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Sample records for monovarietal virgin olive

  1. Sensory and Volatile Profiles of Monovarietal North Tunisian Extra Virgin Olive Oils from 'Chétoui' Cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essid, Faten; Sifi, Samira; Beltrán, Gabriel; Sánchez, Sebastián; Raïes, Aly

    2016-07-01

    The quality of olive oil is defined as a combination of characteristics that significantly determine its acceptance by consumers. This study was carried out to compare sensorial and chemical characteristics of sixty 'Chétoui' extra virgin olive oils (EVOOc) samples from six northern areas in Tunisia (Tebourba (EVOOT); Other regions (EVOON): Mornag, Sidi Amor, El Kef, Béjà and Jendouba). Trained panel taste detected ten sensory attributes. EVOOT and EVOON were defined by 'tomato' and 'grass/ leave notes, respectively. Twenty one volatile compounds from EVOOc were extracted and identified by Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction followed by Gas Chromatography- Flame Ionization Detector. Principal component and cluster analysis of all studied parameters showed that EVOOT differed from EVOON. Sensory and volatile profiles of EVOOc revealed that the perception of different aromas, in monovarietal olive oil, was the result of synergic effect of oils' various components, whose composition was influenced by the geographical growing area.

  2. Chemical Characterization and Kinetic parameter determination under Rancimat test conditions of four monovarietal virgin olive oils grown in Morocco

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    Gharby Said

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present investigation is to compare the chemical characterization of four monovarietal virgin olive oils obtained from fruits of olive trees grown in Morocco (Picholine, Picual, Arebiquine, Koroneiki with kinetic parameters of oxidation based on Rancimat measurements and finally to assess the oxidative stabilities. The examined oils from different varieties showed a chemical composition within the regulatory limits. Rancimat measurements of induction times were carried out under isothermal conditions in an air atmosphere at temperatures from 373 to 423 K with intervals of 10 K. Using the Arrhenius-type correlation between the inverse induction times and the absolute temperature of the measurements, Ea, Z, and k values for oil oxidation under Rancimat conditions were calculated. The primary kinetic parameters derived from this method were qualitatively consistent and help to evaluate the oxidative stabilities of oils at increased temperatures.

  3. Thermal decomposition study of monovarietal extra virgin olive oil by simultaneous thermogravimetry/differential scanning calorimetry: relation with chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchio, Stefano; Cerretani, Lorenzo; Bendini, Alessandra; Chiavaro, Emma

    2009-06-10

    Thermal decomposition of 12 monovarietal extra virgin olive oils from different geographical origins (eight from Italy, two from Spain, and the others from Tunisia) was evaluated by simultaneous thermogravimetry (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses. All extra virgin olive oils showed a complex multistep decomposition pattern with the first step that exhibited a quite different profile among samples. Thermal properties of the two peaks obtained by the deconvolution of the first step of decomposition by DSC were related to the chemical composition of the samples (triacylglycerols, fatty acids, total phenols and antioxidant activity). Onset temperatures of the thermal decomposition transition and T(p) values of both deconvoluted peaks as well as the sum of enthalpy were found to exhibit statistically significant correlations with chemical components of the samples, in particular palmitic and oleic acids and related triacylglycerols. Activation energy values of the second deconvoluted peak obtained by the application of kinetic procedure to the first step of decomposition were also found to be highly statistically correlated to the chemical composition, and a stability scale among samples was proposed on the basis of its values.

  4. Volatile Compounds and Sensory Profiles of Monovarietal Virgin Olive Oil from Buža, Črna and Rosinjola Cultivars in Istria (Croatia

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    Barbara Sladonja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The volatile compounds found in virgin olive oil, mainly C6 and C5 volatile compounds biogenerated from polyunsaturated fatty acids through the lipoxygenase pathway, are responsible for their particular aroma. The composition of volatile compounds in olive oil depends on the cultivar, the ripening degree of the fruits and processing conditions. Among many different autochthonous cultivars in Istria (Croatia, some of the most prevalent are Buža, Črna and Rosinjola. The volatiles and sensory characteristics of their monovarietal virgin olive oil are little known. Therefore, fruits from these three cultivars were handpicked at the same ripening degree and processed under the same conditions. Quantitative descriptive sensory analysis of monovarietal virgin olive oil was carried out by the panel. Volatile composition was evaluated by headspace solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography, previously optimized and validated. The main parameters affecting effectiveness, time and temperature of extraction were optimized. The extraction procedure showed detection and quantification limits, as well as linear ranges adequate for the analysis of selected volatile compounds. Good precision was obtained both in terms of intra-day repeatability (relative standard deviations generally lower than 7 % and inter-day precision. The tested types of monovarietal olive oil showed different volatile profiles, although E-2-hexenal was the main compound in all samples. Buža oil was the richest in total C6 and C5 volatile compounds. The results show that the most important contributors to the olive oil aroma (odour activity value >1.0 were 1-penten-3-one, E-2-hexenal, hexanal, hexanol, Z-3-hexen-1-ol and Z-2-penten-1-ol. These chemical findings were compared with those provided by the panel test. Buža had the highest intensity of sensory characteristic 'other ripe fruits' and Rosinjola had the highest intensity of sensory characteristic 'bitter'. All results show

  5. Proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry volatile organic compound fingerprinting for monovarietal extra virgin olive oil identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz-Samblas, C.; Tres, A.; Koot, A.H.; Ruth, van S.M.; Gonzalez-Casado, A.; Cuadros-Rodriguez, L.

    2012-01-01

    Proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) is a relatively new technique that allows the fast and accurate qualification of the volatile organic compound (VOC) fingerprint. This paper describes the analysis of thirty samples of extra virgin olive oil, of five different varieties of olive

  6. Proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry volatile organic compound fingerprinting for monovarietal extra virgin olive oil identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz-Samblas, C.; Tres, A.; Koot, A.H.; Ruth, van S.M.; Gonzalez-Casado, A.; Cuadros-Rodriguez, L.

    2012-01-01

    Proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) is a relatively new technique that allows the fast and accurate qualification of the volatile organic compound (VOC) fingerprint. This paper describes the analysis of thirty samples of extra virgin olive oil, of five different varieties of olive fr

  7. Phytochemicals and Other Characteristics of Croatian Monovarietal Extra Virgin Olive Oils from Oblica, Lastovka and Levantinka Varieties

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    Mladenka Šarolić

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Virgin olive oils from the fruits of Croatian autochthonous varieties Oblica, Lastovka and Levantinka were characterized for the first time. Headspace volatiles were analyzed by HS-SPME/GC-FID/MS. The main volatiles were C6 compounds. The most abundant was (E-hex-2-enal (62.60%–69.20%. (Z-Hex-3-enal was not found in Lastovka oil, while Levantinka oil did not contain hexanal. Tocopherols, chlorophylls and carotenoids were determined by HPLC-FL. Levantinka oil was characterized by the highest α-tocopherol level (222.00 mg/kg. Total phenolic contents (TPs, as well as antioxidant activity (DPPH assay of the oils hydrophilic fractions (HFs were assessed by spectroscopic methods. The antioxidant activity of Oblica oil HF was the most pronounced (0.91 mmol TEAC/kg and the HF contained the highest TPs amount (212.21 mg/kg. HFs phenolic composition was determined by HPLC-DAD. The main identified phenols were secoiridoids dominated in Oblica oil: decarboxymethyl ligstroside aglycone (p-HPEA-EDA up to 158.5 mg/kg, oleuropein aglycone (3,4-HPEA-EA up to 96.4 mg/kg and decarboxymethyl oleuropein aglycon (3,4-DHPEA-EDA up to 93.5 mg/kg.

  8. Effect of addition of olive leaves before fruits extraction process to some monovarietal Tunisian extra-virgin olive oils using chemometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonda, Ammar; Akram, Zribi; Boutheina, Gargouri; Guido, Flamini; Mohamed, Bouaziz

    2014-01-08

    The analysis of the effect of cultivar and olive leaves addition before the extraction on the different analytical values revealed significant differences (p olive leaves. Twenty-three compounds were characterized, representing 86.1-99.2% of the total volatiles. Chétoui cultivar has the highest amount of (E)-2-hexenal, followed by Chemlali cultivar, whereas (E)-2-hexen-1-ol was the major constituent of Zalmati and crossbreeding Chemlali by Zalmati cultivars. Sensory analysis showed that Chemlali and Chétoui Zarzis possessed a high fruity, bitter, and pungent taste, whereas the Zalmati and crossbreeding Chemlali by Zalmati had a 'green' taste among its attributes. Indeed, the taste panel found an improvement of the oil quality when an amount of olive leaves (3%) added to the olives fruits.

  9. Effect of different irrigation regimes on the quality attributes of monovarietal virgin olive oil from cv. “Cobrançosa”

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    Fernandes-Silva, A. A.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the effect of different irrigation strategies in virgin olive oil (VOO composition and quality of cv. Cobrançosa, integrated in a protected denomination of origin of “Azeite de Trás-os-Montes” in the Northeast of Portugal. Three irrigation treatments were applied: T2-full irrigation that received a seasonal water equivalent to 100% of estimated crop evapotranspiration (ETc, T1-continuous deficit irrigation (30% ETc and T0- rainfed treatment. Data were collected from two consecutive crop years (2005-2006. Irrigation regimes had a minor effect on standard quality indices (free fatty acids, peroxide value, K232 and K270 of VOO and in fatty acid composition. Total polyphenols decreased up to treatment T2, and were strongly related to the water stress integral, suggesting that the effect of irrigation on this variable occurs along the crop season and not just during the oil accumulation phase. A strategy of continuous deficit irrigation with only 30% of maximum ETc may have an advantageous effect, as it increased oil yield to more than double that of rainfed conditions while VOO quality was similar.

    El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar el efecto de distintas estrategias de riego en la composición y la calidad del aceite de oliva virgen de cv. Cobrançosa, integrado en una denominación de origen protegida de «Azeite de Trás-os- Montes», en el noreste de Portugal. Tres tratamientos de riego fueron aplicados: T2-riego total, el olivo recibió el equivalente estacional de agua al 100% de la evapotranspiración estimada del cultivo (ETc, T1-riego continuo deficitario (30% de la ETc y el tratamiento T0-de secano. Los datos fueron recolectados a partir de dos campañas agrícolas consecutivas (2005-2006. Los regímenes de riego tuvieron un efecto menor en los índices de calidad estándar (ácidos grasos libres, índice de peróxidos, K232 y K270

  10. Single-cultivar extra virgin olive oil classification using a potentiometric electronic tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Luís G; Fernandes, Andreia; Veloso, Ana C A; Machado, Adélio A S C; Pereira, José A; Peres, António M

    2014-10-01

    Label authentication of monovarietal extra virgin olive oils is of great importance. A novel approach based on a potentiometric electronic tongue is proposed to classify oils obtained from single olive cultivars (Portuguese cvs. Cobrançosa, Madural, Verdeal Transmontana; Spanish cvs. Arbequina, Hojiblanca, Picual). A meta-heuristic simulated annealing algorithm was applied to select the most informative sets of sensors to establish predictive linear discriminant models. Olive oils were correctly classified according to olive cultivar (sensitivities greater than 97%) and each Spanish olive oil was satisfactorily discriminated from the Portuguese ones with the exception of cv. Arbequina (sensitivities from 61% to 98%). Also, the discriminant ability was related to the polar compounds contents of olive oils and so, indirectly, with organoleptic properties like bitterness, astringency or pungency. Therefore the proposed E-tongue can be foreseen as a useful auxiliary tool for trained sensory panels for the classification of monovarietal extra virgin olive oils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of preprocessing olive storage conditions on virgin olive oil quality and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inarejos-García, Antonio M; Gómez-Rico, Aurora; Desamparados Salvador, M; Fregapane, Giuseppe

    2010-04-28

    The quality of virgin olive oil (VOO) is intimately related to the characteristics and composition of the olive fruit at the moment of its milling. In this study, the determination of suitable olive storage conditions and feasibility of using this preprocessing operation to modulate the sensory taste of VOO are reported. Several olive batches were stored in different conditions (from monolayer up to 60 cm thickness, at 20 and 10 degrees C) for a period of up to three weeks, and the quality and composition of minor constituents, mainly phenols and volatiles, in the corresponding VOO were monitored. Cornicabra cultivar VOO obtained from drupes stored for 5 or 8 days at 20 or 10 degrees C, respectively, retained the "extra virgin" category, according to chemical quality indices, since only small increases in free acidity and peroxide values were observed, and the bitter index of this monovarietal oil was reduced by 30-40%. Storage under monolayer conditions at 10 degrees C for up to two weeks is also feasible because "off-odor" development was delayed, a 50% reduction in bitterness was obtained, and the overall good quality of the final product was preserved.

  12. OGDD (Olive Genetic Diversity Database): a microsatellite markers' genotypes database of worldwide olive trees for cultivar identification and virgin olive oil traceability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Ayed, Rayda; Ben Hassen, Hanen; Ennouri, Karim; Ben Marzoug, Riadh; Rebai, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Olive (Olea europaea), whose importance is mainly due to nutritional and health features, is one of the most economically significant oil-producing trees in the Mediterranean region. Unfortunately, the increasing market demand towards virgin olive oil could often result in its adulteration with less expensive oils, which is a serious problem for the public and quality control evaluators of virgin olive oil. Therefore, to avoid frauds, olive cultivar identification and virgin olive oil authentication have become a major issue for the producers and consumers of quality control in the olive chain. Presently, genetic traceability using SSR is the cost effective and powerful marker technique that can be employed to resolve such problems. However, to identify an unknown monovarietal virgin olive oil cultivar, a reference system has become necessary. Thus, an Olive Genetic Diversity Database (OGDD) (http://www.bioinfo-cbs.org/ogdd/) is presented in this work. It is a genetic, morphologic and chemical database of worldwide olive tree and oil having a double function. In fact, besides being a reference system generated for the identification of unkown olive or virgin olive oil cultivars based on their microsatellite allele size(s), it provides users additional morphological and chemical information for each identified cultivar. Currently, OGDD is designed to enable users to easily retrieve and visualize biologically important information (SSR markers, and olive tree and oil characteristics of about 200 cultivars worldwide) using a set of efficient query interfaces and analysis tools. It can be accessed through a web service from any modern programming language using a simple hypertext transfer protocol call. The web site is implemented in java, JavaScript, PHP, HTML and Apache with all major browsers supported. Database URL: http://www.bioinfo-cbs.org/ogdd/. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  13. Antioxidants in Greek Virgin Olive Oils

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    Nick Kalogeropoulos

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Greece is ranked third after Spain and Italy in virgin olive oil production. The number of Greek olive cultivars—excluding clonal selections—is greater than 40; however, more than 90% of the acreage is cultivated with 20 cultivars, adapted to a wide range of environmental conditions. Greek virgin olive oils, produced mainly with traditional, non-intensive cultivation practices, are mostly of exceptional quality. The benefits of consuming virgin olive oil, originally attributed to its high oleic acid content, are now considered to be the combined result of several nutrient and non-nutrient phytochemicals. The present work summarizes available data regarding natural antioxidants in Greek virgin olive oils (VOO namely, polar phenolic compounds, tocopherols, squalene, and triterpenic acids. The literature survey indicated gaps in information, which should be filled in the near future so that the intrinsic properties of this major agricultural product of Greece will be substantiated on a solid scientific basis.

  14. Antioxidants in Greek Virgin Olive Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogeropoulos, Nick; Tsimidou, Maria Z

    2014-01-01

    Greece is ranked third after Spain and Italy in virgin olive oil production. The number of Greek olive cultivars-excluding clonal selections-is greater than 40; however, more than 90% of the acreage is cultivated with 20 cultivars, adapted to a wide range of environmental conditions. Greek virgin olive oils, produced mainly with traditional, non-intensive cultivation practices, are mostly of exceptional quality. The benefits of consuming virgin olive oil, originally attributed to its high oleic acid content, are now considered to be the combined result of several nutrient and non-nutrient phytochemicals. The present work summarizes available data regarding natural antioxidants in Greek virgin olive oils (VOO) namely, polar phenolic compounds, tocopherols, squalene, and triterpenic acids. The literature survey indicated gaps in information, which should be filled in the near future so that the intrinsic properties of this major agricultural product of Greece will be substantiated on a solid scientific basis.

  15. Comparative study of virgin olive oil quality from single varieties cultivated in Chile and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-González, Diego L; Romero, Nalda; Aparicio, Ramón

    2010-12-22

    Olive tree varieties that were cultivated only in the Mediterranean basin a few decades ago are now planted in the Southern Hemisphere as well. The chemical composition of the oils produced in countries as far distant as Spain and Chile are affected by differences in latitude and climate. In this work, seven monovarietal virgin olive oils from Chile (Arbequina, Barnea, Frantoio, Koroneiki, Leccino, Manzanilla and Picual) have been characterized by the chemical compounds responsible for taste (phenols) and aroma (volatiles). The oils were produced in five regions of Chile, and the concentration values of some chemical compounds were related to the geographical location of the olive tree orchards. Virgin olive oils from the major cultivars, Arbequina and Picual, were characterized in comparison with the same monovarietal oils produced in Spain. The concentration values of fourteen volatile compounds showed significant differences (p oils produced in Spain and Chile. Concerning the phenol composition, main differences were found on the secoiridoids derivatives of oleuropein and ligstroside, apigenin and luteolin.

  16. Sterol composition of virgin olive oil of forty-three olive cultivars from the World Collection Olive Germplasm Bank of Cordoba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyçyk, Onejda; Aguilera, Maria Paz; Gaforio, José Juan; Jiménez, Antonio; Beltrán, Gabriel

    2016-09-01

    In olive oil, sterols constitute the majority of the unsaponifiable fraction. In recent years there has been increased interest in the sterols of olive oil for their health benefits and their importance to virgin olive oil (VOO) quality regulation. Forty-three olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars from the World Olive Germplasm Bank, IFAPA Centro 'Alameda de Obispo', Cordoba, Spain were studied for their oil sterol composition and total content. The main sterols found in olive oil were β-sitosterol, Δ(5) -avenasterol, campesterol and stigmasterol, most of them showing high variability. Most cultivars showed total sterol contents within the limits established by EU regulations, although 28% of VOOs analysed were outside the limits established for total content and/or for individual sterols. Over the group of cultivars, total sterol contents ranged from 855 to 2185 mg kg(-1) . The high variability observed was due to the genetic component, since other agronomic and technological factors were similar. Because of the high variability, the sterol fraction can be considered as a useful tool to characterize and discriminate monovarietal VOOs. The results can be useful for nutritionists for VOO inclusion in nutrition studies. Furthermore, the variability observed can be applied in olive breeding projects to select the parents of new olive cultivars with an improved sterol fraction. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. How the Addition of Spices and Herbs to Virgin Olive Oil to Produce Flavored Oils Affects Consumer Acceptance.

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    Issaoui, Manel; Flamini, Guido; Souid, Sondess; Bendini, Alessandra; Barbieri, Sara; Gharbi, Ines; Toschi, Tullia Gallina; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Hammami, Mohamed

    2016-06-01

    With the aim to expand the olive oil market to a larger number of consumers who are not familiar with the sensory characteristics of virgin olive oil, the use of novel products known as "flavored olive oils", obtained by adding different kind of spices and aromatic herbs, is spreading in many countries. In order to test consumer acceptability of this type of product, in a country (Tunisia) in which virgin olive oil is regularly consumed, flavored olive oils were prepared by adding aromatic extracts of thyme, oregano, a mix of herbs (used as pizza seasoning), rosemary, and basil to a monovarietal Chemlali virgin olive oil and a consumer test on 206 subjects was performed. Selected quality parameters (free acidity, peroxide number, oxidative stability, specific absorption at K232 nm and K270 nm) were also measured and no significant variations were detected. Slight differences were found concerning the content of minor compounds (chlorophylls, carotenoids and total phenols). On the other hand, notable differences were seen in the profiles of volatile compounds, which appeared to be responsible for the observed variability in consumer acceptance. Although the unflavored oil was more appreciated than the flavored ones, among the latter, thyme flavored olive oil was the most appreciated.

  18. Characterisation of extra virgin olive oils from Galician autochthonous varieties and their co-crushings with Arbequina and Picual cv.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboredo-Rodríguez, P; González-Barreiro, C; Cancho-Grande, B; Fregapane, G; Salvador, M D; Simal-Gándara, J

    2015-06-01

    The current trend of the olive oil market is the production of high quality extra from traditional minor olive varieties with peculiar and differentiated characteristics (especially with respect to the aromatic and phenolic composition). In this way, the interest of Galician oil producers (NW Spain) in recovering old autochthonous Local olive fruits has increased substantially in recent years. In order to investigate the potential of the Local olives by either producing high quality monovarietal oils or mixing with the most widespread olives in Galicia (Arbequina and Picual cv.), quality indices, and fatty acid composition as well as volatile and phenolic profiles were determined and compared. All EVOOs studied in this work can be considered as "extra virgin olive oil" due to quality indices fell within the ranges established in legislation. Picual and Local olive oils as well as those resulting from their co-crushing reach values which are required by EU legislation to add the specific health claim on the oil label. Co-crushing Picual:Local (80:20) provided a significant enhancement of grass and apple nuances and a decrease of banana notes with respect to Picual oils. The co-crushing process improved sensory and health properties of Picual extra virgin olive oils. The effect of co-crushing on phenolics, ester volatiles and banana nuances cannot be easily modulated, contrary to quality indices and fatty acid composition, both changing linearly in strict correlation with the fruit mass ratio.

  19. Cosmetic emulsion from virgin olive oil: Formulation and bio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cosmetic emulsion from virgin olive oil: Formulation and bio-physical ... virgin olive oil was developed by entrapping it in the oily phase of oil-in-water (o/w) emulsion. ... The evaluation parameters consisted of color, smell, phase separation, ...

  20. Matter transfer during virgin olive oil elaboration

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    Gómez Herrera, Carlos

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In the course of the process of elaboration of virgin olive oil (whose main stages are crushing, malaxation and centrifugation the transfer of several minor components to the triacylglycerol constituent of the oily globules originally present in the cells of the fruit mesocarp is produced. Such minor components are chemical species present in the olive fruits, as well as those resulting from chemical or enzymatic processes which take place in the olive paste upon crushing. In this paper several types of transferable minor components, as well as those parameters affecting the rates of transfer are studied.Geometric and physical variations of interfacial regions between the oil and other systems in contact with it are discussed. These systems are olive vegetation water, olive pulp components, and fragments of the woody endocarp, as well as the atmospheric air and the tools and equipment of the oil mill.This article concludes with some considerations about the improvements of virgin olive oils achieved by controlling the transfer of minor components.Durante la elaboración del aceite de oliva virgen (cuyas principales etapas son molturación, batido y centrifugación se producen transferencias de diversos componentes menores a los triacilgliceroles originalmente presentes en los glóbulos oleosos de las células del mesocarpio de los frutos. Estos componentes menores son especies químicas presentes en las aceitunas, así como especies resultantes de procesos químicos o enzimáticos que se producen en la pasta a partir de la molturación. En este artículo se estudian diversos tipos de componentes menores transferibles, así como aquellos parámetros que afectan sus velocidades de transferencia.Se discuten las variaciones geométricas y físicas de las regiones interfaciales situadas entre el aceite y los otros sistemas en contacto con el mismo. Estos sistemas son el agua de vegetación, los componentes de la pulpa y los fragmentos de endocarpio

  1. Sensory characterization of virgin olive oil-based cosmetic creams.

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    Parente, Maria Emma; Gámbaro, Adriana; Boinbaser, Lucia; Roascio, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    The influence of olive oil concentration and sensory profile on the odor of virgin olive oil-based cosmetic creams was studied. Four olive oils were selected on the basis of different intensities of positive and defective odor attributes: two extra virgin olive oils, one virgin olive oil, and one ordinary virgin olive oil. Thirty cosmetic creams were prepared, by both cold and hot processing methods, using each of the above oils at concentrations of 3%, 5%, and 10%, in addition to mineral oil controls. A trained sensory panel evaluated the fruitiness and defectiveness intensities in the odor of creams, using unstructured 10-cm scales ranging from "none at all" to "much." The fruity and defective attributes perceived in the odor of creams were significantly influenced by the sensory profile of the starting olive oil, oil concentration, and preparation method. Overall, these findings suggest that virgin olive oils of only slightly fruity odor may be conveniently used for the preparation of cold-processed cosmetic creams, whereas ordinary virgin olive oils appear to be suitable for the preparation of cosmetic creams only by hot processing of the emulsion at a low oil concentration.

  2. Biological Activities of Phenolic Compounds Present in Virgin Olive Oil

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The Mediterranean diet is associated with a lower incidence of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases and certain types of cancer. The apparent health benefits have been partially ascribed to the dietary consumption of virgin olive oil by Mediterranean populations. Much research has focused on the biologically active phenolic compounds naturally present in virgin olive oils to aid in explaining reduced mortality and morbidity experienced by people consuming a trad...

  3. Evaluation of α-tocopherol in virgin olive oil by a luminescent method

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    Morales, M. T.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Natural fluorophores such as tocopherols are of great importance for the characterization and authentication of virgin olive oil. The band of the luminescent spectrum which is most accurately associated with the presence of α- tocopherol (380-420 nm at λexc = 350 nm was detected and its precision was evaluated once the analytical process was optimized. A virgin olive oil, cv. Cornicabra, was spiked with several quantities of α-tocopherol, from 25 mg/Kg to 1200mg/Kg, to build a ridge regression model (adjusted-R2 = 0.99 based on five wavelengths (370, 371, 378, 414 and 417 nm which are attributed to the fluorescence of this compound. The tentative model was validated (adjusted-R2 = 0.87 with 8 samples of a virgin olive oil, cv. Picual, spiked with amounts of -tocopherols ranging from 25 mg/kg to 250mg/kg. Finally, the model was successfully validated with 7 monovarietal virgin olive oils from various olive producing countries (adjusted - R2 = 0.92.Los fluoróforos naturales tales como los tocoferoles son de gran importancia para la caracterización y autenticación del aceite de oliva virgen. Se detectó la banda del espectro luminiscente que mejor se asociaba con la presencia de α- tocoferol (380-420 nm at λexc = 350 nm y se evaluó la precisión una vez que el proceso analítico fue optimizado. Se añadieron diferentes cantidades de α-tocopherol, de 25 mg/Kg a 1200mg/Kg, a un aceite de oliva virgen, cv. Cornicabra, para construir un modelo de regresión robusta (R2 ajustada = 0,99 basado en cinco longitudes de onda (370, 371, 378, 414 and 417 nm que son atribuidas a la fluorescencia de este compuesto. El modelo tentativo fue validado (R2 ajustada = 0,87 con 8 muestras de un aceite de oliva virgen, cv. Picual, a las que se añadieron entre 25 mg/kg y 250mg/kg de α -tocoferol. Finalmente, el modelo fue también validado con éxito (R2 ajustada = 0,92 utilizando 7 aceites de oliva vírgenes monovarietales de diversos países productores.

  4. Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP guidelines for virgin olive oil production

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    Petrakis, Christos

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents GMP guidelines for the production of virgin olive oil. Standard procedures and conditions are indicated for olive production, harvesting, transportation and storage, for oil manufacture, storage and packaging, for buildings, process logistics and the materials used throughout the production chain.

  5. How 'ground-picked' olive fruits affect virgin olive oil ethanol content, ethyl esters and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran, Gabriel; Sánchez, Raquel; Sánchez-Ortiz, Araceli; Aguilera, Maria P; Bejaoui, Mohamed A; Jimenez, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    Olives dropped on the ground naturally sometimes are not separated from those fresh and healthy collected from the tree for harvest and processing. In this work we compared the quality, ethanol content and bioactive components of virgin olive oils from ground-picked olives, tree-picked fruits and their mixture. Ground-picked olives produced 'Lampante' virgin olive oils; these are of a lower quality category, because of important alterations in chemical and sensory characteristics. Ethyl esters showed the highest values, although under the regulated limit. The mixture of ground and tree-picked olives gave oils classified as 'virgin' because of sensory defects, although the quality parameters did not exceed the limits for the 'extra' category. Ethanol content showed a significant increase in the oils from ground- picked olives and their mixture with respect to those from tree-picked fruits. Furthermore, bioactive compounds showed a significant decrease as fruit quality was poorer. Ground-picked olives must be harvested and processed separately since they produce low-quality virgin olive oils with sensory defects and lower concentrations of bioactive compounds. The higher acidity and ethanol concentration observed in oils from ground-picked fruits or their mixture may help ethyl ester synthesis during storage. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Virgin olive oil color and perceived quality among consumers in emerging olive-growing countries

    OpenAIRE

    A. GÁMBARO; Raggio, L.; Ellis, A. C.; Amarillo, M.

    2014-01-01

    Five virgin olive oil samples were evaluated by 122 consumers for their color acceptability and expected quality on 9-point structured scales. A description of the attributes expected in the different oils was obtained from the responding consumers by means of a check-all-that-apply questionnaire consisting of a list of 17 possible virgin olive oil attributes. Hierarchical cluster analysis led to the identification of two consumer clusters with distinct behavior. Whereas one consumer cluster ...

  7. Influence of storage temperature on quality parameters, phenols and volatile compounds of Croatian virgin olive oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brkić Bubola, K.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of low storage temperature (+4 °C and -20 °C and conventional storage room temperature on the quality parameters, phenolic contents and volatile profiles of Buža, Črna and Rosinjola monovarietal virgin olive oils after 12 months of storage was investigated in this study. Virgin olive oils stored at low temperatures maintained better quality parameters than oils stored at room temperature. A negligible decrease in the total phenols was detected after 12 months of storage at all investigated temperatures. The total volatile compounds, aldehydes, alcohols and esters in almost all stored samples were unchanged compared to fresh oils. Total ketones increased after storage, although at a lower temperature these changes were less notable. An increase in the oxidation indicators hexanal and hexanal/E-2-hexenal ratio was the lowest in oils stored at +4 °C.Storage at temperatures lower than room temperature could help to prolong the shelf-life of extra virgin olive oil by maintaining high quality parameters and preserving the fresh oil’s volatile profile.Se ha estudiado la influencia, durante 12 meses, de temperaturas bajas (+4 °C y −20 °C y convencional (ambiente, sobre los parámetros de calidad, contenido fenólico y perfil de volátiles de aceites de oliva vírgenes monovarietales Buža, Črna y Rosinjola. Los aceites de oliva vírgenes almacenados a bajas temperaturas mantienen mejores propiedades de calidad que los aceites almacenados a temperatura ambiente. Se encontró una disminución no significativa de los fenoles totales después de 12 meses de almacenamiento a todas las temperaturas estudiadas. Los compuestos volátiles totales, aldehídos, alcoholes y ésteres, en casi todas las muestras almacenadas, se mantuvieron sin cambios en comparación con los aceites frescos. Las cetonas totales incrementaron tras el almacenamiento, aunque a temperaturasmas bajas estos cambios fueron menos notables. El incremento de los

  8. A MODELLING APPROACH TO EXTRA VIRGIN OLIVE OIL EXTRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Daou

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present work is described a feasibility assessment for a new approach in virgin olive oil production control system. A predicting or simulating algorithm is implemented as artificial neural network based software, using literature found data concerning parameters related to olive grove, process, machine. Test and validation proved this tool is able to answer two different frequently asked questions by olive oil mill operators, using few agronomic and technological parameters with time and cost saving: – which quality level is up to oil extracted from defined olive lot following a defined process (predicting mode; – which process and machine parameters set would determine highest quality level for oil extracted from a defined olive lot (simulating mode.

  9. Refractive Index and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectra of Virgin Coconut Oil and Virgin Olive Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. M.M. Yunus

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the refractive index and FTIR spectra of virgin coconut oil and virgin olive oil that have been measured in the wavelength range from 491.0-667.8 nm. The measurement of refractive index was carried out using a minimum deviation method while the IR transmission ranging from 600-4000 cm-1 was measured using FTIR spectrometer respectively. The measurements were done at room temperature and the dispersion equations for the studied samples were verified and the Cauchy constants were obtained by fitting the experimental data to the Cauchy formula. For both, refractive index and Cauchy constants, the value obtained are higher in virgin olive oil as compared to virgin coconut oil. A similar result for FTIR absorption spectrum was also observed where the five important peaks explaining the stretching absorption due to aldehyde (C = O and esters (C-O, bending absorption (methylene (CH2 and methyl (CH3 groups and double bond absorptions (C = O were strong in virgin olive oil.

  10. Lipase production by yeasts from extra virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciafardini, G; Zullo, B A; Iride, A

    2006-02-01

    Newly produced olive oil has an opalescent appearance due to the presence of solid particles and micro-drops of vegetation water from the fruits. Some of our recent microbiological research has shown that a rich micro-flora is present in the suspended fraction of the freshly produced olive oil capable of improving the quality of the oil through the hydrolysis of the oleuropein. Present research however has, for the first time, demonstrated the presence of lipase-positive yeasts in some samples of extra virgin olive oil which can lower the quality of the oil through the hydrolysis of the triglycerides. The tests performed with yeasts of our collection, previously isolated from olive oil, demonstrated that two lipase-producing yeast strains named Saccharomyces cerevisiae 1525 and Williopsis californica 1639 were able to hydrolyse different specific synthetic substrates represented by p-nitrophenyl stearate, 4-nitrophenyl palmitate, tripalmitin and triolein as well as olive oil triglycerides. The lipase activity in S. cerevisiae 1525 was confined to the whole cells, whereas in W. californica 1639 it was also detected in the extracellular fraction. The enzyme activity in both yeasts was influenced by the ratio of the aqueous to the organic phase reaching its maximum value in S. cerevisiae 1525 when the water added to the olive oil was present in a ratio of 0.25% (v/v), whereas in W. californica 1639 the optimal ratio was 1% (v/v). Furthermore, the free fatty acids of olive oil proved to be good inducers of lipase activity in both yeasts. The microbiological analysis carried out on commercial extra virgin olive oil, produced in four different geographic areas, demonstrated that the presence of lipase-producing yeast varied from zero to 56% of the total yeasts detected, according to the source of oil samples. The discovery of lipase-positive yeasts in some extra virgin olive oils leads us to believe that yeasts are able to contribute in a positive or negative way towards

  11. Bioactive properties of the main triterpenes found in olives, virgin olive oil, and leaves of Olea europaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Quesada, Cristina; López-Biedma, Alicia; Warleta, Fernando; Campos, María; Beltrán, Gabriel; Gaforio, José J

    2013-12-18

    Oleanolic acid, maslinic acid, uvaol, and erythrodiol are the main triterpenes present in olives, olive tree leaves, and virgin olive oil. Their concentration in virgin olive oil depends on the quality of the olive oil and the variety of the olive tree. These triterpenes are described to present different properties, such as antitumoral activity, cardioprotective activity, anti-inflammatory activity, and antioxidant protection. Olive oil triterpenes are a natural source of antioxidants that could be useful compounds for the prevention of multiple diseases related to cell oxidative damage. However, special attention has to be paid to the concentrations used, because higher concentration may lead to cytotoxic or biphasic effects. This work explores all of the bioactive properties so far described for the main triterpenes present in virgin olive oil.

  12. Rapid NIR determination of alkyl esters in virgin olive oil

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    J. A. Cayuela

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The regulation of The European Union for olive oil and olive pomace established the limit of 35 mg·kg-1 for fatty acids ethyl ester contents in extra virgin olive oils, from grinding seasons after 2016. In this work, predictive models have been established for measuring fatty acid ethyl and methyl esters and to measure the total fatty acid alkyl esters based on near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS, and used successfully for this purpose. The correlation coefficients from the external validation exercises carried out with these predictive models ranged from 0.84 to 0.91. Different classification tests using the same models for the thresholds 35 mg·kg-1 for fatty acid ethyl esters and 75 mg·kg-1 for fatty acid alkyl esters provided success percentages from 75.0% to 95.2%.

  13. Effect of consumption of phenols from olives and extra virgin olive oil on LDL oxidizability in healthy humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, M.N.; Zock, P.L.; Leenen, R.; Roodenburg, A.J.C.; Putte, van K.P.A.M.; Katan, M.B.

    2001-01-01

    A high intake of olive oil has been proposed as an explanation for the low incidence of coronary heart disease in Mediterranean countries, but it is unclear whether olive oil offers specific benefits beyond a low content of saturated fat. Some types of extra virgin olive oil are rich in non-polar

  14. Effect of consumption of phenols from olives and extra virgin olive oil on LDL oxidizability in healthy humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, M.N.; Zock, P.L.; Leenen, R.; Roodenburg, A.J.C.; Putte, van K.P.A.M.; Katan, M.B.

    2001-01-01

    A high intake of olive oil has been proposed as an explanation for the low incidence of coronary heart disease in Mediterranean countries, but it is unclear whether olive oil offers specific benefits beyond a low content of saturated fat. Some types of extra virgin olive oil are rich in non-polar ph

  15. Characterization of virgin olive oils produced with autochthonous Galician varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboredo-Rodríguez, Patricia; González-Barreiro, Carmen; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Valli, Enrico; Bendini, Alessandra; Gallina Toschi, Tullia; Simal-Gandara, Jesus

    2016-12-01

    The interest of Galician oil producers (NW Spain) in recovering the ancient autochthonous olive varieties Brava and Mansa has increased substantially in recent years. Virgin olive oils produced by co-crushing both varieties in two different proportions, reflecting the usual and most common practice adopted in this region, have gradually emerged for the production of virgin olive oils. Herein, the sensory and chemical characteristics of such oils were characterized by quality and genuineness-related parameters. The results of chemical analysis are discussed in terms of their effective contribution to the sensory profile, which suggests useful recommendations for olive oil producers to improve the quality of oils. Antioxidant compounds, together with aromas and coloured pigments were determined, and their contribution in determining the functional value and the sensory properties of oils was investigated. In general, given the high levels of phenolic compounds (ranging between 254 and 375mg/kg oil), tocopherols (about 165mg/kg oil) and carotenoids (10-12mg/kg oil); these are oils with long stability, especially under dark storage conditions, because stability is reinforced with the contribution of chlorophylls (15-22mg/kg oil). A major content of phenolic compounds, as well as a predominance of trans-2-hexen-1-al within odor-active compounds (from 897 to 1645μg/kg oil), responsible for bitter sensory notes. This characterization allows to developing new antioxidant-rich and flavour-rich VOOs, when co-crushing with a higher proportion of Brava olives, satisfying the consumers' demand in having access to more healthy dishes and peculiar sensory attributes.

  16. Direct study of minor extra-virgin olive oil components without any sample modification. (1)H NMR multisupression experiment: A powerful tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Aracama, Ainhoa; Goicoechea, Encarnación; Guillén, María D

    2017-08-01

    Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ((1)H NMR) was employed to study monovarietal commercial Spanish extra-virgin olive oils (EVOO) (Arbequina, Arroniz, Cornicabra, Hojiblanca and Picual). Each sample was analyzed by a standard pulse and by an experiment suppressing the main lipid signals, enabling the detection of signals of minor components. The aim was to determine the possibilities of both (1)H NMR approaches to characterize EVOO composition, focusing on acyl groups, squalene, sterols, triterpene acids/esters, fatty alcohols, wax esters and phenols (lignans, tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, oleocanthal, oleacein, oleokoronal, oleomissional, ligstrodials and oleuropeindials), and to determine hydrolysis and oxidation levels. The signal assignments (in deuterated chloroform) are thoroughly described, identifying for the first time those of the protons of esters of phytol and of geranylgeraniol. Correct signal assignment is fundamental for obtaining sound results when interpreting statistical data from metabolomic studies of EVOO composition and adulteration, making it possible to differentiate and classify oils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Pedologic Factors Affecting Virgin Olive Oil Quality of "Chemlali" Olive Trees (Olea europaea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rached, Mouna Ben; Galaverna, Gianni; Cirlini, Martina; Boujneh, Dalenda; Zarrouk, Mokhtar; Guerfel, Mokhtar

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study examined the characterization of extra virgin olive oil samples from the main cultivar Chemlali, grown in five olive orchards with different soil type (Sandy, Clay, Stony, Brown, Limestone and Gypsum). Volatile compounds were studied using headspace-solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technics. Moreover, the sterol profile was established using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. 35 different volatile compounds were identified: alcohols, esters, aldehydes, ketones and hydrocarbons. The chemical composition of the volatile fraction was characterized by the preeminence of 2-hexenal (32.75%) and 1-hexanol (31.88%). Three sterols were identified and characterized. For all olive oil samples, ß-sitosterol (302.25 mg/kg) was the most abundant sterol. Interestingly, our results showed significant qualitative and quantitative differences in the levels of the volatile compounds and sterols from oils obtained from olive trees grown in different soil type.

  18. Tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol are absorbed from moderate and sustained doses of virgin olive oil in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miró-Casas, E; Covas, M-I; Fitó, M; Farré-Albadalejo, M; Marrugat, J; de la Torre, R

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the absorption of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol from moderate and sustained doses of virgin olive oil consumption. The study also aimed to investigate whether these phenolic compounds could be used as biomarkers of virgin olive oil intake. Ingestion of a single dose of virgin olive oil (50 ml). Thereafter, for a week, participants followed their usual diet which included 25 ml/day of the same virgin olive oil as the source of raw fat. Unitat de Recerca en Farmacologia. Institut Municipal d'Investigació Mèdica (IMIM). Seven healthy volunteers. An increase in 24 h urine of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol, after both a single-dose ingestion (50 ml) and short-term consumption (one week, 25 ml/day) of virgin olive oil (P<0.05) was observed. Urinary recoveries for tyrosol were similar after a single dose and after sustained doses of virgin olive oil. Mean recovery values for hydroxytyrosol after sustained doses were 1.5-fold those obtained after a single 50 ml dose. Tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol are absorbed from realistic doses of virgin olive oil. With regard to the dose-effect relationship, 24 h urinary tyrosol seems to be a better biomarker of sustained and moderate doses of virgin olive oil consumption than hydroxytyrosol.

  19. Efek Olive Oil dan Virgin Coconut Oil terhadap Striae Gravidarum

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of striae gravidarum (SG) in pregnant women ranges from 50% to 90%. Effects of SG include itchy and hot feeling as well as dry skin. This situation also causes emotional disturbances that poses a cosmetic problem for most pregnant women. Nowadays, many pregnant women use olive oil to prevent SG, but it is relatively difficult to find and costly. In Indonesia, a similar oil, virgin coconut oil (VCO), has been used by many pregnant women for the same reason. The aim of this study...

  20. Monitoring endogenous enzymes during olive fruit ripening and storage: correlation with virgin olive oil phenolic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachicha Hbaieb, Rim; Kotti, Faten; García-Rodríguez, Rosa; Gargouri, Mohamed; Sanz, Carlos; Pérez, Ana G

    2015-05-01

    The ability of olive endogenous enzymes β-glucosidase, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POX), to determine the phenolic profile of virgin olive oil was investigated. Olives used for oil production were stored for one month at 20 °C and 4 °C and their phenolic content and enzymatic activities were compared to those of ripening olive fruits. Phenolic and volatile profiles of the corresponding oils were also analysed. Oils obtained from fruits stored at 4 °C show similar characteristics to that of freshly harvested fruits. However, the oils obtained from fruits stored at 20 °C presented the lowest phenolic content. Concerning the enzymatic activities, results show that the β-glucosidase enzyme is the key enzyme responsible for the determination of virgin olive oil phenolic profile as the decrease in this enzyme activity after 3 weeks of storage at 20 °C was parallel to a dramatic decrease in the phenolic content of the oils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Energy Requirement of Extra Virgin Olive Oil Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Mario Cappelletti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this chapter is to calculate the net energy of the production chain for virgin olive oil. Therefore, the determination was carried out for the direct and indirect energy inputs and the energy present as feedstock in the outputs (products and by-products. To perform this analysis, all of the production processes for olives and for oil extraction were studied. For the agricultural phase, three systems of cultivation were taken into consideration: the centenary olive grove (COO, the “intensive” olive grove (HDO and, the more recently introduced, “super-intensive” olive grove (HSDO. The last two models are distinguished by the high number of trees per hectare and by an intense mechanization of agricultural practices. Regarding the oil extraction phase, four different technologies were compared: the pressure system (PS, the two-phase system (2PS, the three-phase (3PS, and the system, called “de-pitted”, which provides for the separation of the pits before the oil is extracted (DPS. The analysis showed that the production of olives needs more than 90% of energy requirements, much of which is met by non-renewable sources of energy. The production of fertilizers, and also irrigation, are the production factors that require a considerable amount of energy. Among the three agricultural systems analyzed, the COO system of cultivation is the one that requires less energy as compared to the other systems. The scenario that enables the most energy return, however, is the SHDO system of cultivation, due to the greater amount of pruning residues that can be obtained.

  2. Efek Olive Oil dan Virgin Coconut Oil terhadap Striae Gravidarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evi Pratami

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of striae gravidarum (SG in pregnant women ranges from 50% to 90%. Effects of SG include itchy and hot feeling as well as dry skin. This situation also causes emotional disturbances that poses a cosmetic problem for most pregnant women. Nowadays, many pregnant women use olive oil to prevent SG, but it is relatively difficult to find and costly. In Indonesia, a similar oil, virgin coconut oil (VCO, has been used by many pregnant women for the same reason. The aim of this study was to analyze the differences and correlation between effects of olive oil and VCO against SG. The study was conducted in March−July 2012. An experimental study was performed on 80 pregnant women in Surabaya Municipality and they were divided into 2 groups using random permuted blocks. The results of this study showed that there was no difference in SG appearance based on the number of lines and levels of erythema between groups (p=0.156 and 1.00. Furthermore, there was a strong negative correlation between the effect of olive oil or VCO on the number of lines (r=-0.576 and -0.560 and the level of erythema (r=-0.699 and -0.586. In conclusion, there is no difference in the effect of olive oil and VCO against SG.

  3. Healthy virgin olive oil: a matter of bitterness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitaglione, Paola; Savarese, Maria; Paduano, Antonello; Scalfi, Luca; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Sacchi, Raffaele

    2015-01-01

    Virgin olive oil (VOO) is the pillar fat of Mediterranean diet. It is made from olive fruits and obtained by squeezing olives without any solvent extraction. Respect to the seed oils, an unique polar polyphenol-rich fraction gives VOO a bitter and pungent taste. The recent substantiation by European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) of a health claim for VOO polyphenols may represent an efficient stimulus to get the maximum health benefit from one of the most valuable traditional product of Mediterranean countries educating consumers to the relationship between the VOO bitterness and its health effect. Agronomical practices and new processing technology to avoid phenolic oxidation and hydrolysis and to enhance the aromatic components of the VOO have been developed and they can be used to modulate taste and flavor to diversify the products on the market. VOOs having high concentration of phenol compounds are bitter and pungent therefore many people do not consume them, thus loosing the health benefits related to their intake. In this paper, the chemist's and nutritionist's point of view has been considered to address possible strategies to overcome the existing gap between the quality perceived by consumer and that established by expert tasters. Educational campaigns emphasizing the bitter-health link for olive oils should be developed.

  4. Has the use of talc an effect on yield and extra virgin olive oil quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caponio, Francesco; Squeo, Giacomo; Difonzo, Graziana; Pasqualone, Antonella; Summo, Carmine; Paradiso, Vito Michele

    2016-08-01

    The maximization of both extraction yield and extra virgin olive oil quality during olive processing are the main objectives of the olive oil industry. As regards extraction yield, it can be improved by both acting on time/temperature of malaxation and using physical coadjuvants. It is well known that, generally, increasing temperature of malaxation gives an increase in oil extraction yield due to a reduction in oily phase viscosity; however, high malaxation temperature can compromise the nutritional and health values of extra virgin olive oil, leading to undesirable effects such as accelerated oxidative process and loss of volatile compounds responsible for oil flavor and fragrance. The addition of physical coadjuvants in olive oil processing during the malaxation phase, not excluded by EC regulations owing to its exclusively physical action, is well known to promote the breakdown of oil/water emulsions and consequently make oil extraction easier, thus increasing the yield. Among physical coadjuvants, micronized natural talc is used for olive oil processing above all for Spanish and Italian olive cultivars. The quality of extra virgin olive oil depends on numerous variables such as olive cultivar, ripeness degree and quality, machines utilized for processing, oil storage conditions, etc. However, the coadjuvants utilized in olive processing can also influence virgin olive oil characteristics. The literature highlights an increase in oil yield by micronized natural talc addition during olive processing, whereas no clear trend was observed as regards the chemical, nutritional and sensory characteristics of extra virgin olive oil. Although an increase in oil stability was reported, no effect of talc was found on the evolution of virgin olive oil quality indices during storage. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Influence of the fruit's ripeness on virgin olive oil quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Ma Nieves; Sánchez, Jacinto; De Miguel, Concepción; Martínez, Manuel; Martín-Vertedor, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Virgin Olive Oil (VOO) is a product much demanded by consumers looking for the highest quality and certain traits considered to be typical of the Mediterranean area. The olive fruit's properties and the industry-regulated physicochemical and sensory parameters of seven cultivars were evaluated during the ripening process. In general, the oil percentage in both the wet and dry material increased for all the cultivars from the green to the spotted stages of maturation, and they stayed constant statistically until the ripe stage with just a few exceptions. The lowest oil content was observed in the Manzanilla Cacereña cultivar in all stages of maturation. The cultivars that presented the lowest oil yields in the Abencor system were Manzanilla Cacereña and Carrasqueña, and the highest Corniche. In general, all the cultivars except one presented good behaviour during the mixing process, the exception being Manzanilla Cacereña which presented the lowest values of the extractability percentage. The moisture content of the olives presented a common pattern, increasing from the green to the spotted stage, with the differences being significant in the Corniche, Picual, and Verdial de Badajoz cultivars. All the oils analysed were classified into the "extra virgin" category according to the results for the regulated parameters. The fruity, bitter, and pungent attributes decreased during ripening in all the cultivars studied. In the green stage of maturation, Arbequina had the least intensity of bitterness and pungency, but there were no significant differences among cultivars in the fruity attribute.

  6. Potential of LC Coupled to Fluorescence Detection in Food Metabolomics: Determination of Phenolic Compounds in Virgin Olive Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina P. Monasterio

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A powerful chromatographic method coupled to a fluorescence detector was developed to determine the phenolic compounds present in virgin olive oil (VOO, with the aim to propose an appropriate alternative to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. An excitation wavelength of 285 nm was selected and four different emission wavelengths (316, 328, 350 and 450 nm were simultaneously recorded, working therefore on “multi-emission” detection mode. With the use of commercially available standards and other standards obtained by semipreparative high performance liquid chromatography, it was possible to identify simple phenols, lignans, several complex phenols, and other phenolic compounds present in the matrix under study. A total of 26 phenolic compounds belonging to different chemical families were identified (23 of them were susceptible of being quantified. The proposed methodology provided detection and quantification limits within the ranges of 0.004–7.143 μg·mL−1 and 0.013–23.810 μg·mL−1, respectively. As far as the repeatability is concerned, the relative standard deviation values were below 0.43% for retention time, and 9.05% for peak area. The developed methodology was applied for the determination of phenolic compounds in ten VOOs, both monovarietals and blends. Secoiridoids were the most abundant fraction in all the samples, followed by simple phenolic alcohols, lignans, flavonoids, and phenolic acids (being the abundance order of the latter chemical classes logically depending on the variety and origin of the VOOs.

  7. Potential of LC Coupled to Fluorescence Detection in Food Metabolomics: Determination of Phenolic Compounds in Virgin Olive Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monasterio, Romina P; Olmo-García, Lucía; Bajoub, Aadil; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Carrasco-Pancorbo, Alegría

    2016-09-24

    A powerful chromatographic method coupled to a fluorescence detector was developed to determine the phenolic compounds present in virgin olive oil (VOO), with the aim to propose an appropriate alternative to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. An excitation wavelength of 285 nm was selected and four different emission wavelengths (316, 328, 350 and 450 nm) were simultaneously recorded, working therefore on "multi-emission" detection mode. With the use of commercially available standards and other standards obtained by semipreparative high performance liquid chromatography, it was possible to identify simple phenols, lignans, several complex phenols, and other phenolic compounds present in the matrix under study. A total of 26 phenolic compounds belonging to different chemical families were identified (23 of them were susceptible of being quantified). The proposed methodology provided detection and quantification limits within the ranges of 0.004-7.143 μg·mL(-1) and 0.013-23.810 μg·mL(-1), respectively. As far as the repeatability is concerned, the relative standard deviation values were below 0.43% for retention time, and 9.05% for peak area. The developed methodology was applied for the determination of phenolic compounds in ten VOOs, both monovarietals and blends. Secoiridoids were the most abundant fraction in all the samples, followed by simple phenolic alcohols, lignans, flavonoids, and phenolic acids (being the abundance order of the latter chemical classes logically depending on the variety and origin of the VOOs).

  8. A neuroimaging study of pleasant and unpleasant olfactory perceptions of virgin olive oil

    OpenAIRE

    Vivancos, J; N. Tena; Morales, M.T.; Aparicio, R.; D. L. García-González

    2016-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been used to collect information from neurons that receive direct input from olfactory bulbs when subjects smell virgin olive oil. The pleasant aroma of three extra virgin olive oils (var. Royal, Arbequina and Picual) and three virgin olive oils with sensory defects (rancid, fusty and winey/vinegary) were presented to 14 subjects while a fMRI scan acquired data from the brain activity. Data were subjected to a two-sample t test analysis, which ...

  9. Ethyl esters versus fermentative organoleptic defects in virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Serio, Maria Gabriella; Giansante, Lucia; Di Loreto, Giuseppina; Faberi, Angelo; Ricchetti, Lorenzo; Di Giacinto, Luciana

    2017-03-15

    The quality and genuineness of extra-virgin olive oils (EVOOs) were assessed following the methods and parameters of EU Commission Regulation N° 2568/91/EEC and subsequent modifications, which also set specific limits for fatty-acid ethyl esters (FAEEs). This study included a subset of EVOOs from among 399 samples analysed as part of a monitoring study for FAEEs in EVOOs. The subset was subjected to statistical evaluation to quantify the relationships between FAEE content and sensory defects associated with fermentation: fusty/muddy sediment, musty/humid/earthy, and winey/vinegary. The use of multiple regression analysis demonstrates that FAEE content can be inferred as a function of the intensity of organoleptic defects for samples with high alkyl esters content. The intensity of the rancid defect negatively influences the accuracy of this model, because of underestimation of the fermentation defects that are also present. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Health Benefiting Mechanisms of Virgin Olive Oil Phenolic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Parkinson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Virgin olive oil (VOO is credited as being one of the many healthful components associated with the Mediterranean diet. Mediterranean populations experience reduced incidence of chronic inflammatory disease states and VOO is readily consumed as part of an everyday Mediterranean dietary pattern. VOO is rich in phenolic compounds and the health promoting benefits of these phenolics are now established. Recent studies have highlighted the biological properties of VOO phenolic compounds elucidating their anti-inflammatory activities. This paper will review current knowledge on the anti-inflammatory and nutrigenomic, chemoprotective and anti-atherosclerotic activities of VOO phenolics. In addition the concentration, metabolism and bioavailability of specific phenolic compounds will be discussed. The evidence presented in the review concludes that oleurepein, hydroxytyrosol and oleocanthal have potent pharmacological activities in vitro and in vivo; however, intervention studies with biologically relevant concentrations of these phenolic compounds are required.

  11. The Health Benefiting Mechanisms of Virgin Olive Oil Phenolic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Lisa; Cicerale, Sara

    2016-12-16

    Virgin olive oil (VOO) is credited as being one of the many healthful components associated with the Mediterranean diet. Mediterranean populations experience reduced incidence of chronic inflammatory disease states and VOO is readily consumed as part of an everyday Mediterranean dietary pattern. VOO is rich in phenolic compounds and the health promoting benefits of these phenolics are now established. Recent studies have highlighted the biological properties of VOO phenolic compounds elucidating their anti-inflammatory activities. This paper will review current knowledge on the anti-inflammatory and nutrigenomic, chemoprotective and anti-atherosclerotic activities of VOO phenolics. In addition the concentration, metabolism and bioavailability of specific phenolic compounds will be discussed. The evidence presented in the review concludes that oleurepein, hydroxytyrosol and oleocanthal have potent pharmacological activities in vitro and in vivo; however, intervention studies with biologically relevant concentrations of these phenolic compounds are required.

  12. Stability of Virgin Olive Oil Phenolic Compounds during Long-Term Storage (18 Months) at Temperatures of 5-50 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krichene, Dhouha; Salvador, María Desamparados; Fregapane, Giuseppe

    2015-08-05

    Virgin olive oil (VOO) phenolic compounds have high nutritional and biological properties. The purpose of this research was to study the stability of VOO phenolic compounds during long-term storage (18 months) at different temperatures (5, 15, 25, and 50 °C) and to verify the advantage of storing VOO at a temperature lower than the usual commercial conditions (20-25 °C). Four monovarietal VOOs that differed in their fatty acid profile and content of natural antioxidants were used in this study. The degradation of secoiridoid phenolics during storage displayed pseudo-first-order kinetics and depended on the initial content of phenolics related to olive oil variety. The initial degradation rate was similar at 5 and 15 °C but increased considerably at 25 °C and was even faster at 50 °C. Tyrosol derivatives were more stable than hydroxytyrosol compounds, especially in closed bottles with limited oxygen availability. The increase in the content of simple phenolics, the decrease of their secoiridoid derivatives, or the ratio of simple to secoiridoid phenolics could be used as indices of the oxidative and hydrolytic degradation of VOO phenolics. The shelf life of the studied VOO was considerably extended at reduced storage temperature (15 vs 25 °C). Moreover, storage conditions affected VOO phenolic content and therefore the expiration date of the health claim that olive oil polyphenols contribute to the protection of blood lipids from oxidative stress.

  13. State of the Art on Functional Virgin Olive Oils Enriched with Bioactive Compounds and Their Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Reboredo-Rodríguez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Virgin olive oil, the main fat of the Mediterranean diet, is per se considered as a functional food—as stated by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA—due to its content in healthy compounds. The daily intake of endogenous bioactive phenolics from virgin olive oil is variable due to the influence of multiple agronomic and technological factors. Thus, a good strategy to ensure an optimal intake of polyphenols through habitual diet would be to produce enriched virgin olive oil with well-known bioactive polyphenols. Different sources of natural biological active substances can be potentially used to enrich virgin olive oil (e.g., raw materials derived from the same olive tree, mainly olive leaves and pomaces, and/or other compounds from plants and vegetables, mainly herbs and spices. The development of these functional olive oils may help in prevention of chronic diseases (such as cardiovascular diseases, immune frailty, ageing disorders and degenerative diseases and improving the quality of life for many consumers reducing health care costs. In the present review, the most relevant scientific information related to the development of enriched virgin olive oil and their positive human health effects has been collected and discussed.

  14. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Ma Nieves; Galeano-Díaz, Teresa; López, Oscar; Fernández-Bolaños, José G; Sánchez, Jacinto; De Miguel, Concepción; Gil, Ma Victoria; Martín-Vertedor, Daniel

    2014-11-15

    The characterisation of virgin olive oil from Arbequina, Carrasqueña, Corniche, Manzanilla Cacereña, Morisca, Picual, and Verdial de Badajoz varieties according to the individual phenolic compounds at different ripening stage was carried out. In all olive oil varieties studied, secoiridoid derivatives were most abundant, followed by phenolic alcohols, flavonoids and phenolic acids. The secoiridoid derivatives of hydroxytyrosol were the most important complex phenols for Picual and Carrasqueña, whereas the tyrosol derivatives were the major ones found in Manzanilla Cacereña, and Verdial de Badajoz. For secoiridoid derivatives of hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol, Arbequina was the oil variety showing the lowest concentration. Tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, vanillic acid, p-cumaric acid, luteolin, and apigenin levels were greater in early harvested samples in almost all oils analysed. Antioxidant activity measurements (antiradical, lipid peroxide inhibition, H2O2 and NO scavenging) were also accomplished for the seven varieties in the first ripening stage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Application of "magnetic tongue" to the sensory evaluation of extra virgin olive oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauri, Ilaria; Pagano, Bruno; Malmendal, Anders

    2013-01-01

    to describe sensory features. The availability of a number of instrumental techniques has opened up the possibility to calibrate the sensory perception. Here we have tested the potentiality of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as "magnetic tongue" to measure sensory descriptors in extra-virgin olive oil....... We were able to correlate the NMR metabolomic fingerprints of extra-virgin olive oil to the sensory descriptors: tomato, bitter, pungent, rosemary, artichoke, sweet, grassy and leaf....

  16. Influence of Picual olive ripening on virgin olive oil alteration and stability during potato frying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivero-David, Raul; Mena, Carmen; Pérez-Jimenez, M Angeles; Sastre, Blanca; Bastida, Sara; Márquez-Ruiz, Gloria; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

    2014-12-03

    Ripening modifies oil attributes and composition. However, the influence of olive ripening on virgin olive oil (VOO) thermal oxidative stability on food-frying has not been studied yet. Oils from Picual olives of low (VOO1), medium (VOO2), and high (VOO3) ripeness were obtained, and their thermal oxidative stability during 40 potato-fryings was tested. Unused VOO1 showed higher antioxidant content and oxidative stability than VOO2 and VOO3. Polar compounds (PC), oligomers, and altered fatty acid methyl esters (polar-FAME) increased, whereas linoleic acid, polyphenols, and tocopherols decreased in the three VOOs through frying. The alteration was lower in VOO1, followed by VOO2 (0.105, 0.117, and 0.042 g/100 g oil less of PC, oligomers and polar-FAME per frying, respectively, in VOO1 than in VOO3). In conclusion, VOO obtained from low-ripeness Picual olives should be preferred when frying fresh-potatoes due to its higher thermal and oxidative stability, permitting a higher number of potato-frying uses.

  17. Visible and near-infrared spectral signatures for adulteration assessment of extra virgin olive oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignani, A. G.; Ciaccheri, L.; Ottevaere, H.; Thienpont, H.; Conte, L.; Marega, M.; Cichelli, A.; Attilio, C.; Cimato, A.

    2010-04-01

    Because of its high price, the extra virgin olive oil is frequently target for adulteration with lower quality oils. This paper presents an innovative optical technique capable of quantifying the adulteration of extra virgin olive oil caused by lowergrade olive oils. It relies on spectral fingerprinting the test liquid by means of diffuse-light absorption spectroscopy carried out by optical fiber technology in the wide 400-1700 nm spectral range. Then, a smart multivariate processing of spectroscopic data is applied for immediate prediction of adulterant concentration.

  18. Effects of the planting density on virgin olive oil quality of "Chemlali" olive trees (Olea europaea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerfel, Mokhtar; Zaghdoud, Chokri; Jebahi, Khaled; Boujnah, Dalenda; Zarrouk, Mokhtar

    2010-12-08

    Here, we report the characterization of virgin olive oil samples obtained from fruits of the main Tunisian olive cultivar (Chemlali) grown in four planting densities (156, 100, 69, and 51 trees ha(-1)). Olive oil samples obtained from fruits of trees grown at 100 trees ha(-1) had a higher content of oleic acid (65.5%), a higher content of chlorophyll and carotenoids, and a higher content in total phenols (1059.08 mg/kg). Interestingly, olives grown at the two highest planting densities yielded more stable oils than olives grown at the two lowest ones. Thus planting density is found to be a key factor for the quality of olive oils in arid regions.

  19. Evaluation of processing factors for selected organic contaminants during virgin olive oil production: Distribution of BTEXS during olives processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Blanco, Rafael; Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; Rojas-Jiménez, Rubén; Robles-Molina, José; Ramos-Martos, Natividad; García-Reyes, Juan F; Molina-Díaz, Antonio

    2016-05-15

    The presence of BTEXS (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes and styrene) in virgin olive oils can be attributed to environmental contamination, but also to biological processes during oil lipogenesis (styrene). In this work, the processing factor of BTEXS from olives to olive oil during its production was evaluated at lab-scale with an Abencor system. Benzene showed the lowest processing factor (15%), whereas toluene and xylenes showed an intermediate behavior (with 40-60% efficiency), and ethylbenzene and styrene were completely transferred (100%). In addition, an attempt to examine the contribution of potential sources to olives contamination with BTEXS was carried out for the first time. Two types of olives samples were classified according to their proximity to the contamination source (road). Although higher levels of BTEXS were found in samples close to roads, the concentrations were relatively low and do not constitute a major contribution to BTEXS usually detected in olive oil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Modulating oxidoreductase activity modifies the phenolic content of virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rodríguez, Rosa; Romero-Segura, Carmen; Sanz, Carlos; Pérez, Ana G

    2015-03-15

    The effect of modifying polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POX) activity during the extraction of virgin olive oil has been assessed in terms of its influence on the phenolic profile of the oil produced. These enzymes were modified by adding exogenous enzyme or specific inhibitors during the milling and subsequent kneading step, studying the effect on specific phenolic compounds in the oils. PPO is the main enzyme involved in phenolic oxidation at the milling step whereas POX activity seems to be the main influence during the kneading step. The data obtained suggest it is possible to increase the nutritional and organoleptic quality of virgin olive oil by inhibiting these enzymes during olive fruit processing. Treatment with the PPO inhibitor tropolone produced a twofold increase in the phenolic fraction, which would therefore seem to be an interesting strategy to improve the nutritional and organoleptic properties of virgin olive oil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Detection of Virgin Olive Oil Adulteration Using Low Field Unilateral NMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The detection of adulteration in edible oils is a concern in the food industry, especially for the higher priced virgin olive oils. This article presents a low field unilateral nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR method for the detection of the adulteration of virgin olive oil that can be performed through sealed bottles providing a non-destructive screening technique. Adulterations of an extra virgin olive oil with different percentages of sunflower oil and red palm oil were measured with a commercial unilateral instrument, the profile NMR-Mouse. The NMR signal was processed using a 2-dimensional Inverse Laplace transformation to analyze the transverse relaxation and self-diffusion behaviors of different oils. The obtained results demonstrated the feasibility of detecting adulterations of olive oil with percentages of at least 10% of sunflower and red palm oils.

  2. Phenolic Compounds Profiling of Virgin Olive Oils from Different Varieties Cultivated in Mendoza, Argentina, by Using Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monasterio, R P; Olmo-García, L; Bajoub, A; Fernández-Gutiérrez, A; Carrasco-Pancorbo, A

    2017-09-20

    The aim of this work was to achieve a preliminary characterization of the profile of the phenolic fraction of virgin olive oils (VOOs) from Maipú (Mendoza, Argentina). Thus, 25 commercial VOO samples from Arauco, Arbequina, Picual, Frantoio, Changlot, Empeltre, Nevadillo, Manzanilla, and Coratina (both monovarietals and blends) were analyzed using LC-ESI-QTOF MS and LC-ESI-IT MS for identification and quantification purposes, respectively. A rapid LC method (15 min) accomplished quantitative information about a total of 40 phenolic compounds, including secoiridoid derivatives, which have not been evaluated before in samples coming from the subregion so-called Maipú (Mendoza province, Argentina). The results make evident that olive oils coming from Mendoza can be considered as important sources of phenolic bioactive compounds, exhibiting similar phenolic compound levels to those shown by oils from other typical world production regions. Moreover, some distinctive features of the Arauco variety (Argentinean autochthonous variety) were pointed out; indeed, a correlation between flavonoids content and botanical variety was established herewith.

  3. Geographical characterization of greek virgin olive oils (cv. Koroneiki) using 1H and 31P NMR fingerprinting with canonical discriminant analysis and classification binary trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrakis, Panos V; Agiomyrgianaki, Alexia; Christophoridou, Stella; Spyros, Apostolos; Dais, Photis

    2008-05-14

    This work deals with the prediction of the geographical origin of monovarietal virgin olive oil (cv. Koroneiki) samples from three regions of southern Greece, namely, Peloponnesus, Crete, and Zakynthos, and collected in five harvesting years (2001-2006). All samples were chemically analyzed by means of 1H and 31P NMR spectroscopy and characterized according to their content in fatty acids, phenolics, diacylglycerols, total free sterols, free acidity, and iodine number. Biostatistical analysis showed that the fruiting pattern of the olive tree complicates the geographical separation of oil samples and the selection of significant chemical compounds. In this way the inclusion of the harvesting year improved the classification of samples, but increased the dimensionality of the data. Discriminant analysis showed that the geographical prediction at the level of three regions is very high (87%) and becomes (74%) when we pass to the thinner level of six sites (Chania, Sitia, and Heraklion in Crete; Lakonia and Messinia in Peloponnesus; Zakynthos). The use of classification and binary trees made possible the construction of a geographical prediction algorithm for unknown samples in a self-improvement fashion, which can be readily extended to other varieties and areas.

  4. Combined effects of reduced malaxation oxygen levels and storage time on extra-virgin olive oil volatiles investigated by a novel chemometric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffo, Antonio; Bucci, Remo; D'Aloise, Antonio; Pastore, Gianni

    2015-09-01

    Combined effects of oxygen level reduction in the malaxation headspace and storage time up to 6 months on the volatile composition of a monovarietal extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO), obtained from cv. Carboncella olives, were investigated by applying a full factorial design approach (4 oxygen levels × 4 storage times) on EVOOs extracted on an industrial scale in two mills, equipped with "two-phase" and "three-phase" centrifugation systems, respectively. The outcoming data were analysed by the chemometric technique called ANOVA-simultaneous component analysis (ASCA). Both reduction of oxygen malaxation levels and storage time significantly affected the volatile profile of the extracted EVOOs. Reduction of oxygen malaxation levels hindered the formation of lipoxygenase derived volatiles (hexanal, 1-hexanol, (Z)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, (Z)-2-penten-1-ol, 2,4-hexadienals), whereas prolonged storage times were associated with increased levels of autoxidation products (octane, hexanal, C10 hydrocarbons) and other compounds that could originate from exogenous microbial activity (1-octen-3-ol, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, benzaldehyde, methyl salicylate).

  5. Detection of adulteration of extra virgin olive oils available on the Polish market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Derewiaka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Extra virgin olive oils are valuable and healthy products, appreciated by consumers. The aim of this study was an attempt to detect adulteration of olive oils available on the Polish market (derived from Greece, Spain, and Italy according to European Union Commission Regulation No 1348/2013. Material and methods. Ten extra virgin olive oils available on the Polish market were analysed for fatty acids composition, and amount and composition of sterols (including erythrodiol and uvaol using gas chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometry, and values of extinction coefficients (K232 and K270. The results were compared with the requirements of European Union Commission Regulation No 1348/2013. Results. One of the most efficient methods for detecting olive oil adulteration is qualitative and quantitative analysis of sterols. In certain of the analysed extra virgin olive oils some abnormal­ities in composition were detected, which may indicate an attempt to falsify the products. One of the methods can detect if extra virgin olive oils have been adulterated, and if they were falsified with the addition of olive pomace oil. Conclusions. Our research proves that consumers are sometimes misinformed and some food manufacturers attempt to sell lower quality products as high-quality products. There is a need to constantly monitor the quality of foodstuffs and provide consumers with access to reliable inform­ation on food products.

  6. Virgin olive oil color and perceived quality among consumers in emerging olive-growing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gámbaro, A.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Five virgin olive oil samples were evaluated by 122 consumers for their color acceptability and expected quality on 9-point structured scales. A description of the attributes expected in the different oils was obtained from the responding consumers by means of a check-all-that-apply questionnaire consisting of a list of 17 possible virgin olive oil attributes. Hierarchical cluster analysis led to the identification of two consumer clusters with distinct behavior. Whereas one consumer cluster attributed higher quality to those oils that were greener in color, which they described as tasty, rich-flavored, strong-tasting, herb-flavored and expensive, consumers in the other cluster assumed that greener olive oils were of a poorer quality, as they described them as strange-tasting, strong-tasting, herb-tasting and defective. Despite the contrasting perception of a virgin olive oil’s green color, the respondents, irrespective of cluster, presumed that the virgin olive oil that was the yellowest in color was of poor quality and cheap, also assuming that it had a milder taste than the other oils.122 consumidores evaluaron el color de 5 muestras de aceite de oliva virgen, midiendo su aceptabilidad y la calidad esperada por medio de una escala estructurada de 9 puntos y describiéndolas por medio de preguntas “marque todo lo que corresponde” que consiste en una lista de 17 términos posibles para atributos de aceites de oliva extra vírgenes. Mediante un análisis de conglomerados jerárquico se identificó a dos grupos de consumidores Los consumidores de ambos grupos consideraron que los aceites más amarillos eran de baja calidad, describiéndolos como baratos y de gusto suave. Un grupo de consumidores asignó puntuaciones de calidad alta a todos los aceites con colores verdes, describiéndolos como sabrosos, aromáticos, con gusto fuerte, con sabor a hierba y caros. El otro grupo de consumidores consideró que los aceites de color verde m

  7. Biological Activities of Phenolic Compounds of Extra Virgin Olive Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Servili

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades, multiple biological properties, providing antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, chemopreventive and anti-cancer benefits, as well as the characteristic pungent and bitter taste, have been attributed to Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO phenols. In particular, growing efforts have been devoted to the study of the antioxidants of EVOO, due to their importance from health, biological and sensory points of view. Hydrophilic and lipophilic phenols represent the main antioxidants of EVOO, and they include a large variety of compounds. Among them, the most concentrated phenols are lignans and secoiridoids, with the latter found exclusively in the Oleaceae family, of which the drupe is the only edible fruit. In recent years, therefore, we have tackled the study of the main properties of phenols, including the relationships between their biological activity and the related chemical structure. This review, in fact, focuses on the phenolic compounds of EVOO, and, in particular, on their biological properties, sensory aspects and antioxidant capacity, with a particular emphasis on the extension of the product shelf-life.

  8. Characterization of european virgin olive oils using fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso García, María V.

    1993-02-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of discriminating between extra virgin olive oils from different regions of Spain, Italy and Portugal, by means of their fatty acid content, has been investigated. A dendrogram allowed discrimination between the oils starting from their initial grouping and progressing to differentiation on the basis of regions. Multivariant statistical analyses were applied to determine the actual discriminatory capacity of this group of compounds. The confidence associated with the final discrimination was ascertained using the theory of evidence.

    Se ha estudiado la posibilidad de discriminación entre aceites de oliva virgen procedentes de diferentes regiones de España, Italia y Portugal, mediante sus ácidos grasos. Para llevar a cabo la discriminación entre los aceites, desde su agrupación inicial hasta la diferenciación por regiones, se empleó una estructura arborescente. Fueron aplicados procedimientos estadísticos multivariantes para determinar la capacidad discriminante actual de este grupo de compuestos. La certeza asociada a la discriminación final fue calculada mediante la teoría de la evidencia.

  9. Biological Activities of Phenolic Compounds of Extra Virgin Olive Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servili, Maurizio; Sordini, Beatrice; Esposto, Sonia; Urbani, Stefania; Veneziani, Gianluca; Di Maio, Ilona; Selvaggini, Roberto; Taticchi, Agnese

    2013-12-20

    Over the last few decades, multiple biological properties, providing antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, chemopreventive and anti-cancer benefits, as well as the characteristic pungent and bitter taste, have been attributed to Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) phenols. In particular, growing efforts have been devoted to the study of the antioxidants of EVOO, due to their importance from health, biological and sensory points of view. Hydrophilic and lipophilic phenols represent the main antioxidants of EVOO, and they include a large variety of compounds. Among them, the most concentrated phenols are lignans and secoiridoids, with the latter found exclusively in the Oleaceae family, of which the drupe is the only edible fruit. In recent years, therefore, we have tackled the study of the main properties of phenols, including the relationships between their biological activity and the related chemical structure. This review, in fact, focuses on the phenolic compounds of EVOO, and, in particular, on their biological properties, sensory aspects and antioxidant capacity, with a particular emphasis on the extension of the product shelf-life.

  10. Extra virgin olive oil: from composition to "molecular gastronomy".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchi, Raffaele; Paduano, Antonello; Savarese, Maria; Vitaglione, Paola; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to provide a brief overview of the recent results of studies on extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and its interactions with other food ingredients during cooking, to highlight basic molecular aspects of the "magic" of EVOO and its role in Mediterranean gastronomy. The use of raw EVOO added to foods after cooking (or as a salad oil) is the best way to express the original flavour and to maximize the intake of natural antioxidants and compounds related to positive effects on human health (hypotensive, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancerogenic, among others). EVOO, however, also exhibits its protective properties during/after cooking. Different chemical interactions between biophenolic compounds and other food ingredients (water, milk proteins, carotenoids of tomato, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in canned-in-oil fish and meat or fish proteins) occur. Even during cooking, EVOO exhibits strong antioxidant properties and influences the overall flavour of cooked foods. The physical (partitioning, emulsion) and chemical (hydrolysis, covalent binding, antioxidant properties) phenomena occurring during cooking of EVOO are discussed with emphasis on the changes in the sensory (bitterness and fruity flavour) and nutritional qualities of some traditional Mediterranean foods. In particular, tomato-oil interactions during cooking, fish canning in EVOO, meat marinated in EVOO before cooking and roasting and frying in EVOO are examined. The interactions between EVOO antioxidants and flavours with milk proteins are also briefly discussed.

  11. Separation and identification of phenolic compounds of extra virgin olive oil from Olea europaea L. by HPLC-DAD-SPE-NMR/MS. Identification of a new diastereoisomer of the aldehydic form of oleuropein aglycone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Trujillo, Míriam; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Parella, Teodor

    2010-08-25

    The phenolic fraction of a monovarietal extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) from Olea europaea L. var. Cornezuelo was studied by the hyphenated HPLC-DAD-SPE-NMR/MS techniques. This survey led to the identification of 25 main compounds. One was identified as a new diastereoisomer of the aldehydic form of oleuropein aglycone (AOA) and characterized by 1D and 2D NMR techniques. The relative configuration of this new AOA was determined as 5R*,8S*,9S* on the basis of the results obtained from the combination of NOE experiments and Monte Carlo conformational search calculations. Assuming, as for the described diastereoisomers, that the new AOA comes from the natural oleuropein aglycone (OA), the absolute configuration was proposed as 5S,8R,9R.

  12. Virgin olive oil quality of hedgerow 'Arbequina' olive trees under deficit irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, José M; Morales-Sillero, Ana; Pérez-Rubio, Ana G; Diaz-Espejo, Antonio; Montero, Antonio; Fernández, José E

    2017-02-01

    Regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) is used in hedgerow olive orchards to achieve a sustainable balance between water savings, tree vigor and oil production. Its effects on the presence of compounds responsible for the taste of the oil and its nutritional value are controversial. The present 3-year study was conducted in an 'Arbequina' orchard (1667 trees ha(-1) ) under a full irrigation (FI) treatment (470.1 mm year(-1) of water) and two RDI treatments scaled to replace 60% and 30%, respectively, of FI. The quality parameters, antioxidant contents and volatiles of the extracted virgin olive oil (VOO) were analyzed. In general, oils from the 30% RDI treatment had higher contents of pigments and phenolic compounds, a higher oleic/linoleic ratio and the highest oxidative stability, despite their lower tocopherol content. FI oils showed higher (E)-2-hexenal, 1-penten-3-one, ocimene, E-2-pentenal and pentene dimer contents than 30RDI oils, but lower contents of (E)-2-pentenol and volatile esters. The results of the present study suggest that a RDI strategy supplying 30% of the total irrigation needs induces an increase in natural antioxidants in VOO. Neither yield, nor the rest of the quality parameters were affected by the reduced irrigation. However, abundant autumn precipitation can over-ride these effects of 30% RDI treatment on oil quality. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Effect of virgin olive oil versus piroxicam phonophoresis on exercise-induced anterior knee pain

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    Babak Nakhostin-Roohi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of virgin olive oil phonophoresis on female athletes' anterior knee pain (AKP. Materials and Methods: A double blinded randomized clinical trial was conducted. Ninety-three female athletes suffering from AKP voluntarily participated in this study. Patients were randomly assigned into olive oil (n=31, piroxicam (n=31 or base gel phonophoresis (n=31 groups. At the baseline visit, the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC questionnaire was filled by subjects who were then treated with olive oil, piroxicam or pure phonophoresis for 12 sessions. After 6 and 12 sessions of physiotherapy, subjects filled the questionnaire again. Main outcomes were significant improvement in pain, stiffness, physical function, and total WOMAC scores. Results: Although, there was a significant reduction in symptoms of AKP at the end of the therapy in all groups (p< 0.05, but in olive oil group, this improvement was seen after 6 sessions of treatment (p< 0.001. A significant difference between olive oil group and piroxicam and/or phonophoresis group was observed after 6 sessions of therapy (p< 0.05. Conclusion: It could be proposed that phonophoresis with virgin olive oil is as effective as piroxicam gel on lowering WOMAC scores of AKP in female athletes and also has several beneficial properties including faster effect and shorter duration of therapy. The exact mechanism of beneficial action of virgin olive oil on AKP is not clear and requires further studies.

  14. VOLATILITY SPILLOVER EFFECTS IN THE EXTRA VIRGIN OLIVE OIL MARKETS OF THE MEDITERRANEAN

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    Dimitrios Panagiotou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to assess the existence and magnitude of volatility spillovers between the extra virgin olive oil markets of Italy, Spain and Greece. These three Mediterranean countries are responsible for 95% of olive oil production within the European Union and they account for more than 50% of olive oil exports worldwide. In order to measure the degree of volatility transmission between these countries we estimate a vector error correction model along with the BEKK parameterization of a Multivariate Generalized Conditional Autoregressive Heteroskedasticity (M-GARCH model. The empirical results reveal the presence of ARCH and GARCH effects suggesting this way the existence of volatility spillovers between the extra virgin olive oil markets of Italy, Greece and Spain. ARCH effects are the biggest in magnitude for the market between Spain and Italy. GARCH effects are the biggest in magnitude for the market between Greece and Italy.

  15. An In Vitro Evaluation of Ozonized Organic Extra-Virgin Olive Oil on Giardia Lamblia Cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland-Nazar, Najmeh Sadat; Eslamirad, Zahra; Sarmadian, Hossein; Ghasemikhah, Reza

    2016-11-01

    Giardia lamblia is a common intestinal parasite that has been reported all over the world. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of ozonized organic extra-virgin olive oil on the cyst of G. lamblia. The olive oil was ozonized based on international standards and confirmed by the world health organization (WHO) at various times in a generator. The ozone concentration of olive oil was adjusted at 32, 64, 96, 128, 160 mg/g based on ozone absorption. Giardia lamblia cysts were isolated from heavily infected stool samples and the sucrose gradient flotation technique. Five groups of triple tubes containing Giardia cysts were exposed to olive oil with 32, 64, 96, 128, 160 ozone concentrations, and the sixth and seventh groups were exposed to non-ozonized olive oil and normal saline, respectively. The tubes were placed at room temperature, and every four hours, the mortality of the Giardia cysts was assessed. The results showed that the first five groups' mortality rate of Giardia cysts reached 100% in 100 hours. An increasing concentration of ozone in olive oil leads to an increase in the mortality rate of Giardia cysts. The results showed a significant difference in the mean time of the mortality in all the groups (P ≤ 0.05). Furthermore, the higher fatality effect of ozonized organic extra-virgin olive oil (Ozonized Olive Oil = OZO) was proved in comparison with metronidazole in vitro. We concluded that ozonized organic extra-virgin olive oil was a growth inhibitor of Giardia cysts, and concerning its compatibility with a biological system, it is recommended for further clinical trials.

  16. Relationships between volatile compounds and sensory characteristics in virgin olive oil by analytical and chemometric approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procida, Giuseppe; Cichelli, Angelo; Lagazio, Corrado; Conte, Lanfranco S

    2016-01-15

    The volatile fraction of virgin olive oil is characterised by low molecular weight compounds that vaporise at room temperature. In order to obtain an aroma profile similar to natural olfactory perception, the composition of the volatile compounds was determined by applying dynamic headspace gas chromatography, performed at room temperature, with a cryogenic trap directly connected to a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer system. Samples were also evaluated according to European Union and International Olive Council official methods for sensory evaluation. In this paper, the composition of the volatile fraction of 25 extra virgin olive oils from different regions of Italy was analysed and some preliminary considerations on relationships between chemical composition of volatile fraction and sensory characteristics are reported. Forty-two compounds were identified by means of the particular analytical technique used. All the analysed samples, classified as extra virgin by the panel test, never present peaks whose magnitude is important enough in defected oils. The study was focused on the evaluation of volatile compounds responsible for the positive impact on olive odour properties ('green-fruity' and 'sweet') and olfactory perception. Chemometric evaluation of data, obtained through headspace analysis and the panel test evaluation, showed a correlation between chemical compounds and sensory properties. On the basis of the results, the positive attributes of virgin olive oil are divided into two separated groups: sweet types or green types. Sixteen volatile compounds with known positive impact on odour properties were extracted and identified. In particular, eight compounds seem correlated with sweet properties whereas the green sensation appears to be correlated with eight other different substances. The content of the compounds at six carbon atoms proves to be very important in defining positive attributes of extra virgin olive oils and sensory evaluation. © 2015

  17. Composition and Nutritional properties of Mediterranean extra-virgin olive oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Tripoli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil plays an important role in diet, economy and culture of Mediterranean people. Epidemiological studies have shown a lower incidence in this area. The purpose of this paper was to compare the nutritional properties of Sicilian and Cretan extra-virgin olive oils. Forty Cretan (cultivar: Koroneiki and forty-six Sicilian olive oil (cultivar: Nocellara del Belice samples are collected in the crop seasons 2003/04 and 2004/05. We estimate free acidity, peroxide value, UV absorption, total tocopherols and polyphenols amounts.

  18. Extra Virgin Olive Oil Polyphenols Promote Cholesterol Efflux and Improve HDL Functionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hicham Berrougui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of the present work give evidence from the beneficial role of extra virgin olive of oil (EVOO consumption towards oxidative stress and cardiovascular diseases. Polyphenols contained in EVOO are responsible for inhibiting lipoproteins oxidative damages and promoting reverse cholesterol transport process via ABCA1 pathway.

  19. Investigation of natural lipid-phenolic interactions on biological properties of virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alu'datt, Muhammad H; Rababah, Taha; Ereifej, Khalil; Gammoh, Sana; Alhamad, Mohammad N; Mhaidat, Nizar; Kubow, Stan; Johargy, Ayman; Alnaiemi, Ola J

    2014-12-10

    There is limited knowledge regarding the impact of naturally occurring lipid-phenolic interactions on the biological properties of phenolics in virgin olive oil. Free and bound phenolics were isolated via sequential methanolic extraction at 30 and 60 °C, and were identified and quantified using reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography, liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and gas chromatography. Decreased oleic acid concentrations and increased concentrations of palmitoleic acid, stearic, linoleic, and linolenic acids were observed in virgin olive oil after removal of free and bound lipid phenolic compounds. The presence of p-hydroxybenzoic acid and tyrosol bound to glycerides was determined via LC-MS/MS, which indicates natural lipid-phenolic interactions in virgin olive oil. Both free and lipid bound phenolic extracts exerted antiproliferative activities against the CRC1 and CRC5 colorectal cancer cell lines. The present work indicates that naturally occurring lipid-phenolic interactions can affect the biological properties of phenolics in virgin olive oil.

  20. Extra Virgin Olive Oil Lecture and Tasting at Dublin Institute of Technology, Cathal Brugha Street.

    OpenAIRE

    Cawley, Diarmuid

    2016-01-01

    Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) is synonymous with great taste, cookery, traditional Mediterranean cuisines and increasingly human health. As part of an ongoing series of extra-curricular events organised by the DIT FOOD FORUM, an interactive round table lecture and tutored tasting took place for a limited number of culinary students at the School of Culinary Arts, DIT.

  1. Effect of phenol-rich extra virgin olive oil on markers of oxidation in healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, M.N.; Zock, P.L.; Wiseman, S.A.; Meyboom, S.; Katan, M.B.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: We studied whether consumption of phenol-rich extra virgin olive oil affects the susceptibility of low density lipoproteins (LDL) to oxidation and other markers of oxidation in humans. Design: Randomized cross-over intervention trial, stratified according to sex, age and energy intake. Se

  2. Settling of virgin olive oil from horizontal screw solid bowl in static conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gila, Abraham M; Bejaoui, Mohamed A; Beltrán, Gabriel; Jiménez, Antonio

    2017-08-01

    This work was aimed to study the clarification efficiency of natural decantation in settling tank on virgin olive oil obtained from a two-ways continuous process. For this purpose, the impurities content of the virgin olive oil were monitored during settling process in settling tank at two different depths. Efficiency of purging system was determined for two days. The experiments were performed at industrial scale during three crop years. During the first minutes of settling was observed an ascent of the smaller organic particles of the oil. Then, most of the virgin olive oil impurities were settled at 300 min, independently of the initial content of virgin olive oil. Finally, oil decantation showed slower rate. Higher clarification values were obtained for those decanter oils with higher impurities content, achieving clarification percentages between of 62.69 and 95.91% at 48 h of settling. The highest settling efficiency was observed for those decanter oils with initial higher impurities content. The purging system used in the settling tanks was not able to remove the most of settled impurities since a considerable amount of the impurities remained in the tank after 48 h, between 13.6 and 71.41% for the studied oils. In the tank purges was observed important oil losses. Therefore, decantation was not an efficient system for oil clarification since its settling capacity varied depending on the initial impurities content and due to the settled impurities can not be removed fully by purging system.

  3. Implications for the future and recommendations for modifications to current regulations concerning virgin olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peri, Claudio

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available The main conclusions of the FLAIR project can be summarized as follows:
    1. The sensory wheel set up by the FLAIR team is proposed as a European standard to evaluate the sensory profile of extra virgin olive oil.
    2. Preference studies demonstrate that the sensory profile of extra virgin olive oil should be optimized as a function of consumer expectations. Once a sensory profile has been selected, it must be used as a reference for product standardization.
    3. Sensory analysis cannot be used as a legal tool for evaluating the quality or the origin of extra virgin olive oils. It is suggested that a sensory test can only be used as a legal tool if it is applied to assess the absence of defects. This implies a modification of the COI test.
    4. The Good Manufacturing Practices set up by the Flair team are proposed as a European standard for process control and quality system certification.
    5. Nutritional studies demonstrate that extra virgin olive oil has a noticeable in vivo antioxidant activity. This activity is related to the tocopherols and phenols content of oil and is highly varietydependent.

  4. Cytostatic activity of some compounds from the unsaponifiable fraction obtained from virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenz, M T; Garcia, M D; Ahumada, M C; Ruiz, V

    1998-06-30

    Oleuropein, tyrosol, squalene and the fraction of sterols and triterpenoid dialcohols from the unsaponifiable fraction obtained from virgin olive oil have been tested for possible cytostatic activity against McCoy cells, using 6-mercaptopurine as a positive control. The samples of sterols and triterpenic dialcohols showed a strong activity.

  5. Bioaccessibility and antioxidant activity stability of phenolic compounds from extra-virgin olive oils during in vitro digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinnella, Caterina; Minichino, Patrizia; D'Andrea, Anna Maria; Monteleone, Erminio

    2007-10-17

    The impact of an in vitro procedure that mimics the physiochemical changes occurring in gastric and small intestinal digestion on the bioaccessibility and antioxidant activity of phenols from 10 extra-virgin olive oil samples was assessed. Extra-virgin olive oil phenols were totally extracted in the aqueous phase, which reproduces gastric fluids during the digestion procedure. A linear bioaccessibility model, based on tyrosol behavior in model oil samples, was used to estimate the bioaccessibility index (BI%) of extra-virgin olive oil phenols. The BI% varied amongst samples from a maximum of 90% to a minimum of 37%, thus indicating that only a fraction of phenols can be considered bioaccessible. The specific antioxidant activity of olive oil phenols proved to be negatively affected by the digestion procedure. By computing a principal component analysis, it was possible to show that differences in the potential bioactive effect of extra-virgin olive oil samples were related to different phenolic profiles.

  6. The relationship between total phenol concentration and the perceived style of extra virgin olive oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawel, R.; Rogers, D. A. G.

    2009-07-01

    The degree of bitterness and pungency of a virgin olive oil largely defines its style, and therefore how it is most appropriately used by consumers. In order to assess how Australian olive oil producers interpret the style of their oils, 920 Australian virgin olive oils were classified by their producers as either being mild, medium or robust in style. Although in general, the classifications by producers were associated with the oils total phenol concentration, significant variability in phenol concentration within each style category was observed. The perceived styles of a subset of these oils were further assessed by panels of expert tasters. The expert panels were more discriminating when assigning oils to style categories based on total phenol levels. The producers and the expert panels were in moderate agreement with respect to oil style, with the interpretation of what constitutes a mild oil being the most contentious. (Author) 16 refs.

  7. Authentication of virgin olive oil by a novel curve resolution approach combined with visible spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreiro-González, Marta; Barbero, Gerardo F; Álvarez, José A; Ruiz, Antonio; Palma, Miguel; Ayuso, Jesús

    2017-04-01

    Adulteration of olive oil is not only a major economic fraud but can also have major health implications for consumers. In this study, a combination of visible spectroscopy with a novel multivariate curve resolution method (CR), principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) is proposed for the authentication of virgin olive oil (VOO) samples. VOOs are well-known products with the typical properties of a two-component system due to the two main groups of compounds that contribute to the visible spectra (chlorophylls and carotenoids). Application of the proposed CR method to VOO samples provided the two pure-component spectra for the aforementioned families of compounds. A correlation study of the real spectra and the resolved component spectra was carried out for different types of oil samples (n=118). LDA using the correlation coefficients as variables to discriminate samples allowed the authentication of 95% of virgin olive oil samples.

  8. Transcriptional Analysis of Stearoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Desaturase Genes from Olive (Olea europaea) in Relation to the Oleic Acid Content of the Virgin Olive Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvini, Farshid; Sicardo, M Dolores; Hosseini-Mazinani, Mehdi; Martinez-Rivas, Jose M; Hernandez, M Luisa

    2016-10-02

    The specific contribution of different stearoyl-ACP desaturase (SAD) genes to the oleic acid content in olive (Olea europaea) fruit has been studied. Towards that end, we isolated three distinct cDNA clones encoding three SAD isoforms from olive (cv. Picual), as revealed by sequence analysis. The expression levels of olive SAD genes were determined in different tissues from Picual and Arbequina cultivars, including developing mesocarp and seed, together with the unsaturated fatty acid content. Lipid and gene expression analysis indicate that OeSAD2 seems to be the main gene contributing to the oleic acid content of the olive fruit and, therefore, of the virgin olive oil. This conclusion was confirmed when the study was extended to Hojiblanca, Picudo and Manzanilla cultivars. Furthermore, our data indicate that the olive microsomal oleate desaturase gene OeFAD2-2, but not OeSAD2, is responsible for the linoleic acid content in the virgin olive oil.

  9. Multivariate models to classify Tuscan virgin olive oils by zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandri, Stefano

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to study and classify Tuscan virgin olive oils, 179 samples were collected. They were obtained from drupes harvested during the first half of November, from three different zones of the Region. The sampling was repeated for 5 years. Fatty acids, phytol, aliphatic and triterpenic alcohols, triterpenic dialcohols, sterols, squalene and tocopherols were analyzed. A subset of variables was considered. They were selected in a preceding work as the most effective and reliable, from the univariate point of view. The analytical data were transformed (except for the cycloartenol to compensate annual variations, the mean related to the East zone was subtracted from each value, within each year. Univariate three-class models were calculated and further variables discarded. Then multivariate three-zone models were evaluated, including phytol (that was always selected and all the combinations of palmitic, palmitoleic and oleic acid, tetracosanol, cycloartenol and squalene. Models including from two to seven variables were studied. The best model shows by-zone classification errors less than 40%, by-zone within-year classification errors that are less than 45% and a global classification error equal to 30%. This model includes phytol, palmitic acid, tetracosanol and cycloartenol.

    Para estudiar y clasificar aceites de oliva vírgenes Toscanos, se utilizaron 179 muestras, que fueron obtenidas de frutos recolectados durante la primera mitad de Noviembre, de tres zonas diferentes de la Región. El muestreo fue repetido durante 5 años. Se analizaron ácidos grasos, fitol, alcoholes alifáticos y triterpénicos, dialcoholes triterpénicos, esteroles, escualeno y tocoferoles. Se consideró un subconjunto de variables que fueron seleccionadas en un trabajo anterior como el más efectivo y fiable, desde el punto de vista univariado. Los datos analíticos se transformaron (excepto para el cicloartenol para compensar las variaciones anuales, rest

  10. Fast determination of virgin olive oil phenolic metabolites in human high-density lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Ávila, C; Montes, R; Castellote, A I; Chisaguano, A M; Fitó, M; Covas, M I; Muñoz-Aguallo, D; Nyyssönen, K; Zunft, H J; López-Sabater, M C

    2015-07-01

    In recent years it has been confirmed that the consumption of olive oil prevents the oxidation of biomolecules owing to its monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and phenolic content. The main objective of the study was to develop an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) method for the determination of phenolic compounds in human high-density lipoprotein (HDL) samples. At the same time, the influence of olive oil consumption on the phenolic metabolite levels was evaluated in a European population. The participants were 51 healthy men, aged 20-60. They were randomized to two consecutive intervention periods with the administration of raw olive oil with low and high polyphenolic content. The UHPLC-MS/MS analytical method has been validated for hydroxytyrosol and homovanillic acid in terms of linearity (r(2)  = 0.99 and 1.00), repeatability (5.7 and 6.5%) reproducibility (6.2 and 7%), recovery (98 to 97%), limits of detection (1.7 to 1.8 ppb) and quantification (5.8 and 6.3 ppb).The levels of the studied metabolites increased significantly after high polyphenolic content virgin olive oil ingestion (p olive oil. Virgin olive oil consumption increases the levels of phenolic metabolites in HDL and thus provides human HDL with more efficient antioxidant protection.

  11. Identification of 3-MCPD esters to verify the adulteration of extra virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Wei-Ching; Peng, Guan-Jhih; Tsai, Wen-Ju; Chang, Mei-Hua; Liao, Chia-Ding; Tseng, Su-Hsiang; Kao, Ya-Min; Wang, Der-Yuan; Cheng, Hwei-Fang

    2017-09-01

    The adulteration of olive oil is an important issue around the world. This paper reports an indirect method by which to identify 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) esters in olive oils. Following sample preparation, the samples were spiked with 1,2-bis-palmitoyl-3-chloropropanediol standard for analysis using gas chromatograph-tandem mass spectrometry. The total recovery ranged from 102.8% to 105.5%, the coefficient of variation ranged from 1.1% to 10.1%, and the limit of quantification was 0.125 mg/kg. The content of 3-MCPD esters in samples of refined olive oil (0.97-20.53 mg/kg) exceeded those of extra virgin olive oil (non-detected to 0.24 mg/kg). These results indicate that the oil refining process increased the content of 3-MCPD esters, which means that they could be used as a target compound for the differentiation of extra virgin olive oil from refined olive oil in order to prevent adulteration.

  12. A Rapid Method for Detection of Refined Olive Oil as Adulterant in Extra Virgin Olive Oil by Differential Scanning Calorimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Karbasian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO is expensive oil, due to unique specification and its high quality among other edible oils; it might be mixed with other oils. The aim of this research was to identify the added refined olive oil (ROO to extra virgin olive oil. One sample of each oil was analyzed, admixtures of EVOO: ROO were prepared at different ratios (50:50 ,60:40, 70:30, 80:20, 90:10 and 95:5 w/w. To identify this adulteration, exothermic and endothermic thermograms were investigated. The results indicated that by increasing refined olive oil, onset temperature (Ton was increased from -61.08 to -56.16 °C; also, offset temperature (Toff decreased from 19.09 to 12.57 °C. Also results showed that when the ROO ratio increased then the enthalpy average values of both exothermic and endothermic curves were declined. Chemical tests were performed in parallel to better understanding these changes in curves.

  13. Nutrigenomics of extra-virgin olive oil: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piroddi, Marta; Albini, Adriana; Fabiani, Roberto; Giovannelli, Lisa; Luceri, Cristina; Natella, Fausta; Rosignoli, Patrizia; Rossi, Teresa; Taticchi, Agnese; Servili, Maurizio; Galli, Francesco

    2017-01-02

    Nutrigenomics data on the functional components of olive oil are still sparse, but rapidly increasing. Olive oil is the main source of fat and health-promoting component of the Mediterranean diet. Positive effects have been observed on genes involved in the pathobiology of most prevalent age- and lifestyle-related human conditions, such as cancer, cardiovascular disease and neurodegeneration. Other effects on health-promoting genes have been identified for bioactive components of olives and olive leafs. Omics technologies are offering unique opportunities to identify nutritional and health biomarkers associated with these gene responses, the use of which in personalized and even predictive protocols of investigation, is a main breakthrough in modern medicine and nutrition. Gene regulation properties of the functional components of olive oil, such as oleic acid, biophenols and vitamin E, point to a role for these molecules as natural homeostatic and even hormetic factors with applications as prevention agents in conditions of premature and pathologic aging. Therapeutic applications can be foreseen in conditions of chronic inflammation, and particularly in cancer, which will be discussed in detail in this review paper as major clinical target of nutritional interventions with olive oil and its functional components. © 2016 BioFactors, 43(1):17-41, 2017.

  14. NMR analysis of aldehydes in Sicilian extra-virgin olive oils by DPFGSE techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Rotondo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The DPFGSE NMR sequences open new perspectives in the volatile compounds analysis of food matrices. Many fresh extra-virgin Sicilian olive oils, analyzed by this technique, show two main resonances in the aldehydic spectral region (9–10 ppm, at 9.18 and 9.58 ppm. The former was never reported so far, the latter was sometime highlighted as a minor aldehydic component signal of spectra showing stronger resonances at 9.45 and 9.70 ppm. Thermal treatment at 220°C of extra virgin olive oil samples lead to the complete transformation of the resonances at 9.18 and 9.58 ppm into those at 9.45 and 9.70 ppm in 50 minutes. Analogous transformation takes place place in CDCl3 at rt in several weeks. These results suggest the transformation of relatively unstable compounds into thermodynamically more stable products whose resonances are commonly reported in the literature. Even though these chemical changes involve minimal amount of product, they are of crucial importance to define: i organoleptic extra virgin olive oil properties; ii fraudulent chemical or thermal treatment detection; iii extra virgin oil ageing.

  15. Rapid determination of phenol content in extra virgin olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favati, F.

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available A quick extraction methodology was developed to reduce the time usually required to determine the phenol content in olive oil. The validity of this method, based on SPE technique, was tested against two other phenol extraction techniques.
    The statistical analysis of the analytical data showed that over a phenol content range of 110-550 μg/g oil, the proposed method can be a reliable alternative for a rapid extraction of the phenols from olive oil.

    No disponible.

  16. Influence of extra virgin olive oil on blood pressure and kidney angiotensinase activities in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarejo, Ana Belén; Ramírez-Sánchez, Manuel; Segarra, Ana Belén; Martínez-Cañamero, Magdalena; Prieto, Isabel

    2015-06-01

    High-fat diets are associated with the development of cardiovascular diseases. The efficacy of the current strategies of treatment is still not entirely satisfactory, and new approaches are being considered. To analyze the beneficial effects of extra virgin olive oil as a major component of the Mediterranean diet, we studied systolic blood pressure and angiotensinase activities, since this enzyme is involved in the metabolism of angiotensins, in the kidney of hypertensive rats fed during 12 weeks with a diet enriched with extra virgin olive oil compared with a standard diet. As a reflex of oxidative stress, 8-isoprostanes and nitric oxide were quantified in urine. Results demonstrated a progressive increase in systolic blood pressure until the end of the feeding period in both groups. However, this increase was delayed in the extra virgin olive oil group until week six, with the systolic blood pressure being always lower in this group. Nitric oxide and 8-isoprostanes were lower in the extra virgin olive oil group. While we can deduce a higher formation of angiotensin 2-10 in the renal cortex, a higher availability of angiotensin II may be presumed in the renal medulla of animals fed an extra virgin olive oil diet than in animals fed a standard diet. Our results support the beneficial influence of extra virgin olive oil on cardiovascular function and suggest that the Mediterranean diet may be beneficial in itself but it may also be an effective tool in the treatment of hypertension.

  17. Taggiasca extra virgin olive oil colonization by yeasts during the extraction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciafardini, G; Cioccia, G; Zullo, B A

    2017-04-01

    The opalescent appearance of the newly produced olive oil is due to the presence of solid particles and microdrops of vegetation water in which the microorganisms from the olives' carposphere are trapped. Present research has demonstrated that the microbiota of the fresh extracted olive oil, produced in the mills, is mainly composed of yeasts and to a lesser extent of molds. The close link between the composition of the microbiota of the olives' carposphere undergoing to processing, and that of the microbiota of the newly produced olive oil, concerns only the yeasts and molds, given that the bacterial component is by and large destroyed mainly in the kneaded paste during the malaxation process. Six physiologically homogenous yeast groups were highlighted in the wash water, kneaded paste and newly produced olive oil from the Taggiasca variety which had been collected in mills located in the Liguria region. The more predominant yeasts of each group belonged to a single species called respectively: Kluyveromyces marxianus, Candida oleophila, Candida diddensiae, Candida norvegica, Wickerhamomyces anomalus and Debaryomyces hansenii. Apart from K. marxianus, which was found only in the wash water, all the other species were found in the wash water and in the kneaded paste as well as in the newly produced olive oil, while in the six-month stored olive oil, was found only one physiologically homogeneous group of yeast represented by the W. anomalus specie. These findings in according to our previous studies carried out on other types of mono varietal olive oils, confirms that the habitat of the Taggiascas' extra virgin olive oil, had a strong selective pressure on the yeast biota, allowing only to a few member of yeast species, contaminating the fresh product, to survive and reproduce in it during storage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Soft-deodorization of virgin olive oil: Study of the changes of quality and chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio-Ruiz, Ramón; Romero, Inmaculada; García-González, Diego L; Oliver-Pozo, Celia; Aparicio, Ramón

    2017-04-01

    The potential adulteration of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) with soft-deodorized virgin olive oil (VOO) has raised the interest of researchers in investigating this fraud in recent years. The objective of this study was to determine chemical changes occurring after a soft-deodorization process in terms of volatiles, fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) and pyropheophytins (PPPs) concentrations in VOOs. After testing several conditions (80, 100 and 130°C, for 30 and 60min), the parameters of 100°C and 60min were considered as the optima. These conditions allowed removing volatiles responsible for sensory defects with low losses of total phenols (14%-32%), and values of PPPs (11.83%) and FAEEs (34.53mg/kg) lower than the limits of standard regulations. The experiments show that soft-deodorized VOOs could be added up to 50% to EVOOs and current standard methods would not detect this kind of adulteration.

  19. Application of "magnetic tongue" to the sensory evaluation of extra virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauri, Ilaria; Pagano, Bruno; Malmendal, Anders; Sacchi, Raffaele; Novellino, Ettore; Randazzo, Antonio

    2013-10-15

    The perception of odour and flavour of foods is a complicated physiological and psychological process that cannot be explained by simple models. Unfortunately, taste is not objective, but partially subjective and it depends also on the mood of the taster. Generally, sensory analysis is used to describe sensory features. The availability of a number of instrumental techniques has opened up the possibility to calibrate the sensory perception. Here we have tested the potentiality of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as "magnetic tongue" to measure sensory descriptors in extra-virgin olive oil. We were able to correlate the NMR metabolomic fingerprints of extra-virgin olive oil to the sensory descriptors: tomato, bitter, pungent, rosemary, artichoke, sweet, grassy and leaf.

  20. Analysis of the influence of multiple parameters on the commercial categories of Extremadura virgin olive oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montaño, A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Although Extremadura is an important producing region of Spanish virgin olive oils, it has not been always known for the high quality of its oils. However, implementation of continuous extraction systems in most of its olive mills has shown a general improvement in the quality of most virgin olive oils, but not in all of them. The aim of the present study was to examine how different variables, such as fruit quality discrimination or payment system, affected the overall quality of virgin olive oils from Extremadura. To do so, a screening experimental design and the corresponding statistical analysis of the collected data were performed. Sixty Extremadura oil mills were evaluated (50.4% of the total by taking bottled virgin olive oil samples from each of them. Statistical relationships between physicochemical parameters and production process variables were evaluated, showing that only three of them (separation of ground- and tree-harvested fruits, differential payment according to acidity, and extraction process were significantly correlated with the quality index and acidity of virgin olive oils.Extremadura es una importante región productora de aceites de oliva vírgenes de España, aunque no siempre ha sido conocida por la producción de aceites de oliva de alta calidad. Sin embargo, desde la implantación de los sistemas continuos de extracción de aceite en la mayoría de sus almazaras, ha tenido lugar un aumento de la calidad en muchas de éstas. El objetivo de este trabajo ha sido estudiar cómo algunas variables, como la clasificación de las aceitunas por la calidad, o su sistema de remuneración, influye en la calidad global de los aceites de oliva vírgenes extremeños. Para ello, se ha hecho uso de un diseño experimental de barrido y el análisis estadístico del mismo. Sesenta almazaras fueron evaluadas en Extremadura (50,4% del total y se tomó una muestra de aceite de oliva virgen envasado de cada una de las almazaras. Los

  1. Working towards the development of innovative ultrasound equipment for the extraction of virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clodoveo, Maria Lisa; Durante, Viviana; La Notte, Domenico

    2013-09-01

    Malaxation has been recognized as one of the most critical points in the mechanical extraction process for virgin olive oil (VOO). It is a low and continuous kneading of olive paste at a carefully monitored temperature. Through this essential technological operation the small droplets of the oil formed during the milling merge into large drops that can be easily separated with a decanter centrifuge. During this technological phase, a complex and necessary bioprocess takes place in order to determine the quality and composition of the final product. The malaxer is a heat exchanger characterized by a low overall heat transfer coefficient because the ratio of surface area to volume is disadvantageous, so it is important to find an innovative technology to improve heat-exchange. As matter of fact, the malaxing step is the only discontinuous phase in a continuous extraction process. In the next future, the essential challenge of VOO industrial plant manufacturing sector is to design and build advanced machines in order to transform the discontinuous malaxing step in a continuous phase and improve the working capacity of the industrial plants. In order to reduce the malaxing time enhancing the quality of the product, two ultrasound-assisted virgin olive oil extraction processes were tested against the traditional method. The sonication treatment was applied on olives submerged in a water bath (before the crushing) and on olive paste (after the crushing). The ultrasound technology provides a reduction of the malaxing duration improving VOO yields and its minor compounds content. Better extractibility and higher minor compounds contents were obtained by sonicating the olives submerged in a water bath than olive paste. After experimental trials the results were employed to suggest innovative scaling up solutions of the process and new applications of ultrasounds in the VOO industry.

  2. A novel reliable method of DNA extraction from olive oil suitable for molecular traceability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raieta, Katia; Muccillo, Livio; Colantuoni, Vittorio

    2015-04-01

    Extra virgin olive oil production has a worldwide economic impact. The use of this brand, however, is of great concern to Institutions and private industries because of the increasing number of fraud and adulteration attempts to the market products. Here, we present a novel, reliable and not expensive method for extracting the DNA from commercial virgin and extra virgin olive oils. The DNA is stable overtime and amenable for molecular analyses; in fact, by carrying out simple sequence repeats (SSRs) markers analysis, we characterise the genetic profile of monovarietal olive oils. By comparing the oil-derived pattern with that of the corresponding tree, we can unambiguously identify four cultivars from Samnium, a region of Southern Italy, and distinguish them from reference and more widely used varieties. Through a parentage statistical analysis, we also identify the putative pollinators, establishing an unprecedented and powerful tool for olive oil traceability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDE RESIDUES IN GREEK VIRGIN OLIVE OIL: LEVELS, DIETARY INTAKE AND RISK ASSESSMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Tsoutsi, Charoula; Konstantinou, Ioannis; Hela, Dimitra

    2008-01-01

    Abstract In this study, the occurrence of organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) and metabolite residues was investigated in 167 samples of Greek virgin olive oil during a two-year (2004–2005) sampling campaign. A total of 30.5% of samples contained detectable residues while only one sample contained dimethoate residues higher than the maximum residue limits. Among the seven detected OPs, fenthion and fenthion sulfoxide residues were detected in 10.8% and 14.4% of the samples...

  4. Protective Effect of Virgin Olive Oil (Olea europea L. Against Oxidative Damage Induced by Mercuric Chloride in Rat Albinos Wistar

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    Youcef Necib

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil is beneficial effects are not only related to its high content of oleic acid, but also to the antioxidant potential of its polyphenols. In this study, we assess the effects of virgin olive oil on mercuric chloride induced oxidative damage in the liver of rats. Adult male Albinos Wistar rats randomly divided into four groups, were the first was served as a control, whereas the remaining groups respectively treated with: virgin olive oil (2ml/ kg b.w; by gavage, mercuric chloride (0.5 mg/kg body weight i.p and combination of virgin olive oil and HgCl2. Change in liver enzyme activities, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS level, antioxidants and reduced glutathione (GSH contents were determined after 2 weeks of experimental period. Exposure of rats to mercuric chloride caused a significant increase the lipid peroxidation level along with corresponding decrease in the reduced glutathione and various antioxidant enzymes in liver. And increase in serum: glucose level, APL and transaminases activities and decreased in total protein and albumin levels. Furthermore, treatment with mercuric chloride caused a marked elevation of liver weight and decreased body weight. Supplementation of virgin olive oil resulted in decreased of lipid peroxidation level and in the serum: AST, ALT and APL activities were decreased along with increase in total protein, albumin and liver GSH levels. The activities of antioxidants enzymes: glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and glutathione –S-transferase (GST were also concomitantly restored to near normal level by virgin olive oil supplementation to mercuric chloride intoxicated rats. Liver histological studies have confirmed the changes observed in biochemical parameters and proved the beneficial role of virgin olive oil. The results clearly demonstrate that virgin olive oil treatment augments the antioxidants defense mechanism in mercuric chloride induced toxicity and provides evidence that it may have a

  5. Chemical characterization of organic and non-organic virgin olive oils

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    García-González Diego Luis

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Organic food products have shown to have lower environmental impact and lower presence of chemical residues. Consumers generally have positive attitudes towards organic food because of superior taste, environment-friendliness, health, food safety and animal welfare. During last years, the demand of consumers for organic virgin olive oils have been increased as a result of their high quality image from nutritional and health aspects. In this work sixteen virgin olive oil samples, four obtained by organic and twelve from non-organic cultivation, were analysed by their quality parameters (acidity, peroxide value and UV absorption, fatty acids, sterols and volatile compounds. Quality parameters were not able to discriminate between organic and non-organic samples although significant differences were found in the values of acidity and K270. Fatty acids and sterols content were able to discriminate samples according to their cultivar but did not show capacity differentiating the samples according to the cultivation system. The results of volatile analysis show that in general terms the organic virgin olive oils showed a higher concentration of volatile compounds, except for the aldehydes, whose concentration was higher in the non-organic oils, and the acids, whose concentration was similar in the both oil classes. The concentration of ketones, aldehydes, and alcohols showed significant variations (p < 0.05 between the two types of oils.

  6. A neuroimaging study of pleasant and unpleasant olfactory perceptions of virgin olive oil

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    J. Vivancos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI has been used to collect information from neurons that receive direct input from olfactory bulbs when subjects smell virgin olive oil. The pleasant aroma of three extra virgin olive oils (var. Royal, Arbequina and Picual and three virgin olive oils with sensory defects (rancid, fusty and winey/vinegary were presented to 14 subjects while a fMRI scan acquired data from the brain activity. Data were subjected to a two-sample t test analysis, which allows a better interpretation of results particularly when data are studied across different subjects. Most of the activations, which were located in the frontal lobe, are related to the olfactory task regardless of the hedonic component of perception (e.g. Brodmann areas 10, 11. Comparing the samples with pleasant and unpleasant aromas, differences were found at the anterior cingulate gyrus (Brodmann area 32, at the temporal lobe (Brodmann area 38, and inferior frontal gyrus (Brodmann area 47, while intense aromas activated Brodmann area 6. The actual perceptions described by the subjects and the concentration of the odorant compounds in the samples were considered in the interpretation of the results.

  7. Analysis of virgin olive oil volatiles by a novel electronic nose based on a miniaturized SAW sensor array coupled with SPME enhanced headspace enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-González, Diego L; Barie, Nicole; Rapp, Michael; Aparicio, Ramón

    2004-12-15

    A novel electronic nose based on solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with a surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor array has been used to analyze different quality virgin olive oils. A mathematical model was designed with 37 samples to distinguish lampante from the other virgin olive oils categories (extra-virgin and virgin), because lampante-virgin olive oils cannot be consumed without a previous refining process. The model, successfully validated with a test set of 16 samples, was able to classify 90% of the samples correctly. Misclassifications were explained by SPME-HRGC analyses and a second sensory evaluation.

  8. Determination of volatile compounds by GC-IMS to assign the quality of virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido-Delgado, Rocío; Dobao-Prieto, María del Mar; Arce, Lourdes; Valcárcel, Miguel

    2015-11-15

    The characterisation of different olive oil categories (extra virgin, virgin and lampante) using Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) was improved by replacing the multicapillary column (MCC) with a capillary column (CC). The data obtained with MCC-IMS and CC-IMS were evaluated, studying both the global and the specific information obtained after the analysis of the volatile fraction of olive oils. A better differentiation of the oil categories was obtained employing CC vs MCC, since the classification percentage obtained with the CC-IMS was 92% as opposed to 87% obtained with MCC-IMS; although in productivity analytical terms, MCC offer a faster analysis than GC. The specific information obtained was also used to build a database, with a view to facilitating the characterization of specific attributes of olive oils. A total of 26 volatile metabolites (aldehydes, ketones, alcohols and esters) were identified. Finally, as revealed by an ANOVA test, some volatiles differed markedly in content among the different categories of oil. The data obtained confirms the potential of IMS as a reliable analytical screening technique, which can be used to assign the correct category to an olive oil sample.

  9. Effect of virgin olive oil versus piroxicam phonophoresis on exercise-induced anterior knee pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhostin-Roohi, Babak; Khoshkhahesh, Faegheh; Bohlooli, Shahab

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of virgin olive oil phonophoresis on female athletes' anterior knee pain (AKP). Materials and Methods: A double blinded randomized clinical trial was conducted. Ninety-three female athletes suffering from AKP voluntarily participated in this study. Patients were randomly assigned into olive oil (n=31), piroxicam (n=31) or base gel phonophoresis (n=31) groups. At the baseline visit, the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) questionnaire was filled by subjects who were then treated with olive oil, piroxicam or pure phonophoresis for 12 sessions. After 6 and 12 sessions of physiotherapy, subjects filled the questionnaire again. Main outcomes were significant improvement in pain, stiffness, physical function, and total WOMAC scores. Results: Although, there was a significant reduction in symptoms of AKP at the end of the therapy in all groups (ppiroxicam and/or phonophoresis group was observed after 6 sessions of therapy (ppiroxicam gel on lowering WOMAC scores of AKP in female athletes and also has several beneficial properties including faster effect and shorter duration of therapy. The exact mechanism of beneficial action of virgin olive oil on AKP is not clear and requires further studies. PMID:27761423

  10. Quality of extra virgin olive oils produced in an emerging olive growing area in north-western Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboredo-Rodríguez, P; González-Barreiro, C; Cancho-Grande, B; Simal-Gándara, J

    2014-12-01

    Systematic studies of physico-chemical and stability-related properties, and chemical composition, of extra virgin olive oils (EVOOs) obtained from drupes cropped in specific regions are of special agricultural interest. This is particularly so with new production areas, where careful selection of the most suitable olive varieties for EVOO production is required. This paper reports the first comprehensive chemical characterisation of EVOOs obtained from three different olive varieties (viz., Picual, Morisca and Manzanilla de Sevilla) grown in a new cultivation area in Galicia (NW Spain). The Morisca variety was that providing the highest industrial oil yield (21%). However, the three types of EVOO exhibited no statistically significant differences in standard quality-related indices other than acidity. Morisca EVOO was that with the lowest content in oleic acid (mean=68%) and highest content in linoleic acid (mean=13%). Also, Morisca EVOO exhibited the highest sterol levels (mean=1,616 mg/kg) and Picual EVOO the lowest (mean=1,160 mg/kg). Picual EVOO contained greater amounts of the phenolic compounds luteolin and pinoresinol than both Morisca and Manzanilla de Sevilla EVOOs. Finally, Manzanilla de Sevilla EVOO exhibited differential attributes, with banana and olive fruit aromatic series prevailing predominantly over bitter-like, pungent-like and leaf series.

  11. Effects of extra virgin olive oil and fish oil on lipid profile and oxidative stress in patients with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturini, Danielle; Simão, Andréa Name Colado; Urbano, Mariana Ragassi; Dichi, Isaias

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to verify if extra virgin olive oil and fish oil have a synergistic effect on lipid and oxidative stress parameters in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS). This intervention study included 102 patients (81 women and 21 men) with MetS (mean age 51.45 ± 8.27 y) from the ambulatory center of the University Hospital of Londrina, Paraná, Brazil. Patients were randomly assigned to one of four groups: Patients in the control group (CG) were instructed to maintain their usual diet; the second group (fish oil group [FO]) received 3 g/d of fish oil ω-3 fatty acids (10 capsules); the third group (extra virgin olive oil group [OO]) received 10 mL/d of extra virgin olive oil at lunch and dinner; and the fourth group (fish oil and extra virgin olive oil group [FOO]) received 3 g/d of fish oil ω-3 fatty acids and 10 mL/d of extra virgin olive oil. MetS related markers and oxidative stress were measured at baseline and after 90 d. Differences across treatment groups showed a statistically significant decrease (P olive oil have beneficial synergistic effects on lipid metabolism and oxidative stress in patients with MetS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of the long-term regular intake of virgin olive oil on the phenolic metabolites in human fasting plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valls, Rosa-Maria; Soler, Aranzazu; Girona, Josefa; Heras, Mercedes; Romero, Maria-Paz; Covas, Maria-Isabel; Solà, Rosa; Masana, Lluis; Motilva, Maria-Jose

    2010-09-21

    The effect of repeated consumption of virgin olive oil on endogenous phenolic metabolites of fasting plasma is unknown. For this reason, we hypothesized that regular long-term virgin olive oil intake could have an indirect protection effect on the endogenous phenols. Thus, the aim of the study was to determine the phenolic profile of human plasma in a fasting state of long-term regular virgin olive oil consumers, using the fasting plasma of non-consumers as a natural control. Forty participants living in the area of Reus (Catalonia, Spain) were selected, 20 life-long regular consumers of virgin olive oil and a natural control of 20 non-consumers, the latter being Rumanians who dislike the taste of olive oil. The diet was obtained from 3-day food records. The results showed similar phenolic composition of fasting plasmas of the two volunteer groups. Of special interest is that more of the compounds quantified showed higher concentration in fasting plasma from habitual virgin olive oil consumers. The compounds were semi-quantified using caffeic acid as the calibration standard. The quantification of fasting consumer's plasma showed higher concentration of a hydroxyflavanone type compound (2.90+/-0.04 microM vs 1.5+/-0.04 microM) and a catecholamine derivative (0.70+/-0.03 microM vs 0.56+/-0.03 microM) than the plasma of non-consumers (Polive oil consumption related to the protection of the endogenous antioxidant system.

  13. Monitoring the phenolic compounds of Greek extra-virgin olive oils during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsiou, Kali; Tasioula-Margari, Maria

    2016-06-01

    Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) samples, of five Greek olive varieties, were stored in dark glass bottles (headspace 0.5%) in a basement without central heating for 24 months. Quantitative variations of the phenolic compounds and their degradation products were monitored over time. The differences observed in the initial total phenolic compounds concentration (ranging between 250.77 and 925.75 mg/kg) were attributed to extraction system, olive variety, and maturity stage. Even after 24 months, the degree of reduction in total phenolic compounds did not exceed 31%. The reduction was more pronounced in dialdehydic forms of oleuropein and ligstroside aglycones (DAFOA and DAFLA), indicating a more active participation in the hydrolysis and oxidation processes of the more polar secoiridoids. The initial total phenolic content was the main factor correlated to the degradation rate of the phenolic compounds. The decrease in secoiridoid derivatives, gave rise to hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol content and to the formation of four oxidized products.

  14. Chemical composition of virgin olive oils from the Chemlali cultivar with regard to the method of the olive tree propagation

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    Guerfel, M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports for the first time a discrimination study based on the antioxidant compounds, oxidative stability and volatile compounds of virgin olive oil samples obtained from fruits of the main Tunisian olive cultivar (Chemlali using two methods of olive tree propagation (suckers and cuttings. There were significant differences between the oils from the two methods. Olive oil samples obtained from the fruits of trees from suckers had a higher content of oleic acid (63.8%, higher contents of chlorophyll and carotenoids (3.01 mg/ kg and 1.9 mg/kg respectively, a higher content of (E-2 hexenal (66.1% and a higher content in total phenols (890 mg/kg. Interestingly, more stable oil was obtained from the olives from suckers compared to the olives from cuttings. These results can be used to discriminate and to characterize the Chemlali olive oils from each origin of olive tree.

    En este trabajo se presenta por primera vez un estudio de discriminación basado en compuestos antioxidantes, estabilidad oxidativa y compuestos volátiles de muestras de aceites de oliva virgen obtenidos de frutos de la principal variedad de aceitunas tunecinas (Chemlali a partir de dos métodos de propagación del olivo (chupones y estaquillas herbáceas. Se han encontrado diferencias significativas entre los aceites obtenidos por los dos métodos. Las muestras de aceites de oliva obtenidas de frutos de árboles de chupones tenían una mayor proporción de ácido oleico (63,8%, un mayor contenido de clorofila y de carotenoides (3,01 mg/kg y 1,9 mg/kg, respectivamente, un mayor contenido de (E-2 hexenal (66,1% y un mayor contenido en fenoles totales (890 mg/kg. Curiosamente, el aceite más estable se ha obtenido de las aceitunas de árboles de chupones, en comparación con las aceitunas de árboles de estaquillas herbáceas. Estos resultados pueden ser utilizados para discriminar y caracterizar los aceites de oliva Chamlali según el origen del olivo.

  15. Influence of olive ripening degree and crusher typology on chemical and sensory characteristics of Correggiolo virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrone, Lucia; Pupillo, Sabrina; Neri, Luisa; Bertazza, Giampaolo; Magli, Massimiliano; Rotondi, Annalisa

    2017-03-01

    In this study, two types of crusher, hammer and blade, were used to produce olive oils from cv. Correggiolo olives at four stages of ripeness, to analyse the effect of these two factors on oil quality indices (free acidity, peroxide value, UV absorption), on phenolic compounds content and sensory profiles. Differences in chemical and sensory data were analysed by two-way ANOVA. Ripeness exerted a stronger influence than the crushing equipment on quality indices, phenolic content and sensory evaluation; moreover the statistical significance of interaction between the factors considered suggests that they are intertwined. Differences in the texture of olive pastes obtained by squashing and crushing were clearly evident at the first stage of ripeness via observation with a scanning electron microscope. The stronger mechanical action of the hammer crusher also produced smaller pit fragments compared to the blade crusher, as shown by particle size analysis of the kernels fragments. Knowledge about the interaction between ripening and crushing will allow olive oil producers to pursue a product of the quality most suitable for a particular type of consumer. For example, bitterness and pungency, characters recently connected with health effects because sensory markers of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) polyphenols, do not have a great sensory appeal for most consumers; however, there is a niche of gourmet estimators interested in these peculiar flavours and ready to pay a premium price for them. The producer will be able to customise the EVOO by modulating its chemical and sensory characteristics, especially the phenolic fraction, thus addressing the needs of consumers with different tastes. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Quality of virgin olive oil as influenced by origin area.

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    Ranalli, A.

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available To elucidate the weight and the influence of the origin area on the analytical and compositional variables of olive oil, an investigation was carried out. Five Italian geographical zones were chosen. They were in the neighbour of the: (i Faculty of Agriculture of University of Perugia (UNI-PG; (ii the Olive Growing Institute-National Research Council of Perugia (NRC-PG; (iii the Experimental Olive Growing Institute of Spoleto (EOI-SPOL; (iv the Agricultural Technical Institute of Pescia (ATI-PES; and (v the Faculty of Agriculture of University of Florence (UNI-FL. From these areas, Frantoio, Leccino and Moraiolo olive variety samples were taken, which were processed by a mini oil-mill. The research results showed that the quality, typicality and shelf-life parameters and the flavour of the oils were largely influenced by the origin zone, i.e., by the climatic and pedologic factors of the production environment. The influence exerted on some oil constituent groups, as phenols, tocopherols, aromatic volatile compounds, and fatty acids, should be emphasized as these components are closely related to the quality and typicality of product. Some oil genuineness parameters were affected as well by the environmental variables.

    Se ha realizado una investigación para evidenciar la importancia y la Influencia que la zona de origen tiene sobre las variables analíticas del aceite de oliva virgen. Han sido seleccionadas cinco zonas geográficas de Italia: (i una cerca de la Facultad de Agraria de la Universidad de Perusa (UNI-PG; (ii una cerca del Instituto para la Olivicultura - Consejo Nacional de las Investigaciones de Perusa (CNI-PG; (iii una zona próxima al Instituto Experimental para la Olivicultura de Espoleto (lEO-ESP; (iv una zona cerca Instituto Técnico Agrario de Pescia (ITA-PES; (v una zona cerca de la Facultad de Agraria de la Universidad de Florencia (UNI-FL. De estas zonas han sido tomadas muestras de aceitunas de las

  17. Chemometric applications to assess quality and critical parameters of virgin and extra-virgin olive oil. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Caravaca, Ana M; Maggio, Rubén M; Cerretani, Lorenzo

    2016-03-24

    Today virgin and extra-virgin olive oil (VOO and EVOO) are food with a large number of analytical tests planned to ensure its quality and genuineness. Almost all official methods demand high use of reagents and manpower. Because of that, analytical development in this area is continuously evolving. Therefore, this review focuses on analytical methods for EVOO/VOO which use fast and smart approaches based on chemometric techniques in order to reduce time of analysis, reagent consumption, high cost equipment and manpower. Experimental approaches of chemometrics coupled with fast analytical techniques such as UV-Vis spectroscopy, fluorescence, vibrational spectroscopies (NIR, MIR and Raman fluorescence), NMR spectroscopy, and other more complex techniques like chromatography, calorimetry and electrochemical techniques applied to EVOO/VOO production and analysis have been discussed throughout this work. The advantages and drawbacks of this association have also been highlighted. Chemometrics has been evidenced as a powerful tool for the oil industry. In fact, it has been shown how chemometrics can be implemented all along the different steps of EVOO/VOO production: raw material input control, monitoring during process and quality control of final product.

  18. Comprehensive analysis of polyphenols in 55 extra virgin olive oils by HPLC-ECD and their correlation with antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, Banu; Esatbeyoglu, Tuba; Schulze, Nicole; Ozcelik, Beraat; Frank, Jan; Rimbach, Gerald

    2012-12-01

    In this study, we analyzed eight phenolic compounds (tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein, pinoresinol, and caffeic, ferulic, vanillic, and p-coumaric acid) in 55 mono- and multivarietal extra virgin olive oil samples by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to a coulometric electrochemical array detector (ECD). The phenolic profile of olive oil samples differed depending on the geographical origin and olive variety. The total reducing capacity (total phenolics) of olive oils ranged from about 40 to 530 mg gallic acid equivalents/kg oil. Tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol and pinoresinol were the most abundant phenolic compounds in olive oils. The antioxidant capacity of the olive oil extracts was determined by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays. Total reducing capacity was significatly correlated with FRAP (R² = 0.91, p polyphenols in olive oils from 9 different countries and four continents.

  19. Labeled extra virgin olive oil as food supplement; phenolic compounds in oils from some autochthonous Croatian olives

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    Jakobušić Brala, C.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of an incentive to provide labeled extra virgin olive oils as a food supplement in pharmacies, the phenolic profile analysis of extra virgin olive oils obtained from Croatian olive cultivars has been reported. With the aim of increasing the consumption of EVOO-s in northern Croatia, the varieties Bjelica, Buža and Italian Leccino have been studied involving two different agroclimatic locations, over two harvest years differing significantly in the amount of rainfall. The Croatian cultivars Plominka, Žižolera, Oblica and Lastovka, were also examined. Correlation tests and the insight from PCA reveal that the cultivars are highly individualized in character with regard to relationships among phenolic compounds. Some elements of an innovative labeling aimed to better present the authenticity, quality, excellence and uniqueness of the EVOO-s were suggested.En el marco de los incentivos que se han considerado para proporcionar el etiquetado de aceites de oliva virgen extra como suplemento alimenticio en farmacias, se reporta el análisis del perfil fenólico de aceites de oliva vírgenes extra obtenidos a partir de variedades croatas. Para ampliar el consumo de AOVE-s en el norte de Croacia, se han estudiado las variedades Bjelica, Buža y Leccino italiana procedentes de dos lugares agroclimáticos diferentes que difieren significativamente en la cantidad de lluvia y obtenidos en dos cosechas. Tambien fueron examinados los cultivares croatas Plominka, Žižolera, Oblica y Lastovka. Los test de correlación y los resultados de PCA revelan que las variedades están altamente individualizados en su carácter en lo que respecta a las relaciones entre los compuestos fenólicos. Se sugirieron algunos elementos innovadores para un etiquetado dirigido a presentar mejor la autenticidad, la calidad, la excelencia y la singularidad de los AOVE-s.

  20. Influence of the nocturnal harvesting of olives from Salento (Italy on the quality of the extra virgin olive oil

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    Di Serio, M. G.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In southern Italy, some olive cultivars such as ‘Ogliarola Salentina’ ripen when the day temperature is still high, at up to 28 to 30 °C. This can affect both the oil quality and the expression of its valuable characteristics. In addition, it increases the risk of undesirable fermentation that can generate off-flavors. In the present study, nocturnal olive harvesting was carried out to determine the influence that temperature can have on the characteristics of the extra virgin olive oil, and particularly on the volatile and oxidative compounds. The data obtained are encouraging: the lower temperatures that occur during the night appear to have a particular and positive impact on the organoleptic characteristics of the extra virgin olive oil produced, with enhanced formation of the volatile compounds that contribute to the ‘green’ notes of the flavor. In areas where daytime temperatures are very high, the nocturnal harvesting of olives at the correct stage of maturity therefore represents a good agronomic practice for the production of oils with high organoleptic and nutritional merit.En el sur de Italia, algunas variedades de olivo maduran cuando la temperatura del día sigue siendo alta, hasta 28 °C a 30 °C. Esto puede perjudicar la calidad del aceite y a la expresión de sus valiosas características, y aumenta el riesgo de fermentación indeseable que puede generar malos sabores. En el presente estudio, la cosecha nocturna de aceitunas se llevó a cabo para determinar la influencia que la temperatura puede tener sobre las características del aceite de oliva virgen extra, y en particular sobre los compuestos volátiles y los compuestos relacionados con la oxidación. Los datos obtenidos son alentadores: las temperaturas más bajas que se producen durante la noche parecen tener un impacto positivo en las características organolépticas del aceite de oliva virgen extra producido, con una mejora de la formación de los compuestos vol

  1. Consumption of extra-virgin olive oil rich in phenolic compounds improves metabolic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santangelo, C.; Filesi, C.; Varì, R.; Scazzocchio, B.; Filardi, T.; Fogliano, V.; D’Archivio, M.; Giovannini, C.; Lenzi, A.; Morano, S.; Masella, R.

    2016-01-01


    Aim

    Phenolic compounds naturally contained in extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) have demonstrated anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. The present study aimed at evaluating the effects of a polyphenol-rich extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) (high-polyphenol EVOO, HP-EVOO) on the

  2. Rapid direct analysis to discriminate geographic origin of extra virgin olive oils by flash gas chromatography electronic nose and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melucci, Dora; Bendini, Alessandra; Tesini, Federica; Barbieri, Sara; Zappi, Alessandro; Vichi, Stefania; Conte, Lanfranco; Gallina Toschi, Tullia

    2016-08-01

    At present, the geographical origin of extra virgin olive oils can be ensured by documented traceability, although chemical analysis may add information that is useful for possible confirmation. This preliminary study investigated the effectiveness of flash gas chromatography electronic nose and multivariate data analysis to perform rapid screening of commercial extra virgin olive oils characterized by a different geographical origin declared in the label. A comparison with solid phase micro extraction coupled to gas chromatography mass spectrometry was also performed. The new method is suitable to verify the geographic origin of extra virgin olive oils based on principal components analysis and discriminant analysis applied to the volatile profile of the headspace as a fingerprint. The selected variables were suitable in discriminating between "100% Italian" and "non-100% Italian" oils. Partial least squares discriminant analysis also allowed prediction of the degree of membership of unknown samples to the classes examined.

  3. Sensory properties of virgin olive oil polyphenols: identification of deacetoxy-ligstroside aglycon as a key contributor to pungency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrewes, Paul; Busch, Johanneke L H C; de Joode, Teun; Groenewegen, Anneke; Alexandre, Helene

    2003-02-26

    Polyphenols are an important functional minor component of virgin olive oils that are responsible for the key sensory characteristics of bitterness, pungency, and astringency. Polyphenols were isolated from virgin olive oils by using liquid/liquid extraction and then separated by using reverse phase HPLC followed by fraction collection. The sensory qualities of the isolated polyphenols were evaluated, and almost all fractions containing polyphenols were described as bitter and astringent. However, the fraction containing deacetoxy-ligstroside aglycon produced a strong burning pungent sensation at the back of the throat. In contrast, the fraction containing the analogous deacetoxy-oleuropein aglycon, at an equivalent concentration, produced only a slight burning/numbing sensation, which was perceived more on the tongue. No other polyphenol fractions from the analyzed oils produced the intense burning sensation; thus, deacetoxy-ligstroside aglycon is the polyphenol responsible for the majority of the burning pungent sensation found in pungent extra virgin olive oils.

  4. Determination of Alkyl Esters Content in PDO Extra Virgin Olive Oils from Sicily

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    Rosaria Costa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality parameter of alkyl esters of fatty acids was checked in a variety of Italian olive oil samples. In particular, 34 samples of extra virgin olive oils (EVOOs from South Italy (Sicilian orchards, produced in the years 2014-2015, have been subjected to the analytical protocol dictated by the European Union for the determination of alkyl esters, as an indicator of oil’s quality. All the samples analyzed resulted to be well below the limit set by EU Directive. Besides recently produced EVOOs, a set of very aged oils, produced in the years 1996–2000, were analyzed as well. The main finding was that alkyl esters increased in correspondence with deterioration processes.

  5. Influence of Extreme Storage Conditions on Extra Virgin Olive Oil Parameters: Traceability Study

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    Alfredo Escudero

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reflects the effect of extreme storage conditions on several extra virgin olive oil (EVOO varieties (arbequina, hojiblanca, and picual. The conditions were simulated in the laboratory, by means of heating treatments in stove at different temperatures (40 and 60°C and times (two and three weeks. The aim is the evaluation of the deterioration of the quality parameters and minority components, which are responsible for the nutritional and therapeutic properties (fatty acids, polyphenols, pigments, and tocopherols, and organoleptic qualities. The quality criteria and limits used in this work are according to International Olive Council. The results contribute to the control of the traSceability for the commercialization of the EVOO.

  6. Influence of Extreme Storage Conditions on Extra Virgin Olive Oil Parameters: Traceability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, Alfredo; Pacheco, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    This study reflects the effect of extreme storage conditions on several extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) varieties (arbequina, hojiblanca, and picual). The conditions were simulated in the laboratory, by means of heating treatments in stove at different temperatures (40 and 60°C) and times (two and three weeks). The aim is the evaluation of the deterioration of the quality parameters and minority components, which are responsible for the nutritional and therapeutic properties (fatty acids, polyphenols, pigments, and tocopherols), and organoleptic qualities. The quality criteria and limits used in this work are according to International Olive Council. The results contribute to the control of the traSceability for the commercialization of the EVOO. PMID:28042493

  7. Validation of SPME-GCMS method for the analysis of virgin olive oil volatiles responsible for sensory defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, I; García-González, D L; Aparicio-Ruiz, R; Morales, M T

    2015-03-01

    Volatile compounds are responsible for the aroma of virgin olive oil and also for its quality. The high number and different nature of volatile compounds drive to the need of a reliable analytical method that allows their proper quantification to explain the standard method of panel test. Although there are some analytical solutions available, they have not been validated and the regulatory bodies are reluctant to adopt them since they can be subjected to unknown errors. In this regards, the European Union has encouraged the validation of these analytical tools through the research program Horizon2020, which involves gaining knowledge from the analytical properties of the chemical methods for sensory assessment. This work is focused on the analytical validation of the methodology used to determine the actual concentration of volatiles in virgin olive oils when applying SPME-GCMS. The validation process includes the calibration curves for 29 volatile compounds responsible for the most common sensory perceptions in virgin olive oils, the determination of their working ranges with linear response, the detection and quantification limits, the sensitivity, the accuracy estimated as trueness and precision and the selectivity. Sixty-seven percent of the compounds presented a relative standard deviation in repeatability lower than 10%, and this percentage rises to 95% in lampante virgin olive oils. The accuracy was established in 97% of the studied volatile compounds. Finally, an empirical example of the ability of the method to discriminate virgin olive oils of different categories (extra virgin, virgin, ordinary and lampante) by the quantification of their volatiles is provided.

  8. Rosemary Aromatization of Extra Virgin Olive Oil and Process Optimization Including Antioxidant Potential and Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan Karacabey

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aromatization of olive oil especially by spices and herbs has been widely used technique throughout the ages in Mediterranean diets. The present study was focused on aromatization of olive oil by rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.. Aromatization process was optimized by response surface methodology as a function of malaxation’s conditions (temperature and time. According to authors’ best knowledge it was first time for examination of oil yield performance with antioxidant potential and pigments under effect of aromatization parameters. For all oil samples, values of the free acidity, peroxide, K232 and K270 as quality parameters fell within the ranges established for the highest quality category “extra virgin oil”. Oil yield (mL oil/kg olive paste changed from 158 to 208 with respect to design parameters. Total phenolic content and free radical scavenging activity as antioxidant potential of olive oil samples were varied in the range of 182.44 – 348.65 mg gallic acid equivalent/kg oil and 28.91 – 88.75 % inhibition of 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl-(DPPH•, respectively. Total contents of carotenoid, chlorophyll and pheophytin a as pigments in oil samples were found to be in between 0.09 – 0.48 mg carotenoid/kg oil, 0.11 – 0.96 mg chlorophyll/kg oil, 0.15 – 4.44 mg pheo α/kg oil, respectively. The proposed models for yield, pigments and antioxidant potential responses were found to be good enough for successful prediction of experimental results. Total phenolics, carotenoids and free radical scavenging activity of aromatized olive oil and oil yield were maximized to gather and optimal conditions were determined as 25°C, 84 min, and 2 % (Rosemary/olive paste; w/w.

  9. Chemometric study of Andalusian extra virgin olive oils Raman spectra: Qualitative and quantitative information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-López, E; Sánchez-Rodríguez, M I; Marinas, A; Marinas, J M; Urbano, F J; Caridad, J M; Moalem, M

    2016-08-15

    Authentication of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is an important topic for olive oil industry. The fraudulent practices in this sector are a major problem affecting both producers and consumers. This study analyzes the capability of FT-Raman combined with chemometric treatments of prediction of the fatty acid contents (quantitative information), using gas chromatography as the reference technique, and classification of diverse EVOOs as a function of the harvest year, olive variety, geographical origin and Andalusian PDO (qualitative information). The optimal number of PLS components that summarizes the spectral information was introduced progressively. For the estimation of the fatty acid composition, the lowest error (both in fitting and prediction) corresponded to MUFA, followed by SAFA and PUFA though such errors were close to zero in all cases. As regards the qualitative variables, discriminant analysis allowed a correct classification of 94.3%, 84.0%, 89.0% and 86.6% of samples for harvest year, olive variety, geographical origin and PDO, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Preliminary study on the application of an electric field as a method of preservation for virgin olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Ariza-Ortega

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of an electric field treatment (voltage: 3 kV cm-1, frequency: 60 Hz and time: of 5 and 25 min on the stability of unsaturated fatty acids in virgin olive oil. Unsaturated fatty acid oxidation in the virgin olive oil was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in the mid infrared region, and by quality parameters (acidity, peroxide and iodine. The electric field is a suitable method to preserve this oil composition with minimal modifications without the synthetic antioxidant addition.

  11. Sensory attribute preservation in extra virgin olive oil with addition of oregano essential oil as natural antioxidant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio, Claudia M; Nepote, Valeria; Grosso, Nelson R

    2012-09-01

    Four commercial varieties of oregano are farmed in Argentina: "Compacto,"Cordobes,"Criollo," y "Mendocino." Oregano essential oil is known for antioxidant properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in the intensities of positive and negative attributes in extra virgin olive oil with addition of essential oil obtained from the 4 Argentinean oregano types. Oregano essential oil was added into olive oil at 0.05% w/w. The samples were stored in darkness and light exposure during 126 d at room temperature. The intensity ratings of fruity, pungency, bitterness, oregano flavor, and rancid flavor were evaluated every 21 d by a trained sensory panel. In general, samples with addition of oregano essential oil in olive oil exhibited higher and lower intensity ratings of positive and negative attributes, respectively, during storage compared with the control samples. The first 2 principal components explained 72.3% of the variability in the olive oil samples. In general, positive attributes of olive oil were highly associated with the addition of oregano essential oil in darkness, whereas rancid flavor was negatively associated with them. Olive oil with oregano "Cordobes" essential oil was oppositely associated with light exposure treatments and negative attribute (rancid flavor) suggesting better performance as natural antioxidant of this essential oil in olive oil. The result of this study showed that the presence of oregano essential oil, specially "Cordobes" type, preserve sensory quality of extra virgin olive oil prolonging the shelf life of this product. Extra virgin olive oil is highly appreciated for its health benefits, taste, and aroma. These properties are an important aspect in this product quality and need to be preserved. The addition of natural additives instead of synthetic ones covers the present trend in food technology. This research showed that the addition of oregano essential oil preserved the intensity ratings of positive attributes

  12. Biosensor measurements of polar phenolics for the assessment of the bitterness and pungency of virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Johanneke L H C; Hrncirik, Karel; Bulukin, Emily; Boucon, Claire; Mascini, Marco

    2006-06-14

    Bitterness and pungency, sensory quality attributes of virgin olive oil, are related to the presence of phenolic compounds. Fast and reliable alternatives for the evaluation of sensory attributes and phenolic content are desirable, as sensory and traditional analytical methods are time-consuming and expensive. In this study, two amperometric enzyme-based biosensors (employing tyrosinase or peroxidase) for rapid measurement of polar phenolics of olive oil were tested. The biosensor was constructed using disposable screen-printed carbon electrodes with the enzyme as biorecognition element. The sensor was coupled with a simple extraction procedure and optimized for use in flow injection analysis. The performance of the biosensor was assessed by measuring a set of virgin olive oils and comparing the results with data obtained by the reference HPLC method and sensory scores. The correlations between the tyrosinase- and peroxidase-based biosensors and phenolic content in the samples were high (r = 0.82 and 0.87, respectively), which, together with a good repeatability (rsd = 6%), suggests that these biosensors may represent a promising tool in the analysis of the total content of phenolics in virgin olive oils. The correlation with sensory quality attributes of virgin olive oil was lower, which illustrates the complexity of sensory perception. The two biosensors possessed different specificities toward different groups of phenolics, affecting bitterness and pungency prediction. The peroxidase-based biosensor showed a significant correlation (r = 0.66) with pungency.

  13. Extraction, Separation, and Identification of Phenolic Compounds in Virgin Olive Oil by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Tasioula-Margari; Eleftheria Tsabolatidou

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the recovery of individual phenolic compounds extracted from virgin olive oil (VOO), from different Greek olive varieties. Sufficient recoveries (90%) of all individual phenolic compounds were obtained using methanol as an extraction solvent, acetonitrile for residue solubilization, and two washing steps with hexane. Moreover, in order to elucidate structural characteristics of phenolic compounds in VOO, high performance liquid chromatography with a diode...

  14. Effect of malaxation conditions on phenol and volatile profiles in olive paste and the corresponding virgin olive oils (Olea europaea L. Cv. Cornicabra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Rico, Aurora; Inarejos-García, Antonio M; Salvador, M Desamparados; Fregapane, Giuseppe

    2009-05-13

    Malaxation of olive paste must be considered to be much more than a simple physical separation, because a complex bioprocess takes place that is very relevant to the quality and composition of the final product. A combined study of the effect of kneading temperature and time on the minor composition of olive paste and its corresponding virgin olive oil, processed in an experimental oil mill (Pieralisi, Fattoria) with a working capacity of 200 kg/h, is reported. A large drop in the oleuropein content in the olive paste with respect to its initial content in the olive fruit (between 92 and 96%) was observed, which suggested its almost total degradation during the crushing operation. The major phenolic compound found in the olive paste during kneading was the dialdehydic form of elenolic acid linked to hydroxytyrosol (3,4-DHPEA-EDA, always higher than 60% of the total phenols). This greatly decreased during malaxation (from 5505 to 2317 mg/kg, on average). The content of phenolic compounds in virgin olive oil was much more affected by the malaxation temperature than the kneading time. For instance, the 3,4-DHPEA-EDA content increased by 220-630% in the two batches when the temperature was increased from 20 to 40 degrees C. A reduction in the C6 aldehydes was found in virgin olive oil as the malaxation temperature increased, especially in E-2-hexenal (30% reduction). In contrast, C6 aldehydes in the oils from the oil mill plant significantly increased as the malaxation time increased from 30 to 90 min, chiefly E-2-hexenal (about a 70% increase).

  15. Novel antibacterial and emollient effects of coconut and virgin olive oils in adult atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verallo-Rowell, Vermén M; Dillague, Kristine M; Syah-Tjundawan, Bertha S

    2008-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) skin is dry and readily colonized by Staphylococcus aureus (SA). Coconut and olive oils are traditionally used to moisturize and treat skin infections. To compare virgin coconut oil (VCO) and virgin olive oil (VOO) in moisturizing dryness and removing SA from colonized AD skin. This was a double-blind controlled trial in two outpatient dermatology clinics with adult AD patients who were diagnosed by history, pattern, evolution, and skin lesions and who were randomized to apply VCO or VOO twice daily at two noninfected sites. SA cultures, photography, and objective-SCORAD severity index (O-SSI) scoring were done at baseline and after 4 weeks. Twenty-six subjects each received VCO or VOO. Of those on VCO, 20 were positive for SA colonies at baseline versus 12 on VOO. Post intervention, only 1 (5%) VCO subject remained positive versus 6 (50%) of those on VOO. Relative risk for VCO was 0.10, significantly superior to that for VOO (10:1, p = .0028; 95% CI, 0.01-0.73); thus, the number needed to treat was 2.2. For the O-SSI, the difference was not significant at baseline (p = .15) but was significantly different post treatment (p = .004); this was reduced for both oils (p < .005) but was greater with VCO. VCO and monolaurin's O-SSI reduction and in vitro broad-spectrum activity against SA (given clinical validity here), fungi, and viruses may be useful in the proactive treatment of AD colonization.

  16. Carotenoid Profile of Tomato Sauces: Effect of Cooking Time and Content of Extra Virgin Olive Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Vallverdú-Queralt

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of carotenoid-rich vegetables such as tomatoes and tomato sauces is associated with reduced risk of several chronic diseases. The predominant carotenoids in tomato products are in the (all-E configuration, but (Z isomers can be formed during thermal processing. The effect of cooking time (15, 30, 45 and 60 min and the addition of extra virgin olive oil (5% and 10% on the carotenoid extractability of tomato sauces was monitored using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS and LC-ultraviolet detection (LC-UV. The thermal treatment and the addition of extra virgin olive oil increased the levels of antioxidant activity, total carotenoids, Z-lycopene isomers, α-carotene and β-carotene. These results are of particular nutritional benefit since higher lycopene intake has been associated with a reduced risk of lethal prostate and a reduction of prostate-specific antigen (PSA levels. Moreover, β-carotene has been reported to suppress the up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1 gene expression in a dose dependent manner and to suppress UVA-induced HO-1 gene expression in cultured FEK4.

  17. Carotenoid profile of tomato sauces: effect of cooking time and content of extra virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallverdú-Queralt, Anna; Regueiro, Jorge; de Alvarenga, José Fernando Rinaldi; Torrado, Xavier; Lamuela-Raventos, Rosa M

    2015-04-28

    The consumption of carotenoid-rich vegetables such as tomatoes and tomato sauces is associated with reduced risk of several chronic diseases. The predominant carotenoids in tomato products are in the (all-E) configuration, but (Z) isomers can be formed during thermal processing. The effect of cooking time (15, 30, 45 and 60 min) and the addition of extra virgin olive oil (5% and 10%) on the carotenoid extractability of tomato sauces was monitored using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) and LC-ultraviolet detection (LC-UV). The thermal treatment and the addition of extra virgin olive oil increased the levels of antioxidant activity, total carotenoids, Z-lycopene isomers, α-carotene and β-carotene. These results are of particular nutritional benefit since higher lycopene intake has been associated with a reduced risk of lethal prostate and a reduction of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels. Moreover, β-carotene has been reported to suppress the up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1 gene expression in a dose dependent manner and to suppress UVA-induced HO-1 gene expression in cultured FEK4.

  18. Detailed and exhaustive study of the authentication of European virgin olive oils by SEXIA expert system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparicio, R.

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available The authentication of extra virgin olive oils from different regions of Spain, Italy and Portugal, by means of their fatty acids, alcohols, sterols, methyl sterols and hydrocarbons content, has been investigated. Multivariate statistical methods and Evidence's Theory were applied. The comparative study shows greater predictive ability using this theory than the traditional statistical methods or expert systems that do not implement the possibility theory. A detailed and exhaustive study of Italian (Tuscany and Basilicata, Portuguese and Spanish virgin olive oils has been made. Geographically coloured maps of the studied regions are shown to strengthen the numerical results.

    Se ha estudiado la autentificación de aceites de oliva virgen de diferentes regiones de España, Italia y Portugal, por su contenido en ácidos grasos, alcoholes, esteroles, metil esteroles e hidrocarburos. Se aplicaron métodos estadísticos multivariantes junto a la Teoría de la Evidencia. El estudio mostró una mejora en la capacidad predictiva utilizando esta teoría frente a otros métodos o sistemas expertos que no implementan la teoría de la posibilidad. Se ha realizado un estudio detallado y exhaustivo con aceites de oliva virgen italianos (Toscana y Basilicata, portugueses y españoles. Los resultados numéricos se muestran sobre mapas geográficos de las diferentes regiones estudiadas.

  19. Improvement of phenolic antioxidants and quality characteristics of virgin olive oil with the addition of enzymes and nitrogen during olive paste processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inconomou, D.; Arapoglou, D.; Israilides, C.

    2010-07-01

    The evolution of phenolic compounds and their contribution to the quality characteristics in virgin olive oil during fruit processing was studied with the addition of a combination of various commercial enzymes containing pectinases, polygalacturonases, cellulase and {beta}-glucanase with or without nitrogen flush. Olive fruits (Olea europaea, L.) of the cultivar Megaritiki, at the semi black pigmentation stage of maturity, were used in a 3-phase extraction system in an experiment at industrial scale. The addition of enzymes in the olive paste during processing increased the total phenol and ortho-diphenol contents, as well as some simple phenolic compounds (3,4-DHPEA, p-HPEA) and the secoiridoid derivatives (3,4-DHPEA-EDA and 3,4-DHPEAEA) in olive oil and therefore improved its oxidative stability. Furthermore, enzyme treatment ameliorated the quality parameters of the produced olive oil (acidity and peroxide value) and their sensory attributes. The use of additional N{sub 2} flush with the enzyme treatments did not improve the quality parameters of olive oil any further; however it did not affect the concentration of individual and total sterols or most of the fatty acid composition. Consequently, olive paste treatment with enzymes not only improved the quality characteristics of olive oil and enhanced the overall organoleptic quality, but also increased the olive oil yield. (Author) 33 refs.

  20. Characterization and seasonal variation of the quality of virgin olive oil of the Throumbolia and Koroneiki varieties from Southern Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vekiari, S. A.; Oreopoulou, V.; Kourkaoutas, Y.; Kamoun, N.; Msallem, M.; Psimouli, V.; Arapoglou, D.

    2010-07-01

    Extra virgin olive oil was produced from olives of the two main varieties cultivated in the region of Rhytmaton in the Greek island of Crete named Throumbolia, and Koroneiki. The former is very famous due to the natural way of fruit debittering, while the latter is the most common olive variety cultivated in Northern Greece. The olives were harvested at three successive stages of ripening according to their skin color and the extra virgin olive oil was extracted using an experimental olive oil extraction mill at 30 degree centigrade. Peroxide value, UV absorption, acidity, fatty acid content and total polyphenols were measured and the contents of tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol 3,4- DHPEA-EDA, p-HPEA-EDA and 3,4-DHPEA-EA were determined by HPLC. The sterol fraction and the volatile component profile were determined by GC and SPME GC/MS, respectively. Throumbolia olive oil presented an extremely higher content of {beta}-sitosterol and linoleic acid (n6) in comparison to the Koroneiki variety. The concentration of linoleic acid decreased in olive oils produced from both varieties in contrast to oleic acid which increased at the same time. Furthermore, the content of OH-tyrosol was higher, while the content of 3, 4-DHPEA-EDA and the total polyphenols was lower in Throumbolia olive oil than in olive oil produced from the Koroneiki variety. In general, significant differences were observed in all parameters between the olive oils produced from the two varieties during different stages of maturation. (Author) 41 refs.

  1. Recent advances in the use of NIR spectroscopy for qualitative control and protection of extra virgin olive oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent studies on the use of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for the qualitative characterization of extra virgin olive oil, are reported and discussed in this paper. Research results confirms that NIR spectroscopy, combined with chemometric data analysis, allows to simultaneously evaluate all qual...

  2. Effects of Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) Oleocanthal and Oleacein Content on Platelet Reactivity in Healthy Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) Oleocanthal and Oleacein Content on Platelet Reactivity in Healthy Adults. Roberta R Holt1, Karan Agarwal1, Xuequi Li2, Eleni Melliou3, Theresa Pedersen1, Selina Wang2, Dan Flynn2, Prokopios Magiatis3, John W Newman1,4 1Department of Nutrition, and 2UC Davis ...

  3. Phenolic Compounds in Extra Virgin Olive Oil Stimulate Human Osteoblastic Cell Proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga García-Martínez

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to clarify the effects of phenolic compounds and extracts from different extra virgin olive oil (EVOO varieties obtained from fruits of different ripening stages on osteoblast cells (MG-63 proliferation. Cell proliferation was increased by hydroxytyrosol, luteolin, apigenin, p-coumaric, caffeic, and ferulic acids by approximately 11-16%, as compared with controls that were treated with one vehicle alone, while (+-pinoresinol, oleuropein, sinapic, vanillic acid and derivative (vanillin did not affect cell proliferation. All phenolic extracts stimulated MG-63 cell growth, and they induced higher cell proliferation rates than individual compounds. The most effective EVOO phenolic extracts were those obtained from the Picual variety, as they significantly increased cell proliferation by 18-22%. Conversely, Arbequina phenolic extracts increased cell proliferation by 9-13%. A decline in osteoblast proliferation was observed in oils obtained from olive fruits collected at the end of the harvest period, as their total phenolic content decreases at this late stage. Further research on the signaling pathways of olive oil phenolic compounds involved in the processes and their metabolism should be carried out to develop new interventions and adjuvant therapies using EVOO for bone health (i.e.osteoporosis in adulthood and the elderly.

  4. Phenolic Compounds in Extra Virgin Olive Oil Stimulate Human Osteoblastic Cell Proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Martínez, Olga; De Luna-Bertos, Elvira; Ramos-Torrecillas, Javier; Ruiz, Concepción; Milia, Egle; Lorenzo, María Luisa; Jimenez, Brigida; Sánchez-Ortiz, Araceli; Rivas, Ana

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to clarify the effects of phenolic compounds and extracts from different extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) varieties obtained from fruits of different ripening stages on osteoblast cells (MG-63) proliferation. Cell proliferation was increased by hydroxytyrosol, luteolin, apigenin, p-coumaric, caffeic, and ferulic acids by approximately 11–16%, as compared with controls that were treated with one vehicle alone, while (+)-pinoresinol, oleuropein, sinapic, vanillic acid and derivative (vanillin) did not affect cell proliferation. All phenolic extracts stimulated MG-63 cell growth, and they induced higher cell proliferation rates than individual compounds. The most effective EVOO phenolic extracts were those obtained from the Picual variety, as they significantly increased cell proliferation by 18–22%. Conversely, Arbequina phenolic extracts increased cell proliferation by 9–13%. A decline in osteoblast proliferation was observed in oils obtained from olive fruits collected at the end of the harvest period, as their total phenolic content decreases at this late stage. Further research on the signaling pathways of olive oil phenolic compounds involved in the processes and their metabolism should be carried out to develop new interventions and adjuvant therapies using EVOO for bone health (i.e.osteoporosis) in adulthood and the elderly. PMID:26930190

  5. Phenolic Compounds in Extra Virgin Olive Oil Stimulate Human Osteoblastic Cell Proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Martínez, Olga; De Luna-Bertos, Elvira; Ramos-Torrecillas, Javier; Ruiz, Concepción; Milia, Egle; Lorenzo, María Luisa; Jimenez, Brigida; Sánchez-Ortiz, Araceli; Rivas, Ana

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to clarify the effects of phenolic compounds and extracts from different extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) varieties obtained from fruits of different ripening stages on osteoblast cells (MG-63) proliferation. Cell proliferation was increased by hydroxytyrosol, luteolin, apigenin, p-coumaric, caffeic, and ferulic acids by approximately 11-16%, as compared with controls that were treated with one vehicle alone, while (+)-pinoresinol, oleuropein, sinapic, vanillic acid and derivative (vanillin) did not affect cell proliferation. All phenolic extracts stimulated MG-63 cell growth, and they induced higher cell proliferation rates than individual compounds. The most effective EVOO phenolic extracts were those obtained from the Picual variety, as they significantly increased cell proliferation by 18-22%. Conversely, Arbequina phenolic extracts increased cell proliferation by 9-13%. A decline in osteoblast proliferation was observed in oils obtained from olive fruits collected at the end of the harvest period, as their total phenolic content decreases at this late stage. Further research on the signaling pathways of olive oil phenolic compounds involved in the processes and their metabolism should be carried out to develop new interventions and adjuvant therapies using EVOO for bone health (i.e.osteoporosis) in adulthood and the elderly.

  6. Phenolic secoiridoids in extra virgin olive oil impede fibrogenic and oncogenic epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition: extra virgin olive oil as a source of novel antiaging phytochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Martin, Alejandro; Fernández-Arroyo, Salvador; Cufí, Sílvia; Oliveras-Ferraros, Cristina; Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Vellón, Luciano; Micol, Vicente; Joven, Jorge; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Menendez, Javier A

    2012-02-01

    The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) genetic program is a molecular convergence point in the life-threatening progression of organ fibrosis and cancer toward organ failure and metastasis, respectively. Here, we employed the EMT process as a functional screen for testing crude natural extracts for accelerated drug development in fibrosis and cancer. Because extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) (i.e., the juice derived from the first cold pressing of the olives without any further refining process) naturally contains high levels of phenolic compounds associated with the health benefits derived from consuming an EVOO-rich Mediterranean diet, we have tested the ability of an EVOO-derived crude phenolic extract to regulate fibrogenic and oncogenic EMT in vitro. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry assays revealed that the EVOO phenolic extract was mainly composed (∼70%) of two members of the secoiridoid family of complex polyphenols, namely oleuropein aglycone-the bitter principle of olives-and its derivative decarboxymethyl oleuropein aglycone. EVOO secoiridoids efficiently prevented loss of proteins associated with polarized epithelial phenotype (i.e., E-cadherin) as well as de novo synthesis of proteins associated with mesenchymal migratory morphology of transitioning cells (i.e., vimentin). The ability of EVOO to impede transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-induced disintegration of E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell contacts apparently occurred as a consequence of the ability of EVOO phenolics to prevent the upregulation of SMAD4-a critical mediator of TGF-β signaling-and of the SMAD transcriptional cofactor SNAIL2 (Slug)-a well-recognized epithelial repressor. Indeed, EVOO phenolics efficiently prevented crucial TGF-β-induced EMT transcriptional events, including upregulation of SNAI2, TCF4, VIM (Vimentin), FN (fibronectin), and SERPINE1 genes. While awaiting a better mechanistic understanding of how

  7. Water deficit during pit hardening enhances phytoprostanes content, a plant biomarker of oxidative stress, in extra virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-González, Jacinta; Pérez-López, David; Memmi, Houssem; Gijón, M Carmen; Medina, Sonia; Durand, Thierry; Guy, Alexandre; Galano, Jean-Marie; Ferreres, Federico; Torrecillas, Arturo; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel

    2015-04-15

    No previous information exists on the effects of water deficit on the phytoprostanes (PhytoPs) content in extra virgin olive oil from fruits of mature olive (Olea europaea L. cv. Cornicabra) trees during pit hardening. PhytoPs profile in extra virgin olive oil was characterized by the presence of 9-F1t-PhytoP, 9-epi-9-F1t-PhytoP, 9-epi-9-D1t-PhytoP, 9-D1t-PhytoP, 16-B1-PhytoP + ent-16-B1-PhytoP, and 9-L1-PhytoP + ent-9-L1-PhytoP. The qualitative and quantitative differences in PhytoPs content with respect to those reported by other authors indicate a decisive effect of cultivar, oil extraction technology, and/or storage conditions prone to autoxidation. The pit hardening period was critical for extra virgin olive oil composition because water deficit enhanced the PhytoPs content, with the concomitant potential beneficial aspects on human health. From a physiological and agronomical point of view, 9-F1t-PhytoP, 9-epi-9-F1t-PhytoP, and 16-B1-PhytoP + ent-16-B1-PhytoP could be considered as early candidate biomarkers of water stress in olive tree.

  8. Direct spectrophotometric determination of bitterness in virgin olive oil without prior isolation by pH gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos, Raquel; García-Ortíz Civantos, Concepción; Castro, Juan; Garcia-Mesa, José A

    2005-11-30

    Bitter taste, an organoleptic characteristic of virgin olive oil, has been related to phenolic compound composition. The usual method to assess this attribute is by a sensorial panel of tasters, while in the laboratory; methods based on physicochemical properties have been assayed as K225, the most widely used one. However, a direct determination of bitterness in virgin olive oil is useful for quality-control purposes. The proposed method is supported by the observable spectral change undergone by the compounds responsible for bitterness as pH varied. This measurement was carried out directly in the oil, without prior isolation of bitter analytes. The difference of absorbance between alkaline and neutral medium showed a highly significant correlation (r = 0.988, p olive oil, and could be easily automated.

  9. Experimental and theoretical determination of pesticide processing factors to model their behavior during virgin olive oil production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Blanco, Rafael; Moreno-González, David; Nortes-Méndez, Rocío; García-Reyes, Juan F; Molina-Díaz, Antonio; Gilbert-López, Bienvenida

    2018-01-15

    The purpose of the present work was the experimental evaluation of pesticides transfer to virgin olive oil during the production step and prediction of their processing factors, which could be eventually used for the calculation of maximum residue limits (MRLs) in olive oil from the MRLs set in olives. A laboratory-scale Abencor system was used for the production of olive oil from olives spiked with the 104 pesticides studied, three different chromatographic methods being used for the analysis of raw olives and the obtained olive oil: (i) gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) for GC-amenable pesticides; (ii) hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS) for polar pesticides, and; (iii) reversed-phase liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) for low to medium polarity pesticides. Processing factors experimentally calculated were correlated to their octanol-water partitioning coefficient (logKow), enabling the calculation of the equivalent MRLs in olive oil from the MRLs in olives, considering the percentage of oil extracted (oil yield) and the log Kow of each pesticide. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Composition and qualitative characteristics of virgin olive oils produced in northern Adriatic region, Republic of Croatia

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    Milin, Cedomila

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Istria and Island Krk are located in the Northern Adriatic region, Republic of Croatia. The majority of oils produced on the islands of this Region correspond to extra virgin classification as a consequence of olive cultivars (Debela, Naska, Rosulja, Slatka, Buza, Carbonera, Bianchera, Leccino. The characterisation of these oils is little known. The objective of this work was the characterisation of virgin olive oils during the 1997/98, 1998/99 and six months of 1999/2000 harvest. Acidity, peroxide value and UV absorption constants were determined for all samples. Fatty acid composition, sterol and aliphatic alcohol contents, saturated fatty acids in the 2-position of the triglyceride and trilinolein content were determined for the virgin olive oils during 1997/98 harvest. The chemical analyses were supported by the determination of polyphenol content expressed as caffeic acid, squalene and α-tocopherol content.Istria y la isla Krk están localizadas en el norte de la región Adriática, República de Croacia. La mayoría de los aceites producidos en las islas de esta región corresponden a la clasificación extra virgen de las variedades (Debela, Naska, Rosulja, Slatka, Buza, Carbonera, Bianchera, Leccino. La caracterización de estos aceites es poco conocida. El objetivo de este trabajo fue la caracterización de los aceites de oliva vírgenes durante las campañas 1997/98, 1998/99 y seis meses de 1999/2000. Para todas las muestras se determinó la acidez, el índice de peróxido y las constantes de absorción en el UV. Para los aceites de oliva vírgenes durante la campaña 1997/98 se determinaron la composición en ácidos grasos, los contenidos en esteroles y alcoholes alifáticos, los ácidos grasos saturados en posición 2 de los triglicéridos y el contenido en trilinoleína. Los análisis químicos se completaron con la determinación del contenido en polifenoles expresado como ácido cafeico, y la determinación de escualeno y α-tocoferol.

  11. Flash Thermal Conditioning of Olive Pastes during the Oil Mechanical Extraction Process: Cultivar Impact on the Phenolic and Volatile Composition of Virgin Olive Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneziani, Gianluca; Esposto, Sonia; Taticchi, Agnese; Selvaggini, Roberto; Urbani, Stefania; Di Maio, Ilona; Sordini, Beatrice; Servili, Maurizio

    2015-07-08

    The concentration of phenolic and volatile compounds in virgin olive oil (VOO) is closely related to the different operative conditions applied to the mechanical extraction process of the olive oil. However, the great qualitative and quantitative variability of these compounds indicates an important role played by genetic and agronomic aspects. A heat exchanger was placed in front of a traditional, covered malaxer to study the impact of flash thermal conditioning (FTC) of olive paste on the quality of VOO, which is highly influenced by phenolic release and aroma generation. The VOO flash thermal conditioning of five major Italian cultivars showed a higher concentration of phenols (range of increase percentage, 9.9-37.3%) compared to the control trials, whereas the FTC treatment featured a differentiated impact on the volatile fractions, associated with the genetic origins of the olives.

  12. Geographical traceability of virgin olive oils from south-western Spain by their multi-elemental composition.

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    Beltrán, María; Sánchez-Astudillo, María; Aparicio, Ramón; García-González, Diego L

    2015-02-15

    The geographical traceability of virgin olive oil can be controlled by chemical species that are linked to the production area. Trace elements are among these species. The hypothesis is that the transfer of elements from the soil to the oil is subjected to minor variations and therefore this chemical information can be used for geographical traceability. In order to confirm this hypothesis, the trace elements of virgin olive oils from south-western Spain were analysed, and the same elements were determined in the corresponding olive-pomaces and soils. The differences in the concentration were studied according to cultivars and locations. Results show some coincidences in the selection of elements in soils (W, Fe, Na), olive-pomace (W, Fe, Na, Mg, Mn, Ca, Ba, Li) and olive oils (W, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ca, Ba, Li, Bi), which supports their utility in traceability. In the case of olive oils, 93% of the samples were correctly classified in their geographical origins (96% for Beas, 77% for Gibraleón, 91% for Niebla, and 100% for Sanlúcar de Guadiana).

  13. Extra virgin olive oil rich in polyphenols modulates VEGF-induced angiogenic responses by preventing NADPH oxidase activity and expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabriso, Nadia; Massaro, Marika; Scoditti, Egeria; D'Amore, Simona; Gnoni, Antonio; Pellegrino, Mariangela; Storelli, Carlo; De Caterina, Raffaele; Palasciano, Giuseppe; Carluccio, Maria Annunziata

    2016-02-01

    Previous studies have shown the antiinflammatory, antioxidant and antiangiogenic properties by pure olive oil polyphenols; however, the effects of olive oil phenolic fraction on the inflammatory angiogenesis are unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of the phenolic fraction (olive oil polyphenolic extract, OOPE) from extra virgin olive oil and related circulating metabolites on the VEGF-induced angiogenic responses and NADPH oxidase activity and expression in human cultured endothelial cells. We found that OOPE (1-10 μg/ml), at concentrations achievable nutritionally, significantly reduced, in a concentration-dependent manner, the VEGF-induced cell migration, invasiveness and tube-like structure formation through the inhibition of MMP-2 and MMP-9. OOPE significantly (Polive oil, with high polyphenol content, decreased VEGF-induced NADPH oxidase activity and Nox4 expression, as well as, MMP-9 expression, as compared with fasting control serum. Overall, native polyphenols and serum metabolites of extra virgin olive oil rich in polyphenols are able to lower the VEGF-induced angiogenic responses by preventing endothelial NADPH oxidase activity and decreasing the expression of selective NADPH oxidase subunits. Our results provide an alternative mechanism by which the consumption of olive oil rich in polyphenols may account for a reduction of oxidative stress inflammatory-related sequelae associated with chronic degenerative diseases.

  14. Raman detection of extra virgin olive oil adulterated with cheaper oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Carlton; Kassu, Aschalew; Mills, Jonathan; Kenney, Brianna; Ruffin, Paul; Sharma, Anup

    2016-09-01

    Pure extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is mixed with cheaper edible oils and samples are kept inside clear glass containers, while a 785nm Raman system is used to take measurements as Raman probe is placed against glass container. Several types of oils at various concentrations of adulteration are used. Ratios of peak intensities are used to analyze raw data, which allows for quick, easy, and accurate analysis. While conventional Raman measurements of EVOO may take as long as 2 minutes, all measurements reported here are for integration times of 15s. It is found that adulteration of EVOO with cheaper oils is detectable at concentrations as low as 5% for all oils used in this study.

  15. Detection of adulteration in virgin olive oil using a fiber optic long period grating based sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libish, T. M.; Bobby, M. C.; Linesh, J.; Mathew, S.; Pradeep, C.; Nampoori, V. P. N.; Biswas, P.; Bandyopadhyay, S.; Dasgupta, K.; Radhakrishnan, P.

    2013-04-01

    A fiber optic sensing system for the detection of adulteration of virgin olive oil by less expensive sunflower oil is presented. The fundamental principle of detection is the sensitive dependence of the resonance peaks of a long period grating (LPG) on the changes in the refractive index of the environmental medium surrounding the cladding surface of the grating. The performance of the sensor has been tested by monitoring the amplitude changes of the attenuation bands of the LPG in response to variation of adulteration level. With good repeatability, the detection limit of adulteration is 4% and the sensor sensitivity is around 0.07 dB vol%-1 of adulterant in the measurement range. The developed sensor is user-friendly, reusable and allows instantaneous measurement of the amount of adulteration without involving any reagents.

  16. Detection and identification of extra virgin olive oil adulteration by GC-MS combined with chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Ferro, Miguel Duarte; Cavaco, Isabel; Liang, Yizeng

    2013-04-17

    In this study, an analytical method for the detection and identification of extra virgin olive oil adulteration with four types of oils (corn, peanut, rapeseed, and sunflower oils) was proposed. The variables under evaluation included 22 fatty acids and 6 other significant parameters (the ratio of linoleic/linolenic acid, oleic/linoleic acid, total saturated fatty acids (SFAs), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), MUFAs/PUFAs). Univariate analyses followed by multivariate analyses were applied to the adulteration investigation. As a result, the univariate analyses demonstrated that higher contents of eicosanoic acid, docosanoic acid, tetracosanoic acid, and SFAs were the peculiarities of peanut adulteration and higher levels of linolenic acid, 11-eicosenoic acid, erucic acid, and nervonic acid the characteristics of rapeseed adulteration. Then, PLS-LDA made the detection of adulteration effective with a 1% detection limit and 90% prediction ability; a Monte Carlo tree identified the type of adulteration with 85% prediction ability.

  17. Using the liquid-chromatographic-fingerprint of sterols fraction to discriminate virgin olive from other edible oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagur-González, M G; Pérez-Castaño, E; Sánchez-Viñas, M; Gázquez-Evangelista, D

    2015-02-06

    A method to discriminate virgin olive oil from other edible vegetable oils such as, sunflower, pomace olive, rapeseed, canola, corn and soybean, applying chemometric techniques to the liquid chromatographic representative fingerprint of sterols fraction, is proposed. After a pre-treatment of the LC chromatogram data - including baseline correction, smoothing signal and mean centering - different unsupervised and supervised pattern recognition procedures, such as principal component analysis (PCA), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLSDA), have been applied. From the information obtained from PCA and HCA, two groups can be clearly distinguished (virgin olive and the rest of vegetable oils tested) which have been used to discriminate between two defined classes by means of a PLSDA model. Five latent variables (LVs) explained 76.88% of X-block variance and 95.47% of the defined classes block (γ-block) variance. A root mean square error for calibration and cross validation of 0.10 and 0.22 respectively, confirmed these results and a root mean square error for prediction of 0.15 evidences that the classification model proposed presents an adequate prediction capability. The contingency table also shows the good performance of the model, proving the capability of the LC-R-FpM, to discriminate virgin olive from other vegetable edible oils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Influence of extraction techniques on physical-chemical characteristics and volatile compounds of extra virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Maria Grazia; De Cunzo, Fausta; Siano, Francesco; Paolucci, Marina; Barbarisi, Costantina; Cammarota, Giancarlo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate three types of extraction methods of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) from the same cultivar (Ortice olive cultivar): traditional or pressing (T) system, decanter centrifugation (DC) system and a patented horizontal axis decanter centrifugation (HADC) system. Oil samples were subjected to chemical analyses: free acidity, peroxide value, ultraviolet light absorption K232 and K270, total polyphenols, antioxidant capacity, volatile compounds and olfactory characteristics by electronic nose. The two centrifugation systems showed better free acidity and peroxides value but total polyphenol content was particularly high in extra virgin olive oil produced by patented HADC system. Same volatile substances that positively characterize the oil aroma were found in higher amount in the two centrifugation systems, although some differences have been detected between DC and HADC system, other were found in higher amount in extra virgin olive oil produced by T system. The electronic nose analysis confirmed these results, principal component analysis (PCA) and correlation matrix showed the major differences between EVOO produced by T and HADC system. Taken together the results showed that DC and HADC systems produce EVOO with better characteristics than T system and patented HADC is the best extraction system.

  19. Effect of extra virgin olive oil components on the arachidonic acid cascade, colorectal cancer and colon cancer cell proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Storniolo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The mediterranean diet (MD reduced the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC, and olive oil, the primary source of fat in the MD, has also been found to have a protective effect. However, animals fed with oleic acid present a high number of intestinal tumours, suggesting that oleic acid and olive oil consumption can exert different effects on CRC. Considering that extra virgin olive oil (EVOO is a complex mix of fatty acids and minor compounds such as polyphenols, hydrocarbons, phytosterols and triterpenes; and that these compounds have antioxidant activity and consequently they can modulate the arachidonic acid (AA cascade and eicosanoid synthesis. This review analyzes the state of the art of olive oil components on the AA cascade and cellular mechanism involved in CRC such as intestinal epithelial cell growth/apoptosis, to understand the fact that the consumption of seed oils with high oleic content or EVOO will probably have different effects on CRC development.

  20. Microdialysis as a New Technique for Extracting Phenolic Compounds from Extra Virgin Olive Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzu, Gianfranco; Molinu, Maria Giovanna; Dore, Antonio; Serra, Pier Andrea

    2017-03-01

    The amount and composition of the phenolic components play a major role in determining the quality of olive oil. The traditional liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) method requires a time-consuming sample preparation to obtain the "phenolic profile" of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO). This study aimed to develop a microdialysis extraction (MDE) as an alternative to the LLE method to evaluate the phenolic components of EVOO. To this purpose, a microdialysis device and dialysis procedure were developed. "Dynamic-oil" microdialysis was performed using an extracting solution (80:20 methanol/water) flow rate of 2 μL min(-1) and a constant EVOO stream of 4 μL min(-1). The results indicated a strong positive correlation between MDE and the LLE method, providing a very similar phenolic profile obtained with traditional LLE. In conclusion, the MDE approach, easier and quicker in comparison to LLE, provided a reliable procedure to determine the phenolic components used as a marker of the quality and traceability of EVOO.

  1. Definite influence of the extraction methods on the chemical composition of virgin olive oil

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    Aparicio, R.

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available The extraction methods of virgin olive oil affect the quantification values of some chemical compounds. Statistical tests and procedures have been applied to a set of 142 samples collected from all over Andalusia and characterized by 55 chemical compounds. It has been estimated that two aliphatic alcohols, one sterol and one fatty acid have the best significance levels identifying the extraction methodology (pressure, centrifugation. Stepwise Lineal Discriminant procedure has been used to characterize olive oils by the extraction systems. 205 samples from other provinces, varieties or harvests were used to verify these decision equations.

    Los métodos de extracción del aceite de oliva virgen afectan a los valores de algunos de sus componentes químicos. Se han aplicado métodos estadísticos a un conjunto de 142 muestras de Andalucía caracterizadas por 55 parámetros químicos. El mayor nivel de significación para la diferenciación de los sistemas de extracción se obtuvo con dos alcoholes alifáticos, un esterol y un ácido graso. Se ha utilizado el análisis discriminante por pasos para caracterizar los aceites según su sistema de extracción. 205 muestras de distinta procedencia, variedad y cosecha han sido utilizadas para conocer la bondad de los resultados.

  2. Extraction of phenolic compounds from virgin olive oil by deep eutectic solvents (DESs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Aránzazu; Rodríguez-Juan, Elisa; Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, Guillermo; Rios, José Julian; Fernández-Bolaños, Juan

    2016-04-15

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are "green" solvents, applied in this study for the extraction of phenolic compounds from virgin olive oil (VOO). Different combinations of DES consisting of choline chloride (ChCl) in various mixing ratios with sugars, alcohols, organic acids, and urea, as well as a mixture of three sugars were used. The yields of the DES extractions were compared with those from conventional 80% (v/v) methanol/water. DES showed a good solubility of phenolic compounds with different polarities. The two most abundant secoiridoid derivatives in olive oil, oleacein and oleocanthal, extracted with ChCl/xylitol and ChCl/1,2-propanediol showed an increase of 20-33% and 67.9-68.3% with respect to conventional extraction, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first time that phenolic compounds have been extracted from VOO oil using DES. Our results suggest that DES offers an efficient, safe, sustainable, and cost effective alternative to methanol for extraction of bioactive compounds from VOO.

  3. Evolution of minor polar compounds and antioxidant capacity during storage of bottled extra virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romani, Annalisa; Lapucci, Chiara; Cantini, Claudio; Ieri, Francesca; Mulinacci, Nadia; Visioli, Francesco

    2007-02-21

    We characterized "Olivastra Seggianese" extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and evaluated its chemical and sensory characteristics and antioxidant and antiradical activities during storage under novel conditions. Two oils (A and B) were analyzed for the commodity characteristics at blending (t0) and after 9, 12, and 18 months; panel tests were performed and minor polar compounds (MPC) content was assessed at blending (t0) and after 6, 9, 12, and 18 months. Antioxidant and antiradical activities in vitro were evaluated at t0 and after 12 months, by human low density lipoprotein (LDL) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil radical (DPPH*) tests. Oil A, which had an initially higher MPC content, possessed "harder" organoleptic characteristics than oil B, which had a lower MPC content and was endowed with a "smoother" taste profile. Statistical analyses showed that secoiridoids, particularly deacetoxy-oleuropein aglycone, should be quantified to evaluate EVOO stability during storage. The antioxidant activity toward human LDL was linked to MPC content and to storage time. The tests on the stable free radical DPPH* confirmed the results on human LDL. We propose this as an additional parameter to evaluate olive oil quality and stability over time.

  4. Antioxidant capacity index based on gold nanoparticles formation. Application to extra virgin olive oil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Pelle, Flavio; Vilela, Diana; González, María Cristina; Lo Sterzo, Claudio; Compagnone, Darío; Del Carlo, Michele; Escarpa, Alberto

    2015-07-01

    A simple gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) based colorimetric assay for the antioxidant activity determination has been developed. The AuNP formation is mediated by extra virgin olive oil (EVOO's) endogenous polyphenols; the reaction is described by a sigmoidal curve. The ratio KAuNPs/Xc(50) (slope of the linear part of the sigmoid/concentration at half value of the absorbance) was found to be the optimal parameter to report the antioxidant capacity with respect to the single KAuNPs or Xc(50) values. The obtained data demonstrated that the compounds with ortho-diphenols functionality are most active in reducing gold (III) to gold (0). Thus, intermediate activity was found for gallic acid, while tyrosol (mono-phenols) had a significant lower activity than the others antioxidant compounds (at least one order of magnitude). In the analysis of olive oil samples, a significant correlation among classical methods used to determine antioxidant activity and the proposed parameter was found with R values in the 0.96-0.97 range.

  5. 19F NMR method for the determination of quality of virgin olive oil

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    Zhou, L. L.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reported a potential analytical technique based on NMR spectroscopy for the determination of quality of olive oil. The model compounds with active hydrogen, including free sterols, free aliphatic alcohols, phenolics, and free fatty acids were determined by 19F NMR upon derivation with 4-fluorobenzoyl chloride. Integration of the appropriate signals of the derivatives of the compounds in the corresponding 19F NMR spectrum allows for the quantification of these compounds. 37 Samples of commercial olive oil and 5 samples of other plant oils were determined by 19F NMR. The amount of diglycerides and the ratio of 1,2-diglycerides to the total amount of diglycerides were analyzed to monitor whether extra virgin olive oil was adulterated with low price olive oil and other plant oils or not. The results showed that the total diglyceride content should not be higher than 2.5% and the ratio (D of 1,2-diglycerides to total diglycerides should be higher than 0.35 for extra virgin olive oil. This method is an easier, simpler, safer, faster and more reliable technique for the determination of the quality of olive oil and can also be extended to monitoring the quality of ordinary edible oils.En este trabajo se describe una técnica analítica basada en la espectroscopía de RMN para determinar la calidad del aceite de oliva. Los compuestos modelo con hidrógeno activo, incluyendo esteroles libres, alcoholes alifáticos libres, compuestos fenólicos, ácidos grasos libres se determinaron por 19F RMN derivatizados con cloruro de 4-fluorobenzoilo. La integración de las señales apropiadas de los derivados de los compuestos en el correspondiente espectro de 19F RMN permite la cuantificación de estos compuestos. 37 muestras de aceites de oliva comerciales y 5 muestras de otros aceites vegetales se determinaron por 19F RMN. La cantidad de diglicéridos y la proporción de los 1,2-diglicéridos a la cantidad total de diglicéridos se analizaron para

  6. The relationship between total phenol concentration and the perceived style of extra virgin olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The degree of bitterness and pungency of a virgin olive oil largely defines its style, and therefore how it is most appropriately used by consumers. In order to assess how Australian olive oil producers interpret the style of their oils, 920 Australian virgin olive oils were classified by their producers as either being mild, medium or robust in style. Although in general, the classifications by producers were associated with the oils’ total phenol concentration, significant variability in phenol concentration within each style category was observed. The perceived styles of a subset of these oils were further assessed by panels of expert tasters. The expert panels were more discriminating when assigning oils to style categories based on total phenol levels. The producers and the expert panels were in moderate agreement with respect to oil style, with the interpretation of what constitutes a mild oil being the most contentious.

    El grado de amargor y picante de un aceite de oliva define en gran manera su tipo, y, por tanto, también su uso más apropiado por el consumidor. Para evaluar cómo los productores australianos de aceite de oliva interpretan el tipo de sus aceites, 920 aceites de oliva virgen australianos fueron clasificados por sus productores en tipo suave, medio o fuerte. Aunque, en general, la clasificación de los productores estuvo asociada a la concentración de fenoles totales de los aceites, se observó una variabilidad significativa en la concentración de fenoles en cada tipo de aceite. Los tipos percibidos en un subgrupo de estos aceites fueron además evaluados por paneles de catadores expertos. Los paneles de expertos fueron más discriminantes cuando asignaron los aceites a los diversos tipos basándose en el nivel de fenoles totales. Los productores y los paneles de expertos estuvieron en relativamente de acuerdo con respecto al tipo de aceite, si bien la interpretación de qué es un aceite suave fue la m

  7. Partial substitution of pork backfat with extra-virgin olive oil in 'salami' products: effects on chemical, physical and sensorial quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severini, Carla; De Pilli, Teresa; Baiano, Antonietta

    2003-07-01

    The effects on chemical, physical and sensory quality of the partial substitution of pork backfat with extra-virgin olive oil were studied in 'salami' products. Four 'salami' formulations, with 15% total fat, were prepared, in which 0, 33.5, 50 and 66.5% of pork backfat was substituted with extra-virgin olive oil. The partial pork backfat substitution with extra-virgin olive oil did not substantially affect the chemical, physical and sensorial characteristics of products, with the exception of water activity and texture. With regard to both oxidation and loss of organoleptic quality, the addition of extra-virgin olive oil, rich in mono-unsaturated fatty acids, did not decrease the shelf-life. The difference between samples with and without extra-virgin olive oil was a piquant note detected in the oil-added 'salami'. The formulation with 5% olive oil, corresponding to 33.3% substitution of pork backfat with olive oil, was judged best of all formulations. The results show that it is possible to produce this type of product, of good taste, similar to the traditional one, but with healthier features.

  8. Quantity and quality of secoiridoids and lignans in extra virgin olive oils: the effect of two- and three-way decanters on Leccino and Raggiola olive cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonini, Elena; Farina, Alfonso; Scarpa, Emanuele Salvatore; Frati, Alessandra; Ninfali, Paolino

    2016-01-01

    In this investigation, 14 extra virgin olive oils (EVOOs), produced with Leccino and Raggiola olive cultivars, by a new two-way (2W) decanter were compared with 14 EVOOs produced by means of a conventional three-way (3W) decanter. The 2W EVOOs had higher phenol concentrations, as shown by high-performance liquid chromatography/diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) analysis and yielded a higher extraction of the 3,4-DHPEA-EDA (oleacein), 3,4-DHPEA-EA (oleuropein aglycone) and p-HPEA-EDA (oleocanthal). The concentrations of lignans, (+)-pinoresinol and (+)-1-acetoxypinoresinol, detected by HPLC-FLD equipment, were higher in the 2W EVOOs than they were in EVOOs produced using the 3W system. Total phenols, detected by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay, were lower than those obtained by HPLC, but they significantly correlated (p olive secoiridoid concentration.

  9. Effects of some oil-born yeasts on the sensory characteristics of Italian virgin olive oil during its storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zullo, B A; Cioccia, G; Ciafardini, G

    2013-10-01

    The olive oil microbiota, mainly composed of yeasts, is associated with the suspended fraction of freshly produced olive oils. Some olive oil yeasts are considered useful as they are able to hydrolyse the bitter tasting secoiridoid compound of the oil, whereas others are considered harmful as they can damage the quality of the oil. Present research demonstrated the influence of some yeast strains belonging to Candida adriatica, Candida diddensiae and Candida wickerhamii species on the olive oil sensory characteristics during its storage. All the tested yeasts survived in the inoculated extra virgin olive oil and, after four months of storage, the suspended yeast cells recovered from the olive oil varied between 50% and 80% of the initial total yeasts, according to their sedimentation capacity. The mean of five analytical indices (free fatty acids, peroxide value, K232, K270 and ΔK) were quite similar and about 60% of the treated samples analysed after four months of storage, on the basis of these indices, were still classed as extra virgin. Completely different results were obtained from the analyses of volatile and non volatile carbonyl compounds according to the yeast used. In the samples of oil treated with C. adriatica and C. wickerhamii, instead of some strains of C. diddensiae, a lower concentration of C6 volatile carbonyl compounds and polyphenols, responsible for positive oil attributes, were found. The sensory attributes of the treated olive oils varied according to the composition of the volatile and non volatile carbonyl compounds produced with the treatments. "Muddy-sediment", "rancid" or both defects were found in olive oil samples treated with C. adriatica DAPES 1933, C. wickerhamii DAPES 1885 and C. diddensiae DAPES 1912 and 1913 strains, whereas olive oil samples treated with C. diddensiae DAPES 1918 and 1922 after four months of storage were defect-free, and still categorized as extra virgin, according to the requirements of both chemical

  10. An overview of emerging techniques in virgin olive oil extraction process: strategies in the development of innovative plants

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Lisa Clodoveo

    2013-01-01

    Currently the systems for mechanically extracting virgin oils from olives are basically of two types: discontinuous-type systems (obsolete and dying out) and continuous-type systems. Systems defined as “continuous- type” are generally comprised of a mechanical crusher, a malaxer and a horizontal-axis centrifugal separator (decanter). The “continuous” appellation refers to the fact that two (mechanical crusher and decanter) out of the three machines making up the system operate continuously; t...

  11. Monounsaturated fatty acid ether oligomers formed during heating of virgin olive oil show agglutination activity against human red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrikios, Ioannis S; Mavromoustakos, Thomas M

    2014-01-29

    The present work focuses on the characterization of molecules formed when virgin olive oil is heated at 130 °C for 24 h open in air, which are found to be strong agglutinins. The hemagglutinating activity of the newly formed molecule isolated from the heated virgin olive oil sample was estimated against human red blood cells (RBCs). Dimers and polymers (high molecular weight molecules) were identified through thin layer chromatography (TLC) of the oil mixture. (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) were the methods used for structural characterization. Among others, oligomerization of at least two monounsaturated fatty acids (FA) by an ether linkage between the hydrocarbon chains is involved. Light microscopy was used to characterize and visualize the agglutination process. Agglutination without fusion or lysis was observed. It was concluded that the heating of virgin olive oil open in air, among other effects, produces oligomerization as well as polymerization of unsaturated FA, possibly of monohydroxy, monounsaturated FA that is associated with strong hemagglutinating activity against human RBCs. The nutritional value and the effects on human health of such oligomers are not discussed in the literature and remain to be investigated.

  12. Increase in the selenium content of extra virgin olive oil: quantitative and qualitative implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D’Amato, R.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The biofortification of food crops for human consumption is a direct strategy increasing dietary intake of selenium (Se. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility of increasing the Se content of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO by spraying the olive tree canopy with sodium selenate and the effect of the increase in Se on the chemical properties and sensory characteristics of the EVOO. Se treatments were up to 50 times more effective in enhancing Se content in the EVOO compared with the untreated controls. Se concentration in all the EVOO samples can be considered adequate and useful for providing the human diet with the correct dose of Se. Se-enriched EVOO showed a significant increase in pigment and phenol content. Also, Se treatment does not produce negative effects on fruit characteristics or the sensory quality of EVOO.La biofortificación de cultivos alimenticios para el consumo humano es una estrategia directa para aumentar la ingesta de selenio (Se en la dieta. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la posibilidad de aumentar el contenido de Se en aceites de oliva virgen extra (AOVE pulverizando la copa de los olivos con selenato de sodio y el efecto del aumento en el contenido de Se en las propiedades químicas y características sensoriales del AOVE. Los tratamientos con Se fueron muy eficaces consiguiendo aumentar el contenido de Se en el AOVE hasta 50 veces más en comparación con los controles no tratados. La concentración de Se en todas las muestras EVOO puede considerarse adecuada y útil para proporcionar a la dieta humana con la dosis correcta de Se. EVOO-Se enriquecido mostró un aumento significativo en pigmentos y contenido de fenoles. Además, el tratamiento de Se no implica efectos negativos sobre caracteristicas frutales ni sobre la calidad sensorial de AOVE.

  13. Changes in phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of virgin olive oil during frying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Alonso, Sergio; Fregapane, Giuseppe; Salvador, M Desamparados; Gordon, Michael H

    2003-01-29

    The concentration of hydroxytyrosol (3,4-DHPEA) and its secoiridoid derivatives (3,4-DHPEA-EDA and 3,4-DHPEA-EA) in virgin olive oil decreased rapidly when the oil was repeatedly used for preparing french fries in deep-fat frying operations. At the end of the first frying process (10 min at 180 degrees C), the concentration of the dihydroxyphenol components was reduced to 50-60% of the original value, and after six frying operations only about 10% of the initial components remained. However, tyrosol (p-HPEA) and its derivatives (p-HPEA-EDA and p-HPEA-EA) in the oil were much more stable during 12 frying operations. The reduction in their original concentration was much smaller than that for hydroxytyrosol and its derivatives and showed a roughly linear relationship with the number of frying operations. The antioxidant activity of the phenolic extract measured using the DPPH test rapidly diminished during the first six frying processes, from a total antioxidant activity higher than 740 micromol of Trolox/kg down to less than 250 micromol/kg. On the other hand, the concentration of polar compounds, oxidized triacylglycerol monomers (oxTGs), dimeric TGs, and polymerized TGs rapidly increased from the sixth frying operation onward, when the antioxidant activity of the phenolic extract was very low, and as a consequence the oil was much more susceptible to oxidation. The loss of antioxidant activity in the phenolic fraction due to deep-fat frying was confirmed by the storage oil and oil-in-water emulsions containing added extracts from olive oil used for 12 frying operations.

  14. Literature review on production process to obtain extra virgin olive oil enriched in bioactive compounds. Potential use of byproducts as alternative sources of polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Edwin; Bakhouche, Abdelhakim; Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2013-06-05

    This review describes the olive oil production process to obtain extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) enriched in polyphenol and byproducts generated as sources of antioxidants. EVOO is obtained exclusively by mechanical and physical processes including collecting, washing, and crushing of olives, malaxation of olive paste, centrifugation, storage, and filtration. The effect of each step is discussed to minimize losses of polyphenols from large quantities of wastes. Phenolic compounds including phenolic acids, alcohols, secoiridoids, lignans, and flavonoids are characterized in olive oil mill wastewater, olive pomace, storage byproducts, and filter cake. Different industrial pilot plant processes are developed to recover phenolic compounds from olive oil byproducts with antioxidant and bioactive properties. The technological information compiled in this review will help olive oil producers to improve EVOO quality and establish new processes to obtain valuable extracts enriched in polyphenols from byproducts with food ingredient applications.

  15. Triacylglycerols Composition and Volatile Compounds of Virgin Olive Oil from Chemlali Cultivar: Comparison among Different Planting Densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerfel, Mokhtar; Ben Mansour, Mohamed; Ouni, Youssef; Guido, Flamini; Boujnah, Dalenda; Zarrouk, Mokhtar

    2012-01-01

    The present study focused on the comparison the chemical composition of virgin olive oil samples obtained from fruits of the main Tunisian olive cultivar (Chemlali) grown in four planting densities (156, 100, 69, and 51 trees ha−1). Despite the variability in the triacylglycerols and volatile compounds composition, the quality indices (free fatty acids, peroxide value, and spectrophotometric indices K232 and K270) all of the virgin olive oils samples studied met the commercial standards. Decanal was the major constituent, accounting for about 30% of the whole volatiles. Moreover, the chemical composition of the volatile fraction of the oil from fruits of trees grown at the planting density of 156, 100, and 51 trees ha−1 was also characterised by the preeminence of 1-hexanol, while oils from fruits of trees grown at the planting density of 69 trees ha−1 had higher content of (E)-2-hexenal (20.3%). Our results confirm that planting density is a crucial parameter that may influence the quality of olive oils. PMID:22629139

  16. In vivo nutrigenomic effects of virgin olive oil polyphenols within the frame of the Mediterranean diet: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinidou, Valentini; Covas, Maria-Isabel; Muñoz-Aguayo, Daniel; Khymenets, Olha; de la Torre, Rafael; Saez, Guillermo; Tormos, Maria del Carmen; Toledo, Estefania; Marti, Amelia; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Ruiz Mendez, Maria Victoria; Fito, Montserrat

    2010-07-01

    The aim of the study was to assess whether benefits associated with the traditional Mediterranean diet (TMD) and virgin olive oil (VOO) consumption could be mediated through changes in the expression of atherosclerosis-related genes. A randomized, parallel, controlled clinical trial in healthy volunteers (n=90) aged 20 to 50 yr was performed. Three-month intervention groups were as follows: 1) TMD with VOO (TMD+VOO), 2) TMD with washed virgin olive oil (TMD+WOO), and 3) control with participants' habitual diet. WOO was similar to VOO, but with a lower polyphenol content (55 vs. 328 mg/kg, respectively). TMD consumption decreased plasma oxidative and inflammatory status and the gene expression related with both inflammation [INF-gamma (INFgamma), Rho GTPase-activating protein15 (ARHGAP15), and interleukin-7 receptor (IL7R)] and oxidative stress [adrenergic beta(2)-receptor (ADRB2) and polymerase (DNA-directed) kappa (POLK)] in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. All effects, with the exception of the decrease in POLK expression, were particularly observed when VOO, rich in polyphenols, was present in the TMD dietary pattern. Our results indicate a significant role of olive oil polyphenols in the down-regulation of proatherogenic genes in the context of a TMD. In addition, the benefits associated with a TMD and olive oil polyphenol consumption on cardiovascular risk can be mediated through nutrigenomic effects.

  17. Triacylglycerols Composition and Volatile Compounds of Virgin Olive Oil from Chemlali Cultivar: Comparison among Different Planting Densities

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    Mokhtar Guerfel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study focused on the comparison the chemical composition of virgin olive oil samples obtained from fruits of the main Tunisian olive cultivar (Chemlali grown in four planting densities (156, 100, 69, and 51 trees ha−1. Despite the variability in the triacylglycerols and volatile compounds composition, the quality indices (free fatty acids, peroxide value, and spectrophotometric indices K232 and K270 all of the virgin olive oils samples studied met the commercial standards. Decanal was the major constituent, accounting for about 30% of the whole volatiles. Moreover, the chemical composition of the volatile fraction of the oil from fruits of trees grown at the planting density of 156, 100, and 51 trees ha−1 was also characterised by the preeminence of 1-hexanol, while oils from fruits of trees grown at the planting density of 69 trees ha−1 had higher content of (E-2-hexenal (20.3%. Our results confirm that planting density is a crucial parameter that may influence the quality of olive oils.

  18. Identifying and Quantifying Adulterants in Extra Virgin Olive Oil of the Picual Varietal by Absorption Spectroscopy and Nonlinear Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroca-Santos, Regina; Cancilla, John C; Matute, Gemma; Torrecilla, José S

    2015-06-17

    In this research, the detection and quantification of adulterants in one of the most common varieties of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) have been successfully carried out. Visible absorption information was collected from binary mixtures of Picual EVOO with one of four adulterants: refined olive oil, orujo olive oil, sunflower oil, and corn oil. The data gathered from the absorption spectra were used as input to create an artificial neural network (ANN) model. The designed mathematical tool was able to detect the type of adulterant with an identification rate of 96% and to quantify the volume percentage of EVOO in the samples with a low mean prediction error of 1.2%. These significant results make ANNs coupled with visible spectroscopy a reliable, inexpensive, user-friendly, and real-time method for difficult tasks, given that the matrices of the different adulterated oils are practically alike.

  19. Comparison of natural polyphenol antioxidants from extra virgin olive oil with synthetic antioxidants in tuna lipids during thermal oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, I; Satué-Gracia, M T; German, J B; Frankel, E N

    1999-12-01

    Polyphenols extracted from extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) were tested for their ability to inhibit lipid oxidation of canned tuna. Hydroperoxide formation during oxidation was monitored by measurement of peroxide value and decomposition of hydroperoxides by static headspace gas chromatographic analysis of volatiles. In tuna oxidized at 40 and 100 degrees C, 400 ppm of the EVOO polyphenols was an effective antioxidant as compared with 100 ppm of a 1:1 mixture of the synthetic antioxidants butylated hydroxytoluene and butylated hydroxyanisole. However, at concentrations oxidation rate in tuna muscle packed in brine was higher than that of tuna packed in refined olive oil. The EVOO polyphenols had higher antioxidant activity in the brine samples than in the refined olive oil. The higher antioxidant activity of EVOO polyphenols in tuna packed in brine may be explained by their greater affinity toward the more polar interface between water and the fish oil system.

  20. Detection of Chemlali extra-virgin olive oil adulteration mixed with soybean oil, corn oil, and sunflower oil by using GC and HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeur, Hazem; Zribi, Akram; Makni, Jamel; Rebai, Ahmed; Abdelhedi, Ridha; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2014-05-28

    Fatty acid composition as an indicator of purity suggests that linolenic acid content could be used as a parameter for the detection of extra/virgin olive oil fraud with 5% of soybean oil. The adulteration could also be detected by the increase of the trans-fatty acid contents with 3% of soybean oil, 2% of corn oil, and 4% of sunflower oil. The use of the ΔECN42 proved to be effective in Chemlali extra-virgin olive oil adulteration even at low levels: 1% of sunflower oil, 3% of soybean oil, and 3% of corn oil. The sterol profile is almost decisive in clarifying the adulteration of olive oils with other cheaper ones: 1% of sunflower oil could be detected by the increase of Δ7-stigmastenol and 4% of corn oil by the increase of campesterol. Linear discriminant analysis could represent a powerful tool for faster and cheaper evaluation of extra-virgin olive oil adulteration.

  1. Effects of processing methods and commercial storage conditions on the extra virgin olive oil quality indexes

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    Kiritsakis, A.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of machinery groups, packing materials and light intensities was ascertained on indices of oxidative deterioration, peroxide value, and extinction coefficient K232 and K270 of extra virgin olive oil for one season of olive harvesting in an effort to simulate commercial storage conditions. It was revealed that during the storage of olive oil the peroxide value was significantly affected by the type of extraction machinery, packing material and light intensity. It is significant that oil exposed to diffused daylight and artificial light attained maximum PV in the second or third month of storage and de creased thereafter, while samples stored in the dark attained their maximum PV during the sixth month of storage. Oil samples extracted using the centrifugal type of machines and kept in glass containers in the dark had higher peroxide values than those extracted by the classic method. The rate of changes of the PV and the two indices K232 and K270 was also affected similarly by the type of machinery, packing material and light intensity.El efecto de la maquinaria, el material de envasado y la intensidad de luz fue relacionado con los índices de deterioración oxidativa, índice de peróxidos (IP y coeficientes de extinción K232 y K270 del aceite de oliva virgen extra durante una campaña de cosecha de aceituna en un esfuerzo por simular las condiciones de almacenamiento comercial. Esto reveló que durante el almacenamiento del aceite de oliva el índice de peróxidos fue afectado significativamente por el tipo de maquinaria de extracción, el material de envasado y la intensidad de luz. Es significativo que el aceite expuesto a la luz diaria difusa y a la artificial alcanzara el máximo IP en el segundo o tercer mes de almacenamiento, decreciendo a partir de este momento, mientras que las muestras almacenadas en oscuridad no alcanzaban su máximo IP hasta el sexto mes de conservación. Las muestras de aceite extraídas con centr

  2. Phenolic content of Sicilian virgin olive oils and their effect on MG-63 human osteoblastic cell proliferation

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    García-Martínez, O.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was, first, to investigate the influence of olive variety and elevation of orchards on the phenolic compound content of Sicilian virgin olive oils (VOOs and, second, to investigate the effects of VOO phenolic extracts on osteoblast cell growth using the human MG-63 osteosarcoma cell line. Olive oil phenolic content and its effect on human osteosarcoma cell proliferation varied according to the type of cultivar and the grove altitude. This variation was also observed within the same type of cultivar. This observation demonstrates that the cultivar and the grove location can significantly affect the chemical composition and bioactivity of virgin olive oil. Although this study supports the hypothesis that virgin olive oil phenolic fractions exert a beneficial effect on bone health, further studies assessing the in vivo accessibility of virgin olive oil phenolic compounds to osteoblast cells should be carried out.El objetivo del presente trabajo es investigar la influencia de la variedad y la altitud del cultivo en el contenido fenólico de aceites de oliva virgen Sicilianos. Asimismo, se ha investigado el efecto de los extractos fenólicos de los aceites en el crecimiento de osteoblastos usando la línea celular de osteosarcoma humano MG-63. El contenido fenólico y el efecto de los extractos analizados en la proliferación de la línea celular osteoblástica muestra una variabilidad consistente de acuerdo con el tipo y la altitud del cultivo. Estos datos demuestran que estas características pueden afectar significativamente la composición química y los efectos en salud del aceite de oliva virgen. Los resultados de este trabajo soportan la hipótesis de que las fracciones fenólicas de los aceites de oliva vírgenes ejercen un efecto beneficioso en la salud ósea. Asimismo, se deben realizar más estudios que establezcan la accesibilidad in vivo de los compuestos fenólicos del aceite de oliva virgen a las células osteoblásticas.

  3. Gene expression changes in mononuclear cells in patients with metabolic syndrome after acute intake of phenol-rich virgin olive oil

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    Lopez-Miranda Jose

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have shown that acute intake of high-phenol virgin olive oil reduces pro-inflammatory, pro-oxidant and pro-thrombotic markers compared with low phenols virgin olive oil, but it still remains unclear whether effects attributed to its phenolic fraction are exerted at transcriptional level in vivo. To achieve this goal, we aimed at identifying expression changes in genes which could be mediated by virgin olive oil phenol compounds in the human. Results Postprandial gene expression microarray analysis was performed on peripheral blood mononuclear cells during postprandial period. Two virgin olive oil-based breakfasts with high (398 ppm and low (70 ppm content of phenolic compounds were administered to 20 patients suffering from metabolic syndrome following a double-blinded, randomized, crossover design. To eliminate the potential effect that might exist in their usual dietary habits, all subjects followed a similar low-fat, carbohydrate rich diet during the study period. Microarray analysis identified 98 differentially expressed genes (79 underexpressed and 19 overexpressed when comparing the intake of phenol-rich olive oil with low-phenol olive oil. Many of these genes seem linked to obesity, dyslipemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Among these, several genes seem involved in inflammatory processes mediated by transcription factor NF-κB, activator protein-1 transcription factor complex AP-1, cytokines, mitogen-activated protein kinases MAPKs or arachidonic acid pathways. Conclusion This study shows that intake of virgin olive oil based breakfast, which is rich in phenol compounds is able to repress in vivo expression of several pro-inflammatory genes, thereby switching activity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to a less deleterious inflammatory profile. These results provide at least a partial molecular basis for reduced risk of cardiovascular disease observed in Mediterranean countries, where virgin olive

  4. Volatile Compound Profiling by HS-SPME/GC-MS-FID of a Core Olive Cultivar Collection as a Tool for Aroma Improvement of Virgin Olive Oil

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    Lourdes García-Vico

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Virgin olive oil (VOO is the only food product requiring official sensory analysis to be classified in commercial categories, in which the evaluation of the aroma plays a very important role. The selection of parents, with the aim of obtaining new cultivars with improved oil aroma, is of paramount importance in olive breeding programs. We have assessed the volatile fraction by headspace-solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-flame ionization detection (HS-SPME/GC-MS-FID and the deduced aroma properties of VOO from a core set of olive cultivars (Core-36 which possesses most of the genetic diversity found in the World Olive Germplasm Collection (IFAPA Alameda del Obispo located in Cordoba, Spain. The VOO volatile fractions of Core-36 cultivars display a high level of variability. It is mostly made of compounds produced from polyunsaturated fatty acids through the lipoxygenase pathway, which confirms to be a general characteristic of the olive species (Olea europaea L.. The main group of volatile compounds in the oils was six straight-chain carbon compounds derived from linolenic acid, some of them being the main contributors to the aroma of the olive oils according to their odor activity values (OAV. The high level of variability found for the volatile fraction of the oils from Core-36 and, therefore, for the aroma odor notes, suggest that this core set may be a very useful tool for the choice of optimal parents in olive breeding programs in order to raise new cultivars with improved VOO aroma.

  5. Volatile Compound Profiling by HS-SPME/GC-MS-FID of a Core Olive Cultivar Collection as a Tool for Aroma Improvement of Virgin Olive Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Vico, Lourdes; Belaj, Angjelina; Sánchez-Ortiz, Araceli; Martínez-Rivas, José M; Pérez, Ana G; Sanz, Carlos

    2017-01-14

    Virgin olive oil (VOO) is the only food product requiring official sensory analysis to be classified in commercial categories, in which the evaluation of the aroma plays a very important role. The selection of parents, with the aim of obtaining new cultivars with improved oil aroma, is of paramount importance in olive breeding programs. We have assessed the volatile fraction by headspace-solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-flame ionization detection (HS-SPME/GC-MS-FID) and the deduced aroma properties of VOO from a core set of olive cultivars (Core-36) which possesses most of the genetic diversity found in the World Olive Germplasm Collection (IFAPA Alameda del Obispo) located in Cordoba, Spain. The VOO volatile fractions of Core-36 cultivars display a high level of variability. It is mostly made of compounds produced from polyunsaturated fatty acids through the lipoxygenase pathway, which confirms to be a general characteristic of the olive species (Olea europaea L.). The main group of volatile compounds in the oils was six straight-chain carbon compounds derived from linolenic acid, some of them being the main contributors to the aroma of the olive oils according to their odor activity values (OAV). The high level of variability found for the volatile fraction of the oils from Core-36 and, therefore, for the aroma odor notes, suggest that this core set may be a very useful tool for the choice of optimal parents in olive breeding programs in order to raise new cultivars with improved VOO aroma.

  6. Defining the temperature range for cooking with extra virgin olive oil using Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Naveed; Saleem, M.; Ali, H.; Bilal, M.; Khan, Saranjam; Ullah, Rahat; Ahmed, M.; Mahmood, S.

    2017-09-01

    Using the potential of Raman spectroscopy, new findings regarding the effects of heating on extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) during frying/cooking are presented. A temperature range from 140 to 150 °C has been defined within which EVOO can be used for cooking/frying without much loss of its natural molecular composition. Raman spectra from the EVOO samples were recorded using an excitation laser at 785 nm in the range from 540 to 1800 cm-1. Due to heating, prominent variations in intensity are observed at Raman bands from 540 to 770 cm-1, 790 to 1170 cm-1 and 1267 and 1302 cm-1. The Raman bands at 1267 and 1302 cm-1 represent cis unsaturated fats and their ratio is used to investigate the effects of temperature on the molecular composition of EVOO. In addition, principal component analysis has been applied on all the groups of data to classify the heated EVOO samples at different temperatures and for different times. In addition, it has been found that use of EVOO for frying twice does not have any prominent effect on its molecular composition.

  7. Optical spectroscopic analysis for the discrimination of extra-virgin olive-oil (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McReynolds, Naomi; Auñón Garcia, Juan M.; Guengerich, Zoe; Smith, Terry K.; Dholakia, Kishan

    2017-02-01

    We present an optical spectroscopic technique, making use of both Raman signals and fluorescence spectroscopy, for the identification of five brands of commercially available extra-virgin olive-oil (EVOO). We demonstrate our technique on both a `bulk-optics' free-space system and a compact device. Using the compact device, which is capable of recording both Raman and fluorescence signals, we achieved an average sensitivity and specificity of 98.4% and 99.6% for discrimination, respectively. Our approach demonstrates that both Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy can be used for portable discrimination of EVOOs which obviates the need to use centralised laboratories and opens up the prospect of in-field testing. This technique may enable detection of EVOO that has undergone counterfeiting or adulteration. One of the main challenges facing Raman spectroscopy for use in quality control of EVOOs is that the oxidation of EVOO, which naturally occurs due to aging, causes shifts in Raman spectra with time, which implies regular retraining would be necessary. We present a potential method of analysis to minimize the effect that aging has on discrimination efficiency; we show that by discarding the first principal component, which contains information on the variations due to oxidation, we can improve discrimination efficiency thus improving the robustness of our technique.

  8. Environmental impact assessment of three packages for high-quality extra-virgin olive oil

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    Antonio Guiso

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Life cycle assessments of food packaging technologies have shown that they contribute considerably to the environmental impact of products. This study analyses the life cycle impact of three packaging solutions for high-quality extra-virgin olive oil. Two of them are widely used solutions, namely tin plated cans and dimmed glass bottles. The third one is a stainless steel bottle, which has been proposed recently. The analysis was performed with a cradle to grave approach and it takes into account raw materials extraction and processing, packaging production processes and several end-of-life scenarios. Impacts due to distribution were considered separately to assess uncertainties due to distribution distances. The results show that, for same sizes, dimmed glass bottles have the lowest overall impact value for all the six indicators selected except for ozone layer depletion, whereas stainless steel bottles have the highest impact values for all the other indicators. A sensitivity analysis was performed to determine how impact varies in function of distance and packaging weight. It shows that it is possible to set a breakeven point over which the impact of glass overcomes the one of the other packaging systems. Packaging shows a significant contribution to impact of bottled oil. For small packaging, such as a 0.100 L stainless steel bottle, this contribution can be as relevant as 60% of the overall global warming potential.

  9. Extra virgin olive oil stored in different conditions: Focus on diglycerides

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    E. Valli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of storage conditions of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO on the isomerization of diglycerides (DGs have been investigated. Aliquots of EVOO were stored for 14 months under four different conditions: at 20°C in darkness and in light, at 4-6°C in light and at 20°C in light with argon in the headspace. Samples were analysed bimonthly: 12 DGs with C34 and C36 (1,2 and 1,3 isomers were tentatively identified and quantified by GC-FID. After 14 months, a clear tendency towards a decrease of 1,2-DGs and a significant increase of 1,3-DGs during storage was observed for all samples. 1,2-DGs were always predominant compared to 1,3-DGs and, for both types, C36 DGs were prevalent compared to C34 DGs. Overall, EVOO stored at 4-6°C in light showed the highest preservation of 1,2-DGs.

  10. Quality of extra virgin olive oil affected by several packaging variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guil-Guerrero, J. L.; Urda-Romacho, J.

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the evolution of the quality index of three extra-virgin olive oil varieties (EVOO), stored according to different packaging variables for one year. The selected quality parameters were: acidity index, peroxide value (PV), K270 coefficient, fatty acid (FA) profile, carotenoids and chlorophylls. This study was carried out by monthly analyzing several bottled EVOO varieties - Picual, Hojiblanca and Arbequina- obtained during the present harvesting season. In addition, other Picual EVOO stored in a mill deposit, as well as bottled Picual EVOO from the previous harvesting season were analyzed monthly. The oils were packaged in dark and transparent glass bottles. The results showed that the acidity and K270 parameters increased slightly in all cases, while PV value changes were significant in EVOOs stored in transparent glass bottles. FA profiles were slightly modified throughout the storage period, although oleic acid slightly increased at the end of the analytical period, especially in the EVOO stored in deposits. Regarding pigment, chlorophylls losses were more noticeable than those related to carotenoid. According to the present results, the best packaging conditions for EVOO were deposits, followed by dark glass bottles. In addition, this study demonstrated that EVOO collected from the previous harvesting season and stored under nitrogen atmosphere could be packaged in glass bottles without appreciable quality changes, as compared with EVOO packaged in the same bottles and obtained during the current harvesting season. (Author) 28 refs.

  11. Analgesic, Anti-Inflammatory and Anticancer Activities of Extra Virgin Olive Oil

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    Myriam Fezai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In folk medicine, extra virgin olive oil (EVOO is used as a remedy for a variety of diseases. This study investigates the in vivo antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer effects of EVOO on mice and rats. Materials and Methods. In this experimental study, using the acetic acid-induced writhing and formalin tests in mice, the analgesic effect of EVOO was evaluated. Acetylsalicylic acid and morphine were used as standard drugs, respectively. The anti-inflammatory activity was investigated by means of the carrageenan-induced paw edema model in rats using acetylsalicylic acid and dexamethasone as standard drugs. Last, the xenograft model in athymic mice was used to evaluate the anticancer effect in vivo. Results. EVOO significantly decreased acetic acid-induced abdominal writhes and reduces acute and inflammatory pain in the two phases of the formalin test. It has also a better effect than Dexamethasone in the anti-inflammatory test. Finally, the intraperitoneal administration of EVOO affects the growth of HCT 116 tumours xenografted in athymic mice. Conclusion. EVOO has a significant analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties. However, further detailed studies are required to determine the active component responsible for these effects and mechanism pathway.

  12. Evaluation of extra virgin olive oil stability by artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Simone Faria; Anjos, Carlos Alberto Rodrigues; Cavalcanti, Rodrigo Nunes; Celeghini, Renata Maria dos Santos

    2015-07-15

    The stability of extra virgin olive oil in polyethylene terephthalate bottles and tinplate cans stored for 6 months under dark and light conditions was evaluated. The following analyses were carried out: free fatty acids, peroxide value, specific extinction at 232 and 270 nm, chlorophyll, L(∗)C(∗)h color, total phenolic compounds, tocopherols and squalene. The physicochemical changes were evaluated by artificial neural network (ANN) modeling with respect to light exposure conditions and packaging material. The optimized ANN structure consists of 11 input neurons, 18 hidden neurons and 5 output neurons using hyperbolic tangent and softmax activation functions in hidden and output layers, respectively. The five output neurons correspond to five possible classifications according to packaging material (PET amber, PET transparent and tinplate can) and light exposure (dark and light storage). The predicted physicochemical changes agreed very well with the experimental data showing high classification accuracy for test (>90%) and training set (>85). Sensitivity analysis showed that free fatty acid content, peroxide value, L(∗)Cab(∗)hab(∗) color parameters, tocopherol and chlorophyll contents were the physicochemical attributes with the most discriminative power.

  13. Does "best before" date embody extra-virgin olive oil freshness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio-Ruiz, Ramón; Aparicio, Ramon; García-González, Diego L

    2014-01-22

    Virgin olive oil (VOO) decays in quality properties during aging, so aged VOOs may have detectable undesirable sensory descriptors in comparison with oils recently extracted. For that reason, freshness has become a parameter of paramount importance to maintain the highest standard levels within the period indicated in the "best before" date. However, it is important to note that freshness of VOOs is not necessarily related to its sensory quality. Pigments have been suggested for tracing aging of VOO, and pyropheophytin a (PPP) seems to be the most promising molecule for this task. A predictive model has been used to estimate %PPP in VOO stored at different worldwide locations characterized with different temperatures. The recorded average temperatures, on a monthly basis, were inputs of the predictive model. The results show the influence of temperature in %PPP and how this molecule could serve as a better monitor of the storage period of VOOs. The initial value of %PPP in the oil could help to carry out the storage traceability. This information would be of interest for producers, sellers, and inspection agencies.

  14. Improving green enrichment of virgin olive oil by oregano. Effects on antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñalvo, Gregorio Castañeda; Robledo, Virginia Rodríguez; Callado, Carolina Sánchez-Carnerero; Santander-Ortega, M J; Castro-Vázquez, L; Lozano, M Victoria; Arroyo-Jiménez, M M

    2016-04-15

    This work is about improvement of a maceration method in order to achieve a green process for the enrichment of virgin olive oil (VOO) with natural antioxidants, specifically from oregano leaves. This goal was accomplished after evaluating different mechanical methods, i.e. magnetic stirring, sonication, vertical stirring and sonication in combination with vertical stirring, for promoting the extraction of the antioxidants from oregano. The results obtained indicated that the best extraction procedure was vertical stirring at 1000 r.p.m. for 3 h. Therefore, these conditions were selected to enrich VOO with phenolic acids (mainly rosmarinic acid) and endogenous antioxidants (o-coumaric and vanillic acids), and further determine their stability at room temperature or under temperature stress (50°C) during 45 days. Quantitative analysis of rosmarinic, o-coumaric and vanillic acids was carried out by an off-line, solid phase extraction, capillary zone, electrophoresis method combined with diode-array detector (SPE-CE-DAD). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Multicommuted flow injection method for fast photometric determination of phenolic compounds in commercial virgin olive oil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Ortega, Felipe J; Sainz-Gonzalo, Francisco J; Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; García-Reyes, Juan F; Molina-Díaz, Antonio

    2016-01-15

    A multicommuted flow injection method has been developed for the determination of phenolic species in virgin olive oil samples. The method is based on the inhibitory effect of antioxidants on a stable and colored radical cation formation from the colorless compound N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DMPD(•+)) in acidic medium in the presence of Fe(III) as oxidant. The signal inhibition by phenolic species and other antioxidants is proportional to their concentration in the olive oil sample. Absorbance was recorded at 515nm by means of a modular fiber optic spectrometer. Oleuropein was used as the standard for phenols determination and 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid (trolox) was the reference standard used for total antioxidant content calculation. Linear response was observed within the range of 250-1000mg/kg oleuropein, which was in accordance with phenolic contents observed in commercial extra virgin olive oil in the present study. Fast and low-volume liquid-liquid extraction of the samples using 60% MeOH was made previous to their insertion in the flow multicommuted system. The five three-way solenoid valves used for multicommuted liquid handling were controlled by a homemade electronic interface and Java-written software. The proposed approach was applied to different commercial extra virgin olive oil samples and the results were consistent with those obtained by the Folin Ciocalteu (FC) method. Total time for the sample preparation and the analysis required in the present approach can be drastically reduced: the throughput of the present analysis is 8 samples/h in contrast to 1sample/h of the conventional FC method. The present method is easy to implement in routine analysis and can be regarded as a feasible alternative to FC method.

  16. Visible and near-infrared absorption spectroscopy by an integrating sphere and optical fibers for quantifying and discriminating the adulteration of extra virgin olive oil from Tuscany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignani, Anna Grazia; Ciaccheri, Leonardo; Ottevaere, Heidi; Thienpont, Hugo; Conte, Lanfranco; Marega, Milena; Cichelli, Angelo; Attilio, Cristina; Cimato, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Because of its high price, extra virgin olive oil is frequently targeted for adulteration with lower quality oils. This paper presents an innovative optical technique capable of quantifying and discriminating the adulteration of extra virgin olive oil caused by lower-grade olive oils. An original set-up for diffuse-light absorption spectroscopy in the wide 400-1,700 nm spectral range was experimented. It made use of an integrating sphere containing the oil sample and of optical fibers for illumination and detection; it provided intrinsically scattering-free absorption spectroscopy measurements. This set-up was used to collect spectroscopic fingerprints of authentic extra virgin olive oils from the Italian Tuscany region, adulterated by different concentrations of olive-pomace oil, refined olive oil, deodorized olive oil, and refined olive-pomace oil. Then, a straightforward multivariate processing of spectroscopic data based on principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis was applied which was successfully capable of predicting the fraction of adulterant in the mixture, and of discriminating its type. The results achieved by means of optical spectroscopy were compared with the analysis of fatty acids, which was carried out by standard gas chromatography.

  17. Cooling treatment of olive paste during the oil processing: Impact on the yield and extra virgin olive oil quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneziani, G; Esposto, S; Taticchi, A; Urbani, S; Selvaggini, R; Di Maio, I; Sordini, B; Servili, M

    2017-04-15

    In recent years, the temperature of processed olives in many olive-growing areas was often close to 30°C, due to the global warming and an early harvesting period. Consequently, the new trends in the extraction process have to include the opportunity to cool the olives or olive paste before processing to obtain high quality EVOO. A tubular thermal exchanger was used for a rapid cooling treatment (CT) of olive paste after crushing. The results did not show a significant difference in the oil yield or any modifications in the legal parameters. The cooling process determined a significant improvement of phenolic compounds in all the three Italian cultivar EVOOs analyzed, whereas the volatile compounds showed a variability largely affected by the genetic origin of the olives with C6 aldehydes that seem to be more stable than C6 alcohols and esters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The effect of extra virgin olive oil and soybean on DNA, cytogenicity and some antioxidant enzymes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kholy, Thanaa A; Abu Hilal, Mohammad; Al-Abbadi, Hatim Ali; Serafi, Abdulhalim Salim; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmad K; Sobhy, Hanan M; Richardson, John R C

    2014-06-23

    We investigated the effect of extra virgin (EV) olive oil and genetically modified (GM) soybean on DNA, cytogenicity and some antioxidant enzymes in rodents. Forty adult male albino rats were used in this study and divided into four groups. The control group of rodents was fed basal ration only. The second group was given basal ration mixed with EV olive oil (30%). The third group was fed basal ration mixed with GM (15%), and the fourth group survived on a combination of EV olive oil, GM and the basal ration for 65 consecutive days. On day 65, blood samples were collected from each rat for antioxidant enzyme analysis. In the group fed on basal ration mixed with GM soyabean (15%), there was a significant increase in serum level of lipid peroxidation, while glutathione transferase decreased significantly. Interestingly, GM soyabean increased not only the percentage of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MPCE), but also the ratio of polychromatic erythrocytes to normochromatic erythrocytes (PEC/NEC); however, the amount of DNA and NCE were significantly decreased. Importantly, the combination of EV olive oil and GM soyabean significantly altered the tested parameters towards normal levels. This may suggest an important role for EV olive oil on rodents' organs and warrants further investigation in humans.

  19. Ripening and storage conditions of Chétoui and Arbequina olives: Part II. Effect on olive endogenous enzymes and virgin olive oil secoiridoid profile determined by high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachicha Hbaieb, Rim; Kotti, Faten; Cortes-Francisco, Nuria; Caixach, Josep; Gargouri, Mohamed; Vichi, Stefania

    2016-11-01

    Several factors affect virgin olive oil (VOO) phenolic profile. The aim of this study was to monitor olive hydrolytic (β-glucosidase) and oxidative (peroxydase, POX, and polyphenoloxydase, PPO) enzymes during olive ripening and storage and to determine their capacity to shape VOO phenolic profile. To this end, olives from the cultivars Chétoui and Arbequina were stored at 4°C or 25°C for 4weeks and their enzymatic activities and oil phenolic profiles were compared to those of ripening olives. We observed different trends in enzymes activities according to cultivar and storage temperature. Secoiridoid compounds, determined by high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), and their deacetoxylated, oxygenated, and deacetoxy-oxygenated derivatives were identified and their contents differed between the cultivars according to olive ripening degree and storage conditions. These differences could be due to β-glucosidase, POX and PPO activities changes during olive ripening and storage. Results also show that oxidised phenolic compounds could be a marker of VOO ''freshness". Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Bioactives and nutraceutical phytochemicals naturally occurring in virgin olive oil. The case study of the Nocellara del Belice Italian olive cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranalli, F; Ranalli, A; Contento, S; Casanovas, M; Antonucci, M; Simone, G Di

    2013-01-01

    This work reports on the composition and bionutritional value of organic virgin olive oil from the Nocellara del Belice variety, one cultivated in the olive areas of the Sicily region, Italy. Destoned oils obtained by processing olives with a destoning-based procedure were compared with conventional oils. This innovative technique, consisting in removing the stone from fruits prior to processing, strongly enhanced the already high-quality level of the conventional product. An in-depth analytical investigation from 2008 to 2010 showed how this innovative olive extraction process led to an excellent peculiar final product, mainly attributable to the improved biophenol and volatile composition, as well as higher concentrations of the lipophilic and vitamin antioxidants (tocopherols and tocotrienols). It had higher levels of oleocanthal (p-HPEA-EDA), a nutraceutical compound exerting actions against COX1 and COX2 (cycloxygenases). Its head-space aroma displayed new volatile phytomolecules and also had higher levels of green volatiles from the lipoxygenase (LOX)-pathway (one having as precursors the polyunsaturated fatty acids containing a cis-cis-1,4-pentadiene system). Among the other bioactives, we highlight its significant levels of trans-β-carotene and xanthophylls (lutein, violaxanthin, neoxanthin and other carotenoids). Its enhanced nutritional value was also attributable to the increased intensity of valuable tasting notes.

  1. An extra-virgin olive oil rich in polyphenolic compounds has antioxidant effects in meat-type broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufarelli, Vincenzo; Laudadio, Vito; Casalino, Elisabetta

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to extend the knowledge on the antioxidant effect of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) in the liver of broiler chickens not subjected to any form of insult. A total of 120 male broiler chickens (Hubbard strain) were divided into three groups and fed ad libitum with three isoenergetic diets from hatching until slaughter age (49 days) on a completely randomized design. The dietary treatments consisted of 2.5% added oil or fat from three sources as follows: diet containing sunflower oil (SFO); diet containing lard (LRD), and diet containing extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO). The activity of the main antioxidative enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GS-Px) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), and lipid peroxidation as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) content, was measured in the liver of chickens. The susceptibility to undergo lipid peroxidation was assessed by exposing liver homogenate to 30 °C or to an ascorbate/iron mixture as pro-oxidant system. Dietary oil or fat type improved significantly (P olive oil on liver of other experimental model other than rats and humans, could be significant for animal welfare, with consequent benefits for both producers and consumers.

  2. Extra-virgin olive oil phenols block cell cycle progression and modulate chemotherapeutic toxicity in bladder cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccia, Andrea; Mosca, Luciana; Puca, Rosa; Mangino, Giorgio; Rossi, Alessandro; Lendaro, Eugenio

    2016-12-01

    Epidemiological data indicate that the daily consumption of extra‑virgin olive oil (EVOO), a common dietary habit of the Mediterranean area, lowers the incidence of certain types of cancer, in particular bladder neoplasm. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antiproliferative activity of polyphenols extracted from EVOO on bladder cancer (BCa), and to clarify the biological mechanisms that trigger cell death. Furthermore, we also evaluated the ability of low doses of extra‑virgin olive oil extract (EVOOE) to modulate the in vitro activity of paclitaxel or mitomycin, two antineoplastic drugs used in the management of different types of cancer. Our results showed that EVOOE significantly inhibited the proliferation and clonogenic ability of T24 and 5637 BCa cells in a dose‑dependent manner. Furthermore, cell cycle analysis after EVOOE treatment showed a marked growth arrest prior to mitosis in the G2/M phase for both cell lines, with the subsequent induction of apoptosis only in the T24 cells. Notably, simultaneous treatment of mitomycin C and EVOOE reduced the drug cytotoxicity due to inhibition of ROS production. Conversely, the co‑treatment of T24 cells with paclitaxel and the polyphenol extract strongly increased the apoptotic cell death at each tested concentration compared to paclitaxel alone. Our results support the epidemiological evidence indicating that olive oil consumption exerts health benefits and may represent a starting point for the development of new anticancer strategies.

  3. Revealing additional preference heterogeneity with an extended random parameter logit model: the case of extra virgin olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Yangui

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Methods that account for preference heterogeneity have received a significant amount of attention in recent literature. Most of them have focused on preference heterogeneity around the mean of the random parameters, which has been specified as a function of socio-demographic characteristics. This paper aims at analyzing consumers’ preferences towards extra-virgin olive oil in Catalonia using a methodological framework with two novelties over past studies: 1 it accounts for both preference heterogeneity around the mean and the variance; and 2 it considers both socio-demographic characteristics of consumers as well as their attitudinal factors. Estimated coefficients and moments of willingness to pay (WTP distributions are compared with those obtained from alternative Random Parameter Logit (RPL models. Results suggest that the proposed framework increases the goodness-of-fit and provides more useful insights for policy analysis. The most important attributes affecting consumers’ preferences towards extra virgin olive oil are the price and the product’s origin. The consumers perceive the organic olive oil attribute negatively, as they think that it is not worth paying a premium for a product that is healthy in nature.

  4. Natural antioxidants of virgin olive oil obtained by two and tri-phase centrifugal decanters

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    Angerosa, Franca

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available The new dual-phase decanter does not require any addition of water to process olive paste and produces very limitated quantities of vegetable water. Consequently, the elimination of big waste water problem makes particularly interesting this technological innovation. Therefore, in order to evaluate, in comparison with the traditional decanter, its effectiveness in relation to the qualiquantitative composition of natural antioxidants, tocopherols and phenolic compounds were determined on samples of virgin olive oils obtained by centrifugal decanters at two and three phases. Particularly, phenolic substances were analysed by colorimetric, HPLC and HRGC methods. The results obtained proved that oils extracted by dualphase decanter had higher concentrations of both tocopherols and phenols, especially o-diphenols, and showed higher stability to oxidation. The resistence to oxidation appeared better correlated with the content of simple and linked o-diphenols and of aglycon of decarbomethoxy ligstroside.

    El nuevo decanter de dos fases no requiere adición de agua al proceso de pasta de aceituna y produce cantidades muy limitadas de agua de vegetación. Por consiguiente, la eliminación del enorme problema de las aguas residuales hace particularmente interesante esta innovación tecnológica. Por tanto, en orden a evaluar, en comparación con el decanter tradicional, su efectividad en relación con la composición cuali-cuantitativa de antioxidantes naturales, tocoferoles y compuestos fenólicos se determinaron sobre muestras de aceites de oliva vírgenes obtenidos por decantadores centrífugos de dos y tres fases. Particularmente, las sustancias fenólicas se analizaron por métodos colorimétricos, HPLC y HRGC. Los resultados obtenidos probaron que los aceites extraídos por decanter de dos fases tuvieran concentraciones más altas de tocoferoles y fenoles, especialmente o-difenoles y mostraron una estabilidad a la oxidación también m

  5. Phenolic compounds in mono-cultivar extra virgin olive oils from Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douzane, M.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The high oxidative stability of virgin olive oil is related to its high monounsaturated/polyunsaturated ratio and to the presence of antioxidant compounds, such as tocopherols and phenols. In this paper, the isolation of phenolic compounds from virgin olive oil from several Algerian varieties was tested and discussed in order to know its potential uses and benefits. Quantification of phenolic and o-diphenolic substances was performed using the traditional Folin-Ciocalteau method and the sodium molybdate reaction, respectively. The qualitative and quantitative characterizations of phenolic compounds were carried out by HPLC. The experimental results show that tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol and 4-HBA (4-hydroxybenzoic acid are the main individual phenolic compounds identified in the varieties studied. The varieties with large fruits (Grosse du Hamma, Aghenfas, Azeradj, Aguenaou, Aberkane, Bouchouk de Guergour, X-Aghenfas, Rougette de Guelma, Sigoise are clearly distinguished from the varieties with medium-sized and small fruits by having the highest levels of individual phenolic compounds. Moreover, varieties with small fruits (Hamra, Chemlal, Boughenfas, Limli, Aimel and Mekki presented the highest levels of oleuropein.La alta estabilidad oxidativa de los aceites de oliva vírgenes está relacionada con su alta relación de ácidos grasos monoinsaturados/poliinsaturados y con la presencia de componentes antioxidantes, como tocoferoles y polifenoles. En este trabajo se llevó acabo un aislamiento y cuantificación de compuestos fenólicos de aceites de oliva virgenes de variedades argelinas, con el fin de conocer sus potenciales usos y beneficios. La cuantificación de los componentes fenólicos y o-difenólicos se realizó por método tradicional de Folin-Ciocalteu y mediante la reacción con molibdato de sodio, respectivamente. Los compuestos fenólicos individuales cualitativos y cuantitativos en los extractos y en una mezcla estándar fueron

  6. Estimating triacylglycerols from fatty acids by chemometrics. An application in Spanish virgin olive oil

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    García Pulido, J.

    1992-08-01

    Full Text Available The level of acceptation of "1, 3-random 2-random" pattern of acyl groups distribution in virgin olive oil glycerides has been analysed in 36 samples, by comparing the values of triacylglycerols obtained by HPLC with those reported by the cited theory. Hotelling's T2, Principal Components and Canonical Correlation Analysis have been used to study both data sets. The normality of the data distributions, the intra-and intergroup correlations of the triacylglycerols were studied before these multivariate statistical algorithms were applied. An alternative way of estimating triacylglycerols from only total fatty acids has also been studied. A Stepwise Multiple Regression procedure has been employed, and Multiple R coefficients fluctuate between 0,75 and 0,94 except for the variable SOS.

    Se ha analizado el nivel de aceptación del patrón "1, 3-al azar 2-al azar" de la distribución de los grupos acil dentro de los glicéridos del aceite de oliva. Para ello se han comparado los valores de los triglicéridos obtenidos por HPLC con los deducidos mediante esa teoría con 36 muestras de aceites de oliva españoles. Hotelling's T2, Componentes Principales y Correlación Canónica han sido los procedimientos estadísticos usados para estudiar ambos grupos de datos. Previamente se habían analizado la normalidad de la distribución de los datos y las correlaciones intra-intergrupo de triglicéridos. Se propone un camino alternativo para estimar algunos triglicéridos mediante los valores de los ácidos grasos. Se ha empleado un procedimiento de regresión múltiple por pasos, obteniéndose valores de R que fluctúan entre 0,75 y 0,94 excepto para el triglicérido SOS.

  7. Dietary unsaponifiable fraction from extra virgin olive oil supplementation attenuates acute ulcerative colitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Fidalgo, S; Cárdeno, A; Sánchez-Hidalgo, M; Aparicio-Soto, M; Villegas, I; Rosillo, M A; de la Lastra, C Alarcón

    2013-02-14

    Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) has demonstrated immunomodulatory and antiinflammatory properties in murine experimental ulcerative colitis (UC). In addition to its high monounsaturated fatty acid content, evidences have accumulated on the favorable properties of minor, although highly bioactive, components present in the unsaponifiable fraction (UF). The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of dietary EVOO's UF supplementation on acute UC. C57BL/6 mice were fed from weaning with sunflower oil (SD), EVOO diet and UF-enriched SD at 5% oil (SD+UF). After 30 days, mice were exposed to 3% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) for 5 days developing acute colitis. After 4 days of DSS removal, animals were sacrificed and colons were histological and biochemically processed. Disease activity index and microscopic damage score were significantly improved in EVOO and SD+UF dietary groups versus SD group. In addition, both dietary treatments significantly induced decreases in MCP-1 and TNF-α levels, iNOS and COX-2 overexpression and p38 MAPKs activation in colon mucosa. Moreover, an upregulation of IκB expression was also observed after feeding the animals with both diets. However, no statistically differences between data from mice fed with EVOO or UF+SD diets were observed. Dietary enrichment with EVOO's UF reduces the damage in acute colitis model, alleviating the oxidative events and returning proinflammatory proteins expression to basal levels probably through p38 MAPK and NFκB signalling pathways. EVOO's UF diet might provide a basis for developing a new strategy in dietary supplementation for the prevention of UC.

  8. Chemical properties of virgin olive oil from Iranian cultivars grown in the Fadak and Gilvan regions

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    Homapour, M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the chemical compositions (total phenol, fatty acid, sterolic compounds of Iranian virgin olive oil (Zard, Rowghani, Mari cultivated in the Gilvan (Zanjan Province and Fadak (Qom Province regions. Total phenols were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. Fatty acid and sterol profiles were also analyzed using gas chromatography. In most cases, significant effects (P El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la composición química (fenoles totales, ácidos grasos, y esteroles de aceites de oliva virgen iranies (Zard, Rowghani, Mari cultivados en las regions de Gilvan (provincia de Zanjan y Fadak (provincia de Qom. Los fenoles totales se determinaron utilizando el método de Folin-Ciocalteu. Los perfiles de ácidos grasos y de esteroles se determinaron mediante cromatografía de gases. En la mayoría de los casos, existen diferencias significativos de los cultivares y los lugares detectados por la composición química (P < 0,05 . El análisis de ácidos grasos indicó que la variedad Mari de Gilvan presenta una relación alta oleico/ linoleico; por lo tanto, es un aceite de alta resistencia contra la oxidación. Por otra parte, los valores medios altos de esteroles totales también fueron obtenidos para la variedad Mari. El aceite de la variedad Zard de Gilvan presentó la mayor cantidad de fenoles, considerado este valor como un índice de calidad positivo. La variedad Mari especialmente en Gilvan se sugeriere como un cultivar superior en comparación con las variedades Zard y Rowghani.

  9. Study of adulteration of extra virgin olive oil with peanut oil using FTIR spectroscopy and chemometrics

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    Magda Vasconcelos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A methodology based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with attenuated total reflectance sampling technique, combined with multivariate analysis, was developed to monitor adulteration of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO with peanut oil (PEO. Principal components regression (PCR, partial least squares regression (PLS-R, and linear discriminant analysis (LDA allowed quantification of percentage of adulteration based on spectral data of 192 samples. Wavenumbers associated with the biochemical differences among several types of edible oils were investigated by principal component analysis. Two sets of frequencies were selected in order to establish a robust regression model. Set A consisted on the frequency regions from 600 to 1,800 cm−1 and from 2,750 to 3,050 cm−1. Set B comprised 17 discrete peak absorbance frequencies for which the communality value was higher than 0.6. Analysis of an external set of 25 samples allowed the validation and evaluation of the predictability of the models. When using a specific set of discrete peak absorbance frequencies, the R2 coefficients for the prediction were 0.960 and 0.977, and the root mean square error (RMSE were 1.49 and 1.05% V/V when using the PCR or PLS-R models, respectively. LDA was successful in the binary classification presence/absence of PEO in adulterated EVOO (with 5% V/V of less of PEO. LDA provided 92.3% correct classification for the calibration set and 88.3% correct classification when cross-validated. The lowest detectable concentration of PEO in EVOO was the lowest adulteration level studied, 0.5% V/V.

  10. Virgin coconut oil improves hepatic lipid metabolism in rats--compared with copra oil, olive oil and sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunima, S; Rajamohan, T

    2012-11-01

    Effect of virgin coconut oil (VCO) on lipid levels and regulation of lipid metabolism compared with copra oil (CO), olive oil (OO), and sunflower oil (SFO) has been reported. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed different oils at 8% level for 45 days along with synthetic diet. Results showed that VCO feeding significantly lowered (P VCO than other groups. Hepatic lipogenesis was also down regulated in VCO fed rats, which was evident from the decreased activities of enzymes viz., HMG CoA reductase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme. In addition, VCO significantly (P VCO by regulating the synthesis and degradation of lipids.

  11. Towards green analysis of virgin olive oil phenolic compounds: Extraction by a natural deep eutectic solvent and direct spectrophotometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradiso, Vito Michele; Clemente, Antonia; Summo, Carmine; Pasqualone, Antonella; Caponio, Francesco

    2016-12-01

    The determination of phenolic compounds in extra virgin olive oils (EVOO) by means of rapid, low-cost, environment-free methods would be a desirable achievement. A natural deep eutectic solvent (DES) based on glucose and lactic acid was considered as extraction solvent for phenolic compounds in EVOO. DESs are green solvents characterized by high availability, biodegradability, safety, and low cost. The spectrophotometric characteristics of DES extracts of 65 EVOO samples were related to the total phenolic content of the oils, assessed by methanol-water extraction coupled to the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. A regression model (ncalibration=45, nvalidation=20), including the absorbance at two wavelengths (257, 324nm), was obtained, with an adjusted R(2)=0.762. Therefore the DES could provide a promising and viable approach for a green screening method of phenolic compounds in EVOO, by means of simple spectrophotometric measurements of extracts, even for on-field analysis (for example in olive mills).

  12. Assessment of carbon footprint and energy performance of the extra virgin olive oil chain in Umbria, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, S; Barbanera, M; Lascaro, E

    2014-06-01

    The cradle to grave carbon footprint (CF) and energy footprint (EF) analysis of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) produced in the Province of Perugia (Umbria, Italy) is assessed. In this study, olive orchard cultivation, EVOO extraction, bottling, packaging, storage at -18°C and distribution in the main importing countries were studied from a life cycle assessment perspective, with the main objective of identifying the processes with the largest environmental impacts. The selected functional unit was 1L of EVOO, packaged for distribution. Inventory data was gathered mainly through both direct communication using questionnaires and direct measurements. To determine the CF the ISO/TS 14067:2013 was followed while the EF was evaluated according to ISO standards 14040 and 14044. Results showed that the most impacting process is the distribution, mainly due to the choice of employing air transport. The main other hot spots identified were the olive orchard fertilization, EVOO freezing during its storage at the olive mill factory and the manufacture of glass bottles. Suggested improvement opportunities included shifts in the EVOO transportation policy, the introduction of lighter glass bottles in the bottling process, the use of cooling agent with lower global warming potential and the employment of biodiesel in the farming machineries.

  13. Main polyphenols in the bitter taste of virgin olive oil. Structural confirmation by on-line high-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Rosales, F; Ríos, J J; Gómez-Rey, Ma L

    2003-09-24

    Twenty virgin olive oils of extra quality and different bitter intensity were submitted to sensory evaluation and to the determination of polyphenols. A linear regression analysis was carried out assuming, as an independent variable, bitter intensity perceived by tasters, as an independent variable, the concentration (mmol/kg) of dialdehydic and aldehydic forms oleuropein aglycon, and dialdehydic and aldehydic forms ligstroside aglycon. Structural confirmation of these compounds was done by online high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-collison-induced dissociation-mass spectrometry. The results obtained demonstrate the essential role played by this compound in the bitter taste of virgin olive oil.

  14. Elevated circulating LDL phenol levels in men who consumed virgin rather than refined olive oil are associated with less oxidation of plasma LDL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Torre-Carbot, Karina; Chávez-Servín, Jorge L; Jaúregui, Olga

    2010-01-01

    In human LDL, the bioactivity of olive oil phenols is determined by the in vivo disposition of the biological metabolites of these compounds. Here, we examined how the ingestion of 2 similar olive oils affected the content of the metabolic forms of olive oil phenols in LDL in men. The oils differed...... in phenol concentrations as follows: high (629 mg/L) for virgin olive oil (VOO) and null (0 mg/L) for refined olive oil (ROO). The study population consisted of a subsample from the EUROLIVE study and a randomized controlled, crossover design was used. Intervention periods lasted 3 wk and were preceded...... acids (P olive oil modulates the phenolic metabolite content in LDL after sustained...

  15. Elevated circulating LDL phenol levels in men who consumed virgin rather than refined olive oil are associated with less oxidation of plasma LDL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Torre-Carbot, Karina; Chávez-Servín, Jorge L; Jaúregui, Olga

    2010-01-01

    In human LDL, the bioactivity of olive oil phenols is determined by the in vivo disposition of the biological metabolites of these compounds. Here, we examined how the ingestion of 2 similar olive oils affected the content of the metabolic forms of olive oil phenols in LDL in men. The oils differed...... in phenol concentrations as follows: high (629 mg/L) for virgin olive oil (VOO) and null (0 mg/L) for refined olive oil (ROO). The study population consisted of a subsample from the EUROLIVE study and a randomized controlled, crossover design was used. Intervention periods lasted 3 wk and were preceded...... acids (P olive oil modulates the phenolic metabolite content in LDL after sustained...

  16. Characterization and seasonal variation of the quality of virgin olive oil of the Throumbolia and Koroneiki varieties from southern Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vekiari, S. A.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Extra virgin olive oil was produced from olives of the two main varieties cultivated in the region of Rethymnon in the Greek island of Crete named “Throumbolia”, and “Koroneiki”. The former is very famous due to the natural way of fruit debittering, while the latter is the most common olive variety cultivated in Northern Greece. The olives were harvested at three successive stages of ripening according to their skin color and the extra virgin olive oil was extracted using an experimental olive oil extraction mill at 30ºC. Peroxide value, UV absorption, acidity, fatty acid content and total polyphenols were measured and the contents of tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol 3,4- DHPEA-EDA, p-HPEA-EDA and 3,4-DHPEA-EA were determined by HPLC. The sterol fraction and the volatile component profile were determined by GC and SPME GC/MS, respectively. Throumbolia olive oil presented an extremely higher content of β-sitosterol and linoleic acid (n6 in comparison to the Koroneiki variety. The concentration of linoleic acid decreased in olive oils produced from both varieties in contrast to oleic acid which increased at the same time. Furthermore, the content of OH-tyrosol was higher, while the content of 3, 4-DHPEA-EDA and the total polyphenols was lower in Throumbolia olive oil than in olive oil produced from the Koroneiki variety. In general, significant differences were observed in all parameters between the olive oils produced from the two varieties during different stages of maturation.

    Aceite de oliva virgen extra fue producida con aceitunas de las dos principales variedades cultivadas en la región de Rethymnon en la isla de Creta denominadas “Throumbolia” y “Koroneiki”. La primera es una variedad muy famosa debido a la falta de amargor natural de su fruto, mientras que la última es la variedad más común de aceitunas cultivada en el norte de Grecia. La aceitunas fueron cosechadas en tres estados sucesivos de maduración de acuerdo al

  17. Assessing the bioavailability of polyphenols and antioxidant properties of extra virgin argan oil by simulated digestion and Caco-2 cell assays. Comparative study with extra virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiquer, Isabel; Rueda, Ascensión; Olalla, Manuel; Cabrera-Vique, Carmen

    2015-12-01

    Argan oil is becoming increasingly popular in the edible-oil market as a luxury food with healthy properties. This paper analyzes (i) the bioavailability of the polyphenol content and antioxidant properties of extra virgin argan oil (EVA) by the combination of in vitro digestion and absorption across Caco-2 cells and (ii) the protective role of the oil bioaccessible fraction (BF) against induced oxidative stress. Results were compared with those obtained with extra virgin olive oil (EVO). Higher values of polyphenols and antioxidant activity were observed in the BF obtained after the in vitro digestion of oils compared with the initial chemical extracts; the increase was higher for EVA but absolute BF values were lower than EVO. Bioaccessible polyphenols from EVA were absorbed by Caco-2 cells in higher proportions than from EVO, and minor differences were observed for antioxidant activity. Preincubation of cell cultures with BF from both oils significantly protected against oxidation, limiting cell damage and reducing reactive oxygen species generation.

  18. Variability of virgin olive oil phenolic compounds in a segregating progeny from a single cross in Olea europaea L. and sensory and nutritional quality implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Ana G; León, Lorenzo; Pascual, Mar; Romero-Segura, Carmen; Sánchez-Ortiz, Araceli; de la Rosa, Raúl; Sanz, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Virgin olive oil phenolic compounds are responsible for its nutritional and sensory quality. The synthesis of phenolic compounds occurs when enzymes and substrates meet as olive fruit is crushed during the industrial process to obtain the oil. The genetic variability of the major phenolic compounds of virgin olive oil was studied in a progeny of the cross of Picual x Arbequina olive cultivars (Olea europaea L.). They belong to four different groups: compounds that included tyrosol or hydroxytyrosol in their molecules, lignans, flavonoids, and phenolic acids. Data of phenolics in the oils showed that the progeny displayed a large degree of variability, widely transgressing the genitor levels. This high variability can be of interest on breeding programs. Thus, multivariate analysis allowed to identify genotypes within the progeny particularly interesting in terms of phenolic composition and deduced organoleptic and nutritional quality. The present study has demonstrated that it is possible to obtain enough degree of variability with a single cross of olive cultivars for compounds related to the nutritional and organoleptic properties of virgin olive oil.

  19. Variability of virgin olive oil phenolic compounds in a segregating progeny from a single cross in Olea europaea L. and sensory and nutritional quality implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana G Pérez

    Full Text Available Virgin olive oil phenolic compounds are responsible for its nutritional and sensory quality. The synthesis of phenolic compounds occurs when enzymes and substrates meet as olive fruit is crushed during the industrial process to obtain the oil. The genetic variability of the major phenolic compounds of virgin olive oil was studied in a progeny of the cross of Picual x Arbequina olive cultivars (Olea europaea L.. They belong to four different groups: compounds that included tyrosol or hydroxytyrosol in their molecules, lignans, flavonoids, and phenolic acids. Data of phenolics in the oils showed that the progeny displayed a large degree of variability, widely transgressing the genitor levels. This high variability can be of interest on breeding programs. Thus, multivariate analysis allowed to identify genotypes within the progeny particularly interesting in terms of phenolic composition and deduced organoleptic and nutritional quality. The present study has demonstrated that it is possible to obtain enough degree of variability with a single cross of olive cultivars for compounds related to the nutritional and organoleptic properties of virgin olive oil.

  20. Changes in productivity in the virgin olive oil sector: An application to Protected Designations of Origin in Spain

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    Juan Aparicio

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Virgin olive oil is a key ingredient of the renowned Mediterranean diet. In this context, the main objective of this study was to estimate and decompose productivity change for Protected Designations of Origin (PDOs in the Spanish virgin olive oil sector for the period 2008-2013. To this end, we introduced a Luenberger-type indicator based on a specific weighted additive model in Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA, which, in contrast to previous studies, captured all sources of inefficiency and avoided infeasibilities. Regarding the results, we found a reduction in productivity, in average terms, in the first periods analyzed (-0.12 and -1.65, followed by an improvement (0.79 and 0.54, that in the last period analyzed (2012-2013, however, returned to adverse figures (-0.47. In Spain, where foreign competition is weak, the most productive PDOs were those with an important number of oil mills and packaging/marketing companies such as “Montes de Toledo” and “Siurana”; productivity changes were mainly the consequence of downwards and upwards of the frontier of the technology over time. These changes were explained, to a certain extent, by the evolution of the economic crisis; and the productivity of the sector declined, in general, from 2008 to 2010, improving thereafter except for the last registered period, 2012-2013, where expectations for market recovery exceeded actual sales.

  1. Changes in productivity in the virgin olive oil sector: An application to Protected Designations of Origin in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aparicio, J.; Monge, J.F; Ortiz, L.; Pastor, J.T.

    2016-11-01

    Virgin olive oil is a key ingredient of the renowned Mediterranean diet. In this context, the main objective of this study was to estimate and decompose productivity change for Protected Designations of Origin (PDOs) in the Spanish virgin olive oil sector for the period 2008-2013. To this end, we introduced a Luenberger-type indicator based on a specific weighted additive model in Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), which, in contrast to previous studies, captured all sources of inefficiency and avoided infeasibilities. Regarding the results, we found a reduction in productivity, in average terms, in the first periods analyzed (-0.12 and -1.65), followed by an improvement (0.79 and 0.54), that in the last period analyzed (2012-2013), however, returned to adverse figures (-0.47). In Spain, where foreign competition is weak, the most productive PDOs were those with an important number of oil mills and packaging/marketing companies such as “Montes de Toledo” and “Siurana”; productivity changes were mainly the consequence of downwards and upwards of the frontier of the technology over time. These changes were explained, to a certain extent, by the evolution of the economic crisis; and the productivity of the sector declined, in general, from 2008 to 2010, improving thereafter except for the last registered period, 2012-2013, where expectations for market recovery exceeded actual sales. (Author)

  2. Xenohormetic and anti-aging activity of secoiridoid polyphenols present in extra virgin olive oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menendez, Javier A.; Joven, Jorge; Aragonès, Gerard; Barrajón-Catalán, Enrique; Beltrán-Debón, Raúl; Borrás-Linares, Isabel; Camps, Jordi; Corominas-Faja, Bruna; Cufí, Sílvia; Fernández-Arroyo, Salvador; Garcia-Heredia, Anabel; Hernández-Aguilera, Anna; Herranz-López, María; Jiménez-Sánchez, Cecilia; López-Bonet, Eugeni; Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Luciano-Mateo, Fedra; Martin-Castillo, Begoña; Martin-Paredero, Vicente; Pérez-Sánchez, Almudena; Oliveras-Ferraros, Cristina; Riera-Borrull, Marta; Rodríguez-Gallego, Esther; Quirantes-Piné, Rosa; Rull, Anna; Tomás-Menor, Laura; Vazquez-Martin, Alejandro; Alonso-Villaverde, Carlos; Micol, Vicente; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Aging can be viewed as a quasi-programmed phenomenon driven by the overactivation of the nutrient-sensing mTOR gerogene. mTOR-driven aging can be triggered or accelerated by a decline or loss of responsiveness to activation of the energy-sensing protein AMPK, a critical gerosuppressor of mTOR. The occurrence of age-related diseases, therefore, reflects the synergistic interaction between our evolutionary path to sedentarism, which chronically increases a number of mTOR activating gero-promoters (e.g., food, growth factors, cytokines and insulin) and the “defective design” of central metabolic integrators such as mTOR and AMPK. Our laboratories at the Bioactive Food Component Platform in Spain have initiated a systematic approach to molecularly elucidate and clinically explore whether the “xenohormesis hypothesis,” which states that stress-induced synthesis of plant polyphenols and many other phytochemicals provides an environmental chemical signature that upregulates stress-resistance pathways in plant consumers, can be explained in terms of the reactivity of the AMPK/mTOR-axis to so-called xenohormetins. Here, we explore the AMPK/mTOR-xenohormetic nature of complex polyphenols naturally present in extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), a pivotal component of the Mediterranean style diet that has been repeatedly associated with a reduction in age-related morbid conditions and longer life expectancy. Using crude EVOO phenolic extracts highly enriched in the secoiridoids oleuropein aglycon and decarboxymethyl oleuropein aglycon, we show for the first time that (1) the anticancer activity of EVOO secoiridoids is related to the activation of anti-aging/cellular stress-like gene signatures, including endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the unfolded protein response, spermidine and polyamine metabolism, sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) and NRF2 signaling; (2) EVOO secoiridoids activate AMPK and suppress crucial genes involved in the Warburg effect and the self-renewal capacity of

  3. Engineering design and prototype development of a full scale ultrasound system for virgin olive oil by means of numerical and experimental analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clodoveo, Maria Lisa; Moramarco, Vito; Paduano, Antonello; Sacchi, Raffaele; Di Palmo, Tiziana; Crupi, Pasquale; Corbo, Filomena; Pesce, Vito; Distaso, Elia; Tamburrano, Paolo; Amirante, Riccardo

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the virgin olive oil extraction process is mainly to obtain the best quality oil from fruits, by only applying mechanical actions while guaranteeing the highest overall efficiency. Currently, the mechanical methods used to extract virgin oils from olives are basically of two types: the discontinuous system (obsolete) and the continuous one. Anyway the system defined as "continuous" is composed of several steps which are not all completely continuous, due to the presence of the malaxer, a device that works in batch. The aim of the paper was to design, realize and test the first full scale sono-exchanger for the virgin olive oil industry, to be placed immediately after the crusher and before the malaxer. The innovative device is mainly composed of a triple concentric pipe heat exchanger combined with three ultrasound probes. This mechanical solution allows both the cell walls (which release the oil droplets) along with the minor compounds to be destroyed more effectively and the heat exchange between the olive paste and the process water to be accelerated. This strategy represents the first step towards the transformation of the malaxing step from a batch operation into a real continuous process, thus improving the working capacity of the industrial plants. Considering the heterogeneity of the olive paste, which is composed of different tissues, the design of the sono-exchanger required a thorough fluid dynamic analysis. The thermal effects of the sono-exchanger were monitored by measuring the temperature of the product at the inlet and the outlet of the device; in addition, the measurement of the pigments concentration in the product allowed monitoring the mechanical effects of the sono-exchanger. The effects of the innovative process were also evaluated in terms of extra virgin olive oil yields and quality, evaluating the main legal parameters, the polyphenol and tocopherol content. Moreover, the activity of the polyphenol oxidase enzyme in the olive

  4. An overview of emerging techniques in virgin olive oil extraction process: strategies in the development of innovative plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lisa Clodoveo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently the systems for mechanically extracting virgin oils from olives are basically of two types: discontinuous-type systems (obsolete and dying out and continuous-type systems. Systems defined as “continuous- type” are generally comprised of a mechanical crusher, a malaxer and a horizontal-axis centrifugal separator (decanter. The “continuous” appellation refers to the fact that two (mechanical crusher and decanter out of the three machines making up the system operate continuously; the malaxer, which actually is a machine working in batches, is located between these two continuous apparatuses. Consequently the malaxation represents the bottleneck of the continuous extraction process. The entire virgin olive oil (VOO process has changed very little over the last 20 years. One of the essential challenges of VOO industrial plant manufacturing sector is to design and build advanced machines in order to transform the discontinuous malaxing step in a continuous phase and improve the working capacity of the industrial plants. In recent years, rapid progress in the application of emerging technologies in food processing has been made, also in VOO extraction process. Ultrasounds (US, microwaves (MW, and pulsed electric fields (PEF are emerging technologies that have already found application in the VOO extraction process on pilot scale plants. This paper aims to describe the basic principles of these technologies as well as the results concerning their impact on VOO yields and quality. Current and potential applications will be discussed, taking into account the relationship between the processing, the olive paste behavior and the characteristics of the resultant VOO, as well as recent advances in the process development.

  5. Gene expression changes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with metabolic syndrome after acute intake of phenol-rich virgin olive oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some studies have shown that acute intake of high-phenol virgin olive oil reduces pro-inflammatory, pro-oxidant and pro-thrombotic states, but it remains unclear if the effects attributed to its phenolic fraction are exerted at the transcriptional level in vivo. Gene expression microarray analysis w...

  6. EFFECT OF VIRGIN OLIVE OIL (OLEA EUROPEA. L ON KIDNEY FUNCTION IMPAIRMENT AND OXIDATIVE STRESS INDUCED BY MERCURIC CHLORIDE IN RATS

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    Youcef Necib

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was designed to investigate the possible protective role of virgin olive oil in mercuric chloride induced renal stress, by using biochemical approaches. The effects of virgin olive oil on mercuric chloride induced oxidative and renal stress were evaluated by serum creatinine, urea and uric acid levels, kidney tissue lipid peroxidation, GSH levels, GSH-Px and GST activities. Administration of mercuric chloride induced significant increase in serum: interleukine1, interleukine6 and Tumor Necrosis Factor α (TNFα levels, creatinine, urea and uric acid concentration showing renal stress. Mercuric chloride also induced oxidative stress, as indicate by decreased kidney tissue of GSH level, GSH-Px and GST activities along with increase the level of lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, treatment with mercuric chloride caused a marked elevation of kidney weight and decreased body weight. Virgin olive oil treatment markedly reduced elevated serum: IL1, IL6, TNFα, creatinine, urea and uric acid levels and conteracted the deterious effects of mercuric chloride on oxidative stress markers changes caused by HgCl2 in kidney. Our results indicate that virgin olive oil could have a beneficial role against mercuric chloride induced oxidative and renal stress in rat.

  7. PENURUNAN KADAR GULA DARAH AKIBAT PEMBERIAN EXTRA VIRGIN OLIVE OIL (Studi pada Tikus Galur Sprague Dawley yang Diinduksi Pakan Tinggi Lemak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH Bintari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Prevalensi penyakit diabetes mengalami peningkatan dari tahun ke tahun. Salah satu penyebabnya adalah hiperglikemia yang dipicu oleh pola makan tinggi lemak. Alternatif cara pengobatan dan pencegahannya adalah mengkonsumsi minyak zaitun. Diperlukan bukti ilmiah bahwa minyak zaitun dapat menurunkan kadar gula darah. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui pengaruh pemberian minyak zaitun ekstra virgin terhadap kadar glukosa darah tikus putih yang diinduksi pakan tinggi lemak. Desain penelitian pre experimental dengan rancangan post test only randomized controlled group design. Subjek penelitian adalah 28 ekor tikus putih jantan galur Sprague Dawley usia 8 minggu, berat badan 180-220 gram, dan kondisi sehat. Tikus dibagi menjadi empat kelompok secara simple random sampling. Kelompok kontrol diberi akuades, kelompok perlakuan P1, P2, dan P3 berturut-turut diberi minyak zaitun ekstra virgin sebanyak 0,5 g/hari; 0,7 g/hari; dan 0,9 g/hari. Penelitian dilakukan selama 6 minggu. Pengukuran kadar glukosa darah menggunakan metode glukosa oksidase (GOD PAP. Data dianalisis dengan uji Kruskal Wallis dengan derajat kemaknaan 95%. Pemberian minyak zaitun ekstra virgin pada dosis 0,5 g/hari; 0,7 g/hari; dan 0,9 g/hari dapat menurunkan kadar glukosa darah tikus putih. Penurunan ini terbukti bermakna pada semua kelompok perlakuan. Persentase penurunan kadar glukosa darah paling tinggi ditemukan pada dosis pemberian 0,9 gram/hari yaitu sebesar 62,23%. Minyak zaitun ekstra virgin terbukti dapat menurunkan kadar gula darah akibat dislipidemia. The prevalence of diabetes has increased from year to year. It is caused by hyperglycemia induced by high-fat diet. Several alternative methods of treatment and prevention widely used is consuming olive oil. Therefore we need scientific evidence that olive oil can lowered blood sugar levels. The purpose of research to determine the effects of extra virgin olive oil on blood glucose levels of white rats induced by high

  8. PENURUNAN KADAR GULA DARAH AKIBAT PEMBERIAN EXTRA VIRGIN OLIVE OIL (Studi pada Tikus Galur Sprague Dawley yang Diinduksi Pakan Tinggi Lemak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH Bintari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Prevalensi penyakit diabetes mengalami peningkatan dari tahun ke tahun. Salah satu penyebabnya adalah hiperglikemia yang dipicu oleh pola makan tinggi lemak. Alternatif cara pengobatan dan pencegahannya adalah mengkonsumsi minyak zaitun. Diperlukan bukti ilmiah bahwa minyak zaitun dapat menurunkan kadar gula darah. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui pengaruh pemberian minyak zaitun ekstra virgin terhadap kadar glukosa darah tikus putih yang diinduksi pakan tinggi lemak. Desain penelitian pre experimental dengan rancangan post test only randomized controlled group design. Subjek penelitian adalah 28 ekor tikus putih jantan galur Sprague Dawley usia 8 minggu, berat badan 180-220 gram, dan kondisi sehat. Tikus dibagi menjadi empat kelompok secara simple random sampling. Kelompok kontrol diberi akuades, kelompok perlakuan P1, P2, dan P3 berturut-turut diberi minyak zaitun ekstra virgin sebanyak 0,5 g/hari; 0,7 g/hari; dan 0,9 g/hari. Penelitian dilakukan selama 6 minggu. Pengukuran kadar glukosa darah menggunakan metode glukosa oksidase (GOD PAP. Data dianalisis dengan uji Kruskal Wallis dengan derajat kemaknaan 95%. Pemberian minyak zaitun ekstra virgin pada dosis 0,5 g/hari; 0,7 g/hari; dan 0,9 g/hari dapat menurunkan kadar glukosa darah tikus putih. Penurunan ini terbukti bermakna pada semua kelompok perlakuan. Persentase penurunan kadar glukosa darah paling tinggi ditemukan pada dosis pemberian 0,9 gram/hari yaitu sebesar 62,23%. Minyak zaitun ekstra virgin terbukti dapat menurunkan kadar gula darah akibat dislipidemia. The prevalence of diabetes has increased from year to year. It is caused by hyperglycemia induced by high-fat diet. Several alternative methods of treatment and prevention widely used is consuming olive oil. Therefore we need scientific evidence that olive oil can lowered blood sugar levels. The purpose of research to determine the effects of extra virgin olive oil on blood glucose levels of white rats induced by high

  9. Improvement of phenolic antioxidants and quality characteristics of virgin olive oil with the addition of enzymes and nitrogen during olive paste processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iconomou, D.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of phenolic compounds and their contribution to the quality characteristics in virgin olive oil during fruit processing was studied with the addition of a combination of various commercial enzymes containing pectinases, polygalacturonases, cellulase and β-glucanase with or without nitrogen flush. Olive fruits (Olea europaea, L. of the cultivar Megaritiki, at the semi black pigmentation stage of maturity, were used in a 3-phase extraction system in an experiment at industrial scale. The addition of enzymes in the olive paste during processing increased the total phenol and ortho-diphenol contents, as well as some simple phenolic compounds (3,4-DHPEA, p-HPEA and the secoiridoid derivatives (3,4-DHPEA-EDA and 3,4-DHPEAEA in olive oil and therefore improved its oxidative stability. Furthermore, enzyme treatment ameliorated the quality parameters of the produced olive oil (acidity and peroxide value and their sensory attributes. The use of additional N2 flush with the enzyme treatments did not improve the quality parameters of olive oil any further; however it did not affect the concentration of individual and total sterols or most of the fatty acid composition. Consequently, olive paste treatment with enzymes not only improved the quality characteristics of olive oil and enhanced the overall ogranoleptic quality, but also increased the olive oil yield.

    La evolución de los compuestos fenólicos y su contribución a las caracterísiticas de calidad de aceite de oliva virgen durante el procesado del fruto fue estudiado mediante la adición de una combinación de varias enzimas comerciales conteniendo pectinasas, poligalacturonasa, celulasa y β-glucanasa con y sin flujo de nitrógeno. Las aceitunas (Olea europaea, L. de la variedad Megaritiki, con un estado de madurez correspondiente a una pigmentación semi-negra, fueron usadas en un experimento a escala industrial mediante un sistema de extracción de 3-fase. La

  10. Autochthonous cultivars of Emilia Romagna region and their clones: Comparison of the chemical and sensory properties of olive oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotondi, Annalisa; Lapucci, Chiara; Morrone, Lucia; Neri, Luisa

    2017-06-01

    The olive species (Olea europaea L.) is characterized by significant phenotypic and genetic variability the genetic matrix has a strong influence on several important extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) chemical components. Four clones from cultivars autochthonous of the Emilia Romagna region were selected for their notable performance in terms of agronomical characteristics, and the quality of the olive oil produced was studied in detail. In particular, we analyzed the fatty acid composition, the phenolic profile and the sensory analysis of the oils from these clones and compared them with the oils from the respective cultivars. Most of the new clones, all already provided with a genetic and sanitary certification, exhibited overall higher qualitative standards than the cultivars, producing monovarietal oils interesting both nutritionally and from a sensory point of view, and furthermore with a beneficial effect on health.

  11. Extra-virgin olive oil diet and mild physical activity prevent cartilage degeneration in an osteoarthritis model: an in vivo and in vitro study on lubricin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musumeci, Giuseppe; Trovato, Francesca Maria; Pichler, Karin; Weinberg, Annelie Martina; Loreto, Carla; Castrogiovanni, Paola

    2013-12-01

    Mediterranean diet includes a relatively high fat consumption mostly from monounsaturated fatty acids mainly provided by olive oil, the principal source of culinary and dressing fat. The beneficial effects of olive oil have been widely studied and could be due to its phytochemicals, which have been shown to possess anti-inflammatory properties. Lubricin is a chondroprotective glycoprotein and it serves as a critical boundary lubricant between opposing cartilage surfaces. A joint injury causes an initial flare of cytokines, which decreases lubricin expression and predisposes to cartilage degeneration such as osteoarthritis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of extra-virgin olive oil diet and physical activity on inflammation and expression of lubricin in articular cartilage of rats after injury. In this study we used histomorphometric, histological, immunocytochemical, immunohistochemical, western blot and biochemical analysis for lubricin and interleukin-1 evaluations in the cartilage and in the synovial fluid. We report the beneficial effect of physical activity (treadmill training) and extra-virgin olive oil supplementation, on the articular cartilage. The effects of anterior cruciate ligament transection decrease drastically the expression of lubricin and increase the expression of interleukin-1 in rats, while after physical activity and extra-virgin olive oil supplemented diet, the values return to a normal level compared to the control group. With our results we can confirm the importance of the physical activity in conjunction with extra-virgin olive oil diet in medical therapy to prevent osteoarthritis disease in order to preserve the articular cartilage and then the entire joint.

  12. Varietal Tracing of Virgin Olive Oils Based on Plastid DNA Variation Profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jiménez, Marga; Besnard, Guillaume; Dorado, Gabriel; Hernandez, Pilar

    2013-01-01

    Olive oil traceability remains a challenge nowadays. DNA analysis is the preferred approach to an effective varietal identification, without any environmental influence. Specifically, olive organelle genomics is the most promising approach for setting up a suitable set of markers as they would not interfere with the pollinator variety DNA traces. Unfortunately, plastid DNA (cpDNA) variation of the cultivated olive has been reported to be low. This feature could be a limitation for the use of cpDNA polymorphisms in forensic analyses or oil traceability, but rare cpDNA haplotypes may be useful as they can help to efficiently discriminate some varieties. Recently, the sequencing of olive plastid genomes has allowed the generation of novel markers. In this study, the performance of cpDNA markers on olive oil matrices, and their applicability on commercial Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) oils were assessed. By using a combination of nine plastid loci (including multi-state microsatellites and short indels), it is possible to fingerprint six haplotypes (in 17 Spanish olive varieties), which can discriminate high-value commercialized cultivars with PDO. In particular, a rare haplotype was detected in genotypes used to produce a regional high-value commercial oil. We conclude that plastid haplotypes can help oil traceability in commercial PDO oils and set up an experimental methodology suitable for organelle polymorphism detection in the complex olive oil matrices. PMID:23950947

  13. Varietal tracing of virgin olive oils based on plastid DNA variation profiling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marga Pérez-Jiménez

    Full Text Available Olive oil traceability remains a challenge nowadays. DNA analysis is the preferred approach to an effective varietal identification, without any environmental influence. Specifically, olive organelle genomics is the most promising approach for setting up a suitable set of markers as they would not interfere with the pollinator variety DNA traces. Unfortunately, plastid DNA (cpDNA variation of the cultivated olive has been reported to be low. This feature could be a limitation for the use of cpDNA polymorphisms in forensic analyses or oil traceability, but rare cpDNA haplotypes may be useful as they can help to efficiently discriminate some varieties. Recently, the sequencing of olive plastid genomes has allowed the generation of novel markers. In this study, the performance of cpDNA markers on olive oil matrices, and their applicability on commercial Protected Designation of Origin (PDO oils were assessed. By using a combination of nine plastid loci (including multi-state microsatellites and short indels, it is possible to fingerprint six haplotypes (in 17 Spanish olive varieties, which can discriminate high-value commercialized cultivars with PDO. In particular, a rare haplotype was detected in genotypes used to produce a regional high-value commercial oil. We conclude that plastid haplotypes can help oil traceability in commercial PDO oils and set up an experimental methodology suitable for organelle polymorphism detection in the complex olive oil matrices.

  14. Real time continuous oxygen concentration monitoring system during malaxation for the production of Virgin Olive Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiello, G.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available During the mechanical extraction process of Virgin Olive Oil (VOO some important physical phenomena and enzymatic transformations occur which influence the quality of the final product. The control of process parameters is crucial to ensure the quality of VOO, therefore process monitoring and control is a fundamental requirement in the modern VOO processing industry. The present work proposes an innovative Real-Time Monitoring System (RTMS aimed at continuously measuring the oxygen concentration during the malaxation process in order to establish a correlation with the quality of the final product obtained. This monitoring system is based on an oxygen concentration sensor directly connected to the malaxation chamber and a data acquisition system to analyze and store the measured values in a process database. The experimental results obtained show that the use of oxygen during malaxation improves some qualitative parameters of VOO such as free fatty acids and total polyphenols while others (peroxide values and spectrophotometric indexes worsen. These results are similar to those obtained by employing nitrogen, which is the traditional technique to avoid the wellknown oxidation processes studied by several researchers, thus demonstrating that the presence of oxygen during the malaxation process can have beneficial effects on the quality of VOO when its concentration is properly controlled.

    Durante el proceso de extracción mecánica del aceite de oliva virgen ocurren importantes fenómenos físicos y transformaciones enzimáticas que influyen en la calidad del producto final. El control de los parámetros del proceso es crucial para garantizar la calidad del aceite de oliva virgen, por tanto la monitorización y el control del proceso son requisitos fundamentales en el moderno tratamiento industrial del aceite de oliva virgen. El presente trabajo propone un sistema de monitorización innovador en tiempo real dirigido a medir continuamente

  15. Oleogels of virgin olive oil with carnauba wax and monoglyceride as spreadable products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Öǧütcü, M.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The oleogels of virgin olive oil with carnauba wax and monoglyceride were prepared to determine the most suitable spreadable product. The oil binding capacities of monoglyceride oleogels were higher than those of the carnauba wax oleogels. There was no true crystalline structure with carnauba wax at 3%. Although the highest solid fat content was in the 10% monoglyceride oleogel (9.38%, it was 12.15% in the commercial breakfast margarine at 20 °C. The peak melting temperature of the margarine was 47.11 °C, and among all oleogels, monoglyceride oleogel at 7% addition had the closest value (48.70 °C. The melting enthalpies of the oleogels ranged from 1.25 to 103.97 J·g−1, while it was 94.19 J·g−1 for the margarine sample. The firmness and stickiness values were usually lower in the oleogel samples than those of the margarine sample. There was no significant change in the texture parameters during storage, indicating good structural stability. The polarized light microscopy pictures revealed rod-like crystals for carnauba wax and rosette-like aggregates for monoglyceride oleogels. X-ray diffraction patterns of the samples have revealed a β´-type polymorphic structure for the oleogels. These oleogels can be used in a spreadable, breakfast margarin-like product to promote new consumption habits for this healthy oil.Se prepararon oleogeles de aceites de oliva virgen con cera de carnaúba y monoglicéridos para encontrar el producto más adecuado para untar. La capacidad de unión de aceites de oleogeles de monoglicéridos fue más alto que el de los oleogeles de cera de carnaúba. No hubo ninguna estructura cristalina verdadera con cera de carnaúba al 3%. Aunque el mayor contenido de grasa sólida fue con el 10 % de oleogeles de monoglicérido (9,38 %, fue del 12.15 % en el de margarina comercial a 20 °C. La temperatura pico de fusión de la margarina fue 47,11 ºC, y entre todos los oleogeles, los de monoglicérido al 7 % tuvo el valor m

  16. Quality of extra virgin olive oil affected by several packaging variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the evolution of the quality index of three extra-virgin olive oil varieties (EVOO, stored according to different packaging variables for one year. The selected quality parameters were: acidity index, peroxide value (PV, K270 coefficient, fatty acid (FA profile, carotenoids and chlorophylls. This study was carried out by monthly analyzing several bottled EVOO varieties -Picual, Hojiblanca and Arbequina- obtained during the present harvesting season. In addition, other Picual EVOO stored in a mill deposit, as well as bottled Picual EVOO from the previous harvesting season were analyzed monthly. The oils were packaged in dark and transparent glass bottles. The results showed that the acidity and K270 parameters increased slightly in all cases, while PV value changes were significant in EVOOs stored in transparent glass bottles. FA profiles were slightly modified throughout the storage period, although oleic acid slightly increased at the end of the analytical period, especially in the EVOO stored in deposits. Regarding pigment, chlorophylls losses were more noticeable than those related to carotenoid. According to the present results, the best packaging conditions for EVOO were deposits, followed by dark glass bottles. In addition, this study demonstrated that EVOO collected from the previous harvesting season and stored under nitrogen atmosphere could be packaged in glass bottles without appreciable quality changes, as compared with EVOO packaged in the same bottles and obtained during the current harvesting season.

    El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la evolución de los índices de calidad de tres variedades de aceite de oliva virgen extra (EVOO, almacenado según diferentes condiciones durante un año. Los parámetros de calidad seleccionados fueron: índice de acidez, valor de peróxidos (PV, coeficiente K270, perfil de ácidos grasos (FAs, carotenoides y clorofila. El estudio fue realizado

  17. Enhanced detection of aldehydes in Extra-Virgin Olive Oil by means of band selective NMR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugo, Giacomo; Rotondo, Archimede; Mallamace, Domenico; Cicero, Nicola; Salvo, Andrea; Rotondo, Enrico; Corsaro, Carmelo

    2015-02-01

    High resolution Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a very powerful tool for comprehensive food analyses and especially for Extra-Virgin Olive Oils (EVOOs). We use the NMR technique to study the spectral region of aldehydes (8-10 ppm) for EVOOs coming from the south part of Italy. We perform novel experiments by using mono and bidimensional band selective spin-echo pulse sequences and identify four structural classes of aldehydes in EVOOs. For the first time such species are identified in EVOOs without any chemical treatment; only dilution with CDCl3 is employed. This would allow the discrimination of different EVOOs for the aldehydes content increasing the potentiality of the NMR technique in the screening of metabolites for geographical characterization of EVOOs.

  18. High Pressure Effects on Lipid Oxidation of Extra Virgin Olive Oils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cereals, milk, fruit, beverages). (TAUSCHER ... during the subsequent storage time at 5°. C in the dark, .... following the method of MONTEDORO and ... the EFC method (1991) for olive oil analysis. .... shelf life of complex foods, containing.

  19. Unusual pungency from extra-virgin olive oil is attributable to restricted spatial expression of the receptor of oleocanthal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyrot des Gachons, Catherine; Uchida, Kunitoshi; Bryant, Bruce; Shima, Asako; Sperry, Jeffrey B; Dankulich-Nagrudny, Luba; Tominaga, Makoto; Smith, Amos B; Beauchamp, Gary K; Breslin, Paul A S

    2011-01-19

    Oleocanthal, a major phenolic compound in extra-virgin olive oil with antiinflammatory properties, elicits an unusual oral pungency sensed almost exclusively in the throat. This contrasts with most other common oral irritants, such as cinnamaldehyde, capsaicin, and alcohol, which irritate mucus membranes throughout the oral cavity. Here, we show that this rare irritation pattern is a consequence of both the specificity of oleocanthal for a single sensory receptor and the anatomical restriction of this sensory receptor to the pharynx, within the oral cavity. We demonstrate, in vitro, that oleocanthal selectively activates the hTRPA1 channel in HEK 293 cells and that its ability to excite the trigeminal nervous system in rodents requires a functional TRPA1. Moreover, we similarly demonstrate that the over-the-counter analgesic, ibuprofen, which elicits the same restricted pharyngeal irritation as oleocanthal, also specifically excites rodent sensory neurons via TRPA1. Using human sensory psychophysical studies and immunohistochemical TRPA1 analyses of human oral and nasal tissues, we observe an overlap of the anatomical distribution of TRPA1 and the regions irritated by oleocanthal in humans. These results suggest that a TRPA1 (ANKTM1) gene product mediates the tissue sensitivity to oleocanthal within the oral cavity. Furthermore, we demonstrate that, despite the fact that oleocanthal possesses the classic electrophilic reactivity of many TRPA1 agonists, it does not use the previously identified activation mechanism via covalent cysteine modification. These findings provide an anatomical and molecular explanation for a distinct oral sensation that is elicited by oleocanthal and ibuprofen and that is commonly experienced around the world when consuming many extra-virgin olive oils.

  20. Extra virgin olive oil phenols down-regulate lipid synthesis in primary-cultured rat-hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priore, Paola; Siculella, Luisa; Gnoni, Gabriele Vincenzo

    2014-07-01

    Hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, and oleuropein, the main phenols present in extra virgin olive oil, have been reported to exert several biochemical and pharmacological effects. Here, we investigated the short-term effects of these compounds on lipid synthesis in primary-cultured rat-liver cells. Hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol and oleuropein inhibited both de novo fatty acid and cholesterol syntheses without an effect on cell viability. The inhibitory effect of individual compounds was already evident within 2 h of 25 μM phenol addition to the hepatocytes. The degree of cholesterogenesis reduction was similar for all phenol treatments (-25/30%), while fatty acid synthesis showed the following order of inhibition: hydroxytyrosol (-49%) = oleuropein (-48%) > tyrosol (-30%). A phenol-induced reduction of triglyceride synthesis was also detected. To clarify the lipid-lowering mechanism of these compounds, their influence on the activity of key enzymes of fatty acid biosynthesis (acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase), triglyceride synthesis (diacylglycerol acyltransferase) and cholesterogenesis (3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase) was investigated in situ by using digitonin-permeabilized hepatocytes. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase, diacylglycerol acyltransferase and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase activities were reduced after 2 h of 25 μM phenol treatment. No change in fatty acid synthase activity was observed. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase inhibition (hydroxytyrosol, -41%, = oleuropein, -38%, > tyrosol, -17%) appears to be mediated by phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase. These findings suggest that a decrease in hepatic lipid synthesis may represent a potential mechanism underlying the reported hypolipidemic effect of phenols of extra virgin olive oil.

  1. Enumeration and rapid identification of yeasts during extraction processes of extra virgin olive oil in Tuscany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mari, Eleonora; Guerrini, Simona; Granchi, Lisa; Vincenzini, Massimo

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of yeast populations during different olive oil extraction processes, carried out in three consecutive years in Tuscany (Italy), by analysing crushed pastes, kneaded pastes, oil from decanter and pomaces. The results showed yeast concentrations ranging between 10(3) and 10(5) CFU/g or per mL. Seventeen dominant yeast species were identified by random amplified polymorphic DNA with primer M13 and their identification was confirmed by restriction fragments length polymorphism of ribosomal internal transcribed spacer and sequencing rRNA genes. The isolation frequencies of each species in the collected samples pointed out that the occurrence of the various yeast species in olive oil extraction process was dependent not only on the yeasts contaminating the olives but also on the yeasts colonizing the plant for oil extraction. In fact, eleven dominant yeast species were detected from the washed olives, but only three of them were also found in oil samples at significant isolation frequency. On the contrary, the most abundant species in oil samples, Yamadazyma terventina, did not occur in washed olive samples. These findings suggest a phenomenon of contamination of the plant for oil extraction that selects some yeast species that could affect the quality of olive oil.

  2. Volatile constituents and oxidative stability of virgin olive oils: influence of the kneading of olive-paste.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lercker, G.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Olive crushing, olive-paste kneading and separation of the oil the most important technological steps in olive oil production since they directly influence the future quality of the product. The contact between the oil and the olive-paste increases lipolysis and lipid oxidation, which are mainly due to the highly-active lipases present in the paste and the lipoxygenase action, respectively. The choice of the technological parameters is directly related to the oil future stability and its organoleptic characteristics. This study confirms and emphasizes the fact that the oxidative degradation, simultaneously with the well-known formation of the flavor compounds, is related to the time required for the separation of the oil-water emulsion. Loss of the natural antioxidants (minor polar components by an oxidative effect was demonstrated to be also influenced by the time required for oil separation.

    La molienda de aceitunas, el batido de la pasta y la separación del aceite de oliva producen una serie de transformaciones en las características del aceite que posteriormente será extraído. Es sabido que la formación de distintos componentes del aroma del aceite derivan de reacciones oxidativas enzimáticas. El contacto entre el aceite y la pasta de aceitunas incrementa la lipolisis y la oxidación lipídica, debido a un incremento de la actividad de las lipasas presentes en la pasta y a una acción lipoxigenásica respectivamente. La elección de los parámetros tecnológicos está en relación directa con la futura estabilidad y las características organolépticas del aceite. En este trabajo se confirma la formación de tales compuestos evidenciándose la degradación oxidativa del aceite en relación al tiempo de batido empleado. Se demuestra también una pérdida de antioxidantes (componentes polares menores por efectos oxidativos en modo proporcional al tiempo de batido.

  3. Some Qualitative and Rheological Properties of Virgin Olive Oil- Apple Vinegar Salad Dressing Stabilized With Xanthan Gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solmaz Abedinzadeh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Lipid oxidation and rheological properties are the main qualitative parameters determined in food emulsions. Salad dressings are food emulsions important in our daily diet, but conventional salad dressings have high amounts of cholesterol and saturated fatty acids because of egg yolk in their formulations. There are many studies on the modification of salad dressing formulations to replace egg yolk and saturated fats. The present study describes new formulation of salad dressing with olive oil and apple vinegar to produce a functional food product. Methods: This study investigated the qualitative properties, oxidative stability, rheological behavior and microstructure of the salad dressing without egg yolk. Oil-in-water emulsions were prepared with virgin olive oil and apple vinegar stabilized with various percentages of xanthan (T1: 0.25%, T2: 0.5%. T3: 0.75%. Samples were stored at refrigerator for 90 days and experiments were performed at production day and during storage. Results: The obtained results showed that peroxide value was increased for all samples during storage, but it was at an acceptable level. Fatty acid changes were not significant during storage. Droplet size was reduced by increasing xanthan gum. T2 had the best rheological properties during storage. Generally, T2 and T3 had higher scores and were more acceptable in organoleptic assay. Conclusion: Obtained results showed that T2 had suitable qualitative and rheological properties and can be a proper egg yolk free salad dressing to introduce to the market.

  4. Extraction, Separation, and Identification of Phenolic Compounds in Virgin Olive Oil by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasioula-Margari, Maria; Tsabolatidou, Eleftheria

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the recovery of individual phenolic compounds extracted from virgin olive oil (VOO), from different Greek olive varieties. Sufficient recoveries (90%) of all individual phenolic compounds were obtained using methanol as an extraction solvent, acetonitrile for residue solubilization, and two washing steps with hexane. Moreover, in order to elucidate structural characteristics of phenolic compounds in VOO, high performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) at 280 and 340 nm and HPLC coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) in the negative-ion mode were performed. The most abundant phenolic compounds were oleuropein derivatives with m/z 319 and 377 and ligstroside derivatives with m/z 303, 361. Lignans, such as 1-acetoxypinoresinol and pinoresinol were also present in substantial quantities in the phenolic fraction. However, pinoresinol was co-eluted with dialdehydic form of ligstroside aglycone (DAFLA) and it was not possible to be quantified separately. The phenolic extracts, obtained from different VOO samples, yielded similar HPLC profiles. Differences, however, were observed in the last part of the chromatogram, corresponding to isomers of the aldehydic form of ligstroside aglycone. Oxidized phenolic products, originating from secoiridoids, were also detected. PMID:26783843

  5. Extraction, Separation, and Identification of Phenolic Compounds in Virgin Olive Oil by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tasioula-Margari

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the recovery of individual phenolic compounds extracted from virgin olive oil (VOO, from different Greek olive varieties. Sufficient recoveries (90% of all individual phenolic compounds were obtained using methanol as an extraction solvent, acetonitrile for residue solubilization, and two washing steps with hexane. Moreover, in order to elucidate structural characteristics of phenolic compounds in VOO, high performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD at 280 and 340 nm and HPLC coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS in the negative-ion mode were performed. The most abundant phenolic compounds were oleuropein derivatives with m/z 319 and 377 and ligstroside derivatives with m/z 303, 361. Lignans, such as 1-acetoxypinoresinol and pinoresinol were also present in substantial quantities in the phenolic fraction. However, pinoresinol was co-eluted with dialdehydic form of ligstroside aglycone (DAFLA and it was not possible to be quantified separately. The phenolic extracts, obtained from different VOO samples, yielded similar HPLC profiles. Differences, however, were observed in the last part of the chromatogram, corresponding to isomers of the aldehydic form of ligstroside aglycone. Oxidized phenolic products, originating from secoiridoids, were also detected.

  6. Extraction, Separation, and Identification of Phenolic Compounds in Virgin Olive Oil by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasioula-Margari, Maria; Tsabolatidou, Eleftheria

    2015-08-13

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the recovery of individual phenolic compounds extracted from virgin olive oil (VOO), from different Greek olive varieties. Sufficient recoveries (90%) of all individual phenolic compounds were obtained using methanol as an extraction solvent, acetonitrile for residue solubilization, and two washing steps with hexane. Moreover, in order to elucidate structural characteristics of phenolic compounds in VOO, high performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) at 280 and 340 nm and HPLC coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) in the negative-ion mode were performed. The most abundant phenolic compounds were oleuropein derivatives with m/z 319 and 377 and ligstroside derivatives with m/z 303, 361. Lignans, such as 1-acetoxypinoresinol and pinoresinol were also present in substantial quantities in the phenolic fraction. However, pinoresinol was co-eluted with dialdehydic form of ligstroside aglycone (DAFLA) and it was not possible to be quantified separately. The phenolic extracts, obtained from different VOO samples, yielded similar HPLC profiles. Differences, however, were observed in the last part of the chromatogram, corresponding to isomers of the aldehydic form of ligstroside aglycone. Oxidized phenolic products, originating from secoiridoids, were also detected.

  7. Polyphenol fraction of extra virgin olive oil protects against endothelial dysfunction induced by high glucose and free fatty acids through modulation of nitric oxide and endothelin-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Emilia Storniolo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and clinical studies have reported that olive oil reduces the incidence of cardiovascular disease. However, the mechanisms involved in this beneficial effect have not been delineated. The endothelium plays an important role in blood pressure regulation through the release of potent vasodilator and vasoconstrictor agents such as nitric oxide (NO and endothelin-1 (ET-1, respectively, events that are disrupted in type 2 diabetes. Extra virgin olive oil contains polyphenols, compounds that exert a biological action on endothelial function. This study analyzes the effects of olive oil polyphenols on endothelial dysfunction using an in vitro model that simulates the conditions of type 2 diabetes. Our findings show that high glucose and linoleic and oleic acids decrease endothelial NO synthase phosphorylation, and consequently intracellular NO levels, and increase ET-1 synthesis by ECV304 cells. These effects may be related to the stimulation of reactive oxygen species production in these experimental conditions. Hydroxytyrosol and the polyphenol extract from extra virgin olive oil partially reversed the above events. Moreover, we observed that high glucose and free fatty acids reduced NO and increased ET-1 levels induced by acetylcholine through the modulation of intracellular calcium concentrations and endothelial NO synthase phosphorylation, events also reverted by hydroxytyrosol and polyphenol extract. Thus, our results suggest a protective effect of olive oil polyphenols on endothelial dysfunction induced by hyperglycemia and free fatty acids.

  8. Solid carbon dioxide to promote the extraction of extra-virgin olive oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinnai, A.; Venturi, F.; Quartacci, V.F.; Sanmartin, C.; Favati, F.; Andrich, G.

    2016-07-01

    The use of solid carbon dioxide (dry ice) as a cryogen is widespread in the food industry to produce high quality wines, rich in color and perfumes. The direct addition of carbon dioxide to olives in the solid state before milling represents a fundamental step which characterizes this innovative extraction system. At room temperature conditions solid carbon dioxide evolves directly into the air phase (sublimation), and the direct contact between the cryogen and the olives induces a partial solidification of the cellular water inside the fruits. Since the volume occupied by water in the solid state is higher than that in the liquid state, the ice crystals formed are incompatible with the cellular structure and induce the collapse of the cells, besides promoting the diffusion of the cellular substances in the extracted oil, which is thus enriched with cellular metabolites characterized by a high nutraceutical value. Furthermore, a layer of CO2 remains over the olive paste to preserve it from oxidative degradation. The addition of solid carbon dioxide to processed olives induced a statistically significant increase in oil yield and promoted the accumulation of tocopherols in the lipid phase, whereas a not significant increase in the phenolic fraction of the oil occurred. (Author)

  9. Characterization of Arbequina virgin olive oils produced in different regions of Brazil and Spain: Physicochemical properties, oxidative stability and fatty acid profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Thays H; Pereira, José Alberto; Cabrera-Vique, Carmen; Lara, Luis; Oliveira, Adelson F; Seiquer, Isabel

    2017-01-15

    Production of virgin olive oil is beginning in Brazil. This paper analyzes the characteristics of the EVOO Arbequina from Brazil in comparison with Spanish Arbequina from different regions. Quality parameters, oxidative stability, pigments, colour and fatty acid profile were assessed, and relationships with geographic and climatic conditions were studied. All the samples presented good quality and met EU standards for extra-virgin olive oil, but there were significant differences between regions and countries for many of the parameters evaluated. Major differences between Brazilian and Spanish samples were observed for free acidity and colour of the oils, as well as minor variations in the fatty acid profile. The colour differences were related to rainfall, whereas the fatty acid content was strongly influenced by altitude and temperature. These results highlight the fact that geographic area and environmental factors influence the characteristics of Arbequina oil and play an important role in newly introduced cultivars.

  10. Extraction of phenolic compounds from extra virgin olive oil by a natural deep eutectic solvent: Data on UV absorption of the extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradiso, Vito Michele; Clemente, Antonia; Summo, Carmine; Pasqualone, Antonella; Caponio, Francesco

    2016-09-01

    This data article refers to the paper "Towards green analysis of virgin olive oil phenolic compounds: extraction by a natural deep eutectic solvent and direct spectrophotometric detection" [1]. A deep eutectic solvent (DES) based on lactic acid and glucose was used as green solvent for phenolic compounds. Eight standard phenolic compounds were solubilized in the DES. Then, a set of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) samples (n=65) were submitted to liquid-liquid extraction by the DES. The standard solutions and the extracts were analyzed by UV spectrophotometry. This article reports the spectral data of both the standard solutions and the 65 extracts, as well as the total phenolic content of the corresponding oils, assessed by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay.

  11. Impact of Virgin Olive Oil and Phenol-Enriched Virgin Olive Oils on the HDL Proteome in Hypercholesterolemic Subjects: A Double Blind, Randomized, Controlled, Cross-Over Clinical Trial (VOHF Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pedret

    Full Text Available The effects of olive oil phenolic compounds (PCs on HDL proteome, with respect to new aspects of cardioprotective properties, are still unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the impact on the HDL protein cargo of the intake of virgin olive oil (VOO and two functional VOOs, enriched with their own PCs (FVOO or complemented with thyme PCs (FVOOT, in hypercholesterolemic subjects. Eligible volunteers were recruited from the IMIM-Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute (Spain from April 2012 to September 2012. Thirty-three hypercholesterolemic participants (total cholesterol >200 mg/dL; 19 men and 14 women; aged 35 to 80 years were randomized in the double-blind, controlled, cross-over VOHF clinical trial. The subjects received for 3 weeks 25 mL/day of: VOO, FVOO, or FVOOT. Using a quantitative proteomics approach, 127 HDL-associated proteins were identified. Among these, 15 were commonly differently expressed after the three VOO interventions compared to baseline, with specific changes observed for each intervention. The 15 common proteins were mainly involved in the following pathways: LXR/RXR activation, acute phase response, and atherosclerosis. The three VOOs were well tolerated by all participants. Consumption of VOO, or phenol-enriched VOOs, has an impact on the HDL proteome in a cardioprotective mode by up-regulating proteins related to cholesterol homeostasis, protection against oxidation and blood coagulation while down-regulating proteins implicated in acute-phase response, lipid transport, and immune response. The common observed protein expression modifications after the three VOOs indicate a major matrix effect.International Standard Randomized Controlled Trials ISRCTN77500181.

  12. 初榨橄榄油风味化合物研究进展%Advance in flavor compounds of virgin olive oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟诚; 薛雅琳; 王兴国; 金青哲

    2013-01-01

    Lipoxygenase pathways representing the main approach of the flavor source of virgin olive oil were elaborated,and effects of varieties and environment,maturity of fruit,processing and storage condition on flavor characteristics were analyzed.The determination methods of volatile compounds in virgin olive oil were introduced and the application and development of the flavor compounds of virgin olive oil were prospected.%阐述了初榨橄榄油风味的主要来源途径即脂氧合酶途径,对影响初榨橄榄油风味特征的若干因素如品种和地理环境,油橄榄果实成熟度,加工工艺,储藏条件等因素进行了讨论和分析.介绍了初榨橄榄油中挥发性化合物的分析检测方法,并且展望了橄榄油风味化合物研究的应用和发展前景.

  13. Loss of Bone Mineral Density Associated with Age in Male Rats Fed on Sunflower Oil Is Avoided by Virgin Olive Oil Intake or Coenzyme Q Supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Julio J.; Llamas-Elvira, José M.; López-Frías, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    The role of dietary fat unsaturation and the supplementation of coenzyme Q have been evaluated in relation to bone health. Male Wistar rats were maintained for 6 or 24 months on two diets varying in the fat source, namely virgin olive oil, rich in monounsaturated fatty acids, or sunflower oil, rich in n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Both dietary fats were supplemented or not with coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10). Bone mineral density (BMD) was evaluated in the femur. Serum levels of osteocalcin, osteopontin, receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegerin (OPG), adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and parathyroid hormone (PTH), as well as urinary F2-isoprostanes were measured. Aged animals fed on virgin olive oil showed higher BMD than those fed on sunflower oil. In addition, CoQ10 prevented the age-related decline in BMD in animals fed on sunflower oil. Urinary F2-isoprostanes analysis showed that sunflower oil led to the highest oxidative status in old animals, which was avoided by supplementation with CoQ10. In conclusion, lifelong feeding on virgin olive oil or the supplementation of sunflower oil on CoQ10 prevented, at least in part mediated by a low oxidative stress status, the age-related decrease in BMD found in sunflower oil fed animals. PMID:28661441

  14. Influence of malaxation time of olive paste on oil extraction yields and chemical and organoleptic characteristics of virgin olive oil obtained by a centrifugal decanter at water saving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serraiocco, A.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimental tests were carried out to ascertain the influence of malaxation time of olive paste on extraction yields and qualitative characteristics of virgin olive oils obtained by a centrifugal decanter at water saving. Results show that malaxation time has to be no less than 45 minutes to have a satisfactory oil extraction yield. Furthermore, it was ascertained that the malaxation time, protracted up to 90 minutes, does not have influence upon qualitative and organoleptic characteristics of oils. Only the total phenols content of oils changed significantly when the malaxation time of olive paste increased from 15 to 90 minutes. However, in this research has been demonstrated that in some cases the total phenols content of oils increased during the first 30-45 minutes of malaxation and after it diminished. This is due to the variation of total phenols content of vegetable water that in the first time increased and after diminished very quickly. Because of the partition equilibrium law, the total phenols content of oil changed in the same way. Finally, results show that the composition of volatile substances of head-space of oils did not change increasing the malaxation time of olive paste obtained from good quality olive fruits.Se realizaron pruebas experimentales para verificar la influencia del tiempo de batido sobre los rendimientos en aceite y sobre las características de la calidad de los aceites obtenidos con un decanter centrifugo con ahorro de agua. Los resultados conseguidos indicaron que el tiempo de batido no debe ser inferior a 45 minutos para poder obtener rendimientos en aceite satisfactorios. Además, se pudo verificar que la operación de batido, aun siendo prolongada a 90 minutos, no influencia significativamente en las características cualitativas y organolépticas de los aceites. Solo el contenido de fenoles totales en los aceites disminuyó cuando el tiempo de batido fue incrementado de 15 a 90 minutos. Sin embargo, se

  15. Sensory profiling: a method for describing the sensory characteristics of virgin olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyon, David H.

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available Sensory profiling is an objective, descriptive technique which uses a panel of trained assessors. It was used at Campden to differentiate olive oil which differed in terms of the country of origin, variety, ripeness and extraction techniques. The data were related to similar results from the Netherlands and Italy. The results indicated that all three sensory panels perceived the samples in the same way, however, the differed in the way the oils were described.
    The new European legislation on olive oil is partially concerned with the sensory aspects of the oil. The sensory grading takes into account the 'positive' and 'negative' attributes in the oil before giving an overall quality grade. These attributes do not reflect the consumer requirements, therefore, the grading should be restricted to the assessment of the presence or absence of sensory defects.

  16. Assessment of volatile compound profiles and the deduced sensory significance of virgin olive oils from the progeny of Picual×Arbequina cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Ana G; de la Rosa, Raúl; Pascual, Mar; Sánchez-Ortiz, Araceli; Romero-Segura, Carmen; León, Lorenzo; Sanz, Carlos

    2016-01-08

    Volatile compounds are responsible for most of the sensory qualities of virgin olive oil and they are synthesized when enzymes and substrates come together as olive fruit is crushed during the industrial process to obtain the oil. Here we have studied the variability among the major volatile compounds in virgin olive oil prepared from the progeny of a cross of Picual and Arbequina olive cultivars (Olea europaea L.). The volatile compounds were isolated by SPME, and analyzed by HRGC-MS and HRGC-FID. Most of the volatile compounds found in the progeny's oil are produced by the enzymes in the so-called lipoxygenase pathway, and they may be clustered into different groups according to their chain length and polyunsaturated fatty acid origin (linoleic and linolenic acids). In addition, a group of compounds derived from amino acid metabolism and two terpenes also contributed significantly to the volatile fraction, some of which had significant odor values in most of the genotypes evaluated. The volatile compound content of the progeny was very varied, widely transgressing the progenitor levels, suggesting that in breeding programs it might be more effective to consider a larger number of individuals within the same cross than using different crosses with fewer individuals. Multivariate analysis allowed genotypes with particularly interesting volatile compositions to be identified and their flavor quality deduced. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of mixing and extraction parameters on virgin olive oil quality

    OpenAIRE

    Pasqualone, A.; Montel, G. L.; Cini, E.; Amirante, R.

    2001-01-01

    The mixing time, the temperature and the degree of dilution of olive paste are the main parameters liable to change during mixing and oil ext raction. They can greatly differ from a processing run to another, with variations being observed in Tuscan oil mills, between 26ºC and 36ºC, 40’ and 90’, and 10% and 50% respectively, for the temperature, the mixing time and the water added during the centrifugal extraction. This note reports on t...

  18. Effects of foal presence at milking and dietary extra virgin olive oil on jennet milk fatty acids profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Alabiso

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available TwelveRagusanajennetswerestudiedtoinvestigatetheeffectsof dietaryextra Twelve Ragusana jennets were studiedtoinvestigatetheeffectsof dietaryextra studied to investigatetheeffectsof dietaryextra the effects of dietaryextra dietary extra virgin olive oil and thepresenceofthefoal duringmilkingonmilkfattyacids(FAprofile.At20, 50 thepresenceofthefoal duringmilkingonmilkfattyacids(FAprofile.At20, 50 he presence of the foal during milking on milk fatty acids (FA profile. At 20, 50 and 90 days post-foaling, each jennet was milked 4 times per day. The feeding system and the milking procedures are given by Alabiso et al. (2009. FA profiles of the composites from milkings without foals (1MNF+3MNF and with foals (2MYF+4MYF were analyzed by gas chromatography. Dietary oil had no significant effect on milk yield or fat content but increased the proportion of C18:1 (n-9 in milk. Jen- net milk had a beneficial FA profile compared to bovine milk and thus would be suitable for consump- tion by infants suffering from cows milk protein allergy, however, augmentation of the long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated FA content warrants further study.

  19. Analysis of Volatile Markers for Virgin Olive Oil Aroma Defects by SPME-GC/FID: Possible Sources of Incorrect Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver-Pozo, Celia; Aparicio-Ruiz, Ramón; Romero, Inmaculada; García-González, Diego L

    2015-12-09

    The need to explain virgin olive oil (VOO) aroma descriptors by means of volatiles has raised interest in applying analytical techniques for trapping and quantitating volatiles. Static headspace sampling with solid phase microextraction (SPME) as trapping material is one of the most applied solutions for analyzing volatiles. The use of an internal standard and the determination of the response factors of the main volatiles seem to guarantee the correct determination of volatile concentrations in VOOs by SPME-GC/FID. This paper, however, shows that the competition phenomena between volatiles in their adsorption to the SPME fiber, inherent in static headspace sampling, may affect the quantitation. These phenomena are more noticeable in the particular case of highly odorant matrices, such as rancid and vinegary VOOs with high intensity of defect. The competition phenomena can modify the measurement sensitivity, which can be observed in volatile quantitation as well as in the recording of internal standard areas in different matrices. This paper analyzes the bias of the peak areas and concentrations of those volatiles that are markers for each sensory defect of VOOs (rancid, vinegary, musty, and fusty) when the intensity and complexity of aroma are increased. Of the 17 volatile markers studied in this work, 10 presented some anomalies in the quantitation in highly odorant matrices due the competition phenomena. However, quantitation was not affected in the concentration ranges at which each volatile marker is typically found in the defective oils they were characteristic of, validating their use as markers.

  20. Effect of Thymus vulgaris and Bunium persicum essential oils on the oxidative stability of virgin olive oil

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    M. Keramat

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural antioxidants are becoming a major focus because natural food ingredients are safer than synthetic types. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of Thymus vulgaris and Bunium persicum essential oils (EO on the oxidation of virgin olive oil (VOO during accelerated storage. The antioxidant activities of EOs were compared with those of α-tocopherol and BHT. GC/MS analyses revealed that thymol (28.50%, p-cymene (27.14%, carvacrol (18.36%, and γ-terpinene (4.97% are the main components of T. vulgaris EO, while cuminaldehyde (32.81%, γ-terpinene (16.02% and p-cymene (14.07% are the main components of B. persicum EO. Both EOs provided protection for the VOO, inhibiting the formation of primary and secondary oxidation products although T. vulgaris EO showed greater protection against the oxidation process than B. persicum EO. The effect of T. vulgaris essential oil on the oxidation inhibition of VOO was similar to that of BHT. α-Tocopherol showed no measurable effect on improving the oxidative stability of VOO. This study suggests that T. vulgaris and B. persicum EOs can be used to improve the oxidative stability of VOO.

  1. Effect of different irrigation regimes on the quality attributes of mono varietal virgin olive oil from cv. Cobrancosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes-Silva, A. A.; Gouveia, J. B.; Vasconcelos, P.; Ferreira, T. C.; Villalobos, F. J.

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of different irrigation strategies in virgin olive oil (VOO) composition and quality of cv. Cobrancosa, integrated in a protected denomination of origin of Azeite de Tras-os-Montes in the Northeast of Portugal. Three irrigation treatments were applied: T2-full irrigation that received a seasonal water equivalent to 100% of estimated crop evapotranspiration (ETc), T1-continuous deficit irrigation (30% ETc) and T0- rainfed treatment. Data were collected from two consecutive crop years (2005-2006). Irrigation regimes had a minor effect on standard quality indices (free fatty acids, peroxide value, K{sub 2}32 and K{sub 2}70) of VOO and in fatty acid composition. Total polyphenols decreased up to treatment T2, and were strongly related to the water stress integral, suggesting that the effect of irrigation on this variable occurs along the crop season and not just during the oil accumulation phase. A strategy of continuous deficit irrigation with only 30% of maximum ETc may have an advantageous effect, as it increased oil yield to more than double that of rainfed conditions while VOO quality was similar. (Author) 49 refs.

  2. Partition behavior of virgin olive oil phenolic compounds in oil-brine mixtures during thermal processing for fish canning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchi, Raffaele; Paduano, Antonello; Fiore, Francesca; Della Medaglia, Dorotea; Ambrosino, Maria Luisa; Medina, Isabel

    2002-05-08

    The chemical modifications and partitioning toward the brine phase (5% salt) of major phenol compounds of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) were studied in a model system formed by sealed cans filled with oil-brine mixtures (5:1, v/v) simulating canned-in-oil food systems. Filled cans were processed in an industrial plant using two sterilization conditions commonly used during fish canning. The partitioning of phenolic compounds toward brine induced by thermal processing was studied by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of the phenol fraction extracted from oils and brine. Hydroxytyrosol (1), tyrosol (2), and the complex phenolic compounds containing 1 and 2 (i.e., the dialdehydic form of decarboxymethyl oleuropein aglycon 3, the dialdehydic form of decarboxymethyl ligstroside aglycon 4, and the oleuropein aglycon 6) decreased in the oily phase after sterilization with a marked partitioning toward the brine phase. The increase of the total amount of 1 and 2 after processing, as well as the presence of elenolic acid 7 released in brine, revealed the hydrolysis of the ester bond of hydrolyzable phenolic compounds 3, 4, and 6 during thermal processing. Both phenomena (partitioning toward the water phase and hydrolysis) contribute to explain the loss of phenolic compounds exhibited by EVOO used as filling medium in canned foods, as well as the protection of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in canned-in-EVOO fish products.

  3. Oleocanthal, a Phenolic Derived from Virgin Olive Oil: A Review of the Beneficial Effects on Inflammatory Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Parkinson

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Virgin olive oil (VOO is credited as being one of many healthful components of the Mediterranean diet. Mediterranean populations experience reduced incidence of chronic inflammatory disease states and VOO is readily consumed as part of an everyday dietary pattern. A phenolic compound contained in VOO, named oleocanthal, shares unique perceptual and anti-inflammatory characteristics with Ibuprofen. Over recent years oleocanthal has become a compound of interest in the search for naturally occurring compounds with pharmacological qualities. Subsequent to its discovery and identification, oleocanthal has been reported to exhibit various modes of action in reducing inflammatory related disease, including joint-degenerative disease, neuro-degenerative disease and specific cancers. Therefore, it is postulated that long term consumption of VOO containing oleocanthal may contribute to the health benefits associated with the Mediterranean dietary pattern. The following paper summarizes the current literature on oleocanthal, in terms of its sensory and pharmacological properties, and also discusses the beneficial, health promoting activities of oleocanthal, in the context of the molecular mechanisms within various models of disease.

  4. Determinants of HDL Cholesterol Efflux Capacity after Virgin Olive Oil Ingestion: Interrelationships With Fluidity of HDL Monolayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Castillejo, Sara; Rubió, Laura; Hernáez, Álvaro; Catalán, Úrsula; Pedret, Anna; Valls, Rosa-M; Mosele, Juana I; Covas, Maria-Isabel; Remaley, Alan T; Castañer, Olga; Motilva, Maria-José; Solá, Rosa

    2017-09-08

    Cholesterol efflux capacity of HDL (CEC) is inversely associated with cardiovascular risk. HDL composition, fluidity, oxidation, and size are related with CEC. We aimed to assess which HDL parameters were CEC determinants after virgin olive oil (VOO) ingestion. Post-hoc analyses from the VOHF study, a crossover intervention with three types of VOO. We assessed the relationship of 3-week changes in HDL-related variables after intervention periods with independence of the type of VOO. After univariate analyses, mixed linear models were fitted with variables related with CEC and fluidity. Fluidity and Apolipoprotein (Apo)A-I content in HDL was directly associated, and HDL oxidative status inversely, with CEC. A reduction in free cholesterol, an increase in triglycerides in HDL, and a decrease in small HDL particle number or an increase in HDL mean size, were associated to HDL fluidity. HDL fluidity, ApoA-I concentration, and oxidative status are major determinants for CEC after VOO. The impact on CEC of changes in free cholesterol and triglycerides in HDL, and those of small HDL or HDL mean size, could be mechanistically linked through HDL fluidity. Our work points out novel therapeutic targets to improve HDL functionality in humans through nutritional or pharmacological interventions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Anti-inflammatory and joint protective effects of extra-virgin olive-oil polyphenol extract in experimental arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosillo, María Ángeles; Alcaraz, María José; Sánchez-Hidalgo, Marina; Fernández-Bolaños, José G; Alarcón-de-la-Lastra, Catalina; Ferrándiz, María Luisa

    2014-12-01

    The consumption of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) in Mediterranean countries has shown beneficial effects. A wide range of evidence indicates that phenolic compounds present in EVOO are endowed with anti-inflammatory properties. In this work, we evaluated the effects of EVOO-polyphenol extract (PE) in a model of rheumatoid arthritis, the collagen-induced arthritis model in mice. On day 0, DBA-1/J mice were immunized with bovine type II collagen. On day 21, mice received a booster injection. PE (100 and 200 mg/kg) was orally administered once a day from days 29 to 41 to arthritic mice. We have demonstrated that PE decreases joint edema, cell migration, cartilage degradation and bone erosion. PE significantly reduced the levels of proinflammatory cytokines and prostaglandin E2 in the joint as well as the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1. Our data indicate that PE inhibits c-Jun N-terminal kinase, p38 and signal transducer and activator of transcription-3. In addition, PE decreases nuclear factor κB translocation leading to the down-regulation of the arthritic process. These results support the interest of natural diet components in the development of therapeutic products for arthritic conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Phenols and the antioxidant capacity of Mediterranean vegetables prepared with extra virgin olive oil using different domestic cooking techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Anaya, Jessica Del Pilar; Samaniego-Sánchez, Cristina; Castañeda-Saucedo, Ma Claudia; Villalón-Mir, Marina; de la Serrana, Herminia López-García

    2015-12-01

    Potato, tomato, eggplant and pumpkin were deep fried, sautéed and boiled in Mediterranean extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), water, and a water/oil mixture (W/O). We determined the contents of fat, moisture, total phenols (TPC) and eighteen phenolic compounds, as well as antioxidant capacity in the raw vegetables and compared these with contents measured after cooking. Deep frying and sautéing led to increased fat contents and TPC, whereas both types of boiling (in water and W/O) reduced the same. The presence of EVOO in cooking increased the phenolics identified in the raw foods as oleuropein, pinoresinol, hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol, and the contents of vegetable phenolics such as chlorogenic acid and rutin. All the cooking methods conserved or increased the antioxidant capacity measured by DPPH, FRAP and ABTS. Multivariate analyses showed that each cooked vegetable developed specific phenolic and antioxidant activity profiles resulting from the characteristics of the raw vegetables and the cooking techniques. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Glass vs. Plastic: Life Cycle Assessment of Extra-Virgin Olive Oil Bottles across Global Supply Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Accorsi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The environmental impacts of global food supply chains are growing with the need for their measurement and management. This paper explores the operations of a global supply chain for extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO according to a life cycle assessment (LCA methodology. The LCA assessment methodology is applied to determine the environmental impact categories associated with the bottled EVOO life cycle, focusing on packaging decisions. The proposed analysis identifies the greatest environmental stressors of the EVOO supply chain, thereby supporting strategic and operative decisions toward more efficient and environmentally-friendly operations management and packaging choices. This paper quantifies the environmental categories of the impacts of global warming potential, ozone layer depletion, non-renewable energy use, acidification, eutrophication and photochemical smog, for the observed EVOO supply chain, given alternative packaging configurations, i.e., a glass bottle vs. a plastic bottle. The observed system includes the supply of EVOO, the EVOO processing and bottling, the supply of packaging, the distribution of final products to customers, the end-of-life (EOL treatments regarding the management, recycling and the disposal of waste across a global supply chain. The findings from the LCA highlight the potential of PET bottles in reducing the environmental impact of EVOO supply chains and identifies hotspots of discussion for policy-makers, EVOO producers and consumers.

  8. Tyrosol, a main phenol present in extra virgin olive oil, increases lifespan and stress resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañuelo, Ana; Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; Pacheco-Liñán, Pedro; Martínez-Lara, Esther; Siles, Eva; Miranda-Vizuete, Antonio

    2012-08-01

    Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) consumption has been traditionally related to a higher longevity in the human population. EVOO effects on health are often attributed to its unique mixture of phenolic compounds with tyrosol and hydroxityrosol being the most biologically active. Although these compounds have been extensively studied in terms of their antioxidant potential and its role in different pathologies, their actual connection with longevity remains unexplored. This study utilized the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to investigate the possible effects of tyrosol in metazoan longevity. Significant lifespan extension was observed at one specific tyrosol concentration, which also induced a higher resistance to thermal and oxidative stress and delayed the appearance of a biomarker of ageing. We also report that, although tyrosol was efficiently taken up by these nematodes, it did not induce changes in development, body length or reproduction. In addition, lifespan experiments with several mutant strains revealed that components of the heat shock response (HSF-1) and the insulin pathway (DAF-2 and DAF-16) might be implicated in mediating tyrosol effects in lifespan, while caloric restriction and sirtuins do not seem to mediate its effects. Together, our results point to hormesis as a possible mechanism to explain the effects of tyrosol on longevity in C. elegans.

  9. Effect of the season on the free phytoprostane content in Cornicabra extra virgin olive oil from deficit-irrigated olive trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-González, Jacinta; Pérez-López, David; Memmi, Houssem; Gijón, M Carmen; Medina, Sonia; Durand, Thierry; Guy, Alexandre; Galano, Jean-Marie; Fernández, Diego José; Carro, Fernando; Ferreres, Federico; Torrecillas, Arturo; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel

    2016-03-30

    The effect of regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) on the phytoprostane (PhytoP) content in extra virgin olive (Olea europaea L., cv. Cornicabra) oil (EVOO) was studied. During the 2012 and 2013 seasons, T0 plants were irrigated at 100% ETc, while T1 and T2 plants were irrigated avoiding water deficit during phases I and III of fruit growth and saving water during the non-critical phenological period of pit hardening (phase II), developing a more severe water deficit in T2 plants. In 2013, a fourth treatment (T3) was also performed, which was similar to T2 except that water saving was from the beginning of phase II to 15 days after the end of phase II. 9-F1t -PhytoP, 9-epi-9-F1t -PhytoP, 9-epi-9-D1t -PhytoP, 9-D1t -PhytoP, 16-B1 -PhytoP and 9-L1 -PhytoP were present in Cornicabra EVOO, and their contents increased in the EVOO from RDI plants. Deficit irrigation during pit hardening or for a further period of 2 weeks thereafter to increase irrigation water saving is clearly critical for EVOO composition because of the enhancement of free PhytoPs, which have potential beneficial effects on human health. The response of individual free PhytoPs to changes in plant water status was not as perceptible as expected, preventing their use as biomarkers of water stress. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Influence of mixing and extraction parameters on virgin olive oil quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasqualone, A.

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available The mixing time, the temperature and the degree of dilution of olive paste are the main parameters liable to change during mixing and oil ext raction. They can greatly differ from a processing run to another, with variations being observed in Tuscan oil mills, between 26ºC and 36ºC, 40’ and 90’, and 10% and 50% respectively, for the temperature, the mixing time and the water added during the centrifugal extraction. This note reports on the results of some experimental trials run during the 1998 olive oil year in Tuscany. The mixing time and temperature as well as the olive paste dilution were changed one at a time and were assessed for their influence on extraction yield and oil quality. The best conditions to optimise the product yield and quality were identified.El tiempo de batido, la temperatura y el grado de dilución de la pasta de aceituna, son los principales parámetros que pueden sufrir cambios durante el batido y la extracción del aceite. Estos pueden diferir mucho de un proceso a otro, habiendo sido observadas variaciones en los aceites de molino de Toscana, entre 26ºC y 36ºC, 40’ y 90’, y 10% y 50% respectivamente, para la temperatura, el tiempo de batido y el agua añadida durante la extracción por centrifugación. Este artículo presenta los resultados de algunos ensayos experimentales realizados durante el año 1998 con aceite de oliva de Toscana. El tiempo de batido y la temperatura, así como la dilución de la pasta de aceitunas, se variaron uno a uno y se evaluaron por su influencia en el rendimiento de la extracción y la calidad del aceite. Las mejores condiciones para optimizar el rendimiento y la calidad del producto fueron identificadas.

  11. Solid carbon dioxide to promote the extraction of extra-virgin olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinnai, A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of solid carbon dioxide (dry ice as a cryogen is widespread in the food industry to produce high quality wines, rich in color and perfumes. The direct addition of carbon dioxide to olives in the solid state before milling represents a fundamental step which characterizes this innovative extraction system. At room temperature conditions solid carbon dioxide evolves directly into the air phase (sublimation, and the direct contact between the cryogen and the olives induces a partial solidification of the cellular water inside the fruits. Since the volume occupied by water in the solid state is higher than that in the liquid state, the ice crystals formed are incompatible with the cellular structure and induce the collapse of the cells, besides promoting the diffusion of the cellular substances in the extracted oil, which is thus enriched with cellular metabolites characterized by a high nutraceutical value. Furthermore, a layer of CO2 remains over the olive paste to preserve it from oxidative degradation. The addition of solid carbon dioxide to processed olives induced a statistically significant increase in oil yield and promoted the accumulation of tocopherols in the lipid phase, whereas a not significant increase in the phenolic fraction of the oil occurred.El uso de dióxido de carbono sólido (hielo seco como criogénico está muy extendido en la industria alimentaria para producir vinos de alta calidad, ricos en color y perfumes. La adición directa de dióxido de carbono en estado sólido a las aceitunas antes de la molienda representa el paso fundamental que caracteriza este innovador sistema de extracción. En condiciones ambientales el dióxido de carbono sólido evoluciona directamente en la fase de aire (sublimación, y el contacto directo entre el criógeno y las aceitunas induce una solidificación parcial del agua celular dentro de los frutos. Dado que el volumen ocupado por el agua en el estado sólido es mayor que en el

  12. On the determination of minor phenolic acids of virgin olive oil by RP-HPLC

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    Tsimidou, M.

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was the detection and determination of four minor phenolic acids present in the polar fraction of olive oil. Gallic, homovanillic, caffeic and ferulic acids, were separated on RP-HPLC and detected by using three different systems. Detection limits were determined for the four compounds. Variable wavelength UV detectors were found to be more suitable than diode array for quantitative information. However, diode array was required for qualitative information for unknown components present in olive oil. For the determination of sensitive phenolic compouds present in minor amounts the use of a more sensitive system, such as the electrochemical detector, was necessary.

    El objetivo de este estudio fue la detección y determinación de cuatro ácidos fenólicos minoritarios presentes en la fracción polar del aceite de oliva. Los ácidos gálico, homovanílico, cafeico y ferúlico fueron separados mediante RP-HPLC y detectados usando tres sistemas diferentes. Se determinaron los límites de detección para los cuatro componentes. Se encontró que los detectores UV a longitud de onda variable son más apropiados que los detectores de batería de diodos para la información cuantitativa. Sin embargo, el detector de batería de diodo fue necesario para la información cualitativa de componentes desconocidos en el aceite de oliva. Para la determinación de compuestos fenólicos sensibles, presentes en cantidades minoritarias, fue necesario el uso de un sistema más sensible, como es el detector electroquímico.

  13. Optical methods and differential scanning calorimetry as a potential tool for discrimination of olive oils (extra virgin and mix with vegetable oils)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolova, Kr.; Yovcheva, T.; Marudova, M.; Eftimov, T.; Bodurov, I.; Viraneva, A.; Vlaeva, I.

    2016-03-01

    Eleven samples from olive oil have been investigated using four physical methods - refractive index measurement, fluorescence spectra, color parameters and differential scanning colorimetry. In pomace olive oil (POO) and extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) the oleic acid (65.24 %-78.40 %) predominates over palmitic (10.47 %-15.07 %) and linoleic (5.26 %-13.92 %) acids. The fluorescence spectra contain three peaks related to oxidation products at about λ = (500-540) nm, chlorophyll content at about λ = (675-680) nm and non determined pigments at λ = (700-750) nm. The melting point for EVOO and POO is between -1 °C and -6 °C. In contrast, the salad olive oils melt between -24 °C and -30 °C. The refractive index for EVOO is lower than that for mixed olive oils. The proposed physical methods could be used for fast and simple detection of vegetable oils in EVOO without use of chemical substances. The experimental results are in accordance with those obtained by chemical analysis.

  14. Influence of heat on biological activity and concentration of oleocanthal--a natural anti-inflammatory agent in virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicerale, Sara; Conlan, Xavier A; Barnett, Neil W; Sinclair, Andrew J; Keast, Russell S J

    2009-02-25

    The olive oil phenolic oleocanthal is a natural nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory compound that irritates the oral pharynx in a dose-dependent manner. It has been proposed that the biological activity of oleocanthal is partially responsible for the beneficial health effects of the Mediterranean diet. Virgin olive oil containing oleocanthal is often added as an ingredient in a number of cooked dishes, and therefore it is of great importance to understand how best to preserve the putative health-promoting benefits of this compound, as olive oil phenolics are subject to degradation upon heating in general. One extra virgin olive oil containing 53.9 mg/kg oleocanthal was heated at various temperatures (100, 170, and 240 degrees C) for set time periods (0, 1, 5, 20, 60, and 90 min). Oleocanthal concentrations were quantified using HPLC, and its biological activity was determined with a taste bioassay measuring the intensity of throat irritation. Results demonstrated that oleocanthal was heat stable compared with other olive oil phenolics, with a maximum loss of 16% as determined by HPLC analysis. However, there was a significant decrease of up to 31% (p taste bioassay. Although there was minimal degradation of oleocanthal concentration, there was a significant decrease in the biological activity of oleocanthal upon extended heating time, indicating a possible loss of the putative health -benefiting properties of oleocanthal. Alternatively, the difference in the concentration and biological activity of oleocanthal after heat treatment could be a result of an oleocanthal antagonist forming, decreasing or masking the biological activity of oleocanthal.

  15. What’s now, what’s new and what’s next in virgin olive oil elaboration systems? A perspective on current knowledge and future trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lisa Clodoveo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of virgin olive oil elaboration process is to obtain the highest recovery of the best quality oil from the fruits. The aim of the researchers is to understand the key elements that allow to modulate the complex series of physical, physico-chemical, chemical and biochemical transformations in order to develop innovative and sustainable plant solutions able to increase simultaneously both yield and quality of product. The basic principles applied also in the newest olive oil industrial plants still follow the technical knowledge which have been empirically learned by humans thousands of years ago. In fact, it is well known that three factors, mixing, water adding and warming, are the three macroscopic driving forces able to favour the separation of the oily phase from the mass of crushed olives. In this consolidated scenario, can new elements emerge? The whole process should be considered more than a simple extraction of the oil present in fruit cells, but a complex elaboration of a product, which is depleted and enriched of both constitutive and neo-synthesised compounds through complex phenomena only in part discovered. In fact, while it is evident that numerous studies have been conducted to elucidate the behaviour of olive paste during virgin olive oil extraction process, a key conclusion is that the current level of understanding can be improved further by means the development of more rigorous researches with more focused targets aimed to understand the rheological changes, the coalescence phenomena, the changes in hydrophobic and hydrophilic phenomena, the partition equilibrium of minor compounds between aqueous and oily phases and, last but not least, the favourable and unfavourable enzymatic reactions. This paper provides an analysis of the present research field and its strengths and weaknesses are discussed. Potentially important future directions for research are also proposed.

  16. Phenolic and volatile compounds of extra virgin olive oil (Olea europaea L. Cv. Cornicabra) with regard to fruit ripening and irrigation management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Rico, Aurora; Salvador, M Desamparados; La Greca, Marta; Fregapane, Giuseppe

    2006-09-20

    This study investigated the effect of both the degree of ripening of the olive fruit and irrigation management-rain-fed, two different regulated deficit irrigations (RDI), the method proposed by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (known as FAO), and 125 FAO (125% FAO)-on the phenolic and volatile composition of Cornicabra virgin olive oils obtained during two crop seasons. Secoiridoid phenolic derivatives greatly decreased upon increase of both irrigation and ripening, for example, the 3,4-DHPEA-EDA content decreased from 770 to 450 mg/kg through fruit ripening under rain-fed conditions and from 676 to 388 mg/kg from rain-fed conditions to FAO irrigation treatment (at a ripeness index of approximately 4). Moreover, secoiridoid derivatives of hydroxytyrosol decreased more than those of tyrosol. The levels of major volatile components decreased in the course of ripening but were higher in irrigated olive oils: for example, the E-2-hexenal content ranged between 4.2 and 2.6 mg/kg (expressed as 4-methyl-2-pentanol) over fruit maturation under rain-fed conditions and between 8.0 and 3.5 mg/kg under FAO scheduling. It is important to note that where water was applied only from the beginning of August (RDI-2), when oil begins to accumulate in the fruit, the resulting virgin olive oil presented a phenol and volatile profile similar to those of the FAO and 125 FAO methods, but with a considerable reduction in the amount of water supplied to the olive orchard.

  17. Influence of environmental factors on content of saturated fatty acids at the sn-2 position in Iranian extra virgin olive oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavian, Raheleh; Piravi, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    In this research the composition of fatty acids and saturated fatty acids at the sn-2 position [SFA (sn-2)] of triacylglycerols was determined in 9 samples of extra virgin olive oil from different regions of Iran, including Gilan, Golestan, Zanjan, and Qazvin in the north, Kermanshah in the west and Fars in the south of Iran. The analysis was performed using gas chromatography according to the standard methods of the International olive council (IOC). The relationship between SFA (sn-2) contents and some environmental factors such as temperature, annual rainfall and altitude was also investigated. 95% of confidence level and student test were used to analyze the data. Based on our findings, the main fatty acids in the samples were C18:1 (63.87%) and C16:0 as a saturated fatty acid (16.33%). The average amount of SFA (sn- 2) was 1.26% in extra virgin olive oils, which shows good agreement with Codex Alimentarius and IOC regulations. These results indicate that there is no relationship between the percentage of SFA (sn-2) and temperature or annual rainfall, but there is a direct relationship between the altitude of sampling region and SFA (sn-2) contents.

  18. Potential protective effects of extra virgin olive oil on the hepatotoxicity induced by co-exposure of adult rats to acrylamide and aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbel, Imen; Elwej, Awatef; Jamoussi, Kamel; Boudawara, Tahia; Kamoun, Naziha Grati; Zeghal, Najiba

    2015-04-01

    Extra virgin olive oil has been shown to be effective against oxidative stress associated diseases. In addition to the high quantities of oleic acid, it is rich in phenolic compounds. We investigated the protective efficacy of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) against the hepatotoxicity induced by both aluminum and acrylamide. Animals were divided into four groups containing six rats each: group 1, serving as controls, received distilled water; group 2 received drinking water containing aluminum chloride (50 mg kg(-1) body weight) and acrylamide (20 mg kg(-1) body weight) by gavage; group 3 received both aluminum and acrylamide in the same ways as well as EVOO (300 μl) by gavage; group 4 received only EVOO by gavage for 3 weeks. The rats exposed to both aluminum and acrylamide exhibited oxidative stress observed by an increase in MDA, AOPP and a decrease in GSH, NPSH and vitamin C levels. The activities of CAT and GPx were decreased, while SOD activity was increased. The liver metallothioneins, such as MT1 and MT2 genes expression, were also increased. EVOO supplementation improved all the parameters mentioned above. The plasma transaminases (AST and ALT), LDH activities, glucose and albumin levels, TC, LDL-C levels, TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C ratios were increased, while high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and TG decreased. The co-administration of EVOO to acrylamide and aluminum treated rats restored their hepatic markers to near-normal values. Liver histological studies confirmed the biochemical parameters and the beneficial role of EVOO. These results suggest that extra virgin olive oil, when added to the diet, may have a beneficial role in decreasing the liver damage induced by both aluminum and acrylamide.

  19. Effects of dietary extra virgin olive oil and its fractions on antioxidant status and DNA damage in the heart of rats co-exposed to aluminum and acrylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbel, Imen; Khemakhem, Mouna; Boudawara, Ons; Marrekchi, Rim; Jamoussi, Kamel; Ben Amar, Raja; Boudawara, Tahia; Zeghal, Najiba; Grati Kamoun, Naziha

    2015-09-01

    Oxidative stress generated by an excessive production of free radicals has been linked to the development of several health problems such as cardiovascular diseases. We investigated the protective efficacy of Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) and its lipophilic fraction (OOLF) and hydrophilic fraction (OOHF) against the cardiotoxicity and DNA damage induced by co-exposure to aluminum (AlCl3) and acrylamide (ACR). Rats were divided into eight groups of six each: controls, AlCl3 (50 mg per kg body weight) administered via drinking water and ACR (20 mg per kg body weight) given by gavage, combined group plus EVOO (300 μl); combined group plus the hydrophilic fraction (1 ml); combined group plus the lipophilic fraction (300 μl); extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and its fractions were administered daily by gavage for 21 days. Three other groups, considered as positive controls, received either EVOO, OOLF or OOLH. Exposure of rats to both AlCl3 and ACR provoked oxidative stress objectified by an increase in MDA, AOPP and a decrease in GSH, NPSH and vitamin C levels. The activities of CAT, GPx and SOD were also decreased. EVOO and its OOLF fraction exhibited a pronounced enhancement of antioxidant status while a partial recovery in the antioxidant status was obtained with the OOHF fraction. Plasma LDH and CK activities, TC, LDL-C levels, TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C ratios were increased, while HDL-C and TG decreased in rats treated with both AlCl3 and ACR. Co-administration of EVOO, OOLF or OOHF to treated rats restored cardiac biomarkers and lipid profile to near-normal values. Histological studies and DNA damage confirmed the biochemical parameters and the beneficial role of EVOO and its two fractions. Our results suggest that extra virgin olive oil and its two fractions can decrease the frequency of cardiac complications and genotoxicity.

  20. Development of flavor and functional extra virgin olive oils%风味和功能性特级初榨橄榄油的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔路; 李燕杰; 孙婷婷

    2014-01-01

    以特级初榨橄榄油为基础油,分别添加橘子、橙子、柠檬、辣椒、花椒天然风味香料进行调味,或添加植物甾醇酯、茶多酚增加其功能性。通过感官评定确定了橘子、橙子、柠檬3种水果风味香料最佳添加量均为1.3%,辣椒、花椒2种香辛料风味香料最佳添加量分别为0.5%和3.0%,植物甾醇酯、茶多酚添加量分别为1.0%和0.03%。在最佳添加量条件下,风味油和功能性油过氧化值、酸值稳定性良好;水果风味油p-茴香胺值上升比较明显,其他风味油和功能性油与特级初榨橄榄油的p-茴香胺值基本持平。%Extra virgin olive oil as base oil was flavored by natural flavor spices including tangerine, or-ange, lemon, pepper and chinese prickly ash, or increased functional properties by adding plant phytos-terol esters and tea polyphenols. Through sensory evaluation, the optimal dosages of three kinds of fruit flavor spices tangerine, orange and lemon were all 1. 3%, the optimal dosages of pepper and chinese prickly ash flavor spices were 0. 5% and 3. 0% respectively, and the optimal dosages of plant phytosterol esters and tea polyphenols were 1. 0% and 0. 03% respectively. Under the optimal dosage conditions, the flavor and functional extra virgin olive oils had good stabilities of peroxide value and acid value;the p-anisidine values of fruit flavor extra virgin olive oils went up markedly,while other flavor and function-al extra virgin olive oils had stable p-anisidine values.

  1. Exploring Willingness to Pay for QR Code Labeled Extra-Virgin Olive Oil: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Lombardi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Quick Response Code (QR code is the representative device of a particular branch of marketing called mobile marketing. The code is found throughout various productive sectors, including the agro-food sector. This work investigates whether consumers are willing to pay a premium price for extra information on a bottle of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO by means of the QR-code. Based on data collected from 1006 interviews conducted in Italy, we implemented the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB model to ascertain the factors that could influence consumer’s willingness to pay (WTP for extra QR code information. Empirical results show the influence of attitudes, subjective norms and consumer personal characteristics such as mavenism and motivation for shopping (utilitarian vs. hedonic motivation in explaining willingness to pay for a bottle of QR code labeled olive oil.

  2. Complex interactive effects of ripening degree, malaxation duration and temperature on Oblica cv. virgin olive oil phenols, volatiles and sensory quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukić, Igor; Žanetić, Mirella; Jukić Špika, Maja; Lukić, Marina; Koprivnjak, Olivera; Brkić Bubola, Karolina

    2017-10-01

    The interactive effects of ripening degree, malaxation duration and temperature on Oblica cv. (Olea europaea L.) virgin olive oil phenols, volatiles, and sensory quality were investigated. Olives were picked at three ripening degrees with International Olive Council indices of 0.68, 2.48 and 4.10, and processed by malaxation at 22 and 30°C, and at both temperatures for 30 and 60min. Ripening exhibited the strongest effect, and malaxation duration the weakest. Phenols were generally found to decrease during ripening; however 3,4-DHPEA-EDA and p-HPEA-EDA increased. Similar behaviour was observed for (E)-2-hexenal. Higher malaxation temperature induced an increase in particular important phenols and C6 alcohols, while C6 aldehydes mostly decreased. Interactions between the factors were established, mostly between ripening degree and malaxation temperature: the effect of the latter was most pronounced for ripe olives, especially for 3,4-DHPEA-EDA, p-HPEA-EDA and C6 volatiles. Sensory attributes were generally in agreement with the chemical composition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Potential of LC-MS phenolic profiling combined with multivariate analysis as an approach for the determination of the geographical origin of north Moroccan virgin olive oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajoub, Aadil; Carrasco-Pancorbo, Alegría; Ajal, El Amine; Ouazzani, Noureddine; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The applicability of two different platforms (LC-ESI-TOF MS and LC-ESI-IT MS) as powerful tools for the characterisation and subsequent quantification of the phenolic compounds present in north Moroccan virgin olive oils was assessed in this study. 156 olives samples of "Picholine Marocaine" cultivar grown in 7 Moroccan regions were collected and olive oils extracted. The phenolic profiles of these olive oils were studied using a resolutive chromatographic method coupled to ESI-TOF MS (for initial characterisation purposes) and coupled to ESI-IT MS (for further identification and quantification). 25 phenolic compounds belonging to different chemical families were identified and quantified. Secoiridoids were the most abundant phenols in all the samples, followed by phenolic alcohols, lignans and flavonoids, respectively. For testing the ability of phenolic profiles for tracing the geographical origin of the investigated oils, multivariate analysis tools were used, getting a good rate of correct classification and prediction by using a cross validation procedure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Biogenesis of «fusty» defect in virgin olive oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angerosa, F.

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The biogenesis of «fusty» defect was studied by chemical and microbial analyses on olives stored in piles for different times and their resulting oils. The fusty defect was perceived by tasters after four days of storage. The quali-quantitative composition of oil volatile fraction was a very suitable way to emphasize metabolites produced by microorganisms involved during the fruit storage. Some volatile compounds, such as 2- and 3- methyl butan-1-al, their corresponding alcohols and propionic acid, 2- methyl propionic acid and 3-methyl butanoic acid, were produced. At the same time, it was observed a dramatic development of Clostridium sp. and, in a lower proportion, of Pseudomonas sp. Furthermore, during the storage the evident softening of fruits has to be attributed to microorganisms in rapid growth belonging to Enterobacter sp. and moulds, that have in its enzymatic store pectinolytic enzymes.

    La biogénesis del atrojado ha sido estudiada química y microbiológicamente en aceitunas amontonadas durante diferentes períodos de tiempo; además ha sido evaluado el aceite procedente de la elaboración de dichos frutos. La percepción de atrojado era percibida por el panel de catadores sólo después de cuatro días de almacenamiento de las aceitunas. La determinación cuanti-cualitativa de los compuestos aromáticos del aceite resultante se ha relacionado con los microorganismos implicados en la degradación de los frutos. Se han encontrado algunos compuestos volátiles como el 2- y 3- metil butan-1-al y sus correspondientes alcoholes, el ácido propiónico, el ácido 2-metil propiónico y el 3-metil butanoico. Al mismo tiempo, ha sido observado el fuerte desarrollo de especies del género Clostridium y, en menor proporción, de Pseudomonas. Asimismo, durante el almacenamiento se produjo un ablandamiento de los frutos a causa de la acción de las enzimas pectolíticas de microorganismos de r

  5. Olive

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... In manufacturing, olive oil is used to make soaps, commercial plasters and liniments; and to delay setting ... Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on ... Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, Ineffective, and Insufficient ...

  6. Sunflower Oil but Not Fish Oil Resembles Positive Effects of Virgin Olive Oil on Aged Pancreas after Life-Long Coenzyme Q Addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Alonso, Adrián; Ramírez-Tortosa, César L; Varela-López, Alfonso; Roche, Enrique; Arribas, María I; Ramírez-Tortosa, M Carmen; Giampieri, Francesca; Ochoa, Julio J; Quiles, José L

    2015-09-29

    An adequate pancreatic structure is necessary for optimal organ function. Structural changes are critical in the development of age-related pancreatic disorders. In this context, it has been reported that different pancreatic compartments from rats were affected according to the fat composition consumed. Since there is a close relationship between mitochondria, oxidative stress and aging, an experimental approach has been developed to gain more insight into this process in the pancreas. A low dosage of coenzyme Q was administered life-long in rats in order to try to prevent pancreatic aging-related alterations associated to some dietary fat sources. According to that, three groups of rats were fed normocaloric diets containing Coenzyme Q (CoQ) for two years, where virgin olive, sunflower, or fish oil was included as unique fat source. Pancreatic samples for microscopy and blood samples were collected at the moment of euthanasia. The main finding is that CoQ supplementation gives different results according to fat used in diet. When sunflower oil was the main fat in the diet, CoQ supplementation seems to improve endocrine pancreas structure and in particular β-cell mass resembling positive effects of virgin olive oil. Conversely, CoQ intake does not seem to improve the structural alterations of exocrine compartment previously observed in fish oil fed rats. Therefore CoQ may improve pancreatic alterations associated to the chronic intake of some dietary fat sources.

  7. Sunflower Oil but Not Fish Oil Resembles Positive Effects of Virgin Olive Oil on Aged Pancreas after Life-Long Coenzyme Q Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Alonso, Adrián; Ramírez-Tortosa, César L.; Varela-López, Alfonso; Roche, Enrique; Arribas, María I.; Ramírez-Tortosa, M. Carmen; Giampieri, Francesca; Ochoa, Julio J.; Quiles, José L.

    2015-01-01

    An adequate pancreatic structure is necessary for optimal organ function. Structural changes are critical in the development of age-related pancreatic disorders. In this context, it has been reported that different pancreatic compartments from rats were affected according to the fat composition consumed. Since there is a close relationship between mitochondria, oxidative stress and aging, an experimental approach has been developed to gain more insight into this process in the pancreas. A low dosage of coenzyme Q was administered life-long in rats in order to try to prevent pancreatic aging-related alterations associated to some dietary fat sources. According to that, three groups of rats were fed normocaloric diets containing Coenzyme Q (CoQ) for two years, where virgin olive, sunflower, or fish oil was included as unique fat source. Pancreatic samples for microscopy and blood samples were collected at the moment of euthanasia. The main finding is that CoQ supplementation gives different results according to fat used in diet. When sunflower oil was the main fat in the diet, CoQ supplementation seems to improve endocrine pancreas structure and in particular β-cell mass resembling positive effects of virgin olive oil. Conversely, CoQ intake does not seem to improve the structural alterations of exocrine compartment previously observed in fish oil fed rats. Therefore CoQ may improve pancreatic alterations associated to the chronic intake of some dietary fat sources. PMID:26426013

  8. Sunflower Oil but Not Fish Oil Resembles Positive Effects of Virgin Olive Oil on Aged Pancreas after Life-Long Coenzyme Q Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián González-Alonso

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An adequate pancreatic structure is necessary for optimal organ function. Structural changes are critical in the development of age-related pancreatic disorders. In this context, it has been reported that different pancreatic compartments from rats were affected according to the fat composition consumed. Since there is a close relationship between mitochondria, oxidative stress and aging, an experimental approach has been developed to gain more insight into this process in the pancreas. A low dosage of coenzyme Q was administered life-long in rats in order to try to prevent pancreatic aging-related alterations associated to some dietary fat sources. According to that, three groups of rats were fed normocaloric diets containing Coenzyme Q (CoQ for two years, where virgin olive, sunflower, or fish oil was included as unique fat source. Pancreatic samples for microscopy and blood samples were collected at the moment of euthanasia. The main finding is that CoQ supplementation gives different results according to fat used in diet. When sunflower oil was the main fat in the diet, CoQ supplementation seems to improve endocrine pancreas structure and in particular β-cell mass resembling positive effects of virgin olive oil. Conversely, CoQ intake does not seem to improve the structural alterations of exocrine compartment previously observed in fish oil fed rats. Therefore CoQ may improve pancreatic alterations associated to the chronic intake of some dietary fat sources.

  9. Describing the chemical singularity of the Spanish protected designations of origin for virgin olive oils in relation to oils from neighbouring areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Gonzalez, D. L.; Tena, N.; Aparicio, R.

    2012-11-01

    The protected designations of origin (PDOs) have proven to be a successful regulatory framework to protect singular virgin olive oils that have distinctive properties. However, sometimes the registration of new PDOs and the demarcation of the geographical areas associated to them are based on administrative issues rather than objective chemical data. In this work, the chemical compositions of fatty acids, hydrocarbons, alcohols, sterols and methyl sterols have been used to prove the differences between a PDO virgin olive oil and the oils produced in the surrounding areas. Three cases were studied (PDO Estepa, PDO Montoro-Adamuz, and Campina de Jaen) which actually mean three different situations that combine variations in cultivar and pedoclimatic characteristics. The chemical compounds that showed a better ability to classify samples were selected by the Brown- Forsythe test, a particular modification of ANOVA, and this ability was later visualized in a principal component analysis. The oils from PDOs Estepa and Montoro-Adamuz showed clear differences in their chemical compositions, while the oils from Campina de Jaen formed a group of samples which greatly overlapped with the oils from surrounding areas, probably due to the lack of variation in cultivar (Picual) throughout the province of Jaen. (Author) 32 refs.

  10. Use of polar and nonpolar fractions as additional information sources for studying thermoxidized virgin olive oils by FTIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tena, N.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy has been proposed to study the degradation of virgin olive oils (VOO in samples undergoing thermoxidation. The polar and nonpolar fractions of oxidized oils have been analyzed by FTIR to provide further information on the minor spectral changes taking place during thermoxidation. This information assists in the interpretation of the spectra of the samples. For this purpose polar and nonpolar fractions of 47 VOO samples thermoxidized (190 °C in a fryer were analyzed by FTIR. The time-course change of the band area assigned to single cis double bonds was explained by their correlation with the decrease in oleic acid (adjusted-R2=0.93. The bands assigned to the hydroxyl groups and the first overtone of ester groups was better studied in the spectra collected for the polar and nonpolar fractions, respectively. The bands assigned to peroxide, epoxy, tertiary alcohols and fatty acids were clearly observed in the spectra of the polar fraction while they are not noticeable in the spectra of the oils.La espectroscopía de infrarrojos por transformada de Fourier (FTIR se ha propuesto para estudiar la degradación de los aceites de oliva vírgenes (AOV sujetas a termoxidación. Las fracciones polares y no polares de aceites oxidados se analizaron mediante FTIR para obtener más información sobre los cambios espectrales menores que tienen lugar durante la termoxidación. Esa información ayuda en la interpretación de los espectros de las muestras puras. Con este objetivo, fracciones polares y no polares de 47 AOV termoxidados (190 °C en una freidora se analizaron mediante FTIR. La banda asignada a dobles enlaces cis se explica por su correlación con la disminución de ácido oleico (R2-ajustado=0,93. Las bandas asignadas a los grupos hidroxilos y del primer sobretono de los grupos éster se estudió mejor en los espectros recogidos para la fracción polar y no polar, respectivamente. Grupos asignados a per

  11. Differences in the Neuroprotective Effect of Orally Administered Virgin Olive Oil (Olea europaea) Polyphenols Tyrosol and Hydroxytyrosol in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Cruz, José Pedro; Ruiz-Moreno, Maria Isabel; Guerrero, Ana; Reyes, José Julio; Benitez-Guerrero, Adela; Espartero, José Luis; González-Correa, José Antonio

    2015-07-01

    The neuroprotective effect of virgin olive oil (VOO) polyphenols has been related to their antioxidant effect. The main objective was to analyze how tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol contribute to the antioxidant and neuroprotective effects of VOO in a model of hypoxia-reoxygenation in rat brain slices. Rats were treated per os (po) (10 or 20 mg/kg/day) with hydroxytyrosol ethyl ether (HTEE), tyrosol ethyl ether (TEE), or 3,4-di-o-methylidene-hydroxytyrosol ethyl ether (MHTEE), used as a negative control for antioxidant effects. Lipid peroxidation was inhibited with HTEE, TEE, and MHTEE (from 5.0 ± 1.5 to 2.6 ± 1.5, 4.5 ± 1.5, and 4.8 ± 1.5 nmol/mg protein, respectively). However, all three compounds had similar neuroprotective effects: from 2.8 ± 0.07 to 1.8 ± 0.02 arbitrary units for HTEE, 1.4 ± 0.09 arbitrary units for TEE, and 1.3 ± 0.2 arbitrary units for MHTEE. All three compounds inhibited 3-nitrotyrosine production (from 3.7 ± 0.3 to 1.2 ± 0.03 nmol/0.1 g tissue for HTEE, 1.0 ± 0.2 nmol/0.1 g tissue for TEE, and 1.3 ± 0.1 nmol/0.1 g tissue for MHTEE), prostaglandin E2 production (from 55.7 ± 2.2 to 46.4 ± 1.9 pg/0.1 g tissue for HTEE, 24.7 ± 1.3 pg/0.1 g tissue for TEE, and 27.6 ± 2.6 pg/0.1 g tissue for MHTEE), whereas only HTEE inhibited IL1β production (from 35.7 ± 1.5 to 21.6 ± 0.8 pg/0.1 g tissue). Pearson correlation coefficients related neuroprotective effect with an antioxidant effect for HTEE (R = 0.72, p < 0.001), and inhibition of nitrosative stress (R = 0.78, 0.67, and 0.66 for HTEE, TEE, and MHTEE, respectively, p < 0.001) and inflammatory mediators (R = 0.72, 0.79, and 0.64 for HTEE, TEE, and MHTEE, respectively, p < 0.001) with all three compounds.

  12. Comparison of the chemical composition and the organoleptic profile of virgin olive oil from two wild and two cultivated Tunisian Olea europaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabbou, Samia; Dabbou, Sihem; Selvaggini, Roberto; Urbani, Stefania; Taticchi, Agnese; Servili, Maurizio; Hammami, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    With the aim to select new olive cultivars with superior physical and chemical properties than the cultivar Chemlali Sfax, the present study focused on the comparison of the chemical composition and the sensory profile of the virgin olive oils (VOOs) of two wild olive trees (Oleasters K and M) with those of VOOs obtained from Chemlali Sfax and Neb Jmel olive cultivars, all growing in the coastal region of Tunisia. Despite the variability in the chemical composition (fatty acids, pigments, and phenolic and volatile compounds) and the organoleptic profile of the VOOs of the oleasters and the cultivars, the quality indices (free fatty acids, peroxide value, and spectrophotometric indices K232 and K270) as well as the fatty acid composition of all VOOs studied met the commercial standards. Both the α-tocopherol and phenol contents varied between the genotypes. The Neb Jmel and Oleaster K VOOs had more than two times higher total phenol levels than the Chemlali Sfax and Oleaster M VOOs. Also the contents of volatile compounds differed between the olive oils studied. Chemlali Sfax and Oleaster K oils were more abundant in aldehydes, whereas Oleaster M VOO had higher contents of alcohols. These results were confirmed by a sensorial analysis showing that the later oil was deprived for consumption despite its abundance in α-tocopherol. In conclusion, the oleasters studied revealed to be interesting, since they produced oils with good quality characteristics in terms of minor compounds (phenols and volatiles) compared to the Chemlali Sfax cultivar. Copyright © 2011 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  13. Dietary unsaponifiable fraction of extra virgin olive oil supplementation attenuates lung injury and DNA damage of rats co-exposed to aluminum and acrylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbel, Imen; Chaâbane, Mariem; Boudawara, Ons; Kamoun, Naziha Grati; Boudawara, Tahia; Zeghal, Najiba

    2016-10-01

    Aluminum chloride (AlCl3) and acrylamide (ACR) are well known as environmental pollutants inducing oxidative stress. Our study investigated the effects of these contaminants and if the hydrophilic fraction of extra virgin olive oil was able to prevent lung oxidative stress and DNA damage. Animals were divided into four groups of six each: group 1, serving as controls, received distilled water; group 2 received in drinking water aluminum chloride (50 mg/ kg body weight) and by gavage acrylamide (20 mg/kg body weight); group 3 received both aluminum and acrylamide in the same way and the same dose as group 2 and hydrophilic fraction from olive oil (OOHF) (1 ml) by gavage; group 4 received only OOHF by gavage. Exposure of rats to both aluminum and acrylamide provoked oxidative stress in lung tissue based on biochemical parameters and histopathological alterations. In fact, we have observed an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA), H2O2, and advanced oxidation protein product (AOPP) and a decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH), non-protein thiols (NPSH), and vitamin C levels. Activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were also decreased. Histopathological changes in lung tissue were noted like emphysema, vascular congestion, and infiltration of inflammatory cells. A random DNA degradation was observed on agarose gel in the lung of AlCl3 and acrylamide (ACR)-treated rats. Co-administration of OOHF to treated rats improved biochemical parameters to near control values and lung histoarchitecture. The smear formation of genomic DNA was reduced. The hydrophilic fraction of extra virgin olive oil might provide a basis for developing a new dietary supplementation strategy in order to prevent lung tissue damage.

  14. Fatty acid profiles of varietal virgin olive oils (Olea europaea L. from mature orchards in warm arid valleys of Northwestern Argentina (La Rioja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rousseaux, M. C.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The olive industry in Northwestern Argentina has experienced substantial growth during the past two decades to produce virgin olive oil for export. To assess the fatty acid profiles of the main varietal olive oils, 563 oil samples from 17 varieties cultivated in the province of La Rioja were analyzed from 2005-2008. Olive varieties were ranked according to oleic acid content as low (65%; Manzanilla, Empeltre, Leccino, Coratina, Changlot, Picual. Using data from this study and the literature, the fatty acid composition of Spanish (Arbequina, Picual and Italian (Coratina, Frantoio varieties indicated consistently lower oleic acid contents when grown in NW Argentina versus the Mediterranean. For Arbequina, the oleic content decreased with increasing temperature during oil accumulation (-2% per °C. The classification of varieties should be useful in the selection of virgin olive oils for corrective blending and for choosing varieties for new orchards in order to meet IOOC requirements. The differences in fatty acid composition between NW Argentina and the Mediterranean Basin are most likely to be related to a genotype produced by environmental interaction, and the negative effect of the high seasonal mean temperature during oil accumulation will need further research.La industria oleícola del noroeste de Argentina creció sustancialmente durante las últimas dos décadas para producir aceite de oliva virgen exportable. Para evaluar el perfil de ácidos grasos de los principales aceites varietales, se analizaron 563 muestras de aceite de 17 variedades en la provincia de La Rioja durante 2005-2008. Las variedades se clasificaron de acuerdo a su contenido de ácido oleico en bajo (65%; Manzanilla, Empeltre, Leccino, Coratina, Changlot, Picual. Utilizando datos de este trabajo y de la literatura, los aceites de variedades de origen español (Arbequina y Picual e italiano (Coratina y Frantoio mostraron consistentemente menor contenido de ácido oleico

  15. The effect of thermal treatment on the enhancement of detection of adulteration in extra virgin olive oils by synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy and chemometric analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabood, F.; Boqué, R.; Folcarelli, R.; Busto, O.; Jabeen, F.; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Hussain, J.

    2016-05-01

    In this study the effect of thermal treatment on the enhancement of synchronous fluorescence spectroscopic method for discrimination and quantification of pure extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) samples from EVOO samples adulterated with refined oil was investigated. Two groups of samples were used. One group was analyzed at room temperature (25 °C) and the other group was thermally treated in a thermostatic water bath at 75 °C for 8 h, in contact with air and with light exposure, to favor oxidation. All the samples were then measured with synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy. Synchronous fluorescence spectra were acquired by varying the wavelength in the region from 250 to 720 nm at 20 nm wavelength differential interval of excitation and emission. Pure and adulterated olive oils were discriminated by using partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). It was found that the best PLS-DA models were those built with the difference spectra (75 °C-25 °C), which were able to discriminate pure from adulterated oils at a 2% level of adulteration of refined olive oils. Furthermore, PLS regression models were also built to quantify the level of adulteration. Again, the best model was the one built with the difference spectra, with a prediction error of 3.18% of adulteration.

  16. Effect of harvesting system and fruit cold storage on virgin olive oil chemical composition and quality of superintensive cultivated 'Arbequina' olives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousfi, Khaled; Weiland, Carlos M; García, José M

    2012-05-01

    Storage at 3 and 18 °C of 'Arbequina' olives (Olea europaea L.) cultivated in hedgerows and harvested manually or mechanically (wine grape harvester) was tested. Fruit characteristics and oil quality were monitored. Mechanical harvesting caused internal fruit damage that induced its rapid softening and decay, but also facilitated obtaining higher amounts of oil, which suffered a rapid deterioration during fruit storage. This oil presented lower tocopherol and phenol contents and lower oxidative stability than the oil extracted from manually harvested olives, but showed similar fatty acid composition. Cold storage (3 °C) delayed all of these deterioration processes. It allowed maintaining the best commercial level of quality ("extra") in the oil from mechanically harvested olives for 10 days. This cold storage could be considered as an alternative to the increase in machinery for processing the growing olive production, due to both hedgerow cultivation and mechanized harvesting.

  17. Extra virgin olive oil phenols and markers of oxidation in Greek smokers: a randomized cross-over study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moschandreas, J.; Vissers, M.N.; Wiseman, S.; Putte, van K.P.; Kafatos, A.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effect of a low phenol olive oil and high phenol olive oil on markers of oxidation and plasma susceptibility to oxidation in normolipaemic smokers. Design: Randomized single-blind cross-over trial with two intervention periods. Setting: The Medical School and University

  18. Extra virgin olive oil phenols and markers of oxidation in Greek smokers: a randomized cross-over study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moschandreas, J.; Vissers, M.N.; Wiseman, S.; Putte, van K.P.; Kafatos, A.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effect of a low phenol olive oil and high phenol olive oil on markers of oxidation and plasma susceptibility to oxidation in normolipaemic smokers. Design: Randomized single-blind cross-over trial with two intervention periods. Setting: The Medical School and University Hos

  19. Changes in the Fatty Acid Profile and Phospholipid Molecular Species Composition of Human Erythrocyte Membranes after Hybrid Palm and Extra Virgin Olive Oil Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacetti, D; Gagliardi, R; Balzano, M; Frega, N G; Ojeda, M L; Borrero, M; Ruiz, A; Lucci, P

    2016-07-13

    This work aims to evaluate and compare, for the first time, the effects of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and hybrid palm oil (HPO) supplementation on the fatty acid profile and phospholipid (PL) molecular species composition of human erythrocyte membranes. Results supported the effectiveness of both HPO and EVOO supplementation (3 months, 25 mL/day) in decreasing the lipophilic index of erythrocytes with no significant differences between HPO and EVOO groups at month 3. On the other hand, the novel and rapid ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method used for PL analysis reveals an increase in the levels of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine species esterified with polyunsaturated fatty acids. This work demonstrates the ability of both EVOO and HPO to increase the degree of unsaturation of erythrocyte membrane lipids with an improvement in membrane fluidity that could be associated with a lower risk of developing cardiovascular diseases.

  20. Detecting and quantifying sunflower oil adulteration in extra virgin olive oils from the eastern mediterranean by visible and near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Gerard; McIntyre, Peter; Davies, Antony N

    2002-09-25

    One hundred and thirty-eight oil samples have been analyzed by visible and near-infrared transflectance spectroscopy. These comprised 46 pure extra virgin olive oils and the same oils adulterated with 1% (w/w) and 5% (w/w) sunflower oil. A number of multivariate mathematical approaches were investigated to detect and quantify the sunflower oil adulterant. These included hierarchical cluster analysis, soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA method), and partial least squares regression (PLS). A number of wavelength ranges and data pretreatments were explored. The accuracy of these mathematical models was compared, and the most successful models were identified. Complete classification accuracy was achieved using 1st derivative spectral data in the 400-2498 nm range. Prediction of adulterant content was possible with a standard error equal to 0.8% using 1st derivative data between 1100 and 2498 nm. Spectral features and chemical literature were studied to isolate the structural basis for these models.

  1. Odor Profile of Different Varieties of Extra-Virgin Olive Oil During Deep Frying Using an Electronic Nose and SPME-GC-FID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Valeria; Biolatto, Andrea; Sancho, Ana; Descalzo, Adriana; Grigioni, Gabriela; de Reca, Noemí Walsöe

    2011-09-01

    The aim of the performed work was to evaluate with an electronic nose changes in odor profile of Arauco and Arbequina varieties of extra-virgin olive oil during deep-frying. Changes in odor were analyzed using an electronic nose composed of 16 sensors. Volatile compounds were analyzed by SPME-GC-FID. Principal Component Analysis was applied for electronic results. Arauco variety showed the highest response for sensors. Statistical analysis for volatile compounds indicated a significant (P<0.001) interaction between variety and time of frying processes. Arauco variety showed the highest production of volatile compounds at 60 min of deep frying. The two varieties presented distinct patterns of volatile products, being clearly identified with the electronic nose.

  2. Phenolic Molecules in Virgin Olive Oils: a Survey of Their Sensory Properties, Health Effects, Antioxidant Activity and Analytical Methods. An Overview of the Last Decade Alessandra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Lercker

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Among vegetable oils, virgin olive oil (VOO has nutritional and sensory characteristics that to make it unique and a basic component of the Mediterranean diet. The importance of VOO is mainly attributed both to its high content of oleic acid a balanced contribution quantity of polyunsaturated fatty acids and its richness in phenolic compounds, which act as natural antioxidants and may contribute to the prevention of several human diseases. The polar phenolic compounds of VOO belong to different classes: phenolic acids, phenyl ethyl alcohols, hydroxy-isochromans, flavonoids, lignans and secoiridoids. This latter family of compounds is characteristic of Oleaceae plants and secoiridoids are the main compounds of the phenolic fraction. Many agronomical and technological factors can affect the presence of phenols in VOO. Its shelf life is higher than other vegetable oils, mainly due to the presence of phenolic molecules having a catechol group, such as hydroxytyrosol and its secoiridoid derivatives. Several assays have been used to establish the antioxidant activity of these isolated phenolic compounds. Typical sensory gustative properties of VOO, such as bitterness and pungency, have been attributed to secoiridoid molecules. Considering the importance of the phenolic fraction of VOO, high performance analytical methods have been developed to characterize its complex phenolic pattern. The aim of this review is to realize a survey on phenolic compounds of virgin olive oils bearing in mind their chemical-analytical, healthy and sensory aspects. In particular, starting from the basic studies, the results of researches developed in the last ten years will be focused.

  3. Nontargeted, Rapid Screening of Extra Virgin Olive Oil Products for Authenticity Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy in Combination with Conformity Index and Multivariate Statistical Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunathilaka, Sanjeewa R; Kia, Ali-Reza Fardin; Srigley, Cynthia; Chung, Jin Kyu; Mossoba, Magdi M

    2016-10-01

    A rapid tool for evaluating authenticity was developed and applied to the screening of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) retail products by using Fourier-transform near infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy in combination with univariate and multivariate data analysis methods. Using disposable glass tubes, spectra for 62 reference EVOO, 10 edible oil adulterants, 20 blends consisting of EVOO spiked with adulterants, 88 retail EVOO products and other test samples were rapidly measured in the transmission mode without any sample preparation. The univariate conformity index (CI) and the multivariate supervised soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) classification tool were used to analyze the various olive oil products which were tested for authenticity against a library of reference EVOO. Better discrimination between the authentic EVOO and some commercial EVOO products was observed with SIMCA than with CI analysis. Approximately 61% of all EVOO commercial products were flagged by SIMCA analysis, suggesting that further analysis be performed to identify quality issues and/or potential adulterants. Due to its simplicity and speed, FT-NIR spectroscopy in combination with multivariate data analysis can be used as a complementary tool to conventional official methods of analysis to rapidly flag EVOO products that may not belong to the class of authentic EVOO. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  4. Identifying Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of the Phenolic Extracts and Mineral Contents of Virgin Olive Oils (Olea europaea L. cv. Edincik Su from Different Regions in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayhan Dağdelen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the phenolic extracts and mineral contents of virgin olive oils (Olea europaea L. cv. Edincik Su obtained from three different locations, Edincik, Gomec, and Izmir, in Turkey. Antioxidant activity was analysed spectrometrically, antimicrobial effect was evaluated by disc diffusion method, and mineral contents were determined by using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES. Total phenolic contents and free radical scavenging activities of Edincik Su olive cultivar were found between 159.99 and 189.64 mg gallic acid equivalent/kg and 21.76 and 31.79% inhibition of DPPH• radical values, respectively. Phenolic composition was also varied according to location and hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol were determined as major phenolic compounds. Fourteen pathogenic bacteria and two fungal strains were used to determine the antimicrobial activity. Phenolic extracts showed antimicrobial effect against a wide range of microorganisms and the descending rank of the antimicrobial activities was Gomec, Izmir, and Edincik samples. The highest antimicrobial activities were determined against Clostridium perfringens ATCC 13124 and Campylobacter jejuni ATCC  33291 in all samples. Sixteen elements were used as standards (eleven of them were heavy metals to identify mineral contents. Fe, Mg, Sn, K, and Ca were determined in Gomec samples and Mg and K were detected in Edincik samples while no mineral content was detected in Izmir sample.

  5. Influence of calcium carbonate on extraction yield and quality of extra virgin oil from olive (Olea europaea L. cv. Coratina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squeo, G; Silletti, R; Summo, C; Paradiso, V M; Pasqualone, A; Caponio, F

    2016-10-15

    The aim of the research was to evaluate the effect of calcium carbonate (1%, 2%, and 4% of addition) at two different particle sizes (2.7μm and 5.7μm), added at the beginning of the malaxation phase, on both the extraction yield and the quality of oil obtained from Coratina olives at different ripening index. The results showed that calcium carbonate significantly increased the extraction yield of olive oil, more than affecting chemical indices. In particular, for less ripened olives, 1-2% of larger particle size calcium carbonate addiction determined a significant increase of the extraction effectiveness, ranging from 4.0 to 4.9%, while more ripened olives required higher amounts of coadjuvant (2-4% when using the larger particle size and 4% when using the smaller one), with a significant increase of the extraction yield up to 5%. Moreover, an increase of pungent perception was observed in some cases when adding calcium carbonate to more ripened olives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of phenols mass fraction in olive (Olea europaea L.) paste on volatile compounds in Buža cultivar virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germek, Valerija Majetić; Koprivnjak, Olivera; Butinar, Bojan; Pizzale, Lorena; Bučar-Miklavčič, Milena; Conte, Lanfranco S

    2013-06-26

    The influence of the phenolic content in olive paste of cv. Buža increased by the addition of an aqueous solution of phenolic extract of freeze-dried olive pulp (cv. Istarska bjelica) on the final products of the lipoxygenase pathway in oil was studied. Increases by 12, 38, and 56% for ripe fruits (maturity index = 4.0) and by 38% for unripe fruits (maturity index = 1.2) were examined. Phenols in the olive paste were determined according to the HPLC method, whereas volatiles in oil were determined according to SPME-GC-MS. A significant negative effect on Z-3-hexenal and E-2-hexen-1-ol (Tukey's test, p < 0.05) was found for ripe fruits (average decreases of 55 and 60%, respectively), but not for the unripe sample. Positive effects in both ripening levels were found for Z-3-hexenyl acetate (average increase of 68% for ripe and a double increase for unripe fruits) and total C5 compounds (average increase of 32% for ripe and an increase of 30% for unripe fruits).

  7. Effect of infusion of spices into the oil vs. combined malaxation of olive paste and spices on quality of naturally flavoured virgin olive oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caponio, Francesco; Durante, Viviana; Varva, Gabriella; Silletti, Roccangelo; Previtali, Maria Assunta; Viggiani, Ilaria; Squeo, Giacomo; Summo, Carmine; Pasqualone, Antonella; Gomes, Tommaso; Baiano, Antonietta

    2016-07-01

    Olive oil flavouring with aromatic plants and spices is a traditional practice in Mediterranean gastronomy. The aim of this work was to compare the influence of two different flavouring techniques (infusion of spices into the oil vs. combined malaxation of olives paste and spices) on chemical and sensory quality of flavoured olive oil. In particular, oxidative and hydrolytic degradation (by routine and non-conventional analyses), phenolic profiles (by HPLC), volatile compounds (by SPME-GC/MS), antioxidant activity, and sensory properties (by a trained panel and by consumers) of the oils were evaluated. The obtained results evidenced that the malaxation method was more effective in extracting the phenolic compounds, with a significantly lower level of hydrolysis of secoiridoids. As a consequence, antioxidant activity was significantly lower in the oils obtained by infusion, which were characterized by a higher extent of the oxidative degradation. The volatile compounds were not significantly influenced by changing the flavouring method, apart for sulfur compounds that were more abundant in the oils obtained by the combined malaxation method. From a sensory point of view, more intense bitter and pungent tastes were perceived when the infusion method was adopted.

  8. A Study of sensory and nutritional quality of virgin olive oil. Presentation of a European project of research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esposito, Giovanni

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present, in a synthesis, the objectives and means of the FLAIR project on olive oil quality (FLAIR proposal N.- 89041, contract N° AGRF - GT91 - 0046. Comments are reported on the scientific assumptions and practical problems that have motivated this research. The participants are also presented with their roles and tasks in the project.

  9. A Study on Distinguishing Method of Virgin Olive Oil by Determining Wax Content%蜡含量法鉴别初榨橄榄油的方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蕊; 薛雅琳; 赵会义

    2011-01-01

    A method to distinguish virgin olive oil (extra virgin olive oil and medium - grade virgin olive oil) from other grade olive oil and olive - pomace oil was developed in this paper. Using the column chromatograph technology, the wax component (C40 to C46 ester) was eluted. And then it was determined by gas chromatogram through the internal standard method. The results showed: this method has good reproductivity and high recovery rate. Usingthis method,the detection limit of C40 ester was 0.106 (ig/mL and liner range was 0.001 06 ~0.106 mg/mL. The recovery rate of this method was between 98.8% and 107.1%. In the process of testing,the relative standard devia-tiona (RSD) were respectively 3.7% and 0. 8%. The method had such advantages as good repeatability,high recov-erage rate and so on. The determination of wax content in the olive oil could be used to distinguish The virgin olive oil (super and medium).%研究了蜡含量法鉴别(特级和中级)初榨橄榄油的方法.采用色谱分离技术,通过柱色谱,洗脱出橄榄油中的蜡组分,再进行气相色谱分析,用内标法测得C40酯至C46酯总的蜡含量.结果表明:该方法C40酯检出限为0.106 μg/mL,线性范围为0.001 06 ~0.106 mg/mL,加标回收率为98.8% ~ 107.1%,试验过程中相对标准偏差(RSD)分别为3.7%和0.8%.该方法具有重复性好,回收率高等特点.通过测定橄榄油中蜡的含量,可用于鉴别(特级和中级)初榨橄榄油.

  10. Effects of Maternal Isocaloric Diet Containing Different Amounts of Soy Oil and Extra Virgin Olive Oil on Weight, Serum Glucose, and Lipid Profile of Female Mice Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Seyedeh Neda; Koohdani, Fariba; Shidfar, Farzad; Eslaminejad, Mohamadreza Baghaban; Izadi, Pantea; Eshraghian, Mohammadreza; Shafieineek, Leila; Tohidinik, Hamidreza

    2017-01-01

    Background: Health status of offspring is programmed by maternal diet throughout gestation and lactation. The present study investigates the lasting effects of maternal supplementation with different amounts of soy oil or extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) on weight and biochemical parameters during gestation and lactation of female mice offspring. Methods: Eight weeks old female C57BL/6 mice (n=40) were assigned through simple randomization into four isocaloric dietary groups (16% of calories as soy oil (LSO) or EVOO (LOO) and 45% of calories as soy oil (HSO) or EVOO (HOO)) during three weeks of gestation and lactation. After weaning (at 3 weeks), all offspring received a diet containing 16% of calories as soy oil and were sacrificed at 6 weeks. Two-way ANOVA was used to adjust for confounding variables and repeated measures test for weight gain trend. Statistical analyses were performed with the IBM SPSS package. Results: At birth and adolescence, the weight of offspring was significantly higher in the soy oil than the olive oil groups (P<0.001 and P<0.001, respectively). Adolescence weight was significantly higher in the offspring born to mothers fed with 16% oil than those with 45% oil (P=0.001). Serum glucose, triglyceride and total cholesterol were significantly higher in the LSO than LOO (P<0.001, P<0.001 and P<0.001), LSO than HSO (P<0.001, P=0.03 and P<0.001), and LOO than HOO (P<0.001, P<0.001 and P<0.001) dietary groups, respectively. Serum triglyceride and total cholesterol were significantly higher in the offspring of HSO than HOO fed mothers (P<0.001 and P<0.001, respectively). Conclusion: A maternal diet containing EVOO has better effects on birth weight, as well as weight and serum biochemical parameters in offspring at adolescence. PMID:28360442

  11. Volatile Profile, Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Activity of Virgin Olive Oils from Croatian Autochthonous Varieties Mašnjača and Krvavica in Comparison with Italian Variety Leccino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenka Šarolić

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Virgin olive oils (VOOs obtained from the fruits of Croatian autochthonous varieties Mašnjača and Krvavica were extensively characterized for the first time. Investigated oils were compared with the oil obtained from Italian variety Leccino, grown and processed under the same conditions. Headspace volatile profile, tocopherols, chlorophylls, carotenoids and total phenolic content, peroxide value, % acidity, K232, K270 as well as antioxidant activity (DPPH of the oils’ hydrophilic fractions (HFs including their phenolic composition were assessed by means of HS-SPME/GC-MS, HPLC-FL, HPLC-DAD and spectrophotometric methods, respectively. Most of the studied quality parameters varied between the cultivars. The main volatile compounds detected in all tested olive oils were the C6 compounds derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids through the lipoxygenase pathway. Krvavica oil was characterized by hexanal (8.8%–9.4%. Leccino oil contained the highest percentage of (E-hex-2-enal (73.4%–74.0%, whereas (Z-hex-3-enal (21.9%–25.0% and (E-hex-2-enal (27.6%–28.9% dominated in Mašnjača oil. Leccino oil contained the highest amount of tocopherols (312.4 mg/kg, chlorophylls (7.3 mg/kg, carotenoids (4.2 mg/kg and total phenols (246.6 mg/kg. The HF of Leccino oil showed the highest antioxidant capacity (1.3 mmol TEAC/kg, while the HFs of Mašnjača and Krvavica oils exhibited the activity of 0.5 mmol TEAC/kg.

  12. tabAnti-HER2 (erbB-2 oncogene effects of phenolic compounds directly isolated from commercial Extra-Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO

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    Carrasco-Pancorbo Alegria

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of the olive oil-rich Mediterranean diet on breast cancer risk might be underestimated when HER2 (ERBB2 oncogene-positive and HER2-negative breast carcinomas are considered together. We here investigated the anti-HER2 effects of phenolic fractions directly extracted from Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO in cultured human breast cancer cell lines. Methods Solid phase extraction followed by semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used to isolate phenolic fractions from commercial EVOO. Analytical capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry was performed to check for the composition and to confirm the identity of the isolated fractions. EVOO polyphenolic fractions were tested on their tumoricidal ability against HER2-negative and HER2-positive breast cancer in vitro models using MTT, crystal violet staining, and Cell Death ELISA assays. The effects of EVOO polyphenolic fractions on the expression and activation status of HER2 oncoprotein were evaluated using HER2-specific ELISAs and immunoblotting procedures, respectively. Results Among the fractions mainly containing the single phenols hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol, the polyphenol acid elenolic acid, the lignans (+-pinoresinol and 1-(+-acetoxypinoresinol, and the secoiridoids deacetoxy oleuropein aglycone, ligstroside aglycone, and oleuropein aglycone, all the major EVOO polyphenols (i.e. secoiridoids and lignans were found to induce strong tumoricidal effects within a micromolar range by selectively triggering high levels of apoptotic cell death in HER2-overexpressors. Small interfering RNA-induced depletion of HER2 protein and lapatinib-induced blockade of HER2 tyrosine kinase activity both significantly prevented EVOO polyphenols-induced cytotoxicity. EVOO polyphenols drastically depleted HER2 protein and reduced HER2 tyrosine autophosphorylation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. EVOO polyphenols-induced HER2 downregulation

  13. Determination of hidden hazelnut oil proteins in extra virgin olive oil by cold acetone precipitation followed by in-solution tryptic digestion and MALDI-TOF-MS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ceglie, Cristina; Calvano, Cosima Damiana; Zambonin, Carlo Giorgio

    2014-10-01

    Adulteration of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) with hazelnut oil (HO) is an illegal practice that could have severe health consequences for consumers due to the possible exposure to hidden hazelnut allergens. Here, matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) was used as a rapid and sensitive technique for the detection of a low concentration of hazelnut proteins in oil samples. Different protocols were tested for protein extraction, and the most efficient (cold acetone) was applied to HO and EVOO adulterated with HO. The subsequent in-solution tryptic digestion of protein extracts and MALDI-MS analysis, using α-cyano-4-chlorocinnamic acid as matrix, allowed the detection of stable hazelnut peptide markers (i.e., the m/z ions 1002.52, 1356.71, 1394.70, 1440.81, 1453.85, 1555.76, 1629.83, 1363.73, and 1528.67) attributable to the main hazelnut proteins Cor a 9, Cor a 11, and Cor a 1. Thus, the approach might allow the direct detection of specific hazelnut allergens in EVOO at low concentration without time-consuming pretreatments.

  14. Serum lipid profile and inflammatory markers in the aorta of cholesterol-fed rats supplemented with extra virgin olive oil, sunflower oils and oil-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsarou, Ageliki I; Kaliora, Andriana C; Papalois, Apostolos; Chiou, Antonia; Kalogeropoulos, Nick; Agrogiannis, George; Andrikopoulos, Nikolaos K

    2015-01-01

    Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) major and minor component anti-inflammatory effect on aorta was evaluated; Wistar rats were fed (9 weeks) on either a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) or a HCD supplemented with oils, i.e. EVOO, sunflower oil (SO), high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSO), or oil-products modified to their phenolic content, i.e. phenolics deprived-EVOO [EVOO(-)], SO enriched with the EVOO phenolics [SO(+)], HOSO enriched with the EVOO phenolics [HOSO(+)]. HCD induced dyslipidemia and resulted in higher aorta adhesion molecules levels at euthanasia. Groups receiving EVOO, EVOO(-), HOSO, HOSO(+) presented higher serum TC and LDL-c levels compared to cholesterol-fed rats; attenuation of aorta E-selectin levels was also observed. In EVOO/EVOO(-) groups, aorta vascular endothelial adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) was lower compared to HCD animals. SO/SO(+) diets had no effect on endothelial dysfunction amelioration. Overall, our results suggest that major and/or minor EVOO constituents improve aorta E-selectin and VCAM-1, while serum lipids do not benefit.

  15. A Simple and Effective Mass Spectrometric Approach to Identify the Adulteration of the Mediterranean Diet Component Extra-Virgin Olive Oil with Corn Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Di Girolamo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO with its nutraceutical characteristics substantially contributes as a major nutrient to the health benefit of the Mediterranean diet. Unfortunately, the adulteration of EVOO with less expensive oils (e.g., peanut and corn oils, has become one of the biggest source of agricultural fraud in the European Union, with important health implications for consumers, mainly due to the introduction of seed oil-derived allergens causing, especially in children, severe food allergy phenomena. In this regard, revealing adulterations of EVOO is of fundamental importance for health care and prevention reasons, especially in children. To this aim, effective analytical methods to assess EVOO purity are necessary. Here, we propose a simple, rapid, robust and very sensitive method for non-specialized mass spectrometric laboratory, based on the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS coupled to unsupervised hierarchical clustering (UHC, principal component (PCA and Pearson’s correlation analyses, to reveal corn oil (CO adulterations in EVOO at very low levels (down to 0.5%.

  16. A Simple and Effective Mass Spectrometric Approach to Identify the Adulteration of the Mediterranean Diet Component Extra-Virgin Olive Oil with Corn Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Girolamo, Francesco; Masotti, Andrea; Lante, Isabella; Scapaticci, Margherita; Calvano, Cosima Damiana; Zambonin, Carlo; Muraca, Maurizio; Putignani, Lorenza

    2015-09-01

    Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) with its nutraceutical characteristics substantially contributes as a major nutrient to the health benefit of the Mediterranean diet. Unfortunately, the adulteration of EVOO with less expensive oils (e.g., peanut and corn oils), has become one of the biggest source of agricultural fraud in the European Union, with important health implications for consumers, mainly due to the introduction of seed oil-derived allergens causing, especially in children, severe food allergy phenomena. In this regard, revealing adulterations of EVOO is of fundamental importance for health care and prevention reasons, especially in children. To this aim, effective analytical methods to assess EVOO purity are necessary. Here, we propose a simple, rapid, robust and very sensitive method for non-specialized mass spectrometric laboratory, based on the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) coupled to unsupervised hierarchical clustering (UHC), principal component (PCA) and Pearson's correlation analyses, to reveal corn oil (CO) adulterations in EVOO at very low levels (down to 0.5%).

  17. Extra virgin olive oil reduces liver oxidative stress and tissue depletion of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids produced by a high saturated fat diet in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenzuela, B.R.; Hernandez Rodas, M.C.; Espinosa, A.; Rincon Cervera, M.A.; Romero, N.; Barrera Vazquez, C.; Marambio, M.; Vivero, J.; Valenzuela, B.A.

    2016-07-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) which are synthesized mainly in the liver have relevant functions in the organism. A diet high in fat (HFD) generates an increase in the levels of fat and induces oxidative stress (lipo-peroxidation) in the liver, along with a reduction in tissue n-3 and n-6 LCPUFA. Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is rich in anti-oxidants (polyphenols and tocopherols) which help to prevent the development of oxidative stress. This study evaluated the role of EVOO in preventing the induction of fat deposition and oxidative stress in the liver and in the depletion of LCPUFA in the liver, erythrocytes and brain generated by a HFD in C57BL/6J mice. Four experimental groups (n = 10/group) were fed a control diet (CD) or a HFD for 12 weeks and were respectively supplemented with EVOO (100 mg/day). The group fed HFD showed a significant increase (p < 0.05) in fat accumulation and oxidative stress in the liver, accompanied by a reduction in the levels of n-3 and n-6 LCPUFA in the liver, erythrocytes and brain. Supplementation with EVOO mitigated the increase in fat and oxidative stress produced by HFD in the liver, along with a normalization of LCPUFA levels in the liver, erythrocytes and brain. It is proposed that EVOO supplementation protects against fat accumulation, and oxidative stress and normalizes n-3 and n-6 LCPUFA depletion induced in mice fed a HFD. (Author)

  18. Direct automatic determination of bitterness and total phenolic compounds in virgin olive oil using a pH-based flow-injection analysis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Mesa, José A; Mateos, Raquel

    2007-05-16

    Flavor and taste are sensorial attributes of virgin olive oil (VOO) highly appreciated by consumers. Among the organoleptic properties of VOO, bitterness is related to the natural phenolic compounds present in the oil. Sensorial analysis is the official method to evaluate VOO flavor and bitterness, which requires highly specialized experts. Alternatively, methods based on physicochemical determinations could be useful for the industry. The present work presents a flow-injection analysis system for the direct automatic determination of bitterness and total phenolic compounds in VOO without prior isolation, based on the spectral shift undergone by phenolic compounds upon pH variation. This system enables a complete automation of the process, including dilution of the sample and its sequential injection into buffer solutions of acidic and alkaline pH. The variation of the absorbance at 274 nm showed a high correlation with bitterness and the total phenolic content of VOO, due to the close relationship between these two parameters. Thus, the proposed method determines the bitterness and phenolic compounds, with results similar to those from reference methods (relative errors ranging from 1% to 8% for bitterness and from 2% and 7% for phenolic compounds). The precision evaluated at two levels of both parameters ranged between 0.6% and 1.5% for bitterness and between 0.7% and 2.6% for phenolic compounds.

  19. Isoscapes of carbon and oxygen stable isotope compositions in tracing authenticity and geographical origin of Italian extra-virgin olive oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiocchini, Francesca; Portarena, Silvia; Ciolfi, Marco; Brugnoli, Enrico; Lauteri, Marco

    2016-07-01

    The authentication and verification of the geographical origin of food commodities are important topics in the food sector. This study shows the spatial variability in δ(13)C and δ(18)O of 387 samples of Italian extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) collected from 2009 to 2011. EVOOs' δ(13)C and δ(18)O values were related to GIS (Geographic Information System) layers of source water δ(18)O and climate data (mean monthly temperature and precipitation, altitude, xerothermic index) to evaluate the impact of the most significant large-scale drivers for the isotopic composition of Italian EVOOs. A geospatial model of δ(18)O and δ(13)C was developed for the authentication and verification of the geographical origin of EVOOs. The geospatial model identified EVOOs from four distinct areas: north, south-central Tyrrhenian, central Adriatic and islands, highlighting the zonation of the expected isotopic signatures. This geospatial approach can be used to define a protocol for analyzing the isotopic composition of EVOOs in order to certify their origin and prevent food fraud. Limits and perspectives of the model are discussed.

  20. Phenolic Compounds, Antioxidant Activity, and Other Characteristics of Extra Virgin Olive Oils from Italian Autochthonous Varieties Tonda di Villacidro, Tonda di Cagliari, Semidana, and Bosana

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    Carlo I. G. Tuberoso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Extra virgin olive oils (EVOOs from the fruits of Italian autochthonous varieties Tonda di Villacidro, Tonda di Cagliari, Semidana, and Bosana were investigated to promote their quality aspects. All the analyzed EVOOs showed low values of acidity (≤0.45% and of peroxide value (≤6.22 mEq O2/kg. There were no relevant differences in fatty acids and triacylglycerols composition among the four EVOOs. Tocopherols determined by HPLC-FL revealed that Bosana oil was characterized by the highest α-tocopherol level (213.3 ± 55.4 mg/kg. Chlorophylls, carotenoids, and total phenol (TP contents as well as antioxidant activity (FRAP, DPPH∙, and ABTS∙+ assays of the oils hydrophilic fractions (HFs were assessed by spectrophotometric methods. Some differences concerning the antioxidant activity and the TP content were observed: Bosana oil HF activity was the most pronounced (1.17 ± 0.37 mmol TEAC/kg and it contained the highest TPs amount (335.20 ± 121.34 mg/kg. HFs phenolic composition was determined by HPLC-DAD. The main identified phenols were secoiridoids, dominating in Bosana oil, such as decarboxymethyl ligstroside aglycone (p-HPEA-EDA, 35.8 ± 19.9 mg/kg and oleuropein aglycone (3,4-HPEA-EA up to 84.7 mg/kg. In summary, all the four varieties showed good characteristics for the use as quality EVOO.

  1. Identification of compounds from high-fat and extra virgin olive oil-supplemented diets in whole mouse liver extracts and isolated mitochondria using mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Gustavo Aparecido; Ferreira, Mônica Siqueira; de Oliveira, Diogo Noin; de Oliveira, Vanessa; Siqueira-Santos, Edilene S; Cintra, Dennys Esper Corrêa; Castilho, Roger Frigério; Velloso, Lício Augusto; Catharino, Rodrigo Ramos

    2015-07-01

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a fatty liver disorder that could be improved with extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) supplementation in diet. We propose the monitoring, in whole mouse liver extracts and in isolated mitochondria, of the absorption of compounds from three different diets: standard (CT), high-fat (HFD) and high-fat supplemented with EVOO (HFSO). Male mice were submitted to one of the following three diets: CT or HFD for 16 weeks or HFD for 8 weeks followed by additional 8 weeks with HFSO. Following this period, liver was extracted for histological evaluation, mitochondria isolation and mass spectrometry analyses. Diets, liver extracts and Percoll-purified mitochondria were analyzed using ESI-MS and the lipidomics approach. Morphological, histological and spectrometric results indicated a decrease in NASH severity with EVOO supplementation in comparison with animals maintained with HFD. Spectrometric data also demonstrated that some compounds presented on the diets are absorbed by the mitochondria. EVOO was shown to be a potential therapeutic alternative in food for NASH. Our results are in accordance with the proposition that the major factor that influences different responses to diets is their composition - and not only calories - especially when it comes to studies on obesity.

  2. Ion mobility spectrometry versus classical physico-chemical analysis for assessing the shelf life of extra virgin olive oil according to container type and storage conditions.

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    Garrido-Delgado, Rocío; Dobao-Prieto, M Mar; Arce, Lourdes; Aguilar, Joaquín; Cumplido, José L; Valcárcel, Miguel

    2015-03-04

    An experimental study was conducted to assess the stability of a single-variety (Arbequina) extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) as a function of container type and storage conditions over a period of 11 months. EVOO quality was assessed by using ion mobility spectrometry (IMS), which provides increased simplicity, expeditiousness, and relative economy. The results were compared with the ones obtained by using the official method based on classical physico-chemical analysis. Bag-in-box, metal, dark glass, clear glass, and polyethylene terephthalate containers holding EVOO were opened on a periodic basis for sampling to simulate domestic use; in parallel, other containers were kept closed until analysis to simulate the storage conditions on market shelves. The results of the physico-chemical and instrumental analyses led to similar conclusions. Thus, samples packaged in bag-in-box containers preserved oil quality for 11 months, better than other container types. The HS-GC-IMS results confirm that 2-heptenal and 1-penten-3-one are two accurate markers of EVOO quality.

  3. Responses of fruit physiology and virgin oil quality to cold storage of mechanically harvested ‘Arbequina’ olives cultivated in hedgerow

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    Yousfi, K.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The increase in olive fruit production (Olea europaea L. cv. ‘Arbequina’, due to the increasing use of super-intensive cultivation and the need for a rapid fruit processing will force the industry to make a considerable investment in machinery for processing in order to maintain the level of quality of virgin olive oil (VOO. This work aims to study how the storage temperature affects the physiology of the olive and the quality of the oil, in order to use fruit storage as a cheaper and more versatile alternative to the increase in processing capacity. ‘Arbequina’ fruit did not present symptoms of chilling injury during 15 days of cold-storage. Postharvest decay, de-greening, softening, respiration and ethylene production of the olive fruit increased in direct relationship as the storage temperature increased. These facts determined a proportional deterioration of the free acidity and the sensory quality of the VOOs. Furthermore, the contents of tocopherols and of the main phenolic compounds in the VOO exhibited a reduction during fruit storage according to the increase in the temperature used. Storage at 2 °C preserved the integrity of the olive to maintain the best “Extra” level of VOO quality for a period of 12 days.El aumento de la producción de aceituna (Olea europaea L. cv. ‘Arbequina’, debido al uso creciente del cultivo superintensivo y la necesidad de un rápido procesamiento del fruto forzará a la industria a hacer una considerable inversión en maquinaria para el procesado, para mantener el nivel de calidad del aceite de oliva virgen (AOV. Este trabajo pretende estudiar cómo la temperatura de almacenamiento afecta a la fisiología de la aceituna y a la calidad del aceite, en orden de usar la conservación del fruto como una alternativa más barata y versátil al aumento de la capacidad de procesamiento. La aceituna ‘Arbequina’ no presentó síntomas de daños por frío durante 15 días de frigoconservación. La

  4. Is the extra virgin olive oil market facing a process of differentiation? A hedonic approach to disentangle the effect of quality attributes

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    Cabrera, E. R.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The differentiation process by quality attributes continues to be an ongoing issue in the Spanish olive oil market. In addition, there is a significant percentage of uninformed consumers with erroneous and confusing ideas concerning this product of daily use. By estimating a hedonic price function using multiple regression analysis, this paper examines the price structure of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO as well as the contribution of its attributes to the consumers’ utility function in comparison with other olive oils. The price and attributes have been collected from the labelling of the products at the main supermarkets in two olive oil-producing cities of southern Spain. The results show that the EVOO price is higher in products whose labels clearly indicate either the acidity or the olive variety, and bear the “Certified Quality” of the Andalusian logo. Nonetheless, several key attributes for a differentiation of quality were no significant such as flavor and PDO. The evaluation of these attributes implies the emergence of an incipient differentiation process. Furthermore, brands have an impact on the price of EVOO but it depends on whether they are private or manufacturer’s brands. This study provides insight into the Andalusian EVOO market as well as guidance for marketing strategies.La diferenciación entre calidades de aceite de oliva es una tarea aún pendiente del sector oleícola, que se enfrenta a una gran cantidad de consumidores desinformados, que tienen ideas confusas y erróneas sobre un alimento de uso cotidiano. A través de la estimación de la función de precios hedónicos, este trabajo analiza la estructura del precio del aceite de oliva virgen extra (AOVE así como los atributos que le añaden o le restan valor, con el objetivo de identificar en qué medida el mercado está poniendo en valor determinados atributos que diferencian al AOVE de otros aceites de oliva. La información necesaria sobre precios y atributos

  5. Chemical composition and sensory evaluation of virgin olive oils from “Morisca” and “Carrasqueña” olive varieties

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    Fuentes, M.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Two varieties of olive fruit (“Morisca” and “Carrasqueña”, in different ripening stages, have been characterized on the basis of the study of major (triglycerides and fatty acids and minor compounds (sterols and triterpenics dialcohols as well as of total phenols, oxidative stability and sensory characteristics. The “Carrasqueña” variety was found to be statistically steadier and more intense in sensory notes. The peroxide index, oxidative stability, sensory notes, oleic and linoleic acid, oxidative susceptibility, MUFA/PUFA, the main triacylglycerides (OOO, POO, OLO, and PLO+SLE, ΔECN42, total sterolic and triterpenic dialcohol composition were used to discriminate these varieties. The results of the regulated parameters led to the classification of the analyzed oils into the “extra virgin” category, except for sensory characteristics. These results are very interesting because of the high percentage of EVOO obtained, for both varieties in oils from the “almazara”, or mill, to ensure that oils from the olive-growing area have a good level of quality.Las variedades de aceituna “Morisca” y “Carrasqueña”, en diferentes estados de maduración fueron caracterizados en base al estudio de los compuestos mayoritarios (triglicéridos y ácidos grasos y de los compuestos minoritarios (esteroles y alcoholes triterpénicos. También se determinaron los compuestos fenólicos totales, la estabilidad oxidativa y el análisis sensorial de los aceites. La variedad “Carrasqueña” fue más estable y fue calificada con notas sensoriales más elevadas. El índice de peroxidos, la estabilidad oxidativa, el análisis sensorial, el ácido oleico y el linoleico, la susceptibilidad oxidativa, MUFA/PUFA, los principales triglicéridos (OOO, POO, OLO y PLO+SLE, ΔECN42, los esteroles totales y los alcoholes triterpénicos fueron usados para discriminar estas variedades. Los resultados de los parámetros reglamentados clasificaron todos

  6. New reversed phase dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method for the determination of phenolic compounds in virgin olive oil by rapid resolution liquid chromathography with ultraviolet-visible and mass spectrometry detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy-Caballero, M P; Acedo-Valenzuela, M I; Galeano-Díaz, T

    2013-10-25

    The determination of phenolic compounds in virgin olive oil using a new reversed phase dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (RP-DLLME) procedure coupled with rapid resolution liquid chromatography-diode array and mass spectrometry detection (RRLC-DAD-MS) have been performed. A rapid resolution Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C18 column (4.6 mm × 50 mm, 1.8 μm particle size) has been employed and eighteen phenolic compounds belonging to different families have been identified and quantified spending a total time of 26 and 13 min with UV-visible and MS detection, respectively. Response surface methodology has been applied by means of a central composite design for the optimization of the variables affecting the extraction procedure searching for the best recovery. The validation of the methods was performed through the establishment of the external standard calibration curves and the analytical figures of merit. Limits of detection ranging from 10 to 400 ng mL(-1) and 1 to 200 ng mL(-1) were achieved using UV-visible and MS detection, respectively. The extraction of phenolic compounds from virgin olive oil was performed in a simple and rapid way by RP-DLLME with ethanol:water 60:40 (v/v) as extracting solvent and 1,4-dioxane as disperser solvent. The quantification of the phenolic compounds in virgin olive oils from different olive varieties was carried out by means of the standard addition method and, finally the procedure for the sample treatment was validated using the well established solid phase extraction procedure with Diol cartridges.

  7. Characterization of Three Portuguese Varietal Olive Oils Based on Fatty Acids, Triacylglycerols, Phytosterols and Vitamin E Profiles: Application of Chemometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Amaral, J S; Mafra, I; M.B.P.P. Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    In Portugal, olive oil production is considered an ancient activity, where old olive groves can still be observed. In the last few years monovarietal groves seem to be increasing, though some disadvantages, such as the susceptibility to insects and diseases, can result from the growth of individual olive varieties (Aguilera et al., 2005). In some typical producer countries, the olive cultivation is being improved by renewing old trees, reducing the association with other ...

  8. The Role of Dietary Extra Virgin Olive Oil and Corn Oil on the Alteration of Epigenetic Patterns in the Rat DMBA-Induced Breast Cancer Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Miguel, Cristina; Moral, Raquel; Escrich, Raquel; Vela, Elena; Solanas, Montserrat; Escrich, Eduard

    2015-01-01

    Disruption of epigenetic patterns is a major change occurring in all types of cancers. Such alterations are characterized by global DNA hypomethylation, gene-promoter hypermethylation and aberrant histone modifications, and may be modified by environment. Nutritional factors, and especially dietary lipids, have a role in the etiology of breast cancer. Thus, we aimed to analyze the influence of different high fat diets on DNA methylation and histone modifications in the rat dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced breast cancer model. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a low-fat, a high corn-oil or a high extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) diet from weaning or from induction with DMBA. In mammary glands and tumors we analyzed global and gene specific (RASSF1A, TIMP3) DNA methylation by LUMA and bisulfite pyrosequencing assays, respectively. We also determined gene expression and enzymatic activity of DNA methyltransferases (DNMT1, DNMT3a and DNMT3b) and evaluated changes in histone modifications (H3K4me2, H3K27me3, H4K20me3 and H4K16ac) by western-blot. Our results showed variations along time in the global DNA methylation of the mammary gland displaying decreases at puberty and with aging. The olive oil-enriched diet, on the one hand, increased the levels of global DNA methylation in mammary gland and tumor, and on the other, changed histone modifications patterns. The corn oil-enriched diet increased DNA methyltransferase activity in both tissues, resulting in an increase in the promoter methylation of the tumor suppressor genes RASSF1A and TIMP3. These results suggest a differential effect of the high fat diets on epigenetic patterns with a relevant role in the neoplastic transformation, which could be one of the mechanisms of their differential promoter effect, clearly stimulating for the high corn-oil diet and with a weaker influence for the high EVOO diet, on breast cancer progression. PMID:26401660

  9. The Role of Dietary Extra Virgin Olive Oil and Corn Oil on the Alteration of Epigenetic Patterns in the Rat DMBA-Induced Breast Cancer Model.

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    Cristina Rodríguez-Miguel

    Full Text Available Disruption of epigenetic patterns is a major change occurring in all types of cancers. Such alterations are characterized by global DNA hypomethylation, gene-promoter hypermethylation and aberrant histone modifications, and may be modified by environment. Nutritional factors, and especially dietary lipids, have a role in the etiology of breast cancer. Thus, we aimed to analyze the influence of different high fat diets on DNA methylation and histone modifications in the rat dimethylbenz(aanthracene (DMBA-induced breast cancer model. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a low-fat, a high corn-oil or a high extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO diet from weaning or from induction with DMBA. In mammary glands and tumors we analyzed global and gene specific (RASSF1A, TIMP3 DNA methylation by LUMA and bisulfite pyrosequencing assays, respectively. We also determined gene expression and enzymatic activity of DNA methyltransferases (DNMT1, DNMT3a and DNMT3b and evaluated changes in histone modifications (H3K4me2, H3K27me3, H4K20me3 and H4K16ac by western-blot. Our results showed variations along time in the global DNA methylation of the mammary gland displaying decreases at puberty and with aging. The olive oil-enriched diet, on the one hand, increased the levels of global DNA methylation in mammary gland and tumor, and on the other, changed histone modifications patterns. The corn oil-enriched diet increased DNA methyltransferase activity in both tissues, resulting in an increase in the promoter methylation of the tumor suppressor genes RASSF1A and TIMP3. These results suggest a differential effect of the high fat diets on epigenetic patterns with a relevant role in the neoplastic transformation, which could be one of the mechanisms of their differential promoter effect, clearly stimulating for the high corn-oil diet and with a weaker influence for the high EVOO diet, on breast cancer progression.

  10. Cultivar origin and admixture detection in Turkish olive oils by SNP-based CAPS assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uncu, Ali Tevfik; Frary, Anne; Doganlar, Sami

    2015-03-04

    The aim of this study was to establish a DNA-based identification key to ascertain the cultivar origin of Turkish monovarietal olive oils. To reach this aim, we sequenced short fragments from five olive genes for SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) identification and developed CAPS (cleaved amplified polymorphic DNA) assays for SNPs that alter restriction enzyme recognition motifs. When applied on the oils of 17 olive cultivars, a maximum of five CAPS assays were necessary to discriminate the varietal origin of the samples. We also tested the efficiency and limit of our approach for detecting olive oil admixtures. As a result of the analysis, we were able to detect admixing down to a limit of 20%. The SNP-based CAPS assays developed in this work can be used for testing and verification of the authenticity of Turkish monovarietal olive oils, for olive tree certification, and in germplasm characterization and preservation studies.

  11. High-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection for the rapid analysis of pheophytins and pyropheophytins in virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xueqi; Woodman, Michael; Wang, Selina C

    2015-08-01

    Pheophytins and pyropheophytin are degradation products of chlorophyll pigments, and their ratios can be used as a sensitive indicator of stress during the manufacturing and storage of olive oil. They increase over time depending on the storage condition and if the oil is exposed to heat treatments during the refining process. The traditional analysis method includes solvent- and time-consuming steps of solid-phase extraction followed by analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. We developed an improved dilute/fluorescence method where multi-step sample preparation was replaced by a simple isopropanol dilution before the high-performance liquid chromatography injection. A quaternary solvent gradient method was used to include a fourth strong solvent wash on a quaternary gradient pump, which avoided the need to premix any solvents and greatly reduced the oil residues on the column from previous analysis. This new method not only reduces analysis cost and time but shows reliability, repeatability, and improved sensitivity, especially important for low-level samples.

  12. Describing the chemical singularity of the Spanish protected designations of origin for virgin olive oils in relation to oils from neighbouring areas

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    García-González, D. L.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The protected designations of origin (PDOs have proven to be a successful regulatory framework to protect singular virgin olive oils that have distinctive properties. However, sometimes the registration of new PDOs and the demarcation of the geographical areas associated to them are based on administrative issues rather than objective chemical data. In this work, the chemical compositions of fatty acids, hydrocarbons, alcohols, sterols and methyl sterols have been used to prove the differences between a PDO virgin olive oil and the oils produced in the surrounding areas. Three cases were studied (PDO Estepa, PDO Montoro-Adamuz, and Campiña de Jaén which actually mean three different situations that combine variations in cultivar and pedoclimatic characteristics. The chemical compounds that showed a better ability to classify samples were selected by the Brown- Forsythe test, a particular modification of ANOVA, and this ability was later visualized in a principal component analysis. The oils from PDOs Estepa and Montoro-Adamuz showed clear differences in their chemical compositions, while the oils from Campiña de Jaén formed a group of samples which greatly overlapped with the oils from surrounding areas, probably due to the lack of variation in cultivar (Picual throughout the province of Jaén.

    Las denominaciones de origen protegidas (DOPs han demostrado ser un marco de regulación de éxito para la protección de aceites de oliva vírgenes singulares que tienen propiedades particulares. Sin embargo, en ocasiones, el registro de DOPs nuevas y la demarcación de las áreas geográficas asociadas a ellas se basan en aspectos administrativos más que en datos químicos objetivos. En este trabajo se emplea la composición química de ácidos grasos, hidrocarburos, alcoholes, esteroles y metilesteroles para demostrar las diferencias entre aceites de oliva vírgenes de denominaciones de origen protegidas y los aceites producidos en las

  13. Effects of dietary virgin olive oil polyphenols: hydroxytyrosyl acetate and 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylglycol on DSS-induced acute colitis in mice.

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    Sánchez-Fidalgo, Susana; Villegas, Isabel; Aparicio-Soto, Marina; Cárdeno, Ana; Rosillo, Ma Ángeles; González-Benjumea, Alejandro; Marset, Azucena; López, Óscar; Maya, Inés; Fernández-Bolaños, José G; Alarcón de la Lastra, Catalina

    2015-05-01

    Hydroxytyrosol, a polyphenolic compound from extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) has exhibited an improvement in a model of DSS-induced colitis. However, other phenolic compounds present such as hydroxytyrosyl acetate (HTy-Ac) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol (DHPG) need to be explored to complete the understanding of the overall effects of EVOO on inflammatory colon mucosa. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of both HTy-Ac and DHPG dietary supplementation in the inflammatory response associated to colitis model. Six-week-old mice were randomized in four dietary groups: sham and control groups received standard diet, and other two groups were fed with HTy-Ac and DHPG, respectively, at 0.1%. After 30 days, all groups except sham received 3% DSS in drinking water for 5 days followed by a regime of 5 days of water. Acute inflammation was evaluated by Disease Activity Index (DAI), histology and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Colonic expression of iNOS, COX-2, MAPKs, NF-kB and FOXP3 were determined by western blotting. Only HTy-Ac-supplemented group showed a significant DAI reduction as well as an improvement of histological damage and MPO. COX-2 and iNOS protein expression were also significantly reduced. In addition, this dietary group down-regulated JNK phosphorylation and prevented the DSS-induced nuclear translocation level of p65. However, no significant differences were observed in the FOXP3 expression. These results demonstrated, for the first time, that HTy-Ac exerts an antiinflammatory effect on acute ulcerative colitis. We concluded that HTy-Ac supplement might provide a basis for developing a new dietary strategy for the prevention of ulcerative colitis.

  14. Diets based on virgin olive oil or fish oil but not on sunflower oil prevent age-related alveolar bone resorption by mitochondrial-related mechanisms.

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    Pedro Bullon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Aging enhances frequency of chronic diseases like cardiovascular diseases or periodontitis. Here we reproduced an age-dependent model of the periodontium, a fully physiological approach to periodontal conditions, to evaluate the impact of dietary fat type on gingival tissue of young (6 months old and old (24 months old rats. METHODS/FINDINGS: Animals were fed life-long on diets based on monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA as virgin olive oil, n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6PUFA, as sunflower oil, or n-3PUFA, as fish oil. Age-related alveolar bone loss was higher in n-6PUFA fed rats, probably as a consequence of the ablation of the cell capacity to adapt to aging. Gene expression analysis suggests that MUFA or n-3PUFA allowed mitochondria to maintain an adequate turnover through induction of biogenesis, autophagy and the antioxidant systems, and avoiding mitochondrial electron transport system alterations. CONCLUSIONS: The main finding is that the enhanced alveolar bone loss associated to age may be targeted by an appropriate dietary treatment. The mechanisms involved in this phenomenon are related with an ablation of the cell capacity to adapt to aging. Thus, MUFA or n-3PUFA might allow mitochondrial maintaining turnover through biogenesis or autophagy. They might also be able to induce the corresponding antioxidant systems to counteract age-related oxidative stress, and do not inhibit mitochondrial electron transport chain. From the nutritional and clinical point of view, it is noteworthy that the potential treatments to attenuate alveolar bone loss (a feature of periodontal disease associated to age could be similar to some of the proposed for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, a group of pathologies recently associated with age-related periodontitis.

  15. Extra-virgin olive oil consumption reduces the age-related decrease in HDL and paraoxonase 1 anti-inflammatory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loued, Soumaya; Berrougui, Hicham; Componova, Pamela; Ikhlef, Souad; Helal, Olfa; Khalil, Abdelouahed

    2013-10-01

    Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is associated with HDL and modulates the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory role of HDL. The goals of the present study were to investigate the effect of ageing and the role of PON1 on the anti-inflammatory activity of HDL, and to determine whether extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) consumption could improve the atheroprotective activity of HDL. HDL and PON1 were isolated from the plasma of ten young (Y-HDL and Y-PON1) and ten elderly (E-HDL and E-PON1) healthy volunteers before and after 12 weeks of EVOO consumption. Inflammation was assessed by measuring intracellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) expression. THP-1 (human acute monocytic leukaemia cell line) monocyte chemotaxis was measured using a Boyden chamber. Oxidative damage to HDL was assessed by measuring conjugated diene formation and changes in electrophoretic migration. Y-HDL had more anti-inflammatory activity than E-HDL. The conjugated diene content and the electrophoretic mobility of E-HDL were higher than those of Y-HDL. Y-PON1 had significant anti-inflammatory activity, reducing ICAM-1 expression by 32·64 (SD 2·63)%, while E-PON1 had no significant effect. THP-1 chemotaxis measurements confirmed the ICAM-1 expression results. The 12 weeks of EVOO consumption significantly increased the anti-inflammatory activities of both HDL and PON1. The anti-inflammatory activity of HDL was modulated by PON1 and was lower in the elderly volunteers. EVOO consumption increased the anti-inflammatory effect of HDL and reduced the age-related decrease in anti-atherogenic activity.

  16. Anti-steatotic effects of an n-3 LCPUFA and extra virgin olive oil mixture in the liver of mice subjected to high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Espinosa, Alejandra; Llanos, Paola; Hernandez-Rodas, Maria Catalina; Barrera, Cynthia; Vergara, Daniela; Romero, Nalda; Pérez, Francisco; Ruz, Manuel; Videla, Luis A

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by liver steatosis, oxidative stress, and drastic depletion of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA), namely, eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5 n-3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n-3, DHA), which trigger lipolysis stimulation and lipogenesis inhibition. Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) has important antioxidant effects. This study evaluated the anti-steatotic effects of n-3 LCPUFA plus EVOO in the liver of male C57BL/6J mice subjected to a control diet (CD) (10% fat, 20% protein, 70% carbohydrate) or high fat diet (HFD) (60% fat, 20% protein, 20% carbohydrate), without and with supplementation with n-3 LCPUFA (100 mg per kg per day) plus EVOO (100 mg per kg per day) for 12 weeks. HFD induced (i) liver steatosis (increased total fat, triacylglycerols, and free fatty acid total contents), (ii) higher fasting serum glucose and insulin levels and HOMA index, total cholesterol, triacylglycerols and TNF-α and IL-6, (iii) liver and plasma oxidative stress enhancement, (iv) depletion of the n-3 LCPUFA hepatic content, and (v) increment in lipogenic enzyme activity and reduction in lipolytic enzyme activity. These changes were either reduced (p < 0.05) or normalized to control the values in animals subjected to HFD supplemented with n-3 LCPUFA plus EVOO. In conclusion, n-3 LCPUFA plus EVOO intervention exerts anti-steatotic effects underlying antioxidant and anti-inflammatory responses, improved insulin sensitivity, and recovery of the lipolytic/lipogenic status of the liver altered by HFD, and supports the potential therapeutic use of n-3 LCPUFA plus EVOO supplementation in the treatment of human liver steatosis induced by nutritional factors or other etiologies.

  17. From Trioleoyl glycerol to extra virgin olive oil through multicomponent triacylglycerol mixtures: Crystallization and polymorphic transformation examined with differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffration techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayés-García, L; Calvet, T; Cuevas-Diarte, M A; Ueno, S

    2017-09-01

    The polymorphic crystallization and transformation behavior of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) was examined by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction with both laboratory-scale (XRD) and synchrotron radiation source (SR-XRD). The complex behavior observed was studied by previously analyzing mixtures composed by its main 2 to 6 triacylglycerol (TAG) components. Thus, component TAGs were successively added to simulate EVOO composition, until reaching a 6 TAGs mixture, composed by trioleoyl glycerol (OOO), 1-palmitoyl-2,3-dioleoyl glycerol (POO), 1,2-dioleoyl-3-linoleoyl glycerol (OOL), 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-3-linoleoyl glycerol (POL), 1,2-dipalmitoyl-3-oleoyl glycerol (PPO) and 1-stearoyl-2,3-dioleoyl glycerol (SOO). Molten samples were cooled from 25°C to -80°C at a controlled rate of 2°C/min and subsequently heated at the same rate. The polymorphic behavior observed in multicomponent TAG mixtures was interpreted by considering three main groups of TAGs with different molecular structures: triunsaturated OOO and OOL, saturated-unsaturated-unsaturated POO, POL and SOO, and saturated-saturated-unsaturated PPO. As confirmed by our previous work, TAGs belonging to the same structural group displayed a highly similar polymorphic behavior. EVOO exhibited two different β'-2L polymorphic forms (β'2-2L and β'1-2L), which transformed into β'-3L when heated. Equivalent polymorphic pathways were detected when the same experimental conditions were applied to the 6 TAG components mixture. Hence, minor components may not exert a strong influence in this case. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Dietary Virgin Olive Oil Reduces Blood Brain Barrier Permeability, Brain Edema, and Brain Injury in Rats Subjected to Ischemia-Reperfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Mohagheghi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that dietary virgin olive oil (VOO reduces hypoxia-reoxygenation injury in rat brain slices. We sought to extend these observations in an in vivo study of rat cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Four groups, each consisting of 18 Wistar rats, were studied. One group (control received saline, while three treatment groups received oral VOO (0.25, 0.5, and 0.75 mL/kg/day, respectively. After 30 days, blood lipid profiles were determined, before a 60-min period of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO. After 24-h reperfusion, neurological deficit scores, infarct volume, brain edema, and blood brain barrier permeability were each assessed in subgroups of six animals drawn from each main group. VOO reduced the LDL/HDL ratio in doses of 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75 mL/kg/day in comparison to the control group (p < 0.05, and offered cerebroprotection from ischemia-reperfusion. For controls vs. doses of 0.25 vs. 0.5 vs. 0.75 mL/kg/day, attenuated corrected infarct volumes were 207.82 ± 34.29 vs. 206.41 ± 26.23 vs. 124.21 ± 14.73 vs. 108.46 ± 31.63 mm3; brain water content of the infarcted hemisphere was 82 ±± 0.25 vs. 81.5 ± 0.56 vs. 80.5 ± 0.22 vs. 80.5 ± 0.34%; and blood brain barrier permeability of the infarcted hemisphere was 11.31 ± 2.67 vs. 9.21 ± 2.28 vs. 5.83 ± 1.6 vs. 4.43 ± 0.93 µg/g tissue (p < 0.05 for measures in doses 0.5 and 0.75 mL/kg/day vs. controls. Oral administration of VOO reduces infarct volume, brain edema, blood brain barrier permeability, and improves neurologic deficit scores after transient MCAO in rats.

  19. Xenohormetic and anti-aging activity of secoiridoid polyphenols present in extra virgin olive oil: a new family of gerosuppressant agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menendez, Javier A; Joven, Jorge; Aragonès, Gerard; Barrajón-Catalán, Enrique; Beltrán-Debón, Raúl; Borrás-Linares, Isabel; Camps, Jordi; Corominas-Faja, Bruna; Cufí, Sílvia; Fernández-Arroyo, Salvador; Garcia-Heredia, Anabel; Hernández-Aguilera, Anna; Herranz-López, María; Jiménez-Sánchez, Cecilia; López-Bonet, Eugeni; Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Luciano-Mateo, Fedra; Martin-Castillo, Begoña; Martin-Paredero, Vicente; Pérez-Sánchez, Almudena; Oliveras-Ferraros, Cristina; Riera-Borrull, Marta; Rodríguez-Gallego, Esther; Quirantes-Piné, Rosa; Rull, Anna; Tomás-Menor, Laura; Vazquez-Martin, Alejandro; Alonso-Villaverde, Carlos; Micol, Vicente; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2013-02-15

    Aging can be viewed as a quasi-programmed phenomenon driven by the overactivation of the nutrient-sensing mTOR gerogene. mTOR-driven aging can be triggered or accelerated by a decline or loss of responsiveness to activation of the energy-sensing protein AMPK, a critical gerosuppressor of mTOR. The occurrence of age-related diseases, therefore, reflects the synergistic interaction between our evolutionary path to sedentarism, which chronically increases a number of mTOR activating gero-promoters (e.g., food, growth factors, cytokines and insulin) and the "defective design" of central metabolic integrators such as mTOR and AMPK. Our laboratories at the Bioactive Food Component Platform in Spain have initiated a systematic approach to molecularly elucidate and clinically explore whether the "xenohormesis hypothesis," which states that stress-induced synthesis of plant polyphenols and many other phytochemicals provides an environmental chemical signature that upregulates stress-resistance pathways in plant consumers, can be explained in terms of the reactivity of the AMPK/mTOR-axis to so-called xenohormetins. Here, we explore the AMPK/mTOR-xenohormetic nature of complex polyphenols naturally present in extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), a pivotal component of the Mediterranean style diet that has been repeatedly associated with a reduction in age-related morbid conditions and longer life expectancy. Using crude EVOO phenolic extracts highly enriched in the secoiridoids oleuropein aglycon and decarboxymethyl oleuropein aglycon, we show for the first time that (1) the anticancer activity of EVOO secoiridoids is related to the activation of anti-aging/cellular stress-like gene signatures, including endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the unfolded protein response, spermidine and polyamine metabolism, sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) and NRF2 signaling; (2) EVOO secoiridoids activate AMPK and suppress crucial genes involved in the Warburg effect and the self-renewal capacity of "immortal

  20. Time course of changes in the expression of insulin sensitivity-related genes after an acute load of virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinidou, Valentini; Khymenets, Olha; Covas, Maria-Isabel; de la Torre, Rafael; Muñoz-Aguayo, Daniel; Anglada, Roger; Farré, Magi; Fito, Montserrat

    2009-10-01

    Our aim was to examine whether an acute fat load could induce changes in the expression of insulin sensitivity-related genes in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Selection of candidate genes was based on previous studies with sustained virgin olive oil (VOO) consumption and biological plausibility in relation to insulin sensitivity. Eleven healthy volunteers ingested raw VOO (50 mL). Blood samples were collected at 0, 1 and 6 h. Plasma glucose, insulin and hydroxytyrosol increased at 1 h and decreased at 6 h. Lipid oxidative damage increased at 6 h (p < 0.05). Gene expression changes were characterized based on quantification of the samples relative to a reference sample [i.e., relative quantification (RQ) method]. A 1 h downregulation was observed in O-linked-N-acetylglucosamine transferase (OGT, RQ: 0.62 +/- 0.32) and arachidonate-5-lipoxygenase-activating protein (ALOX5AP, RQ: 0.64 +/- 0.31) genes (p < 0.005). OGT was upregulated at 6 h (RQ: 1.88 +/- 0.28, p < 0.05). CD36 (thrombospondin receptor) was upregulated at 1 h (RQ: 1.6 +/- 0.8, p < 0.05) returning to the basal values at 6 h. Lipoic acid synthetase (LIAS), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor binding protein (PPARBP), a disintegrin and metallopeptidase domain 17 (ADAM17), and adrenergic beta-2-receptor (ADRB2) genes were upregulated at 6 h (range for the mean RQ: 1.33-1.56) following an increasing linear trend (p < 0.05) from baseline to 6 h. ALOX5AP and OGT genes inversely correlated with insulin and glucose levels at 1 h. ADAM17 and ADRB2 inversely correlated with oxLDL at 6 h (p < 0.05). Taken together, these observations may inform the future clinical nutrigenomics study designs and indicate that a single dose of VOO can elicit quantifiable and rapid changes in gene expression in targets that are mechanistically relevant for insulin sensitivity and the metabolic syndrome.

  1. 近红外光谱-BP神经网络-PLS法用于橄榄油掺杂分析%Discriminating and Quantifying Potential Adulteration in Virgin Olive Oil by Near Infrared Spectroscopy with BP-ANN and PLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁欣欣; 陆峰; 王传现; 亓云鹏

    2009-01-01

    橄榄油兼有食用和保健的作用,价值与价格远远高于其他食用油,所以橄榄油中以劣充好的现象十分普遍.可采用近红外光谱法测定初榨橄榄油中掺杂芝麻油、大豆油和葵花籽油的光谱数据,运用改进的BP算法--Levenberg-Marquardt方法,建立PCA-BP人工神经网络方法对其进行定性判别.同时采用偏最小二乘法(PIS)建立了初榨橄榄油中芝麻油、大豆油、葵花籽油含量的近红外光谱定标模型,用交瓦验证法进行验证.结果表明,BP人工神经网络有很好的定性鉴别能力,PLS建立的芝麻油、大豆油、葵花籽油定标模型的相关系数分别为98.77,99.37,99.44,交叉验证的均方根误差分别为1.3,1.1,1.04.该方法无损、快速、简便,为橄榄油掺杂的检测提供了一种新的途径.%In the present paper, the use of near infrared spectroscopy (NLR) as a rapid and cost-effective classification and quan-tification techniques for the authentication of virgin olive oil were preliminarily investigated. NIR spectra in the range of 12 000-3 700 cm~(-1) were recorded for pure virgin olive oil and virgin olive oil samples adulterated with varying concentrations of sesame oil, soybean oil and sunflower oil (5%-50% adulterations in the weight of virgin olive oil). The spectral range from 12 000 to 5 390 cm~(-1) was adopted to set up an analysis model In order to handle these data efficiently, after pretreatment, firstly,princi-pal component analysis (PCA) was used to compress thousands of spectral data into several variables and to describe the body of the spectra,and the analysis suggested that the cumulate reliabilities of the first six components was more than 99.999%. Then ANN-BP was chosen as further research method. The six components were secondly applied as ANN-BP inputs. The experiment took a total of 100 samples as original model examples and left 52 samples as unknown samples to predict. Finally, the resultsshowed that the 52 test

  2. Consumption of extra-virgin olive oil rich in phenolic compounds improves metabolic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a possible involvement of reduced levels of circulating visfatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangelo, C; Filesi, C; Varì, R; Scazzocchio, B; Filardi, T; Fogliano, V; D'Archivio, M; Giovannini, C; Lenzi, A; Morano, S; Masella, R

    2016-11-01

    Phenolic compounds naturally contained in extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) have demonstrated anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. The present study aimed at evaluating the effects of a polyphenol-rich extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) (high-polyphenol EVOO, HP-EVOO) on the metabolic control and the production of specific pro-/anti-inflammatory adipokines in overweight patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). Eleven overweight T2D patients not in treatment with insulin were invited to follow their habitual diet for a total of 8 weeks. During the first 4 weeks (wash-out period), they were asked to consume refined olive oil (ROO, polyphenols not detectable) and then to replace ROO with HP-EVOO (25 mL/day, 577 mg of phenolic compounds/kg) for the remaining 4 weeks. Anthropometric parameters, fasting glycaemia, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), high-sensitive C-reactive protein, plasma lipid profile, liver function and serum levels of TNF-α, IL-6, adiponectin, visfatin and apelin were assessed at the end of each 4-week period. HP-EVOO consumption significantly reduced fasting plasma glucose (P = 0.023) and HbA1c (P = 0.039) levels as well as BMI (P = 0.012) and body weight (P = 0.012). HP-EVOO ingestion determined a reduction in serum level of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, P = 0.0056) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT, P = 0.024). Serum visfatin levels strongly decreased after HP-EVOO ingestion (P = 0.0021). Daily consumption of polyphenol-rich EVOO might improve metabolic control and circulating inflammatory adipokines profile in overweight T2D patients.

  3. Observation on Effect of levocetirizine combination with Virgin olive oil on Facial Recurring Dermatitis%左西替利嗪联合初榨橄榄油治疗颜面再发性皮炎疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周艳; 牟宽厚; 韩丹; 王莉; 冯利

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of levocetirizine combined with Virgin olive oil in the treatment of facial recurring dermatitis. Methods All 67 cases were randomized into experimental and control groups, using Virgin olive oil and heparin sodium cream to spread on lesions respectively. All cases were treated with the levocetirizine orally. Results The erythema, dry, itchy, burning in the treatment group alleviated obviously or even disappeared on the 7th day and 14th day compared with the control group, but there were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in terms of effective rates (P>0.05). But the effective rates on the 14th day was significantly higher than that on the 7th day in treatment group (P<0.05). Conclusion Levocetirizine combined with Virgin olive oil in the treatment of facial recurring dermatitis is safe and effective. And two weeks curative effect is better.%目的:评价左西替利嗪联合初榨橄榄油对女性颜面再发性皮炎的疗效。方法:选取67例女性颜面再发性皮炎患者,并随机分组,分别外用初榨橄榄油(实验组)和肝素钠软膏(对照组)治疗,同时口服左西替利嗪胶囊5mg,每日1次。于使用前、首次使用后第1周、第2周进行临床症状及体征评分比较。结果:实验组患者治疗后自觉红斑、干燥、瘙痒、灼痛明显减轻或消失,治疗后第1周、第2周两组比较有效率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),但实验组第2周有效率明显高于第1周(P<0.05)。结论:左西替利嗪联合初榨橄榄油治疗女性颜面再发性皮炎安全、有效,且2周疗效较好.

  4. Extra virgin olive oil reduces liver oxidative stress and tissue depletion of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids produced by a high saturated fat diet in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valenzuela, R.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA which are synthesized mainly in the liver have relevant functions in the organism. A diet high in fat (HFD generates an increase in the levels of fat and induces oxidative stress (lipo-peroxidation in the liver, along with a reduction in tissue n-3 and n-6 LCPUFA. Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO is rich in anti-oxidants (polyphenols and tocopherols which help to prevent the development of oxidative stress. This study evaluated the role of EVOO in preventing the induction of fat deposition and oxidative stress in the liver and in the depletion of LCPUFA in the liver, erythrocytes and brain generated by a HFD in C57BL/6J mice. Four experimental groups (n = 10/group were fed a control diet (CD or a HFD for 12 weeks and were respectively supplemented with EVOO (100 mg/day. The group fed HFD showed a significant increase (p Los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados de cadena larga (AGPICL sintetizados principalmente por el hígado, cumplen funciones relevantes en el organismo. Una dieta alta en grasa (DAG genera un incremento en los niveles de grasa y estrés oxidativo (lipoperoxidación en hígado y una reducción en los niveles de AGPICL n-3 y n-6 en diferentes tejidos. El aceite de oliva extra virgen (AOEV es rico en antioxidantes (polifenoles y tocoferoles que ayudan a prevenir el desarrollo del estrés oxidativo. Este trabajo evaluó el rol del AOEV en la prevención del depósito de grasa, estrés oxidativo hepático y reducción de los AGPICL n-3 y n-6 en diferentes tejidos generado por una DAG en ratones C57BL/6J. Cuatro grupos experimentales (n=10/grupo fueron alimentados (12 semanas con dieta control (DC o DAG y suplementados con AOEV (100 mg/día. El grupo alimentado con DAG presentó un incremento (p < 0,05 en la acumulación de grasa y estrés oxidativo hepático, acompañado de una reducción en los niveles de AGPICL n-3 y n-6 en hígado, eritrocitos y cerebro. La suplementación con AOEV logr

  5. Deep-frying food in extra virgin olive oil: a study by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance of the influence of food nature on the evolving composition of the frying medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Yusta, Andrea; Guillén, María Dolores

    2014-05-01

    Three series of fourteen deep-frying experiments on three foods of very different compositions were carried out using extra virgin olive oil as the original frying medium. The aim of the study was to establish how the nature of the food being fried influences the composition of the frying medium. The changes in the composition of the frying media referred to the evolution of molar percentage of the different kinds of acyl groups, as well as to the evolution of the concentration of newly formed compounds such as aldehydes, epoxystearyl groups, primary and secondary alcohols were monitored in a simultaneous way by (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Changes due to hydrolytic processes were also considered. In addition, the evolution of the Iodine Value and percentage in weight of polar compounds was also analysed. The influence of food lipids migration to the frying medium on the composition of this latter was evidenced. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of different tests used in mapping the Greek virgin olive oil production for the determination of its total antioxidant capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minioti, K. S.; Georgiou, C. A.

    2010-07-01

    This study aims to map the total antioxidant capacity (Tac) of 50 Greek olive oil samples from the 2005-2006 season according to production region and cultivar and to compare the 2, 2'-amino-bis (3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6- sulfonic acid (Abets), 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) and F olin-Ciocalteu tests for use with olive oil. Antioxidant capacities determined in the hydrophilic fraction range between 5.42 - 22.5 mM gallic acid Kg{sup -}1 olive oil for the ABTS method and 1.29 - 9.95 mM Kg{sup -}1 for the DPPH method while in total, olive oil TAC ranges between 77 - 177 mM Kg{sup -}1 as assessed by the DPPH method. The results of total phenol content range between 3.8 and 29.4 mM Kg{sup -}1 olive oil. Total phenol content correlates with total antioxidant capacity assessed in the hydrophilic fraction through the DPPH (r = 0.89) and the ABTS (r = 0.69) assays. The hydrophilic fraction DPPH values correlate significantly with the ABTS values (r = 0.81). However, the DPPH values for total olive oil correlate poorly with the ABTS assay, the Folin-Ciocalteu method and the DPPH assay in hydrophilic fraction. Although total phenolic content shows good correlation with ABTS and DPPH values and could serve as a useful indicator for olive oil antioxidant capacity, the use of a battery of tests contributes to better characterization of the antioxidant capacity of olive oil. (Author) 14 refs.

  7. Mediterranean Diet Plus Olive Oil a Boost to Heart Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_163557.html Mediterranean Diet Plus Olive Oil a Boost to Heart Health? It enhances protective ... HealthDay News) -- A Mediterranean diet high in virgin olive oil may boost the protective effects of "good" cholesterol, ...

  8. Effect of lipolytic activity of Candida adriatica, Candida diddensiae and Yamadazyma terventina on the acidity of extra-virgin olive oil with a different polyphenol and water content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciafardini, G; Zullo, B A

    2015-05-01

    Previous microbiological research demonstrated the presence of a rich micro-flora composed mainly of yeasts in the suspended fraction of freshly produced olive oil. Some of the yeasts are considered harmful as they can damage the quality of the olive oil through the hydrolysis of the triacylglycerols. Present research has demonstrated that the lipolytic activity of some lipase-producer strains belonging to a yeast species called Candida adriatica, Candida diddensiae and Yamadazyma terventina can be modulated by the water and the polyphenol content of olive oil. Laboratory tests highlighted a substantial increase in free fatty acid in the inoculated olive oil characterized by high water content and low polyphenol concentration. The acidity of the olive oil samples containing 0.06% and 0.31% of water increased significantly by 33% in the lipase-producer yeast strains tested during a period of 2 weeks of incubation at 30 °C. All other yeasts showed strong lipolytic activity in the presence of 1.31% of water - the only exception to this was the C. adriatica 1985 strain. The phenolic compounds typical of olive oil represent another important factor able to condition the viability and the lipolytic activity of the lipase-producer yeasts. From the tests performed on the olive oil characterized by an increasing content of total polyphenols equal to 84, 150 and 510 mg per kg of oil, the percentage of the lipase-producer yeasts able to hydrolyse the triacylglycerols was respectively 100%, 67% and 11%.

  9. A metabolomic approach to the evaluation of the origin of extra virgin olive oil: a convenient statistical treatment of mass spectrometric analytical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaliere, Brunella; De Nino, Antonio; Hayet, Fourati; Lazez, Aida; Macchione, Barbara; Moncef, Cossentini; Perri, Enzo; Sindona, Giovanni; Tagarelli, Antonio

    2007-02-21

    The selection of suitable markers from the secondary metabolism of lipoxygenase, in experimental olive oils produced from drupes harvested in different areas of the Italian Calabria region and of Tunisia, allows an easy discrimination between each cluster of samples. The origin of the foodstuff can be ascertained even when the distances between the production zones are very close to each other as in Calabria. Olive oils produced from irrigated and nonirrigated farms in Tunisia were also clearly distinguishable. The markers were detected by chemical ionization mass spectrometry with an ion trap gas chromatography-mass spectrometry apparatus. The quantitative data of Calabrian olive oil samples were subjected to linear discriminant analysis, whereas the Tunisian data were treated by means of other two statistical tools, i.e., the Kruskal-Wallis test and the Wald-Wolfowitz test.

  10. Characterization and Discrimination of Oueslati Virgin Olive Oils from Adult and Young Trees in Different Ripening Stages Using Sterols, Pigments, and Alcohols in Tandem with Chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chtourou, Fatma; Jabeur, Hazem; Lazzez, Ayda; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2017-05-03

    Dynamics of squalene, sterol, aliphatic alcohol, pigment, and triterpenic diol accumulations in olive oils from adult and young trees of the Oueslati cultivar were studied for two consecutive years, 2013-2014 and 2014-2015. Data were compared statistically for differences by age of trees, maturation of olive, and year of harvesting. Results showed that the mean campesterol content in olive oil from adult trees at the green stage of maturation was significantly (p young trees at the black stage of ripening. Principal component analysis was applied to alcohols, squalene, pigments, and sterols having noncompliance with the legislation. Then, data of 36 samples were subjected to a discriminant analysis with "maturation" as grouping variable and principal components as input variables. The model revealed clear discrimination of each tree age/maturation stage group.

  11. Soil water availability in rainfed cultivation affects more than cultivar some nutraceutical components and the sensory profile of virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucelli, Pierluigi; Costantini, Edoardo A C; Barbetti, Roberto; Franchini, Elena

    2011-08-10

    This research considered the varieties 'Frantoio' and 'Moraiolo' growing in rainfed olive trees (Olea europaea) and took place in Tuscany, central Italy. Soil moisture was monitored during the very meteorologically contrasting years 2002 and 2003 in two nearby olive groves. The plots had the same morphological and climatic conditions, but different soil types. Monocultivar oil samples were analyzed to determine fatty acids, minor polar compounds, and tocopherols content and were submitted to organoleptic analysis by a panel of trained tasters. The results highlighted that soil water regimen affects some nutraceutical components and the sensory evaluation of olive oil. Cultivar also affected yield components, polyphenols, and tocopherols content, but less than soil water availability. The plants on the soil inducing a relatively more intense and longer water deficit during summer (a Skeleti Calcaric Regosol) had an early ripening and gave the best results in terms of phenolic compounds and, consequently, antioxidant properties of the olive oil. The sensorial properties of the oil obtained from both cultivars on the Regosol were superior in both years of the trial.

  12. Comparison of different tests used in mapping the Greek virgin olive oil production for the determination of its total antioxidant capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgiou, Constantinos A.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to map the total antioxidant capacity (TAC of 50 Greek olive oil samples from the 2005-2006 season according to production region and cultivar and to compare the 2, 2’-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6- sulfonic acid (ABTS, 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH and Folin-Ciocalteu tests for use with olive oil. Antioxidant capacities determined in the hydrophilic fraction range between 5.42 - 22.5 mM gallic acid Kg-1 olive oil for the ABTS method and 1.29 - 9.95 mM Kg-1 for the DPPH method while in total, olive oil TAC ranges between 77 - 177 mM Kg-1 as assessed by the DPPH method. The results of total phenol content range between 3.8 and 29.4 mM Kg-1 olive oil. Total phenol content correlates with total antioxidant capacity assessed in the hydrophilic fraction through the DPPH (r = 0.89 and the ABTS (r = 0.69 assays. The hydrophilic fraction DPPH values correlate significantly with the ABTS values (r = 0.81. However, the DPPH values for total olive oil correlate poorly with the ABTS assay, the Folin-Ciocalteu method and the DPPH assay in hydrophilic fraction. Although total phenolic content shows good correlation with ABTS and DPPH values and could serve as a useful indicator for olive oil antioxidant capacity, the use of a battery of tests contributes to better characterization of the antioxidant capacity of olive oil.El objetivo de este estudio es el mapeo de la actividad antioxidante total (TAC de 50 aceites de oliva Griego de los años 2005-2006 de acuerdo a su región y cultivar, y se comparan los ensayos del ácido 2, 2’-azino-bis (3-etilbenzo-tiazolina- 6-sulfónico (ABTS, del 2,2-difenil-1-picrlhidrazil radical (DPPH y de Folin-Ciocalteu. La capacidad antioxidante determinada en la fracción hidrofílica varió entre 5.42-22.5 mM de ácido gálico Kg-1 de aceite para el método ABTS y 1.29- 9.95 mM Kg-1 de aceite para el método de DPPH mientras que la TAC del aceite de oliva completo varió entre 77-177 m

  13. OLIVE GENETIC DIVERSITY AND MOLECULAR INTERACTION WITH BACTROCERA OLEAE

    OpenAIRE

    Grasso, Filomena

    2015-01-01

    The worldwide interest in olive (Olea europaea L.) growing is due to the extraordinary nutritional and sensory quality of its main product: olive oil. From a nutritional point of view, extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is the main lipid source of the so-called "Mediterranean diet", stated by the nutritionist Ancel Keys (Keys, 1970). Around 98% of the global table olives and olive oil is produced in the Mediterranean basin.Italy is the world's second largest exporter after Spain (European Commissi...

  14. [Comparative study of the consumption of virgin olive oil or seje on lipid profile and oxidation resistance of high density lipoprotein (HDL) of rat plasma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isabel Giacopini, María; Guerrero, Omaira; Moya, Manuel; Bosch, Virgilio

    2011-06-01

    We compared the effect of the consumption of seje oil (Oenocarpus bataua), with that of olive oil, on plasma lipids and susceptibility in vitro to oxidation of high density lipoprotein (HDL) in the rat. Two groups often male Sprague Dawley rats were fed ad libitum, for a lapse of eight week, with a purified diets with 10g de seje oil or olive oil/100 g of diet (GS y GO respectively). The animals were exsanguinated at the end of the experimental after a 14 hour fast. Plasma was isolated by centrifugation, and the fractions of lipoproteins were separated from the plasma by sequential ultracentrifugation. Rats of GO had a statistically significant lower in concentration of TG (p < 0.05) compared with GS group. HDL fractions in both groups were oxidatively modified by incubation with copper ions. Differences in the fractions susceptibilities to peroxidation were studied by measuring the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) for 3 hours. HDL in GS had a statistically significant decrease in TBARS formation (p < 0.05) relative to HDL of GO. This may be explained by the lower concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids of HDL in GS compared with HDL in GO.

  15. LC-MS phenolic profiling combined with multivariate analysis as an approach for the characterization of extra virgin olive oils of four rare Tunisian cultivars during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Brahim, Samia; Kelebek, Hasim; Ammar, Sonda; Abichou, Mounir; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2017-08-15

    In this work, the phenolic composition of four rare cultivars grown under the same agronomical and environmental conditions was studied. This is to test the effects of cultivars and ripening index essentially on phenolic composition in olive oils as well as tocopherols composition, organoleptic profiling and oxidative properties. Furthermore, some agronomical traits were determined in which a general increase in the size of the fruit and oil contents were recorded for all cultivars. The phenolic fractions were identified and quantified using liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS) in multiple reaction monitoring mode (MRM). A total of 13 phenolic compounds belonging to different chemical families were determined. Qualitative and quantitative differences in phenolic composition were observed among cultivars and also among sampling times. On the contrary to the agronomical traits, a general decrease (p<0.05) of total phenolic compounds was observed during maturation. Likewise, a decrease in tocopherols concentrations and oxidative properties was observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Palliative effects of extra virgin olive oil, gallic acid, and lemongrass oil dietary supplementation on growth performance, digestibility, carcass traits, and antioxidant status of heat-stressed growing New Zealand White rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sagheer, Adham A; Daader, Ahmed H; Gabr, Hassan A; Abd El-Moniem, Elham A

    2017-03-01

    This study explored the effects of supplemental dietary extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), gallic acid (GA), or lemongrass essential oil (LGEO) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, carcass traits, lipid peroxidation, hematological, and antioxidative status in growing rabbits under heat stress conditions. A total of 48 male growing New Zealand White rabbits were randomly divided into four equal groups, which received a basal diet without any supplementation or supplemented with 15 g EVOO, 500 mg GA, or 400 mg LGEO/kg of diet, for eight consecutive weeks. Results revealed that the overall mean of temperature humidity index was 84.67 ± 0.35, reflecting a state of severe heat stress. Moreover, dietary supplementation with EVOO, GA, or LGEO significantly increased live body weight and daily body weight gain but decreased both feed conversion ratio and daily water consumption. Additionally, a significant increase in both organic matter and crude protein digestibility besides a remarkable elevation in the nutritive values of digestible crude protein, total digestible nutrients, and digestible energy, as well as an increase in the numbers of WBCs, lymphocytes, and heterophils was significant in EVOO-supplemented rabbits. Supplementation with EVOO, GA, or LGEO in the heat-stressed growing rabbit's diet enhanced catalase activity and reduced glutathione content, whereas EVOO-treated rabbits had the highest values. Also, malondialdehyde activity was reduced in response to all tested additives. In conclusion, these findings suggested that addition of EVOO, GA, or LGEO in growing rabbit's diet could be used effectively to alleviate negative impacts of heat stress load on performance, nutrient digestibility, oxidative status, and hemato-biochemical features. Furthermore, among these additives, EVOO achieved the best effects.

  17. Dietary extra-virgin olive oil and corn oil differentially modulate the mRNA expression of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in the liver and in the mammary gland in a rat chemically induced breast cancer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzanares, Miguel Á; Solanas, Montserrat; Moral, Raquel; Escrich, Raquel; Vela, Elena; Costa, Irmgard; Escrich, Eduard

    2015-05-01

    High extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) and corn oil diets differentially modulate experimental mammary carcinogenesis. We have investigated their influence on the initiation stage through the modulation of the expression of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (XMEs) in the liver and the mammary gland. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a low-fat (LF), high corn oil (HCO), or high EVOO (HOO) diet from weaning and gavaged with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA). The HCO diet increased the mRNA levels of the phase I enzymes CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and, to a lesser extent, CYP1B1, in the liver. The Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) seemed to be involved in this upregulated CYP1 expression. However, a slight trend toward an increase in the mRNA levels of the phase II enzymes GSTP1 and NQO1 was observed with the HOO diet. At least in the case of GSTP1, this effect was linked to an increased Nrf2 transactivation activity. This different regulation of the XMEs expression led, in the case of the HCO diet, to a balance between the production of active carcinogenic compounds and their inactivation tilted toward phase I, which would stimulate DMBA-induced cancer initiation, whereas the HOO diet was associated with a slower phase I metabolism accompanied by a faster phase II detoxification, thus reducing the output of the active compounds to the target tissues. In the mammary gland, the differential effects of diets may be conditioned by the state of cell differentiation, sexual maturity, and hormone metabolism.

  18. The combination of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and extra virgin olive oil increases mitochondrial and body metabolism and prevents CLA-associated insulin resistance and liver hypertrophy in C57Bl/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraldi, Flávia G; Vicentini, Tatiane M; Teodoro, Bruno G; Dalalio, Felipe M; Dechandt, Carlos R P; Prado, Ieda M R; Curti, Carlos; Cardoso, Fernanda C; Uyemura, Sergio A; Alberici, Luciane C

    2016-02-01

    Clinical conditions associated with obesity can be improved by daily intake of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) or extra virgin olive oil (EVOO). Here we investigated whether dietary supplementation with CLA and EVOO, either alone or in combination, changes body metabolism associated with mitochondrial energetics. Male C57Bl/6 mice were divided into one of four groups: CLA (1:1 cis-9, trans-11:trans-10, cis-12; 18:2 isomers), EVOO, CLA plus EVOO or control (linoleic acid). Each mouse received 3 g/kg body weight of the stated oil by gavage on alternating days for 60 days. Dietary supplementation with CLA, alone or in combination with EVOO: (a) reduced the white adipose tissue gain; (b) increased body VO2 consumption, VCO2 production and energy expenditure; (c) elevated uncoupling protein (UCP)-2 expression and UCP activity in isolated liver mitochondria. This organelle, when energized with NAD(+)-linked substrates, produced high amounts of H2O2 without inducing oxidative damage. Dietary supplementation with EVOO alone did not change any metabolic parameter, but supplementation with CLA itself promoted insulin resistance and elevated weight, lipid content and acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1 expression in liver. Interestingly, the in vivo antioxidant therapy with N-acetylcysteine abolished the CLA-induced rise of body metabolism and liver UCP expression and activity, while the in vitro antioxidant treatment with catalase mitigated the CLA-dependent UCP-2 expression in hepatocytes; these findings suggest the participation of an oxidative-dependent pathway. Therefore, this study clarifies the mechanisms by which CLA induces liver UCP expression and activity, and demonstrates for the first time the beneficial effects of combined CLA and EVOO supplementation.

  19. Olive oil biophenols and women’s health

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Fistonić; Mario Harapin; Nikola Fistonić; Vedrana Bulat; Mirna Šitum; Donatella Verbanac

    2012-01-01

    Olea europea, the olive tree, is an ancient tree that originates fromthe Mediterranean environment of Asia Minor. The edible olive fruit is also used for its oil, gained by the process of pressing, a nutrient with proven beneficial effects. Virgin olive oil is the natural juice of the olive fruit, which plays a major role in the healthy Mediterranean diet. The source of its health effects are the biophenols and squalenes (oleocanthal, tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein) it contains. They pro...

  20. Are olive oil diets antithrombotic?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L.F.; Jespersen, J; Marckmann, P.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The incidence of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in Crete was lower than expected on the basis of blood lipid concentrations of participants in the Seven Countries Study. A favorable effect of a high intake of olive oil on thrombogenesis may have contributed to this finding. OBJECTIVE: We...... compared the effects of virgin olive oil with those of rapeseed and sunflower oils on blood coagulation factor VII (FVII), a key factor in thrombogenesis. DESIGN: In a randomized and strictly controlled crossover study, 18 healthy young men consumed diets enriched with 5 g/MJ (19% of total energy) olive...... FVII (FVIIa) were 11.3 +/- 5.1 U/L lower after olive oil than after sunflower oil, an 18% reduction (P Olive oil also tended to cause lower FVIIa peak concentrations than did rapeseed oil (mean difference: 8.6 U/L, a 15% reduction; P = 0.09). There were no significant differences between diets...

  1. UC Cooperative Extension sensory analysis panel enhances the quality of California olive oil

    OpenAIRE

    Paul VOSSEN; Kicenik Devarenne, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    California’s olive oil industry has evolved from primarily a salvage operation of the table olive industry to a producer of world-class, premium, extra-virgin olive oil. In 1997, UC Cooperative Extension started the first California olive oil taste panel, which was officially recognized by the International Olive Council in 2001. Specific protocols were used to screen potential panelists and train them to identify defects and positive characteristics, identical to 43 other world taste panels....

  2. Application of an E-Tongue to the Analysis of Monovarietal and Blends of White Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carme Domingo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a multiparametric system capable of characterizing and classifying white wines according to the grape variety and geographical origin. Besides, it quantifies specific parameters of interest for quality control in wine. The system, known as a hybrid electronic tongue, consists of an array of electrochemical microsensors—six ISFET based sensors, a conductivity sensor, a redox potential sensor and two amperometric electrodes, a gold microelectrode and a microelectrode for sensing electrochemical oxygen demand—and a miniaturized optofluidic system. The test sample set comprised eighteen Catalan monovarietal white wines from four different grape varieties, two Croatian monovarietal white wines and seven bi- and trivarietal mixtures prepared from the Catalan varieties. Different chemometric tools were used to characterize (i.e., Principal Component Analysis, classify (i.e., Soft Independent Modeling Class Analogy and quantify (i.e., Partial-Least Squares some parameters of interest. The results demonstrate the usefulness of the multisensor system for analysis of wine.

  3. Chlorophylls in olive and in olive oil: chemistry and occurrences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Angela; Cerretani, Lorenzo; Cichelli, Angelo

    2011-08-01

    The chlorophylls are responsible for the characteristic green color of the olive fruits and their products. Virgin olive oil (VOO) is obtained from processing olives only by mechanical and physical means under conditions ensuring that the natural characteristics of the fruit composition are maintained as far as possible. In terms of the total chlorophyll content of oil, the extraction process entails a loss of chlorophyll of up to 80%. Many factors, both agronomical and technological, can affect the presence of green pigments in VOO. The analysis of green pigments in olives and/or oil requires an initial phase of extraction of these compounds from the solid and fluid matrix, followed by the selective separation and subsequent identification of the different components of the chlorophyll fraction. The aim of this review article is to summarize and critically analyze the available information about chlorophylls in VOO.

  4. Quality parameters of olive oil from stoned and nonstoned Koroneiki and Megaritiki Greek olive varieties at different maturity levels

    OpenAIRE

    Katsoyannos, E.; Batrinou, A.; Chatzilazarou, A.; Bratakos, S. M.; Stamatopoulos, K; Sinanoglou, V. J.

    2015-01-01

    Virgin olive oil is a natural functional food and its beneficial role in health as an integral ingredient of the Mediterranean diet is universally recognized. The effects of olive pitting, degree of ripeness and variety (Greek varieties Koroneiki and Megaritiki) were investigated on the physicochemical characteristics, antioxidant constituent contents and capacity and on the fatty acid profile of olive oil. Ripeness resulted in a decrease (P < 0.05) in phenolic and tocopherol contents and the...

  5. Paternity Analysis of the Olive Variety “Istrska Belica” and Identification of Pollen Donors by Microsatellite Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Baruca Arbeiter

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The leading olive variety in Slovenia is “Istrska belica” (Olea europaea L., which currently represents 70% of all olive trees in productive orchards. Paternity analysis based on microsatellite markers was used for genotyping and identification of the potential pollen donors of “Istrska belica” and for assessing the proportion of self-fertilization in monovarietal olive orchards in the Slovene Istria. Seven microsatellite loci were used for genotyping thirty-one olive embryos from “Istrska belica” trees and for all potential pollen donor varieties, which are grown in the region and could participate as pollinators. Genotyping results and allele identification were performed using the FaMoz software. The most probable pollen donor was assigned to 39% of all analyzed embryos. Among all analyzed embryos no single case of self-fertilization was confirmed. According to the present results, the variety “Istrska belica” was in all cases fertilized by foreign pollen. The results will contribute to defining the new guidelines for farmers regarding the proper management and growing practice in monovarietal olive groves.

  6. Origin assessment of EV olive oils by esterified sterols analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacalone, Rosa; Giuliano, Salvatore; Gulotta, Eleonora; Monfreda, Maria; Presti, Giovanni

    2015-12-01

    In this study extra virgin olive oils of Italian and non-Italian origin (from Spain, Tunisia and blends of EU origin) were differentiated by GC-FID analysis of sterols and esterified sterols followed by chemometric tools. PCA allowed to highlight the high significance of esterified sterols to characterise extra virgin olive oils in relation to their origin. SIMCA provided a sensitivity and specificity of 94.39% and 91.59% respectively; furthermore, an external set of 54 extra virgin olive oils bearing a designation of Italian origin on the labelling was tested by SIMCA. Prediction results were also compared with organoleptic assessment. Finally, the poor correlation found between ethylesters and esterified sterols allowed to hazard the guess, worthy of further investigations, that esterified sterols may prove to be promising in studies of geographical discrimination: indeed they appear to be independent of those factors causing the formation of ethyl esters and related to olive oil production.

  7. Oleuropein in olive and its pharmacological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Syed Haris

    2010-01-01

    Olive from Olea europaea is native to the Mediterranean region and, both the oil and the fruit are some of the main components of the Mediterranean diet. The main active constituents of olive oil include oleic acid, phenolic constituents, and squalene. The main phenolic compounds, hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein, give extra-virgin olive oil its bitter, pungent taste. The present review focuses on recent works that have analyzed the relationship between the major phenolic compound oleuropein and its pharmacological activities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic, anti-cancer activities, antimicrobial activity, antiviral activity, hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic effect.

  8. Biological properties of olive oil phytochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visioli, Francesco; Galli, Claudio

    2002-01-01

    Olive oil is the principal source of fat in the Mediterranean diet, which has been associated with a lower incidence of coronary heart disease and certain cancers. Extra-virgin olive oil contains a considerable amount of phenolic compounds, for example, hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein, that are responsible for its peculiar taste and for its high stability. Evidence is accumulating to demonstrate that olive oil phenolics are powerful antioxidants, both in vitro and in vivo; also, they exert other potent biological activities that could partially account for the observed healthful effects of the Mediterranean diet.

  9. Robustness of NMR-based metabolomics to generate comparable data sets for olive oil cultivar classification. An inter-laboratory study on Apulian olive oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinonna, Sara; Ragone, Rosa; Stocchero, Matteo; Del Coco, Laura; De Pascali, Sandra Angelica; Schena, Francesco Paolo; Fanizzi, Francesco Paolo

    2016-05-15

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is emerging as a powerful technique in olive oil fingerprinting, but its analytical robustness has to be proved. Here, we report a comparative study between two laboratories on olive oil (1)H NMR fingerprinting, aiming to demonstrate the robustness of NMR-based metabolomics in generating comparable data sets for cultivar classification. Sample preparation and data acquisition were performed independently in two laboratories, equipped with different resolution spectrometers (400 and 500 MHz), using two identical sets of mono-varietal olive oils. Partial Least Squares (PLS)-based techniques were applied to compare the data sets produced by the two laboratories. Despite differences in spectrum baseline, and in intensity and shape of peaks, the amount of shared information was significant (almost 70%) and related to cultivar (same metabolites discriminated between cultivars). In conclusion, regardless of the variability due to operator and machine, the data sets from the two participating units were comparable for the purpose of classification.

  10. From olive drupes to olive oil. An HPLC-orbitrap-based qualitative and quantitative exploration of olive key metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakis, Periklis; Termentzi, Aikaterini; Michel, Thomas; Gikas, Evagelos; Halabalaki, Maria; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the current study was the qualitative exploration and quantitative monitoring of key olive secondary metabolites in different production steps (drupes, paste, first and final oil) throughout a virgin olive oil production line. The Greek variety Koroneiki was selected as one of the most representative olives, which is rich in biological active compounds. For the first time, an HPLC-Orbitrap platform was employed for both qualitative and quantitative purposes. Fifty-two components belonging to phenyl alcohols, secoiridoids, flavonoids, triterpenes, and lactones were identified based on HRMS and HRMS/MS data. Nine biologically and chemically significant metabolites were quantitatively determined throughout the four production steps. Drupes and paste were found to be rich in several components, which are not present in the final oil. The current study discloses the chemical nature of different olive materials in a successive and integrated way and reveals new sources of high added value constituents of olives.

  11. Are olive oil diets antithrombotic?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L.F.; Jespersen, J; Marckmann, P.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The incidence of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in Crete was lower than expected on the basis of blood lipid concentrations of participants in the Seven Countries Study. A favorable effect of a high intake of olive oil on thrombogenesis may have contributed to this finding. OBJECTIVE: We...... compared the effects of virgin olive oil with those of rapeseed and sunflower oils on blood coagulation factor VII (FVII), a key factor in thrombogenesis. DESIGN: In a randomized and strictly controlled crossover study, 18 healthy young men consumed diets enriched with 5 g/MJ (19% of total energy) olive...... oil, sunflower oil, or rapeseed oil for periods of 3 wk. On the final day of each period, participants consumed standardized high-fat meals (42% of energy as fat). Fasting and nonfasting blood samples were collected after each period. RESULTS: Mean (+/-SEM) nonfasting peak concentrations of activated...

  12. Chemical and Molecular Characterization of Crude Oil Obtained by Olive-Pomace Recentrifugation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Pasqualone

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In oil-mills, olive-pomace recentrifugation is a common way to reduce pomace moisture and, at the same time, to recover the oil therein. According to current rules, the obtained oil is defined as “crude olive-pomace oil.” The aim of this work is to verify the effect of recentrifugation on specific chemical and molecular parameters of the crude olive-pomace oil, by comparing it with the corresponding virgin olive oil obtained from the same olive lots. In particular, the following were considered: (i the polar compounds of the oils that include compounds originated from oxidative and hydrolytic degradation, analyzed by high-performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC, and (ii the profile of DNA microsatellite molecular markers that was analyzed by using the High Resolution Melting (HRM technique. The obtained results evidenced the significantly higher hydrolytic degradation of crude olive-pomace oil, compared with the corresponding virgin olive oil, but at an extent unlikely able to allow the detection of fraudulent admixtures with virgin olive oils. In addition, the findings demonstrated the feasibility of the application of the HRM analysis of DNA microsatellites to crude olive-pomace oil, able to reveal the alteration of the declared varietal profile of a virgin olive oil sample by simply checking the HRM curve profiles.

  13. Sorting Olive Batches for the Milling Process Using Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Aguilera Puerto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The quality of virgin olive oil obtained in the milling process is directly bound to the characteristics of the olives. Hence, the correct classification of the different incoming olive batches is crucial to reach the maximum quality of the oil. The aim of this work is to provide an automatic inspection system, based on computer vision, and to classify automatically different batches of olives entering the milling process. The classification is based on the differentiation between ground and tree olives. For this purpose, three different species have been studied (Picudo, Picual and Hojiblanco. The samples have been obtained by picking the olives directly from the tree or from the ground. The feature vector of the samples has been obtained on the basis of the olive image histograms. Moreover, different image preprocessing has been employed, and two classification techniques have been used: these are discriminant analysis and neural networks. The proposed methodology has been validated successfully, obtaining good classification results.

  14. Site specific management in an olive tree plantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fountas, S.; Aggelopoulou, K.; Bouloulis, C.

    2011-01-01

    Yield and soil mapping were carried out in 2007 and 2008 in a 9.1 ha commercial olive tree plantation for olive oil production. The orchard is in the southern Peloponnese, where olives are cultivated extensively for extra virgin olive oil production. The field is planted in rows with about 1650...... trees in total. Weed control was practiced during the previous 3 years using post emergence herbicides under no-tillage over about 2/3 of the field, and over the remaining 1/3 by mechanical weeding using a rotary cultivator. For yield mapping, olives were collected manually using rods to shake the tree...... shoots and letting the olives fall onto a plastic net covering the ground. Sacks of approximately 58 kg capacity were filled with olives from as many adjacent trees as were needed to fill a sack. The location of the sacks, or group of closely placed sacks, was identified using a commercial GPS (5 m...

  15. Antioxidant and other biological activities of phenols from olives and olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visioli, Francesco; Poli, Andrea; Gall, Claudio

    2002-01-01

    Olive oil is the principal source of fats in the Mediterranean diet, which has been associated with a lower incidence of coronary heart disease and certain cancers. Phenolic compounds, e.g., hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein, in extra-virgin olive oil are responsible for its peculiar pungent taste and for its high stability. Recent findings demonstrate that olive oil phenolics are powerful antioxidants, both in vitro and in vivo, and possess other potent biological activities that could partially account for the observed healthful effects of the Mediterranean diet.

  16. Characterization and differentiation of monovarietal grape pomace distillate from native varieties of Galicia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Vázquez, Cristina; Bollaín, María Herminia; Moser, Sergio; Orriols, Ignacio

    2010-09-08

    Monovarietal grape pomace distillates (orujo) of six native varieties of Vitis vinifera L. from Galicia (Albarino, Treixadura, Godello, Loureira, Dona Branca, and Torrontes) have been thoroughly analyzed considering esters, alcohols, major aldehydes, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, norisoprenoids, and diterpenes. Albarino and Loureira distillates showed similar profiles of terpenic compounds, with the Loureira products having higher contents of monoterpenols. Native Torrontes distillate from Galicia is principally characterized by marked levels of some sesquiterpenes such as cadinene isomers and epizonarene. On the other hand, Treixadura, Godello, and Dona Branca grape pomace distillates seem not to have any marked terpenic content, and their single separation is difficult. PCA data treatments showed a good separation among the terpenic-rich varieties. Also, the p-menthen-9-al isomers, typical flavors in honey citrus and dill herb (derived from 8-hydroxylinalool), are reported for the first time in grape pomace distillate.

  17. Oliver Twist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickens, Charles

    2005-01-01

    Oliver Twist is one of Dickens's most popular novels, with many famous film, television and musical adaptations. It is a classic story of good against evil, packed with humour and pathos, drama and suspense, in which the orphaned Oliver is brought up in a harsh workhouse, and then taken in and

  18. Oliver Twist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickens, Charles

    2005-01-01

    Oliver Twist is one of Dickens's most popular novels, with many famous film, television and musical adaptations. It is a classic story of good against evil, packed with humour and pathos, drama and suspense, in which the orphaned Oliver is brought up in a harsh workhouse, and then taken in and explo

  19. Development of a phenol-enriched olive oil with phenolic compounds from olive cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Manuel; Romero, Maria-Paz; Motilva, Maria-José

    2010-10-13

    The recent information regarding the healthy properties of virgin olive oil phenols and the interest in increasing the value of byproducts from the oil extraction processs support the standardized development of phenol-enriched olive oil. Accordingly, the aim of this research work was to evaluate strategies for the development of a virgin olive oil enriched with phenolic compounds obtained from olive cake to increase phenolic ingestion without the drawback of a higher calorie intake. For this proposal, different combinations of phenolic extracts were evaluated at a range of concentrations to obtain the best prototype of enriched olive oil. To study the functionality of the phenol enrichments, the total phenolic content and the oxidative stability were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu and Rancimat tests, respectively. In addition, the phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity (ORAC assay) of the oils were studied. Finally, the stability and potential bioaccesibility of the phenolic fraction of the enriched oils were tested by an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion model. Results of the study showed different strategies to select the best prototype of enriched olive oil, taking into consideration not only their phenolic content but also other important factors such as the feasibility of implementing the preparation process in the food industry.

  20. Olive Oil and the Hallmarks of Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández del Río, Lucía; Gutiérrez-Casado, Elena; Varela-López, Alfonso; Villalba, José M

    2016-01-29

    Aging is a multifactorial and tissue-specific process involving diverse alterations regarded as the "hallmarks of aging", which include genomic instability, telomere attrition, epigenetic alterations, loss of proteostasis, deregulated nutrient sensing, mitochondrial dysfunction, cellular senescence, stem cell exhaustion and altered intracellular communication. Virtually all these hallmarks are targeted by dietary olive oil, particularly by virgin olive oil, since many of its beneficial effects can be accounted not only for the monounsaturated nature of its predominant fatty acid (oleic acid), but also for the bioactivity of its minor compounds, which can act on cells though both direct and indirect mechanisms due to their ability to modulate gene expression. Among the minor constituents of virgin olive oil, secoiridoids stand out for their capacity to modulate many pathways that are relevant for the aging process. Attenuation of aging-related alterations by olive oil or its minor compounds has been observed in cellular, animal and human models. How olive oil targets the hallmarks of aging could explain the improvement of health, reduced risk of aging-associated diseases, and increased longevity which have been associated with consumption of a typical Mediterranean diet containing this edible oil as the predominant fat source.

  1. Olive Oil and the Hallmarks of Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Fernández del Río

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging is a multifactorial and tissue-specific process involving diverse alterations regarded as the “hallmarks of aging”, which include genomic instability, telomere attrition, epigenetic alterations, loss of proteostasis, deregulated nutrient sensing, mitochondrial dysfunction, cellular senescence, stem cell exhaustion and altered intracellular communication. Virtually all these hallmarks are targeted by dietary olive oil, particularly by virgin olive oil, since many of its beneficial effects can be accounted not only for the monounsaturated nature of its predominant fatty acid (oleic acid, but also for the bioactivity of its minor compounds, which can act on cells though both direct and indirect mechanisms due to their ability to modulate gene expression. Among the minor constituents of virgin olive oil, secoiridoids stand out for their capacity to modulate many pathways that are relevant for the aging process. Attenuation of aging-related alterations by olive oil or its minor compounds has been observed in cellular, animal and human models. How olive oil targets the hallmarks of aging could explain the improvement of health, reduced risk of aging-associated diseases, and increased longevity which have been associated with consumption of a typical Mediterranean diet containing this edible oil as the predominant fat source.

  2. Bioavailability and antioxidant effects of olive oil phenols in humans: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, M.N.; Katan, M.B.; Zock, P.L.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: We reviewed the bioavailability and antioxidant effects of phenols from extra virgin olive oil. Search strategy: We searched the MEDLINE database for the years 1966 - 2002. To review the bioavailability of olive oil phenols, we selected animal and human studies that studied the

  3. Bioavailability and antioxidant effects of olive oil phenols in humans: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, M.N.; Katan, M.B.; Zock, P.L.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: We reviewed the bioavailability and antioxidant effects of phenols from extra virgin olive oil. Search strategy: We searched the MEDLINE database for the years 1966 - 2002. To review the bioavailability of olive oil phenols, we selected animal and human studies that studied the absorption

  4. Photo- and thermal degradation of olive oil measured using an optical fibre smartphone spectrofluorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Arafat; Canning, John; Cook, Kevin; Ast, Sandra; Jamalipour, Abbas

    2017-04-01

    Degradation of olive oil under light and heat are analysed using an optical fibre based low-cost portable smartphone spectrofluorimeter. Visible fluorescence bands associated with phenolic acids, vitamins and chlorophyll centred at λ 452, 525 and 670 nm respectively are generated using near-UV excitation (LED λex 370 nm), of extra virgin olive oil are degraded more likely than refined olive oil under light and heat exposure. Packaging is shown to be critical when assessing the origin of degradation.

  5. Statement on virginity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Virginity testing (virginity examination) is a gynecological examination that is intended to correlate the status and appearance of the hymen with previous sexual contact to determine whether a female has had or is habituated to sexual intercourse. Virginity examinations are practiced in many countries, often forcibly, including in detention places; on women who allege rape or are accused of prostitution; and as part of public or social policies to control sexuality. The Independent Forensic Expert Group (IFEG) - thirty-five preeminent independent forensic experts from eighteen countries specialized in evaluating and documenting the physical and psychological effects of torture and ill-treatment - released a statement on the practice in December 2014. In its statement, the IFEG outlines the physical and psychological effects of forcibly conducting virginity examinations on females based on its collective experience. The Group assesses whether, based on the effects, forcibly conducted virginity examinations constitute cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or torture. Finally, the IFEG addresses the medical interpretation, relevance, and ethical implications of such examinations. The IFEG concludes that virginity examinations are medically unreliable and have no clinical or scientific value. These examinations are inherently discriminatory and, in almost all instances, when conducted forcibly, result in significant physical and mental pain and suffering, thereby constituting cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment or torture. When virginity examinations are forcibly conducted and involve vaginal penetration, the examination should be considered as sexual assault and rape. Involvement of health professionals in these examinations violates the basic standards and ethics of the professions.

  6. PHENOLIC COMPOUNS AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF MONOVARIETAL RED WINES PRODUCED IN LIMBACH REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Tóth

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Chosen antioxidant properties as content of total polyphenols, content of total anthocyanins and antioxidant activity of the red wines, originating from winery region Limbach, were determined. Three types of mono-varietal wines – Cabernet Sauvignon, Blaufränkisch and St. Laurent, originating from 3 local producers were analysed. Total polyphenols content was determined with phenol Folin-Ciocalteau´s reagent, total anthocyanins content was determined by pH differential method and antioxidant activity was determined using DPPH stable free radical. All three parameters were determined by UV-VIS absorption spectrometry. The determined total polyphenol contents in observed wines were within the interval 1908 – 3276 mg gallic acid.l-1, total anthocyanin contents within the interval 96 – 334 mg.l-1 and antioxidant activity within the interval 65.5 – 84.1 %. This result indicates high antioxidant properties of the Limbach´s wines. The differences between total polyphenol contents of the wines originating from different producers were not statistically significant. However, we found significant differences between results of the rest analysed parameters (total anthocyanins content and antioxidant activity of the wines originating from different producers. The differences between results of all analysed properties of the wines of different variety were not statistically significant.

  7. "More than Honey": Investigation on Volatiles from Monovarietal Honeys Using New Analytical and Sensory Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegmund, Barbara; Urdl, Katharina; Jurek, Andrea; Leitner, Erich

    2017-02-15

    Eight monovarietal honeys from dandelion, fir tree, linden tree, chestnut tree, robinia, orange, lavender, and rape were investigated with respect to their volatile compounds and sensory properties. Analysis of the volatile compounds was performed by gas chromatographic techniques (one-dimensional GC-MS as well as comprehensive GC×GC-MS). For sensory evaluation Napping in combination with ultraflash profiling was applied using sensory experts. For dandelion honey, 34 volatile compounds are described for the first time to be present in dandelion honey. PCA and cluster analysis of the volatile compounds, respectively, show high correlation with the PCA obtained from sensory evaluation. Lavender and linden honey showed sensory characteristics that were not expected from these honey types. Analysis of the volatile compounds resulted in the identification of odor-active compounds that are very likely derived from sources other than the respective honeyflow. Contamination with essential oils used in apiculture is very likely to be the reason for the occurrence of these compounds in the investigated honeys.

  8. Pinoresinol of olive oil decreases vitamin D intestinal absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, Aurélie; Margier, Marielle; Tagliaferri, Camille; Lebecque, Patrice; Georgé, Stéphane; Wittrant, Yohann; Coxam, Véronique; Amiot, Marie-Josèphe; Reboul, Emmanuelle

    2016-09-01

    Enriching oils, such as olive oil, could be one solution to tackle the worldwide epidemic of vitamin D deficiency and to better fit with omega 3 (DHA) recommendations. However, data regarding the interactions occurring at the intestinal level between vitamin D and phenols from olive oil are scarce. We first determined the effect of polyphenols from a virgin olive oil, and a virgin olive oil enriched with DHA, on vitamin D absorption in rats. We then investigated the effects of 3 main olive oil phenols (oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol and pinoresinol) on vitamin D uptake by Caco-2 cells. The presence of polyphenols in the olive oil supplemented with DHA inhibited vitamin D postprandial response in rats (-25%, p<0.05). Similar results were obtained with a mix of the 3 polyphenols delivered to Caco-2 cells. However, this inhibitory effect was due to the presence of pinoresinol only. As the pinoresinol content can highly vary between olive oils, the present results should be taken into account to formulate an appropriate oil product enriched in vitamin D.

  9. Olive oil and haemostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams, Christine M.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil is a key component of the traditional Mediterranean diet; a diet that may explain the low rate of cardiovascular disease (CVD in Southern European. (Extra virgin Olive oil is a good source of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and phenolic compounds, both of which have been investigated for their effects on plasma lipids and lipoproteins, measures of oxidation and factors related to thrombosis. This issue aims to summarise the current understanding of the effects of such dietary components on the haemostatic system and subsequent risk of CVD. To date, evidence suggests that diets rich in MUFA and thus in olive oil attenuate the thrombotic response via a reduction in platelet aggregation and in postprandial FVII levels. Thrombosis is a key event in causing heart attacks and strokes, which if modulated by diet could pose a cost-effective way of reducing CVD incidence in populations that adhere to MUFA/olive oil-rich diets long-term.El aceite de oliva es un componente esencial de la dieta Mediterránea que puede explicar el bajo índice de enfermedad cardiovascular (CVD en los países del sur de Europa. El aceite de oliva (extra virgen es una fuente de ácidos grasos monoinsaturados (MUFA y de compuestos fenólicos, de gran interés por sus efectos, entre otros, sobre las lipoproteínas y los lípidos plasmáticos, su capacidad antioxidante y su papel en la expresión de factores relacionados con la trombosis. En este capítulo se presenta un resumen del conocimiento actual sobre la influencia derivada del consumo de aceite de oliva (extra virgen en el sistema hemostático y el riesgo de CVD. Por ahora se sabe que dietas ricas en MUFA (aceite de oliva pueden atenuar la respuesta trombótica mediante la reducción de la agregación plaquetaria y de las concentraciones postprandiales del factor VII de coagulación (FVII. La trombosis es un evento relevante en los ataques al corazón y el ictus, de manera que su modulación con la dieta puede

  10. Olive oil biophenols and women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fistonić, Ivan; Situm, Mirna; Bulat, Vedrana; Harapin, Mario; Fistonić, Nikola; Verbanac, Donatella

    2012-02-01

    Olea europea, the olive tree, is an ancient tree that originates from the Mediterranean environment of Asia Minor. The edible olive fruit is also used for its oil, gained by the process of pressing, a nutrient with proven beneficial effects. Virgin olive oil is the natural juice of the olive fruit, which plays a major role in the healthy Mediterranean diet. The source of its health effects are the biophenols and squalenes (oleocanthal, tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein) it contains. They provide an exceptional antioxidative activity, removing harmful compounds from the body. Oxidants are essential in the genesis of many diseases and conditions, such as cardiovascular disorders, cancer, osteoporosis, Alzheimer disease, and premenstrual syndrome. Oleic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid, has demonstrated a significant effect in the prevention of malignant diseases such as colon cancer and breast cancer. Biophenols from olive oil successfully suppress the synthesis of LDL, a protein that is crucial in the development of cardiovascular disease, by reducing blood pressure and the development of atherosclerotic plaques. In addition, there is strong evidence of the antimicrobic effect of the biphenols from olive oil that successfully destroy colonies of microorganisms which may cause respiratory tract, intestinal, and genital tract infections.

  11. Virgin Galactic explores CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Virgin Galactic visited CERN with a group of future astronauts and Sir Richard Branson. During their visit the group was shown around various experiments, including the Globe, SM18, AMS and the CERN Control Centre.

  12. Are olive oil diets antithrombotic? Diets enriched with olive, rapeseed, or sunflower oil affect postprandial factor VII differently

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L.F.; Jespersen, J; Marckmann, P.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The incidence of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in Crete was lower than expected on the basis of blood lipid concentrations of participants in the Seven Countries Study. A favorable effect of a high intake of olive oil on thrombogenesis may have contributed to this finding. OBJECTIVE: We...... compared the effects of virgin olive oil with those of rapeseed and sunflower oils on blood coagulation factor VII (FVII), a key factor in thrombogenesis. DESIGN: In a randomized and strictly controlled crossover study, 18 healthy young men consumed diets enriched with 5 g/MJ (19% of total energy) olive...... FVII (FVIIa) were 11.3 +/- 5.1 U/L lower after olive oil than after sunflower oil, an 18% reduction (P Olive oil also tended to cause lower FVIIa peak concentrations than did rapeseed oil (mean difference: 8.6 U/L, a 15% reduction; P = 0.09). There were no significant differences between diets...

  13. Olive oil and vitamin D synergistically prevent bone loss in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Tagliaferri

    Full Text Available As the Mediterranean diet (and particularly olive oil has been associated with bone health, we investigated the impact of extra virgin oil as a source of polyphenols on bone metabolism. In that purpose sham-operated (SH or ovariectomized (OVX mice were subjected to refined or virgin olive oil. Two supplementary OVX groups were given either refined or virgin olive oil fortified with vitamin D3, to assess the possible synergistic effects with another liposoluble nutrient. After 30 days of exposure, bone mineral density and gene expression were evaluated. Consistent with previous data, ovariectomy was associated with increased bone turnover and led to impaired bone mass and micro-architecture. The expression of oxidative stress markers were enhanced as well. Virgin olive oil fortified with vitamin D3 prevented such changes in terms of both bone remodeling and bone mineral density. The expression of inflammation and oxidative stress mRNA was also lower in this group. Overall, our data suggest a protective impact of virgin olive oil as a source of polyphenols in addition to vitamin D3 on bone metabolism through improvement of oxidative stress and inflammation.

  14. Bioavailability of tyrosol, an antioxidant phenolic compound present in wine and olive oil, in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covas, M I; Miró-Casas, E; Fitó, M; Farré-Albadalejo, M; Gimeno, E; Marrugat, J; De La Torre, R

    2003-01-01

    Tyrosol is a phenolic compound present in two of the traditional components of the Mediterranean diet: wine and virgin olive oil. The presence of tyrosol has been described in red and white wines. Tyrosol is also present in vermouth and beer. Tyrosol has been shown to be able to exert antioxidant activity in in vitro studies. Oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) appears to occur predominantly in arterial intima in microdomains sequestered from antioxidants of plasma. The antioxidant content of the LDL particle is critical for its protection. Thus, phenolics, which are able to bind LDL, could be effective in preventing lipid peroxidation and atherosclerotic processes. The ability of tyrosol to bind human LDL has been reported. We have demonstrated the bioavailability of tyrosol in humans from virgin olive oil in its natural form. Urinary tyrosol increased, reaching a peak at 0-4 h after virgin olive oil administration. Men and women showed a different pattern of urinary excretion of tyrosol. Moreover, tyrosol is absorbed in a dose-dependent manner after sustained and moderate doses of virgin olive oil. In summary, our results suggest that tyrosol from wine or virgin olive oil could exert beneficial effects on human health in vivo if its biological properties are confirmed in in vivo studies.

  15. Effect of olive storage conditions on Chemlali olive oil quality and the effective role of fatty acids alkyl esters in checking olive oils authenticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeur, Hazem; Zribi, Akram; Abdelhedi, Ridha; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2015-02-15

    The present paper accounts for the study of the storage of Chemlali olive fruits at two conditions of limited aerobiosis: in closed plastic bags and in open perforated plastic boxes for different periods before oil extraction. The ultimate objective is to investigate the effect of the container type of the postharvest fruit storage on the deterioration of the olive oil quality. The results have shown that the oil quality of Chemlali olives deteriorated more rapidly during fruit storage in closed plastic bags than in perforated plastic boxes. Therefore, the use of perforated plastic boxes is recommended for keeping the olives for longer periods of storage. The repeated measures analysis of variance of all parameters analyzed indicated that the olive oil quality is mainly affected by the olives storage conditions (containers type and storage periods). Finally, blends of extra-virgin olive oil and mildly deodorized low-quality olive oils can be detected by their alkyl esters concentrations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Thermal, dielectric and mechanical study of poly(vinyl chloride/olive pomace composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Composites from PVC and chemically treated olive pomace have been prepared. The effect of the incorporation of virgin and benzylated olive pomace in the poly(vinyl chloride matrix on dielectric, mechanical and thermal stability properties, of /olive pomace composites was studied. The mechanical properties of the benzylated composites were improved. Furthermore, the thermal characterization of the different samples carried out by thermogravimetric analysis revealed an increase in the onset temperatures of decomposition for the treated composites. The dielectric investigation indicated that the samples containing olive pomace treated with the benzyl chloride can be used in electrical applications as insulators.

  17. Determination of Volatiles by Odor Activity Value and Phenolics of cv. Ayvalik Early-Harvest Olive Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Gamze Guclu; Onur Sevindik; Hasim Kelebek; Serkan Selli

    2016-01-01

    Ayvalik is an important olive cultivar producing high quality oils in Turkey. In the present study, volatile and phenolic compositions of early-harvest extra virgin olive oil (cv. Ayvalik) were determined. The solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) technique was used for the extraction of volatile components. The aromatic extract obtained by SAFE was representative of the olive oil odor. A total of 32 aroma compounds, including alcohols, aldehydes, terpenes, esters, and an acid, were iden...

  18. Determination of trigonelline in seeds and vegetable oils by capillary electrophoresis as a novel marker for the detection of adulterations in olive oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Hernández, Laura; Puchalska, Patrycja; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Crego, Antonio L; Marina, Maria Luisa

    2010-07-14

    A capillary electrophoresis method with UV detection was developed for the first time for the determination of the pyridine betaine trigonelline (N-methylnicotinic acid) in seeds and vegetable oils. Analytical characteristics of the method showed its good performance in terms of linearity (r > 0.999), precision (relative standard deviations oils). The developed method was applied to the analysis of soy and sunflower seeds, three varieties of olives, and sunflower, soy, and extra virgin olive oils. Trigonelline was determined in soy and sunflower seeds and their respective oils, whereas it was not detected in olives or olive oils. Different mixtures of extra virgin olive oil with seed oils were analyzed, detecting up to 10% of soy oil in olive oil. As a consequence, trigonelline is proposed in this work as a novel marker for the detection of adulterations of olive oils with other vegetable oils such as soy and sunflower oils.

  19. Chemical composition of olive oils of the cultivar Colombaia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zunin, P.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of monovarietal olive oils from the cultivar Colombaia was studied. Free acidity, peroxide value and UV absorbance attested to the good quality of the analyzed oils. Their fatty acid composition appeared to be quite different from the typical fatty acid profile of olive oils from Liguria but met the limits reported in the EC Regulations for olive oils. On the contrary, the amounts of Δ7-stigmastenol were often higher than the 0.5 % limit set by EC Regulations and total ß-sitosterol was below the minimum 93 % limit. The composition of polar compounds and of the volatile fraction was representative of the peculiar organoleptic character of these oils. Thus, the anomalous sterol composition of the monovarietal oils from the cultivar Colombaia calls for blending with other oils. Moreover, the use of these oils for the production of PDO oils “Riviera Ligure” must also be carefully controlled because it changes their nutritional and sensorial featuresEn este trabajo se ha estudiado la composición química de aceites de oliva mono-varietales de la variedad Colombaia. La acidez libre, el índice de peróxidos y la absorción UV confirmaron la buena calidad de los aceites analizados. Su composición en ácidos grasos resultó bastante diferente del perfil típico de ácidos grasos de los aceites de oliva virgen de la región de Liguria, pero se mantuvo dentro de los límites establecidos por los Reglamentos EC para aceites de oliva. Por otro lado, las cantidades de Δ7-estigmastenol resultaron normalmente superiores al 0.5 % del límite fijado por los Reglamentos EC y el ß-sitosterol total fue inferior al 93 % del límite mínimo. La composición en compuestos polares y de la fracción volátil confirmó las características organolépticas peculiares de estos aceites. Por tanto, la composición esterólica anómala de los aceites mono-varietales de la variedad Colombaia hace necesaria una mezcla con otros

  20. Determination of coenzyme Q10, coenzyme Q9, and melatonin contents in virgin argan oils: comparison with other edible vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venegas, Carmen; Cabrera-Vique, Carmen; García-Corzo, Laura; Escames, Germaine; Acuña-Castroviejo, Darío; López, Luis Carlos

    2011-11-23

    Virgin argan oil possesses high antioxidant capacity (AC), which may be partially explained by its high content in antioxidant molecules such as polyphenols and tocopherols. However, the content in other antioxidant molecules, for example, coenzyme Q10 (CoQ(10)), coenzyme Q9 (CoQ(9)), and melatonin (Mel), which have been identified in other edible vegetable oils, have not been evaluated in virgin argan oil. Consequently, it was decided to evaluate the contents of CoQ(10), CoQ(9), and Mel in virgin argan oils and compare the results to those obtained in extra virgin olive oils and some varieties of seed oils. By the use of sensitive HPLC-EC/F methods, the results showed that virgin argan oil is a rich source of CoQ(10) and Mel, but no CoQ(9) was detected. Extra virgin olive oil showed higher levels of CoQ(10) and lower levels of Mel than virgin argan oil. Between the seed oil samples, only virgin soybean oil showed higher CoQ(10) and Mel levels than virgin argan oil. The results may be relevant for the contribution of CoQ(10) and Mel to the biological activities of virgin argan oil.

  1. Flash thermal conditioning of olive pastes during the olive oil mechanical extraction process: impact on the structural modifications of pastes and oil quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposto, Sonia; Veneziani, Gianluca; Taticchi, Agnese; Selvaggini, Roberto; Urbani, Stefania; Di Maio, Ilona; Sordini, Beatrice; Minnocci, Antonio; Sebastiani, Luca; Servili, Maurizio

    2013-05-22

    The quality of virgin olive oil (VOO) is strictly related to the concentrations of phenolic and volatile compounds, which are strongly affected by the operative conditions of the VOO mechanical extraction process. The aim of this work is to study the impact of a new technology such as flash thermal conditioning (FTC) on olive paste structural modification and on VOO quality. The evaluation of olive paste structure modification by cryo-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM) showed that the application of FTC after crushing produces significant differences in terms of the breaking of the parenchyma cells and aggregation of oil droplets in comparison to the crushed pastes. The virgin olive oil flash thermal conditioning (VOO-FTC) featured a higher concentration of volatile compounds compared to that in the control, particularly of all saturated and unsaturated aldehydes and esters, whereas the phenolic concentration was higher in VOO obtained from the traditional process (VOO-C).

  2. Olive oil stability under deep-frying conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casal, Susana; Malheiro, Ricardo; Sendas, Artur; Oliveira, Beatriz P P; Pereira, José Alberto

    2010-10-01

    The suitability of different commercial olive oil categories for domestic frying was investigated. Oil samples were taken every 3h of frying and evaluated for free acidity, peroxide and p-anisidine values, specific extinction coefficients, oxidative stability, fatty acids, vitamin E, β-carotene and total phenols, until the total polar compounds achieved the maximum legal value (25%). All olive oils were fried during more time than the commercial vegetable oil blend taken for comparison (from 24 to 27 h, against 15 h). The extra-virgin Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) olive oil was characterized by reduced levels of oxidation and hydrolysis, and superior amounts of minor antioxidant compounds. The "olive oil" commercial category behaves similarly, but "Cobrançosa" olive oils performance was slightly worse, and clearly different between years, highlighting the importance of blending different cultivars. The vegetable oil, despite containing significantly higher amounts of vitamin E, was highly susceptible to oxidation under frying conditions when compared to all olive oils. The results also show that the chemical composition of olive oils, particularly the amount of natural antioxidants, are important parameters in their predictive behavior along the frying process, but mostly that olive oil is clearly resistant to frying conditions, independently to the commercial category chosen.

  3. Putative Markers of Adulteration of Higher-Grade Olive Oil with Less Expensive Pomace Olive Oil Identified by Gas Chromatography Combined with Chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeur, Hazem; Drira, Malika; Rebai, Ahmed; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2017-07-05

    This work has been performed to ascertain that extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) is free of adulteration. For this purpose, refined pomace olive oils (RPOOs) are commonly used for extra-virgin olive oil adulteration and repassed olive oils (ROOs) are used for lampante olive oil (LOO) fraudulent operation. Indeed, fatty acid ethyl esters could be used as a parameter for the detection of EVOO fraud with 2% RPOO. The addition of >10% RPOO to EVOO would be detected by the amount of erythrodiol, uvaol, waxes, and aliphatic alcohols. Moreover, the use of stigmasta-3,5-diene content proved to be effective in EVOO adulteration even at a low level (with 1% RPOO). For the detection of adulteration of LOO with >5% ROO, the sum of erythrodiol, uvaol, and the waxes and esters can be considered as good markers of purity. Using linear discriminant analysis can identify the most discriminant variable that allows a faster and cheaper evaluation of extra-virgin olive oil adulteration by measuring only these variables.

  4. The effect of olive oil on osteoporosis prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Martínez, Olga; Rivas, Ana; Ramos-Torrecillas, Javier; De Luna-Bertos, Elvira; Ruiz, Concepción

    2014-11-01

    The incidence of osteoporosis and associated fractures is found to be lower in countries where the Mediterranean diet is predominant. These observations might be mediated by the active constituents of olive oil and especially phenolic compounds. To review current knowledge by searching for all relevant publications since 2001 in the MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library databases, using the descriptors: Mediterranean diet, virgin olive oil, phenols, bone, osteoblast and osteoporosis. Published evidence suggests that olive oil phenols can be beneficial by preventing the loss of bone mass. It has been demonstrated that they can modulate the proliferative capacity and cell maturation of osteoblasts by increasing alkaline phosphatase activity and depositing calcium ions in the extracellular matrix. Further research on this issue is warranted, given the prevalence of osteoporosis and the few data available on the action of olive oil on bone.

  5. Selective recognition of DNA from olive leaves and olive oil by PNA and modified-PNA microarrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Stefano; Calabretta, Alessandro; Tedeschi, Tullia; Sforza, Stefano; Arcioni, Sergio; Baldoni, Luciana; Corradini, Roberto; Marchelli, Rosangela

    2012-01-01

    PNA probes for the specific detection of DNA from olive oil samples by microarray technology were developed. The presence of as low as 5% refined hazelnut (Corylus avellana) oil in extra-virgin olive oil (Olea europaea L.) could be detected by using a PNA microarray. A set of two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the Actin gene of Olive was chosen as a model for evaluating the ability of PNA probes for discriminating olive cultivars. Both unmodified and C2-modified PNAs bearing an arginine side-chain were used, the latter showing higher sequence specificity. DNA extracted from leaves of three different cultivars (Ogliarola leccese, Canino and Frantoio) could be easily discriminated using a microarray with unmodified PNA probes, whereas discrimination of DNA from oil samples was more challenging, and could be obtained only by using chiral PNA probes. PMID:22772038

  6. Ultra performance liquid chromatography analysis to study the changes in the carotenoid profile of commercial monovarietal fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpino-Rius, Antoni; Eras, Jordi; Marsol-Vall, Alexis; Vilaró, Francisca; Balcells, Mercè; Canela-Garayoa, Ramon

    2014-02-28

    We have developed an analytical method that allows the simultaneous determination of epoxycarotenoids, hydroxycarotenoids and carotenes in monovarietal fresh homemade and industrially processed fruit products. Analyses were carried out using ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC). The extraction method was optimized using methanol as the first extraction solvent for lyophilized samples followed by a saponification step. Recoveries ranged between 75% and 104% depending on the compound. Repeatability was better than 10% for all compounds (%RSD, n=3). The chromatographic analysis takes less than 17min. In this short period, up to 27 carotenoids were identified in apple, peach and pear products. The developed method allowed us to differentiate juice from six varieties of apple by their carotenoid profile. Moreover, the methodology allows us to differentiate the carotenoid profiles from commercial juices and homemade fresh peach and pear juices, as well as to study the rearrangements of 5,6- to 5,8-epoxycarotenoids.

  7. Analysis of minor components in olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murkovic, Michael; Lechner, Sonja; Pietzka, Ariane; Bratacos, Michael; Katzogiannos, Evangellos

    2004-10-29

    Virgin olive oil is well known for its high content of phenolic substances that are thought to have health-promoting properties. These substances also contribute to the distinctive taste of the oil. In this study, tyrosol, vanillic acid, luteolin, and apigenin were identified and quantified by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS). In the seven samples analysed, tyrosol, the most abundant, was in the range of 1.4-29 mg/kg, vanillic acid was in the range of 0.67-4.0 mg/kg, luteolin was in the range of 0.22-7.0 mg/kg, and apigenin was in the range of 0.68-1.6 mg/kg. It was also shown that in olive oil, squalene can be analysed by using a refractive index detector. In the samples analysed, squalene occurred in the range of 3.9-9.6 g/l.

  8. Olive oil and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriana, Francisco J.G.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, numerous studies have examined the association of dietary fat and cancer. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA from n -6 family display a strong promoting effect, this may be partially due to the especially prone to lipid peroxidation of PUFA that leads to formation of aldehydes, which react with DNA bases, forming genotoxic exocyclic etheno(epsilon-adducts. On the contrary, there are growing evidences that monounsaturated oils, like olive oil, may be associated with a decreased risk of some cancers. However, the epidemiological data do not fully agree with the experimental ones previously published. Minor compounds from (extra virgin olive oil, mainly phenolics like hydroxytyrosol and tocopherol, are antioxidants and radical scavenging. They can minimize the amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS generated by fatty acid peroxidation and in the case of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA the DNA damage can be reduced by a lower lipid peroxidation.Numerosos estudios en los últimos años han determinado la existencia de una asociación entre las grasas procedentes de la dieta y el cáncer. Los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados (PUFA de la familia n -6 pueden tener efectos proliferativos y angiogénicos, lo cual se debe en parte a que son especialmente sensibles a la peroxidación lipídica, formándose aldehídos que reaccionan con las bases del ADN y por lo tanto aductos exocíclicos con propiedades genotóxicas. Por el contrario, el consumo de dietas ricas en ácidos grasos monoinsaturados (MUFA está relacionado con un menor riesgo de distintos tipos de cáncer. Si bien, los datos epidemiológicos no siempre concuerdan con los datos experimentales. Los componentes menores del aceite de oliva (extra virgen, fundamentalmente el hidroxitirosol y tocoferol, son antioxidantes y secuestradores de radicales libres. Pueden minimizar la cantidad de especies reactivas de oxígeno que se generan por la peroxidación lipídica y además los

  9. Cardioprotective and neuroprotective roles of oleuropein in olive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Syed Haris

    2010-07-01

    Traditional diets of people living in the Mediterranean basin are, among other components, very rich in extra-virgin olive oil, the most typical source of visible fat. Olive is a priceless source of monounsaturated and di-unsaturated fatty acids, polyphenolic antioxidants and vitamins. Oleuropein is the main glycoside in olives and is responsible for the bitter taste of immature and unprocessed olives. Chemically, oleuropein is the ester of elenolic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl ethanol, which possesses beneficial effects on human health, such as antioxidant, antiatherogenic, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. The phenolic fraction extracted from the leaves of the olive tree, which contains significant amounts of oleuropein, prevents lipoprotein oxidation. In addition, oleuropein has shown cardioprotective effect against acute adriamycin cardiotoxicity and an anti-ischemic and hypolipidemic activities. Recently, oleuropein has shown neuroprotection by forming a non-covalent complex with the Aβ peptide, which is a key hallmark of several degenerative diseases like Alzheimer and Parkinson. Thus, a large mass of research has been accumulating in the area of olive oil, in the attempt to provide evidence for the health benefits of olive oil consumption and to scientifically support the widespread adoption of traditional Mediterranean diet as a model of healthy eating. These results provide a molecular basis for some of the benefits potentially coming from oleuropein consumption and pave the way to further studies on the possible pharmacological use of oleuropein to prevent or to slow down the cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases.

  10. Olives and olive oil are sources of electrophilic fatty acid nitroalkenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Fazzari

    Full Text Available Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO and olives, key sources of unsaturated fatty acids in the Mediterranean diet, provide health benefits to humans. Nitric oxide (•NO and nitrite (NO2 (--dependent reactions of unsaturated fatty acids yield electrophilic nitroalkene derivatives (NO2-FA that manifest salutary pleiotropic cell signaling responses in mammals. Herein, the endogenous presence of NO2-FA in both EVOO and fresh olives was demonstrated by mass spectrometry. The electrophilic nature of these species was affirmed by the detection of significant levels of protein cysteine adducts of nitro-oleic acid (NO2-OA-cysteine in fresh olives, especially in the peel. Further nitration of EVOO by NO2 (- under acidic gastric digestive conditions revealed that human consumption of olive lipids will produce additional nitro-conjugated linoleic acid (NO2-cLA and nitro-oleic acid (NO2-OA. The presence of free and protein-adducted NO2-FA in both mammalian and plant lipids further affirm a role for these species as signaling mediators. Since NO2-FA instigate adaptive anti-inflammatory gene expression and metabolic responses, these redox-derived metabolites may contribute to the cardiovascular benefits associated with the Mediterranean diet.

  11. Olive oil: maternal and pediatric health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Trapani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The new base of the pyramid that represents the Mediterranean Diet (MD includes a balanced lifestyle, healthy cooking methods, traditional, local and eco-friendly products, conviviality, physical activity with an adequate amount of rest, as well as caloric restriction and food frugality. Moreover, it has been confirmed that the main source of MD fat is Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO. EVOO is considered a key feature of the healthy properties of the MD, due to its fatty acid, vitamin and polyphenol composition. However, these components need to be bioavailable to allow EVOO to exert its nutraceutical properties, which include antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, antimicrobial, antiviral and hypoglycemic properties, as well as protective effects on the heart and brain, and during pregnancy and breast feeding. The main phenolic components responsible for the nutraceutical properties of EVOO are hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol and oleuropein. The adopted oil production and extraction technologies, such as extraction at low oxidative stress, determine the final polyphenol content in virgin olive oil.Limited information on the epigenetic effects of olive polyphenols is presently available, although the epigenetic effects of many other plant polyphenols have been well documented. In this context, it has been found that, if mothers consume an adequate amount of olive oil during pregnancy, their children will be exposed to a lower risk of wheezing in the first period of their lives. In addition, EVOO, because of its oleochantal content, a natural anti-inflammatory substance, may have an effect on many inflammatory diseases, even in the early period of life.

  12. Combination of Analytical and Chemometric Methods as a Useful Tool for the Characterization of Extra Virgin Argan Oil and Other Edible Virgin Oils. Role of Polyphenols and Tocopherols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, Ascensión; Samaniego-Sánchez, Cristina; Olalla, Manuel; Giménez, Rafael; Cabrera-Vique, Carmen; Seiquer, Isabel; Lara, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of phenolic profile and tocopherol fractions in conjunction with chemometrics techniques were used for the accurate characterization of extra virgin argan oil and eight other edible vegetable virgin oils (olive, soybean, wheat germ, walnut, almond, sesame, avocado, and linseed) and to establish similarities among them. Phenolic profile and tocopherols were determined by HPLC coupled with diode-array and fluorescence detectors, respectively. Multivariate factor analysis (MFA) and linear correlations were applied. Significant negative correlations were found between tocopherols and some of the polyphenols identified, but more intensely (P pinoresinol, and luteolin. MFA revealed that tocopherols, especially γ-fraction, most strongly influenced the oil characterization. Among the phenolic compounds, syringic acid, dihydroxybenzoic acid, oleuropein, pinoresinol, and luteolin also contributed to the discrimination of the oils. According to the variables analyzed in the present study, argan oil presented the greatest similarity with walnut oil, followed by sesame and linseed oils. Olive, avocado, and almond oils showed close similarities.

  13. The Effect of Soil Management on Olive Yield and VOO Quality in a Rainfed Olive Grove of Central Spain

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    Blanca Sastre

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rainfed olive groves have been traditionally tilled in order to reduce the competition for water and nutrients. In sloping Mediterranean olive groves, this practice leads to high erosion rates, resulting in a reduction in soil fertility. Cover crops have been employed as a sustainable olive grove management strategy, but previous studies found differences in their effect on fruit load and there is scarce information on their influence on the virgin olive oil (VOO quality. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of different soil management strategies on olive and oil yield and VOO physicochemical and sensory characteristics in a rainfed olive grove (238 trees·ha−1 of Cornicabra cultivar, the main in Central Spain. No effect of soil management was found in olive or oil yield along three cropping seasons. VOO quality was mainly influenced by the year, but slight differences were found in the driest year between the studied treatments. Small differences in fruit ripening, pigments, and several fatty acids as well as in sensory parameters were found.

  14. Novel HPLC--Fluorescence methodology for the determination of methylglyoxal and glyoxal. Application to the analysis of monovarietal wines "Ribera del Guadiana".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Cáceres, Maria Isabel; Palomino-Vasco, Mónica; Mora-Diez, Nielene; Acedo-Valenzuela, Maria Isabel

    2015-11-15

    The determination and quantification of α-dicarbonyl compounds, glyoxal and methylglyoxal, in "Ribera del Guadiana" monovarietal wines (Extremadura, Spain) without sample clean-up has been carried out by HPLC with spectrofluorimetric detection (307/371 nm). For this purpose, a derivatization step with the new reagent 3,4-diaminopyridine at pH 2 during 120 min at 90 °C has been included. Afterwards, the sample could be injected in the chromatographic system with no clean-up, during a total run time of 4 min. Several monovarietal wines (white, rosé and red) have been analyzed and the levels of these compounds for white wines were between 0.4-1.0 mg L(-1) glyoxal and 0.8-1.3 mg L(-1) methylglyoxal; and between 0.8-3.0 mg L(-1) and 0.5-1.8 mg L(-1) of glyoxal and methylglyoxal respectively, in red wines.

  15. Oliver Sacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Walsh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Renowned neurologist and author Dr Oliver Sacks is a visiting professor at the University of Warwick as part of the Institute of Advanced Study. Dr Sacks was born in London. He earned his medical degree at the University of Oxford (Queen’s College and the Middlesex Hospital (now UCL, followed by residencies and fellowships at Mt. Zion Hospital in San Francisco and at University of California Los Angeles (UCLA. As well as authoring best-selling books such as Awakenings and The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat, he is clinical professor of neurology at NYU Langone Medical Center in New York. Warwick is part of a consortium led by New York University which is building an applied science research institute, the Center for Urban Science and Progress (CUSP. Dr Sacks recently completed a five-year residency at Columbia University in New York, where he was professor of neurology and psychiatry. He also held the title of Columbia University Artist, in recognition of his contributions to the arts as well as to medicine. He is a fellow of the Royal College of Physicians and the Association of British Neurologists, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the American Academy of Arts and Letters, and has been a fellow of the New York Institute for the Humanities at NYU for more than 25 years. In 2008, he was appointed CBE.

  16. HDL-related mechanisms of olive oil protection in cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou-Bonafonte, José M; Fitó, Montse; Covas, María-Isabel; Farràs, Marta; Osada, Jesús

    2012-07-01

    The low incidence of cardiovascular disease in countries bordering the Mediterranean basin, where olive oil is the main source of dietary fat, and the negative association between this disease with high density lipoproteins has stimulated interest. This review summarizes the current knowledge gathered from human and animal studies regarding olive oil and high density lipoproteins. Cumulative evidence suggests that high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and its main apolipoprotein A1, may be increased by consuming olive oil when compared with carbohydrate and low fat diets in humans. Conflicting results have been found in many studies when olive oil diets were compared with other sources of fat. The role of virgin olive oil minor components on its protective effect has been demonstrated by a growing number of studies although its exact mechanism remains to be elucidated. Dietary amount of olive oil, use of virgin olive oil, cholesterol intake, and physiopathological states such as genetic background, sex, age, obesity or fatty liver are variables that may offset those effects. Further studies in this field in humans and in animal models are warranted due to the complexity of HDL particles.

  17. Consumer attitudes and olive oil acceptance: The potential consumer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McEwan, Jean A.

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available       This paper outlines the results of consumer research to investigate consumer attitudes towards olive oil, and to evaluate selected experimental samples for acceptability.
          Consumer focus group discussions were used to investigate consumer attitudes to and awareness of olive oil, in relation to other culinary oils. A wide range of information was obtained, indicating the increasing importance of olive oil in the UK.
           Product use was examined to investigate the different types of olive oils consumers use, and the importance of different attributes for purchase. Price, quality and colour were the most important considerations for purchasing an olive oil, whilst package design, package material and brand were the least important.       Eight samples of virgin olive oil were evaluated for acceptability of appearance, odour, flavour and mouthfeel. These data indicated clear differences in acceptability between the samples, particularly on flavour, mouthfeel and overall acceptability. These data were then linked to sensory information to determine the characteristics of oil associated with liking for the product.

  18. Olive oil biophenols and women’s health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Fistonić

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Olea europea, the olive tree, is an ancient tree that originates fromthe Mediterranean environment of Asia Minor. The edible olive fruit is also used for its oil, gained by the process of pressing, a nutrient with proven beneficial effects. Virgin olive oil is the natural juice of the olive fruit, which plays a major role in the healthy Mediterranean diet. The source of its health effects are the biophenols and squalenes (oleocanthal, tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein it contains. They provide an exceptional antioxidative activity, removing harmful compounds from the body. Oxidants are essential in the genesis of many diseases and conditions, such as cardiovascular disorders, cancer, osteoporosis, Alzheimer disease, andpremenstrual syndrome. Oleic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid, has demonstrated a significant effect in the prevention of malignant diseases such as colon cancer and breast cancer. Biophenols from olive oil successfully suppress the synthesis of LDL, a protein that is crucial in the development of cardiovascular disease, by reducingblood pressure and the development of atherosclerotic plaques. In addition, there is strong evidence of the antimicrobic effect of the biphenols from olive oil that successfully destroy colonies of microorganisms which may cause respiratory tract, intestinal,and genital tract infections.

  19. The phenolic compounds of olive oil: structure, biological activity and beneficial effects on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripoli, Elisa; Giammanco, Marco; Tabacchi, Garden; Di Majo, Danila; Giammanco, Santo; La Guardia, Maurizio

    2005-06-01

    The Mediterranean diet is rich in vegetables, cereals, fruit, fish, milk, wine and olive oil and has salutary biological functions. Epidemiological studies have shown a lower incidence of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases and certain kinds of cancer in the Mediterranean area. Olive oil is the main source of fat, and the Mediterranean diet's healthy effects can in particular be attributed not only to the high relationship between unsaturated and saturated fatty acids in olive oil but also to the antioxidant property of its phenolic compounds. The main phenolic compounds, hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein, which give extra-virgin olive oil its bitter, pungent taste, have powerful antioxidant activity both in vivo and in vitro. The present review focuses on recent works analysing the relationship between the structure of olive oil polyphenolic compounds and their antioxidant activity. These compounds' possible beneficial effects are due to their antioxidant activity, which is related to the development of atherosclerosis and cancer, and to anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activity.

  20. Oliver Jeffers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    故事作者、插画家,和先锋艺术家代表作品:《This Moose Belongs to Me》、《How to Catch a Star》、《Lost and found》、《Up and Down》、《The Way Back Home》、《The Great Paper Caper》、《The Heart and the Bottle》、Oliver Jeffers生于1977年,是一位故事作者、插画家,和先锋艺术家。他生于爱尔兰,现在在美国纽约的布鲁克林生活。他的创作领域从具象绘画、插图、独立书籍制作到装置艺术,涉猎很广。他的作品被纽约布鲁克林博物馆收入。另外在都柏林、柏林、伦敦、悉尼、华盛顿和贝尔法斯特都有他的艺术品展出。他是家喻户晓的儿童书籍作者。哈伯柯林斯和企鹅出版社都出版过他的书。2004年的《How to Catch a Star》是他第一本儿童书,大受好评。之后他

  1. Characterization and evaluation of olive germplasm in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Vaio, Claudio; Nocerino, Sabrina; Paduano, Antonello; Sacchi, Raffaele

    2013-08-15

    The southern Italian region of Campania has suitable pedo-climatic conditions and a large varietal heritage able to produce oils with high typicality. The aim of this study was to characterize 20 cultivars belonging to Campania's olive germplasm, evaluating their vegetative and production aspects and their oil quality characteristics. The study was conducted from 2003 to 2009, observing the following aspects in six plants per variety: entry into production, vigour, ripening and drupe oil content. The following analyses were carried out on monovarietal oils, obtained by microextractor: acid composition, polyphenol content and aromatic profile. The agronomic results showed early entry into production for the cultivars Racioppella, Ortolana, Biancolilla and Carpellese. However, entry into production was delayed for Ritonnella, Ortice, Cornia and Rotondella. As regards vegetative behaviour, Asprinia, from the province of Caserta and Pisciottana and Carpellese, from the province of Salerno, proved the most vigorous cultivars. Groups of similar cultivars emerged from chemical and sensory analysis of their oils, while other accessions were well characterized and separated from each other, showing a high level of diversity and specificity. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Olive orchard amended with olive mill wastewater: effects on olive fruit and olive oil quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechri, B; Issaoui, M; Echbili, A; Chehab, H; Mariem, F B; Braham, M; Hammami, M

    2009-12-30

    The aim of this work was to study the effects of agronomic application of olive mill wastewater (OMW) in a field of olive trees on olive fruit and olive oil quality. Agronomic application of OMW increased significantly the fungal:bacteria ratio, whereas the root colonisation and the photosynthetic rates decreased significantly. Consequently, the oil content expressed as a percentage of dry weight, decreased significantly after agronomic application of OMW. Land spreading of OMW altered the relative proportion of individual olive fruit sugar and decreased significantly the nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) of the fruit. A significant increase was observed in total phenol content of oil after agronomic application of OMW. alpha-Tocopherol content, on the contrary, decreased with OMW application. The fatty acid composition of the oil was not affected by the treatments. To our knowledge, this is the first report of change in the olive fruit and olive oil quality following agronomic application of OMW.

  3. Olive oil compounds inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 phosphorylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamy, Sylvie, E-mail: lamy.sylvie@uqam.ca; Ouanouki, Amira; Béliveau, Richard; Desrosiers, Richard R.

    2014-03-10

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) triggers crucial signaling processes that regulate tumor angiogenesis and, therefore, represents an attractive target for the development of novel anticancer therapeutics. Several epidemiological studies have confirmed that abundant consumption of foods from plant origin is associated with reduced risk of developing cancers. In the Mediterranean basin, the consumption of extra virgin olive oil is an important constituent of the diet. Compared to other vegetable oils, the presence of several phenolic antioxidants in olive oil is believed to prevent the occurrence of a variety of pathological processes, such as cancer. While the strong antioxidant potential of these molecules is well characterized, their antiangiogenic activities remain unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate whether tyrosol (Tyr), hydroxytyrosol (HT), taxifolin (Tax), oleuropein (OL) and oleic acid (OA), five compounds contained in extra virgin olive oil, can affect in vitro angiogenesis. We found that HT, Tax and OA were the most potent angiogenesis inhibitors through their inhibitory effect on specific autophosphorylation sites of VEGFR-2 (Tyr951, Tyr1059, Tyr1175 and Tyr1214) leading to the inhibition of endothelial cell (EC) signaling. Inhibition of VEGFR-2 by these olive oil compounds significantly reduced VEGF-induced EC proliferation and migration as well as their morphogenic differentiation into capillary-like tubular structures in Matrigel. Our study demonstrates that HT, Tax and OA are novel and potent inhibitors of the VEGFR-2 signaling pathway. These findings emphasize the chemopreventive properties of olive oil and highlight the importance of nutrition in cancer prevention. - Highlights: • We investigated five compounds contained in extra virgin olive oil on angiogenesis. • Hydroxytyrosol, taxifolin and oleic acid are the best angiogenesis inhibitors. • Olive oil compounds affect endothelial cell functions essential for

  4. Protective effects of hydroxytyrosol-supplemented refined olive oil in animal models of acute inflammation and rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, S; Sepodes, B; Rocha, J; Direito, R; Fernandes, A; Brites, D; Freitas, M; Fernandes, E; Bronze, M R; Figueira, M E

    2015-04-01

    Virgin olive oil is the primary source of fat in the Mediterranean diet, and its beneficial health effects have been related with oleic acid and phenolic compounds content. Hydroxytyrosol, a typical virgin olive oil phenolic compound, has beneficial antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties as previously reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydroxytyrosol-supplemented refined olive oil at 0.5 and 5 mg/kg in a rodent model of rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatoid arthritis was induced by intradermic administration, in male Wistar rats, of Freund's adjuvant with collagen type II on days 1 and 21. Hydroxytyrosol-supplemented refined olive oils were administrated by gavage from day 23 until day 35. The treatment at 5-mg/kg dose significantly decreased paw edema (Polive oil with hydroxytyrosol may be advantageous in rheumatoid arthritis with significant impact not only on chronic inflammation but also on acute inflammatory processes.

  5. Assay of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol in olive oil by tandem mass spectrometry and isotope dilution method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzotti, Fabio; Benabdelkamel, Hicham; Di Donna, Leonardo; Maiuolo, Loredana; Napoli, Anna; Sindona, Giovanni

    2012-12-01

    Hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol, the strong antioxidant present in large amount in virgin olive oil have been assayed by LC-MS/MS under MRM condition and isotope dilution method, using d(2)-labelled internal standards obtained by simple synthetic procedures. The assay has been performed under MRM condition monitoring two transitions for each analyte to improve the specificity. This paper deals with a modern approach for assaying the content of this polyphenols in virgin olive oil down to a limit of a few hundreds of parts per billion. Tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol ranged from 10 to 47ppm and from 5 to 25ppm in commercial olive oil, respectively. The accuracy (98-107%) and analytical parameters values confirm the reliability of the proposed approach. The method can be extended to any natural matrices, including mill wastes, after a simple step of sample preparation.

  6. Olive oil in clinical nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Luna, Pedro Pablo

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The different beneficial effects of olive oil have a rational and scientific basis due to advances in the knowledge of lipid metabolism. The evidence that for a similar plasma cholesterol concentration, the rate of cardiovascular deaths is lower in the Mediterranean countries than in other ones, suggests that the beneficial effects of olive oil may not be only related to the known quantitative changes in plasma lipoproteins, but also to other, as yet unknown or little known, anti-atherogenic factors. The peculiarities of olive oil in terms of certain biochemical, biological and nutritional characteristics, open up a field of application in normal clinical practice. The benefits of olive oil in clinical nutrition correlate with its action on lipid metabolism and the cardiovascular system. Even a moderate increase in the ingestion of monounsaturated fats and a reduction in the ingestion of carbohydrates could be more advantageous in those patients with diabetes and hypertriglyceridemia and/or in those where loss of weight is not a priority. Different studies have also demonstrated the benefits of olive oil in different inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis. The chemical composition of extra virgin olive oil contributes to daily requirements of essential fatty acids and active antioxidant nutrients in vitamin E deficiency. This particular and well-balanced situation [oleic acid (18:1 n -9 and minor components in an ideal ratio] undoubtedly has a significant relevance in human clinical nutrition.Los avances en el conocimiento del metabolismo lipídico están permitiendo establecer las bases científicas de los efectos saludables del aceite de oliva. En los países del área Mediterránea, la mortalidad cardiovascular es menor que en otros, aunque la concentración de colesterol en sangre es similar. Es muy probable que la capacidad cardio-protectora del aceite de oliva se relacione con otros factores de riesgo, algunos

  7. Oil composition and genetic biodiversity of ancient and new olive (Olea europea L.) varieties and accessions of southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicatelli, Angela; Fortunati, Tancredi; De Feis, Italia; Castiglione, Stefano

    2013-09-01

    The present study is focused on determining the olive oil fatty acid composition of ancient and recent varieties of the Campania region (Italy), but also on molecularly characterizing the most common cultivated varieties in the same region, together with olive trees of the garden of the University Campus of Salerno and of three olive groves of south Italy. Fatty acid methyl esters in the extra virgin oil derived olive fruits were determined, during three consecutive harvests, by gas chromatography. The statistical analysis on fatty acid composition was performed with the ffmanova package. The genetic biodiversity of the olive collection was estimated by using eight highly polymorphic microsatellite loci and calculating the most commonly used indexes. "Dice index" was employed to estimate the similarity level of the analysed olive samples, while the Structure software to infer their genetic structure. The fatty acid content of extra virgin olive oils, produced from the two olive groves in Campania, suggests that the composition is mainly determined by genotype and not by cultural practices or climatic conditions. Furthermore, the analysis conducted on the molecular data revealed the presence of 100 distinct genotypes and seven homonymies out of the 136 analysed trees. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of Conventional Heating on the Stability of Major Olive Oil Phenolic Compounds by Tandem Mass Spectrometry and Isotope Dilution Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Sindona

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The quality of olive oils is sensorially tested by accurate and well established methods. It enables the classification of the pressed oils into the classes of extra virgin oil, virgin oil and lampant oil. Nonetheless, it would be convenient to have analytical methods for screening oils or supporting sensorial analysis using a reliable independent approach based on exploitation of mass spectrometric methodologies. A number of methods have been proposed to evaluate deficiencies of extra virgin olive oils resulting from inappropriate technological treatments, such as high or low temperature deodoration, and home cooking processes. The quality and nutraceutical value of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO can be related to the antioxidant property of its phenolic compounds. Olive oil is a source of at least 30 phenolic compounds, such as oleuropein, oleocanthal, hydroxytyrosol, and tyrosol, all acting as strong antioxidants, radical scavengers and NSAI-like drugs. We now report the efficacy of MRM tandem mass spectrometry, assisted by the isotope dilution assay, in the evaluation of the thermal stability of selected active principles of extra virgin olive oil.

  9. Traceability of PDO Olive Oil “Terra di Bari” Using High Resolution Melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Montemurro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to verify the applicability of microsatellite (SSR markers in High Resolution Melting (HRM analysis for the identification of the olive cultivars used in the “Terra di Bari” PDO extra virgin olive oil. A panel of nine cultivars, widespread in Apulia region, was tested with seventeen SSR primer pairs and the PCR products were at first analysed with a Genetic Analyzer automatic sequencer. An identification key was obtained for the nine cultivars, which showed an unambiguous discrimination among the varieties constituting the “Terra di Bari” PDO extra virgin olive oil: Cima di Bitonto, Coratina, and Ogliarola. Subsequently, an SSR based method was set up with the DCA18 marker, coupled with HRM analysis for the distinction of the Terra di Bari olive oil from non-Terra di Bari olive oil using different mixtures. Thus, this analysis enabled the distinction and identification of the PDO mixtures. Hence, this assay provided a flexible, cost-effective, and closed-tube microsatellite genotyping method, well suited to varietal identification and authentication analysis in olive oil.

  10. Ozonated Olive Oils and Troubles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulent Uysal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the commonly used methods for ozone therapy is ozonated oils. Most prominent type of used oils is extra virgin olive oil. But still, each type of unsaturated oils may be used for ozonation. There are a lot of wrong knowledge on the internet about ozonated oils and its use as well. Just like other ozone therapy studies, also the studies about ozone oils are inadequate to avoid incorrect knowledge. Current data about ozone oil and its benefits are produced by supplier who oversees financial interests and make misinformation. Despite the rapidly increasing ozone oil sales through the internet, its quality and efficacy is still controversial. Dozens of companies and web sites may be easily found to buy ozonated oil. But, very few of these products are reliable, and contain sufficiently ozonated oil. This article aimed to introduce the troubles about ozonated oils and so to inform ozonated oil users. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2014; 3(2.000: 49-50

  11. Data on some qualitative parameters of Carolea olive oils obtained in different areas of Calabria (Southern Italy

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    Amalia Piscopo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This data article contains complementary results related to the paper “Characterization of monovarietal olive oils obtained from mills of Calabria region (Southern Italy” (Piscopo et al., 2016 [1]. Data was obtained by capillary-column gas chromatography, analyzing sterols and triterpene dialcohols and ethyl esters in the composition of Carolea olive oils. They were produced in different areas of Calabria region (Southern Italy, named: the Sibari׳s plateau (SP, the Valley of Sant׳ Eufemia (VSE, the Tyrrhenian southern area (TSA, the Ionian southern coast (ISC and the Ionian area of Catanzaro (IAC. Specifically the characterized samples were 24 in the SP; 43 in the VSE; 15 in the TSA; 30 in the ISC, and 34 in the IAC, for a total amount of 146 olive oils. The differences in some compositional characteristics denoted the effect of the environmental and could be considered to improve the local productions. The compilation of this data provides a resource for the wider research community and the interpretation of this data could be found in the research article noted above.

  12. Preference for olive oil consumption in the Spanish local market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Bernabéu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It is becoming ever more important for the olive oil industry in Spain to adopt a business strategy based on client orientation. In this sense, the objective of this paper is to identify the preferences of olive oil consumers and propose a series of business strategies for the producing sector. The methodology consisted in a survey of 404 olive oil consumers during the months of January and February 2013, whose preferences were determined through several multivariate techniques (conjoint analysis, consumer segmentation and a simulation of market share. The preferred olive oil is low priced, extra virgin and organic. The type of bottle does not appear to be relevant in the buying decision process, although it might be a factor in increasing market share. The current economic crisis has resulted in the emergence of two consumer segments; 67.1% of consumers selected the olive oil they buy on the basis of price and 32.9% were guided by the product’s specific attributes, which include, for example, organic production, which can be another differentiating element for producing companies.

  13. Valuable Nutrients and Functional Bioactives in Different Parts of Olive (Olea europaea L.—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazamid Saari

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Olive tree (Olea europaea L., a native of the Mediterranean basin and parts of Asia, is now widely cultivated in many other parts of the world for production of olive oil and table olives. Olive is a rich source of valuable nutrients and bioactives of medicinal and therapeutic interest. Olive fruit contains appreciable concentration, 1–3% of fresh pulp weight, of hydrophilic (phenolic acids, phenolic alchohols, flavonoids and secoiridoids and lipophilic (cresols phenolic compounds that are known to possess multiple biological activities such as antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, antihypertensive, antidyslipidemic, cardiotonic, laxative, and antiplatelet. Other important compounds present in olive fruit are pectin, organic acids, and pigments. Virgin olive oil (VOO, extracted mechanically from the fruit, is also very popular for its nutritive and health-promoting potential, especially against cardiovascular disorders due to the presence of high levels of monounsaturates and other valuable minor components such as phenolics, phytosterols, tocopherols, carotenoids, chlorophyll and squalene. The cultivar, area of production, harvest time, and the processing techniques employed are some of the factors shown to influence the composition of olive fruit and olive oil. This review focuses comprehensively on the nutrients and high-value bioactives profile as well as medicinal and functional aspects of different parts of olives and its byproducts. Various factors affecting the composition of this food commodity of medicinal value are also discussed.

  14. Role of olive oil phenolics in physical properties and stability of mayonnaise-like emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacintucci, Veronica; Di Mattia, Carla; Sacchetti, Giampiero; Neri, Lilia; Pittia, Paola

    2016-12-15

    The effect of olive oil phenolic content and pattern on the physical properties and stability of olive oil mayonnaise-like emulsions has been investigated. Mayonnaises were formulated with either naturally phenolic-rich extra virgin olive oils or purified olive oil artificially enriched with a phenolic-rich olive extract and pure oleuropein. Mayonnaises were characterized by droplet size distribution, microstructure, textural properties and flow behaviour. The addition of phenolic extracts significantly affected the dispersion degree of the corresponding mayonnaise-like emulsions, their microstructure and physical stability especially in the systems prepared with purified olive oil treated with pure oleuropein and the highest olive phenolic extract concentration. The viscosity and back-extrusion analyses evidenced that the systems characterized by a relatively high content of phenolics, either natural or by addition, presented lower yield stress and viscosity indices and were easier to deform and to break. This study confirms the main role of olive phenolic compounds, and in particular that of oleuropein, in the dispersion state, and physical properties of emulsions with main effects on their quality and stability.

  15. The effect of the olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae) on quality parameters, and antioxidant and antibacterial activities of olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medjkouh, Lynda; Tamendjari, Abderezak; Keciri, Sonia; Santos, Joana; Nunes, M Antónia; Oliveira, M B P P

    2016-06-15

    The present study was performed on olives from two Algerian cultivars (Limli and Rougette de Metidja) with different rates of attack by the Bactrocera oleae fly (0%, not attacked; 100%, all attacked; and real attacked %) and the corresponding olive oils. The aim was to verify the attack effect on quality parameters (free fatty acid, peroxide value, K232 and K270, oxidation stability), bioactive compounds (fatty acids and tocopherols, and total phenols and flavonoids), and on the antioxidant (reducing power, FRAP, β-carotene bleaching inhibition, ABTS and DPPH) and antibacterial (against 8 referenced human enteropathogenic bacteria by the agar disc diffusion method) capacities. Oils from infested olives were downgraded to the virgin olive oil category. Rougette de Metidja, the cultivar with a higher drupe size, was more attacked than Limli. The B. oleae attack causes an important decrease in the total phenolic contents (>30%) but to a lesser degree in the case of tocopherols. Among them, α-tocopherol is the most affected. The antioxidant and antibacterial activities were highly correlated with phenolic levels. The results of this study show the importance of controlling the fly attack because it causes a decrease in the beneficial health effects of olive oils.

  16. Overregularity in Oliver Twist

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔祥曼

    2015-01-01

    Oliver Twist is one of the earliest works of Charles Dickens. In this novel, the author uses many writing skills which impress the readers a lot. This paper gives a brief description of overregularity in Oliver Twist at the phonological and syntactical levels.

  17. Virgin mother or bastard child?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D. Crossan

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Virginal conception presumes divine intervention, but divine inter-vention does not necessarily presume virginal conception. In the case of Mary, two phenomena, both unusual in Jewish tradition, are found, namely divine and virginal conception. This article argues that the virginity claim by Christian Jews preceded and generated the adultery accusation by non-Christian Jews. It does so by stating three points. Firstly, that the earliest dated text containing the accusation of Jesus’ bastardy is dependent on the redactional text of Matthew. Secondly, that the general structure of Matthew 1-2 and especially its dyad of Divorce and Remarriage is dependent on the popular traditions about Moses’ conception and birth. Thirdly, that the pre-Matthean tradition of divine and virginal conception is rather a reaction against Roman tradition than coming from Jewish tradition. However, this argument does not take Jesus out of Jewish tradition but, places the Judaism of Jesus’ time firmly within the Roman Empire. It is a Judaism which opposed Rome’s ideological ascendancy and theological eschatology. This article will also be published in A Feminist Companion to (Mariology or (the Jesus Movement, edited by Amy-Jill Levine, Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press.

  18. ESR spectra of the olive phenolics oleuropein and keracyanin in the solid state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, C.R. [Monash University, Clayton, VIC (Australia). Anatomy Department; Troup, G.J.; Hutton, D.R. [Monash University, Clayton, VIC (Australia). Physics Department; Hewitt, D.J. [Monash University, Clayton, VIC (Australia). Chemistry Department; Romani, A.; Mulinacci, N.; Vincieri, F.F. [Universita degli Studi, Firenze (Italy). Dipartimento di Scienze Farmaceutiche

    1998-12-31

    Full text: Olives and extra virgin olive oil, are known to be very rich in antioxidants, most of which are phenolics, such as oleuropein, a derivative of catechol: the `catechol` ring is separated, and effectively isolated electrically from the other (6-sided) ring. The main anthocyanin in olives in keracyanin (cyanidin-3-0-rutinoside). Solid samples of these two phenolics, and of catechol, were examined by ESR using a Varian E-12 spectrometer (x-band: {approx}9.1 GHz) at room temperature. All three samples gave single unstructured lines of {approx} 10g. width with g-vales close to 2. The presence of these free radical signal shows the antioxidant action of these phenolics, even in the solid state. We believe this is first observation of free radicals in olive phenolics

  19. Evidence to Support the Anti-Cancer Effect of Olive Leaf Extract and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boss, Anna; Bishop, Karen S; Marlow, Gareth; Barnett, Matthew P G; Ferguson, Lynnette R

    2016-08-19

    The traditional Mediterranean diet (MD) is associated with long life and lower prevalence of cardiovascular disease and cancers. The main components of this diet include high intake of fruit, vegetables, red wine, extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and fish, low intake of dairy and red meat. Olive oil has gained support as a key effector of health benefits and there is evidence that this relates to the polyphenol content. Olive leaf extract (OLE) contains a higher quantity and variety of polyphenols than those found in EVOO. There are also important structural differences between polyphenols from olive leaf and those from olive fruit that may improve the capacity of OLE to enhance health outcomes. Olive polyphenols have been claimed to play an important protective role in cancer and other inflammation-related diseases. Both inflammatory and cancer cell models have shown that olive leaf polyphenols are anti-inflammatory and protect against DNA damage initiated by free radicals. The various bioactive properties of olive leaf polyphenols are a plausible explanation for the inhibition of progression and development of cancers. The pathways and signaling cascades manipulated include the NF-κB inflammatory response and the oxidative stress response, but the effects of these bioactive components may also result from their action as a phytoestrogen. Due to the similar structure of the olive polyphenols to oestrogens, these have been hypothesized to interact with oestrogen receptors, thereby reducing the prevalence and progression of hormone related cancers. Evidence for the protective effect of olive polyphenols for cancer in humans remains anecdotal and clinical trials are required to substantiate these claims idea. This review aims to amalgamate the current literature regarding bioavailability and mechanisms involved in the potential anti-cancer action of olive leaf polyphenols.

  20. Evidence to Support the Anti-Cancer Effect of Olive Leaf Extract and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Boss

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The traditional Mediterranean diet (MD is associated with long life and lower prevalence of cardiovascular disease and cancers. The main components of this diet include high intake of fruit, vegetables, red wine, extra virgin olive oil (EVOO and fish, low intake of dairy and red meat. Olive oil has gained support as a key effector of health benefits and there is evidence that this relates to the polyphenol content. Olive leaf extract (OLE contains a higher quantity and variety of polyphenols than those found in EVOO. There are also important structural differences between polyphenols from olive leaf and those from olive fruit that may improve the capacity of OLE to enhance health outcomes. Olive polyphenols have been claimed to play an important protective role in cancer and other inflammation-related diseases. Both inflammatory and cancer cell models have shown that olive leaf polyphenols are anti-inflammatory and protect against DNA damage initiated by free radicals. The various bioactive properties of olive leaf polyphenols are a plausible explanation for the inhibition of progression and development of cancers. The pathways and signaling cascades manipulated include the NF-κB inflammatory response and the oxidative stress response, but the effects of these bioactive components may also result from their action as a phytoestrogen. Due to the similar structure of the olive polyphenols to oestrogens, these have been hypothesized to interact with oestrogen receptors, thereby reducing the prevalence and progression of hormone related cancers. Evidence for the protective effect of olive polyphenols for cancer in humans remains anecdotal and clinical trials are required to substantiate these claims idea. This review aims to amalgamate the current literature regarding bioavailability and mechanisms involved in the potential anti-cancer action of olive leaf polyphenols.

  1. Virgin's Knight tackles climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Michael

    2008-11-01

    "There is no greater or more immediate challenge than that posed by climate change," said Sir Richard Branson, chairman of the Virgin group, via video-link at the 59th International Astronautical Congress (IAC) held in Glasgow in the UK at the end of September. That grand statement may seem like a lot of hot air for the entrepreneur best known for his attempt to circumnavigate the globe by balloon. But Branson went on to reveal that Virgin Galactic, which aims to fly passengers 100 km into space for 200 000 per trip, will also provide room on its craft for a series of scientific experiments to study the Earth's atmosphere.

  2. An Improved GMM and GMR Based on Particle Swarm Optimization with an Application in Extra Virgin Olive Oil Analysis%基于粒子群优化算法的高斯混合模型和高斯混合回归用于橄榄油品质分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓丹; 李新会; 石伟民; 申琦

    2015-01-01

    随着橄榄油掺假现象日趋严重,寻找一种简单有效的鉴伪分析方法至关重要。采用基于粒子群优化的高斯混合模型和高斯混合回归结合傅里叶变换红外光谱对橄榄油掺假样品进行定性和定量分析,取得了较好的分析结果。%In recent years,olive oil adulteration phenomenon has become increasingly serious. Looking for a simple and effective detection method is very important. In this paper,an improved Gaussian mixture model and Gaussian mixture regression based on particle swarm combined with FT-IR spectrum was used to classify and quantify the adulteration in olive oil and has obtained a good analysis result.

  3. Characterization of Sicilian virgin olive oils. Note X. A comparison between Cerasuola and Nocellara del BeliceUn noventa por ciento de los olivos de la cuenca mediterránea son destinados a la producción de aceite. Dentro de un amplio es varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pizzimenti, G.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Ninety percent of the olive trees are destined to oil production in the Mediterranean basin. Within a wide study of Southern Italian olive oils, with a particular reference to Sicily, several varieties of olive have been studied. The result of an analytical study carried out with two cultivars "Nocellara del Belice" and "Cerasuola" for six consecutive years is described in this paper. Parameters related to olive oil purity and shelf-life together with the composition (% of sterols and fatty acids of the single oils are shown. Data were analyzed by the univariate non-parametric Mann-Whitney test and the multivariate procedure of Factor Analysis.Un noventa por ciento de los olivos de la cuenca mediterránea son destinados a la producción de aceite. Dentro de un amplio estudio de los aceites de oliva del sur de Italia, con especial atención a Sicilia, se han estudiado distintas variedades de olivos. El resultado de un estudio analítico llevado a cabo con dos cultivares "Nocellara del Belice" y "Cerasuola" es descrito en este trabajo. Se muestran distintos parámetros relacionados con la pureza del aceite y la estabilidad junto con la composición (% esterólica y de ácidos grasos de los ácidos individuales. Los datas obtenidos se analizan tanto por métodos paramétricos univariantes (test de Mann-Whitney como por procedimientos multivariantes de análisis factorial.

  4. The effect of environmental factors on stable isotopic composition of n-alkanes in Mediterranean olive oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedentchouk, Nikolai; Mihailova, Alina; Abbado, Dimitri

    2014-05-01

    Traceability of the geographic origin of olive oils is an important issue from both commercial and health perspectives. This study evaluates the impact of environmental factors on stable C and H isotope compositions of n-alkanes in extra virgin olive oils from Croatia, France, Greece, Italy, Morocco, Portugal, Slovenia, and Spain. The data are used to investigate the applicability of stable isotope methodology for olive oil regional classification in the Mediterranean region. Analysis of stable C isotope composition of n-C29 alkane showed that extra virgin olive oils from Portugal and Spain have the most positive n-C29 alkane delta13C values. Conversely, olive oils from Slovenia, northern and central Italy are characterized by the most negative values. Overall, the n-C29 alkane delta13C values show a positive correlation with the mean air temperature during August-December and a negative correlation with the mean relative humidity during these months. Analysis of stable H isotope composition of n-C29 alkane revealed that the deltaD values are the most positive in olive oils from Greece and Morocco and the most negative in oils from northern Italy. The deltaD values of oils show significant correlation with all the analyses geographical parameters: the mean air temperature and relative humidity during August-December, the total amount of rainfall (the same months) and the annual deltaD values of precipitation. As predictor variables in the Categorical Data Analysis, the n-C29 alkane deltaD values show the most significant discriminative power, followed by the n-C29 alkane delta13C values. Overall, 93.4% of olive oil samples have been classified correctly into one of the production regions. Our findings suggest that an integrated analysis of C and H isotope compositions of n-alkanes extracted from extra virgin olive oil could become a useful tool for geographical provenancing of this highly popular food commodity.

  5. Detection of plant oil DNA using high resolution melting (HRM) post PCR analysis: a tool for disclosure of olive oil adulteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vietina, Michelangelo; Agrimonti, Caterina; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2013-12-15

    Extra virgin olive oil is frequently subjected to adulterations with addition of oils obtained from plants other than olive. DNA analysis is a fast and economic tool to identify plant components in oils. Extraction and amplification of DNA by PCR was tested in olives, in milled seeds and in oils, to investigate its use in olive oil traceability. DNA was extracted from different oils made of hazelnut, maize, sunflower, peanut, sesame, soybean, rice and pumpkin. Comparing the DNA melting profiles in reference plant materials and in the oils, it was possible to identify any plant components in oils and mixtures of oils. Real-Time PCR (RT-PCR) platform has been added of the new methodology of high resolution melting (HRM), both were used to analyse olive oils mixed with different percentage of other oils. Results showed HRM a cost effective method for efficient detection of adulterations in olive oils. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterization by chemometry of the most important domestic and foreign olive cultivars from the National Olive Collection Orchard of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dıraman, Harun

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, twelve samples from domestic olive cultivars (Memecik, Uslu, Domat, Ayvalik, Çelebi, Memeli, Erkence, Gemlik, Çakir, Izmir Sofralik, Çekişte and Çilli and nine samples from foreign olive cultivars (Picholine, Arbequnia, Hojiblanca, Manzanilla, Frontoio, Leccio, Saurani, Baroui and Meski were investigated. All olive samples were collected from the National Olive Collection Orchard at Kemalpaşa – Izmir, Turkey. Basic qualitative parameters (free fatty acidity, peroxide value and spectrophotometric indexes, color scale and fatty acid profiles were determined in virgin olive oils obtained from domestic and foreign olive cultivars growing in the same pedoclimatic conditions. Large variations were observed among the cultivars, despitethe fact that the cultivars are planted in the same pedoclimatic conditions. Oils extracted from 21 samples obtained from domestic and foreign olive cultivars in the National Olive Genetic Bank of Turkey were classified with the multivariete stastistical method (Hierarchical Cluster Analysis, HCA based on their fatty acid profiles. According to the HCA results (Euclidian method, the oils obtained from the domestic and foreign cultivars were separated into two and three groups, respectively.

    En este estudio, doce muestras de diferentes variedades de aceituna autóctonas (Memecik, Uslu, Domat, Ayvalik, Çelebi, Memeli, Erkence, Gemlik, Çakir, Izmir Sofralik, Çekişte y Çilli y nueve muestras de diferentes variedades foráneas (Picholine, Arbequnia, Hojiblanca, Manzanilla, Frontoio, Leccio, Saurani, Baroui and Meski fueron investigadas. Todas las muestras de aceitunas fueron obtenidas del National Olive Collection Orchard de Kemalpaşa – Izmir, Turquía. Los parámetros básicos cualitativos (acidez, valor de peróxidos e índices espectrofotométrico, escala de color y perfil de ácidos grasos fueron determinados en aceites de oliva virgen obtenidos de las aceitunas de las variedades aut

  7. Microbially-enhanced composting of wet olive husks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverria, M C; Cardelli, R; Bedini, S; Colombini, A; Incrocci, L; Castagna, A; Agnolucci, M; Cristani, C; Ranieri, A; Saviozzi, A; Nuti, M

    2012-01-01

    The production of a compost from olive wet husks is described. The process is enhanced through the use of starters prepared with virgin husks enriched with selected microbial cultures. This approach, with respect to composting without the use of starters, allows to achieve faster start of the process (10 vs. 45 days), deeper humification (humification rate 19.2 vs. 12.2), shorter maturation time (2 vs. 4-5 months) and better detoxification of the starting material. Furthermore, the compost produced can effectively substitute for turf as a cultivation substrate in horticulture at greenhouse level, with beneficial effects on nutraceutical traits of tomato fruits.

  8. From Olive Fruits to Olive Oil: Phenolic Compound Transfer in Six Different Olive Cultivars Grown under the Same Agronomical Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talhaoui, Nassima; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; León, Lorenzo; De la Rosa, Raúl; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2016-03-04

    Phenolic compounds are responsible of the nutritional and sensory quality of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO). The composition of phenolic compounds in EVOO is related to the initial content of phenolic compounds in the olive-fruit tissues and the activity of enzymes acting on these compounds during the industrial process to produce the oil. In this work, the phenolic composition was studied in six major cultivars grown in the same orchard under the same agronomical and environmental conditions in an effort to test the effects of cultivars on phenolic composition in fruits and oils as well as on transfer between matrices. The phenolic fractions were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry. A total of 33 phenolic compounds were determined in the fruit samples and a total of 20 compounds in their corresponding oils. Qualitative and quantitative differences in phenolic composition were found among cultivars in both matrices, as well as regarding the transfer rate of phenolic compounds from fruits to oil. The results also varied according to the different phenolic groups evaluated, with secoiridoids registering the highest transfer rates from fruits to oils. Moreover, wide-ranging differences have been noticed between cultivars for the transfer rates of secoiridoids (4.36%-65.63% of total transfer rate) and for flavonoids (0.18%-0.67% of total transfer rate). 'Picual' was the cultivar that transferred secoiridoids to oil at the highest rate, whereas 'Changlot Real' was the cultivar that transferred flavonoids at the highest rates instead. Principal-component analysis confirmed a strong genetic effect on the basis of the phenolic profile both in the olive fruits and in the oils.

  9. From Olive Fruits to Olive Oil: Phenolic Compound Transfer in Six Different Olive Cultivars Grown under the Same Agronomical Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassima Talhaoui

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are responsible of the nutritional and sensory quality of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO. The composition of phenolic compounds in EVOO is related to the initial content of phenolic compounds in the olive-fruit tissues and the activity of enzymes acting on these compounds during the industrial process to produce the oil. In this work, the phenolic composition was studied in six major cultivars grown in the same orchard under the same agronomical and environmental conditions in an effort to test the effects of cultivars on phenolic composition in fruits and oils as well as on transfer between matrices. The phenolic fractions were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry. A total of 33 phenolic compounds were determined in the fruit samples and a total of 20 compounds in their corresponding oils. Qualitative and quantitative differences in phenolic composition were found among cultivars in both matrices, as well as regarding the transfer rate of phenolic compounds from fruits to oil. The results also varied according to the different phenolic groups evaluated, with secoiridoids registering the highest transfer rates from fruits to oils. Moreover, wide-ranging differences have been noticed between cultivars for the transfer rates of secoiridoids (4.36%–65.63% of total transfer rate and for flavonoids (0.18%–0.67% of total transfer rate. ‘Picual’ was the cultivar that transferred secoiridoids to oil at the highest rate, whereas ‘Changlot Real’ was the cultivar that transferred flavonoids at the highest rates instead. Principal-component analysis confirmed a strong genetic effect on the basis of the phenolic profile both in the olive fruits and in the oils.

  10. From Olive Fruits to Olive Oil: Phenolic Compound Transfer in Six Different Olive Cultivars Grown under the Same Agronomical Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talhaoui, Nassima; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; León, Lorenzo; De la Rosa, Raúl; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic compounds are responsible of the nutritional and sensory quality of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO). The composition of phenolic compounds in EVOO is related to the initial content of phenolic compounds in the olive-fruit tissues and the activity of enzymes acting on these compounds during the industrial process to produce the oil. In this work, the phenolic composition was studied in six major cultivars grown in the same orchard under the same agronomical and environmental conditions in an effort to test the effects of cultivars on phenolic composition in fruits and oils as well as on transfer between matrices. The phenolic fractions were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry. A total of 33 phenolic compounds were determined in the fruit samples and a total of 20 compounds in their corresponding oils. Qualitative and quantitative differences in phenolic composition were found among cultivars in both matrices, as well as regarding the transfer rate of phenolic compounds from fruits to oil. The results also varied according to the different phenolic groups evaluated, with secoiridoids registering the highest transfer rates from fruits to oils. Moreover, wide-ranging differences have been noticed between cultivars for the transfer rates of secoiridoids (4.36%–65.63% of total transfer rate) and for flavonoids (0.18%–0.67% of total transfer rate). ‘Picual’ was the cultivar that transferred secoiridoids to oil at the highest rate, whereas ‘Changlot Real’ was the cultivar that transferred flavonoids at the highest rates instead. Principal-component analysis confirmed a strong genetic effect on the basis of the phenolic profile both in the olive fruits and in the oils. PMID:26959010

  11. Olive oil: an overview of the Japanese market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capogna Daniela

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an overview of olive oil consumption in Japan, Asia’s largest per capita consumer and at present 14th in the world. Since the early 1990s, total purchases have increased from 4943 t in the 1992/93 campaign to 61 903 t in 2014/15, a more than 12-fold increase over the space of 22 years. Olive oil, in particular extra virgin olive oil, is appreciated by Japanese people primarily for its beneficial effects on health, as well as for its agreeable taste and for its cultural and historical associations. Other key factors to be considered are economic and cultural. Japan is one of the world’s largest economies; disposable incomes are high and these are reflected in household consumption behavior. Culturally, the country is increasingly open to the outside world, discovering and adopting practices from elsewhere, notably the West. This openness, allied to the country’s relative affluence, is demonstrated in the consumption of olive oil, a pillar of the Mediterranean Diet.

  12. Virginity dilemma: Re-creating virginity through hymenoplasty in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaivanara, Marzieh

    2016-01-01

    Bridal virginity retains undeniable value in Iran's contemporary cultural landscape. Widely regarded as a sign of chastity and purity for unmarried girls, failure to prove virginity on the wedding night may have serious consequences for a girl. In this context, there has been a recent growth in the rate of hymen restoration surgery (hymenoplasty) due to an increase in the number of girls who engage in premarital sexual relationships. The present study attempts to elucidate the processes through which particular physical features come to be considered culturally meaningful, and explores the phenomenon of hymen-reconstructing surgery from the perspective of young Tehrani girls and boys. Applying anthropological insights into gender roles, I explore how so-called 'rebellious' Iranian girls find - through the surgical reconstruction of their hymen - a means to negotiate between dominant models of gender and their own subjective experiences. While their actions challenge the premarital sex taboo, Iranian girls who participate in hymen restoration surgery also conform to the values that require them to be a virgin at the time of marriage, thus reinforcing existing power relations.

  13. Effects of olive oil and its fractions on oxidative stress and the liver's fatty acid composition in 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid-treated rats

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    Ellouz Meriem

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Olive oil's beneficial effects are not only related to its high content of oleic acid, but also to the antioxidant potential of its polyphenols. In this study, we assess the effects of virgin olive oil and its fractions on 2,4-D- induced oxidative damage in the liver of rats. Methods Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into eight groups of ten each: (C a control group, (D group that received 2,4-D (5 mg/kg b.w., (D/EVOO group treated with 2,4-D plus extra virgin olive oil, (D/OOHF group that received 2,4-D plus hydrophilic fraction, (D/OOLF group treated with 2,4-D plus lipophilic fraction, (EVOO group that received only extra virgin olive oil, (OOHF group given hydrophilic fraction and (OOLF group treated with lipophilic fraction. These components were daily administered by gavage for 4 weeks. Results A significant liver damage was observed in rats treated with 2,4-D via increased serum levels of transaminases and alkaline phosphatase, hepatic lipid peroxidation and decreased hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities, namely, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase. The liver's fatty acid composition was also significantly modified with 2,4-D exposure. However, extra virgin olive oil and hydrophilic fraction intake during 2,4-D treatment induced a significant increase in the antioxidant enzyme activities and a decrease in the conjugated dienes (CD and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARs levels in the liver. The lipophilic fraction supplemented to 2,4-D- treated rats did not show any improvement in the liver oxidative status while a marked improvement was detected in the hepatic fatty acid composition of rats supplemented with olive oil and the two fractions. Conclusion We concluded that the protective effect of olive oil against oxidative damage induced by 2,4-D is mainly related to the antioxidant potential of its hydrophilic fraction.

  14. Characterisation of PDO olive oil Chianti Classico by non-selective (UV-visible, NIR and MIR spectroscopy) and selective (fatty acid composition) analytical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casale, M., E-mail: monica@dictfa.unige.it [Universita degli Studi di Genova, Department of Chemistry and Food and Pharmaceutical Technologies, Via Brigata Salerno 13, I-16147, Genoa (Italy); Oliveri, P.; Casolino, C. [Universita degli Studi di Genova, Department of Chemistry and Food and Pharmaceutical Technologies, Via Brigata Salerno 13, I-16147, Genoa (Italy); Sinelli, N. [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Department of Food Science and Technology, Via Celoria, 2 - I-20133 Milan (Italy); Zunin, P.; Armanino, C.; Forina, M.; Lanteri, S. [Universita degli Studi di Genova, Department of Chemistry and Food and Pharmaceutical Technologies, Via Brigata Salerno 13, I-16147, Genoa (Italy)

    2012-01-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characterisation of the Italian PDO extra virgin olive oil Chianti Classico. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison between non-selective (UV-vis, NIR and MIR spectroscopy) and selective (fatty acid composition) analytical techniques. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synergy among spectroscopic techniques, by the fusion of the respective spectra. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Prediction of the content of oleic and linoleic acids in the olive oils. - Abstract: An authentication study of the Italian PDO (protected designation of origin) extra virgin olive oil Chianti Classico was performed; UV-visible (UV-vis), Near-Infrared (NIR) and Mid-Infrared (MIR) spectroscopies were applied to a set of samples representative of the whole Chianti Classico production area. The non-selective signals (fingerprints) provided by the three spectroscopic techniques were utilised both individually and jointly, after fusion of the respective profile vectors, in order to build a model for the Chianti Classico PDO olive oil. Moreover, these results were compared with those obtained by the gas chromatographic determination of the fatty acids composition. In order to characterise the olive oils produced in the Chianti Classico PDO area, UNEQ (unequal class models) and SIMCA (soft independent modelling of class analogy) were employed both on the MIR, NIR and UV-vis spectra, individually and jointly, and on the fatty acid composition. Finally, PLS (partial least square) regression was applied on the UV-vis, NIR and MIR spectra, in order to predict the content of oleic and linoleic acids in the extra virgin olive oils. UNEQ, SIMCA and PLS were performed after selection of the relevant predictors, in order to increase the efficiency of both classification and regression models. The non-selective information obtained from UV-vis, NIR and MIR spectroscopy allowed to build reliable models for checking the authenticity of the Italian PDO extra virgin olive oil

  15. Olive oil sensory defects classification with data fusion of instrumental techniques and multivariate analysis (PLS-DA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borràs, Eva; Ferré, Joan; Boqué, Ricard; Mestres, Montserrat; Aceña, Laura; Calvo, Angels; Busto, Olga

    2016-07-15

    Three instrumental techniques, headspace-mass spectrometry (HS-MS), mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIR) and UV-visible spectrophotometry (UV-vis), have been combined to classify virgin olive oil samples based on the presence or absence of sensory defects. The reference sensory values were provided by an official taste panel. Different data fusion strategies were studied to improve the discrimination capability compared to using each instrumental technique individually. A general model was applied to discriminate high-quality non-defective olive oils (extra-virgin) and the lowest-quality olive oils considered non-edible (lampante). A specific identification of key off-flavours, such as musty, winey, fusty and rancid, was also studied. The data fusion of the three techniques improved the classification results in most of the cases. Low-level data fusion was the best strategy to discriminate musty, winey and fusty defects, using HS-MS, MIR and UV-vis, and the rancid defect using only HS-MS and MIR. The mid-level data fusion approach using partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) scores was found to be the best strategy for defective vs non-defective and edible vs non-edible oil discrimination. However, the data fusion did not sufficiently improve the results obtained by a single technique (HS-MS) to classify non-defective classes. These results indicate that instrumental data fusion can be useful for the identification of sensory defects in virgin olive oils.

  16. Bioavailability of phenols from a phenol-enriched olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Manuel; Valls, Rosa M; Romero, Maria-Paz; Macià, Alba; Fernández, Sara; Giralt, Montse; Solà, Rosa; Motilva, Maria-José

    2011-12-01

    Phenolic compounds are one of the main reasons behind the healthy properties of virgin olive oil (VOO). However, their daily intake from VOO is low compared with that obtained from other phenolic sources. Therefore, the intake of VOO enriched with its own phenolic compounds could be of interest to increase the daily dose of these beneficial compounds. To evaluate the effectiveness of enrichment on their bioavailability, the concentration of phenolic compounds and their metabolites in human plasma (0, 60, 120, 240 and 300 min) from thirteen healthy volunteers (seven men and six women, aged 25 and 69 years) was determined after the ingestion of a single dose (30 ml) of either enriched virgin olive oil (EVOO) (961·17 mg/kg oil) or control VOO (288·89 mg/kg oil) in a cross-over study. Compared with VOO, EVOO increased plasma concentration of the phenol metabolites, particularly hydroxytyrosol sulphate and vanillin sulphate (P phenols are highly dependent on the individual.

  17. Development of a phenol-enriched olive oil with both its own phenolic compounds and complementary phenols from thyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubió, Laura; Motilva, Maria-José; Macià, Alba; Ramo, Tomás; Romero, Maria-Paz

    2012-03-28

    Besides affecting the oil's sensorial characteristics, the presence of herbs and spices has an impact on the nutritional value of the flavored oils. The aim of the study was to develop a new product based on the phenol-enrichment of a virgin olive oil with both its own phenolic compounds (secoiridoid derivatives) plus additional complementary phenols from thyme (flavonoids). We studied the effect of the addition of phenolic extracts (olive cake and thyme) on phenolic composition, oxidative stability, antioxidant activity, and bitter sensory attribute of olive oils. Results showed that flavonoids from thyme appeared to have higher transference ratios (average 89.7%) from the phenolic extract to oil, whereas secoiridoids from olive presented lower transference ratios (average 35.3%). The bitter sensory attribute of the phenol-enriched oils diminished with an increase of the concentration of phenols from thyme, which might denote an improvement in the consumer acceptance.

  18. Prediction of olive oil sensory descriptors using instrumental data fusion and partial least squares (PLS) regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borràs, Eva; Ferré, Joan; Boqué, Ricard; Mestres, Montserrat; Aceña, Laura; Calvo, Angels; Busto, Olga

    2016-08-01

    Headspace-Mass Spectrometry (HS-MS), Fourier Transform Mid-Infrared spectroscopy (FT-MIR) and UV-Visible spectrophotometry (UV-vis) instrumental responses have been combined to predict virgin olive oil sensory descriptors. 343 olive oil samples analyzed during four consecutive harvests (2010-2014) were used to build multivariate calibration models using partial least squares (PLS) regression. The reference values of the sensory attributes were provided by expert assessors from an official taste panel. The instrumental data were modeled individually and also using data fusion approaches. The use of fused data with both low- and mid-level of abstraction improved PLS predictions for all the olive oil descriptors. The best PLS models were obtained for two positive attributes (fruity and bitter) and two defective descriptors (fusty and musty), all of them using data fusion of MS and MIR spectral fingerprints. Although good predictions were not obtained for some sensory descriptors, the results are encouraging, specially considering that the legal categorization of virgin olive oils only requires the determination of fruity and defective descriptors.

  19. In situ evaluation of the fruit and oil characteristics of the main Lebanese olive germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chehade, Ali; Bitar, Ahmad El; Kadri, Aline; Choueiri, Elia; Nabbout, Rania; Youssef, Hiyam; Smeha, Maha; Awada, Ali; Chami, Ziad Al; Dubla, Eustachio; Trani, Antonio; Mondelli, Donato; Famiani, Franco

    2016-05-01

    Very little information is available on the characteristics of the Lebanese olive germplasm. Therefore, the aim of this work was to evaluate the fruit and oil characteristics of the main Lebanese olive varieties (Aayrouni, Abou chawkeh, Baladi, Del and Soury) from two successive crop seasons (2010-2011). All of the genotypes had medium-high oil content in the fruit, indicating their suitability for oil production; Aayrouni had particularly high values. The variety Abou chawkeh also had a high pulp/pit ratio, which is a very desirable trait in table olives. For all the varieties the values of free fatty acids, peroxide values, absorbances in ultraviolet, fatty acid composition, sterol content and composition and erythrodiol + uvaol content of the oils were within the requirements of the International Olive Council's Trade Standard for extra virgin olive oil. The only exception was for the values of Δ-7-stigmastenol in 2011 in Soury and, especially, in Baladi, which were higher than 0.5%. In some cases, stearic and arachidic acids fluctuated around the maximum values allowed. The findings of this study provide a first picture of the main characteristics of olives and oils currently produced in Lebanon. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Direct classification of olive oils by using two types of ion mobility spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrido-Delgado, Rocio [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Cordoba, Annex C3 Building, Campus of Rabanales, E-14071 Cordoba (Spain); Mercader-Trejo, Flora [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Cordoba, Annex C3 Building, Campus of Rabanales, E-14071 Cordoba (Spain); Metrologia de Materiales, Centro Nacional de Metrologia, km. 4.5 Carretera a Los Cues, El Marques, Queretaro (Mexico); Sielemann, Stefanie; Bruyn, Wolfgang de [G.A.S. Gesellschaft fuer analytische Sensorsysteme mbH, BioMedizinZentrumDortmund, Otto-Hahn-Str. 15, 44227 Dortmund (Germany); Arce, Lourdes [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Cordoba, Annex C3 Building, Campus of Rabanales, E-14071 Cordoba (Spain); Valcarcel, Miguel, E-mail: qa1meobj@uco.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Cordoba, Annex C3 Building, Campus of Rabanales, E-14071 Cordoba (Spain)

    2011-06-24

    Graphical abstract: Highlights: > We explore the use of Ion Mobility Spectrometers for classification of olive oils. > Three types of olive oils were analyzed with both devices coupled to headspace system. > The ion mobility data were processed using chemometric to obtain global information. > The classification rate was better using tritium source and separation step prior IMS. - Abstract: In this work, we explored the use of an Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) device with an ultraviolet (UV) source, and of a Gas Chromatographic (GC) column coupled to an IM Spectrometer with a tritium source, for the discrimination of three grades of olive oil, namely: extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), olive oil (OO) and pomace olive oil (POO). The three types of oil were analyzed with both equipment combinations as coupled to a headspace system and the obtained ion mobility data were consecutively processed with various chemometric tools. The classification rate for an independent validation set was 86.1% (confidence interval at 95% [83.4%, 88.5%]) with an UV-IMS and 100% (confidence interval at 95% [87%, 100%]) using a GC-IMS system. The classification rate was improved by using a more suitable ionization source and a pre-separation step prior to the IM analysis.

  1. Identification of olive oil sensory defects by multivariate analysis of mid infrared spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borràs, Eva; Mestres, Montserrat; Aceña, Laura; Busto, Olga; Ferré, Joan; Boqué, Ricard; Calvo, Angels

    2015-11-15

    Mid-infrared (MIR) spectra (4000-600 cm(-1)) of olive oils were analyzed using chemometric methods to identify the four main sensorial defects, musty, winey, fusty and rancid, previously evaluated by an expert sensory panel. Classification models were developed using partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) to distinguish between extra-virgin olive oils (defect absent) and lower quality olive oils (defect present). The most important spectral ranges responsible for the discrimination were identified. PLS-DA models were able to discriminate between defective and high quality oils with predictive abilities around 87% for the musty defect and around 77% for winey, fusty and rancid defects. This methodology advances instrumental determination of results previously only achievable with a human test panel.

  2. Kinetic study of olive oil degradation monitored by fourier transform infrared spectrometry. Application to oil characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román Falcó, Iván P; Grané Teruel, Nuria; Prats Moya, Soledad; Martín Carratalá, M Luisa

    2012-11-28

    A new approach for the determination of kinetic parameters of the cis/trans isomerization during the oxidation process of 24 virgin olive oils belonging to 8 different varieties is presented. The accelerated process of degradation at 100 °C was monitored by recording the Fourier transform infrared spectra. The parameters obtained confirm pseudo-first-order kinetics for the degradation of cis and the appearance of trans double bonds. The kinetic approach affords the induction time and the rate coefficient; these parameters are related to the fatty acid profile of the fresh olive oils. The data obtained were used to compare the oil stability of the samples with the help of multivariate statistical techniques. Fatty acid allowed a classification of the samples in five groups, one of them constituted by the cultivars with higher stability. Meanwhile, the kinetic parameters showed greater ability for the characterization of olive oils, allowing the classification in seven groups.

  3. Application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and neural networks to olive oils analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caceres, Jorge O; Moncayo, Samuel; Rosales, Juan D; de Villena, Francisco Javier Manuel; Alvira, Fernando C; Bilmes, Gabriel M

    2013-09-01

    The adulteration and traceability of olive oils are serious problems in the olive oil industry. In this work, a method based on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and neural networks (NNs) has been developed and applied to the identification, quality control, traceability, and adulteration detection of extra virgin olive oils. Instant identification of the samples is achieved using a spectral library, which was obtained by analysis of representative samples using a single laser pulse and treatment by NNs. The samples used in this study belong to four countries. The study also included different regions of each country. The results obtained allow the identification of the oils tested with a certainty of more than 95%. Single-shot measurements were enough for clear identification of the samples. The method can be developed for automatic real-time, fast, reliable, and robust measurements, and the system can be packed into portable form for non-specialist users.

  4. Cardiovascular risk protection from the Mediterranean diet and olive oil. A transcriptomic update in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Carrión

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This review highlights the human studies that explore the benefits of the Mediterranean diet and olive oil, based on gene expression analysis. We summarized consistent human transcriptomic studies on cardiovascular risk, based on TMD and olive oil interventions, with real life doses and conditions. A literature review was carried out leading up to February 2016. The results show that the TMD, specially supplemented with virgin olive oil, produces beneficial changes in the transcriptomic response of relevant genes in cardiovascular risk such as CAT, GPX1 and SIRT2. p65 and MCP-1, IL1B, IL6, CXCL1, INF-γ, ARHGAP15 and IL7R, which are involved in inflammation; and ABCA1, SR-B1, PPARBP, PPARα, PPARγ, PPARδ, CD-36 and COX-1, which play an important role in cholesterol efflux. The available data illustrate a transcriptomic effect on atherosclerosis, inflammation and oxidative stress pathways as well as the mentioned genes.

  5. Chemometrics Methods for Specificity, Authenticity and Traceability Analysis of Olive Oils: Principles, Classifications and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messai, Habib; Farman, Muhammad; Sarraj-Laabidi, Abir; Hammami-Semmar, Asma; Semmar, Nabil

    2016-01-01

    Background. Olive oils (OOs) show high chemical variability due to several factors of genetic, environmental and anthropic types. Genetic and environmental factors are responsible for natural compositions and polymorphic diversification resulting in different varietal patterns and phenotypes. Anthropic factors, however, are at the origin of different blends’ preparation leading to normative, labelled or adulterated commercial products. Control of complex OO samples requires their (i) characterization by specific markers; (ii) authentication by fingerprint patterns; and (iii) monitoring by traceability analysis. Methods. These quality control and management aims require the use of several multivariate statistical tools: specificity highlighting requires ordination methods; authentication checking calls for classification and pattern recognition methods; traceability analysis implies the use of network-based approaches able to separate or extract mixed information and memorized signals from complex matrices. Results. This chapter presents a review of different chemometrics methods applied for the control of OO variability from metabolic and physical-chemical measured characteristics. The different chemometrics methods are illustrated by different study cases on monovarietal and blended OO originated from different countries. Conclusion. Chemometrics tools offer multiple ways for quantitative evaluations and qualitative control of complex chemical variability of OO in relation to several intrinsic and extrinsic factors. PMID:28231172

  6. Characterisation of PDO olive oil Chianti Classico by non-selective (UV-visible, NIR and MIR spectroscopy) and selective (fatty acid composition) analytical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casale, M; Oliveri, P; Casolino, C; Sinelli, N; Zunin, P; Armanino, C; Forina, M; Lanteri, S

    2012-01-27

    An authentication study of the Italian PDO (protected designation of origin) extra virgin olive oil Chianti Classico was performed; UV-visible (UV-vis), Near-Infrared (NIR) and Mid-Infrared (MIR) spectroscopies were applied to a set of samples representative of the whole Chianti Classico production area. The non-selective signals (fingerprints) provided by the three spectroscopic techniques were utilised both individually and jointly, after fusion of the respective profile vectors, in order to build a model for the Chianti Classico PDO olive oil. Moreover, these results were compared with those obtained by the gas chromatographic determination of the fatty acids composition. In order to characterise the olive oils produced in the Chianti Classico PDO area, UNEQ (unequal class models) and SIMCA (soft independent modelling of class analogy) were employed both on the MIR, NIR and UV-vis spectra, individually and jointly, and on the fatty acid composition. Finally, PLS (partial least square) regression was applied on the UV-vis, NIR and MIR spectra, in order to predict the content of oleic and linoleic acids in the extra virgin olive oils. UNEQ, SIMCA and PLS were performed after selection of the relevant predictors, in order to increase the efficiency of both classification and regression models. The non-selective information obtained from UV-vis, NIR and MIR spectroscopy allowed to build reliable models for checking the authenticity of the Italian PDO extra virgin olive oil Chianti Classico. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Analytical characteristics of olive oils produced by two different extraction techniques, in Portuguese olive variety 'Galega Vulgar'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaz-Freire, Luís

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A metal hammer-decanter (HD olive processing line was compared to a traditional metal hammer-press (HP line, a discontinuous method which, when properly used, yields high-quality virgin olive oils. Galega olives (traditional Portuguese variety were used. Olives were picked at a predetermined maturation stage and plagues and oil content were evaluated before processing. Years, extraction technology, data replicates, and years*extraction, were taken into account and compared using statistical treatment. In spite of significant differences among the results obtained, only acidity was statistically significant and sufficient for classifying the produced olive oil into a lampante category.Se han comparado dos líneas de procesamiento de aceite, utilizando un sistema de prensas (SP o un decantador centrífugo (DC. El procesamiento que recurre al sistema de prensas es un sistema discontinuo que, sin embargo permite obtener aceites vírgenes de gran calidad. Para este estudio se ha utilizado la variedad Portuguesa Galega común. Las aceitunas fueron tratadas contra el ataque de plagas, y recogidas en un punto de maduración predeterminado. Del mismo modo, se evaluó el porcentaje de aceite obtenido de la cosecha. Se han considerado los resultados analíticos teniendo en cuenta la determinación de la influencia de la extracción en el producto final. Este punto ha sido evaluado por medio de un tratamiento estadístico. Aunque se han observado diferencias significativas entre los resultados de algunos de los parámetros analizados, sólo las diferencias verificadas en el grado de acidez son susceptibles de modificar la clasificación final del aceite, situándolo en la categoría lampante.

  8. Independent components analysis coupled with 3D-front-face fluorescence spectroscopy to study the interaction between plastic food packaging and olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassouf, Amine; El Rakwe, Maria; Chebib, Hanna; Ducruet, Violette; Rutledge, Douglas N; Maalouly, Jacqueline

    2014-08-11

    Olive oil is one of the most valued sources of fats in the Mediterranean diet. Its storage was generally done using glass or metallic packaging materials. Nowadays, plastic packaging has gained worldwide spread for the storage of olive oil. However, plastics are not inert and interaction phenomena may occur between packaging materials and olive oil. In this study, extra virgin olive oil samples were submitted to accelerated interaction conditions, in contact with polypropylene (PP) and polylactide (PLA) plastic packaging materials. 3D-front-face fluorescence spectroscopy, being a simple, fast and non destructive analytical technique, was used to study this interaction. Independent components analysis (ICA) was used to analyze raw 3D-front-face fluorescence spectra of olive oil. ICA was able to highlight a probable effect of a migration of substances with antioxidant activity. The signals extracted by ICA corresponded to natural olive oil fluorophores (tocopherols and polyphenols) as well as newly formed ones which were tentatively identified as fluorescent oxidation products. Based on the extracted fluorescent signals, olive oil in contact with plastics had slower aging rates in comparison with reference oils. Peroxide and free acidity values validated the results obtained by ICA, related to olive oil oxidation rates. Sorbed olive oil in plastic was also quantified given that this sorption could induce a swelling of the polymer thus promoting migration.

  9. Digestion and absorption of olive oil

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    Muriana, Francisco J.G.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil is a monounsaturated (oleic acid-rich fat, mainly constituted by triglycerides (>98 % and minor compounds. As other macronutrients, dietary triglyceride digestion and absorption are a complex processes involving enzyme activities and physicochemical changes. In humans, hydrolysis of olive oil triglycerides begins in the stomach where it is catalyzed by an acid-stable gastric lipase. Triglyceride hydrolysis continues in the duodenum, by the synergetic actions of gastric and colipase-dependent pancreatic lipases and bile secretion. Gastric lipolysis leads to the hydrolysis of 10-30 % of ingested triglycerides, generating mainly diglycerides (DG and free fatty acids. This facilitates subsequent triglyceride hydrolysis by pancreatic lipase by allowing fat emulsification. Pancreatic lipase cleaves the sn-1 and sn-3 positions of triglycerides and/or DG obtaining sn-2 monoglycerides. Different lipid metabolites are quickly absorbed along the epithelial cells of the small intestine, acting olive oil as a supplier of oleic-acid-rich hydrocarbon skeletons for cellular synthesis of triglycerides and phospholipids. Absorption of mostly minor compounds of (extra virgin olive oil takes place in the small intestine, as native or derivatives. Compared to diets rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, olive oil suppresses gastric acid secretion and is a potent releasing factor of cholecystokinin peptide, which consistently indicate that the consumption of olive oil might be beneficial in digestive diseases.El aceite de oliva es una grasa monoinsaturada (rica en ácido oleico, compuesta por triglicéridos (>98% y componentes menores. En los procesos de digestión y absorción de los triglicéridos participan enzimas y se producen cambios fisicoquímicos. La lipasa gástrica es el componente mayoritario de la actividad lipolítica gástrica en humanos. La hidrólisis de los triglicéridos continúa en el duodeno, por la acción sinérgica de las lipasas g

  10. Olive oil and pomace olive oil processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siragakis, George

    2006-03-01