered SCID-BPD and 111 nonborderline controls were evaluated using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders (SCID-D) by a psychiatrist blind to diagnosis and scale scores. Internal consistency analyses and test-retest evaluations suggested that the SDAQ is a reliable instrument for the population studied. Of the participants, 20.6% reported an SDAQ score of 20 or above and impairment by DA. Those who had both dissociative disorder and BPD (n = 78) had the highest SDAQ scores. Both disorders had significant effects on the SCID-D total and amnesia scores in the variance analysis. On SDAQ scores, however, only BPD had this effect. There was a significant interaction between the 2 disorders for the SCID-D total but not for the SDAQ or SCID-D amnesia scores. BPD represented the severity of dissociation and childhood trauma in this study group. However, in contrast to the dissociative disorders, BPD was characterized by better awareness of DA in self-report. The discrepancies between self-report and clinical interview associated with BPD and dissociative disorders are discussed in the context of betrayal theory (J. J. Freyd, 1994) of BPD and perceptual theory (D. B. Beere, 2009) of dissociative disorders.

  4. Rate coefficients for low-energy electron dissociative attachment to molecular hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horacek, J.; Houfek, K.; Cizek, M. [Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Prague (Czech Republic); Murakami, I.; Kato, T. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)

    2003-02-01

    Calculation of rate constants for dissociative electron attachment to molecular hydrogen is reported. The calculation is based on an improved nonlocal resonance model of Cizek, Horacek and Domcke which takes fully into account the nonlocality of the resonance dynamics and uses potentials with correct asymptotic forms. The rate constants are calculated for all quantum numbers v and J of the target molecules and for electron temperature in the range 0-30000 K. (author)

  5. Rate coefficients for low-energy electron dissociative attachment to molecular hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horacek, J.; Houfek, K.; Cizek, M. [Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Prague (Czech Republic); Murakami, I.; Kato, T. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)

    2003-02-01

    Calculation of rate constants for dissociative electron attachment to molecular hydrogen is reported. The calculation is based on an improved nonlocal resonance model of Cizek, Horacek and Domcke which takes fully into account the nonlocality of the resonance dynamics and uses potentials with correct asymptotic forms. The rate constants are calculated for all quantum numbers v and J of the target molecules and for electron temperature in the range 0-30000 K. (author)

  6. Rewarded remembering: dissociations between self-rated motivation and memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngaosuvan, Leonard; Mäntylä, Timo

    2005-08-01

    People often claim that they perform better in memory performance tasks when they are more motivated. However, past research has shown minimal effects of motivation on memory performance when factors contributing to item-specific biases during encoding and retrieval are taken into account. The purpose of the present study was to examine the generality of this apparent dissociation by using more sensitive measures of experienced motivation and memory performance. Extrinsic motivation was manipulated through competition instructions, and subjective ratings of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation were obtained before and after study instructions. Participants studied a series of words, and memory performance was assessed by content recall (Experiment 1) and source recall (Experiment 2). Both experiments showed dissociation between subjective ratings of extrinsic motivation and actual memory performance, so that competition increased self-rated extrinsic motivation but had no effects on memory performance, including source recall. Inconsistent with most people's expectations, the findings suggest that extrinsic motivation has minimal effects on memory performance.

  7. Hydroxylamine-induced oxidation of ferrous carbonylated truncated hemoglobins from Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Campylobacter jejuni is limited by carbon monoxide dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascenzi, Paolo; Ciaccio, Chiara; Gasperi, Tecla; Pesce, Alessandra; Caporaso, Lucia; Coletta, Massimo

    2017-08-01

    Hydroxylamine (HA) is an oxidant of ferrous globins and its action has been reported to be inhibited by CO, even though this mechanism has not been clarified. Here, kinetics of the HA-mediated oxidation of ferrous carbonylated Mycobacterium tuberculosis truncated hemoglobin N and O (Mt-trHbN(II)-CO and Mt-trHbO(II)-CO, respectively) and Campylobacter jejuni truncated hemoglobin P (Cj-trHbP(II)-CO), at pH 7.2 and 20.0 °C, are reported. Mixing Mt-trHbN(II)-CO, Mt-trHbO(II)-CO, and Cj-trHbP(II)-CO solution with the HA solution brings about absorption spectral changes reflecting the disappearance of the ferrous carbonylated derivatives with the concomitant formation of the ferric species. HA oxidizes irreversibly Mt-trHbN(II)-CO, Mt-trHbO(II)-CO, and Cj-trHbP(II)-CO with the 1:2 stoichiometry. The dissociation of CO turns out to be the rate-limiting step for the oxidation of Mt-trHbN(II)-CO, Mt-trHbO(II)-CO, and Cj-trHbP(II)-CO by HA. Values of the second-order rate constant for HA-mediated oxidation of Mt-trHbN(II)-CO, Mt-trHbO(II)-CO, and Cj-trHbP(II)-CO range between 8.8 × 10(4) and 8.6 × 10(7) M(-1) s(-1), reflecting different structural features of the heme distal pocket. This study (1) demonstrates that the inhibitory effect of CO is linked to the dissociation of this ligand, giving a functional basis to previous studies, (2) represents the first comparative investigation of the oxidation of ferrous carbonylated bacterial 2/2 globins belonging to the N, O, and P groups by HA, (3) casts light on the correlation between kinetics of HA-mediated oxidation and carbonylation of globins, and (4) focuses on structural determinants modulating the HA-induced oxidation process.

  8. A sequence-specific threading tetra-intercalator with an extremely slow dissociation rate constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Garen G.; Zewail-Foote, Maha; Smith, Amy Rhoden; Johnson, Kenneth A.; Iverson, Brent L.

    2011-11-01

    A long-lived and sequence-specific ligand-DNA complex would make possible the modulation of biological processes for extended periods. For this purpose, we are investigating a polyintercalation approach to DNA recognition in which flexible chains of aromatic units thread back and forth repeatedly through the double helix. Here we describe the DNA-binding behaviour of a threading tetra-intercalator. Specific binding was observed on a relatively long DNA strand that strongly favoured a predicted 14 base-pair sequence. Kinetic studies revealed a multistep association process, with sequence specificity that primarily derives from large differences in dissociation rates. The rate-limiting dissociation rate constant of the tetra-intercalator complex dissociating from its preferred binding site was extremely slow, corresponding to a half-life of 16 days. This is one of the longest non-covalent complex half-lives yet reported and, to the best of our knowledge, the longest for a DNA-binding molecule.

  9. Change in heart rate variability after the adult attachment interview in dissociative patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, Benedetto; Speranza, Anna Maria; Imperatori, Claudio; Quintiliani, Maria Isabella; Della Marca, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess heart rate variability (HRV) in individuals with dissociative disorders (DD) before and after the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). Electrocardiograms were recorded before, during, and after the AAI in 13 individuals with DD and 13 healthy participants matched for age and gender. Significant change in HRV was observed only in the DD group. After the AAI, those with DD showed significant increases in the low frequency/high frequency ratio (pre-AAI = 1.91 ± 1.19; post-AAI = 4.03 ± 2.40; Wilcoxon test = -2.76, p = .005). Our results suggest that the retrieval of childhood attachment experiences in individuals with DD is associated with a change in HRV patterns that could reflect the emotion dysregulation of dissociative psychopathological processes.

  10. Microcanonical unimolecular rate theory at surfaces. I. Dissociative chemisorption of methane on Pt(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukoski, A.; Blumling, D.; Harrison, I.

    2003-01-01

    A model of gas-surface reactivity is developed based on the ideas that (a) adsorbate chemistry is a local phenomenon, (b) the active system energy of an adsorbed molecule and a few immediately adjacent surface atoms suffices to fix microcanonical rate constants for surface kinetic processes such as desorption and dissociation, and (c) energy exchange between the local adsorbate-surface complexes and the surrounding substrate can be modeled via a Master equation to describe the system/heat reservoir coupling. The resulting microcanonical unimolecular rate theory (MURT) for analyzing and predicting both thermal equilibrium and nonequilibrium kinetics for surface reactions is applied to the dissociative chemisorption of methane on Pt(111). Energy exchange due to phonon-mediated energy transfer between the local adsorbate-surface complexes and the surface is explored and estimated to be insignificant for the reactive experimental conditions investigated here. Simulations of experimental molecular beam data indicate that the apparent threshold energy for CH4 dissociative chemisorption on Pt(111) is E0=0.61 eV (over a C-H stretch reaction coordinate), the local adsorbate-surface complex includes three surface oscillators, and the pooled energy from 16 active degrees of freedom is available to help surmount the dissociation barrier. For nonequilibrium molecular beam experiments, predictions are made for the initial methane dissociative sticking coefficient as a function of isotope, normal translational energy, molecular beam nozzle temperature, and surface temperature. MURT analysis of the thermal programmed desorption of CH4 physisorbed on Pt(111) finds the physisorption well depth is 0.16 eV. Thermal equilibrium dissociative sticking coefficients for methane on Pt(111) are predicted for the temperature range from 250-2000 K. Tolman relations for the activation energy under thermal equilibrium conditions and for a variety of "effective activation energies" under

  11. Electron-ion dissociative recombination rate constants relevant to the Titan atmosphere and the Interstellar Medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborne, David; Lawson, Patrick; Adams, Nigel, E-mail: ngadams@uga.edu [University of Georgia, Department of Chemistry, 101 Cedar St., Athens, Georgia 30602 (United States)

    2014-01-21

    Following the arrival of Cassini at Titan in 2004, the Titan atmosphere has been shown to contain large complex polycyclic-aromatic hydrocarbons. Since Cassini has provided a great deal of data, there exists a need for kinetic rate data to help with modeling this atmosphere. One type of kinetic data needed is electron-ion dissociative recombination (e-IDR) rate constants. These data are not readily available for larger compounds, such as naphthalene, or oxygen containing compounds, such as 1,4 dioxane or furan. Here, the rate constants for naphthalene, 1,4 dioxane, and furan have been measured and their temperature dependencies are determined when possible, using the University of Georgia's Variable Temperature Flowing Afterglow. The rate constants are compared with those previously published for other compounds; these show trends which illustrate the effects which multi-rings and oxygen heteroatoms substitutions have upon e-IDR rate constants.

  12. The rate parameters for coupled vibration-dissociation in a generalized SSH approximation. [Schwarz, Slawsky, and Herzfeld

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Surendra P.; Huo, Winifred M.; Park, Chul

    1988-01-01

    A theoretical study of vibrational excitations and dissociations of nitrogen undergoing a nonequilibrium relaxation process upon heating and cooling is reported. The rate coefficients for collisional induced vibrational transitions and transitions from a bound vibrational state into a dissociative state have been calculated using an extension of the theory originally proposed by Schwarz (SSH) et al. (1952). High-lying vibrational states and dissociative states were explicitly included but rotational energy transfer was neglected. The transition probabilities calculated from the SSH theory were fed into the master equation, which was integrated numerically to determine the population distribution of the vibrational states as well as bulk thermodynamic properties. The results show that: (1) the transition rates have a minimum near the middle of the bound vibrational levels, causing a bottleneck in the vibrational relaxation and dissociation rates; (2) high vibrational states are always in equilibrium with the dissociative state; (3) for the heating case, only the low vibrational states relax according to the Landau-Teller theory; (4) for the cooling case, vibrational relaxation cannot be described by a rate equation; (5) Park's (1985, 1988) two-temperature model is approximately valid; and (6) the average vibrational energy removed in dissociation is about 30 percent of the dissociation energy.

  13. The Effect of LUMO Level Offset on the Electron Dissociation Rates in Low Bandgap Polymer Heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfeir, Matthew; Rodovsky, Deanna; Azoulay, Jason; Bazan, Guillermo; Peet, Jeffrey

    2012-02-01

    In order to maximize the efficiency of polymer/fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells, the voltage lost when the electron transfers from the polymer to the fullerene must be minimized. While the magnitude of this loss will significantly impact the maximum attainable efficiency of this technology, there have been relatively few attempts to quantify the dependence of the electron transfer rate and yield on the driving force for electron transfer. In order to isolate the effect of electrochemical potential difference on the exciton dissociation rate, we present results of photophysical measurements of a low bandgap copolymer mixed with a series of fullerene based acceptor materials in a bulk heterojunction geometry. The LUMO level of the acceptor material is varied relative to the polymer's so that the effect of the energy offset on the electron dissociation rate can be determined. Using photoluminescence and transient absorption measurements, we find that the exciton quenching rate varies systematically with increasing energy offset. We examine the mechanism of charge carrier generation by correlating the exciton quenching with charge carrier generation.

  14. Heat and mass transfer rates during flow of dissociated hydrogen gas over graphite surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nema, V. K.; Sharma, O. P.

    1986-01-01

    To improve upon the performance of chemical rockets, the nuclear reactor has been applied to a rocket propulsion system using hydrogen gas as working fluid and a graphite-composite forming a part of the structure. Under the boundary layer approximation, theoretical predictions of skin friction coefficient, surface heat transfer rate and surface regression rate have been made for laminar/turbulent dissociated hydrogen gas flowing over a flat graphite surface. The external stream is assumed to be frozen. The analysis is restricted to Mach numbers low enough to deal with the situation of only surface-reaction between hydrogen and graphite. Empirical correlations of displacement thickness, local skin friction coefficient, local Nusselt number and local non-dimensional heat transfer rate have been obtained. The magnitude of the surface regression rate is found low enough to ensure the use of graphite as a linear or a component of the system over an extended period without loss of performance.

  15. Photoinitiated unimolecular decomposition of NO2: Rotational dependence of the dissociation rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezel, I.; Ionov, P.; Wittig, C.

    1999-11-01

    Photoinitiated unimolecular decomposition rate constants of rotationally excited NO2 molecules have been measured near dissociation threshold (D0) by employing a double resonance technique. Rotational selectivity has been achieved by using narrow-linewidth (0.015 cm-1) infrared excitation to prepare specific rotational levels (N'=1,3,…,15, Ka'=0) of the (1,0,1) vibrational level. The picosecond-resolution pump-probe technique has then been used to photodissociate the molecules thus tagged and to monitor the appearance of the NO product. Data have been obtained for two progressions of average excess energies, -D0: (i) 10 cm-1+E101rot and (ii) 75 cm-1+E101rot, where denotes an average over the pump laser linewidth and E101rot is the rotational energy of the (1,0,1) X˜ 2A1 intermediate vibrational level. The measured rate constants do not display any noticeable dependence on N', which is a reflection of significant rovibronic interaction. Spin-rotation interaction, which has been implicated as the main source of rovibronic coupling for small values of N', is not likely to yield such a result. A model is proposed to describe the influence of rotation on the dissociation rate. The experimental data are consistent with a Coriolis coupling mechanism causing transitions to occur between Ka levels.

  16. Shock Tube Measurement for the Dissociation Rate Constant of Acetaldehyde Using Sensitive CO Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shengkai; Davidson, David F; Hanson, Ronald K

    2016-09-08

    The rate constant of acetaldehyde thermal dissociation, CH3CHO = CH3 + HCO, was measured behind reflected shock waves at temperatures of 1273-1618 K and pressures near 1.6 and 0.34 atm. The current measurement utilized sensitive CO diagnostics to track the dissociation of CH3CHO via oxygen atom balance and inferred the title rate constant (k1) from CO time histories obtained in pyrolysis experiments of 1000 and 50 ppm of CH3CHO/Ar mixtures. By using dilute test mixtures, the current study successfully suppressed the interferences from secondary reactions and directly determined the title rate constant as k1(1.6 atm) = 1.1 × 10(14) exp(-36 700 K/T) s(-1) over 1273-1618 K and k1(0.34 atm) = 5.5 × 10(12) exp(-32 900 K/T) s(-1) over 1377-1571 K, with 2σ uncertainties of approximately ±30% for both expressions. Example simulations of existing reaction mechanisms updated with the current values of k1 demonstrated substantial improvements with regards to the acetaldehyde pyrolysis chemistry.

  17. Dissociation rates from single-molecule pulling experiments under large thermal fluctuations or large applied force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abkenar, Masoud; Gray, Thomas H; Zaccone, Alessio

    2017-04-01

    Theories that are used to extract energy-landscape information from single-molecule pulling experiments in biophysics are all invariably based on Kramers' theory of the thermally activated escape rate from a potential well. As is well known, this theory recovers the Arrhenius dependence of the rate on the barrier energy and crucially relies on the assumption that the barrier energy is much larger than k_{B}T (limit of comparatively low thermal fluctuations). As was shown already in Dudko et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 108101 (2006)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.96.108101], this approach leads to the unphysical prediction of dissociation time increasing with decreasing binding energy when the latter is lowered to values comparable to k_{B}T (limit of large thermal fluctuations). We propose a theoretical framework (fully supported by numerical simulations) which amends Kramers' theory in this limit and use it to extract the dissociation rate from single-molecule experiments where now predictions are physically meaningful and in agreement with simulations over the whole range of applied forces (binding energies). These results are expected to be relevant for a large number of experimental settings in single-molecule biophysics.

  18. High field hyperpolarization-EXSY experiment for fast determination of dissociation rates in SABRE complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermkens, Niels K J; Feiters, Martin C; Rutjes, Floris P J T; Wijmenga, Sybren S; Tessari, Marco

    2017-03-01

    SABRE (Signal Amplification By Reversible Exchange) is a nuclear spin hyperpolarization technique based on the reversible concurrent binding of small molecules and para-hydrogen (p-H2) to an iridium metal complex in solution. At low magnetic field, spontaneous conversion of p-H2 spin order to enhanced longitudinal magnetization of the nuclear spins of the other ligands occurs. Subsequent complex dissociation results in hyperpolarized substrate molecules in solution. The lifetime of this complex plays a crucial role in attained SABRE NMR signal enhancements. Depending on the ligands, vastly different dissociation rates have been previously measured using EXSY or selective inversion experiments. However, both these approaches are generally time-consuming due to the long recycle delays (up to 2min) necessary to reach thermal equilibrium for the nuclear spins of interest. In the cases of dilute solutions, signal averaging aggravates the problem, further extending the experimental time. Here, a new approach is proposed based on coherent hyperpolarization transfer to substrate protons in asymmetric complexes at high magnetic field. We have previously shown that such asymmetric complexes are important for application of SABRE to dilute substrates. Our results demonstrate that a series of high sensitivity EXSY spectra can be collected in a short experimental time thanks to the NMR signal enhancement and much shorter recycle delay.

  19. High field hyperpolarization-EXSY experiment for fast determination of dissociation rates in SABRE complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermkens, Niels K. J.; Feiters, Martin C.; Rutjes, Floris P. J. T.; Wijmenga, Sybren S.; Tessari, Marco

    2017-03-01

    SABRE (Signal Amplification By Reversible Exchange) is a nuclear spin hyperpolarization technique based on the reversible concurrent binding of small molecules and para-hydrogen (p-H2) to an iridium metal complex in solution. At low magnetic field, spontaneous conversion of p-H2 spin order to enhanced longitudinal magnetization of the nuclear spins of the other ligands occurs. Subsequent complex dissociation results in hyperpolarized substrate molecules in solution. The lifetime of this complex plays a crucial role in attained SABRE NMR signal enhancements. Depending on the ligands, vastly different dissociation rates have been previously measured using EXSY or selective inversion experiments. However, both these approaches are generally time-consuming due to the long recycle delays (up to 2 min) necessary to reach thermal equilibrium for the nuclear spins of interest. In the cases of dilute solutions, signal averaging aggravates the problem, further extending the experimental time. Here, a new approach is proposed based on coherent hyperpolarization transfer to substrate protons in asymmetric complexes at high magnetic field. We have previously shown that such asymmetric complexes are important for application of SABRE to dilute substrates. Our results demonstrate that a series of high sensitivity EXSY spectra can be collected in a short experimental time thanks to the NMR signal enhancement and much shorter recycle delay.

  20. The absorption of carbon monoxide in COSORB solutions: absorption rate and capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogendoorn, Kees; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria; Versteeg, Geert

    1995-01-01

    Absorption rate experiments and equilibrium experiments were carried out for the COSORB reaction at 300 K. The equilibrium data at 300 K could reasonably well be described with the following relation: [...] Determination of the kinetics and mechanism of a chemical reaction by means of absorption exp

  1. The absorption of carbon monoxide in COSORB solutions : absorption rate and capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogendoorn, J.A.; Swaaij, W.P.M. van; Versteeg, G.F.

    1995-01-01

    Absorption rate experiments and equilibrium experiments were carried out for the COSORB reaction at 300 K. The equilibrium data at 300 K could reasonably well be described with the following relation: Keq=3.4×10^3=([CuAlCl4.tol.CO][tol])/([CO][CuAlCl4.tol2]) Determination of the kinetics and mechani

  2. Dissociable effects of dopamine on neuronal firing rate and synchrony in the dorsal striatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M Burkhardt

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies showed that dopamine depletion leads to both changes in firing rate and in neuronal synchrony in the basal ganglia. Since dopamine D1 and D2 receptors are preferentially expressed in striatonigral and striatopallidal medium spiny neurons, respectively, we investigated the relative contribution of lack of D1 and/or D2-type receptor activation to the changes in striatal firing rate and synchrony observed after dopamine depletion. Similar to what was observed after dopamine depletion, co-administration of D1 and D2 antagonists to mice chronically implanted with multielectrode arrays in the striatum caused significant changes in firing rate, power of the local field potential (LFP oscillations, and synchrony measured by the entrainment of neurons to striatal local field potentials. However, although blockade of either D1 or D2 type receptors produced similarly severe akinesia, the effects on neural activity differed. Blockade of D2 receptors affected the firing rate of medium spiny neurons and the power of the LFP oscillations substantially, but it did not affect synchrony to the same extent. In contrast, D1 blockade affected synchrony dramatically, but had less substantial effects on firing rate and LFP power. Furthermore, there was no consistent relation between neurons changing firing rate and changing LFP entrainment after dopamine blockade. Our results suggest that the changes in rate and entrainment to the LFP observed in medium spiny neurons after dopamine depletion are somewhat dissociable, and that lack of D1- or D2-type receptor activation can exert independent yet interactive pathological effects during the progression of Parkinson’s disease.

  3. Dissociation in Rating Negative Facial Emotions between Behavioral Variant Frontotemporal Dementia and Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Isabelle; Piguet, Olivier; Diehl-Schmid, Janine; Riedl, Lina; Beck, Johannes; Leyhe, Thomas; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Berres, Manfred; Monsch, Andreas U; Sollberger, Marc

    2016-11-01

    Features of behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) such as executive dysfunction, apathy, and impaired empathic abilities are also observed in major depressive disorder (MDD). This may contribute to the reason why early stage bvFTD is often misdiagnosed as MDD. New assessment tools are thus needed to improve early diagnosis of bvFTD. Although emotion processing is affected in bvFTD and MDD, growing evidence indicates that the pattern of emotion processing deficits varies between the two disorders. As such, emotion processing paradigms have substantial potentials to distinguish bvFTD from MDD. The current study compared 25 patients with bvFTD, 21 patients with MDD, 21 patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) dementia, and 31 healthy participants on a novel facial emotion intensity rating task. Stimuli comprised morphed faces from the Ekman and Friesen stimulus set containing faces of each sex with two different degrees of emotion intensity for each of the six basic emotions. Analyses of covariance uncovered a significant dissociation between bvFTD and MDD patients in rating the intensity of negative emotions overall (i.e., bvFTD patients underrated negative emotions overall, whereas MDD patients overrated negative emotions overall compared with healthy participants). In contrast, AD dementia patients rated negative emotions similarly to healthy participants, suggesting no impact of cognitive deficits on rating facial emotions. By strongly differentiating bvFTD and MDDpatients through negative facial emotions, this sensitive and short rating task might help improve the early diagnosis of bvFTD. Copyright © 2016 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. All rights reserved.

  4. O-16 Coulomb dissociation : towards a new means to determine the C-12+alpha fusion rate in stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleurot, F; van den Berg, AM; Davids, B; Harakeh, MN; Kravchuk, VL; Wilschut, HW; Guillot, J; Laurent, H; Willis, A; Assuncao, M; Kiener, J; Lefebvre, A; de Sereville, N; Tatischeff, [No Value; Assuncao, L.; Lefebvre, L.; Tafischeff, V.

    2005-01-01

    A feasibility study was made of an important aspect of the Coulomb-dissociation method, which has been proposed for the determination of the rate of the astrophysically important C-12(alpha, gamma)160 reaction. A crucial aspect is the disentanglement of nuclear and Coulomb interactions on one hand a

  5. Measurement by SPR of very low dissociation rates: oxidation-mediated loss of biotin-streptavidin affinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebhan, Mario A E; Brunschweiger, Andreas; Hall, Jonathan

    2013-11-04

    Long-term relationship: biotin labels on RNAs, and possibly other biomacromolecules, are easily oxidized causing a dramatic loss of affinity for streptavidin and adversely affecting the measurement of high-affinity interactions. A new SPR method has been developed for measuring the very low rate-dissociation constants of biotin- and biotin oxide-conjugated RNAs with streptavidin.

  6. The reaction rate for dissociative adsorption of N-2 on stepped Ru(0001): Six-dimensional quantum calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Harrevelt, Rob; Honkala, Johanna Karoliina; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    2005-01-01

    Quantum-mechanical calculations of the reaction rate for dissociative adsorption of N-2 on stepped Ru(0001) are presented. Converged six-dimensional quantum calculations for this heavy-atom reaction have been performed using the multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree method. A potential...

  7. Increasing concentrations of CO and O{sub 3} - rising deforestation rates and increasing tropospheric carbon monoxide and ozone in Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchhoff, W.J.H. [Inst. Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, San Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    1996-12-31

    Increasing carbon monoxide and ozone concentrations have been observed in the lower troposphere of the Brazilian Amazon region in recent years (1989-1995). Carbon monoxide and ozone have been measured in the region continuously; from observations at a single site and many sporadic field missions, there is a clear indication that the chemical activity in the troposphere is growing, with increasing concentrations especially during the dry season. On the other hand, the most recent deforestation assessment by the Brazilian Government, performed by the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE) using Landsat data, shows yearly rates rising from the 11,130 km{sup 2} year{sup -1} minimum of the 1990/91 survey, to 13,786 km{sup 2} year{sup -1} for the 1991/92 period, and 14,896 km{sup 2} year{sup -1} for the period 1992/94. It is argued that the increase in deforestation/biomass burning activities in `Amazonia` have produced larger carbon monoxide and ozone concentrations in the lower atmosphere. (orig.)

  8. Elementary stage rate coefficients of heterogeneous catalytic recombination of dissociated air on thermal protective surfaces from ab initio approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchachenko, A. A.; Kroupnov, A. A.; Kovalev, V. L.

    2015-08-01

    Elementary stage rate coefficients of the full system of kinetic equations describing heterogeneous catalytic recombination of the dissociated air on the surfaces of thermal protective ceramic coatings of β-cristobalite and α-Al2O3 are determined using the quantum-mechanical calculations within the framework of cluster models and literature data. Both the impact and associative recombination processes of adsorbed oxygen and nitrogen atoms are taken into account.

  9. Capture cross-section and rate of the 14C(, )15C reaction from the Coulomb dissociation of 15C

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shubhchintak; Neelam; R Chatterjee

    2014-10-01

    We calculate the Coulomb dissociation of 15C on a Pb target at 68 MeV/u incident beam energy within the fully quantum mechanical distorted wave Born approximation formalism of breakup reactions. The capture cross-section and the subsequent rate of the 14C(, )15C reaction are calculated from the photodisintegration of 15C, using the principle of detailed balance. Our theoretical model is free from the uncertainties associated with the multipole strength distributions of the projectile.

  10. Temperature-dependent association between mortality rate and carbon monoxide level in a subtropical city: Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Ming; Liao, Chen-Mao

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the combined effect of temperature and air pollutant levels on daily non-accidental deaths and cardiovascular causes of mortality. In this study, associations were assessed by means of time-series analyses over the period 1995-1999 for Kaohsiung, Taiwan's largest industrial city, which has a subtropical climate. Ambient exposures to various air pollutants, including carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), ozone (O(3)), nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), and particulate matter (PM(10)), were estimated from the arithmetic means of all daily measurements taken by an air quality monitoring station nearest to the residential district. Generalized additive models with non-parametric spline were used to identify associations between daily mortality and air pollutants as well as the air pollutant-temperature interaction correlation. Our findings indicate that CO is associated with increased risks of non-accidental and cardiovascular mortality. For a 0.2 ppm increase in CO, the increased relative daily risk of non-accidental death is at least 4% on the same day, when the mean temperature is above 24.8 degrees C, while the increased relative risk of mortality due to cardiovascular diseases is 7% two days later at 19.7 degrees C. The study also suggests a statistically significant interaction between CO concentration and daily mean temperature, with non-accidental mortality increasing with a warm outdoor temperature and the effect of CO on cardiovascular mortality being modified by a cold climate. Further reduction of CO pollution is thus deemed crucial for the benefit of public health.

  11. Carbon monoxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and smokers. Carbon monoxide can harm a fetus (unborn baby still in the womb). Symptoms of carbon ... symptoms Outlook (Prognosis) Carbon monoxide poisoning can cause death. For those who survive, recovery is slow. How ...

  12. CARBON MONOXIDE TREATMENT GUIDELINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miran Brvar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide is the leading cause of unintentional poisoning-related death in Slovenia. It is an odorless, colorless gas that usually remains undetectable until exposures result in injury or death. Exposure to carbon monoxide is most commonly accompanied by headache, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, confusion, drowsiness, fatigue and collapse. Carbon monoxide poisoning management includes normobaric oxygen therapy. Hyperbaric-oxygen treatments reduce the risk of cognitive sequelae after carbon monoxide poisoning. 

  13. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... main content Languages 简体中文 English Bahasa Indonesia 한국어 Español ภาษาไทย Tiếng Việt Text Size: Decrease Font Increase ... Monoxide Information Center Carbon Monoxide Information Center En Español The Invisible Killer Carbon monoxide, also known as ...

  14. Determination of the 36Mg(n ,γ )37Mg reaction rate from Coulomb dissociation of 37Mg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubhchintak; Chatterjee, R.; Shyam, R.

    2017-08-01

    We use the Coulomb dissociation (CD) method to calculate the rate of the 36Mg(n ,γ )37Mg radiative capture reaction. The CD cross sections of the 37Mg nucleus on a 208Pb target at the beam energy of 244 MeV/nucleon, for which new experimental data have recently become available, were calculated within the framework of a finite-range distorted-wave Born approximation theory that is extended to include the projectile deformation effects. Invoking the principle of detailed balance, these cross sections are used to determine the excitation function and subsequently the rate of the 36Mg(n ,γ )37Mg reaction. We compare these rates to those of the 36Mg(α ,n )39Si reaction calculated within a Hauser-Feshbach model. We find that for T9 as large as up to 1.0 (in units of 109 K) the 36Mg(n ,γ )37Mg reaction is much faster than the 36Mg(α ,n )39Si one. The inclusion of the effects of 37Mg projectile deformation in the breakup calculations enhances the (n ,γ ) reaction rate even further. Therefore, it is highly unlikely that the (n ,γ )β -decay r -process flow will be broken at the 36Mg isotope by the α process.

  15. Fatigue-induced dissociation between rate of force development and maximal force across repeated rapid contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccia, Gennaro; Dardanello, Davide; Tarperi, Cantor; Festa, Luca; La Torre, Antonio; Pellegrini, Barbara; Schena, Federico; Rainoldi, Alberto

    2017-08-01

    We examined whether the presence of fatigue induced by prolonged running influenced the time courses of force generating capacities throughout a series of intermittent rapid contractions. Thirteen male amateur runners performed a set of 15 intermittent isometric rapid contractions of the knee extensor muscles, (3s/5s on/off) the day before (PRE) and immediately after (POST) a half marathon. The maximal voluntary contraction force, rate of force development (RFDpeak), and their ratio (relative RFDpeak) were calculated. At POST, considering the first (out of 15) repetition, the maximal force and RFDpeak decreased (p<0.0001) at the same extent (by 22±6% and 24±22%, respectively), resulting in unchanged relative RFDpeak (p=0.6). Conversely, the decline of RFDpeak throughout the repetitions was more pronounced at POST (p=0.02), thus the decline of relative RFDpeak was more pronounced (p=0.007) at POST (-25±13%) than at PRE (-3±13%). The main finding of this study was that the fatigue induced by a half-marathon caused a more pronounced impairment of rapid compared to maximal force in the subsequent intermittent protocol. Thus, the fatigue-induced impairment in rapid muscle contractions may have a greater effect on repeated, rather than on single, attempts of maximal force production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Electromagnetic dissociation of B-8 and the rate of the Be-7(p, gamma)B-8 reaction in the Sun

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davids, B; Austin, SM; Bazin, D; Esbensen, H; Sherrill, BM; Thompson, IJ; Tostevin, JA

    2001-01-01

    In an effort to better determine the Be-7(p, gamma)B-8 reaction rate, we have performed inclusive and exclusive measurements of the Coulomb dissociation of B-8. The former was a study of longitudinal momentum distributions of Be-7 fragments emitted in the Coulomb breakup of intermediate energy B-8 b

  17. Dissociated time course recovery between rate of force development and peak torque after eccentric exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Renato; Denadai, Benedito S

    2012-05-01

    This study investigated the association between isokinetic peak torque (PT) of quadriceps and the corresponding peak rate of force development (peak RFD) during the recovery of eccentric exercise. Twelve untrained men (aged 21·7 ± 2·3 year) performed 100 maximal eccentric contractions for knee extensors (10 sets of 10 repetitions with a 2-min rest between each set) on isokinetic dynamometer. PT and peak RFD accessed by maximal isokinetic knee concentric contractions at 60° s(-1) were obtained before (baseline) and at 24 and 48 h after eccentric exercise. Indirect markers of muscle damage included delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS) and plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity. The eccentric exercise resulted in elevated DOMS and CK compared with baseline values. At 24 h, PT (-15·3%, P = 0·002) and peak RFD (-13·1%, P = 0·03) decreased significantly. At 48 h, PT (-7·9%, P = 0·002) was still decreased but peak RFD have returned to baseline values. Positive correlation was found between PT and peak RFD at baseline (r = 0·62, P = 0·02), 24 h (r = 0·99, P = 0·0001) and 48 h (r = 0·68, P = 0·01) after eccentric exercise. The magnitude of changes (%) in PT and peak RFD from baseline to 24 h (r = 0·68, P = 0·01) and from 24 to 48 h (r = 0·68, P = 0·01) were significantly correlated. It can be concluded that the muscle damage induced by the eccentric exercise affects differently the time course of PT and peak RFD recovery during isokinetic concentric contraction at 60° s(-1). During the recovery from exercise-induced muscle damage, PT and peak RFD are determined but not fully defined by shared putative physiological mechanisms. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging © 2011 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine.

  18. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Estimates OCTOBER 13, 2015 Incidents, Deaths, and In-Depth Investigations Associated with Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide from Engine-Driven Generators and ... Engine-Driven Tools, 2004–2014 JANUARY 08, 2015 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths Associated with the Use of Consumer Products 2011 Annual Estimates View All ... Inside CPSC Accessibility ...

  19. Quantitative TCR:pMHC Dissociation Rate Assessment by NTAmers Reveals Antimelanoma T Cell Repertoires Enriched for High Functional Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Philippe O; Wieckowski, Sébastien; Baumgaertner, Petra; Hebeisen, Michaël; Allard, Mathilde; Speiser, Daniel E; Rufer, Nathalie

    2015-07-01

    Experimental models demonstrated that therapeutic induction of CD8 T cell responses may offer protection against tumors or infectious diseases providing that T cells have sufficiently high TCR/CD8:pMHC avidity for efficient Ag recognition and consequently strong immune functions. However, comprehensive characterization of TCR/CD8:pMHC avidity in clinically relevant situations has remained elusive. In this study, using the novel NTA-His tag-containing multimer technology, we quantified the TCR:pMHC dissociation rates (koff) of tumor-specific vaccine-induced CD8 T cell clones (n = 139) derived from seven melanoma patients vaccinated with IFA, CpG, and the native/EAA or analog/ELA Melan-A(MART-1)(26-35) peptide, binding with low or high affinity to MHC, respectively. We observed substantial correlations between koff and Ca(2+) mobilization (p = 0.016) and target cell recognition (p tumor-reactive T cell clones derived from patients vaccinated with the low-affinity (native) peptide expressed slower koff rates than those derived from patients vaccinated with the high-affinity (analog) peptide (p tumor-specific T cells bearing TCRs with high TCR/CD8:pMHC avidity (p < 0.0001). Altogether, TCR:pMHC interaction kinetics correlated strongly with T cell functions. Our study demonstrates the feasibility and usefulness of TCR/CD8:pMHC avidity assessment by NTA-His tag-containing multimers of naturally occurring polyclonal T cell responses, which represents a strong asset for the development of immunotherapy. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  20. Interaction of an anti-cancer photosensitizer with a genomic DNA: From base pair specificity and thermodynamic landscape to tuning the rate of detergent-sequestered dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Bijan K; Ghosh, Narayani; Mukherjee, Saptarshi

    2016-05-15

    A detailed characterization of the binding interaction of a potent cancer cell photosensitizer, norharmane (NHM) with a genomic DNA (herring sperm; hsDNA) is undertaken with particular emphasis on deciphering the strength, mode, dynamics, energetics and kinetics of binding. A major focus of the study underlies a successful exploration of the concept of detergent-sequestered dissociation of drug from the drug-DNA complex. Biophysical techniques such as absorption, steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, circular dichroism, DNA helix melting, stopped-flow fluorescence kinetics and calorimetry have been used. A primarily intercalative mode of binding of NHM with DNA is shown. However, the overall interaction is governed by more than one type of binding forces. We demonstrate that the essential prerequisite of a slower dissociation rate of drug from DNA helix is achieved by tenable choice surfactants. Our results also highlight an effective tunability of the rate of dissociation of the DNA-intercalated drug via detergent-sequestration. A detailed isothermal titration calorimetric study unveils the key role of hydrophobic force underlying NHM-hsDNA association. This is further substantiated by the enthalpy-entropy compensation behavior. The major entropic contribution in detergent-induced dissociation of NHM from NHM-hsDNA complex is also demonstrated. Our results present not only a comprehensive structural and thermodynamic profile, base pair specificity, association kinetics for binding of NHM with DNA but also explore the thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of dissociation of bound drug. Characterization and tuning of the essential prerequisites for a drug to be efficient in anti-cancer functionality bear direct and widespread significance in contemporary global research.

  1. Dissociative amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staniloiu, Angelica; Markowitsch, Hans J

    2014-08-01

    Dissociative amnesia is one of the most enigmatic and controversial psychiatric disorders. In the past two decades, interest in the understanding of its pathophysiology has surged. In this report, we review new data about the epidemiology, neurobiology, and neuroimaging of dissociative amnesia and show how advances in memory research and neurobiology of dissociation inform proposed pathogenetic models of the disorder. Dissociative amnesia is characterised by functional impairment. Additionally, preliminary data suggest that affected people have an increased and possibly underestimated suicide risk. The prevalence of dissociative amnesia differs substantially across countries and populations. Symptoms and disease course also vary, indicating a possibly heterogeneous disorder. The accompanying clinical features differ across cultural groups. Most dissociative amnesias are retrograde, with memory impairments mainly involving the episodic-autobiographical memory domain. Anterograde dissociative amnesia occurring without significant retrograde memory impairments is rare. Functional neuroimaging studies of dissociative amnesia with prevailing retrograde memory impairments show changes in the network that subserves autobiographical memory. At present, no evidence-based treatments are available for dissociative amnesia and no broad framework exists for its rehabilitation. Further research is needed into its neurobiology, course, treatment options, and strategies to improve differential diagnoses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION Search CPSC Search Menu Home Recalls Recall List CPSC Recall API Recall Lawsuits ... and Bans Report an Unsafe Product Consumers Businesses Home Safety Education Safety Education Centers Carbon Monoxide Information ...

  3. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Safety Blogs: CO Safety More CO Blogs Research & Statistics JANUARY 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths ... 2011 Annual Estimates View All CO-Related Injury Statistics and Technical Reports Related Links Recalls Safety Education ...

  4. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... On Safety Blogs: CO Safety More CO Blogs Research & Statistics JANUARY 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide ... Related Links Recalls Safety Education Regulations, Laws & Standards Research & Statistics Business & Manufacturing Small Business Resources OnSafety Blogs ...

  5. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

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    Full Text Available ... Community Outreach Resource Center Toy Recall Statistics CO Poster Contest Pool Safely Business & Manufacturing Business & Manufacturing Business ... Featured Resources CPSC announces winners of carbon monoxide poster contest Video View the blog Clues You Can ...

  6. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Criminal Penalties Federal Court Orders & Decisions Research & Statistics Research & Statistics Technical Reports Injury Statistics NEISS Injury Data ... On Safety Blogs: CO Safety More CO Blogs Research & Statistics JANUARY 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths ...

  7. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

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    Full Text Available ... Statistics JANUARY 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths Associated with the Use of Consumer Products 2012 Annual Estimates OCTOBER 13, 2015 Incidents, Deaths, and In-Depth Investigations Associated with Non-Fire ...

  8. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Unites States die every year from accidental non-fire related CO poisoning associated with consumer products, including ... CO Blogs Research & Statistics JANUARY 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths Associated with the Use of ...

  9. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

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    Full Text Available ... Import Safety International Recall Guidance Civil and Criminal Penalties Federal Court Orders & ... 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths Associated with the Use of Consumer Products 2012 ...

  10. Carbon Monoxide Nonattainment Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies areas in the U.S. where air pollution levels have not met the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Carbon Monoxide and have...

  11. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Unites States die every year from accidental non-fire related CO poisoning associated with consumer products, including ... CO Blogs Research & Statistics JANUARY 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths Associated with the Use of ...

  12. Dissociative recombination in aeronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, J. L.

    1989-01-01

    The importance of dissociative recombination in planetary aeronomy is summarized, and two examples are discussed. The first is the role of dissociative recombination of N2(+) in the escape of nitrogen from Mars. A previous model is updated to reflect new experimental data on the electronic states of N produced in this process. Second, the intensity of the atomic oxygen green line on the nightside of Venus is modeled. Use is made of theoretical rate coefficients for production of O (1S) in dissociative recombination from different vibrational levels of O2(+).

  13. Light irradiation for treatment of acute carbon monoxide poisoning: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Taku; Kashimura, Takeshi; Ise, Marii; Lohman, Brandon D; Taira, Yasuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Because treatment modalities for carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, especially normobaric oxygen and hyperbaric oxygen therapies, have limited effects and hyperbaric oxygen is not available at the scene where treatment is most needed, we conducted a study to determine and compare rates of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) dissociation achieved in human in vitro blood samples under light radiation emitted at three levels of illuminance. This was done with a view toward eventual on-site application. We drew blood from 10 volunteers, prepared 10 red blood cell solutions, and subjected each solution to a CO bubbling procedure to increase the COHb saturation. Samples of each bubbled solution were then divided between 3 beakers (beakers A, B, and C) for a total of 30 beakers. The solution in each beaker was exposed to a continuous flow of oxygen at 50 mL/min, and simultaneously for a period of 15 min, the beaker A and B solutions were irradiated with light emitted at 500,000 and 100,000 lux, respectively, from a halogen light source. The beaker C solutions were exposed to room light. At 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 min, a 50-μL sample was pipetted from each of the 30 beakers for determination of its light absorbance and the COHb dissociation rate. Under each of the experimental conditions, dissociation progressed but at different rates, and starting at 3 min, the differences in rates between conditions were significant (P poisoning.

  14. Effects of Surface Recombination on Heat Transfer to Bodies in a High Enthalpy Stream of Partially Dissociated Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Ernest L..; Griffin, Roy N., Jr.

    1961-01-01

    Heat-transfer rates to two surfaces having widely different catalytic effectiveness are compared at a Mach number of 6 in a low-density stream of partially dissociated nitrogen. The heat-transfer rate to a polished copper cylinder is twice as great as the heat-transfer rate to a silicon-monoxide-coated cylinder when the stream total energy content is 9000 Btu/lb. Various methods for determining the stream energy content, the stream velocity, and the stream Mach number have been developed and compared. It is shown that methods for estimating the stream energy content by means of purely aerodynamic concepts may neglect the sizable fraction of the stream energy contained in molecular dissociation.

  15. Dissociated Steroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew C. Catley

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoids (GCs are some of the most important drugs in clinical use today. They are mainly used to suppress disease-related inflammation and are widely used for the treatment of many inflammatory diseases including asthma and arthritis. However, GCs are also associated with debilitating side effects that place limitations on the long-term use of these drugs. The development of a GC with reduced side effects would allow more effective treatments for patients who require long-term suppression of inflammation. GCs exert their effects by binding and activating the GC receptor (GR. The activated receptor then binds GC response elements (GREs in the promoter of genes, and activates transcription (transactivation or interferes with the activation of transcription by inhibiting the transactivating function of other transcription factors, such as AP-1 and NF-ĸB (transrepression. Transrepression is believed to be responsible for the majority of the beneficial anti-inflammatory effects of GCs, whereas transactivation is believed to play a bigger role in the unwanted side effects of GCs. Compounds that can dissociate the transactivation function of GCs from the transrepression function may, therefore, have an improved therapeutic index. A number of these dissociated corticosteroids have been developed. In vitro assays using these compounds appear to show good dissociation. However, in vivo, the dissociation appears to be lost and these compounds still produce many of the side effects associated with conventional GCs. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind GC-induced effects would allow the design of novel selective GR modulators with an improved therapeutic index.

  16. Interaction and reactivity of nitric oxide and carbon monoxide on ruthenium surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quick, E.E.

    1980-03-01

    A multifaceted investigation of the reduction of nitric oxide by carbon monoxide using a ruthenium (102) single crystal catalyst in the pressure range 10/sup -3/ to 10 Torr and temperature range of 300 to 475/sup 0/C has been undertaken. Kinetic and isotopic results indicate that the reaction products CO/sub 2/ and N/sub 2/ were produced via two reaction mechanisms. Using a reducing gas mixture (low P/sub NO//P/sub CO/ ratio) a two site mechanism was operative involving NO dissociation. The carbon monoxide kinetic order varied from +1 to -3 and the nitric oxide order varied from +1 to 0. The catalyst under these conditions was determined to be metallic ruthenium with oxygen bonded within the first surface layer. The oxygen was unreactive and formed a (1 x 3)-0 LEED pattern. Under oxidizing conditions (high P/sub NO//P/sub CO/ ratio) the catalyst was ruthenium dioxide and the functional mechanism under these reaction conditions yielded a nitric oxide order of +2 to -4. Inclusion of a site poisoning mechanism under reducing conditions and an RuO/sub 2/ growth mechanism involving ruthenium cation transfer under oxidizing conditions into the kinetic rate laws led to an overall rate law which could be fit to the carbon monoxide and nitric oxide order plots. Using isotopically oxygen labelled reactants, it was observed that the three possible isotopes of carbon dioxide were produced. A ..gamma..-CO surface species is postulated as an intermediate in the exchange process. The reaction was observed to be initially surface structure insensitive and the reaction kinetics were derived using a Langmuir-Hinshelwood formalism.

  17. Subtypes of reading disability in a shallow orthography: a double dissociation between accuracy-disabled and rate-disabled readers of Hebrew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shany, Michal; Share, David L

    2011-06-01

    Whereas most English language sub-typing schemes for dyslexia (e.g., Castles & Coltheart, 1993) have focused on reading accuracy for words varying in regularity, such an approach may have limited utility for reading disability sub-typing beyond English in which fluency rather than accuracy is the key discriminator of developmental and individual differences in reading ability. The present study investigated the viability of an accuracy/fluency-based typology in a regular orthography, pointed Hebrew. We sought evidence of true or "hard" accuracy/rate subtypes in the strict (double dissociation) sense of selective impairment on only one dimension in the presence of normal levels of performance on the other dimension. In a nationally representative sample of fourth graders, we were able to identify a specific accuracy-disabled sub-group as well as an equally specific rate-disabled subgroup. Validating this subdivision, we show that the nature of reading performance in these subgroups and their converging cognitive/linguistic profiles are unique and distinctive on variables other than the measures used to define them. While the rate-specific disability appeared to reflect a general deficit in speed of processing affecting reading rate, and rapid automatized naming of print-related material, the accuracy-only disability subgroup displayed selective deficits in phonological awareness and morphological knowledge. Biosocial, demographic, and instructional factors, furthermore, did not explain the sub-group differences. It appears that both these subtypes are equally prevalent each counting close to 10% of the population.

  18. 0℃以下含SDS的甲烷水合物生成方式及过程对其分解速率的影响%The Dependence of the Dissociation Rate of Methane-SDS Hydrate below Ice Point on Its Manners of Forming and Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀林; 陈卫东; 陈光进; 孙长宇; 杨兰英; 马庆兰; 陈俊; 刘鹏; 唐绪龙; 赵焕伟

    2009-01-01

    The dissociation rates of methane hydrates formed with and without the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (methane-SDS hydrates), were measured under atmospheric pressure and temperatures below ice point to investigate the influence of the hydrate production conditions and manners upon its dissociation kinetic behavior. The experimental results demonstrated that the dissociation rate of methane hydrate below ice point is strongly dependent on the manners of hydrate formation and processing. The dissociation rate of hydrate formed quiescently was lower than that of hydrate formed with stirring; the dissociation rate of hydrate formed at lower pressure was higher than that of hydrate formed at higher pressure; the compaction of hydrate after its formation lowered its sta-bility, i.e., increased its dissociation rate. The stability of hydrate could be increased by prolonging the time period for which hydrate was held at formation temperature and pressure before it was cooled down, or by prolonging the time period for which hydrate was held at dissociation temperature and formation pressure before it was depressurized to atmospheric pressure. It was found that the dissociation rate of methane hydrate varied with the temperature (ranging from 245.2 to 272.2 K) anomalously as reported on the dissociation of methane hydrate without the presence of surfactant as kinetic promoter. The dissociation rate at 268 K was found to be the lowest when the manners and conditions at which hydrates were formed and processed were fixed.

  19. The (B)link Between Creativity and Dopamine: Spontaneous Eye Blink Rates Predict and Dissociate Divergent and Convergent Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chermahini, Soghra Akbari; Hommel, Bernhard

    2010-01-01

    Human creativity has been claimed to rely on the neurotransmitter dopamine, but evidence is still sparse. We studied whether individual performance (N=117) in divergent thinking (alternative uses task) and convergent thinking (remote association task) can be predicted by the individual spontaneous eye blink rate (EBR), a clinical marker of…

  20. Dissociation between neuronal activity in sensorimotor cortex and hand movement revealed as a function of movement rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermes, Dora; Siero, Jeroen C W; Aarnoutse, Erik J; Leijten, Frans S S; Petridou, Natalia; Ramsey, Nick F

    2012-07-11

    It is often assumed that similar behavior is generated by the same brain activity. However, this does not take into account the brain state or recent behavioral history and movement initiation or continuation may not be similarly generated in the brain. To study whether similar movements are generated by the same brain activity, we measured neuronal population activity during repeated movements. Three human subjects performed a motor repetition task in which they moved their hand at four different rates (0.3, 0.5, 1, and 2 Hz). From high-resolution electrocorticography arrays implanted on motor and sensory cortex, high-frequency power (65-95 Hz) was extracted as a measure of neuronal population activity. During the two faster movement rates, high-frequency power was significantly suppressed, whereas movement parameters remained highly similar. This suppression was nonlinear: after the initial movement, neuronal population activity was reduced most strongly, and the data fit a model in which a fast decline rapidly converged to saturation. The amplitude of the beta-band suppression did not change with different rates. However, at the faster rates, beta power did not return to baseline between movements but remained suppressed. We take these findings to indicate that the extended beta suppression at the faster rates, which may suggest a release of inhibition in motor cortex, facilitates movement initiation. These results show that the relationship between behavior and neuronal activity is not consistent: recent movement influences the state of motor cortex and facilitates next movements by reducing the required level of neuronal activity.

  1. Photosynthetic carbon monoxide metabolism by sugarcane leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortschak, H.P.; Nickell, L.G.

    1973-01-01

    The photosynthetic carbon monoxide metabolism by sugarcane was studied to determine whether substantial quantities of CO are removed from the air by fields in Hawaii. Leaves metabolized low CO concentrations photosynthetically, with sucrose as an end product. Rates of uptake were of the order of 10/sup -4/ power mg/d sq m/hr. This was to low to be significant in removing CO from the atmosphere.

  2. REDUCTION OF NITRIC OXIDE BY CARBON MONOXIDE OVER A SILICA SUPPORTED PLATINUM CATALYST: INFRARED AND KINETIC STUDIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorimer, D.H.

    1978-08-01

    The reduction of nitric oxide by carbon monoxide over a 4.5 weight precent platinum catalyst supported on silica was studied at 300 C. Reaction rate data was obtained together with in situ infrared spectra of species on the catalyst surface. The kinetics of the system were found to exhibit two distinct trends, depending on the molar ratio of CO/NO in the reactor. For net reducing conditions (CO/NO> 1) the catalyst underwent a transient deactivation, the extent of which was dependent on the specific CO/NO ratio during reaction. Reactivation of the catalyst was obtained with both oxidizing and reducing pretreatments. For molar feed ratios of CO/NO less than one, carbon monoxide conversion was typically 95 to 100%, resulting in strongly oxidizing conditions over the catalyst. Under these conditions no deactivation was apparent. Infrared spectra recorded under reaction conditions revealed intense bands at 2075 and 2300 cm{sup -1} , which were identified as carbon monoxide adsorbed on Pt and Si-NCO, respectively. Isocyanate bands formed under reducing conditions were more intense and exhibited greater stability than those formed under oxidizing conditions. A reaction mechanism based on the dissociation of nitric oxide as the rate-limiting step was used to correlate nitric oxide reaction rates and nitrous oxide selectivities observed under reducing conditions. As part of this mechanism it is assumed that nitrous bxide is formed via a Langmuir-Hinshelwood process in which an adsorbed nitrogen atom reacts with an adsorbed nitric oxide molecule. The nitric oxide reaction rate was found to be first order in nitric oxide partial pressure, and inverse second order in carbon monoxide partial pressure. A mechanism is proposed to qualitatively explain the deactivation process observed under reducing conditions. The essential part of this mechanism is the formation of an isocyanate species on the Pt crystallites of the catalyst and the subsequent transient diffusion of these

  3. The d-Prime directive: Assessing costs and benefits in recognition by dissociating mixed-list false alarm rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrin, Noah D; Groot, Brianna; MacLeod, Colin M

    2016-07-01

    It can be difficult to judge the effectiveness of encoding techniques in a within-subject design. Consider the production effect-the finding that words read aloud are better remembered than words read silently. In the absence of a baseline, a within-subject production effect in a mixed study list could reflect a benefit of reading aloud, a cost of reading silently, or both. To help interpret within-subject data, memory researchers have compared within-subject and between-subjects designs, with the between-subjects (i.e., pure list) conditions serving as baselines against which the within-subject (i.e., mixed-list) conditions are compared. In the present article, the authors highlight a shortcoming of using this comparison to assess costs and benefits in recognition. Unlike between-subjects experiments where separate false alarm rates are obtained for each condition, the typical within-subject experiment yields a collapsed false alarm rate, which, the authors argue, can potentially bias calculations of memory discrimination (d'). Across 3 experiments that used production as the encoding manipulation, they used a typical mixed-list versus pure-list design (Experiment 1) and then made modifications to this design (Experiments 2 and 3) that yielded separate mixed-list false alarm rates. The results of the latter 2 experiments demonstrated that words that are read aloud in a mixed list have an overall memorial benefit over words that are read aloud in a pure list-both in terms of increased hits and reduced false alarms. The authors frame these results in terms of the distinctiveness heuristic. (PsycINFO Database Record

  4. Carbon Monoxide (CO) Poisoning Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir When power outages occur after severe weather (such as winter storms, hurricanes or tornadoes), using alternative sources of power can cause carbon monoxide (CO) to build up in a ...

  5. Carbon Monoxide Mixing Ratio System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory — The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Carbon Monoxide (CO) system provides high-precision atmospheric concentration measurements of CO mixing ratio (ppbv dry air) every 10...

  6. {sup 16}O Coulomb dissociation: towards a new means to determine the {sup 12}C+{alpha} fusion rate in stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleurot, F. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, Zernikelaan 25, 9747 AA Groningen (Netherlands)]. E-mail: fleurot@snolab.ca; Berg, A.M. van den [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, Zernikelaan 25, 9747 AA Groningen (Netherlands); Davids, B. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, Zernikelaan 25, 9747 AA Groningen (Netherlands); Harakeh, M.N. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, Zernikelaan 25, 9747 AA Groningen (Netherlands); Kravchuk, V.L. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, Zernikelaan 25, 9747 AA Groningen (Netherlands); Wilschut, H.W. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, Zernikelaan 25, 9747 AA Groningen (Netherlands)]. E-mail: wilschut@kvi.nl; Guillot, J. [IPN, 15 rue Georges Clemenceau, 91406 Orsay cedex (France); Laurent, H. [IPN, 15 rue Georges Clemenceau, 91406 Orsay cedex (France); Willis, A. [IPN, 15 rue Georges Clemenceau, 91406 Orsay cedex (France); Assuncao, M. [CSNSM, bat. 104-108, 91405 Orsay Campus (France); Kiener, J. [CSNSM, bat. 104-108, 91405 Orsay Campus (France); Lefebvre, A. [CSNSM, bat. 104-108, 91405 Orsay Campus (France); Sereville, N. de [CSNSM, bat. 104-108, 91405 Orsay Campus (France); Tatischeff, V. [CSNSM, bat. 104-108, 91405 Orsay Campus (France)

    2005-06-02

    A feasibility study was made of an important aspect of the Coulomb-dissociation method, which has been proposed for the determination of the rate of the astrophysically important {sup 12}C({alpha}, {gamma}){sup 16}O reaction. A crucial aspect is the disentanglement of nuclear and Coulomb interactions on one hand and the separation of dipole and quadrupole contributions on the other. As a first step the resonant breakup via two well-known 2{sup +} states of {sup 16}O was measured. The differential cross section of {sup 208}Pb({sup 16}O, {sup 16}O*){sup 208}Pb and the angular correlations of the fragments {sup 12}C and {alpha} in the center of mass were measured and compared to theoretical predictions calculated in DWBA and the coupled-channel method. The best agreement was found for the state at 11.52 MeV associated to a one-step excitation from the ground state, while the 9.84 MeV requires coupling to the first-excited 2{sup +} state and is not well described.

  7. Paradoxical dissociation between heart rate and heart rate variability following different modalities of exercise in individuals with metabolic syndrome: The RESOLVE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudet, Gil; Walther, Guillaume; Courteix, Daniel; Obert, Philippe; Lesourd, Bruno; Pereira, Bruno; Chapier, Robert; Vinet, Agnès; Chamoux, Alain; Naughton, Geraldine; Poirier, Paul; Dutheil, Frédéric

    2017-02-01

    Aims To analyse the effects of different modalities of exercise training on heart rate variability (HRV) in individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Methods and results Eighty MetS participants (aged 50-70 years) were housed and managed in an inpatient medical centre for 21 days, including weekends. Physical activity and food intake/diet were intensively monitored. Participants were randomly assigned into three training groups, differing only by intensity of exercise: moderate-endurance-moderate-resistance ( re), high-resistance-moderate-endurance ( Re), and moderate-resistance-high-endurance ( rE). HRV was recorded before and after the intervention by 24-hour Holter electrocardiogram. Although mean 24-hour heart rate decreased more in Re than re (-11.6 ± 1.6 vs. -4.8 ± 2.1%; P = 0.010), low frequency/high frequency decreased more in re than Re (-20.4 ± 5.5% vs. + 20.4 ± 9.1%; P = 0.002) and rE (-20.4 ± 5.5% vs. -0.3 ± 11.1%; P = 0.003). Very low frequency increased more in Re than re (+121.2 ± 35.7 vs. 42.9 ± 11.3%; P = 0.004). For all HRV parameters, rE ranged between re and Re values. Low frequency/high frequency changes were linked with visceral fat loss only in re (coefficient 5.9, 95% CI 1.9-10.0; P = 0.004). By day 21, HRV parameters of MetS groups (heart rate -8.6 ± 1.0%, standard deviation of R-R intervals + 34.0 ± 6.6%, total power + 63.3 ± 11.1%; P heart rate and greater increases in very low frequency. Modality-specific relationships were observed between enhanced HRV and visceral fat loss. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT00917917.

  8. Modeling of Carbon Monoxide Removal by Corona Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Jingwei; SUN Yabing; ZHAO Dayong; ZHENG Zheng; XU Yuewu; YANG Haifeng; ZHU Hongbiao; ZHOU Xiaoxia

    2009-01-01

    Modeling of carbon monoxide (CO) removal by a corona plasma was conducted in this study.The purification efficiency of CO was calculated theoretically and the factors affecting the removal of CO were analyzed.The results showed that the main removal mechanisms of CO were direct dissociation by generated high-energy electrons and indirect oxidation by generated hydroxyl radicals.The purification efficiency of CO was dependent on the plasma parameters,indoor air humidity and initial concentration of CO.Good consistency between the theoretical calculation and the experimental results was observed.

  9. Dissociation and Memory Fragmentation in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: An Evaluation of the Dissociative Encoding Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedard-Gilligan, Michele; Zoellner, Lori A.

    2012-01-01

    Several prominent theories of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) posit that peritraumatic dissociation results in insufficient encoding of the trauma memory and that persistent dissociation prevents memory elaboration, resulting in memory fragmentation and PTSD. In this review, we summarize the empirical literature on peritraumatic and trait dissociation and trauma narrative fragmentation as measured by meta-memory and rater/objective coding. Across 16 studies to date, the association between dissociation and fragmentation was most prominent when examining peritraumatic dissociation and patient's own ratings of memory fragmentation. This relationship did not hold when examining trait dissociation or rater-coded or computer-generated measures of fragmentation. Thus, initial evidence points more toward a strong self-reported association between constructs that is not supported on more objective fragmentation coding. Measurement overlap, construct ambiguity, and exclusion of potential confounds may underlie lack of a strong association between dissociation and objective-rated fragmentation. PMID:22348400

  10. (Carbon monoxide metabolism by photosynthetic bacteria)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    Research continued on the metabolism of carbon monoxide by Rhodospirillum rubrum. This report discusses progress on the activity, induction, inhibition, and spectroscopic analysis of the enzyme Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase. (CBS)

  11. Carbon Monoxide Silicate Reduction System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Carbon Monoxide Silicate Reduction System (COSRS) is an innovative method that for the first time uses the strong reductant carbon monoxide to both reduce iron...

  12. Dissociation dynamics of methylal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaud, P.; Frey, H.-M.; Gerber, T.; Mischler, B.; Radi, P.P.; Tzannis, A.-P. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    The dissociation of methylal is investigated using mass spectrometry, combined with a pyrolytic radical source and femtosecond pump probe experiments. Based on preliminary results two reaction paths of methylal dissociation are proposed and discussed. (author) 4 fig., 3 refs.

  13. Dissociated Vertical Deviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Dissociated Vertical Deviation En Español Read in Chinese What is Dissociated Vertical Deviation (DVD)? DVD is a condition in which ...

  14. Environmental variables and levels of exhaled carbon monoxide and carboxyhemoglobin in elderly people taking exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salicio, Marcos Adriano; Mana, Viviane Aparecida Martins; Fett, Waléria Christiane Rezende; Gomes, Luciano Teixeira; Botelho, Clovis

    2016-04-01

    This article aims to analyze levels of exhaled carbon monoxide, carboxyhemoglobinand cardiopulmonary variables in old people practicing exercise in external environments, and correlate them with climate and pollution factors. Temporal ecological study with118 active elderly people in the city of Cuiabá, in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Data were obtained on use of medication, smoking, anthropometric measurements, spirometry, peak flow, oxygen saturation, heart rate, exhaled carbon monoxide, carboxyhemoglobin, climate, number of farm fires and pollution. Correlations were found between on the one hand environmental temperature, relative humidity of the air and number of farmers' fires, and on the other hand levels of carbon monoxide exhaled and carboxyhemoglobin (p elderly people, environmental factors influence levels of exhaled carbon monoxide, carboxyhemoglobin and heart rate. There is thus a need for these to be monitored during exercise. The use of a carbon monoxide monitor to evaluate exposure to pollutants is suggested.

  15. Carbon monoxide formation in tomatoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gladon, R.J.; Staby, G.L.

    1979-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is not emanated to any large extent from tomato fruits (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill. cvs. Rutgers and Ohio MR-13), but is retained within the internal atmosphere. CO is found during all stages of fruit development, but no set pattern of CO concentration is evident.

  16. MOPITT Carbon Monoxide Over India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    MOPITT observed high levels of carbon monoxide (red and yellow pixels) over the Indian sub-continent during March. These values are associated with industrial activity in the region just south of the Himalayan Mountains. Notice that to the north, the Himalayas are characterized by low values (blue pixels).

  17. The lowest-lying electronic singlet and triplet potential energy surfaces for the HNO-NOH system: energetics, unimolecular rate constants, tunneling and kinetic isotope effects for the isomerization and dissociation reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkaya, Uğur; Turney, Justin M; Yamaguchi, Yukio; Schaefer, Henry F

    2012-04-28

    The lowest-lying electronic singlet and triplet potential energy surfaces (PES) for the HNO-NOH system have been investigated employing high level ab initio quantum chemical methods. The reaction energies and barriers have been predicted for two isomerization and four dissociation reactions. Total energies are extrapolated to the complete basis set limit applying focal point analyses. Anharmonic zero-point vibrational energies, diagonal Born-Oppenheimer corrections, relativistic effects, and core correlation corrections are also taken into account. On the singlet PES, the (1)HNO → (1)NOH endothermicity including all corrections is predicted to be 42.23 ± 0.2 kcal mol(-1). For the barrierless decomposition of (1)HNO to H + NO, the dissociation energy is estimated to be 47.48 ± 0.2 kcal mol(-1). For (1)NOH → H + NO, the reaction endothermicity and barrier are 5.25 ± 0.2 and 7.88 ± 0.2 kcal mol(-1). On the triplet PES the reaction energy and barrier including all corrections are predicted to be 7.73 ± 0.2 and 39.31 ± 0.2 kcal mol(-1) for the isomerization reaction (3)HNO → (3)NOH. For the triplet dissociation reaction (to H + NO) the corresponding results are 29.03 ± 0.2 and 32.41 ± 0.2 kcal mol(-1). Analogous results are 21.30 ± 0.2 and 33.67 ± 0.2 kcal mol(-1) for the dissociation reaction of (3)NOH (to H + NO). Unimolecular rate constants for the isomerization and dissociation reactions were obtained utilizing kinetic modeling methods. The tunneling and kinetic isotope effects are also investigated for these reactions. The adiabatic singlet-triplet energy splittings are predicted to be 18.45 ± 0.2 and 16.05 ± 0.2 kcal mol(-1) for HNO and NOH, respectively. Kinetic analyses based on solution of simultaneous first-order ordinary-differential rate equations demonstrate that the singlet NOH molecule will be difficult to prepare at room temperature, while the triplet NOH molecule is viable with respect to isomerization and dissociation reactions up to

  18. Four-electron deoxygenative reductive coupling of carbon monoxide at a single metal site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Joshua A.; Agapie, Theodor

    2016-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is the ultimate source of the fossil fuels that are both central to modern life and problematic: their use increases atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases, and their availability is geopolitically constrained. Using carbon dioxide as a feedstock to produce synthetic fuels might, in principle, alleviate these concerns. Although many homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts convert carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide, further deoxygenative coupling of carbon monoxide to generate useful multicarbon products is challenging. Molybdenum and vanadium nitrogenases are capable of converting carbon monoxide into hydrocarbons under mild conditions, using discrete electron and proton sources. Electrocatalytic reduction of carbon monoxide on copper catalysts also uses a combination of electrons and protons, while the industrial Fischer-Tropsch process uses dihydrogen as a combined source of electrons and electrophiles for carbon monoxide coupling at high temperatures and pressures. However, these enzymatic and heterogeneous systems are difficult to probe mechanistically. Molecular catalysts have been studied extensively to investigate the elementary steps by which carbon monoxide is deoxygenated and coupled, but a single metal site that can efficiently induce the required scission of carbon-oxygen bonds and generate carbon-carbon bonds has not yet been documented. Here we describe a molybdenum compound, supported by a terphenyl-diphosphine ligand, that activates and cleaves the strong carbon-oxygen bond of carbon monoxide, enacts carbon-carbon coupling, and spontaneously dissociates the resulting fragment. This complex four-electron transformation is enabled by the terphenyl-diphosphine ligand, which acts as an electron reservoir and exhibits the coordinative flexibility needed to stabilize the different intermediates involved in the overall reaction sequence. We anticipate that these design elements might help in the development of efficient catalysts for

  19. Preparation of Fe-Mn/K/Al2O3 Fischer-Tropsch Catalyst and Its Catalytic Kinetics for the Hydrogenation of Carbon Monoxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F.Fazlollahi; M.Sarkari; H.Gharebaghi; H.Atashi; M.M.Zarei; A.A.Mirzaei; W.C.Hecker

    2013-01-01

    A K promoted iron-manganese catalyst was prepared by sol-gel method,and subsequently was tested for hydrogenation of carbon monoxide to light olefins.The kinetic experiments on a well-characterized Fe-Mn/K/Al2O3 catalyst were performed in a fixed-bed micro-reactor in a temperature range of 280-380 ℃,pressure range of 0.1-1.2 MPa,H2/CO feed molar ratio range of 1-2.1 and a space velocity range of 2000-7200 h-1.Considering the mechanism of the process and Langmuir-Hinshelwood-Hogan-Watson (LHHW) approach,unassisted CO dissociation and H-assisted CO dissociation mechanisms were defined.The best models were obtained using non-linear regression analysis and Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm.Consequently,4 models were considered as the preferred models based on the carbide mechanism.Finally,a model was proposed as a best model that assumed the following kinetically relevant steps in the iron-Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis:(1) CO dissociation occurred without hydrogen interaction and was not a rate-limiting step; (2) the first hydrogen addition to surface carbon was the rate-determining steps.The activation energy and adsorption enthalpy were calculated 40.0 and-30.2 kJ· mol-1,respectively.

  20. DME Dissociation Reaction on Platinum Electrode Surface : A Quantitative Kinetic Analysis by In Situ IR Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yi; Tong, Yujin; Lu, Leilei; Osawa, Masatoshi; Ye, Shen

    2010-01-01

    The kinetics of electrocatalytic dissociation reaction of dimethyl ether (DME) on a platinum (Pt) polycrystalline electrode in an acidic solution yielding carbon monoxide (CO) has been quantitatively analyzed by in situ IR spectroscopy in the potential region between 100 and 500 mV (vs reversible hydrogen electrode). A two-step consecutive reaction model, an initial dehydrogenation step followed by a CO formation step, is proposed for the dissociation process of the DME molecule. The mechanis...

  1. Dissociative Electron Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arreola, Esmeralda; Esmeralda Arreola Collaboration; Leigh Hargreaves Collaboration

    Since the pioneering work of Boudiaffa et al., it has been understood that electrons, even with energies near or below the ionization threshold, are capable of initiating strand-breaks in human DNA. This discovery raised important questions for cancer treatments, since sub-ionizing electrons are known to be the most copiously produced secondary product of radiation therapy. But even to date these factors are largely excluded from dosimetry calculations. This lack of inclusion is, at least in part, certainly due to the dearth of fundamental data describing low-energy electron interactions with nucleotide molecules that form the basis of DNA. Understanding of how such slow electrons are able to damage DNA remains incomplete, but the strongly peaked nature of Boudiaffa et al.'s data gives strong hints at resonantly driven collision processes. DNA damage is therefore most likely driven by ``dissociative electron attachment'' (DEA). DEA is a rather complicated process to model due to the coupling of electronic and nuclear degrees of freedom in the molecule. At the California State University Fullerton, we are currently commissioning a new spectrometer to study dissociation channels, reaction rates and orientation effects in DEA collisions between slow electrons and nucleotide molecules. At the meeting we will present design parameters and commissioning data for this new apparatus.

  2. Epidemiology of Dissociative Disorders: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedat Sar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available General psychiatric assessment instruments do not cover DSM-IV dissociative disorders. Many large-scale epidemiological studies led to biased results due to this deficit in their methodology. Nevertheless, screening studies using diagnostic tools designed to assess dissociative disorders yielded lifetime prevalence rates around 10% in clinical populations and in the community. Special populations such as psychiatric emergency ward applicants, drug addicts, and women in prostitution demonstrated the highest rates. Data derived from epidemiological studies also support clinical findings about the relationship between childhood adverse experiences and dissociative disorders. Thus, dissociative disorders constitute a hidden and neglected public health problem. Better and early recognition of dissociative disorders would increase awareness about childhood traumata in the community and support prevention of them alongside their clinical consequences.

  3. Heat and mass transfer in a dissociated laminar boundary layer of air with consideration of the finite rate of chemical reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyegbesan, A. O.; Algermissen, J.

    1986-01-01

    A numerical investigation of heat and mass transfer in a dissociated laminar boundary layer of air on an isothermal flat plate is carried out for different degrees of cooling of the wall. A finite-difference chemical model is used to study elementary reactions involving NO2 and N2O. The analysis is based on equations of continuity, momentum, energy, conservation and state for the two-dimensional viscous flow of a reacting multicomponent mixtures. Attention is given to the effects of both catalyticity and noncatalyticity of the wall.

  4. Carbon monoxide kinetics following simulated cigarette smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karnik, A.S. (Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI); Coin, E.J.

    1980-05-01

    Carbon monoxide kinetics were measured in the blood (% carboxyhemoglobin) and alveolar phase (ppM carbon monoxide) after simulated cigarette smoking. Cigarette smoking was siumlated using the same amount of carbon monoxide that 2R1F cigarettes manufactured by the Tobacco Research Institute would contain. Ten boluses of air containing carbon monoxide equivalent to smoking one cigarette were inhaled by six healthy nonsmoker volunteers. Carbon monoxide in the air phase was measured by an Ecolyzer and carboxyhemoglobin was measured by a CO-Oximeter. The mean rise in alveolar carbon monoxide immediately and 20 min after inhaling the last bolus was 3.3 and 3.1 ppM, respectively (p<.005). The mean rise in carboxyhemoglobin immediately and 20 min after inhalation of the last bolus was 0.8 and 0.5% respectively (P<.005). The changes in carboxyhemoglobin were found to be similar to changes that occur when one cigarette is actually smoked.

  5. Ultrafast Dissociation of Metastable CO2 + in a Dimer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiaoyan; Haertelt, M.; Schlauderer, S.; Schuurman, M. S.; Naumov, A. Yu.; Villeneuve, D. M.; McKellar, A. R. W.; Corkum, P. B.; Staudte, A.

    2017-04-01

    We triply ionize the van der Waals bound carbon monoxide dimer with intense ultrashort pulses and study the breakup channel (CO )23 +→C++O++CO+ . The fragments are recorded in a cold target recoil ion momentum spectrometer. We observe a fast CO2 + dissociation channel in the dimer, which does not exist for the monomer. We found that a nearby charge breaks the symmetry of a X3Π state of CO2 + and induces an avoided crossing that allows a fast dissociation. Calculation on the full dimer complex shows the coupling of different charge states, as predicted from excimer theory, gives rise to electronic state components not present in the monomer, thereby enabling fast dissociation with higher kinetic energy release. These results demonstrate that the electronic structure of molecular cluster complexes can give rise to dynamics that is qualitatively different from that observed in the component monomers.

  6. Psychiatric symptoms and dissociation in conversion, somatization and dissociative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espirito-Santo, Helena; Pio-Abreu, Jose Luis

    2009-03-01

    Conversion, dissociation and somatization are historically related in the long established concept of hysteria. Somewhere along the way they were separated due to the Cartesian dualistic view. The aim of the present study was to compare these pathologies and investigate whether symptoms of these pathologies overlap in their clinical appearance in a Portuguese sample. Twenty-six patients with conversion disorder, 38 with dissociative disorders, 40 with somatization disorder, and a comparison group of 46 patients having other psychiatric disorders answered questions about dissociation (Dissociative Experiences Scale), somatoform dissociation (Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire), and psychopathological symptoms (Brief Symptom Inventory). Dissociative and somatoform symptoms were significantly more frequent in dissociative and conversion disorder than in somatization disorder and controls. There were no significant differences between dissociative and conversion patients. Conversion disorder is closely related to dissociative disorders. These results support the ICD-10 categorization of conversion disorder among dissociative disorders and the hypothesis of analogous psychopathological processes in conversion and dissociative disorders versus somatization disorder.

  7. Dissociation in mediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Muraru

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper approaches several texts that are part of the so-called discourse of mediation, adopting a pragma-dialectical perspective of the theory of dissociation. It is an attempt to identify the uses of dissociative patterns, with special emphasis on the indicators of dissociation. The paper investigates the various uses of the concept of dissociation as a discursive technique in the argumentation on the different aspects that are involved in international conflict, such as the discussion of the notion of peace. The purpose is to identify the role of dissociation, as a device strategically used by the mediator to help the parties minimize the disagreement space, and come to a conflict resolution.

  8. Dissociation: Cognitive capacity or dysfunction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruiter, M.B.; Bernet, M.; Phaf, R.H.

    2006-01-01

    Dissociative experiences are mostly studied as a risk factor for dissociative pathology. Nonpathological dissociation is quite common in the general population, however, and may reflect a constitutionally determined cognitive style rather than a pathological trait acquired through the experience of

  9. Carbon monoxide conversion by anaerobic bioreactor sludges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sipma, J.; Stams, A.J.M.; Lens, P.N.L.; Lettinga, G.

    2003-01-01

    Seven different anaerobic sludges from wastewater treatment reactors were screened for their ability to convert carbon monoxide (CO) at 30 and 55degreesC
    Seven different anaerobic sludges from wastewater treatment reactors were screened for their ability to convert carbon monoxide (CO) at 30 and

  10. Dissociation and memory fragmentation in post-traumatic stress disorder: an evaluation of the dissociative encoding hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedard-Gilligan, Michele; Zoellner, Lori A

    2012-01-01

    Several prominent theories of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) posit that peritraumatic dissociation results in insufficient encoding of the trauma memory and that persistent dissociation prevents memory elaboration, resulting in memory fragmentation and PTSD. In this review we summarise the empirical literature on peritraumatic and trait dissociation and trauma narrative fragmentation as measured by meta-memory and rater/objective coding. Across 16 studies to date, the association between dissociation and fragmentation was most prominent when examining peritraumatic dissociation and patient's own ratings of memory fragmentation. This relationship did not hold when examining trait dissociation or rater-coded or computer-generated measures of fragmentation. Thus initial evidence points more towards a strong self-reported association between constructs that is not supported on more objective fragmentation coding. Measurement overlap, construct ambiguity, and exclusion of potential confounds may underlie lack of a strong association between dissociation and objective-rated fragmentation.

  11. The dissociative bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Nirit

    2013-01-01

    Dissociation leaves a psychic void and a lingering sense of psychic absence. How do 2 people bond while they are both suffering from dissociation? The author explores the notion of a dissociative bond that occurs in the aftermath of trauma--a bond that holds at its core an understanding and shared detachment from the self. Such a bond is confined to unspoken terms that are established in the relational unconscious. The author proposes understanding the dissociative bond as a transitional space that may not lead to full integration of dissociated knowledge yet offers some healing. This is exemplified by R. Prince's (2009) clinical case study. A relational perspective is adopted, focusing on the intersubjective aspects of a dyadic relationship. In the dissociative bond, recognition of the need to experience mutual dissociation can accommodate a psychic state that yearns for relationship when the psyche cannot fully confront past wounds. Such a bond speaks to the need to reestablish a sense of human relatedness and connection when both parties in the relationship suffer from disconnection. This bond is bound to a silence that becomes both a means of protection against the horror of traumatic memory and a way to convey unspoken gestures toward the other.

  12. The Carbon Monoxide Tape Recorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeberl, M. R.; Duncan, B. N.; Douglass, A. R.; Waters, J.; Livesey, N.; Read, W.; Filipiak, M.

    2006-01-01

    Using Aura MLS data we have identified the stratospheric tape recorder in carbon monoxide (CO). Unlike the water vapor tape recorder, which is controlled by upper troposphere processes, the CO tape recorder is linked to seasonal biomass burning. Since CO has a lifetime of only a few months, the CO tape recorder barely extends above 20 km. The tape head for CO appears to be close to 360K near the same location as the water vapor tape head [Read et al, 20041. Both tape heads are below the equatorial cold point tropopause but above the base of the tropical tropopause layer. The tape recorder signal becomes more distinct from 360K to 380K suggesting that convective detrainment of plays a decreasingly important role with altitude. The Global Modeling Initiative chemical transport model forced by the climatology of biomass burning reproduces the CO tape recorder.

  13. Engineering evidence for carbon monoxide toxicity cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galatsis, Kosmas

    2016-07-01

    Unintentional carbon monoxide poisonings and fatalities lead to many toxicity cases. Given the unusual physical properties of carbon monoxide-in that the gas is odorless and invisible-unorganized and erroneous methods in obtaining engineering evidence as required during the discovery process often occurs. Such evidence gathering spans domains that include building construction, appliance installation, industrial hygiene, mechanical engineering, combustion and physics. In this paper, we attempt to place a systematic framework that is relevant to key aspects in engineering evidence gathering for unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning cases. Such a framework aims to increase awareness of this process and relevant issues to help guide legal counsel and expert witnesses.

  14. Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet İbrahim Turan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide poisoning is a major cause of death following attempted suicide and accidental exposures. Although clinical presentation depends on the duration and the intensity of exposure, the assessment of the severity of intoxication is difficult. A small percentage of patients who show complete initial recovery may develop delayed neurological deficits. Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning is a rare and poor prognosis neurologic disorders and there is no specific treatment. We present a case with early onset of delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning with typical cranial imaging findings in a child with atypical history and clinical presentation.

  15. Dissociative disorders in medical settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhee, Edward

    2013-10-01

    Despite the challenges of conducting research on dissociation and the dissociative disorders, our understanding has grown greatly over the past three decades, including our knowledge of the often overlooked sensorimotor manifestations of dissociation, more commonly referred to as somatoform dissociation. This article will first review the definitions and presentations of dissociation in general along with recent research on the concept of somatoform dissociation. Then, each of the dissociative disorders and conversion disorder will be discussed in further detail as well as how they might present in a medical setting. Current recommendations for diagnosis and treatment will also be provided.

  16. Gas-phase energies of actinide oxides -- an assessment of neutral and cationic monoxides and dioxides from thorium to curium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcalo, Joaquim; Gibson, John K.

    2009-08-10

    An assessment of the gas-phase energetics of neutral and singly and doubly charged cationic actinide monoxides and dioxides of thorium, protactinium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium, and curium is presented. A consistent set of metal-oxygen bond dissociation enthalpies, ionization energies, and enthalpies of formation, including new or revised values, is proposed, mainly based on recent experimental data and on correlations with the electronic energetics of the atoms or cations and with condensed-phase thermochemistry.

  17. The role of water in gas hydrate dissociation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Circone, S.; Stern, L.A.; Kirby, S.H.

    2004-01-01

    When raised to temperatures above the ice melting point, gas hydrates release their gas in well-defined, reproducible events that occur within self-maintained temperature ranges slightly below the ice point. This behavior is observed for structure I (carbon dioxide, methane) and structure II gas hydrates (methane-ethane, and propane), including those formed with either H2O- or D2O-host frameworks, and dissociated at either ambient or elevated pressure conditions. We hypothesize that at temperatures above the H2O (or D2O) melting point: (1) hydrate dissociation produces water + gas instead of ice + gas, (2) the endothermic dissociation reaction lowers the temperature of the sample, causing the water product to freeze, (3) this phase transition buffers the sample temperatures within a narrow temperature range just below the ice point until dissociation goes to completion, and (4) the temperature depression below the pure ice melting point correlates with the average rate of dissociation and arises from solution of the hydrate-forming gas, released by dissociation, in the water phase at elevated concentrations. In addition, for hydrate that is partially dissociated to ice + gas at lower temperatures and then heated to temperatures above the ice point, all remaining hydrate dissociates to gas + liquid water as existing barriers to dissociation disappear. The enhanced dissociation rates at warmer temperatures are probably associated with faster gas transport pathways arising from the formation of water product.

  18. Childhood maltreatment and intimate partner violence in dissociative disorder patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliya R. Webermann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood maltreatment (CM is a risk factor for subsequent intimate partner violence (IPV in adulthood, with high rates of retrospectively reported CM among IPV victims and perpetrators. A theorized mechanism of the link between CM and IPV is dissociation. Dissociation may allow perpetrators of violence to remain emotionally distant from their behavior and minimize empathy toward those they victimize, enabling them to commit acts of violence similar to their own experiences. Indeed, elevated rates of dissociation and dissociative disorders (DD have been found among IPV survivors and perpetrators. In addition, in pilot studies, DD clinicians have reported high levels of violent behavior among DD patients. Objective: The present study investigates IPV among DD patients with Dissociative Identity Disorder and Dissociative Disorder Not Otherwise Specified, a group with CM rates of 80–95% and severe dissociative symptoms. Methods: DD clinicians reported on rates of CM and IPV among 275 DD patients in outpatient treatment. DD patients also completed a self-report measure of dissociation. Analyses assessed the associations between CM typologies and IPV, as well as trait dissociation and IPV. Results: Physical and emotional child abuse were associated with physical IPV, and childhood witnessing of domestic violence (DV and childhood neglect were associated with emotional IPV. Conclusions: The present study is the first to provide empirical support for a possible CM to adult IPV developmental trajectory among DD patients. Future research is needed to better understand the link between CM and IPV among those with trauma and DD.

  19. Carbon Monoxide Silicate Reduction System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Carbon Monoxide Silicate Reduction System (COSRS) is a novel technology for producing large quantities of oxygen on the Moon. Oxygen yields of 15 kilograms per...

  20. Protect Yourself from Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-20

    Learn about carbon monoxide - a colorless, odorless gas - and how to protect yourself and your family.  Created: 11/20/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 12/4/2007.

  1. Integrated electricity and carbon monoxide production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, J.

    1994-03-23

    In a process for the production of carbon monoxide and electric power in an IGCC with the removal of sulphur compounds, between the outlet of quenched gas from a partial oxidation unit and a fuel inlet to a combined cycle gas turbine there is a permeable membrane unit to separate a non-permeable stream, which is utilised as a source of carbon monoxide, and a permeate stream, which is used as fuel for the gas turbine of the combined cycle unit. (author)

  2. Hearing Loss due to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Houshang Mehrparvar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide poisoning is one of the rare causes of hearing loss which may cause reversible or irreversible, unilateral or bilateral hearing loss after acute or chronic exposure. In this report, we present a case of bilateral sensorineural hearing loss in a secondary smelting workshop worker after an acute exposure to carbon monoxide. This complication was diagnosed by pure-tone audiometry and confirmed by transient evoked otoacoustic emissions. Hearing loss has not improved after 3 months of followup.

  3. The SILCC project --- IV. Impact of dissociating and ionising radiation on the interstellar medium and Halpha emission as a tracer of the star formation rate

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, Thomas; Walch, Stefanie; Glover, Simon C O; Girichidis, Philipp; Pellegrini, Eric; Klessen, Ralf S; Wünsch, Richard; Gatto, Andrea; Baczynski, Christian

    2016-01-01

    We present three-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamical simulations of the impact of stellar winds, photoelectric heating, photodissociating and photoionising radiation, and supernovae on the chemical composition and star formation in a stratified disc model. This is followed with a sink-based model for star clusters with populations of individual massive stars. Stellar winds and ionising radiation regulate the star formation rate at a factor of ~10 below the simulation with only supernova feedback due to their immediate impact on the ambient interstellar medium after star formation. Ionising radiation (with winds and supernovae) significantly reduces the ambient densities for most supernova explosions to rho = 30 M_sun) with short lifetimes are responsible for significant fluctuations in the Halpha luminosities. The corresponding inferred star formation rates can underestimate the true instantaneous star formation rate by factors of ~10.

  4. Predicting pressure-dependent unimolecular rate constants using variational transition state theory with multidimensional tunneling combined with system-specific quantum RRK theory: a definitive test for fluoroform dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Junwei Lucas; Zhang, Xin; Truhlar, Donald G

    2016-06-22

    Understanding the falloff in rate constants of gas-phase unimolecular reaction rate constants as the pressure is lowered is a fundamental problem in chemical kinetics, with practical importance for combustion, atmospheric chemistry, and essentially all gas-phase reaction mechanisms. In the present work, we use our recently developed system-specific quantum RRK theory, calibrated by canonical variational transition state theory with small-curvature tunneling, combined with the Lindemann-Hinshelwood mechanism, to model the dissociation reaction of fluoroform (CHF3), which provides a definitive test for falloff modeling. Our predicted pressure-dependent thermal rate constants are in excellent agreement with experimental values over a wide range of pressures and temperatures. The present validation of our methodology, which is able to include variational transition state effects, multidimensional tunneling based on the directly calculated potential energy surface along the tunneling path, and torsional and other vibrational anharmonicity, together with state-of-the-art reaction-path-based direct dynamics calculations, is important because the method is less empirical than models routinely used for generating full mechanisms, while also being simpler in key respects than full master equation treatments and the full reduced falloff curve and modified strong collision methods of Troe.

  5. Thermal Degradation of Lead Monoxide Filled Polymer Composite Radiation Shields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harish, V.; Nagaiah, N.

    2011-07-01

    Lead monoxide filled Isophthalate resin particulate polymer composites were prepared with different filler concentrations and investigated for physical, thermal, mechanical and gamma radiation shielding characteristics. This paper discusses about the thermo gravimetric analysis of the composites done to understand their thermal properties especially the effect of filler concentration on the thermal stability & degradation rate of composites. Pristine polymer exhibits single stage degradation whereas filled composites exhibit two stage degradation processes. Further, the IDT values as well as degradation rates decrease with the increased filler content in the composite.

  6. The SILCC project - IV. Impact of dissociating and ionizing radiation on the interstellar medium and Hα emission as a tracer of the star formation rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Thomas; Naab, Thorsten; Walch, Stefanie; Glover, Simon C. O.; Girichidis, Philipp; Pellegrini, Eric; Klessen, Ralf S.; Wünsch, Richard; Gatto, Andrea; Baczynski, Christian

    2017-04-01

    We present three-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamical simulations of the impact of stellar winds, photoelectric heating, photodissociating and photoionizing radiation, and supernovae on the chemical composition and star formation in a stratified disc model. This is followed by a sink-based model for star clusters with populations of individual massive stars. Stellar winds and ionizing radiation regulate the star formation rate at a factor of ∼10 below the simulation with only supernova feedback due to their immediate impact on the ambient interstellar medium after star formation. Ionizing radiation (with winds and supernovae) significantly reduces the ambient densities for most supernova explosions to ρ scale of 2 Gyr and shows the best agreement with observations. In the radiative models, the Hα emission is dominated by radiative recombination as opposed to collisional excitation (the dominant emission in non-radiative models), which only contributes ∼1-10 per cent to the total Hα emission. Individual massive stars (M ≥ 30 M⊙) with short lifetimes are responsible for significant fluctuations in the Hα luminosities. The corresponding inferred star formation rates can underestimate the true instantaneous star formation rate by a factor of ∼10.

  7. Dissociative Identity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Tom

    2007-01-01

    Few psychological disorders in the Diagnostic Statistical Manual have generated as much controversy as Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID). For the past 35 years diagnoses of DID, previously referred to as Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD), have increased exponentially, causing various psychological researchers and clinicians to question the…

  8. Sexuality of dissocial persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Janus

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The development of personality disorders as well as sexual disorders is defined by the common time spectrum as well as deficits and changes in such areas as biological, environmental and mental area. Dissocial (antisocial personality disorder is characterised by a pervasive pattern of disregard for, or violation of, the rights of others. The indices of the discussed disorder can be found in specific patterns of social inadequacy occurring during childhood and puberty. At the same time, characteristic indices of social functioning at a young age often indicate subsequent dysfunctions in the area of sexuality. Aim. The aim of this paper is to explain sexual functioning of persons with dissocial personality disorder (including the relation with sexual dysfunctions, and to ascertain issues that need further empirical studies. Method. As a result of analysis of available literature (matched with EBSCO database search fulfilling criteria of sample size, accuracy of examination procedure, conclusions and discussion 5 articles fulfilling criteria cited above has been found. Conclusions: Based on literature overview, it appeared to be impossible to determine one coherent way of sexual functioning of dissocial persons, and to establish causal relationship of sexual dysfunctions and dissocial personality disorder. However, it is possible to indicate group of most characteristic dysfunctional sexual behaviours. Noteworthy, available publication analyse only selected aspects of sexual behaviours in small, homogenous groups. There is a lack of review studies as well as multi-faceted studies.

  9. Pathological Dissociation as Measured by the Child Dissociative Checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wherry, Jeffrey N.; Neil, Debra A.; Taylor, Tamara N.

    2009-01-01

    The component structure of the Child Dissociative Checklist was examined among abused children. A factor described as pathological dissociation emerged that was predicted by participants being male. There also were differences in pathological dissociation between groups of sexually abused and physically abused children. Replication of this factor…

  10. Molecular dynamics - The dissociation of H2 by He.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, N. J.; Munn, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    The dissociation of molecular hydrogen by helium was studied at 5500 deg K using the quasiclassical approximation. The temperature-dependent reaction cross sections were very dependent on the initial quantum states of the molecule. A rate constant was estimated for the dissociation reaction, and agreement between theory and experiment was satisfactory.

  11. Dissociative experiences and psychopathology among Italian and Portuguese inmates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zavattini, G.C.; Garofalo, C.; Velotti, P.; Saggino, A.; Romanelli, R.; Espírito Santo, H.; Costa, M.; Saggino, A.

    2017-01-01

    The association between dissociation and psychopathological symptoms is well established, yet studies with inmates are lacking. If higher rates of dissociation and psychiatric symptoms are reported in inmate samples, it is not clear whether they represent two separate, albeit related, characteristic

  12. Three dimensions of dissociative amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell, Paul F

    2013-01-01

    Principal axis factor analysis with promax rotation extracted 3 factors from the 42 memory and amnesia items of the Multidimensional Inventory of Dissociation (MID) database (N = 2,569): Discovering Dissociated Actions, Lapses of Recent Memory and Skills, and Gaps in Remote Memory. The 3 factors' shared variance ranged from 36% to 64%. Construed as scales, the 3 factor scales had Cronbach's alpha coefficients of .96, .94, and .93, respectively. The scales correlated strongly with mean Dissociative Experiences Scale scores, mean MID scores, and total scores on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders-Revised (SCID-D-R). What is interesting is that the 3 amnesia factors exhibited a range of correlations with SCID-D-R Amnesia scores (.52, .63, and .70, respectively), suggesting that the SCID-D-R Amnesia score emphasizes gaps in remote memory over amnesias related to dissociative identity disorder. The 3 amnesia factor scales exhibited a clinically meaningful pattern of significant differences among dissociative identity disorder, dissociative disorder not otherwise specified-1, dissociative amnesia, depersonalization disorder, and nonclinical participants. The 3 amnesia factors may have greater clinical utility for frontline clinicians than (a) amnesia as discussed in the context of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, nosology of the dissociative disorders or (b) P. Janet's (1893/1977 ) 4-fold classification of dissociative amnesia. The author recommends systematic study of the phenomenological differences within specific dissociative symptoms and their differential relationship to specific dissociative disorders.

  13. Theory of dissociative tunneling ionization

    CERN Document Server

    Svensmark, Jens; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2016-01-01

    We present a theoretical study of the dissociative tunneling ionization process. Analytic expressions for the nuclear kinetic energy distribution of the ionization rates are derived. A particularly simple expression for the spectrum is found by using the Born-Oppenheimer (BO) approximation in conjunction with the reflection principle. These spectra are compared to exact non-BO ab initio spectra obtained through model calculations with a quantum mechanical treatment of both the electronic and nuclear degrees freedom. In the regime where the BO approximation is applicable imaging of the BO nuclear wave function is demonstrated to be possible through reverse use of the reflection principle, when accounting appropriately for the electronic ionization rate. A qualitative difference between the exact and BO wave functions in the asymptotic region of large electronic distances is shown. Additionally the behavior of the wave function across the turning line is seen to be reminiscent of light refraction. For weak fiel...

  14. Dissociation mechanisms of photoexcited molecular ions

    CERN Document Server

    Inglis, L C

    2003-01-01

    Photoionisation of gas phase molecules, in the energy range 8 - 40 eV, and the subsequent dissociation mechanisms have been investigated using threshold photoelectron spectroscopy and ion time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The excitation source used was monochromatic radiation, delivered by station 3.2 at the Daresbury Laboratory Synchrotron Radiation Source. These two techniques have also been combined in threshold photoelectron-photoion coincidence experiments, in order to record coincidence time-of-flight mass spectra and thereby determine breakdown curves. Such curves display the ion fragmentation as a function of internal energy. In addition, computer modelling techniques have been employed to gain some understanding of the unimolecular dissociations of energy selected molecular ions by establishing theoretical breakdown graphs, appearance energies, fragmentation pathways and dissociation rates. Ab initio quantum chemistry calculations have been carried out, generating ionisation and appearance energies, ...

  15. Zero-Point Energy Constraint for Unimolecular Dissociation Reactions. Giving Trajectories Multiple Chances To Dissociate Correctly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Amit K; Hase, William L

    2016-01-28

    A zero-point energy (ZPE) constraint model is proposed for classical trajectory simulations of unimolecular decomposition and applied to CH4* → H + CH3 decomposition. With this model trajectories are not allowed to dissociate unless they have ZPE in the CH3 product. If not, they are returned to the CH4* region of phase space and, if necessary, given additional opportunities to dissociate with ZPE. The lifetime for dissociation of an individual trajectory is the time it takes to dissociate with ZPE in CH3, including multiple possible returns to CH4*. With this ZPE constraint the dissociation of CH4* is exponential in time as expected for intrinsic RRKM dynamics and the resulting rate constant is in good agreement with the harmonic quantum value of RRKM theory. In contrast, a model that discards trajectories without ZPE in the reaction products gives a CH4* → H + CH3 rate constant that agrees with the classical and not quantum RRKM value. The rate constant for the purely classical simulation indicates that anharmonicity may be important and the rate constant from the ZPE constrained classical trajectory simulation may not represent the complete anharmonicity of the RRKM quantum dynamics. The ZPE constraint model proposed here is compared with previous models for restricting ZPE flow in intramolecular dynamics, and connecting product and reactant/product quantum energy levels in chemical dynamics simulations.

  16. Pulmonary edema in acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kun Sang; Chang, Kee Hyun; Lee, Myung Uk [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1974-10-15

    Acute carbon monoxide poisoning has frequently occurred in Korean, because of the coal briquette being widely used as fuel in Korean residences. Carbon monoxide poisoning has been extensively studied, but it has been sparsely reported that pulmonary edema may develop in acute CO poisoning. We have noticed nine cases of pulmonary edema in acute CO poisoning last year. Other possible causes of pulmonary edema could be exclude in all cases but one. The purpose of this paper is to describe nine cases of pulmonary edema complicated in acute CO poisoning and discuss the pathogenesis and the prognosis.

  17. 40 CFR 60.103 - Standard for carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Refineries § 60.103 Standard for carbon monoxide. Each owner or operator of any fluid catalytic cracking unit... regenerator any gases that contain carbon monoxide (CO) in excess of 500 ppm by volume (dry basis)....

  18. [Carbon monoxide metabolism by photosynthetic bacteria]. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-31

    Research continued on the metabolism of carbon monoxide by Rhodospirillum rubrum. This report discusses progress on the activity, induction, inhibition, and spectroscopic analysis of the enzyme Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase. (CBS)

  19. Carbon Monoxide Hazards from Small Gasoline Powered Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topics Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH CARBON MONOXIDE Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this Page Recommendations NIOSH Publications Worker Notification Program Carbon Monoxide Hazards from Small Gasoline Powered Engines Many ...

  20. Dissociative recombination of HCl+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Åsa; Fonseca dos Santos, Samantha; E. Orel, Ann

    2017-08-01

    The dissociative recombination of HCl+, including both the direct and indirect mechanisms, is studied. For the direct process, the relevant electronic states are calculated ab initio by combining electron scattering calculations to obtain resonance positions and autoionization widths with multi-reference configuration interaction calculations of the ion and Rydberg states. The cross section for the direct dissociation along electronic resonant states is computed by solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. For the indirect process, an upper bound value for the cross section is obtained using a vibrational frame transformation of the elements of the scattering matrix at energies just above the ionization threshold. Vibrational excitations of the ionic core from the ground vibrational state, v = 0 , to the first three excited vibrational states, v = 1 , v = 2 , and v = 3 , are considered. Autoionization is neglected and the effect of the spin-orbit splitting of the ionic potential energy upon the indirect dissociative recombination cross section is considered. The calculated cross sections are compared to measurements.

  1. Carbon Monoxide Binding by Hemoglobin and Myoglobin under Photodissociating Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunori, Maurizio; Bonaventura, Joseph; Bonaventura, Celia; Antonini, Eraldo; Wyman, Jeffries

    1972-01-01

    Carbon monoxide binding by myoglobin and hemoglobin has been studied under conditions of constant illumination. For hemoglobin, the homotropic heme-heme interaction (cooperativity) and the heterotropic Bohr effect are invariant with light intensity over a 1000-fold change of c½. The dissociation constant, measured as c½, increases linearly with light intensity, indicating that photodissociation is a one-quantum process. At sufficiently high illumination the apparent enthalpy of ligand binding becomes positive, although in the absence of light it is known to be negative. This finding indicates that light acts primarily by increasing the “off” constants by an additive factor. The invariance of both cooperativity and Bohr effect raises a perplexing issue. It would appear to demand either that the “off” constants for the various elementary steps are all alike (which is contrary to current ideas) or that the additive factor is in each case proportional to the particular “off” constant to which it is added (a seemingly improbable alternative). PMID:4502938

  2. Assessment of carbon monoxide values in smokers: a comparison of carbon monoxide in expired air and carboxyhaemoglobin in arterial blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Mette F; Møller, Ann M

    2010-01-01

    Smoking increases perioperative complications. Carbon monoxide concentrations can estimate patients' smoking status and might be relevant in preoperative risk assessment. In smokers, we compared measurements of carbon monoxide in expired air (COexp) with measurements of carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb...

  3. Hearing Loss due to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Davari, Mohammad Hossein; Mollasadeghi, Abolfazl

    2013-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is one of the rare causes of hearing loss which may cause reversible or irreversible, unilateral or bilateral hearing loss after acute or chronic exposure. In this report, we present a case of bilateral sensorineural hearing loss in a secondary smelting workshop worker...

  4. Recurrent dissociative fugue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Mamarde

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dissociative fugue is a rarely reported diagnostic entity. It is one of the least understood and yet clinically one of the most fascinating disorders in mental health. Here, we describe a case of fugue in a 32-year-old man who was brought to mental hospital with complete loss of memory for events pertaining to identity of self. This case illustrates the nature of presentation in hospital setting like mental hospital and effort taken to reintegrate his identity and reunite with his family.

  5. Characterization of Fe-Co-Mn catalysts after carbon monoxide hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez C, S.L.; Serbia, M.A.; Baechler, R.; Orozco, J. [Laboratorio de Cinetica y Catalisis, Departamento de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Los Andes, Merida 5101A (Venezuela); e-mail: goncor@ula.ve

    2003-07-01

    An Fe-Co-Mn catalysts series after hydrogenation of carbon monoxide has been characterized. The XRD analysis shows the magnetite as main crystalline phase after reaction, in addition of carbon and carbide phases. All these phases lead to hydrogen consumption and oxidation rate changes on Fe-Co-Mn catalysts. A phase transformation superficial diagram is analysed. (Author)

  6. Effects of chemical modifications of heme on kinetics of carbon monoxide binding to free home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sono, M.; McCray, J.A.; Asakura, T.

    1977-11-10

    The rates of carbon monoxide recombination to six different kinds of chemically modified heme with various substituents at positions 2 and 4 have been studied in the protein-free state (free heme) by the laser flash photolysis method in a mixture of ethylene glycol and 0.02 N NaOH (80:20, v/v) (80% ethylene glycol). The carbon monoxide combination rate constants to the various free hemes obtained in 80% ethylene glycol at 22/sup 0/ were 1.4, 2.1, 2.1, 3.7, 4.5, and 6.4 x 10/sup 7/ M/sup -1/ s/sup -1/ for 2,4-diformyl-, spirographis (2-formyl-4-vinyl-), isospirographis (2-vinyl-4-formyl-) proto-(2,4-divinyl-), deutero-(2,4-dihydrogen-), and meso-(2,4-diethyl-), hemes, respectively. This order of increase in carbon monoxide combination rate constants for these hemes correlates exactly with decrease in electron attractivity of heme side chains (i.e., increase in pK/sub 3/, basicity of nitrogen base of prophyrin) and is completely opposite to that obtained for carbon monoxide binding to these hemes reconstituted with apomyoglobin. Contrary to the results for myoglobin, the two isomers of monoformyl-monovinylheme exhibited similar optical properties and the same combination rate constant indicating that the differences in the optical and kinetic results observed in myoglobin are due to different interactions of these isomeric hemes with protein.

  7. Dissociative Experiences in Psychiatric Inpatients

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Firoozabadi; Nooshin Reza Alizadeh

    2016-01-01

    Dissociative disorders are conditions that involve disruptions of memory, awareness, identity, or perception. Data collected in diverse geographic locations underline the consistency in clinical symptoms of dissociative disorders. In this cross-sectional descriptive study, prevalence of dissociative experiences has been screened in hospitalized patients in psychiatric wards of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in Iran. One hundred and sixty patients in two hospitals entered the study. Our...

  8. Catalyst for Carbon Monoxide Oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Patricia; Brown, Kenneth; VanNorman, John; Brown, David; Upchurch, Billy; Schryer, David; Miller, Irvin

    2010-01-01

    In many applications, it is highly desirable to operate a CO2 laser in a sealed condition, for in an open system the laser requires a continuous flow of laser gas to remove the dissociation products that occur in the discharge zone of the laser, in order to maintain a stable power output. This adds to the operating cost of the laser, and in airborne or space applications, it also adds to the weight penalty of the laser. In a sealed CO2 laser, a small amount of CO2 gas is decomposed in the electrical discharge zone into corresponding quantities of CO and O2. As the laser continues to operate, the concentration of CO2 decreases, while the concentrations of CO and O2 correspondingly increase. The increasing concentration of O2 reduces laser power, because O2 scavenges electrons in the electrical discharge, thereby causing arcing in the electric discharge and a loss of the energetic electrons required to boost CO2 molecules to lasing energy levels. As a result, laser power decreases rapidly. The primary object of this invention is to provide a catalyst that, by composition of matter alone, contains chemisorbed water within and upon its structure. Such bound moisture renders the catalyst highly active and very long-lived, such that only a small quantity of it needs to be used with a CO2 laser under ambient operating conditions. This object is achieved by a catalyst that consists essentially of about 1 to 40 percent by weight of one or more platinum group metals (Pt, Pd, Rh, Ir, Ru, Os, Pt being preferred); about 1 to 90 percent by weight of one or more oxides of reducible metals having multiple valence states (such as Sn, Ti, Mn, Cu, and Ce, with SnO2 being preferred); and about 1 to 90 percent by weight of a compound that can bind water to its structure (such as silica gel, calcium chloride, magnesium sulfate, hydrated alumina, and magnesium perchlorate, with silica gel being preferred). Especially beneficial results are obtained when platinum is present in the

  9. Dissociative Experiences in Psychiatric Inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Firoozabadi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Dissociative disorders are conditions that involve disruptions of memory, awareness, identity, or perception. Data collected in diverse geographic locations underline the consistency in clinical symptoms of dissociative disorders. In this cross-sectional descriptive study, prevalence of dissociative experiences has been screened in hospitalized patients in psychiatric wards of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in Iran. One hundred and sixty patients in two hospitals entered the study. Our tool to screen the prevalence of dissociative experiences was Dissociative Experience Scale (DES. Linear regression analysis shows that gender and age are predictors of high DES scores to some extent while psychiatric disorders are not good predictors. Age, gender and psychiatric disorders are poor predictors (almost 7% of high DES scores in this study (R square=0.69. In this study, patients with Borderline Personality Disorder had higher dissociative experiences based on DES score (Mean: 56.44, followed by Schizophrenic patients (Mean: 28.22 and patients with Bipolar Personality Disorder (Mean: 25.18. This study showed that we might be able to create a new category in psychological disorders based on dissociative experiences. As age, gender and psychological disorders were poor predictors of dissociative experiences, stronger predictors such as positive childhood psychological traumas could be responsible for dissociative disorders.

  10. [Dissociative disorders and affective disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montant, J; Adida, M; Belzeaux, R; Cermolacce, M; Pringuey, D; Da Fonseca, D; Azorin, J-M

    2014-12-01

    The phenomenology of dissociative disorders may be complex and sometimes confusing. We describe here two cases who were initially misdiagnosed. The first case concerned a 61 year-old woman, who was initially diagnosed as an isolated dissociative fugue and was actually suffering from severe major depressive episode. The second case concerned a 55 year-old man, who was suffering from type I bipolar disorder and polyvascular disease, and was initially diagnosed as dissociative fugue in a mooddestabilization context, while it was finally a stroke. Yet dissociative disorders as affective disorder comorbidity are relatively unknown. We made a review on this topic. Dissociative disorders are often studied through psycho-trauma issues. Litterature is rare on affective illness comorbid with dissociative disorders, but highlight the link between bipolar and dissociative disorders. The later comorbidity often refers to an early onset subtype with also comorbid panic and depersonalization-derealization disorder. Besides, unipolar patients suffering from dissociative symptoms have more often cyclothymic affective temperament. Despite the limits of such studies dissociative symptoms-BD association seems to correspond to a clinical reality and further works on this topic may be warranted. Copyright © 2014 L’Encéphale. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  11. Dissociation Energies of Diatomic Molecules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Qun-Chao; SUN Wei-Guo

    2008-01-01

    Molecular dissociation energies of 10 electronic states of alkali molecules of KH, 7LID, 7LiH, 6LiH, NaK, NaLi and NaRb are studied using the highest three accurate vibrational energies of each electronic state, and an improved parameter-free analytical formula which is obtained starting from the LeRoy-Bernstein vibrational energy expression near the dissociation limit. The results show that as long as the highest three vibrational energies are accurate, the current analytical formula will give accurate theoretical dissociation energies Detheory, which are in excellent agreement with the experimental dissociation energies Dexpte.

  12. Dissociative State and Competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ju Lin

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the results of forensic evaluation of the civil competence of a case of alleged dissociative identity disorder (DID and discusses whether such dissociative states substantially jeopardize civil competence. A 40-year-old woman claimed that she had had many personalities since her college days. From the age of 37 to 40, she shopped excessively, which left her with millions of dollars of debt. She ascribed her shopping to a certain identity state, over which she had no control. (In this article, we use the term identity state to replace personality as an objective description of a mental state. She thus raised the petition of civil incompetence. During the forensic evaluation, it was found that the identity states were relatively stable and mutually aware of each other. The switch into another identity state was sometimes under voluntary control. The subject showed consistency and continuity in behavioral patterns across the different identity states, and no matter which identity state she was in, there was no evidence of impairment in her factual knowledge of social situations and her capacity for managing personal affairs. We hence concluded that she was civilly competent despite the claimed DID. Considering that the existence and diagnosis of DID are still under dispute and a diagnosis of DID alone is not sufficient to interdict a person's civil right, important clinical and forensic issues remain to be answered.

  13. Hyperglycemia associated dissociative fugue (organic dissociative disorder in an elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dushad Ram

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Inadequate glycemic control in patients with diabetes is known to be associated with psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety disorder, and cognitive impairment. However, dissociative syndrome has not been reported so far. Here we are reporting a case of repeated dissociative fugue associated with hyperglycemia, in an elderly with type II diabetes. Possible neurobiological mechanism has been discussed.

  14. Hyperglycemia associated dissociative fugue (organic dissociative disorder) in an elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Dushad Ram; Ashoka, H.G.; Basavnna Gowdappa

    2015-01-01

    Inadequate glycemic control in patients with diabetes is known to be associated with psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety disorder, and cognitive impairment. However, dissociative syndrome has not been reported so far. Here we are reporting a case of repeated dissociative fugue associated with hyperglycemia, in an elderly with type II diabetes. Possible neurobiological mechanism has been discussed.

  15. Coulomb dissociation of $^{20,21}$N

    CERN Document Server

    Röder, Marko; Aksyutina, Yulia; Alcantara, Juan; Altstadt, Sebastian; Alvarez-Pol, Hector; Ashwood, Nicholas; Atar, Leyla; Aumann, Thomas; Avdeichikov, Vladimir; Barr, M; Beceiro, Saul; Bemmerer, Daniel; Benlliure, Jose; Bertulani, Carlos; Boretzky, Konstanze; Borge, Maria J G; Burgunder, G; Caamano, Manuel; Caesar, Christoph; Casarejos, Enrique; Catford, Wilton; Cederkall, Joakim; Chakraborty, S; Chartier, Marielle; Chulkov, Leonid; Cortina-Gil, Dolores; Crespo, Raquel; Pramanik, Ushasi Datta; Diaz-Fernandez, Paloma; Dillmann, Iris; Elekes, Zoltan; Enders, Joachim; Ershova, Olga; Estrade, A; Farinon, F; Fraile, Luis M; Freer, Martin; Freudenberger, M; Fynbo, Hans; Galaviz, Daniel; Geissel, Hans; Gernhäuser, Roman; Göbel, Kathrin; Golubev, Pavel; Diaz, Diego Gonzalez; Hagdahl, Julius; Heftrich, Tanja; Heil, Michael; Heine, Marcel; Heinz, Andreas; Henriques, Ana; Holl, Matthias; Ickert, G; Ignatov, Alexander; Jakobsson, Bo; Johansson, Hakan; Jonson, Björn; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, Nasser; Kanungo, Rituparna; Kelic-Heil, Aleksandra; Knöbel, Ronja; Kröll, Thorsten; Krücken, Reiner; Kurcewicz, J; Kurz, Nikolaus; Labiche, Marc; Langer, Christoph; Bleis, Tudi Le; Lemmon, Roy; Lepyoshkina, Olga; Lindberg, Simon; Machado, Jorge; Marganiec, Justyna; Caro, Magdalena Mostazo; Movsesyan, Alina; Najafi, Mohammad Ali; Nilsson, Thomas; Nociforo, Chiara; Panin, Valerii; Paschalis, Stefanos; Perea, Angel; Petri, Marina; Pietri, S; Plag, Ralf; Prochazka, A; Rahaman, Md Anisur; Rastrepina, Ganna; Reifarth, Rene; Ribeiro, Guillermo; Ricciardi, M Valentina; Rigollet, Catherine; Riisager, Karsten; Rossi, Dominic; Saez, Jose Sanchez del Rio; Savran, Deniz; Scheit, Heiko; Simon, Haik; Sorlin, Olivier; Stoica, V; Streicher, Branislav; Taylor, Jon; Tengblad, Olof; Terashima, Satoru; Thies, Ronja; Togano, Yasuhiro; Uberseder, Ethan; Van de Walle, J; Velho, Paulo; Volkov, Vasily; Wagner, Andreas; Wamers, Felix; Weick, Helmut; Weigand, Mario; Wheldon, Carl; Wilson, G; Wimmer, Christine; Winfield, J S; Woods, Philip; Yakorev, Dmitry; Zhukov, Mikhail; Zilges, Andreas; Zuber, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Neutron-rich light nuclei and their reactions play an important role for the creation of chemical elements. Here, data from a Coulomb dissociation experiment on $^{20,21}$N are reported. Relativistic $^{20,21}$N ions impinged on a lead target and the Coulomb dissociation cross section was determined in a kinematically complete experiment. Using the detailed balance theorem, the $^{19}\\mathrm{N}(\\mathrm{n},\\gamma)^{20}\\mathrm{N}$ and $^{20}\\mathrm{N}(\\mathrm{n},\\gamma)^{21}\\mathrm{N}$ excitation functions and thermonuclear reaction rates have been determined. The $^{19}\\mathrm{N}(\\mathrm{n},\\gamma)^{20}\\mathrm{N}$ rate is up to a factor of 5 higher at $T<1$\\,GK with respect to previous theoretical calculations, leading to a 10\\,\\% decrease in the predicted fluorine abundance.

  16. Competition Between Two Excitation-dissociation Channels for Molecular Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-kun Lai; Li-min Zhang; Mao-ping Yang; Dan-na Zhou

    2009-01-01

    When the molecular ions XYZ+ (XY2+) are excited simultaneously from an electronic state E0 into two higher electronic states Eα and Eβ with supervened dissociation or predisso-ciation, competition between the α and β excitation-dissociation channels occurs. A the-oretical model is provided to deal with the competition of the two excitation-dissociation channels with more than two kinds of ionic products for XYZ+ (XY2+). Supposing that the photo-excitation rates of two states Eα and Eβ are much less than their dissociation or prc-dissociation rates, a theoretical equation can be deduced to fit the measured data, which reflects the dependence of the product branching ratios on the intensity ratios of two excitation lasers. From the fitted parameters the excitation cross section ratios are obtained. In experiment, we studied the competition between two excitation-dissociation channels of CO2+. By measuring the dependence of the product branching ratio on the intensity ra-tio of two dissociation lasers and fitting the experiment data with the theoretical equation, excitation cross section ratios were deduced.

  17. Sensorineural Hearing Loss following Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph P. Pillion

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A case study is presented of a 17-year-old male who sustained an anoxic brain injury and sensorineural hearing loss secondary to carbon monoxide poisoning. Audiological data is presented showing a slightly asymmetrical hearing loss of sensorineural origin and mild-to-severe degree for both ears. Word recognition performance was fair to poor bilaterally for speech presented at normal conversational levels in quiet. Management considerations of the hearing loss are discussed.

  18. AV dissociation, an inevitable response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kyuhyun; Benditt, David G

    2011-07-01

    The independent activation of the atria and ventricles, AV dissociation, is a common phenomenon that occurs during a wide variety of electrophysiologic circumstances. The clinical significance of AV dissociation is often misunderstood. This article examines the basis and clinical implications of AV dissociation. AV dissociation is often an obligatory, secondary phenomenon, and should not be construed as the primary disorder; it may be due to either the AV conduction system being completely blocked (3° AV block) or the P wave and the QRS complex being generated from separate sources (usually, the AV junction or ventricle) but occurring close together during the physiologic refractory period of each other. The latter may happen in junctional or ventricular arrhythmias including escape or accelerated rhythm, tachycardia, or premature beats. The crucial clinical point is not the AV dissociation itself, but that an underlying triggering primary disorder is present and should be identified. ©2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. High psychiatric comorbidity in adolescents with dissociative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Hasan; Duzman Mutluer, Tuba; Kose, Cigdem; Zoroglu, Salih

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate psychiatric comorbidity rates and patterns in a sample of clinically referred adolescents diagnosed with dissociative disorders (DD) by using a structured interview. All participants completed a comprehensive test battery, which consisted of a questionnaire for sociodemographic data and clinical history, Child Posttraumatic Stress Reaction Index, Childhood Abuse and Neglect Questionnaire and the Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale. Diagnosis was made by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders. Psychiatric comorbidity was assessed using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children - Present and Lifetime Version. A total of 25 adolescent subjects aged 12-18 years participated in the study. Ten adolescents were diagnosed as having dissociative identity disorder and 15 of them were diagnosed as having dissociative disorder-not otherwise specified based on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders findings. Adolescents with dissociative identity disorder were found to have higher scores on the Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale and Child Posttraumatic Stress Reaction Index than the dissociative disorder-not otherwise specified group. Sexual and physical abuses were also found to be among the main traumatic events. Incest was reported in six cases of the study sample. All subjects had at least one comorbid psychiatric disorder. The most common psychiatric diagnoses were major depressive disorder (n = 25; 100%) and post-traumatic stress disorder (n = 22; 88%). High psychiatric comorbidity rates were found in adolescents diagnosed with DD. A prevalent history of abuse and traumatic events was represented. Clinicians should be aware of the impacts of DD on adolescents' mental health. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  20. Dissociative disorders in acute psychiatric inpatients in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chui-De; Meg Tseng, Mei-Chih; Chien, Yi-Ling; Liao, Shih-Cheng; Liu, Chih-Min; Yeh, Yei-Yu; Hwu, Hai-Gwo; Ross, Colin A

    2017-04-01

    Dissociative disorders have been documented to be common psychiatric disorders which can be detected reliably with standardized diagnostic instruments in North American and European psychiatric inpatients and outpatients (20.6% and 18.4%, respectively). However, there are concerns about their cross-cultural manifestations as an apparently low prevalence rate has been reported in East Asian inpatients and outpatients (1.7% and 4.9%, respectively). It is unknown whether the clinical profile of dissociative disorders in terms of their core symptomatic clusters, associated comorbid disorders, and environmental risk factors that has emerged in western clinical populations can also be found in non-western clinical populations. A standardized structured interview for DSM-IV dissociative disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder, and a history of interpersonal victimization was administered in a sample of Taiwanese acute psychiatric inpatients. Our results showed that 19.5% of our participants met criteria for a DSM-IV dissociative disorder, mostly dissociative disorder not otherwise specified. More importantly, the western clinical profile of dissociative disorders also characterized our patients, including a poly-symptomatic presentation and a history of interpersonal trauma in both childhood and adulthood. Our results lend support to the conclusion that cross-cultural manifestations of dissociative pathology in East Asia are similar to those in North America and Europe. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Shock wave structure in an ideal dissociating gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, K. H.

    1975-01-01

    Composition changes within the shock layer due to chemical reactions are considered. The Lighthill ideal dissociating gas model was used in an effort to describe the oxygen type molecule. First, the two limiting cases, when the chemical reaction rates are very slow and very fast in comparison to local convective rates, are investigated. Then, the problem is solved for arbitrary chemical reaction rates.

  2. Dynamics of unimolecular dissociation of silylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    NoorBatcha, I.; Raff, Lionel M.; Thompson, Donald L.; Viswanathan, R.

    1986-04-01

    The semiempirical valence-bond surface formulated by Viswanathan et al. [J. Phys. Chem. 89, 1428 (1985)] for the unimolecular dissociation of SiH2 has been fitted to an analytical function of the type suggested by Murrell and co-workers [J. Phys. Chem. 88, 4887 (1984)]. The fitted surface accurately represents most of the experimental and CI results. The dynamics of the unimolecular dissociation of SiH2 to form Si and H2 have been investigated by classical trajectory methods on this fitted surface. The effect of describing the initial state of the molecule using normal and local mode approximations has been studied. In spite of the presence of the heavier atom, no bond or mode specificity is observed. The product energy distribution is found to be statistical. Using the RRK model, the high-pressure limiting rate coefficient is found to be k(T,∞)=3.38×1012 exp[-61.6 kcal mol-1/RT] s-1, which is less than the dissociation rate for SiH4. This has been attributed to the higher activation energy for SiH2 and to a statistical factor.

  3. Compact Instrument for Measurement of Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Southwest Sciences proposed the development of a rugged, compact, and automated instrument for the high sensitivity measurement of tropospheric carbon monoxide...

  4. Technique for measuring carbon monoxide uptake in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depledge, M.H.; Collis, C.H.; Chir, B.; Barrett, A.

    1981-04-01

    A new method has been developed for measuring carbon monoxide (CO) uptake in mice. Each animal was placed in a syringe and allowed to rebreathe a mixture of CO and helium (He) for 60 s. CO uptake was detemined from a comparison of CO and He concentrations before and after rebreathing. Weight specific CO uptake increased with body weight in CBA mice weighing between 20 to 35 gr. In larger mice, size dependence was less marked, although a slight fall in CO uptake was observed in older animals. Anaesthesia reduced ventilatory rate and CO uptake to a variable extent. The method is reproducible, non-invasive and does not require anaesthesia; consequently, it can be used to study serial changes in lung function. It is sensitive enough to detect lung damage in CBA mice following 16 Gy total body irradiation. Values of diffusing capacity obtained for mice using this method are consistent with published values.

  5. Are major dissociative disorders characterized by a qualitatively different kind of dissociation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodewald, Frauke; Dell, Paul F; Wilhelm-Gossling, Claudia; Gast, Ursula

    2011-01-01

    A total of 66 patients with a major dissociative disorder, 54 patients with nondissociative disorders, and 30 nonclinical controls were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders-Revised, the Dissociative Experiences Scale, the Multidimensional Inventory of Dissociation, and the Symptom Checklist 90-Revised. Dissociative patients reported significantly more dissociative and nondissociative symptoms than did nondissociative patients and nonclinical controls. When general psychopathology was controlled, the dissociation scores of dissociative patients were still significantly higher than those of both other groups, whereas the dissociation scores of nondissociative patients and nonclinical controls no longer differed. These findings appear to be congruent with a typological model of dissociation that distinguishes between 2 qualitatively different kinds of dissociation. Specifically, the results of this study suggest that the dissociation that occurs in major dissociative disorders (i.e., dissociative identity disorder [DID] and dissociative disorder not otherwise specified, Type 1 [DDNOS-1]) is qualitatively different from the dissociation that occurs in persons who do not have a dissociative disorder. In contrast to previous research, the dissociation of persons who do not have a dissociative disorder is not limited to absorption; it covers a much wider range of phenomena. The authors hypothesize that different mechanisms produce the dissociation of persons with DID and DDNOS-1 as opposed to the dissociation of persons who do not have a dissociative disorder.

  6. Feasibility study of a lead monoxide-based dosimeter for quality assurance in radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K. T.; Han, M. J.; Heo, Y. J.; Park, J. E.; Lee, Y. K.; Kim, J. N.; Oh, K. M.; Cho, H. L.; Choi, Y. S.; Kim, J. Y.; Nam, S. H.; Park, S. K.

    2016-11-01

    Lately, cancer has been treated using high-energy radiation, and this requires highly reliable treatment plans. Therefore, a dosimeter with excellent performance, which is capable of precise dose measurement, is critical. In current clinical practices, an ionization chamber and diode utilizing the ionization reaction mechanism are widely used. Several studies have been carried out to determine optimal materials for the detector in a dosimeter to enable diagnostic imaging. Recently, studies with lead monoxide, which was shown to have low drift current and high resolving power at a high bias, were reported with the dosimeter exhibiting a fast response time against incident photons. This research aims to investigate the feasibility of a lead monoxide-based dosimeter for QA (quality assurance) in radiotherapy. In this paper, we report that the manufactured dosimeter shows similar linearity to a silicon diode and demonstrates similar characteristics in terms of PDD (percent depth dose) results for the thimble ionization chamber. Based on these results, it is demonstrated that the lead monoxide-based dosimeter complies with radiotherapy QA requirements, namely rapid response time, dose linearity, dose rate independence. Thus, we expect the lead monoxide-based dosimeter to be used commercially in the future.

  7. Separation of hydrogen from carbon monoxide using a hollow fiber polyimide membrane: experimental and simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peer, M.; Mehdi Kamali, S.; Mahdeyarfar, M.; Mohammadi, T. [Research Laboratory for Separation Processes, Chemical Engineering Department, Tehran (Iran)

    2007-10-15

    The separation of hydrogen from carbon monoxide (syngas ratio adjustment) with polymeric membranes was investigated in this work. A polyimide hollow fiber membrane module was used for hydrogen separation. This polymer has shown large permeability and selectivity for hydrogen separation (selectivity of ca. 30). Permeation tests were carried out at different feed conditions. Feed flow rates were varied between 150-300 mL/min, temperature was varied in the range of 20-80 C and feed pressure was varied between 5-9 bar. Mixtures containing 0-50 % carbon monoxide were used when carrying out experiments. Measured membrane permeances for hydrogen and carbon monoxide were about 70-100 GPU (gas permeation units) and 3-5.5 GPU, respectively. In addition, a mathematical model for simulation of gas separation in hollow fiber membrane modules with all flow patterns (crossflow, countercurrent and cocurrent) was presented. This model can be used for calculation of membrane performance or its required surface area for a specific separation. Experimental results have shown good correlation with simulation results. Plasticization, competitive sorption and concentration polarization effect of carbon monoxide on membrane performance is shown with experimental results. This effect reduced hydrogen permeances in mixed gas experiments. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  8. Analysis of Carbon Monoxide in Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddle, Benjamin P.; Stephens, Joseph C.

    2003-04-01

    Forensic tests used to perform the qualitative and quantitative analyses of carbon monoxide in blood are described. The qualitative test uses the diffusion of CO, which is released from blood by reaction with H2SO4, into a PdCl2 solution in a Conway cell and the resultant formation of a palladium mirror. The quantitative analysis is based on the absorption of visible light by carboxyhemoglobin at 541 nm and reduced hemoglobin at 555 nm. Both procedures are suitable for undergraduate chemistry experiments.

  9. Atrioventricular Dissociation after Electroconvulsive Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegfried William Yu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT is increasingly used as a treatment for psychiatric disorders. Cardiac effects are the principal cause of medical complications in these patients. We report a case of atrioventricular (AV dissociation that occurred after ECT that was treated with pacemaker implantation. The mechanisms contributing to the onset of AV dissociation in this patient, and the management and rationale for device therapy, in light of the most recent guidelines, are reviewed.

  10. Dissociative Disorder Presenting as Catatonia

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, P; Patra, B.; Sattar, F.A.; Chatterjee, K.; Gupta, A; Walia, T.S.

    2004-01-01

    Three cases of dissociative disorder presenting with catatonia are described. Catatonia is generally believed to be associated with schizophrenia. However, many other conditions are also known to cause catatonia. A brief review of literature is provided. All the cases improved rapidly with a few ECTs. This report aims to highlight the presentation of dissociative disorders with catatonia. It also seeks to bring to notice the need to avoid lumping all non-organic catatonics under the rubric of...

  11. CO2 Dissociation using the Versatile Atmospheric Dielectric Barrier Discharge Experiment (VADER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Allen Lindon

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Dissociation of CO2 is investigated in an atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD with a simple, zero dimensional (0-D chemical model and through experiment. The model predicts that the primary CO2 dissociation pathway within a DBD is electron impact dissociation and electron-vibrational excitation. The relaxation kinetics following dissociation are dominated by atomic oxygen chemistry. The experiments included investigating the energy efficiencies and dissociation rates of CO2 within a planar DBD, while the gas flow rate, voltage, gas composition, driving frequency, catalyst, and pulse modes were varied. Some of the VADER results include a maximum CO2 dissociation energy efficiency of 2.5 +/- 0.5%, a maximum CO$_2$ dissociation rate of 4 +/- 0.4*10^-6 mol CO2/s (5 +/- 0.5% percent dissociation, discovering that a resonant driving frequency of ~30 kHz, dependent on both applied voltage and breakdown voltage, is best for efficient CO2 dissociation and that TiO2, a photocatalyst, improved dissociation efficiencies by an average of 18% at driving frequencies above 5 kHz.

  12. Reduction of nitric oxide with carbon monoxide on the Al-Mo(110) surface alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorkina, G. S.; Tvauri, I. V.; Kaloeva, A. G.; Burdzieva, O. G.; Sekiba, D.; Ogura, S.; Fukutani, K.; Magkoev, T. T.

    2016-05-01

    Coadsorption and reaction of carbon monoxide (CO) and nitric oxide (NO) on Al-Mo(110) surface alloy have been studied by means of Auger electron, reflection-absorption infrared and temperature programmed desorption spectroscopies (AES, RAIRS, TPD), low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and work function measurements. The Al-Mo(110) surface alloy was obtained by thermal annealing at 800 K of aluminum film deposited on Mo(110) held at room temperature. Upon annealing Al penetrates the surface, most likely forming stoichiometric hexagonal surface monolayer of the compound Al2Mo. The NO and CO adsorb molecularly on this alloy surface at 200 K, unlike totally dissociative adsorption on bare Mo(110) and Al(111) film. Adsorption of CO on NO precovered Al-Mo(110) substrate dramatically affects the state of NO molecules, most probably displacing them to higher-coordinated sites with their simultaneous tilting to the surface plane. Heating to about room temperature (320 K) causes reduction of nitric oxide with carbon monoxide, yielding CO2, and substrate nitridation. This behavior can be associated with the surface reconstruction providing additional Al/Mo interface reaction sites and change of the d-band upon alloying.

  13. Compositional variability of the Venusian atmosphere above the clouds: sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcq, Emmanuel; Belyaev, Denis; Lellouch, Emmanuel; Encrenaz, Therese; Montmessin, Franck; Bertaux, Jean-Loup

    The layers of the Venusian atmosphere located at cloud top level is a complex transitional region where intense solar radiation interacts with a fairly dense gaseous medium and particulate matter - ultimately, the cloud particles themselves are a by-product of this interaction. In a stark contrast with the lowermost troposphere, spatial and temporal variations in temperature and composition are easily noticeable. In this talk we will focus on two gaseous species, carbon monoxide (CO) and sulphur dioxide (SO _{2}), whose sources and sinks are reversed: whereas carbon monoxide is produced by photo-dissociation of the main atmospheric constituent CO _{2} and oxidised below the clouds, SO _{2} is destroyed by UV solar radiation above the clouds and replenished from the lower atmosphere. Yet, these two species exhibit very different variation patterns. SO _{2} temporal variations range from very rapid (within a few hours) and large (by a relative factor exceeding 10) variations to secular phases of increases and decreases spanning decades. Its average latitudinal distribution ranges from a decrease with increasing latitude during SO _{2}-rich phases and a possible reversal during SO _{2}-poor phases. In contrast, CO does not exhibit significant secular, nor short-term variability, but clear horizontal trends have been measured, both with respect to latitude and local solar time.

  14. Dissociative disorders in DSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, David; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Lanius, Ruth; Vermetten, Eric; Simeon, Daphne; Friedman, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    The rationale, research literature, and proposed changes to the dissociative disorders and conversion disorder in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) are presented. Dissociative identity disorder will include reference to possession as well as identity fragmentation, to make the disorder more applicable to culturally diverse situations. Dissociative amnesia will include dissociative fugue as a subtype, since fugue is a rare disorder that always involves amnesia but does not always include confused wandering or loss of personality identity. Depersonalization disorder will include derealization as well, since the two often co-occur. A dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), defined by the presence of depersonalization or derealization in addition to other PTSD symptoms, is being recommended, based upon new epidemiological and neuroimaging evidence linking it to an early life history of adversity and a combination of frontal activation and limbic inhibition. Conversion disorder (functional neurological symptom disorder) will likely remain with the somatic symptom disorders, despite considerable dissociative comorbidity.

  15. [Carbon monoxide poisoning by a heating system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Eric; Gehl, Axel; Friedrich, Peter; Kappus, Stefan; Petter, Franz; Maurer, Klaus; Püschel, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    A case of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning in several occupants of two neighboring residential buildings in Hamburg-Harburg (Germany) caused by a defective gas central heating system is described. Because of leaks in one of the residential buildings and the directly adjacent wall of the neighboring house, the gas could spread and accumulated in both residential buildings, which resulted in a highly dangerous situation. Exposure to the toxic gas caused mild to severe intoxication in 15 persons. Three victims died still at the site of the accident. Measures to protect the occupants were taken only with a great delay. As symptoms were unspecific, it was not realized that the various alarms given by persons involved in the accident were related to the same cause. In order to take appropriate measures in time it is indispensible to recognize, assess and check potential risks, which can be done by using carbon monoxide warning devices and performing immediate COHb measurements with special pulse oximeters on site. Moreover, the COHb content in the blood should be routinely determined in all patients admitted to an emergency department with unspecific symptoms.

  16. Observations of iodine monoxide columns from satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Schönhardt

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Iodine species in the troposphere are linked to ozone depletion and new particle formation. In this study, a full year of iodine monoxide (IO columns retrieved from measurements of the SCIAMACHY satellite instrument is presented, coupled with a discussion of their uncertainties and the detection limits. The largest amounts of IO are found near springtime in the Antarctic. A seasonal variation of iodine monoxide in Antarctica is revealed with high values in springtime, slightly less IO in the summer period and again larger amounts in autumn. In winter, no elevated IO levels are found in the areas accessible to satellite measurements. This seasonal cycle is in good agreement with recent ground-based measurements in Antarctica. In the Arctic region, no elevated IO levels were found in the period analysed. This implies that different conditions with respect to iodine release exist in the two Polar Regions. To investigate possible release mechanisms, comparisons of IO columns with those of tropospheric BrO, and ice coverage are described and discussed. Some parallels and interesting differences between IO and BrO temporal and spatial distributions are identified. Overall, the large spatial coverage of satellite retrieved IO data and the availability of a long-term dataset provide new insight about the abundances and distributions of iodine compounds in the troposphere.

  17. Nitric oxide and carbon monoxide diffusing capacity of the lung

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, I. van der

    2006-01-01

    The single breath diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) is measure for gas uptake by the lung, and consists of a membrane and a vascular component. Nitric oxide (NO) binds 400 times faster to hemoglobin than carbon monoxide, thus the uptake of NO by the blood is very large.

  18. Nitric oxide and carbon monoxide diffusing capacity of the lung

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, I. van der

    2006-01-01

    The single breath diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) is measure for gas uptake by the lung, and consists of a membrane and a vascular component. Nitric oxide (NO) binds 400 times faster to hemoglobin than carbon monoxide, thus the uptake of NO by the blood is very large. There

  19. Fatal carbon monoxide intoxication after acetylene gas welding of pipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonsson, Ann-Beth; Christensson, Bengt; Berge, Johan; Sjögren, Bengt

    2013-06-01

    Acetylene gas welding of district heating pipes can result in exposure to high concentrations of carbon monoxide. A fatal case due to intoxication is described. Measurements of carbon monoxide revealed high levels when gas welding a pipe with closed ends. This fatality and these measurements highlight a new hazard, which must be promptly prevented.

  20. Real World of Industrial Chemistry: Organic Chemicals from Carbon Monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Kenneth E.; Kolb, Doris

    1983-01-01

    Carbon Monoxide obtained from coal may serve as the source for a wide variety of organic compounds. Several of these compounds are discussed, including phosgene, benzaldehyde, methanol, formic acid and its derivatives, oxo aldehydes, acrylic acids, and others. Commercial reactions of carbon monoxide are highlighted in a table. (JN)

  1. INFLUENCE OF ORGANIC SOLVENTS ON WATER DISSOCIATION IN BIPOLAR MEMBRANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheldeshov N. V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses results of experimental research of the influence of aprotic and proton solvents on reaction rate of water molecules dissociation in the bipolar membrane MB-1 by the method of electrochemical impedance frequency spectrum. It was discovered, that addition of organic component in aqueous solutions results in significant influence on the parameters of water dissociation in a bipolar region of the membrane. The reason for this influence is the reduction of the mass fraction of water in solution and, consequently, in a bipolar region of the membrane, which itself reduces the rate of the dissociation reaction. Another reason for the influence of the organic solvent is its effect on the network of hydrogen bonds existing in water and aqueous solutions. Depending on the nature of organic solvent and its concentration, the network of hydrogen bonds may be strengthened, or destroyed, thus facilitating removal of the proton involved in the reactions between water molecules and catalytic centers in cation-exchange and anion-exchange layer of bipolar membrane, or retarding removal of proton. This leads respectively to speed up or slow down the rate of dissociation in the bipolar region of the membrane, as well as changing the constants of the dissociation reaction of water. Introduction of organic solvent in solutions, which are in the contact with bipolar membrane, is a convenient method of investigating the role of solution composition on the rate of proton transfer between water molecules and catalytic centers in the membranes

  2. Dissociative experiences and dissociative minds: Exploring a nomological network of dissociative functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmenti, Adriano

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the psychometric properties of the Dissociative Experiences Scale-II (DES-II) were tested in a sample of Italian adults, and a nomological network of dissociative functioning based on current psychodynamic research was examined. A total of 794 participants (55% females) ranging in age from 18 to 64 completed the DES-II and other measures of theory of mind, alexithymia, attachment style, and empathy. The Italian translation of the DES-II showed high internal consistency, adequate item-to-scale homogeneity, and good split-half reliability. A single-factor solution including the 8 items of pathological dissociation (DES-T) adequately fit the data. Participants who reported higher levels of dissociative experiences showed significantly lower scores on theory of mind and empathy than other participants. They also showed significantly higher scores on alexithymia, preoccupied attachment, and fearful attachment. Results of the study support the view that people who suffer from severe dissociative experiences may also have difficulties mentalizing and regulating affects and that they may feel uncomfortable in close relationships because they have a negative view of the self. This can inform clinical work with dissociative individuals, who could benefit from therapies that consider their potential problems with mentalization, empathy, affect regulation, and attachment.

  3. Dissociative disorders among alcohol-dependent inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evren, Cuneyt; Sar, Vedat; Karadag, Figen; Tamar Gurol, Defne; Karagoz, Mustafa

    2007-08-30

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of dissociative disorders among inpatients with alcohol dependency. The Dissociative Experiences Scale was used to screen 111 alcohol-dependent patients consecutively admitted to the inpatient unit of a dependency treatment center. Subgroups of 29 patients who scored 30.0 or above and 25 patients who scored below 10.0 were then evaluated with the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule and the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders. The interviewers were blind to the Dissociative Experiences Scale scores. Of the 54 patients evaluated, 10 (9.0% of the original 111) patients had a dissociative disorder. A considerable number of the remaining patients reported a high level of dissociative experiences. Among the dissociative disorder group, nine patients had dissociative disorder not otherwise specified and one patient had depersonalization disorder. Female gender, younger age, history of suicide attempt, childhood emotional and sexual abuse, and neglect were more frequent in the dissociative disorder group than among non-dissociative patients. The dissociative disorder group also had somatization disorder, borderline personality disorder, and lifetime major depression more frequently. For 9 of the 10 dissociative patients, dissociative symptoms started before the onset of alcohol use. Although the probability of having a comorbid dissociative disorder was not higher among alcohol-dependent inpatients than among the general psychiatric inpatients, the dissociative subgroup had distinct features. Many patients without a dissociative disorder diagnosis (predominantly men) provided hints of subtle dissociative psychopathology. Implications of comorbid dissociative disorders and dissociative experiences on prevention and treatment of alcohol dependency and the importance of gender-specific characteristics in this relationship require further study.

  4. Search of medical literature for indoor carbon monoxide exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan, T.; Ivanovich, M.

    1995-12-01

    This report documents a literature search on carbon monoxide. The search was limited to the medical and toxicological databases at the National Library of Medicine (MEDLARS). The databases searched were Medline, Toxline and TOXNET. Searches were performed using a variety of strategies. Combinations of the following keywords were used: carbon, monoxide, accidental, residential, occult, diagnosis, misdiagnosis, heating, furnace, and indoor. The literature was searched from 1966 to the present. Over 1000 references were identified and summarized using the following abbreviations: The major findings of the search are: (1) Acute and subacute carbon monoxide exposures result in a large number of symptoms affecting the brain, kidneys, respiratory system, retina, and motor functions. (2) Acute and subacute carbon monoxide (CO) poisonings have been misdiagnosed on many occasions. (3) Very few systematic investigations have been made into the frequency and consequences of carbon monoxide poisonings.

  5. Carbon Monoxide Effects onHuman Ventricle Action PotentialAssessed by Mathematical Simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Beatriz eTrenor; Karen eCardona; Javier eSaiz; Sridharan eRajamani; Luiz eBelardinelli; Wayne Rodney Giles

    2013-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) that is produced in a number of different mammalian tissues is now known to have significant effects on the cardiovascular system. These include: i) vasodilation, ii) changes in heart rate and strength of contractions and iii) modulation of autonomic nervous system input to both the pacemaker and the working myocardium. Excessive CO in the environment is toxic and can initiate or mediate life threatening cardiac rhythm disturbances. Recent reports link these ventricular...

  6. Database of normal human cerebral blood flow, cerebral blood volume, cerebral oxygen extraction fraction and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen measured by positron emission tomography with {sup 15}O-labelled carbon dioxide or water, carbon monoxide and oxygen: a multicentre study in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Hiroshi [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Akita Research Institute of Brain and Blood Vessels, Akita (Japan); Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiology, Division of Brain Sciences, Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer, Tohoku University, 4-1 Seiryo-Machi, 980-8575, Aoba-Ku, Sendai (Japan); Kanno, Iwao [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Akita Research Institute of Brain and Blood Vessels, Akita (Japan); Kato, Chietsugu [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Sasaki, Toshiaki [Cyclotoron Research Center, Iwate Medical University, Morioka (Japan); Ishii, Kenji [Positron Medical Center, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, Tokyo (Japan); Ouchi, Yasuomi [Positron Medical Center, Hamamatsu Medical Center, Hamakita (Japan); Iida, Akihiko [Nagoya City Rehabilitation Center, Nagoya (Japan); Okazawa, Hidehiko [PET Unit, Research Institute, Shiga Medical Center, Moriyama (Japan); Hayashida, Kohei [Department of Radiology, National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Tsuyuguchi, Naohiro [Department of Neurosurgery, Osaka City University Medical School, Osaka (Japan); Ishii, Kazunari [Division of Imaging Research, Hyogo Institute for Aging Brain and Cognitive Disorders, Himeji, Hyogo (Japan); Kuwabara, Yasuo [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Senda, Michio [Department of Image-based Medicine, Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, Kobe (Japan)

    2004-05-01

    Measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebral oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO{sub 2}) by positron emission tomography (PET) with oxygen-15 labelled carbon dioxide (C{sup 15}O{sub 2}) or {sup 15}O-labelled water (H{sub 2}{sup 15}O), {sup 15}O-labelled carbon monoxide (C{sup 15}O) and {sup 15}O-labelled oxygen ({sup 15}O{sub 2}) is useful for diagnosis and treatment planning in cases of cerebrovascular disease. The measured values theoretically depend on various factors, which may differ between PET centres. This study explored the applicability of a database of {sup 15}O-PET by examining between-centre and within-centre variation in values. Eleven PET centres participated in this multicentre study; seven used the steady-state inhalation method, one used build-up inhalation and three used bolus administration of C{sup 15}O{sub 2} (or H{sub 2}{sup 15}O) and {sup 15}O{sub 2}. All used C{sup 15}O for measurement of CBV. Subjects comprised 70 healthy volunteers (43 men and 27 women; mean age 51.8{+-}15.1 years). Overall mean{+-}SD values for cerebral cortical regions were: CBF=44.4{+-}6.5 ml 100 ml{sup -1} min{sup -1}; CBV=3.8{+-}0.7 ml 100 ml{sup -1}; OEF=0.44{+-}0.06; CMRO{sub 2}=3.3{+-}0.5 ml 100 ml{sup -1} min{sup -1}. Significant between-centre variation was observed in CBV, OEF and CMRO{sub 2} by one-way analysis of variance. However, the overall inter-individual variation in CBF, CBV, OEF and CMRO{sub 2} was acceptably small. Building a database of normal cerebral haemodynamics obtained by the{sup 15}O-PET methods may be practicable. (orig.)

  7. [Dissociative symptoms in patients with mood and anxiety disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscariello, Marianna Margherita; Ratti, Flavia; Quartini, Adele; Forcén, Fernando Espí; Munuera, Joaquin Nieto; Bersani, Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of dissociative symptoms in outpatients affected by mood or anxiety disorder and their potential implication in general psychopathology and treatment response. The sample was recruited at Italian and Spanish psychiatric outpatient services. The sample consisted in 40 (13 Male, 27 Female) outpatients, 22 Italians (55%) and 18 Spanish (45%). Inclusion criteria were the Axis I diagnosis of any DSM-IV-TR mood or anxiety disorder and Clinical Global Impression/Global Severity Index (CGI) baseline scores > or = 3 and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) and Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAM-A) baseline scores > or = 18. General psychopathology, dissociative symptoms and personality traits were respectively assessed by the self-report symptom inventory Symptom Check-List 90 (SCL-90), the Dissociative Experience Scale (DES) and the Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Dissociative symptoms emerged as relatively frequent in mood and anxiety disorders. Globally, depression symptoms seem to correlate positively with the dissociative experiences and the severity of global psychopathology. Dissociative symptoms seem to correlate positively with some personality traits and the severity of global psychopathology and should receive further investigation in clinical practice, as might be a predictor of poor response to conventional drug treatment.

  8. Reduction of carbon monoxide. Past research summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrock, R.R.

    1981-10-01

    Research programs for the year on the preparation, characterization, and reactions of binuclear tantalum complexes are described. All evidence to date suggest the following of these dimeric molecules: (1) the dimer does not break into monomers under mild conditions; (2) intermolecular hydride exchange is not negligible, but it is slow; (3) intermolecular non-ionic halide exchange is fast; (4) the ends of the dimers can rotate partially with respect to one another. The binuclear tantalum hydride complexes were found to react with carbon monoxide to give a molecule which is the only example of reduction of CO by a transition metal hydride to give a complex containing a CHO ligand. Isonitrides also reacted in a similar manner with dimeric tantalum hydride. (ATT)

  9. Outcome of patients with carbon monoxide poisoning at a far-east poison center.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Hsuan Ku

    Full Text Available Many cases of carbon monoxide poisoning in Taiwan are due to burning charcoal. Nevertheless, few reports have analyzed the mortality rate of these patients who survive to reach a hospital and die despite intensive treatment. Therefore, this study examined the clinical features, physiological markers, and outcomes after carbon monoxide poisoning and the associations between these findings.We analyzed the records of 261 patients who were referred for management of carbon monoxide intoxication between 2000 and 2010. Patients were grouped according to status at discharge as alive (survivor, n = 242 or dead (non-survivor, n = 19. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, and mortality data were obtained for analysis.Approximately half of the cases (49.4% attempted suicide by burning charcoal. Most of the patients were middle-aged adults (33±19 years, and were referred to our hospital in a relatively short period of time (6±10 hours. Carbon monoxide produced many serious complications after exposure: fever (26.1%, hypothermia (9.6%, respiratory failure (34.1%, shock (8.4%, myocardial infarction (8.0%, gastrointestinal upset (34.9%, hepatitis (18.4%, renal failure (25.3%, coma (18.0% and rhabdomyolysis (21.8%. Furthermore, the non-survivors suffered greater incidences of hypothermia (P<0.001, respiratory failure (P<0.001, shock (P<0.001, hepatitis ((P=0.016, renal failure (P=0.003, coma (P<0.001 than survivors. All patients were treated with high concentration of oxygen therapy using non-rebreather mask. However, hyperbaric oxygen therapy was only used in 18.8% of the patients. In a multivariate-Cox-regression model, it was revealed that shock status was a significant predictor for mortality after carbon monoxide poisoning (OR 8.696, 95% CI 2.053-37.370, P=0.003. Finally, Kaplan-Meier analysis confirmed that patients with shock suffered greater cumulative mortality than without shock (Log-rank test, Chi-square 147.404, P<0.001.The mortality rate for

  10. Ab initio study of the positronation of the CaO and SrO molecules including calculation of annihilation rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buenker, Robert J; Liebermann, Heinz-Peter

    2012-07-15

    Ab initio multireference single- and double-excitation configuration interaction calculations have been performed to compute potential curves for ground and excited states of the CaO and SrO molecules and their positronic complexes, e(+)CaO, and e(+)SrO. The adiabatic dissociation limit for the (2)Σ(+) lowest states of the latter systems consists of the positive metal ion ground state (M(+)) and the OPs complex (e(+)O(-)), although the lowest energy limit is thought to be e(+)M + O. Good agreement is found between the calculated and experimental spectroscopic constants for the neutral diatomics wherever available. The positron affinity of the closed-shell X (1)Σ(+) ground states of both systems is found to lie in the 0.16-0.19 eV range, less than half the corresponding values for the lighter members of the alkaline earth monoxide series, BeO and MgO. Annihilation rates (ARs) have been calculated for all four positronated systems for the first time. The variation with bond distance is generally similar to what has been found earlier for the alkali monoxide series of positronic complexes, falling off gradually from the OPs AR value at their respective dissociation limits. The e(+)SrO system shows some exceptional behavior, however, with its AR value reaching a minimum at a relatively large bond distance and then rising to more than twice the OPs value close to its equilibrium distance. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Dissociation of human follicle-stimulating hormone. Comparison with luteinizing hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, L E; Ramsey, R B

    1975-04-25

    Rat testis tissue receptor assays were utilized to study the kinetics of dissociation of human follicle-stimulating hormone (hFSH) and luteinizing hormone (hLH) under varying conditions of urea concentration and pH. In these competitive protein binding assays, 125I-hFSH and 125I-hLH were the radioligands and hormone dissociation was followed by a decrease in the ability of the dissociating hormone to inhibit uptake of the radioligand by tissue receptors. Rate data for dissociation of the gonadotropins were analyzed for quality of fit to first or second order integrated rate equations by nonlinear regression analysis. Treatment of hFSH with 4 M urea at pH 8 and 25 degrees for 22 hours did not result in significant dissociation, whereas in 8 M urea, over 90% dissociation was observed. The rate of dissociation of hFSH in 8 M urea was increased approximately 4-fold by raising the temperature from 25 to 37 degrees. Similar results were obtained when dissociation of hFSH was followed through use of an accepted whole animal bioassay for FSH, thus confirming the reliability of the tissue receptor assay for such dissociation studies. Kinetic studies showed that hFSH was undissociated by incubation in 6 M urea of pH 8 after 4 hours at 25 degrees. In contrast, hLH was 90% dissociated under similar conditions. This differential rate of inactivation of hLH allowed preparation of hFSH having significant reduced levels of contaminating LH activity, as determined by tissue receptor assays and by whole animal bioassays. Marked differences were noted in the rate of dissociation of hFSH and hLH under acid conditions. hFSH completely dissociated after approximately 2 min of incubation of pH 2 (25 degrees), and over 90% dissociated after 15 min of incubation at pH 3. In contrast, hLH was dissociated 60% after 20 min of incubation at pH 2 (25 degrees) and 40% dissociated after 60 min at pH 3. Neither hormone was significantly dissociated at pH 4.4 after 60 min, but hFSH showed a

  12. Syncope Associated with Carbon Monoxide Poisoning due to Narghile Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seda Ozkan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Narghile smoking is a traditional method of tobacco use, and it has been practiced extensively for 400 years. Traditionally, narghile smoking is a matter of culture mainly in Middle East, Asia, and Africa. In recent years, its use as a social activity has increased worldwide, especially among young people. Narghile smoking is an unusual cause of carbon monoxide poisoning. Narghile smoking, compared to cigarette smoking, can result in more smoke exposure and greater levels of carbon monoxide. We present an acute syncope case of a 19-year-old male patient who had carbon monoxide poisoning after narghile smoking.

  13. The Effect of Water Vapor on Flame Velocity in Equivalent Carbon Monoxide and Oxygen Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiock, Ernest F; King, H Kendall

    1936-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation to study the effect of water vapor upon the spatial speed of flame in equivalent mixtures of carbon monoxide and oxygen at various total pressures from 100 to 780 mm.hg. These results show that, within this pressure range, an increase in flame speed is produced by increasing the mole fraction of water vapor at least as far as saturation at 25 degrees c., and that the rate of this increase is greater the higher the pressure. It is evident that water vapor plays an important part in the explosive oxidation of carbon monoxide; the need for further experimental evidence as to the nature of its action is indicated.

  14. [Gender differences in dissociative disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, C; Freyberger, H J

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between mental illness, on the one hand, and sex and gender, on the other hand, has received interest since the beginning of medicine in antique times. A prototypical example of a seemingly woman-specific disease is hysteria. The term itself, which is derived from the Greek word for womb, denotes a psychosexual dimension comprising the current attitude towards sexuality and the dominating gender relationship. In addition, the colourful history of hysteria indicates that illness is not exclusively determined by biological factors, but also significantly by socio-cultural influences, for example in the treatment of hysterical women. Even nowadays, there is a wide-spread belief that dissociative symptoms and disorders, which have succeeded hysteria in current classification systems, are predominantly seen in women. However, empirical studies in the general population and in different clinical samples using sound instruments have indicated that dissociative symptoms do not differ between the genders. The seemingly dominance of dissociative disorders in women may also depend on the socio-cultural context, because men with dissociative disorders usually do not enter the general health system, but rather the legal system, i.e. they can be found in jail or forensic institutions.

  15. DISSOCIATIVE DISORDERS IN DSM-5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiegel, David; Loewenstein, Richard J.; Lewis-Fernandez, Roberto; Sar, Vedat; Simeon, Daphne; Vermetten, Eric; Cardena, Etzel; Dell, Paul F.

    Background: We present recommendations for revision of the diagnostic criteria for the Dissociative Disorders (DDs) for DSM-5. The periodic revision of the DSM provides an opportunity to revisit the assumptions underlying specific diagnoses and the empirical support, or lack of it, for the defining

  16. DISSOCIATIVE DISORDERS IN DSM-5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiegel, David; Loewenstein, Richard J.; Lewis-Fernandez, Roberto; Sar, Vedat; Simeon, Daphne; Vermetten, Eric; Cardena, Etzel; Dell, Paul F.

    2011-01-01

    Background: We present recommendations for revision of the diagnostic criteria for the Dissociative Disorders (DDs) for DSM-5. The periodic revision of the DSM provides an opportunity to revisit the assumptions underlying specific diagnoses and the empirical support, or lack of it, for the defining

  17. Dissociative disorders in DSM-5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiegel, David; Loewenstein, Richard J.; Lewis-Fernandez, Roberto; Sar, Vedat; Simeon, Daphne; Vermetten, Eric; Cardena, Etzel; Dell, Paul F.

    2011-01-01

    Background: We present recommendations for revision of the diagnostic criteria for the Dissociative Disorders (DDs) for DSM-5. The periodic revision of the DSM provides an opportunity to revisit the assumptions underlying specific diagnoses and the empirical support, or lack of it, for the defining

  18. Dissociation: a developmental psychoneurobiological perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    thoughts, emotions, and experiences into the stream of con- ... Attachment research has shown that the interactive regulation ... trauma on the developing brain explains why dissociation that ... ciation with a later onset, e.g. in adolescence, does not.2 ... negative affect in the infant, it rigorously limits its expressions of.

  19. Effect of water on carbon monoxide-oxygen flame velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonald, Glen E

    1954-01-01

    The flame velocities were measured of 20 percent oxygen and 80 percent carbon monoxide mixtures containing either light water or heavy water. The flame velocity increased from 34.5 centimeters per second with no added water to about 104 centimeters per second for a 1.8 percent addition of light water and to 84 centimeters per second for an equal addition of heavy water. The addition of heavy water caused greater increases in flame velocity with equilibrium hydrogen-atom concentration than would be predicted by the Tanford and Pease square-root relation. The ratio of the flame velocity of a mixture containing light water to that of a mixture containing heavy water was found to be 1.4. This value is the same as the ratio of the reaction rate of hydrogen to that of deuterium and oxygen. A ratio of reaction rates of 1.4 would also be required for the square-root law to give the observed ratio of flame-velocity changes.

  20. Active Thermochemical Tables: Sequential Bond Dissociation Enthalpies of Methane, Ethane, and Methanol, and the Related Thermochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruscic, Branko

    2015-07-16

    Active Thermochemical Tables (ATcT) thermochemistry for the sequential bond dissociations of methane, ethane, and methanol systems were obtained by analyzing and solving a very large thermochemical network (TN). Values for all possible C–H, C–C, C–O, and O–H bond dissociation enthalpies at 298.15 K (BDE298) and bond dissociation energies at 0 K (D0) are presented. The corresponding ATcT standard gas-phase enthalpies of formation of the resulting CHn, n = 4–0 species (methane, methyl, methylene, methylidyne, and carbon atom), C2Hn, n = 6–0 species (ethane, ethyl, ethylene, ethylidene, vinyl, ethylidyne, acetylene, vinylidene, ethynyl, and ethynylene), and COHn, n = 4–0 species (methanol, hydroxymethyl, methoxy, formaldehyde, hydroxymethylene, formyl, isoformyl, and carbon monoxide) are also presented. The ATcT thermochemistry of carbon dioxide, water, hydroxyl, and carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen atoms is also included, together with the sequential BDEs of CO2 and H2O. The provenances of the ATcT enthalpies of formation, which are quite distributed and involve a large number of relevant determinations, are analyzed by variance decomposition and discussed in terms of principal contributions. The underlying reasons for periodic appearances of remarkably low and/or unusually high BDEs, alternating along the dissociation sequences, are analyzed and quantitatively rationalized. The present ATcT results are the most accurate thermochemical values currently available for these species.

  1. Distinct dissociation kinetics between ion pairs: Solvent-coordinate free-energy landscape analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonetani, Yoshiteru

    2015-07-01

    Different ion pairs exhibit different dissociation kinetics; however, while the nature of this process is vital for understanding various molecular systems, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, to examine the origin of different kinetic rate constants for this process, molecular dynamics simulations were conducted for LiCl, NaCl, KCl, and CsCl in water. The results showed substantial differences in dissociation rate constant, following the trend kLiCl constants arose predominantly from the variation in solvent-state distribution between the ion pairs. The formation of a water-bridging configuration, in which the water molecule binds to an anion and a cation simultaneously, was identified as a key step in this process: water-bridge formation lowers the related dissociation free-energy barrier, thereby increasing the probability of ion-pair dissociation. Consequently, a higher probability of water-bridge formation leads to a higher ion-pair dissociation rate.

  2. Dissociative identity disorder among adolescents: prevalence in a university psychiatric outpatient unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sar, Vedat; Onder, Canan; Kilincaslan, Ayse; Zoroglu, Süleyman S; Alyanak, Behiye

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of dissociative identity disorder (DID) and other dissociative disorders among adolescent psychiatric outpatients. A total of 116 consecutive outpatients between 11 and 17 years of age who were admitted to the child and adolescent psychiatry clinic of a university hospital for the 1st time were evaluated using the Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale, adolescent version of the Child Symptom Inventory-4, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and McMaster Family Assessment Device. All patients were invited for an interview with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders (SCID-D) administered by 2 senior psychiatrists in a blind fashion. There was excellent interrater reliability between the 2 clinicians on SCID-D diagnoses and scores. Among 73 participants, 33 (45.2%) had a dissociative disorder: 12 (16.4%) had DID, and 21 (28.8%) had dissociative disorder not otherwise specified. There was no difference in gender distribution, childhood trauma, or family dysfunction scores between the dissociative and nondissociative groups. Childhood emotional abuse and family dysfunction correlated with self-reported dissociation. Of the dissociative adolescents, 93.9% had an additional psychiatric disorder. Among them, only separation anxiety disorder was significantly more prevalent than in controls. Although originally designed for adults, the SCID-D is promising for diagnosing dissociative disorders in adolescents, its modest congruence with self-rated dissociation and lack of relationship between diagnosis and childhood trauma and family dysfunction suggest that the prevalence rates obtained with this instrument originally designed for adults must be replicated. The introduction of diagnostic criteria for adolescent DID in revised versions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, would refine the assessment of dissociative disorders in this age group.

  3. Dissociating Prediction Failure: Considerations from Music Perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, Suzi; Hansen, Niels Christian

    2016-01-01

    Dissociating Prediction Failure: Considerations from Music Perception The Journal of Neuroscience, 16 March 2016, 36(11): 3103-3105;......Dissociating Prediction Failure: Considerations from Music Perception The Journal of Neuroscience, 16 March 2016, 36(11): 3103-3105;...

  4. An interesting cause of pulmonary emboli: Acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevinc, A.; Savli, H.; Atmaca, H. [Gaziantep University, Gaziantep (Turkey). School of Medicine

    2005-07-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning, a public health problem of considerable significance, is a relatively frequent event today, resulting in thousands of hospitalizations annually. A 70-year-old lady was seen in the emergency department with a provisional diagnosis of carbon monoxide poisoning. The previous night, she slept in a tightly closed room heated with coal ember. She was found unconscious in the morning with poor ventilation. She had a rare presentation of popliteal vein thrombosis, pulmonary emboli, and possible tissue necrosis with carbon monoxide poisoning. Oxygen treatment with low-molecular-weight heparin (nadroparine) and warfarin therapy resulted in an improvement in both popliteal and pulmonary circulations. In conclusion, the presence of pulmonary emboli should be sought in patients with carbon monoxide poisoning.

  5. US EPA Region 9 carbon monoxide designated areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Polygon Feature class of Nonattainment Areas for Carbon Monoxide. Nonattainment areas are geographic areas which have not met National Ambient Air Quality Standards...

  6. Carbon monoxide poisoning in the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Kaabi, Juma M; Wheatley, Andrew D; Barss, Peter; Al Shamsi, Mariam; Lababidi, Anis; Mushtaq, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is rare in the Arabian Peninsula and occurs almost exclusively during the winter months. Knowledge and perception of the hazards of carbon monoxide is limited. Migrant workers from warm climates appear particularly at risk. We investigated 46 cases of carbon monoxide poisoning presenting at emergency departments from 2007-2009 of the two main hospitals in Al Ain city, United Arab Emirates. Interviews, hospital records, and administered questionnaires were used to collect the data. Among the 46 cases investigated, 24 (52%) were males. Foreign nationals compromised 80% of the cases and the incidence was 3.1 cases per 100,000 residents per year. Burning charcoal in poorly ventilated residences was the predominant source of the carbon monoxide poisoning. Almost all cases (98%) were admitted during the winter months, most in the early morning hours. Carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) was significantly increased in cases with loss of consciousness and depressed consciousness. There were no reported fatalities.

  7. Same Exposure, Various Clinical Pictures: The Carbon Monoxide Enigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Salmanoglu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available -Children and adolescents exposed to the same source of carbon monoxide have been shown to demonstrate different clinical pictures (1,2. The same condition probably may be extrapolated between children with varying ages and hence lung surface areas. Smaller children will receive larger doses of carbon monoxide, because they have greater lung surface area/body weight ratios and increased minute volumes/weight ratios. As carbon monoxide accumulation is expected to be more significant nearer to the ground, another explanation for varying clinical pictures in poisoning events may be the different level of sleeping positions of the casualties. Herein, we report a cluster poisoning of carbon monoxide affecting 5 children from the same family at the same time but in different clinical pictures. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2013; 12(1.000: 118-118

  8. Global functioning and disability in dissociative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller-Pfeiffer, Christoph; Rufibach, Kaspar; Perron, Noelle; Wyss, Daniela; Kuenzler, Cornelia; Prezewowsky, Cornelia; Pitman, Roger K; Rufer, Michael

    2012-12-30

    Dissociative disorders are frequent comorbid conditions of other mental disorders. Yet, there is controversy about their clinical relevance, and little systematic research has been done on how they influence global functioning. Outpatients and day care patients (N=160) of several psychiatric units in Switzerland were assessed with the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV Axis I Disorders, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders, Global Assessment of Functioning Scale, and World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule-II. The association between subjects with a dissociative disorder (N=30) and functional impairment after accounting for non-dissociative axis I disorders was evaluated by linear regression models. We found a proportion of 18.8% dissociative disorders (dissociative amnesia=0%, dissociative fugue=0.6%, depersonalization disorder=4.4%, dissociative identity disorder=7.5%, dissociative disorder-not-otherwise-specified=6.3%) across treatment settings. Adjusted for other axis I disorders, subjects with a comorbid dissociative identity disorder or dissociative disorder-not-otherwise-specified had a median global assessment of functioning score that was 0.86 and 0.88 times, respectively, the score of subjects without a comorbid dissociative disorder. These findings support the hypothesis that complex dissociative disorders, i.e., dissociative identity disorder and dissociative disorder-not-otherwise-specified, contribute to functional impairment above and beyond the impact of co-existing non-dissociative axis I disorders, and that they qualify as "serious mental illness". Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. An outpatient clinical study of dissociative disorder not otherwise specified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanartaş, Ömer; Özmen, Hülya Akar; Citak, Serhat; Zincir, Selma Bozkurt; Sünbül, Esra Aydin

    2014-05-01

    The relatively high prevalence of the diagnosis of dissociative disorder not otherwise specified is frequently considered to be disproportionate. The disproportionate rate of this diagnosis is thought to be related to nosologic and/or diagnostic issues in dissociative identity disorder. We sought to investigate and compare the symptom patterns of these two clinical entities. We conducted a cross-sectional study involving 1314 participants who were screened with the Dissociative Experience Scale (DES) and the Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire (SDQ). Of the participants, 272 who scored above the cut-off points for the screening questionnaires (DES score>30 and/or SDQ score>40 points) were invited to complete a structured interview using the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule (DDIS); of this subsample, only 190 participants agreed to participate in the second phase of the study. The mean score for the DES was 18.55±17.23, and the mean score for the SDQ was 30.19±13.32. Of the 190 participants, 167 patients were diagnosed as having a dissociative disorder (87.8%). We found that DD-NOS was the most prevalent category of dissociative disorder. There was a significantly larger percentage of patients in the DID group than in the DD-NOS group according to secondary features of DID and Schneiderian symptoms. The secondary features of DID and Schneiderian symptoms appeared to be more specific for DID, while no differences were detected between DID and DD-NOS based on most of the items on the SCL 90R. Further longitudinal studies are needed to determine the features that are similar and dissimilar between DD-NOS and DID. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The kinetics of bivalent metal ion dissociation from myosin subfragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, A J; Bagshaw, C R

    1986-01-01

    Bivalent metal ions have multiple roles in subunit association and ATPase regulation in scallop adductor-muscle myosin. To help elucidate these functions, the rates of Ca2+ and Mg2+ dissociation from the non-specific high-affinity sites on the regulatory light chains were measured and compared with those of rabbit skeletal-muscle myosin subfragments. Ca2+ dissociation had a rate constant of about 0.7 s-1 in both species, as measured by the time course of the pH change on EDTA addition. Mg2+ dissociation had a rate constant of 0.05 s-1, as monitored by its displacement with the paramagnetic Mn2+ ion. It is concluded that the exchange between Ca2+ and Mg2+ at the non-specific site, on excitation of both skeletal and adductor muscles, is too slow to contribute to the activation itself. The release of bivalent metal ions from the non-specific site is, however, the first step in release of the scallop regulatory light chain (Bennett & Bagshaw (1986) Biochem. J. 233, 179-186). In scallop myosin additional specific sites are present, which can bind Ca2+ rapidly, to effect activation of the ATPase. In the course of this work, Ca2+ dissociation from EGTA was studied as a model system. This gave rates of 1 s-1 and 0.3 s-1 at pH 7.0 and pH 8.0 respectively.

  11. Controls on Gas Hydrate Formation and Dissociation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miriam Kastner; Ian MacDonald

    2006-03-03

    The main objectives of the project were to monitor, characterize, and quantify in situ the rates of formation and dissociation of methane hydrates at and near the seafloor in the northern Gulf of Mexico, with a focus on the Bush Hill seafloor hydrate mound; to record the linkages between physical and chemical parameters of the deposits over the course of one year, by emphasizing the response of the hydrate mound to temperature and chemical perturbations; and to document the seafloor and water column environmental impacts of hydrate formation and dissociation. For these, monitoring the dynamics of gas hydrate formation and dissociation was required. The objectives were achieved by an integrated field and laboratory scientific study, particularly by monitoring in situ formation and dissociation of the outcropping gas hydrate mound and of the associated gas-rich sediments. In addition to monitoring with the MOSQUITOs, fluid flow rates and temperature, continuously sampling in situ pore fluids for the chemistry, and imaging the hydrate mound, pore fluids from cores, peepers and gas hydrate samples from the mound were as well sampled and analyzed for chemical and isotopic compositions. In order to determine the impact of gas hydrate dissociation and/or methane venting across the seafloor on the ocean and atmosphere, the overlying seawater was sampled and thoroughly analyzed chemically and for methane C isotope ratios. At Bush hill the pore fluid chemistry varies significantly over short distances as well as within some of the specific sites monitored for 440 days, and gas venting is primarily focused. The pore fluid chemistry in the tub-warm and mussel shell fields clearly documented active gas hydrate and authigenic carbonate formation during the monitoring period. The advecting fluid is depleted in sulfate, Ca Mg, and Sr and is rich in methane; at the main vent sites the fluid is methane supersaturated, thus bubble plumes form. The subsurface hydrology exhibits both

  12. Reaction pathways of the dissociation of methylal: A DFT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frey, H.-M.; Beaud, P.; Gerber, T.; Mischler, B.; Radi, P.P.; Tzannis, A.-P. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    Schemata for modelling combustion processes do not yet include reaction rates for oxygenated fuels like methylal (DMM) which is considered as an additive or replacement for diesel due to its low sooting propensity. Density functional theory (DFT) studies of the possible reaction pathways for different dissociation steps of methylal are presented. Cleavage of a hydrogen bond to the methoxy group or the central carbon atom were simulated at the BLYP/6-311++G{sup **} level of theory. The results are compared to the experiment when dissociating and/or ionising DMM with femtosecond pulses. (author) 1 fig., 1 tab., 1 ref.

  13. Novel features of $J/\\psi$ dissociation in matter

    CERN Document Server

    Sibirtsev, A A; Saitô, K; Thomas, A W

    2000-01-01

    We make a detailed study of the effect that the recently predicted modification of the in-medium masses of charmed mesons would have on $J/\\Psi$ dissociation on pion and $\\rho$-meson comovers in relativistic heavy ion collisions. We find a substantial dependence of the $J/\\Psi$ absorption rates on the density and temperature of the nuclear matter. This suggests that measurements of the change in $J/\\Psi$ dissociation in matter can now be used as a powerful tool to study the in-medium properties of the charmed mesons.

  14. Carbon monoxide exposure in blast furnace workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, S; Mason, C; Srna, J

    1992-09-01

    This study investigated the occupational exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) of a group of blast furnace workers from an integrated steelworks, compared to a control group having no significant occupational CO exposure from other areas in the same works. The study was undertaken in 1984 at Port Kembla, New South Wales. Carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) levels before and after an eight-hour work shift were measured in 98 male steelworkers: 52 from two CO-exposed iron blast furnaces and 46 controls from production areas in the same steelworks. The sample was stratified by smoking habits. Environmental air CO levels had been found to be consistently higher on one furnace than on the other. Absorption of CO from the working environment occurred in workers on the blast furnace with higher CO levels, regardless of smoking habits. On this blast furnace, some readings of COHb levels after a workshift in nonsmokers approached the proposed Australian occupational limit of 5 per cent COHb saturation. Overall, workers with the highest occupational exposure who smoked most heavily had the highest absorption of CO over a work shift. Biological monitoring gives an accurate measure of individual worker 'dose' of CO from all sources. Both environmental monitoring and biological monitoring need to be included as part of a program for controlling occupational CO exposure.

  15. Carbon Monoxide: An Essential Signalling Molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Brian E.

    Carbon monoxide (CO), like nitric oxide (NO), is an essential signalling molecule in humans. It is active in the cardiovascular system as a vasodilator. In addition, CO possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and anti-proliferative properties and protects tissues from hypoxia and reperfusion injury. Some of its applications in animal models include suppression of organ graft rejection and safeguarding the heart during reperfusion after cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. CO also suppresses arteriosclerotic lesions following angioplasty, reverses established pulmonary hypertension and mitigates the development of post-operative ileus in the murine small intestine and the development of cerebral malaria in mice as well as graft-induced intimal hyperplasia in pigs. There have been several clinical trials using air-CO mixtures for the treatment of lung-, heart-, kidney- and abdominal-related diseases. This review examines the research involving the development of classes of compounds (with particular emphasis on metal carbonyls) that release CO, which could be used in clinically relevant conditions. The review is drawn not only from published papers in the chemical literature but also from the extensive biological literature and patents on CO-releasing molecules (CO-RMs).

  16. First-Principles Investigations on Europium Monoxide

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hao

    2011-05-01

    Europium monoxide is both an insulator and a Heisenberg ferromagnet (Tc=69 K). In the present thesis, the author has investigated the electronic structure of different types of EuO by density functional theory. The on-site Coulomb interaction of the localized Eu 4f and 5d electrons, which is wrongly treated in the standard generalized gradient approximation method, is found to be crucial to obtain the correct insulating ground state as observed in experiments. Our results show that the ferromagnetism is stable under pressure, both hydrostatic and uniaxial. For both types of pressure an insulator-metal transition is demonstrated. Moreover, the experimentally observed insulator-metal transition in oxygen deficient and gadolinium-doped EuO is reproduced in our calculations for impurity concentrations of 6.25% and 25%. Furthermore, a 10- layer EuO thin film is theoretically predicted to be an insulator with a narrow band gap of around 0.08 eV, while the Si/EuO interface shows metallic properties with the Si and O 2p as well as Eu 5d bands crossing the Fermi level.

  17. Chlorine Monoxide in the Antarctic Spring Stratosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo-Ayerbe, Mauricio

    1988-06-01

    A series of observations of stratospheric chlorine monoxide (ClO) were carried out during the austral springs of 1986 and 1987 in McMurdo Station, Antarctica, as part of two experimental campaigns sent to investigate the seasonal decrease in ozone over the antarctic continent (the ozone "hole"). Measurements of the vertical distribution of ClO were obtained by high resolution ground-based emission spectroscopy at 278 GHz, using the Stony Brook mm-wave receiver. They show the presence of an anomalous layer of lower stratospheric ClO which is not observed at other latitudes. This anomalous layer is centered at ~20 km altitude and exhibits a pronounced diurnal variation, reaching a maximum at midday and disappearing at night. During the period of Sep. 20-24, 1987, the lower-stratospheric ClO had a maximum volume mixing ratio of 1.8_sp{+0cdot5}{ -0cdot9} ppbv. A normal ClO layer centered at ~36 km was also observed, with concentrations and diurnal behavior similar to those seen in tropical latitudes. These findings are evidence of anomalous chlorine chemistry taking place in the lower stratosphere during the antarctic spring, and indicate that increasing anthropogenic chlorine is a prime causative agent in the formation of the ozone hole.

  18. Visible Multiphoton Dissociation of Chromophore-Tagged Peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouakil, Mathilde; Kulesza, Alexander; Daly, Steven; MacAleese, Luke; Antoine, Rodolphe; Dugourd, Philippe

    2017-10-01

    The visible photodissociation mechanisms of QSY7-tagged peptides of increasing size have been investigated by coupling a mass spectrometer and an optical parametric oscillator laser beam. The experiments herein consist of energy resolved collision- and laser-induced dissociation measurements on the chromophore-tagged peptides. The results show that fragmentation occurs by similar channels in both activation methods, but that the branching ratios are vastly different. Observation of a size-dependent minimum laser pulse energy required to induce fragmentation, and collisional cooling rates in time resolved experiments show that laser-induced dissociation occurs through the absorption of multiple photons by the chromophore and the subsequent heating through vibrational energy redistribution. The differences in branching ratio between collision- and laser-induced dissociation can then be understood by the highly anisotropic energy distribution following absorption of a photon. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  19. Assessment of carbon monoxide values in smokers: a comparison of carbon monoxide in expired air and carboxyhaemoglobin in arterial blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Mette F; Møller, Ann M

    2010-01-01

    Smoking increases perioperative complications. Carbon monoxide concentrations can estimate patients' smoking status and might be relevant in preoperative risk assessment. In smokers, we compared measurements of carbon monoxide in expired air (COexp) with measurements of carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) ......) in arterial blood. The objectives were to determine the level of correlation and to determine whether the methods showed agreement and evaluate them as diagnostic tests in discriminating between heavy and light smokers....

  20. Synthesis of acetyl coenzyme A by carbon monoxide dehydrogenase complex from acetate-grown Methanosarcina thermophila.

    OpenAIRE

    Abbanat, D R; Ferry, J G

    1990-01-01

    The carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH) complex from Methanosarcina thermophila catalyzed the synthesis of acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) from CH3I, CO, and coenzyme A (CoA) at a rate of 65 nmol/min/mg at 55 degrees C. The reaction ended after 5 min with the synthesis of 52 nmol of acetyl-CoA per nmol of CODH complex. The optimum temperature for acetyl-CoA synthesis in the assay was between 55 and 60 degrees C; the rate of synthesis at 55 degrees C was not significantly different between pHs...

  1. Chemical Reactions and Kinetics of the Carbon Monoxide Coupling in the Presence of Hydrogen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fandong Meng; Genhui Xu; Zhenhua Li; Pa Du

    2002-01-01

    The chemical reactions and kinetics of the catalytic coupling reaction of carbon monoxide to diethyl oxalate were studied in the presence of hydrogen over a supported palladium catalyst in the gaseous phase at the typical coupling reaction conditions. The experiments were performed in a continuous flow fixed-bed reactor. The results indicated that hydrogen only reacts with ethyl nitrite to form ethanol, and kinetic studies revealed that the rate-determining step is the surface reaction of adsorbed hydrogen and the ethoxy radical (EtO-). A kinetic model is proposed and a comparison of the observed and calculated conversions showed that the rate expressions are of rather high confidence.

  2. Acute dissociation and cardiac reactivity to script-driven imagery in trauma-related disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Sack

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Potential acute protective functions of dissociation include modulation of stress-induced psychophysiological arousal. This study was designed to explore whether acute dissociative reactions during a stress experiment would override the effects of reexperiencing. Methods: Psychophysiological reactions during exposure to script-driven trauma imagery were studied in relation to acute responses of reexperiencing and dissociative symptoms in 61 patients with histories of exposure to a variety of traumas. Acute symptomatic responses were assessed with the Responses to Script-Driven Imagery Scale (RSDI, and participants were divided into four groups by median splits of RSDI reexperiencing and dissociation subscale scores. Results: In a comparison of the high RSDI reexperiencing groups with low versus high acute dissociative symptoms, the high dissociators exhibited significantly lower heart rate (HR during trauma script and a significantly smaller script-induced decrease in parasympathetic cardiac activity. HR reactivity to the trauma script was negatively correlated with acute dissociative symptom severity. Conclusions: Acute dissociative reactions are a potential moderator of response to experimental paradigms investigating psychologically traumatized populations. We therefore suggest that future research on psychophysiological stress reactions in traumatized samples should routinely assess for acute dissociative symptoms.

  3. [Dis-social personality disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermeyer, E; Herpertz, S C

    2006-05-01

    Deviant behavior is gaining in clinical importance if it is founded on stable, characteristic, and enduring patterns of psychopathologically relevant personality traits which have their onset in childhood or adolescence. The classification of these traits shows variations, so that a distinction between the ICD-10 diagnosis of dis-social personality disorder, DSM-IV diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder, and the concept "psychopathy" is necessary. Our knowledge about the biological basis of antisocial behavior includes neurophysiologic, psychophysiologic, and genetic findings. Also relevant are results of neurotransmitter studies and structural resp. functional neuroimaging findings. Psychosocial risk factors include parental deficits, rejection, disregard, unstable relations, and abuse. Efficient psychotherapeutic treatment is cognitive-behavioral. Pharmacologic treatment is largely "off-label". The diagnosis of antisocial and dis-social personality disorders allows no conclusions on criminal responsibility. In addition to psychiatric diagnostics, considerations on the severity of the disorder and its effects on the ability to inhibit actions are necessary.

  4. Heme oxygenase-1 and carbon monoxide in pulmonary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slebos, Dirk-Jan; Ryter, Stefan W; Choi, Augustine M K

    2003-01-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an inducible stress protein, confers cytoprotection against oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo. In addition to its physiological role in heme degradation, HO-1 may influence a number of cellular processes, including growth, inflammation, and apoptosis. By virtue of anti-inflammatory effects, HO-1 limits tissue damage in response to proinflammatory stimuli and prevents allograft rejection after transplantation. The transcriptional upregulation of HO-1 responds to many agents, such as hypoxia, bacterial lipopolysaccharide, and reactive oxygen/nitrogen species. HO-1 and its constitutively expressed isozyme, heme oxygenase-2, catalyze the rate-limiting step in the conversion of heme to its metabolites, bilirubin IXalpha, ferrous iron, and carbon monoxide (CO). The mechanisms by which HO-1 provides protection most likely involve its enzymatic reaction products. Remarkably, administration of CO at low concentrations can substitute for HO-1 with respect to anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects, suggesting a role for CO as a key mediator of HO-1 function. Chronic, low-level, exogenous exposure to CO from cigarette smoking contributes to the importance of CO in pulmonary medicine. The implications of the HO-1/CO system in pulmonary diseases will be discussed in this review, with an emphasis on inflammatory states.

  5. Heme oxygenase-1 and carbon monoxide in pulmonary medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Augustine MK

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, an inducible stress protein, confers cytoprotection against oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo. In addition to its physiological role in heme degradation, HO-1 may influence a number of cellular processes, including growth, inflammation, and apoptosis. By virtue of anti-inflammatory effects, HO-1 limits tissue damage in response to proinflammatory stimuli and prevents allograft rejection after transplantation. The transcriptional upregulation of HO-1 responds to many agents, such as hypoxia, bacterial lipopolysaccharide, and reactive oxygen/nitrogen species. HO-1 and its constitutively expressed isozyme, heme oxygenase-2, catalyze the rate-limiting step in the conversion of heme to its metabolites, bilirubin IXα, ferrous iron, and carbon monoxide (CO. The mechanisms by which HO-1 provides protection most likely involve its enzymatic reaction products. Remarkably, administration of CO at low concentrations can substitute for HO-1 with respect to anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects, suggesting a role for CO as a key mediator of HO-1 function. Chronic, low-level, exogenous exposure to CO from cigarette smoking contributes to the importance of CO in pulmonary medicine. The implications of the HO-1/CO system in pulmonary diseases will be discussed in this review, with an emphasis on inflammatory states.

  6. A Wireless and Batteryless Intelligent Carbon Monoxide Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen-Chia; Sung, Gang-Neng; Chen, Wen-Ching; Kuo, Chih-Ting; Chue, Jin-Ju; Wu, Chieh-Ming; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2016-09-23

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning from natural gas water heaters is a common household accident in Taiwan. We propose a wireless and batteryless intelligent CO sensor for improving the safety of operating natural gas water heaters. A micro-hydropower generator supplies power to a CO sensor without battery (COSWOB) (2.5 W at a flow rate of 4.2 L/min), and the power consumption of the COSWOB is only ~13 mW. The COSWOB monitors the CO concentration in ambient conditions around natural gas water heaters and transmits it to an intelligent gateway. When the CO level reaches a dangerous level, the COSWOB alarm sounds loudly. Meanwhile, the intelligent gateway also sends a trigger to activate Wi-Fi alarms and sends notifications to the mobile device through the Internet. Our strategy can warn people indoors and outdoors, thereby reducing CO poisoning accidents. We also believe that our technique not only can be used for home security but also can be used in industrial applications (for example, to monitor leak occurrence in a pipeline).

  7. A Wireless and Batteryless Intelligent Carbon Monoxide Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Chia Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO poisoning from natural gas water heaters is a common household accident in Taiwan. We propose a wireless and batteryless intelligent CO sensor for improving the safety of operating natural gas water heaters. A micro-hydropower generator supplies power to a CO sensor without battery (COSWOB (2.5 W at a flow rate of 4.2 L/min, and the power consumption of the COSWOB is only ~13 mW. The COSWOB monitors the CO concentration in ambient conditions around natural gas water heaters and transmits it to an intelligent gateway. When the CO level reaches a dangerous level, the COSWOB alarm sounds loudly. Meanwhile, the intelligent gateway also sends a trigger to activate Wi-Fi alarms and sends notifications to the mobile device through the Internet. Our strategy can warn people indoors and outdoors, thereby reducing CO poisoning accidents. We also believe that our technique not only can be used for home security but also can be used in industrial applications (for example, to monitor leak occurrence in a pipeline.

  8. Paraphilia from a dissociative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Colin A

    2008-12-01

    A dissociative structural model of the psyche can account for a wide range of symptoms across many DSM-IV categories, including sexual compulsions and addictions. The model leads to a distinct overall plan of treatment and a set of operationalized interventions aimed at integration of the self, rather than suppression of impulses. The model could be tested first in epidemiological studies and later in treatment outcome studies.

  9. Mechanisms of Peptide Fragmentation from Time-and Energy-Resolved Surface-Induced Dissociation Studies: Dissociation of Angiotensin Analogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laskin, Julia; Bailey, Thomas H.; Futrell, Jean H.

    2006-03-01

    Energetics and mechanism of dissociation of singly protonated angiotensin III (RVYIHPF) and its analogs RVYIFPF, RVYIYPF, RVYIHAF, and RVYIHDF was studied using surface-induced dissociation (SID) in a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR MS) specially configured for studying ion activation by collisions with surfaces. The energetics and dynamics of peptide fragmentation were deduced by modeling the time- and energy-resolved survival curves for each precursor ion using an RRKM based approach developed in our laboratory. Fragmentation mechanisms were inferred from comparison of time- and energy-resolved fragmentation efficiency curves (TFECs) of different fragment ions followed by RRKM modeling of dissociation of angiotensin III into six major families of fragment ions. Detailed modeling demonstrated that dissociation of these peptides is dominated by loss of ammonia from the precursor ion and characterized by a high energy barrier of 1.6 eV. Loss of NH3 and subsequent rearrangement of the MH-NH3 ion results in proton mobilization and release of ca. 30 kcal/mol into internal excitation of the MH-NH3 ion. The resulting highly excited ion accesses a variety of non-specific dissociation pathways with very high rate constants. Fast fragmentation of excited MH-NH3 ion forms a variety of abundant bn-NH3 and an-NH3 fragment ions. Abundant XH and HX internal fragments are also formed, reflecting the stability of histidine-containing diketopiperazine structures.

  10. Mechanisms of peptide fragmentation from time- and energy-resolved surface-induced dissociation studies: Dissociation of angiotensin analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskin, Julia; Bailey, Thomas H.; Futrell, Jean H.

    2006-03-01

    Energetics and mechanism of dissociation of singly protonated angiotensin III (RVYIHPF) and its analogs RVYIFPF, RVYIYPF, RVYIHAF and RVYIHDF was studied using surface-induced dissociation (SID) in a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR MS) specially configured for studying ion activation by collisions with surfaces. The energetics and dynamics of peptide fragmentation were deduced by modeling the time- and energy-resolved survival curves for each precursor ion using an RRKM-based approach developed in our laboratory. Fragmentation mechanisms were inferred from comparison of time- and energy-resolved fragmentation efficiency curves (TFECs) of different fragment ions followed by RRKM modeling of dissociation of angiotensin III into six major families of fragment ions. Detailed modeling demonstrated that dissociation of these peptides is dominated by loss of ammonia from the precursor ion and characterized by a high-energy barrier of 1.6 eV. Loss of NH3 and subsequent rearrangement of the MH+-NH3 ion results in proton mobilization and release of ca. 30 kcal/mol into internal excitation of the MH+-NH3 ion. The resulting highly excited ion accesses a variety of non-specific dissociation pathways with very high rate constants. Fast fragmentation of excited MH+-NH3 ion forms a variety of abundant bn-NH3 and an-NH3 fragment ions. Abundant XH and HX internal fragments are also formed, reflecting the stability of histidine-containing diketopiperazine structures.

  11. Dissociative disorders in the psychiatric emergency ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sar, Vedat; Koyuncu, Ahmet; Ozturk, Erdinc; Yargic, L Ilhan; Kundakci, Turgut; Yazici, Ahmet; Kuskonmaz, Ekrem; Aksüt, Didem

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of dissociative disorders among emergency psychiatric admissions. Forty-three of the 97 consecutive outpatients admitted to the psychiatric emergency unit of a university hospital were screened using the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES). Seventeen (39.5% of the 43 evaluated) patients with a DES score above 25.0 were then interviewed with the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule and the Structured Clinical Interview for Dissociative Disorders. Fifteen emergency unit patients (34.9% of the 43 evaluated participants) were diagnosed as having a dissociative disorder. Six (14.0%) patients had dissociative identity disorder, 6 (14.0%) had dissociative disorder not otherwise specified, and 3 (7.0%) had dissociative amnesia. The average DES score of dissociative patients was 43.7. A majority of them had comorbid major depression, somatization disorder, and borderline personality disorder. Most of the patients with dissociative disorder reported auditory hallucinations, symptoms associated with psychogenic amnesia, flashback experiences, and childhood abuse and/or neglect. Dissociative disorders constitute one of the diagnostic groups with high relevance in emergency psychiatry.

  12. [Differential diagnosis between dissociative disorders and schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibayama, Masatoshi

    2011-01-01

    The differential diagnosis of dissociative disorders includes many psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorders (especially bipolar II disorder), depressive disorder (especially atypical depression), epilepsy, Asperger syndrome, and borderline personality disorder. The theme of this paper is the differential diagnosis between dissociative disorders and schizophrenia. Schneiderian first-rank symptoms in schizophrenia are common in dissociative disorders, especially in dissociative identity disorder (DID). Many DID patients have been misdiagnosed as schizophrenics and treated with neuroleptics. We compared and examined Schneiderian symptoms of schizophrenia and those of dissociative disorders from a structural viewpoint. In dissociative disorders, delusional perception and somatic passivity are not seen. "Lateness" and "Precedence of the Other" originated from the concept of "Pattern Reversal" (H. Yasunaga)" is characteristic of schizophrenia. It is important to check these basic structure of schizophrenia in subjective experiences in differential diagnosis between dissociative disorders and schizophrenia.

  13. [Clinical Handling of Patients with Dissociative Disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Kenichiro

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the way informed psychiatrists are expected to handle dissociative patients in clinical situations, with a specific focus on dissociative identity disorders and dissociative fugue. On the initial interview with dissociative patients, information on their history of trauma and any nascent dissociative symptoms in their childhood should be carefully obtained. Their level of stress in their current life should also be assessed in order to understand their symptomatology, as well as to predict their future clinical course. A psychoeducational approach is crucial; it might be helpful to give information on dissociative disorder to these patients as well as their family members in order to promote their adherence to treatment. Regarding the symptomatology of dissociative disorders, detailed symptoms and the general clinical course are presented. It was stressed that dissociative identity disorder and dissociative fugue, the most high-profile dissociative disorders, are essentially different in their etiology and clinical presentation. Dissociative disorders are often confused with and misdiagnosed as psychotic disorders, such as schizophrenia. Other conditions considered in terms of the differential diagnosis include borderline personality disorder as well as temporal lobe epilepsy. Lastly, the therapeutic approach to dissociative identity disorder is discussed. Each dissociative identity should be understood as potentially representing some traumatically stressful event in the past. The therapist should be careful not to excessively promote the creation or elaboration of any dissociative identities. Three stages are proposed in the individual psychotherapeutic process. In the initial stage, a secure environment and stabilization of symptoms should be sought. The second stage consists of aiding the "host" personality to make use of other more adaptive coping skills in their life. The third stage involves coaching as well as continuous awareness of

  14. High temperature thermodynamics and vaporization of stoichiometric titanium monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheldon, R.I.; Gilles, P.W.

    1976-08-17

    Three vaporization experiments were performed on samples of nearly stoichiometric titanium monoxide. Two experiments were constant temperature experiments (1806/sup 0/K) designed to measure the equilibrium vapor pressures of Ti(g) and TiO(g). In one experiment titanium monoxide was vaporized from a tungsten Knudsen effusion cell; the vapor was collected on a water cooled quartz cap surrounding the cell; and the total amount of titanium deposited on the cap was analyzed colorimetrically. In the second constant temperature experiment (1806/sup 0/K) the vapor composition in equilibrium with nearly stoichiometric titanium monoxide was measured mass spectrometrically. The mass spectrometer results were used to apportion the total titanium collected in the first experiment to Ti(g) and TiO(g). In the third experiment the temperature dependence of the ions Ti/sup +/(48) and TiO(64) was measured spectrometrically. The results obtained in this work are compared with published thermodynamic properties of the titanium oxygen system, and indicate the standard free energy of formation of titanium monoxide obtained from the earliest calorimetric measurements yielded a result not negative enough and also oxygen pressures obtained by emf measurements for stoichiometric titanium monoxide at 1806/sup 0/K are high by a factor of 42.6. The present results are in good agreement with the thermodynamic properties reported in recently issued pages of the JANAF Thermochemical Tables.

  15. Self-Injury and Suicide Attempt in Relation with Trauma and Dissociation among Adolescents with Dissociative and Non-Dissociative Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılıç, Filiz; Coşkun, Murat; Bozkurt, Hasan; Kaya, İlyas; Zoroğlu, Salih

    2017-03-01

    To explore the role of trauma and dissociation over self-injurious behaviors (SIB) and suicide attempts (SA) in adolescents. A total of 207 adolescents participated in the study. After conducting diagnostic interview, participants were divided into five groups as subjects with dissociative disorders (DD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), major depressive disorder (MDD) and anxiety disorders (AD), and a control group (CG) without any psychiatric disorder. ADHD, MDD and AD groups were considered as non-dissociative disorders (non-DD group) in the present study. There is no significant difference between groups in terms of number and age of the subjects (p>0.05). Among all participants SIB was reported in 32.2% of females (n=37) and 25% of males (n=23) while SA was reported in 29.6% of females (n=34) and 4.4% of males (n=4). Adolescents with DD were found to experience higher rates of SIB and SA than the other groups. Dissociation was the most important variable contributing to SIB and female gender was the most efficient variable for SA. Total trauma scores were also found to be significantly higher in DD group followed by non-DD and CG respectively. SIB and SA are complex behavioral problems which may be associated with many psychiatric factors. However higher level dissociation seems as an important mediating factor, even regardless of psychiatric diagnosis, in the development of SIB and SA. More research is needed to further explore the factors effective over SIB and SA in adolescents.

  16. Photodissociation of the carbon monoxide dication in the 3Σ- manifold: Quantum control simulation towards the C2+ + O channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranckx, S.; Loreau, J.; Vaeck, N.; Meier, C.; Desouter-Lecomte, M.

    2015-10-01

    The photodissociation and laser assisted dissociation of the carbon monoxide dication X3Π CO2+ into the 3Σ- states are investigated. Ab initio electronic structure calculations of the adiabatic potential energy curves, radial nonadiabatic couplings, and dipole moments for the X 3Π state are performed for 13 excited 3Σ- states of CO2+. The photodissociation cross section, calculated by time-dependent methods, shows that the C+ + O+ channels dominate the process in the studied energy range. The carbon monoxide dication CO2+ is an interesting candidate for control because it can be produced in a single, long lived, v = 0 vibrational state due to the instability of all the other excited vibrational states of the ground 3Π electronic state. In a spectral range of about 25 eV, perpendicular transition dipoles couple this 3Π state to a manifold of 3Σ- excited states leading to numerous C+ + O+ channels and a single C2+ + O channel. This unique channel is used as target for control calculations using local control theory. We illustrate the efficiency of this method in order to find a tailored electric field driving the photodissociation in a manifold of strongly interacting electronic states. The selected local pulses are then concatenated in a sequence inspired by the "laser distillation" strategy. Finally, the local pulse is compared with optimal control theory.

  17. Monitoring hydrate formation and dissociation in sandstone and bulk with magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, B A; Moradi-Araghi, A; Stevens, J C

    2003-11-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been shown to be a very effective tool for monitoring the formation and dissociation of hydrates because of the large intensity contrast between the images of the liquid components and the solid hydrate. Tetrahydrofuran/water hydrate was used because the two liquid components are miscible and form hydrate at ambient pressure. These properties made this feasibility study proceed much faster than using methane/water, which requires high pressure to form the hydrate. The formation and dissociation was monitored first in a THF/water-saturated Berea sandstone plug and second in the bulk. In both cases it appeared that nucleation was needed to begin the formation process, i.e., the presence of surfaces in the sandstone and shaking of the bulk solution. Dissociation appeared to be dominated by the rate of thermal energy transfer. The dissociation temperature of hydrate formed in the sandstone plug was not significantly different from the dissociation temperature in bulk.

  18. Isotope effects in photo dissociation of ozone with visible light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Früchtl, Marion; Janssen, Christof; Röckmann, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Ozone (O3) plays a key role for many chemical oxidation processes in the Earth's atmosphere. In these chemical reactions, ozone can transfer oxygen to other trace gases. This is particularly interesting, since O3 has a very peculiar isotope composition. Following the mass dependent fractionation equation δ17O = 0.52 * δ18O, most fractionation processes depend directly on mass. However, O3 shows an offset to the mass dependent fractionation line. Processes, which show such anomalies, are termed mass independent fractionations (MIF). A very well studied example for a chemical reaction that leads to mass independent fractionation is the O3 formation reaction. To what degree O3 destruction reactions need to be considered in order to understand the isotope composition of atmospheric O3 is still not fully understood and an open question within scientific community. We set up new experiments to investigate the isotope effect resulting from photo dissociation of O3 in the Chappuis band (R1). Initial O3 is produced by an electric discharge. After photolysis O3 is collected in a cold trap at the triple point temperature of nitrogen (63K). O3 is then converted to O2 in order to measure the oxygen isotopes of O3 using isotope ratio mass spectrometry. To isolate O3 photo dissociation (R1) from O3 decomposition (R2) and secondary O3 formation (R3), we use varying amounts of carbon monoxide (CO) as O atom quencher (R4). In this way we suppress the O + O3 reaction (R3) and determine the isotope fractionation in R1 and R2 separately. We present first results on the isotope effects in O3 photo dissociation with visible light in the presence of different bath gases. Results are interpreted based on chemical kinetics modeling. (R1) O3 + hυ → O (3P) + O2 (R2) O3 + O (3P) → 2 O2 (R3) O + O2 + M → O3 + M (R4) O (3P) + CO + M → CO2 + M

  19. Smooth muscle cell-derived carbon monoxide is a regulator of vascular cGMP.

    OpenAIRE

    Morita, T.; Perrella, M A; Lee, M E; Kourembanas, S

    1995-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a product of the enzyme heme oxygenase (HO; EC 1.14.99.3). In vascular smooth muscle cells, exogenously administered CO increases cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP), which is an important regulator of vessel tone. We report here that smooth muscle cells produce CO via HO and that it regulates cGMP levels in these cells. Hypoxia, which has profound effects on vessel tone, significantly increased the transcriptional rate of the HO-1 gene resulting in correspondi...

  20. Diurnal variation of stratospheric chlorine monoxide - A critical test of chlorine chemistry in the ozone layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, P. M.; De Zafra, R.; Parrish, A.; Barrett, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    Ground-based observations of a mm-wave spectral line at 278 GHz have yielded stratospheric chlorine monoxide column density diurnal variation records which indicate that the mixing ratio and column density of this compound above 30 km are about 20 percent lower than model predictions based on 2.1 parts/billion of total stratospheric chlorine. The observed day-to-night variation is, however, in good agreement with recent model predictions, both confirming the existence of a nighttime reservoir for chlorine and verifying the predicted general rate of its storage and retrieval.

  1. Gaseous hydrogen production by water dissociation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipovetsky, V.

    2003-04-01

    Gaseous hydrogen production is based on employment of the water dissociation process, intensified by action of a high water temperature and increase of the minus electric field, as a factor for water dissociation instead of electric current used in electrolysis. The water dissociation method makes it possible to produce concurrently both gaseous hydrogen and electric power in the operating reactor. The main power type used is thermal. (Author)

  2. Dissociative symptoms in female patients with mood and anxiety disorders: a psychopathological and temperamental investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersani, G; Moscariello, M A; Bersani, F S; Colletti, C; Anastasia, A; Prinzivalli, E; Valeriani, G; Salviati, M

    2014-01-01

    Dissociative symptoms are frequent among psychiatric patients and may considerably affect patients' psychopathological condition and treatment outcomes. The objectives of the study are to assess the presence of dissociative symptoms in female patients with mood and anxiety disorders, to investigate their correlation with the clinical severity of the disorders and to investigate those personality traits that are more frequent in patients with high levels of dissociation. 50 Caucasian females were enrolled in the study. Patients were assessed through the Self-Report Symptom Check-List, the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) and rating scales for Depression and Anxiety. The mean DES score in the overall sample was 16.6. 32% of patients had a DES score > 20. Depressive symptoms positively correlated with the DES total scores. Dissociator patients presented some significantly different temperamental characteristics in comparison with non dissociator patients. Dissociative symptoms are highly present in patients with mood and anxiety disorders and correlate with the severity of depressive symptoms. Specific personality traits more frequently observed in dissociator people may represent predisposing factors; their early identification could be clinically relevant.

  3. Empirical testing of criteria for dissociative schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laferrière-Simard, Marie-Christine; Lecomte, Tania; Ahoundova, Lola

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the validity of dissociative schizophrenia diagnostic criteria. In the first phase, 50 participants with a psychotic disorder were administered the Dissociative Experiences Scale and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire to identify those with dissociative characteristics. In the second phase, we selected those who had a score of 15 or above on the Dissociative Experiences Scale. Fifteen of these participants were evaluated thoroughly with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II, and Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders to determine whether they met the criteria for dissociative schizophrenia and to generate a clinical description. Our results indicated that 24% of the individuals we tested met these criteria. We propose making mandatory 1 of the 3 dissociative symptoms of the criteria to eliminate people with only nonspecific symptoms (e.g., extensive comorbidity). According to this modified criterion, 14% of our sample would receive a diagnosis of dissociative schizophrenia. However, a more comprehensive look at the clinical picture begs the question of whether dissociative schizophrenia is truly present in every person meeting the criteria. We discuss the relevance of creating a new schizophrenia subtype and offer recommendations for clinicians.

  4. Dissociative disorders and suicidality in psychiatric outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Brad; Smolin, Yvette; Neft, Deborah I; Lipschitz, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    Although it is common for patients with dissociative disorders to report a history of suicide attempts, there is very little data systematically comparing suicidality in patients with dissociative disorders versus patients without these disorders. The subjects in our study were 231 patients consecutively admitted to an inner-city, hospital-based outpatient psychiatric clinic. Eighty-two of these patients completed structured interviews for dissociative disorders, borderline personality disorder, and trauma history (dissociative disorders interview schedule) and for posttraumatic stress disorder and substance abuse (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV). Patients receiving a dissociative disorder diagnosis were compared with nondissociative patients on measures of self-harm and suicidality. Presence of a dissociative disorder was strongly associated with all measures of self-harm and suicidality. When we focused on patients with a history of multiple suicide attempts, significant associations were found between several diagnoses (dissociative disorder; borderline personality disorder; posttraumatic stress disorder; alcohol abuse/dependence) and multiple suicide attempter status. When these diagnoses were entered in a logistic regression, a highly significant association remained for dissociative diagnosis and multiple suicide attempter status (odds ratio, 15.09; 95% confidence interval, 2.67-85.32; p = 0.002). Dissociative disorders are commonly overlooked in studies of suicidality, but in this population they were the strongest predictor of multiple suicide attempter status.

  5. [Massive poisoning with carbon monoxide: an update from a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Mariano; Crapanzano, Gabriel; Cabrerizo, Silvia; Aichele, Cristina; Deurtiaga, Alejandra; Vallejos, Yamila

    2017-02-01

    Carbon monoxide is known as the "silent murderer" because it is a colorless and odorless gas. According to these characteristics, toxicity goes unnoticed which makes the diagnosis difficult. In most cases, the cold periods and group poisoning make suspect its presence because inappropriate heat both in home or public environments. Our goal is to inform about a mass carbon monoxide poisoning in a children's parties room using a combustion source installed, not for the purpose of heating, but as a supply of light (generator), emphasizing that it can occur in any time of the year.

  6. Structural and magnetic properties of mechanochemically synthesized nanocrystalline titanium monoxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barudžija Tanja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nano-sized titanium monoxide (TiO powder was prepared by mechanochemical synthesis. A mixture of commercial Ti and TiO2 (rutile powders with the molar ratio of 1:1 was milled in a planetary ball mill for 5, 10, 20, 30 and 60 min under argon atmosphere. The final single-phase titanium monoxide sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, magnetic measurements using a superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer (SQUID and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The temperature dependency of the magnetic susceptibility is characterized by significant contribution of Pauli paramagnetism due to conduction electrons.

  7. Dissociative symptoms and dissociative disorder comorbidity in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belli, Hasan; Ural, Cenk; Vardar, Melek Kanarya; Yesılyurt, Sema; Oncu, Fatıh

    2012-10-01

    The present study attempted to assess the dissociative symptoms and overall dissociative disorder comorbidity in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In addition, we examined the relationship between the severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms and dissociative symptoms. All patients admitted for the first time to the psychiatric outpatient unit were included in the study. Seventy-eight patients had been diagnosed as having OCD during the 2-year study period. Patients had to meet the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria for OCD. Most (76.9%; n = 60) of the patients were female, and 23.1% (n = 18) of the patients were male. Dissociation Questionnaire was used to measure dissociative symptoms. The Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Dissociative Disorders interviews and Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Checklist and Severity Scale were used. Eleven (14%) of the patients with OCD had comorbid dissociative disorder. The most prevalent disorder in our study was dissociative depersonalization disorder. Dissociative amnesia and dissociative identity disorder were common as well. The mean Yale-Brown score was 23.37 ± 7.27 points. Dissociation Questionnaire scores were between 0.40 and 3.87 points, and the mean was 2.23 ± 0.76 points. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between Yale-Brown points and Dissociation Questionnaire points. We conclude that dissociative symptoms among patients with OCD should alert clinicians for the presence of a chronic and complex dissociative disorder. Clinicians may overlook an underlying dissociative process in patients who have severe symptoms of OCD. However, a lack of adequate response to cognitive-behavioral and drug therapy may be a consequence of dissociative process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Carbon monoxide exchange and partitioning of a managed mountain meadow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerle, Albin; Kitz, Florian; Spielmann, Felix; Gerdel, Katharina; Wohlfahrt, Georg

    2016-04-01

    With an average mole fraction of 100 ppb carbon monoxide (CO) plays a critical role in atmospheric chemistry and thus has an indirect global warming potential. While sources/sinks of CO on land at least partially cancel out each other, the magnitude of CO sources and sinks is highly uncertain. Even if direct CO fluxes from/to land ecosystems are very much likely clearly lower in magnitude compared to anthropogenic emissions, biomass burning, emissions from chemical precursors and the OH sink, it may be premature to neglect any direct contributions of land ecosystems to the CO budget. In addition, changes in global climate and resulting changes in global productivity may require re-evaluating older data and assumptions. One major reason for the large uncertainty is a general scarcity of empirical data. An additional factor contributing to the uncertainty is the lack of ecosystem-scale CO exchange measurements, i.e. CO flux data that encompass all sources and sinks within an ecosystem. Here we present data on continuous eddy covariance measurements of CO-fluxes above a managed mountain grassland in combination with soil chamber flux measurements, within- and above-canopy concentration profiles and an inverse Lagrangian analysis to disentangle sinks and sources of CO. Results show the grassland ecosystem to be a net source for CO during daytime, with increasing flux rates at higher solar radiation. At night, if at all, the meadow is a slight sink for CO. The same holds true regarding the soil flux measurements. Additionally, a two-month rainout experiment revealed hardly any differences in CO soil fluxes between rainout- and control-plots unless extremely dry conditions were reached.

  9. A Southern Hemisphere atmospheric history of carbon monoxide from South Pole firn air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhulst, K. R.; Aydin, M.; Novelli, P. C.; Holmes, C. D.; Prather, M. J.; Saltzman, E. S.

    2013-12-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a reactive trace gas and is important to tropospheric photochemistry as a major sink of hydroxyl radicals (OH). Major sources of CO are fossil fuel combustion, linked mostly to automotive emissions, biomass burning, and oxidation of atmospheric methane. Understanding changes in carbon monoxide over the past century will improve our understanding of man's influence on the reactivity of the atmosphere. Little observational information is available about CO levels and emissions prior to the 1990s, particularly for the Southern Hemisphere. The NOAA global flask network provides the most complete instrumental record of CO, extending back to 1988. Annually averaged surface flask measurements suggest atmospheric CO levels at South Pole were relatively stable from 2004-2009 at about 51 nmol mol-1 [Novelli and Masarie, 2013]. In this study, a 20th century atmospheric history of CO is reconstructed from South Pole firn air measurements, using a 1-D firn air diffusion model. Firn air samples were collected in glass flasks from two adjacent holes drilled from the surface to 118 m at South Pole, Antarctica during the 2008/2009 field season and CO analysis was carried out by NOAA/CCG. Carbon monoxide levels increase from about 45 nmol mol-1 in the deepest firn sample at 116 m to 52 nmol mol-1 at 107 m, and remain constant at about 51-52 nmol mol-1 at shallower depths. Atmospheric histories based on the firn air reconstructions suggest that CO levels over Antarctica increased by roughly 40% (from about 36 to 50 nmol mol-1) between 1930-1990, at a rate of about 0.18 nmol mol-1 yr-1. Firn air and surface air results suggest the rate of CO increase at South Pole slowed considerably after 1990. The firn air-based atmospheric history is used to infer changes in Southern Hemisphere CO emissions over the 20th century.

  10. Oxygen isotope fractionation in the vacuum ultraviolet photodissociation of carbon monoxide: Wavelength, pressure and temperature dependency.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Subrata; Davis, Ryan; Ahmed, Musahid; Jackson, Teresa L.; Thiemens, Mark H.

    2012-01-03

    Several absorption bands exist in the VUV region of Carbon monoxide (CO). Emission spectra indicate that these bands are all predissociative. An experimental investigation of CO photodissociation by vacuum ultraviolet photons (90 to 108 nm; ~13 to 11 eV) from the Advanced Light Source Synchrotron and direct measurement of the associated oxygen isotopic composition of the products are presented here. A wavelength dependency of the oxygen isotopic composition in the photodissociation product was observed. Slope values (δ'{sup 18}O/ δ'{sup 17}O) ranging from 0.76 to 1.32 were observed in oxygen three-isotope space (δ'{sup 18}O vs. δ'{sup 17}O) which correlated with increasing synchrotron photon energy, and indicate a dependency of the upper electronic state specific dissociation dynamics (e.g., perturbation and coupling associated with a particular state). An unprecedented magnitude in isotope separation was observed for photodissociation at the 105 and 107 nm synchrotron bands and are found to be associated with accidental predissociation of the vibrational states ({nu} = 0 and 1) of the upper electronic state E{sup 1}Π. For each synchrotron band, a large (few hundred per mil) extent of isotopic fractionation was observed and the range of fractionation is a combination of column density and exposure time. A significant temperature dependency in oxygen isotopic fractionation was observed, indicating a rotational level dependency in the predissociation process.

  11. Carbon monoxide oxidation on Pt single crystal electrodes: understanding the catalysis for low temperature fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Gonzalo; Koper, Marc T M

    2011-08-01

    Herein the general concepts of fuel cells are discussed, with special attention to low temperature fuel cells working in alkaline media. Alkaline low temperature fuel cells could well be one of the energy sources in the next future. This technology has the potential to provide power to portable devices, transportation and stationary sectors. With the aim to solve the principal catalytic problems at the anode of low temperature fuel cells, a fundamental study of the mechanism and kinetics of carbon monoxide as well as water dissociation on stepped platinum surfaces in alkaline medium is discussed and compared with those in acidic media. Furthermore, cations involved as promoters for catalytic surface reactions are also considered. Therefore, the aim of the present work is not only to provide the new fundamental advances in the electrocatalysis field, but also to understand the reactions occurring at fuel cell catalysts, which may help to improve the fabrication of novel electrodes in order to enhance the performance and to decrease the cost of low temperature fuel cells.

  12. The Effects of Low Level Prenatal Carbon Monoxide on Neocortical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    378.1958). Ginsberg MD, Myers RE (Fetal brain damage following maternal carbon monoxide intoxication: an experimental study. Acta obstetricia et...monoxide production and blood loss at delivery. Acta obstetricia et gynecologica Scandinavica 48:362-370.1969). Longo LD (Carbon monoxide in the

  13. The dissociative recombination of fluorocarbon ions: II. CF{sup +}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novotny, O [PALMS, UMR No 6627 du CNRS, Universite de Rennes I, 35042 Rennes (France); Mitchell, J B A [PALMS, UMR No 6627 du CNRS, Universite de Rennes I, 35042 Rennes (France); LeGarrec, J L [PALMS, UMR No 6627 du CNRS, Universite de Rennes I, 35042 Rennes (France); Florescu-Mitchell, A I [PALMS, UMR No 6627 du CNRS, Universite de Rennes I, 35042 Rennes (France); Rebrion-Rowe, C [PALMS, UMR No 6627 du CNRS, Universite de Rennes I, 35042 Rennes (France); Svendsen, A [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); El Ghazaly, M A [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Andersen, L H [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Ehlerding, A [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, Alba Nova, SE-106 91, Stockholm (Sweden); Viggiano, A A [Air Force Research Laboratory, Space Vehicles Directorate, 29 Randolph Road, Hanscom AFB, MA 01731 (United States); Hellberg, F [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, Alba Nova, SE-106 91, Stockholm (Sweden); Thomas, R D [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, Alba Nova, SE-106 91, Stockholm (Sweden); Zhaunerchyk, V [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, Alba Nova, SE-106 91, Stockholm (Sweden); Geppert, W D [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, Alba Nova, SE-106 91, Stockholm (Sweden); Montaigne, H [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, Alba Nova, SE-106 91, Stockholm (Sweden); Kaminska, M [Swietokrzyska Academy, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Oesterdahl, F [Department of Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, Alba Nova, SE-106 91, Stockholm (Sweden); Larsson, M [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, Alba Nova, SE-106 91, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-05-28

    The dissociative recombination and excitation of CF{sup +} have been measured at the ASTRID and CRYRING storage rings. Though examination of the available potential energy curves would suggest that the recombination rate would be large for this ion, in fact a rate constant of 5.2 {+-} 1.0 x 10{sup -8} (T{sub e}/300){sup -0.8} cm{sup 3} s{sup -1} was found. The recombination cross section at low energies falls off to a minimum at 0.5 eV centre-of-mass collision energy but exhibits resonances at energies above this. The dissociative excitation cross section leading to C{sup +} + F was also measured and this displays an onset beginning at about 7 eV.

  14. Trajectory study of dissociation reactions. The single-ensemble method. II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutz, H. Douglas; Burns, George

    1981-04-01

    The single uniform ensemble method was previously employed in 3D classical trajectory calculations [H. D. Kutz and G. Burns, J. Chem. Phys. 72, 3652 (1980)]. Presently it is applied to the Br2+Ar system to study nonequilbrium effects in diatom dissociation over a wide temperature range. It was found that, for a given large set of trajectories, observables, such as reaction cross sections or rate constants, are indepedent within four significant figures of the initial distribution function. This indicates a high degree of reliability of the single uniform ensemble method, once the choice of a set of trajectories is made. In order to study dissociation from the low lying energy states, the uniform velocity selection method in trajectory calculations was used. It was found that dissociation from these states contributes but little to the overall dissociation reaction. The latter finding is consistent with the attractive nature of the potential energy surface used, and constitutes an argument against those current theories of diatom dissociation reaction which explains experimental data by postulating a high probability of dissociation from low lying energy states of diatoms. It was found that the contribution from the low lying states to dissociation can be estimated with good accuracy using information theory expressions. Temperature dependence of nonequilibrium effects was investigated between 1 500 and 6 000 °K. In this range the nonequilibrium correction factor varies between 0.2 and 0.5. Angular momentum dependence of such observables as reaction rate constant and reaction cross section was investigated.

  15. The influence of porosity and structural parameters on different kinds of gas hydrate dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misyura, S Y

    2016-07-22

    Methane hydrate dissociation at negative temperatures was studied experimentally for different artificial and natural samples, differing by macro- and micro-structural parameters. Four characteristic dissociation types are discussed in the paper. The internal kinetics of artificial granule gas hydrates and clathrate hydrates in coal is dependent on the porosity, defectiveness and gas filtration rate. The density of pores distribution in the crust of formed ice decreases by the several orders of magnitude and this change significantly the rate of decay. Existing models for describing dissociation at negative temperatures do not take into account the structural parameters of samples. The dissociation is regulated by internal physical processes that must be considered in the simulation. Non-isothermal dissociation with constant external heat flux was simulated numerically. The dissociation is simulated with consideration of heat and mass transfer, kinetics of phase transformation and gas filtering through a porous medium of granules for the negative temperatures. It is shown that the gas hydrate dissociation in the presence of mainly microporous structures is fundamentally different from the disintegration of gas hydrates containing meso and macropores.

  16. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Amharic (amarunya) Arabic (العربية) Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) French (français) ... Kiswahili) Tagalog (Tagalog) Tigrinya (tigrinya) Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) Amharic (amarunya) Prevention Guidelines: You Can Prevent Carbon Monoxide ...

  17. Pathways and bioenergetics of anaerobic carbon monoxide fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diender, Martijn; Stams, Fons; Machado de Sousa, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Carbon monoxide can act as a substrate for different modes of fermentative anaerobic metabolism. The trait of utilizing CO is spread among a diverse group of microorganisms, including members of bacteria as well as archaea. Over the last decade this metabolism has gained interest due to the poten

  18. UV-induced carbon monoxide emission from living vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Dan; Albert, Kristian Rost; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard

    2013-01-01

    The global burden of carbon monoxide (CO) is rather uncertain. In this paper we address the potential for UV-induced CO emission by living terrestrial vegetation surfaces. Real-time measurements of CO concentrations were made with a cavity enhanced laser spectrometer connected in closed loop...

  19. Study on Response Time of SPE Carbon Monoxide Sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The influence of structural design and the parameters of the working electrode on the response time of a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) carbon monoxide sensor has been studied. Results show that the response time is mainly determined by the RC time constant of the catalyst layer and also related with the working electrode potential.

  20. Carbon monoxide : A quantitative tracer for fossil fuel CO2?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gamnitzer, Ulrike; Karstens, Ute; Kromer, Bernd; Neubert, Rolf E. M.; Meijer, Harro A. J.; Schroeder, Hartwig; Levin, Ingeborg

    2006-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and radiocarbon ((CO2)-C-14) measurements have been made in Heidelberg from 2001 to 2004 in order to determine the regional fossil fuel CO2 component and to investigate the application of CO as a quantitative tracer for fossil fuel CO2 (CO2(foss)). The obs

  1. Hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and methane in the marine environment

    OpenAIRE

    Bullister, John Logan

    1980-01-01

    EXTRACT (SEE PDF FOR FULL ABSTRACT): The horizontal and vertical distribution of three dissolved trace gases, namely molecular hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and methane, was measured in coastal and oceanic areas. Atmospheric concentrations of these gases were measured both at locations influenced by nearby human activity, and in areas far removed from these inputs.

  2. Carbon monoxide poisoning mimicking long-QT induced syncope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.M. Onvlee-Dekker (Irene); A.C.H. de Vries (Andrica); A.D.J. ten Harkel (Arend)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractCarbon monoxide (CO)poisoning is a rare cause of QT prolongation, and is therefore easily missed. The case of a patient with unexplained syncope and QT prologation on the electrocardiogram that turned out to be related to CO poisoning is reported here. In patients with QT prolongation,

  3. Optimization of Treatment Policy for Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. N. Akalayev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the efficiency of combination use of hyperbaric oxygenation, succinate-containing solutions, and anti-edematous agents in patients with acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Subjects and methods. The results of treatment were analyzed in 32 patients admitted in 2009—2011 for severe acute carbon monoxide poisoning and a Glasgow coma score of 6—8. The patients were divided into 2 groups: 1 patients whose combination therapy involved hyperbaric oxygenation, Succinasol infusions, and L-lysine-aescinate injections; 2 those who received traditional therapy. All the patients underwent complex clinical, laboratory, and neurophysiologic examinations. Results. Just 24 hours after the combination use of Succinasol and L-lysine-aescinate, Group I patients were observed to have substantially reduced lactate, the content of the latter approached the normal value following 48 hours, which was much below the values in the control group. The similar pattern was observed when endogenous intoxication parameters were examined. During the performed therapy, the level of consciousness and that of intellect according to the MMSE and FAB scales were restored more rapidly in the study group patients than in Group 2. Conclusion. The combination use of hyperbaric oxygenation, the succinate-containing solution Succinasol, and the anti-edematous agent L-lysine-aescinate considerably enhances the efficiency of intensive therapy for acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Key words: carbon monoxide, toxic hypoxic encephalopathy, combination therapy, hyperbaric oxygenation, succinic acid, L-lysine-aescinate.

  4. Coulomb dissociation of N-20,N-21

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roeder, Marko; Adachi, Tatsuya; Aksyutina, Yulia; Alcantara, Juan; Altstadt, Sebastian; Alvarez-Pol, Hector; Ashwood, Nicholas; Atar, Leyla; Aumann, Thomas; Avdeichikov, Vladimir; Barr, M.; Beceiro, Saul; Bemmerer, Daniel; Benlliure, Jose; Bertulani, Carlos; Boretzky, Konstanze; Borge, Maria J. G.; Burgunder, G.; Caamano, Manuel; Caesar, Christoph; Casarejos, Enrique; Catford, Wilton; Cederkall, Joakim; Chakraborty, S.; Chartier, Marielle; Chulkov, Leonid; Cortina-Gil, Dolores; Crespo, Raquel; Pramanik, Ushasi Datta; Diaz-Fernandez, Paloma; Dillmann, Iris; Elekes, Zoltan; Enders, Joachim; Ershova, Olga; Estrade, A.; Farinon, F.; Fraile, Luis M.; Freer, Martin; Freudenberger, M.; Fynbo, Hans; Galaviz, Daniel; Geissel, Hans; Gernhaeuser, Roman; Goebel, Kathrin; Golubev, Pavel; Diaz, D. Gonzalez; Hagdahl, Julius; Heftrich, Tanja; Heil, Michael; Heine, Marcel; Heinz, Andreas; Henriques, Ana; Holl, Matthias; Ickert, G.; Ignatov, Alexander; Jakobsson, Bo; Johansson, Hakan; Jonson, Bjorn; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, Nasser; Kanungo, Rituparna; Kelic-Heil, Aleksandra; Knoebel, Ronja; Kroell, Thorsten; Kruecken, Reiner; Kurcewicz, J.; Kurz, Nikolaus; Labiche, Marc; Langer, Christoph; Le Bleis, Tudi; Lemmon, Roy; Lepyoshkina, Olga; Lindberg, Simon; Machado, Jorge; Marganiec, Justyna; Mostazo Caro, Magdalena; Movsesyan, Alina; Najafi, Mohammad Ali; Nilsson, Thomas; Nociforo, Chiara; Panin, Valerii; Paschalis, Stefanos; Perea, Angel; Petri, Marina; Pietri, S.; Plag, Ralf; Prochazka, A.; Rahaman, Md. Anisur; Rastrepina, Ganna; Reifarth, Rene; Ribeiro, Guillermo; Ricciardi, M. Valentina; Rigollet, Catherine; Riisager, Karsten; Rossi, Dominic; del Rio Saez, Jose Sanchez; Savran, Deniz; Scheit, Heiko; Simon, Haik; Sorlin, Olivier; Stoica, V.; Streicher, Branislav; Taylor, Jon; Tengblad, Olof; Terashima, Satoru; Thies, Ronja; Togano, Yasuhiro; Uberseder, Ethan; Van de Walle, J.; Velho, Paulo; Volkov, Vasily; Wagner, Andreas; Wamers, Felix; Weick, Helmut; Weigand, Mario; Wheldon, Carl; Wilson, G.; Wimmer, Christine; Winfield, J. S.; Woods, Philip; Yakorev, Dmitry; Zhukov, Mikhail; Zilges, Andreas; Zuber, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Neutron-rich light nuclei and their reactions play an important role in the creation of chemical elements. Here, data from a Coulomb dissociation experiment on N-20,N-21 are reported. Relativistic N-20,N-21 ions impinged on a lead target and the Coulomb dissociation cross section was determined in a

  5. Dissociation and the Development of Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Frank W.; Trickett, Penelope K.

    This paper reviews the research on dissociation and the development of psychopathology in children and adolescents. Definitions and dimensions of dissociation are addressed, noting its range from normative daydreaming to the extremes found in individuals with multiple personality disorder. Memory dysfunctions, disturbances of identity, passive…

  6. Dissociation of dicarboxylate and disulfonate dianions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ard, S.; Mirsaleh-Kohan, N.; Steill, J. D.; Oomens, J.; Nielsen, S. B.; Compton, R. N.

    2010-01-01

    Collision-induced dissociation (CID), along with infrared multiple photon dissociation/detachment (IRMPD) techniques, is utilized to study a series of doubly substituted aromatic dianions containing sulfonate and carboxylate functionalities (1,2- and 1,3-benzenedisulfonate, 1,5-naphthalenedisulfonat

  7. Dissociative depression among women in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sar, Vedat; Akyüz, Gamze; Oztürk, Erdinç; Alioğlu, Firdevs

    2013-01-01

    This study screened the prevalence and correlates of dissociative disorders among depressive women in the general population. The Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule and the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and borderline personality disorder sections of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV were administered to 628 women in 500 homes. The prevalence of current major depressive episode was 10.0%. Of the women, 26 (40.6%) had the lifetime diagnosis of a DSM-IV, dissociative disorder, yielding a prevalence of 4.1% for dissociative depression. This group was younger (mean age = 30.7 years) than the nondissociative depression women (mean age = 39.6 years). There was no difference between the 2 groups on comorbid somatization disorder, PTSD, or borderline personality disorder. Besides suicide attempts, the dissociative group was characterized by secondary features of dissociative identity disorder; Schneiderian symptoms; borderline personality disorder criteria; and extrasensory perceptions, including possession experiences. They reported suicidality, thoughts of guilt and worthlessness, diminished concentration and indecisiveness, and appetite and weight changes more frequently than the nondissociative group. Early cessation of school education and childhood sexual abuse were frequently reported by the dissociative depression group. With its distinct features, the concept of dissociative depression may facilitate understanding of treatment resistance in, development of better psychotherapy strategies for, and new thinking on the neurobiology and pharmacotherapy of depressive disorders.

  8. Coulomb dissociation of N-20,N-21

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roeder, Marko; Adachi, Tatsuya; Aksyutina, Yulia; Alcantara, Juan; Altstadt, Sebastian; Alvarez-Pol, Hector; Ashwood, Nicholas; Atar, Leyla; Aumann, Thomas; Avdeichikov, Vladimir; Barr, M.; Beceiro, Saul; Bemmerer, Daniel; Benlliure, Jose; Bertulani, Carlos; Boretzky, Konstanze; Borge, Maria J. G.; Burgunder, G.; Caamano, Manuel; Caesar, Christoph; Casarejos, Enrique; Catford, Wilton; Cederkall, Joakim; Chakraborty, S.; Chartier, Marielle; Chulkov, Leonid; Cortina-Gil, Dolores; Crespo, Raquel; Pramanik, Ushasi Datta; Diaz-Fernandez, Paloma; Dillmann, Iris; Elekes, Zoltan; Enders, Joachim; Ershova, Olga; Estrade, A.; Farinon, F.; Fraile, Luis M.; Freer, Martin; Freudenberger, M.; Fynbo, Hans; Galaviz, Daniel; Geissel, Hans; Gernhaeuser, Roman; Goebel, Kathrin; Golubev, Pavel; Diaz, D. Gonzalez; Hagdahl, Julius; Heftrich, Tanja; Heil, Michael; Heine, Marcel; Heinz, Andreas; Henriques, Ana; Holl, Matthias; Ickert, G.; Ignatov, Alexander; Jakobsson, Bo; Johansson, Hakan; Jonson, Bjorn; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, Nasser; Kanungo, Rituparna; Kelic-Heil, Aleksandra; Knoebel, Ronja; Kroell, Thorsten; Kruecken, Reiner; Kurcewicz, J.; Kurz, Nikolaus; Labiche, Marc; Langer, Christoph; Le Bleis, Tudi; Lemmon, Roy; Lepyoshkina, Olga; Lindberg, Simon; Machado, Jorge; Marganiec, Justyna; Mostazo Caro, Magdalena; Movsesyan, Alina; Najafi, Mohammad Ali; Nilsson, Thomas; Nociforo, Chiara; Panin, Valerii; Paschalis, Stefanos; Perea, Angel; Petri, Marina; Pietri, S.; Plag, Ralf; Prochazka, A.; Rahaman, Md. Anisur; Rastrepina, Ganna; Reifarth, Rene; Ribeiro, Guillermo; Ricciardi, M. Valentina; Rigollet, Catherine; Riisager, Karsten; Rossi, Dominic; del Rio Saez, Jose Sanchez; Savran, Deniz; Scheit, Heiko; Simon, Haik; Sorlin, Olivier; Stoica, V.; Streicher, Branislav; Taylor, Jon; Tengblad, Olof; Terashima, Satoru; Thies, Ronja; Togano, Yasuhiro; Uberseder, Ethan; Van de Walle, J.; Velho, Paulo; Volkov, Vasily; Wagner, Andreas; Wamers, Felix; Weick, Helmut; Weigand, Mario; Wheldon, Carl; Wilson, G.; Wimmer, Christine; Winfield, J. S.; Woods, Philip; Yakorev, Dmitry; Zhukov, Mikhail; Zilges, Andreas; Zuber, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Neutron-rich light nuclei and their reactions play an important role in the creation of chemical elements. Here, data from a Coulomb dissociation experiment on N-20,N-21 are reported. Relativistic N-20,N-21 ions impinged on a lead target and the Coulomb dissociation cross section was determined in a

  9. [Dissociative disorder and self-injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noma, Shun'ichi

    2011-01-01

    Both the number of patients with dissociative disorder and that of those with self-injury have been increasing since the end of the twentieth century, suggesting that dissociation and self-injury might be closely related. When dissociative disorder coexists with self-injury, it implies self-punishment and a wish to be understood by others. Although many cases of self-injury observed since 2000 lacked traumatic experiences and were not accompanied by pathological dissociative symptoms, the patients did have dissociative tendencies. According to the results of our study examining self-injury in patients with eating disorders, we observed that self-injury, dissociative tendency and insulation from others are related to each other. This suggests that affects, sensations and representations are dissociated, losing their normal response order, and that the pervasive idea that "pain=secure" is formed in a patient from childhood based on influence from their parents. Self-injury appears to be an activation of this pervasive idea that is triggered by a stressful situation, when the dissociative psychological segmentation of effects and their representations are present in the background.

  10. Cognitive and dissociative manifestations in fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, Frank; Katz, Robert S; Mills, Megan; Heard, Amy R

    2002-04-01

    Memory decline and mental confusion frequently complicate the clinical presentation of fibromyalgia; however, formal cognitive examination often does not support deterioration. This paradox was examined in the context of dissociation, a condition with many cognitive similarities. Dissociation refers to the separation of parts of experience from the mainstream of consciousness. A common example is highway hypnosis. Eighty-nine fibromyalgia (FM) patients and 64 other rheumatic disease patients were screened for memory decline and mental confusion using a questionnaire format. Pain, dissociation, affective distress, fatigue, sleep difficulty, and mental confusion were also assessed. Cognitive complaints (76.4%-43.8%) and dissociative symptoms (37.1%-1.9%) were overrepresented in patients with FM. Among FM patients with high dissociation, cognitive difficulties were reported by 95%; 100% of these cases reported that both memory and mental clarity were affected, a condition referred to as fibrofog. Dissociation in combination with fibrofog was associated with higher levels of FM symptom intensity and decreased mental well being. These findings suggest that dissociation may play a role in FM symptom amplification and may aid in comprehending the regularity of cognitive symptoms. Separating cases of fibrofog from cognitive conditions with actual brain damage is important. It may be prudent to add a test of dissociation as an adjunct to the evaluation of FM patients in cases of suspected fibrofog. Otherwise, test results may prove normal even in patients with disabling cognitive symptoms.

  11. Real-time, high-throughput measurements of peptide-MHC-I dissociation using a scintillation proximity assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harndahl, Mikkel; Rasmussen, Michael; Røder, Gustav Andreas;

    2011-01-01

    timed data needed to determine the rate of dissociation is not simple. Ideally, one should use a homogenous assay involving an inexhaustible and label-free assay principle. Here, we present a homogenous, high-throughput peptide-MHC class I dissociation assay, which by and large fulfill these ideal...... requirements. To avoid labeling of the highly variable peptide, we labeled the invariant ß2m and monitored its dissociation by a scintillation proximity assay, which has no separation steps and allows for real-time quantitative measurement of dissociation. Validating this work-around to create a virtually...

  12. Investigation of intense femto-second laser ionization and dissociation of methane with time-dependent density-functional approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irani, E.; Sadighi-Bonabi, R.; Anvari, A.

    2014-06-01

    Three dimensional calculations of electronic dynamics of CH4 in a strong laser field are presented with time-dependent density-functional theory. Time evolution of dipole moment and electron localization function is presented. The dependence of dissociation rate on the laser characters is shown and optimal effective parameters are evaluated. The optimum field leads to 76% dissociation probability for GAUSSIAN envelope and 40 fs (FWHM) at 1016 W cm-2. The dissociation probability is calculated by optimum convolution of dual short pulses. By combining of field assisted dissociation process and Ehrenfest molecular dynamics, time variation of bond length, velocity and orientation effect are investigated.

  13. Tracking potentiating states of dissociation: An intensive clinical case study of sleep, daydreaming, mood, and depersonalization/derealization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Lara Poerio

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examined in real time the role of sleep and daydreaming as potentiating states for subsequent dissociation in depersonalization/derealization disorder (DDD. Research and theory suggests that dissociation may be exacerbated and maintained by a labile sleep-wake cycle in which ‘dream-like’ mentation intrudes into waking life and fuels dissociative symptoms. We explore and extend this idea by examining the state of daydreaming in dissociation. Daydreaming is a state of consciousness between dreaming and waking cognition that involves stimulus-independent and task-unrelated mentation. We report the results of a unique intensive N=1 study with an individual meeting diagnostic criteria for DDD. Using experience-sampling methodology, the participant rated (six times daily for 40 days current daydreaming, mood, and dissociative symptoms. At the start of each day sleep quality and duration was also rated. Daydreaming was reported on 45% of occasions and significantly predicted greater dissociation, in particular when daydreams were repetitive and negative (but not fanciful in content. These relationships were mediated by feelings of depression and anxiety. Sleep quality but not duration was a negative predictor of daily dissociation and also negatively predicted depression but not anxiety. Findings offer initial evidence that the occurrence and content of daydreams may act as potentiating states for heightened, in the moment, dissociation. The treatment implications of targeting sleep and daydreaming for dissociative disorders are discussed.

  14. Dissociative disorders and other psychopathological groups: exploring the differences through the Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire (SDQ-20).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral do Espirito Santo, Helena Maria; Pio-Abreu, José Luís

    2007-12-01

    The Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire is a self-report questionnaire that has proven to be a reliable and valid instrument. The objectives of this study were to validate the Portuguese version and to determine its capability to distinguish patients with dissociative disorders from others with psychopathological disorders. 234 patients answered the translated version of Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire. The Portuguese Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule was used to validate clinical diagnosis. Patients with dissociative disorder (n = 113) were compared to a control group of 121 patients with various anxiety and depression disorders. Reliability measured by Cronbach's a was 0.88. The best performance of the Portuguese form was at a cut-off point of 35, which distinguishes between dissociative disorder and neurotic disorders with a good diagnostic efficacy (sensitivity = 0.73). The somatoform dissociation was significantly more frequent in dissociative disorder patients, conversion disorder patients and post-traumatic stress disorder patients. These findings suggest that dissociative disorders can be differentiated from other psychiatric disorders through somatoform dissociation. The Portuguese version of the Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire has fine psychometric features that sustain its cross-cultural validity.

  15. The Shutdown Dissociation Scale (Shut-D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Schalinski

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The evolutionary model of the defense cascade by Schauer and Elbert (2010 provides a theoretical frame for a short interview to assess problems underlying and leading to the dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder. Based on known characteristics of the defense stages “fright,” “flag,” and “faint,” we designed a structured interview to assess the vulnerability for the respective types of dissociation. Most of the scales that assess dissociative phenomena are designed as self-report questionnaires. Their items are usually selected based on more heuristic considerations rather than a theoretical model and thus include anything from minor dissociative experiences to major pathological dissociation. The shutdown dissociation scale (Shut-D was applied in several studies in patients with a history of multiple traumatic events and different disorders that have been shown previously to be prone to symptoms of dissociation. The goal of the present investigation was to obtain psychometric characteristics of the Shut-D (including factor structure, internal consistency, retest reliability, predictive, convergent and criterion-related concurrent validity.A total population of 225 patients and 68 healthy controls were accessed. Shut-D appears to have sufficient internal reliability, excellent retest reliability, high convergent validity, and satisfactory predictive validity, while the summed score of the scale reliably separates patients with exposure to trauma (in different diagnostic groups from healthy controls.The Shut-D is a brief structured interview for assessing the vulnerability to dissociate as a consequence of exposure to traumatic stressors. The scale demonstrates high-quality psychometric properties and may be useful for researchers and clinicians in assessing shutdown dissociation as well as in predicting the risk of dissociative responding.

  16. The Shutdown Dissociation Scale (Shut-D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalinski, Inga; Schauer, Maggie; Elbert, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The evolutionary model of the defense cascade by Schauer and Elbert (2010) provides a theoretical frame for a short interview to assess problems underlying and leading to the dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder. Based on known characteristics of the defense stages “fright,” “flag,” and “faint,” we designed a structured interview to assess the vulnerability for the respective types of dissociation. Most of the scales that assess dissociative phenomena are designed as self-report questionnaires. Their items are usually selected based on more heuristic considerations rather than a theoretical model and thus include anything from minor dissociative experiences to major pathological dissociation. The shutdown dissociation scale (Shut-D) was applied in several studies in patients with a history of multiple traumatic events and different disorders that have been shown previously to be prone to symptoms of dissociation. The goal of the present investigation was to obtain psychometric characteristics of the Shut-D (including factor structure, internal consistency, retest reliability, predictive, convergent and criterion-related concurrent validity). A total population of 225 patients and 68 healthy controls were accessed. Shut-D appears to have sufficient internal reliability, excellent retest reliability, high convergent validity, and satisfactory predictive validity, while the summed score of the scale reliably separates patients with exposure to trauma (in different diagnostic groups) from healthy controls. The Shut-D is a brief structured interview for assessing the vulnerability to dissociate as a consequence of exposure to traumatic stressors. The scale demonstrates high-quality psychometric properties and may be useful for researchers and clinicians in assessing shutdown dissociation as well as in predicting the risk of dissociative responding. PMID:25976478

  17. Is the dissociative adult suggestible? A test of the trauma and fantasy models of dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluemper, Nicole S; Dalenberg, Constance

    2014-01-01

    Psychologists have long assumed a connection between traumatic experience and psychological dissociation. This hypothesis is referred to as the trauma model of dissociation. In the past decade, a series of papers have been published that question this traditional causal link, proposing an alternative fantasy model of dissociation. In the present research, the relationship among dissociation, suggestibility, and fantasy proneness was examined. Suggestibility was measured through the Gudjonsson Scale of Interrogative Suggestibility (GSS) as well as an autobiographically based version of this measure based on the events of September 11, 2001. Consistent with prior research and with the trauma model, dissociation correlated positively with trauma severity (r = .32, p fantasy proneness (r = .60, p fantasy model, dissociation did not correlate with the neutral form of the GSS and correlated negatively (r = -.24, p fantasy model of dissociation.

  18. Mechanism and Kinetics Analysis of NO/SO2/N2/O2 Dissociation Reactions in Non-Thermal Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xinliang; LI Tingting; WEI Dongxiang; WEI Yanli; GU Fan

    2008-01-01

    The kinetics mechanism of the dissociation reactions in a NO/SO2/N2/O2 system was investigated in consideration of energetic electrons' impacts on a non-thermal plasma. A model was derived from the Boltzmann equation and molecule collision theory to predict the dissociation reaction rate coefficients. Upon comparison with available literature, the model was confirmed to be acceptably accurate in general. Several reaction rate coefficients of the NO/SO2/N2/O2 dissociation system were derived according to the Arrhenius formula. The activation energies of each plasma reaction were calculated by quantum chemistry methods. The relation between the dissociation reaction rate coefficient and electron temperature was established to describe the importance of each reaction and to predict relevant processes of gaseous chemical reactions. The sensitivity of the mechanism of NO/SO2/N2/O2 dissociation reaction in a non-thermal plasma was also analysed.

  19. 金纳多对急性一氧化碳中毒迟发性脑病患者脑氧利用率和乳酸清除率的影响%Effects of Ginaton on cerebral oxygen utilization coefficients and lactate clearance rate in patients with delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王维展; 李伟; 齐洪娜; 肖青勉; 刘倩; 李敬; 马国营; 高珣; 李百艳; 刘永建

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveTo observe the effects of extract of Ginkgo biloba, Ginaton, on cerebral oxygen utilization coefficients (O2UCc) and lactate clearance rate (LCR) in patients with delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning (DEACMP).Methods The 196 patients with DEACMP admitted to Harrison International Peace Hospital Affiliated to Hebei Medical University from January 2011 to March 2016 were enrolled, and they were randomly divided into a control group and an observation group, 98 cases in each groups. The control group received routine treatments such as hyperbaric oxygen, measures to prevent and treat cerebral edema, and promote brain cell metabolism, etc routine therapies: while in the observation group, besides the above routine treatments, additionally intravenous drip of Ginaton 70 mg (with 0.9% sodium chloride injection 250 mL added), once a day, for consecutive 2 weeks to complete one therapeutic course. At ambient air, before treatment and 6, 24 and 72 hours after treatment, the O2UCc and LCR and the changes of mini-mental state examination (MMSE) score, clinical efficacy and hospital mortality were observed and compared between two groups. Pearson correlation test was used to analyze the correlations between O2UCc, LCR and MMSE score.Results On the day of admission before treatment, there were no differences in O2UCc, lactate and MMSE score between the two groups (allP > 0.05). At 6 hours, 24 hours after treatment, the levels of O2UCc in observation group were obviously lower than those in control group [6 hours: (40.64±9.50)% vs. (45.78±7.94)%, P = 0.000; 24 hours: (30.51±6.76)% vs. (33.34±8.19)%,P = 0.009], while the levels of LCR were significantly higher than those in control group [6 hours: (14.93±2.27)% vs. (11.45±1.88)%,P = 0.000; 24 hours: (19.86±3.42)% vs. (13.73±2.35)%,P = 0.009]. There were no statistical significant differences in O2UCc and LCR at 72 hours after treatment between the two groups (P > 0.05). The MMSE scores at

  20. Thermochemistry and Kinetic Analysis of the Unimolecular Oxiranyl Radical Dissociation Reaction: A Theoretical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Heng; Bozzelli, Joseph W

    2016-07-04

    Oxirane structures are important in organic synthesis, and they are important initial products in the oxidation reactions of alkyl radicals. The thermochemical properties (enthalpy of formation, entropy, and heat capacity) for the reaction steps of the unimolecular oxiranyl radical dissociation reaction are determined and compared with the available literature. The overall ring opening and subsequent steps involve four types of reactions: β-scission ring opening, intramolecular hydrogen transfer, β-scission hydrogen elimination, and β-scission methyl radical elimination. The enthalpies of formation of the transition states are determined and evaluated using six popular Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculation methods (B3LYP, B2PLYP, M06, M06-2X, ωB97X, ωB97XD), each combined with three different basis sets. The DFT enthalpy values are compared with five composite calculation methods (G3, G4, CBS-QB3, CBS-APNO, W1U), and by CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ. Kinetic parameters are determined versus pressure and temperature for the unimolecular dissociation pathways of an oxiranyl radical, which include the chemical activation reactions of the ring-opened oxiranyl radical relative to the ring-opening barrier. Multifrequency quantum Rice Ramsperger Kassel (QRRK) analysis is used to determine k(E) with master equation analysis for falloff. The major overall reaction pathway at lower combustion temperatures is oxiranyl radical dissociation to a methyl radical and carbon monoxide. Oxiranyl radical dissociation to a ketene and hydrogen atom is the key reaction path above 700 K.

  1. Psychotherapy and Pharmacotherapy for Patients with Dissociative Identity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Gentile, Julie P.; Dillon, Kristy S.; Gillig, Paulette Marie

    2013-01-01

    There is a wide variety of what have been called “dissociative disorders,” including dissociative amnesia, dissociative fugue, depersonalization disorder, dissociative identity disorder, and forms of dissociative disorder not otherwise specified. Some of these diagnoses, particularly dissociative identity disorder, are controversial and have been questioned by many clinicians over the years. The disorders may be under-diagnosed or misdiagnosed, but many persons who have experienced trauma rep...

  2. Theoretical study of the unimolecular dissociation of HCO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittier, Gregory Scott

    This thesis offers a detailed theoretical study of the unimolecular dissociation of formyl radical, HCO, which is an important intermediate in combustion chemistry. A quantum mechanical treatment of the dissociation of isolated HCO is presented along with a mixed quantum/classical study of the excitation and deexcitation of HCO in collisions of HCO with the bath gas Ar. The results are then used to model the kinetics of the collision-induced dissociation of HCO by Ar. Resonance states of HCO are calculated for total angular momentum J = 0, 1, and 3 using the artificial boundary inhomogeneity (ABI) method of Jang and Light [J. Chem. Phys. 102, 3262 (1995)]. Resonance energies and widths are determined by analyzing the Smith lifetime matrix. A resonance search algorithm and a method for resolving overlapping resonances are described. The accurate prediction of J = 3 resonances from J = 0 and 1 data is tested with good results for excited stretch resonance and less accurate results for bending resonances, demonstrating the degree of separability of vibration from overall rotation for these quasi-bound states. A quantum/classical time-dependent self-consistent field (Q/C TDSCF) approach is used to simulate the dynamics of collisions of Ar with HCO. State-to-state cross sections and thermal rate constants for vibrational transitions are presented. Using this model together with assumptions about the rotational energy transfer and a master equation treatment of the kinetics, the low-pressure thermal rate of collision-induced dissociation was calculated over the 300-4000 K temperature range. Comparison with experiment shows good agreement at high temperatures and poor agreement at low temperatures. The high temperature results were sufficient to obtain an Arrhenius expression for the rate that agrees with all experimental results of which we are aware.

  3. MDMA-Induced Dissociative State not Mediated by the 5-HT2A Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drew J. Puxty

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that a single dose of MDMA induce a dissociative state, by elevating feelings of depersonalization and derealization. Typically, it is assumed that action on the 5-HT2A receptor is the mechanism underlying these psychedelic experiences. In addition, other studies have shown associations between dissociative states and biological parameters (heart rate, cortisol, which are elevated by MDMA. In order to investigate the role of the 5-HT2 receptor in the MDMA-induced dissociative state and the association with biological parameters, a placebo-controlled within-subject study was conducted including a single oral dose of MDMA (75 mg, combined with placebo or a single oral dose of the 5-HT2 receptor blocker ketanserin (40 mg. Twenty healthy recreational MDMA users filled out a dissociative states scale (CADSS 90 min after treatments, which was preceded and followed by assessment of a number of biological parameters (cortisol levels, heart rate, MDMA blood concentrations. Findings showed that MDMA induced a dissociative state but this effect was not counteracted by pre-treatment with ketanserin. Heart rate was the only biological parameter that correlated with the MDMA-induced dissociative state, but an absence of correlation between these measures when participants were pretreated with ketanserin suggests an absence of directional effects of heart rate on dissociative state. It is suggested that the 5-HT2 receptor does not mediate the dissociative effects caused by a single dose of MDMA. Further research is needed to determine the exact neurobiology underlying this effect and whether these effects contribute to the therapeutic potential of MDMA.

  4. From state dissociation to status dissociatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antelmi, Elena; Ferri, Raffaele; Iranzo, Alex; Arnulf, Isabelle; Dauvilliers, Yves; Bhatia, Kailash P; Liguori, Rocco; Schenck, Carlos H; Plazzi, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    The states of being are conventionally defined by the simultaneous occurrence of behavioral, neurophysiological and autonomic descriptors. State dissociation disorders are due to the intrusion of features typical of a different state into an ongoing state. Disorders related to these conditions are classified according to the ongoing main state and comprise: 1) Dissociation from prevailing wakefulness as seen in hypnagogic or hypnopompic hallucinations, automatic behaviors, sleep drunkenness, cataplexy and sleep paralysis 2) Dissociation from rapid eye movement (REM) sleep as seen in REM sleep behavior disorder and lucid dreaming and 3) Dissociation from NREM sleep as seen in the disorders of arousal. The extreme expression of states dissociation is characterized by the asynchronous occurrence of the various components of the different states that prevents the recognition of any state of being. This condition has been named status dissociatus. According to the underlying disorders/diseases and to their severity, among status dissociatus we may recognize disorders in which such an extreme dissociation occurs only at night time or intermittently (i.e., autoimmune encephalopathies, narcolepsy type 1 and IgLON5 parasomnia), and others in which it occurs nearly continuously with complete loss of any conventionally defined state of being, and of the circadian pattern (agrypnia excitata). Here, we render a comprehensive review of all diseases/disorders associated with state dissociation and status dissociatus and propose a critical classification of this complex scenario.

  5. Dissociation in schizophrenia and borderline personality disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pec O

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ondrej Pec,1,2 Petr Bob,1,3 Jiri Raboch1 1Center for Neuropsychiatric Research of Traumatic Stress, Department of Psychiatry, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, 2Psychotherapeutic and Psychosomatic Clinic ESET, Prague, 3Central European Institute of Technology, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic Background: Dissociation likely plays a key role in schizophrenia and borderline personality disorder (BPD, although empirical studies that compare specific manifestations of these symptoms in schizophrenia and BPD are rare. In this context, the purpose of this study was to compare the occurrence of dissociative and other psychopathological symptoms in these disorders, and to assess the possible influence of antipsychotic medication on the dissociative symptoms. Methods: We assessed 31 patients with schizophrenia and 36 patients with BPD. Dissociative symptoms were measured by the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES, symptoms related to stress and traumatic experiences were assessed using the Trauma Symptom Checklist-40 (TSC-40, and other psychopathological symptoms were measured with the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales (HoNOS. We also assessed actual daily doses of antipsychotic medication in chlorpromazine equivalents in all participants. Results: The results show that symptoms of traumatic stress measured by the TSC-40 had significantly higher scores in the BPD group. The data also show that dissociative symptoms (DES were significantly correlated with symptoms of traumatic stress (TSC-40 and with symptoms assessed by the HoNOS. Remarkably significant correlations were found between levels of antipsychotic medication and the DES and between antipsychotic medication and the depersonalization/derealization component of the DES in BPD patients. Conclusion: The results support an important role of dissociative processes in schizophrenia and BPD and suggest a significant relationship between manifestations

  6. Dissociation in Psychiatric Disorders: A Meta-Analysis of Studies Using the Dissociative Experiences Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyssenko, Lisa; Schmahl, Christian; Bockhacker, Laura; Vonderlin, Ruben; Bohus, Martin; Kleindienst, Nikolaus

    2017-09-26

    Dissociation is a complex, ubiquitous construct in psychopathology. Symptoms of dissociation are present in a variety of mental disorders and have been connected to higher burden of illness and poorer treatment response, and not only in disorders with high levels of dissociation. This meta-analysis offers a systematic and evidence-based study of the prevalence and distribution of dissociation, as assessed by the Dissociative Experiences Scale, within different categories of mental disorders, and it updates an earlier meta-analysis. More than 1,900 original publications were screened, and 216 were included in the meta-analysis, comprising 15,219 individuals in 19 diagnostic categories. The largest mean dissociation scores were found in dissociative disorders (mean scores >35), followed by posttraumatic stress disorder, borderline personality disorder, and conversion disorder (mean scores >25). Somatic symptom disorder, substance-related and addictive disorders, feeding and eating disorders, schizophrenia, anxiety disorder, OCD, and most affective disorders also showed mean dissociation scores >15. Bipolar disorders yielded the lowest dissociation scores (mean score, 14.8). The findings underline the importance of careful psychopathological assessment of dissociative symptoms in the entire range of mental disorders.

  7. Shielding of CO from dissociating radiation in interstellar clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassgold, A. E.; Huggins, P. J.; Langer, W. D.

    1985-01-01

    The paper investigates the photodissociation of CO in interstellar clouds in the light of recent laboratory studies which suggest that line rather than continuum processes dominate its dissociation by ultraviolet radiation. Using a simple radiative transfer model, the shielding of representative dissociating bands is estimated, including self-shielding, mutual shielding between different isotopes, and near coincidences with strong lines of H2. Each of these processes materially affects the photodestruction rates of the various isotopic species in the transition regions of molecular clouds. These results are combined with an appropriate gas phase chemical model to determine how the abundances of the CO isotopes vary with depth into the cloud. It is found that self-shielding and mutual shielding cause significant variations in isotopic ratios. In addition, fractionation enhances species containing C-13. The relationship between the column densities of CO and H2 is found to vary for the different isotopes and to be sensitive to local conditions.

  8. Quantum cascade laser-based sensors for the detection of exhaled carbon monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakmanesh, Nahid; Cristescu, Simona M.; Ghorbanzadeh, Atamalek; Harren, Frans J. M.; Mandon, Julien

    2016-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is an important biomarker as it originates in the human body from the heme (component of hemoglobin) degradation. Tunable laser absorption spectroscopy in the mid-infrared wavelength region is used for sensitive trace gas sensing of exhaled carbon monoxide (CO). Based on a quantum cascade laser emitting at 4.61 µm, two different spectroscopic methods are investigated: off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (OA-ICOS) and wavelength modulation 2f/1f spectroscopy (WMS). The optical sensors integrate a slow feedback system to correct for wavelength drifts improving their stability over days. Both approaches demonstrate a high reproducibility and sensitivity during online measurements of exhaled human breath. Considering the detection limit to be the equal to the standard deviation of the background fluctuations, the noise-equivalent detection limit for both OA-ICOS and WMS is 7 ppbv (1-s averaging time), leading to a noise-equivalent absorption sensitivity of 3.1 × 10-7 cm-1 Hz-1/2, which is sufficient for measurements of exhaled CO (eCO). Collection and measurements of eCO samples were investigated, and different exhalation flow rates and breath-holding time were explored, to provide a reliable sampling method for future medical investigations.

  9. Neurological Effects of Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coskun YARAR

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide poisoning (COP is one of the most common causes of mortality and morbidity due to poisoning in all over the world. Although the incidence of COP has not been known exactly in the childhood, almost one-third of CO exposures occurred in children. The data regarding COP in children are inconclusive. Children may be more vulnerable to CO exposure than adults as a result of their high respiration and metabolic rates, high oxygen metabolism, and immature central nervous system. Recent researches proposed new theories about neurological effects of CO toxicity. The clinical presentations associated acute COP may be various and nonspecific. Unrecognized CO exposure may lead to significant morbidity and mortality. CO exposed children often become symptomatic earlier, and recover more rapidly, than similarly CO exposed adults. Mild clinical signs and symptoms associated with COP are headache, dizziness, weakness, lethargy, and myalgia; however, severe signs and symptoms such as blurred vision, syncope, convulsion, coma, cardiopulmonary arrest and death can also accompany with COP. Neurologic manifestations can include altered mental status at different degrees, neck stiffness, tremor, ataxia, and positive Babinski's sign. Delayed neurologic sequels (DNS of COP might be seen in children like adults. DNS symptoms and signs in children include memory problems, mental retardation, mutism, fecal and urinary incontinence, motor deficits, facial palsy, psychosis, chronic headache, seizures, and epilepsy. After CO exposure children must be cared to detect and treat DNS. Although hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT is reported to prevent development of DNS, its indications, application duration and procedures are controversial in both of the children and adults. Although their predictive values are limited, exposing to CO more than eight hours and suffering from CO-induced coma, cardiac arrest, lactic acidosis, high COHb levels, and pathologic findings

  10. Simulation of gas hydrate dissociation caused by repeated tectonic uplift events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Shusaku; Matsubayashi, Osamu; Nagakubo, Sadao

    2016-05-01

    Gas hydrate dissociation by tectonic uplift is often used to explain geologic and geophysical phenomena, such as hydrate accumulation probably caused by hydrate recycling and the occurrence of double bottom-simulating reflectors in tectonically active areas. However, little is known of gas hydrate dissociation resulting from tectonic uplift. This study investigates gas hydrate dissociation in marine sediments caused by repeated tectonic uplift events using a numerical model incorporating the latent heat of gas hydrate dissociation. The simulations showed that tectonic uplift causes upward movement of some depth interval of hydrate-bearing sediment immediately above the base of gas hydrate stability (BGHS) to the gas hydrate instability zone because the sediment initially maintains its temperature: in that interval, gas hydrate dissociates while absorbing heat; consequently, the temperature of the interval decreases to that of the hydrate stability boundary at that depth. Until the next uplift event, endothermic gas hydrate dissociation proceeds at the BGHS using heat mainly supplied from the sediment around the BGHS, lowering the temperature of that sediment. The cumulative effects of these two endothermic gas hydrate dissociations caused by repeated uplift events lower the sediment temperature around the BGHS, suggesting that in a marine area in which sediment with a highly concentrated hydrate-bearing layer just above the BGHS has been frequently uplifted, the endothermic gas hydrate dissociation produces a gradual decrease in thermal gradient from the seafloor to the BGHS. Sensitivity analysis for model parameters showed that water depth, amount of uplift, gas hydrate saturation, and basal heat flow strongly influence the gas hydrate dissociation rate and sediment temperature around the BGHS.

  11. Dissociative Recombination of Molecular Ions for Astrochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, Oldrich; Becker, A.; Buhr, H.; Fleischmann, Andreas; Gamer, Lisa; Geppert, W.; Krantz, C.; Kreckel, H.; Schwalm, D.; Spruck, K.; Wolf, A.; Savin, Daniel Wolf

    2014-06-01

    Dissociative recombination (DR) of molecular ions is a key chemical process in the cold interstellar medium (ISM). DR affects the composition, charge state, and energy balance of such environments. Astrochemical models of the ISM require reliable total DR cross sections as well as knowledge of the chemical composition of the neutral DR products. We have systematically measured DR for many astrophysically relevant molecular ions utilizing the TSR storage ring at the Max-Planck-Institute for Nuclear Physics (MPIK) in Heidelberg, Germany. We used the merged ion-electron beam technique combined with an energy- and position-sensitive imaging detector and are able to study DR down to plasma temperatures as low as 10 K. The DR count rate is used to obtain an absolute merged beams DR rate coefficient from which we can derive a thermal rate coefficient needed for plasma models. Additionally we determine the masses of the DR products by measuring their kinetic energy in the laboratory reference frame. This allows us to assign particular DR fragmentation channels and to obtain their branching ratios. All this information is particularly important for understanding DR of heteronuclear polyatomic ions. We will present DR results for several ions recently investigated at TSR. A new Cryogenic Storage Ring (CSR) is currently being commissioned at MPIK. With the chamber cooled down to ~10 K and a base pressure better than 10-13 mbar, this setup will allow internal cooling of the stored ions down to their rotational ground states, thus opening a new era in DR experiments. New technological challenges arise due to the ultracold, ultra-high vacuum environment of the CSR and thus the detection techniques used at TSR cannot be easily transferred to CSR. We will present new approaches for DR fragment detection in cryogenic environment. This work is supported in part by NASA and the NSF.

  12. Digit and letter alexia in carbon monoxide poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingyu Shen; Xiaoming Rong; Rui Pan; Ying Peng; Wei Peng; Yamei Tang

    2012-01-01

    This study examined a 24-year-old patient with delayed encephalopathy, who was admitted to hospital with complaints of headache and visual impairment 1 week after acute carbon monoxide poisoning. The results of a visual field assessment, electroencephalography and head magnetic resonance imaging indicated damage to the cerebral cortex. After a 2-week treatment period, the patient had recovered from the visual impairment, but exhibited digit- and letter-reading difficulty. The Chinese aphasia battery and the number and letter battery supplement were conducted. The results revealed that the patient exhibited digit and letter alexia, while the ability to read Chinese characters was preserved. In contrast, the patient exhibited a deficit in Chinese character writing, while number and letter writing remained intact. Following treatment, reading and writing ability was improved and electroencephalographic abnormalities were ameliorated. Overall, our experimental findings demonstrated that delayed encephalopathy following acute carbon monoxide poisoning was characterized by digit and letter alexia.

  13. Catalysis of carbon monoxide methanation by deep sea manganate minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, A. L.; Maple, M. B.; Arrhenius, G.

    1990-01-01

    The catalytic activity of deep sea manganese nodule minerals for the methanation of carbon monoxide was measured with a microcatalytic technique between 200 and 460 degrees C. The manganate minerals were activated at 248 degrees C by immersion into a stream of hydrogen in which pulses of carbon monoxide were injected. Activation energies for the methanation reaction and hydrogen desorption from the manganate minerals were obtained and compared with those of pure nickel. Similar energy values indicate that the activity of the nodule materials for the reaction appears to be related to the amount of reducible transition metals present in the samples (ca. 11 wt.-%). Since the activity of the nodule minerals per gram is comparable to that of pure nickel, most of the transition metal ions located between manganese oxide layers appear to be exposed and available to catalyze the reaction.

  14. Effect of carbon monoxide on plants. [Mimosa pudica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, P.W.; Crocker, W.; Hitchcock, A.E.

    1933-01-01

    Of 108 species of plants treated with one per cent carbon monoxide, 45 showed epinastic growth of leaves. Several species showed hyponasty which caused upward curling of leaves. Other effects included: retarded stem elongation; abnormally small new leaves; abnormal yellowing of the leaves, beginning with the oldest; abscission of leaves usually associated with yellowing; and hypertrophied tissues on stems and roots. During recovery an abnormally large number of side shoots arose from latent buds of many species. Motion pictures of Mimosa pudica showed a loss of correlation, normal equilibrium position to gravity, and sensitiveness to contact or heat stimuli; however, the leaves moved about more rapidly than those of controls. Since carbon monoxide causes growth rigor and loss of sensitiveness to external stimuli, it is here considered as an anesthetic.

  15. Dissociation and dissociative ionization of H2+ using the time-dependent surface flux method

    CERN Document Server

    Yue, Lun

    2014-01-01

    The time-dependent surface flux method developed for the description of electronic spectra [L. Tao and A. Scrinzi, New J. Phys. 14, 013021 (2012); A. Scrinzi, New J. Phys. 14, 085008 (2012)] is extended to treat dissociation and dissociative ionization processes of H2+ interacting with strong laser pulses. By dividing the simulation volume into proper spatial regions associated with the individual reaction channels and monitoring the probability flux, the joint energy spectrum for the dissociative ionization process and the energy spectrum for dissociation is obtained. The methodology is illustrated by solving the time-dependent Schr\\"{o}dinger equation (TDSE) for a collinear one-dimensional model of H2+ with electronic and nuclear motions treated exactly and validated by comparison with published results for dissociative ionization. The results for dissociation are qualitatively explained by analysis based on dressed diabatic Floquet potential energy curves, and the method is used to investigate the breakdow...

  16. Non-dissociative and dissociative ionization of a CO+ beam in intense ultrashort laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaire, B.; Ablikim, U.; Zohrabi, M.; Roland, S.; Carnes, K. D.; Ben-Itzhak, I.

    2011-05-01

    We have investigated the ionization of CO+ beams in intense ultrashort laser pulses. With the recent upgrades to our coincidence three-dimensional momentum imaging method we are able to measure both non-dissociative and dissociative ionization of the molecular-ion beam targets. Using CO+ as an example, we have found that non-dissociative ionization (leading to the metastable dication CO2+) involves a direct transition, i.e. the molecule is ionized with little or no internuclear distance stretch. Dissociative ionization (C+ + O+) occurs both directly and indirectly, stretching first and then ionizing. Our results show that the yield of dissociative ionization is higher than that of non-dissociative ionization and can be manipulated with the laser pulse duration by suppressing the indirect ionization path using ultrashort pulses (Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Office of Science, U.S. Department of Energy.

  17. A review of dissociative disorders treatment studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Bethany L; Classen, Catherine C; McNary, Scot W; Zaveri, Parin

    2009-09-01

    This review examines empirical reports of treatment for Dissociative Disorders (DD), including 16 DD treatment outcome studies and 4 case studies that used standardized measures. Collectively, these reports suggest that treatment for DD is associated with decreased symptoms of dissociation, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, distress, and suicidality. Effect sizes, based on pre/post measures, are in the medium to large range across studies. Patients with dissociative disorder who integrated their dissociated self states were found to have reduced symptomatology compared with those who did not integrate. The magnitude of pre/post effect sizes for these DD studies are comparable to pre/post effect sizes in treatment studies of complex PTSD. There are significant methodological limitations in the current DD treatment outcome literature that reduce internal and external validity including regression towards the mean, limited sample sizes, and nonrandomized research designs. Implications for future research and treatment planning for patients suffering from DD are discussed.

  18. Conversion of carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide by pulse dielectric barrier discharge plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Taobo; Liu, Hongxia; Xiong, Xiang; Feng, Xinxin

    2017-01-01

    The conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) to carbon monoxide (CO) was investigated in a non-thermal plasma dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor, and the effects of different process conditions on the CO2 conversion were investigated. The results showed that the increase of input power could optimize the conversion of CO2 to CO. The CO2 conversion and CO yield were negatively correlated with the gas flow rate, but there was an optimum gas flow rate, that made the CO selectivity best. The carrier gas (N2, Ar) was conducive to the conversion of CO2, and the effect of N2 as carrier gas was better than Ar. The conversion of CO2 to CO was enhanced by addition of the catalyst (5A molecular sieve).

  19. [Sudden unilateral sensorineural hearing loss after carbon monoxide intoxication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalska-Piechowiak, Teresa; Miarzyńska, Maria; Perlik-Gattner, Irena

    2004-01-01

    A case of unilateral sensorineural hearing loss of the left ear after carbon monoxide intoxication was presented. The diagnosis was based upon an interview, medical examinations and audiometric investigations. Results of diagnostic evaluations, clinical presentation and treatment were discussed. Hearing improvement was obtained after 6 days of treatment and normal hearing returned after 14 days. Patients who suffer from CO intoxication are at risk of hearing impairment, therefore, there is a need for audiometric follow up in these patients.

  20. Pregnancy Hypertenssion and Preeclampsia in Enviromental Expossure to Carbon Monoxide

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: In this study relationship between carbon monoxide (CO) with pregnancy induced hypertension and preeclampsia in mothers in various levels of CO pollution was evaluated. Methods: The study was carried out in three teaching hospitals and 4500 pregnant women living area divided in one low-level CO polluted and as the second level, three moderate to high polluted areas (central, south and west). The subjects, residence places were within 5 kilometers of the air pollution monitoring ...

  1. The co-occurrence of PTSD and dissociation: differentiating severe PTSD from dissociative-PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Cherie; Karstoft, Karen-Inge; Richardson, J Don

    2014-08-01

    A dissociative-posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) subtype has been included in the DSM-5. However, it is not yet clear whether certain socio-demographic characteristics or psychological/clinical constructs such as comorbid psychopathology differentiate between severe PTSD and dissociative-PTSD. The current study investigated the existence of a dissociative-PTSD subtype and explored whether a number of trauma and clinical covariates could differentiate between severe PTSD alone and dissociative-PTSD. The current study utilized a sample of 432 treatment seeking Canadian military veterans. Participants were assessed with the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) and self-report measures of traumatic life events, depression, and anxiety. CAPS severity scores were created reflecting the sum of the frequency and intensity items from each of the 17 PTSD and 3 dissociation items. The CAPS severity scores were used as indicators in a latent profile analysis (LPA) to investigate the existence of a dissociative-PTSD subtype. Subsequently, several covariates were added to the model to explore differences between severe PTSD alone and dissociative-PTSD. The LPA identified five classes: one of which constituted a severe PTSD group (30.5 %), and one of which constituted a dissociative-PTSD group (13.7 %). None of the included, demographic, trauma, or clinical covariates were significantly predictive of membership in the dissociative-PTSD group compared to the severe PTSD group. In conclusion, a significant proportion of individuals report high levels of dissociation alongside their PTSD, which constitutes a dissociative-PTSD subtype. Further investigation is needed to identify which factors may increase or decrease the likelihood of membership in a dissociative-PTSD subtype group compared to a severe PTSD only group.

  2. Modeling pure methane hydrate dissociation using a numerical simulator from a novel combination of X-ray computed tomography and macroscopic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, A.; Moridis, G.J.; Kneafsey, T.J.; Sloan, Jr., E.D.

    2009-08-15

    The numerical simulator TOUGH+HYDRATE (T+H) was used to predict the transient pure methane hydrate (no sediment) dissociation data. X-ray computed tomography (CT) was used to visualize the methane hydrate formation and dissociation processes. A methane hydrate sample was formed from granular ice in a cylindrical vessel, and slow depressurization combined with thermal stimulation was applied to dissociate the hydrate sample. CT images showed that the water produced from the hydrate dissociation accumulated at the bottom of the vessel and increased the hydrate dissociation rate there. CT images were obtained during hydrate dissociation to confirm the radial dissociation of the hydrate sample. This radial dissociation process has implications for dissociation of hydrates in pipelines, suggesting lower dissociation times than for longitudinal dissociation. These observations were also confirmed by the numerical simulator predictions, which were in good agreement with the measured thermal data during hydrate dissociation. System pressure and sample temperature measured at the sample center followed the CH{sub 4} hydrate L{sub w}+H+V equilibrium line during hydrate dissociation. The predicted cumulative methane gas production was within 5% of the measured data. Thus, this study validated our simulation approach and assumptions, which include stationary pure methane hydrate-skeleton, equilibrium hydrate-dissociation and heat- and mass-transfer in predicting hydrate dissociation in the absence of sediments. It should be noted that the application of T+H for the pure methane hydrate system (no sediment) is outside the general applicability limits of T+H.

  3. The kinetics and mechanism of dissociation of metal carbonyls in high infrared laser fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langsam, Y.; Ronn, A. M.

    1981-01-01

    The method of laser induced dielectric breakdown has been used to study the dissociation of three metal carbonyls. Following non-resonant excitation by a TEA CO 2 laser, amorphous micro-metallic particles are deposited. The identity of the various species within a laser induced plasma for a series of related reactant molecules, has been determined using infrared and visible real time fluorescence techniques. Based upon the energetics of dissociation and the relative magnitudes of the rates of activation and deactivation for various collision partners of the plasma fluorescence, an energy transfer map as well as probable mechanisms are proposed. The kinetics of a variety of chemical reactions under plasma conditions are discussed in terms of elementary collision theory. It is shown that the internal vibration manifold of the metal carbonyls is equilibrated prior to the dissociation in agreement with the majority of laser induced multiphoton dissociation experiments.

  4. Mobile Carbon Monoxide Monitoring System Based on Arduino-Matlab for Environmental Monitoring Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azieda Mohd Bakri, Nur; Junid, Syed Abdul Mutalib Al; Razak, Abdul Hadi Abdul; Idros, Mohd Faizul Md; Karimi Halim, Abdul

    2015-11-01

    Nowadays, the increasing level of carbon monoxide globally has become a serious environmental issue which has been highlighted in most of the country globally. The monitoring of carbon monoxide content is one of the approaches to identify the level of carbon monoxide pollution towards providing the solution for control the level of carbon monoxide produced. Thus, this paper proposed a mobile carbon monoxide monitoring system for measuring the carbon monoxide content based on Arduino-Matlab General User Interface (GUI). The objective of this project is to design, develop and implement the real-time mobile carbon monoxide sensor system and interfacing for measuring the level of carbon monoxide contamination in real environment. Four phases or stages of work have been carried out for the accomplishment of the project, which classified as sensor development, controlling and integrating sensor, data collection and data analysis. As a result, a complete design and developed system has been verified with the handheld industrial standard carbon monoxide sensor for calibrating the sensor sensitivity and measurement in the laboratory. Moreover, the system has been tested in real environments by measuring the level of carbon monoxide in three different lands used location; industrial area; residential area and main road (commercial area). In this real environment test, the industrial area recorded the highest reading with 71.23 ppm and 82.59 ppm for sensor 1 and sensor 2 respectively. As a conclusion, the mobile realtime carbon monoxide system based on the Arduino-Matlab is the best approach to measure the carbon monoxide concentration in different land-used since it does not require a manual data collection and reduce the complexity of the existing carbon monoxide level concentration measurement practise at the same time with a complete data analysis facilities.

  5. Schizophrenia masquerading as Dissociative Identity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Jegan Yogaratnam; Rajesh Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Dissociative symptoms can dominate the clinical picture in many psychiatric conditions and possess a huge challenge to the clinicians in management. We present a case report of a female with a strong family history of schizophrenia who initially presented with features suggestive of dissociative identity disorder, which is itself a rare clinical entity, was later diagnosed to have schizophrenia. Authors would like to emphasise that clinicians should have a high index of suspicion for schizoph...

  6. First principle and ReaxFF molecular dynamics investigations of formaldehyde dissociation on Fe(100) surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Takahiro; Phelps, Donald K; van Duin, Adri C T

    2013-09-01

    Detailed formaldehyde adsorption and dissociation reactions on Fe(100) surface were studied using first principle calculations and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, and results were compared with available experimental data. The study includes formaldehyde, formyl radical (HCO), and CO adsorption and dissociation energy calculations on the surface, adsorbate vibrational frequency calculations, density of states analysis of clean and adsorbed surfaces, complete potential energy diagram construction from formaldehyde to atomic carbon (C), hydrogen (H), and oxygen (O), simulation of formaldehyde adsorption and dissociation reaction on the surface using reactive force field, ReaxFF MD, and reaction rate calculations of adsorbates using transition state theory (TST). Formaldehyde and HCO were adsorbed most strongly at the hollow (fourfold) site. Adsorption energies ranged from -22.9 to -33.9 kcal/mol for formaldehyde, and from -44.3 to -66.3 kcal/mol for HCO, depending on adsorption sites and molecular direction. The dissociation energies were investigated for the dissociation paths: formaldehyde → HCO + H, HCO → H + CO, and CO → C + O, and the calculated energies were 11.0, 4.1, and 26.3 kcal/mol, respectively. ReaxFF MD simulation results were compared with experimental surface analysis using high resolution electron energy loss spectrometry (HREELS) and TST based reaction rates. ReaxFF simulation showed less reactivity than HREELS observation at 310 and 523 K. ReaxFF simulation showed more reactivity than the TST based rate for formaldehyde dissociation and less reactivity than TST based rate for HCO dissociation at 523 K. TST-based rates are consistent with HREELS observation.

  7. Experimental Study on Mechanism of Depressurizing Dissociation of Methane Hydrate under Saturated Pore Fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Youhong; Su Kai; Guo Wei; Li Bing; Jia Rui

    2016-01-01

    Sediment-hosted hydrate reservoir often contains saturated pore lfuid, which changes the heat transfer and mass transfer characteristics of the hydrate reservoir. The exploitation of hydrate under saturated pore lfuid using depressurization is simulated experimentally to investigate the inlfuence of particle size of porous media, dissociation temperature, pressure drop and injected lfuid type on gas production behavior. Homogeneous methane hydrate was ifrstly formed in frozen quartz sand. With the formed hydrate sample, hydrate dissociation experiments by depressurization were conducted. The test results showed that the gas production rate of hydrate under saturated pore lfuid was substantially inlfuenced by the particle size, the pressure drop and the injected lfuid type, while it was inlfuenced little by the dissociation temperature. The hydrate dissociates faster under larger pressure drop and in the presence of smaller porous media within the experimental region. The dissociation rate increases with an increasing lfuid salinity in the initial stage, while it decreases in the later stage. The increase of gas diffusion resistance resulted from ionic hydration atmosphere in saturated chloride solution impeded the dissociation of hydrate. It can be solved by increasing the pressure drop and decreasing the lfuid salinity in the process of gas recovery from hydrate reservoir.

  8. Direct molecular simulation of nitrogen dissociation based on an ab initio potential energy surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentini, Paolo, E-mail: vale0142@umn.edu; Schwartzentruber, Thomas E., E-mail: schwart@aem.umn.edu; Bender, Jason D., E-mail: jbender73@gmail.com; Nompelis, Ioannis, E-mail: nompelis@umn.edu; Candler, Graham V., E-mail: candler@umn.edu [Department of Aerospace Engineering and Mechanics, College of Science and Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    The direct molecular simulation (DMS) approach is used to predict the internal energy relaxation and dissociation dynamics of high-temperature nitrogen. An ab initio potential energy surface (PES) is used to calculate the dynamics of two interacting nitrogen molecules by providing forces between the four atoms. In the near-equilibrium limit, it is shown that DMS reproduces the results obtained from well-established quasiclassical trajectory (QCT) analysis, verifying the validity of the approach. DMS is used to predict the vibrational relaxation time constant for N{sub 2}–N{sub 2} collisions and its temperature dependence, which are in close agreement with existing experiments and theory. Using both QCT and DMS with the same PES, we find that dissociation significantly depletes the upper vibrational energy levels. As a result, across a wide temperature range, the dissociation rate is found to be approximately 4–5 times lower compared to the rates computed using QCT with Boltzmann energy distributions. DMS calculations predict a quasi-steady-state distribution of rotational and vibrational energies in which the rate of depletion of high-energy states due to dissociation is balanced by their rate of repopulation due to collisional processes. The DMS approach simulates the evolution of internal energy distributions and their coupling to dissociation without the need to precompute rates or cross sections for all possible energy transitions. These benchmark results could be used to develop new computational fluid dynamics models for high-enthalpy flow applications.

  9. Measurements on high temperature fuel cells with carbon monoxide-containing fuel gases; Messungen an Hochtemperatur-Brennstoffzellen mit kohlenmonoxidhaltigen Brenngasen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apfel, Holger

    2012-10-10

    In the present work the different power density of anode-supported high-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (ASC-SOFCs) were examined for carbon monoxide-containing fuels. In addition to wet hydrogen / carbon monoxide mixtures the cells were run with synthetic gas mixtures resembling the products of an autothermal reformer, and actual reformate generated by a 2 kW autothermal reformer. It was found that the power-voltage characteristics of an ASC depends primarily on the open circuit voltages of different gas mixtures, but is nearly independent of the hydrogen concentration of the fuel, although the reaction rates of other potential fuels within the gas mixture, namely carbon monoxide and methane, are much lower that the hydrogen reaction rate. The probable reason is that the main fuel for the electrochemical oxidation within the cell is hydrogen, while the nickel in the base layer of the anode acts as a reformer which replenishes the hydrogen by water reduction via carbon monoxide and methane oxidation.

  10. Time-trends in method-specific suicide rates compared with the availability of specific compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete; Qin, Ping; Helweg-Larsen, Karin

    2006-01-01

    with official information about availability of medical compounds (barbiturates, benzodiazepines, analgesics, antidepressants) and carbon monoxide in vehicle exhaust and household gas. Restrictions on the availability of carbon monoxide, barbiturates and dextropropoxyphen was associated with a decline...... in the number of suicides by self-poisoning with these compounds. Restricted access occurred concomittantly with a 55% decrease in suicide rate....

  11. Thermal regulation of methane hydrate dissociation: Implications for gas production models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Circone, S.; Kirby, S.H.; Stern, L.A.

    2005-01-01

    Thermal self-regulation of methane hydrate dissociation at pressure, temperature conditions along phase boundaries, illustrated by experiment in this report, is a significant effect with potential relevance to gas production from gas hydrate. In surroundings maintained at temperatures above the ice melting point, the temperature in the vicinity of dissociating methane hydrate will decrease because heat flow is insufficient to balance the heat absorbed by the endothermic reaction: CH4??nH2O (s) = CH4 (g) + nH2O (l). Temperature decreases until either all of the hydrate dissociates or a phase boundary is reached. At pressures above the quadruple point, the temperature-limiting phase boundary is that of the dissociation reaction itself. At lower pressures, the minimum temperature is limited by the H2O solid/liquid boundary. This change in the temperature-limiting phase boundary constrains the pressure, temperature conditions of the quadruple point for the CH4-H2O system to 2.55 ?? 0.02 MPa and 272.85 ?? 0.03 K. At pressures below the quadruple point, hydrate dissociation proceeds as the liquid H2O produced by dissociation freezes. In the laboratory experiments, dissociation is not impeded by the formation of ice byproduct per se; instead rates are proportional to the heat flow from the surroundings. This is in contrast to the extremely slow dissociation rates observed when surrounding temperatures are below the H2O solid/liquid boundary, where no liquid water is present. This "anomalous" or "self" preservation behavior, most pronounced near 268 K, cannot be accessed when surrounding temperatures are above the H2O solid/liquid boundary. ?? 2005 American Chemical Society.

  12. Dissociative Spectrum Disorders in the Primary Care Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Elmore, James L.

    2000-01-01

    Dissociative disorders have a lifetime prevalence of about 10%. Dissociative symptoms may occur in acute stress disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, somatization disorder, substance abuse, trance and possession trance, Ganser's syndrome, and dissociative identity disorder, as well as in mood disorders, psychoses, and personality disorders. Dissociative symptoms and disorders are observed frequently among patients attending our rural South Carolina community mental health center. Given the...

  13. A neuroanatomical dissociation for emotion induced by music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, Erica L; Tranel, Daniel; Lutgendorf, Susan; Adolphs, Ralph

    2009-04-01

    Does feeling an emotion require changes in autonomic responses, as William James proposed? Can feelings and autonomic responses be dissociated? Findings from cognitive neuroscience have identified brain structures that subserve feelings and autonomic response, including those induced by emotional music. In the study reported here, we explored whether feelings and autonomic responses can be dissociated by using music, a stimulus that has a strong capacity to induce emotional experiences. We tested two brain regions predicted to be differentially involved in autonomic responsivity (the ventromedial prefrontal cortex) and feeling (the right somatosensory cortex). Patients with damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex were impaired in their ability to generate skin-conductance responses to music, but generated normal judgments of their subjective feelings in response to music. Conversely, patients with damage to the right somatosensory cortex were impaired in their self-rated feelings in response to music, but generated normal skin-conductance responses to music. Control tasks suggested that neither impairment was due to basic defects in hearing the music or in cognitively recognizing the intended emotion of the music. The findings provide evidence for a double dissociation between feeling emotions and autonomic responses to emotions, in response to music stimuli.

  14. Infrared multiphoton dissociation of unsubstituted metal carbonyls at 5 μm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Mei-Kuen; Hackett, P. A.; Humphries, M.; John, P.

    1984-01-01

    A frequency-doubled carbon dioxide laser of modest output energy (1 mJ) has been used to study, for the first time, the infrared multiphoton absorption by, and dissociation of, the unsubstituted carbonyls of vanadium, chromium, iron, nickel, molybdenum, and tungsten. The multiphoton absorption cross-sections measured for Ni(CO)4, Fe(CO)5, Cr(CO)6, Mo(CO)6, and V(CO)6 are high (σ˜2×10-17) and ensure facile multiphoton dissociation. In focussed beams a pressure independent reaction yield proportional to the 1.5 power of the beam energy is observed for Fe(CO)5, Cr(CO)6, and Mo(CO)6 implying threshold fluences of only 32, 25, and 26 mJ cm-2, respectively. The stoichiometry of the reaction, observed by a pressure measurement technique, is consistent with production of metal atoms and carbon monoxide as final products for Ni(CO)4, Fe(CO)5, Cr(CO)6, and Mo(CO)6. This extensive decarbonylation along the ground state surface is consistent with recent studies of the photochemistry of these molecules from excited electronic states.

  15. Central Diabetes Insipidus and Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar State Following Accidental Carbon Monoxide Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ul Abideen, Zain; Mahmud, Syed Nayer; Rasheed, Amna; Farooq Qasim, Yusaf; Ali, Furqan

    2017-06-03

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is common and carries significant morbidity and mortality. The nervous system, particularly the brain, is frequently affected by it, owing to its high metabolic activity and oxygen requirements. Carbon monoxide damages the nervous system by both hypoxic and inflammatory mechanisms. Central diabetes insipidus is an extremely rare complication of carbon monoxide poisoning. Herein, we report the case of a young lady, who developed this complication and severe hypernatremia after accidental carbon monoxide poisoning. She also developed a hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state during the treatment for hypernatremia. To the best of our knowledge, both these entities have not been reported together in association with carbon monoxide poisoning. The purpose of this article is to emphasize the anticipation and early recognition of central diabetes insipidus in carbon monoxide poisoning. This can prevent severe hypernatremia and complications associated with its presence and treatment.

  16. Dissociation of CO induced by He2+ ions : II. Dissociation pathways and states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlatholter, T; Hoekstra, R; Morgenstern, R

    1997-01-01

    The dissociation of COq+ ions (q less than or equal to 3) produced in collisions of 2-10 keV amu(-1) He2+ ions with CO has been studied by time-of-flight methods. From the time-of-flight spectra the energy released in the dissociation process is determined. Our results for the kinetic energy release

  17. Dissociation of CO induced by He2+ ions : II. Dissociation pathways and states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlatholter, T; Hoekstra, R; Morgenstern, R

    1997-01-01

    The dissociation of COq+ ions (q less than or equal to 3) produced in collisions of 2-10 keV amu(-1) He2+ ions with CO has been studied by time-of-flight methods. From the time-of-flight spectra the energy released in the dissociation process is determined. Our results for the kinetic energy release

  18. Carbon monoxide may be an important molecule in migraine and other headaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arngrim, Nanna; Schytz, Henrik W; Hauge, Mette K

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Carbon monoxide was previously considered to just be a toxic gas. A wealth of recent information has, however, shown that it is also an important endogenously produced signalling molecule involved in multiple biological processes. Endogenously produced carbon monoxide may thus play...... an important role in nociceptive processing and in regulation of cerebral arterial tone. DISCUSSION: Carbon monoxide-induced headache shares many characteristics with migraine and other headaches. The mechanisms whereby carbon monoxide causes headache may include hypoxia, nitric oxide signalling and activation...

  19. The co-occurrence of PTSD and dissociation: differentiating severe PTSD from dissociative-PTSD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armour, C.; Karstoft, K. I.; Richardson, J. D.

    2014-01-01

    A dissociative-posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) subtype has been included in the DSM-5. However, it is not yet clear whether certain socio-demographic characteristics or psychological/clinical constructs such as comorbid psychopathology differentiate between severe PTSD and dissociative......-PTSD. The current study investigated the existence of a dissociative-PTSD subtype and explored whether a number of trauma and clinical covariates could differentiate between severe PTSD alone and dissociative-PTSD. The current study utilized a sample of 432 treatment seeking Canadian military veterans. Participants...... were assessed with the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) and self-report measures of traumatic life events, depression, and anxiety. CAPS severity scores were created reflecting the sum of the frequency and intensity items from each of the 17 PTSD and 3 dissociation items. The CAPS severity...

  20. Ab initio state-specific N2 + O dissociation and exchange modeling for molecular simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Han; Kulakhmetov, Marat; Alexeenko, Alina

    2017-02-01

    Quasi-classical trajectory (QCT) calculations are used in this work to calculate state-specific N2(X1Σ ) +O(3P ) →2 N(4S ) +O(3P ) dissociation and N2(X1Σ ) +O(3P ) →NO(X2Π ) +N(4S ) exchange cross sections and rates based on the 13A″ and 13A' ab initio potential energy surface by Gamallo et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 119, 2545-2556 (2003)]. The calculations consider translational energies up to 23 eV and temperatures between 1000 K and 20 000 K. Vibrational favoring is observed for dissociation reaction at the whole range of collision energies and for exchange reaction around the dissociation limit. For the same collision energy, cross sections for v = 30 are 4 to 6 times larger than those for the ground state. The exchange reaction has an effective activation energy that is dependent on the initial rovibrational level, which is different from dissociation reaction. In addition, the exchange cross sections have a maximum when the total collision energy (TCE) approaches dissociation energy. The calculations are used to generate compact QCT-derived state-specific dissociation (QCT-SSD) and QCT-derived state-specific exchange (QCT-SSE) models, which describe over 1 × 106 cross sections with about 150 model parameters. The models can be used directly within direct simulation Monte Carlo and computational fluid dynamics simulations. Rate constants predicted by the new models are compared to the experimental measurements, direct QCT calculations and predictions by other models that include: TCE model, Bose-Candler QCT-based exchange model, Macheret-Fridman dissociation model, Macheret's exchange model, and Park's two-temperature model. The new models match QCT-calculated and experimental rates within 30% under nonequilibrium conditions while other models under predict by over an order of magnitude under vibrationally-cold conditions.

  1. Heat Transfer Analysis of Methane Hydrate Sediment Dissociation in a Closed Reactor by a Thermal Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjun Yang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The heat transfer analysis of hydrate-bearing sediment involved phase changes is one of the key requirements of gas hydrate exploitation techniques. In this paper, experiments were conducted to examine the heat transfer performance during hydrate formation and dissociation by a thermal method using a 5L volume reactor. This study simulated porous media by using glass beads of uniform size. Sixteen platinum resistance thermometers were placed in different position in the reactor to monitor the temperature differences of the hydrate in porous media. The influence of production temperature on the production time was also investigated. Experimental results show that there is a delay when hydrate decomposed in the radial direction and there are three stages in the dissociation period which is influenced by the rate of hydrate dissociation and the heat flow of the reactor. A significant temperature difference along the radial direction of the reactor was obtained when the hydrate dissociates and this phenomenon could be enhanced by raising the production temperature. In addition, hydrate dissociates homogeneously and the temperature difference is much smaller than the other conditions when the production temperature is around the 10 °C. With the increase of the production temperature, the maximum of ΔToi grows until the temperature reaches 40 °C. The period of ΔToi have a close relation with the total time of hydrate dissociation. Especially, the period of ΔToi with production temperature of 10 °C is twice as much as that at other temperatures. Under these experimental conditions, the heat is mainly transferred by conduction from the dissociated zone to the dissociating zone and the production temperature has little effect on the convection of the water in the porous media.

  2. Evidence for significant photochemical production of carbon monoxide by particles in coastal and oligotrophic marine waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Huixiang; Zafiriou, Oliver C.

    2009-12-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) photoproduction from particulate and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) was determined in seawater from open-ocean and coastal areas. In confirmatory tests, poisoned or non-poisoned filtered and unfiltered blue-water samples, were exposed to sunlight. CO photoproduction was 21-42% higher in the unfiltered than in the filtered samples. In a more thorough study utilizing concentrated particles prepared by 0.2-μm cross-flow filtration, samples containing varying levels of particles were irradiated under simulated solar radiation. Their CO photoproduction rates increased linearly with particle concentration factor. Particulate CO production was 11-35% of CDOM-based CO production. On an absorbed-photons basis, the former was 30-108% more efficient than the latter. This study suggests that in both coastal and blue waters these new-found particulate photoprocesses are of similar biogeochemical importance to the well-known CDOM photoproduction term.

  3. Size-controlled synthesis of monodispersed gold nanoparticles via carbon monoxide gas reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewinski Nastassja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An in depth analysis of gold nanoparticle (AuNP synthesis and size tuning, utilizing carbon monoxide (CO gas as a reducing agent, is presented for the first time. The sizes of the AuNPs are tunable from ~4 to 100 nm by altering the concentration of HAuCl4 and inlet CO gas-injection flow rate. It is also found that speciation of aqueous HAuCl4, prior to reduction, influences the size, morphology, and properties of AuNPs when reduced with CO gas. Ensemble extinction spectra and TEM images provide clear evidence that CO reduction offers a high level of monodispersity with standard deviations as low as 3%. Upon synthesis, no excess reducing agent remains in solution eliminating the need for purification. The time necessary to synthesize AuNPs, using CO, is less than 2 min.

  4. Theoretical investigation of the competitive mechanism between dissociation and ionization of H₂⁺ in intense field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hongbin; Zhao, Guangjiu

    2014-10-01

    The competitive mechanism between dissociation and ionization of hydrogen molecular ion in intense field has been theoretically investigated by using an accurate non-Born-Oppenheimer method. The relative yield of fragments indicates that the dissociation and ionization channels are competitive with the increasing laser intensity from 5.0 × 10(13) to 2.0 × 10(14) W/cm(2). In the case of intensity lower than 1.0 × 10(14) W/cm(2), the dissociation channel is dominant, with a minor contribution from ionization. The mechanism of dissociation includes the contributions from the bond softening, bond hardening, below-threshold dissociation, and above-threshold dissociation, which are strongly dependent on the laser intensity and initial vibrational state. Furthermore, the ionization dominates over the dissociation channel at the highest intensity of 2.0 × 10(14) W/cm(2). The reasonable origin of ionization is ascribed as the above-threshold Coulomb explosion, which has been demonstrated by the space-time dependent ionization rate. Moreover, the competition mechanism between dissociation and ionization channels are displayed on the total kinetic energy resolved (KER) spectra, which could be tested at current experimental conditions.

  5. Resonant structure of low-energy H3+ dissociative recombination

    CERN Document Server

    Petrignani, Annemieke; Berg, Max H; Bing, Dennis; Buhr, Henrik; Greene, Chris H; Grieser, Manfred; Hoffmann, Jens; Jordon-Thaden, Brandon; Kokoouline, Viatcheslav; Krantz, Claude; Kreckel, Holger; Mendes, Mario B; Novotny, Oldrich; Novotny, Steffen; Orlov, Dmitry A; Repnow, Roland; Sorg, Tobias; Stuetzel, Julia; Wolf, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    New high-resolution dissociative recombination rate coefficients of rotationally cool and hot H3+ in the vibrational ground state have been measured with a 22-pole trap setup and a Penning ion source, respectively, at the ion storage ring TSR. The experimental results are compared with theoretical calculations to explore the dependence of the rate coefficient on ion temperature and to study the contributions of different symmetries to probe the rich predicted resonance spectrum. The break-up energy was investigated by fragment imaging to derive internal temperatures of the stored parent ions under differing experimental conditions. A systematic experimental assessment of heating effects is performed which, together with a survey of other recent storage-ring data, suggests that the present rotationally cool rate-coefficient measurement was performed at 380^{+50}_{-130} K and that this is the lowest rotational temperature so far realized in storage-ring rate-coefficient measurements on H3+. This partially suppo...

  6. Blackbody-induced radiative dissociation of cationic SF 6 clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toker, Jonathan; Rahinov, I.; Schwalm, D.;

    2012-01-01

    The stability of cationic SF5+(SF6)n−1 clusters was investigated by measuring their blackbody-induced radiative dissociation (BIRD) rates. The clusters were produced in a supersonic expansion ion source and stored in an electrostatic ion-beam trap at room temperature, where their abundances...... and lifetimes were measured. Using the “master equation” approach, relative binding energies of an SF6 unit in the clusters could be extracted from the storage-time dependence of the survival probabilities. The results allow for a deeper insight into the effect of a localized charge on the structure...... and stability of SF6-based clusters....

  7. Mixing ratios of carbon monoxide in the troposphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novelli, P.C.; Steele, L.P. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (United States)); Tans, P.P. (NOAA, Boulder, CO (United States))

    1992-12-20

    Carbon monoxide (CO) mixing ratios were measured in air samples collected weekly at eight locations. The air was collected as part of the CMDL/NOAA cooperative flask sampling program (Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory, formerly Geophysical Monitoring for Climatic Change, Air Resources Laboratory/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) at Point Barrow, Alaska, Niwot Ridge, Colorado, Mauna Loa and Cape Kumakahi, Hawaii, Guam, Marianas Islands, Christmas Island, Ascension Island and American Samoa. Half-liter or 3-L glass flasks fitted with glass piston stopcocks holding teflon O rings were used for sample collection. CO levels were determined within several weeks of collection using gas chromatography followed by mercuric oxide reduction detection, and mixing ratios were referenced against the CMDL/NOAA carbon monoxide standard scale. During the period of study (mid-1988 through December 1990) CO levels were greatest in the high latitudes of the northern hemisphere (mean mixing ratio from January 1989 to December 1990 at Point Barrow was approximately 154 ppb) and decreased towards the south (mean mixing ratio at Samoa over a similar period was 65 ppb). Mixing ratios varied seasonally, the amplitude of the seasonal cycle was greatest in the north and decreased to the south. Carbon monoxide levels were affected by both local and regional scale processes. The difference in CO levels between northern and southern latitudes also varied seasonally. The greatest difference in CO mixing ratios between Barrow and Samoa was observed during the northern winter (about 150 ppb). The smallest difference, 40 ppb, occurred during the austral winter. The annually averaged CO difference between 71[degrees]N and 14[degrees]S was approximately 90 ppb in both 1989 and 1990; the annually averaged interhemispheric gradient from 71[degrees]N to 41[degrees]S is estimated as approximately 95 ppb. 66 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Coupling of disulfide bond and distal histidine dissociation in human ferrous cytoglobin regulates ligand binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckerson, Penny; Reeder, Brandon J; Wilson, Michael T

    2015-02-13

    Earlier kinetics studies on cytoglobin did not assign functional properties to specific structural forms. Here, we used defined monomeric and dimeric forms and cysteine mutants to show that an intramolecular disulfide bond (C38-C83) alters the dissociation rate constant of the intrinsic histidine (H81) (∼1000 fold), thus controlling binding of extrinsic ligands. Through time-resolved spectra we have unequivocally assigned CO binding to hexa- and penta-coordinate forms and have made direct measurement of histidine rebinding following photolysis. We present a model that describes how the cysteine redox state of the monomer controls histidine dissociation rate constants and hence extrinsic ligand binding.

  9. Dissociation in virtual reality: depersonalization and derealization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, Gregory P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper looks at virtual worlds such as Second Life7 (SL) as possible incubators of dissociation disorders as classified by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition3 (also known as the DSM-IV). Depersonalization is where "a person feels that he or she has changed in some way or is somehow unreal." Derealization when "the same beliefs are held about one's surroundings." Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID), previously known as multiple personality disorder fits users of Second Life who adopt "in-world" avatars and in effect, enact multiple distinct identities or personalities (known as alter egos or alters). Select questions from the Structured Clinical Interview for Depersonalization (SCI-DER)8 will be discussed as they might apply to the user's experience in Second Life. Finally I would like to consider the hypothesis that rather than a pathological disorder, dissociation is a normal response to the "artificial reality" of Second Life.

  10. Hot exciton dissociation in polymer solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grancini, G; Maiuri, M; Fazzi, D; Petrozza, A; Egelhaaf, H-J; Brida, D; Cerullo, G; Lanzani, G

    2013-01-01

    The standard picture of photovoltaic conversion in all-organic bulk heterojunction solar cells predicts that the initial excitation dissociates at the donor/acceptor interface after thermalization. Accordingly, on above-gap excitation, the excess photon energy is quickly lost by internal dissipation. Here we directly target the interfacial physics of an efficient low-bandgap polymer/PC(60)BM system. Exciton splitting occurs within the first 50 fs, creating both interfacial charge transfer states (CTSs) and polaron species. On high-energy excitation, higher-lying singlet states convert into hot interfacial CTSs that effectively contribute to free-polaron generation. We rationalize these findings in terms of a higher degree of delocalization of the hot CTSs with respect to the relaxed ones, which enhances the probability of charge dissociation in the first 200 fs. Thus, the hot CTS dissociation produces an overall increase in the charge generation yield.

  11. Quarkonium suppression: Gluonic dissociation vs. colour screening

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Binoy Krishna Patra; Dinesh Kumar Srivastava

    2003-05-01

    We evaluate the suppression of / production in an equilibrating quark gluon plasma for two competing mechanisms: Debye screening of colour interaction and dissociation due to energetic gluons. Results are obtained for S + S and Au + Au collisions at RHIC and LHC energies. At RHIC energies the gluonic dissociation of the charmonium is found to be equally important for both the systems while the screening of the interaction plays a significant role only for the larger systems. At LHC energies the Debye mechanism is found to dominate both the systems. While considering the suppression of directly produced $\\Upsilon$ at LHC energies, we find that only the gluonic dissociation mechanism comes into play for the initial conditions taken from the self screened parton cascade model in these studies.

  12. Shock Wave and Theoretical Modeling Study of the Dissociation of CH2F2. I. Primary Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobos, C J; Hintzer, K; Sölter, L; Tellbach, E; Thaler, A; Troe, J

    2017-10-09

    The unimolecular dissociation of CH2F2 leading to CF2 + H2, CHF + HF, or CHF2 + H is investigated by quantum-chemical calculations and unimolecular rate theory. Modeling of the rate constants is accompanied by shock wave experiments over the range of 1400-1800 K, monitoring the formation of CF2. It is shown that the energetically most favorable dissociation channel leading to CF2 + H2 has a higher threshold energy than the energetically less favorable one leading to CHF + HF. Falloff curves of the dissociations are modeled. Under the conditions of the described experiments, the primary dissociation CH2F2 → CHF + HF is followed by the reaction CHF + HF → CF2 + H2. The experimental value of the rate constant for the latter reaction indicates that it does not proceed by an addition-elimination process involving CH2F2* intermediates, as assumed before.

  13. Pathways and Bioenergetics of Anaerobic Carbon Monoxide Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diender, Martijn; Stams, Alfons J M; Sousa, Diana Z

    2015-01-01

    Carbon monoxide can act as a substrate for different modes of fermentative anaerobic metabolism. The trait of utilizing CO is spread among a diverse group of microorganisms, including members of bacteria as well as archaea. Over the last decade this metabolism has gained interest due to the potential of converting CO-rich gas, such as synthesis gas, into bio-based products. Three main types of fermentative CO metabolism can be distinguished: hydrogenogenesis, methanogenesis, and acetogenesis, generating hydrogen, methane and acetate, respectively. Here, we review the current knowledge on these three variants of microbial CO metabolism with an emphasis on the potential enzymatic routes and bio-energetics involved.

  14. Pathways and bioenergetics of anaerobic carbon monoxide fermentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martijn eDiender

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide can act as a substrate for different modes of fermentative anaerobic metabolism. The trait of utilizing CO is spread among a diverse group of microorganisms, including members of bacteria as well as archaea. Over the last decade this metabolism has gained interest due to the potential of converting CO rich gas, such as synthesis gas, into bio-based products. Three main types of fermentative CO metabolism can be distinguished: hydrogenogenesis, methanogenesis and acetogenesis, generating hydrogen, methane and acetate, respectively. Here, we review the current knowledge on these three variants of microbial CO metabolism with an emphasis on the potential enzymatic routes and bio-energetics involved.

  15. OMI Observations of Bromine Monoxide Emissions from Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleiman, R. M.; Chance, K.; Liu, X.; Gonzalez Abad, G.; Kurosu, T. P.

    2016-12-01

    We analyze bromine monoxide (BrO) data from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) for emissions from various volcanoes. We use OMI data from 2005 to 2014 to investigate BrO signatures from Galapagos, Kasatochi and Eyjafjallajökull volcanoes. Elevated signatures of BrO daily averages were found over Eyjafjallajökull. SO2 cross sections are updated in the operational BrO algorithm and their effect on the volcanic BrO signature is studied. Comparison between two different sets of SO2 cross sections is made and results still show BrO enhancement over the Eyjafjallajökull region.

  16. Studies relevant to the catalytic activation of carbon monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, P.C.

    1992-06-04

    Research activity during the 1991--1992 funding period has been concerned with the following topics relevant to carbon monoxide activation. (1) Exploratory studies of water gas shift catalysts heterogenized on polystyrene based polymers. (2) Mechanistic investigation of the nucleophilic activation of CO in metal carbonyl clusters. (3) Application of fast reaction techniques to prepare and to investigate reactive organometallic intermediates relevant to the activation of hydrocarbons toward carbonylation and to the formation of carbon-carbon bonds via the migratory insertion of CO into metal alkyl bonds.

  17. Carbon Monoxide Accumulation in the Extravehicular Mobility Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conkin, J.; Norcrosss, J. R.; Alexander, D. J.; Sanders, R. W.; Makowski, M. S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Life support technology in large closed systems like submarines and space stations catalyzes carbon monoxide (CO) to carbon dioxide, which is easily removed. However, in a small system like the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), spacesuit, CO from exogenous (contaminated oxygen (O (sub 2) supply) and endogenous (human metabolism) sources will accumulate in the free suit volume. The free volume becomes a sink for CO that is rebreathed by the astronaut. The accumulation through time depends on many variables: the amount absorbed by the astronaut, the amount produced by the astronaut (between 0.28 and 0.34 ?moles per hour per kilogram)[1], the amount that enters the suit from contaminated O (sub 2), the amount removed through suit leak, the free volume of the suit, and the O (sub 2) partial pressure[2], just to list a few. Contamination of the EMU O (sub 2) supply with no greater than 1 part per million CO was the motivation for empirical measurements from CO pulse oximetry (SpCO) as well as mathematical modeling of the EMU as a rebreather for CO. Methods: We developed a first-order differential mixing equation as well as an iterative method to compute CO accumulation in the EMU. Pre-post measurements of SpCO (Rad-57, Masimo Corporation) from EMU ground training and on-orbit extravehicular activities (EVAs) were collected. Results: Initial modeling without consideration of the astronaut as a sink but only the source of CO showed that after 8 hours breathing 100 percent O (sub 2) with a 10 milliliter per minute (760 millimeters Hg at 21 degrees Centigrade standard) suit leak, an endogenous production rate of 0.23 moles per hour per kilogram for a 70 kilogram person with 42 liters (1.5 cubic feet) free suit volume resulted in a peak CO partial pressure (pCO) of 0.047 millimeters Hg at 4.3 pounds per square inch absolute (222 millimeters Hg). Preliminary results based on a 2008 model[3] with consideration of the astronaut as a sink and source of CO

  18. Collision Induced Dissociation and Energy Transfer in Molecular Hydroge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandy, Margot E.

    2006-06-01

    Molecular hydrogen is a significant constituent in giant molecular clouds in the interstellar medium. Shocks in these clouds are associated with star formation. The cooling of the shocks is governed by competition of collisional energy transfer and dissociation with radiative cooling by quadrupole emission. Thus a detailed understanding of collisional behaviour of molecular hydrogen is needed. Work in this group has examined energy transfer and dissociation in molecular energy transfer as the result of collisions with H, D, He, and H2. Using quasiclassical trajectories and chemically accurate ab initio potentials state-to-state rate coefficients have been determined. The uncertainties of the cross sections are propagated rigourously to give uncertainties of the rate coefficients and the rate coefficients are parameterized as a function of temperature. Comparisons with quantum calculations are discussed and the proposed website is described.This work was supported by a grant from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada. The calculations were carried out using the high performance computing facility jointly supported by the Canadian Foundation for Innovation, the British Columbia Knowledge Development Fund, and Silicon Graphics at the University of Northern British Columbia.

  19. Phenol dissociation on pristine and defective graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widjaja, Hantarto; Oluwoye, Ibukun; Altarawneh, Mohammednoor; Hamra, A. A. B.; Lim, H. N.; Huang, N. M.; Yin, Chun-Yang; Jiang, Zhong-Tao

    2017-03-01

    Phenol (C6H5O‒H) dissociation on both pristine and defective graphene sheets in terms of associated enthalpic requirements of the reaction channels was investigated. Here, we considered three common types of defective graphene, namely, Stone-Wales, monovacancy and divacancy configurations. Theoretical results demonstrate that, graphene with monovacancy creates C atoms with dangling bond (unpaired valence electron), which remains particularly useful for spontaneous dissociation of phenol into phenoxy (C6H5O) and hydrogen (H) atom. The reactions studied herein appear barrierless with reaction exothermicity as high as 2.2 eV. Our study offers fundamental insights into another potential application of defective graphene sheets.

  20. Cognitive behavioral hypnotherapy for dissociative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Catherine G

    2012-04-01

    Dissociative disorders (DD) prevail as sequelae to overwhelming experiences in childhood. These readily formed post-traumatic responses and trance states develop in high hypnotizable subjects whose dysregulations become organized into ego states. A cognitive behavioral hypnotherapeutic treatment model will effectively contain, explore, metabolize, and resolve these life-endangering conditions. This article will detail the cognitive hypnotic world of DD patients, the relational spaces of the ego states, and the triphasic treatment mode to successfully resolve the dissociative pathology. Structured and phase appropriate hypnotic interventions will be described.

  1. Dissociative identity disorder: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, M M

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the literature into dissociative identity disorder. This disorder, previously known as multiple personality disorder, is increasingly diagnosed, in part because of more focused diagnostic tools, but also because people are accessing services to assist with the longterm problems of early child abuse and neglect. Dissociative identity disorder is examined in the literature according to a variety of discourses, each of which suggest different ways of conceptualizing problems and therapeutic approaches. These discourses reviewed include: psychiatry, psychology, corporeality, feminism, social constructivism, anthropology, and postmodernism. The paper concludes with an examination of the nursing literature and suggests opportunities for nursing research into this complex mental health problem.

  2. Bioaccumulation of dissociating substances; Bioakkumulation dissoziierender Stoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butte, W.; Plegge, V.; Schettgen, C.; Willenborg, R.; Zauke, G.P. [Oldenburg Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich Chemie; Kuhlmann, H. [Oldenburg Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich Chemie]|[Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Fischerei, Ahrensburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Fischereioekologie

    2000-02-01

    Bioconcentration factors (BCF) are important parameters to assess the environmental fate of chemicals. In this report we describe the determination of BCF for Triclosan, a trichlorophenoxy phenol, for some dissociating herbicides like Dichlorprop, MCPA, Mecoprop, Triclopyr and Picloram as well as for selected pyrethroids like Cyfluthrin, Cypermethrin, Deltamethrin and Permethrin. It was shown that BCF and rate constants for the uptake of Triclosan are decreasing with an increasing pH of the test water. The BCF for the herbicides evaluated are all below 10, confirming data already reported for herbicides of similar structure. Thus, for these compounds there is no tendency to bioaccumulate. Furthermore, there was no correlation between BCF and n-octanol/water partition coefficients or dissociation constants. BCF of pyrethroids were between 860 and 2200. For the analysis of pyrenthroid metabolites a gas chromatographic method using daughter-ion mass spectrometry for detection was established. The detection limit of this method was 1 {mu}g/kg, but metabolites could not be detected in fish during the bioaccumulation experiments. The high toxicity of pyrethroids for fish was approved; LC50-values were between 1 and 5 {mu}g/l. To evaluate physiological effects in fish, produced by pyrethroids, EROD activities in preparations of trout liver were measured. No increase in activity could be detected, but there was a tendency to lower values. We think this to result from the high toxicity of pyrethroids that could have impaired this enzyme system. (orig.) [German] Biokonzentrationsfaktoren (BCF) sind wichtige Parameter, mit Hilfe derer das Umweltverhalten von Chemikalien abgeschaetzt werden kann. Im Rahmen dieses Forschungsvorhabens wurden BCF-Werte fuer Triclosan, ein Trichlorphenoxyphenol, fuer einige dissoziierende Herbizide: Dichlorprop, MCPA, Mecoprop, Triclopyr und Picloram sowie fuer ausgewaehlte Pyrethroide: Cyfluthrin, Cypermethrin, Deltamethrin und Permethrin

  3. State-specific tunneling lifetimes from classical trajectories: H-atom dissociation in electronically excited pyrrole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Weiwei; Domcke, Wolfgang; Farantos, Stavros C.; Grebenshchikov, Sergy Yu.

    2016-03-01

    A trajectory method of calculating tunneling probabilities from phase integrals along straight line tunneling paths, originally suggested by Makri and Miller [J. Chem. Phys. 91, 4026 (1989)] and recently implemented by Truhlar and co-workers [Chem. Sci. 5, 2091 (2014)], is tested for one- and two-dimensional ab initio based potentials describing hydrogen dissociation in the 1B1 excited electronic state of pyrrole. The primary observables are the tunneling rates in a progression of bending vibrational states lying below the dissociation barrier and their isotope dependences. Several initial ensembles of classical trajectories have been considered, corresponding to the quasiclassical and the quantum mechanical samplings of the initial conditions. It is found that the sampling based on the fixed energy Wigner density gives the best agreement with the quantum mechanical dissociation rates.

  4. Material processing with hydrogen and carbon monoxide on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, Aloysius F.; Landis, Geoffrey A.; Linne, Diane L.

    1991-01-01

    Several novel proposals are examined for propellant production from carbon dioxide and monoxide and hydrogen. Potential uses were also examined of CO as a fuel or as a reducing agent in metal oxide processing as obtained or further reduced to carbon. Hydrogen can be reacted with CO to produce a wide variety of hydrocarbons, alcohols, and other organic compounds. Methanol, produced by Fischer-Tropsch chemistry may be useful as a fuel; it is easy to store and handle because it is a liquid at Mars temperatures. The reduction of CO2 to hydrocarbons such as methane or acetylene can be accomplished with hydrogen. Carbon monoxide and hydrogen require cryogenic temperatures for storage as liquids. Noncryogenic storage of hydrogen may be accomplished using hydrocarbons, inorganic hydrides, or metal hydrides. Noncryogenic storage of CO may be accomplished in the form of iron carbonyl (FE(CO)5) or other metal carbonyls. Low hydrogen content fuels such as acetylene (C2H2) may be effective propellants with low requirements for earth derived resources. The impact on manned Mars missions of alternative propellant production and utilization is discussed.

  5. Formation of orthorhombic tin dioxide from mechanically milled monoxide powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamelas, F. J.

    2004-12-01

    X-ray scattering measurements are used to show that the metastable orthorhombic phase of tin dioxide is produced by the oxidation of mechanically milled litharge-phase tin monoxide. After milling to a grain size of approximately 20nm, followed by heating to 575°C, the fraction of the orthorhombic phase is approximately 80%. The orthorhombic phase was originally observed in high-pressure experiments, but more recently, it has been produced in a wide variety of thin-film and nanoparticle samples. The data presented here demonstrate the importance of small-grain-size tin monoxide as a precursor in the ambient-pressure synthesis of the orthorhombic phase. This result has practical importance in the production of tin dioxide gas sensors. A more fundamental observation is that the particle size of a precursor phase can have a marked effect on subsequent phases produced during oxidation. Lastly, a formula for determining the orthorhombic fraction in two-phase tin dioxide samples is developed using the method of standard additions.

  6. A carbon monoxide passive sampler: Research and development needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traynor, G.W.; Apte, M.G.; Diamond, R.C.; Woods, A.L.

    1991-11-01

    In rare instances, carbon monoxide (CO) levels in houses can reach dangerously high concentrations, causing adverse health effects ranging from mild headaches to, under extreme conditions, death. Hundreds of fatal accidental carbon monoxide poisonings occur each year primarily due to the indoor operation of motor vehicles, the indoor use of charcoal for cooking, the operation of malfunctioning vented and unvented combustion appliances, and the misuse combustion appliances. Because there is a lack of simple, inexpensive, and accurate field sampling instrumentation, it is difficult for gas utilities and researchers to conduct field research studies designed to quantify the concentrations of CO in residences. Determining the concentration of CO in residences is the first step towards identifying the high risk appliances and high-CO environments which pose health risks. Thus, there exists an urgent need to develop and field-validate a CO-quantifying technique suitable for affordable field research. A CO passive sampler, if developed, could fulfill these requirements. Existing CO monitoring techniques are discussed as well as three potential CO-detection methods for use in a CO passive sampler. Laboratory and field research needed for the development and validation of an effective and cost-efficient CO passive sampler are also discussed.

  7. Space-based observation of volcanic iodine monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönhardt, Anja; Richter, Andreas; Theys, Nicolas; Burrows, John P.

    2017-04-01

    Volcanic eruptions inject substantial amounts of halogens into the atmosphere. Chlorine and bromine oxides have frequently been observed in volcanic plumes from different instrumental platforms such as from ground, aircraft and satellites. The present study is the first observational evidence that iodine oxides are also emitted into the atmosphere during volcanic eruptions. Large column amounts of iodine monoxide, IO, are observed in satellite measurements following the major eruption of the Kasatochi volcano, Alaska, in 2008. The IO signal is detected in measurements made both by SCIAMACHY (Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric CHartographY) on ENVISAT (Environmental Satellite) and GOME-2 (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2) on MetOp-A (Meteorological Operational Satellite A). Following the eruption on 7 August 2008, strongly elevated levels of IO slant columns of more than 4 × 1013 molec cm-2 are retrieved along the volcanic plume trajectories for several days. The retrieved IO columns from the different instruments are consistent, and the spatial distribution of the IO plume is similar to that of bromine monoxide, BrO. Details in the spatial distribution, however, differ between IO, BrO and sulfur dioxide, SO2. The column amounts of IO are approximately 1 order of magnitude smaller than those of BrO. Using the GOME-2A observations, the total mass of IO in the volcanic plume injected into the atmosphere from the eruption of Kasatochi on 7 August 2008, is determined to be on the order of 10 Mg.

  8. The electric dipole moment of cobalt monoxide, CoO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Xiujuan; Steimle, Timothy C

    2014-03-28

    A number of low-rotational lines of the E(4)Δ7/2 ← X(4)Δ7/2 (1,0) band system of cobalt monoxide, CoO, were recorded field free and in the presence of a static electric field. The magnetic hyperfine parameter, h7/2, and the electron quadrupole parameter, eQq0, for the E(4)Δ7/2(υ = 1) state were optimized from the analysis of the field-free spectrum. The permanent electric dipole moment, μ(→)(el), for the X(4)Δ7/2 (υ = 0) and E(4)Δ7/2 (υ = 1) states were determined to be 4.18 ± 0.05 D and 3.28 ± 0.05 D, respectively, from the analysis of the observed Stark spectra of F' = 7 ← F″ = 6 branch feature in the Q(7/2) line and the F' = 8 ← F″ = 7 branch feature in the R(7/2) line. The measured dipole moments of CoO are compared to those from theoretical predictions and the trend across the 3d-metal monoxide series discussed.

  9. Carbon Monoxide Emissions in Middle Aged Debris Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Morgan; Gorti, Uma; Hales, Antonio; Carpenter, John M.; Hughes, A. Meredith

    2017-01-01

    Circumstellar disks greater than 10 Myr old, referred to as debris disks, are expected to be gas poor. The original gas and dust in these disks is thought to be accreted onto the host stars, used up in the formation of planets and other bodies, or blown out of the disks via stellar radiation. However, recent ALMA observations at millimeter wavelengths have led to the detection of carbon monoxide (J=2-1) emission in a few debris disks, prompting further investigation.Using ALMA data, two separate models of gas genesis were tested against observations of the CO emissions in the disks around HIP 73145, HIP 76310, and HIP 84881 in the Upper Sco association. One of these models was built on the hypothesis that the gas in these debris disks is left over from stellar formation and has persisted over uncommonly long periods of time. The other model is built on the hypothesis that this gas is of secondary nature, produced by collisions between planetary bodies in the debris disks. Model emissions were calculated using the Line Modeling Engine (LIME) radiative transfer code and were compared with observational data to infer gas masses under both production scenarios. The implications of the masses of carbon monoxide in the disks suggested by each of the two models are discussed.

  10. 40 CFR 52.1627 - Control strategy and regulations: Carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...: Carbon monoxide. 52.1627 Section 52.1627 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New Mexico § 52.1627 Control strategy and regulations: Carbon monoxide. (a) Part D Approval. The...

  11. Time-trends in method-specific suicide rates compared with the availability of specific compounds. The Danish experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete; Qin, Ping; Helweg-Larsen, Karin

    2006-01-01

    with official information about availability of medical compounds (barbiturates, benzodiazepines, analgesics, antidepressants) and carbon monoxide in vehicle exhaust and household gas. Restrictions on the availability of carbon monoxide, barbiturates and dextropropoxyphen was associated with a decline...... in the number of suicides by self-poisoning with these compounds. Restricted access occurred concomittantly with a 55% decrease in suicide rate...

  12. Method of removing nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas using a water-soluble iron ion-dithiocarbamate, xanthate or thioxanthate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D. Kwok-Keung; Chang, Shih-Ger

    1987-08-25

    The present invention relates to a method of removing of nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas which method comprises contacting a nitrogen oxide-containing gas with an aqueous solution of water soluble organic compound-iron ion chelate complex. The NO absorption efficiency of ferrous urea-dithiocarbamate and ferrous diethanolamine-xanthate as a function of time, oxygen content and solution ph is presented. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Infrared multiphoton dissociation of octafluorocyclobutane with a two-frequency Q-switched CO/sub 2/ laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pochon, E.; Weston, R.E. Jr.; Flynn, G.W.

    1985-01-03

    The infrared multiphoton dissociation of octafluorocyclobutane has been investigated by the use of two CO/sub 2/ laser pulses of different frequency, synchronized by the same Q-switching mirror. The dissociation yield has been determined as a function of laser pulse energy, frequency of the dissociating pulse, substrate pressure, and interpulse delay. Accompanying transport phenomena (expansion and diffusion) were taken into account by the use of appropriate models. The kinetic behavior of highly vibrationally excited c-C/sub 4/F/sub 8/ molecules indicates that collisional relaxation occurs at nearly gas kinetic rates. 47 references, 10 figures.

  14. A Review on Preferential Oxidation of Carbon Monoxide in Hydrogen Rich Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mishra

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this review, recent works on the preferential oxidation of carbon monoxide in hydrogen rich gases for fuel cell applications are summarized. H2 is used as a fuel for polymer-electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC. It is produced by reforming of natural gas or liquid fuels followed by water gas shift reaction. The produced gas consists of H2, CO, and CO2. In which CO content is around 1%, which is highly poisonous for the Pt anode of the PEMFC so that further removal of CO is needed. Catalytic preferential oxidation of CO (CO-PROX is one of the most suitable methods of purification of H2 because of high CO conversion rate at low temperature range, which is preferable for PEMFC operating conditions. Catalysts used for COPROX are mainly noble metal based; gold based and base metal oxide catalysts among them Copper-Ceria based catalysts are the most appropriate due to its low cost, easy availability and result obtained by these catalysts are comparable with the conventional noble metal catalysts. Copyright © 2011 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved(Received: 22nd October 2010, Revised: 12nd January 2011, Accepted: 19th January 2011[How to Cite: A. Mishra, R. Prasad. (2011. A Review on Preferential Oxidation of Carbon Monoxide in Hydrogen Rich Gases. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 6 (1: 1-14. doi:10.9767/bcrec.6.1.191.1-14][How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.6.1.191.1-14 || or local:  http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/191] | View in 

  15. Arctic chlorine monoxide observations during spring 1993 over Thule, Greenland, and implications for ozone depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindell, D. T.; Reeves, J. M.; Emmons, L. K.; De Zafra, R. L.

    1994-01-01

    We have determined the vertical distribution of chlorine monoxide (ClO), from measurements of pressure-broadened molecular-emission spectra made over Thule, Greenland, during the 1993 Arctic spring. The measurements show a weak lower stratospheric layer of chlorine monoxide inside the vortex in late February, which was, however, significantly greater in mixing ratio than that seen in observations we made in the spring of 1992. ClO was also observed in much smaller quantities in early to mid-March 1993 when Thule was outside the vortex. The amount of ClO within the vortex was severely reduced by the time it returned over Thule in late March. This reduction occurred several weeks earlier relative to the winter solstice than the decline of ClO inside the Antarctic vortex in 1993. The enhanced Arctic lower stratospheric layer seen in late February 1993 at a nearly equivalent photochemical period, and beyond. We have calculated daily ozone loss rates, due primarily to the dimer chlorine catalytic cycle, from both sets of measurements. The vertical integral of the Arctic daily percentage ozone loss when the largest ClO levels were present, at the end of February, is found to be approximately one quarter of that in the Antarctic at a photochemical period only 1 week later. The relative weakness of daily ozone depletion, combined with the early disappearance of ClO in the Arctic, suggests that hemispheric dilution by ozone-poor air from within the Arctic vortex is unlikely to be sufficient to explain the historically extreme loss of midlatitude northern hemisphere ozone which began in 1992 and persisted throughout 1993.

  16. Thermal degradation kinetics of polyketone based on styrene and carbon monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mu, Jiali, E-mail: jiaqm411@163.com; Fan, Wenjun; Shan, Shaoyun; Su, Hongying; Wu, Shuisheng; Jia, Qingming

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • The PK were synthesized from carbon monoxide and styrene in the presence of PANI-PdCl{sub 2} catalyst and PdCl{sub 2} catalyst. • The structures and thermal behaviors of PK prepared by homogenous and the supported catalyst were investigated. • The microstructures of PK were changed in the supported catalyst system. • The alternating PK copolymer (PANI-PdCl{sub 2} catalyst) was more thermally stable than PK (PdCl{sub 2} catalyst). • The degradation activation energy values were estimated by Flynn–Wall–Ozawa method and Kissinger method. - Abstract: Copolymerization of styrene with carbon monoxide to give polyketones (PK) was carried out under homogeneous palladium catalyst and polyaniline (PANI) supported palladium(II) catalyst, respectively. The copolymers were characterized by {sup 1}H NMR, {sup 13}C NMR and GPC. The results indicated that the PK catalyzed by the supported catalyst has narrow molecular weight distribution (PDI = 1.18). For comparison purpose of thermal behaviors of PK prepared by the homogeneous and the supported catalyst, thermogravimetric (TG) analysis and derivative thermogravimetric (DTG) were conducted at different heating rates. The peak temperatures (396–402 °C) for PK prepared by the supported catalyst are higher than those (387–395 °C) of PK prepared by the homogeneous catalyst. The degradation activation energy (E{sub k}) values were estimated by Flynn–Wall–Ozawa method and Kissinger method, respectively. The E{sub k} values, as determined by two methods, were found to be in the range 270.72 ± 0.03–297.55 ± 0.10 kJ mol{sup −1}. Structures analysis and thermal degradation analysis revealed that the supported catalyst changed the microstructures of PK, resulting in improving thermal stability of PK.

  17. Arctic chlorine monoxide observations during spring 1993 over Thule, Greenland, and implications for ozone depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindell, D. T.; Reeves, J. M.; Emmons, L. K.; de Zafra, R. L.

    1994-12-01

    We have determined the vertical distribution of chlorine monoxide (ClO), from measurements of pressure-broadened molecular-emission spectra made over Thule, Greenland, during the 1993 Arctic spring. The measurements show a weak lower stratospheric layer of chlorine monoxide inside the vortex in late February, which was, however, significantly greater in mixing ratio than that seen in observations we made in the spring of 1992. ClO was also observed in much smaller quantities in early to mid-March 1993 when Thule was outside the vortex. The amount of ClO within the vortex was severely reduced by the time it returned over Thule in late March. This reduction occurred several weeks earlier relative to the winter solstice than the decline of ClO inside the Antarctic vortex in 1993. The enhanced Arctic lower stratospheric layer seen in late February 1993 had a peak mixing ratio of about 0.5 parts per billion by volume (ppbv), slightly less than a factor of 3 smaller than that observed in the Antarctic in 1993 at a nearly equivalent photochemical period, and beyond. We have calculated daily ozone loss rates, due primarily to the dimer chlorine catalytic cycle, from both sets of measurements. The vertical integral of the Arctic daily percentage ozone loss when the largest ClO levels were present, at the end of February, is found to be approximately one quarter of that in the Antarctic at a photochemical period only 1 week later. The relative weakness of daily ozone depletion, combined with the early disappearance of ClO in the Arctic, suggests that hemispheric dilution by ozone-poor air from within the Arctic vortex is unlikely to be sufficient to explain the historically extreme loss of midlatitude northern hemisphere ozone which began in 1992 and persisted throughout 1993.

  18. Dissociation coloured quarks and inclusive scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Bartelski, J

    1974-01-01

    A simple parton model of the nucleon built up of three-triplet quarks dissociated into the Gell-Mann-Zweig quarks and 'coloured' gluons is considered. It is shown that the model is consistent with SLAC-MIT and CERN data for inclusive scattering. (21 refs).

  19. Nucleon-XcJ Dissociation Cross Sections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯又层; 许晓明; 周代翠

    2002-01-01

    Nucleon-XcJ dissociation cross sections are calculated in a constituent interexchange model in which quark-quark potential is derived from the Buchmüller-Tye quark-anti-quark potential. These new cross sections for dominant reaction channels depend on the centre-of-mass energy of the nucleon and the charmonium.

  20. Subliminal processes, dissociation and the 'I'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bob, Petr

    2003-06-01

    The study of unconscious processes leads to the hypothesis of the limit of consciousness, which involves two main kinds of psychic activity. The first represents psychic contents which are subliminal for their low energy, the second subliminal contents which are inaccessible to consciousness because they are dissociated in the subliminal region. Dissociation is a concept introduced by Pierre Janet for splitting consciousness due to traumatic events or during hypnosis. It takes a more general form in Hilgard's neo-dissociation theory of hypnotic phenomena and also in Jung's theory of the collective unconscious. Further generalization links it to the modern findings of explicit and implicit perception, leading to a shift in dissociation from hypothesis to clinical, experimental and theoretical reality. Studies in hypnosis also point to the existence of an integrative psychic entity, that comprises the conscious 'I'. Hilgard called this the hidden observer, and his findings represent empirical confirmation of Jung's term for the Self as mirror 'I', which leads to many important consequences for self-discovery and the meaning of life.

  1. Visuomotor Dissociation in Cerebral Scaling of Size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potgieser, Adriaan R. E.; de Jong, Bauke M.

    2016-01-01

    Estimating size and distance is crucial in effective visuomotor control. The concept of an internal coordinate system implies that visual and motor size parameters are scaled onto a common template. To dissociate perceptual and motor components in such scaling, we performed an fMRI experiment in whi

  2. From dissociated hegemony towards embedded hegemony

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaay Fortman, B. de; Dhanrajgir, Nikhil

    2005-01-01

    An earlier paper by the second author, entitled ‘Bella Americana: Some Consequences for the International Community’ [1], dealt with the background and consequences of the American dissociation from the international legal and political order created after World War II. The current article examines

  3. Visuomotor Dissociation in Cerebral Scaling of Size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potgieser, Adriaan R. E.; de Jong, Bauke M.

    2016-01-01

    Estimating size and distance is crucial in effective visuomotor control. The concept of an internal coordinate system implies that visual and motor size parameters are scaled onto a common template. To dissociate perceptual and motor components in such scaling, we performed an fMRI experiment in

  4. Research of Heating Rates Influence on Layer Coal Gasification of Krasnogorsky And Borodinsky Coal Deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankovskiy Stanislav

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental research of heating rate influence on coal samples gasification process of Krasnogorsky and Borodinsky coal deposit ranks A and 2B was done to define optimal heating mode in high intensification of dispersal of inflammable gases conditions. Abundance ratio of carbon monoxide and nitrogen monoxide, water vapor, carbon dioxide at four values of heating rate within the range of 5 to 30 K/min. with further definition of optimal heating rate of coals was stated.

  5. Barrierless association of CF2 and dissociation of C2F4 by variational transition-state theory and system-specific quantum Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Junwei Lucas; Zhang, Xin; Truhlar, Donald G

    2016-11-29

    Bond dissociation is a fundamental chemical reaction, and the first principles modeling of the kinetics of dissociation reactions with a monotonically increasing potential energy along the dissociation coordinate presents a challenge not only for modern electronic structure methods but also for kinetics theory. In this work, we use multifaceted variable-reaction-coordinate variational transition-state theory (VRC-VTST) to compute the high-pressure limit dissociation rate constant of tetrafluoroethylene (C2F4), in which the potential energies are computed by direct dynamics with the M08-HX exchange correlation functional. To treat the pressure dependence of the unimolecular rate constants, we use the recently developed system-specific quantum Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel theory. The calculations are carried out by direct dynamics using an exchange correlation functional validated against calculations that go beyond coupled-cluster theory with single, double, and triple excitations. Our computed dissociation rate constants agree well with the recent experimental measurements.

  6. Use of an intense microwave laser to dissociate a diatomic molecule: Theoretical prediction of dissociation dynamics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amita Wadehra; B M Deb

    2012-01-01

    By employing an intense microwave laser of wavelength 116.65 m with intensities 1 × 1013 and 5 × 1018Wcm−2, respectively, the conclusion is reached theoretically and computationally that it is possible to dissociate the CO molecule, modelled as a Morse oscillator. It is predicted that for above-threshold dissociation (ATD), the molecule should absorb 1044 photons of the given wavelength in order to reach the lowest edge of the vibrational continuum. A consistent analysis of the predicted dissociation process is provided though the time-dependent probability density, dissociation probability, norm, potential function, HHG and ATD spectra, obtained by numerically solving the time-dependent vibrational Schödinger equation.

  7. Experimental Dissociation of Methane Hydrates Through Depressurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgfeldt, T.; Flemings, P. B.; Meyer, D.; You, K.

    2015-12-01

    We dissociated methane hydrates by stepwise depressurization. The initial hydrates were formed by injecting gas into a cylindrical sample of brine-saturated, coarse-grained sand at hydrate-stable conditions with the intention of reaching three-phase equilibrium. The sample was initially at 1°C with a pore pressure of 1775 psi and a salinity of 7 wt. % NaBr. The depressurization setup consisted of one pump filled with tap water attached to the confining fluid port and a second pump attached to the inlet port where the methane was injected. Depressurization was conducted over sixteen hours at a constant temperature of 1°C. The pore pressure was stepwise reduced from 1775 psi to atmospheric pressure by pulling known volumes of gas from the sample. After each extraction, we recorded the instantaneous and equilibrium pore pressure. 0.503 moles of methane were removed from the sample. The pore pressure decreased smoothly and nonlinearly with the cumulative gas withdrawn from the sample. We interpret that hydrate began to dissociate immediately with depressurization, and it continued to dissociate when the pressure decreased below the three-phase pressure for 1°C and 0 wt. % salinity. Two breaks in slope in the pressure vs. mass extracted data are bounded by smooth, nonlinear curves with differing slopes on either side. We attribute the breaks to dissociation of three zones of hydrate concentration. We created a box model to simulate the experimental behavior. For a 10% initial gas saturation (estimated from the hydrate formation experiment and based on mass conservation), an initial hydrate saturation of 55% is required to match the total methane extracted from the sample. Future experiments will be conducted over a longer timespan while monitoring hydrate dissociation with CT imaging throughout the process.

  8. Yukawa-dissociation and the deuteron binding energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsen, T.

    1997-05-01

    It is shown that energy must be conserved by the dissociation of an elementary particle. The energy deficit by a dissociation behaves as a basic concept. The binding energy of the deuteron is reproduced. 4 refs.

  9. Psychobiological characteristics of dissociative identity disorder : A symptom provocation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, A. A. T. Simone; Nijenhuis, Ellert R. S.; Quak, Jacqueline; Korf, Jakob; Haaksma, Jaap; Paans, Anne M. J.; Willemsen, Antoon T. M.; den Boer, Johan A.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Dissociative identity disorder (DID) patients function as two or more identities or dissociative identity states (DIS), categorized as 'neutral identity states' (NIS) and 'traumatic identity states' (TIS). NIS inhibit access to traumatic memories thereby enabling daily life functioning.

  10. Psychotherapy and Pharmacotherapy for Patients with Dissociative Identity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Julie P.; Dillon, Kristy S.

    2013-01-01

    There is a wide variety of what have been called “dissociative disorders,” including dissociative amnesia, dissociative fugue, depersonalization disorder, dissociative identity disorder, and forms of dissociative disorder not otherwise specified. Some of these diagnoses, particularly dissociative identity disorder, are controversial and have been questioned by many clinicians over the years. The disorders may be under-diagnosed or misdiagnosed, but many persons who have experienced trauma report “dissociative” symptoms. Prevalence of dissociative disorders is unknown, but current estimates are higher than previously thought. This paper reviews clinical, phenomenological, and epidemiological data regarding diagnosis in general, and illustrates possible treatment interventions for dissociative identity disorder, with a focus on psychotherapy interventions and a review of current psychopharmacology recommendations as part of a comprehensive multidisciplinary treatment plan. PMID:23556139

  11. Psychobiological characteristics of dissociative identity disorder : A symptom provocation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, A. A. T. Simone; Nijenhuis, Ellert R. S.; Quak, Jacqueline; Korf, Jakob; Haaksma, Jaap; Paans, Anne M. J.; Willemsen, Antoon T. M.; den Boer, Johan A.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Dissociative identity disorder (DID) patients function as two or more identities or dissociative identity states (DIS), categorized as 'neutral identity states' (NIS) and 'traumatic identity states' (TIS). NIS inhibit access to traumatic memories thereby enabling daily life functioning.

  12. Thermal dissociation behavior and dissociation enthalpies of methane-carbon dioxide mixed hydrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, T.H.; Kneafsey, T.J.; Rees, E.V.L.

    2011-02-15

    Replacement of methane with carbon dioxide in hydrate has been proposed as a strategy for geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and/or production of methane (CH{sub 4}) from natural hydrate deposits. This replacement strategy requires a better understanding of the thermodynamic characteristics of binary mixtures of CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} hydrate (CH{sub 4}-CO{sub 2} mixed hydrates), as well as thermophysical property changes during gas exchange. This study explores the thermal dissociation behavior and dissociation enthalpies of CH{sub 4}-CO{sub 2} mixed hydrates. We prepared CH{sub 4}-CO{sub 2} mixed hydrate samples from two different, well-defined gas mixtures. During thermal dissociation of a CH{sub 4}-CO{sub 2} mixed hydrate sample, gas samples from the head space were periodically collected and analyzed using gas chromatography. The changes in CH{sub 4}-CO{sub 2} compositions in both the vapor phase and hydrate phase during dissociation were estimated based on the gas chromatography measurements. It was found that the CO{sub 2} concentration in the vapor phase became richer during dissociation because the initial hydrate composition contained relatively more CO{sub 2} than the vapor phase. The composition change in the vapor phase during hydrate dissociation affected the dissociation pressure and temperature; the richer CO{sub 2} in the vapor phase led to a lower dissociation pressure. Furthermore, the increase in CO{sub 2} concentration in the vapor phase enriched the hydrate in CO{sub 2}. The dissociation enthalpy of the CH{sub 4}-CO{sub 2} mixed hydrate was computed by fitting the Clausius-Clapeyron equation to the pressure-temperature (PT) trace of a dissociation test. It was observed that the dissociation enthalpy of the CH{sub 4}-CO{sub 2} mixed hydrate lays between the limiting values of pure CH{sub 4} hydrate and CO{sub 2} hydrate, increasing with the CO{sub 2} fraction in the hydrate phase.

  13. Childhood Traumatic Experiences, Dissociative Symptoms, and Dissociative Disorder Comorbidity Among Patients With Panic Disorder: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ural, Cenk; Belli, Hasan; Akbudak, Mahir; Tabo, Abdulkadir

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed childhood trauma history, dissociative symptoms, and dissociative disorder comorbidity in patients with panic disorder (PD). A total of 92 psychotropic drug-naive patients with PD, recruited from outpatient clinics in the psychiatry department of a Turkish hospital, were involved in the study. Participants were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders (SCID-D), Dissociation Questionnaire, Panic and Agoraphobia Scale, Panic Disorder Severity Scale, and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Of the patients with PD, 18 (19%) had a comorbid dissociative disorder diagnosis on screening with the SCID-D. The most prevalent disorders were dissociative disorder not otherwise specified, dissociative amnesia, and depersonalization disorders. Patients with a high degree of dissociation symptoms and dissociative disorder comorbidity had more severe PD than those without (p dissociation and PD. Among all of the subscales, the strongest relationship was with childhood emotional abuse. Logistic regression analysis showed that emotional abuse and severity of PD were independently associated with dissociative disorder. In our study, a significant proportion of the patients with PD had concurrent diagnoses of dissociative disorder. We conclude that the predominance of PD symptoms at admission should not lead the clinician to overlook the underlying dissociative process and associated traumatic experiences among these patients.

  14. Kinetics of CH4 and CO2 hydrate dissociation and gas bubble evolution via MD simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, M; Coombe, D

    2014-03-20

    Molecular dynamics simulations of gas hydrate dissociation comparing the behavior of CH4 and CO2 hydrates are presented. These simulations were based on a structurally correct theoretical gas hydrate crystal, coexisting with water. The MD system was first initialized and stabilized via a thorough energy minimization, constant volume-temperature ensemble and constant volume-energy ensemble simulations before proceeding to constant pressure-temperature simulations for targeted dissociation pressure and temperature responses. Gas bubble evolution mechanisms are demonstrated as well as key investigative properties such as system volume, density, energy, mean square displacements of the guest molecules, radial distribution functions, H2O order parameter, and statistics of hydrogen bonds. These simulations have established the essential similarities between CH4 and CO2 hydrate dissociation. The limiting behaviors at lower temperature (no dissociation) and higher temperature (complete melting and formation of a gas bubble) have been illustrated for both hydrates. Due to the shift in the known hydrate stability curves between guest molecules caused by the choice of water model as noted by other authors, the intermediate behavior (e.g., 260 K) showed distinct differences however. Also, because of the more hydrogen-bonding capability of CO2 in water, as reflected in its molecular parameters, higher solubility of dissociated CO2 in water was observed with a consequence of a smaller size of gas bubble formation. Additionally, a novel method for analyzing hydrate dissociation based on H-bond breakage has been proposed and used to quantify the dissociation behaviors of both CH4 and CO2 hydrates. Activation energies Ea values from our MD studies were obtained and evaluated against several other published laboratory and MD values. Intrinsic rate constants were estimated and upscaled. A kinetic reaction model consistent with macroscale fitted kinetic models has been proposed to

  15. Dissociation kinetics of the thyrotropin-receptor complex. Characterization of a slowly dissociable component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell-Jones, C H; Saltiel, A R; Thomas, C G; Nayfeh, S N

    1981-11-01

    The kinetics of the dissociation of thyrotropin (TSH) from human thyroid plasma membranes were studied in an attempt to further understand the molecular dynamics of the TSH--receptor interaction. Dissociation of bound [125I]TSH from thyroid plasma membranes was a biphasic process consisting of rapidly and slowly dissociable components, RDC and SDC, respectively. The dilution induced dissociation of bound [125I]TSH was enhanced by the addition of excess TSH (DEC). DEC was proportional to the dose of unlabeled TSH and its magnitude increased linearly with temperature. These results are in contrast to those reported for the kinetics of [125I]insulin dissociation. The functional significance of DEC remains largely unexplained. It was found that the fraction of SDC was dependent upon time of association in a temperature-dependent and apparently saturable process. It could not be attributed to alterations in the electrophoretic, immunologic or binding properties of [125I]TSH. Furthermore, no correlation was observed between generation of SDC and change in the Scatchard profile of TSH binding, in contrast to studies on growth hormone. These data suggest that, like some other polypeptide hormones, binding of TSH to its receptor does not proceed according to laws describing simple, rapidly reversible, bimolecular reactions. Furthermore, bound TSH undergoes a receptor-mediated conversion from a rapidly to a slowly dissociable state with time of incubation.

  16. Assessment of complex dissociative disorder patients and simulated dissociation in forensic contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Bethany L; Webermann, Aliya R; Frankel, A Steven

    Few assessors receive training in assessing dissociation and complex dissociative disorders (DDs). Potential differential diagnoses include anxiety, mood, psychotic, substance use, and personality disorders, as well as exaggeration and malingering. Individuals with DDs typically elevate on many clinical and validity scales on psychological tests, yet research indicates that they can be distinguished from DD simulators. Becoming informed about the testing profiles of DD individuals and DD simulators can improve the accuracy of differential diagnoses in forensic settings. In this paper, we first review the testing profiles of individuals with complex DDs and contrast them with DD simulators on assessment measures used in forensic contexts, including the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2), Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI), and the Structured Inventory of Reported Symptoms (SIRS), as well as dissociation-specific measures such as the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) and Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders (SCID-D-R). We then provide recommendations for assessing complex trauma and dissociation through the aforementioned assessments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of carbon monoxide, hydrogen and sulfate on thermophilic (55 degrees C) hydrogenogenic carbon monoxide conversion in two anaerobic bioreactor sludges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipma, J; Meulepas, R J W; Parshina, S N; Stams, A J M; Lettinga, G; Lens, P N L

    2004-04-01

    The conversion routes of carbon monoxide (CO) at 55 degrees C by full-scale grown anaerobic sludges treating paper mill and distillery wastewater were elucidated. Inhibition experiments with 2-bromoethanesulfonate (BES) and vancomycin showed that CO conversion was performed by a hydrogenogenic population and that its products, i.e. hydrogen and CO2, were subsequently used by methanogens, homo-acetogens or sulfate reducers depending on the sludge source and inhibitors supplied. Direct methanogenic CO conversion occurred only at low CO concentrations [partial pressure of CO (PCO) paper mill sludge. The presence of hydrogen decreased the CO conversion rates, but did not prevent the depletion of CO to undetectable levels (sludges showed interesting potential for hydrogen production from CO, especially since after 30 min exposure to 95 degrees C, the production of CH4 at 55 degrees C was negligible. The paper mill sludge was capable of sulfate reduction with hydrogen, tolerating and using high CO concentrations (PCO>1.6 bar), indicating that CO-rich synthesis gas can be used efficiently as an electron donor for biological sulfate reduction.

  18. An improved potential energy surface and multi-temperature quasiclassical trajectory calculations of N2 + N2 dissociation reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Jason D; Valentini, Paolo; Nompelis, Ioannis; Paukku, Yuliya; Varga, Zoltan; Truhlar, Donald G; Schwartzentruber, Thomas; Candler, Graham V

    2015-08-01

    Accurate modeling of high-temperature hypersonic flows in the atmosphere requires consideration of collision-induced dissociation of molecular species and energy transfer between the translational and internal modes of the gas molecules. Here, we describe a study of the N2 + N2⟶N2 + 2N and N2 + N2⟶4N nitrogen dissociation reactions using the quasiclassical trajectory (QCT) method. The simulations used a new potential energy surface for the N4 system; the surface is an improved version of one that was presented previously. In the QCT calculations, initial conditions were determined based on a two-temperature model that approximately separates the translational-rotational temperature from the vibrational temperature of the N2 diatoms. Five values from 8000 K to 30,000 K were considered for each of the two temperatures. Over 2.4 × 10(9) trajectories were calculated. We present results for ensemble-averaged dissociation rate constants as functions of the translational-rotational temperature T and the vibrational temperature T(v). The rate constant depends more strongly on T when T(v) is low, and it depends more strongly on T(v) when T is low. Quasibound reactant states contribute significantly to the rate constants, as do exchange processes at higher temperatures. We discuss two sets of runs in detail: an equilibrium test set in which T = T(v) and a nonequilibrium test set in which T(v) test set, high-v and moderately-low-j molecules contribute most significantly to the overall dissociation rate, and this state specificity becomes stronger as the temperature decreases. Dissociating trajectories tend to result in a major loss of vibrational energy and a minor loss of rotational energy. In the nonequilibrium test set, as T(v) decreases while T is fixed, higher-j molecules contribute more significantly to the dissociation rate, dissociating trajectories tend to result in a greater rotational energy loss, and the dissociation probability's dependence on v weakens. In

  19. Development, Reliability, and Validity of a Child Dissociation Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Frank W.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Evaluation of the Child Dissociative Checklist found it to be a reliable and valid observer report measure of dissociation in children, including sexually abused girls and children with dissociative disorder and with multiple personality disorder. The checklist, which is appended, is intended as a clinical screening instrument and research measure…

  20. Speech-Language Dissociations, Distractibility, and Childhood Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conture, Edward G.; Walden, Tedra A.; Lambert, Warren E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated the relation among speech-language dissociations, attentional distractibility, and childhood stuttering. Method Participants were 82 preschool-age children who stutter (CWS) and 120 who do not stutter (CWNS). Correlation-based statistics (Bates, Appelbaum, Salcedo, Saygin, & Pizzamiglio, 2003) identified dissociations across 5 norm-based speech-language subtests. The Behavioral Style Questionnaire Distractibility subscale measured attentional distractibility. Analyses addressed (a) between-groups differences in the number of children exhibiting speech-language dissociations; (b) between-groups distractibility differences; (c) the relation between distractibility and speech-language dissociations; and (d) whether interactions between distractibility and dissociations predicted the frequency of total, stuttered, and nonstuttered disfluencies. Results More preschool-age CWS exhibited speech-language dissociations compared with CWNS, and more boys exhibited dissociations compared with girls. In addition, male CWS were less distractible than female CWS and female CWNS. For CWS, but not CWNS, less distractibility (i.e., greater attention) was associated with more speech-language dissociations. Last, interactions between distractibility and dissociations did not predict speech disfluencies in CWS or CWNS. Conclusions The present findings suggest that for preschool-age CWS, attentional processes are associated with speech-language dissociations. Future investigations are warranted to better understand the directionality of effect of this association (e.g., inefficient attentional processes → speech-language dissociations vs. inefficient attentional processes ← speech-language dissociations). PMID:26126203

  1. The Parenting Experiences of Mothers with Dissociative Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Lynn R.; Benjamin, Robert; Rind, Bruce

    1998-01-01

    Presents a qualitative analysis of the experience of parenting of mothers with dissociative disorders. Using the mothers' words, describes how the five symptom areas of dissociation impeded their parenting efforts. Discusses the necessity of addressing parenting in the treatment of client-mothers with dissociative disorders. (Author/MKA)

  2. The Contribution of Art Therapy to the Dissociative Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Patricia S.

    1994-01-01

    Explored concepts of brain hemispheric lateralization and distinct right brain functioning in extensive dissociation by administering Dissociative Experiences Scale to 114 engineering students and 92 university drawing students. Chi-square calculation found differences in dissociative scoring levels between groups that approached significance at…

  3. Cognitive Processes in Dissociation: Comment on Giesbrecht et al. (2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremner, J. Douglas

    2010-01-01

    In their recent review "Cognitive Processes in Dissociation: An Analysis of Core Theoretical Assumptions," published in "Psychological Bulletin", Giesbrecht, Lynn, Lilienfeld, and Merckelbach (2008) have challenged the widely accepted trauma theory of dissociation, which holds that dissociative symptoms are caused by traumatic stress. In doing so,…

  4. Development, Reliability, and Validity of a Child Dissociation Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Frank W.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Evaluation of the Child Dissociative Checklist found it to be a reliable and valid observer report measure of dissociation in children, including sexually abused girls and children with dissociative disorder and with multiple personality disorder. The checklist, which is appended, is intended as a clinical screening instrument and research measure…

  5. Developments in CO2 dissociation using non-equilibrium microwave plasma activation for solar fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, W. A.; Welzel, S.; van den Bekerom, D. C. M.; Frissen, G. F. W. M.; van Rooij, G. J.; Goede, A. P. H.; Graswinckel, M. F.; Groen, P. W. C.; N. den Harder,; van Heemert, B.; Minea, T.; M. C. M. van de Sanden,; Leins, M.; Kopecki, J.; Schulz, A.; Walker, M.

    2015-01-01

    Vortex stabilized microwave plasma conversion of CO2 is considered as promising route for energy efficient dissociation towards CO production. Energy and conversion efficiencies are investigated in scans of reactor pressure, gas flow rate and specific power. Deterioration of efficiencies from 39% to

  6. Selective photo-dissociative ionization of methane molecule with TDDFT study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irani, E.; Anvari, A.; Sadighi-Bonabi, R.

    2017-01-01

    Three dimensional calculation of control dynamics for finding the optimized laser filed is formulated using an iterative method and time-dependent density functional approach. An appropriate laser pulse is designed to control the desired products in the dissociation of methane molecule. The tailored laser pulse profile, eigenstate distributions and evolution of the efficient occupation numbers are predicted and exact energy levels of this five-atomic molecule is obtained. Dissociation rates of up to 78%, 80%, 90%, and 82% for CH2+, CH+, C+ and C++ are achieved. Based on the present approach one can reduce the controlling costs.

  7. Correlation between air flow rate and pollutant concentrations during two-stage oak log combustion in a 25 KW residential boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juszczak Marek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available It can be expected that there is a considerable correlation between combustion air flow rate and the concentrations of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxide in the flue gas. The influence of temperature and oxygen concentration in the combustion zone on the concentrations of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxide in the flue gas, for high and low combustion air flow, was analysed. Oxygen concentration for which the concentration of carbon monoxide is the lowest was determined, as well as the mutual relation between carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxide concentration.

  8. Dissociation of benzylamine ions following infrared multiple photon absorption, electron impact ionization, and UV multiphoton ionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catanzarite, J.H.; Haas, Y.; Reisler, H.; Wittig, C.

    1983-05-01

    The dissociation of benzylamine ions following (i) electron impact (EI) ionization, (ii) multiphoton ionization (MPI) at 266 nm, and (iii) infrared multiple photon absorption (IRMPA) at 9.26 ..mu..m is reported. In the EI and MPI experiments, three competitive dissociation pathways are observed. In the IRMPA experiments, benzylamine ions prepared by MPI at low fluences are fragmented very efficiently following irradiation with the focused output from a pulsed CO/sub 2/ laser. However, in contrast to the EI and MPI results, the IRMPD experiments reveal only a single, lowest energy, dissociation pathway and the fragmentation pattern is consistent with a sequential mechanism in which daughter ions continue to absorb the IR radiation and dissociate. The differences are explained by the different natures of the excitation processes: in IRMPA, the relatively slow up-pumping rate and the long rise time of the CO/sub 2/ laser pulse restrict the levels of excitation in the dissociating parent ions and favor sequential processes along the lowest energy decomposition pathways.

  9. Computational Study of Bond Dissociation Enthalpies for Lignin Model Compounds. Substituent Effects in Phenethyl Phenyl Ethers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beste, Ariana [ORNL; Buchanan III, A C [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Lignin is an abundant natural resource that is a potential source of valuable chemicals. Improved understanding of the pyrolysis of lignin occurs through the study of model compounds for which phenethyl phenyl ether (PhCH2CH2OPh, PPE) is the simplest example representing the dominant -O-4 ether linkage. The initial step in the thermal decomposition of PPE is the homolytic cleavage of the oxygen-carbon bond. The rate of this key step will depend on the bond dissociation enthalpy, which in turn will depend on the nature and location of relevant substituents. We used modern density functional methods to calculate the oxygen-carbon bond dissociation enthalpies for PPE and several oxygen substituted derivatives. Since carbon-carbon bond cleavage in PPE could be a competitive initial reaction under high temperature pyrolysis conditions, we also calculated substituent effects on these bond dissociation enthalpies. We found that the oxygen-carbon bond dissociation enthalpy is substantially lowered by oxygen substituents situated at the phenyl ring adjacent to the ether oxygen. On the other hand, the carbon-carbon bond dissociation enthalpy shows little variation with different substitution patterns on either phenyl ring.

  10. Dissociation behavior of methane--ethane mixed gas hydrate coexisting structures I and II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kida, Masato; Jin, Yusuke; Takahashi, Nobuo; Nagao, Jiro; Narita, Hideo

    2010-09-09

    Dissociation behavior of methane-ethane mixed gas hydrate coexisting structures I and II at constant temperatures less than 223 K was studied with use of powder X-ray diffraction and solid-state (13)C NMR techniques. The diffraction patterns at temperatures less than 203 K showed both structures I and II simultaneously convert to Ih during the dissociation, but the diffraction pattern at temperatures greater than 208 K showed different dissociation behavior between structures I and II. Although the diffraction peaks from structure II decreased during measurement at constant temperatures greater than 208 K, those from structure I increased at the initial step of dissociation and then disappeared. This anomalous behavior of the methane-ethane mixed gas hydrate coexisting structures I and II was examined by using the (13)C NMR technique. The (13)C NMR spectra revealed that the anomalous behavior results from the formation of ethane-rich structure I. The structure I hydrate formation was associated with the dissociation rate of the initial methane-ethane mixed gas hydrate.

  11. Hydrate Formation/Dissociation in (Natural Gas + Water + Diesel Oil Emulsion Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Yu Sun

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Hydrate formation/dissociation of natural gas in (diesel oil + water emulsion systems containing 3 wt% anti-agglomerant were performed for five water cuts: 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 vol%. The natural gas solubilities in the emulsion systems were also examined. The experimental results showed that the solubility of natural gas in emulsion systems increases almost linearly with the increase of pressure, and decreases with the increase of water cut. There exists an initial slow hydrate formation stage for systems with lower water cut, while rapid hydrate formation takes place and the process of the gas-liquid dissolution equilibrium at higher water cut does not appear in the pressure curve. The gas consumption amount due to hydrate formation at high water cut is significantly higher than that at low water cut. Fractional distillation for natural gas components also exists during the hydrate formation process. The experiments on hydrate dissociation showed that the dissociation rate and the amount of dissociated gas increase with the increase of water cut. The variations of temperature in the process of natural gas hydrate formation and dissociation in emulsion systems were also examined.

  12. Trauma and psychosis: The mediating role of self-concept clarity and dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Gavin John; Reid, Graeme; Preston, Phil; Palmier-Claus, Jasper; Sellwood, William

    2015-08-30

    Childhood trauma (CT) and psychosis may be associated. Drawing on the dissociation and social psychological literature, the current study examined the mediating role of structural aspects of self in explaining the relationship between childhood trauma and psychosis. Twenty-nine individuals with psychosis were compared with 31 healthy volunteers regarding childhood trauma, dissociation and self-concept clarity (SCC). High rates of maltreatment were found in the psychosis sample. Additionally, clinical participants reported more dissociation and less self-concept clarity. Mediational analyses were carried out on pooled data from across both clinical and non-clinical samples. These suggested that the influence of physical neglect in increasing the likelihood of experiencing psychosis was explicable through the effects of increased dissociation. Self-concept clarity mediated the relationship between psychosis and total childhood trauma, emotional abuse, physical abuse, emotional and physical neglect. Furthermore, dissociation and self-concept clarity were strongly correlated providing evidence that they may form a unitary underlying concept of 'self-concept integration'. The study provides further evidence of the link between childhood trauma and psychosis. Self-concept integration may be adversely affected by negative childhood experiences, which increases psychosis risk. Methodological limitations, clinical implications and suggestions for future research are considered.

  13. N+ charge transfer and N+2 dissociation in N2 at swarm energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basurto, E; de Urquijo, J; Cisneros, C; Alvarez, I

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports a drift-tube-mass-spectrometer measurement of the relative abundances of N+ and N+2 in pure nitrogen, over a ratio of electric field to gas density, E/N, from 800 to 7200 Td [1 townsend (Td)=10(-17) V cm(2)]. A proposed charge transfer dissociation scheme between the above two ions and N2 allowed us to obtain spatial rate coefficients for charge transfer and dissociation over the E/N range 800-2800 Td. Using previously measured cross sections for the above processes, and assuming a Maxwellian distribution of ion velocities, we calculated the reaction coefficients, which were found to be in good agreement with our measured values. In particular, the present results support the trend toward fairly high charge transfer cross section values for N+ energies above 10 eV. In the overlap range between 2.4 and 7.2 kTd, our concentration ratio [N(+)/N(+)(2)] is about five times smaller than that measured previously from a diffuse Townsend discharge in which electron impact is involved in addition to N+2 collisional dissociation with N2, but has the same trend. Thus it seems that, besides N+2 dissociation by electron impact, collisional dissociation becomes important at elevated values of E/N. In connection with previous discharge work in nitrogen, the present study may help explain the enhanced cathode yields observed.

  14. Comparison of dissociation mechanism between collisionally activated dissociation and charge inversion using alkali metal targets for chlorophenol isomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Shigeo; Kawamura, Yoshiaki; Takahashi, Yutaka

    2005-11-01

    Chlorinated aromatic compounds are well-known environmental pollutants whose toxicities depend dramatically on the chlorine substitution pattern, making differentiation of chlorophenol isomers important for environmental analysis. Collisionally activated dissociation (CAD) spectra and charge inversion spectra of ortho-, meta-, and para-chlorophenols (ClC6H4OH) and their partially deuterated forms (ClC6H4OD) were measured using alkali metal targets. The peaks associated with C6H4O+ and C5H5Cl+ ions observed in the CAD spectra result from the loss of HCl and CO fragments, respectively, after the re-arrangement of the hydroxyl hydrogen atom. The peaks associated with C6H4OH- and ClC6H4O- ions observed in the charge inversion spectra result from Cl loss and from hydroxyl bond dissociation, respectively. Isomeric differentiation is possible based on the clear differences observed in the relative intensities of these pairs of peaks. Although the intensities of the peaks associated with C6H4O+ relative to those of C5H5Cl+ in the CAD spectra are independent of the target species, the intensities of the peaks associated with C6H4OH- relative to those of ClC6H4O- in the charge inversion spectra are target dependent. The isomeric dependence of the positive ion distribution patterns in the CAD spectra is proposed to be due to the differences in the rate of the hydrogen atom re-arrangement process. In contrast, the isomeric dependence of the negative ion distribution patterns in the charge inversion spectra is attributed to differences in the bond strength involved in the direct dissociation process in the neutral intermediate species.

  15. Hypervalence in monoxides and dioxides of superalkali clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Elizabeth; Meloni, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    F2Li3, a superalkali cluster, is characterized as having a lower adiabatic ionization energy than its elemental alkali counterpart and, coupled with the presence of complex molecular orbitals, suggests promise for novel bonding possibilities. CBS-QB3 composite method was used to study three distinct cluster isomers, as well as their cationic (+1) and anionic (-1) species, to identify energetic trends and observe geometric changes. Oxides were then generated from these clusters, of which three distinct monoxides and nine dioxides were obtained upon structure optimization. Identical calculations were performed for the oxide species and their charged counterparts. Some of the most stable oxides produced appear to possess hypervalent lithium and oxygen atoms, forming unique structures with exceptional stability.

  16. Carbon monoxide expedites metabolic exhaustion to inhibit tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegiel, Barbara; Gallo, David; Csizmadia, Eva; Harris, Clair; Belcher, John; Vercellotti, Gregory M; Penacho, Nuno; Seth, Pankaj; Sukhatme, Vikas; Ahmed, Asif; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo; Helczynski, Leszek; Bjartell, Anders; Persson, Jenny Liao; Otterbein, Leo E

    2013-12-01

    One classical feature of cancer cells is their metabolic acquisition of a highly glycolytic phenotype. Carbon monoxide (CO), one of the products of the cytoprotective molecule heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in cancer cells, has been implicated in carcinogenesis and therapeutic resistance. However, the functional contributions of CO and HO-1 to these processes are poorly defined. In human prostate cancers, we found that HO-1 was nuclear localized in malignant cells, with low enzymatic activity in moderately differentiated tumors correlating with relatively worse clinical outcomes. Exposure to CO sensitized prostate cancer cells but not normal cells to chemotherapy, with growth arrest and apoptosis induced in vivo in part through mitotic catastrophe. CO targeted mitochondria activity in cancer cells as evidenced by higher oxygen consumption, free radical generation, and mitochondrial collapse. Collectively, our findings indicated that CO transiently induces an anti-Warburg effect by rapidly fueling cancer cell bioenergetics, ultimately resulting in metabolic exhaustion.

  17. The effect of carbon monoxide on planetary haze formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hörst, S. M.; Tolbert, M. A, E-mail: sarah.horst@colorado.edu [Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2014-01-20

    Organic haze plays a key role in many planetary processes ranging from influencing the radiation budget of an atmosphere to serving as a source of prebiotic molecules on the surface. Numerous experiments have investigated the aerosols produced by exposing mixtures of N{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} to a variety of energy sources. However, many N{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} atmospheres in both our solar system and extrasolar planetary systems also contain carbon monoxide (CO). We have conducted a series of atmosphere simulation experiments to investigate the effect of CO on the formation and particle size of planetary haze analogues for a range of CO mixing ratios using two different energy sources, spark discharge and UV. We find that CO strongly affects both number density and particle size of the aerosols produced in our experiments and indicates that CO may play an important, previously unexplored, role in aerosol chemistry in planetary atmospheres.

  18. Prevention of carbon monoxide exposure in general and recreational aviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelnick, Sanford D; Lischak, Michael W; Young, David G; Massa, Thomas V

    2002-08-01

    Carbon monoxide exposure is an important public health issue that poses a significant, albeit uncommon risk in aviation. Exposure is most common in single engine piston-driven aircraft where air is passed over the exhaust manifold to serve as cabin heat. Effective primary prevention of this exposure is the regular inspection and maintenance of aircraft exhaust systems, as required by law. For situations at special risk should exposure occur, and where there is concern for the public safety, installation of active warning devices for CO intrusion into cockpits may improve secondary prevention. Modern studies should be performed of occupation-specific abilities to support the 50 ppm FAA CO exposure standard and 50-70 ppm FAA Technical Standard Order (TSO) for CO monitors alerting pilots to the possibility of exhaust gas intrusion into their cockpits.

  19. ROLE OF ENDOGENOUS CARBON MONOXIDE IN ENDOTOXIN SHOCK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To study the role of endogenous carbon monoxide (CO) in endotoxin shock. Methods. The changes of CO levels and the effects of zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP),an inhibitor of heme-oxygenase (HO), in endotoxin shock and the efficacy of hemin,an inducer of HO were investigated.Results. The plasma CO levels were found to be significantly increased during the course of endotoxin shock. Injection of ZnPP was shown to abrogate the endotoxin-induced hypotension and metabolic derangements markedly. Administration of hemin to healthy rabbits revealed the hypotension and metabolic derangements similar to the animals given endotoxin.Conclusion.CO is a newly found endogenously produced mediator which may play an important role in the pathogenesis of endotoxin shock.

  20. ROLE OF ENDOGENOUS CARBON MONOXIDE IN ENDOTOXIN SHOCK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史源; 李华强; 潘捷; 覃世文; 潘凤; 蒋东波; 沈际皋

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To study the role of endogenous carbon monoxide (CO) in endotoxin shock. Methods. The changes of CO levels and the effects of zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP), an inhibitor of hemeoxygenase (HO), in endotoxin shock and the efficacy of heroin, an inducer of HO were investigated. Results. The plasma CO levels were found to be significantly increased during the comse of endotoxin shock. Injection of ZnPP was shown to abrogate the endotoxin-induced hypotension and metabolic derangements markedly. Administration of hemin to healthy rabbits revealed the hypotension and metabolic derangements similar to the animsls given endotoxin. Conclusion. CO is a newly found endogenously produced mediator which may play an important role in the pathogenesis of endotoxin shock.

  1. Terahertz Time Domain Gas-phase Spectroscopy of Carbon Monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilcullen, Patrick; Hartley, I. D.; Jensen, E. T.; Reid, M.

    2015-04-01

    Free induction decay signals emitted from Carbon Monoxide (CO) excited by sub-picosecond pulses of Terahertz (THz) radiation are directly measured in the time domain and compared to model calculations using a linear dispersion model to good agreement. Best fitting techniques of the data using the model allow the self-pressure broadening of CO to be measured across a range of absolute pressures, and the rotational constant to be determined. We find B V = 5.770 ± 0.003 × 1010 Hz in agreement with previous measurements. A partial pressure limit of detection for CO of 7900 ppm is estimated at atmosphere through extrapolating the calculated commensurate echo peaks down to low pressures with respect to the RMS noise floor of our THz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) apparatus, which implies a limit of detection in the range of 40 ppm for commercial THz-TDS systems.

  2. An Unusual Cause of Supraventricular Tachycardia: Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suat Zengin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available      Carbon monoxide (CO is a toxic gas produced by the incomplete combustion of carbon-containing compounds. Exposure to high concentrations of CO can be letha and is the most common cause of death from poisoning worldwide. Cardiac manifestations after exposure to CO, including myocardial ischemia, heart failure, and arrhythmias, have been reported. A 28-year-old a patient was admitted to our emergency department with altered consciousness as a consequence of acute domestic exposure to CO from a stove. His carboxyhemoglobin level was 39%. The oxygen treatment was started promptly, and therapeutic red cell exchange was performed. An electrocardiogram revealed supraventricular tachycardia (SVT, and an echocardiographic examination demonstrated normal cardiac functions. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the second to report a case of SVT attack due to acute CO intoxication. This paper discusses the management of this complication in patients poisoned with CO.

  3. Model, First-Principle Calculation of Ammonia Dissociation on Si(100 Surface. Importance of Proton Tunneling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Z. Zgierski

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The dissociation of an ammonia molecule on a cluster of Si atoms simulating the 100 silicon crystal structure with two Si dimers has been investigated by means of the DFT and an approximate instanton methods. The model corresponds to the low coverage limit of the surface. Absolute rate constants of two different dissociation paths are evaluated together with deuterium isotope effects. It is demonstrated that, even at room temperatures, the process is dominated by tunneling and that dissociation to a silicon atom of the adjacent dimer, rather than a silicon within the same dimer, is the prevailing mechanism. This leads to creation of a metastable structure which will slowly decay through a two-step hydrogen atom migration towards the absolute minimum on the potential energy surface corresponding to the NH2 group and the hydrogen atom residing in the same dimer.

  4. A molecular dynamics study of melting and dissociation of tungsten nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Wang, Jun; Fu, Baoqin; Hou, Qing

    2015-12-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were conducted to study the melting and dissociation of free tungsten nanoparticles. For the various interatomic potentials applied, the melting points of the tungsten nanoparticles increased with increasing nanoparticle diameter. Combining these results with the melting point of bulk tungsten in the experiment, the melting point of nanoparticles with diameters ranging from 4 to 12 nm could be determined. As the temperature increases, free nanoparticles are subject to dissociation phenomena. The dissociation rate was observed to follow Arrhenius behavior, and the Meyer-Neldel rule was obeyed. These results are useful in understanding the behavior of tungsten dust generated in nuclear fusion devices as well as for the preparation, formation, and application of tungsten powders.

  5. A molecular dynamics study of melting and dissociation of tungsten nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Molecular dynamics simulations were conducted to study the melting and dissociation of free tungsten nanoparticles. For the various interatomic potentials applied, the melting points of the tungsten nanoparticles increased with increasing nanoparticle diameter. Combining these results with the melting point of bulk tungsten in the experiment, the melting point of nanoparticles with diameters ranging from 4 to 12 nm could be determined. As the temperature increases, free nanoparticles are subject to dissociation phenomena. The dissociation rate was observed to follow Arrhenius behavior, and the Meyer–Neldel rule was obeyed. These results are useful in understanding the behavior of tungsten dust generated in nuclear fusion devices as well as for the preparation, formation, and application of tungsten powders.

  6. Water dissociation phenomena in a bipolar membrane——The configurations and theoretical voltage analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐铜文; 杨伟华; 何炳林

    1999-01-01

    The models were established for the theoretical current-voltage characteristics in water dissociation process on a bipolar membrane. Particular attention was given to the transport of the water ions and electrolyte ions as well as the membrane physical structure and configuration. The factors on the water splitting process were adequately analysed based on the derived theoretical current-voltage characteristics and several good suggestions were proposed for decreasing the work voltage in practical operations. In addition, the model can give a reasonable explanation for the catalytic effect of some chemicals, such as amphiprotic hydroxide compounds, weak polymeric acids and bases, etc. It is shown that the catalyst may be responsible for the increase in dissociation rate constant of water and therefore enhance the water dissociation. The guidelines for choosing a proper catalyst were also proposed.

  7. Dissociative Part-Dependent Resting-State Activity in Dissociative Identity Disorder : A Controlled fMRI Perfusion Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlumpf, Yolanda R.; Reinders, Antje A. T. S.; Nijenhuis, Ellert R. S.; Luechinger, Roger; van Osch, Matthias J. P.; Jaencke, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    Background: In accordance with the Theory of Structural Dissociation of the Personality (TSDP), studies of dissociative identity disorder (DID) have documented that two prototypical dissociative subsystems of the personality, the "Emotional Part'' (EP) and the "Apparently Normal Part'' (ANP), have d

  8. Evidence for horizontal gene transfer of anaerobic carbon monoxide dehydrogenases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen eTechtmann

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO is commonly known as a toxic gas, yet it is used by both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and many archaea. In this study, we determined the prevalence of anaerobic carbon monoxide dehydrogenases (anaerobic CODHs, or [Ni,Fe]-CODHs in currently available genomic sequence databases. More than 6% (185 genomes out of 2887 bacterial and archaeal genome sequences in the IMG database possess at least one gene encoding [Ni,Fe]-CODH, the key enzyme for anaerobic CO utilization. The phylogenetic study of this extended protein family revealed nine distinct clades of [Ni,Fe]-CODHs. These clades consisted of [Ni,Fe]-CODHs that, while apparently monophyletic within the clades, were encoded by microorganisms of disparate phylogeny, based on 16S rRNA sequences, and widely ranging physiology. Following this discovery, it was therefore of interest to examine the extent and possible routes of horizontal gene transfer (HGT affecting [Ni,Fe]-CODH genes and gene clusters that include [Ni,Fe]-CODHs.The genome sequence of the extreme thermophile Thermosinus carboxydivorans was used as a case study for HGT. The [Ni,Fe]-CODH operon of T. carboxydivorans differs from its whole genome in its G+C content by 8.2 mol%. Here, we apply statistical methods to establish acquisition by T. carboxydivorans of the gene cluster including [Ni,Fe]-CODH via HGT. Analysis of tetranucleotide frequency and codon usage with application of the Kullback-Leibler divergence metric showed that the [Ni,Fe]-CODH-1 operon of T. carboxidyvorans is quite dissimilar to the whole genome. Using the same metrics, the T. carboxydivorans [Ni,Fe]-CODH-1 operon is highly similar to the genome of the phylogenetically distant anaerobic carboxydotroph Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans. These results allow to assume recent HTG of the gene cluster from a relative of C. hydrogenoformans to T. carboxydivorans or a more ancient transfer from a C. hydrogenoformans ancestor to a T. carboxydivorans

  9. A novel strategy for antimicrobial agent: role of exogenous carbon monoxide on suppressing Escherichia coli vitality and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xuefeng; Shen, Weichang; Wang, Xu; Qin, Weiting; Sun, Bingwei

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis is a severe systemic inflammatory response mostly caused by gram-negative bacterial infections. The rates of mortality in sepsis patients remain high. To date little is known about whether exogenous carbon monoxide can directly or indirectly inhibit or even kill gram negative bacteria. In our study, wedemonstrate a critical role of CO-releasing molecules in the suppressive effects on bacterial vitality and toxicity. We found the bacterial growth and colony forming were markedly suppressed in the presence of CORM-2 with significant cell damage, decreased or disappeared pili and flagella. In contrast, qRT-PCR showed the expression of fliA was downregulated, while dnaKandwaaQ were upregulated in E. coli+CORM-2. Subsequent in vivo experiments showed the mouse survival in the CORM-2 intervened-E.coli injectiontended to improve with 60%-100% survival rates, and colony distribution in major organs were significantly decreased with attenuated histological damage. In parallel, cytokine levels and myeloperoxidase accumulation in livers and lungs decreased significantly compared with E. coli group.These data provide the first evidence and a potential strategy that exogenous carbon monoxide can significantly suppress bacterial vitality and toxicity. This may be associated with the regulatory functions of CORM-2 on the expression of essential genes (fliA, dnaKand waaQ) in E. coli.

  10. Increased bone calcium dissociation in lead-exposed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Suhartono

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Lead is still a major environmental and occupational health hazard, since it is extensively used in the production of paints, gasoline and cosmetics. This causes the metal to be ubiquitous in the environment, being found in the air, soil, and water, from which it can enter the human body by inhalation or ingestion. Absorbed lead is capable of altering the calcium levels in bone. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effect of lead on bone calcium levels by measuring the reaction constant, Gibbs free energy, and enthalpy. Methods This study was of pure experimental design using 100 male albino rats (Rattus norvegicus. The experimental animals were assigned by simple randomization to two groups, one group receiving lead acetate orally at a dosage of 100 mg/kgBW, while the other group did not receive lead acetate. The intervention was given for 4 weeks and the rats were observed weekly for measurement of bone calcium levels by the permanganometric method. Results This study found that k1 (hydroxyapatite dissociation rate constant was 0.90 x 10-3 dt-1, and that k2 (hydroxyapatite association rate constant was 6.16 x 10-3 dt-1 for the control group, whereas for the intervention group k1 = 26.20 x 10-3 dt-1 and k2 = 16.75 x 10-3 dt-1. Thermodynamically, the overall reaction was endergonic and endothermic (DG > 0 and DH > 0. ConclusionS Lead exposure results in increased dissociation rate of bone in comparison with its association rate. Overall, the reaction was endergonic and endothermic (DG > 0 and DH > 0.

  11. Increased bone calcium dissociation in lead-exposed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Suhartono

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Lead is still a major environmental and occupational health hazard, since it is extensively used in the production of paints, gasoline and cosmetics. This causes the metal to be ubiquitous in the environment, being found in the air, soil, and water, from which it can enter the human body by inhalation or ingestion. Absorbed lead is capable of altering the calcium levels in bone. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effect of lead on bone calcium levels by measuring the reaction constant, Gibbs free energy, and enthalpy. METHODS This study was of pure experimental design using 100 male albino rats (Rattus norvegicus. The experimental animals were assigned by simple randomization to two groups, one group receiving lead acetate orally at a dosage of 100 mg/ kgBW, while the other group did not receive lead acetate. The intervention was given for 4 weeks and the rats were observed weekly for measurement of bone calcium levels by the permanganometric method. RESULTS This study found that k1 (hydroxyapatite dissociation rate constant was 0.90 x 10-3 dt-1, and that k2 (hydroxyapatite association rate constant was 6.16 x 10-3 dt-1 for the control group, whereas for the intervention group k1 = 26.20 x 10-3 dt-1 and k2 = 16.75 x 10-3 dt-1. Thermodynamically, the overall reaction was endergonic and endothermic (ΔG > 0 and ΔH > 0. CONCLUSIONS Lead exposure results in increased dissociation rate of bone in comparison with its association rate. Overall, the reaction was endergonic and endothermic (ΔG > 0 and ΔH > 0.

  12. The reaction of Pseudomonas aeruginosa cytochrome c oxidase with carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, S R; Wilson, M T; Greenwood, C

    1975-10-01

    The binding of CO to ascorbate-reduced Pseudomonas cytochrome oxidase was investigated by static-titration, stopped-flow and flash-photolytic techniques. Static-titration data indicated that the binding process was non-stoicheiometric, with a Hill number of 1.44. Stopped-flow kinetics obtained on the binding of CO to reduced Pseudomonas cytochrome oxidase were biphasic in form; the faster rate exhibited a linear dependence on CO concentration with a second-order rate constant of 2 X 10(4) M-1-s-1, whereas the slower reaction rapidly reached a pseudo-first-order rate limit at approx. 1s-1. The relative proportions of the two phases observed in stopped-flow experiments also showed a dependency on CO concentration, the slower phase increasing as the CO concentration decreased. The kinetics of CO recombination after flash-photolytic dissociation of the reduced Pseudomonas cytochrome oxidase-CO complex were also biphasic in character, both phases showing a linear pseudo-first-order rate dependence on CO concentration. The second-order rate constants were determined as 3.6 X 10(4)M-1-s-1 and 1.6 X 10(4)M-1-s-1 respectively. Again the relative proportions of the two phases varied with CO concentration, the slower phase predominating at low CO concentrations. CO dissociation from the enzyme-CO complex measured in the presence of O2 and NO indicated the presence of two rates, of the order of 0.03s-1 and 0.15s-1. When sodium dithionite was used as a reducing agent for the Pseudomonas cytochrome oxidase, the CO-combination kinetics observed by both stopped flow and flash photolysis were extremely complex and not able to be simply analysed.

  13. Comparing the symptoms and mechanisms of "dissociation" in dissociative identity disorder and borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laddis, Andreas; Dell, Paul F; Korzekwa, Marilyn

    2017-01-01

    A total of 75 patients were diagnosed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders-Revised as having dissociative identity disorder (DID), and 100 patients were diagnosed with the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality as having borderline personality disorder (BPD). Both groups were administered the Multidimensional Inventory of Dissociation (MID). DID patients had significantly higher MID scores than BPD patients, different distributions of MID scores, and different MID subscale profiles in 3 ranges of MID scores (0-15, 15-30, 30-45). The core MID symptoms-exhibited at all ranges of MID scores-for DID patients (the presence of alters, identity confusion, and memory problems) and BPD patients (flashbacks, identity confusion, and memory problems) were ostensibly similar but were considered to be mostly produced by different underlying processes. Multiple regression analyses showed that the core MID symptoms of DID patients had different predictors than did the core MID symptoms of BPD patients. Alter identities seemed to generate most-but not all-dissociative phenomena in DID patients, whereas only the 24% highest scoring BPD patients (MID ≥45) seemed to manifest alter-driven dissociative experiences. Most BPD dissociative experiences appeared to be due to 5 other mechanisms: (a) BPD-specific, stress-driven, rapid shifts of self-state; (b and c) nondefensive disruptions of the framework of perceptual organization with or without an accompanying BPD-specific, dissociation-like disintegration of affective/neurocognitive functioning; (d) a defensive distancing or detachment from distress (i.e., simple depersonalization); and (e) Allen, Console, and Lewis's (1999) severe absorptive detachment.

  14. Dissociative disorders: between neurosis and psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devillé, C; Moeglin, C; Sentissi, O

    2014-01-01

    Dissociative disorders are a set of disorders defined by a disturbance affecting functions that are normally integrated with a prevalence of 2.4 percent in industrialised countries. These disorders are often poorly diagnosed or misdiagnosed because of sharing common clinical features with psychotic disorders, but requiring a very different trajectory of care. Repeated clinical situations in a crisis centre in Geneva provided us with a critical overview of current evidence of knowledge in clinical and etiopathological field about dissociative disorders. Because of their multiple expressions and the overlap with psychotic disorders, we focused on the clinical aspects using three different situations to better understand their specificity and to extend our thinking to the relevance of terms "neurosis" and "psychosis." Finally, we hope that this work might help physicians and psychiatrists to become more aware of this complex set of disorders while making a diagnosis.

  15. The charmonium dissociation in an "anomalous wind"

    CERN Document Server

    Sadofyev, Andrey V

    2016-01-01

    We study the charmonium dissociation in a strongly coupled chiral plasma in the presence of magnetic field and axial charge imbalance. This type of plasma carries ``anomalous flow" induced by the chiral anomaly and exhibits novel transport phenomena such as chiral magnetic effect. We found that the ``anomalous flow" would modify the charmonium color screening length by using the gauge/gravity correspondence. We derive an analytical expression quantifying the ``anomalous flow" experienced by a charmonium for a large class of chiral plasma with a gravity dual. We elaborate on the similarity and {\\it qualitative} difference between anomalous effects on the charmonium color screening length which are {\\it model-dependent} and those on the heavy quark drag force which are fixed by the second law of thermodynamics. We speculate on the possible charmonium dissociation induced by chiral anomaly in heavy ion collisions.

  16. Grammatical category dissociation in multilingual aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen; Waked, Arifi N

    2010-03-01

    Word retrieval deficits for specific grammatical categories, such as verbs versus nouns, occur as a consequence of brain damage. Such deficits are informative about the nature of lexical organization in the human brain. This study examined retrieval of grammatical categories across three languages in a trilingual person with aphasia who spoke Arabic, French, and English. In order to delineate the nature of word production difficulty, comprehension was tested, and a variety of concomitant lexical-semantic variables were analysed. The patient demonstrated a consistent noun-verb dissociation in picture naming and narrative speech, with severely impaired production of verbs across all three languages. The cross-linguistically similar noun-verb dissociation, coupled with little evidence of semantic impairment, suggests that (a) the patient has a true "nonsemantic" grammatical category specific deficit, and (b) lexical organization in multilingual speakers shares grammatical class information between languages. The findings of this study contribute to our understanding of the architecture of lexical organization in bilinguals.

  17. Enactments and dissociations driven by cultural differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Etty

    2007-03-01

    Cultural differences between the analytic dyad can foster powerful transference-counter-transference feelings and potentially promote traumatic re-enactments. Those patients who are more directly affected by traumatic experiences may be able to verbalize what has happened to them only if they are convinced that their analysts are "taking in their horror, holding it for them, responding to it emotionally (reenacting) and giving it back in more modulated and containable" manner (Davies, 1997, p. 24). These mutual enactments that emerge in patients and their analysts can be understood as dissociated self-states. Clinical material is presented from the treatment of an African-American inner-city teenager and an Israeli teenage soldier to illustrate the emergence of enactments and dissociation in patient-analyst dyads.

  18. Dissociative Disorders: Between Neurosis and Psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Devillé

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dissociative disorders are a set of disorders defined by a disturbance affecting functions that are normally integrated with a prevalence of 2.4 percent in industrialised countries. These disorders are often poorly diagnosed or misdiagnosed because of sharing common clinical features with psychotic disorders, but requiring a very different trajectory of care. Repeated clinical situations in a crisis centre in Geneva provided us with a critical overview of current evidence of knowledge in clinical and etiopathological field about dissociative disorders. Because of their multiple expressions and the overlap with psychotic disorders, we focused on the clinical aspects using three different situations to better understand their specificity and to extend our thinking to the relevance of terms “neurosis” and “psychosis.” Finally, we hope that this work might help physicians and psychiatrists to become more aware of this complex set of disorders while making a diagnosis.

  19. Variable (Tg, Ts) Measurements of Alkane Dissociative Sticking Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadez, Leticia; Dewitt, Kristy; Abbott, Heather; Kolasinski, Kurt; Harrision, Ian

    2006-03-01

    Dissociative sticking coefficients S(Tg, Ts) for CH4 and C2H6 on Pt(111) have been measured as a function of gas temperature (Tg) and surface temperature (Ts) using an effusive molecular beam. Microcanonical unimolecular rate theory (MURT) was employed to extract transition state characteristics [e.g., E0(CH4) = 52.5±3.5 kJ/mol-1 and E0(C2H6) = 26.5±3 kJ/mol-1]. MURT allows our S(Tg, Ts) values to be directly compared to other supersonic molecular beam and thermal equilibrium sticking measurements. The S(Tg, Ts) depend strongly on Ts, however, only for CH4 is a strong Tg dependence observed. The fairly weak Tg dependence for C2H6 suggests that vibrational mode specific behavior and/or molecular rotations play stronger roles in the dissociative chemisorption of C2H6 than they do for CH4. Interestingly, thermal S(Tg=Ts) predictions based on MURT modeling of our CH4/Pt(111) data are three orders of magnitude higher than recent thermal equilibrium measurements on supported Pt nanocrystallite catalysts [J. M. Wei, E. Iglesia, J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 4094 (2004)].

  20. Photo-dissociation of dimethylamine by KrBr* excilamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qiuyi; Ye, Zhaolian; Zhao, Jie; Lister, Graeme; Zhang, Shanduan

    2013-10-01

    A study of dimethylamine photo-dissociation in the gas phase has been conducted using UV radiation delivered from a KrBr(*) excilamp, driven by a sinusoidal electronic control gear with maximum emission at wavelength of 207 nm. The electrical input power and radiant power of the lamp were measured to determine their effects on the degradation. The influence of flow velocity and initial concentration of dimethylamine were also examined. In order to evaluate the photo-dissociation process comprehensively, several parameters were investigated, including removal efficiency, energy yield, carbon balance and CO₂ selectivity. It is shown that the removal efficiency increases with enhanced input power and decreased gas flow rate. A high removal efficiency of 68% is achieved for lamp power 102W and flow velocity 15 m(3) h(-1). The optimum dimethylamine initial concentration is around 3520 mg m(-3), for which the energy yield reaches up to 442 gk Wh(-1) when the input power is 65W. In addition, two chain compounds (1,3-bis-dimethylamino-2-propanol; 3-penten-2-one, 4-amino) and three ring organic matters (1-azetidinecarboxaldehyde, 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl; N-m-tolyl-succinamic acid; p-acetoacetanisidide), were identified by GC-MS as secondary products, in order to demonstrate the pathways of the dimethylamine degradation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. High fidelity modeling of thermal relaxation and dissociation of oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrienko, Daniil A., E-mail: daniila@umich.edu; Boyd, Iain D. [Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Michigan, 1320 Beal Ave., Ann Arbor, Michigan 48108 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    A master equation study of vibrational relaxation and dissociation of oxygen is conducted using state-specific O{sub 2}–O transition rates, generated by extensive trajectory simulations. Both O{sub 2}–O and O{sub 2}–O{sub 2} collisions are concurrently simulated in the evolving nonequilibrium gas system under constant heat bath conditions. The forced harmonic oscillator model is incorporated to simulate the state-to-state relaxation of oxygen in O{sub 2}–O{sub 2} collisions. The system of master equations is solved to simulate heating and cooling flows. The present study demonstrates the importance of atom-diatom collisions due to the extremely efficient energy randomization in the intermediate O{sub 3} complex. It is shown that the presence of atomic oxygen has a significant impact on vibrational relaxation time at temperatures observed in hypersonic flow. The population of highly-excited O{sub 2} vibrational states is affected by the amount of atomic oxygen when modeling the relaxation under constant heat bath conditions. A model of coupled state-to-state vibrational relaxation and dissociation of oxygen is also discussed.

  2. Applying a Trochoidal Electron Monochromator in Dissociative Electron Attachment Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arreola, Esmeralda

    2016-03-01

    Since the pioneering work of Boudiaffa et al., it has been understood that electrons, even with energies near or below the ionization threshold, are capable of initiating strand-breaks in human DNA. This discovery raised important questions for cancer treatments, since sub-ionizing electrons are known to be the most copiously produced secondary product of radiation therapy. But even to date these factors are largely excluded from dosimetry calculations. This lack of inclusion is, at least in part, certainly due to the dearth of fundamental data describing low-energy electron interactions with nucleotide molecules that form the basis of DNA. Understanding of how such slow electrons are able to damage DNA remains incomplete, but the strongly peaked nature of Boudiaffa et al.'s data gives strong hints at resonantly driven collision processes. DNA damage is therefore most likely driven by ``dissociative electron attachment'' (DEA). DEA is a rather complicated process to model due to the coupling of electronic and nuclear degrees of freedom in the molecule. At the California State University Fullerton, we are currently commissioning a new spectrometer to study dissociation channels, reaction rates and orientation effects in DEA collisions between slow electrons and nucleotide molecules. At the meeting we will present design parameters and commissioning data for this new apparatus.

  3. The Effect of the Hayward Corridor Improvement Project on Carbon Monoxide Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlfelder, M.; Martinez, E.; Maestas, A.; Peek, A.

    2013-12-01

    In August of 2010, construction began on a stretch of road in Downtown Hayward to address a problem with traffic flow. Known as the Hayward Corridor, the project reshaped the flow of traffic, replacing the two way streets of Foothill, Mission, and A Street with a loop between them. This project began with the initiative of reducing congestion in this area and improving access to businesses for pedestrians. The project was expected to have little environmental impact in most common assessments of degree of effect, including particulate matter, ozone and carbon monoxide levels. This report will discuss the effect of the Hayward Corridor Improvement Project on carbon monoxide emission. Data available to the public in the project's Environmental Impact Report shows that carbon monoxide levels before construction began were at an acceptable level according to federal and state standards. Projections for future concentrations both with and without the project show a decrease in carbon monoxide levels due to technological improvements and the gradual replacement of older, less efficient vehicles. The Environmental Impact Report projected that there would be little difference in carbon monoxide levels whether the project took place or not, at an average of 1.67x102 fewer parts per million per 1 hour period of measurement emitted in the case of the project not taking place. While it is not possible to draw a conclusion on what the current carbon monoxide levels would be if the project had not taken place due to the changes in traffic flow and other surrounding roads as a result of the project, the data gathered in June of 2013 suggested that carbon monoxide levels are higher than the values projected in 2007. This report summarizes both the accuracy of these carbon monoxide level projections and the effect of construction on carbon monoxide levels in the Hayward Corridor and the surrounding area.

  4. Dissociations between developmental dyslexias and attention deficits

    OpenAIRE

    Limor eLukov; Naama eFriedmann; Lilach eShalev; Lilach eKhentov-Kraus; Nir eShalev; Rakefet eLorber; Revital eGuggenheim

    2015-01-01

    We examine whether attention deficits underlie developmental dyslexia, or certain types of dyslexia, by presenting double dissociations between the two. We took into account the existence of distinct types of dyslexia and of attention deficits, and focused on dyslexias that may be thought to have an attentional basis: letter position dyslexia (LPD), in which letters migrate within words, attentional dyslexia (AD), in which letters migrate between words, neglect dyslexia, in which letters on o...

  5. Coulomb dissociation studies for astrophysical thermonuclear reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motobayashi, T. [Dept. of Physics, Rikkyo Univ., Toshima, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-06-01

    The Coulomb dissociation method was applied to several radiative capture processes of astrophysical interest. The method has an advantage of high experimental efficiency, which allow measurements with radioactive nuclear beams. The reactions {sup 13}N(p,{gamma}){sup 14}O and {sup 7}Be(p,{gamma}){sup 8}B are mainly discussed. They are the key reaction in the hot CNO cycle in massive stars and the one closely related to the solar neutrino problem, respectively. (orig.)

  6. Dissociative disorders among Chinese inpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Junhan; Ross, Colin A; Keyes, Benjamin B; Li, Ying; Dai, Yunfei; Zhang, Tianhong; Wang, Lanlan; Fan, Qing; Xiao, Zeping

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of dissociative disorders in a sample of Chinese psychiatric inpatients. Participants in the study were 569 consecutively admitted inpatients at Shanghai Mental Health Center, China, of whom 84.9% had a clinical diagnosis of schizophrenia based on the Chinese Classification and Diagnostic Criteria of Mental Disorders, Version 3. All participants completed a self-report measure of dissociation (the Dissociative Experiences Scale), and none had a prior diagnosis of a dissociative disorder. A total of 96 randomly selected participants were interviewed with a structured interview (the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule) and a clinical interview. These 96 patients did not differ significantly from the 473 patients who were not interviewed on any demographic measures or who did not complete the self-report dissociation measure. A total of 28 patients (15.3%, after weighting of the data) received a clinical diagnosis of a dissociative disorder based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.) criteria. Dissociative identity disorder was diagnosed in 2 patients (0.53%, after weighting). Compared to the patients without a dissociative disorder, patients with dissociative disorders were significantly more likely to report childhood abuse (57.1% vs. 22.1%), but the 2 groups did not differ significantly on any demographic measures. Dissociative disorders were readily identified in an inpatient psychiatric population in China.

  7. Prevalence of dissociative disorders among women in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sar, Vedat; Akyüz, Gamze; Doğan, Orhan

    2007-01-15

    This study sought to determine the prevalence of dissociative disorders among women in the general population, as assessed in a representative sample of a city in central Turkey. The Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule (DDIS), the Borderline Personality Disorder section of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R Personality Disorders (SCID-II), and the PTSD-Module of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R (SCID) were administered to 628 women in 500 homes. The mean age of participants was 34.8 (S.D.=11.5, range: 18-65); 18.3% of participants (n=115) had a lifetime diagnosis of a dissociative disorder. Dissociative disorder not otherwise specified (DDNOS) was the most prevalent diagnosis (8.3%); 1.1% of the population was diagnosed as having dissociative identity disorder (DID). Participants with a dissociative disorder had borderline personality disorder, somatization disorder, major depression, PTSD, and history of suicide attempt more frequently than did participants without a dissociative disorder. Childhood sexual abuse, physical neglect, and emotional abuse were significant predictors of a dissociative disorder diagnosis. Only 28.7% of the dissociative participants had received psychiatric treatment previously. Because dissociative disorders are trauma-related, significant part of the adult clinical consequences of childhood trauma remains obscure in the minds of mental health professionals and of the overall community. Revisions in diagnostic criteria of dissociative disorders in the DSM-IV are recommended.

  8. Carbon monoxide in biology and microbiology: surprising roles for the "Detroit perfume".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidge, Kelly S; Motterlini, Roberto; Mann, Brian E; Wilson, Jayne Louise; Poole, Robert K

    2009-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless gas with a reputation for being an anthropogenic poison; there is extensive documentation of the modes of human exposure, toxicokinetics, and health effects. However, CO is also generated endogenously by heme oxygenases (HOs) in mammals and microbes, and its extraordinary biological activities are now recognized and increasingly utilized in medicine and physiology. This review introduces recent advances in CO biology and chemistry and illustrates the exciting possibilities that exist for a deeper understanding of its biological consequences. However, the microbiological literature is scant and is currently restricted to: 1) CO-metabolizing bacteria, CO oxidation by CO dehydrogenase (CODH) and the CO-sensing mechanisms that enable CO oxidation; 2) the use of CO as a heme ligand in microbial biochemistry; and 3) very limited information on how microbes respond to CO toxicity. We demonstrate how our horizons in CO biology have been extended by intense research activity in recent years in mammalian and human physiology and biochemistry. CO is one of several "new" small gas molecules that are increasingly recognized for their profound and often beneficial biological activities, the others being nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S). The chemistry of CO and other heme ligands (oxygen, NO, H2S and cyanide) and the implications for biological interactions are briefly presented. An important advance in recent years has been the development of CO-releasing molecules (CO-RMs) for aiding experimental administration of CO as an alternative to the use of CO gas. The chemical principles of CO-RM design and mechanisms of CO release from CO-RMs (dissociation, association, reduction and oxidation, photolysis, and acidification) are reviewed and we present a survey of the most commonly used CO-RMs. Amongst the most important new applications of CO in mammalian physiology and medicine are its vasoactive properties and the

  9. The dissociation constant of water at extreme conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Vazquez, Otto; Giacomazzi, Luigi; Pinilla, C.; Scandolo, Sandro

    2013-06-01

    Only one out of 107 water molecules is dissociated in liquid water at ambient conditions, but the concentration of dissociated molecules increases with pressure ad temperature, and water eventually reaches a fully dissociated state when pressure exceeds 50-100 GPa and temperature reaches a few thousand Kelvin. The behavior of the dissociation constant of water (pKa) at conditions intermediate between ambient and the fully dissociated state is poorly known. Yet, the water pKa is a parameter of primary importance in the aqueous geochemistry as it controls the solubility of ions in geological fluids. We present results of molecular dynamics calculations of the pKa water at extreme conditions. Free-energy differences between the undissociated and the dissociated state are calculated by thermodynamic integration along the dissociation path. The calculations are based on a recently developed all-atom polarizable force-field for water, parametrized on density-functional theory calculations.

  10. Long-term outcome and prognosis of dissociative disorder with onset in childhood or adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wewetzer Christoph

    2008-07-01

    anxiety, dissociative and somatoform disorders. Personality disorders were seen in 47.8% (especially borderline, obsessive-compulsive and negativistic personality disorders. More dissociative symptoms and inpatient treatment in childhood or adolescence were significantly related to a lower level of psychosocial adjustment in adulthood. Conclusion Treatment strategies have to consider that in a significant portion of young patients initial recovery may not be stable over time. Limitations of the study refer to the small sample size and the low rate of former patients taking part in the follow-up investigation.

  11. Adsorption of nitrogen and carbon monoxide on clinoptilolite: determination and prediction of pure and binary isotherms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triebe, R.W.; Tezel, F.H. [University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Department of Chemical Engineering

    1995-10-01

    The adsorption of carbon monoxide and nitrogen on clinoptilolite is studied to determine the natural zeolite`s potential for air purification. Pure and binary isotherms were determined for nitrogen and carbon monoxide on a natural Turkish clinoptilolite under near ambient conditions. Experimentally determined isotherms are compared to predictions based on various models from the literature. The Wilson form of the Vacancy Solution Theory is the only model that provides reasonable agreement with the binary isotherm. Clinoptilolite is concluded to be a promising sorbent for separation of carbon monoxide and nitrogen. 30 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Electron-neutral scattering cross sections for CO2: a complete and consistent set and an assessment of dissociation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grofulović, Marija; Alves, Luís L.; Guerra, Vasco

    2016-10-01

    This work proposes a complete and consistent set of cross sections for electron collisions with carbon dioxide (CO2) molecules to be published in the IST-Lisbon database with LXCat. The set is validated from the comparison between swarm parameters calculated using a two-term Boltzmann solver and the available experimental data. The importance of superelastic collisions with CO2(0 1 0) molecules at low values of the reduced electric field is discussed. Due to significant uncertainties, there are ongoing debates regarding the deconvolution of cross sections that describe generic energy losses at specific energy thresholds into cross sections that describe individual processes. An important example of these uncertainties is with the dissociation of CO2, for which the total electron impact dissociation cross section has not yet been unambiguously identified. The available dissociation cross sections are evaluated and discussed, and a strategy to obtain electron-impact dissociation rate coefficients is suggested.

  13. Dissociative symptoms and dissociative disorders comorbidity in obsessive compulsive disorder: Symptom screening, diagnostic tools and reflections on treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belli, Hasan

    2014-08-16

    Borderline personality disorder, conversion disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder frequently have dissociative symptoms. The literature has demonstrated that the level of dissociation might be correlated with the severity of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and that those not responding to treatment had high dissociative symptoms. The structured clinical interview for DSM-IV dissociative disorders, dissociation questionnaire, somatoform dissociation questionnaire and dissociative experiences scale can be used for screening dissociative symptoms and detecting dissociative disorders in patients with OCD. However, a history of neglect and abuse during childhood is linked to a risk factor in the pathogenesis of dissociative psychopathology in adults. The childhood trauma questionnaire-53 and childhood trauma questionnaire-40 can be used for this purpose. Clinicians should not fail to notice the hidden dissociative symptoms and childhood traumatic experiences in OCD cases with severe symptoms that are resistant to treatment. Symptom screening and diagnostic tools used for this purpose should be known. Knowing how to treat these pathologies in patients who are diagnosed with OCD can be crucial.

  14. An improved potential energy surface and multi-temperature quasiclassical trajectory calculations of N2 + N2 dissociation reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Jason D.; Valentini, Paolo; Nompelis, Ioannis; Paukku, Yuliya; Varga, Zoltan; Truhlar, Donald G.; Schwartzentruber, Thomas; Candler, Graham V.

    2015-08-01

    Accurate modeling of high-temperature hypersonic flows in the atmosphere requires consideration of collision-induced dissociation of molecular species and energy transfer between the translational and internal modes of the gas molecules. Here, we describe a study of the N2 + N2⟶N2 + 2N and N2 + N2⟶4N nitrogen dissociation reactions using the quasiclassical trajectory (QCT) method. The simulations used a new potential energy surface for the N4 system; the surface is an improved version of one that was presented previously. In the QCT calculations, initial conditions were determined based on a two-temperature model that approximately separates the translational-rotational temperature from the vibrational temperature of the N2 diatoms. Five values from 8000 K to 30 000 K were considered for each of the two temperatures. Over 2.4 × 109 trajectories were calculated. We present results for ensemble-averaged dissociation rate constants as functions of the translational-rotational temperature T and the vibrational temperature Tv. The rate constant depends more strongly on T when Tv is low, and it depends more strongly on Tv when T is low. Quasibound reactant states contribute significantly to the rate constants, as do exchange processes at higher temperatures. We discuss two sets of runs in detail: an equilibrium test set in which T = Tv and a nonequilibrium test set in which Tv rate, and this state specificity becomes stronger as the temperature decreases. Dissociating trajectories tend to result in a major loss of vibrational energy and a minor loss of rotational energy. In the nonequilibrium test set, as Tv decreases while T is fixed, higher-j molecules contribute more significantly to the dissociation rate, dissociating trajectories tend to result in a greater rotational energy loss, and the dissociation probability's dependence on v weakens. In this way, as Tv decreases, rotational energy appears to compensate for the decline in average vibrational energy in

  15. Dissociative Reality and Dissociative Being in Therapy for Post traumatic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guez, Jonathan; Hertzanu-Lati, Mali; Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Rabin, Stanley

    2015-01-01

    Post traumatic patients experience a wide range of symptoms, some of them existential in nature which we term "dissociative being." Many varied psychotherapeutic approaches are available for the treatment of post traumatic patients. Nevertheless, in view of this disorder's complexity, therapists face shortcomings when employing each of these therapeutic interventions. In order to understand this, we posit the principle we call "dissociative reality" for the treatment of trauma survivors. Our proposed method "speaks the patient's own language," harnessing dissociative elements to help individuals recall, re-enact and integrate traumatic experiences, where words are insufficient, while still upholding reality. We believe that this may be seen as an effective part of the therapeutic dialogue, and suggest that therapists may consider supplementing this approach in their treatment "toolkit" for patients with post traumatic stress and other trauma related disorders, irrespective of their declared therapeutic approach.

  16. Carbon monoxide toxicity. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). NewSearch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the mechanism and clinical manifestations of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure, including the effects on the liver, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Topics include studies of the carbon monoxide binding affinity with hemoglobin, measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in humans and various animal species, carbon monoxide levels resulting from tobacco and marijuana smoke, occupational exposure and the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) biological exposure index, symptomology and percent of blood CO, and intrauterine exposure. Air pollution, tobacco smoking, and occupational exposure are discussed as primary sources of carbon monoxide exposure. The effects of cigarette smoking on fetal development and health are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 137 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  17. Carbon monoxide toxicity. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection data base). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the mechanism and clinical manifestations of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure, including the effects on the liver, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Topics include studies of the carbon monoxide binding affinity with hemoglobin, measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in humans and various animal species, carbon monoxide levels resulting from tobacco and marijuana smoke, occupational exposure and the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) biological exposure index, symptomology and percent of blood CO, and intrauterine exposure. Air pollution, tobacco smoking, and occupational exposure are discussed as primary sources of carbon monoxide exposure. The effects of cigarette smoking on fetal development and health are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 172 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. Personal Exposure Monitoring of Particulate Matter, Nitrogen Dioxide, and Carbon Monoxide, including Susceptible Groups

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    R. M. Harrison; C. A. Thornton; R. G. Lawrence; D. Mark; R. P. Kinnersley; J. G. Ayres

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the relation between personal exposures to nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, and PM10, and exposures estimated from static concentrations of these pollutants measured within the same...

  19. Carbon monoxide toxicity. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the mechanism and clinical manifestations of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure, including the effects on the liver, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Topics include studies of the carbon monoxide binding affinity with hemoglobin, measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in humans and various animal species, carbon monoxide levels resulting from tobacco and marijuana smoke, occupational exposure and the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) biological exposure index, symptomology and percent of blood CO, and intrauterine exposure. Air pollution, tobacco smoking, and occupational exposure are discussed as primary sources of carbon monoxide exposure. The effects of cigarette smoking on fetal development and health are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  20. Carbon monoxide toxicity. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the mechanism and clinical manifestations of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure, including the effects on the liver, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Topics include studies of the carbon monoxide binding affinity with hemoglobin, measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in humans and various animal species, carbon monoxide levels resulting from tobacco and marijuana smoke, occupational exposure and the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) biological exposure index, symptomology and percent of blood CO, and intrauterine exposure. Air pollution, tobacco smoking, and occupational exposure are discussed as primary sources of carbon monoxide exposure. The effects of cigarette smoking on fetal development and health are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  1. The influence of tobacco blend composition on carbon monoxide formation in mainstream cigarette smoke

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Djulančić, Nermina; Radojičić, Vesna; Srbinovska, Marija

    2013-01-01

    ...) in the gas phase of mainstream cigarette smoke. The results showed that the type of tobacco examined had a significant impact on the amount of carbon monoxide production in the gas phase of cigarette smoke...

  2. Cobalt promoted copper manganese oxide catalysts for ambient temperature carbon monoxide oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher; Taylor, Stuart H; Burrows, Andrew; Crudace, Mandy J; Kiely, Christopher J; Hutchings, Graham J

    2008-04-14

    Low levels of cobalt doping (1 wt%) of copper manganese oxide enhances its activity for carbon monoxide oxidation under ambient conditions and the doped catalyst can display higher activity than current commercial catalysts.

  3. Electronic structure and optical properties of a new type of semiconductor material:graphene monoxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Gui; Zhang Yufeng; Yan Xunwang

    2013-01-01

    The electronic and optical properties of graphene monoxide,a new type of semiconductor material,are theoretically studied by first-principles density functional theory.The calculated band structure shows that graphene monoxide is a semiconductor with a direct band gap of 0.95 eV.The density of states of graphene monoxide and the partial density of states for C and O are given to understand the electronic structure.In addition,we calculate the optical properties of graphene monoxide,including the complex dielectric function,absorption coefficient,complex refractive index,loss-function,reflectivity and conductivity.These results provide a physical basis for potential application in optoelectronic devices.

  4. Basin scale assessment of gas hydrate dissociation in response to climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reagan, M.; Moridis, G.; Elliott, S.; Maltrud, M.; Cameron-Smith, P.

    2011-07-01

    Paleooceanographic evidence has been used to postulate that methane from oceanic hydrates may have had a significant role in regulating climate. However, the behavior of contemporary oceanic methane hydrate deposits subjected to rapid temperature changes, like those now occurring in the arctic and those predicted under future climate change scenarios, has only recently been investigated. Field investigations have discovered substantial methane gas plumes exiting the seafloor along the Arctic Ocean margin, and the plumes appear at depths corresponding to the upper limit of a receding gas hydrate stability zone. It has been suggested that these plumes may be the first visible signs of the dissociation of shallow hydrate deposits due to ongoing climate change in the arctic. We simulate the release of methane from oceanic deposits, including the effects of fully-coupled heat transfer, fluid flow, hydrate dissociation, and other thermodynamic processes, for systems representative of segments of the Arctic Ocean margins. The modeling encompasses a range of shallow hydrate deposits from the landward limit of the hydrate stability zone down to water depths beyond the expected range of century-scale temperature changes. We impose temperature changes corresponding to predicted rates of climate change-related ocean warming and examine the possibility of hydrate dissociation and the release of methane. The assessment is performed at local-, regional-, and basin-scales. The simulation results are consistent with the hypothesis that dissociating shallow hydrates alone can result in significant methane fluxes at the seafloor. However, the methane release is likely to be confined to a narrow region of high dissociation susceptibility, defined by depth and temperature, and that any release will be continuous and controlled, rather than explosive. This modeling also establishes the first realistic bounds for methane release along the arctic continental shelf for potential hydrate

  5. [Dynamic model of protein behavior in water. Possible mechanism of association and dissociation of specific complexes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiaiviariainen, A I

    1979-01-01

    The proposed mechanism of association and dissociation of specific protein complex with ligands is based on the assumption that thermal fluctuations in the non-polar cavities of protein are interrelated due to the co-operative properties of macromolecules. The non-polar cavities, representing the active centres and clefts in the globule jump from the "open" state to the "closed" one with a certain amount of water being removed to the external medium. It is assumed that the association of ligand with the active centre is accompanied by stabilization of the chest state and destibilization of the open one, dissociation being a reverse process. A rapid change in the state of the active centre under the influence of ligand induces a slow relaxation process resulting in similar alterations in the state of the auxiliary non-polar cavities of protein. As a result, the binding constant of ligand increases, while the free energy of protein decreases. Expressions have been obtained which relate the rate constants of association, dissociation and the binding constant to the rate-constant of the nonpolar cavities transitions from the closed state to the open one, and vice versa. They gave a possibility for a qualitative interpretation of the effect of some specific and non-specific agents upon the stability of immunoglobulins, on the influence of salts upon the association and dissociation of antibody-antigene complexes and on the increase in the constant of binding between antibodies and haptens in the course of prolonged immunisation.

  6. A controlled trial of paroxetine for chronic PTSD, dissociation, and interpersonal problems in mostly minority adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Randall D; Lewis-Fernandez, Roberto; Blanco, Carlos; Simpson, H Blair; Lin, Shu-Hsing; Vermes, Donna; Garcia, Wendy; Schneier, Franklin; Neria, Yuval; Sanchez-Lacay, Arturo; Liebowitz, Michael R

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of paroxetine for symptoms and associated features of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), interpersonal problems, and dissociative symptoms in an urban population of mostly minority adults. Adult outpatients with a primary DSM-IV diagnosis of chronic PTSD received 1 week of single-blind placebo (N = 70). Those not rated as significantly improved were then randomly assigned to placebo (N = 27) or paroxetine (N = 25) for 10 weeks, with a flexible dosage design (maximum 60 mg by week 7). Significantly more patients treated with paroxetine were rated as responders (14/21, 66.7%) on the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement Scale (CGI-I) compared to patients treated with placebo (6/22, 27.3%). Mixed effects models showed greater reductions on the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) total score (primary plus associated features of PTSD) in the paroxetine versus placebo groups. Paroxetine was also superior to placebo on reduction of dissociative symptoms [Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) score] and reduction in self-reported interpersonal problems [Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP) score]. In a 12-week maintenance phase, paroxetine response continued to improve, but placebo response did not. Paroxetine was well tolerated and superior to placebo in ameliorating the symptoms of chronic PTSD, associated features of PTSD, dissociative symptoms, and interpersonal problems in the first trial conducted primarily in minority adults.

  7. Dissociative recombination in reactive flows related to planetary atmospheric entries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bultel Arnaud

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Dissociative Recombination (DR processes play a significant role in plasma chemistry. This article illustrates this role from the modeling point of view in the case of reactive flows related to atmospheric entry plasmas. Two situations are investigated, for which the studied plasma is nitrogen. The first configuration corresponds to the relaxation process behind a strong shock wave moving at high Mach number in a shock tube, the second one to the recombination taking place in an expanding plasma flowing in a diverging nozzle. In both cases, the collisional-radiative model CoRaM-N2, involving N2, N, N2+, N+ and electrons, is implemented in an Eulerian 1D code able to compute the aerodynamic fields; calculations are performed in standard conditions. We show that, according to the rate coefficients used for the DR processes, the population density of the charged species especially N2+ is strongly modified only for the post-shock flow.

  8. Regulation of multiple carbon monoxide consumption pathways in anaerobic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M Techtmann

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO, well known as a toxic gas, is increasingly recognized as a key metabolite and signaling molecule. Microbial utilization of CO is quite common, evidenced by the rapid escalation in description of new species of CO-utilizing bacteria and archaea. Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH, the protein complex that enables anaerobic CO utilization has been well-characterized from an increasing number of microorganisms, however the regulation of multiple CO-related gene clusters in single isolates remains unexplored. Many species are extroraordinarily resistant to high CO concentrations, thiriving under pure CO at more than one atmosphere. We hypothesized that, in strains that can grow exclusively on CO, both carbon acquisition via the CODH/Acetyl CoA synthase complex and energy conservation via a CODH-linked hydrogenase must be differentially regulated in response to the availability of CO. The CO-sensing transcriptional activator, CooA is present in most CO-oxidizing bacteria. Here we present a genomic and phylogenetic survey of CODH operons and cooA genes found in CooA-containing bacteria. Two distinct groups of CooA homologs were found: One clade (CooA-1 is found in the majority of CooA containing bacteria, whereas the other clade (CooA-2 is found only in genomes that encode multiple CODH clusters, suggesting that the CooA-2 might be important for cross-regulation of competing CODH operons. Recombinant CooA-1 and CooA-2 regulators from the prototypical CO-utilizing bacterium Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans were purified, and promoter binding analyses revealed that CooA-1 specifically regulates the hydrogenase-linked CODH, whereas CooA-2 is able to regulate both the hydrogenase-linked CODH and the CODH/ACS operons. These studies point to the ability of dual CooA homologs to partition CO into divergent CO-utilizing pathways resulting in efficient consumption of a single limiting growth substrate available across a wide range of

  9. Four-electron deoxygenative reductive coupling of carbon monoxide at a single metal site

    OpenAIRE

    Buss, Joshua A.; Agapie, Theodor

    2016-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is the ultimate source of the fossil fuels that are both central to modern life and problematic: their use increases atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases, and their availability is geopolitically constrained. Using carbon dioxide as a feedstock to produce synthetic fuels might, in principle, alleviate these concerns. Although many homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts convert carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide, further deoxygenative coupling of carbon monoxide to generate us...

  10. Delayed neuropsychiatric syndrome after carbon monoxide poisoning: inclusion of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in the recovery protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Dante Lo Pardo; Davide Amedola; Giuliana Senatore; Alberto Damiano; Gabriela Pezzuti; Nicola Pugliese; Gianpiero Locatelli; Alfredo Siani; Nicola Maria Vitola

    2016-01-01

    The delayed neuropsychiatric syndrome can arise in the period from 4 days to 5 weeks following carbon monoxide poisoning, and is characterized by neuropsychological deficits, which in some cases become chronic. This case report describes an adult female who apparently suffered self-inflicted carbon monoxide poisoning. She was not treated with hyperbaric oxygen and developed delayed sequelae on day 20. The treatment started with 40 sessions of hyperbaric oxygen therapy and subsequently with ne...

  11. The Range of 1-3 keV Electrons in Solid Oxygen and Carbon Monoxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oehlenschlæger, M.; Andersen, H.H.; Schou, Jørgen

    1985-01-01

    The range of 1-3 keV electrons in films of solid oxygen and carbon monoxide has been measured by a mirror substrate method. The technique used here is identical to the one previously used for range measurements in solid hydrogen and nitrogen. The range in oxygen is slightly shorter than...... that in nitrogen whereas the range in carbon monoxide is about 20% larger than that in the nitrogen....

  12. Selected constituents in the smokes of foreign commercial cigaretts: tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, R.A.; Quincy, R.B.; Guerin, M.R.

    1979-05-01

    The tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide contents of the smokes of 220 brands of foreign commercial cigarettes are reported. In some instances, filter cigarettes of certain brands were found to deliver as much or more smoke constituents than their nonfilter counterparts. Also, data indicated that there can be a great variation in the tar, nicotine, or carbon monoxide content of the smoke of samples of a given brand of cigarettes, depending on the nation in which they are purchased. 24 tables.

  13. Multiphoton dissociation and thermal unimolecular reactions induced by infrared lasers. [REAMPA code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, H.L.

    1981-04-01

    Multiphoton dissociation (MPD) of ethyl chloride was studied using a tunable 3.3 ..mu..m laser to excite CH stretches. The absorbed energy increases almost linearly with fluence, while for 10 ..mu..m excitation there is substantial saturation. Much higher dissociation yields were observed for 3.3 ..mu..m excitation than for 10 ..mu..m excitation, reflecting bottlenecking in the discrete region of 10 ..mu..m excitation. The resonant nature of the excitation allows the rate equations description for transitions in the quasicontinuum and continuum to be extended to the discrete levels. Absorption cross sections are estimated from ordinary ir spectra. A set of cross sections which is constant or slowly decreasing with increasing vibrational excitation gives good fits to both absorption and dissociation yield data. The rate equations model was also used to quantitatively calculate the pressure dependence of the MPD yield of SF/sub 6/ caused by vibrational self-quenching. Between 1000-3000 cm/sup -1/ of energy is removed from SF/sub 6/ excited to approx. > 60 kcal/mole by collision with a cold SF/sub 6/ molecule at gas kinetic rate. Calculation showed the fluence dependence of dissociation varies strongly with the gas pressure. Infrared multiphoton excitation was applied to study thermal unimolecular reactions. With SiF/sub 4/ as absorbing gas for the CO/sub 2/ laser pulse, transient high temperature pulses were generated in a gas mixture. IR fluorescence from the medium reflected the decay of the temperature. The activation energy and the preexponential factor of the reactant dissociation were obtained from a phenomenological model calculation. Results are presented in detail. (WHK)

  14. Carbon monoxide exposure in households in Ciudad Juárez, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Teresa; Gurian, Patrick L; Velázquez-Angulo, Gilberto; Corella-Barud, Verónica; Rojo, Analila; Graham, Jay P

    2008-03-01

    This study assessed exposure to carbon monoxide from gas and wood heater emissions in a sample of 64 households in peri-urban residential areas in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, México. Indoor and outdoor carbon monoxide concentrations and temperatures were monitored for a continuous period of 1 week at 1 and 6-min intervals, respectively. The moving average carbon monoxide concentrations were compared to the World Health Organization (WHO) standards for carbon monoxide. Sixty-seven percent of households with gas heaters and 60% of households with wood heaters exceeded a health-based standard at some point during the monitoring. The difference between indoor and outdoor temperatures was modestly correlated with average carbon monoxide exposure (r=0.35, p-value <0.01). Heater type may be a stronger determinant of exposure, as households with a particular heater model (the El Sol FM-210) were significantly more likely to be among the more highly exposed households (odds ratio of 4.8, p-value of 0.02). A variety of health effects were pooled and found at elevated frequency in the households that exceeded the 8-h standard of 9ppm (odds ratio=5.1, p-value=0.031). These results highlight the need for further efforts to identify and mitigate potentially hazardous carbon monoxide exposures, particularly in moderate-income countries with cooler climates.

  15. Lebanon and Syria: between dissociation and spillover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Lion Bustillo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The risk of Syrian civil war violence spreading towards Lebanon is high. This can be explained by various factors deriving as much from the neighbouring conflict as from other existing factors in Lebanese politics, which have led to the significant collaboration of Lebanon’s Future Movement and Hezbollah with their respective allies in Syria, and to undermining Najib Mikati’s dissociation policies. However, the leaders of those parties tend to balance their will to preserve their confessional leadership with an image of being the defender of national interests. This limits the possibility of an openly sectarian conflict, but it does not totally eliminate it.

  16. Strain-Induced Water Dissociation on Supported Ultrathin Oxide Films

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Zhenjun; Xu, Hu

    2015-01-01

    Controlling the dissociation of single water molecule on an insulating surface plays a crucial role in many catalytic reactions. In this Letter, we have identified the enhanced chemical reactivity of ultrathin MgO(100) films deposited on Mo(100) substrate that causes water dissociation. We reveal that the ability to split water on insulating surface closely depends on the lattice mismatch between ultrathin films and the underlying substrate, and substrate-induced in-plane tensile strain dramatically results in water dissociation on MgO(100). Three dissociative adsorption configurations of water with lower energy are predicted, and the structural transition going from molecular form to dissociative form is almost barrierless. Our results provide an effective avenue to achieve water dissociation at the single-molecule level and shed light on how to tune the chemical reactions of insulating surfaces by choosing the suitable substrates.

  17. Dissociation and fantasy proneness in psychiatric patients: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merckelbach, Harald; à Campo, Joost; Hardy, Solange; Giesbrecht, Timo

    2005-01-01

    Nonclinical studies found that dissociative experiences are intimately linked to a trait known as fantasy proneness. We examined the links among dissociative symptoms, fantasy proneness, and impulsivity in psychiatric outpatients. Our sample consisted of 22 patients with schizophrenia, 20 patients with a diagnosis of borderline personality disorder, and 19 patients with a major depressive disorder. For the whole sample, levels of dissociation were found to be related to fantasy proneness and impulsivity. There were group differences in dissociative symptoms, with patients with borderline personality disorder reporting more such symptoms than patients with either schizophrenia or major depressive disorder. The overlap between dissociation and fantasy proneness may have important ramifications for studies addressing comorbid phenomena of dissociative symptoms.

  18. Modern faces of hysteria, or some of the dissociative disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefańska Alena

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The concept of “hysteria” comes from the Greek word “hystera” (uterus and dates back to the time of Hippocrates, at least. Modern classifications differ regarding the area encompassed by the concepts of dissociation and conversion differ. Mental health professionals in the United States (DSM-5 use a standard classification of mental disorders codifying dissociative disorders as a distinct class of disorders, but subsumes conversion disorders under “somatoform disorders”. The history of hysteria is as long as the history of mankind. Apparently, both the essence and mechanisms of dissociative disorders remain unchanged despite the fact that many years have passed. According to Owczarek et al., dissociative symptoms are caused by the malfunctioning of defence mechanisms and anxiety. This article provides an overview of the available literature on the etiology and pathogenesis of dissociative disorders as well as disorders such as amnesia, dissociative fugue, trance and possession.

  19. Are hypnosis and dissociation related? New evidence for a connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Jonathan M; Korman, Brandon M; Gold, Steven N

    2015-01-01

    The authors revisit the question of the existence of a relationship between hypnotizability and dissociative capacity. In the present study, the State Scale of Dissociation (SSD) replaced the commonly employed Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) as a measure of dissociation, due to the latter capturing primarily pathological aspects of dissociation. Relationships between the Harvard Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A (HGSHS:A), the SSD, and the Phenomenology of Consciousness Inventory (PCI) were assessed in the context of hypnosis. Robust results were found when comparing pre- to post-SSD scores, suggesting heightened nonpathological forms of dissociation are indeed related to hypnotizability. The appropriateness of the DES and similar trait-based measures for evaluating hypnotic phenomena is discussed as well as the relationships between PCI and SSD subscales.

  20. Dissociation behavior of protons incorporated in yttrium doped barium zirconate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiyama, T.; Kishimoto, H.; Develos-Bagarinao, K.; Yamaji, K.; Yamaguchi, T.; Fujishiro, Y.

    2017-08-01

    The dissociation behavior of protons incorporated in yttrium-doped barium zirconate (BZY20) was investigated via combination of in-situ diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and evolved gas analysis. The vicinities of dopant or host ions were considered as sites of proton dissolution. The temperature dependence of the dissociation of protons from each site was evaluated. Protons which were considered to have dissolved in the vicinity of dopant ions were easily removed and dissociated as water. On the other hand, those which dissolved in the vicinity of host ions were dissociated as hydrogen at high temperatures. Such dissociation behavior was also detected after using D2O saturated gas for pre-treatment. These results suggest that some protons which dissolved in the perovskite oxide could dissociate as hydrogen without forming oxygen vacancies. (131words)

  1. Carbon monoxide inhalation increases microparticles causing vascular and CNS dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiajun; Yang, Ming; Kosterin, Paul; Salzberg, Brian M; Milovanova, Tatyana N; Bhopale, Veena M; Thom, Stephen R

    2013-12-01

    We hypothesized that circulating microparticles (MPs) play a role in pro-inflammatory effects associated with carbon monoxide (CO) inhalation. Mice exposed for 1h to 100 ppm CO or more exhibit increases in circulating MPs derived from a variety of vascular cells as well as neutrophil activation. Tissue injury was quantified as 2000 kDa dextran leakage from vessels and as neutrophil sequestration in the brain and skeletal muscle; and central nervous system nerve dysfunction was documented as broadening of the neurohypophysial action potential (AP). Indices of injury occurred following exposures to 1000 ppm for 1h or to 1000 ppm for 40 min followed by 3000 ppm for 20 min. MPs were implicated in causing injuries because infusing the surfactant MP lytic agent, polyethylene glycol telomere B (PEGtB) abrogated elevations in MPs, vascular leak, neutrophil sequestration and AP prolongation. These manifestations of tissue injury also did not occur in mice lacking myeloperoxidase. Vascular leakage and AP prolongation were produced in naïve mice infused with MPs that had been obtained from CO poisoned mice, but this did not occur with MPs obtained from control mice. We conclude that CO poisoning triggers elevations of MPs that activate neutrophils which subsequently cause tissue injuries.

  2. Carbon monoxide: from toxin to endogenous modulator of cardiovascular functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Johnson

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO is a pollutant commonly recognized for its toxicological attributes, including CNS and cardiovascular effects. But CO is also formed endogenously in mammalian tissues. Endogenously formed CO normally arises from heme degradation in a reaction catalyzed by heme oxygenase. While inhibitors of endogenous CO production can raise arterial pressure, heme loading can enhance CO production and lead to vasodepression. Both central and peripheral tissues possess heme oxygenases and generate CO from heme, but the inability of heme substrate to cross the blood brain barrier suggests the CNS heme-heme oxygenase-CO system may be independent of the periphery. In the CNS, CO apparently acts in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS promoting changes in glutamatergic neurotransmission and lowering blood pressure. At the periphery, the heme-heme oxygenase-CO system can affect cardiovascular functions in a two-fold manner; specifically: 1 heme-derived CO generated within vascular smooth muscle (VSM can promote vasodilation, but 2 its actions on the endothelium apparently can promote vasoconstriction. Thus, it seems reasonable that the CNS-, VSM- and endothelial-dependent actions of the heme-heme oxygenase-CO system may all affect cardiac output and vascular resistance, and subsequently blood pressure.

  3. Acute carbon monoxide poisoning: animal models: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penney, D G

    1990-05-31

    Animals have been used for well over a century in an attempt to understand the toxicology, physiology, and pathology of acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Whether the toxic effects of this gas result from primary hypoxia, as in hypoxic hypoxia to which it is frequently compared, or from direct tissue effects since it enters cells and binds to certain vital components, remains a point of controversy. Acute severe poisoning in man and animals affects primarily the cardiovascular and nervous systems, and frequently produces neurologic dysfunction. Morphologically, tissue damage is usually confined to the white matter. The root cause is at best poorly understood and major investigative efforts have been made toward its elucidation. Many studies with rats, cats and primates indicate a major role for CO-induced hypotension, which serves to compromise blood flow and exacerbate acidosis. The likely cellular mechanisms in this process are only now becoming apparent. This review critically examines the recent as well as a few older CO-animal studies. In scope, they fall into several broad categories: general cardiopulmonary effects, metabolic and tissue effects, general resistance (i.e. tolerance), effects on the central nervous system including blood flow, neurochemistry, morphology and behavior, and finally, experimental therapeutic approaches.

  4. The Role of Oxygen Therapies in Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleyman Metin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to climate and socio-economic issues in Turkey, the incidence of carbon monoxide (CO poisoning is high, especially in winter. Clinical manifestations may vary depending on the type of CO source, concentration and duration of exposure. The symptoms of CO poisoning predominantly manifest in lots of organs and systems with high oxygen utilization, especially the brain and the heart. The primary aim in oxygen therapy is to eliminate CO and to reduce its toxic effects. In this context, normobaric and hyperbaric oxygen therapy are used to achieve these goals. Normobaric oxygen (NBO treatment is an easily accessible and relatively not expensive modality, where hyperbaric oxygen (HBO therapy requires specific equipment, certified staff and is available only in some centers. Additionally, HBO treatment has several additional advantages over NBO treatment. Despite its benefits, it is compulsory to search for some criteria in selecting patients to be treated because of the limited availability and access of hyperbaric facilities. For an effective evaluation and an optimal treatment, advanced education of the healthcare professionals on the use of oxygen delivery modalities in the management of CO poisoning is imperative. In this review, it has been aimed to outline the significance of oxygen treatment modalities and to determine patient selection criteria for HBO treatment in the management of CO poisoning which continues to be an important threat to community health care. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(4.000: 487-494

  5. Carbon monoxide exposures after hurricane Ike - Texas, September 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-14

    During power outages after hurricanes, survivors can be at risk for carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning if they use portable generators improperly. On September 13, 2008, Hurricane Ike struck the coast of Texas, leaving approximately 2.3 million households in the southeastern portion of the state without electricity. Six days later, 1.3 million homes were still without electrical power. To assess the impact of storm-related CO exposures and to enhance prevention efforts, CDC analyzed data from five disparate surveillance sources on CO exposures reported during September 13--26 in counties of southeast Texas that were declared disaster areas by the federal government. This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that one data source, Texas poison centers, received reports of 54 persons with storm-related CO exposures during the surveillance period. Another data source, the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society (UHMS) hyperbaric oxygen treatment database, reported that 15 persons received hyperbaric oxygen treatment for storm-related CO poisoning. Medical examiners, public health officials, and hospitals in Texas reported that seven persons died from storm-related CO poisoning. Among the data sources, the percentage of reported storm-related CO exposures caused by improper generator use ranged from 82% to 87%. These findings underscore the need for effective prevention messages during storm preparation, warnings, and response periods regarding the correct use of generators and the installation and maintenance of battery-powered CO detectors.

  6. The immunomodulatory role of carbon monoxide during transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amano Mariane

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The number of organ and tissue transplants has increased worldwide in recent decades. However, graft rejection, infections due to the use of immunosuppressive drugs and a shortage of graft donors remain major concerns. Carbon monoxide (CO had long been regarded solely as a poisonous gas. Ultimately, physiological studies unveiled the endogenous production of CO, particularly by the heme oxygenase (HO-1 enzyme, recognizing CO as a beneficial gas when used at therapeutic doses. The protective properties of CO led researchers to develop uses for it, resulting in devices and molecules that can deliver CO in vitro and in vivo. The resulting interest in clinical investigations was immediate. Studies regarding the CO/HO-1 modulation of immune responses and their effects on various immune disorders gave rise to transplantation research, where CO was shown to be essential in the protection against organ rejection in animal models. This review provides a perspective of how CO modulates the immune system to improve transplantation and suggests its use as a therapy in the field.

  7. Carbon monoxide and iron modulate plasmatic coagulation in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Vance G; Pretorius, Etheresia; Bester, Janette; Jacobsen, Wayne K; Boyle, Patrick K; Reinhard, Joao P

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a significant source of morbidity and mortality for millions of people worldwide, and multiple potential etiologies have been postulated to contribute to AD. Among these, spontaneous cerebral emboli and increased cerebral and circulating heme oxygenase (Hmox) activity in AD patients are of particular interest, as two of the products of Hmox activity, carbon monoxide (CO) and iron enhance plasmatic coagulation and modify the ultrastructure of thrombi. We hypothesized that patients afflicted with AD would have coagulation kinetics modulated by CO and iron. Using viscoelastic assessments of coagulation, it was determined with a small cohort (n=11) of AD patients that all had enhancement of coagulation by CO, iron, or both. In a complementary fashion, it was determined that a separate cohort (n=12) of AD patients had thrombi with ultrastructural features consistent with iron and CO exposure as assessed with scanning electron microscopy. Further, when stratified by normal or abnormally increased serum ferritin concentrations (which can be increased by Hmox), the AD patients with abnormal ferritin concentrations had significantly thinner fibrin fiber diameters, not unlike that noted when normal plasma is mixed with iron or CO. In sum, AD patients were noted to have plasmatic coagulation kinetic and thrombus ultrastructural changes consistent with exposure to CO and iron. Future investigation of CO and iron in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease is warranted.

  8. Density-functional study of plutonium monoxide monohydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Ruizhi; Lu, Haiyan; Ao, Bingyun; Tang, Tao; Chen, Piheng

    2017-03-01

    The structural, electronic, mechanical, optical, thermodynamic properties of plutonium monoxide monohydride (PuOH) are studied by density-functional calculations within the framework of LDA/GGA and LDA/GGA+U. From the total energy calculation, the lowest-energy crystal structure of PuOH is predicted to have space group F 4 bar 3 m (No. 216). Within the LDA+U framework, the calculated lattice parameter of F 4 bar 3 m -PuOH is in good agreement with the experimental value and the corresponding ground state is predicted to be an antiferromagnetic charge-transfer insulator. Furthermore, we investigate the bonding character of PuOH by analyzing the electron structure and find that there are a stronger Pu-O bond and a weaker Pu-H bond. The mechanical properties including the elastic constants, elastic moduli and Debye's temperature, and the optical properties including the reflectivity and absorption coefficient are also calculated. We then compute the phonon spectrum which verified the dynamical stability of F 4 bar 3 m -PuOH. Some thermodynamic quantities such as the specific heat are evaluated. Finally we calculate the formation energy of PuOH, and the reaction energies for the oxidation of PuOH and PuOH-coated Pu, which are in reasonable agreement with the experimental values.

  9. Carbon monoxide: an emerging regulator of ion channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, William J; Kemp, Paul J

    2011-07-01

    Carbon monoxide is rapidly emerging as an important cellular messenger, regulating a wide range of physiological processes. Crucial to its role in both physiology and disease is its ability differentially to regulate several classes of ion channels, including examples from calcium-activated K(+) (BK(Ca)), voltage-activated K(+) (K(v)) and Ca(2+) channel (L-type) families, ligand-gated P2X receptors (P2X2 and P2X4), tandem P domain K(+) channels (TREK1) and the epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC). The mechanisms by which CO regulates these ion channels are still unclear and remain somewhat controversial. However, available structure-function studies suggest that a limited range of amino acid residues confer CO sensitivity, either directly or indirectly, to particular ion channels and that cellular redox state appears to be important to the final integrated response. Whatever the molecular mechanism by which CO regulates ion channels, endogenous production of this gasotransmitter has physiologically important roles and is currently being explored as a potential therapeutic.

  10. Discovery of carbon monoxide in the upper atmosphere of Pluto

    CERN Document Server

    Greaves, J S; Friberg, P

    2011-01-01

    Pluto's icy surface has changed colour and its atmosphere has swelled since its last closest approach to the Sun in 1989. The thin atmosphere is produced by evaporating ices, and so can also change rapidly, and in particular carbon monoxide should be present as an active thermostat. Here we report the discovery of gaseous CO via the 1.3mm wavelength J=2-1 rotational transition, and find that the line-centre signal is more than twice as bright as a tentative result obtained by Bockelee-Morvan et al. in 2000. Greater surface-ice evaporation over the last decade could explain this, or increased pressure could have caused the atmosphere to expand. The gas must be cold, with a narrow line-width consistent with temperatures around 50 K, as predicted for the very high atmosphere, and the line brightness implies that CO molecules extend up to approximately 3 Pluto radii above the surface. The upper atmosphere must have changed markedly over only a decade since the prior search, and more alterations could occur by the...

  11. Regulation of ROS Production and Vascular Function by Carbon Monoxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Kyung Choi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO is a gaseous molecule produced from heme by heme oxygenase (HO. CO interacts with reduced iron of heme-containing proteins, leading to its involvement in various cellular events via its production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS. CO-mediated ROS production initiates intracellular signal events, which regulate the expression of adaptive genes implicated in oxidative stress and functions as signaling molecule for promoting vascular functions, including angiogenesis and mitochondrial biogenesis. Therefore, CO generated either by exogenous delivery or by HO activity can be fundamentally involved in regulating mitochondria-mediated redox cascades for adaptive gene expression and improving blood circulation (i.e., O2 delivery via neovascularization, leading to the regulation of mitochondrial energy metabolism. This paper will highlight the biological effects of CO on ROS generation and cellular redox changes involved in mitochondrial metabolism and angiogenesis. Moreover, cellular mechanisms by which CO is exploited for disease prevention and therapeutic applications will also be discussed.

  12. Heme oxygenase-1/carbon monoxide: from metabolism to molecular therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryter, Stefan W; Choi, Augustine M K

    2009-09-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a ubiquitous inducible stress-response protein, serves a major metabolic function in heme turnover. HO activity cleaves heme to form biliverdin-IXalpha, carbon monoxide (CO), and iron. Genetic experiments have revealed a central role for HO-1 in tissue homeostasis, protection against oxidative stress, and in the pathogenesis of disease. Four decades of research have witnessed not only progress in elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation and function of this illustrious enzyme, but also have opened remarkable translational applications for HO-1 and its reaction products. CO, once regarded as a metabolic waste, can act as an endogenous mediator of cellular signaling and vascular function. Exogenous application of CO by inhalation or pharmacologic delivery can confer cytoprotection in preclinical models of lung/vascular injury and disease, based on anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-proliferative properties. The bile pigments, biliverdin and bilirubin, end products of heme degradation, have also shown potential as therapeutics in vascular disease based on anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities. Further translational and clinical trials research will unveil whether the HO-1 system or any of its reaction products can be successfully applied as molecular medicine in human disease.

  13. Catalytic removal of carbon monoxide over carbon supported palladium catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, Avanish Kumar [Defence Research and Development Establishment, Jhansi Road, Gwalior-474002 (MP) (India); Saxena, Amit [Centre for Fire Explosive and Environmental Safety, Timarpur, Delhi-110054 (India); Shah, Dilip; Mahato, T.H. [Defence Research and Development Establishment, Jhansi Road, Gwalior-474002 (MP) (India); Singh, Beer, E-mail: beerbs5@rediffmail.com [Defence Research and Development Establishment, Jhansi Road, Gwalior-474002 (MP) (India); Shrivastava, A.R.; Gutch, P.K. [Defence Research and Development Establishment, Jhansi Road, Gwalior-474002 (MP) (India); Shinde, C.P. [School of Studies in Chemistry, Jiwaji University, Gwalior-474002 (MP) (India)

    2012-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbon supported palladium (Pd/C) catalyst was prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Catalytic removal of CO over Pd/C catalyst was studied under dynamic conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effects of Pd %, CO conc., humidity, GHSV and reaction environment were studied. - Abstract: Carbon supported palladium (Pd/C) catalyst was prepared by impregnation of palladium chloride using incipient wetness technique, which was followed by liquid phase reduction with formaldehyde. Thereafter, Pd/C catalyst was characterized using X-ray diffractometery, scanning electron microscopy, atomic absorption spectroscopy, thermo gravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry and surface characterization techniques. Catalytic removal of carbon monoxide (CO) over Pd/C catalyst was studied under dynamic conditions. Pd/C catalyst was found to be continuously converting CO to CO{sub 2} through the catalyzed reaction, i.e., CO + 1/2O{sub 2} {yields} CO{sub 2}. Pd/C catalyst provided excellent protection against CO. Effects of palladium wt%, CO concentration, humidity, space velocity and reaction environment were also studied on the breakthrough behavior of CO.

  14. In-utero carbon monoxide poisoning and multiple fetal abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennequin, Y.; Blum, D.; Vamos, E.; Steppe, M.; Goedseels, J.; Cavatorta, E. (Free Univ. of Brussels (Belgium). Queen Fabiola Children' s Hospital)

    1993-01-23

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning during pregnancy can lead to feto-maternal fatalities and stillbirths. Teratogenic effects have been reported. The authors strongly suspected an association between mild but chronic CO poisoning of the mother and major multiple malformations in the baby. Retrospective interviews of the mother disclosed that at 10 weeks' gestation, she had complained of headache and dizziness. At the same time, her 16-month-old daughter had an episode of unconsciousness. A faulty kitchen gas water-heater was suspected but the family did not have it repaired. The mother continued to have headaches regularly. During the 7th month of pregnancy, the daughter was found comatose. In the emergency ward, carboxyhemoglobins levels were 27.5% for the child and 14% for the pregnant mother. Both were treated with hyperbaric oxygen. Investigations by the gas company revealed a highly abnormal CO production from the kitchen and bathroom gas-water heaters: 120 and 100 parts per million, respectively, after 2 minutes of use.

  15. Tsukamurella carboxydivorans sp. nov., a carbon monoxide-oxidizing actinomycete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sae W; Kim, Sung M; Park, Sang T; Kim, Young M

    2009-06-01

    A Gram-positive, slightly acid-alcohol-fast, carbon monoxide-oxidizing bacterium, strain Y2(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected from a roadside in Seoul, Korea. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence comparative analyses, strain Y2(T) was shown to belong to the genus Tsukamurella and was most closely related to Tsukamurella tyrosinosolvens DSM 44234(T) (GenBank accession no. AY238514; 99.8 %). The predominant fatty acids were C(18 : 1)omega9c and C(16 : 0). The cell-wall peptidoglycan of strain Y2(T) contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. Strain Y2(T) contained galactose and arabinose as the whole cell sugars. The DNA G+C content was 77 mol%. The DNA-DNA relatedness value between strain Y2(T) and T. tyrosinosolvens DSM 44234(T) was 62.7 %. Based on the combination of the carbon source utilization pattern, fatty acid profile, cell-wall chemotype, DNA G+C content and DNA-DNA hybridization experiments, it is proposed that strain Y2(T) (=KCCM 42885(T)=JCM 15482(T)) represents the type strain of a novel species, Tsukamurella carboxydivorans sp. nov.

  16. Mopra Central Molecular Zone Carbon Monoxide Survey Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Rebecca; Burton, Michael; Rowell, Gavin

    2017-01-01

    We present an update on the Mopra Central Molecular Zone Carbon Monoxide (CO) survey, with data taken in 2016 extending the original 3.5° >= l >= 358.5°, +1.0° >= b >= -0.5° to 4.0° >= l >= 358.0°, +1.0° >= b >= -1.0°. Using the four simultaneously observed lines of 12CO, 13CO, C18O, and C17O Nyquist sampled at 0.6' spatial and 0.1 km/s spectral resolution, we are building an optical-thickness-corrected three-dimensional model of the diffuse gas, and making cloud mass estimates. This data, as part of the Mopra Southern Galactic Plane CO Survey (Braiding et al. (2015), Burton et al. (2013)), is at the highest resolution available across such a widespread region, and includes the Sagittarius A, Sagittarius B2, Sagittarius C, and G1.3 cloud complexes, as well as Bania's Clump 2.

  17. The Hydration Structure of Carbon Monoxide by Ab Initio Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Awoonor-Williams, Ernest

    2016-01-01

    The solvation of carbon monoxide (CO) in liquid water is important for understanding its toxicological effects and biochemical roles. In this paper, we use ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) and CCSD(T)-F12 calculations to assess the accuracy of the Straub and Karplus molecular mechanical (MM) model for CO(aq). The CCSD(T)-F12 CO--H2O potential energy surfaces show that the most stable structure corresponds to water donating a hydrogen bond to the C center. The MM-calculated surface it incorrectly predicts that the O atom is a stronger hydrogen bond acceptor than the C atom. The AIMD simulations indicate that CO is solvated like a hydrophobic solute, with very limited hydrogen bonding with water. The MM model tends to overestimate the degree of hydrogen bonding and overestimates the atomic radius of the C atom. The calculated Gibbs energy of hydration is in good agreement with experiment (9.3 kJ/mol calc. vs 10.7 kJ/mol exptl.). The calculated diffusivity of CO(aq) in TIP3P-model water was 5.19 x 10-5 cm2/s ...

  18. Gene expression in rat striatum following carbon monoxide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuichi Hara

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO poisoning causes brain damage, which is attenuated by treatment with hydrogen [1,2], a scavenger selective to hydroxyl radical (·≡OH [3]. This suggests a role of ·≡OH in brain damage due to CO poisoning. Studies have shown strong enhancement of ·≡OH production in rat striatum by severe CO poisoning with a blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb level >70% due to 3000 ppm CO, but not less severe CO poisoning with a blood COHb level at approximately 50% due to 1000 ppm CO [4]. Interestingly, 5% O2 causes hypoxia comparable with that by 3000 ppm CO and produces much less •OH than 3000 ppm CO does [4]. In addition, cAMP production in parallel with ·≡OH production [5] might contribute to ·≡OH production [6]. It is likely that mechanisms other than hypoxia contribute to brain damage due to CO poisoning [7]. To search for the mechanisms, we examined the effects of 1000 ppm CO, 3000 ppm CO and 5% O2 on gene expression in rat striatum. All array data have been deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO database under accession number GSE94780.

  19. Carbon monoxide: silent killer and expert imitator (Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Petrolini

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide is still the most common unintentional poisoning in the Western Countries, and it may often produce potentially serious or lethal acute and delayed clinical manifestations. The considerable variety of symptoms of presentation is the principal reason of the non infrequent diagnostic errors at admission. In emergency medicine it is essential to consider this diagnosis every time a patient is found in state of unconsciousness in an environment with possible exposure to CO, as well as in patients presenting with non-specific syndromes. The prompt identification of the intoxication is essential in order to plan a correct therapy at the proper time, and for prevention of risks of a late neurologic syndrome. Nowadays the diagnosis may be performed through determination of COHb in a fast and non-invasive way, both outside and inside hospitals, thanks to a new generation of specific pulsoxymetrers. After confirmation the patient has to be classified with a grading score for severity depending on clinical presentation, that may be useful also for the choice between normobaric or hyperbaric oxygen treatments. Eventually, it is essential to plan the follow up for the patient during the months following the acute event.

  20. Carbon monoxide: silent killer and expert imitator (Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Petrolini

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide is still the most common unintentional poisoning in the Western Countries, and it may often produce potentially serious or lethal acute and delayed clinical manifestations. The considerable variety of symptoms of presentation is the main reason of the non infrequent diagnostic errors at admission. In emergency medicine it is essential to consider this diagnosis every time a patient is found in state of unconsciousness in an environment with possible exposure to CO, as well as in patients presenting with non-specific syndromes. The prompt identification of the intoxication is essential in order to plan a correct therapy at the proper time, and for preventing of risks of a late neurologic syndrome. After confirmation of the diagnosis through determination of COHb, that may nowadays be performed in a fast and non-invasive way both outside and inside hospitals thanks to a new generation of specific pulsoxyimeters, the patient has to be classified with a grading score for the severity depending on clinical presentation, that may be useful also for choice between normobaric or hyperbaric oxygen treatments. Eventually, it is essential to plan the follow-up for the patient during the months following the acute event.

  1. Bromine monoxide / sulphur dioxide ratios in relation to volcanological observations at Mt. Etna 2006–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Giuffrida

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Over a 3-yr period, from 2006 to 2009, frequent scattered sunlight DOAS measurements were conducted at Mt. Etna at a distance of around 6 km downwind from the summit craters. During the same period and in addition to these measurements, volcanic observations were made by regularly visiting various parts of Mt. Etna. Here, results from these measurements and observations are presented and their relation is discussed. The focus of the investigation is the bromine monoxide/sulphur dioxide (BrO / SO2 ratio, and its variability in relation to volcanic processes. That the halogen/sulphur ratio can serve as a precursor or indicator for the onset of eruptive activity was already proposed by earlier works (e.g. Noguchi and Kamiya 1963; Menyailov, 1975; Pennisi and Cloarec, 1998; Aiuppa et al., 2002. However, there is still a limited understanding today because of the complexity with which halogens are released, depending on magma composition and degassing conditions. Our understanding of these processes is far from complete, for example of the rate and mechanism of bubble nucleation, growth and ascent in silicate melts (Carroll and Holloway, 1994, the halogen vapour-melt partitioning and the volatile diffusivity in the melt (Aiuppa et al., 2009. With this study we aim to add one more piece to the puzzle of what halogen/sulphur ratios might tell about volcanic activities. Our data set shows an increase of the BrO / SO2 ratio several weeks prior to an eruption, followed by a decline before and during the initial phase of eruptive activities. Towards the end of activity or shortly thereafter, the ratio increases to baseline values again and remains more or less constant during quiet phases. To explain the observed evolution of the BrO / SO2 ratio, a first empirical model is proposed. This model suggests that bromine, unlike chlorine and fluorine, is less soluble in the magmatic melt than sulphur. By using the DOAS method to determine SO2, we actually

  2. [Verification of the double dissociation model of shyness using the implicit association test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Tsutomu; Aikawa, Atsushi

    2013-12-01

    The "double dissociation model" of shyness proposed by Asendorpf, Banse, and Mtücke (2002) was demonstrated in Japan by Aikawa and Fujii (2011). However, the generalizability of the double dissociation model of shyness was uncertain. The present study examined whether the results reported in Aikawa and Fujii (2011) would be replicated. In Study 1, college students (n = 91) completed explicit self-ratings of shyness and other personality scales. In Study 2, forty-eight participants completed IAT (Implicit Association Test) for shyness, and their friends (n = 141) rated those participants on various personality scales. The results revealed that only the explicit self-concept ratings predicted other-rated low praise-seeking behavior, sociable behavior and high rejection-avoidance behavior (controlled shy behavior). Only the implicit self-concept measured by the shyness IAT predicted other-rated high interpersonal tension (spontaneous shy behavior). The results of this study are similar to the findings of the previous research, which supports generalizability of the double dissociation model of shyness.

  3. Above-Threshold Dissociation of HD+ in Femtosecond Laser Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BA Song-Yue; YUAN Kai-Jun; HAN Yong-Chang; CONG Shu-Lin

    2008-01-01

    @@ The above-threshold dissociation (ATD) of the HD+ molecular ion in femtosecond laser field is investigated theoretically. The energy-dependent distribution of the dissociated fragments is calculated using an asymptotic-flow expression in the momentum space. The calculations show that the ATD of HD+ is sensitive to the initial vibrational level of ground electronic state. Multiphoton ATDs can be observed in the dissociation processes. The dynamics phenomena are interpreted by using the concept of light-dressed potential.

  4. Alkali promotion of N-2 dissociation over Ru(0001)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jens Jørgen; Hammer, Bjørk; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    1998-01-01

    Using self-consistent density functional calculations, we show that adsorbed Na and Cs lower the barrier for dissociation of N2 on Ru(0001). Since N2 dissociation is a crucial step in the ammonia synthesis reaction, we explain in this way the experimental observation that alkali metals promote th...... the ammonia synthesis reaction over Ru catalysts. We also show that the origin of this effect is predominantly a direct electrostatic attraction between the adsorbed alkali atoms and the dissociating molecule....

  5. CO chemisorption and dissociation at high coverages during CO hydrogenation on Ru catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveless, Brett T; Buda, Corneliu; Neurock, Matthew; Iglesia, Enrique

    2013-04-24

    Density functional theory (DFT) and infrared spectroscopy results are combined with mechanism-based rate equations to assess the structure and thermodynamics of chemisorbed CO (CO*) and its activation during Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS). CO* binding becomes weaker with increasing coverage on Ru(0001) and Ru201 clusters, but such decreases in binding energy occur at higher coverages on Ru201 clusters than on Ru(0001) surfaces (CO*/Ru = 1.55 to 0.75); such differences appear to reflect weaker repulsive interactions on the curved surfaces prevalent on small Ru201 clusters. Ru201 clusters achieve stable supramonolayer coverages (CO*/Ru > 1) by forming geminal dicarbonyls at low-coordination corner/edge atoms. CO* infrared spectra on Ru/SiO2 (~7 nm diameter) detect mobile adlayers that anneal into denser structures at saturation. Mechanism-based FTS rate equations give activation energies that reflect the CO*-saturated surfaces prevalent during catalysis. DFT-derived barriers show that CO* predominantly reacts at (111) terraces via H-assisted reactions, consistent with measured effects of H2 and CO pressures and cluster size effects on rates and O-rejection selectivities. Barriers are much higher for unassisted CO* dissociation on (111) terraces and low-coordination atoms, including step-edge sites previously proposed as active sites for CO* dissociation during FTS. DFT-derived barriers indicate that unassisted CO* dissociation is irreversible, making such steps inconsistent with measured rates. The modest activation barriers of H-assisted CO* dissociation paths remove a requirement for special low-coordination sites for unassisted CO* activation, which is inconsistent with higher rates on larger clusters. These conclusions seem generally applicable to Co, Fe, and Ru catalysts, which show similar FTS rate equations and cluster size effects. This study also demonstrates the feasibility and relevance of DFT treatments on the curved and crowded cluster surfaces where

  6. Carbon monoxide poisoning while using a small cooking stove in a tent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomassen, Øyvind; Brattebø, Guttorm; Rostrup, Morten

    2004-05-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is formed wherever incomplete combustion of carbonaceous products occurs.(1) CO is the leading cause of poisoning in the United States, and common sources of CO poisoning include housefires, automobile exhaust, water heaters, kerosene space heaters, and furnaces.(2) Stoves used for cooking and heating during outdoor activities also produce significant amounts of CO. Mountain climbers have been reported to succumb to fumes generated by small cook stoves.(3) The aim of this study was to investigate if burning a cooking stove inside a tent is a potential health hazard. Seven healthy male volunteers used a cooking stove inside a small tent for 120 minutes. CO levels in the ambient tent air were measured in addition to hearth rate (HR) and pulse oximetry (SpO2). Venous blood samples were obtained every 15 minutes for measurement of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb). After 2 hours, all the subjects had significant CO levels in their blood (mean COHb = 21.5%). Mean SpO2, also fell from 98% to 95.3% (P tent. The concentration is high enough to cause significant COHb levels in venous blood after 120 minutes' stay in the tent.

  7. The high redshift star-formation history from carbon-monoxide intensity maps

    CERN Document Server

    Breysse, Patrick C; Kamionkowski, Marc

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate how cosmic star-formation history can be measured with one-point statistics of carbon-monoxide intensity maps. Using a P(D) analysis, the luminosity function of CO-emitting sources can be inferred from the measured one-point intensity PDF. The star-formation rate density (SFRD) can then be obtained, at several redshifts, from the CO luminosity density. We study the effects of instrumental noise, line foregrounds, and target redshift, and obtain constraints on the CO luminosity density of order 10%. We show that the SFRD uncertainty is dominated by that of the model connecting CO luminosity and star formation. For pessimistic estimates of this model uncertainty, we obtain an error of order 50% on SFRD for surveys targeting redshifts between 2 and 7 with reasonable noise and foregrounds included. However, comparisons between intensity maps and galaxies could substantially reduce this model uncertainty. In this case our constraints on SFRD at these redshifts improve to roughly 5-10%, which is high...

  8. The high-redshift star formation history from carbon-monoxide intensity maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breysse, Patrick C.; Kovetz, Ely D.; Kamionkowski, Marc

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate how cosmic star formation history can be measured with one-point statistics of carbon-monoxide intensity maps. Using a P(D) analysis, the luminosity function of CO-emitting sources can be inferred from the measured one-point intensity PDF. The star formation rate density (SFRD) can then be obtained, at several redshifts, from the CO luminosity density. We study the effects of instrumental noise, line foregrounds, and target redshift, and obtain constraints on the CO luminosity density of the order of 10 per cent. We show that the SFRD uncertainty is dominated by that of the model connecting CO luminosity and star formation. For pessimistic estimates of this model uncertainty, we obtain an error of the order of 50 per cent on SFRD for surveys targeting redshifts between two and seven with reasonable noise and foregrounds included. However, comparisons between intensity maps and galaxies could substantially reduce this model uncertainty. In this case, our constraints on SFRD at these redshifts improve to roughly 5 - 10 per cent, which is highly competitive with current measurements.

  9. The study of dehumidifying of carbon monoxide and ammonia adsorption by Iranian natural clinoptilolite zeolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehrani, R. M. A.; Salari, A. A.

    2005-10-01

    The natural zeolite (clinoptilolite type) was obtained from the Neibagh region of Mianeh, the city in the west of Iran. The raw zeolite was tested for quality and quantity measurements including surface area and volumetric characteristics as well as thermogravimetry analysis. The acid activation process was used to increase the adsorption rate of zeolite and in order to obtain the optimum conditions: the effect of acid concentration, reaction time and the temperature were studied. A surface area measurement test was performed in each stage to get the best results. Thus, efficient condition was selected according to the produced highest surface area. The reaction was first obtained with hydrochloric acid, and then a comparison was made using the sulfuric acid. The hydrochloric reaction proved to be better. The result of activation was 2.5 times the increase in the surface area in relation to the raw sample. The result of elemental analysis conducted once again on the activated sample showed an increase in the ratio of Si/Al (approximately 0.6). Then, using CO, NH 3 and steam, the gas adsorption capacity of both the raw and activated samples was measured and compared. Since CO was not adsorbed at ambient temperature, but steam was adsorbed relatively well, the natural clinoptilolite zeolite of Iran was suggested as a suitable material for adsorbing humidity form carbon monoxide as well as synthesis gas (H 2 and CO mixture).

  10. High-resolution fiber carbon monoxide sensing system and its data processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tingting; Wei, Yubin; Li, Yanfang; Zhao, Yanjie; Liu, Tongyu; Wang, Chang

    2013-09-01

    Carbon monoxide is one of the important gases need to be detected in coal mine safety. Detection technology based on signature gas is the primary means of spontaneous combustion forecasting of coal goaf area. Because of the high accuracy requirement of CO concentration in the coal mining applications, we had to introduce more data processig methods to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), finally to achieve the requirements of coal mining. Therefore, we used three data processing methods to eliminate noises of the CO sensing system which based on the tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS): Fourier transform, least-squares fitting and Kalman filter. The results show that the combination of three data processing methods had a good inhibitory effect of random noise and interference fringes, etc. and significantly improved the system detection accuracy, the minimum detectable spectral absorption rate could be increased by an order of magnitude. So this high-resolution fiber CO sensing system can better meet the needs of coal mine safety.

  11. Therapeutic Potential of Heme Oxygenase-1/Carbon Monoxide in Lung Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna Constantin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Heme oxygenase (HO, a catabolic enzyme, provides the rate-limiting step in the oxidative breakdown of heme, to generate carbon monoxide (CO, iron, and biliverdin-IXα. Induction of the inducible form, HO-1, in tissues is generally regarded as a protective mechanism. Over the last decade, considerable progress has been made in defining the therapeutic potential of HO-1 in a number of preclinical models of lung tissue injury and disease. Likewise, tissue-protective effects of CO, when applied at low concentration, have been observed in many of these models. Recent studies have expanded this concept to include chemical CO-releasing molecules (CORMs. Collectively, salutary effects of the HO-1/CO system have been demonstrated in lung inflammation/acute lung injury, lung and vascular transplantation, sepsis, and pulmonary hypertension models. The beneficial effects of HO-1/CO are conveyed in part through the inhibition or modulation of inflammatory, apoptotic, and proliferative processes. Recent advances, however, suggest that the regulation of autophagy and the preservation of mitochondrial homeostasis may serve as additional candidate mechanisms. Further preclinical and clinical trials are needed to ascertain the therapeutic potential of HO-1/CO in human clinical disease.

  12. Heme oxygenase-1/carbon monoxide: from basic science to therapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryter, Stefan W; Alam, Jawed; Choi, Augustine M K

    2006-04-01

    The heme oxygenases, which consist of constitutive and inducible isozymes (HO-1, HO-2), catalyze the rate-limiting step in the metabolic conversion of heme to the bile pigments (i.e., biliverdin and bilirubin) and thus constitute a major intracellular source of iron and carbon monoxide (CO). In recent years, endogenously produced CO has been shown to possess intriguing signaling properties affecting numerous critical cellular functions including but not limited to inflammation, cellular proliferation, and apoptotic cell death. The era of gaseous molecules in biomedical research and human diseases initiated with the discovery that the endothelial cell-derived relaxing factor was identical to the gaseous molecule nitric oxide (NO). The discovery that endogenously produced gaseous molecules such as NO and now CO can impart potent physiological and biological effector functions truly represented a paradigm shift and unraveled new avenues of intense investigations. This review covers the molecular and biochemical characterization of HOs, with a discussion on the mechanisms of signal transduction and gene regulation that mediate the induction of HO-1 by environmental stress. Furthermore, the current understanding of the functional significance of HO shall be discussed from the perspective of each of the metabolic by-products, with a special emphasis on CO. Finally, this presentation aspires to lay a foundation for potential future clinical applications of these systems.

  13. Satellite Carbon Monoxide Measurements as Top-Down Constraints on Fire Trace Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasibhatla, P.; Randerson, J.; van der Werf, G.; Giglio, L.; Collatz, J.; Defries, R.; Morton, D.

    2008-12-01

    There has been considerable progress in recent years in characterizing trace gas emissions from vegetation fires on a global scale. This progress has been driven by the availability of remotely-sensed vegetation and fire products, combined with the development of global-scale, process-based terrestrial biogeochemistry models that explicitly include fire. Nevertheless, significant uncertainties remain in our understanding of the spatial and temporal variability of trace gas emissions from fires, and in the underlying climatic and human factors that drive this variability. Here, we examine the extent to which remote sensing measurements of atmospheric trace gas concentrations can provide additional constraints of emissions from fires. Specifically, we focus on using the multi-year record of carbon monoxide measurements from the MOPITT instrument on the Terra platform in an inverse modeling framework to elucidate the reduction in uncertainty in fire emissions at regional scales afforded by these measurements. We further examine the sensitivity of our estimates to various aspects of the inverse modeling set-up in an attempt to characterize the robustness of the derived uncertainty estimates, with a specific emphasis on regions with high deforestation rates in South America and Equatorial Asia.

  14. Carbon monoxide in clouds at low metallicity in the dwarf irregular galaxy WLM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmegreen, Bruce G; Rubio, Monica; Hunter, Deidre A; Verdugo, Celia; Brinks, Elias; Schruba, Andreas

    2013-03-28

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is the primary tracer for interstellar clouds where stars form, but it has never been detected in galaxies in which the oxygen abundance relative to hydrogen is less than 20 per cent of that of the Sun, even though such 'low-metallicity' galaxies often form stars. This raises the question of whether stars can form in dense gas without molecules, cooling to the required near-zero temperatures by atomic transitions and dust radiation rather than by molecular line emission; and it highlights uncertainties about star formation in the early Universe, when the metallicity was generally low. Here we report the detection of CO in two regions of a local dwarf irregular galaxy, WLM, where the metallicity is 13 per cent of the solar value. We use new submillimetre observations and archival far-infrared observations to estimate the cloud masses, which are both slightly greater than 100,000 solar masses. The clouds have produced stars at a rate per molecule equal to 10 per cent of that in the local Orion nebula cloud. The CO fraction of the molecular gas is also low, about 3 per cent of the Milky Way value. These results suggest that in small galaxies both star-forming cores and CO molecules become increasingly rare in molecular hydrogen clouds as the metallicity decreases.

  15. Dissociation curves of diatomic molecules: A DC-DFT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Eunji; Kim, Min-Cheol [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Nano-Bio Molecular Assemblies, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Burke, Kieron [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, CA, 92697 (United States)

    2015-12-31

    We investigate dissociation of diatomic molecules using standard density functional theory (DFT) and density-corrected density functional theory (DC-DFT) compared with CCSD(T) results as reference. The results show the difference between the HOMO values of dissociated atomic species often can be used as an indicator whether DFT would predict the correct dissociation limit. DFT predicts incorrect dissociation limits and charge distribution in molecules or molecular ions when the fragments have large HOMO differences, while DC-DFT and CCSD(T) do not. The criteria for large HOMO difference is about 2 ∼ 4 eV.

  16. Altered states of consciousness, dissociation, and dream recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suszek, Hubert; Kopera, Maciej

    2005-02-01

    In a sample of 71 medical students, dream recall frequency was positively correlated with proneness to altered states of consciousness (r = .26) measured by the State of Mind and Consciousness Questionnaire and dissociation (r = .29) measured by the Dissociative Experiences Scale II. A regression analysis, however, yielded neither altered states of consciousness nor dissociation, sex, or age to be significant predictors of dream recall frequency. Among women dream recall frequency was associated with proneness to dissociation; among men it was correlated with proneness to altered states of consciousness.

  17. Somatization as a predictor of suicidal ideation in dissociative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztürk, Erdinç; Sar, Vedat

    2008-12-01

    This study was concerned with correlates of suicidal ideation among patients with chronic complex dissociative disorders. Participants were 40 patients diagnosed as having either dissociative identity disorder or dissociative disorder not otherwise specified according to the DSM-IV. The Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule, the Dissociative Experiences Scale, the Somatoform Dissociation and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaires, the Spielberger Trait Anger Inventory, the Beck Suicidal Ideation Scale, and the Borderline Personality Disorder section of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders were administered to all patients. Patients with suicidal ideas (n = 15) had concurrent somatization disorder more frequently than the remaining patients. Having significantly high scores on both trait and state dissociation measures, their dissociative disorder was more severe than that of the patients with no suicidal ideation. They had elevated scores for childhood emotional abuse, physical abuse and emotional neglect. Concurrent somatization disorder diagnosis was the only predictor of suicidal ideation when childhood trauma scores and borderline personality disorder diagnosis were controlled. Among dissociative patients, there is an association between somatization and suicidal ideation. A trauma-related insecure attachment pattern is considered as a common basis of this symptom cluster.

  18. Accurate studies on dissociation energies of diatomic molecules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN; WeiGuo; FAN; QunChao

    2007-01-01

    The molecular dissociation energies of some electronic states of hydride and N2 molecules were studied using a parameter-free analytical formula suggested in this study and the algebraic method (AM) proposed recently. The results show that the accurate AM dissociation energies DeAM agree excellently with experimental dissociation energies Deexpt, and that the dissociation energy of an electronic state such as the 23△g state of 7Li2 whose experimental value is not available can be predicted using the new formula.

  19. Dissociation in hypnosis and multiple personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, K S

    1991-07-01

    The first part of this paper examines the concept of dissociation in the context of hypnosis. In particular, the neodissociative and social psychological models of hypnosis are compared. It is argued that the social psychological model, in describing hypnotic enactments as purposeful, does not adequately distinguish between behavior that is enacted "on purpose" and behavior that serves or achieves a purpose. 2 recent dissertations (Hughes, 1988; Miller, 1986) from the University of Waterloo are summarized, each of which supports the neodissociative view that hypnotic behavior can be purposeful (in the sense that the suggested state of affairs is achieved) and nonvolitional (in the sense that the suggested state of affairs is not achieved by high level executive initiative and ongoing effort). The second part of the paper employs a neodissociative view of hypnosis to help understand the current epidemic of multiple personality disorder (MPD). In particular, it is argued that many symptoms of MPD are implicitly suggested effects--particularly prone to occur in persons who have a lifelong tendency to use dissociative type defenses. The present author believes that this account is easier to sustain conceptually and empirically than the current view, which states that a secondary (tertiary, etc.) personality accounts for the striking phenomenological discontinuities experienced by MPD patients.

  20. Multigenerational Dissociation: A Framework for Building Narrative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollum, Sally E

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the concept of Multigenerational Dissociation (MGD), a behavior pattern that occurs in families in which violence and abuse are re-enacted from one generation to the next, accompanied by denial that the trauma occurred, or if it did, that it was destructive. While revictimization, reenactment, and the intergenerational transmission of trauma are discussed extensively in the literature, MGD helps to view them within a broad historical framework. This is useful for conceptualizing cases therapeutically, and it can also contribute to research on dissociation and recovered memories of trauma and abuse by demonstrating the value of narrative clinical data. Case material is used to illustrate how MGD occurs in people's lives and affects their memories, demonstrating how it becomes a frame within which to convey the dynamics of how traumatic experiences are remembered. This also demonstrates that when clinicians contribute their own narrative data to research on traumatic memory, the science is more accurate, relevant, and comprehensible to clinical and nonclinical researchers.