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Sample records for monovalent measles vaccine

  1. [Safety and tolerability of monovalent measles and combined measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentzer, D; Meyer, H; Keller-Stanislawski, B

    2013-09-01

    Although effective monovalent and combined measles vaccines have been available for several decades in Germany, measles outbreaks continue to occur leading to severe cases of measles and even death. Possible reasons for the low acceptance of the measles vaccination are concerns about adverse events and serious complications following vaccination. In this report, we have summarized and assessed all adverse events reported in Germany from 2001 to 2012 after vaccination with monovalent- and combined measles-containing vaccines. A total of 1,696 suspected adverse reaction reports describing 5,297 adverse events were sent to the Paul Ehrlich Institute (PEI) between 1 January 2001 and 31 December 2012. The calculated mean reporting rate was 5.7 reports per 100,000 vaccine doses released by the PEI. Analysis of the reports indicates that measles-containing vaccines are well tolerated with a constantly low rate of adverse events reported. Compared to the high rate of serious complications following wild-type measles infection, the benefit of measles-containing vaccines clearly outweighs the anticipated risks of adverse events.

  2. Measles and Measles Vaccination: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bester, Johan Christiaan

    2016-12-01

    Measles is a highly communicable viral infection with serious complications. There have been continued outbreaks of measles in countries in which measles is considered to be eliminated, such as the United States and the Netherlands, and measles remains endemic in some countries. Health care professionals play an important role in diagnosing and managing acute cases of measles, preventing spread during outbreaks, and vaccination uptake. To provide an overview of measles and vaccination for health care professionals. MEDLINE and PubMed were searched from January 1, 1980, to April 30, 2016, in addition to the data repositories of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and World Health Organization. Seven systematic reviews, 15 reviews, 15 observational studies, 1 qualitative study, 5 epidemiologic reports, and 2 books were included, in addition to World Health Organization and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention data, position papers, and statements. Transmission of measles is dependent on person-to-person spread through respiratory droplets or direct contact. Diagnosis is based on recognizing the clinical picture and can be confirmed with results of laboratory testing, such as serologic tests or polymerase chain reaction. Measles infection leads to immune suppression for weeks to months. Complications of measles are of high frequency and severity. There is no specific antiviral treatment for measles; treatment with vitamin A is recommended for younger children to decrease mortality from measles. Vaccination against measles is effective, cost-effective, and safe. There is no link between the measles vaccination and autism. Measles can be eliminated from a population; this outcome requires coverage with 2 doses of vaccine at rates of 93% to 95% of the population. Countries with high rates of measles vaccination experience outbreaks by virtue of imported cases causing transmission through susceptible groups of individuals who are not immune to the measles

  3. MMR Vaccine (Measles, Mumps, and Rubella)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attenuvax® Measles Vaccine ... R-Vax® II (as a combination product containing Measles Vaccine, Rubella Vaccine) ... M-R® II (as a combination product containing Measles Vaccine, Mumps Vaccine, Rubella Vaccine)

  4. Measles 50 Years After Use of Measles Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodson, James L; Seward, Jane F

    2015-12-01

    In response to severe measles, the first measles vaccine was licensed in the United States in 1963. Widespread use of measles vaccines for more than 50 years has significantly reduced global measles morbidity and mortality. However, measles virus continues to circulate, causing infection, illness, and an estimated 400 deaths worldwide each day. Measles is preventable by vaccine, and humans are the only reservoir. Clinicians should promote and provide on-time vaccination for all patients and keep measles in their differential diagnosis of febrile rash illness for rapid case detection, confirmation of measles infection, isolation, treatment, and appropriate public health response.

  5. Immune Response After Measles Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhardwaj A.K

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Measles immunization of 192 under 5 years of age children was undertaken and the overall seroconversion was 76.0%. Seroconversion rate in the age group of 9-12 months was 70.9% and it was 100% after one year. Immune response in malnourished children was more as compared to normal children. There were negligible side reactions after measles vaccination, and this vaccine passed normal potency tests under field conditions.

  6. 9 CFR 113.313 - Measles Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Vaccines § 113.313 Measles Vaccine. Measles Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Measles Vaccine. 113.313 Section 113.313 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  7. Is early measles vaccination better than later measles vaccination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaby, Peter; Martins, Cesário L; Ravn, Henrik; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Whittle, Hilton C; Benn, Christine S

    2015-01-01

    WHO recommends delaying measles vaccination (MV) until maternal antibody has waned. However, early MV may improve child survival by reducing mortality from conditions other than measles infection. We tested whether early MV improves child survival compared with later MV. We found 43 studies comparing measles-vaccinated and measles-unvaccinated children; however, only 16 studies had specific information that MV had been provided at 4-13 months of age, many before 9 months of age. In the 10 best studies (4 randomized trials and 6 observational studies) control children did not receive MV during follow-up. In eight of these studies the vaccine efficacy against death (VED) was 60% or more. In four studies with information on MV provided both before and after 12 months of age, the all-cause mortality reduction was significantly larger for children vaccinated in infancy (VED=74%; 95% CI 51-86%) than for children vaccinated after 12 months of age (VED=29%; CI 8-46%). Prevention of measles explained little of the reduction in mortality. In five studies with information on measles infection, VED was 67% (51-78%) and when measles deaths were excluded, VED was only reduced to 65% (47-77%). One natural experiment compared MV at 4-8 months versus MV at 9-11 months of age and found significantly lower all-cause mortality with early vaccination, the difference being 39% (8-60%). Child mortality may be reduced if MV is given earlier than currently recommended by international organizations.

  8. EXPERIMENTAL MEASLES VACCINES: A RESEARCH TOOL IN VACCINATION EVENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Liashenko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The review article considers different variants of measles vaccine that may be classified into two groups, i.e., vaccines that do not contain viable measles virus, and attenuated measles vaccines which could be employed in unusual manner.The first group includes DNA-vaccines, recombinant vaccine strains encoding synthesis of measles hemagglutinin and fusion protein, as well as peptide vaccines containing molecular fragments of these proteins. The mentioned variants of vaccines were effective in animal experiments, but they have not been tested in humans. The second group includes live attenuated mucosal measles vaccins applied in combination with immunomodulator(s, as aerosol and intranasally. Efficiency of these vaccines was tested and confirmed by immunization of children and adults. Mucosal measles vaccine induces local production of IgA measles antibodies, along with induced synthesis of circulating IgM and IgG antibodies against measles. The latter experimental variant could be a live attenuated measles vaccine containing some immunity-modulating agent. Elaboration of these variant was based on the known data about transient immunosuppressive activity of measles vaccine. An appropriate experimental variant represents a mixture of attenuated measles vaccine and synthetic immunomodulating agent (MP-2 peptide which protects T-lymphocytes from inhibitory effect of the measles virus. In present revue, some data are presented concerning the mechanisms of immunogenic activity and adverse effects of measles vaccines.

  9. Multicenter Safety and Immunogenicity Trial of an Attenuated Measles Vaccine for NHP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Joann L; McChesney, Michael B; Christe, Kari L

    2015-10-01

    Measles is a highly contagious viral disease in NHP. The infection can range from asymptomatic to rapidly fatal, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality in captive populations. In addition to appropriate quarantine practices, restricted access, the immunization of all personnel in contact with NHP, and the wearing of protective clothing including face masks, measles immunization further reduces the infection risk. Commercially available measles vaccines are effective for use in NHP, but interruptions in their availability have prevented the implementation of ongoing, consistent vaccination programs. This need for a readily available vaccine led us to perform a broad, multicenter safety and immunogenicity study of another candidate vaccine, MVac (Serum Institute of India), a monovalent measles vaccine derived from live Edmonston-Zagreb strain virus that had been attenuated after 22 passages on human diploid cells.

  10. [Optimal age for vaccination against measles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    José, M V; Kumate, J

    1989-01-01

    A review of the general aspects of the transmission dynamics of measles is presented. Similarities and differences in the patterns of transmission of measles in developed and developing countries are pointed out. Epidemiological, demographic and nutritional variables relevant to the design of an immunization program are briefly discussed. Since there is no cohort in developing countries in which most individuals are susceptible, it is concluded that there is no single optimum age at which to vaccinate against measles. Finally, a simple method based upon case notification records, for calculating the force and average age of infection as well as the optimum age for vaccination against measles is illustrated.

  11. Measles vaccination in children with neurological disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Kaplina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The data on the current vaccination process and specific antibody in 212 children with pathology of nervous systems in age from 1 year to 6 years old, vaccinated against measles. The comparison group consisted of 36 children without neurological disease. 86 children (40,6% were vaccinated measles – mumps vaccine, and 126 children (59,4% only measles vaccine. Post-vaccination period in 77,8% immunized against measles, was uneventful, layering intercurrent infections was noted in 22,2% of vaccine’s, and demonstrated the development of viral respiratory infections, bronchitis, otitis media and exacerbation of underlying disease. It is shown that the level of specific antibody to measles in children with pathology of nervous systems at 30 days after vaccination was 5,04±0,16 log 2, which did not differ from the comparison group (5,88±0,31 log 2. No significant differences in the level of antibody in a smooth and complicated course of vaccination period were found. Immunization of children with disorders of the nervous system of live vaccines is quite effective and leads to the formation of protective antibody titers in all vaccinated.

  12. Low titers of measles antibody in mothers whose infants suffered from measles before eligible age for measles vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Qiaozhen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Resurgence or outbreak of measles recently occurred in both developed and developing countries despite long-standing widespread use of measles vaccine. Measles incidence in China has increased since 2002, particularly in infants and in persons ≥ 15 years of age. It is speculated that infants may acquire fewer measles IgG from their mothers, resulting in the reduced duration of protection during their early months of life. This study aimed to clarify the reason of increased susceptibility to measles in young infants in China. Measles IgG in 24 measles infants ≤ 9 months of age and their vaccinated mothers was quantitatively measured. The mean measles neutralizing titer in the vaccinated mothers and in 13 age-match women with the histories of clinical measles were compared. Results All the mothers were confirmed to be vaccinated successfully by the presence of measles IgG. Six vaccinated mothers were positive for measles IgM and had high concentrations of measles IgG and the neutralizing antibody, indicating underwent natural boosting. The mean measles neutralizing titer in 18 vaccinated mothers without natural boosting were significantly lower than that in 13 age-match women with the histories of clinical measles (1:37 vs 1:182, P Conclusions Our results suggest that infants born to mothers who acquired immunity to measles by vaccination may get a relatively small amount of measles antibody, resulting in loss of the immunity to measles before the vaccination age. Measures to improve the immunity in young infants not eligible for measles vaccination would be critical to interrupt the measles transmission in China.

  13. Measles and measles vaccination in an African village*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, David C.; Woodland, Margaret; Krugman, Saul; Friedman, Harriet; Grab, Bernard

    1964-01-01

    Over the last five years, a number of reports have appeared drawing attention to the serious results of measles in young West African children. This is borne out by observations over a three-year period on children in the village of Imesi, which showed measles to be a severe and often fatal disease. The original live attenuated measles vaccine developed by Enders has been shown to give good protection and, in combination with immune serum, has been widely used in the USA. However, the need to combine it with immune serum severely limits its usefulness, owing to the small quantities of serum available and the high cost. In the present study, the reaction produced by the original vaccine with immune serum was compared with the reaction produced by a further attenuated vaccine without serum. The latter gave significantly fewer and less severe reactions, but produced a satisfactory serological response. This new vaccine should facilitate large-scale immunization of children in areas such as West Africa where protection against measles is urgently required. PMID:14196817

  14. Factors Influencing University Nursing Students' Measles Vaccination Rate During a Community Measles Outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Soo Kim, RN, PhD

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: A systematic measles vaccination program targeting nursing students upon their entry to university is needed. In order to increase the measles vaccination rate, application of effective promotion campaigns and education programs is necessary.

  15. NLM Grantee's "HealthMap" Helps Uncover Measles Vaccination Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... courtesy of NLM NLM Grantee's "HealthMap" Helps Uncover Measles Vaccination Gap Inadequate vaccine coverage is likely a driving force behind the ongoing Disneyland measles outbreak, according to calculations by a research team ...

  16. Measles vaccination using a microneedle patch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edens, Chris; Collins, Marcus L; Ayers, Jessica; Rota, Paul A; Prausnitz, Mark R

    2013-07-25

    Measles vaccination programs would benefit from delivery methods that decrease cost, simplify logistics, and increase safety. Conventional subcutaneous injection is limited by the need for skilled healthcare professionals to reconstitute and administer injections, and by the need for safe needle handling and disposal to reduce the risk of disease transmission through needle re-use and needlestick injury. Microneedles are micron-scale, solid needles coated with a dry formulation of vaccine that dissolves in the skin within minutes after patch application. By avoiding the use of hypodermic needles, vaccination using a microneedle patch could be carried out by minimally trained personnel with reduced risk of blood-borne disease transmission. The goal of this study was to evaluate measles vaccination using a microneedle patch to address some of the limitations of subcutaneous injection. Viability of vaccine virus dried onto a microneedle patch was stabilized by incorporation of the sugar, trehalose, and loss of viral titer was less than 1 log10(TCID50) after storage for at least 30 days at room temperature. Microneedle patches were then used to immunize cotton rats with the Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine strain. Vaccination using microneedles at doses equaling the standard human dose or one-fifth the human dose generated neutralizing antibody levels equivalent to those of a subcutaneous immunization at the same dose. These results show that measles vaccine can be stabilized on microneedles and that vaccine efficiently reconstitutes in vivo to generate a neutralizing antibody response equivalent to that generated by subcutaneous injection.

  17. Policy statement—Prevention of varicella: update of recommendations for use of quadrivalent and monovalent varicella vaccines in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Two varicella-containing vaccines are licensed for use in the United States: monovalent varicella vaccine (Varivax [Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA]) and quadrivalent measles-mumps-rubella-varicella vaccine (MMRV) (ProQuad [Merck & Co, Inc]). It is estimated from postlicensure data that after vaccination at 12 through 23 months of age, 7 to 9 febrile seizures occur per 10,000 children who receive the MMRV, and 3 to 4 febrile seizures occur per 10,000 children who receive the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) and varicella vaccines administered concurrently but at separate sites. Thus, 1 additional febrile seizure is expected to occur per approximately 2300 to 2600 children 12 to 23 months old vaccinated with the MMRV, when compared with separate MMR and varicella vaccine administration. The period of risk for febrile seizures is from 5 through 12 days after receipt of the vaccine(s). No increased risk of febrile seizures is seen among patients 4 to 6 years of age receiving MMRV. Febrile seizures do not predispose to epilepsy or neurodevelopmental delays later in life and are not associated with long-term health impairment. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that either MMR and varicella vaccines separately or the MMRV be used for the first dose of measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccines administered at 12 through 47 months of age. For the first dose of measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccines administered at ages 48 months and older, and for dose 2 at any age (15 months to 12 years), use of MMRV generally is preferred over separate injections of MMR and varicella vaccines.

  18. Measles vaccination and prevention in big cities in China

    OpenAIRE

    Meina, Li; Xiaodong, Liu; Lulu, Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Despite the tremendous progress in controlling measles in China, there was measles outbreak in Beijing which was a result of cluster of unvaccinated people or people failure to vaccinate. In order to accelerate measles control efforts and achieve and high levels of measles immunity, it is helpful to implement more targeted management strategy.

  19. Measles in the United Kingdom 1990-2008 and the effectiveness of measles vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jick, Hershel; Hagberg, Katrina Wilcox

    2010-06-23

    We identified all children in the UK General Practice Research Database diagnosed with measles from 1990 to 2008 and calculated annual incidence according to age and geographic region by dividing the number of cases per year by the number of children who were active in the population. We evaluated the effectiveness of the measles vaccines by comparing the vaccination histories of children who were diagnosed with measles (cases) to children who were not (controls). The annual incidence of measles fell after the introduction of the MMR vaccine in late 1988. However, a modest outbreak of measles occurred in 1994, leading to large nationwide programs to immunize children. Since 1996, the incidence of measles has fallen by more than 80%. Prior measles vaccination is highly effective and has substantially reduced the risk of measles.

  20. MMR (measles, mumps, and rubella) vaccine - what you need to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... taken in its entirety from the CDC MMR (Measles, Mumps, & Rubella) Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc. ... Why get vaccinated? Measles, mumps, and rubella are serious ... common, especially among children. Measles Measles virus causes ...

  1. Acute measles encephalitis in partially vaccinated adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Fox

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of acute measles encephalitis (AME is poorly understood. Treatment with immune-modulators is based on theories that post-infectious autoimmune responses cause demyelination. The clinical course and immunological parameters of AME were examined during an outbreak in Vietnam. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Fifteen measles IgM-positive patients with confusion or Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS score below 13, and thirteen with uncomplicated measles were enrolled from 2008-2010. Standardized clinical exams were performed and blood collected for lymphocyte and measles- and auto-antibody analysis. The median age of AME patients was 21 years, similar to controls. Eleven reported receiving measles vaccination when aged one year. Confusion developed a median of 4 days after rash. Six patients had GCS <8 and four required mechanical ventilation. CSF showed pleocytosis (64% and proteinorrhachia (71% but measles virus RNA was not detected. MRI revealed bilateral lesions in the cerebellum and brain stem in some patients. Most received dexamethasone +/- IVIG within 4 days of admission but symptoms persisted for ≥3 weeks in five. The concentration of voltage gated calcium channel-complex-reactive antibodies was 900 pM in one patient, and declined to 609 pM ∼ 3 months later. Measles-reactive IgG antibody avidity was high in AME patients born after vaccine coverage exceeded 50% (∼ 25 years earlier. AME patients had low CD4 (218/µl, p = 0.029 and CD8 (200/µl, p = 0.012 T-cell counts compared to controls. CONCLUSION: Young adults presenting with AME in Vietnam reported a history of one prior measles immunization, and those aged <25 years had high measles-reactive IgG avidity indicative of prior vaccination. This suggests that one-dose measles immunization is not sufficient to prevent AME in young adults and reinforces the importance of maintaining high coverage with a two-dose measles immunization schedule. Treatment with

  2. A general measles vaccination campaign in urban Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byberg, S.; Thysen, Sanne Marie; Rodrigues, A

    2017-01-01

    Background Measles vaccination campaigns targeting children aged 9–59 months are conducted every three years in Guinea-Bissau. Studies have demonstrated beneficial non-specific effects of measles vaccine. We compared mortality one year after the December 2012 measles vaccination campaign in Bissau...... city for children who received campaign measles vaccine with children who did not receive campaign measles vaccine. Methods Field workers from Bandim Health Project registered all children living in the Bandim Health Project's study area who received measles vaccination at the campaign posts. Children...... not seen during the campaign were visited at home and campaign participation status was assessed. We compared mortality rates of participants vs. non-participants in Cox regression models. Results 5633 children aged 9–59 months (85%) received campaign measles vaccination and 1006 (15%) did not. During...

  3. [Measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine. Resurgence of measles in Europe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcés-Sánchez, María; Renales-Toboso, María; Bóveda-García, María; Díez-Domingo, Javier

    2015-12-01

    Measles is a rash illness of moderate severity and high risk of serious complications, with recovery in several weeks. It is a viral disease caused by one of the most infectious and contagious pathogens that exists, whose only known reservoir is human. In 1998, the European Region of the WHO set a target of eliminating measles by 2010. This goal has not been achieved. Furthermore, it has been observed the resurgence of the disease in some parts of Europe. We review the disease and its vaccines as well as the epidemiological and social factors that have so far prevented the total control of the disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  4. Genetic characterization of measles vaccine strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankamp, Bettina; Takeda, Makoto; Zhang, Yan; Xu, Wenbo; Rota, Paul A

    2011-07-01

    The complete genomic sequences of 9 measles vaccine strains were compared with the sequence of the Edmonston wild-type virus. AIK-C, Moraten, Rubeovax, Schwarz, and Zagreb are vaccine strains of the Edmonston lineage, whereas CAM-70, Changchun-47, Leningrad-4 and Shanghai-191 were derived from 4 different wild-type isolates. Nucleotide substitutions were found in the noncoding regions of the genomes as well as in all coding regions, leading to deduced amino acid substitutions in all 8 viral proteins. Although the precise mechanisms involved in the attenuation of individual measles vaccines remain to be elucidated, in vitro assays of viral protein functions and recombinant viruses with defined genetic modifications have been used to characterize the differences between vaccine and wild-type strains. Although almost every protein contributes to an attenuated phenotype, substitutions affecting host cell tropism, virus assembly, and the ability to inhibit cellular antiviral defense mechanisms play an especially important role in attenuation.

  5. Low titers of measles antibody in mothers whose infants suffered from measles before eligible age for measles vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Wu Qiaozhen; Hu Yali; Lu Pei-Shan; Zhao Hong; Yao Wenhu; Zhou Yi-Hua

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Resurgence or outbreak of measles recently occurred in both developed and developing countries despite long-standing widespread use of measles vaccine. Measles incidence in China has increased since 2002, particularly in infants and in persons ≥ 15 years of age. It is speculated that infants may acquire fewer measles IgG from their mothers, resulting in the reduced duration of protection during their early months of life. This study aimed to clarify the reason of increased...

  6. MMRV (measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella) vaccine - what you need to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... taken in its entirety from the CDC MMRV (Measles, Mumps, Rubell and Varicella) Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): ... Measles, Mumps, Rubella & Varicella Measles, Mumps, Rubella, and Varicella (chickenpox) can be serious diseases: Measles Causes rash, ...

  7. Measles seroprevalence, outbreaks, and vaccine coverage in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seruyange, Eric; Gahutu, Jean-Bosco; Mambo Muvunyi, Claude; Uwimana, Zena G; Gatera, Maurice; Twagirumugabe, Theogene; Katare, Swaibu; Karenzi, Ben; Bergström, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    Measles outbreaks are reported after insufficient vaccine coverage, especially in countries recovering from natural disaster or conflict. We compared seroprevalence to measles in blood donors in Rwanda and Sweden and explored distribution of active cases of measles and vaccine coverage in Rwanda. 516 Rwandan and 215 Swedish blood donors were assayed for measles-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Data on vaccine coverage and acute cases in Rwanda from 1980 to 2014 were collected, and IgM on serum samples and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on nasopharyngeal (NPH) swabs from suspected measles cases during 2010-2011 were analysed. The seroprevalence of measles IgG was significantly higher in Swedish blood donors (92.6%; 95% CI: 89.1-96.1%) compared to Rwandan subjects (71.5%; 95% CI: 67.6-75.4%) and more pronounced measles vaccine coverage was concomitant with decrease in measles cases in Rwanda, with the exception of an outbreak in 1995 following the 1994 genocide. 76/544 serum samples were IgM positive and 21/31 NPH swabs were PCR positive for measles, determined by sequencing to be of genotype B3. Measles seroprevalence was lower in Rwandan blood donors compared to Swedish subjects. Despite this, the number of reported measles cases in Rwanda rapidly decreased during the study period, concomitant with increased vaccine coverage. Taken together, the circulation of measles was limited in Rwanda and vaccine coverage was favourable, but seroprevalence and IgG levels were low especially in younger age groups.

  8. Will Synergizing Vaccination with Therapeutics Boost Measles Virus Eradication?

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    Plemper, Richard K; Hammond, Anthea L

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Measles virus is a major human pathogen responsible for approximately 150,000 measles deaths annually. The disease is vaccine preventable and eradication of the virus is considered feasible in principle. However, a herd immunity exceeding 95% is required to prevent sporadic viral outbreaks in a population. Declining disease prevalence combined with public anxieties about vaccination safety has increased vaccine refusal especially in the European region, which has resulted in measles resurgence in some areas. Areas covered Here, we discuss whether synergizing effective measles therapeutics with vaccination could contribute to solving an endgame conundrum of measles elimination by accelerating the eradication effort. Based on an anticipated use for protection of high-risk contacts of confirmed measles cases through post-exposure prophylaxis, we identify key elements of the desirable drug profile, review current disease management strategies and the state of experimental inhibitor candidates, evaluate the risk associated with viral escape from inhibition, and consider the potential of measles therapeutics for the management of persistent viral infection of the CNS. Assuming a post-measles world with waning measles immunity, we contemplate the possible impact of therapeutics on controlling the threat imposed by closely related zoonotic pathogens of the same genus as measles virus. Expert opinion Efficacious therapeutics given for post-exposure prophylaxis of high-risk social contacts of confirmed index cases may aid measles eradication by closing herd immunity gaps due to vaccine refusal or failure in populations with overall good vaccination coverage. The envisioned primarily prophylactic application of measles therapeutics to a predominantly pediatric and/or adolescent patient population dictates the drug profile; the article must be safe and efficacious, orally available, shelf-stable at ambient temperature, and amenable to cost-effective manufacture

  9. Allergic Disease and Atopic Sensitization in Children in Relation to Measles Vaccination and Measles Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenlund, Helen; Bergstrom, Anna; Alm, Johan S.; Swartz, Jackie; Scheynius, Annika; van Hage, Marianne; Johansen, Kari; Brunekreef, Bert; von Mutius, Erika; Ege, Markus J.; Riedler, Josef; Braun-Fahrlaender, Charlotte; Waser, Marco; Pershagen, Goran

    OBJECTIVE. Our aim was to investigate the role of measles vaccination and measles infection in the development of allergic disease and atopic sensitization. METHODS. A total of 14 893 children were included from the cross-sectional, multicenter Prevention of Allergy-Risk Factors for Sensitization in

  10. Allergic disease and atopic sensitization in children in relation to measles vaccination and measles infection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenlund, H.; Bergstrom, A.; Alm, J.; Swartz, J.; Scheynius, A.; van Hage, M.; Johansen, K.; Brunekreef, B.; von Mutius, E.; Ege, M.; Riedler, J.; Braun-Fahrlander, C.; Waser, M.; Pershagen, G.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate the role of measles vaccination and measles infection in the development of allergic disease and atopic sensitization. METHODS: A total of 14 893 children were included from the cross-sectional, multicenter Prevention of Allergy-Risk Factors for Sensitization in

  11. Allergic Disease and Atopic Sensitization in Children in Relation to Measles Vaccination and Measles Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenlund, Helen; Bergstrom, Anna; Alm, Johan S.; Swartz, Jackie; Scheynius, Annika; van Hage, Marianne; Johansen, Kari; Brunekreef, Bert; von Mutius, Erika; Ege, Markus J.; Riedler, Josef; Braun-Fahrlaender, Charlotte; Waser, Marco; Pershagen, Goran

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. Our aim was to investigate the role of measles vaccination and measles infection in the development of allergic disease and atopic sensitization. METHODS. A total of 14 893 children were included from the cross-sectional, multicenter Prevention of Allergy-Risk Factors for Sensitization in

  12. Allergic disease and atopic sensitization in children in relation to measles vaccination and measles infection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenlund, H.; Bergstrom, A.; Alm, J.; Swartz, J.; Scheynius, A.; van Hage, M.; Johansen, K.; Brunekreef, B.; von Mutius, E.; Ege, M.; Riedler, J.; Braun-Fahrlander, C.; Waser, M.; Pershagen, G.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate the role of measles vaccination and measles infection in the development of allergic disease and atopic sensitization. METHODS: A total of 14 893 children were included from the cross-sectional, multicenter Prevention of Allergy-Risk Factors for Sensitization in

  13. Girls may have lower levels of maternal measles antibodies and higher risk of subclinical measles infection before the age of measles vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Cesario; Bale, Carlitos; Garly, May-Lill

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that girls may have lower maternal measles antibody levels than boys. Girls might therefore be more likely to contract measles infection before the normal age of measles vaccination at 9 months of age. METHODS: In connection with a clinical trial...... of different measles vaccination strategies, we collected pre-measles vaccination blood samples at 4.5 months of age from two subgroups of children. Samples from these children were used to assess possible differences in maternal antibody levels for boys and girls. At 9 months of age another subgroup...... children with known measles infection, girls may have been more likely to have had subclinical measles infection. Combining clinical and possible subclinical measles infection, girls tended to be more likely than boys to contract measles infection before 9 months of age, the RR being 1.36 (0...

  14. Measles vaccination in the presence or absence of maternal measles antibody

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Martins, Cesário L; Garly, May-Lill

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Measles vaccine (MV) has a greater effect on child survival when administered in early infancy, when maternal antibody may still be present. METHODS: To test whether MV has a greater effect on overall survival if given in the presence of maternal measles antibody, we reanalyzed data...... mortality than children with no maternal antibody, the MRR being 0.22 (95% CI, .07-.64) between 4-6 months and 5 years. CONCLUSIONS: Child mortality in low-income countries may be reduced by vaccinating against measles in the presence of maternal antibody, using a 2-dose schedule with the first dose at 4...

  15. Perspective on Global Measles Epidemiology and Control and the Role of Novel Vaccination Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Melissa M; Beck, Andrew S; Bankamp, Bettina; Rota, Paul A

    2017-01-19

    Measles is a highly contagious, vaccine preventable disease. Measles results in a systemic illness which causes profound immunosuppression often leading to severe complications. In 2010, the World Health Assembly declared that measles can and should be eradicated. Measles has been eliminated in the Region of the Americas, and the remaining five regions of the World Health Organization (WHO) have adopted measles elimination goals. Significant progress has been made through increased global coverage of first and second doses of measles-containing vaccine, leading to a decrease in global incidence of measles, and through improved case based surveillance supported by the WHO Global Measles and Rubella Laboratory Network. Improved vaccine delivery methods will likely play an important role in achieving measles elimination goals as these delivery methods circumvent many of the logistic issues associated with subcutaneous injection. This review highlights the status of global measles epidemiology, novel measles vaccination strategies, and describes the pathway toward measles elimination.

  16. Perspective on Global Measles Epidemiology and Control and the Role of Novel Vaccination Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Melissa M.; Beck, Andrew S.; Bankamp, Bettina; Rota, Paul A.

    2017-01-01

    Measles is a highly contagious, vaccine preventable disease. Measles results in a systemic illness which causes profound immunosuppression often leading to severe complications. In 2010, the World Health Assembly declared that measles can and should be eradicated. Measles has been eliminated in the Region of the Americas, and the remaining five regions of the World Health Organization (WHO) have adopted measles elimination goals. Significant progress has been made through increased global coverage of first and second doses of measles-containing vaccine, leading to a decrease in global incidence of measles, and through improved case based surveillance supported by the WHO Global Measles and Rubella Laboratory Network. Improved vaccine delivery methods will likely play an important role in achieving measles elimination goals as these delivery methods circumvent many of the logistic issues associated with subcutaneous injection. This review highlights the status of global measles epidemiology, novel measles vaccination strategies, and describes the pathway toward measles elimination. PMID:28106841

  17. Perspective on Global Measles Epidemiology and Control and the Role of Novel Vaccination Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa M. Coughlin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Measles is a highly contagious, vaccine preventable disease. Measles results in a systemic illness which causes profound immunosuppression often leading to severe complications. In 2010, the World Health Assembly declared that measles can and should be eradicated. Measles has been eliminated in the Region of the Americas, and the remaining five regions of the World Health Organization (WHO have adopted measles elimination goals. Significant progress has been made through increased global coverage of first and second doses of measles-containing vaccine, leading to a decrease in global incidence of measles, and through improved case based surveillance supported by the WHO Global Measles and Rubella Laboratory Network. Improved vaccine delivery methods will likely play an important role in achieving measles elimination goals as these delivery methods circumvent many of the logistic issues associated with subcutaneous injection. This review highlights the status of global measles epidemiology, novel measles vaccination strategies, and describes the pathway toward measles elimination.

  18. A game dynamic model for vaccine skeptics and vaccine believers: measles as an example

    OpenAIRE

    Shim, Eunha; Grefenstette, John J.; Albert, Steven M.; Cakouros, Brigid E.; Burke, Donald S.

    2011-01-01

    Widespread avoidance of Measles-Mumps-Rubella vaccination (MMR), with a consequent increase in the incidence of major measles outbreaks, demonstrates that the effectiveness of vaccination programs can be thwarted by the public misperceptions of vaccine risk. By coupling game theory and epidemic models, we examine vaccination choice among populations stratified into two behavioral groups: vaccine skeptics and vaccine believers. The two behavioral groups are assumed to be heterogeneous with res...

  19. Effect of early measles vaccine on pneumococcal colonization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Nadja Skadkær; Byberg, Stine; Hervig Jacobsen, Lars

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Measles vaccine (MV) may have non-specific beneficial effects for child health and particularly seems to prevent respiratory infections. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading cause of bacterial pneumonia among children worldwide, and nasopharyngeal colonization precedes infection...

  20. Measles incidence, vaccine efficacy, and mortality in two urban African areas with high vaccination coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Knudsen, K; Jensen, T G

    1990-01-01

    Measles incidence, vaccine efficacy, and mortality were examined prospectively in two districts in Bissau where vaccine coverage for children aged 12-23 months was 81% (Bandim 1) and 61% (Bandim 2). There was little difference in cumulative measles incidence before 9 months of age (6.1% and 7.......6%, respectively). Between 9 months and 2 years of age, however, 6.1% contracted measles in Bandim 1 and 13.7% in Bandim 2. Even adjusting for vaccination status, incidence was significantly higher in Bandim 2 (relative risk 1.6, P = .04). Even though 95% of the children had measles antibodies after vaccination...

  1. Measles vaccine: a 27-year follow-up.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ramsay, M E

    1994-04-01

    In 1964, the Medical Research Council undertook a trial of measles vaccine in over 36,000 United Kingdom children; 9577 of whom received live vaccine, 10,625 received inactivated followed by live vaccines, and 16,328 acted as unvaccinated controls. Participants in this study have been followed to determine the long term protection from measles vaccine and follow-up data were available on 4194, 4638 and 274 respectively. During the 5-year period 1986-90, the protective efficacy of live measles vaccine has remained high at 87%, but the 95% confidence interval was wide (-43 to 99%) due to the small numbers of cases. Between 1976 and 1990, however, the overall efficacy of the live vaccine was 92% (95% confidence interval 86 to 95%) and there was no evidence of a decline in efficacy (P = 0.13) over the 15-year period. This study suggests that the protection from live measles vaccine persists for up to 27 years after vaccination, and that no change in the current United Kingdom measles immunization policy should be made on the grounds of waning immunity.

  2. Recombinant measles AIK-C vaccine strain expressing heterologous virus antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Tetsuo; Sawada, Akihito; Yamaji, Yoshiaki; Ito, Takashi

    2016-01-04

    Further attenuated measles vaccines were developed more than 50 years ago and have been used throughout the world. Recombinant measles vaccine candidates have been developed and express several heterologous virus protective antigens. Immunogenicity and protective actions were confirmed using experimental animals: transgenic mice, cotton rats, and primates. The recent development of measles vaccine-based vectored vaccine candidates has been reviewed and some information on recombinant measles vaccines expressing respiratory syncytial virus proteins has been shown and discussed.

  3. Measles incidence, vaccine efficacy, and mortality in two urban African areas with high vaccination coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Knudsen, K; Jensen, T G

    1990-01-01

    Measles incidence, vaccine efficacy, and mortality were examined prospectively in two districts in Bissau where vaccine coverage for children aged 12-23 months was 81% (Bandim 1) and 61% (Bandim 2). There was little difference in cumulative measles incidence before 9 months of age (6.1% and 7.......6%, respectively). Between 9 months and 2 years of age, however, 6.1% contracted measles in Bandim 1 and 13.7% in Bandim 2. Even adjusting for vaccination status, incidence was significantly higher in Bandim 2 (relative risk 1.6, P = .04). Even though 95% of the children had measles antibodies after vaccination......, vaccine efficacy was not more than 68% (95% confidence interval [CI] 39%-84%) and was unrelated to age at vaccination. Unvaccinated children had a mortality hazard ratio of 3.0 compared with vaccinated children (P = .002), indicating a protective efficacy against death of 66% (CI 32%-83%) of measles...

  4. Vaccination against measles: a neverending story.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.J. Stittelaar (Koert); R.L. de Swart (Rik); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractMeasles, a highly contagious viral disease, is a major childhood killer in developing countries, accounting for almost 1 million deaths every year globally. Measles virus normally does not cause a persistent infection, no animal reservoir for measles virus exists, no vector is involved

  5. Vaccination against measles: a neverending story.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.J. Stittelaar (Koert); R.L. de Swart (Rik); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractMeasles, a highly contagious viral disease, is a major childhood killer in developing countries, accounting for almost 1 million deaths every year globally. Measles virus normally does not cause a persistent infection, no animal reservoir for measles virus exists, no vector is involved i

  6. Safety of measles-containing vaccines in post-marketing surveillance in Anhui, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fan-Ya; Sun, Yong; Shen, Yong-Gang; Pan, Hai-Feng; Tang, Ji-Hai; Wang, Bin-Bing; Wu, Chang-Hao; Ye, Dong-Qing

    2017-01-01

    The safety of measles vaccination is of great interest and importance to public health practice and the general society. We have analyzed the adverse events following immunization (AEFIs) of currently used measles-containing vaccines (including live attenuated measles vaccine, live attenuated measles and rubella combined vaccine, live attenuated measles and mumps combined vaccine, live attenuated Measles, Mumps and Rubella Combined Vaccine) in Anhui Province, China. From 2009 to 2014, 9.9 million doses of measles-containing vaccines were administrated and 1893 AEFIs were found (191.4 per million doses), of which, 33 serious AEFIs (3.3 per million vaccine doses) were reported. 59.4% (1124 cases) were male cases, and 85.1% (1611 cases) occurred in persons aged measles-containing vaccines used in Anhui Province of China are safe.

  7. A game dynamic model for vaccine skeptics and vaccine believers: measles as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Eunha; Grefenstette, John J; Albert, Steven M; Cakouros, Brigid E; Burke, Donald S

    2012-02-21

    Widespread avoidance of Measles-Mumps-Rubella vaccination (MMR), with a consequent increase in the incidence of major measles outbreaks, demonstrates that the effectiveness of vaccination programs can be thwarted by the public misperceptions of vaccine risk. By coupling game theory and epidemic models, we examine vaccination choice among populations stratified into two behavioral groups: vaccine skeptics and vaccine believers. The two behavioral groups are assumed to be heterogeneous with respect to their perceptions of vaccine and infection risks. We demonstrate that the pursuit of self-interest among vaccine skeptics often leads to vaccination levels that are suboptimal for a population, even if complete coverage is achieved among vaccine believers. The demand for measles vaccine across populations driven by individual self-interest was found to be more sensitive to the proportion of vaccine skeptics than to the extent to which vaccine skeptics misperceive the risk of vaccine. Furthermore, as the number of vaccine skeptics increases, the probability of infection among vaccine skeptics increases initially, but it decreases once the vaccine skeptics begin receiving the vaccination, if both behavioral groups are vaccinated according to individual self-interest. Our results show that the discrepancy between the coverages of measles vaccine that are driven by self-interest and those driven by population interest becomes larger when the cost of vaccination increases. This research illustrates the importance of public education on vaccine safety and infection risk in order to maintain vaccination levels that are sufficient to maintain herd immunity.

  8. The strategy for prevention of measles and rubella prevalence with measles-rubella (MR) vaccine in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihara, Toshiaki

    2009-05-21

    To eliminate the indigenous measles and rubella virus by 2012 in Japan, the strategy fro prevention of measles and rubella prevalence with measles-rubella (MR) vaccine was proposed. Since the vast majority of 1-year old infants are susceptible to measles and rubella, the first MR vaccine, the first MR vaccine should be administered at 1-year old to sustain the herd immunity. Since significant elevation of measles and rubella antibody titers were eliminated in a half of children after the second dose, the second dose of of MR vaccine within 1 year before elementary school entry is the effective maneuver. Moreover, supplement MR vaccination to the teenage group and 20-29 years' group might be necessary, because the mean measles antibody titers in this group were significantly lower compared with those in the older individuals' groups.

  9. Measles Vaccination in the Presence or Absence of Maternal Measles Antibody: Impact on Child Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaby, Peter; Martins, Cesário L.; Garly, May-Lill; Andersen, Andreas; Fisker, Ane B.; Claesson, Mogens H.; Ravn, Henrik; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Whittle, Hilton C.; Benn, Christine S.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Measles vaccine (MV) has a greater effect on child survival when administered in early infancy, when maternal antibody may still be present. Methods. To test whether MV has a greater effect on overall survival if given in the presence of maternal measles antibody, we reanalyzed data from 2 previously published randomized trials of a 2-dose schedule with MV given at 4–6 months and at 9 months of age. In both trials antibody levels had been measured before early measles vaccination. Results. In trial I (1993–1995), the mortality rate was 0.0 per 1000 person-years among children vaccinated with MV in the presence of maternal antibody and 32.3 per 1000 person-years without maternal antibody (mortality rate ratio [MRR], 0.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0–.52). In trial II (2003–2007), the mortality rate was 4.2 per 1000 person-years among children vaccinated in presence of maternal measles antibody and 14.5 per 1000 person-years without measles antibody (MRR, 0.29; 95% CI, .09–.91). Possible confounding factors did not explain the difference. In a combined analysis, children who had measles antibody detected when they received their first dose of MV at 4–6 months of age had lower mortality than children with no maternal antibody, the MRR being 0.22 (95% CI, .07–.64) between 4–6 months and 5 years. Conclusions. Child mortality in low-income countries may be reduced by vaccinating against measles in the presence of maternal antibody, using a 2-dose schedule with the first dose at 4–6 months (earlier than currently recommended) and a booster dose at 9–12 months of age. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00168558. PMID:24829213

  10. Current progress in pulmonary delivery of measles vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Diane E

    2014-06-01

    Due to the high infectivity of measles virus, achieving sufficient population immunity to interrupt transmission requires two doses of live attenuated measles virus vaccine. Subcutaneous delivery of vaccine by injection requires trained personnel, maintenance of a cold chain and safe disposal of used needles and syringes. Pulmonary vaccine delivery offers the opportunity for cost-savings and improved coverage, but requires re-licensure. Two aerosol vaccine formulations, nebulized liquid and dry powder, and multiple delivery devices have been evaluated in humans and macaques. Nebulized liquid vaccine is effective for a second dose of vaccine in older children, but less effective for primary vaccination of infants. Dry powder vaccine provides solid protection in macaques and boosts responses in immune adults, but has not yet been tested in infants.

  11. MMRV (Measles, Mumps, Rubella, and Varicella) Vaccine: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... STATEMENT MMRV Vaccine What You Need to Know (Measles, Mumps, Rubella and Varicella) Many Vaccine Information Statements ... and V aricella (chickenpox) can be serious diseases: Measles • Causes rash, cough, runny nose, eye irritation, fever. • ...

  12. Measles Virus IgG Avidity Assay for Use in Classification of Measles Vaccine Failure in Measles Elimination Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Philip; Bellini, William J.

    2012-01-01

    In regions where endemic measles virus has been eliminated, diagnostic assays are needed to assist in correctly classifying measles cases irrespective of vaccination status. A measles IgG avidity assay was configured using a commercially available measles-specific IgG enzyme immunoassay by modifying the protocol to include three 5-min washes with diethylamine (60 mM; pH 10.25) following serum incubation; serum was serially diluted, and the results were expressed as the end titer avidity index. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used for evaluation and validation and to establish low (≤30%) and high (≥70%) end titer avidity thresholds. Analysis of 319 serum specimens expected to contain either high- or low-avidity antibodies according to clinical and epidemiological data indicated that the assay is highly accurate, with an area under the curve of 0.998 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.978 to 1.000), sensitivity of 91.9% (95% CI, 83.2% to 97.0%), and specificity of 98.4% (95% CI, 91.6% to 100%). The assay is rapid (measles cases with low-avidity results; both were IgM-positive samples. Additionally, 11 patients (15 samples) with modified measles who were found to have high-avidity IgG results were classified as secondary vaccine failures; one sample with an intermediate-avidity result was not interpretable. In elimination settings, measles IgG avidity assays can complement existing diagnostic tools in confirming unvaccinated acute cases and, in conjunction with adequate clinical and epidemiologic investigation, aid in the classification of vaccine failure cases. PMID:22971778

  13. Monovalent RIVM meningococcal B OMP vesicle F91 vaccines in toddlers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lafeber AB; Limpt CJP van; Labadie J; Berbers GAM; Kleijn ED de; Groot R de; Rumke HC; Alphen AJW; Sophia Kinderziekenhuis /; LVO

    2001-01-01

    This report gives the results of a randomised phase-II clinical study into the safety and immunogenicity of a monovalent MenB OMV vaccine expressing P1.7h,4 PorA (MonoMen) in toddlers. Safety and immunogenicity are compared for two types of vaccine that are differently adjuvated (either aluminium ph

  14. Vaccination against acute respiratory virus infections and measles in man.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); P. de Vries (Petra)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractSeveral viruses may cause more or less severe acute respiratory infections in man, some of which are followed by systemic infection. Only for influenza and measles are licensed vaccines available at present. The protection induced by influenza vaccines, which are based on inactivated

  15. VACCINATION OF PATIENTS WITH ONCOLOGY DISEASES AGAINST MEASLES AND MUMPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Kharit

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. One hundred and seven children (45 girls and 62 boys in the age of 20 months — 14 years old (mean 9,62±0,37 suffered from acute lymphoblast leukosis and solid tumors in history have been examined in the clinic of Research Institute of children infections of FMBA. The vaccination history was studied in all children and the titers of specific antibodies to measles and mumps viruses as well as immune status were determined. 83,8% and 85,4% of studied children had no protection against measles and mumps respectively or had low titers of antibodies. Immunological examination of these children conducted within 4 months after finishing of therapy revealed absence of immunodeficiency. It gave opportunities to vaccinate or revaccinate these children against mentioned infections. Fifty three children were immunized against measles and 47 — against mumps. Application of live vaccines was safe because majority of vaccinated against measles (81,1% and mumps (82,9% children had mild vaccination process. It was established that to increase immunological efficacy of vaccination using of polyoxidony during 5 days before vaccination and 5 days after vaccination is reasonable.

  16. Vaccination against acute respiratory virus infections and measles in man.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); P. de Vries (Petra)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractSeveral viruses may cause more or less severe acute respiratory infections in man, some of which are followed by systemic infection. Only for influenza and measles are licensed vaccines available at present. The protection induced by influenza vaccines, which are based on inactivated who

  17. Quantifying child mortality reductions related to measles vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy D Goldhaber-Fiebert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study characterizes the historical relationship between coverage of measles containing vaccines (MCV and mortality in children under 5 years, with a view toward ongoing global efforts to reduce child mortality. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using country-level, longitudinal panel data, from 44 countries over the period 1960-2005, we analyzed the relationship between MCV coverage and measles mortality with (1 logistic regressions for no measles deaths in a country-year, and (2 linear regressions for the logarithm of the measles death rate. All regressions allowed a flexible, non-linear relationship between coverage and mortality. Covariates included birth rate, death rates from other causes, percent living in urban areas, population density, per-capita GDP, use of the two-dose MCV, year, and mortality coding system. Regressions used lagged covariates, country fixed effects, and robust standard errors clustered by country. The likelihood of no measles deaths increased nonlinearly with higher MCV coverage (ORs: 13.8 [1.6-122.7] for 80-89% to 40.7 [3.2-517.6] for ≥95%, compared to pre-vaccination risk levels. Measles death rates declined nonlinearly with higher MCV coverage, with benefits accruing more slowly above 90% coverage. Compared to no coverage, predicted average reductions in death rates were -79% at 70% coverage, -93% at 90%, and -95% at 95%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: 40 years of experience with MCV vaccination suggests that extremely high levels of vaccination coverage are needed to produce sharp reductions in measles deaths. Achieving sustainable benefits likely requires a combination of extended vaccine programs and supplementary vaccine efforts.

  18. Randomized Trials Comparing Inactivated Vaccine after Medium- or High-titer Measles Vaccine with Standard Titer Measles Vaccine after Inactivated Vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Ravn, Henrik; Benn, Christine S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Observational studies have suggested that girls have higher mortality if their most recent immunization is an inactivated vaccine rather than a live vaccine. We therefore reanalyzed 5 randomized trials of early measles vaccine (MV) in which it was possible to compare an inactivated va...

  19. John F. Enders and measles virus vaccine--a reminiscence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, S L

    2009-01-01

    Following their initial isolation in cell culture of the virus in 1954, a succession of investigators under the mentorship of John E Enders conducted the research, development, and initial clinical studies responsible for the licensure in 1963 of a successful live attenuated measles virus vaccine. Propagation of the virus successively in human kidney cells, human amnion cells, embryonated hens' eggs, and finally chick embryo cell cultures had selected virus that when inoculated into susceptible monkeys proved immunogenic without viremia or overt disease, in contrast to the early kidney cell-passaged material, which in similar monkeys produced viremia with illness mimicking human measles. Careful clinical studies in children by the Enders group and then by collaborating investigators in many sites established its safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy. This Edmonston strain measles virus became the progenitor of vaccines prepared, studied, and utilized throughout the United States and many other countries. With appreciation of measles morbidity and mortality, most marked among infants and children in the resource-limited lands, the vaccine was incorporated into the World Health Organization's (WHO) Expanded Programme of Immunization (EPI) in 1974 along with BCG, OPV, and DTP. Successful efforts to further reduce measles' burden were launched in 2001 and are continuing as the Measles Initiative (Partnership) under the leadership of the American Red Cross, International Red Cross, and Red Crescent societies, Centers for Disease Control (CDC), United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), WHO, and the United Nations Foundation.

  20. Mumps, measles and rubella vaccination in children with PFAPA syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraszewska-G Omba, Barbara; Matkowska-Kocjan, Agnieszka; Mi Kiewicz, Katarzyna; Szyma Ska-Toczek, Zofia; Wójcik, Marta; Bany, Dorota; Szenborn, Leszek

    2016-11-21

    There is no published data regarding immunologic response to vaccinations in children with PFAPA syndrome (periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and cervical adenitis). The aim of this study was to evaluate mumps, measles and rubella immunity in children with PFAPA. 31 children with PFAPA syndrome and 22 healthy children (control group - CG) were recruited to the study. All children were previously vaccinated with one dose of MMR vaccine according to the Polish obligatory vaccination schedule. The patients from both groups were evaluated for anti-measles, anti-mumps and anti-rubella IgG antibodies concentrations (ELISA tests; the reference values for protective antibody levels were 150IU/L, 16RU/L and 11IU/ml respectively). The percentage of patients with protective antibodies levels was as follows: measles - 93.55% of PFAPA and 95.45% of CG patients (p=0.77); mumps - 74.19% of PFAPA and 95.45% of CG patients (p=0.02); rubella - 80.65% of PFAPA and 90.9% of CG patients (p=0.30). Children with PFAPA syndrome present a good response to the measles and rubella component of the MMR vaccine, however immunity against mumps after one dose of MMR may not be sufficient. Further investigation concerning immunity against vaccine-preventable diseases and the safety of vaccinations in children with periodic fever syndromes is required. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Trial of high-dose Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Jensen, T G; Hansen, H L

    1988-01-01

    In a randomised study of 558 children in an urban African community, the protective effect of the Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) measles vaccine given in a dose of 40,000 plaque forming units from the age of 4 months was compared with the effects of a standard dose (6000 tissue culture infectious units......) of Schwarz measles vaccine given from the age of 9 months. During two years of follow-up, all 14 clinical cases of measles occurred in the Schwarz group; 10 of the children contracted measles before vaccination and 4 after measles vaccination. Thus the EZ vaccine provided significant protection against...... measles both before and after the usual age of vaccination. Among the children who were exposed to measles at home, those given EZ vaccine were better protected than either unvaccinated children or those given the Schwarz vaccine....

  2. Measles incidence rate and a phylogenetic study of contemporary genotype H1 measles strains in China: is an improved measles vaccine needed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jingwei; Zheng, Jingtong; Huang, Honglan; Hu, Yu; Bian, Jiang; Xu, Deqi; Li, Fan

    2011-12-01

    The incidence of measles in China has increased over the last decade. To evaluate the genetic variation of measles strains, 16 measles wild-type virus strains were isolated from 14 vaccinated cases and 2 nonvaccinated cases in Jilin Province during 2005-2006, and their nucleoprotein (N) and hemagglutinin (H) genes were amplified by RT-PCR. The amplified products were sequenced and compared with the Edmonston virus and the existing vaccine strains (Changchun-47 and Shanghai-191). The results showed that the variation rate between the vaccine and wild-type strains was 9.8-12.0% in the N gene and 5.9-6.9% in the H gene, respectively. In addition, cross-neutralization assays revealed that although sera obtained from infants following primary vaccination effectively neutralized vaccine strains, the capacity in neutralizing H1 wild-type measles virus isolates was decreased fourfold. Antigenic ratios testing revealed that the antigenic relatedness between wild-type measles viruses and existing vaccine strains was notably low. These data suggest that the increased incidence of measles in Jilin Province may be attributed to the antigenic drift between wild-type and vaccine strains. Our findings strengthen the recommendation of supplemental immunization with existing vaccines and also strongly suggest a need for developing new vaccines to better control measles virus outbreaks.

  3. Impact of universal mass vaccination with monovalent inactivated hepatitis A vaccines – A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuurman, Anke L.; Marano, Cinzia; Bunge, Eveline M.; De Moerlooze, Laurence; Shouval, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The WHO recommends integration of universal mass vaccination (UMV) against hepatitis A virus (HAV) in national immunization schedules for children aged ≥1 year, if justified on the basis of acute HAV incidence, declining endemicity from high to intermediate and cost-effectiveness. This recommendation has been implemented in several countries. Our aim was to assess the impact of UMV using monovalent inactivated hepatitis A vaccines on incidence and persistence of anti-HAV (IgG) antibodies in pediatric populations. We conducted a systematic review of literature published between 2000 and 2015 in PubMed, Cochrane Library, LILACS, IBECS identifying a total of 27 studies (Argentina, Belgium, China, Greece, Israel, Panama, the United States and Uruguay). All except one study showed a marked decline in the incidence of hepatitis A post introduction of UMV. The incidence in non-vaccinated age groups decreased as well, suggesting herd immunity but also rising susceptibility. Long-term anti-HAV antibody persistence was documented up to 17 y after a 2-dose primary vaccination. In conclusion, introduction of UMV in countries with intermediate endemicity for HAV infection led to a considerable decrease in the incidence of hepatitis A in vaccinated and in non-vaccinated age groups alike. PMID:27786671

  4. 75 FR 48715 - Proposed Vaccine Information Materials for Measles, Mumps, Rubella, and Varicella Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Proposed Vaccine Information Materials for Measles, Mumps, Rubella, and Varicella Vaccines AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC... National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act (NCVIA) (42 U.S.C. 300aa-26), the CDC must develop vaccine...

  5. VACCINATION OF CHILDREN AGAINST MEASLES, PAROTIDITIS AND VITAMINOTHERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Kharit

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The researchers observed 45 children inoculated with the Russian divalent vaccine (measles–parotiditis. 25 children received mineral and vitamin complex «jungle» for a month since the date of vaccination. The application of «jungle» medication was efficient and conduced to prophylaxis of the complication of the vaccination, prevention of the inter current diseases among the vaccinated, as well as positively affected the intensity of the special antibody formation because of activation of cellular and antiviral mechanisms.Key words: vaccination, measles, parotiditis, prevention, mineral and vitamin complex, children.

  6. Effectiveness and timing of vaccination during school measles outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonačić Marinović, Axel Antonio; Swaan, Corien; Wichmann, Ole; van Steenbergen, Jim; Kretzschmar, Mirjam

    2012-09-01

    Despite high vaccination coverage in most European countries, large community outbreaks of measles do occur, normally clustered around schools and resulting from suboptimal vaccination coverage. To determine whether or when it is worth implementing outbreak-response vaccination campaigns in schools, we used stochastic outbreak models to reproduce a public school outbreak in Germany, where no vaccination campaign was implemented. We assumed 2 scenarios covering the baseline vaccination ratio range (91.3%-94.3%) estimated for that school and computed outbreaks assuming various vaccination delays. In one scenario, reacting (i.e., implementing outbreak-response vaccination campaigns) within 12-24 days avoided large outbreaks and reacting within 50 days reduced outbreak size. In the other scenario, reacting within 6-14 days avoided large outbreaks and reacting within 40 days reduced the outbreak size. These are realistic time frames for implementing school outbreak response vaccination campaigns. High baseline vaccination ratios extended the time needed for effective response.

  7. Perspective on Global Measles Epidemiology and Control and the Role of Novel Vaccination Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Melissa M. Coughlin; Beck, Andrew S.; Bankamp, Bettina; Rota, Paul A.

    2017-01-01

    Measles is a highly contagious, vaccine preventable disease. Measles results in a systemic illness which causes profound immunosuppression often leading to severe complications. In 2010, the World Health Assembly declared that measles can and should be eradicated. Measles has been eliminated in the Region of the Americas, and the remaining five regions of the World Health Organization (WHO) have adopted measles elimination goals. Significant progress has been made through increased global cov...

  8. Field evaluation of measles vaccine efficacy in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutts, F T; Smith, P G; Colombo, S; Mann, G; Ascherio, A; Soares, A C

    1990-02-01

    Monitoring measles vaccine efficacy is an important form of quality control in immunization programs. Retrospective cohort studies of vaccine efficacy were conducted in Mozambique with the aim of adopting this method for regular use. The authors studied 1,215 and 790 children aged 12-35 months in the cities of Nampula and Beira, respectively. In Nampula (1985), vaccine efficacy was estimated to be 40%, and in Beira (1986), it was estimated to be 59%. To investigate the possibility of falsely low results due to poor specificity of maternal reporting of measles cases, a seroepidemiologic study of 600 children aged 12-47 months was conducted in Nampula in 1986. The specificity and sensitivity of a maternal history of measles in an unvaccinated child were estimated as 83% and 56%, respectively. These results were used to obtain an adjusted vaccine efficacy estimate of 66%, almost double the estimate of 37% obtained using data on history of vaccination and illness alone. The large bias introduced into the vaccine efficacy estimation by low specificity of disease diagnosis is a serious limitation to the use of retrospective cohort methods to assess efficacy.

  9. Transport networks and inequities in vaccination: remoteness shapes measles vaccine coverage and prospects for elimination across Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Metcalf, CJ; TATEM, A.; Bjornstad, ON; Lessler, J; O'Reilly, K; S. Takahashi(Kobe University, J-657-8501 Kobe, Japan); Cutts, F.; Grenfell, BT

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Measles vaccination is estimated to have averted 13·8 million deaths between 2000 and 2012. Persisting heterogeneity in coverage is a major contributor to continued measles mortality, and a barrier to measles elimination and introduction of rubella-containing vaccine. Our objective is to identify determinants of inequities in coverage, and how vaccine delivery must change to achieve elimination goals, which is a focus of the WHO Decade of Vaccines. We combined estimates of travel time...

  10. [Measles: the disease, epidemiology, history and vaccination programs in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpiano, Luis; Astroza, Leonor; Toro, Jorge

    2015-08-01

    Measles, one of most important inmuno-preventable diseases, remains as a worldwide concern issue with an important morbidity and mortality. Particularly in the America region declared free of measles in 2010 by WHO, they still appear imported cases that origin outbreaks of variable magnitude in susceptible subjects usually none vaccinated which is the current situation in Santiago, the capital city of Chile. In this review we present characteristics of the etiological agent, the disease, epidemiological aspects with national historical focus, impact of immunization programs and outbreaks in Chile, in order to contribute to knowledge and management of this always present public health problem.

  11. Measles susceptibility in young Thai men suggests need for young adult measles vaccination: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonwong, Siriphan; Chuenchitra, Thippawan; Khantapura, Patchariya; Islam, Dilara; Mason, Carl J

    2016-04-11

    Measles remains a major public health concern in Thailand despite the introduction of vaccination since 1984. Similar to other countries, Thailand has experienced numerous measles outbreaks including adult communities such as university student dormitories, prisons, refugee camps, and military recruit camps. These outbreaks raise questions on the seroprotective antibody level in Thai adults. To better understand measles susceptibility in young Thai adults, a retrospective measles seroprevalence study on repository serum specimens obtained with informed consent from young Thai men entering the Royal Thai Army (RTA) during 2007-2008 was conducted. A total of 7760 stratified randomized samples were chosen by residence province. Measles IgG titer was measured using a commercial IgG quantitative ELISA kit following the manufacturer's instructions. An antibody level ≥ 250 International Units per Liter (IU/L) was interpreted as seropositive. The overall measles seroprevalence was 78.5 % (95 % Confidence Interval: 77.6-79.4 %) with geometric mean titer of 738 IU/L (95 % Confidence Interval: 716-760 IU/L). The measles seroprevalence by province ranged from 59.6 % to 93.1 %. A trend of decreasing seroprevalence in the younger cohorts despite increasing immunization coverage was found. Lower seroprevalence than vaccination coverage was observed in the youngest age group. To achieve long term measles control and elimination, an integrated two doses vaccination strategy has been implemented in children in Thailand. This nationwide measles seroprevalence study in young adult RTA recruits found a measles seroprevalence lower than WHO's recommendation for measles outbreak prevention and elimination. These results raise concerns for measles control in Thailand. Supplementary immunization in young adults is essential especially in high-risk and densely populated communities to establish herd immunity for outbreak prevention and elimination.

  12. Vaccination against Measles: evaluation of novel approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.J. Stittelaar (Koert)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractMeasles, also called morbilli or rubeola, is a highly contagious disease of humans. After an incubation period of 9-11 days characteristic clinical signs develop like coryza, cervical lymphadenitis, so-called Koplik's spots in the mouth, conjunctivitis, photophobia, myalgia, malaise, sne

  13. Measles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reported. But recent years have seen spikes in measles outbreaks, including 131 cases in the first half of ... nutrition or weakened immune systems. Exposure During a measles outbreak, an injection of measles antibodies (called immune globulin) ...

  14. A measles epidemic threshold in a highly vaccinated population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mass vaccination against measles has successfully lowered the incidence of the disease and has changed the epidemic pattern from a roughly biennial cycle to an irregular sequence of outbreaks. A possible explanation for this sequence of outbreaks is that the vaccinated population is protected by solid herd immunity. If so, we would expect to see the fraction of susceptible individuals remaining below an epidemic threshold. An alternative explanation is the occurrence of occasional localised lapses in herd immunity that allow for major outbreaks in areas with a low vaccine coverage. In that case, we would expect the fraction of susceptible individuals to exceed an epidemic threshold before outbreaks occur. These two explanations for the irregular sequence of measles outbreaks can be tested against observations of both the fraction of susceptible individuals and infection attack rates. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We have estimated both the fraction of susceptible individuals at the start of each epidemic year and the infection attack rates for each epidemic year in the Netherlands over a 28-y period. During this period the vaccine coverage averaged 93%, and there was no sustained measles transmission. Several measles outbreaks occurred in communities with low vaccine coverage, and these ended without intervention. We show that there is a clear threshold value for the fraction of susceptible individuals, below which only minor outbreaks occurred, and above which both minor and major outbreaks occurred. A precise, quantitative relationship exists between the fraction of susceptible individuals in excess of this threshold and the infection attack rate during the major outbreaks. CONCLUSION: In populations with a high but heterogeneous vaccine coverage, measles transmission can be interrupted without establishing solid herd immunity. When infection is reintroduced, a major outbreak can occur in the communities with low vaccine coverage. During

  15. A Global Perspective of Vaccination of Healthcare Personnel against Measles: Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiebelkorn, Amy Parker; Seward, Jane F.; Orenstein, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Measles transmission has been well documented in healthcare facilities. Healthcare personnel who are unvaccinated and who lack other evidence of measles immunity put themselves and their patients at risk for measles. We conducted a systematic literature review of measles vaccination policies and their implementation in healthcare personnel, measles seroprevalence among healthcare personnel, measles transmission and disease burden in healthcare settings, and impact/costs incurred by healthcare facilities for healthcare-associated measles transmission. Five database searches yielded 135 relevant articles; 47 additional articles were found through cross-referencing. The risk of acquiring measles is estimated to be 2 to 19 times higher for susceptible healthcare personnel than for the general population. Fifty-three articles published worldwide during 1989–2013 reported measles transmission from patients to healthcare personnel; many of the healthcare personnel were unvaccinated or had unknown vaccination status. Eighteen articles published worldwide during 1982–2013 described examples of transmission from healthcare personnel to patients or to other healthcare personnel. Half of European countries have no measles vaccine policies for healthcare personnel. There is no global policy recommendation for the vaccination of healthcare personnel against measles. Even in countries such as the United States or Finland that have national policies, the recommendations are not uniformly implemented in healthcare facilities. Measles serosusceptibility in healthcare personnel varied widely across studies (median 6.5%, range 0%-46%) but was consistently higher among younger healthcare personnel. Deficiencies in documentation of two doses of measles vaccination or other evidence of immunity among healthcare personnel presents challenges in responding to measles exposures in healthcare settings. Evaluating and containing exposures and outbreaks in healthcare settings can be

  16. Is there enough vaccine to eradicate measles? An integrated analysis of measles-containing vaccine supply and demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Graegar; Michelson, Joshua; Singh, Rohit; Dabbagh, Alya; Hoekstra, Edward; van den Ent, Maya; Mallya, Apoorva

    2011-07-01

    Responding to regional advancements in combating measles, the World Health Organization in May 2008 called for an assessment of the feasibility of measles eradication, including whether sufficient vaccine supply exists. Interviews with international health officials and vaccine-makers provided data for a detailed model of worldwide demand and supply for measles-containing vaccine (MCV). The study projected global MCV demand through 2025 with and without a global eradication goal. The study found that 5.2 billion MCV doses must be administered during 2010-2025 to maintain current measles programs, and 5.9 billion doses would likely be needed with a 2020 eradication goal; in the most intensive scenario, demand could increase to 7.5 billion doses. These volumes are within existing and planned MCV-manufacturing capacity, although there are risks. In some markets, capacity is concentrated: Supply-chain disruptions could reduce supply or increase prices. Mitigation strategies could include stockpiling, long-term contracts, and further coordination with manufacturers. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.

  17. Long term impact of high titer Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine on T lymphocyte subsets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisse, I M; Aaby, P; Knudsen, K

    1994-01-01

    Several trials of high titer measles vaccine (> 10(4.7) plaque-forming unit) have found female recipients of Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) vaccine to have lower survival than female recipients of standard measles vaccine. Two trials with medium and high titer EZ vaccine from the age of 4 months were...... unlikely to explain the reduced survival which has been associated with high titer EZ measles vaccination. In the 2 years after the investigation of T cell subsets, there was no increased mortality for recipients of EZ vaccine. Hence it is unlikely that high titer vaccine has an persistent adverse effect...

  18. Aerosol measles vaccination in macaques: Preclinical studies of immune responses and safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.L. de Swart (Rik); T. Kuiken (Thijs); J. Fernandez-de Castro (Jorge); M.J. Papania (Mark); J.V. Bennett (John); J.L. Valdespino (José); P.D. Minor; C.L. Witham (Clyde); S. Yüksel (Selma); H.W. Vos (Helma); G. van Amerongen (Geert); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe comparative efficacy and safety of measles vaccination via the aerosol route versus subcutaneous injection has not been fully resolved. We vaccinated cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) with the live-attenuated Edmonston-Zagreb measles virus (MV) vaccine and compared different r

  19. Measles Outbreak in a Vaccinated School Population: Epidemiology, Chains of Transmission and the Role of Vaccine Failures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkowane, Benjamin M.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    An outbreak of measles occurred in a high school with a documented vaccination level of 98 percent. When measles is introduced in a highly vaccinated population, vaccine failures may play some role in transmission but such transmission is not usually sustained. (Author/LHW)

  20. Diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccination administered after measles vaccine: increased female mortality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benn, Christine Stabell; Aaby, Peter

    2012-10-01

    In low-income countries, children should receive 3 doses of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP) at 6, 10 and 14 weeks of age, and measles vaccine at 9 months of age. However, there is often a delay in administering the vaccines, and DTP is often given after measles vaccine. Previous observations suggest that this practice is associated with increased mortality for female, but not for male children. Within a vitamin A trial in Guinea-Bissau, vaccination status was registered at the time of measles vaccination at 9 months; 141 (31%) of 455 children were missing 1 or more DTP vaccines and were likely to receive them afterward. We examined whether missing DTP vaccine at this time point was associated with sex-differential effects on mortality. In female children, missing DTP was associated with 3.55 (95% confidence interval: 1.23-10.26) times higher risk of dying before 36 months of age, whereas it made no difference in male children (0.97 [0.34-2.80]). The result supports that receiving DTP after measles vaccine affects female children negatively.

  1. Safety of measles-containing vaccines in post-marketing surveillance in Anhui, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fan-Ya; Sun, Yong; Shen, Yong-Gang; Pan, Hai-Feng; Tang, Ji-Hai; Wang, Bin-Bing; Wu, Chang-Hao; Ye, Dong-Qing

    2017-01-01

    The safety of measles vaccination is of great interest and importance to public health practice and the general society. We have analyzed the adverse events following immunization (AEFIs) of currently used measles-containing vaccines (including live attenuated measles vaccine, live attenuated measles and rubella combined vaccine, live attenuated measles and mumps combined vaccine, live attenuated Measles, Mumps and Rubella Combined Vaccine) in Anhui Province, China. From 2009 to 2014, 9.9 million doses of measles-containing vaccines were administrated and 1893 AEFIs were found (191.4 per million doses), of which, 33 serious AEFIs (3.3 per million vaccine doses) were reported. 59.4% (1124 cases) were male cases, and 85.1% (1611 cases) occurred in persons aged < 1 year. 93.3% (1766 cases) occurred at the first dose of vaccination and 95.9% (1815 cases) were found within 3 days after vaccination. This study presents up-to-date data and suggests that the measles-containing vaccines used in Anhui Province of China are safe. PMID:28192490

  2. The Measles Vaccination Narrative in Twitter: A Quantitative Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Radzikowski, Jacek; Stefanidis, Anthony; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Croitoru, Arie; Crooks, Andrew; Delamater, Paul L

    2016-01-01

    Background The emergence of social media is providing an alternative avenue for information exchange and opinion formation on health-related issues. Collective discourse in such media leads to the formation of a complex narrative, conveying public views and perceptions. Objective This paper presents a study of Twitter narrative regarding vaccination in the aftermath of the 2015 measles outbreak, both in terms of its cyber and physical characteristics. We aimed to contribute to the analysis of...

  3. Household experience and costs of seeking measles vaccination in rural Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byberg, Stine; Fisker, A B; Rodrigues, A.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Children younger than 12 months of age are eligible for childhood vaccines through the public health system in Guinea-Bissau. To limit open vial wastage, a restrictive vial opening policy has been implemented; 10-dose measles vaccine vials are only opened if six or more children aged 9......-11 months are present at the vaccination post. Consequently, mothers who bring their child for measles vaccination can be told to return another day. We aimed to describe the household experience and estimate household costs of seeking measles vaccination in rural Guinea-Bissau. METHODS: Within a national...... sample of village clusters under demographic surveillance, we interviewed mothers of children aged 9-21 months about their experience with seeking measles vaccination. From information about time and money spent, we calculated household costs of seeking measles vaccination. RESULTS: We interviewed...

  4. Polymorphisms in key innate immune genes and their effects on measles vaccine responses and vaccine failure in children from Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Holly D; Hayden, Catherine M; Khoo, Siew-Kim; Naniche, Denise; Mandomando, Inacio M; Zhang, Guicheng; Richmond, Peter; Le Souëf, Peter N

    2012-09-21

    Despite an effective vaccine, measles remains a major health problem globally, particularly in developing countries. More than 30% of children show primary vaccine failure and therefore remain vulnerable to measles. Genetic variation in key innate pathogen recognition receptors, such as the measles cell entry receptors CD46 and SLAM, measles attachment receptor DC-SIGN, the antiviral toll-like receptors (TLR)3, TLR7 and TLR8, and the cytosolic antiviral receptor RIG-I, may significantly affect measles IgG antibody responses. Measles is still highly prevalent in developing countries such as those in Africa however there is no previous data on the effect of these innate immune genes in a resident African population. Polymorphisms (n=29) in the candidate genes were genotyped in a cohort of vaccinated children (n=238) aged 6 months-14 years from Mozambique, Africa who either had vaccine failure and contracted measles (cases; n=66) or controls (n=172). Contrasting previous associations with measles responses in Caucasians and/or strong evidence for candidacy, we found little indication that these key innate immune genes affect measles IgG responses in our cohort of Mozambican children. We did however identify that CD46 and TLR8 variants may be involved in the occurrence of measles vaccine failure. This study highlights the importance of genetic studies in resident, non-Caucasian populations, from areas where determining the factors that may affect measles control is of a high priority.

  5. Measles Vaccine : A Study On Seroconversion And Side Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Abida

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: 1. What is the extent of immune response of Edmonston Zagreb Strain in children? 2. What are the side effects of this vaccine? Objectives: 1. To follow up children after Edmonston Zagreb strain vaccination for evaluation of seroconverstion. Study: Cross sectional Setting: Well Baby Clinic of pediatrics OPD at J.N. Medical College, A.M.U., Aigarh (U.P participants: Children between 9-15 months. Sample Size: 100 consecutive children coming for routine immunization. Study variable: Malnourished and poor socio-economic status Outcome variable: Extent of seroconversion with no statistical significant difference between malnourished and socio-economically poor children. 26% showed minor self-limiting post vaccination reactions in all age groups. Recommendations: Edmonston Zagreb measles vaccine is recommended since it has very good immunogenic activity and post vaccination reactions.

  6. Decreasing Seroprevalence of Measles Antibodies after Vaccination - Possible Gap in Measles Protection in Adults in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Jan; Chlibek, Roman; Hanovcova, Irena; Sosovickova, Renata; Smetanova, Libuse; Gal, Peter; Dite, Petr

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, Europe has recorded an increase in the number of measles outbreaks despite the implementation of vaccination into the National Immunization Programs. The Czech Republic introduced vaccination against measles into National Immunization Program in 1969. The aim of this study was to determine seroprevalence of IgG antibodies against measles in adults. Our study was designed as a prospective, multicenter cohort study. Samples of blood were taken from adults aged 18 years and over. Specific IgG antibodies were determined by ELISA method. A number of 1911 sera samples were obtained. The total seropositivity reached 83.3%, 14.3% of the results were negative and 2.4% were borderline. When comparing the individual age groups, the highest antibody seropositivity (> 96%) was detected in persons aged 50 years and over who were naturally infected in pre-vaccine era. The lowest seropositivity was recorded in the age groups 30-39 years (61.5%), 40-49 years (77.5%) and 18-29 years (81.1%). A long term high rate of seropositivity persists after natural measles infection. By contrast, it decreases over time after vaccination. Similarly, the concentrations of antibodies in persons with measles history persist for a longer time at a higher level than in vaccinated persons. Our results indicate possible gap in measles protection in adults born after implementation of vaccination into the National Immunization Programs. There are two probable reasons, decrease of measles antibody seropositivity in time after vaccination in setting of limited natural booster and one-dose vaccination schedule used in the first years after implementation.

  7. Decreasing Seroprevalence of Measles Antibodies after Vaccination – Possible Gap in Measles Protection in Adults in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Jan; Chlibek, Roman; Hanovcova, Irena; Sosovickova, Renata; Smetanova, Libuse; Gal, Peter; Dite, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Aims In recent years, Europe has recorded an increase in the number of measles outbreaks despite the implementation of vaccination into the National Immunization Programs. The Czech Republic introduced vaccination against measles into National Immunization Program in 1969. The aim of this study was to determine seroprevalence of IgG antibodies against measles in adults. Methods Our study was designed as a prospective, multicenter cohort study. Samples of blood were taken from adults aged 18 years and over. Specific IgG antibodies were determined by ELISA method. Results A number of 1911 sera samples were obtained. The total seropositivity reached 83.3%, 14.3% of the results were negative and 2.4% were borderline. When comparing the individual age groups, the highest antibody seropositivity (> 96%) was detected in persons aged 50 years and over who were naturally infected in pre-vaccine era. The lowest seropositivity was recorded in the age groups 30–39 years (61.5%), 40–49 years (77.5%) and 18–29 years (81.1%). Conclusions A long term high rate of seropositivity persists after natural measles infection. By contrast, it decreases over time after vaccination. Similarly, the concentrations of antibodies in persons with measles history persist for a longer time at a higher level than in vaccinated persons. Our results indicate possible gap in measles protection in adults born after implementation of vaccination into the National Immunization Programs. There are two probable reasons, decrease of measles antibody seropositivity in time after vaccination in setting of limited natural booster and one-dose vaccination schedule used in the first years after implementation. PMID:28085960

  8. Multigenic control of measles vaccine immunity mediated by polymorphisms in measles receptor, innate pathway, and cytokine genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Richard B; Ovsyannikova, Inna G; Haralambieva, Iana H; O'Byrne, Megan M; Jacobson, Robert M; Pankratz, V Shane; Poland, Gregory A

    2012-03-09

    Measles infection and vaccine response are complex biological processes that involve both viral and host genetic factors. We have previously investigated the influence of genetic polymorphisms on vaccine immune response, including measles vaccines, and have shown that polymorphisms in HLA, cytokine, cytokine receptor, and innate immune response genes are associated with variation in vaccine response but do not account for all of the inter-individual variance seen in vaccinated populations. In the current study we report the findings of a multigenic analysis of measles vaccine immunity, indicating a role for the measles virus receptor CD46, innate pattern-recognition receptors (DDX58, TLR2, 4, 5, 7 and 8) and intracellular signaling intermediates (MAP3K7, NFKBIA), and key antiviral molecules (VISA, OAS2, MX1, PKR) as well as cytokines (IFNA1, IL4, IL6, IL8, IL12B) and cytokine receptor genes (IL2RB, IL6R, IL8RA) in the genetic control of both humoral and cellular immune responses. This multivariate approach provided additional insights into the genetic control of measles vaccine responses over and above the information gained by our previous univariate SNP association analyses.

  9. Facts about Measles for Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Glance Adolescent Vaccination Recommendation: MMR About Measles Facts about Measles for Adults What is measles? Measles ... are pregnant or severely immunosuppressed. Disease and vaccine facts FACT: Measles can be prevented with a safe ...

  10. Measles vaccination in humanitarian emergencies: a review of recent practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watson John

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The health needs of children and adolescents in humanitarian emergencies are critical to the success of relief efforts and reduction in mortality. Measles has been one of the major causes of child deaths in humanitarian emergencies and further contributes to mortality by exacerbating malnutrition and vitamin A deficiency. Here, we review measles vaccination activities in humanitarian emergencies as documented in published literature. Our main interest was to review the available evidence focusing on the target age range for mass vaccination campaigns either in response to a humanitarian emergency or in response to an outbreak of measles in a humanitarian context to determine whether the current guidance required revision based on recent experience. Methods We searched the published literature for articles published from January 1, 1998 to January 1, 2010 reporting on measles in emergencies. As definitions and concepts of emergencies vary and have changed over time, we chose to consider any context where an application for either a Consolidated Appeals Process or a Flash Appeal to the UN Central Emergency Revolving Fund (CERF occurred during the period examined. We included publications from countries irrespective of their progress in measles control as humanitarian emergencies may occur in any of these contexts and as such, guidance applies irrespective of measles control goals. Results Of the few well-documented epidemic descriptions in humanitarian emergencies, the age range of cases is not limited to under 5 year olds. Combining all data, both from preventive and outbreak response interventions, about 59% of cases in reports with sufficient data reviewed here remain in children under 5, 18% in 5-15 and 2% above 15 years. In instances where interventions targeted a reduced age range, several reports concluded that the age range should have been extended to 15 years, given that a significant proportion of cases occurred

  11. Measles epidemic from 1951 to 2012 and vaccine effectiveness in Guangzhou, Southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhicong; Xu, Jianxiong; Wang, Ming; Di, Biao; Tan, Huifeng; He, Qing; Cai, Yanshan; Liang, Jianhua; Hu, Wensui; Dong, Zhiqiang; Yang, Yunqing; Fu, Chuanxi

    2014-01-01

    Background Since the National Expanded Program on Immunization was implemented in China, considerable progress has been made in reducing the incidence of measles. However, the incidence of measles increased again in 2004. Few post-marketing studies on measles vaccine effectiveness were reported in China. In this study, we aimed to describe the measles epidemic and to evaluate the effectiveness of the measles vaccine in Guangzhou, southern China. Methods Based on the surveillance data for measles, we investigated the epidemiology during different periods between 1951 and 2012. We analyzed the clinical characteristics of laboratory-confirmed cases of measles between 2009 and 2012 and conducted a case-control study using test-negative cases as controls. We determined the protective effect of measles vaccine. Results The highest annual incidence in Guangzhou was 2187.15/100 000 in 1964, and the lowest was 0.32/100 000 in 2011. The average incidence of measles from 1951 to 2012 was 306.27/100 000. There was a significant tendency of decline in recent years. From 2009 to 2012, there are 700 laboratory-confirmed cases reported with an average onset age of 2.5 (median) years. The non-vaccinated target population (age measles vaccine (aged 8 months to 14 years). The effectiveness of a single dose of the measles vaccine was 89.1% (95% confidence interval (CI), 44.5–97.9), and the effectiveness of ≥2 doses of the measles vaccine was 97.8% (95% CI, 88.3–99.6) in children aged 8 months to 14 years old. Conclusions There is a significant overall decline in the incidence of measles (including clinical and laboratory confirmed cases) in the measles vaccine targeted population in Guangzhou. Two doses of measles vaccine are more effective than one dose in preventing measles in China. In order to accelerate the elimination of measles, vaccination should also be given to the transient and the non-vaccine targeted population. PMID:24513504

  12. Timeliness vaccination of measles containing vaccine and barriers to vaccination among migrant children in East China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Hu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The reported coverage rates of first and second doses of measles containing vaccine (MCV are almost 95% in China, while measles cases are constantly being reported. This study evaluated the vaccine coverage, timeliness, and barriers to immunization of MCV1 and MCV2 in children aged from 8-48 months. METHODS: We assessed 718 children aged 8-48 months, of which 499 children aged 18-48 months in September 2011. Face to face interviews were administered with children's mothers to estimate MCV1 and MCV2 coverage rate, its timeliness and barriers to vaccine uptake. RESULTS: The coverage rates were 76.9% for MCV1 and 44.7% for MCV2 in average. Only 47.5% of surveyed children received the MCV1 timely, which postpone vaccination by up to one month beyond the stipulated age of 8 months. Even if coverage thus improves with time, postponed vaccination adds to the pool of unprotected children in the population. Being unaware of the necessity for vaccination and its schedule, misunderstanding of side-effect of vaccine, and child being sick during the recommended vaccination period were significant preventive factors for both MCV1 and MCV2 vaccination. Having multiple children, mother's education level, household income and children with working mothers were significantly associated with delayed or missing MCV1 immunization. CONCLUSIONS: To avoid future outbreaks, it is crucial to attain high coverage levels by timely vaccination, thus, accurate information should be delivered and a systematic approach should be targeted to high-risk groups.

  13. Waning of vaccine-induced immunity to measles in kidney transplanted children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, Salvatore; Santilli, Veronica; Cotugno, Nicola; Concato, Carlo; Manno, Emma Concetta; Nocentini, Giulia; Macchiarulo, Giulia; Cancrini, Caterina; Finocchi, Andrea; Guzzo, Isabella; Dello Strologo, Luca; Palma, Paolo

    2016-09-01

    Vaccine-preventable diseases are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in solid organ transplant recipients who undergo immunosuppression after transplantation. Data on immune responses and long-term maintenance after vaccinations in such population are still limited.We cross-sectionally evaluated the maintenance of immune response to measles vaccine in kidney transplanted children on immunosuppressive therapy. Measles-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and B-cell enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot were performed in 74 kidney transplant patients (Tps) and in 23 healthy controls (HCs) previously vaccinated and tested for humoral protection against measles. The quality of measles antibody response was measured by avidity test. B-cell phenotype, investigated via flow cytometry, was further correlated to the ability of Tps to maintain protective humoral responses to measles over time.We observed the loss of vaccine-induced immunity against measles in 19% of Tps. Nonseroprotected children showed signs of impaired B-cell distribution as well as immune senescence and lower antibody avidity. We further reported as time elapsed between vaccination and transplantation, as well as the vaccine administration during dialysis are clinical factors affecting the maintenance of the immune memory response against measles.Tps present both quantitative and qualitative alterations in the maintenance of protective immunity to measles vaccine. Prospective studies are needed to optimize the vaccination schedules in kidney transplant recipients in order to increase the immunization coverage over time in this population.

  14. Vaccine-associated measles in the low-incidence country of Korea over a 10-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Young June; Eom, Hye Suk; Bae, Geun-Ryang

    2014-01-01

    As the incidence of measles decreases, cases reported as suspected measles will increasingly involve rash associated with measles vaccination itself. In this study, we assessed vaccine-associated measles cases reported in Korea between 2002 and 2012 using a standardized assessment and following by the World Health Organization case definition criteria. We retrospectively analyzed data regarding (i) wild-type measles and (ii) vaccine-associated measles in patients aged 12-23 months. The presence or absence of fever, rash, cough, coryza, conjunctivitis, and Koplik spots were reviewed. Males were more likely to be reported with vaccine-associated measles than with wild-type measles (68% vs. 47%, P measles peaked between April and July, whereas that of patients with vaccine-associated measles remained relatively constant throughout the year. However, after excluding the cases reported during the 2007 outbreak in Korea, the trend was similar between the two groups. Cough, coryza, and conjunctivitis were more likely to be present in patients with wild-type measles (32-61% vs. 10-43%, P vaccine-associated measles. We therefore conclude that cough, coryza, and conjunctivitis may be useful as key positive findings to distinguish between wild-type measles and vaccine-associated measles infection among 12-23-month-old patients in a country with a low incidence of measles.

  15. Measles-mumps-rubella vaccination and respiratory syncytial virus-associated hospital contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Christine Stabell; Sørup, Signe; Stensballe, Lone Graff

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The live measles vaccine has been associated with lower non-measles mortality and admissions in low-income countries. The live measles-mumps-rubella vaccine has also been associated with lower rate of admissions with any type of infection in Danish children; the association...... was strongest for admissions with lower respiratory infections. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccination was associated with reduced rate of hospital contact related to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in a high-income country. METHODS: Nationwide cohort study of laboratory...

  16. Immunogenicity and safety of monovalent RIVM meningococcal B OMP vesicle F91 vaccine administered to children that received hexavalent meningococcal B vaccine 2.5 years ago

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lafeber AB; Limpt CJP van; Berbers GAM; Labadie J; Kleijn ED de; Groot R de; Rumke HC; Alphen AJW van; Sophia Kinderziekenhuis /; LVO

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the results with respect to immunogenicity as well as reactogenicity of a monovalent P1.7h,4 OMV vaccine (MonoMen) used as booster vaccination in children previously vaccinated with a hexavalent MenB vaccine. The participants in this study were immunised in 1995-1996 with hexav

  17. Post-vaccine measles in a child with concomitant influenza, Sicily, Italy, March 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramuto, F; Dones, P; D Angelo, C; Casuccio, N; Vitale, F

    2015-05-21

    We describe the occurrence of measles in an 18 month-old patient in Sicily, Italy, in March 2015, who received the first dose of a measles-containing vaccine seven days before onset of prodromal symptoms. Measles virus infection was confirmed by PCR and detection of specific immunoglobulin; viral genotyping permitted the confirmation of a vaccine-associated illness. The patient had a concurrent influenza virus infection, during a seasonal epidemic outbreak of influenza.

  18. Reverse genetics of measles virus and resulting multivalent recombinant vaccines: applications of recombinant measles viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billeter, M A; Naim, H Y; Udem, S A

    2009-01-01

    An overview is given on the development of technologies to allow reverse genetics of RNA viruses, i.e., the rescue of viruses from cDNA, with emphasis on nonsegmented negative-strand RNA viruses (Mononegavirales), as exemplified for measles virus (MV). Primarily, these technologies allowed site-directed mutagenesis, enabling important insights into a variety of aspects of the biology of these viruses. Concomitantly, foreign coding sequences were inserted to (a) allow localization of virus replication in vivo through marker gene expression, (b) develop candidate multivalent vaccines against measles and other pathogens, and (c) create candidate oncolytic viruses. The vector use of these viruses was experimentally encouraged by the pronounced genetic stability of the recombinants unexpected for RNA viruses, and by the high load of insertable genetic material, in excess of 6 kb. The known assets, such as the small genome size of the vector in comparison to DNA viruses proposed as vectors, the extensive clinical experience of attenuated MV as vaccine with a proven record of high safety and efficacy, and the low production cost per vaccination dose are thus favorably complemented.

  19. Gender differentials in the timing of measles vaccination in rural India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu Rammohan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Measles is a highly contagious but vaccine-preventable disease. Gender differences in measles vaccination outcomes have been widely reported in India. Objective: An overlooked factor is whether female children are less likely to be vaccinated age-appropriately. Methods: In this paper we use data from the nationally representative 2008 District Level Household Survey (DLHS to analyse if there are any gender differences in the propensity to vaccinate a child for measles, and, among the vaccinated sample, whether there are any gender differences in the probability of age-appropriate measles vaccination. Results: Our analysis confirms that girls have both a significantly lower probability of being vaccinated and of being vaccinated age-appropriately.

  20. Reasons for measles cases not being vaccinated with MMR: investigation into parents' and carers' views following a large measles outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, P; Keenan, A; Ghebrehewet, S

    2016-03-01

    Uptake rates for the combined measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine have been below the required 95% in the UK since a retracted and discredited article linking the MMR vaccine with autism and inflammatory bowel disease was released in 1998. This study undertook semi-structured telephone interviews among parents or carers of 47 unvaccinated measles cases who were aged between 13 months and 9 years, during a large measles outbreak in Merseyside. Results showed that concerns over the specific links with autism remain an important cause of refusal to vaccinate, with over half of respondents stating this as a reason. A quarter stated child illness during scheduled vaccination time, while other reasons included general safety concerns and access issues. Over half of respondents felt that more information or a discussion with a health professional would help the decision-making process, while a third stated improved access. There was clear support for vaccination among respondents when asked about current opinions regarding MMR vaccine. The findings support the hypothesis that safety concerns remain a major barrier to MMR vaccination, and also support previous evidence that experience of measles is an important determinant in the decision to vaccinate.

  1. Measles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measles is an infectious disease caused by a virus. It spreads easily from person to person. It ... down Tiny white spots inside the mouth Sometimes measles can lead to serious problems. There is no ...

  2. Reduced All-Cause Child Mortality After General Measles Vaccination Campaign in Rural Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Ane Bærent; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Martins, Cesario

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Randomised trials have shown that measles vaccine (MV) prevents non-measles deaths. MV-campaigns are conducted to eliminate measles infection.The overall mortality effect of MV-campaigns has not been studied. METHODS: Bandim Health Project (BHP) surveys children aged 0-4 years in rural...... in the 12 months after the campaign, compared with 203 and 206 deaths in the two previous years, the adjusted mortality rate ratio (aMRR) comparing all children in 2006 with all children in 2004-2005 being 0.80 (95%CI: 0.66-0.96).Censoring deaths due to measles infection the aMRR was 0.83 (0.69-1.00).The...... by prevention of measles deaths. If MV-campaigns reduce non-measles related mortality the policies for measles vaccination should take this into account....

  3. Predictors of Uptake and Timeliness of Newly Introduced Pneumococcal and Rotavirus Vaccines, and of Measles Vaccine in Rural Malawi: A Population Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazzie Mvula

    Full Text Available Malawi introduced pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13 and monovalent rotavirus vaccine (RV1 in 2011 and 2012 respectively, and is planning the introduction of a second-dose measles vaccine (MV. We assessed predictors of availability, uptake and timeliness of these vaccines in a rural Malawian setting.Commencing on the first date of PCV13 eligibility we conducted a prospective population-based birth cohort study of 2,616 children under demographic surveillance in Karonga District, northern Malawi who were eligible for PCV13, or from the date of RV1 introduction both PCV13 and RV1. Potential predictors of vaccine uptake and timeliness for PCV13, RV1 and MV were analysed respectively using robust Poisson and Cox regression.Vaccine coverage was high for all vaccines, ranging from 86.9% for RV1 dose 2 to 95.4% for PCV13 dose 1. Median time delay for PCV13 dose 1 was 17 days (IQR 7-36, 19 days (IQR 8-36 for RV1 dose 1 and 20 days (IQR 3-46 for MV. Infants born to lower educated or farming mothers and those living further away from the road or clinic were at greater risk of being not fully vaccinated and being vaccinated late. Delays in vaccination were also associated with non-facility birth. Vaccine stock-outs resulted in both a delay in vaccine timeliness and in a decrease in completion of schedule.Despite high vaccination coverage in this setting, delays in vaccination were common. We identified programmatic and socio-demographic risk factors for uptake and timeliness of vaccination. Understanding who remains most vulnerable to be unvaccinated allows for focussed delivery thereby increasing population coverage and maximising the equitable benefits of universal vaccination programmes.

  4. The genetic basis for interindividual immune response variation to measles vaccine: new understanding and new vaccine approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haralambieva, Iana H; Ovsyannikova, Inna G; Pankratz, V Shane; Kennedy, Richard B; Jacobson, Robert M; Poland, Gregory A

    2013-01-01

    The live-attenuated measles vaccine is effective, but measles outbreaks still occur in vaccinated populations. This warrants elucidation of the determinants of measles vaccine-induced protective immunity. Interindividual variability in markers of measles vaccine-induced immunity, including neutralizing antibody levels, is regulated in part by host genetic factor variations. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of measles vaccine immunogenetics relative to the perspective of developing better measles vaccines. Important genetic regulators of measles vaccine-induced immunity, such as HLA class I and HLA class II genotypes, single nucleotide polymorphisms in cytokine/cytokine receptor genes (IL12B, IL12RB1, IL2, IL10) and the cell surface measles virus receptor CD46 gene, have been identified and independently replicated. New technologies present many opportunities for identification of novel genetic signatures and genetic architectures. These findings help explain a variety of immune response-related phenotypes and promote a new paradigm of 'vaccinomics' for novel vaccine development.

  5. Yeast lysates carrying the nucleoprotein from measles virus vaccine as a novel subunit vaccine platform to deliver Plasmodium circumsporozoite antigen

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daria Jacob; Claude Ruffie; Chantal Combredet; Pauline Formaglio; Rogerio Amino; Robert Menard; Frederic Tangy; Monica Sala

    2017-01-01

    .... In this study, Pichia pastoris yeast lysates carrying the nucleoprotein (N) from the measles vaccine virus were evaluated as a novel subunit vaccine platform to deliver the circumsporozoite surface antigen (CS) of Plasmodium...

  6. Measles vaccination coverage and seroprevalence of anti-measles antibody in south-east Islamic Republic of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadi, S; Mokhtari-Azad, T; Zahraei, S M

    2015-09-08

    Discrepancies often exist between recorded immunization coverage and the real immunity level in a community. To estimate the vaccination coverage against measles in south-east Islamic Republic of Iran, a crosssectional study was conducted in 3 districts during summer 2011. Using probability proportional to size cluster sampling, 1368 children aged 30-54 months were selected. Serum samples of 663 who had received 2 injections of mumpsmeasles- rubella (MMR) vaccine were checked for anti-measles IgG. Vaccination coverage for the second dose of MMR vaccine was 93.7%. The prevalence of anti-measles IgG in those who had received at least 2 MMR vaccine doses was 94.6%. There was a statistically significant association between the serological results and variables that reflected poor accessibility to health services. Combining serological results with coverage data, the proportion of the community protected against measles was estimated as 88.6%, which was below the limits defined for the measles elimination goals.

  7. Reaching Hard-to-Reach Individuals: Nonselective Versus Targeted Outbreak Response Vaccination for Measles

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Current mass vaccination campaigns in measles outbreak response are nonselective with respect to the immune status of individuals. However, the heterogeneity in immunity, due to previous vaccination coverage or infection, may lead to potential bias of such campaigns toward those with previous high access to vaccination and may result in a lower-than-expected effective impact. During the 2010 measles outbreak in Malawi, only 3 of the 8 districts where vaccination occurred achieved a measureabl...

  8. Current vaccination status regarding measles among university students in Dresden, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemenschneider, Henna; Schübel, Jeannine; Bergmann, Antje; Kugler, Joachim; Voigt, Karen

    2015-12-01

    Germany aimed to eliminate measles by 2015, but vaccination coverage is still insufficient, especially in respect to adolescents and young adults. A cross-sectional survey with 711 students studying a range of subjects showed a high acceptance regarding vaccination. Actual self-reported vaccination rates were lower; only 65.5% of medical students and 25.3%-39.4% of other student groups reported complete vaccination against measles. Of the students, 12.6%-45% did not know their vaccination status. Vaccination acceptance did not correlate with vaccination behavior: accessible vaccination opportunities at universities should be offered.

  9. Factors affecting compliance with the measles vaccination schedule in a Brazilian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Logullo

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The success of vaccination campaigns depends on the degree of adherence to immunization initiatives and schedules. Risk factors associated with children's failure to receive the measles vaccine at the correct age were studied in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. DESIGN AND SETTING: Case-control and exploratory study, in the metropolitan area of São Paulo. METHODS: The caregivers of 122 children were interviewed regarding their perceptions and understanding about the measles vaccination and the disease. RESULTS: The results showed that age, region of residence, marital status and education level were unrelated to taking measles vaccines adequately. Most individuals remembered being informed about the last annual vaccination campaign by television, but no communication channel was significantly associated with vaccination status. The answers to questions about knowledge of the disease or the vaccine, when analyzed alone, were not associated with taking measles vaccinations at the time indicated by health agencies. The results showed that, when parents felt sorry for their children who were going to receive shots, they delayed the vaccination. Most of the children did not take the measles vaccination on the exactly recommended date, but delayed or anticipated the shots. CONCLUSION: It is clear that there is no compliance with the government's recommended measles vaccination schedule (i.e. first dose at nine and second at 15 months of age, as recommended in 1999 and 2000. Feeling sorry for the children receiving shots can delay vaccination taking.

  10. Antigenic specificity of a monovalent versus polyvalent MOMP based Chlamydia pecorum vaccine in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollipara, Avinash; Wan, Charles; Rawlinson, Galit; Brumm, Jacqui; Nilsson, Karen; Polkinghorne, Adam; Beagley, Kenneth; Timms, Peter

    2013-02-06

    Chlamydia continues to be a major pathogen of koalas. The bacterium is associated with ocular, respiratory and urogenital tract infections and a vaccine is considered the best option to limit the decline of mainland koala populations. Over the last 20 years, efforts to develop a chlamydial vaccine in humans have focussed on the use of the chlamydial major outer membrane protein (MOMP). Potential problems with the use of MOMP-based vaccines relate to the wide range of genetic diversity in its four variable domains. In the present study, we evaluated the immune response of koalas vaccinated with a MOMP-based C. pecorum vaccine formulated with genetically and serologically diverse MOMPs. Animals immunised with individual MOMPs developed strong antibody and lymphocyte proliferation responses to both homologous as well as heterologous MOMP proteins. Importantly, we also showed that vaccine induced antibodies which effectively neutralised various heterologous strains of koala C. pecorum in an in vitro assay. Finally, we also demonstrated that the immune responses in monovalent as well as polyvalent MOMP vaccine groups were able to recognise whole chlamydial elementary bodies, illustrating the feasibility of developing an effective MOMP based C. pecorum vaccine that could protect against a range of strains. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effective vaccine communication during the disneyland measles outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broniatowski, David A; Hilyard, Karen M; Dredze, Mark

    2016-06-14

    Vaccine refusal rates have increased in recent years, highlighting the need for effective risk communication, especially over social media. Fuzzy-trace theory predicts that individuals encode bottom-line meaning ("gist") and statistical information ("verbatim") in parallel and those articles expressing a clear gist will be most compelling. We coded news articles (n=4581) collected during the 2014-2015 Disneyland measles for content including statistics, stories, or bottom-line gists regarding vaccines and vaccine-preventable illnesses. We measured the extent to which articles were compelling by how frequently they were shared on Facebook. The most widely shared articles expressed bottom-line gists, although articles containing statistics were also more likely to be shared than articles lacking statistics. Stories had limited impact on Facebook shares. Results support Fuzzy Trace Theory's predictions regarding the distinct yet parallel impact of categorical gist and statistical verbatim information on public health communication.

  12. Household experience and costs of seeking measles vaccination in rural Guinea-Bissau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byberg, S; Fisker, A B; Rodrigues, A; Balde, I; Enemark, U; Aaby, P; Benn, C S; Griffiths, U K

    2017-01-01

    Children younger than 12 months of age are eligible for childhood vaccines through the public health system in Guinea-Bissau. To limit open vial wastage, a restrictive vial opening policy has been implemented; 10-dose measles vaccine vials are only opened if six or more children aged 9-11 months are present at the vaccination post. Consequently, mothers who bring their child for measles vaccination can be told to return another day. We aimed to describe the household experience and estimate household costs of seeking measles vaccination in rural Guinea-Bissau. Within a national sample of village clusters under demographic surveillance, we interviewed mothers of children aged 9-21 months about their experience with seeking measles vaccination. From information about time and money spent, we calculated household costs of seeking measles vaccination. We interviewed mothers of 1308 children of whom 1043 (80%) had sought measles vaccination at least once. Measles vaccination coverage was 70% (910/1308). Coverage decreased with increasing distance to the health centre. On average, mothers who had taken their child for vaccination took their child 1.4 times. Mean costs of achieving 70% coverage were 2.04 USD (SD 3.86) per child taken for vaccination. Half of the mothers spent more than 2 h seeking vaccination and 11% spent money on transportation. We found several indications of missed opportunities for measles vaccination resulting in suboptimal coverage. The household costs comprised 3.3% of the average monthly income and should be taken into account when assessing the costs of delivering vaccinations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Development and evaluation of the TD97 measles virus vaccine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, K.; Morita, M.; Katoh, M.; Kidokoro, M.; Saika, S.; Yoshizawa, S.; Hashizume, S.; Horiuchi, K.; Okabe, N.; Shinozaki, T. (Chiba Serum Institute (Japan))

    1990-11-01

    The TD97 strain vaccine virus was prepared from the Tanabe strain measles virus by low-temperature passages in primary cell cultures and ultraviolet (UV) mutagenesis. The TD97 strain exhibited the following characteristics: highly temperature sensitive, neither multiplying nor forming any plaques at 40 degrees C in Vero cells; genetically stable, maintaining high temperature sensitivity after ten successive passages in CE cells at 30 degrees C or 35 degrees C; and M proteins of this virus about 1 KD slower in mobility in SDS-PAGE than that of the Tanabe strain. The TD97 strain was further confirmed to be attenuated by an inoculation test into primate brain. In field trials, 752 healthy children were inoculated with a live virus vaccine prepared with this strain, and the following results were obtained: the seroconversion rate was 97% (517/533), and the average HI antibody titer was 2(5.2). An antibody-increasing effect was also observed in children who were initially seropositive. In children who seroconverted, the rates of fever were 15.7% (55/351) for 37.5 degrees C or higher and 4.0% (14/351) for 39 degrees C or higher. The rash rate was 7.7% (27/351), and the incidence of local reaction was 5.4% (19/351). The TD97 strain is thus considered to be suitable in use for an attenuated measles vaccine.

  14. Measles, Mumps, Rubella (MMR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at Each Vaccine: MMR (Measles, Mumps and Rubella) Vaccine Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP): Learn about measles, how ... Disease Control and Prevention AAP Urges Parents to Vaccinate Children to Protect Against Measles (1/23/15) American ...

  15. Immune response to 1 and 2 dose regimens of measles vaccine in Pakistani children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Hamidah; Akram, Dure Samin; Chandir, Subhash; Khan, Aamir J; Memon, Ashraf; Halsey, Neal A

    2013-12-01

    Measles is a significant problem in Pakistan despite vaccine coverage rates reported at 80%. The purpose of this study was to determine the serologic response in children after one dose of measles vaccine at 9 mo versus two doses at 9 and 15 mo of age. From March through December 2006, children were enrolled from immunization clinics and squatter settlements in Karachi. Blood samples were taken from children in Group A at 9-10 mo of age prior to measles vaccine and 8 to 11 weeks later; from children in Group B at 16-17 mo of age after receiving 2 doses of measles vaccine; and from children in Group C who had received at least one dose of measles vaccine by 5 y of age. After the first dose of measles vaccine, 107/147 (73%) of children in Group A were seropositive, 157/180 (87%) of children in Group B were seropositive after two doses and 126/200 (63%) of children in Group C were seropositive at 5 y of age. The post-vaccination geometric mean antibody concentrations were higher in females than males in groups A (irrespective of pre-vaccination antibody levels) and B. The serologic response to one and two doses of measles vaccine was lower in children in Karachi than has been reported in many other countries. Two doses of vaccine were significantly better than one dose. An in-depth investigation is needed to determine the reason for the lower-than-expected protection rates. Differences in immunogenicity between genders need to be further studied. Recent introduction of supplemental measles vaccine doses should help control measles in Pakistan.

  16. [Effectiveness, population-level effects, and heath economics of measles and rubella vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, O; Ultsch, B

    2013-09-01

    Vaccination against measles and rubella has been included in national immunization programs worldwide for several decades. In this article, we present the evidence related to the effectiveness of measles and rubella vaccination based on published systematic reviews, and we describe the epidemiological and health economic effects of vaccination at a population level. Several observational studies demonstrate the high effectiveness (> 90 %) of both measles and rubella vaccination. The global measles mortality reduction and the dramatic decrease in rubella and measles incidences after introduction of routine immunization contribute to the very high quality of evidence. The countries of the Americas have proved that it is feasible to eliminate measles and rubella by strengthening infant immunization through routine vaccination services and by conducting supplemental immunization activities in other childhood age groups so as to close immunity gaps. An economic evaluation of measles and rubella vaccination specifically for the healthcare system in Germany does not exist. However, we conducted a systematic review and identified 11 health-economic studies from other industrialized countries and one for a hypothetical industrialized country. Results indicate that vaccination against measles and rubella had either a cost-effective or even a cost-saving potential, which could be assumed with some limitations also for the German setting. In conclusion, there is compelling evidence that the available vaccines are very effective and that measles and rubella elimination is feasible if adequate vaccination strategies are implemented. In Germany, catch-up vaccination programs are urgently needed for children, adolescents, and young adults specifically in the western federal states.

  17. Transport networks and inequities in vaccination: remoteness shapes measles vaccine coverage and prospects for elimination across Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, C J E; Tatem, A; Bjornstad, O N; Lessler, J; O'Reilly, K; Takahashi, S; Cutts, F; Grenfell, B T

    2015-05-01

    Measles vaccination is estimated to have averted 13·8 million deaths between 2000 and 2012. Persisting heterogeneity in coverage is a major contributor to continued measles mortality, and a barrier to measles elimination and introduction of rubella-containing vaccine. Our objective is to identify determinants of inequities in coverage, and how vaccine delivery must change to achieve elimination goals, which is a focus of the WHO Decade of Vaccines. We combined estimates of travel time to the nearest urban centre (⩾50 000 people) with vaccination data from Demographic Health Surveys to assess how remoteness affects coverage in 26 African countries. Building on a statistical mapping of coverage against age and geographical isolation, we quantified how modifying the rate and age range of vaccine delivery affects national coverage. Our scenario analysis considers increasing the rate of delivery of routine vaccination, increasing the target age range of routine vaccination, and enhanced delivery to remote areas. Geographical isolation plays a key role in defining vaccine inequity, with greater inequity in countries with lower measles vaccine coverage. Eliminating geographical inequities alone will not achieve thresholds for herd immunity, indicating that changes in delivery rate or age range of routine vaccination will be required. Measles vaccine coverage remains far below targets for herd immunity in many countries on the African continent and is likely to be inadequate for achieving rubella elimination. The impact of strategies such as increasing the upper age range eligible for routine vaccination should be considered.

  18. Tolerability of Early Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccination in Infants Aged 6-14 Months during a Measles Outbreak in the Netherlands in 2013-2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Maas, Nicoline A T; Woudenberg, T.; Hahń, S. J M; De Melker, H. E.

    2016-01-01

    Background. In 2013–2014, a measles outbreak spread through the Netherlands. To protect young infants, measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination was offered to those aged 6–14 months in municipalities with routine first-dose MMR vaccine coverage of <90%. We assessed the tolerability of this early admi

  19. Child mortality related to seroconversion or lack of seroconversion after measles vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Pedersen, I R; Knudsen, K

    1989-01-01

    When blood samples were analyzed for seroconversion after measles vaccination, it was discovered that the vaccine had been ineffective for a certain period. During the 2 years between vaccination and the time of seroanalysis, nonseroconverters had a significantly higher mortality than...... children) were excluded from the analysis (P less than 0.01). The difference in mortality was particularly marked among children vaccinated in the age group 9 to 11 months. This as well as other community studies suggest that measles vaccination reduces child mortality from the age of vaccination...

  20. Progress towards Rapid Detection of Measles Vaccine Strains: a Tool To Inform Public Health Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Jill K

    2017-03-01

    Rapid differentiation of vaccine from wild-type strains in suspect measles cases is a valuable epidemiological tool that informs the public health response to this highly infectious disease. Few public health laboratories sequence measles virus-positive specimens to determine genotype, and the vaccine-specific real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (rRT-PCR) assay described by F. Roy et al. (J. Clin. Microbiol. 55:735-743, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1128/JCM.01879-16) offers a rapid, easily adoptable method to identify measles vaccine strains in suspect cases.

  1. Investigation of an outbreak of measles: failure to vaccinate or vaccine failure in a community of predominantly fishermen in Kerala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nujum, Zinia T; Varghese, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Measles outbreaks continue to occur in developing countries. This study attempted to explore the context of an outbreak of measles in a community of predominantly fishermen in Kerala to find out whether the outbreak was the result of a failure to vaccinate or failure of the vaccine itself. A cross sectional study was conducted in Mukkola village of Thiruvananthapuram district, Kerala, India. A total of 215 children of ages between 9 and 35 months were studied. Documented evidence of measles vaccination was available only in 71.6% (65.57-77.62) of the children. The risk factors for not being immunized against measles were being third or higher in birth order and having: a father whose occupation is fishing, low family income, lower parental education, Muslim religion and poor knowledge regarding measles and its vaccine. Of the 215 children studied, 43 had a history of measles. Thirty percent of these 43 children were younger than the age of vaccination. Unvaccinated children, children third or higher in birth order and children of families with more than 5 members had a significantly higher risk of contracting measles. Vaccine effectiveness was 76.6% (95% CI: 75.96-77.99). The prevalence of missed vaccination opportunities was found to be 15.8% (34/215). Even with the relatively low vaccine effectiveness, this outbreak could have been prevented by higher vaccination coverage. Lowering the age at administration of the first dose of measles vaccine needs to be considered. Effective utilization of opportunities for vaccination could enhance coverage and prevent outbreaks in the future.

  2. [Influence of genetic and phenotypical factors on the efficiency of the vaccination of young children against diphtheria and measles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordeeva, L A; Shabaldin, A V; Semenova, E M; Glushkov, A N

    2006-01-01

    The child's sex was shown to influence the character of antibody formation only after immunization against diphtheria with live measles vaccine: girls exhibited stronger reaction to vaccination than boys. Children of different gender were found to have characteristic HLA DR markers of humoral immune response to diphtheria toxoid and measles vaccine. HLA DR7 proved to be the marker of low production of antibodies to diphtheria toxoid and measles vaccine in boys.

  3. Paternal education status significantly influences infants’ measles vaccination uptake, independent of maternal education status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rammohan Anu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite increased funding of measles vaccination programs by national governments and international aid agencies, structural factors encumber attainment of childhood measles immunisation to levels which may guarantee herd immunity. One of such factors is parental education status. Research on the links between parental education and vaccination has typically focused on the influence of maternal education status. This study aims to demonstrate the independent influence of paternal education status on measles immunisation. Methods Comparable nationally representative survey data were obtained from six countries with the highest numbers of children missing the measles vaccine in 2008. Logistic regression analysis was applied to examine the influence of paternal education on uptake of the first dose of measles vaccination, independent of maternal education, whilst controlling for confounding factors such as respondent’s age, urban/rural residence, province/state of residence, religion, wealth and occupation. Results The results of the analysis show that even if a mother is illiterate, having a father with an education of Secondary (high school schooling and above is statistically significant and positively correlated with the likelihood of a child being vaccinated for measles, in the six countries analysed. Paternal education of secondary or higher level was significantly and independently correlated with measles immunisation uptake after controlling for all potential confounders. Conclusions The influence of paternal education status on measles immunisation uptake was investigated and found to be statistically significant in six nations with the biggest gaps in measles immunisation coverage in 2008. This study underscores the imperative of utilising both maternal and paternal education as screening variables to identify children at risk of missing measles vaccination prospectively.

  4. Paternal education status significantly influences infants' measles vaccination uptake, independent of maternal education status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rammohan, Anu; Awofeso, Niyi; Fernandez, Renae C

    2012-05-08

    Despite increased funding of measles vaccination programs by national governments and international aid agencies, structural factors encumber attainment of childhood measles immunisation to levels which may guarantee herd immunity. One of such factors is parental education status. Research on the links between parental education and vaccination has typically focused on the influence of maternal education status. This study aims to demonstrate the independent influence of paternal education status on measles immunisation. Comparable nationally representative survey data were obtained from six countries with the highest numbers of children missing the measles vaccine in 2008. Logistic regression analysis was applied to examine the influence of paternal education on uptake of the first dose of measles vaccination, independent of maternal education, whilst controlling for confounding factors such as respondent's age, urban/rural residence, province/state of residence, religion, wealth and occupation. The results of the analysis show that even if a mother is illiterate, having a father with an education of Secondary (high school) schooling and above is statistically significant and positively correlated with the likelihood of a child being vaccinated for measles, in the six countries analysed. Paternal education of secondary or higher level was significantly and independently correlated with measles immunisation uptake after controlling for all potential confounders. The influence of paternal education status on measles immunisation uptake was investigated and found to be statistically significant in six nations with the biggest gaps in measles immunisation coverage in 2008. This study underscores the imperative of utilising both maternal and paternal education as screening variables to identify children at risk of missing measles vaccination prospectively.

  5. Paternal education status significantly influences infants’ measles vaccination uptake, independent of maternal education status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite increased funding of measles vaccination programs by national governments and international aid agencies, structural factors encumber attainment of childhood measles immunisation to levels which may guarantee herd immunity. One of such factors is parental education status. Research on the links between parental education and vaccination has typically focused on the influence of maternal education status. This study aims to demonstrate the independent influence of paternal education status on measles immunisation. Methods Comparable nationally representative survey data were obtained from six countries with the highest numbers of children missing the measles vaccine in 2008. Logistic regression analysis was applied to examine the influence of paternal education on uptake of the first dose of measles vaccination, independent of maternal education, whilst controlling for confounding factors such as respondent’s age, urban/rural residence, province/state of residence, religion, wealth and occupation. Results The results of the analysis show that even if a mother is illiterate, having a father with an education of Secondary (high school) schooling and above is statistically significant and positively correlated with the likelihood of a child being vaccinated for measles, in the six countries analysed. Paternal education of secondary or higher level was significantly and independently correlated with measles immunisation uptake after controlling for all potential confounders. Conclusions The influence of paternal education status on measles immunisation uptake was investigated and found to be statistically significant in six nations with the biggest gaps in measles immunisation coverage in 2008. This study underscores the imperative of utilising both maternal and paternal education as screening variables to identify children at risk of missing measles vaccination prospectively. PMID:22568861

  6. The effect of early measles vaccination on thymic size. A randomized study from Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lone Damkjær; Eriksen, Helle Brander; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie

    2014-01-01

    In low-income countries early measles vaccine (MV) is associated with reduced child mortality which cannot be explained by prevention of measles. A large thymus gland in infancy is also associated with reduced mortality. We hypothesized that early MV is associated with increased thymic size. Within...

  7. The recombinant globular head domain of the measles virus hemagglutinin protein as a subunit vaccine against measles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobanova, Liubov M; Eng, Nelson F; Satkunarajah, Malathy; Mutwiri, George K; Rini, James M; Zakhartchouk, Alexander N

    2012-04-26

    Despite the availability of live attenuated measles virus (MV) vaccines, a large number of measles-associated deaths occur among infants in developing countries. The development of a measles subunit vaccine may circumvent the limitations associated with the current live attenuated vaccines and eventually contribute to global measles eradication. Therefore, the goal of this study was to test the feasibility of producing the recombinant globular head domain of the MV hemagglutinin (H) protein by stably transfected human cells and to examine the ability of this recombinant protein to elicit MV-specific immune responses. The recombinant protein was purified from the culture supernatant of stably transfected HEK293T cells secreting a tagged version of the protein. Two subcutaneous immunizations with the purified recombinant protein alone resulted in the production of MV-specific serum IgG and neutralizing antibodies in mice. Formulation of the protein with adjuvants (polyphosphazene or alum) further enhanced the humoral immune response and in addition resulted in the induction of cell-mediated immunity as measured by the production of MV H-specific interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin 5 (IL-5) by in vitro re-stimulated splenocytes. Furthermore, the inclusion of polyphosphazene into the vaccine formulation induced a mixed Th1/Th2-type immune response. In addition, the purified recombinant protein retained its immunogenicity even after storage at 37°C for 2 weeks.

  8. Immunogenicity of a recombinant measles HIV-1 subtype C vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebbings, Richard; Li, Bo; Lorin, Clarisse; Koutsoukos, Marguerite; Février, Michèle; Mee, Edward T; Page, Mark; Almond, Neil; Tangy, Frédéric; Voss, Gérald

    2013-12-09

    The HIV epidemic is greatest in Sub-Saharan Africa and India where HIV-1 subtype C is predominant. To control the spread of HIV in these parts of the world a preventive HIV-1 subtype C vaccine is urgently required. Here we report the immunogenicity of a candidate HIV-1 subtype C vaccine delivered by a recombinant measles vector carrying an insert encoding HIV-1 subtype C Gag, RT and Nef (MV1-F4), in MHC-typed non-human primates. HIV-1 specific cytokine secreting CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses were detected in 15 out of 16 vaccinees. These HIV-specific T cell responses persisted in lymphoid tissues. Anti-HIV-1 antibody responses were detected in 15 out of 16 vaccinees and titres were boosted by a second immunisation carried out 84 days later. These findings support further exploration of the MV1-F4 vector as a candidate HIV-1 subtype C vaccine or as part of a wider vaccine strategy.

  9. Strategic planning for measles control: using data to inform optimal vaccination strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Emily; Mort, Molly; Dabbagh, Alya; Strebel, Peter; Wolfson, Lara

    2011-07-01

    In response to repeated requests for assistance in evaluating the health benefit and cost implications of adjustments to national measles immunization strategies, the World Health Organization (WHO) has developed the Measles Strategic Planning (MSP) tool to harness routinely available data to estimate effectiveness and cost effectiveness of vaccination strategies. The MSP tool estimates measles incidence and mortality through a country-specific cohort model, using a probability of infection dependent on population immunity levels. This method approximates measles transmission dynamics without requiring detailed data that would prohibit use in low- and middle-income countries. Coupled with cost data, the tool estimates incremental costs and cost effectiveness of user-defined vaccination strategies over 5-10 year planning periods. The MSP tool produces valid estimates of measles incidence in settings with low to moderate vaccination coverage. Early adopters report that the tool facilitates decision making by minimizing the amount of time required to assess the impact of vaccination strategies on population immunity. By clearly illustrating what vaccination strategies can effectively protect against measles at the least cost to immunization programs, the MSP tool supports evidence-based decision making for effective and comprehensive measles control. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.

  10. Spotlight on measles in Italy: why outbreaks of a vaccine-preventable infection continue in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccirilli, Giulia; Lazzarotto, Tiziana; Chiereghin, Angela; Serra, Laura; Gabrielli, Liliana; Lanari, Marcello

    2015-03-01

    Measles is a serious infectious disease that can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Remarkable progress has been made through measles vaccination in reducing the number of people dying from measles. In the last years, concerns about the safety of vaccines have led to decline in immunization coverage rates and new outbreaks of measles in many European countries, including Italy. We believe that it is important to reinforce the message that measles vaccine is safe and highly effective through appropriate information campaigns and public awareness.

  11. Vaccination coverage for measles, mumps and rubella in anthroposophical schools in Gelderland, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, J.H.; Lier, A. van; Ruijs, W.L.M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Social clustering of unvaccinated children in anthroposophical schools occurs, as inferred from various measles outbreaks that can be traced to these schools. However, accurate vaccination coverage data of anthroposophical schools are not widely available. METHODS: In 2012, we performed

  12. Measles-mumps-rubella vaccination and respiratory syncytial virus-associated hospital contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Christine Stabell; Sørup, Signe; Stensballe, Lone Graff;

    2015-01-01

    -confirmed RSV hospital contacts at age 14-23 months in all children born in Denmark 1997-2002 who had already received the vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (acellular), polio, and Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTaP-IPV-Hib) at the recommended ages of 3, 5, and 12 months. RESULTS: The study......BACKGROUND: The live measles vaccine has been associated with lower non-measles mortality and admissions in low-income countries. The live measles-mumps-rubella vaccine has also been associated with lower rate of admissions with any type of infection in Danish children; the association...... was strongest for admissions with lower respiratory infections. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccination was associated with reduced rate of hospital contact related to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in a high-income country. METHODS: Nationwide cohort study of laboratory...

  13. Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and measles vaccine in an English population, 1979–1998

    OpenAIRE

    Seagroatt, V.; Goldacre, M

    2003-01-01

    Study objectives: To study the hospitalised incidence of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) from 1979 to 1998; and to determine whether the introduction of the measles vaccination programme was associated with an increase in the young.

  14. Vaccination coverage for measles, mumps and rubella in anthroposophical schools in Gelderland, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, J.H.; Lier, A. van; Ruijs, W.L.M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Social clustering of unvaccinated children in anthroposophical schools occurs, as inferred from various measles outbreaks that can be traced to these schools. However, accurate vaccination coverage data of anthroposophical schools are not widely available. METHODS: In 2012, we performed

  15. Immunogenicity and safety of monovalent RIVM meningococcal B OMP vesicle F91 vaccine administered to children that received hexavalent meningococcal B vaccine 2.5 years ago

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lafeber AB; van Limpt CJP; Berbers GAM; Labadie J; de Kleijn ED; de Groot R; Rumke HC; van Alphen AJW; LVO

    2000-01-01

    Dit rapport beschrijft een follow-up studie naar veiligheid en immunogeniciteit van monovalent P1.7h,4 OMV vaccin (MonoMen) gebruikt als boostervaccinatie in kinderen eerder gevaccineerd met hexavalent MenB vaccin. De deelnemers aan deze studie zijn in het kader van een eerdere studie gevaccineerd

  16. [Study of measles history, vaccination, antibody status, and vaccination effectiveress for school teachers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichinohe, Sadato; Ogawa, Tomoko

    2011-05-01

    To determine an efficient measles vaccination program for school teachers, we studied knowledge about measles history, immunization, and immunity status among 269 school teachers in Ichihara City in 2009. We found that (1) many are uncertain about disease and immunization history, with neither history related to the immunity status of neutralizing antibody titer (NT), (2) particle agglutination (PA) and enzyme immunoassay (EIA) testing have replaced NT in commercial laboratories, but persons having antibodies fewer than 8-fold of the NT titer as a sensitivity desigration for measles, and 11 false-positive immunity results are indicated in PA testing (cutoff: 256-fold) and 140 false-positive sensitivity results in EIA testing (cutoff: 16.0 EIA), and (3) sensitivity cases are 7.1% in the naturally infected generation born before 1977 and 23.7% in the vaccinated generation born after 1978. Given "herd" immunity, we concluded that all vaccinated-generation persons should be administered additional vaccination regardless of sensitivity due to history, immunization, and PA or EIA antibody testing.

  17. International collaboration to assess the risk of Guillain Barre Syndrome following Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dodd, Caitlin N.; Romio, Silvana A.; Black, Steven; Vellozzi, Claudia; Andrews, Nick; Sturkenboom, Miriam; Zuber, Patrick; Hua, Wei; Bonhoeffer, Jan; Buttery, Jim; Crawford, Nigel; Deceuninck, Genevieve; de Vries, Corinne; De Wals, Philippe; Gutierrez-Gimeno, M. Victoria; Heijbel, Harald; Hughes, Hayley; Hur, Kwan; Hviid, Anders; Kelman, Jeffrey; Kilpi, Tehri; Chuang, S. K.; Macartney, Kristine; Rett, Melisa; Lopez-Callada, Vesta Richardson; Salmon, Daniel; Sanchez, Francisco Gimenez; Sanz, Nuria; Silverman, Barbara; Storsaeter, Jann; Thirugnanam, Umapathi; van der Maas, Nicoline; Yih, Katherine; Zhang, Tao; Izurieta, Hector

    2013-01-01

    Background: The global spread of the 2009 novel pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus led to the accelerated production and distribution of monovalent 2009 Influenza A (H1N1) vaccines (pH1N1). This pandemic provided the opportunity to evaluate the risk of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS), which has been an

  18. Measles: Information for Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PARENTS | DISEASES and the VACCINES THAT PREVENT THEM | Measles and the Vaccine (Shot) to Prevent It Last ... July 2015 The best way to protect against measles is to get the measles-mumps-rubella shot ( ...

  19. Impact of vaccination on the incidence of measles in Mozambique in the period 2000 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muloliwa, Artur Manuel; Camacho, Luiz Antonio Bastos; Verani, José Fernando Souza; Simões, Taynãna César; Dgedge, Martinho do Carmo

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to contribute to the better planning of measles elimination actions in Mozambique, by considering the impact of vaccination actions over the period 2000 to 2011. Descriptive and ecological studies and case records made available by the Ministry of Health were used to analyze measles vaccination coverage. Statistical analysis was performed using time series and spatial analysis. Vaccine coverage rates ranged from 82% to 99%. Coverage rates in Maputo city were under 70% and in Niassa province they were over 100%. Coverage showed a clustered pattern in the districts. The measles incidence rate was 1.58 per 100,000 inhabitants (0.00-40.08 per 100,000 inhabitants); districts bordering neighboring countries presented high incidence rates. Although measles morbidity and mortality has decreased in Mozambique, vaccine coverage has been insufficient to interrupt measles transmission. Enhanced surveillance, including investigation of cases and outbreaks, and improvements in measles vaccination are recommended in order to achieve a homogenous coverage rate of ≥ 95% for both routine and mass vaccination campaigns.

  20. Influenza vaccine concurrently administered with a combination measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine to young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Lucy Chai See; Borja-Tabora, Charissa Fay; Breiman, Robert F; Vesikari, Timo; Sablan, Benjamin P; Chay, Oh Moh; Tantracheewathorn, Taweewong; Schmitt, Heinz-Josef; Lau, Yu-Lung; Bowonkiratikachorn, Piyaporn; Tam, John S; Lee, Bee Wah; Tan, Kah Kee; Pejcz, Jerzy; Cha, Sungho; Gutierrez-Brito, Maricruz; Kaltenis, Petras; Vertruyen, Andre; Czajka, Hanna; Bojarskas, Jurgis; Brooks, W Abdullah; Cheng, Sheau-Mei; Rappaport, Ruth; Baker, Sherryl; Gruber, William C; Forrest, Bruce D

    2010-02-10

    Children aged 11 to vaccine (LAIV) or placebo, 35+/-7 days apart. Dose 1 was administered concomitantly with a combined measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (Priorix). Seroresponses to measles and mumps were similar between groups. Compared with placebo, response rates to rubella in LAIV+Priorix recipients were statistically lower at a 15 IU/mL threshold (83.9% vs 78.0%) and the prespecified noninferiority criteria were not met. In a post hoc analysis using an alternate widely accepted threshold of 10 IU/mL, the noninferiority criteria were met (93.4% vs 89.8%). Concomitant administration with Priorix did not affect the overall influenza protection rate of LAIV (78.4% and 63.8% against antigenically similar influenza strains and any strain, respectively).

  1. Overview of measles and mumps vaccine: origin, present, and future of vaccine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betáková, T; Svetlíková, D; Gocník, M

    2013-01-01

    Measles and mumps are common viral childhood diseases that can cause serious complications. Vaccination remains the most efficient way to control the spread of these viruses. The manufacturing capability for viral vaccines produced in embryonated hen eggs and conventional/classical cell substrates, such as chicken embryo fibroblast or primary dog kidney cell substrates, is no longer sufficient. This limitation can be overcome by utilizing other recognized cell substrates such as Madin Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK), Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO), Vero (monkey origin) cells, MRC-5 (human diploid) or as an alternative, introducing new cell substrates of human or avian origin. A very important factor in vaccine production is the safety and immunogenicity of the final vaccine, where the proper choice of cell substrate used for virus propagation is made. All substrates used in vaccine production must be fully characterized to avoid the contamination of hidden unknown pathogens which is difficult to achieve in primary cell substrates.

  2. Recent resurgence of measles in a community with high vaccination coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jin Dong; Xiong, Yong Zhen; Li, Tao; Yu, Xiu Nian; Qian, Bang Qun

    2015-03-01

    Even though 2-dose measles vaccination coverage rate was maintained at more than 95%, the largest measles outbreaks since 1996 still occurred in Wuhu city, P R China. A total of 916 cases were reported during 2005-2010. The annual incidence was 6.7 cases per 100,000 population with the peak incidence of 17.6 cases per 100,000 population in 2008. The highest age-specific incidence rate was 222.1 per 100,000 population and occurred in infants aged between 8 and 12 months; the second was 151.9 per 100,000 population in infants aged incidence being 12.8 per 100,000 population. The characteristics related to age distribution have changed in recent measles outbreaks. It underlines the need for vaccination of susceptible young adults and timely administration of the first dose of the measles vaccine.

  3. A randomized trial of a standard dose of Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine given at 4.5 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Cesario L; Benn, Christine Stabell; Andersen, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Observational studies and trials from low-income countries indicate that measles vaccine has beneficial nonspecific effects, protecting against non-measles-related mortality. It is not known whether measles vaccine protects against hospital admissions. Between 2003 and 2007, 6417 children who had...... received the third dose of diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccine were randomly assigned to receive measles vaccine at 4.5 months or no measles vaccine; all children were offered measles vaccine at 9 months of age. Using hospital admission data from the national pediatric ward in Bissau, Guinea......-Bissau, we compared admission rates between enrollment and the 9-month vaccination in Cox models, providing admission hazard rate ratios (HRRs) for measles vaccine versus no measles vaccine. All analyses were conducted stratified by sex and reception of neonatal vitamin A supplementation (NVAS). Before...

  4. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in papua new guinean children: the cost of continuing inadequate measles vaccine coverage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurens Manning

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE is a late, rare and usually fatal complication of measles infection. Although a very high incidence of SSPE in Papua New Guinea (PNG was first recognized 20 years ago, estimated measles vaccine coverage has remained at ≤ 70% since and a large measles epidemic occurred in 2002. We report a series of 22 SSPE cases presenting between November 2007 and July 2009 in Madang Province, PNG, including localized clusters with the highest ever reported annual incidence. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: as part of a prospective observational study of severe childhood illness at Modilon Hospital, the provincial referral center, children presenting with evidence of meningo-encephalitis were assessed in detail including lumbar puncture in most cases. A diagnosis of SSPE was based on clinical features and presence of measles-specific IgG in cerebrospinal fluid and/or plasma. The estimated annual SSPE incidence in Madang province was 54/million population aged 100/million/year. The distribution of year of birth of the 22 children with SSPE closely matched the reported annual measles incidence in PNG, including a peak in 2002. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: SSPE follows measles infections in very young PNG children. Because PNG children have known low seroconversion rates to the first measles vaccine given at 6 months of age, efforts such as supplementary measles immunisation programs should continue in order to reduce the pool of non-immune people surrounding the youngest and most vulnerable members of PNG communities.

  5. Seroprevalence of measles, mumps and rubella among young adults, after 20 years of universal 2-dose MMR vaccination in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Hagai; Zarka, Salman; Ankol, Omer E; Rozhavski, Vladi; Davidovitch, Nadav; Aboudy, Yair; Balicer, Ran D

    2015-01-01

    Evidence-based vaccination policy is important for the global and local efforts of achieving control over measles. In 2007, the first Israeli birth cohort to be twice vaccinated during childhood with Measles-Mumps-Rubella vaccine reached adulthood. In parallel, Israel experienced its largest measles outbreak since 1994. We aimed to assess the seroprevalence of measles IgG antibodies and concordance with rubella and mumps seroprevalence among young Israeli adults born 1988-9 in comparison to previous birth cohorts, in order to inform evidence based prevention policy. We conducted a seroprevalence study of IgG antibodies among 439 Israeli adults born in 1988-9, based on a representative sample of sera collected at age 18-19 upon recruitment to mandatory military service in 2007. In total, 85.7% were seropositive for measles as compared with 95.6% in the 1996 recruitment (P Rubella seropositivity among measles seropositives was 90.4%, significantly (P < 0.001) higher than 72.1% among measles seronegatives. Mumps seropositivity among measles seropositives was 87.0%, significantly (P < 0.001) higher than 62.3% among measles seronegatives. Results were similar for Israeli-born only. Our findings indicate that measles seroprevalence decreased after the last change in vaccination policy and reach sub-optimal level. Until global eradication is reached, a proactive vaccination program to supplement routine childhood vaccination program should be considered in Israel and in other countries.

  6. Paralytic poliomyelitis associated with Sabin monovalent and bivalent oral polio vaccines in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estívariz, Concepción F; Molnár, Zsuzsanna; Venczel, Linda; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Zingeser, James A; Lipskaya, Galina Y; Kew, Olen M; Berencsi, György; Csohán, Agnes

    2011-08-01

    Historical records of patients with vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) in Hungary during 1961-1981 were reviewed to assess the risk of VAPP after oral polio vaccine (OPV) administration. A confirmed VAPP case was defined as a diagnosis of paralytic poliomyelitis and residual paralysis at 60 days in a patient with an epidemiologic link to the vaccine. Archived poliovirus isolates were retested using polymerase chain reaction and sequencing of the viral protein 1 capsid region. This review confirmed 46 of 47 cases previously reported as VAPP. Three cases originally linked to monovalent OPV (mOPV) 3 and one case linked to mOPV1 presented after administration of bivalent OPV 1 + 3 (bOPV). The adjusted VAPP risk per million doses administered was 0.18 for mOPV1 (2 cases/11.13 million doses), 2.96 for mOPV3 (32 cases/10.81 million doses), and 12.82 for bOPV (5 cases/390,000 doses). Absence of protection from immunization with inactivated poliovirus vaccine or exposure to OPV virus from routine immunization and recent injections could explain the higher relative risk of VAPP in Hungarian children. In polio-endemic areas in which mOPV3 and bOPV are needed to achieve eradication, the higher risk of VAPP would be offset by the high risk of paralysis due to wild poliovirus and higher per-dose efficacy of mOPV3 and bOPV compared with trivalent OPV.

  7. Child mortality related to seroconversion or lack of seroconversion after measles vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Pedersen, I R; Knudsen, K

    1989-01-01

    When blood samples were analyzed for seroconversion after measles vaccination, it was discovered that the vaccine had been ineffective for a certain period. During the 2 years between vaccination and the time of seroanalysis, nonseroconverters had a significantly higher mortality than seroconvert......When blood samples were analyzed for seroconversion after measles vaccination, it was discovered that the vaccine had been ineffective for a certain period. During the 2 years between vaccination and the time of seroanalysis, nonseroconverters had a significantly higher mortality than...... seroconverters (P less than 0.05). The incidence of measles among nonseroconverters was 30% during the period. Between 9 months and 3 years of age, cumulative mortality was 15.1% for nonseroconverters and 4.5% for seroconverters. The difference in mortality was larger when high risk groups (twins, motherless...... children) were excluded from the analysis (P less than 0.01). The difference in mortality was particularly marked among children vaccinated in the age group 9 to 11 months. This as well as other community studies suggest that measles vaccination reduces child mortality from the age of vaccination...

  8. The safety of measles vaccination%麻疹疫苗接种安全性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴智勤

    2012-01-01

    Measles remains one of the major causes of death among young children. Measles vaccination is one of the best measures to prevent measles,The safety surveillance of measles vaccination is a key factor to ensure immunization program implementation. This paper reviews the safety of measles vaccination,the surveillance of and response strategies for adverse reactions following measles vaccination.%麻疹仍是造成幼儿死亡的主要原因之一,麻疹疫苗接种是预防麻疹最有效的施措之一,对麻疹疫苗接种的安全性监测是保证免疫计划实施的关键因素.此文阐述了麻疹疫苗接种的安全性、对麻疹疫苗接种不良反应的监测以及应对接种不良反应的策略.

  9. Measles antibody levels after vaccination with Edmonston-Zagreb and Schwarz measles vaccine at 9 months or at 9 and 18 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Cesario; Garly, May-Lill; Bale, Carlitos

    2013-01-01

    Standard-titre Schwarz (SW) and Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) measles vaccines (MV) are both used in the routine immunisation programme. Within a trial of different strains of MV, we examined antibody responses in both one-dose and two-dose schedules when the first dose was administered at 9 months....

  10. Protective efficacy of standard Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccination in infants aged 4.5 months: interim analysis of a randomised clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Cesário L; Garly, May-Lill; Balé, Carlito; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Ravn, Henrik; Whittle, Hilton C.; Lisse, Ida M.; Aaby, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine the protective efficacy of measles vaccination in infants in a low income country before 9 months of age. Design Randomised clinical trial. Participants 1333 infants aged 4.5 months: 441 in treatment group and 892 in control group. Setting Urban area in Guinea-Bissau. Intervention Measles vaccination using standard titre Edmonston-Zagreb vaccine at 4.5 months of age. Main outcome measures Vaccine efficacy against measles infection, admission to hospital for measles, and m...

  11. Introduction of standard measles vaccination in an urban African community in 1979 and overall child survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Søren Wengel; Aaby, Peter; Smedman, Lars

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of the first introduction of measles vaccine (MV) in Guinea-Bissau in 1979. SETTING: Urban community study of the anthropometric status of all children under 6 years of age. PARTICIPANTS: The study cohort included 1451 children in December 1978; 82% took part...... in the anthropometric survey. The cohort was followed for 2 years. INTERVENTION: In December 1979, the children were re-examined anthropometrically. The participating children, aged 6 months to 6 years, were offered MV if they did not have a history of measles infection. There were no routine vaccinations in 1979......-1980. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Age-adjusted mortality rate ratios (MRRs) for measles vaccinated and not vaccinated children; changes in nutritional status. RESULTS: The nutritional status deteriorated significantly from 1978 to 1979. Nonetheless, children who received MV at the December 1979...

  12. Long-term survival after Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccination in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Knudsen, K; Whittle, H

    1993-01-01

    In an urban area of Guinea-Bissau, 384 children were enrolled in a randomized trial comparing morbidity and mortality rates after receiving high-titer Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) measles vaccine administered from 4 months of age, with a control group receiving inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine at 4...

  13. Retinopathy following measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination in an immuno-incompetent girl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuil, J.; van de Putte, E.M.; Zwaan, C.M.; Koole, F.D.; Meire, F.M.

    1998-01-01

    We describe a 4-year-old girl with subnormal visual acuity due to a bilateral retinopathy. The child had a history of encephalitis following MMR vaccination. Temporary retinopathy associated with measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccination has been described. Recently an idiopathic CD4+ T

  14. Live-attenuated measles virus vaccine targets dendritic cells and macrophages in muscle of nonhuman primates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J. Rennick (Linda); R.D. de Vries (Rory); T.J. Carsillo (Thomas J.); K. Lemon (Ken); G. van Amerongen (Geert); M. Ludlow (Martin); D.T. Nguyen (Tien); S. Yüksel (Selma); R.J. Verbugh (Joyce); P. Haddock (Paula); S. McQuaid (Stephen); W.P. Duprex (Paul); R.L. de Swart (Rik)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractAlthough live-attenuated measles virus (MV) vaccines have been used successfully for over 50 years, the target cells that sustain virus replication in vivo are still unknown. We generated a reverse genetics system for the live-attenuated MV vaccine strain Edmonston- Zagreb (EZ), allowing

  15. Live-attenuated measles virus vaccine targets dendritic cells and macrophages in muscle of nonhuman primates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J. Rennick (Linda); R.D. de Vries (Rory); T.J. Carsillo (Thomas J.); K. Lemon (Ken); G. van Amerongen (Geert); M. Ludlow (Martin); D.T. Nguyen (Tien); S. Yüksel (Selma); R.J. Verbugh (Joyce); P. Haddock (Paula); S. McQuaid (Stephen); W.P. Duprex (Paul); R.L. de Swart (Rik)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractAlthough live-attenuated measles virus (MV) vaccines have been used successfully for over 50 years, the target cells that sustain virus replication in vivo are still unknown. We generated a reverse genetics system for the live-attenuated MV vaccine strain Edmonston- Zagreb (EZ), allowing

  16. Retinopathy following measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination in an immuno-incompetent girl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuil, J.; van de Putte, E.M.; Zwaan, C.M.; Koole, F.D.; Meire, F.M.

    1998-01-01

    We describe a 4-year-old girl with subnormal visual acuity due to a bilateral retinopathy. The child had a history of encephalitis following MMR vaccination. Temporary retinopathy associated with measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccination has been described. Recently an idiopathic CD4+ T lymphocy

  17. Investigating the efficacy of monovalent and tetravalent dengue vaccine formulations against DENV-4 challenge in AG129 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Jeremy; Chu, Haiyan; O'Day, Peter; Pyles, Richard; Bourne, Nigel; Das, Subash C; Milligan, Gregg N; Barrett, Alan D T; Partidos, Charalambos D; Osorio, Jorge E

    2014-11-12

    Dengue (DEN) is the most important mosquito-borne viral disease, with a major impact on global health and economics, caused by four serologically and distinct viruses termed DENV-1 to DENV-4. Currently, there is no licensed vaccine to prevent DEN. We have developed a live attenuated tetravalent DENV vaccine candidate (TDV) (formally known as DENVax) that has shown promise in preclinical and clinical studies and elicits neutralizing antibody responses to all four DENVs. As these responses are lowest to DENV-4 we have used the AG129 mouse model to investigate the immunogenicity of monovalent TDV-4 or tetravalent TDV vaccines, and their efficacy against lethal DENV-4 challenge. Since the common backbone of TDV is based on an attenuated DENV-2 strain (TDV-2) we also tested the efficacy of TDV-2 against DENV-4 challenge. Single doses of the tetravalent or monovalent vaccines elicited neutralizing antibodies, anti-NS1 antibodies, and cellular responses to both envelope and nonstructural proteins. All vaccinated animals were protected against challenge at 60 days post-immunization, whereas all control animals died. Investigation of DENV-4 viremias post-challenge showed that only the control animals had high viremias on day 3 post-challenge, whereas vaccinated mice had no detectable viremia. Overall, these data highlight the excellent immunogenicity and efficacy profile of our candidate dengue vaccine in AG129 mice.

  18. Time is of the essence: exploring a measles outbreak response vaccination in Niamey, Niger

    OpenAIRE

    Grais, Rebecca F; Conlan, A.J.K.; Ferrari, M. J.; Djibo, A.; Le Menach, A; O.N. Bjørnstad; Grenfell, B. T.

    2007-01-01

    The current World Health Organization recommendations for response during measles epidemics focus on case management rather than outbreak response vaccination (ORV) campaigns, which may occur too late to impact morbidity and mortality and have a high cost per case prevented. Here, we explore the potential impact of an ORV campaign conducted during the 2003–2004 measles epidemic in Niamey, Niger. We measured the impact of this intervention and also the potential impact of alternative strategie...

  19. Malaria chemoprophylaxis and the serologic response to measles and diphtheria-tetanus-whole-cell pertussis vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliou Pierre

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute malaria has been associated with a decreased antibody response to tetanus and diphtheria toxoids, meningococcal, salmonella, and Hib vaccines. Interest in giving malaria drug therapy and prevention at the time of childhood immunizations has increased greatly following recent trials of intermittent preventive therapy during infancy (IPTi, stimulating this re-analysis of unpublished data. The effect of malaria chemoprophylaxis on vaccine response was studied following administration of measles vaccines and diphtheria-tetanus-whole cell pertussis (DTP vaccines. Methods In 1975, six villages divided into two groups of children ≤74 months of age from Burkina Faso, were assigned to receive amodiaquine hydrochloride chemoprophylaxis (CH+ every two weeks for seven months or no chemoprophylaxis (CH-. After five months, children in each group received either one dose of measles or two doses of DTP vaccines. Results For recipients of the measles vaccine, the seroconversion rates in CH+ and CH- children, respectively, were 93% and 96% (P > 0.05. The seroresponse rates in CH+ and CH- children respectively, were 73% and 86% for diphtheria (P > 0.05 and 77% and 91% for tetanus toxoid (P > 0.05. In a subset analysis, in which only children who strictly adhered to chemoprophylaxis criteria were included, there were, likewise, no significant differences in seroconversion or seroresponse for measles, diphtheria, or tetanus vaccines (P > 0.05. While analysis for pertussis showed a 43% (CH+ and 67% (CH- response (P Conclusion Malaria chemoprophylaxis prior to vaccination in malaria endemic settings did not improve or impair immunogenicity of DTP and measles vaccines. This is the first human study to look at the association between malaria chemoprophylaxis and the serologic response to whole-cell pertussis vaccine.

  20. Mutual interference on the immune response to yellow fever vaccine and a combined vaccine against measles, mumps and rubella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento Silva, Juliana Romualdo; Camacho, Luiz Antonio B; Siqueira, Marilda M; Freire, Marcos de Silva; Castro, Yvone P; Maia, Maria de Lourdes S; Yamamura, Anna Maya Y; Martins, Reinaldo M; Leal, Maria de Luz F

    2011-08-26

    A randomized trial was conducted to assess the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of yellow fever vaccines (YFV) given either simultaneously in separate injections, or 30 days or more after a combined measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine. Volunteers were also randomized to YFV produced from 17DD and WHO-17D-213 substrains. The study group comprised 1769 healthy 12-month-old children brought to health care centers in Brasilia for routine vaccination. The reactogenicity was of the type and frequency expected for the vaccines and no severe adverse event was associated to either vaccine. Seroconversion and seropositivity 30 days or more after vaccination against yellow fever was similar across groups defined by YFV substrain. Subjects injected YFV and MMR simultaneously had lower seroconversion rates--90% for rubella, 70% for yellow fever and 61% for mumps--compared with those vaccinated 30 days apart--97% for rubella, 87% for yellow fever and 71% for mumps. Seroconversion rates for measles were higher than 98% in both comparison groups. Geometric mean titers for rubella and for yellow fever were approximately three times higher among those who got the vaccines 30 days apart. For measles and mumps antibodies GMTs were similar across groups. MMR's interference in immune response of YFV and YFV's interference in immune response of rubella and mumps components of MMR had never been reported before but are consistent with previous observations from other live vaccines. These results may affect the recommendations regarding primary vaccination with yellow fever vaccine and MMR.

  1. Investigation of a Measles Outbreak in China to Identify Gaps in Vaccination Coverage, Routes of Transmission, and Interventions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Zheng

    Full Text Available A measles outbreak occurred in a western county of China in 2013, the year after China's historic nadir of measles. We conducted a field investigation to identify gaps in measles vaccination coverage and immunization program weaknesses, and to provide recommendations for measles outbreak response and immunization program improvement.We analyzed surveillance data from 2008 to 2013 to describe the measles epidemiology of the county. Measles-containing vaccine coverage was estimated using two methods: previously-reported administrative coverage and an estimation of coverage by clinic-kept vaccination records (n = 542. We conducted a rapid field coverage assessment in a migrant population village to evaluate coverage after emergency vaccination. We conducted a review of hospital records of measles cases to address the role hospital transmission played during the early stage of this outbreak.There were 153 cases in the outbreak, primarily among children too young to vaccinate, unvaccinated children less than 3 years old, and adults. Measles-containing vaccine coverage by the field assessment showed that 20% of children aged 8-17 months had zero doses, and 9% of ≥2 years old children had fewer than two doses. The vaccination statuses of all adult cases were either zero doses or unknown. At least 61% of cases had been hospitalized. The proportion of cases who had been hospital-exposed 7 to 21 days prior to rash onset decreased from 52% to 22% after hospitals strengthen their isolation measures.This outbreak was a result of measles vaccination coverage gaps among young children and adults, and insufficient hospital isolation of cases. The lower coverage seen in the field estimation compared with reported coverage showed that reported coverage could have been overestimated. Hospitals were sites of transmission in the early stage of the outbreak. A strict hospital isolation policy could decrease spread of measles. Emergency vaccination was associated

  2. Measles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have found no connection between this or any vaccine and autism. Reviews by all major health organizations in the ... elsewhere all found NO LINK between the MMR vaccine and autism. The study that had first reported a risk ...

  3. Single-nucleotide polymorphism associations in common with immune responses to measles and rubella vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovsyannikova, Inna G; Salk, Hannah M; Larrabee, Beth R; Pankratz, V Shane; Poland, Gregory A

    2014-11-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in candidate immune response genes were evaluated for associations with measles- and rubella-specific neutralizing antibodies, interferon (IFN)-γ, and interleukin (IL)-6 secretion in two separate association analyses in a cohort of healthy immunized subjects. We identified six SNP associations shared between the measles-specific and rubella-specific immune responses, specifically neutralizing antibody titers (DDX58), secreted IL-6 (IL10RB, IL12B), and secreted IFN-γ (IFNAR2, TLR4). An intronic SNP (rs669260) in the antiviral innate immune receptor gene, DDX58, was significantly associated with increased neutralizing antibody titers for both measles and rubella viral antigens post-MMR vaccination (p values 0.02 and 0.0002, respectively). Significant associations were also found between IL10RB (rs2284552; measles study p value 0.006, rubella study p value 0.00008) and IL12B (rs2546893; measles study p value 0.005, rubella study p value 0.03) gene polymorphisms and variations in both measles- and rubella virus-specific IL-6 responses. We also identified associations between individual SNPs in the IFNAR2 and TLR4 genes that were associated with IFN-γ secretion for both measles and rubella vaccine-specific immune responses. These results are the first to indicate that there are SNP associations in common across measles and rubella vaccine immune responses and that SNPs from multiple genes involved in innate and adaptive immune response regulation may contribute to the overall human antiviral response.

  4. Trials of Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T G; Whittle, H; Mordhorst, Camilla

    1994-01-01

    In two trials of measles vaccination in Guinea-Bissau, children were randomized to receive either the Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) virus at age 4-8 months or, as a control group, a standard dose (5000 p.f.u.) of the Schwarz (SW) virus at 9-12 months. In the first trial a medium dose of EZ virus (40,000 p....... Antibody levels in the EZ group, as measured by either method, were significantly lower than the levels in the SW group. The serological results of the present study suggest that lowering the age at measles vaccination to below 9 months is feasible. However, further studies are needed to determine which...... virus strain, dosage and age at vaccination will prove to be optimal in countries where severe measles is common before the age of 9 months....

  5. Optimal vaccine schedules to maintain measles elimination with a two-dose routine policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKEE, A; Shea, K; Ferrari, M J

    2017-01-01

    Measles was eliminated in the Americas in 2002 by a combination of routine immunizations and supplementary immunization activities. Recent outbreaks underscore the importance of reconsidering vaccine policy in order to maintain elimination. We constructed an age-structured dynamical model for the distribution of immunity in a population with routine immunization and without disease, and analysed the steady state for an idealized age structure and for real age structures of countries in the Americas. We compared the level of immunity maintained by current policy in these countries to the level maintainable by an optimal policy. The optimal age target for the first routine dose of measles vaccine depends on the timing and coverage of both doses. Similarly, the optimal age target for the second dose of measles vaccine depends on the timing and coverage of the first dose. The age targets for the first and second doses of measles vaccine should be adjusted for the post-elimination era, by specifically accounting for current context, including realized coverage of both doses, and altered maternal immunity. Doing so can greatly improve the proportion immune within a population, and therefore the chances of maintaining measles elimination, without changing coverage.

  6. Record High US Measles Cases: Patient Vaccination, Clinical Assessment and Management

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-06-30

    This podcast is an overview of the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Call: Record High US Measles Cases: Patient Vaccination, Clinical Assessment and Management. In May 2014, the United States recorded the largest number of reported measles cases since 1994 and the number continues to rise. Most cases reported have been acquired in the U.S. and are associated with importations from countries where measles is still common. This highly contagious, acute viral illness spreads quickly in unvaccinated populations once reaching the U.S. The recent measles outbreaks highlight the importance of maintaining high vaccination coverage in the U.S. and ensuring age-appropriate vaccination for international travelers. During this COCA call, clinicians will learn the status of measles in the U.S. and CDC vaccination recommendations and guidelines for patient assessment and management.  Created: 6/30/2014 by : National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases; Division of Viral Diseases; Healthcare Preparedness Activity (HPA); Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR).   Date Released: 6/30/2014.

  7. Evaluation of a measles vaccine campaign in Ethiopia using oral-fluid antibody surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigatu, Wondatir; Samuel, Dhan; Cohen, Bernard; Cumberland, Phillippa; Lemma, Eshetu; Brown, David W G; Nokes, James

    2008-09-01

    We undertook a study to demonstrate the potential contribution of oral-fluid (OF) antibody prevalence surveys in evaluating measles vaccine campaigns. In Asela town, southern Ethiopia, oral fluids were collected from 1928 children aged 9 months to 5 years attending for campaign immunization in December 1999 and 6 months later, from 745 individuals aged 9 months to 19 years, in the same location. Measles antibody status was determined by microimmune measles specific IgG enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Antibody prevalence was estimated at 48% in children attending for vaccination (pre-campaign), and 85% post-campaign in the comparable age group. The estimated reduction in the susceptible proportion was 75%. In older children the proportion antibody negative post-campaign was 28% in 7-9 year olds, and 13% in 10-14 year olds levels of susceptibility which raise concern over continued measles transmission. This is the first evaluation of a measles vaccine campaign based on oral-fluid seroprevalence surveys and it demonstrates the merit of oral-fluid surveys in informing health authorities about vaccination strategy refinement.

  8. Impact on Epidemic Measles of Vaccination Campaigns Triggered by Disease Outbreaks or Serosurveys: A Modeling Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessler, Justin; Metcalf, C Jessica E; Cutts, Felicity T; Grenfell, Bryan T

    2016-10-01

    Routine vaccination supplemented by planned campaigns occurring at 2-5 y intervals is the core of current measles control and elimination efforts. Yet, large, unexpected outbreaks still occur, even when control measures appear effective. Supplementing these activities with mass vaccination campaigns triggered when low levels of measles immunity are observed in a sample of the population (i.e., serosurveys) or incident measles cases occur may provide a way to limit the size of outbreaks. Measles incidence was simulated using stochastic age-structured epidemic models in settings conducive to high or low measles incidence, roughly reflecting demographic contexts and measles vaccination coverage of four heterogeneous countries: Nepal, Niger, Yemen, and Zambia. Uncertainty in underlying vaccination rates was modeled. Scenarios with case- or serosurvey-triggered campaigns reaching 20% of the susceptible population were compared to scenarios without triggered campaigns. The best performing of the tested case-triggered campaigns prevent an average of 28,613 (95% CI 25,722-31,505) cases over 15 y in our highest incidence setting and 599 (95% CI 464-735) cases in the lowest incidence setting. Serosurvey-triggered campaigns can prevent 89,173 (95% CI, 86,768-91,577) and 744 (612-876) cases, respectively, but are triggered yearly in high-incidence settings. Triggered campaigns reduce the highest cumulative incidence seen in simulations by up to 80%. While the scenarios considered in this strategic modeling exercise are reflective of real populations, the exact quantitative interpretation of the results is limited by the simplifications in country structure, vaccination policy, and surveillance system performance. Careful investigation into the cost-effectiveness in different contexts would be essential before moving forward with implementation. Serologically triggered campaigns could help prevent severe epidemics in the face of epidemiological and vaccination uncertainty

  9. Correlates of first dose of measles vaccination delivery and uptake in Indonesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Renae Fernandez; Anu Rammohan; Niyi Awofeso

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To determine health systems-related, familial, and cultural factors which influence the delivery and uptake of measles vaccination in Indonesia.Methods: Logistic regression analysis of data collected during the 2007Indonesian Demographic and Health Survey was undertaken by the authors to investigate these factors. The2007 Indonesian Demographic and Health Survey dataset is a nationally representative, randomly sampled survey containing15 065 children aged between9and59 months.Results: 72.8% of children had received the measles vaccine. Vaccination coverage was similar for males and females; however, coverage was higher amongst urban children,80.1%, compared to68.5% in rural areas. The key findings of the regression analysis were congruent with the results of previous research targeting vaccination coverage. After controlling for all other factors, maternal age, maternal education, wealth, the use of a skilled birth attendant, and postnatal check-ups were positively and significantly (P< 0.01) correlated with measles vaccination. The number of children per household was negatively correlated (P<0.01).Conclusions: In order to enhance measles vaccination coverage in Indonesia, delivery to, and uptake by, rural and low socio-economic populations require substantial improvements. Mass health education and health systems improvements are also required.

  10. Primary Research of Immunological Mechanism of Combined Hepatitis A-Measles-Varicella Vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ying-hua; GUAN Feng; ZHANG Xi-zhen; ZHAO Hong-guang; LIU Jing-ye; LIN Cheng-he; WANG Peng-fu

    2011-01-01

    To explore the primary humoral and cellular immunological mechanism of the combined hepatitis A-measles-varicella vaccine, the mice were inoculated with hepatitis A-measles-varicella vaccine by intraperitoneally and two weeks later, blood was collected to observe the mice's immunological status. Antibody level was measured to appraise the humoral immunity. At the same time, T lymphocyte surface marker, NK cell activity, LAK cell activity,delayed type hypersensitivity of skin, M phagocytic function, mRNA level of cytokine IL-2 and IFN-γ plus lymphocyte transformation test were used to analyze the cellular immunity. The humoral immunity results show that the combined hepatitis A-measles-varicella vaccine produce the same antibody level as their corresponding univalent vaccine, and maintained fine immunogenicity and security. The result of cellular immunity shows that the combined vaccine could activate physical immunocyte, increase the regulative ability of cytokine, enhance the physical immune function and immune defense ability. The present research proved the security and better humoral and cellular immunity of combined hepatitis A-measles-varicella vaccine from the immunological point of view, which laid good foundation for further study and development.

  11. Consistency of HLA associations between two independent measles vaccine cohorts: a replication study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovsyannikova, Inna G; Pankratz, V Shane; Vierkant, Robert A; Jacobson, Robert M; Poland, Gregory A

    2012-03-09

    Associations between HLA genotypes and measles vaccine humoral and cellular immune responses were examined to better understand immunogenetic drivers of vaccine response. Two independent study cohorts of healthy schoolchildren were examined: cohort one, 346 children between 12 and 18 years of age; and cohort two, 388 children between 11 and 19 years of age. All received two age-appropriate doses of measles-containing vaccine. The purpose of this study was to identify and replicate associations between HLA genes and immune responses following measles vaccination found in our first cohort. Associations of comparable magnitudes and with similar p-values were observed between B*3503 (1st cohort p=0.01; 2nd cohort p=0.07), DQA1*0201 (1st cohort p=0.03; 2nd cohort p=0.03), DQB1*0303 (1st cohort p=0.10; 2 cohort p=0.02), DQB1*0602 (1st cohort p=0.07; 2nd cohort p=0.10), and DRB1*0701 (1st cohort p=0.03; 2nd cohort p=0.07) alleles and measles-specific antibody levels. Suggestive, yet consistent, associations were observed between the B7 (1st cohort p=0.01; 2nd cohort p=0.08) supertype and higher measles antibody levels in both cohorts. Also, in both cohorts, the B*0801 and DRB1*0301 alleles, C*0802 and DPA1*0202 alleles, and DRB1*1303 alleles displayed consistent associations with variations in IFN-γ, IL-2 and IL-10 secretion, respectively. This study emphasizes the importance of replicating HLA associations with measles vaccine-induced humoral and cellular immune responses and increases confidence in the results. These data will inform strategies for functional studies and novel vaccine development, including epitope-based measles vaccines. This is the first HLA association replication study with measles vaccine-specific immune responses to date.

  12. Measles vaccine effectiveness in standard and early immunization strategies, Niger, 1995.

    OpenAIRE

    Kaninda, A V; Legros, D; Jataou, I M; Malfait, P.; Maisonneuve, M; Paquet, C; Moren, A.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An Expanded Programme on Immunization was started in late 1987 in Niger, including vaccination against measles with one dose of standard titer Schwarz vaccine given to infants after 9 months of age. During epidemics an early two-dose strategy was implemented (one dose between 6 and 8 months and one dose after 9 months). From January 1, 1995, until May 7, 1995, 13 892 measles cases were reported in Niamey, Niger. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in a crowded area...

  13. Measles Outbreak Associated with Vaccine Failure in Adults--Federated States of Micronesia, February-August 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breakwell, Lucy; Moturi, Edna; Helgenberger, Louisa; Gopalani, Sameer V; Hales, Craig; Lam, Eugene; Sharapov, Umid; Larzelere, Maribeth; Johnson, Eliaser; Masao, Carolee; Setik, Eleanor; Barrow, Lisa; Dolan, Samantha; Chen, Tai-Ho; Patel, Minal; Rota, Paul; Hickman, Carole; Bellini, William; Seward, Jane; Wallace, Greg; Papania, Mark

    2015-10-02

    On May 15, 2014, CDC was notified of two laboratory-confirmed measles cases in the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM), after 20 years with no reported measles. FSM was assisted by the World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), and CDC in investigating suspected cases, identify contacts, conduct analyses to guide outbreak vaccination response, and review vaccine cold chain practices. During February–August, three of FSM’s four states reported measles cases: Kosrae (139 cases), Pohnpei (251), and Chuuk (3). Two thirds of cases occurred among adults aged ≥20 years; of these, 49% had received ≥2 doses of measles-containing vaccine (MCV). Apart from infants aged vaccination, measles incidence was lower among children than adults. A review of current cold chain practices in Kosrae revealed minor weaknesses; however, an absence of historical cold chain maintenance records precluded an evaluation of earlier problems. Each state implemented vaccination campaigns targeting children as young as age 6 months through adults up to age 57 years. The preponderance of cases in this outbreak associated with vaccine failure in adults highlights the need for both thorough case investigation and epidemiologic analysis to guide outbreak response vaccination. Routine childhood vaccination coverage achieved in recent years limited the transmission of measles among children. Even in areas where transmission has not occurred for years, maintaining high 2-dose MCV coverage through routine and supplemental immunization is needed to prevent outbreaks resulting from increased measles susceptibility in the population.

  14. Recombinant Measles AIK-C Vaccine Strain Expressing the prM-E Antigen of Japanese Encephalitis Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Akira; Toriniwa, Hiroko; Komiya, Tomoyoshi; Nakayama, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    An inactivated Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) vaccine, which induces neutralizing antibodies, has been used for many years in Japan. In the present study, the JEV prM-E protein gene was cloned, inserted at the P/M junction of measles AIK-C cDNA, and an infectious virus was recovered. The JEV E protein was expressed in B95a cells infected with the recombinant virus. Cotton rats were inoculated with recombinant virus. Measles PA antibodies were detected three weeks after immunization. Neutralizing antibodies against JEV developed one week after inoculation, and EIA antibodies were detected three weeks after immunization. The measles AIK-C-based recombinant virus simultaneously induced measles and JEV immune responses, and may be a candidate for infant vaccines. Therefore, the present strategy of recombinant viruses based on a measles vaccine vector would be applicable to the platform for vaccine development.

  15. Effect of age on the risk of Fever and seizures following immunization with measles-containing vaccines in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Fireman, Bruce; Lewis, Edwin; Nordin, James; Naleway, Allison; Jacobsen, Steven J; Jackson, Lisa A; Tse, Alison; Belongia, Edward A; Hambidge, Simon J; Weintraub, Eric; Baxter, Roger; Klein, Nicola P

    2013-12-01

    IMPORTANCE The first dose of live attenuated measles-containing vaccines is associated with an increased risk of febrile seizures 7 to 10 days following immunization among 12- to 23-month-old children. The combination measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccine is associated with a 2-fold increased risk of febrile seizures 7 to 10 days following immunization compared with the separately administered measles, mumps, and rubella and varicella vaccines. It is unknown whether the magnitude of these increased risks depends on age at immunization. OBJECTIVE To examine the potential modifying effect of age on the risk of fever and seizures following immunization with measles-containing vaccines. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Retrospective cohort study at 8 Vaccine Safety Datalink sites of a total of 840,348 children 12 to 23 months of age who had received a measles-containing vaccine from 2001 through 2011. EXPOSURES Any measles-containing vaccines and measles-containing vaccines by type. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Fever and seizure events occurring during a 42-day postimmunization observation period. RESULTS In the analysis of any measles-containing vaccines, the increased risk of seizures during the 7- to 10-day risk interval, using the remainder of the observation period as the control interval, was significantly greater among older children (relative risk, 6.5; 95% CI, 5.3-8.1; attributable risk, 9.5 excess cases per 10,000 doses; 95% CI, 7.6-11.5) than among younger children (relative risk, 3.4; 95% CI, 3.0-3.9; attributable risk = 4.0 excess cases per 10,000 doses; 95% CI, 3.4-4.6). The relative risk of postimmunization fever was significantly greater among older children than among younger children; however, its attributable risk was not. In the analysis of vaccine type, measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccine was associated with a 1.4-fold increase in the risk of fever and 2-fold increase in the risk of seizures compared with measles, mumps, and

  16. Monovalent rotavirus vaccine provides protection against an emerging fully heterotypic G9P[4] rotavirus strain in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Catherine; Figueroa, Jesùs Reyna; Uribe, Edgar Sánchez; Carmen-Hernández, Luz Del; Tate, Jacqueline E; Parashar, Umesh D; Patel, Manish M; Richardson López-Collado, Vesta

    2011-09-01

    After the introduction of monovalent rotavirus vaccine (RV1) in Mexico in 2006-2007, diarrhea mortality and morbidity declined substantially among Mexican children under 5 years of age. In January 2010, surveillance identified the emergence of a novel G9P[4] rotavirus strain nationwide. We conducted a case-control study to assess the field effectiveness of RV1 against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis caused by this unusual strain and to determine whether the G9P[4] emergence was related to vaccine failure or failure to vaccinate. RV1 was 94% effective (95% confidence interval, 16%-100%) against G9P[4] rotavirus-related hospitalization, indicating that its emergence was likely unrelated to vaccine pressure.

  17. Environmental tobacco exposure is associated with vaccine modified measles in junior high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shuichi; Sato, Kazuki; Watanabe, Hiroko; Nezu, Yoko; Nishimuta, Toshiyuki

    2015-11-01

    Vaccine modified measles (VMM) affects individuals with attenuated vaccine induced immunity. An outbreak of measles occurred in a junior high school, starting from an unvaccinated eighth-grade student who developed natural measles and affected a majority of students who were immunized with a low potent strain of measles vaccine (TD97). To determine whether environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure was associated with the development of VMM in this population, a questionnaire was used asking whether students had VMM symptoms during the outbreak and the smoking status of family members. VMM was defined in the study population as occurrence of fever and/or erythema, along with documented history of measles vaccination. A total of 513 students (85.9%) responded. Overall, the presence of in-house smokers did not differ between VMM students (49.3%) and non-VMM students (50.2%). However, in the ninth grade, presence of an in-house smoker was significantly higher in the family of VMM students (54.0%) than in non-VMM students (36.6%) (P = 0.044). Urinary cotinine levels were also measured in selected students (n = 37). Among families with at least one smoker, urinary cotinine levels were significantly higher in VMM students than in non-VMM students (P = 0.032). Furthermore, a multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that a high urinary cotinine level (>10 ng/mg creatinine; 13.5 percentile) was associated with the development of VMM. Our findings suggest that a high level of ETS exposure may be associated with an increased risk of VMM in a population with attenuated vaccine induced immunity against measles.

  18. Establishment of an in vivo potency assay for the recombinant hepatit is B surface antigen in monovalent and combined vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabel Izquierdo-López

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the development of potency assay in animals (mice was made, with the objective of demonstrating the immunogenic power of the recombinant Hepatitis B surface antigen in monovalent and combined vaccines, produced at the Center of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology. The potency test is a parameter in quality control and it is also a tool to demonstrate the consistency of the production process. Parameters such as duration of the test, number of animals in the test, as well as different areas for the maintenance of the animals were evaluated. The results on the applicability of the potency test, to two presentations of the vaccines; monovalent Heberbiovac HB and pentavalent liquid in one vial Heberpenta-L are shown, for which specificity studies, evaluating different vaccine lots, the behavior of linearity, and parallelism, as well as establishing quality specification of the test were performed. This assay led to the obtainment of reliable results for the vaccines evaluated, the consistent evaluation of the immunogenic power and the monitoring of different production processes.

  19. Measles Virus-Specific Antibody Levels in Individuals in Argentina Who Received a One-Dose Vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Argüelles, Marcelo H; Orellana, Mariana L.; Castello, Alejandro A.; Villegas, Guillermo A.; Masini, Matilde; Belizan, Alejandra L.; González Ayala,Silvia; Vera, Osmar D.; Glikmann, Graciela

    2006-01-01

    In spite of active measles virus (MV) vaccination strategies, reemergence continues to occur, impairing global eradication programs. The immune status against measles was evaluated in 350 vaccinated healthy Argentine children and teenagers who received a single dose of the MV Schwarz strain Lirugen vaccine (Aventis Pasteur). Sera were assessed for immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies by a commercial enzyme immunoassay (EIA) (Enzygnost; Behring), an in-house EIA, and neutralization EIA. Results o...

  20. Vaccine-Preventable Diseases In Pediatric Patients: A Review Of Measles, Mumps, Rubella, And Varicella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Deborah A

    2016-12-01

    Vaccine-preventable diseases such as measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella continue to plague children and adults worldwide. Although public health programs have helped decrease the prevalence and sequelae of these diseases, outbreaks still occur. To limit the spread of these diseases, emergency clinicians must be able to readily identify the characteristic presentations of the rashes associated with measles, rubella, and varicella, as well as the common presenting features associated with mumps. Diagnostic laboratory studies are not usually necessary, as a complete history and physical examination usually lead to an accurate diagnosis. Treatment for these vaccine-preventable diseases usually consists of supportive care, but, in some cases, severe complications and death may occur. This issue provides a review of the clinical features, differential diagnoses, potential complications, and treatment options for measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella.

  1. Co-administration of live measles and yellow fever vaccines and inactivated pentavalent vaccines is associated with increased mortality compared with measles and yellow fever vaccines only. An observational study from Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Ane Bærent; Ravn, Henrik Bylling; Rodrigues, Amabelia

    2014-01-01

    Studies from low-income countries indicate that co-administration of inactivated diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine and live attenuated measles vaccine (MV) is associated with increased mortality compared with receiving MV only. Pentavalent (DTP-H. Influenza type B-Hepatitis B) vaccine...... is replacing DTP in many low-income countries and yellow fever vaccine (YF) has been introduced to be given together with MV. Pentavalent and YF vaccines were introduced in Guinea-Bissau in 2008. We investigated whether co-administration of pentavalent vaccine with MV and yellow fever vaccine has similar...

  2. Measles and rubella vaccination coverage in Haiti, 2012: progress towards verifying and challenges to maintaining measles and rubella elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohme, Rania A; François, Jeannot; Wannemuehler, Kathleen; Magloire, Roc; Danovaro-Holliday, M Carolina; Flannery, Brendan; Cavallaro, Kathleen F; Fitter, David L; Purcell, Nora; Dismer, Amber; Tappero, Jordan W; Vertefeuille, John F; Hyde, Terri B

    2014-09-01

    We conducted a nationwide survey to assess measles containing vaccine (MCV) coverage among children aged 1-9 years in Haiti and identify factors associated with vaccination before and during the 2012 nationwide supplementary immunisation activities (SIA). Haiti was stratified into five geographic regions (Metropolitan Port-au-Prince, North, Centre, South and West), 40 clusters were randomly selected in each region, and 35 households were selected per cluster. Among the 7000 visited households, 75.8% had at least one child aged 1-9 years; of these, 5279 (99.5%) households consented to participate in the survey. Of 9883 children enrolled, 91% received MCV before and/or during the SIA; 31% received MR for the first time during the SIA, and 50.7% received two doses of MCV (one before and one during the 2012 SIA). Among the 1685 unvaccinated children during the SIA, the primary reason of non-vaccination was caregivers not being aware of the SIA (31.0%). Children aged 1-4 years had significantly lower MR SIA coverage than those aged 5-9 years (79.5% vs. 84.8%) (P < 0.0001). A higher proportion of children living in the West (12.3%) and Centre (11.2%) regions had never been vaccinated than in other regions (4.8-9.1%). Awareness, educational level of the mother and region were significantly associated with MR vaccination during and before the SIA (P < 0.001). The 2012 SIA successfully increased MR coverage; however, to maintain measles and rubella elimination, coverage needs to be further increased among children aged 1-4 years and in regions with lower coverage. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Early childhood measles vaccinations are not associated with paediatric IBD: a population-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Souradet Y; Blanchard, James F; Bernstein, Charles N

    2015-04-01

    Early childhood vaccinations have been hypothesized to contribute to the emergence of paediatric inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] in developed countries. Using linked population-based administrative databases, we aimed to explore the association between vaccination with measles-containing vaccines and the risk for IBD. This was a case-control study using the University of Manitoba IBD Epidemiology Database [UMIBDED]. The UMIBDED was linked to the Manitoba Immunization Monitoring System [MIMS], a population-based database of immunizations administered in Manitoba. All paediatric IBD cases in Manitoba, born after 1989 and diagnosed before March 31, 2008, were included. Controls were matched to cases on the basis of age, sex, and region of residence at time of diagnosis. Measles-containing vaccinations received in the first 2 years of life were documented, with vaccinations categorized as 'None' or 'Complete', with completeness defined according to Manitoba's vaccination schedule. Conditional logistic regression models were fitted to the data, with models adjusted for physician visits in the first 2 years of life and area-level socioeconomic status at case date. A total of 951 individuals [117 cases and 834 controls] met eligibility criteria, with average age of diagnosis among cases at 11 years. The proportion of IBD cases with completed vaccinations was 97%, compared with 94% of controls. In models adjusted for physician visits and area-level socioeconomic status, no statistically significant association was detected between completed measles vaccinations and the risk of IBD (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.5; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.5-4.4; p = 0.419]. No significant association between completed measles-containing vaccination in the first 2 years of life and paediatric IBD could be demonstrated in this population-based study. Copyright © 2015 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For

  4. Previous vaccination modifies both the clinical disease and immunological features in children with measles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell P

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Measles that develops in previously vaccinated cases has been reported to be associated with modified disease, although severity has usually been assessed by the presence or absence of symptoms. To date no studies have attempted to subjectively grade the severity of the clinical features. AIM: To investigate both the objective and subjective severity of measles in vaccinated and unvaccinated cases in the context of a community outbreak. METHODS: A retrospective observational cohort study conducted in Christchurch in 2009 using notified data compared the presentation of measles in 14 confirmed cases that had received at least one MMR (measles, mumps, rubella vaccination and 14 age-matched unvaccinated confirmed cases. Additional details on the subjective and objective severity of the illness were obtained from parents/guardians using a standardised telephone questionnaire. RESULTS: The vaccinated group had significantly fewer clinical features on presentation (p=0.01, RR=1.3, 95% CI 1.1-1.6 and a less severe illness objectively, as measured by height and duration of fever, the number of days needing medication other than paracetamol and days required in bed. Unvaccinated cases were 2.8 times more likely to have more severe clinical features than vaccinated cases (OR=2.8, 95% CI 1.5-5.0. Unvaccinated cases were 3.0 times more likely to develop IgM antibody (RR=3.0, 95% CI 0.9-9.3. DISCUSSION: Previously vaccinated children who develop measles are likely to have less severe disease and serology results that may be inconclusive, particularly for IgM antibody if tested in the first few days after the rash onset.

  5. Measles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the 2000 estimate. By 2015, the global push to improve vaccine coverage resulted in a 79% ... the period 2012-2020. The Plan provides clear strategies for country immunization managers, working with domestic and ...

  6. Interaction between neonatal vitamin A supplementation and timing of measles vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Christine Stabell; Martins, Cesario L; Fisker, Ane B

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Guinea-Bissau we conducted three trials of neonatal vitamin A supplementation (NVAS) from 2002 to 2008. None of the trials found a beneficial effect on mortality. From 2003 to 2007, an early measles vaccine (MV) trial was ongoing, randomizing children 1:2 to early MV at 4.5 months...

  7. A population-based study of measles, mumps and rubella vaccination and autism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kreesten Meldgaard; Hviid, Anders; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2002-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that vaccination against measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) is a cause of autism. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all children born in Denmark from January 1991 through December 1998. The cohort was selected on the basis of data from the Danish...

  8. Measles outbreak in a poorly vaccinated region in Cameroon: a case series study, public health challenges and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njim, Tsi; Aminde, Leopold Ndemnge; Feteh, Fambombi Vitalis; Ngum, Joel Mbigha; Moustapha, Chandini Aliyou

    2015-01-01

    Measles is a highly contagious viral infection and still a leading cause of vaccine-preventable deaths in Africa; especially in unvaccinated populations. We reviewed the medical reports of the measles outbreak that occurred in Misaje, in the North west region of Cameroon from 11/03/2015 to 14/05/2015. Six measles cases were recorded during this period; three of them complicated by bacterial infections. Measles should be considered as a differential diagnosis for any febrile rash especially among poorly vaccinated populations. Primary preventive methods implemented by clinicians could help control outbreaks; especially with delays in public health intervention. Also, gaps in health policies in Cameroon should be addressed to scale up vaccination coverage in remote communities like Misaje to reduce the incidence of measles outbreaks.

  9. Early Onset Optic Neuritis Following Measles-Rubella Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siamak Moradian

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    PURPOSE: To report two cases of optic neuritis with onset less than 24 hours following measles-rubella (MR vaccination. CASE REPORT: Two teenage patients developed acute optic neuritis 6 to 7 hours after MR booster vaccination. The first patient demonstrated bilateral papillitis and severe visual loss but improved significantly with pulse intravenous steroid therapy with methylprednisolone 500 mg/day. The second patient had unilateral retrobulbar optic neuritis and demonstrated excellent visual recovery without intervention. CONCLUSION: Acute optic neuritis is a rare complication of MR vaccination and may occur early after immunization.

  1. Immunization-Safety Monitoring Systems for the 2009 H1N1 Monovalent Influenza Vaccination Program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salmon, Daniel A.; Akhtar, Aysha; Mergler, Michelle J.; Vannice, Kirsten S.; Izurieta, Hector; Ball, Robert; Lee, Grace M.; Vellozzi, Claudia; Garman, Patrick; Cunningham, Francesca; Gellin, Bruce; Koh, Howard; Lurie, Nicole

    The effort to vaccinate the US population against the 2009 H1N1 influenza virus hinged, in part, on public confidence in vaccine safety. Early in the vaccine program, >20% of parents reported that they would not vaccinate their children. Concerns about the safety of the vaccines were reported by

  2. Innovations in communication technologies for measles supplemental immunization activities: lessons from Kenya measles vaccination campaign, November 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbabazi, William B; Tabu, Collins W; Chemirmir, Caleb; Kisia, James; Ali, Nasra; Corkum, Melissa G; Bartley, Gene L

    2015-01-01

    Background To achieve a measles free world, effective communication must be part of all elimination plans. The choice of communication approaches must be evidence based, locally appropriate, interactive and community owned. In this article, we document the innovative approach of using house visits supported by a web-enabled mobile phone application to create a real-time platform for adaptive management of supplemental measles immunization days in Kenya. Methods One thousand nine hundred and fifty-two Red Cross volunteers were recruited, trained and deployed to conduct house-to-house canvassing in 11 urban districts of Kenya. Three days before the campaigns, volunteers conducted house visits with a uniform approach and package of messages. All house visits were documented using a web-enabled mobile phone application (episurveyor®) that in real-time relayed information collected to all campaign management levels. During the campaigns, volunteers reported daily immunizations to their co-ordinators. Post-campaign house visits were also conducted within 4 days, to verify immunization of eligible children, assess information sources and detect adverse events following immunization. Results Fifty-six per cent of the 164 643 households visited said that they had heard about the planned 2012 measles vaccination campaign 1–3 days before start dates. Twenty-five per cent of households were likely to miss the measles supplemental dose if they had not been reassured by the house visit. Pre- and post-campaign reasons for refusal showed that targeted communication reduced misconceptions, fear of injections and trust in herbal remedies. Daily reporting of immunizations using mobile phones informed changes in service delivery plans for better immunization coverage. House visits were more remembered (70%) as sources of information compared with traditional mass awareness channels like megaphones (41%) and radio (37%). Conclusions In high-density settlements, house-to-house visits

  3. Innovations in communication technologies for measles supplemental immunization activities: lessons from Kenya measles vaccination campaign, November 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbabazi, William B; Tabu, Collins W; Chemirmir, Caleb; Kisia, James; Ali, Nasra; Corkum, Melissa G; Bartley, Gene L

    2015-06-01

    To achieve a measles free world, effective communication must be part of all elimination plans. The choice of communication approaches must be evidence based, locally appropriate, interactive and community owned. In this article, we document the innovative approach of using house visits supported by a web-enabled mobile phone application to create a real-time platform for adaptive management of supplemental measles immunization days in Kenya. One thousand nine hundred and fifty-two Red Cross volunteers were recruited, trained and deployed to conduct house-to-house canvassing in 11 urban districts of Kenya. Three days before the campaigns, volunteers conducted house visits with a uniform approach and package of messages. All house visits were documented using a web-enabled mobile phone application (episurveyor®) that in real-time relayed information collected to all campaign management levels. During the campaigns, volunteers reported daily immunizations to their co-ordinators. Post-campaign house visits were also conducted within 4 days, to verify immunization of eligible children, assess information sources and detect adverse events following immunization. Fifty-six per cent of the 164 643 households visited said that they had heard about the planned 2012 measles vaccination campaign 1-3 days before start dates. Twenty-five per cent of households were likely to miss the measles supplemental dose if they had not been reassured by the house visit. Pre- and post-campaign reasons for refusal showed that targeted communication reduced misconceptions, fear of injections and trust in herbal remedies. Daily reporting of immunizations using mobile phones informed changes in service delivery plans for better immunization coverage. House visits were more remembered (70%) as sources of information compared with traditional mass awareness channels like megaphones (41%) and radio (37%). In high-density settlements, house-to-house visits are easy and more penetrative compared

  4. Persistence of measles antibodies, following changes in the recommended age for the second dose of MMR-vaccine in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Guilherme; Frade, João; Nunes, Carla; Mesquita, João Rodrigo; Nascimento, Maria São José

    2015-09-22

    In populations vaccinated with two doses of combined measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (MMR), the serum levels of antibodies against measles depend on the vaccination schedule, time elapsed from the last dose and the area-specific epidemiological situation. Variables measuring "schedule" are age at first and second doses of MMR and intervals derived from that. Changes in vaccination schedules have been made in Portugal. The specific objectives of this study were to measure the association between those potential determinants and the concentration of measles-specific IgG antibodies, after the second dose of MMR. Convenience samples of three Portuguese birth cohorts were selected for this study (41, 66 and 60 born, respectively, in 2001-2003, 1990-1993 and 1994-1995). Geometric mean concentrations (GMC) for measles IgG were, respectively, 934, 251 and 144mIU/ml; pmeasles-IgG serum concentration decreased with time since last vaccination (waning immunity) and was not influenced by any other component of vaccination schedule, namely age at vaccination with the second dose of MMR. Waning levels of measles antibodies have been observed elsewhere but not as fast as it was observed in Portuguese birth cohorts in this study. Changes in the vaccination schedules might have to be considered in the future.

  5. "CHANGES IN THE EPIDEMILOGY OF MEASLES DUE TO MASS-VACCINATION IN IRAN (1961-1971 "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Manteghi

    1972-06-01

    Full Text Available Measles is one of the viral and extremely contagious and acute diseases of childhood affecting almost all children. Prior to the discovery of the measles vaccine, the mortality from this disease was one of the highest child mortality figures, especially in the developing countries, with the death rate ranging over 5 to 10% of the infected? Before the vaccination program I was launched in the country, the number of cases of this disease varied between 150.000 to 500,000 during non epidemic and epidemic years, with the mortality more than 10 or 15 per cent the cases in rural and mountainous localities. The available statistics show that the highest figure of measles patient in Iran belongs to the 1-7 years age-group and the highest of its mortality belongs to the age between 1-2 years. In view of the high morbidity and mortality rates of this disease, and thanks to the quick growth under way in public health maters, gradually the significance of this grave problem was more felt. Thus, to control the disease, the ministry of health decided, in 19.6566, to carry out a study program with the help of the Institute of Public Health Research and, with the desired result on hand from the experimental vaccines, to launch a mass vaccination campaign against measles. Consequently, the mass vaccination program was started from 1967, with priority being given to rura1 area and mountainous localities. From 1970, with the cooperation of the ministry of health and Razi Institute the measles vaccine was produced within the country, and, by the end of 1971 the number of vaccinated children was about 3,517,547 which constitutes almost 37% of the susceptible population. The out come has been I an obvious decline in the prevalence and incidence of this disease and an outstanding change in its epidemiological trend. Thus, in the event that the rate of susceptible population coverage by this vaccine (a single shoot or which gives permanent or at least, a long immunity

  6. Genetic polymorphisms in host antiviral genes: associations with humoral and cellular immunity to measles vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haralambieva, Iana H; Ovsyannikova, Inna G; Umlauf, Benjamin J; Vierkant, Robert A; Shane Pankratz, V; Jacobson, Robert M; Poland, Gregory A

    2011-11-08

    Host antiviral genes are important regulators of antiviral immunity and plausible genetic determinants of immune response heterogeneity after vaccination. We genotyped and analyzed 307 common candidate tagSNPs from 12 antiviral genes in a cohort of 745 schoolchildren immunized with two doses of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine. Associations between SNPs/haplotypes and measles virus-specific immune outcomes were assessed using linear regression methodologies in Caucasians and African-Americans. Genetic variants within the DDX58/RIG-I gene, including a coding polymorphism (rs3205166/Val800Val), were associated as single-SNPs (p≤0.017; although these SNPs did not remain significant after correction for false discovery rate/FDR) and in haplotype-level analysis, with measles-specific antibody variations in Caucasians (haplotype allele p-value=0.021; haplotype global p-value=0.076). Four DDX58 polymorphisms, in high LD, demonstrated also associations (after correction for FDR) with variations in both measles-specific IFN-γ and IL-2 secretion in Caucasians (p≤0.001, q=0.193). Two intronic OAS1 polymorphisms, including the functional OAS1 SNP rs10774671 (p=0.003), demonstrated evidence of association with a significant allele-dose-related increase in neutralizing antibody levels in African-Americans. Genotype and haplotype-level associations demonstrated the role of ADAR genetic variants, including a non-synonymous SNP (rs2229857/Arg384Lys; p=0.01), in regulating measles virus-specific IFN-γ Elispot responses in Caucasians (haplotype global p-value=0.017). After correction for FDR, 15 single-SNP associations (11 SNPs in Caucasians and 4 SNPs in African-Americans) still remained significant at the q-valuemeasles vaccine in Caucasians and African-Americans.

  7. Sex differences in the effect of vaccines on the risk of hospitalization due to measles in Guinea-bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Martins, Cesario; Bale, Carlito

    2010-01-01

    Routine immunizations have non-specific and sex-differential effects on childhood mortality and morbidity in low-income countries; BCG and measles vaccine (MV) may reduce and diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP) may increase the mortality of girls relative to boys.......Routine immunizations have non-specific and sex-differential effects on childhood mortality and morbidity in low-income countries; BCG and measles vaccine (MV) may reduce and diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP) may increase the mortality of girls relative to boys....

  8. A correlation of measles specific antibodies and the number of plasmacytoid dendritic cells is observed after measles vaccination in 9 month old infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-León, Miguel L; Bonifaz, Laura C; Espinosa-Torres, Bogart; Hernández-Pérez, Brenda; Cardiel-Marmolejo, Lino; Santos-Preciado, José I; Wong-Chew, Rosa M

    2015-01-01

    Measles virus (MeV) represents one of the main causes of death among young children, particularly in developing countries. Upon infection, MeV controls both interferon induction (IFN) and the interferon signaling pathway which results in a severe host immunosuppression that can persists for up to 6 mo after infection. Despite the global biology of MeV infection is well studied, the role of the plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) during the host innate immune response after measles vaccination remains largely uncharacterized. Here we investigated the role of pDCs, the major producers of interferon in response to viral infections, in the development of adaptive immune response against MeV vaccine. We report that there is a strong correlation between pDCs population and the humoral immune response to Edmonston Zagreb (EZ) measles vaccination in 9-month-old mexican infants. Five infants were further evaluated after vaccination, showing a clear increase in pDCs at baseline, one week and 3 months after immunization. Three months postvaccination they showed increase in memory T-cells and pDCs populations, high induction of adaptive immunity and also observed a correlation between pDCs number and the humoral immune response. These findings suggest that the development and magnitude of the adaptive immune response following measles immunization is directly dependent on the number of pDCs of the innate immune response.

  9. A correlation of measles specific antibodies and the number of plasmacytoid dendritic cells is observed after measles vaccination in 9 month old infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-León, Miguel L; Bonifaz, Laura C; Espinosa-Torres, Bogart; Hernández-Pérez, Brenda; Cardiel-Marmolejo, Lino; Santos-Preciado, José I; Wong-Chew, Rosa M

    2015-01-01

    Measles virus (MeV) represents one of the main causes of death among young children, particularly in developing countries. Upon infection, MeV controls both interferon induction (IFN) and the interferon signaling pathway which results in a severe host immunosuppression that can persists for up to 6 mo after infection. Despite the global biology of MeV infection is well studied, the role of the plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) during the host innate immune response after measles vaccination remains largely uncharacterized. Here we investigated the role of pDCs, the major producers of interferon in response to viral infections, in the development of adaptive immune response against MeV vaccine. We report that there is a strong correlation between pDCs population and the humoral immune response to Edmonston Zagreb (EZ) measles vaccination in 9-month-old mexican infants. Five infants were further evaluated after vaccination, showing a clear increase in pDCs at baseline, one week and 3 months after immunization. Three months postvaccination they showed increase in memory T-cells and pDCs populations, high induction of adaptive immunity and also observed a correlation between pDCs number and the humoral immune response. These findings suggest that the development and magnitude of the adaptive immune response following measles immunization is directly dependent on the number of pDCs of the innate immune response. PMID:26075901

  10. Don't Let Measles Be Your Travel Souvenir

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit Button Past Emails Don’t Let Measles Be Your Travel Souvenir Language: English Español (Spanish) ... are not vaccinated are at risk of getting measles Facts about measles How is measles spread? Measles ...

  11. Control of a measles outbreak by prohibiting non-vaccinated susceptible students from attending school in Akita Prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takimoto, Noriaki; Takahashi, Yoshihiro; Ishiyama, Akira; Kishimoto, Kaoru; Iwama, Renji; Nakano, Megumi

    2011-01-01

    In 2007-2008, a measles outbreak occurred among children above the age of 10 years in Akita Prefecture, northeastern Japan (population, approximately 1,120,000 at the time). Our group controlled the outbreak by (i) implementing a publically financed urgent vaccination program and (ii) prohibiting non-vaccinated and non-infected students from attending school as per regulations of the school public health law. We encouraged high-risk students to undergo a vaccination program, which resulted in the successful containment of the outbreak without the development of any severe cases. After the outbreak, the Akita Prefectural Government began an annual"Akita measles elimination month" every April, and no measles case found in Akita Prefecture during 2009-2010 subsequently. Our outbreak response initiative can be applied nationally for the complete elimination of measles throughout Japan.

  12. Experimental studies on the prevention and treatment of chickenpox and herpes zoster with measles vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W H; Ming, Z L; Chen, Q; Li, Y

    1989-05-01

    In 151 chickenpox patients treated with live attenuated measles vaccine, the cure rate was 100%. In 145 cases of herpes zoster, the effective rate was 100% (completely cured in 91.7% and improved in 8.3%). In the treated group, the time needed for the subsidence of fever and skin rash and the duration of the disease were markedly shorter than those in the control group (P less than 0.01). It is particularly effective for alleviating pain, preventing and relieving postherpetic neuralgia in patients with zoster. The application of measles vaccine to the patients in the chickenpox incubation period might prevent the development of the disease, and decrease the incidence and death rate of varicella zoster virus infection in highly susceptible patients. The mechanism of its anti-viral action and production of interferon in the body is discussed.

  13. Effect of jet injection on infectivity of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine in a bench model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Melissa M; Collins, Marcus; Saxon, Gene; Jarrahian, Courtney; Zehrung, Darin; Cappello, Chris; Dhere, Rajeev; Royals, Michael; Papania, Mark; Rota, Paul A

    2015-08-26

    Disposable-syringe jet injectors (DSJIs) with single-use, auto disable, needle-free syringes offer the opportunity to avoid hazards associated with injection using a needle and syringe. Clinical studies have evaluated DSJIs for vaccine delivery, but most studies have focused on inactivated, subunit, or DNA vaccines. Questions have been raised about possible damage to live attenuated viral vaccines by forces generated during the jet injection process. This study examines the effect of jet injection on the integrity of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR), measured by viral RNA content and infectivity. Three models of DSJIs were evaluated, each generating a different ejection force. Following jet injection, the RNA content for each of the vaccine components was measured using RT-qPCR immediately after injection and following passage in Vero cells. Jet injection was performed with and without pig skin as a simulation of human skin. There was little to no reduction of RNA content immediately following jet injection with any of the three DSJIs. Samples passaged in Vero cells showed no loss in infectivity of the measles vaccine following jet injection. Mumps vaccine consistently showed increased replication following jet injection. Rubella vaccine showed no loss after jet injection alone but some infectivity loss following injection through pig skin with two of the devices. Overall, these data demonstrated that forces exerted on a live attenuated MMR vaccine did not compromise vaccine infectivity. The bench model and protocol used in this study can be applied to evaluate the impact of jet injection on other live virus vaccines.

  14. Surveillance and vaccination coverage of measles and rubella in Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amendola, Antonella; Bubba, Laura; Piralla, Antonio; Binda, Sandro; Zanetti, Alessandro; Pariani, Elena; Ranghiero, Alberto; Premoli, Marta; Pellegrinelli, Laura; Coppola, Liliana; Gramegna, Maria; Baldanti, Fausto; Zanetti, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Measles and rubella are infectious diseases and humans are the only reservoir of these infections. Effective vaccines are available with the potential for measles (MV) and rubella (RuV) virus eradication. According to the World Health Organisation guidelines, a national plan was approved in Italy in 2013 to achieve the MV/RuV elimination by 2015, and active MV/RuV integrated surveillance initiated. Towards this purpose, a regional laboratory centre was set up on 1 September 2013 in Lombardy, Northern Italy. This paper aimed at: (1) evaluating measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine coverage and MV/RuV notified cases retrospectively; and (2) presenting the results of MV/RuV integrated surveillance (laboratory confirmed and viral genetic profiles).   The 95% target for MMR vaccine coverage was achieved in 2001, and coverage increased until 2007 (96.6%), but then a decreasing trend was observed. Since 2000 to 2014, 3026 rubella cases were notified, with nearly 58% of them in the 2002 epidemic. From 2009, less than 45 RuV cases per year were reported. From 2000 to 2014, 5024 measles cases were notified. Since 2008, three large outbreaks (in 2008, 2011, and 2013) were observed. From data obtained during our surveillance activity, there were no rubella cases, and 57.5% (46/80) collected samples were MV-positive by real-time RT-PCR. A fragment of the MV N gene was sequenced from 37 MV-positive samples; D8, D9, and B3 genotypes were detected. Data obtained retrospectively and from active surveillance underline the necessity to achieve and maintain high vaccination coverage and to improve surveillance and the effectiveness of healthcare actions.

  15. Measles-mumps-rubella-varicella combination vaccine (ProQuad): a guide to its use in children in the E.U.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Lesley J

    2015-04-01

    In the EU, the live attenuated, tetravalent measles-mumps-rubella-varicella vaccine ProQuad is indicated for simultaneous vaccination against measles, mumps, rubella and varicella in individuals from 12 months of age using a two-dose schedule and may be used in infants from 9 months of age to conform with a national vaccination schedule, outbreak situations or travel to a region with a high prevalence of measles. Clinical data in young children indicates that vaccination with ProQuad is as immunogenic as the component vaccines, provides long-term protection against these potentially serious childhood infections and has an acceptable safety profile. Combining the viral strains of the measles-mumps-rubella vaccine M-M-RVAXPRO and the varicella vaccine Varivax in ProQuad reduces the complexity of vaccination schedules, thereby potentially improving vaccination coverage and the timeliness of vaccination.

  16. International collaboration to assess the risk of Guillain Barré Syndrome following Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Dodd (Caitlin); S.A. Romio (Silvana); S. Black (Steve); C. Vellozzi (Claudia); N.J. Andrews (Nick); M.C.J.M. Sturkenboom (Miriam); P. Zuber (Patrick); W. Hua (Wei); J. Bonhoeffer (Jan); J. Buttery (Jim); N. Crawford (Nigel); G. Deceuninck (Genevieve); C.S. de Vries (Corinne); P. de Wals (Philippe); D. Gimeno (David); H. Heijbel (Harald); H. Hughes (Hayley); K. Hur (Kwan); A. Hviid (Anders); J. Kelman (Jeffrey); T. Kilpi (Tehri); S.K. Chuang (S.); T. Macartney (Thomas); M. Rett (Melisa); V.R. Lopez-Callada (Vesta Richardson); D. Salmon (Daniel); F.G. Sanchez (Francisco Gimenez); N. Sanz (Nuria); B. Silverman (Bernard); J. Storsaeter (Jann); U. Thirugnanam (Umapathi); N.A.T. van der Maas (Nicoline); K. Yih (Katherine); T. Zhang (Teng Fei); H.S. Izurieta (Hector); B.J. Addis; A. Akhtar (Aysha); J. Cope (Judith); R.L. Davis (Robert); P. Gargiullo (Paul); X. Kurz (Xavier); B. Law (Barbara); I. Sahinovic (Isabelle); J. Tokars (Jerry); P. Serrano (Pedro); A. Cheng (Aixin); N.J. Andrews (Nick); P. Charles (Pat); H. Clothier (Hazel); B. Day (Bruce); T. Day (Timothy); P. Gates (Peter); R. MacDonnell (Richard); L. Roberts (Les); V. Rodriguez-Casero (Vic-toria); T. Wijeratne (Tissa); H.A.L. Kiers (Henk); C. Blyth (Christopher); R. Booy (Robert); E. Elliott (Elizabeth); M.R. Gold (Michael); H. Marshall; P. McIntyre (Peter); P. Richmond (Peter); J. Royle (Jenny); N.W. Wood (Nicholas); Y. Zurynski (Yvonne); G. Calvo (Gonzalo); M. Campins (Magda); N. Corominas (Nuria); F. Torres (Ferran); V. Valls; A. Vilella (Ángels); A. Dutra (Amalia); A. Eick-Cost (Angelia); H.M. Jackson (Henry); K. Garman (Katherine); Z. Hu (Zheng); J. Rigo; J. Badoo (Judith); D Cho (David); L.L. Polakowski (Laura); S.K. Sandhu (Sukhminder); G. Sun (Guoying); H.-S.S. Chan (Hoi-Shan Sophelia); K.-Y. Chan (Kwok-Yin); R. Cheung (Raymond); Y-F. Cheung (Yuk-Fai); S. Cherk (Sharon); S.K Chuang (S.); D. Fok (Dennis); B.-H. Fung (Bun-Hey); K.-F. Ko (Kwai-Fu); K.W. Lau (Ka Wing); K.-K. Lau (Kwok-Kwong); P. Li (Pulin); H.-T. Liu (Hui-Tung); S.-H. Liu (Shao-Haei); K. Mok (Kin); J. So (Joanna); W. Wong (Winnie); S.-P. Wu (Shun-Ping); V. Avagyan (Vardan); R. Ball (Robert); D. Burwen (Dale); R.L. Franks (Riley); J.M. Gibbs (Jonathan); R.E. Kliman (Rebecca); S. Kropp (Silke); T.E. MaCurdy (Thomas); D.B. Martin (David); S.-D.K. Sandhu (Sukhmin-Der); B.B. Worrall (Bradford B.); D.E.F. Fuentes (Dra. Elvira Fuentes); P.C.O. González (Paola Carolina Ojeda); V.F. Reyna (Valerie ); M. Kulldorff (Martin); G. Lee (Grace); T.A. Lieu (Tracy); S. Platt; G.D. Serres (Gaston De); K. Jabin (Kamilah); B.L.S. Soh (Bee Leng Sally); L. Arnheim-Dahlström (Lisen); A. Castot (Anne); H.E. de Melker (Hester); J.P. Dieleman (Jeanne); J. Hallgren (Jonal); B.C. Jacobs (Bart); K. Johansen (Kari); P Kramarz (Piotr); M. Lapeyre (Maryse); T. Leino (Tuija); D. Mølgaard-Nielsen (Ditte); M. Mosseveld (Mees); H.K. Olberg (Henning K); C.-M. Sammon (Cor-Mac); C. Saussier (Christel); M.J. Schuemie (Martijn); A. Sommet (Agnès); P. Sparen (Pär); H. Svanström (Henrik); A.M. Vanrolleghem (Ann M.); D.M. Weibel (Daniel); J.D. Domingo (Javier Diez); J.L. Esparza (José LuísMicó); R.M.O. Lucas (Rafael M. Ortí); J.B.M. Maseres (Juan B. Mollar); J.L.A. Sánchez (José Luís Alfonso); M.G. Sánchez (Mercedes Garcés); V.Z. Viguer (Vicente Zanón); F. Cunningham (Francesca); B. Thakkar (Bharat); R. Zhang (Rongping)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The global spread of the 2009 novel pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus led to the accelerated production and distribution of monovalent 2009 Influenza A (H1N1) vaccines (pH1N1). This pandemic provided the opportunity to evaluate the risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), which

  17. International collaboration to assess the risk of Guillain Barré Syndrome following Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Dodd (Caitlin); S.A. Romio (Silvana); S. Black (Steve); C. Vellozzi (Claudia); N.J. Andrews (Nick); M.C.J.M. Sturkenboom (Miriam); P. Zuber (Patrick); W. Hua (Wei); J. Bonhoeffer (Jan); J. Buttery (Jim); N. Crawford (Nigel); G. Deceuninck (Genevieve); C.S. de Vries (Corinne); P. de Wals (Philippe); D. Gimeno (David); H. Heijbel (Harald); H. Hughes (Hayley); K. Hur (Kwan); A. Hviid (Anders); J. Kelman (Jeffrey); T. Kilpi (Tehri); S.K. Chuang (S.); T. Macartney (Thomas); M. Rett (Melisa); V.R. Lopez-Callada (Vesta Richardson); D. Salmon (Daniel); F.G. Sanchez (Francisco Gimenez); N. Sanz (Nuria); B. Silverman (Bernard); J. Storsaeter (Jann); U. Thirugnanam (Umapathi); N.A.T. van der Maas (Nicoline); K. Yih (Katherine); T. Zhang (Teng Fei); H.S. Izurieta (Hector); B.J. Addis; A. Akhtar (Aysha); J. Cope (Judith); R.L. Davis (Robert); P. Gargiullo (Paul); X. Kurz (Xavier); B. Law (Barbara); I. Sahinovic (Isabelle); J. Tokars (Jerry); P. Serrano (Pedro); A. Cheng (Aixin); N.J. Andrews (Nick); P. Charles (Pat); H. Clothier (Hazel); B. Day (Bruce); T. Day (Timothy); P. Gates (Peter); R. MacDonnell (Richard); L. Roberts (Les); V. Rodriguez-Casero (Vic-toria); T. Wijeratne (Tissa); H.A.L. Kiers (Henk); C. Blyth (Christopher); R. Booy (Robert); E. Elliott (Elizabeth); M.R. Gold (Michael); H. Marshall; P. McIntyre (Peter); P. Richmond (Peter); J. Royle (Jenny); N.W. Wood (Nicholas); Y. Zurynski (Yvonne); G. Calvo (Gonzalo); M. Campins (Magda); N. Corominas (Nuria); F. Torres (Ferran); V. Valls; A. Vilella (Ángels); A. Dutra (Amalia); A. Eick-Cost (Angelia); H.M. Jackson (Henry); K. Garman (Katherine); Z. Hu (Zheng); J. Rigo; J. Badoo (Judith); D Cho (David); L.L. Polakowski (Laura); S.K. Sandhu (Sukhminder); G. Sun (Guoying); H.-S.S. Chan (Hoi-Shan Sophelia); K.-Y. Chan (Kwok-Yin); R. Cheung (Raymond); Y-F. Cheung (Yuk-Fai); S. Cherk (Sharon); S.K Chuang (S.); D. Fok (Dennis); B.-H. Fung (Bun-Hey); K.-F. Ko (Kwai-Fu); K.W. Lau (Ka Wing); K.-K. Lau (Kwok-Kwong); P. Li (Pulin); H.-T. Liu (Hui-Tung); S.-H. Liu (Shao-Haei); K. Mok (Kin); J. So (Joanna); W. Wong (Winnie); S.-P. Wu (Shun-Ping); V. Avagyan (Vardan); R. Ball (Robert); D. Burwen (Dale); R.L. Franks (Riley); J.M. Gibbs (Jonathan); R.E. Kliman (Rebecca); S. Kropp (Silke); T.E. MaCurdy (Thomas); D.B. Martin (David); S.-D.K. Sandhu (Sukhmin-Der); B.B. Worrall (Bradford B.); D.E.F. Fuentes (Dra. Elvira Fuentes); P.C.O. González (Paola Carolina Ojeda); V.F. Reyna (Valerie ); M. Kulldorff (Martin); G. Lee (Grace); T.A. Lieu (Tracy); S. Platt; G.D. Serres (Gaston De); K. Jabin (Kamilah); B.L.S. Soh (Bee Leng Sally); L. Arnheim-Dahlström (Lisen); A. Castot (Anne); H.E. de Melker (Hester); J.P. Dieleman (Jeanne); J. Hallgren (Jonal); B.C. Jacobs (Bart); K. Johansen (Kari); P Kramarz (Piotr); M. Lapeyre (Maryse); T. Leino (Tuija); D. Mølgaard-Nielsen (Ditte); M. Mosseveld (Mees); H.K. Olberg (Henning K); C.-M. Sammon (Cor-Mac); C. Saussier (Christel); M.J. Schuemie (Martijn); A. Sommet (Agnès); P. Sparen (Pär); H. Svanström (Henrik); A.M. Vanrolleghem (Ann M.); D.M. Weibel (Daniel); J.D. Domingo (Javier Diez); J.L. Esparza (José LuísMicó); R.M.O. Lucas (Rafael M. Ortí); J.B.M. Maseres (Juan B. Mollar); J.L.A. Sánchez (José Luís Alfonso); M.G. Sánchez (Mercedes Garcés); V.Z. Viguer (Vicente Zanón); F. Cunningham (Francesca); B. Thakkar (Bharat); R. Zhang (Rongping)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The global spread of the 2009 novel pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus led to the accelerated production and distribution of monovalent 2009 Influenza A (H1N1) vaccines (pH1N1). This pandemic provided the opportunity to evaluate the risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), which

  18. Clinical and epidemiological findings during a measles outbreak occurring in a population with high vaccination coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Artimos de Oliveira

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available From March 1991 to April 1992, 250 measles suspected cases were studied in the Municipality of Niterói, State of Rio de Janeiro. The median age found was 11 years and 76.0% of the cases were in school age children. Exposure histories were present in 149 patients and schools were the most frequent sites of transmission (45.0%. Vaccination status was known for 127 studied cases and 76.4% of them had received measles vaccine before their first birthday. One or more complications were reported for 68 cases aitd in 8.9% of the studied cases hospitalization was required. Frequency of complications varied according to each age group studied and were more commonly encountered among children < 1 year of age (55.6%. The history of previous vaccination did not diminish the number of complications of the cases studied. The results of this work show changes in age distribution of measles leading to sizeable outbreaks among teenagers and young adults.

  19. Measles Outbreak Associated With Low Vaccine Effectiveness Among Adults in Pohnpei State, Federated States of Micronesia, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Craig M; Johnson, Eliaser; Helgenberger, Louisa; Papania, Mark J; Larzelere, Maribeth; Gopalani, Sameer V; Lebo, Emmaculate; Wallace, Greg; Moturi, Edna; Hickman, Carole J; Rota, Paul A; Alexander, Hinden S; Marin, Mona

    2016-03-01

    Background.  A measles outbreak in Pohnpei State, Federated States of Micronesia in 2014 affected many persons who had received ≥1 dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV). A mass vaccination campaign targeted persons aged 6 months to 49 years, regardless of prior vaccination. Methods.  We evaluated vaccine effectiveness (VE) of MCV by comparing secondary attack rates among vaccinated and unvaccinated contacts after household exposure to measles. Results.  Among 318 contacts, VE for precampaign MCV was 23.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], -425 to 87.3) for 1 dose, 63.4% (95% CI, -103 to 90.6) for 2 doses, and 95.9% (95% CI, 45.0 to 100) for 3 doses. Vaccine effectiveness was 78.7% (95% CI, 10.1 to 97.7) for campaign doses received ≥5 days before rash onset in the primary case and 50.4% (95% CI, -52.1 to 87.9) for doses received 4 days before to 3 days after rash onset in the primary case. Vaccine effectiveness for most recent doses received before 2010 ranged from 51% to 57%, but it increased to 84% for second doses received in 2010 or later. Conclusions.  Low VE was a major source of measles susceptibility in this outbreak; potential reasons include historical cold chain inadequacies or waning of immunity. Vaccine effectiveness of campaign doses supports rapid implementation of vaccination campaigns in outbreak settings.

  20. A large population-based association study between HLA and KIR genotypes and measles vaccine antibody responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovsyannikova, Inna G; Schaid, Daniel J; Larrabee, Beth R; Haralambieva, Iana H; Kennedy, Richard B; Poland, Gregory A

    2017-01-01

    Human antibody response to measles vaccine is highly variable in the population. Host genes contribute to inter-individual antibody response variation. The killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) are recognized to interact with HLA molecules and possibly influence humoral immune response to viral antigens. To expand on and improve our previous work with HLA genes, and to explore the genetic contribution of KIR genes to the inter-individual variability in measles vaccine-induced antibody responses, we performed a large population-based study in 2,506 healthy immunized subjects (ages 11 to 41 years) to identify HLA and KIR associations with measles vaccine-induced neutralizing antibodies. After correcting for the large number of statistical tests of allele effects on measles-specific neutralizing antibody titers, no statistically significant associations were found for either HLA or KIR loci. However, suggestive associations worthy of follow-up in other cohorts include B*57:01, DQB1*06:02, and DRB1*15:05 alleles. Specifically, the B*57:01 allele (1,040 mIU/mL; p = 0.0002) was suggestive of an association with lower measles antibody titer. In contrast, the DQB1*06:02 (1,349 mIU/mL; p = 0.0004) and DRB1*15:05 (2,547 mIU/mL; p = 0.0004) alleles were suggestive of an association with higher measles antibodies. Notably, the associations with KIR genotypes were strongly nonsignificant, suggesting that KIR loci in terms of copy number and haplotypes are not likely to play a major role in antibody response to measles vaccination. These findings refine our knowledge of the role of HLA and KIR alleles in measles vaccine-induced immunity.

  1. A large population-based association study between HLA and KIR genotypes and measles vaccine antibody responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovsyannikova, Inna G.; Schaid, Daniel J.; Larrabee, Beth R.; Haralambieva, Iana H.; Kennedy, Richard B.; Poland, Gregory A.

    2017-01-01

    Human antibody response to measles vaccine is highly variable in the population. Host genes contribute to inter-individual antibody response variation. The killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) are recognized to interact with HLA molecules and possibly influence humoral immune response to viral antigens. To expand on and improve our previous work with HLA genes, and to explore the genetic contribution of KIR genes to the inter-individual variability in measles vaccine-induced antibody responses, we performed a large population-based study in 2,506 healthy immunized subjects (ages 11 to 41 years) to identify HLA and KIR associations with measles vaccine-induced neutralizing antibodies. After correcting for the large number of statistical tests of allele effects on measles-specific neutralizing antibody titers, no statistically significant associations were found for either HLA or KIR loci. However, suggestive associations worthy of follow-up in other cohorts include B*57:01, DQB1*06:02, and DRB1*15:05 alleles. Specifically, the B*57:01 allele (1,040 mIU/mL; p = 0.0002) was suggestive of an association with lower measles antibody titer. In contrast, the DQB1*06:02 (1,349 mIU/mL; p = 0.0004) and DRB1*15:05 (2,547 mIU/mL; p = 0.0004) alleles were suggestive of an association with higher measles antibodies. Notably, the associations with KIR genotypes were strongly nonsignificant, suggesting that KIR loci in terms of copy number and haplotypes are not likely to play a major role in antibody response to measles vaccination. These findings refine our knowledge of the role of HLA and KIR alleles in measles vaccine-induced immunity. PMID:28158231

  2. A Rare Case: Atypical Measles

    OpenAIRE

    Ümmü Sena Sarı; Figen Kaptan

    2016-01-01

    Atypical measles has been described in persons who were exposed to wild measles virus several years after they were immunized with killed measles vaccine. Occasionally, it can be caused by live measles vaccines also. It is a clinical picture different from typical measles. In this report, an adult patient with a history of immunization, who presented with high fever, maculopapular rash starting at the palms and soles, and pneumonia, is presented. Atypical measles that was ...

  3. Acetaminophen (paracetamol) use, measles-mumps-rubella vaccination, and autistic disorder: the results of a parent survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Stephen T; Klonoff-Cohen, Hillary S; Wingard, Deborah L; Akshoomoff, Natacha A; Macera, Caroline A; Ji, Ming

    2008-05-01

    The present study was performed to determine whether acetaminophen (paracetamol) use after the measles-mumps-rubella vaccination could be associated with autistic disorder. This case-control study used the results of an online parental survey conducted from 16 July 2005 to 30 January 2006, consisting of 83 children with autistic disorder and 80 control children. Acetaminophen use after measles-mumps-rubella vaccination was significantly associated with autistic disorder when considering children 5 years of age or less (OR 6.11, 95% CI 1.42-26.3), after limiting cases to children with regression in development (OR 3.97, 95% CI 1.11-14.3), and when considering only children who had post-vaccination sequelae (OR 8.23, 95% CI 1.56-43.3), adjusting for age, gender, mother's ethnicity, and the presence of illness concurrent with measles-mumps-rubella vaccination. Ibuprofen use after measles-mumps-rubella vaccination was not associated with autistic disorder. This preliminary study found that acetaminophen use after measles-mumps-rubella vaccination was associated with autistic disorder.

  4. A randomized trial of a standard dose of Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine given at 4.5 months of age: effect on total hospital admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Cesario L; Benn, Christine S; Andersen, Andreas; Balé, Carlito; Schaltz-Buchholzer, Frederik; Do, Vu An; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Aaby, Peter; Ravn, Henrik; Whittle, Hilton; Garly, May-Lill

    2014-06-01

    Observational studies and trials from low-income countries indicate that measles vaccine has beneficial nonspecific effects, protecting against non-measles-related mortality. It is not known whether measles vaccine protects against hospital admissions. Between 2003 and 2007, 6417 children who had received the third dose of diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccine were randomly assigned to receive measles vaccine at 4.5 months or no measles vaccine; all children were offered measles vaccine at 9 months of age. Using hospital admission data from the national pediatric ward in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau, we compared admission rates between enrollment and the 9-month vaccination in Cox models, providing admission hazard rate ratios (HRRs) for measles vaccine versus no measles vaccine. All analyses were conducted stratified by sex and reception of neonatal vitamin A supplementation (NVAS). Before enrollment the 2 groups had similar admission rates. Following enrollment, the measles vaccine group had an admission HRR of 0.70 (95% confidence interval [CI], .52-.95), with a ratio of 0.53 (95% CI, .32-.86) for girls and 0.86 (95% CI, .58-1.26) for boys. For children who had not received NVAS, the admission HRR was 0.53 (95% CI, .34-.84), with an effect of 0.30 (95% CI, .13-.70) for girls and 0.73 (95% CI, .42-1.28) for boys (P = .08, interaction test). The reduction in admissions was separately significant for measles infection (admission HRR, 0 [95% CI, 0-.24]) and respiratory infections (admission HRR, 0.37 [95% CI, .16-.89]). Early measles vaccine may have major benefits for infant morbidity patterns and healthcare costs. Clinical trials registration NCT00168558.

  5. Measles virus genetic evolution throughout an imported epidemic outbreak in a highly vaccinated population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Alía, Miguel Ángel; Fernández-Muñoz, Rafael; Casasnovas, José María; Porras-Mansilla, Rebeca; Serrano-Pardo, Ángela; Pagán, Israel; Ordobás, María; Ramírez, Rosa; Celma, María Luisa

    2015-01-22

    Measles virus circulates endemically in African and Asian large urban populations, causing outbreaks worldwide in populations with up-to-95% immune protection. We studied the natural genetic variability of genotype B3.1 in a population with 95% vaccine coverage throughout an imported six month measles outbreak. From first pass viral isolates of 47 patients we performed direct sequencing of genomic cDNA. Whilst no variation from index case sequence occurred in the Nucleocapsid gene hyper-variable carboxy end, in the Hemagglutinin gene, main target for neutralizing antibodies, we observed gradual nucleotide divergence from index case along the outbreak (0% to 0.380%, average 0.138%) with the emergence of transient and persistent non-synonymous and synonymous mutations. Little or no variation was observed between the index and last outbreak cases in Phosphoprotein, Nucleocapsid, Matrix and Fusion genes. Most of the H non-synonymous mutations were mapped on the protein surface near antigenic and receptors binding sites. We estimated a MV-Hemagglutinin nucleotide substitution rate of 7.28 × 10-6 substitutions/site/day by a Bayesian phylogenetic analysis. The dN/dS analysis did not suggest significant immune or other selective pressures on the H gene during the outbreak. These results emphasize the usefulness of MV-H sequence analysis in measles epidemiological surveillance and elimination programs, and in detection of potentially emergence of measles virus neutralization-resistant mutants.

  6. Exploring The Impact Of The US Measles Outbreak On Parental Awareness Of And Support For Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciatore, Michael A; Nowak, Glen; Evans, Nathaniel J

    2016-02-01

    Despite consensus among health officials that childhood immunizations are a safe and effective means of protecting people from disease, some parents remain hesitant about vaccinating their children. This hesitancy has been linked to a lack of confidence in recommended vaccinations as well as a desire to delay or further space out scheduled vaccinations but also outright refusal of vaccines. Using two national surveys of parents of children ages five and younger, collected immediately prior to and in the weeks following the 2014-15 US measles outbreak, this study examined the awareness of this vaccine-preventable disease outbreak among parents and whether awareness of the outbreak affected their beliefs about childhood vaccination, confidence, and intentions. The study found that while most parents were aware of the outbreak, many were not, and the level of familiarity mattered, particularly on measures of confidence in vaccines and support for mandates requiring childhood vaccination. Increases in vaccine-related concerns were found as well, indicating that disease outbreaks foster not just awareness of vaccines and their potential to prevent disease but a range of parental responses.

  7. Long-term survival in trial of medium-titre Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Lisse, Ida; Whittle, H

    1994-01-01

    A trial of protective efficacy which compared medium-titre Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) measles vaccine (10(4.6) p.f.u.) from the age of 4 months with the standard Schwarz (SW) measles vaccine given from the age of 9 months was started in an urban community in Guinea-Bissau in 1985. Because trials of high......-titre measles vaccine have found increased mortality among female recipients, we examined whether EZ medium-titre vaccine was associated with any long-term impact on mortality, suppression of T-cells, or growth. The mortality rate ratio over 5 years of follow-up was 1.12 for EZ children compared with children...

  8. Unilateral Optic Neuritis: A Rare Complication after Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccination in a 30-Year-Old Woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara De Giacinto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To report a case of unilateral optic neuritis following Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR vaccination. Methods. A 30-year-old female developed unilateral optic neuritis five days after a Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR booster vaccination. The patient displayed unilateral involvement, with severe visual loss. However, visual acuity improved significantly after four days of intravenous steroid therapy with 500 mg/day of methylprednisolone. Conclusions. Optic neuritis is one of the rare complications associated with the mumps, measles, and rubella vaccine. It may be a toxic reaction to the nonviral component of the vaccine, but the exact etiology is unknown. Postvaccination neuritis is generally bilateral and usually affects children. In adults, unilateral optic neuritis is usually correlated with multiple sclerosis (MS.

  9. Measles outbreak among the Dukpa tribe of Buxa hills in West Bengal, India: epidemiology and vaccine efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuniya, Satinath; Maji, Dipankar; Mandal, Debasis; Mondal, Nilanjan

    2013-01-01

    Although measles is a vaccine preventable disease, its occurrence and outbreaks are common in India. Four remote and inaccessible hamlets, inhabited by the Dukpa tribe, at Buxa Hills under Kalchini Block of Jalpaiguri District, West Bengal experienced a measles outbreak during the months of April-June, 2011. The authors conducted an investigation to assess vaccine coverage, vaccine efficacy (VE) and to describe the patterns of measles outbreaks in this community. The over-all attack rate was 14.3%; that among males and females were 12.6% and 16.0% respectively (P = 0.189). Attack rate was highest (40%) in 0 to <5 years followed by that in the 5 to <15 years (36.5%). VE was 66.3% (95% of the confidence interval 46.9-78.6%). There is an urgent need to increase the vaccination coverage through special tactics for reaching the unreached.

  10. Measles outbreak among the Dukpa tribe of Buxa hills in West Bengal, India: Epidemiology and vaccine efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satinath Bhuniya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although measles is a vaccine preventable disease, its occurrence and outbreaks are common in India. Four remote and inaccessible hamlets, inhabited by the Dukpa tribe, at Buxa Hills under Kalchini Block of Jalpaiguri District, West Bengal experienced a measles outbreak during the months of April-June, 2011. The authors conducted an investigation to assess vaccine coverage, vaccine efficacy (VE and to describe the patterns of measles outbreaks in this community. The over-all attack rate was 14.3%; that among males and females were 12.6% and 16.0% respectively (P = 0.189. Attack rate was highest (40% in 0 to <5 years followed by that in the 5 to <15 years (36.5%. VE was 66.3% (95% of the confidence interval 46.9-78.6%. There is an urgent need to increase the vaccination coverage through special tactics for reaching the unreached.

  11. An Epidemiological Study on Measles Cases with Vaccination History of Measles Attenuated Live Vaccine%有麻疹减毒活疫苗接种史的麻疹病例流行病学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵艳荣; 陈恩富; 李倩; 蒋征刚; 何寒青; 凌罗亚

    2011-01-01

    Objective To know the distribution characteristics of measles cases with vaccination history of measles attenuated live vaccine (MV ) and to provide base data for Measles control and prevention. Methods A descriptive epidemiological study was conducted to analyze measles cases with or without vaccination history of measles attenuated vaccine reported in Zhejiang province in 2009. Results The confirmed measles cases with vaccination history of measles vaccine was obviously lower than (16.44% ) non-measles cases (41.45%). The shortest interval between the latest MV vaccination and onset of measles case was Od, the longest is 25 years, with a median of 3 months. The occurrence of Measles of interval proportions <1 month, 1-11 months, 1-9 years, 10-25 years were 42.10%, 30.19%, 19.50%, 6.92% respectively. The interval distribution was different by age groups. Some symptoms were milder in the cases with MV history than that without MV history. For cases with different interval between recent MV vaccination and onset of measles, conjunctivitis was less in those of 6-10d than others. Conclusion Measles cases with MV history could be resulted from primary or secondary immunization failure, or time vaccinated at the late incubation period. Few cases may actually be vaccine reactions at 6-10d after vaccination.%目的 了解有麻疹减毒活疫苗(Measles Attenuated Live Vaccine,MV)接种史的麻疹病例的分布特点,为查找原因及提出控制措施提供基础数据.方法 对浙江省2009年报告的有、无MV接种史的麻疹病例进行描述流行病学分析.结果 麻疹确诊病例中,有MV接种史的比例(16.44%)明显低于非麻疹病例(41.45%).末次接种距发病最短间隔为0d,最长为25年,中位数为3个月.接种后<1个月、1~11个月、1~9年、10~25年的发病构成分别为42.10%、30.19%、19.50%、6.92%,不同年龄组末次接种距发病时间分布不同.有MV接种史的麻疹病例与无接种史者相比

  12. The effects of vitamin A supplementation with measles vaccine on leucocyte counts and in vitro cytokine production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov; Fisker, Ane Bærent; Andersen, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    As WHO recommends vitamin A supplementation (VAS) at vaccination contacts after age 6 months, many children receive VAS together with measles vaccine (MV). We aimed to investigate the immunological effect of VAS given with MV. Within a randomised placebo-controlled trial investigating the effect...

  13. Sex differences in the effect of vaccines on the risk of hospitalization due to measles in Guinea-bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Martins, Cesario; Bale, Carlito

    2010-01-01

    Routine immunizations have non-specific and sex-differential effects on childhood mortality and morbidity in low-income countries; BCG and measles vaccine (MV) may reduce and diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP) may increase the mortality of girls relative to boys....

  14. DTP with or after measles vaccination is associated with increased in-hospital mortality in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Biai, Sidu; Veirum, Jens Erik

    2007-01-01

    The sequence of routine immunisations may be important for childhood mortality. Three doses of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP) should be given at 6, 10, and 14 weeks and measles vaccine (MV) at 9 months of age. The sequence is not always respected. We examined in-hospital mortality...

  15. The effects of vitamin A supplementation with measles vaccine on leucocyte counts and in vitro cytokine production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov; Fisker, Ane Bærent; Andersen, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    As WHO recommends vitamin A supplementation (VAS) at vaccination contacts after age 6 months, many children receive VAS together with measles vaccine (MV). We aimed to investigate the immunological effect of VAS given with MV. Within a randomised placebo-controlled trial investigating the effect...

  16. Measles, Mumps, Rubella and the MMR Vaccine during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the U.S., but vaccination programs have greatly decreased their incidence. These viruses are still common in ... where a woman received the MMR vaccine during pregnancy. They did not experience adverse complications and there was no increased rate of birth defects. I have heard about a ...

  17. Measles Outbreak Among Amish Highlights Need for Vaccinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... particular, some parents are wary of the MMR vaccine because of a purported link to autism. That link, however, has its roots a study from the 1990s that was later found to be fraudulent. "It's a safe and effective vaccine," Gastanaduy said. If parents have any questions about ...

  18. Evaluation of Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccination Among Newly Arrived Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Deborah; Weinberg, Michelle; Benoit, Stephen

    2017-05-01

    To assess US availability and use of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination documentation for refugees vaccinated overseas. We selected 1500 refugee records from 14 states from March 2013 through July 2015 to determine whether overseas vaccination records were available at the US postarrival health assessment and integrated into the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices schedule. We assessed number of doses, dosing interval, and contraindications. Twelve of 14 (85.7%) states provided data on 1118 (74.5%) refugees. Overseas records for 972 (86.9%) refugees were available, most from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Electronic Disease Notification system (66.9%). Most refugees (829; 85.3%) were assessed appropriately for MMR vaccination; 37 (3.8%) should have received MMR vaccine but did not; 106 (10.9%) did not need the MMR vaccine but were vaccinated. Overseas documentation was available at most clinics, and MMR vaccinations typically were given when needed. Further collaboration between refugee health clinics and state immunization information systems would improve accessibility of vaccination documentation.

  19. Effectiveness of Early Measles, Mumps, and Rubella Vaccination Among 6-14-Month-Old Infants During an Epidemic in the Netherlands: An Observational Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woudenberg, Tom; van der Maas, Nicoline A T; Knol, Mirjam J; de Melker, Hester; van Binnendijk, Rob S; Hahné, Susan J M

    2017-04-15

    Routinely, the first measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine dose is given at 14 months of age in the Netherlands. However, during a measles epidemic in 2013-2014, MMR vaccination was also offered to 6-14-month-olds in municipalities with measles, their infant's saliva was tested for measles-specific antibodies. The vaccine effectiveness (VE) against laboratory-confirmed and self-reported measles was estimated using Cox regression, with VE calculated as 1 minus the hazard ratio. Three vaccinated and 10 unvaccinated laboratory-confirmed cases occurred over observation times of 106631 and 23769 days, respectively. The unadjusted VE against laboratory-confirmed measles was 94% (95% confidence interval [CI], 79%-98%). After adjustment for religion and sibling's vaccination status, the VE decreased to 71% (-72%-95%). For self-reported measles, the unadjusted and adjusted VE was 67% (40%-82%) and 43% (-12%-71%), respectively. Infants vaccinated between 6 and 14 months of age had a lower risk of measles than unvaccinated infants. However, part of the effect was caused by herd immunity, since vaccinated infants were more likely to be surrounded by other vaccinated individuals.

  20. Evaluation of anti-measles and anti-mumps vaccination coverage in a cohort of youth in South-Centre of Sicily, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Lo Magno

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined a cohort of young people from South Centre Sicily, Italy, in order to evaluate anti-measles anti-mumps vaccination coverage. It is shown that, in proportion, an antibody protection against mumps is greater than an antibody protection against measles and also it causes acute episodes in some subjects vaccinated.

  1. Immunological efficacy of Vaccination against Measles in Children with Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Kaplina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The data of current vaccination process of cellular, humoral immunity and specific antibody formation in 41 children with Down syndrome at the age of 1 year to 6 years old is observed. To prevent easles used measles vaccine (n=12, divaccine -measles-mumps (n=21 and or Priorix vaccine (n=8. The comparison group consisted of 63 children without Down syndrome. The post-vaccination period in 97,6% of children with Down syndrome cases are asymptomatic, only 2,4% of children mentioned layering of intercurrent diseases. The immunological status in children with Down syndrome is characterized by a significant decrease in the  umber leucocytes, lymphocytes, CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ and absolute number of CD20+, but functional activity of the cells is preserved. By 30 days after immunization they have increased leucocytes, lymphocytes, CD 95+cells. The number of antibodies significantly increased (6,63±0,33 compared to 5,79±0,32 log2, р < 0,05.

  2. [Vaccination against measles. The situation in Mexico and America. Advances in the method of aerosol immunization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández de Castro, J; Kumate, J

    1990-07-01

    We present general comments on the epidemiology of measles considering the pre-vaccine era as well as the post-vaccine period in which some changes can be observed: the decrease in morbidity and mortality, the extension of the inter-epidemic interval, the increase in the mean age of infection, etc. We make some estimations about the vaccine coverage and the ideal age of immunization for the goal of eradication (assuming a lifelong immunity for the vaccinees). The technical problems in measles immunization are also revised explaining why no continental country has been able to eliminate the disease. We describe the epidemiological situation in North America, Mexico and Latin American countries. Lastly we present the Mexican experience with the inhaled aerosolised vaccine: the studies in Monterrey (Sabin et al, 1982), other investigation in Mexico, D.F. and in the State of Jalisco, as well as the mass campaigns in Aguascalientes in 1988 and in Coahuila and Nuevo León in 1989. We propose it as an effective, harmless, simple, inexpensive and practical method.

  3. Antibody responses to Hepatitis B and measles-mumps-rubella vaccines in children who received chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Santana Viana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate viral vaccine antibody levels in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia after chemotherapy and after vaccine booster doses. METHODS: Antibody levels against hepatitis B, rubella, measles and mumps vaccine antigens were evaluated in 33 children after completing chemotherapy (before and after vaccine booster doses and the results were compared to the data of 33 healthy children matched for gender, age and social class. RESULTS: After chemotherapy, 75.9%, 67.9%, 59.3% and 51.7% of the patients showed low antibody titers that would be unlikely to protect against exposure to measles, rubella, hepatitis B and mumps, respectively. After receiving a vaccine booster dose for these antigens the patients had high antibody levels consistent with potential protection against measles, mumps and hepatitis B, but not against rubella. CONCLUSION: Extra doses of measles-mumps-rubella plus hepatitis B vaccines are recommended in acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients submitted to treatment after hematologic recovery. After this, viral vaccine antibody levels should be verified to define the individual's protective status.

  4. Vacinas contra varicela e vacina quádrupla viral Varicella vaccines and measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Ferro Bricks

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Apresentar uma revisão atualizada sobre os estudos de eficácia, eventos adversos e esquema vacinal da vacina contra varicela e a nova apresentação combinada com a vacina contra sarampo, caxumba e rubéola. FONTES DOS DADOS: Revisão bibliográfica utilizando a base de dados MEDLINE e LILACS no período de 1999 a 2006. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: A vacina contra varicela tem uma eficácia entre 70 a 90% contra a infecção e 95 a 98% de proteção contra as formas graves. É uma vacina bem tolerada e pouco reatogênica. Após o seu licenciamento, foram comprovados apenas três casos de transmissão do vírus vacinal de pessoas previamente saudáveis para contatos domiciliares, que desenvolveram doença leve. Apesar das evidências de que a proteção conferida pela vacina pode diminuir com o passar dos anos, ainda não é possível afirmar que seja necessário, no momento, a aplicação de uma segunda dose, tendo em vista a exposição ao vírus selvagem. Após a vacinação universal, as chances de estímulo natural deverão diminuir, e muito provavelmente será necessário a aplicação de doses de reforço. Recentemente foi licenciada a vacina quádrupla viral, um produto combinado com a vacina contra sarampo, caxumba, rubéola e varicela com elevadas taxas de soroconversão. CONCLUSÃO:A vacina contra varicela é recomendada pela Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria (SBP para as crianças a partir de 1 ano de idade. Esperamos que, em breve, a vacina quádrupla viral esteja disponível no Brasil, pois o uso de vacinas combinadas possibilita uma maior cobertura vacinal.OBJECTIVES: To present an up-to-date review of studies investigating the efficacy, adverse events and vaccination regimens of the varicella vaccine and the new presentation combined with the vaccine for measles, mumps and rubella. SOURCES OF DATA: Bibliographic review of the MEDLINE and LILACS databases covering the period 1999 to 2006 SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: The varicella

  5. Effect of an Early Dose of Measles Vaccine on Morbidity Between 18 Weeks and 9 Months of Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do, Vu An; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Fisker, Ane Bærent

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND:  Children in Guinea-Bissau receive measles vaccine (MV) at 9 months of age, but studies have shown that an additional dose before 9 months of age might have beneficial nonspecific effects. Within a randomized trial designed to examine nonspecific effects of early MV receipt on mortality...... group). Children were visited weekly from enrollment to age 9 months; the mother reported morbidity, and the field assistants examined the children. Using Cox and binomial regression models, we compared the 2 randomization groups. RESULTS:  Among the 1592 children, early measles vaccination...... was not associated with a higher risk of the well-known adverse events of fever, rash, and convulsions within the first 14 days. From 15 days after randomization to age 9 months, early measles vaccination was associated with reductions in maternally reported diarrhea (hazard ratio [HR], 0.89; 95% confidence interval...

  6. 麻疹疫苗的研究进展%The analysis of measles vaccine studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕旭; 徐维祯; 谷鸿喜

    2013-01-01

    Measles remains a major cause of child mortality despite the availability of a safe and effective live attenuated virus vaccine (LAV).Recent efforts to improve routine vaccination and implement national immunization days have enhanced measles control.One persistent impediment to measles control in many countries remains the inability to successfully immunize young infants due to the immaturity of the immune system and interference of maternal antibodies with immune responses to LAV.Therefore,many strategies are emerging for the development of a vaccine for young infants.As potential improvements,some new vaccines or novel deliveries of reconstituted liquid LAMV have been studied but have never been licensed or widely used.This review concentiates the progress of measles vaccine studies both at home and abroad.%自麻疹减毒活疫苗研制成功并广泛使用以来,许多国家有效地控制了麻疹流行.然而在麻疹疫苗使用40多年后,麻疹仍然是引起儿童死亡的主要原因,其中包括免疫系统缺陷和母传抗体对麻疹疫苗免疫应答的干扰作用.由于在麻疹的预防控制方面仍然存在着一些问题,造成了免疫失败,因此近年来对儿童接种麻疹疫苗又出现了很多新的策略,其中加强常规免疫接种和定期开展补充强化免疫活动已在许多国家被证明是控制麻疹发生的有效措施.同时一些新型麻疹疫苗的研制也在应运而生,虽然目前尚未被广泛应用,但却具有很大的应用前景.

  7. Protective immunity in macaques vaccinated with a modified vaccinia virus Ankara-based measles virus vaccine in the presence of passively acquired antibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.J. Stittelaar (Koert); L.S. Wyatt (Linda); R.L. de Swart (Rik); H.W. Vos (Helma); J. Groen (Jan); G. van Amerongen (Geert); R.S. van Binnendijk (Rob); S. Rozenblatt (Shmuel); B. Moss (Bernard); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractRecombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA), encoding the measles virus (MV) fusion (F) and hemagglutinin (H) (MVA-FH) glycoproteins, was evaluated in an MV vaccination-challenge model with macaques. Animals were vaccinated twice in the absence or presence of passively transferred M

  8. Protective immunity in macaques vaccinated with a modified vaccinia virus Ankara-based measles virus vaccine in the presence of passively acquired antibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.J. Stittelaar (Koert); L.S. Wyatt (Linda); R.L. de Swart (Rik); H.W. Vos (Helma); J. Groen (Jan); R.S. van Binnendijk (Rob); S. Rozenblatt (Shmuel); B. Moss (Bernard); G. van Amerongen (Geert); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractRecombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA), encoding the measles virus (MV) fusion (F) and hemagglutinin (H) (MVA-FH) glycoproteins, was evaluated in an MV vaccination-challenge model with macaques. Animals were vaccinated twice in the absence or presence of passi

  9. Differences in female-male mortality after high-titre measles vaccine and association with subsequent vaccination with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis and inactivated poliovirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Jensen, Henrik; Samb, Badara

    2003-01-01

    Females given high-titre measles vaccine (HTMV) have high mortality; diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccination might be associated with increased female mortality. We aimed to assess whether DTP or inactivated poliovirus (IPV) administered after HTMV was associated with increased female...

  10. HIV-1 infection in Zambian children impairs the development and avidity maturation of measles virus-specific immunoglobulin G after vaccination and infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Nitya; Moss, William J; Scott, Susana; Mugala, Nanthalile; Ndhlovu, Zaza M; Lilo, Kareem; Ryon, Judith J; Monze, Mwaka; Quinn, Thomas C; Cousens, Simon; Cutts, Felicity; Griffin, Diane E

    2009-10-01

    Endemic transmission of measles continues in many countries that have a high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) burden. The effects that HIV infection has on immune responses to measles and to measles vaccine can impact measles elimination efforts. Assays to measure antibody include the enzyme immunoassay (EIA), which measures immunoglobulin G (IgG) to all measles virus (MV) proteins, and the plaque reduction neutralization (PRN) assay, which measures antibody to the hemagglutinin and correlates with protection. Antibody avidity may affect neutralizing capacity. HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected Zambian children were studied after measles vaccination (n=44) or MV infection (n=57). Laboratory or wild-type MV strains were used to infect Vero or Vero/signaling lymphocyte-activation molecule (SLAM) cells in PRN assays. IgG to MV was measured by EIA, and avidity was determined by ammonium thiocyanate dissociation. HIV infection impaired EIA IgG responses after vaccination and measles but not PRN responses measured using laboratory-adapted MV. Avidity was lower among HIV-infected children 3 months after vaccination and 1 and 3 months after measles. Neutralization of wild-type MV infection of Vero/SLAM cells correlated with IgG avidity. Lower antibody quality and quantity in HIV-infected children after measles vaccination raise challenges for assuring the long-term protection of these children. Antibody quality in children receiving antiretroviral therapy requires assessment.

  11. Evaluation of the eight-year period of compulsory measles vaccination in the Czech Socialist Republic (CSR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sejda, J

    1979-01-01

    The object of the study is the evaluation of a more than 8-year period of compulsory vaccination against measles in the CSR. So far, a total of 1,850,000 children have been vaccinated. A pronounced decrease has been achieved in morbidity while mortality and lethality reached zero values as early as in 1973. Changes occur in the epidemiological characteristic of measles manifested primarily by the shift of the age distribution of notified cases into older age groups, by continuous prolongation of interepidemic intervals and by gradual disappearances of typical seasonal incidence. Regular immunological surveys have become the most efficient tools in epidemiological surveillance of this infection and in monitoring the vaccination programme. The results of immunological surveys indeed led to the introduction in 1975 of so-called second vaccination compulsory for children starting the first year of school attendance. Up to the present, a total of 24,000 cases of measles have been recorded in children vaccinated earlier, i.e., 1.5% of the total of vaccinated children. It can be expected that measles as a mass disease will be eliminated from the territory of the CSR in the next few years.

  12. Low-dose aspirin use does not diminish the immune response to monovalent H1N1 influenza vaccine in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, M L; Bellamy, A; Wolff, M; Hill, H; Jackson, L A

    2016-03-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may inhibit antibody production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells; one consequence of this could be decreased effectiveness of vaccines in NSAID users. Because many older adults use low-dose aspirin for primary or secondary prevention of coronary events, any inhibitory effect of aspirin on vaccine immune response could reduce the benefits of vaccination programmes in older adults. We tested whether immune response to vaccination differed between users vs. non-users of low-dose aspirin, using data from four randomized trials of monovalent 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) vaccine. Geometric mean haemagglutination inhibition antibody titres were not significantly lower in low-dose aspirin users compared to non-users. Our results provide reassurance that influenza vaccination effectiveness is probably not reduced in older adults taking chronic low-dose aspirin.

  13. Protection from SARS coronavirus conferred by live measles vaccine expressing the spike glycoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escriou, Nicolas; Callendret, Benoît; Lorin, Valérie; Combredet, Chantal; Marianneau, Philippe; Février, Michèle; Tangy, Frédéric

    2014-03-01

    The recent identification of a novel human coronavirus responsible of a SARS-like illness in the Middle-East a decade after the SARS pandemic, demonstrates that reemergence of a SARS-like coronavirus from an animal reservoir remains a credible threat. Because SARS is contracted by aerosolized contamination of the respiratory tract, a vaccine inducing mucosal long-term protection would be an asset to control new epidemics. To this aim, we generated live attenuated recombinant measles vaccine (MV) candidates expressing either the membrane-anchored SARS-CoV spike (S) protein or its secreted soluble ectodomain (Ssol). In mice susceptible to measles virus, recombinant MV expressing the anchored full-length S induced the highest titers of neutralizing antibodies and fully protected immunized animals from intranasal infectious challenge with SARS-CoV. As compared to immunization with adjuvanted recombinant Ssol protein, recombinant MV induced stronger and Th1-biased responses, a hallmark of live attenuated viruses and a highly desirable feature for an antiviral vaccine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Group a rotavirus and norovirus genotypes circulating in the northeastern Brazil in the post-monovalent vaccination era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, Ana Caroline C; Gómez, Mariela M; Lima, Ila Fernanda N; Quetz, Josiane S; Havt, Alexandre; Oriá, Reinaldo B; Lima, Aldo A; Leite, José Paulo G

    2015-09-01

    Group A rotaviruses (RVA) and noroviruses (NoV) are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) worldwide. Childhood diarrhea deaths and hospital admissions have declined since the introduction of the monovalent (G1P[8]) vaccine (Rotarix(®) [RV1]) in the National Immunization Program in Brazil in 2006. This study aims to investigate the epidemiological profile of NoV and RVA infections from children with AGE in the Northeastern region of Brazil in the post vaccine season. Two-hundred fecal samples collected from children up to 10 years old in Fortaleza, Ceará between 2008-2009 were screened for the presence of RVA and NoV. Positive samples were genotyped and sequenced. The RVA screening revealed 12% prevalence and all RVA strains belonged to G2P[4] genotype. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 11 RVA genome segments sequenced from eight samples revealed a DS-1-like genotype constellation: I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T2-E2-H2. For NoV screening, the prevalence observed was 17% and the following genotypes were detected: GII.4 (59%), GII.12 (17%), GII.6 (9%), GII.3 (6%), and GII.? (9%). At least four different NoVs genotypes and two RVA G2P[4] variants were identified circulating in the Northeastern region of Brazil. RVA phylogenetic analysis suggests that the RVA G2P[4] strains might have originated from intragenogroup reassortment events. Whether the genetic modifications observed in these contemporary G2P[4] RVA strains may impact the long-term effectiveness of the current vaccination programs remains to be explored. These data reinforce the importance of surveillance for monitoring the emergence of new strains of RVA and NoV and their impact on cases of acute gastroenteritis.

  15. Cross-sectional surveys of measles antibodies in the Jiangsu Province of China from 2008 to 2010: the effect of high coverage with two doses of measles vaccine among children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanbao Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Changes in the epidemiological characteristics of measles since 2007 appeared in the Jiangsu province. Although the reported coverage with two doses of measles vaccine was greater than 95% in most regions of the province, measles incidence remained high across the whole province. Cross-sectional serological surveys of measles antibodies in the Jiangsu province of China were conducted from 2008 to 2010 to assess and track population immunity. METHODS: Measles-specific IgG levels were measured in serum samples using ELISA. GMTs and seroprevalence with 95% CIs were calculated by region, gender, and age. ANOVA and χ(2 tests were used to test for statistically significant differences between groups for GMT levels and seroprevalence, respectively. RESULTS: Seroprevalence showed a significantly increasing trend annually (CMH χ(2 = 40.32, p<0.0001. Although the seroprevalence among children aged 2-15 years was consistently over 95%, vaccine-induced measles antibodies may wane over time. Measles seropositivity in the Jiangsu province was 91.7% (95% CI: 90.1-93.2% in 2010. Among adults aged 15 to 29-year-olds, the seropositivity rate was 88.4% (95% CI: 82.7-92.8%. CONCLUSIONS: Vaccination strategies may need to be adjusted depending on the individual age and regions, particularly individuals between the ages of 8 months-14 years old and 20-29 years old. Additional SIAs are likely required to eliminate measles in China.

  16. Effect of Multivitamin Supplementation on Measles Vaccine Response among HIV-Exposed Uninfected Tanzanian Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Sudfeld, Christopher Robert; Duggan, Christopher Paul; Histed, A.; Manji, K. P.; Meydani, S. N.; Aboud, S.; Wang, Molin; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Wafaie W Fawzi

    2013-01-01

    Immunization and nutritional interventions are mainstays of child health programs in sub-Saharan Africa, yet few published data exist on their interactions. HIV-exposed (but uninfected) infants enrolled in a randomized placebo-controlled trial of multivitamin supplements (vitamins B complex, C, and E) conducted in Tanzania were sampled for an assessment of measles IgG quantity and avidity at 15 to 18 months. Infants were vaccinated between 8.5 and 12 months of age, and all mothers received hi...

  17. Comparison of Immunoglobulin G Subclass Profiles Induced by Measles Virus in Vaccinated and Naturally Infected Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isa, María Beatríz; Martínez, Laura; Giordano, Miguel; Passeggi, Carlos; de Wolff, María Cristina; Nates, Silvia

    2002-01-01

    A total of 258 human sera positive for measles antibodies were divided into four different groups: group 1 contained 54 sera from children after natural measles infection (immunoglobulin M [IgM] positive, early infection phase), group 2 contained 28 sera from children after measles vaccination (IgM positive, early infection phase), group 3 contained 100 sera from healthy adults (natural long-lasting immunity), and group 4 contained 76 sera from healthy children (postvaccinal long-lasting immunity). In the early phase of infection, the percent distributions of measles virus-specific IgG isotypes were similar between natural and postvaccinal immune responses. IgG1 and IgG4 were the dominant isotypes, with mean levels of detection of 100% (natural infection) and 100% (postvaccinal) for IgG1 and 96% (natural infection) and 92% (postvaccinal) for IgG4. In comparison, the IgG4 geometric mean titer (GMT) in the early phase of natural infection was significantly higher than the IgG4 GMT detected in the postvaccinal immune response (80 versus 13; 95% confidence interval). In the memory phase, IgG2 and IgG3 responses decreased significantly in both natural infection and postvaccinal groups, while IgG1 levels were maintained. In contrast, the IgG4 postvaccinal immune response decreased strongly in the memory phase, whereas IgG4 natural long-lasting immunity remained unchanged (9 versus 86%; P < 0.05). The results obtained suggest that IgG4 isotype could be used in the early phase of infection as a quantitative marker and in long-lasting immunity as a qualitative marker to differentiate between natural and postvaccinal immune responses. PMID:11986279

  18. No evidence of an increase of bacterial and viral infections following Measles, Mumps and Rubella vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowe, Julia; Andrews, Nick; Taylor, Brent; Miller, Elizabeth

    2009-02-25

    The suggestion that multi-antigen vaccines might overload the immune system has led to calls for single antigen vaccines. In 2003 we showed that rather than an increase there appeared to be a reduced risk of severe bacterial infection in the three months following Measles, Mumps and Rubella vaccine (MMR). The present analysis of illnesses in a general population is based on an additional 10 years of data for bacterial infections and also includes admissions with viral infections. Analyses were carried out using the self-controlled case-series method and separately for bacterial and viral infection cases, using risk periods of 0-30 days, 31-60 days and 61-90 days post MMR vaccine. An analysis was also carried out for those cases which were given MMR and Meningococcal serogroup C (MCC) vaccines concomitantly. A reduced risk was seen in the 0-30-day period for both bacterial infection (relative incidence=0.68, 95% CI 0.54-0.86) and viral infections (relative incidence=0.68, 95% CI 0.49-0.93). There was no increased risk in any period when looking at combined viral or bacterial infections or for individual infections with the single exception of an increased risk in the 31-60 days post vaccination period for herpes infections (relative incidence=1.69, 95% CI 1.06-2.70). For the children given Meningococcal group C vaccines concomitantly no significantly increased risk was seen in either the bacterial (relative incidence=0.54, 95% CI 0.26-1.13) or viral cases (relative incidence=0.46, 95% CI 0.11-1.93). Our study confirms that the MMR vaccine does not increase the risk of invasive bacterial or viral infection in the 90 days after the vaccination and does not support the hypothesis that there is an induced immune deficiency due to overload from multi-antigen vaccines.

  19. Missed Opportunities for Measles, Mumps, Rubella Vaccination Among Departing U.S. Adult Travelers Receiving Pretravel Health Consultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyle, Emily P; Rao, Sowmya R; Jentes, Emily S; Parker Fiebelkorn, Amy; Hagmann, Stefan H F; Taylor Walker, Allison; Walensky, Rochelle P; Ryan, Edward T; LaRocque, Regina C

    2017-07-18

    Measles outbreaks continue to occur in the United States and are mostly due to infections in returning travelers. To describe how providers assessed the measles immunity status of departing U.S. adult travelers seeking pretravel consultation and to assess reasons given for nonvaccination among those considered eligible to receive the measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) vaccine. Observational study in U.S. pretravel clinics. 24 sites associated with Global TravEpiNet (GTEN), a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-funded consortium. Adults (born in or after 1957) attending pretravel consultations at GTEN sites (2009 to 2014). Structured questionnaire completed by traveler and provider during pretravel consultation. 40 810 adult travelers were included; providers considered 6612 (16%) to be eligible for MMR vaccine at the time of pretravel consultation. Of the MMR-eligible, 3477 (53%) were not vaccinated at the visit; of these, 1689 (48%) were not vaccinated because of traveler refusal, 966 (28%) because of provider decision, and 822 (24%) because of health systems barriers. Most MMR-eligible travelers who were not vaccinated were evaluated in the South (2262 travelers [65%]) or at nonacademic centers (1777 travelers [51%]). Nonvaccination due to traveler refusal was most frequent in the South (1432 travelers [63%]) and in nonacademic centers (1178 travelers [66%]). These estimates could underrepresent the opportunities for MMR vaccination because providers accepted verbal histories of disease and vaccination as evidence of immunity. Of U.S. adult travelers who presented for pretravel consultation at GTEN sites, 16% met criteria for MMR vaccination according to the provider's assessment, but fewer than half of these travelers were vaccinated. An increase in MMR vaccination of eligible U.S. adult travelers could reduce the likelihood of importation and transmission of measles virus. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institutes of Health, and the

  20. Immunogenicity of next-generation HPV vaccines in non-human primates: Measles-vectored HPV vaccine versus Pichia pastoris recombinant protein vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Gaurav; Giannino, Viviana; Rishi, Narayan; Glueck, Reinhard

    2016-09-07

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted disease worldwide. HPVs are oncogenic small double-stranded DNA viruses that are the primary causal agent of cervical cancer and other types of cancers, including in the anus, oropharynx, vagina, vulva, and penis. Prophylactic vaccination against HPV is an attractive strategy for preventing cervical cancer and some other types of cancers. However, there are few safe and effective vaccines against HPV infections. Current first-generation commercial HPV vaccines are expensive to produce and deliver. The goal of this study was to develop an alternate potent HPV recombinant L1-based vaccines by producing HPV virus-like particles into a vaccine that is currently used worldwide. Live attenuated measles virus (MV) vaccines have a well-established safety and efficacy record, and recombinant MV (rMV) produced by reverse genetics may be useful for generating candidate HPV vaccines to meet the needs of the developing world. We studied in non-human primate rMV-vectored HPV vaccine in parallel with a classical alum adjuvant recombinant HPV16L1 and 18L1 protein vaccine produced in Pichia pastoris. A combined prime-boost approach using both vaccines was evaluated, as well as immune interference due to pre-existing immunity against the MV. The humoral immune response induced by the MV, Pichia-expressed vaccine, and their combination as priming and boosting approaches was found to elicit HPV16L1 and 18L1 specific total IgG and neutralizing antibody titres. Pre-existing antibodies against measles did not prevent the immune response against HPV16L1 and 18L1.

  1. Live attenuated measles and mumps viral strain-containing vaccines and hearing loss: Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), United States, 1990--2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asatryan, Armenak; Pool, Vitali; Chen, Robert T; Kohl, Katrin S; Davis, Robert L; Iskander, John K

    2008-02-26

    Hearing loss (HL) is a known complication of wild measles and mumps viral infections. As vaccines against measles and mumps contain live attenuated viral strains, it is biologically plausible that in some individuals HL could develop as a complication of vaccination against measles and/or mumps. Our objectives for this study were: to find and describe all cases of HL reported in the scientific literature and to the US Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS) for the period 1990--2003; and to determine reporting rate of HL after live attenuated measles and/or mumps viral strain-containing vaccines (MMCV) administration. We searched published reports for cases of HL identified after vaccination with MMCV. We also searched for reports of HL after MMCV administration submitted to VAERS from 1990 through 2003 and determined the dose-adjusted reporting rate of HL. Our main outcome measure was reported cases of HL after immunization with MMCV which were classified as idiopathic. We found 11 published case reports of HL following MMCV. The review of the VAERS reports identified 44 cases of likely idiopathic sensorineural HL after MMCV administration. The onset of HL in the majority of VAERS and published cases was consistent with the incubation periods of wild measles and mumps viruses. Based on the annual usage of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine, we estimated the reporting rate of HL to be 1 case per 6-8 million doses. Thus, HL following MMCV has been reported in the literature and to the VAERS. Further studies are needed to better understand if there is a causal relationship between MMCV and HL.

  2. Measles & rubella outbreaks in Maharashtra State, India

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    Sunil R Vaidya

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: Altogether, 94 measles and rubella outbreaks were confirmed in 2013 in the State of Maharasthra indicating the necessity to increase measles vaccine coverage in the State.

  3. Acetaminophen (Paracetamol) Use, Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccination, and Autistic Disorder: The Results of a Parent Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Stephen T.; Klonoff-Cohen, Hillary S.; Wingard, Deborah L.; Akshoomoff, Natacha A.; Macera, Caroline A.; Ji, Ming

    2008-01-01

    The present study was performed to determine whether acetaminophen (paracetamol) use after the measles-mumps-rubella vaccination could be associated with autistic disorder. This case-control study used the results of an online parental survey conducted from 16 July 2005 to 30 January 2006, consisting of 83 children with autistic disorder and 80…

  4. Acetaminophen (Paracetamol) Use, Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccination, and Autistic Disorder: The Results of a Parent Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Stephen T.; Klonoff-Cohen, Hillary S.; Wingard, Deborah L.; Akshoomoff, Natacha A.; Macera, Caroline A.; Ji, Ming

    2008-01-01

    The present study was performed to determine whether acetaminophen (paracetamol) use after the measles-mumps-rubella vaccination could be associated with autistic disorder. This case-control study used the results of an online parental survey conducted from 16 July 2005 to 30 January 2006, consisting of 83 children with autistic disorder and 80…

  5. Self-reported histories of disease and vaccination against measles, mumps, rubella and varicella in health care personnel in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumakura, Shunichi; Onoda, Keiichi; Hirose, Masahiro

    2014-03-01

    Health care personnel are required to be immune against vaccine-preventable diseases, such as measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella. The aim of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of self-reported histories of disease and vaccination against measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella in order to determine the immune status of health care personnel. A self-reported questionnaire of history of previous disease and vaccination against these diseases was administered to a total of 910 health care personnel in Shimane university hospital in Japan, whose results were compared with serological evidences. There were numerous subjects who did not remember a history of disease (greater than 33% each) and of vaccination (greater than 58% each). Self-reported history of disease and vaccination had high positive predictive value against either disease for testing positive for antiviral antibodies. However, a considerable number of false-negative subjects could be found; 88.9% of subjects for measles, 89.3% for mumps, 62.2% for rubella and 96.3% for varicella in the population who had neither a self-reported history of disease nor a vaccination against each disease. In addition, regardless of the disease in question, a negative predictive value in self-reported history of disease and vaccination was remarkably low. These results suggest that self-reported history of disease and vaccination was not predictive to determine the accurate immune status of health care personnel against measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella. A seroprevalence survey, followed by an adequate immunization program for susceptible subjects, is crucial to prevent and control infection in hospital settings.

  6. An outbreak of adult measles by nosocomial transmission in a high vaccination coverage community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen-juan Wang

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions: Hospital exposure 1–2 weeks before infection with measles was the main cause of the measles outbreak. We must be fully aware of the possibility of nosocomial infection in an outbreak of measles; controlling nosocomial infections is a vital step in the prevention and control of the propagation of measles.

  7. Measles update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-08-01

    Beginning May 19, 1998, and lasting through the middle of June, a follow-up vaccination campaign which used measles-mumps-rubella vaccine targeted 2,223,210 children, 1-4 years of age, in Venezuela. The vaccinations were performed at day care centers, health posts, and orphanages; door-to-door vaccination was conducted in rural areas. The measles epidemic began in 1992, with 22,321 confirmed cases of measles and 77 deaths; it lasted until early 1994, when there were 16,561 cases and 47 deaths. In 1994, the country launched a "catch-up" vaccination campaign which targeted all children between 9 months and 14 years of age; 98% coverage was reached. Between 1994 and 1996, when routine immunization services were used, the average coverage was 75%. Since the catch-up campaign, the number of confirmed measles cases decreased from 172 in 1995, to 89 in 1996, and to 27 in 1997. As of July 18, 1998, (epidemiological week 28), 452 suspected cases of measles were reported; none were confirmed. Another follow-up campaign will be conducted. In Bolivia, the measles outbreak began May 21, 1998, in areas bordering Argentina. The municipality of Yacuiba, in the department of Tarija, is primarily affected. The municipality, especially the localities of Yacuiba and Pocitos, borders the province of Salta in Argentina, and people cross the border often to shop. As of July 24, 1998, there were 49 suspected measles cases: 22 in Pocitos; 24 in Yacuiba; and 3 in El Palmar. 28 had serum samples taken, and 18 tested positive. The population group most affected were those between 1-4 years of age. A follow-up measles vaccination campaign, which targeted all children under 6 years of age regardless of their vaccination history, was conducted from June 1 to 21, 1998, in Salvador Masa (Argentina), in Pocitos, and in Yacuiba. As of August 10, 1998, in Argentina, 1874 confirmed measles cases and 11 deaths (6 under the age of 1 year) were reported. The first cases appeared in August 1997, in the

  8. Recombinant measles virus vaccine expressing the Nipah virus glycoprotein protects against lethal Nipah virus challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misako Yoneda

    Full Text Available Nipah virus (NiV is a member of the genus Henipavirus, which emerged in Malaysia in 1998. In pigs, infection resulted in a predominantly non-lethal respiratory disease; however, infection in humans resulted in over 100 deaths. Nipah virus has continued to re-emerge in Bangladesh and India, and person-to-person transmission appeared in the outbreak. Although a number of NiV vaccine studies have been reported, there are currently no vaccines or treatments licensed for human use. In this study, we have developed a recombinant measles virus (rMV vaccine expressing NiV envelope glycoproteins (rMV-HL-G and rMV-Ed-G. Vaccinated hamsters were completely protected against NiV challenge, while the mortality of unvaccinated control hamsters was 90%. We trialed our vaccine in a non-human primate model, African green monkeys. Upon intraperitoneal infection with NiV, monkeys showed several clinical signs of disease including severe depression, reduced ability to move and decreased food ingestion and died at 7 days post infection (dpi. Intranasal and oral inoculation induced similar clinical illness in monkeys, evident around 9 dpi, and resulted in a moribund stage around 14 dpi. Two monkeys immunized subcutaneously with rMV-Ed-G showed no clinical illness prior to euthanasia after challenge with NiV. Viral RNA was not detected in any organ samples collected from vaccinated monkeys, and no pathological changes were found upon histopathological examination. From our findings, we propose that rMV-NiV-G is an appropriate NiV vaccine candidate for use in humans.

  9. Recombinant measles virus vaccine expressing the Nipah virus glycoprotein protects against lethal Nipah virus challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, Misako; Georges-Courbot, Marie-Claude; Ikeda, Fusako; Ishii, Miho; Nagata, Noriyo; Jacquot, Frederic; Raoul, Hervé; Sato, Hiroki; Kai, Chieko

    2013-01-01

    Nipah virus (NiV) is a member of the genus Henipavirus, which emerged in Malaysia in 1998. In pigs, infection resulted in a predominantly non-lethal respiratory disease; however, infection in humans resulted in over 100 deaths. Nipah virus has continued to re-emerge in Bangladesh and India, and person-to-person transmission appeared in the outbreak. Although a number of NiV vaccine studies have been reported, there are currently no vaccines or treatments licensed for human use. In this study, we have developed a recombinant measles virus (rMV) vaccine expressing NiV envelope glycoproteins (rMV-HL-G and rMV-Ed-G). Vaccinated hamsters were completely protected against NiV challenge, while the mortality of unvaccinated control hamsters was 90%. We trialed our vaccine in a non-human primate model, African green monkeys. Upon intraperitoneal infection with NiV, monkeys showed several clinical signs of disease including severe depression, reduced ability to move and decreased food ingestion and died at 7 days post infection (dpi). Intranasal and oral inoculation induced similar clinical illness in monkeys, evident around 9 dpi, and resulted in a moribund stage around 14 dpi. Two monkeys immunized subcutaneously with rMV-Ed-G showed no clinical illness prior to euthanasia after challenge with NiV. Viral RNA was not detected in any organ samples collected from vaccinated monkeys, and no pathological changes were found upon histopathological examination. From our findings, we propose that rMV-NiV-G is an appropriate NiV vaccine candidate for use in humans.

  10. An immune competent mouse model for the characterization of recombinant measles vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, René R; Knuchel, Marlyse C; Morin, Teldja Neige Azzouz; Naim, Hussein Y

    2015-01-01

    Today, immune compromised interferon-α-receptor deficient mice expressing hCD46 (IFNARCD46tg) are usually used for measles virus (MV) based vaccine characterization. However, for the development of MV-based recombinant vaccine candidates (rMV), an immune competent mouse model is desirable in order to induce and evaluate meaningful immune response. In this study, humoral and cellular immune response induced by rMV in immune competent mice expressing human MV receptor CD46 (hCD46tg) were compared with those induced in wild-type black/6, and IFNARCD46tg mice.   All three strains developed humoral and cellular response against MV, whereas only hCD46tg and IFNARCD46tg mice developed a humoral response against the transgene. Differences were observed in the magnitude of the response, where the IFNARCD46tg mice displayed the strongest immune responses, followed by the hCD46tg mice and the black/6 mice. Interestingly, hCD46tg and wt black/6 mice showed a predominant CD4(+) T-cell response against MV-N, whereas IFNARCD46tg mice developed both, CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell response against MV-N. Analysis of the cytokine profile of MV-N specific CD4(+) T-cells and transgene (SIVgag) specific CD8(+) T-cells revealed qualitative differences of the T-cell responses; noticeably a significant reduction of the frequency of CD4(+)IL-2(+) expressing cells in IFNARCD46tg mice as compared with hCD46tg or wt black/6 mice. We show in this study significant quantitative and qualitative differences in immune responses between immune competent and immune-compromised mice. Our results therefore highlight the importance of the animal model and support the use of hCD46tg mice as mouse model for the characterization of the immunological profile induced by recombinant measles virus vaccine candidates.

  11. Time is of the essence: exploring a measles outbreak response vaccination in Niamey, Niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grais, R F; Conlan, A J K; Ferrari, M J; Djibo, A; Le Menach, A; Bjørnstad, O N; Grenfell, B T

    2008-01-06

    The current World Health Organization recommendations for response during measles epidemics focus on case management rather than outbreak response vaccination (ORV) campaigns, which may occur too late to impact morbidity and mortality and have a high cost per case prevented. Here, we explore the potential impact of an ORV campaign conducted during the 2003-2004 measles epidemic in Niamey, Niger. We measured the impact of this intervention and also the potential impact of alternative strategies. Using a unique geographical, epidemiologic and demographic dataset collected during the epidemic, we developed an individual-based simulation model. We estimate that a median of 7.6% [4.9-8.9] of cases were potentially averted as a result of the outbreak response, which vaccinated approximately 57% (84563 of an estimated 148600) of children in the target age range (6-59 months), 23 weeks after the epidemic started. We found that intervening early (up to 60 days after the start of the epidemic) and expanding the age range to all children aged 6 months to 15 years may lead to a much larger (up to 90%) reduction in the number of cases in a West African urban setting like Niamey. Our results suggest that intervening earlier even with lower target coverage (approx. 60%), but a wider age range, may be more effective than intervening later with high coverage (more than 90%) in similar settings. This has important implications for the implementation of reactive vaccination interventions as they can be highly effective if the response is fast with respect to the spread of the epidemic.

  12. Absence of detectable measles virus genome sequence in blood of autistic children who have had their MMR vaccination during the routine childhood immunization schedule of UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, M A; Ozoemena, L C; O'Hare, A; Kidger, K A; Bentley, M L; Minor, P D

    2006-05-01

    Leukocyte preparations from children with documented evidence of MMR vaccination and confirmed diagnosis of autism were examined by several assays designed to target multiple regions of the measles virus genome sequence. No sample was found positive by any method. The assays applied were highly sensitive, specific and robust in nature, and were based on the amplification of measles virus RNA transcripts by real-time quantitative RT-PCR (QRT-PCR) as well as by conventional RT-PCR-nested PCR. The assays applied were potentially able to detect measles virus RNA down to single figure copy numbers per reaction. The amount of total nucleic acid extract of leukocytes subjected to various measles virus-specific investigations was several fold higher than minimally required of a sample where measles virus persistence is well documented. This study failed to substantiate reports of the persistence of measles virus in autistic children with development regression.

  13. Think globally, act locally: the role of local demographics and vaccination coverage in the dynamic response of measles infection to control

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrari, M. J.; Grenfell, B. T.; Strebel, P. M.

    2013-01-01

    The global reduction of the burden of morbidity and mortality owing to measles has been a major triumph of public health. However, the continued persistence of measles infection probably not only reflects local variation in progress towards vaccination target goals, but may also reflect local variation in dynamic processes of transmission, susceptible replenishment through births and stochastic local extinction. Dynamic models predict that vaccination should increase the mean age of infection...

  14. Use of combination measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccine: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Mona; Broder, Karen R; Temte, Jonathan L; Snider, Dixie E; Seward, Jane F

    2010-05-07

    This report presents new recommendations adopted in June 2009 by CDC's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) regarding use of the combination measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccine (MMRV, ProQuad, Merck & Co., Inc.). MMRV vaccine was licensed in the United States in September 2005 and may be used instead of measles, mumps, rubella vaccine (MMR, M-M-RII, Merck & Co., Inc.) and varicella vaccine (VARIVAX, Merck & Co., Inc.) to implement the recommended 2-dose vaccine schedule for prevention of measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella among children aged 12 months-12 years. At the time of its licensure, use of MMRV vaccine was preferred for both the first and second doses over separate injections of equivalent component vaccines (MMR vaccine and varicella vaccine), which was consistent with ACIP's 2006 general recommendations on use of combination vaccines (CDC. General recommendations on immunization: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices [ACIP]. MMWR 2006;55;[No. RR-15]). Since July 2007, supplies of MMRV vaccine have been temporarily unavailable as a result of manufacturing constraints unrelated to efficacy or safety. MMRV vaccine is expected to be available again in the United States in May 2010. In February 2008, on the basis of preliminary data from two studies conducted postlicensure that suggested an increased risk for febrile seizures 5-12 days after vaccination among children aged 12-23 months who had received the first dose of MMRV vaccine compared with children the same age who had received the first dose of MMR vaccine and varicella vaccine administered as separate injections at the same visit, ACIP issued updated recommendations regarding MMRV vaccine use (CDC. Update: recommendations from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices [ACIP] regarding administration of combination MMRV vaccine. MMWR 2008;57:258-60). These updated recommendations expressed no preference for use of MMRV vaccine over

  15. Report on public health actions and vaccination strategies to monitor measles epidemic in Local Health Unit A in Rome, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonietta Spadea

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract:
    Background: between May 2010 and october 2011 the unit of Preventive Medicine for the developmental ages of district IV, Health unit aSL rM/a, received 136 measles case notifications from the unit of Epidemiology and Prophylaxis of Infectious diseases.
    Methods: in accordance with the infectious diseases monitoring protocol, we introduced a series of preventive measures, such as monitoring subjects in contact with measles-infected patients, recommend- ing the administration of two Measles Mumps and rubella (MMr doses four weeks apart, and informing paediatricians, families and school teachers about the measles epidemic.
    Results: all the activities above led to an increased number of MMr doses administered and a significant improvement of measles immunization coverage among residents of the district IV health unit of rome. concerning MMr 1, in a sample cohort consisting of children ≤24 months, the immunization coverage increased from 77% on the 31/12/09 to 88% on the 31/12/11. Instead, for MMr 2, in a cohort of children ≤6 years, the same ratio improved from 51% on the 31/12/09 to 65% on the 31/12/11.
    Discussion: the results indicate a material increase in the immunization coverage once our public health actions and vaccination strategies had been implemented among young residents of district IV aSL rM/a...

  16. A recombinant measles vaccine expressing chikungunya virus-like particles is strongly immunogenic and protects mice from lethal challenge with chikungunya virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandler, Samantha; Ruffié, Claude; Combredet, Chantal; Brault, Jean-Baptiste; Najburg, Valérie; Prevost, Marie-Christine; Habel, André; Tauber, Erich; Desprès, Philippe; Tangy, Frédéric

    2013-08-12

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus, recently reemerged in the Indian Ocean, India and Southeast Asia, causing millions of cases of severe polyarthralgia. No specific treatment to prevent disease or vaccine to limit epidemics is currently available. Here we describe a recombinant live-attenuated measles vaccine (MV) expressing CHIKV virus-like particles comprising capsid and envelope structural proteins from the recent CHIKV strain La Reunion. Immunization of mice susceptible to measles virus induced high titers of CHIKV antibodies that neutralized several primary isolates. Specific cellular immune responses were also elicited. A single immunization with this vaccine candidate protected all mice from a lethal CHIKV challenge, and passive transfer of immune sera conferred protection to naïve mice. Measles vaccine is one of the safest and most effective human vaccines. A recombinant MV-CHIKV virus could make a safe and effective vaccine against chikungunya that deserves to be further tested in human trials.

  17. Socio-demographic determinants of timely adherence to BCG, Penta3, measles, and complete vaccination schedule in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeps, A; Ouédraogo, N; Kagoné, M; Sié, A; Müller, O; Becher, H

    2013-12-17

    To identify the determinants of timely vaccination among young children in the North-West of Burkina Faso. This study included 1665 children between 12 and 23 months of age from the Nouna Health and Demographic Surveillance System, born between September 2006 and December 2008. The effect of socio-demographic variables on timely adherence to the complete vaccination schedule was studied in multivariable ordinal logistic regression with 3 distinct endpoints: (i) complete timely adherence, (ii) failure, and (iii) missing vaccination. Three secondary endpoints were timely vaccination with BCG, Penta3, and measles, which were studied with standard multivariable logistic regression. Mothers' education, socio-economic status, season of birth, and area of residence were significantly associated with failure of timely adherence to the complete vaccination schedule. Year of birth, ethnicity, and the number of siblings was significantly related to timely vaccination with Penta3 but not with BCG or measles vaccination. Children living in rural areas were more likely to fail timely vaccination with BCG than urban children (OR=1.79, 95%CI=1.24-2.58 (proximity to health facility), OR=3.02, 95%CI=2.18-4.19 (long distance to health facility)). In contrast, when looking at Penta3 and measles vaccination, children living in rural areas were far less likely to have failed timely vaccinations than urban children. Mother's education positively influenced timely adherence to the vaccination schedule (OR=1.42, 95%CI 1.06-1.89). There was no effect of household size or the age of the mother. Additional health facilities and encouragement of women to give birth in these facilities could improve timely vaccination with BCG. Rural children had an advantage over the urban children in timely vaccination, which is probably attributable to outreach vaccination teams amongst other factors. As urban children rely on their mothers' own initiative to get vaccinated, urban mothers should be

  18. Non-specific effects of standard measles vaccine at 4.5 and 9 months of age on childhood mortality: randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Martins, Cecilia; Garly, M.L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine in a randomised trial whether a 25% difference in mortality exists between 4.5 months and 3 years of age for children given two standard doses of Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccines at 4.5 and 9 months of age compared with those given one dose of measles vaccine at 9 months......-tetanus-pertussis vaccine at least four weeks before enrolment. A large proportion of the children (80%) had previously taken part in randomised trials of neonatal vitamin A supplementation. Intervention Children were randomised to receive Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine at 4.5 and 9 months of age (group A), no vaccine...... at 4.5 months and Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine at 9 months of age (group B), or no vaccine at 4.5 months and Schwarz measles vaccine at 9 months of age (group C). Main outcome measure Mortality rate ratio between 4.5 and 36 months of age for group A compared with groups B and C. Secondary outcomes...

  19. Measles Vaccine Coverage and Series Completion among Children 0 to 8 Years of Age in Tianjin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, JoLynn P.; Zhang, Ying; Carlson, Bradley; Ewing, Sarah; Wang, Xiexiu; Boulton, Matthew L.

    2014-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization (WHO) targeted China for measles elimination by 2012. While China made significant progress, transmission continues, warranting examination of China's measles vaccination program. The WHO recommends that children receive at least two doses of a measles containing vaccine (MCV) to ensure protection. In Tianjin, China, MCV is given in three doses; 8 months (MV), 18-24 months (MMR-1), and 5 years (MMR-2). MMR-2 is important because of the young age for MV administration. This study describes MCV coverage, assesses administration timeliness, and evaluates completion of the MCV series for children living in Tianjin, China. Methods In July 2012, immunization records were selected from Tianjin's Immunization Information Management System. Records were abstracted for children born from 2004 to 2011, who were age 8 months or older. Descriptive statistics characterized the study population and assessed timeliness and coverage for each MCV dose. Results We examined records of 205,982 children living in Tianjin, China. Among children who were age-appropriate for each vaccine, 98.6% received MV, 97.6% received MMR-1, and 76.9% received MMR-2. Of the children who were old enough to receive MMR-2, 78.8% received the complete series, and 71.6% of children were fully immunized for measles by age 6. Conclusions Tianjin has high rates of MV and MMR-1 coverage, with lower levels for MMR-2. Most children who completed the series did so on-time. Maintaining high coverage and timely administration of MV and MMR-1 and increasing coverage of MMR-2 are necessary for China to attain the goal of national measles elimination. PMID:25259932

  20. Adverse events following pandemic A (H1N1 2009 monovalent vaccines in pregnant women--Taiwan, November 2009-August 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Ting Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: During the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, pregnant women were prioritized to receive the unadjuvanted or MF59®-adjuvanted pandemic A (H1N1 2009 monovalent vaccines ("2009 H1N1 vaccines" in Taiwan regardless of stage of pregnancy. Monitoring adverse events following 2009 H1N1 vaccination in pregnant women was a priority for the mass immunization campaign beginning November 2009. METHODS/FINDINGS: We characterized reports to the national passive surveillance from November 2009 through August 2010 involving adverse events following 2009 H1N1 vaccines among pregnant women. Reports from the passive surveillance were matched to a large-linked database on a unique identifier, date of vaccination, and date of diagnosis in a capture-recapture analysis to estimate the true number of spontaneous abortion after 2009 H1N1 vaccination. We verified 16 spontaneous abortions, 11 stillbirths, 4 neonatal deaths, 4 nonpregnancy-specific adverse events, and 2 inadvertent immunizations in recipients who were unaware of pregnancy at time of vaccination. The Chapman capture-recapture estimator of true number of spontaneous abortion after 2009 H1N1 vaccination was 329 (95% confidence interval [CI] 196-553. Of the 14,474 pregnant women who received the 2009 H1N1 vaccines, the estimated risk of spontaneous abortion was 2.3 (95% CI, 1.4-3.8 per 100 pregnancies, compared with a local background rate of 12.8 (95% CI, 12.8-12.9 per 100 pregnancies. CONCLUSIONS: The passive surveillance provided rapid initial assessment of adverse events after 2009 H1N1 vaccination among pregnant women. Its findings were reassuring for the safety of 2009 H1N1 vaccines in pregnancy.

  1. Measles vaccine coverage and immune response in children of Caiabi and Metuktire Indian tribes living in malarial endemic area: Parque indígena do Xingu, Central Brazil.

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    Spindel, R; Baruzzi, R G; Souza, V A; Ferreira, A W; Avila, S L

    2001-07-01

    Measles vaccination efficiency was evaluated in children from two Indian tribes - Caiabi and Metuktire - living in the Amazon region, in the Parque Indigena do Xingu (PIX). The population sample, selected at random, made up 37 Caiabi and 28 Metuktire children, aged from 20-75 months (40%). For operational and epidemiological reasons, measles vaccine is given from 6 months of age. The average age of children when they received the vaccine was 11.5 months for the first dose and 20 months for the second. The search for IgG antibodies against measles virus and Plasmodium falciparum was made through immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Measles vaccine coverage has reached 60% at 12 months of age and 92% at 18 months, whereas post-vaccine serum conversion was 95% in Caiabi children (geometric mean of titres (GMT) 126) and 89% in Metuktire (GMT 109). The difference in GMT is not statistically significant. Seventy-three per cent of Caiabi children (GMT 101) and 100% of Metuktire children (GMT135) were plasmodium antibody positive, showing they had been exposed to malarial infection. Despite the differences detected, the immune response to measles vaccine was satisfactory in both groups, with a positive percentage consistent with that achieved in non-malarial areas in Americas. The results show the efficiency of a vaccination programme in an indigenous area despite the difficulties in reaching the villages and maintaining the cold chain, and also despite the malaria endemicity.

  2. Comparison of accelerated and rapid schedules for monovalent hepatitis B and combined hepatitis A/B vaccines in children with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köksal, Yavuz; Varan, Ali; Aydin, G Burca; Sari, Neriman; Yazici, Nalan; Yalcin, Bilgehan; Kutluk, Tezer; Akyuz, Canan; Büyükpamukçu, Münevver

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of immunization against hepatitis A and B infections with "rapid" or "accelerated" schedules in children with cancer receiving chemotherapy. Fifty-one children were recruited to receive either vaccination schedule, in the "rapid vaccination schedule"; hepatitis B (group I) or combined hepatitis A/B vaccines (group III) were administered at months 0, 1, 2, and 12; in the "accelerated vaccination schedule," hepatitis B (group II) or combined hepatitis A/B (group IV) vaccines were administered on days 0, 7, 21, and 365 intramuscularly. The seroconversion rates at months 1 and 3 were 35.7 and 57.1% in group I and 25 and 18.8% in group II, respectively. Group I developed higher seroconversion rates at month 3. In group III the seroconversion rates for hepatitis B at months 1 and 3 were 54.5 and 60% and in group IV 50 and 70%, respectively. For hepatitis A, the seroconversion rates at months 1 and 3 were 81.8 and 90% in group III and 80 and 88.9% in group IV, respectively. The accelerated vaccination schedule seems to have no advantage in children receiving cancer chemotherapy except for high antibody levels at month 1. In conclusion, the accelerated vaccination schedules are not good choices for cancer patients. The combined hepatitis A/B vaccine is more effective than monovalent vaccine in cancer patients, which probably can be explained by an adjuvant effect of the antigens. The seroconversion of hepatitis A by the combined hepatitis A/B vaccination is very good in cancer patients.

  3. Deciphering the relative weights of demographic transition and vaccination in the decrease of measles incidence in Italy.

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    Merler, Stefano; Ajelli, Marco

    2014-02-22

    In Italy, during the course of the past century to the present-day, measles incidence underwent a remarkable decreasing trend that started well before the introduction of the national immunization programme. In this work, we aim at examining to what extent both the demographic transition, characterized by declining mortality and fertility rates over time, and the vaccination programme are responsible for the observed epidemiological pattern. Making use of a non-stationary, age-structured disease transmission model, we show that in the pre-vaccination era, from 1901 to 1982, the decline in birth rates has resulted in a drastic decrease in the effective transmission rate, which in turn has determined a declining trend of measles incidence (from 25.2 to 10.3 infections per 1000 individuals). However, since 1983, vaccination appears to have become the major contributing factor in the decrease of measles incidence, which otherwise would have remained stable as a consequence of the nearly constant birth rates. This led to a remarkable decrease in the effective transmission rate, to a level well below the critical threshold for disease persistence. These findings call for the adoption of epidemiological models, which deviate the age structure from stationary equilibrium solutions, to better understand the biology of infectious diseases and evaluate immunization programmes.

  4. Non-specific effects of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis and measles vaccinations? An analysis of surveillance data from Navrongo, Ghana.

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    Welaga, Paul; Nielsen, Jens; Adjuik, Martin; Debpuur, Cornelius; Ross, David A; Ravn, Henrik; Benn, Christine S; Aaby, Peter

    2012-12-01

    Studies from low-income countries have suggested that routine vaccinations may have non-specific effects on child mortality; measles vaccine (MV) is associated with lower mortality and diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) with relatively higher mortality. We used data from Navrongo, Ghana, to examine the impact of vaccinations on child mortality. Vaccination status was assessed at the initiation of a trial of vitamin A supplementation and after 12 and 24 months of follow-up. Within the placebo group, we compared the mortality over the first 4 months and the full 2 years of follow-up for different vaccination status groups with different likelihoods of additional vaccinations during follow-up. The frequency of additional vaccinations was assessed among children whose vaccination card was seen at 12 and 24 months of follow-up. Among children with a vaccination card, more than 75% received missing DTP or MV during the first 12 months of follow-up, whereas only 25% received these vaccines among children with no vaccination card at enrollment. Children without a card at enrollment had a significant threefold higher mortality over the 2-year follow-up period than those fully vaccinated. The small group of children with DTP3-4 but no MV at enrollment had lower mortality than children without a card and had the same mortality as fully vaccinated children. In contrast, children with 1-2 DTP doses but no MV had a higher mortality during the first 4 months than children without a card [MRR = 1.65 (0.95, 2.87)]; compared with the fully vaccinated children, they had significantly higher mortality after 4 months [MRR = 2.38 (1.07, 5.30)] and after 2 years [MRR = 2.41 (1.41, 4.15)]. Children with 0-2 DTP doses at enrollment had higher mortality after 4 months (MRR = 1.67 (0.82, 3.43) and after 2 years [MRR = 1.85 (1.16, 2.95)] than children who had all three doses of DTP at enrollment. As hypothesised, DTP vaccination was associated with higher child mortality than measles

  5. In situ tumor vaccination with adenovirus vectors encoding measles virus fusogenic membrane proteins and cytokines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dennis Hoffmann; Wibke Bayer; Oliver Wildner

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate whether intratumoral expression of measles virus fusogenic membrane glycoproteins H and "F (MV-FMG), encoded by an adenovirus vector Ad.MV-H/ F, alone or in combination with local coexpression of cytokines (IL-2, IL-12, IL-18, IL-21 or GM-CSF), can serve as a platform for inducing tumor-specific immune responses in colon cancer.METHODS: We used confocal laser scanning microscopy and flow cytometry to analyze cell-cell fusion after expression of MV-FMG by dye colocalization. In a syngeneic bilateral subcutaneous MC38 and Colon26 colon cancer model in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice, we assessed the effect on both the directly vector-treated tumor as well as the contralateral, not directly vector-treated tumor. We assessed the induction of a tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response with a lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay.RESULTS: We demonstrated in vitro that transduction of MC38 and Colon26 cells with Ad.MV-H/F resulted in dye colocalization, indicative of cell-cell fusion. In addition, in the syngeneic bilateral tumor model we demonstrated a significant regression of the directly vector-inoculated tumor upon intratumoral expression of MV-FMG alone or in combination with the tested cytokines. We observed the highest anti-neoplastic efficacy with MV-FMG and IL-21 coexpression. The degree of tumor regression of the not directly vector-treated tumor correlated with the anti-neoplastic response of the directly vector-treated tumor. This regression was mediated by a tumor-specific CTL response.CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that intratumoral expression of measles virus fusogenic membrane glycoproteins is a promising tool both for direct tumor treatment as well as for tumor vaccination approaches that can be further enhanced by cytokine coexpression.

  6. Lack of association between measles virus vaccine and autism with enteropathy: a case-control study.

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    Mady Hornig

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The presence of measles virus (MV RNA in bowel tissue from children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD and gastrointestinal (GI disturbances was reported in 1998. Subsequent investigations found no associations between MV exposure and ASD but did not test for the presence of MV RNA in bowel or focus on children with ASD and GI disturbances. Failure to replicate the original study design may contribute to continued public concern with respect to the safety of the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR vaccine. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The objective of this case-control study was to determine whether children with GI disturbances and autism are more likely than children with GI disturbances alone to have MV RNA and/or inflammation in bowel tissues and if autism and/or GI episode onset relate temporally to receipt of MMR. The sample was an age-matched group of US children undergoing clinically-indicated ileocolonoscopy. Ileal and cecal tissues from 25 children with autism and GI disturbances and 13 children with GI disturbances alone (controls were evaluated by real-time reverse transcription (RT-PCR for presence of MV RNA in three laboratories blinded to diagnosis, including one wherein the original findings suggesting a link between MV and ASD were reported. The temporal order of onset of GI episodes and autism relative to timing of MMR administration was examined. We found no differences between case and control groups in the presence of MV RNA in ileum and cecum. Results were consistent across the three laboratory sites. GI symptom and autism onset were unrelated to MMR timing. Eighty-eight percent of ASD cases had behavioral regression. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides strong evidence against association of autism with persistent MV RNA in the GI tract or MMR exposure. Autism with GI disturbances is associated with elevated rates of regression in language or other skills and may represent an endophenotype distinct

  7. Risk of febrile seizure after measles-mumps-rubella-varicella vaccine: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shu-Juan; Xiong, Yi-Quan; Jiang, Li-Na; Chen, Qing

    2015-07-17

    Considering the febrile seizure rate, there is no longer a clear preference for use of measles-mumps-rubella-varicella (MMRV) vaccine over separate measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) and varicella (V) vaccine. This work was undertaken to assess the risk of febrile seizure after MMRV vaccine in children. We searched PubMed, Embase, BIOSIS Previews, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Library and other databases through 12 December 2014. Meta-analysis was conducted using R version 3.1.2 and Stata version 12.0. A total of thirty-nine studies were included. Thirty-one published or unpublished clinical trials involving about 40,000 subjects did not show significant differences in incidence of febrile seizure or vaccine related febrile seizure between MMRV and MMR with or without varicella vaccine after any doses, in the risk windows of 0-28, 0-42 or 0-56 days and 7-10 days. In addition, these studies showed that the receipt of concomitant use of MMRV and other pediatric vaccines was not a significant predictor of febrile seizure. Eight post-marketing observations involving more than 3,200,000 subjects were included. No evidence suggested elevated risk of febrile seizure associated with MMRV vaccine among children aged 4-6 years old during 7-10 days or 0-42 days after vaccination. However, an approximately 2-fold increase in risk of seizure or febrile seizure during 7-10 days or 5-12 days after MMRV vaccination was found among children aged 10-24 months, although the highest incidence of seizure was still lower than 2.95‰. First MMRV vaccine dose in children aged 10-24 months was associated with an elevated risk of seizure or febrile seizure. Further post-marketing restudies based on more rigorous study design are needed to confirm the findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of the immunogenicity and safety of measles vaccine administered alone or with live, attenuated Japanese encephalitis SA 14-14-2 vaccine in Philippine infants.

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    Gatchalian, Salvacion; Yao, Yafu; Zhou, Benli; Zhang, Lei; Yoksan, Sutee; Kelly, Kim; Neuzil, Kathleen M; Yaïch, Mansour; Jacobson, Julie

    2008-04-24

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus is a major cause of disease, disability, and death in Asia. An effective, live, attenuated JE vaccine (LJEV) is available; however, its use in routine immunization schedules is hampered by lack of data on concomitant administration with measles vaccine (MV). This study evaluated the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of LJEV and MV when administered at the same or separate study visits in infants younger than 1 year of age. Three groups of healthy infants were randomized to receive LJEV at age of 8 months and MV at 9 months (Group 1; n=100); MV and LJEV together at 9 months (Group 2; n=236); or MV and LJEV at 9 and 10 months, respectively (Group 3; n=235). Blood was obtained 4 weeks after each vaccine administration to determine antibody levels for measles and JE. Reactogenicity was assessed by parental diaries and clinic visits. Four weeks after immunization, measles seroprotection rates (defined as > or =340 mIU/ml) were high and comparable in all three groups and specifically, rates in the combined MV-LJEV (Group 2) were not statistically inferior to those in Group 3 receiving MV separately (96% versus 100%, respectively). Likewise, the LJEV seroprotection rates were high and similar between the three groups. The reactogenicity profiles of the three vaccine schedules were also analogous. LJEV and MV administered together are well tolerated and immunogenic in infants younger than 1 year. These results should facilitate incorporation of LJEV into routine immunization schedules with MV.

  9. Preliminary results: surveillance for Guillain-Barré syndrome after receipt of influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccine - United States, 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an uncommon peripheral neuropathy causing paralysis and in severe cases respiratory failure and death. GBS often follows an antecedent gastrointestinal or upper respiratory illness but, in rare cases, can follow vaccination. In 1976, vaccination against a novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus was associated with a statistically significant increased risk for GBS in the 42 days after vaccination (approximately 10 excess cases per 1 million vaccinations), a consideration in halting the vaccination program in the context of limited influenza virus transmission. To monitor influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccine safety, several federal surveillance systems, including CDC's Emerging Infections Program (EIP), are being used. In October 2009, EIP began active surveillance to assess the risk for GBS after 2009 H1N1 vaccination. Preliminary results from an analysis in EIP comparing GBS patients hospitalized through March 31, 2010, who did and did not receive 2009 H1N1 vaccination showed an estimated age-adjusted rate ratio of 1.77 (GBS incidence of 1.92 per 100,000 person-years among vaccinated persons and 1.21 per 100,000 person-years among unvaccinated persons). If end-of-surveillance analysis confirms this finding, this would correspond to 0.8 excess cases of GBS per 1 million vaccinations, similar to that found in seasonal influenza vaccines. No other federal system to date has detected a statistically significant association between GBS and 2009 H1N1 vaccination. Surveillance and further analyses are ongoing. The 2009 H1N1 vaccine safety profile is similar to that for seasonal influenza vaccines, which have an excellent safety record. Vaccination remains the most effective method to prevent serious illness and death from 2009 H1N1 influenza infection; illness from the 2009 H1N1 influenza virus has been associated with a hospitalization rate of 222 per 1 million and a death rate of 9.7 per 1 million population.

  10. Treatment of recalcitrant warts with intralesional measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine: a promising approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nofal, Ahmad; Nofal, Eman; Yosef, Ayman; Nofal, Hager

    2015-06-01

    Recalcitrant warts represent a frustrating challenge for both patients and physicians. Although many destructive and immunotherapeutic modalities are available for the treatment of warts, an ideal, universally effective approach has not been explored to date. Recently, intralesional antigen immunotherapy has shown promising efficacy in the treatment of warts. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intralesional measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine in the treatment of recalcitrant warts. The study included 70 adult patients with multiple recalcitrant extragenital warts of different sizes and durations, with or without distant warts. They were directly injected, without a pre-sensitization skin test, with 0.3 intralesional MMR vaccine into the largest wart at 2-week intervals until complete clearance or for a maximum of five treatments. Follow-up was made every month for six months to detect any recurrence. Sixty-five patients, 35 men and 30 women, completed the study, and five patients discontinued for various reasons. Complete clearance of the lesions was observed in 41 patients (63%), partial response in 15 patients (23%), and no response in nine patients (14%). Complete response was demonstrated in 74.5% of those presenting with distant warts. Side effects were mild and insignificant in the form of pain during injection, itching, erythema, and edema at the site of injection and flu-like symptoms. Recurrence was detected in two patients only. Intralesional immunotherapy by MMR vaccine is a promising, effective, and safe treatment modality for recalcitrant warts. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.

  11. Poor immune responses of newborn rhesus macaques to measles virus DNA vaccines expressing the hemagglutinin and fusion glycoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polack, Fernando P; Lydy, Shari L; Lee, Sok-Hyong; Rota, Paul A; Bellini, William J; Adams, Robert J; Robinson, Harriet L; Griffin, Diane E

    2013-02-01

    A vaccine that would protect young infants against measles could facilitate elimination efforts and decrease morbidity and mortality in developing countries. However, immaturity of the immune system is an important obstacle to the development of such a vaccine. In this study, DNA vaccines expressing the measles virus (MeV) hemagglutinin (H) protein or H and fusion (F) proteins, previously shown to protect juvenile macaques, were used to immunize groups of 4 newborn rhesus macaques. Monkeys were inoculated intradermally with 200 μg of each DNA at birth and at 10 months of age. As controls, 2 newborn macaques were similarly vaccinated with DNA encoding the influenza virus H5, and 4 received one dose of the current live attenuated MeV vaccine (LAV) intramuscularly. All monkeys were monitored for development of MeV-specific neutralizing and binding IgG antibody and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses. These responses were poor compared to the responses induced by LAV. At 18 months of age, all monkeys were challenged intratracheally with a wild-type strain of MeV. Monkeys that received the DNA vaccine encoding H and F, but not H alone, were primed for an MeV-specific CD8(+) CTL response but not for production of antibody. LAV-vaccinated monkeys were protected from rash and viremia, while DNA-vaccinated monkeys developed rashes, similar to control monkeys, but had 10-fold lower levels of viremia. We conclude that vaccination of infant macaques with DNA encoding MeV H and F provided only partial protection from MeV infection.

  12. Factors associated with non-vaccination against measles in northeastern Brazil: Clues about causes of the 2015 outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Hermano A L; Correia, Luciano L; Campos, Jocileide S; Silva, Anamaria C; Andrade, Francisca O; Silveira, Dirlene I; Machado, Márcia M; Leite, Álvaro J; Cunha, Antônio J L A

    2015-09-11

    Measles is a highly contagious disease that can be effectively prevented through vaccination. The recent increase in vaccination coverage was successful in reducing the mortality globally of the disease by 74%. As a whole, the Americas have been considered a disease-free zone. However, it is known that if an immunization programs fails, there will be an accumulation of susceptible people that can lead to disease outbreaks. Recently, both the United States and Brazil faced outbreaks of measles. The present study aims to identify the determining factors of non-vaccination in Brazil in two different vaccination coverage moments, to provide clues as to the causes of current outbreaks. Data were drawn from five population-based cross-sectional studies that surveyed a representative sample of preschool children from 1987 to 2007 (9585 children in total). To assess children's vaccination status, two different information sources were used: information provided by mothers and information from children's health cards. Multivariate analyses with logistic binary regression models were conducted. After adjustment for confounding factors, it was observed that in 1987, with 48.2% vaccination coverage, socioeconomic, maternal, nutritional factors and access to health facilities were important, while in 2007 (96.7% coverage), nutritional and maternal factors were important. Distinct patterns of determinants of non-vaccination were also found. In addition, the low coverage in 1987 resulted in a current pool of adults who were not immunized as children; this may have contributed to the beginning of the current Brazilian outbreak. Globally, there are two standards of vaccination coverage (low and high). Therefore, discussion of the determinants of non-vaccination is important. Our findings suggest vulnerable groups should receive special attention to ensure they are protected. It is also important to consider the possible impact of pools of adults not immunized.

  13. Clinical and epidemiological findings during a measles outbreak occurring in a population with high vaccination coverage

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    Solange Artimos de Oliveira

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available From March 1991 to April 1992, 250 measles suspected cases were studied in the Municipality of Niterói, State of Rio de Janeiro. The median age found was 11 years and 76.0% of the cases were in school age children. Exposure histories were present in 149 patients and schools were the most frequent sites of transmission (45.0%. Vaccination status was known for 127 studied cases and 76.4% of them had received measles vaccine before their first birthday. One or more complications were reported for 68 cases aitd in 8.9% of the studied cases hospitalization was required. Frequency of complications varied according to each age group studied and were more commonly encountered among children No período de março de 1991 a abril de 1992, 250 casos de um total de 293 notificados como sarampo em Niterói, RJ foram estudados. Em 75,9% dos casos o sarampo ocorreu em pessoas de idade escolar (mediana: 11. História de exposição estava presmte em 149 pacientes. O local de transmissão variou de acordo com a idade sendo a escola o mais freqüentemente encoiitrado (45%. Em 127 casos o estado vacinai era conhecido e 76,4% deles tinham sido vacinados antes do primeiro aniversário. Em 68 casos uma ou mais complicações estavam presentes e em 8,9% deles a hospitalização foi necessária. Complicações foram mais freqüentes em menores de um ano de idade (55,6%. História de vacinação prévia não diminuiu o número de complicações dos casos estudados. Os resultados deste trabalho mostram mudanças na epidemiologia do sarampo, com alterações na distribuição etária dos casos da doença, leimido ã ocoiTência de importantes surtos da virose entre adolecentes e adultos jovens.

  14. Determinants of students' willingness to accept a measles-mumps-rubella booster vaccination during a mumps outbreak: a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkers, H.W.; Hautvast, J.L.A.; Akkermans, R.P.; Swaan, C.M.; Ruijs, W.L.M.; Hulscher, M.E.J.L.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite high vaccination coverage, a mumps outbreak that affected mainly vaccinated university students and their contacts took place in the Netherlands in the period 2009-2012. We presented university students with a hypothetical case in which we offered them a measles, mumps, and rubel

  15. Determinants of students' willingness to accept a measles-mumps-rubella booster vaccination during a mumps outbreak: a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkers, H.W.; Hautvast, J.L.A.; Akkermans, R.P.; Swaan, C.M.; Ruijs, W.L.M.; Hulscher, M.E.J.L.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite high vaccination coverage, a mumps outbreak that affected mainly vaccinated university students and their contacts took place in the Netherlands in the period 2009-2012. We presented university students with a hypothetical case in which we offered them a measles, mumps, and rubel

  16. When, and how, should we introduce a combination measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine into the national childhood expanded immunization programme in South Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Neil A

    2012-09-07

    This article briefly reviews the history and epidemiology of measles, mumps and rubella disease and the case for introducing combination measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine into the national childhood immunization schedule in South Africa. Despite adopting the World Health Organization's Measles Elimination strategy in 1996 and achieving a significant decrease the incidence of measles, added effort is needed in South and southern Africa to reach the goal to eliminate endogenous spread measles. Mumps is still common disease of childhood and while there are few sequelae, even the rare complications are important in large populations. Congenital rubella syndrome is seldom reported, but it is estimated that of the million or so children born every year in South Africa over 600 infants are affected to some degree by rubella infection. The naturally acquired immunity to rubella in women of childbearing age in South Africa has been estimated at over 90%, so that introducing a rubella containing vaccine in childhood may paradoxically increase the proportion of girls reaching puberty still susceptible to rubella. The elimination of endogenous measles and rubella is being achieved in many countries in South America, and despite the recent measles epidemic, must still be seriously considered for South and southern Africa. Current constraints and potential steps needed to reach the goal in South Africa are discussed.

  17. THE RESULTS OF STUDY OF THE LEVELS OF SPECIFIC ANTIBODIES TO THE COMBINED INJECTION VACCINES AGAINST INFLUENZA, MEASLES, RUBELLA AND MUMPS AND DT IN CHILDREN WITH CHRONIC PHYSICAL ILLNESS

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    S. M. Haritе

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The levels of antibodies to the separate and combined administration of the vaccine plus Grippol® Plus and vaccines against measles, mumps and/or rubella, diphtheria and tetanus (DT in children with chronic medical illnesses, including HIV and organic CNS. Revealed that at low reactogenicity and safety of the vaccine Grippol® Plus, concomitant vaccination does not affect the dynamics of the synthesis (seroprotection, seroconversion, diphtheria, mumps, and rubella antibodies, however, reduces the synthesis of measles antibodies. When combined administration of DT and mumps-measles vaccines + Grippol® Plus suppressed antibody response to a strain of influenza virus A/H3N2. 

  18. Measles Edmonston Vaccine Strain Derivatives have Potent Oncolytic Activity against Osteosarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musibay, Evidio Domingo; Allen, Cory; Kurokawa, Cheyne; Hardcastle, Jayson J.; Aderca, Ileana; Msaouel, Pavlos; Bansal, Aditya; Jiang, Huailei; DeGrado, Timothy R.; Galanis, Evanthia

    2015-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone tumor affecting children and young adults, and development of metastatic disease is associated with poor prognosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antitumor efficacy of virotherapy with engineered measles virus (MV) vaccine strains in the treatment of osteosarcoma. Cell lines derived from pediatric patients with osteosarcoma (HOS, MG63, 143B, KHOS-312H, U2-OS and SJSA1) were examined for MV-GFP and MV-NIS gene expression and cytotoxicity as defined by syncytial formation, cell death, and eradication of cell monolayers: significant antitumor activity was demonstrated. Findings were correlated with in vivo efficacy in subcutaneous, orthotopic (tibial bone), and lung metastatic osteosarcoma xenografts treated with the MV derivative MV-NIS via the intratumoral (IT) or intravenous (IV) route. Following treatment, we observed decrease in tumor growth of subcutaneous xenografts (p=0.0374) and prolongation of survival in mice with orthotopic (posteosarcoma tumors (p=0.0207). Expression of the NIS transgene in MV-NIS infected tumors allowed for SPECT-CT and PET-CT imaging of virus infected tumors in vivo. Our data support the translational potential of MV-based virotherapy approaches in the treatment of recurrent and metastatic osteosarcoma. PMID:25394505

  19. A ‘post-honeymoon’ measles epidemic in Burundi: mathematical model-based analysis and implications for vaccination timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, Katelyn C.

    2016-01-01

    Using a mathematical model with realistic demography, we analyze a large outbreak of measles in Muyinga sector in rural Burundi in 1988–1989. We generate simulated epidemic curves and age × time epidemic surfaces, which we qualitatively and quantitatively compare with the data. Our findings suggest that supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) should be used in places where routine vaccination cannot keep up with the increasing numbers of susceptible individuals resulting from population growth or from logistical problems such as cold chain maintenance. We use the model to characterize the relationship between SIA frequency and SIA age range necessary to suppress measles outbreaks. If SIAs are less frequent, they must expand their target age range. PMID:27672515

  20. A ‘post-honeymoon’ measles epidemic in Burundi: mathematical model-based analysis and implications for vaccination timing

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    Katelyn C. Corey

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Using a mathematical model with realistic demography, we analyze a large outbreak of measles in Muyinga sector in rural Burundi in 1988–1989. We generate simulated epidemic curves and age × time epidemic surfaces, which we qualitatively and quantitatively compare with the data. Our findings suggest that supplementary immunization activities (SIAs should be used in places where routine vaccination cannot keep up with the increasing numbers of susceptible individuals resulting from population growth or from logistical problems such as cold chain maintenance. We use the model to characterize the relationship between SIA frequency and SIA age range necessary to suppress measles outbreaks. If SIAs are less frequent, they must expand their target age range.

  1. Seroprevalence of anti-rubella and anti-measles IgG antibodies in pregnant women in Shiraz, Southern Iran: outcomes of a nationwide measles-rubella mass vaccination campaign.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Honarvar

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Nonimmune pregnant women are at risk of developing congenital rubella syndrome and measles complications. We aimed to identify pregnant women susceptible to rubella or measles in order to determine the need for immunity screening and supplemental immunization in women of childbearing age. METHOD: This seroprevalence survey was conducted by convenience sampling in obstetric hospitals affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (southern Iran. Serum IgG levels were measured by ELISA. RESULT: Mean age of the 175 pregnant women was 27.3±5.3 (range 16 to 42 years. The geometric mean concentration of anti-rubella IgG was 14.9 IU/mL (CI 95%,14.1-15.5, and that of anti-measles IgG was 13.8 IU/mL (CI 95%, 13-14.5. One hundred sixty-eight women (96% had a protective serologic level (>11 IU/mL of IgG against rubella, and 143 (81.7% had a protective level against measles. Except for a significant inverse correlation that was showed by univariate analysis between anti-rubella IgG and the women's age (P = 0.01, immunity did not correlate with demographic or obstetric characteristics or medical history. There was no significant correlation between anti-rubella and anti-measles IgG levels (P = 0.25. CONCLUSION: Nearly a decade after Iran's nationwide measles-rubella vaccination campaign for the population aged 5-25 years, most pregnant women up to 34 years of age had humoral immunity against rubella. We recommend rubella immunity screening or catch-up immunization for women older than 35 years who wish to become pregnant, and measles immunity screening and appropriate vaccination for all women of childbearing age.

  2. Enabling implementation of the Global Vaccine Action Plan: developing investment cases to achieve targets for measles and rubella prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kimberly M; Strebel, Peter M; Dabbagh, Alya; Cherian, Thomas; Cochi, Stephen L

    2013-04-18

    Global prevention and control of infectious diseases requires significant investment of financial and human resources and well-functioning leadership and management structures. The reality of competing demands for limited resources leads to trade-offs and questions about the relative value of specific investments. Developing investment cases can help to provide stakeholders with information about the benefits, costs, and risks associated with available options, including examination of social, political, governance, and ethical issues. We describe the process of developing investment cases for globally coordinated management of action plans for measles and rubella as tools for enabling the implementation of the Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP). We focus on considerations related to the timing of efforts to achieve measles and rubella goals independently and within the context of ongoing polio eradication efforts, other immunization priorities, and other efforts to control communicable diseases or child survival initiatives. Our analysis suggests that the interactions between the availability and sustainability of financial support, sufficient supplies of vaccines, capacity of vaccine delivery systems, and commitments at all levels will impact the feasibility and timing of achieving national, regional, and global goals. The timing of investments and achievements will determine the net financial and health benefits obtained. The methodology, framing, and assumptions used to characterize net benefits and uncertainties in the investment cases will impact estimates and perceptions about the value of prevention achieved overall by the GVAP. We suggest that appropriately valuing the benefits of investments of measles and rubella prevention will require the use of integrated dynamic disease, economic, risk, and decision analytic models in combination with consideration of qualitative factors, and that synthesizing information in the form of investment cases may help

  3. Similar immunogenicity of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine administrated at 8 months versus 12 months age in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hanqing; Chen, Enfu; Chen, Haiping; Wang, Zhifang; Li, Qian; Yan, Rui; Guo, Jing; Zhou, Yang; Pan, Jinren; Xie, Shuyun

    2014-06-30

    Two doses of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) strategy has been recommended by World Health Organization and is also widely adopted in many countries. In order to provide the evidence for perfecting the immunization strategy of MMR, this study evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of MMR with different two-dose schedule in infants. 280 participants were enrolled and randomly allocated to Group 1 (first dose at 8 months) or Group 2 (first dose at 12 months), and both groups administered the second dose at 10 months later. Solicited local and general symptoms after each vaccination with MMR were mild and infrequent in all participants of two groups. After administration of the first dose of MMR, seropositive rates were 100% in both groups for measles, 89.3% in Group 1 and 87.1% in Group 2 for mumps (P=0.578), 92.0% in Group 1 and 92.9% in Group 2 (P=0.393). The seropositive rates of mumps decreased significantly (from >86% to measles and rubella. All children get the positive titer for three vaccines in two groups after given the second dose MMR, higher seroconversion rate was found for mumps both in two groups (71.7% vs 77.2%, P=0.370). In conclusion, this study indicated that the MMR was well tolerated and immunogenic against measles, mumps and rubella with schedule of first dose both at 8 months and 12 months age. Our findings strongly supported that two doses of MMR can be introduced by replacing the first dose of MR in current EPI with MMR at 8 months age and the second dose at 18 months in China.

  4. The average cost of measles cases and adverse events following vaccination in industrialised countries

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    Kou Ulla

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Even though the annual incidence rate of measles has dramatically decreased in industrialised countries since the implementation of universal immunisation programmes, cases continue to occur in countries where endemic measles transmission has been interrupted and in countries where adequate levels of immunisation coverage have not been maintained. The objective of this study is to develop a model to estimate the average cost per measles case and per adverse event following measles immunisation using the Netherlands (NL, the United Kingdom (UK and Canada as examples. Methods Parameter estimates were based on a review of the published literature. A decision tree was built to represent the complications associated with measles cases and adverse events following imminisation. Monte-Carlo Simulation techniques were used to account for uncertainty. Results From the perspective of society, we estimated the average cost per measles case to be US$276, US$307 and US$254 for the NL, the UK and Canada, respectively, and the average cost of adverse events following immunisation per vaccinee to be US$1.43, US$1.93 and US$1.51 for the NL, UK and Canada, respectively. Conclusions These average cost estimates could be combined with incidence estimates and costs of immunisation programmes to provide estimates of the cost of measles to industrialised countries. Such estimates could be used as a basis to estimate the potential economic gains of global measles eradication.

  5. Effect of an Early Dose of Measles Vaccine on Morbidity Between 18 Weeks and 9 Months of Age: A Randomized, Controlled Trial in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do, Vu An; Biering-Sorensen, Sofie; Fisker, Ane Bærent

    2017-01-01

    Background: Children in Guinea-Bissau receive measles vaccine (MV) at 9 months of age, but studies have shown that an additional dose before 9 months of age might have beneficial nonspecific effects. Within a randomized trial designed to examine nonspecific effects of early MV receipt on mortality......). Children were visited weekly from enrollment to age 9 months; the mother reported morbidity, and the field assistants examined the children. Using Cox and binomial regression models, we compared the 2 randomization groups. Results: Among the 1592 children, early measles vaccination was not associated...... with a higher risk of the well-known adverse events of fever, rash, and convulsions within the first 14 days. From 15 days after randomization to age 9 months, early measles vaccination was associated with reductions in maternally reported diarrhea (hazard ratio [HR], 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI],.82-. 97...

  6. Two-year antibody persistence in children vaccinated at 12-15 months with a measles-mumps-rubella virus vaccine without human serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Andrea A; Abu-Elyazeed, Remon; Diaz-Perez, Clemente; Mufson, Maurice A; Harrison, Christopher J; Leonardi, Michael; Twiggs, Jerry D; Peltier, Christopher; Grogg, Stanley; Carbayo, Antonio; Shapiro, Steven; Povey, Michael; Baccarini, Carmen; Innis, Bruce L; Henry, Ouzama

    2017-07-03

    One combined measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine without Human Serum Albumin (HSA) is currently licensed in the USA (M-M-R II; Merck, USA) and another has been developed (Priorix™ [MMR-RIT, GSK, Belgium]). In this follow-up study, children from USA or Puerto Rico, who had received one dose of M-M-R II or MMR-RIT at 12-15 months of age in the primary study (NCT00861744), were followed-up for 2 y post-vaccination. Anti-measles and anti-rubella antibodies were measured using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), and anti-mumps antibodies using ELISA and plaque reduction neutralization (PRN) assays. Serious adverse events (SAEs) were recorded during the entire follow-up. The according-to-protocol (ATP) persistence cohort included 752 children (M-M-R II = 186, MMR-RIT = 566), who received primary vaccination at a mean age of 12.3 ( ± 0.67) months. 104 children were revaccinated with MMR-containing vaccines; therefore, serology results for timepoints after revaccination were excluded from the analysis. Seropositivity for measles (Year 1≥ 98.3%; Year 2≥ 99.4%) and rubella (Year 1≥ 98.9%; Year 2 = 100%) remained as high at Year 2 as at Day 42. Similarly, seropositivity for mumps determined by ELISA (Year 1≥ 90.1%; Year 2≥ 94.1%) and PRN assays (Year 1≥ 87.5%; Year 2≥ 91.7%) persisted. Thirty-three SAEs were recorded in 23 children; 2 SAEs (inguinal adenitis and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura) and one SAE (febrile convulsion) were considered as potentially related to MMR-RIT and M-M-R II, respectively. This study showed that antibodies against measles, mumps and rubella persisted for up to 2 y post-vaccination with either MMR vaccine in children aged 12-15 months, and that both vaccines were well-tolerated during the follow-up period.

  7. Legal Responsibility behind the Measles vaccination in «Law and Order Special Victims Unit» (2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana ALCOCER RUELAS

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Immunization against diseases trough vaccination is the one of the most important prevention measures. Preventive medicine involves an assembly of actions oriented to eradicate or minimize the incidence, severity of disease and disability. Three different levels are clearly identified as prevention strategies: Primary prevention, which implies the actions intended to reduce a certain disease incidence, decreasing the risk of new cases. It is constituted by actions focused on health promotion; Secondary prevention the measures to approach certain diseases frequency by shortening duration. Tertiary prevention is the one that is focused in reducing sequelae and disease?related disability. Vaccination campaigns are important as a primary prevention method for avoiding diseases. In the present essay following we will describe the prevention levels in the case of measles infection by analyzing a case exposed on an episode of “Law and order: Special Victims Unit” (2009, in which the consequences of the lack of vaccination are unveiled.

  8. INTRALESIONAL MEASLES, MUMPS AND RUBELLA (MMR VACCINE-AN EFFECTIVE THERAPEUTIC TOOL IN THE TREATMENT OF WART

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    Raju

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Warts are common cutaneous viral infection. Various therapeutic modalities have been using in treatment of wart, but none of them are standardised. Immunotherapy is new current approach in the treatment of wart. AIMS: To know the efficacy and safety profile of Measles Mumps Rubella (MMR Vaccine in the treatment of wart. METHODS: MMR vaccine was injected into a largest single wart intralesionally and subsequent injections given every 2 weeks apart for about 3 to 5 times. Every month followup of patients was done to know the clearance of wart. RESULTS: Complete remission of warts seen in 70.4% of patients, partial remission seen in 22.2% and no response was seen in 7.4% of patients. No serious adverse side effects were seen in the current study. CONCLUSION: MMR vaccine can be considered as a safe, effective, inexpensive intralesional immunotherapeutic modality in the treatment of wart.

  9. Enhancing global vaccine pharmacovigilance: Proof-of-concept study on aseptic meningitis and immune thrombocytopenic purpura following measles-mumps containing vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Vilar, Silvia; Weibel, Daniel; Sturkenboom, Miriam; Black, Steven; Maure, Christine; Castro, Jose Luis; Bravo-Alcántara, Pamela; Dodd, Caitlin N; Romio, Silvana A; de Ridder, Maria; Nakato, Swabra; Molina-León, Helvert Felipe; Elango, Varalakshmi; Zuber, Patrick L F

    2017-05-27

    New vaccines designed to prevent diseases endemic in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) are now being introduced without prior record of utilization in countries with robust pharmacovigilance systems. To address this deficit, our objective was to demonstrate feasibility of an international hospital-based network for the assessment of potential epidemiological associations between serious and rare adverse events and vaccines in any setting. This was done through a proof-of-concept evaluation of the risk of immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) and aseptic meningitis (AM) following administration of the first dose of measles-mumps-containing vaccines using the self-controlled risk interval method in the primary analysis. The World Health Organization (WHO) selected 26 sentinel sites (49 hospitals) distributed in 16 countries of the six WHO regions. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) of 5.0 (95% CI: 2.5-9.7) for ITP following first dose of measles-containing vaccinations, and of 10.9 (95% CI: 4.2-27.8) for AM following mumps-containing vaccinations were found. The strain-specific analyses showed significantly elevated ITP risk for measles vaccines containing Schwarz (IRR: 20.7; 95% CI: 2.7-157.6), Edmonston-Zagreb (IRR: 11.1; 95% CI: 1.4-90.3), and Enders'Edmonston (IRR: 8.5; 95% CI: 1.9-38.1) strains. A significantly elevated AM risk for vaccines containing the Leningrad-Zagreb mumps strain (IRR: 10.8; 95% CI: 1.3-87.4) was also found. This proof-of-concept study has shown, for the first time, that an international hospital-based network for the investigation of rare vaccine adverse events, using common standardized procedures and with high participation of LMICs, is feasible, can produce reliable results, and has the potential to characterize differences in risk between vaccine strains. The completion of this network by adding large reference hospitals, particularly from tropical countries, and the systematic WHO-led implementation of this approach, should permit the

  10. Analysis of 7 measles cases associated with the first dose vaccination of measles and rubella combined attenuated live vaccine%7例首剂麻疹风疹联合减毒活疫苗相关麻疹病例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张东彦; 毛雯雯; 王中战; 张建军

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the characteristics of measles cases associated with the immunization of measles and rubella (MR) combine vaccine and provide evidence for differential diagnosis of measles and MR vaccine associated measles. Methods Descriptive epidemiological analysis was conducted on the incidence data of MR vaccine associated measles in Fengtai in 2011. Results Seven MR vaccine associated measles cases were laboratory confirmed in 2011. All the cases were infants aged 8-9 months receving the first dose of MR vaccine injection. All the vaccines used were qualified and in different batches. The incidence was 2. 5 per 10 000 doses. No time and space clustering of the cases was observed, and no second cases occurred. The clinical manifestations of the cases were characterized by respiratory symptom and short interval between fever and rash. Conclusion There are differences in clinical manifestations, laboratory detection results and epidemiological characteristics between measles cases and MR vaccine associated measles cases. Close attention should be paid in differential diagnosis.%目的 调查麻疹风疹联合减毒活疫苗(measles and rubella combined attenuated live vaccine,MR)相关麻疹病例(a vaccine-associated measles case)的特点,与麻疹病例进行鉴别.方法 采用描述流行病学方法,对丰台区2011年MR相关麻疹病例进行分析.结果 2011年丰台区实验室确诊7例MR相关麻疹病例,均为8~9月龄幼儿首次接种MR,所用疫苗均为合格疫苗,无批号聚集.发病率为2.5/万剂.病例发病无时间、地点聚集性,与麻疹病例无流行病学联系,亦无二代病例出现,临床表现无咳嗽及呼吸道卡他症状,发热与出疹间隔期短.结论 疫苗相关病例与麻疹病例在临床表现、实验室检测和流行病学特征上有所不同,基层工作者应在实际工作中加以鉴别.

  11. A serologic study of Measles in association with the history of vaccination in 7-11 years old children in Rey in 1371

    OpenAIRE

    Mokhtari Azad T; Naghavi M; Rakhshandeh

    1994-01-01

    201 blood samples were collected by cluster sampling from 7-11 years old children and measles antibody titer was measured by hemagglutination inhibition test. Despite testing all the sera, the results were analysed on the 139 samples that had documented vaccination records and no history of measles. Among 139 children 44 had received 2 doses of vaccine one dose before 12 and one after 15 months, 64 had one dose after 15 months, 29 had only one dose before 12 months and 2 had not received vacc...

  12. Association of BCG, DTP, and measles containing vaccines with childhood mortality: systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares-Weiser, Karla; López-López, José A; Kakourou, Artemisia; Chaplin, Katherine; Christensen, Hannah; Martin, Natasha K; Sterne, Jonathan A C; Reingold, Arthur L

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effects on non-specific and all cause mortality, in children under 5, of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP), and standard titre measles containing vaccines (MCV); to examine internal validity of the studies; and to examine any modifying effects of sex, age, vaccine sequence, and co-administration of vitamin A. Design Systematic review, including assessment of risk of bias, and meta-analyses of similar studies. Study eligibility criteria Clinical trials, cohort studies, and case-control studies of the effects on mortality of BCG, whole cell DTP, and standard titre MCV in children under 5. Data sources Searches of Medline, Embase, Global Index Medicus, and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, supplemented by contact with experts in the field. To avoid overlap in children studied across the included articles, findings from non-overlapping birth cohorts were identified. Results Results from 34 birth cohorts were identified. Most evidence was from observational studies, with some from short term clinical trials. Most studies reported on all cause (rather than non-specific) mortality. Receipt of BCG vaccine was associated with a reduction in all cause mortality: the average relative risks were 0.70 (95% confidence interval 0.49 to 1.01) from five clinical trials and 0.47 (0.32 to 0.69) from nine observational studies at high risk of bias. Receipt of DTP (almost always with oral polio vaccine) was associated with a possible increase in all cause mortality on average (relative risk 1.38, 0.92 to 2.08) from 10 studies at high risk of bias; this effect seemed stronger in girls than in boys. Receipt of standard titre MCV was associated with a reduction in all cause mortality (relative risks 0.74 (0.51 to 1.07) from four clinical trials and 0.51 (0.42 to 0.63) from 18 observational studies at high risk of bias); this effect seemed stronger in girls than in boys. Seven observational studies

  13. A serologic study of Measles in association with the history of vaccination in 7-11 years old children in Rey in 1371

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhtari Azad T

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available 201 blood samples were collected by cluster sampling from 7-11 years old children and measles antibody titer was measured by hemagglutination inhibition test. Despite testing all the sera, the results were analysed on the 139 samples that had documented vaccination records and no history of measles. Among 139 children 44 had received 2 doses of vaccine one dose before 12 and one after 15 months, 64 had one dose after 15 months, 29 had only one dose before 12 months and 2 had not received vaccine. The antibody titer of the first two groups had no significant difference with those that had received one vaccine dose, before the age 12 months (P<0.001. There were no significant differences in the titer of antibodies with time elapse in none of the vaccination histories. This may be due to efficacy of vaccine and also circulation of wild virus in the community. Regardless of the history of vaccination, 95.5% of children had immunity to measles (titer?3. Considering the results if the current strategy of vaccination implemented completely, the status of immunity would be satisfactory.

  14. Description of two measles outbreaks in the Lazio Region, Italy (2006-2007. Importance of pockets of low vaccine coverage in sustaining the infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magurano Fabio

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the launch of the national plan for measles elimination, in Italy, immunization coverage remains suboptimal and outbreaks continue to occur. Two measles outbreaks, occurred in Lazio region during 2006-2007, were investigated to identify sources of infection, transmission routes, and assess operational implications for elimination of the disease. Methods Data were obtained from several sources, the routine infectious diseases surveillance system, field epidemiological investigations, and molecular genotyping of virus by the national reference laboratory. Results Overall 449 cases were reported, sustained by two different stereotypes overlapping for few months. Serotype D4 was likely imported from Romania by a Roma/Sinti family and subsequently spread to the rest of the population. Serotype B3 was responsible for the second outbreak which started in a secondary school. Pockets of low vaccine coverage individuals (Roma/Sinti communities, high school students facilitated the reintroduction of serotypes not endemic in Italy and facilitated the measles infection to spread. Conclusions Communities with low vaccine coverage represent a more serious public health threat than do sporadic susceptible individuals. The successful elimination of measles will require additional efforts to immunize low vaccine coverage population groups, including hard-to-reach individuals, adolescents, and young adults. An enhanced surveillance systems, which includes viral genotyping to document chains of transmission, is an essential tool for evaluating strategy to control and eliminate measles

  15. Evaluation of a measles vaccine campaign by oral-fluid surveys in a rural Kenyan district: interpretation of antibody prevalence data using mixture models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohuma, E O; Okiro, E A; Bett, A; Abwao, J; Were, S; Samuel, D; Vyse, A; Gay, N; Brown, D W G; Nokes, D J

    2009-02-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of a measles vaccine campaign in rural Kenya, based on oral-fluid surveys and mixture-modelling analysis. Specimens were collected from 886 children aged 9 months to 14 years pre-campaign and from a comparison sample of 598 children aged 6 months post-campaign. Quantitative measles-specific antibody data were obtained by commercial kit. The estimated proportions of measles-specific antibody negative in children aged 0-4, 5-9 and 10-14 years were 51%, 42% and 27%, respectively, pre- campaign and 18%, 14% and 6%, respectively, post-campaign. We estimate a reduction in the proportion susceptible of 65-78%, with approximately 85% of the population recorded to have received vaccine. The proportion of 'weak' positive individuals rose from 35% pre-campaign to 54% post-campaign. Our results confirm the effectiveness of the campaign in reducing susceptibility to measles and demonstrate the potential of oral-fluid studies to monitor the impact of measles vaccination campaigns.

  16. Timeliness and completeness of measles vaccination among children in rural areas of Guangxi, China: A stratified three-stage cluster survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xianyan; Geater, Alan; McNeil, Edward; Zhou, Hongxia; Deng, Qiuyun; Dong, Aihu

    2017-07-01

    Large-scale outbreaks of measles occurred in 2013 and 2014 in rural Guangxi, a region in Southwest China with high coverage for measles-containing vaccine (MCV). This study aimed to estimate the timely vaccination coverage, the timely-and-complete vaccination coverage, and the median delay period for MCV among children aged 18-54 months in rural Guangxi. Based on quartiles of measles incidence during 2011-2013, a stratified three-stage cluster survey was conducted from June through August 2015. Using weighted estimation and finite population correction, vaccination coverage and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Weighted Kaplan-Meier analyses were used to estimate the median delay periods for the first (MCV1) and second (MCV2) doses of the vaccine. A total of 1216 children were surveyed. The timely vaccination coverage rate was 58.4% (95% CI, 54.9%-62.0%) for MCV1, and 76.9% (95% CI, 73.6%-80.0%) for MCV2. The timely-and-complete vaccination coverage rate was 47.4% (95% CI, 44.0%-51.0%). The median delay period was 32 (95% CI, 27-38) days for MCV1, and 159 (95% CI, 118-195) days for MCV2. The timeliness and completeness of measles vaccination was low, and the median delay period was long among children in rural Guangxi. Incorporating the timeliness and completeness into official routine vaccination coverage statistics may help appraise the coverage of vaccination in China. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparative sequence analysis of the P-, M- and L-coding region of the measles virus CAM-70 live attenuated vaccine strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.R. Santos

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Measles virus is a highly contagious agent which causes a major health problem in developing countries. The viral genomic RNA is single-stranded, nonsegmented and of negative polarity. Many live attenuated vaccines for measles virus have been developed using either the prototype Edmonston strain or other locally isolated measles strains. Despite the diverse geographic origins of the vaccine viruses and the different attenuation methods used, there was remarkable sequence similarity of H, F and N genes among all vaccine strains. CAM-70 is a Japanese measles attenuated vaccine strain widely used in Brazilian children and produced by Bio-Manguinhos since 1982. Previous studies have characterized this vaccine biologically and genomically. Nevertheless, only the F, H and N genes have been sequenced. In the present study we have sequenced the remaining P, M and L genes (approximately 1.6, 1.4 and 6.5 kb, respectively to complete the genomic characterization of CAM-70 and to assess the extent of genetic relationship between CAM-70 and other current vaccines. These genes were amplified using long-range or standard RT-PCR techniques, and the cDNA was cloned and automatically sequenced using the dideoxy chain-termination method. The sequence analysis comparing previously sequenced genotype A strains with the CAM-70 Bio-Manguinhos strain showed a low divergence among them. However, the CAM-70 strains (CAM-70 Bio-Manguinhos and a recently sequenced CAM-70 submaster seed strain were assigned to a specific group by phylogenetic analysis using the neighbor-joining method. Information about our product at the genomic level is important for monitoring vaccination campaigns and for future studies of measles virus attenuation.

  18. Statistical and Ontological Analysis of Adverse Events Associated with Monovalent and Combination Vaccines against Hepatitis A and B Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jiangan; Zhao, Lili; Zhou, Shangbo; He, Yongqun

    2016-01-01

    Vaccinations often induce various adverse events (AEs), and sometimes serious AEs (SAEs). While many vaccines are used in combination, the effects of vaccine-vaccine interactions (VVIs) on vaccine AEs are rarely studied. In this study, AE profiles induced by hepatitis A vaccine (Havrix), hepatitis B vaccine (Engerix-B), and hepatitis A and B combination vaccine (Twinrix) were studied using the VAERS data. From May 2001 to January 2015, VAERS recorded 941, 3,885, and 1,624 AE case reports where patients aged at least 18 years old were vaccinated with only Havrix, Engerix-B, and Twinrix, respectively. Using these data, our statistical analysis identified 46, 69, and 82 AEs significantly associated with Havrix, Engerix-B, and Twinrix, respectively. Based on the Ontology of Adverse Events (OAE) hierarchical classification, these AEs were enriched in the AEs related to behavioral and neurological conditions, immune system, and investigation results. Twenty-nine AEs were classified as SAEs and mainly related to immune conditions. Using a logistic regression model accompanied with MCMC sampling, 13 AEs (e.g., hepatosplenomegaly) were identified to result from VVI synergistic effects. Classifications of these 13 AEs using OAE and MedDRA hierarchies confirmed the advantages of the OAE-based method over MedDRA in AE term hierarchical analysis. PMID:27694888

  19. Single dose vaccination of the ASO3-adjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 monovalent vaccine in health care workers elicits homologous and cross-reactive cellular and humoral responses to H1N1 strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lartey, Sarah; Pathirana, Rishi D; Zhou, Fan; Jul-Larsen, Åsne; Montomoli, Emanuele; Wood, John; Cox, Rebecca Jane

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare workers (HCW) were prioritized for vaccination during the 2009 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic. We conducted a clinical trial in October 2009 where 237 HCWs were immunized with a AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 monovalent vaccine. In the current study, we analyzed the homologous and cross-reactive H1N1 humoral responses using prototype vaccine strains dating back to 1977 by the haemagglutinin inhibition (HI), single radial hemolysis SRH), antibody secreting cell (ASC) and memory B cell (MBC) assays. The cellular responses were assessed by interferon-γ (IFN-γ) ELISPOT and by intracellular staining (ICS) for the Th1 cytokines IFN-γ, interleukin-2 (IL-2) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). All assays were performed using blood samples obtained prior to (day 0) and 7, 14 and 21 d post-pandemic vaccination, except for ASC (day 7) and ICS (days 0 and 21). Vaccination elicited rapid HI, SRH and ASC responses against A(H1N1)pdm09 which cross reacted with seasonal H1N1 strains. MBC responses were detected against the homologous and seasonal H1N1 strains before vaccination and were boosted 2 weeks post-vaccination. An increase in cellular responses as determined by IFN-γ ELISPOT and ICS were observed 1-3 weeks after vaccination. Collectively, our data show that the AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine induced rapid cellular and humoral responses against the vaccine strain and the response cross-reacted against prototype H1N1 strains dating back to 1977.

  20. [The measles are here again].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opstelten, W.; Ruijs, W.L.M.; Warris, A.; Binnendijk, R.S. van; Wolfs, T.F.; Hahne, S.J.

    2013-01-01

    Since the vaccination of Dutch children against the measles through the National Immunisation Programme started in 1976, the incidence of measles has greatly decreased. Local epidemics do still occur, however; these are largely confined to minority groups of orthodox Protestants who object to vaccin

  1. A case study of a graphical misrepresentation: drawing the wrong conclusions about the measles, mumps and rubella virus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Anthony R; Kirkham, Harold

    2007-01-01

    Graphs have been used in attempts to show a relationship between the measles, mumps and rubella virus (MMR) vaccine and autism. We examine the topic of graphical representation of data in general, and one of these graphs in particular: the one that appeared in a 1999 letter to The Lancet. That graph combined data from England and from California, USA. The author alleged that this graph illustrated a rise in autism rates linked to the use of the MMR vaccine. By examining the presentation closely, we are able to show how this graph misrepresented the data used. We give advice for both authors and publishers in the use of such graphical treatments of data.

  2. Long-term survival in trial of medium-titre Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Lisse, Ida; Whittle, H

    1994-01-01

    -titre measles vaccine have found increased mortality among female recipients, we examined whether EZ medium-titre vaccine was associated with any long-term impact on mortality, suppression of T-cells, or growth. The mortality rate ratio over 5 years of follow-up was 1.12 for EZ children compared with children...... in the standard group (P = 0.63). Seventy-five percent of the children still residing in the area at 5 years of age took part in an immunological and anthropometric examination. There was no difference in T-cell subsets between the two groups. There was no difference in mid-upper-arm circumference, but EZ...

  3. Effects of the live attenuated measles-mumps-rubella booster vaccination on disease activity in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis : a randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijstek, Marloes W; Kamphuis, Sylvia; Armbrust, Wineke; Swart, Joost; Gorter, Simone; de Vries, Lara D; Smits, Gaby P; van Gageldonk, Pieter G; Berbers, Guy A M; Wulffraat, Nico M

    2013-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: The immunogenicity and the effects of live attenuated measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination on disease activity in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) are matters of concern, especially in patients treated with immunocompromising therapies. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether M

  4. Monovalent Virus-Like Particle Vaccine Protects Guinea Pigs and Nonhuman Primates Against Infection with Multiple Marburg Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    equine encephalitis replicon particle, where the antigen of interest, in this case the MARV glyc- oprotein (GP), is inserted in place of the struc- tural... herpes B antibody-negative in testing prior to initiation of the study. The VLP-vaccinated monkeys received three intramuscular injec- tions at 42-day...date, the most successful filovirus vaccines have been based on viral vec- tors, such as adenovirus, venezulan equine encephalitis repli- con, human

  5. The Study of the Best Immunization Time of Measles Vaccine for Newborns%麻疹疫苗最佳免疫月龄的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王联君; 陈超; 周剑惠; 王晶; 刘桂燕

    2001-01-01

    Through the study of measles antibody level of puerpera and their newborns, it found that the measles antibody level in most mature women was low. Measles antibody level of 51 mothers and their newborns were the same and, 7 pairs were different by one titer. It meant that measles antibody level between mothers and their newborns was closely related, therefore newborn's antibody level can be raised by vaccination to mature women. Through detection of maternal-transferred measles antibody level of different month-old infants, it revealed that measles antibody positive rate in newborns was not high and it reduced to 48.3% at 3 months old, to 19% at 6 months old, to 15% at 8 months old, which afforded nearly no protection for the infants. When vaccinating 6 month-old infants and 8 month-old infants, the immunizing successful rates of them were 84.4% and 85.00% respectively and the measles antibody distribution of them showed no difference. Authors suggest that it should be better to change the first vaccination of measles vaccine from 8 months old to 6 months old, and revaccinated at the age of 18 months old. It also should be considered to be vaccinated again for mature women.%对58对25~30岁产妇及其婴儿的麻疹抗体的研究表明,58对母婴中有51对母婴麻疹抗体滴度相同,7对不同,但只相差1个滴度,且两者抗体均处于低水平,说明母婴抗体间有密切关系。通过对胎传抗体追踪观察发现,新生儿抗体水平不高,3月龄时抗体阳性率已降至48.3%,6月龄和8月龄时分别降至19.0%和15.0%,6月龄和8月龄婴儿接种麻疹疫苗后免疫成功率分别为84.5%和85.0%,因此可考虑将麻疹疫苗初免提前到6月龄时进行。

  6. Effect of monovalent rotavirus vaccine on rotavirus disease burden and circulating rotavirus strains among children in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhafid, Mohammed; Elomari, Nezha; Azzouzi Idrissi, Meryem; Rguig, Ahmed; Gentsch, Jon R; Parashar, Umesh; Elaouad, Rajae

    2015-06-01

    Rotarix(TM) vaccine was introduced into the National Program of Immunization of Morocco in October 2010, reaching quickly 87% of the target population of children nationally. The incidence of rotavirus gastroenteritis and the prevalence of circulating rotavirus strains has been monitored in three sentinel hospitals since June 2006. The average percentage of rotavirus positive cases among all children under 5 years old hospitalized for gastroenteritis during the pre-vaccine period (2006-2010) was 44%. This percentage dropped to 29%, 15% and 24% in the 3 years post vaccine introduction (2011, 2012 and 2013), which is a decline of 34%, 66%, and 45%, respectively. Declines in prevalence were greatest among children 0-1 years of age (53%) and were most prominent during the winter and autumn rotavirus season. The prevalence of the G2P[4] and G9P[8] genotype sharply increased in the post vaccine period (2011-2013) compared to the previous seasons (2006-2010). Rotavirus vaccines have reduced greatly the number of children hospitalized due to rotavirus infection at the three sentinel hospitals; it is however unclear if the predominance of G2P[4] and G9P[8] genotypes is related to the vaccine introduction, or if this is attributable to normal genotype fluctuations. Continued surveillance will be pivotal to answer this question in the future.

  7. Dose-Dependent Protection against or Exacerbation of Disease by a Polylactide Glycolide Microparticle-Adsorbed, Alphavirus-Based Measles Virus DNA Vaccine in Rhesus Macaques▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chien-Hsiung; Nair, Nitya; Adams, Robert J.; Zink, M. Christine; Lee, Eun-Young; Polack, Fernando P.; Singh, Manmohan; O'Hagan, Derek T.; Griffin, Diane E.

    2008-01-01

    Measles remains an important cause of vaccine-preventable child mortality. Development of a low-cost, heat-stable vaccine for infants under the age of 6 months could improve measles control by facilitating delivery at the time of other vaccines and by closing a window of susceptibility prior to immunization at 9 months of age. DNA vaccines hold promise for development, but achieving protective levels of antibody has been difficult and there is an incomplete understanding of protective immunity. In the current study, we evaluated the use of a layered alphavirus DNA/RNA vector encoding measles virus H (SINCP-H) adsorbed onto polylactide glycolide (PLG) microparticles. In mice, antibody and T-cell responses to PLG-formulated DNA were substantially improved compared to those to naked DNA. Rhesus macaques received two doses of PLG/SINCP-H delivered either intramuscularly (0.5 mg) or intradermally (0.5 or 0.1 mg). Antibody and T-cell responses were induced but not sustained. On challenge, the intramuscularly vaccinated monkeys did not develop rashes and had lower viremias than vector-treated control monkeys. Monkeys vaccinated with the same dose intradermally developed rashes and viremia. Monkeys vaccinated intradermally with the low dose developed more severe rashes, with histopathologic evidence of syncytia and intense dermal and epidermal inflammation, eosinophilia, and higher viremia compared to vector-treated control monkeys. Protection after challenge correlated with gamma interferon-producing T cells and with early production of high-avidity antibody that bound wild-type H protein. We conclude that PLG/SINCP-H is most efficacious when delivered intramuscularly but does not provide an advantage over standard DNA vaccines for protection against measles. PMID:18287579

  8. The Inverse Method for a Childhood Infectious Disease Model with Its Application to Pre-vaccination and Post-vaccination Measles Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Jude D; Jin, Chaochao; Wang, Hao

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we improve the classic SEIR model by separating the juvenile group and the adult group to better describe the dynamics of childhood infectious diseases. We perform stability analysis to study the asymptotic dynamics of the new model, and perform sensitivity analysis to uncover the relative importance of the parameters on infection. The transmission rate is a key parameter in controlling the spread of an infectious disease as it directly determines the disease incidence. However, it is essentially impossible to measure the transmission rate for certain infectious diseases. We introduce an inverse method for our new model, which can extract the time-dependent transmission rate from either prevalence data or incidence data in existing open databases. Pre- and post-vaccination measles data sets from Liverpool and London are applied to estimate the time-varying transmission rate. From the Fourier transform of the transmission rate of Liverpool and London, we observe two spectral peaks with frequencies 1/year and 3/year. These dominant frequencies are robust with respect to different initial values. The dominant 1/year frequency is consistent with common belief that measles is driven by seasonal factors such as environmental changes and immune system changes and the 3/year frequency indicates the superiority of school contacts in driving measles transmission over other seasonal factors. Our results show that in coastal cities, the main modulator of the transmission of measles virus, paramyxovirus, is school seasons. On the other hand, in landlocked cities, both weather and school seasons have almost the same influence on paramyxovirus transmission.

  9. Addressing issues of vaccination literacy and psychological empowerment in the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination decision-making: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadda, Marta; Depping, Miriam K; Schulz, Peter J

    2015-09-02

    Whether or not to vaccinate one's child is one of the first health-related decisions parents have to make after their child's birth. For the past 20 years, the share of parents choosing not to immunize their children has increased in many countries, for various reasons. Among these, rumors affirming that vaccinations contain dangerous chemicals or might trigger severe chronic diseases have negatively affected parental attitudes towards pediatric immunizations, particularly the vaccination against measles, mumps and rubella (MMR), raising a number of public health concerns. The primary aim of this qualitative study is to understand what drives parents' decision, giving special attention to vaccination literacy and psychological empowerment in such a context. Twenty individual semi-structured interviews were conducted in the Canton of Ticino (Switzerland) between January and June 2014. Participants were either mothers or fathers of children less than 1 year old living in Switzerland. An inductive thematic analysis was performed to identify the main themes with regard to vaccination literacy and psychological empowerment in the MMR vaccination decision-making. Parents' reports yielded four main themes: (a) the paradox of the free choice, referring to the misinterpretation of current vaccination policies; (b) giving up the power, pointing at the outcomes of a low perceived competence; (c) a far-reaching decision, reflecting the importance attributed to the MMR choice and the different levels of impact the decision can have; (d) the demand for shared-decision making, referring to the parental needs in relation to the child's healthcare provider. Understanding what drives parents' management of their children's immunization schedule in terms of vaccination literacy and psychological empowerment can help health professionals to communicate more effectively with parents in order to facilitate an informed decision, and stakeholders to design tailored health education

  10. Combination Measles-Mumps-Rubella-Varicella Vaccine in Healthy Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Immunogenicity and Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shu-Juan; Li, Xing; Xiong, Yi-Quan; Yao, A-Ling; Chen, Qing

    2015-11-01

    A combined measles-mumps-rubella-varicella (MMRV) vaccine is expected to facilitate universal immunization against these 4 diseases. This study was undertaken to synthesize current research findings of the immunogenicity and safety of MMRV in healthy children.We searched PubMed, Embase, BIOSIS Previews, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and other databases through September 9, 2014. Eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were selected and collected independently by 2 reviewers. Meta-analysis was conducted using Stata 12.0 and RevMan 5.3.Twenty-four RCTs were included in qualitative synthesis. Nineteen RCTs compared single MMRV dose with measles-mumps-rubella vaccine with or without varicella vaccine (MMR + V/MMR). Similar seroconversion rates of these 4 viruses were found between comparison groups. There were comparable geometric mean titers (GMTs) against mumps and varicella viruses between MMRV group and MMR + V/MMR group. MMRV group achieved enhanced immune response to measles component, with GMT ratio of 1.66 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.48, 1.86; P measles/rubella-like rash (relative risks 1.44-1.45) in MMRV groups.MMRV had comparable immunogenicity and overall safety profiles to MMR + V/MMR in healthy children based on current evidence.

  11. Measles virus antibody responses in children randomly assigned to receive standard-titer edmonston-zagreb measles vaccine at 4.5 and 9 months of age, 9 months of age, or 9 and 18 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Cesario; Garly, May-Lill; Bale, Carlitos

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization recommends administration of measles vaccine (MV) at age 9 months in low-income countries. We tested the measles virus antibody response at 4.5, 9, 18, and 24 months of age for children randomly assigned to receive standard-titer Edmonston-Zagreb MV at 4.5 and 9 months......, at 9 months, or at 9 and 18 months of age. At 4.5 months of age, 75% had nonprotective measles virus antibody levels. Following receipt of MV at 4.5 months of age, 77% (316/408) had protective antibody levels at 9 months of age; after a second dose at 9 months of age, 97% (326/337) had protective...... than in the group that received MV at 9 months of age (P = .0001). In conclusion, an early 2-dose MV schedule was associated with protective measles virus antibody levels at 24 months of age in nearly all children. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00168558....

  12. [Immunogenicity of inactivated subunit adsorbed monovalent vaccine against influenza A/California/7/2009 (H1N1) strain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zverev, V V; Kostinov, M P; Mikhailova, N A; Zhirova, S N; Mironov, A N; Terkacheva, O A; Romanova, A A; Cherdantsev, A P

    2011-01-01

    The immunogenicity of Pandeflu subunit vaccine against influenza A/California/7/2009 (H1N1) was evaluated in 70 healthy volunteers aged 18 to 60 years. The vaccine was intramuscularly injected twice at an interval of 28 days. Each dose (0.5 ml) contains A(HIN1) influenza virus hemagglutinin (15 +/- 2.2 microg), aluminum hydroxide (Denmark) (0.475 +/- 0.075 microg), and the preservative thiomerosal (merthiolate) (50 +/- 7.5 microg). The level of antibodies was determined in the microneutralization assay. After administration of two doses of the vaccine at a 28-day interval, the geometric mean antibody titer (GMAT) reached 1:21.1 with a further increase to 1:30 (the baseline GMAT) was 1:6.1). The frequencies of seroconversion and seroprotection were 71.4 and 59.2%, respectively; the antibody increase factor was 4.92, which meets the CPMP criteria. The administration of the vaccine did not result in adverse reactions in the postvaccination period.

  13. MMR (Measles, Mumps and Rubella) Vaccine: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... they would return. 2 Wanhdowshheonu?ld get MMR vaccine Children should get 2 doses of MMR vaccine: • First ... be given at the same time as other vaccines. Children between 1 and 12 years of age can ...

  14. Air travel as a risk factor for introduction of measles in a highly vaccinated population.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binnendijk, R.S. van; Hahne, S.; Timen, A.; Kempen, G. van; Kohl, R.H.; Boot, H.J.; Wolthers, K.C.; Wetsteijn, J.C.F.M.; Vries, A. de; Westert, K.; Brown, K.E.; Swart, R.L. de

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiological and molecular investigation of two small measles clusters in The Netherlands in July/August 2007 revealed an association with travel by air of the index cases and nosocomial spread in the first cluster. Although these importations did not result in an outbreak among unvaccinated subj

  15. Measles Outbreak among Previously Immunized Adult Healthcare Workers, China, 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Zhengyi Zhang; Yuan Zhao; Lili Yang; Changhong Lu; Ying Meng; Xiaoli Guan; Hongjin An; Meizhong Zhang; Wenqin Guo; Bo Shang; Jing Yu

    2016-01-01

    Measles is caused by measles virus belonging to genus Morbillivirus of the family Paramyxoviridae. Vaccination has played a critical role in controlling measles infection worldwide. However, in the recent years, outbreaks of measles infection still occur in many developing countries. Here, we report an outbreak of measles among healthcare workers and among the 60 measles infected patients 50 were healthcare workers including doctors, nurses, staff, and medics. Fifty-one patients (85%) tested ...

  16. Immunogenicity and safety of measles-mumps-rubella vaccine delivered by disposable-syringe jet injector in healthy Brazilian infants: a randomized non-inferiority study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Menezes Martins, Reinaldo; Curran, Birute; Maia, Maria de Lourdes Sousa; Ribeiro, Maria das Graças Tavares; Camacho, Luiz Antonio Bastos; da Silva Freire, Marcos; Yamamura, Anna Maya Yoshida; Siqueira, Marilda Mendonça; Lemos, Maria Cristina F; de Albuquerque, Elizabeth Maciel; von Doellinger, Vanessa dos Reis; Homma, Akira; Saganic, Laura; Jarrahian, Courtney; Royals, Michael; Zehrung, Darin

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to determine if immunogenicity to measles-mumps-rubella vaccine delivered to infants via a disposable-syringe jet injector (DSJI) was non-inferior to that administered by needle and syringe (NS). Vaccination safety was evaluated, as were the use, performance, and acceptability of each delivery method. The DSJI was the PharmaJet 2009 generation-1 device (G1) and the vaccine was measles-mumps-rubella vaccine from Bio-Manguinhos. Five hundred eighty-two healthy Brazilian infants were randomized to receive vaccine via G1 or NS. Seroconversion rates against measles and mumps viruses in the G1 treatment group did not meet non-inferiority criteria when compared with the NS group; however, responses in the G1 group to rubella virus were non-inferior to those of NS vaccinees. Most adverse events were mild or moderate. Crying after injection was more frequent in the NS group, and local skin reactions were more common in the G1 group. Five serious adverse events were judged causally unrelated to treatment and all resolved. Parents/guardians expressed a strong preference for G1 over NS for their children. Vaccinators found the G1 easy to use but noted incomplete vaccine delivery in some cases. Although the G1 has been superseded by an updated device, our results are important for the continued improvement and evaluation of DSJIs, which have the potential to overcome many of the challenges and risks associated with needle-based injections worldwide. Recommendations for future DSJI clinical studies include rigorous training of vaccinators, quantitative measurement of wetness on the skin following injection, and regular monitoring of device and vaccinator performance.

  17. Impact of an Intervention to Use a Measles, Rubella, and Polio Mass Vaccination Campaign to Strengthen Routine Immunization Services in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Aaron S; Bohara, Rajendra; Stewart, Steven; Subedi, Giri; Anand, Abhijeet; Burnett, Eleanor; Giri, Jagat; Shrestha, Jagat; Gurau, Suraj; Dixit, Sameer; Rajbhandari, Rajesh; Schluter, W William

    2017-07-01

    The potential to strengthen routine immunization (RI) services through supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) is an important benefit of global measles and rubella elimination and polio eradication strategies. However, little evidence exists on how best to use SIAs to strengthen RI. As part the 2012 Nepal measles-rubella and polio SIA, we developed an intervention package designed to improve RI processes and evaluated its effect on specific RI process measures. The intervention package was incorporated into existing SIA activities and materials to improve healthcare providers' RI knowledge and practices throughout Nepal. In 1 region (Central Region) we surveyed the same 100 randomly selected health facilities before and after the SIA and evaluated the following RI process measures: vaccine safety, RI planning, RI service delivery, vaccine supply chain, and RI data recording practices. Data collection included observations of vaccination sessions, interviews with the primary healthcare provider who administered vaccines at each facility, and administrative record reviews. Pair-matched analytical methods were used to determine whether statistically significant changes in the selected RI process measures occurred over time. After the SIA, significant positive changes were measured in healthcare provider knowledge of adverse events following immunization (11% increase), availability of RI microplans (+17%) and maps (+12%), and awareness of how long a reconstituted measles vial can be used before it must be discarded (+14%). For the SIA, 42% of providers created an SIA high-risk villages list, and >50% incorporated this information into RI outreach session site planning. Significant negative changes occurred in correct knowledge of measles vaccination contraindications (-11%), correct definition for a measles outbreak (-21%), and how to treat a child with a severe adverse event following immunization (-10%). Twenty percent of providers reported cancelling ≥1 RI

  18. Is there a 'regressive phenotype' of Autism Spectrum Disorder associated with the measles-mumps-rubella vaccine? A CPEA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richler, Jennifer; Luyster, Rhiannon; Risi, Susan; Hsu, Wan-Ling; Dawson, Geraldine; Bernier, Raphael; Dunn, Michelle; Hepburn, Susan; Hyman, Susan L; McMahon, William M; Goudie-Nice, Julie; Minshew, Nancy; Rogers, Sally; Sigman, Marian; Spence, M Anne; Goldberg, Wendy A; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Volkmar, Fred R; Lord, Catherine

    2006-04-01

    A multi-site study of 351 children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and 31 typically developing children used caregiver interviews to describe the children's early acquisition and loss of social-communication milestones. For the majority of children with ASD who had experienced a regression, pre-loss development was clearly atypical. Children who had lost skills also showed slightly poorer outcomes in verbal IQ and social reciprocity, a later mean age of onset of autistic symptoms, and more gastrointestinal symptoms than children with ASD and no regression. There was no evidence that onset of autistic symptoms or of regression was related to measles-mumps-rubella vaccination. The implications of these findings for the existence of a 'regressive phenotype' of ASD are discussed.

  19. Biological Feasibility of Measles Eradication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strebel, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Recent progress in reducing global measles mortality has renewed interest in measles eradication. Three biological criteria are deemed important for disease eradication: (1) humans are the sole pathogen reservoir; (2) accurate diagnostic tests exist; and (3) an effective, practical intervention is available at reasonable cost. Interruption of transmission in large geographical areas for prolonged periods further supports the feasibility of eradication. Measles is thought by many experts to meet these criteria: no nonhuman reservoir is known to exist, accurate diagnostic tests are available, and attenuated measles vaccines are effective and immunogenic. Measles has been eliminated in large geographical areas, including the Americas. Measles eradication is biologically feasible. The challenges for measles eradication will be logistical, political, and financial. PMID:21666201

  20. Vaccine-induced measles virus-specific T cells do not prevent infection or disease but facilitate subsequent clearance of viral RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen-Hsuan W; Pan, Chien-Hsiung; Adams, Robert J; Laube, Beth L; Griffin, Diane E

    2014-04-15

    Infection with wild-type measles virus (MeV) induces lifelong protection from reinfection, and parenteral delivery of the live attenuated measles vaccine (LAV) also provides protection from measles. The level of neutralizing antibody is a good indicator of protection, but the independent roles of MeV-specific antibody and T cells have not been identified. In this study, macaques immunized with LAV through a nebulizer and a mouthpiece developed MeV-specific T-cell responses but not neutralizing antibodies. Upon challenge with wild-type MeV, these animals developed rashes and viremias similar to those in naive animals but cleared viral RNA from blood 25 to 40 days faster. The nebulizer-immunized animals also had more robust MeV-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell responses than the naive animals after challenge, characterized by a higher number and better durability of gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-producing cells. Induction of MeV-specific circulating CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells capable of producing multiple cytokines correlated with clearance of viral RNA in the nebulizer-immunized macaques. These studies demonstrated that MeV-specific T-cell immunity alone did not prevent measles, but T-cell priming enhanced the magnitude, durability, and polyfunctionality of MeV-specific T cells after challenge infection and correlated with more rapid clearance of MeV RNA. IMPORTANCE The components of vaccine-induced immunity necessary for protection from infection and disease have not been clearly identified for most vaccines. Vaccine development usually focuses on induction of antibody, but T-cell-based vaccines are also under development. The live attenuated measles vaccine (LAV) given subcutaneously induces both T cells and neutralizing antibody and provides solid protection from infection. LAV delivered to the upper respiratory tract through a nebulizer and mouthpiece induced a T-cell response but no neutralizing antibody. These T-cell-primed macaques demonstrated no protection from

  1. Two-year experience of using the measles, mumps and rubella vaccine as intralesional immunotherapy for warts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, C H; Choi, H; Song, S H; Kim, M S; Shin, B S

    2014-07-01

    The currently available treatments for warts, including cryosurgery, laser surgery, electrosurgery, and topical keratolytic applications, are often very painful and can induce disfiguring scars. Recently, intralesional immunotherapy with skin test antigens and vaccines has been shown to be effective in the management of warts. To evaluate the efficacy of a new intralesional immunotherapy for warts, using the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine. A retrospective study was performed, and we enrolled 136 patients with various types of warts into the study, which was for a duration of 2 years. Patients were treated for a total of six times at 2-week intervals. The treatment response was classified as one of three levels, based on reduction in the size and number of warts, and patients with complete response (CR) were checked for recurrence. Clinical evaluations were carried out using photographs and medical records. Over half (51.5%) of patients experienced > 50% reduction in the size and number of warts, and 46.7% who had distant warts (in different locations) showed good response. Common warts showed significantly higher treatment response than other types of warts (P warts after 6 months. We suggest that intralesional immunotherapy with MMR vaccine is a tolerable and effective method for patients who are sensitive to pain, concerned about side effects, or have common warts. Treatment response is improved by increasing the number of injections. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  2. A clinical trial to assess the immunogenicity and safety of Inactivated Influenza Vaccine (Whole Virion IP (Pandemic Influenza (H1N1 2009 Monovalent Vaccine; VaxiFlu-S ™ in healthy Indian adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A H Kubavat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The pandemic of H1N1 2009 influenza has spread world over and low degree of virus transmission has continued in several regions of India. Aims : To assess the immunogenicity and safety of Pandemic Influenza (H1N1 2009 Monovalent Vaccine in healthy adult Indian population. Settings and Design : Prospective, open label, multicentric, phase 2/3 clinical trial. Materials and Methods : Healthy adult Indian subjects belonging to either 18-59 years or ≥60 years age groups were enrolled and administered a single 0.5 ml (≥15 mcg of hemagglutinin antigen dose of vaccine in the deltoid muscle. Anti-hemagglutinin antibody titer was assessed at baseline and 21 (±2 days after vaccination by Hemagglutination Inhibition (HI test. Safety assessments were done for a period of 42 days. Statistical Analysis Used : Percentages of appropriate population with 95% confidence intervals calculated, log transformation of the data to calculate Geometric Mean Titers (GMTs and chi-square test and student′s t-test applied for significance testing. Results : 182/198 and 53/63 volunteers in age groups of 18-59 years and ≥60 years, respectively, achieved an HI titer ≥1 : 40 at Day 21 (91.9% [95% confidence interval: 88.1-95.7%] and 84.1% [75.1-93.2%]; P=0.072. Further, 171/198 and 50/63 volunteers in the respective age groups achieved seroconversion/four-fold increase in titer at Day 21 (86.4% [81.6-91.1%] and 79.4% [69.4-89.4%]; P=0.179. A significant rise of 22.6-fold [18.0-28.4] and 10.5-fold [7.4-15.0] was noted in GMT in the respective age groups (P<0.001 for both groups as compared to baseline. Nine vaccine-related adverse events were reported (3.4% incidence [1.2-5.6%], which were of low severity only. Conclusions : Pandemic Influenza (H1N1 2009 Monovalent Vaccine produces excellent immunogenic response with a good tolerability profile in adult Indian population.

  3. Analysis on epidemiological characteristics of measles before and after measles vaccine supplementary immunization activities in Shijiazhuang%疫苗强化活动对石家庄市麻疹流行病学特征的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘维华; 张双宅; 王晓丽; 徐保红; 赵冬; 张弘

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of measles before and after measles attenuated live vaccine (MV) supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) in 2007 and approach measures of measles elimination. Methods: To collect data from Measles Special Surveillance System in 2005 ~ 2009, and analyze with descriptive epidemiology. Results: After SIAs in April 2007, the reported annual measles incidences were 12.18/100000 , 15.70/100000,12.61/100000,1.58/100000 and 1.97/100000 separately. The average age of the incidences were from 7.8 in 2005 down to 6.26 in 2009(t =2.02,P < 0.05). The reported incidences of < 1 year old increasingly counted for 28.9% ( t = 8. 156, P < 0.01 ). Conclusion: A high quality SIAs was a good measure for avoiding high measles incidences. It was recommended of MV to women of childbearing age during SIAs to raise the level of maternal antibodies. Meanwhile, the second vaccination was needed after SIAs for enforcing the effects.%目的:分析2007年进行麻疹疫苗强化活动后,石家庄市(区)麻疹流行病学特征的变化,探讨控制策略.方法:收集2005年-2009年麻疹资料,进行描述统计学分析.结果:2005年-2009年,麻疹发病率分别为12.18/10万,15.70/10万,12.61/10万,1.58/10万,1.97/10万.发病平均年龄由2005年7.8降至2009年6.26(t=2.02,P<0.05).2008年-2009年,<1岁发病婴儿所占构成比增加至28.9%(t=8.156,P<0.01).结论:疫苗强化活动能有效降低麻疹发病率.为保护<8月龄婴儿,应适度加强育龄妇女麻疹疫苗接种.强化活动后,及时进行二次接种,巩固效果.

  4. 南昌市儿童家长对麻疹疫苗再次强化免疫态度调查%Investigation on attitude about measles vaccine strengthen Immunization again among children s guardian in nanchang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊昌辉; 廖征; 文海蓉; 张艳霞; 彭时辉; 陈淑华; 李剑; 万刚凤

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand the children parents attitude about measles vaccine strengthen immunization, and provide scientific basis for elimination the measles. Method Using household survey method to investigate the children's parents. Results Attitude about Measles vaccine strengthen immunization among children's parents are different in gender, profession , spousea'profession. usual attitude of the children vaccinated. urban and rural locations, number of children, living witb children, vaccine safety, knowing measles vaccine strengthen immunization, vaccinating measles vaccine, and there are statistically significant difference between them. Conclusions Children's guardian'attitude about measles vaccine strengthen immunization are related to gender, profession, spouses'profession, usual attitude of the children vaccinated, urban and rural locations, number of children, living with children, vaccine safety, knowing measles vaccine strengthen immunization and vaccinating measles vaccine. Because of this we should take appropriate strategy to improve measles vaccine strengthen immunization coverage rates.%目的 了解儿童家长对再次麻疹疫苗强化免疫的态度,为消除麻疹提供科学依据.方法 采用入户调查方式对儿童家长进行调查.结果 儿童家长对麻疹疫苗强化免疫的态度在性别、职业、配偶职业、平时对孩子接种疫苗态度、城乡位置、孩子数量、与孩子同住、接种疫苗安全、知道麻疹疫苗强化免疫及其孩子强化接种麻疹疫苗这10个方面的差异具有统计学意义.结论 儿童家长对于麻疹疫苗强化免疫的态度与性别、职业、配偶职业、平时重视孩子接种疫苗态度、城乡位置、孩子数量、与孩子同住、接种疫苗安全、知道麻疹疫苗强化免疫及其孩子强化接种麻疹疫苗因素有关,应采取针对性策略,提高麻疹疫苗的强化接种率.

  5. A Measles Outbreak at a College with a Prematriculation Immunization Requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersh, Bradley S.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Reports a retrospective cohort study among students living in campus dormitories to examine potential risk factors for measles vaccine failure. As in secondary schools, measles outbreaks can occur among highly vaccinated college populations. Requiring two doses of measles vaccine for college entrants should help reduce measles outbreaks in college…

  6. Reduced childhood mortality after standard measles vaccination at 4-8 months compared with 9-11 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Andersen, M; Sodemann, Morten

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate the impact on mortality of standard Schwarz measles immunisation before 9 months of age.......To evaluate the impact on mortality of standard Schwarz measles immunisation before 9 months of age....

  7. 母亲接种麻疹疫苗对婴儿首针麻疹疫苗免疫效果的影响%Evaluation on the influence of mothers' measles vaccination before pregnancy on the immune effect of infant's first-dose measles vaccination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永成; 高志刚; 张颖; 张之伦; 曲江文; 丁亚兴; 田宏; 陈德荣; 刘明珠

    2014-01-01

    目的 评价母亲接种麻疹疫苗后对婴儿首针麻疹疫苗免疫成功率的影响,了解孕妇和婴儿的麻疹抗体水平及其关系.方法 按照近10年内母亲是否接种含麻疹成分疫苗选择研究对象,追踪监测孕妇分娩前、新生儿出生时、婴儿8月龄免疫前和接种疫苗后1个月的麻疹IgG抗体水平,采用ELISA法检测.抗体效价>200 mIU/mL为阳性,>1 000 mIU/mL为保护性抗体水平阳性.采用t检验和卡方检验.结果 共调查107对研究对象,其中接种疫苗组41对,未接种疫苗组66对.母亲接种疫苗组新生儿麻疹保护性抗体阳性21名,占51.2%,未接种疫苗组阳性19名,占28.8%(x2 =5.436,P=0.020);新生儿麻疹保护性抗体几何平均效价(GMC)分别为735.3和566.7 mIU/mL(t'=2.064,P=0.043);两组分别检测36名和60名免疫前后的婴儿,母亲接种疫苗组首针免疫成功率为91.7%,未接种疫苗组为90.0%(校正x2=0.075,P=0.785);免疫后1个月麻疹保护性抗体GMC分别为1 055.6和926.0 mIU/mL(t=1.648,P=0.103).结论 母亲接种含麻疹成分疫苗后不影响8月龄婴儿首针麻疹疫苗的免疫成功率和抗体效价,能提高孕妇和新生儿麻疹保护性抗体阳性率,抗体效价也显著增高.%Objective To evaluate the influence of mothers' measles vaccination on the success rate of infants' first-dose measles vaccination and to access the relationship between mothers' anti-measles antibody levels and their infants'.Methods The recruited pregnant women were divided into two groups according to their measles vaccination history in recent 10 years,and their anti measles IgG antibody levels were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).The anti-measles antibody levels of the corresponding infants were detected by ELISA at birth,8-months after birth (before measles vaccination)and one month after measles vaccination.The concentration of anti-measles IgG antibody >200 mIU/mL was considered as seropositive,and 1

  8. [The measles are here again].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opstelten, W.; Ruijs, W.L.M.; Warris, A.; Binnendijk, R.S. van; Wolfs, T.F.; Hahne, S.J.

    2013-01-01

    Since the vaccination of Dutch children against the measles through the National Immunisation Programme started in 1976, the incidence of measles has greatly decreased. Local epidemics do still occur, however; these are largely confined to minority groups of orthodox Protestants who object to

  9. The effect of early measles vaccination at 4.5 months of age on growth at 9 and 24 months of age in a randomized trial in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, S M; Biering-Sørensen, S; Byberg, S

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Providing an early, additional measles vaccine (MV) at 4.5 months of age has been shown to reduce child mortality in low-income countries. We studied the effects on growth at 9 and 24 months of age. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial was conducted in Guinea-Bissau from 2003......-2007 including 6,648 children. Children were randomized 1:1:1 to receive Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine at 4.5 and 9 months of age (group A), no vaccine at 4.5 months and Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine at 9 months (group B), or no vaccine at 4.5 months and Schwarz measles vaccine at 9 months (group C) Data.......03;0.20)). The effect of early MV on MUAC remained significant in the dry season and in girls who received placebo rather than NVAS. CONCLUSION: Early MV was associated with a larger MUAC particularly in girls. These results indicate that a two-dose measles vaccination schedule might not only reduce child mortality...

  10. Impact of a measles elimination strategy on measles incidence in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswathy, T S; Zahrin, H Nor; Norhashmimi, H; Az-Ulhusna, A; Zainah, S; Rohani, J

    2009-07-01

    In Malaysia, the two dose measles - mumps - rubella (MMR) vaccine was introduced in the Expanded Program on Immunization in 2002. The Ministry of Health then initiated a measles elimination strategy which included enhanced case-based surveillance with laboratory testing of all suspected cases. The objective of our study was to analyse national measles laboratory data from 2004 to 2008 to study the impact of the nationwide strategy on measles case incidence. Blood samples collected from suspected measles cases during the acute stage of the illness were investigated for measles specific IgM. The estimated incidence of measles ranged from 22.3 cases (in 2004) to 2.27 cases (in 2006) per 100,000 population. During this time, the measles vaccination coverage was above 85%. Laboratory confirmed measles cases dropped from 42.2% in 2004, when sporadic outbreaks were reported, to 3.9% in 2007. Screening for measles IgG levels in 2008 showed that 82.8% of those > 7 years old had adequate immunity. The measles control strategy appears to have been successful in reducing the incidence of measles. Continuing high vaccination coverage rates and ongoing measles surveillance are necessary to achieve our goal of measles elimination.

  11. Live vaccine against measles, mumps, and rubella and the risk of hospital admissions for nontargeted infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørup, Signe; Benn, Christine Stabell; Poulsen, Anja

    2014-01-01

    ). Nationwide Danish registers provided data on vaccinations and hospital admissions. The recommended vaccination schedule was inactivated vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio, and Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTaP-IPV-Hib) administered at ages 3, 5, and 12 months and MMR at age 15 months...

  12. Seroprevalence of transplacentally acquired measles antibodies in HIV-exposed versus HIV-unexposed infants at six months of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sneha Jain

    2017-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: Most HEI lacked measles antibodies at six months age and were, therefore, more vulnerable to measles than HUnI. Seroconversion in response to a single dose of measles vaccine administered at six months age was low in these infants, signifying the need of additional dose(s of measles/measles-containing vaccine.

  13. Effective Protection Induced by a Monovalent DNA Vaccine against Dengue Virus (DV Serotype 1 and a Bivalent DNA Vaccine against DV1 and DV2 in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Zheng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DV is the causal pathogen of dengue fever, which is one of the most rapidly spread mosquito-borne disease worldwide and has become a severe public health problem. Currently, there is no specific treatment for dengue; thus, a vaccine would be an effective countermeasure to reduce the morbidity and mortality. Although, the chimeric Yellow fever dengue tetravalent vaccine has been approved in some countries, it is still necessary to develop safer, more effective, and less costly vaccines. In this study, a DNA vaccine candidate pVAX1-D1ME expressing the prME protein of DV1 was inoculated in BALB/c mice via intramuscular injection or electroporation, and the immunogenicity and protection were evaluated. Compared with traditional intramuscular injection, administration with 50 μg pVAX1-D1ME via electroporation with three immunizations induced persistent humoral and cellular immune responses and effectively protected mice against lethal DV1 challenge. In addition, immunization with a bivalent vaccine consisting of pVAX1-D1ME and pVAX1-D2ME via electroporation generated a balanced IgG response and neutralizing antibodies against DV1 and DV2 and could protect mice from lethal challenge with DV1 and DV2. This study sheds new light on developing a dengue tetravalent DNA vaccine.

  14. Measles control: a global battle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Measles kills about 1.4 million children each year. To bring about reductions in measles cases and deaths, WHO has made some recommendations. Public health officials at the community, district, and national levels need to achieve at least 90% measles vaccine coverage. This coverage level reduces cases and deaths, but may not stop transmission. The primary goal should be that health workers deliver at least 1 dose of measles vaccine to all children at the scheduled age. Several complementary strategies are needed within each country to achieve this high coverage. In situations where there is a high incidence of measles in a defined subgroup of older children, older children should receive extra doses of vaccine when they enter school. In-service training of hospital and clinic staff should reduce the number of missed opportunities (i.e., children who visit health facilities but who are not screened and administered needed immunizations). Public health workers need to identify reasons for high drop-out rates and take corrective action. Limited resources should be directed to high risk areas: areas with high population density, low measles immunization coverage, known vitamin A deficiency, or high reported measles incidence or death rate. Unimmunized urban poor children, underserved ethnic minorities, refugees, people in underserved border areas, children admitted to the hospital, and infants of HIV positive mothers comprise high risk groups. Measles outbreaks occur even in areas where measles immunization coverage is high. Control measures are not always effective, especially if taken late in an epidemic. At the very least, health officials should gather data on cases and death (e.g., date of onset and immunization status). They should determine why the outbreak took place. If possible, they should conduct a vaccine efficacy study. To reduce deaths from measles by 95%, immunization, treatment of measles and its complications at an early stage, and vitamin A

  15. Catching measles in an appropriately vaccinated group: a well-circumscribed outbreak in the South East of Ireland, September-November 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, B; Cotter, S; Heslin, J; Lynam, B; McGOVERN, E; Murray, H; Parker, G; Doyle, S

    2016-11-01

    A measles outbreak occurred in a school in a small town in the South East of Ireland in September-November 2013. Most (and all early) cases had one dose of the measles-mumps- rubella (MMR) vaccination. All suspected cases were followed up, in order to advise on sampling and provide public health advice to them and their contacts. MMR vaccination control measures were instituted in the town. These included early second MMR in primary schools and childcare facilities, bringing forward the planned school MMR catch-up programme, early first MMR dose for children aged 6-12 months and targeted advice to unvaccinated children. There were 20 cases (17 confirmed) of measles associated with the outbreak. Fifteen cases occurred in the index school, with four in pre-school-age children (<4 years) who had clear epidemiological links with children at the school. This was a well-circumscribed outbreak occurring, unusually, in a well-vaccinated population. The outbreak came late to the attention of Department of Public Health staff but prompt action, once notified, and institution of control measures resulted in quick termination of the outbreak and prevention of cases in a neighbouring city.

  16. Effect of an Early Dose of Measles Vaccine on Morbidity Between 18 Weeks and 9 Months of Age: A Randomized, Controlled Trial in Guinea-Bissau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Vu An; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Fisker, Ane Bærent; Balé, Carlito; Rasmussen, Stine Møller; Christensen, Lone Damkjær; Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov; Martins, Cesário; Aaby, Peter; Benn, Christine Stabell

    2017-04-15

    Children in Guinea-Bissau receive measles vaccine (MV) at 9 months of age, but studies have shown that an additional dose before 9 months of age might have beneficial nonspecific effects. Within a randomized trial designed to examine nonspecific effects of early MV receipt on mortality, we conducted a substudy to investigate the effect of early MV receipt on morbidity. Children were randomly assigned at a ratio of 2:1 to receive 2 doses of MV at 18 weeks and age 9 months (intervention group) or 1 dose of MV at age 9 months, in accordance with current practice (control group). Children were visited weekly from enrollment to age 9 months; the mother reported morbidity, and the field assistants examined the children. Using Cox and binomial regression models, we compared the 2 randomization groups. Among the 1592 children, early measles vaccination was not associated with a higher risk of the well-known adverse events of fever, rash, and convulsions within the first 14 days. From 15 days after randomization to age 9 months, early measles vaccination was associated with reductions in maternally reported diarrhea (hazard ratio [HR], 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], .82-.97), vomiting (HR, 0.86; 95% CI, .75-.98), and fever (HR, 0.93; 95% CI, .87-1.00). Early MV receipt was associated with reduced general morbidity in the following months, supporting that early MV receipt may improve the general health of children.

  17. A 60-year review on the changing epidemiology of measles in capital Beijing, China, 1951-2011

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Juan; LU, Li; Pang, Xinghuo; Sun, Meiping; Ma, Rui; Liu, Donglei; Wu, Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Background China pledged to join the global effort to eliminate measles by 2012. To improve measles control strategy, the epidemic trend and population immunity of measles were investigated in 1951–2011 in Beijing. Methods The changing trend of measles since 1951 was described based on measles surveillance data from Beijing Centre of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The measles vaccination coverage and antibody level were assessed by routinely reported measles vaccination data and twenty...

  18. The pre-vaccination regional epidemiological landscape of measles in Italy: contact patterns, effort needed for eradication, and comparison with other regions of Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salmaso Stefania

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Strong regional heterogeneity and generally sub-optimal rates of measles vaccination in Italy have, to date, hampered attainment of WHO targets for measles elimination, and have generated the need for the new Italian National Measles Elimination Plan. Crucial to success of the plan is the identification of intervention priorities based upon a clear picture of the regional epidemiology of measles derived from the use of data to estimate basic parameters. Previous estimates of measles force of infection for Italy have appeared anomalously low. It has been argued elsewhere that this results from Italian selective under-reporting by age of cases and that the true measles force of infection in Italy is probably similar to that of other European countries. A deeper examination of the evidence for this conjecture is undertaken in the present paper. Methods Using monthly regional case notifications data from 1949 to the start of vaccination in 1976 and notifications by age from 1971–76, summary equilibrium parameters (force of infection (FOI, basic reproductive ratio (R0 and critical vaccination coverage (pc are calculated for each region and for each of 5 plausible contact patterns. An analysis of the spectra of incidence profiles is also carried out. Finally a transmission dynamics model is employed to explore the correspondence between projections using different estimates of force of infection and data on seroprevalence in Italy. Results FOI estimates are lower than comparable European FOIs and there is substantial regional heterogeneity in basic reproductive ratios; certain patterns of contact matrices are demonstrated to be unfeasible. Most regions show evidence of 3-year epidemic cycles or longer, and compared with England & Wales there appears to be little synchronisation between regions. Modelling results suggest that the lower FOI estimated from corrected aggregate national data matches serological data more closely than

  19. Molecular characterization of poliovirus isolates from children who contracted vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) following administration of monovalent type 3 oral poliovirus vaccine in the 1960s in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Molnár, Zsuzsanna; Szomor, Katalin N; Berencsi, György

    2010-03-01

    Hungarian children were immunized with monovalent oral poliovaccine (mOPV) delivered at 6-week intervals in the order Sabin 1, Sabin 3, Sabin 2, from 1959 until 1992. During that period, 90 cases of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) were reported, 52 of which were associated with Sabin 3-related virus (76% of VAPP cases with virologic data). Because of renewed interest in type 3 mOPV (mOPV3), molecular methods were used to reanalyze 18 of the Sabin 3-related isolates from 15 VAPP patients, confirming the original identification. All isolates had the U472C 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) substitution associated with reversion to neurovirulence, and from zero to seven nucleotide substitutions in the virus protein 1 (VP1) region. No evidence was found for prolonged mOPV3 replication in the VAPP patients or for spread of Sabin 3-related viruses beyond close vaccinee contacts. The VAPP diseases were prevented by a single dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine from 1992 to 2006 in Hungary, as proved by continuous surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis.

  20. Determinants of vaccine immunogenicity in HIV-infected pregnant women: analysis of B and T cell responses to pandemic H1N1 monovalent vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Weinberg

    Full Text Available Influenza infections have high frequency and morbidity in HIV-infected pregnant women, underscoring the importance of vaccine-conferred protection. To identify the factors that determine vaccine immunogenicity in this group, we characterized the relationship of B- and T-cell responses to pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1 vaccine with HIV-associated immunologic and virologic characteristics. pH1N1 and seasonal-H1N1 (sH1N1 antibodies were measured in 119 HIV-infected pregnant women after two double-strength pH1N1 vaccine doses. pH1N1-IgG and IgA B-cell FluoroSpot, pH1N1- and sH1N1-interferon γ (IFNγ and granzyme B (GrB T-cell FluoroSpot, and flow cytometric characterization of B- and T-cell subsets were performed in 57 subjects. pH1N1-antibodies increased after vaccination, but less than previously described in healthy adults. pH1N1-IgG memory B cells (Bmem increased, IFNγ-effector T-cells (Teff decreased, and IgA Bmem and GrB Teff did not change. pH1N1-antibodies and Teff were significantly correlated with each other and with sH1N1-HAI and Teff, respectively, before and after vaccination. pH1N1-antibody responses to the vaccine significantly increased with high proportions of CD4+, low CD8+ and low CD8+HLADR+CD38+ activated (Tact cells. pH1N1-IgG Bmem responses increased with high proportions of CD19+CD27+CD21- activated B cells (Bact, high CD8+CD39+ regulatory T cells (Treg, and low CD19+CD27-CD21- exhausted B cells (Bexhaust. IFNγ-Teff responses increased with low HIV plasma RNA, CD8+HLADR+CD38+ Tact, CD4+FoxP3+ Treg and CD19+IL10+ Breg. In conclusion, pre-existing antibody and Teff responses to sH1N1 were associated with increased responses to pH1N1 vaccination in HIV-infected pregnant women suggesting an important role for heterosubtypic immunologic memory. High CD4+% T cells were associated with increased, whereas high HIV replication, Tact and Bexhaust were associated with decreased vaccine immunogenicity. High Treg increased antibody responses but

  1. One size does not fit all: local determinants of measles vaccination in four districts of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Cockcroft, Anne; Andersson, Neil; Omer, Khalid; Ansari, Noor M; Khan, Amir; Chaudhry, Ubaid Ullah; Ansari, Umaira

    2009-01-01

    Background Rates of childhood vaccination in Pakistan remain low.There is continuing debate about the role of consumer and service factors in determining levels of vaccination in developing countries. Methods In a stratified random cluster sample of census enumeration areas across four districts in Pakistan, household interviews about vaccination of children and potentially related factors with 10,423 mothers of 14,542 children preceded discussion of findings in separate male and female focus...

  2. The effects of vitamin A supplementation with measles vaccine on leucocyte counts and in vitro cytokine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov; Fisker, Ane Bærent; Andersen, Andreas; Sartono, Erliyani; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Aaby, Peter; Erikstrup, Christian; Benn, Christine Stabell

    2016-02-28

    As WHO recommends vitamin A supplementation (VAS) at vaccination contacts after age 6 months, many children receive VAS together with measles vaccine (MV). We aimed to investigate the immunological effect of VAS given with MV. Within a randomised placebo-controlled trial investigating the effect on overall mortality of providing VAS with vaccines in Guinea-Bissau, we conducted an immunological sub-study of VAS v. placebo with MV, analysing leucocyte counts, whole blood in vitro cytokine production, vitamin A status and concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP). VAS compared with placebo was associated with an increased frequency of CRP ≥ 5 mg/l (28 v. 12%; P=0·005). Six weeks after supplementation, VAS had significant sex-differential effects on leucocyte, lymphocyte, monocyte and basophil cell counts, decreasing them in males but increasing them in females. Mainly in females, the effect of VAS on cytokine responses differed by previous VAS: in previous VAS recipients, VAS increased the pro-inflammatory and T helper cell type 1 (Th1) cytokine responses, whereas VAS decreased these responses in previously unsupplemented children. In previous VAS recipients, VAS was associated with increased IFN-γ responses to phytohaemagglutinin in females (geometric mean ratio (GMR): 3·97; 95% CI 1·44, 10·90) but not in males (GMR 0·44; 95% CI 0·14, 1·42); the opposite was observed in previously unsupplemented children. Our results corroborate that VAS provided with MV has immunological effects, which may depend on sex and previous VAS. VAS may increase the number of leucocytes, but also repress both the innate and lymphocyte-derived cytokine responses in females, whereas this repression may be opposite if the females have previously received VAS.

  3. Priming T-cell responses with recombinant measles vaccine vector in a heterologous prime-boost setting in non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Diane L; Santra, Sampa; Swett-Tapia, Cindy; Custers, Jerome; Song, Kaimei; Balachandran, Harikrishnan; Mach, Linh; Naim, Hussein; Kozlowski, Pamela A; Lifton, Michelle; Goudsmit, Jaap; Letvin, Norman; Roederer, Mario; Radošević, Katarina

    2012-09-07

    Licensed live attenuated virus vaccines capable of expressing transgenes from other pathogens have the potential to reduce the number of childhood immunizations by eliciting robust immunity to multiple pathogens simultaneously. Recombinant attenuated measles virus (rMV) derived from the Edmonston Zagreb vaccine strain was engineered to express simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) Gag protein for the purpose of evaluating the immunogenicity of rMV as a vaccine vector in rhesus macaques. rMV-Gag immunization alone elicited robust measles-specific humoral and cellular responses, but failed to elicit transgene (Gag)-specific immune responses, following aerosol or intratracheal/intramuscular delivery. However, when administered as a priming vaccine to a heterologous boost with recombinant adenovirus serotype 5 expressing the same transgene, rMV-Gag significantly enhanced Gag-specific T lymphocyte responses following rAd5 immunization. Gag-specific humoral responses were not enhanced, however, which may be due to either the transgene or the vector. Cellular response priming by rMV against the transgene was highly effective even when using a suboptimal dose of rAd5 for the boost. These data demonstrate feasibility of using rMV as a priming component of heterologous prime-boost vaccine regimens for pathogens requiring strong cellular responses.

  4. Case Based Measles Surveillance in Pune: Evidence to Guide Current and Future Measles Control and Elimination Efforts in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Anindya Sekhar; Jafari, Hamid; Sosler, Stephen; Narula, Arvinder Pal Singh; Kulkarni, V. M.; Ramamurty, Nalini; Oommen, John; Jadi, Ramesh S.; Banpel, R. V.; Henao-Restrepo, Ana Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background According to WHO estimates, 35% of global measles deaths in 2011 occurred in India. In 2013, India committed to a goal of measles elimination by 2020. Laboratory supported case based measles surveillance is an essential component of measles elimination strategies. Results from a case-based measles surveillance system in Pune district (November 2009 through December 2011) are reported here with wider implications for measles elimination efforts in India. Methods Standard protocols were followed for case identification, investigation and classification. Suspected measles cases were confirmed through serology (IgM) or epidemiological linkage or clinical presentation. Data regarding age, sex, vaccination status were collected and annualized incidence rates for measles and rubella cases calculated. Results Of the 1011 suspected measles cases reported to the surveillance system, 76% were confirmed measles, 6% were confirmed rubella, and 17% were non-measles, non-rubella cases. Of the confirmed measles cases, 95% were less than 15 years of age. Annual measles incidence rate was more than 250 per million persons and nearly half were associated with outbreaks. Thirty-nine per cent of the confirmed measles cases were vaccinated with one dose of measles vaccine (MCV1). Conclusion Surveillance demonstrated high measles incidence and frequent outbreaks in Pune where MCV1 coverage in infants was above 90%. Results indicate that even high coverage with a single dose of measles vaccine was insufficient to provide population protection and prevent measles outbreaks. An effective measles and rubella surveillance system provides essential information to plan, implement and evaluate measles immunization strategies and monitor progress towards measles elimination. PMID:25290339

  5. Case based measles surveillance in Pune: evidence to guide current and future measles control and elimination efforts in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anindya Sekhar Bose

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: According to WHO estimates, 35% of global measles deaths in 2011 occurred in India. In 2013, India committed to a goal of measles elimination by 2020. Laboratory supported case based measles surveillance is an essential component of measles elimination strategies. Results from a case-based measles surveillance system in Pune district (November 2009 through December 2011 are reported here with wider implications for measles elimination efforts in India. METHODS: Standard protocols were followed for case identification, investigation and classification. Suspected measles cases were confirmed through serology (IgM or epidemiological linkage or clinical presentation. Data regarding age, sex, vaccination status were collected and annualized incidence rates for measles and rubella cases calculated. RESULTS: Of the 1011 suspected measles cases reported to the surveillance system, 76% were confirmed measles, 6% were confirmed rubella, and 17% were non-measles, non-rubella cases. Of the confirmed measles cases, 95% were less than 15 years of age. Annual measles incidence rate was more than 250 per million persons and nearly half were associated with outbreaks. Thirty-nine per cent of the confirmed measles cases were vaccinated with one dose of measles vaccine (MCV1. CONCLUSION: Surveillance demonstrated high measles incidence and frequent outbreaks in Pune where MCV1 coverage in infants was above 90%. Results indicate that even high coverage with a single dose of measles vaccine was insufficient to provide population protection and prevent measles outbreaks. An effective measles and rubella surveillance system provides essential information to plan, implement and evaluate measles immunization strategies and monitor progress towards measles elimination.

  6. Measles, mumps and rubella vaccine as an intralesional immunotherapy in treatment of warts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarti N. Shah

    2016-02-01

    Conclusions: Intralesional immunotherapy with MMR vaccine was found to be a simple, effective, and safe treatment for warts. This study proved to be cost effective as patients can be treated with just 03 doses of MMR vaccine given at the interval of two weeks. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(2.000: 472-476

  7. Large measles outbreak introduced by asylum seekers and spread among the insufficiently vaccinated resident population, Berlin, October 2014 to August 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werber, Dirk; Hoffmann, Alexandra; Santibanez, Sabine; Mankertz, Annette; Sagebiel, Daniel

    2017-08-24

    The largest measles outbreak in Berlin since 2001 occurred from October 2014 to August 2015. Overall, 1,344 cases were ascertained, 86% (with available information) unvaccinated, including 146 (12%) asylum seekers. Median age was 17 years (interquartile range: 4-29 years), 26% were hospitalised and a 1-year-old child died. Measles virus genotyping uniformly revealed the variant 'D8-Rostov-Don' and descendants. The virus was likely introduced by and initially spread among asylum seekers before affecting Berlin's resident population. Among Berlin residents, the highest incidence was in children aged asylum seekers, not always conducted, occurred later (median: 7.5 days) than the recommended 72 hours after onset of the first case and reached only half of potential contacts. Asylum seekers should not only have non-discriminatory, equitable access to vaccination, they also need to be offered measles vaccination in a timely fashion, i.e. immediately upon arrival in the receiving country. Supplementary immunisation activities targeting the resident population, particularly adults, are urgently needed in Berlin. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  8. Immunogenicity, safety and tolerability of monovalent 2009 pandemic influenza A/H1N1 MF59-adjuvanted vaccine in children and adolescents with Williams or Cornelia De Lange syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Susanna; Selicorni, Angelo; Daleno, Cristina; Valzano, Antonia; Cerutti, Marta; Galeone, Carlotta; Consolo, Silvia; Menni, Francesca; Principi, Nicola

    2011-06-01

    In some subjects with severe neurological diseases, a reduced immune response to seasonal influenza vaccine has been demonstrated. Patients with Williams or Cornelia de Lange syndrome frequently have abnormalities in neurodevelopment. This study has evaluated the immunogenicity, safety and tolerability of a monovalent 2009 pandemic influenza A/H1N1 MF59-adjuvanted vaccine in these subjects. Eighteen patients with Williams syndrome (ten males; mean age ± standard deviation [SD] 12.74 ± 4.49 years), 11 with Cornelia de Lange syndrome (six males; mean age 12.90 ± 4.85 years) and 30 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (16 males; mean age 12.49 ± 4.55 years), never vaccinated against influenza, received a dose of the vaccine between 1 and 30 November 2009. Four weeks later, the seroconversion rates in the three groups were between 72% and 80% and the seroprotection rates were 100%, with a similar increase in antibody levels. Two months later, most of the subjects remained seroconverted with no statistically significant difference between the groups, and about 94% of the patients with Williams syndrome, all of those with Cornelia de Lange syndrome and all of the healthy controls were still seroprotected. Safety and tolerability were very good, with no difference between the groups. None of the patients developed documented influenza during the study period. These results show that the immunogenicity, safety, and tolerability of a single dose of the monovalent 2009 pandemic influenza A/H1N1 MF59-adjuvanted vaccine in children and adolescents with Williams or Cornelia de Lange syndrome and moderate to severe mental disabilities is very good, and similar to that of healthy subjects.

  9. 常州市两次麻疹强化免疫效果比较%Comparison of Two Measles Vaccine Supplement Immunity Activity in Changzhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林琴; 郝超; 张建陶; 姚杏娟; 卞琛; 韩长磊; 凌良健

    2011-01-01

    目的 对比常州市两次麻疹减毒活疫苗(MV)强化免疫(SIA)的效果,探讨麻疹控制措施.方法 用描述流行病学分析方法,对比常州市两次麻疹SIA效果.结果 2007年11月MV SIA后,2008年麻疹报告发病率为24.13/10万,较2007年上升91.66%;SIA后8个月麻疹发病同比平均上升118.57%;<15岁年龄组发病构成比同比上升11.17%;SIA前后常住、流动儿童麻疹疫苗接种率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).2009年4月开展MVSIA,SIA前麻疹发病同比平均上升221.30%;SIA后8个月麻疹发病同比平均下降88.69%,<15岁年龄组发病构成比同比下降50.03%;SIA后流动儿童麻疹疫苗接种率明显提高(P<0.05).结论 2007年MV SIA低覆盖是SIA后麻疹高发的主要原因,2009年开展的高质量MV SIA成功削平了麻疹发病高峰.政府参与、多部门配合是开展高质量MV SIA的基础.%Objective To Contrast two measles attenuated live vaccine(MV) supplementary immunization activity(SIA) in Changzhou city and approach measures of measles elimination.Methods Comparison of the different characteristics between two MV SIA was conducted with descriptive epidemiology.Results After SIA in Nov.2007, the reported measles incidence was 24.13/100 000, and increased by 91.60% in 2008 than that in 2007; During the following 8 months after MV SIA ,the reported measles incidence increased by 118.57% averagely; The constituent ratio of the group in which the age was less than 15 increased by 11.17% to the corresponding period of last year.There was no obvions change for the inoculation rate of measles from settled and floating population.Before SIA in Apr.2009, the reported measles incidence increased by 221.30% averagely and after SIA in 2009 ,the reported measles incidence decreased by 88.69% averagely; The constituent ratio the measles incidence in the group in which the age was less than 15 decreased 50.03% to the corresponding period of last year; The inoculation rate of

  10. Measles, mumps, and rubella virus vaccine (M-M-R™II): a review of 32 years of clinical and postmarketing experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lievano, Fabio; Galea, Susan A; Thornton, Michele; Wiedmann, Richard T; Manoff, Susan B; Tran, Trung N; Amin, Manisha A; Seminack, Margaret M; Vagie, Kristen A; Dana, Adrian; Plotkin, Stanley A

    2012-11-06

    M-M-R™II (measles, mumps, and rubella virus vaccine live; Merck, Sharp, & Dohme Corp.) is indicated for simultaneous vaccination against measles, mumps, and rubella in individuals ≥ 12 months of age. Before the vaccine era, these viruses infected most exposed individuals, with subsequent morbidity and mortality. One of the greatest achievements of public health has been to eliminate these 3 diseases in large geographic areas. The safety profile of M-M-R™II is described using data from routine global postmarketing surveillance. Postmarketing surveillance has limitations (including incomplete reporting of case data), but allows collection of real-world information on large numbers of individuals, who may have concurrent medical problems excluding them from clinical trials. It can also identify rare adverse experiences (AEs). Over its 32-year history, ≈ 575 million doses of M-M-R™II have been distributed worldwide, with 17,536 AEs voluntarily reported for an overall rate of 30.5 AEs/1,000,000 doses distributed. This review provides evidence that the vaccine is safe and well-tolerated.

  11. [An update on measles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caseris, M; Burdet, C; Lepeule, R; Houhou, N; Yeni, P; Yazdanpanah, Y; Joly, V

    2015-05-01

    Measles is a highly contagious infectious disease, which needs more than 95% worldwide vaccination coverage of 2 doses to be eradicated. Despite an important involvement of the WHO for massive immunization, goals have not bean reached, and outbreaks can occur at any time in many countries, including Western Europe. In France, 22,000 cases were identified between 2009 and 2011, mainly in infants and young adults, which are not or not enough vaccinated (one dose). In 2012, even though the number of cases has drastically decreased, the outbreak is still going on, especially in South of France. That is why every clinician needs to be concerned about the clinical manifestations of the disease, and its complications. Besides a febrile rash, measles is often responsible of pneumonia and biologic hepatitis in adults. Hepatitis does not seem frequent in children. Clinicians need to be aware of specific complications, like encephalitis in case of cellular immunodepression, high risk of pneumonia in pregnant women. In patients previously vaccinated, incidence of complications is the same but patients are not contagious. Even if measles diagnosis is clinical, blood confirmation by serology is recommended in France when possible. Outcome is mainly favourable, but measles is not well-tolerated with high levels of hospitalisation even without any complication. Vaccination is the only way to protect against it.

  12. [Measles in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antona, Denise; Baudon, Claire; Freymuth, François; Lamy, Mathieu; Maine, Catherine; Parent du Chatelet, Isabelle; Lévy-Bruhl, Daniel

    2012-11-01

    From January 2008 to May 2012, over 22,000 cases of measles were reported in France. The highest incidence rate was observed in children below one year of age. Over 50% of cases were reported in young adults. Almost 5,000 patients were hospitalised including 1,023 with severe pneumonia, 27 with encephalitis and/or myelitis : 10 died. This situation is linked to insufficient and heterogeneous vaccination coverage with pockets of susceptible people allowing virus circulation. Although the vaccine coverage in children has now improved for both doses, the issue of convincing young susceptible adults to catch up for measles vaccination remains critical, if the elimination target is to be met, and in order to protect the most vulnerable population unable to benefit from this vaccination (children below 1 year, immunodeficient people, pregnant women).

  13. Epidemiology of two large measles virus outbreaks in Catalonia: what a difference the month of administration of the first dose of vaccine makes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torner, Núria; Anton, Andres; Barrabeig, Irene; Lafuente, Sara; Parron, Ignasi; Arias, César; Camps, Neus; Costa, Josep; Martínez, Ana; Torra, Roser; Godoy, Pere; Minguell, Sofia; Ferrús, Glòria; Cabezas, Carmen; Domínguez, Ángela; Spain

    2013-03-01

    Measles cases in the European Region have been increasing in the last decade; this illustrates the challenge of what we are now encountering in the form of pediatric preventable diseases. In Catalonia, autochthonous measles was declared eliminated in the year 2000 as the result of high measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (MMR) coverage for first and second dose (15 mo and 4 y) since the mid-1990s. From then on, sporadic imported cases and small outbreaks appeared, until in 2006-2007 a large measles outbreak affecting mostly unvaccinated toddlers hit the Barcelona Health Region. Consequently, in January 2008, first dose administration of MMR was lowered from 15 to 12 mo of age. A new honeymoon period went by until the end of 2010, when several importations of cases triggered new sustained transmission of different wild measles virus genotypes, but this time striking young adults. The aim of this study is to show the effect of a change in MMR vaccination schedule policy, and the difference in age incidence and hospitalization rates of affected individuals between both outbreaks.   Epidemiologic data were obtained by case interviews and review of medical records. Samples for virological confirmation and genotyping of cases were collected as established in the Measles Elimination plan guidelines. Incidence rate (IR), rate ratio (RR) and their 95% CI and hospitalization rate (HR) by age group were determined. Statistic z was used for comparing proportions. Total number of confirmed cases was 305 in the 2010 outbreak and 381 in the 2006-2007 outbreak; mean age 20 y (SD 14.8 y; 3 mo to 51 y) vs. 15 mo (SD 13.1 y; 1 mo to 50 y). Highest proportion of cases was set in ≥ 25 y (47%) vs. 24.2% in 2006 (p < 0.001). Differences in IR for ≤ 15 mo (49/100,000 vs. 278.2/100,000; RR: 3,9; 95%CI 2,9-5.4) and in overall HR 29.8% vs. 15.7% were all statistically significant (p < 0.001). The change of the month of age for the administration of the first MMR dose proved successful to

  14. A measles outbreak in Catania, Sicily: the importance of high vaccination coverage and early notification of cases for health and economic reasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celesia, Benedetto Maurizio; Fontana, Rossella; Pinzone, Marilia Rita; Cuccia, Mario; Bellissimo, Francesco; Rapisarda, Liliana; Rinnone, Sebastiano; Rapisarda, Venerando; Pavone, Piero; Cacopardo, Bruno; Nunnari, Giuseppe

    2014-09-01

    Measles is a paediatric exanthematous disease. Even though vaccination has dramatically reduced measles morbidity and mortality, outbreaks still occur due to insufficient vaccination coverage and importation of the virus from endemic regions. Although child vaccination coverage in Italy has been broadened (from 74% in 2000 to 90.1% in 2011), outbreaks are still observed at a regional level. We describe epidemiological and clinical characteristics of cases reported from January 2009 to May 2010 to the Epidemiology Service of the Provincial Health Authority of Catania. We obtained demographic data and vaccination status from the database of the Epidemiology Service and clinical features and laboratory data from medical records. In all, 522 cases were notified: 286 males (54%), median age 12 years (interquartile range (IQR) 4-18); 401 cases (77%) were notified by the hospital, and 121 (23%) by general practitioners. Only one patient had been previously vaccinated. 52 cases were hospitalized, median age 18 years (IQR 17-23). We observed hypertransaminasaemia in 20 patients (38%), thrombocytopenia in 22 patients (42%) and a creatine phosphokinase increase in 16 (30%). Complications (pneumonia, haemorrhagic cystitis, acute hepatitis) occurred in 10 patients (19%), all older than 18. Recent outbreaks show that immunization practices are still insufficient. Most cases were recorded in adolescents and young adults; even if the vaccine has limited virus circulation in childhood, it did not prevent the infection of other age groups. The number of notifications also suggests that the phenomenon is underestimated. In order to monitor the disease we need early notification of cases and increased vaccination coverage.

  15. Determinants of measles seroprevalence among pregnant women in Paris, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodilis, H; Goffinet, F; Krivine, A; Andrieu, T; Anselem, O; Tsatsaris, V; Rozenberg, F; Launay, O

    2014-08-01

    Non-immune pregnant women are at risk of severe measles. As the measles vaccination is contraindicated during pregnancy, women should be vaccinated before conception or during the postpartum period. Nevertheless, measles serology is not recommended during pregnancy in France, and there are no data available concerning measles susceptibility and its associated risk factors among pregnant women. The socio-demographic determinants of measles seronegativity have been identified in a prospective cohort of 826 pregnant women in Paris, France. Measles seronegativity was 10.41% (95% CI 8.32-12.50). Women from higher socio-economic groups, born in France after 1980, were more frequently seronegative.

  16. Immunogenicity and safety of concomitant administration of a measles, mumps and rubella vaccine (M-M-RvaxPro® and a varicella vaccine (VARIVAX® by intramuscular or subcutaneous routes at separate injection sites: a randomised clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Stéphane

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When this trial was initiated, the combined measles, mumps and rubella (MMR vaccine was licensed for subcutaneous administration in all European countries and for intramuscular administration in some countries, whereas varicella vaccine was licensed only for subcutaneous administration. This study evaluated the intramuscular administration of an MMR vaccine (M-M-RvaxPro® and a varicella vaccine (VARIVAX® compared with the subcutaneous route. Methods An open-label randomised trial was performed in France and Germany. Healthy children, aged 12 to18 months, received single injections of M-M-RvaxPro and VARIVAX concomitantly at separate injection sites. Both vaccines were administered either intramuscularly (IM group, n = 374 or subcutaneously (SC group, n = 378. Immunogenicity was assessed before vaccination and 42 days after vaccination. Injection-site erythema, swelling and pain were recorded from days 0 to 4 after vaccination. Body temperature was monitored daily between 0 and 42 days after vaccination. Other adverse events were recorded up to 42 days after vaccination and serious adverse events until the second study visit. Results Antibody response rates at day 42 in the per-protocol set of children initially seronegative to measles, mumps, rubella or varicella were similar between the IM and SC groups for all four antigens. Response rates were 94 to 96% for measles, 98% for both mumps and rubella and 86 to 88% for varicella. For children initially seronegative to varicella, 99% achieved the seroconversion threshold (antibody concentrations of ≥ 1.25 gpELISA units/ml. Erythema and swelling were the most frequently reported injection-site reactions for both vaccines. Most injection-site reactions were of mild intensity or small size (≤ 2.5 cm. There was a trend for lower rates of injection-site erythema and swelling in the IM group. The incidence and nature of systemic adverse events were comparable for the two routes

  17. Recombinant Measles Virus Vaccine Expressing the Nipah Virus Glycoprotein Protects against Lethal Nipah Virus Challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Misako Yoneda; Marie-Claude Georges-Courbot; Fusako Ikeda; Miho Ishii; Noriyo Nagata; Frederic Jacquot; Hervé Raoul; Hiroki Sato; Chieko Kai

    2013-01-01

    Nipah virus (NiV) is a member of the genus Henipavirus, which emerged in Malaysia in 1998. In pigs, infection resulted in a predominantly non-lethal respiratory disease; however, infection in humans resulted in over 100 deaths. Nipah virus has continued to re-emerge in Bangladesh and India, and person-to-person transmission appeared in the outbreak. Although a number of NiV vaccine studies have been reported, there are currently no vaccines or treatments licensed for human use. In this study,...

  18. Negative Correlation between Circulating CD4(+)FOXP3(+)CD127(-) Regulatory T Cells and Subsequent Antibody Responses to Infant Measles Vaccine but Not Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine Implies a Regulatory Role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndure, Jorjoh; Noho-Konteh, Fatou; Adetifa, Jane U; Cox, Momodou; Barker, Francis; Le, My Thanh; Sanyang, Lady C; Drammeh, Adboulie; Whittle, Hilton C; Clarke, Ed; Plebanski, Magdalena; Rowland-Jones, Sarah L; Flanagan, Katie L

    2017-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a key homeostatic role by suppressing immune responses. They have been targeted in mouse and human cancer studies to improve vaccine immunogenicity and tumor clearance. A number of commercially available drugs and experimental vaccine adjuvants have been shown to target Tregs. Infants have high numbers of Tregs and often have poor responses to vaccination, yet the role Tregs play in controlling vaccine immunogenicity has not been explored in this age group. Herein, we explore the role of CD4(+)FOXP3(+)CD127(-) Tregs in controlling immunity in infant males and females to vaccination with diphtheria-tetanus-whole cell pertussis (DTP) and/or measles vaccine (MV). We find correlative evidence that circulating Tregs at the time of vaccination suppress antibody responses to MV but not DTP; and Tregs 4 weeks after DTP vaccination may suppress vaccine-specific cellular immunity. This opens the exciting possibility that Tregs may provide a future target for improved vaccine responses in early life, including reducing the number of doses of vaccine required. Such an approach would need to be safe and the benefits outweigh the risks, thus further research in this area is required.

  19. Negative Correlation between Circulating CD4+FOXP3+CD127− Regulatory T Cells and Subsequent Antibody Responses to Infant Measles Vaccine but Not Diphtheria–Tetanus–Pertussis Vaccine Implies a Regulatory Role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorjoh Ndure

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory T cells (Tregs play a key homeostatic role by suppressing immune responses. They have been targeted in mouse and human cancer studies to improve vaccine immunogenicity and tumor clearance. A number of commercially available drugs and experimental vaccine adjuvants have been shown to target Tregs. Infants have high numbers of Tregs and often have poor responses to vaccination, yet the role Tregs play in controlling vaccine immunogenicity has not been explored in this age group. Herein, we explore the role of CD4+FOXP3+CD127− Tregs in controlling immunity in infant males and females to vaccination with diphtheria–tetanus–whole cell pertussis (DTP and/or measles vaccine (MV. We find correlative evidence that circulating Tregs at the time of vaccination suppress antibody responses to MV but not DTP; and Tregs 4 weeks after DTP vaccination may suppress vaccine-specific cellular immunity. This opens the exciting possibility that Tregs may provide a future target for improved vaccine responses in early life, including reducing the number of doses of vaccine required. Such an approach would need to be safe and the benefits outweigh the risks, thus further research in this area is required.

  20. Association between monovalent influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 vaccine and pneumonia among the elderly in the 2009-2010 season in Japan: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Kyoko; Suzuki, Kanzo; Washio, Masakazu; Ohfuji, Satoko; Fukushima, Wakaba; Maeda, Akiko; Hirota, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the association between monovalent influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 (H1N1pdm) vaccine and pneumonia in elderly people. Study design was a hospital-based, matched case-control study. Cases comprised patients ≥ 65 years old who had been newly diagnosed with pneumonia. For each case, 2 controls were defined as individuals with other diseases (not pneumonia) who were matched by sex, age, entry date, and the visited hospital. Study period was the interval from 1 September 2009 until 30 September 2010. Because a pandemic of influenza A (H1N1) occurred during study period, we analyzed selected subjects who had enrolled during the influenza A (H1N1) pandemic. We calculated the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for pneumonia in H1N1pdm-vaccinated subjects compared with unvaccinated subjects using a conditional logistic regression model to assess the association between H1N1pdm vaccine and pneumonia. The subjects during the period of the influenza A (H1N1) pandemic were 20 cases and 40 controls. Subjects who had received H1N1pdm vaccine showed a significantly decreased OR for pneumonia (OR = 0.10, 95% CI = 0.01-0.98) compared with unvaccinated subjects. In conclusion, H1N1pdm vaccination may have prevented pneumonia among the elderly during the 2009-2010 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic in Japan.

  1. Non-specific effects of standard measles vaccine at 4.5 and 9 months of age on childhood mortality: randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Martins, Cecilia; Garly, M.L.

    2010-01-01

    of age (current policy). Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting The Bandim Health Project, Guinea-Bissau, which maintains a health and demographic surveillance system in an urban area. Participants 6648 children aged 4.5 months of age who had received three doses of diphtheria......-tetanus-pertussis vaccine at least four weeks before enrolment. A large proportion of the children (80%) had previously taken part in randomised trials of neonatal vitamin A supplementation. Intervention Children were randomised to receive Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine at 4.5 and 9 months of age (group A), no vaccine...... tested the hypothesis that the beneficial effect was stronger in the 4.5 to 9 months age group, in girls, and in the dry season, but the study was not powered to test whether effects differed significantly between subgroups. Results In the intention to treat analysis of mortality between 4.5 and 36...

  2. Inmunogenicidad y capacidad protectora en hamsters de vacunas antileptospirósicas monovalentes de células enteras del serogrupo Ballum Immunogenicity and protective capacity of leptospiral whole-cell monovalent serogroup Ballum vaccines in hamsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. González

    2005-12-01

    challenge with 100 and 10 000 LD50 of five virulent strains belonging to serogroups Ballum, Canicola, Icterohaemorrhagiae and Pomona. Both monovalent serogroup Ballum vaccines were immunogenic and induced complete homologous protection in the animal model. Cross-protection was only significant in one of the two vaccines against challenge with 100 LD50 of serogroup Canicola. The results of this study demonstrate the high immunogenicity and protective capacity in hamsters of whole-cell monovalent vaccines formulated with two vaccine candidate strains belonging to the most prevalent serogroup of Leptospira in Cuba.

  3. Long-term survival after Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccination in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Knudsen, K; Whittle, H

    1993-01-01

    , 0.41 to 2.30). Adjustment for background factors in a Cox regression model did not modify these estimates. Furthermore, female recipients of EZ vaccine had more days with diarrhea (relative risk = 1.35; range, 1.17 to 1.56; p = 0.00003) and were more likely than control subjects to visit a health...... center in the month after vaccination (relative risk = 1.86; range, 1.05 to 3.31; p = 0.027); those who consulted were more likely to die subsequently (mortality ratio = 2.31; range, 0.99 to 5.41; p = 0.054). These observations were unplanned and require confirmation in larger studies....

  4. Does oral polio vaccine have non-specific effects on all-cause mortality? Natural experiments within a randomised controlled trial of early measles vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaby, Peter; Andersen, Andreas; Martins, Cesário L; Fisker, Ane B; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Whittle, Hilton C; Benn, Christine S

    2016-01-01

    Background BCG and measles vaccine (MV) may have beneficial non-specific effects (NSEs). If an unplanned intervention with a vaccine (a natural experiment) modifies the estimated effect in a randomised controlled trial (RCT), this suggests NSEs. We used this approach to test NSEs of triple oral polio vaccine (OPV). Methods During an RCT of 2 doses of MV at 4.5 and 9 months versus 1 dose of MV at 9 months of age, we experienced 2 natural experiments with OPV. We assessed whether these OPV experiments modified the effect of 2-dose MV in the MV trial. Setting MV RCT conducted in urban Guinea-Bissau 2003–2009. Interventions Natural experiments with OPV due to missing vaccine and the implementation of OPV campaigns. Main outcome measure Changes in the mortality rate ratio (MRR) for 2-dose MV versus 1-dose MV. Results First, the MRR (2-dose/1-dose MV) overall was 0.70 (0.52 to 0.94), but the MRR was 1.04 (0.53 to 2.04) when OPV at birth (OPV0) was not given, suggesting that early priming with OPV was important for the effect of 2-dose MV. The effect of OPV0 depended on age of administration; the MRR (2-dose/1-dose MV) was 0.45 (0.29 to 0.71) for children receiving OPV0 in the first week of life, but 3.63 (0.87 to 15.2) for those receiving OPV0 after the first month of life (p=0.007, test of no interaction). Second, campaign-OPV may have reduced the difference between the randomisation groups since the MRR (2-dose/1-dose MV) was 0.60 (0.42 to 0.85) for children who had not received campaign-OPV before RCT-enrolment versus 0.72 (0.23 to 2.31) and 1.42 (0.70 to 2.90) for children who had received 1 or 2 doses of campaign-OPV-before-enrolment, respectively. Conclusions Bissau had no polio infection during this trial, so OPV0 and campaign-OPV may have NSEs since they modified the effect of 2-dose MV in an RCT. Different interventions may interact to a much larger effect than usually assumed. PMID:28011813

  5. Measles (lecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shostakovych-Koretsraya L.R.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The article provides comprehensive review of different aspects of measles. Definition of disease, historical overview, measles in the world epidemiology and in the countries bordering Ukraine over the recent years, particularities of measles epidemiology in Ukraine are given in details. Etiology of measles virus including known genomic structure and viral proteins list, genetic changeability of the virus. Particularities of measles epidemiological process are discussed, criteria of determination of morbidity level and contagiosity of the given disease are outlined. Detailed pathogenesis of measles in different periods of disease is provided, reciprocal influence of the disease and vitamin A metabolism is given. Particularities of humoral and cellular immunological response, including those in early-aged and in patients with immune deficiency are described. Possibility of development of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis is pointed out; currently accepted causes of this complication development, its immunological and virological particularities are summarized. Pathogenetic mechanisms of rash development, complications as well as morphological changes in different organs and systems are given. The article gives both international and different clinical classifications of measles. Clinical manifestations of typical and atypical measles course are described in details by syndromes and according to disease periods. Particularities of measles course at different premorbid conditions are described. The article provides colored photos which illustrate clinical mani¬festations of measles manifestation on the skin and mucosa at different disease periods.

  6. Progress Toward Regional Measles Elimination - Worldwide, 2000-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Minal K; Gacic-Dobo, Marta; Strebel, Peter M; Dabbagh, Alya; Mulders, Mick N; Okwo-Bele, Jean-Marie; Dumolard, Laure; Rota, Paul A; Kretsinger, Katrina; Goodson, James L

    2016-11-11

    Adopted in 2000, United Nations Millennium Development Goal 4 set a target to reduce child mortality by two thirds by 2015, with measles vaccination coverage as one of the progress indicators. In 2010, the World Health Assembly (WHA) set three milestones for measles control by 2015: 1) increase routine coverage with the first dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) for children aged 1 year to ≥90% nationally and ≥80% in every district; 2) reduce global annual measles incidence to WHA endorsed the Global Vaccine Action Plan(†) with the objective to eliminate measles in four World Health Organization (WHO) regions by 2015. Countries in all six WHO regions have adopted measles elimination goals. Measles elimination is the absence of endemic measles transmission in a region or other defined geographical area for ≥12 months in the presence of a well performing surveillance system. This report updates a previous report (3) and describes progress toward global measles control milestones and regional measles elimination goals during 2000-2015. During this period, annual reported measles incidence decreased 75%, from 146 to 36 cases per 1 million persons, and annual estimated measles deaths decreased 79%, from 651,600 to 134,200. However, none of the 2015 milestones or elimination goals were met. Countries and their partners need to act urgently to secure political commitment, raise the visibility of measles, increase vaccination coverage, strengthen surveillance, and mitigate the threat of decreasing resources for immunization once polio eradication is achieved.

  7. Asthma and allergy in children with and without prior measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermann, Clara Amalie Gade; Osuna, Christa Elyse; Steuerwald, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    with asthma and allergic diseases at ages 5, 7 and 13 years in a birth cohort. METHODS: In the Faroe Islands, 640 children were followed from birth. Follow-up examinations at ages 5, 7 and 13 years included a physical examination and a maternal questionnaire about the child's health. At age 7, total and grass......-specific IgE was quantified in the child's serum, and at age 13, the children underwent skin prick tests (SPT). The child's vaccination card was reviewed at examinations. RESULTS: At age 5, 533 of 555 children had been vaccinated for MMR. After confounder adjustment we found early life MMR vaccination...... to be associated with a two-third reduction in the odds of asthma (OR: 0.33, 95% CI: 0.12; 0.90) and hypersensitivity/allergy (OR: 0.32, 95% CI: 0.11; 0.88) at age 5, and the substantially decreased odds of asthma were replicated at age 13 (OR: 0.22, 95% CI: 0.08; 0.56). At age 7, serum total IgE was reduced by 62...

  8. Comparison of cidofovir and the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine in the treatment of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meacham, Ryan Kent; Thompson, Jerome W

    2017-02-01

    We conducted a retrospective study of the use of cidofovir and the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccineas adjunctive treatments to lesion debridement in patients with recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP). Our study population was made up of 15 children-7 boys and 8 girls, aged 1 to 16 years at diagnosis (mean: 6.2)-with pathologically confirmed RRP who had been followed for at least 1 year. In addition to demographic data, we compiled information on disease severity, the type of adjunctive treatment administered to each patient, the frequency of debridements, the length of observation, and remission rates. Of the 15 patients, 5 had been treated with cidofovirafter debridement (cidofovir-only group), 6 were treated with MMR vaccine after debridement (MMR-only group), 3 were treated with one and later switched to the other based on parental preference, and 1 received neither treatment, only debridement. The initial mean Derkay disease severity scores were 12.6 for the cidofovir-only group and 11.0 for the MMR-only group (p = 0.61). The cidofovir-only patients underwent an average of 11.8 adjunctive treatments and the MMR-only patients an average of 17.7 (p = 0.33). The average duration of observation was 44.0 months in the cidofovir-only group and 64.7 months in the MMR-only group (p = 0.29). Remission rates were 20% in the cidofovir-only group and 50% in the MMR-only group (p = 0.54). Our study found insufficient evidence of any significant differences between cidofovir and the MMR vaccinein terms of the number and frequency of adjunctive treatments and the rates of remission.

  9. MEASLES IN INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Timchenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A clinical observation and treatment of 36 children between the ages of 5 months up to 3 years old with measles. In 34 persons. (94.4% diagnosed with typical moderate forms, from 2 people (5.6% — atypical (mitigirovannaya a mild form of the disease. All children are vaccinated against measles. Typical measles char-acterized by moderate forms of cyclical flow with the change of the classical period and the presence of characteristic clinical syndromes. Pathognomonic symptom found: spots Belsky — Filatov — Koplik (67.7%, stages a rash (100%, stages of pigmentation (100%. Causal therapy was VIFERON®. Revealed the rapid disappearance of intoxication and normalization of body temperature, the early decline in the severity and duration of catarrhal syndrome, reducing the severity and frequency of complications, no stratification of SARS.

  10. Lasting immune memory against hepatitis B following challenge 10-11 years after primary vaccination with either three doses of hexavalent DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib or monovalent hepatitis B vaccine at 3, 5 and 11-12 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdicova, Mária; Crasta, Priya D; Hardt, Karin; Kovac, Martina

    2015-05-28

    The combined hexavalent diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-hepatitis B-inactivated poliomyelitis - Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine (Infanrix hexa™; DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib: GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines) induces robust responses to the HBV component when administered at 3, 5 and 11-12 months of age. We assessed long term HBV antibody persistence 10-11 years after primary vaccination in infancy. Antibody persistence and immune memory were assessed post-primary vaccination at 3, 5, 11-12 months with DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib, or monovalent HBV vaccine (Engerix™ B, GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines) co-administered with DTPa-IPV/Hib (Infanrix™-IPV/Hib, GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines) in 185 children aged 11-12 years. Blood samples were collected before and 1 month after a challenge dose of Engerix™ B (10μg dose). 10-11 years after primary vaccination the percentage of subjects with persisting anti-HBs antibody concentrations ≥10mIU/ml was 48.4% in the DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib group and 58.4% in the DTPa-IPV/Hib+HBV group. After the HBV challenge dose, the percentage with anti-HBs ≥100mIU/ml increased from 14.7% to 93.6% in the DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib group and 19.1% to 94.4% in the DTPa-IPV/Hib+HBV group. Anti-HBs GMCs increased by at least 187-fold in each group. An anamnestic response (≥4-fold increase in initially seropositive or anti-HBs concentration ≥10mIU/ml in initially seronegative subjects) was observed in 96.8% and 96.6% of subjects in the DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib and DTPa-IPV/Hib+HBV groups, respectively. No serious adverse events occurred that were considered related to challenge vaccination. Administration of HBV as part of a combination vaccine or as a monovalent vaccine induced long lasting immune memory against HBV in children primed at 3, 5 and 11 months of age. Antibody persistence and immune memory were similar, suggesting that protection afforded by DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib and monovalent HBV vaccines, is likely to be of similar duration. The administration of HBV challenge dose 10

  11. Biological characterization of clones derived from the edmonston strain of measles virus in comparison with schwarz and CAM-70 vaccine strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Beatriz Junqueira Borges

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available Four virus clones were derived from the Edmonston strain of measles virus by repeated plaque purification. These clones were compared with the vaccine strains Schwarz and CAM-70 in terms of biological activities including plaque formation, hemagglutination, hemolysis and replication in Vero cells and chick embryo fibroblasts (CEF. Two clones of intermediate plaque yielded mixed plaque populations on subcultivation whereas the other two, showing small and large plaque sizes, showed stable plaque phenotypes. The vaccine strains showed consistent homogeneous plaque populations. All the Edmonston clones showed agglutination of monkey erythrocytes in isotonic solution while both vaccine strains hemagglutinated only in the presence of high salt concentrations. Variation in the hemolytic activity was observed among the four clones but no hemolytic activity was detected for the vaccine virus strains. Vaccine strains replicated efficiently both in Vero cells and CEF. All four clones showed efficient replication in Vero cells but different replication profiles in CEF. Two of them replicated efficiently, one was of intermediate efficiency and the other showed no replication in CEF. Two of the clones showed characteristics similar to vaccine strains. One in terms of size and homogeneity of plaques, the other for a low hemolytic activity and both for the efficiency of propagation in CEF.

  12. Concomitant administration of hepatitis A vaccine with measles/mumps/rubella/varicella and pneumococcal vaccines in healthy 12- to 23-month-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetman, Robert J; Shepard, Julie S; Duke, Anton; Stek, Jon E; Petrecz, Maria; Klopfer, Stephanie O; Kuter, Barbara J; Schödel, Florian P; Lee, Andrew W

    2013-08-01

    This open-label, multicenter, randomized, comparative study evaluated immunogenicity, safety and tolerability of concomitant (Group 1; n=330) vs. non-concomitant (Group 2; n=323) VAQTA™ (25U/0.5 mL) (hepatitis A vaccine; HAV) with ProQuad™ (measles/mumps/rubella/varicella; MMRV) and Prevnar™ (7-valent pneumococcal; PCV-7) in healthy, 12-23 mo old children. Group 1 received HAV/MMRV/PCV-7 concomitantly on Day 1 and second doses of HAV/MMRV at Week 24. Group 2 received MMRV/PCV-7 on Day 1, HAV at Weeks 6 and 30 and MMRV at Week 34. Hepatitis A seropositivity rate (SPR: ≥10 mIU/mL; 4 weeks postdose 2), varicella zoster-virus (VZV) SPR (≥5 gpELISA units/mL) and geometric mean titers (GMT) to S. pneumoniae were examined. Injection-site and systemic adverse experiences (AEs) and daily temperatures were collected. Hepatitis A SPR were 100% for Group 1 and 99.4% for Group 2 after two HAV doses; risk difference=0.7 (95%CI: -1.4,3.8, non-inferior) regardless of initial serostatus. VZV SPR was 93.3% for Group 1 and 98.3% for Group 2; risk difference=-5.1 (95%CI: -9.3, -1.4; non-inferior). S. pneumoniae GMT fold-difference (7 serotypes) ranged from 0.9 to 1.1; non-inferior. No statistically significant differences in the incidence of individual AEs were seen when HAV was administered concomitantly vs. non-concomitantly. Three (all Group 2 post-administration of MMRV/PCV-7) of 11 serious AEs were considered possibly vaccine-related: dehydration and gastroenteritis (same subject) on Day 52; febrile seizure on Day 9. No deaths were reported. Antibody responses to each vaccine given concomitantly were non-inferior to HAV given non-concomitantly with MMRV and PCV-7. Administration of HAV with PCV-7 and MMRV had an acceptable safety profile in 12- to 23-mo-old children.

  13. Remarkable similarity in genome nucleotide sequences between the Schwarz FF-8 and AIK-C measles virus vaccine strains and apparent nucleotide differences in the phosphoprotein gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Chie; Ohgimoto, Shinji; Kato, Seiichi; Sharma, Luna Bhatta; Ayata, Minoru; Komase, Katsuhiro; Takeuchi, Kaoru; Ihara, Toshiaki; Ogura, Hisashi

    2011-07-01

    The Schwarz FF-8 (FF-8) and AIK-C measles virus vaccine strains are currently used for vaccination in Japan. Here, the complete genome nucleotide sequence of the FF-8 strain has been determined and its genome sequence found to be remarkably similar to that of the AIK-C strain. These two strains are differentiated only by two nucleotide differences in the phosphoprotein gene. Since the FF-8 strain does not possess the amino acid substitutions in the phospho- and fusion proteins which are responsible for the temperature-sensitivity and small syncytium formation phenotypes of the AIK-C strain, respectively, other unidentified common mechanisms likely attenuate both the FF-8 and AIK-C strains.

  14. Immunogenicity and safety of a two-dose regimen of a combined measles, mumps, rubella and varicella live vaccine (ProQuad(®)) in infants from 9 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesikari, Timo; Becker, Thomas; Gajdos, Vincent; Fiquet, Anne; Thomas, Stéphane; Richard, Patrick; Baudin, Martine

    2012-04-26

    Vaccination against measles, mumps, rubella and varicella (MMRV) is currently recommended in developed countries for infants from 12 months of age. However, measles vaccination at 9 months of age is recommended by the WHO in the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) schedule and it is therefore possible that MMR or MMRV vaccines might also be given at this age. This open-label, randomised, comparative study evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of a 2-dose schedule of ProQuad(®) (MMRV vaccine) given at a 3-month interval in healthy infants aged ≥9 months. For measles, the non-inferiority of the response rate post-Dose 2 was reached when Dose 1 was administered at 11 months (98%) compared with 12 months (99%) but was not reached when Dose 1 was administered at 9 months (95%). The response rate to measles post-Dose 1 increased with age, from 73% to 88% and 90% at 9, 11 and 12 months, respectively. For mumps, rubella and varicella, response rates were not different after Dose 1 (>95%) or Dose 2 (>99%) regardless of whether Dose 1 was administered at 9, 11 or 12 months of age. In conclusion, the age of administration of the first of a two-dose regimen of ProQuad may be lowered to 11 months. Dose 1 may be administered at 9 months if early protection is required, but it should be recognised that a second dose is required promptly with a minimum of 3-month interval between doses.

  15. A case-control study of autism and mumps-measles-rubella vaccination using the general practice research database: design and methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Xiangning

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An association between mumps-measles-rubella (MMR vaccination and the onset of symptoms typical of autism has recently been suggested. This has led to considerable concern about the safety of the vaccine. Methods A matched case-control study using data derived form the United Kingdom General Practice Research Database. Children with a possible diagnosis of autism will be identified from their electronic health records. All diagnoses will be validated by a detailed review of hospital letters and by using information derived from a parental questionnaire. Ten controls per case will be selected from the database. Conditional logistic regression will be used to assess the association between MMR vaccination and autism. In addition case series analyses will be undertaken to estimate the relative incidence of onset of autism in defined time intervals after vaccination. The study is funded by the United Kingdom Medical Research Council. Discussion Electronic health databases offer tremendous opportunities for evaluating the adverse effects of vaccines. However there is much scope for bias and confounding. The rigorous validation of all diagnoses and the collection of additional information by parental questionnaire in this study are essential to minimise the possibility of misleading results.

  16. Global eradication of measles: Are we poised?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Raghavendra D; Ajantha, G S; Kiran, Aithal R; Pravinchandra, K R

    2017-01-01

    Measles, a highly infectious viral disease is the next target for eradication following poliovirus. Decades of experience with highly effective vaccination has invigorated us to take on this virus. The task is not only Titanic but is laced with intricate issues. Recently, an outbreak of fever with rash occurred on a tertiary care teaching hospital campus and was confirmed serologically as measles outbreak by IgMELISA. Therefore, we searched the literature related to outbreaks, transmission of the measles virus, age groups involved, vaccination strategies, vaccination failure and epidemiological features of the disease and reviewed the possible reasons for such outbreaks and problems in the global eradication of the virus.

  17. Global eradication of measles: Are we poised?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghavendra D Kulkarni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Measles, a highly infectious viral disease is the next target for eradication following poliovirus. Decades of experience with highly effective vaccination has invigorated us to take on this virus. The task is not only Titanic but is laced with intricate issues. Recently, an outbreak of fever with rash occurred on a tertiary care teaching hospital campus and was confirmed serologically as measles outbreak by IgMELISA. Therefore, we searched the literature related to outbreaks, transmission of the measles virus, age groups involved, vaccination strategies, vaccination failure and epidemiological features of the disease and reviewed the possible reasons for such outbreaks and problems in the global eradication of the virus.

  18. 麻疹减毒活疫苗接种偶合麻疹野病毒感染病例的麻疹病毒基因特征分析%Genetic character of wild measles virus causing an accidental case after immunization with live attenuated measles vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张帆; 周剑惠; 陈超; 徐鑫; 王爽; 常新; 魏雷雷; 于佳动

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析1例接种麻疹减毒活疫苗第9天出现麻疹样症状病例的麻疹病毒基因特征,以确定是麻疹疫苗相关病例还是偶合麻疹野病毒感染.方法 提取该病例咽拭子标本核酸,采用RT-PCR法扩增麻疹病毒核蛋白(Nucleoprotein,NP)基因羧基末端450个核苷酸片段后测序,分析其与全球24个基因型麻疹野病毒代表株、中国疫苗株(Shanghai-191)基因的亲缘关系以及核苷酸、氨基酸序列同源性.结果 该病例感染的病毒属于H1a基因亚型麻疹野病毒.与中国H1基因型麻疹野病毒流行株代表株核苷酸和氨基酸序列的同源性较高,分别为97.5% ~ 99.5%和96.6%,而与麻疹病毒中国疫苗株(Shanghai- 191)核苷酸和氨基酸序列同源性较低,分别仅为91.2%和86.7%.结论 该例接种麻疹减毒活疫苗后出现麻疹样症状的病例为偶合H1基因型麻疹野病毒感染所致,非麻疹疫苗相关病例.%Objective To analyze the genetic character of measles virus causing a measles-like case on day 9 after immunization with live attenuated measles vaccine so as to confirm the case as vaccine-associated one or accidental one caused by wild measles virus. Methods Nucleic acids were extracted from the throat swab of the patient and sequenced after amplification of 450 nucleotides at C-terminus of measles virus nucleoprotein (NP) by RT-PCR, based on which the genetic relationship as well as homologies of nucleotides and amino acids of the strain to the representational strains of wild measles virus strains of all the 24 genotypes and Chinese vaccine strain (Shanghai-191) were analyzed. Results The virus causing the case was wild measles virus of subgenotype Hal, of which the homologies of nucleotides and amino acids were 97. 5% ~ 99. 5% and 96. 6% respectively to those of the representational strain of wild measles virus of genotype H1 epidemic in China, while were only 91. 2% and 86. 7% respectively to those of Shanghai-191

  19. Measles Elimination Activities in the Western Pacific Region: Experience from the Republic of Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Choe, Young June; Jee, Youngmee; Oh, Myoung-don; Lee, Jong-koo

    2015-01-01

    We describe the global status of measles control and elimination, including surveillance and vaccination coverage data provided by the World Health Organization (WHO). Since 2000, two doses of measles vaccine (MCV2) became recommended globally and the achievement of high vaccination coverage has led to dramatic decrease in the measles incidence. Our finding indicates that, in the Western Pacific Region (WPR), substantial progress has been made to control measles transmission in some countries...

  20. Global control and regional elimination of measles, 2000-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    Widespread use of measles vaccine since 1980 has led to a substantial decline in global measles morbidity and mortality; measles elimination has been achieved and sustained in the World Health Organization (WHO) Region of the Americas (AMR) since 2002. In 2010, the World Health Assembly established three milestones for measles eradication to be reached by 2015: 1) increase routine coverage with the first dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) for children aged 1 year to ≥90% nationally and ≥80% in every district or equivalent administrative unit; 2) reduce and maintain annual measles incidence to measles mortality by 95% from the 2000 estimate. The Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP) includes monitoring progress toward achievement of goals to reduce or eliminate measles in four WHO regions by 2015 and five WHO regions by 2020. This report updates the previous report and describes progress in global control and regional elimination of measles during 2000-2011. Estimated global MCV1 coverage increased from 72% in 2000 to 84% in 2011, and the number of countries providing a second dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV2) through routine services increased from 97 (50%) in 2000 to 141 (73%) in 2011. During 2000-2011, annual reported measles incidence decreased 65%, from 146 to 52 cases per 1 million population, and estimated measles deaths decreased 71%, from 542,000 to 158,000. However, during 2010-2011, measles incidence increased, and large outbreaks of measles were reported in multiple countries. To resume progress toward achieving regional measles elimination targets, national governments and partners are urged to ensure that measles elimination efforts receive high priority and adequate resources.

  1. Contrasting female-male mortality ratios after routine vaccinations with pentavalent vaccine versus measles and yellow fever vaccine. A cohort study from urban Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Ane B; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Lund, Najaaraq

    2016-01-01

    possible sex-differential mortality rates following Penta and MV+YF vaccination. METHODS: Bandim Health Project (BHP) registers vaccines given by the three government health centres in the study area and vital status through demographic surveillance. We assessed the association between sex and mortality...

  2. Vaxfectin adjuvant improves antibody responses of juvenile rhesus macaques to a DNA vaccine encoding the measles virus hemagglutinin and fusion proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen-Hsuan W; Vilalta, Adrian; Adams, Robert J; Rolland, Alain; Sullivan, Sean M; Griffin, Diane E

    2013-06-01

    DNA vaccines formulated with the cationic lipid-based adjuvant Vaxfectin induce protective immunity in macaques after intradermal (i.d.) or intramuscular (i.m.) delivery of 0.5 to 1 mg of codon-optimized DNA encoding the hemagglutinin (H) and fusion (F) proteins of measles virus (MeV). To characterize the effect of Vaxfectin at lower doses of H+F DNA, rhesus macaques were vaccinated twice with 20 μg of DNA plus Vaxfectin i.d., 100 μg of DNA plus Vaxfectin i.d., 100 μg of DNA plus Vaxfectin i.m. or 100 μg of DNA plus phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) i.m. using a needleless Biojector device. The levels of neutralizing (P = 0.036) and binding (P = 0.0001) antibodies were higher after 20 or 100 μg of DNA plus Vaxfectin than after 100 μg of DNA plus PBS. Gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-producing T cells were induced more rapidly than antibody, but were not improved with Vaxfectin. At 18 months after vaccination, monkeys were challenged with wild-type MeV. None developed rash or viremia, but all showed evidence of infection. Antibody levels increased, and IFN-γ- and interleukin-17-producing T cells, including cells specific for the nucleoprotein absent from the vaccine, were induced. At 3 months after challenge, MeV RNA was detected in the leukocytes of two monkeys. The levels of antibody peaked 2 to 4 weeks after challenge and then declined in vaccinated animals reflecting low numbers of bone marrow-resident plasma cells. Therefore, Vaxfectin was dose sparing and substantially improved the antibody response to the H+F DNA vaccine. This immune response led to protection from disease (rash/viremia) but not from infection. Antibody responses after challenge were more transient in vaccinated animals than in an unvaccinated animal.

  3. Varicella (Chickenpox) Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ProQuad® (as a combination product containing Measles Vaccine, Mumps Vaccine, Rubella Vaccine, Varicella Vaccine) ... up to about 1 person in 5) and measles-like rash (about 1 person in 20) than MMR and varicella vaccines given separately. Moderate Problems:Seizure (jerking or staring) ...

  4. Measles Outbreak among Previously Immunized Adult Healthcare Workers, China, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyi Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Measles is caused by measles virus belonging to genus Morbillivirus of the family Paramyxoviridae. Vaccination has played a critical role in controlling measles infection worldwide. However, in the recent years, outbreaks of measles infection still occur in many developing countries. Here, we report an outbreak of measles among healthcare workers and among the 60 measles infected patients 50 were healthcare workers including doctors, nurses, staff, and medics. Fifty-one patients (85% tested positive for IgM antibodies against the measles virus and 50 patients (83.3% tested positive for measles virus RNA. Surprisingly, 73.3% of the infected individuals had been previously immunized against measles. Since there is no infection division in our hospital, the fever clinics are located in the Emergency Division. In addition, the fever and rash were not recognized as measles symptoms at the beginning of the outbreak. These factors result in delay in isolation and early confirmation of the suspected patients and eventually a measles outbreak in the hospital. Our report highlights the importance of following a two-dose measles vaccine program in people including the healthcare workers. In addition, vigilant attention should be paid to medical staff with clinical fever and rash symptoms to avoid a possible nosocomial transmission of measles infection.

  5. Measles Outbreak among Previously Immunized Adult Healthcare Workers, China, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengyi; Zhao, Yuan; Yang, Lili; Lu, Changhong; Meng, Ying; Guan, Xiaoli; An, Hongjin; Zhang, Meizhong; Guo, Wenqin; Shang, Bo; Yu, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Measles is caused by measles virus belonging to genus Morbillivirus of the family Paramyxoviridae. Vaccination has played a critical role in controlling measles infection worldwide. However, in the recent years, outbreaks of measles infection still occur in many developing countries. Here, we report an outbreak of measles among healthcare workers and among the 60 measles infected patients 50 were healthcare workers including doctors, nurses, staff, and medics. Fifty-one patients (85%) tested positive for IgM antibodies against the measles virus and 50 patients (83.3%) tested positive for measles virus RNA. Surprisingly, 73.3% of the infected individuals had been previously immunized against measles. Since there is no infection division in our hospital, the fever clinics are located in the Emergency Division. In addition, the fever and rash were not recognized as measles symptoms at the beginning of the outbreak. These factors result in delay in isolation and early confirmation of the suspected patients and eventually a measles outbreak in the hospital. Our report highlights the importance of following a two-dose measles vaccine program in people including the healthcare workers. In addition, vigilant attention should be paid to medical staff with clinical fever and rash symptoms to avoid a possible nosocomial transmission of measles infection. PMID:27366157

  6. Measles Outbreak Among Previously Immunized Healthcare Workers, the Netherlands, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahné, Susan J M; Nic Lochlainn, Laura M; van Burgel, Nathalie D; Kerkhof, Jeroen; Sane, Jussi; Yap, Kioe Bing; van Binnendijk, Rob S

    2016-12-15

     We investigated a measles outbreak among healthcare workers (HCWs) by assessing laboratory characteristics, measles vaccine effectiveness, and serological correlates for protection.  Cases were laboratory-confirmed measles in HCWs from hospital X during weeks 12-20 of 2014. We assessed cases' severity and infectiousness by using a questionnaire. We tested cases' sera for measles immunoglobulin M, immunoglobulin G, avidity, and plaque reduction neutralization (PRN). Throat swabs and oral fluid samples were tested by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. We calculated attack rates (ARs) by vaccination status and estimated measles vaccine effectiveness as 1 - [ARvaccinated/ARunvaccinated].  Eight HCWs were notified as measles cases; 6 were vaccinated with measles vaccine twice, 1 was vaccinated once, and 1 was unvaccinated. All 6 twice-vaccinated cases had high avidity and PRN titers. None reported severe measles or onward transmission. Two of 4 investigated twice-vaccinated cases had pre-illness PRN titers of >120 mIU/mL. Among 106 potentially exposed HCWs, the estimated effectiveness of 2 doses of measles vaccine was 52% (95% confidence interval [CI], -207%-93%).  Measles occurred in 6 twice-vaccinated HCWs, despite 2 having adequate pre-exposure neutralizing antibodies. None of the twice-vaccinated cases had severe measles, and none had onward transmission, consistent with laboratory findings suggesting a secondary immune response. Improving 2-dose MMR coverage among HCWs would have likely reduced the size of this outbreak. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Expansion of syndromic vaccine preventable disease surveillance to include bacterial meningitis and Japanese encephalitis: evaluation of adapting polio and measles laboratory networks in Bangladesh, China and India, 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallaro, Kathleen F; Sandhu, Hardeep S; Hyde, Terri B; Johnson, Barbara W; Fischer, Marc; Mayer, Leonard W; Clark, Thomas A; Pallansch, Mark A; Yin, Zundong; Zuo, Shuyan; Hadler, Stephen C; Diorditsa, Serguey; Hasan, A S M Mainul; Bose, Anindya S; Dietz, Vance

    2015-02-25

    Surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis with laboratory confirmation has been a key strategy in the global polio eradication initiative, and the laboratory platform established for polio testing has been expanded in many countries to include surveillance for cases of febrile rash illness to identify measles and rubella cases. Vaccine-preventable disease surveillance is essential to detect outbreaks, define disease burden, guide vaccination strategies and assess immunization impact. Vaccines now exist to prevent Japanese encephalitis (JE) and some etiologies of bacterial meningitis. We evaluated the feasibility of expanding polio-measles surveillance and laboratory networks to detect bacterial meningitis and JE, using surveillance for acute meningitis-encephalitis syndrome in Bangladesh and China and acute encephalitis syndrome in India. We developed nine syndromic surveillance performance indicators based on international surveillance guidelines and calculated scores using supervisory visit reports, annual reports, and case-based surveillance data. Scores, variable by country and targeted disease, were highest for the presence of national guidelines, sustainability, training, availability of JE laboratory resources, and effectiveness of using polio-measles networks for JE surveillance. Scores for effectiveness of building on polio-measles networks for bacterial meningitis surveillance and specimen referral were the lowest, because of differences in specimens and techniques. Polio-measles surveillance and laboratory networks provided useful infrastructure for establishing syndromic surveillance and building capacity for JE diagnosis, but were less applicable for bacterial meningitis. Laboratory-supported surveillance for vaccine-preventable bacterial diseases will require substantial technical and financial support to enhance local diagnostic capacity. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Vitamin A deficiency impairs adaptive B and T cell responses to a prototype monovalent attenuated human rotavirus vaccine and virulent human rotavirus challenge in a gnotobiotic piglet model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuldeep S Chattha

    Full Text Available Rotaviruses (RV are a major cause of gastroenteritis in children. Widespread vitamin A deficiency is associated with reduced efficacy of vaccines and higher incidence of diarrheal infections in children in developing countries. We established a vitamin A deficient (VAD gnotobiotic piglet model that mimics subclinical vitamin A deficiency in children to study its effects on an oral human rotavirus (HRV vaccine and virulent HRV challenge. Piglets derived from VAD and vitamin A sufficient (VAS sows were orally vaccinated with attenuated HRV or mock, with/without supplemental vitamin A and challenged with virulent HRV. Unvaccinated VAD control piglets had significantly lower hepatic vitamin A, higher severity and duration of diarrhea and HRV fecal shedding post-challenge as compared to VAS control pigs. Reduced protection coincided with significantly higher innate (IFNα cytokine and CD8 T cell frequencies in the blood and intestinal tissues, higher pro-inflammatory (IL12 and 2-3 fold lower anti-inflammatory (IL10 cytokines, in VAD compared to VAS control pigs. Vaccinated VAD pigs had higher diarrhea severity scores compared to vaccinated VAS pigs, which coincided with lower serum IgA HRV antibody titers and significantly lower intestinal IgA antibody secreting cells post-challenge in the former groups suggesting lower anamnestic responses. A trend for higher serum HRV IgG antibodies was observed in VAD vs VAS vaccinated groups post-challenge. The vaccinated VAD (non-vitamin A supplemented pigs had significantly higher serum IL12 (PID2 and IFNγ (PID6 compared to vaccinated VAS groups suggesting higher Th1 responses in VAD conditions. Furthermore, regulatory T-cell responses were compromised in VAD pigs. Supplemental vitamin A in VAD pigs did not fully restore the dysregulated immune responses to AttHRV vaccine or moderate virulent HRV diarrhea. Our findings suggest that that VAD in children in developing countries may partially contribute to more

  9. Wild-Type Measles Virus with the Hemagglutinin Protein of the Edmonston Vaccine Strain Retains Wild-Type Tropism in Macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Noriyo; Kato, Sei-ich; Ami, Yasushi; Suzaki, Yuriko; Suzuki, Tadaki; Sato, Yuko; Tsunetsugu-Yokota, Yasuko; Mori, Kazuyasu; Van Nguyen, Nguyen; Kimura, Hideki; Nagata, Kyosuke

    2012-01-01

    A major difference between vaccine and wild-type strains of measles virus (MV) in vitro is the wider cell specificity of vaccine strains, resulting from the receptor usage of the hemagglutinin (H) protein. Wild-type H proteins recognize the signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) (CD150), which is expressed on certain cells of the immune system, whereas vaccine H proteins recognize CD46, which is ubiquitously expressed on all nucleated human and monkey cells, in addition to SLAM. To examine the effect of the H protein on the tropism and attenuation of MV, we generated enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-expressing recombinant wild-type MV strains bearing the Edmonston vaccine H protein (MV-EdH) and compared them to EGFP-expressing wild-type MV strains. In vitro, MV-EdH replicated in SLAM+ as well as CD46+ cells, including primary cell cultures from cynomolgus monkey tissues, whereas the wild-type MV replicated only in SLAM+ cells. However, in macaques, both wild-type MV and MV-EdH strains infected lymphoid and respiratory organs, and widespread infection of MV-EdH was not observed. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that SLAM+ lymphocyte cells were infected preferentially with both strains. Interestingly, EGFP expression of MV-EdH in tissues and lymphocytes was significantly weaker than that of the wild-type MV. Taken together, these results indicate that the CD46-binding activity of the vaccine H protein is important for determining the cell specificity of MV in vitro but not the tropism in vivo. They also suggest that the vaccine H protein attenuates MV growth in vivo. PMID:22238320

  10. Vaccine adverse events reported in post-marketing study of the Kitasato Institute from 1994 to 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Tetsuo; Onoda, Kazumasa

    2007-01-05

    General physicians, pediatricians and parents realize that serious adverse events occur with an extremely rare incidence, but have no information on the incidences of vaccine-associated adverse events. A proper understanding of vaccine adverse events would be helpful in promoting an immunization strategy. Causal association can rarely be determined in adverse events through laboratory examinations. We examined the cases reported in the post-marketing surveillance of the Kitasato Institute, categorizing them into two groups: allergic reactions and severe systemic illnesses. Anaphylactic patients with gelatin allergy after immunization with live measles, rubella and mumps monovalent vaccines have been reported since 1993, but the number of reported cases with anaphylaxis dramatically decreased after 1999 when gelatin was removed from all brands of DPT. The incidence of anaphylactic reaction was estimated to be 0.63 per million for Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) vaccine, 0.95 for DPT and 0.68 for Influenza vaccine, but the causative component has not yet been specified. Among 67.2 million immunization practices, 6 cases with encephalitis or encephalopathy, 7 with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), 10 with Guillain-Barré syndrome and 12 with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) were reported. The wild-type measles virus genome was detected in a patient with encephalitis and in two of four bone marrow aspirates obtained from ITP after measles vaccination. Enterovirus infection was identified in two patients after mumps vaccination (one each with encephalitis and ADEM), one patient with encephalitis after immunization with JEV vaccine, and one with aseptic meningitis after immunization with influenza vaccine. The total estimated incidence of serious neurological illness after vaccination was 0.1-0.2 per million immunization practices. We found that enterovirus or wild-type measles virus infection was coincidentally associated with vaccination in

  11. Impact of a measles immunisation campaign on measles admissions to a Natal hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdool Karim, S S; Abdool Karim, Q; Chamane, M

    1991-12-07

    During May and June 1990, a national mass measles immunisation campaign was undertaken in South Africa. This study is an assessment of the impact of the campaign on measles admissions to a provincial referral hospital that has specifically designated wards for children with communicable diseases. Data from the measles ward admissions book for the 18 months before the campaign (1 January 1989-30 June 1990) and 6 months after the campaign (1 July 1990-31 December 1990) were compared. Since the campaign, the average number of measles admissions has declined by 64.4% from 87 to 31 per month (P less than 0.01). Before the campaign, 21.3% of measles patients admitted were aged 7-9 months compared with 27.6% after the campaign, highlighting the urgent need to improve the measles vaccination coverage in this age group. An analysis of the geographical source of patients showed that measles continued to occur after the campaign in most of the areas where it existed before the campaign. It is concluded that important gains have been achieved by the campaign. These will be rapidly eroded and epidemics of measles may occur if measles vaccination efforts wane and slump back to pre-campaign levels. It is important to capitalise on the momentum generated through the campaign by continuing to support efforts of existing health care services to improve and maintain high levels of measles immunisation coverage.

  12. Characterization of functional antibody and memory B-cell responses to pH1N1 monovalent vaccine in HIV-infected children and youth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna J Curtis

    Full Text Available We investigated immune determinants of antibody responses and B-cell memory to pH1N1 vaccine in HIV-infected children.Ninety subjects 4 to <25 years of age received two double doses of pH1N1 vaccine. Serum and cells were frozen at baseline, after each vaccination, and at 28 weeks post-immunization. Hemagglutination inhibition (HAI titers, avidity indices (AI, B-cell subsets, and pH1N1 IgG and IgA antigen secreting cells (ASC were measured at baseline and after each vaccination. Neutralizing antibodies and pH1N1-specific Th1, Th2 and Tfh cytokines were measured at baseline and post-dose 1.At entry, 26 (29% subjects had pH1N1 protective HAI titers (≥1:40. pH1N1-specific HAI, neutralizing titers, AI, IgG ASC, IL-2 and IL-4 increased in response to vaccination (p<0.05, but IgA ASC, IL-5, IL-13, IL-21, IFNγ and B-cell subsets did not change. Subjects with baseline HAI ≥1:40 had significantly greater increases in IgG ASC and AI after immunization compared with those with HAI <1:40. Neutralizing titers and AI after vaccination increased with older age. High pH1N1 HAI responses were associated with increased IgG ASC, IFNγ, IL-2, microneutralizion titers, and AI. Microneutralization titers after vaccination increased with high IgG ASC and IL-2 responses. IgG ASC also increased with high IFNγ responses. CD4% and viral load did not predict the immune responses post-vaccination, but the B-cell distribution did. Notably, vaccine immunogenicity increased with high CD19+CD21+CD27+% resting memory, high CD19+CD10+CD27+% immature activated, low CD19+CD21-CD27-CD20-% tissue-like, low CD19+CD21-CD27-CD20-% transitional and low CD19+CD38+HLADR+% activated B-cell subsets.HIV-infected children on HAART mount a broad B-cell memory response to pH1N1 vaccine, which was higher for subjects with baseline HAI≥1:40 and increased with age, presumably due to prior exposure to pH1N1 or to other influenza vaccination/infection. The response to the vaccine was dependent

  13. Hypocarnitinemic hypoglycemia and heart failure in an infant with a constant parenteral elementary nutrition during measles vaccination-related febrile illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okanari, K; Takahashi, M; Maeda, T; Sato, K; Suenobu, S; Izumi, T

    2007-12-01

    A 1-year and 11-month-old female infant with bilateral lesions of the thalamus, basal ganglia, cerebellar and brainstem disease died from heart failure 9 days after being administered a measles vaccination. She had a high fever, hypocarnitinemic and non-ketotic hypoglycemia, serum levels of total carnitine 7.4 micromol/L, free carnitine 5.6 micromol/L, acylcarnitine 1.8 micromol/L and glucose 13 mg/dL. Due to feeding difficulty, the patient, however, had been administered parenteral elementary nutrition through a feeding tube since early infancy. The commercially available parenteral nutrition solutions do not contain carnitine. A secondary carnitine deficiency followed by non-ketotic hypoglycemia-related heart failure may readily develop even in a patient without valproic acid, during high fever.

  14. Measles Outbreak in Pediatric Hematology and Oncology Patients in Shanghai, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Ling Ge

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: The outcome of measles outbreak in previously vaccinated oncology and post-HSCT pediatric patients during chemotherapy and immunosuppressant medication was severe. Complete loss of protective immunity induced by measles vaccine during chemotherapy was the potential reason. Improved infection control practice was critical for the prevention of measles in malignancy patients and transplant recipients.

  15. Immune response after one or two doses of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) monovalent, AS03-adjuvanted vaccine in HIV infected adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bybeck Nielsen, Allan; Nielsen, Henriette Schjønning; Nielsen, Lars

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Continued research is needed to evaluate and improve the immunogenicity of influenza vaccines in HIV infected patients. We aimed to determine the antibody responses after one or two doses of the AS03-adjuvanted pandemic influenza A (H1N1) vaccine in HIV infected patients. METHOD......: Following the influenza season 2009/2010, 219 HIV infected patients were included and divided into three groups depending on whether they received none (n=60), one (n=31) or two (n=128) doses of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) vaccine. At inclusion, antibody titers for all patients were analyzed and compared.......7% and seroconversion rate of 86.7%. CONCLUSION: A single dose of AS03-adjuvanted pandemic influenza A (H1N1) vaccine created an adequate immune response in HIV infected patients lasting as long as 4-9 months. Two doses improved the immunogenicity further....

  16. Eradication of measles: remaining challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzmann, Heidemarie; Hengel, Hartmut; Tenbusch, Matthias; Doerr, H W

    2016-06-01

    Measles virus (MeV) is an aerosol-borne and one of the most contagious pathogenic viruses known. Almost every MeV infection becomes clinically manifest and can lead to serious and even fatal complications, especially under conditions of malnutrition in developing countries, where still 115,000 to 160,000 patients die from measles every year. There is no specific antiviral treatment. In addition, MeV infections cause long-lasting memory B and T cell impairment, predisposing people susceptible to opportunistic infections for years. A rare, but fatal long-term consequence of measles is subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Fifteen years ago (2001), WHO has launched a programme to eliminate measles by a worldwide vaccination strategy. This is promising, because MeV is a human-specific morbillivirus (i.e. without relevant animal reservoir), safe and potent vaccine viruses are sufficiently produced since decades for common application, and millions of vaccine doses have been used globally without any indications of safety and efficacy issues. Though the prevalence of wild-type MeV infection has decreased by >90 % in Europe, measles is still not eliminated and has even re-emerged with recurrent outbreaks in developed countries, in which effective vaccination programmes had been installed for decades. Here, we discuss the crucial factors for a worldwide elimination of MeV: (1) efficacy of current vaccines, (2) the extremely high contagiosity of MeV demanding a >95 % vaccination rate based on two doses to avoid primary vaccine failure as well as the installation of catch-up vaccination programmes to fill immunity gaps and to achieve herd immunity, (3) the implications of sporadic cases of secondary vaccine failure, (4) organisation, acceptance and drawbacks of modern vaccination campaigns, (5) waning public attention to measles, but increasing concerns from vaccine-associated adverse reactions in societies with high socio-economic standards and (6) clinical

  17. Measles & rubella outbreaks in Maharashtra State, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Sunil R; Kamble, Madhukar B; Chowdhury, Deepika T; Kumbhar, Neelakshi S

    2016-02-01

    Under the outbreak-based measles surveillance in Maharashtra State the National Institute of Virology at Pune receives 3-5 serum samples from each outbreak and samples from the local hospitals in Pune for laboratory diagnosis. This report describes one year data on the measles and rubella serology, virus isolation and genotyping. Maharashtra State Health Agencies investigated 98 suspected outbreaks between January-December 2013 in the 20 districts. Altogether, 491 serum samples were received from 20 districts and 126 suspected cases from local hospitals. Samples were tested for the measles and rubella IgM antibodies by commercial enzyme immunoassay (EIA). To understand the diagnostic utility, a subset of serum samples (n=53) was tested by measles focus reduction neutralization test (FRNT). Further, 37 throat swabs and 32 urine specimens were tested by measles reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and positive products were sequenced. Virus isolation was performed in Vero hSLAM cells. Of the 98 suspected measles outbreaks, 61 were confirmed as measles, 12 as rubella and 21 confirmed as the mixed outbreaks. Four outbreaks remained unconfirmed. Of the 126 cases from the local hospitals, 91 were confirmed for measles and three for rubella. Overall, 93.6 per cent (383/409) confirmed measles cases were in the age group of 0-15 yr. Measles virus was detected in 18 of 38 specimens obtained from the suspected cases. Sequencing of PCR products revealed circulation of D4 (n=9) and D8 (n=9) strains. Four measles viruses (three D4 & one D8) were isolated. Altogether, 94 measles and rubella outbreaks were confirmed in 2013 in the State of Maharasthra indicating the necessity to increase measles vaccine coverage in the State.

  18. Epidemiology Characteristics of Measles before and after Supplementary Immunization Activities of Measles Attenuated Live Vaccine in Beijing in 2010%北京市2010年麻疹减毒活疫苗补充免疫活动前后麻疹流行病学特征变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娟; 卢莉; 马蕊; 吴疆; 庞星火

    2013-01-01

    目的 分析北京市2010年麻疹减毒活疫苗(Measles Attenuated Live Vaccine,MV)补充免疫活动(Supplementary Immunization Activities,SIAs)前后麻疹流行病学特征,评价控制麻疹效果,为消除麻疹提供参考.方法 利用2005~2010年麻疹逐月发病数据建立自动回归滑动平均混合模型(Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average,ARIMA),预测2011年发病水平,采用描述流行病学方法,对北京市实施MV SIA前后麻疹监测数据进行分析.结果 预测实施MV SIA前麻疹发病率为49.5/100万,实施MV SIA后麻疹发病率为5/100万,较预测水平下降89.9%.各年龄组麻疹发病率均有大幅下降,削平了季节性流行高峰.实施MV SIA后,≤4岁和15~39岁人群麻疹发病仍占较大的构成比,分别为37.8%和53.1%.结论 北京市2010年实施MV SIA后,麻疹发病大幅下降.为进一步降低麻疹发病水平,应维持高水平常规免疫,提高MV及时接种率,加强学龄前散居儿童和成人查漏补种,最大程度提高免疫水平.%Objective To analyze the epidemiology characteristics of measles before and after measles attenuated live vaccine (MV) supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) in Beijing in 2010, evaluate the effectiveness of MV SIA and provide the basis for elimination of measles. Methods Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model was developed for forecasting measles incidence in 2011. Descriptive epidemiological analysis was conducted on measles surveillance data during 2005-2011. Results Predicted measles incidence was 49.5/1,000,000 in 2011 before MV SIA. The measles incidence was 5/1,000,000 after MV SIA, descending 89.9% compared predicted incidence. MV SIA led to the sharp drop of the measles incidence among all age groups and flatted seasonal epidemic peak. The proportion of children of = 4 years and adults of 15-39 years old were 37.8 % and 53.1 % after MV SIA. Conclusion MV SIA of 2010 in Beijing played a significant role for measles

  19. 婴儿中母体麻疹抗体的持续时间与麻疹初免年龄%Persistence of maternal antibodies against measles in infants and the age for primary vaccination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田博; 白玉; 徐冰

    2009-01-01

    目前,消除麻疹的最佳方法是普种疫苗.新生儿免疫系统不成熟,并且体内存在的母体抗体会中和疫苗病毒,从而导致免疫失败,所以,麻疹疫苗接种的最佳年龄是基于最大百分率婴儿对疫苗产生应答的年龄.然而,这一策略不能预防在母体抗体消失与疫苗提供保护之间易感窗口期的早期感染病例.此文就婴儿体内母体麻疹抗体的持续时间及其对初免年龄的影响做一介绍.%The best way to eliminate measles is universal immunization. Given the immaturity of the immune system as well as the presence of neutralizing maternal antibodies, vaccination of young infants may often fail to induce immunity. Therefore, the optimal age for measles vaccination is based on the age at which the largest percentage of infants will respond to the vaccine. However, this strategy fails to prevent early cases of measles in the window of susceptibility, the interval between the loss of maternal antibodies and the protection induced by vaccination. Persistence of maternal antibodies against measles in infants and its influence on the age for primary vaccination are described in this review.

  20. Cotreatment of Congenital Measles with Vitamin A and Intravenous Immunoglobulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin Ozsurekci

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the measles vaccine has been part of routine national childhood vaccination programs throughout Europe, measles remains a public health concern. High numbers of cases and outbreaks have occurred throughout the European continent since 2011, and an increasing number of cases have been reported in Turkey since 2012. During a recent measles outbreak in Turkey, 2 pregnant women contracted measles prior to delivering preterm infants at Hacettepe University Hospital. Measles virus genomic RNA and IgM antibodies against measles were detected in the cord blood of infants and mothers in both cases. The infants were treated with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG and vitamin A. Transient thrombocytopenia was present in 1 infant and treated with an additional dose of IVIG and vitamin A. The infants were discharged, without complications, within 10 days of birth. The successful treatment of these cases suggests that infants who have been exposed to, or infected with, measles may benefit from cotreatment of vitamin A and IVIG.

  1. Progress toward regional measles elimination--worldwide, 2000-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Robert T; Gacic-Dobo, Marta; Dabbagh, Alya; Mulders, Mick N; Strebel, Peter M; Okwo-Bele, Jean-Marie; Rota, Paul A; Goodson, James L

    2014-11-14

    In 2012, the World Health Assembly endorsed the Global Vaccine Action Plan with the objective to eliminate measles in four World Health Organization (WHO) regions by 2015. Member states of all six WHO regions have adopted measles elimination goals. In 2010, the World Health Assembly established three milestones for 2015: 1) increase routine coverage with the first dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) for children aged 1 year to ≥90% nationally and ≥80% in every district; 2) reduce global annual measles incidence to measles mortality by 95% from the 2000 estimate. This report updates the 2000-2012 report and describes progress toward global control and regional measles elimination during 2000-2013. During this period, annual reported measles incidence declined 72% worldwide, from 146 to 40 per million population, and annual estimated measles deaths declined 75%, from 544,200 to 145,700. Four of six WHO regions have established regional verification commissions (RVCs); in the European (EUR) and Western Pacific regions (WPR), 19 member states successfully documented the absence of endemic measles. Resuming progress toward 2015 milestones and elimination goals will require countries and their partners to raise the visibility of measles elimination, address barriers to measles vaccination, and make substantial and sustained additional investments in strengthening health systems.

  2. Many U.S. Travelers Skip Measles Shots, Despite Infection Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_165583.html Many U.S. Travelers Skip Measles Shots, Despite Infection Risk Though the disease was ... eligible Americans traveling abroad don't get a measles vaccine, and a key reason is lack of ...

  3. Cellular immunity of monovalent influenza vaccine lyophilized liposome%单价流感疫苗脂质体干粉细胞免疫研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洁; 马波; 鲁卫东; 徐勇军; 林华; 代云波

    2011-01-01

    从细胞免疫水平考察流感疫苗脂质体干粉肺部免疫的免疫原性,以验证在稳定性提高的同时,流感疫苗脂质体干粉肺部免疫原性不低于现行应用的流感疫苗原液腹腔注射免疫.将实验小鼠分为2个大组,每组分为阴性对照组、疫苗脂质体冻干粉组、非脂质体流感疫苗原液组和阳性对照组(n=5).非脂质体流感疫苗原液组和疫苗脂质体冻干粉组分别以每只6μg血凝素(以H1N1计)肺部灌注免疫,同时以每只6μg非脂质体流感疫苗原液组腹腔免疫作为阳性对照.分别免疫14d和28 d后,用四甲基偶氮唑盐微量酶反应比色法(MTT法)检测脾淋巴细胞增殖情况,以考察其细胞免疫原性.脂质体肺部免疫可以诱导细胞免疫,且其免疫原性明显高于流感疫苗原液传统腹腔注射免疫组.与流感疫苗原液腹腔注射免疫相比,流感疫苗脂质体干粉通过肺部免疫,细胞免疫效果明显提高.%To evaluate the immunogenicity of the influenza vaccine lyophilized liposomes through cellular immunity, it could be confirm that, with the increasing of the stability, the immunogenicity of the influenza vaccine lyophilized liposomes by pulmonary delivery was better than that of the influenza vaccine non-liposome immunized by intraperitoneal injection. Experimental mice were divided into two groups, and each group was divided into the negative control group, the influenza vaccine lyophilized liposome group, the influenza vaccine non-liposome group, and the positive control group (n = 5). The influenza vaccine lyophilized liposome group and the influenza vaccine non-liposome group were immunized with 6 |xg hemagglutinin of H1N1 per mouse through pulmonary deli very, and the positive control group was immunized with 6 u,g hemagglutinin of H1N1 per mouse through intraperitoneal injection. MTT method was used to measure the spleen cell proliferation after immunization to mice 14 days and 28 days in order to study

  4. Measles prevention and control in emergency settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toole, M J; Steketee, R W; Waldman, R J; Nieburg, P

    1989-01-01

    Outbreaks of measles continue to be a common occurrence among refugee and famine-affected children in emergency relief camps. Extremely high measles-associated mortality rates have been reported from refugee camps--where undernutrition is common--in several countries over the past 10 years. Mortality from measles is, however, preventable, and immunization against the disease is a high priority in emergency relief programmes, second only in importance to the provision of adequate food rations. All children aged 6 months to 5 years should be immunized with measles vaccine as soon as they enter an organized camp or settlement. Should supplies of measles vaccine be inadequate, children in feeding centres, or those otherwise identified as undernourished, are the top priority for immunization. The occurrence of measles in a camp is not a contraindication to conducting an immunization campaign. Strong coordination by a designated lead agency is needed if such campaigns are to be successful; however, cooperation with the local expanded programme on immunization is essential to ensure that existing cold chain equipment, training protocols, and management manuals are used. If additional equipment is necessary, a complete immunization kit developed by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, the World Health Organization, and Oxfam can be procured from Oxfam headquarters in the United Kingdom. Vitamin A supplements should be given routinely at the time of measles immunization in situations where malnutrition is severe. Mortality and morbidity in children with clinical measles can be reduced by administering high doses of vitamin A.

  5. 麻疹减毒活疫苗强化免疫策略及其应用%Strategy and Application of Measles Attenuated Live Vaccine Supplementary Immunization Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张倩

    2010-01-01

    麻疹减毒活疫苗(Measles Attenuated Live Vaccine,MV)强化免疫活动(Supplementary Immunization Activities,SIA)作为消除麻疹的主要策略之一,为未免疫和免疫不成功的人群提供第二次MV接种的机会,不论既往有无含麻疹成分疫苗(Measles-containing Vaccine,MCV)的免疫史和麻疹患病史,均为目标人群,再接种1剂MV.现就国内外开展MV SIA的接种率、抗体水平、疑似预防接种异常反应、SIA后麻疹发病率等方面进行简要综述.

  6. Evaluation on Effect of Measles Attenuated Live Vaccine Supplementary Immunization Activities in Fujian Province in 2009%福建省2009年麻疹减毒活疫苗强化免疫活动效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑金凤; 蔡志坤; 潘伟毅; 杨秀惠; 陈俊磊

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of measles attenuated live vaccine (MV)supplementary immunization activities (SIAs)in Fujian province in 2009.Methods Comprehensively anslysing the data of the immunization coverage rate of MY SIAs, antibody level and the data of Measles Surveillance System.Results Total 5 544 453 targeted children of 8 months-14 years old were vaccinated, both reported and survey coverage were >95%, measles IgG antibody positive rate and the GMT level of the population immunized increased significantly.Measles incidence rate decreased to 96.03 % after supplementary immuization activities.The measles annual incidence rate was 0.14/100 000 after immunization between Apr 2009 and Mar 2010.The cases aged ≥ 15 years have a significant increase, the proportion of cases reached by 50.98%.Conclusion The incidence of measles fell to <1/100 000 after MV SIAs In order to remain the achievements of SIA in Fujian province in 2009, the routine immunization coverage rate and continue follow-up campaign should be conducted in time.%目的 评价福建省2009年麻疹减毒活疫苗(Measles Attenuated Live Vaccine,MV)强化免疫活动(Supplementary Immunization Activities,SIA)效果.方法 综合分析SIA接种率、人群抗体水平和麻疹监测系统资料.结果 MV SIA共接种8月龄~14岁目标儿童5 544 453人,报告接种率和调查接种率均>95%,免疫后人群麻疹抗体阳性率和儿何平均滴度显著升高,麻疹发病率较SIA前下降了96.03%.从SIA后1个月算起,1年的时间全人群麻疹发病率为0.14/10万(2009年4月10日~2010年3月31日).但≥15岁病例构成达50.98%.结论 福建省2009年MV SIA效果显著,发病率己降至<1/10万.为保持SIA取得的成果,应在做好常规免疫的基础上,适时开展后续免疫.

  7. Evaluating the impact of the HIV pandemic on measles control and elimination.

    OpenAIRE

    Helfand, RF; Moss, WJ; Harpaz, R; Scott, S; Cutts, F.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the impact of the HIV pandemic on vaccine-acquired population immunity to measles virus because high levels of population immunity are required to eliminate transmission of measles virus in large geographical areas, and HIV infection can reduce the efficacy of measles vaccination. METHODS: A literature review was conducted to estimate key parameters relating to the potential impact of HIV infection on the epidemiology of measles in sub-Saharan Africa; parameters include...

  8. Survey on measles vaccination rate and measles antibody level in population in Luliang county of Yunnan province, 2010%2010年云南省陆良县人群麻疹接种率调查及抗体水平监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    资素琼; 赵文强

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the performance of measles vaccination and understand the measles antibody level in the population in Luliang. Methods Nine vaccination clinics in 3 townships (Zhongshu, Zhaokua and Majie) were selected by stratified and cluster samplings to conduct survey. Results Totally 390 people were surveyed. the overall measles vaccination rate was 94.10% . the serum antibody positive rate was 99.23% . The measles vaccination rate was 96.83% in Zhongshu, 93.85% in Zhaokua and 91.79% in Majie. The measles vaccination rate in age groups were as follows:71.74% in age group of <1 year old, 100% in age group of l -2 years old, 100% in age group of 3 -4 years old, 100% in age group of 5 -6 years old, 98% in age group of 7 -10 years old, 100% in age group of 11 -14 years old, 89.58% in age group of 15 -19 years old and 91.49% in age group of ≥20 years old. and the serum antibody positive rate was 95.65% in age group of <1 year old, 100% in age group of 1 -2 years old, lOO% in age group of 3 -4 years old, 100% in age group of 5 -6 years old, 98% in age group of 7 -10 years old, 100% in age group of 11 - 14 years old, lOO% in age group of 15 -19 years old and lOO% in age group of ≥20 years old. Conclusion The measles vaccination rate in Zhaokua and Majie should be increased to meet the requirement of > 95% in national immunization program. The serum antibody positive rates of measles in all age groups were >95% (indicating that the herd immunity had been formed) , which would facilitate the measles control and elimination.%目的 为客观评价云南省陆良县麻疹疫苗常规免疫接种情况和掌握人群免疫水平.方法 采取分层和整群抽样(PPS)方法抽取调查单位和调查点.全县共确定3个调查单位(中枢镇、召夸镇、马街镇),9个村级接种点为调查点.结果 共监测390人,麻疹接种率为94.10%,麻疹血清抗体阳性率为99.23%.中枢

  9. Measles burden in urban settings: characteristics of measles cases in Addis Ababa city administration, Ethiopia, 2004-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mersha, Amare Mengistu; Braka, Fiona; Gallagher, Kathleen; Tegegne, Aysheshim Ademe; Argay, Aron Kassahun; Mekonnen, Mekonnen Admassu; Aragaw, Merawi; Abegaz, Debritu Mengesha; Worku, Etsehiwot Zeamlak; Baynesagn, Mekonen Getahun

    2017-01-01

    In developing countries, measles was a major cause of morbidity and mortality before the wide spread use of measles vaccine. The purpose of this study was to describe measles burden in an urban setting, Addis Ababa- since the implementation of measles case-based surveillance in Ethiopia. We analyzed measles surveillance data for 2004 -2014. Incidence of measles was described by sub city, by year and by age groups. Age specific incidence rate were calculated. Logistic regression was used to identify the predictors of confirmed measles cases. Of 4220 suspected measles cases 39% were confirmed cases. Males and females were equally affected. The mean affected age was 7.59 years. Measles cases peaked in 2010 and 2013-2014. Incidence of measles is higher among children less than five years old. Outer sub cities were more affected by measles in all years. Sub cities bordering with Oromia Regional State were more affected by measles. Older age groups were more affected than younger age groups (age ≤ five years old). Efforts to close immunity gaps against measles and further strengthen surveillance in urban settings, particularly among children below five years old, should be prioritized.

  10. Effects of immunizing school children with 2009 influenza A (H1N1) monovalent vaccine on absenteeism among students and teachers in Maine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graitcer, Samuel B; Dube, Nancy L; Basurto-Davila, Ricardo; Smith, Peter F; Ferdinands, Jill; Thompson, Mark; Uzicanin, Amra; Gargiullo, Paul; Chaves, Sandra S; Robinson, Sara; Sears, Stephen; Tipton, Meredith; Monto, Arnold S; Mills, Dora; Shay, David K

    2012-07-06

    The overall and indirect effects of immunizing school children with influenza A (H1N1) 2009 pandemic virus vaccine prior to and during the peak of virus circulation were evaluated on student and teacher school absenteeism. We used records collected from late 2009 through early 2010 from schools in four Maine counties. Mixed logistic regression models were used to estimate the daily association between school-level immunization coverage and absenteeism by level of influenza activity, after adjusting for the proportion of students receiving reduced-cost lunches, student minority status, absences adjacent to weekends and Thanksgiving, rural school location, and the circulation of other respiratory viruses. Increasing student immunization coverage was associated with reduced absenteeism during periods of high influenza activity. For example, as immunization coverage during the peak week of pandemic virus circulation increased from 38% to 69% (the 10th and 90th percentiles of observed coverage, respectively), relative reductions in daily absenteeism among all students, unimmunized students, and teachers were 8.2% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.5, 9.9), 5.7% (95% CI: 4.2, 7.3), and 8.7% (95% CI: 1.3, 16), respectively. Increased vaccination coverage among school-aged Maine children had modest overall and indirect effects on student and teacher absenteeism, despite vaccination occurring just prior and during peak pandemic virus circulation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Progress toward regional measles elimination - worldwide, 2000-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Robert T; Murray, Jillian S; Gacic-Dobo, Marta; Dabbagh, Alya; Mulders, Mick N; Strebel, Peter M; Okwo-Bele, Jean-Marie; Rota, Paul A; Goodson, James L

    2015-11-13

    In 2000, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the Millennium Development Goals (MDG), with MDG4 being a two-thirds reduction in child mortality by 2015, and with measles vaccination coverage being one of the three indicators of progress toward this goal.* In 2010, the World Health Assembly established three milestones for measles control by 2015: 1) increase routine coverage with the first dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) for children aged 1 year to ≥90% nationally and ≥80% in every district; 2) reduce global annual measles incidence to fewer than five cases per million population; and 3) reduce global measles mortality by 95% from the 2000 estimate (1).† In 2012, the World Health Assembly endorsed the Global Vaccine Action Plan§ with the objective to eliminate measles in four World Health Organization (WHO) regions by 2015. WHO member states in all six WHO regions have adopted measles elimination goals. This report updates the 2000–2013 report (2) and describes progress toward global control and regional measles elimination during 2000–2014. During this period, annual reported measles incidence declined 73% worldwide, from 146 to 40 cases per million population, and annual estimated measles deaths declined 79%, from 546,800 to 114,900. However, progress toward the 2015 milestones and elimination goals has slowed markedly since 2010. To resume progress toward milestones and goals for measles elimination, a review of current strategies and challenges to improving program performance is needed, and countries and their partners need to raise the visibility of measles elimination, address barriers to measles vaccination, and make substantial and sustained additional investments in strengthening health systems.

  12. Prevention of measles spread on a paediatric ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapisiz, A; Polat, M; Kara, S S; Tezer, H; Simsek, H; Aktas, F

    2015-03-01

    Since measles is a highly contagious respiratory infection with significant airborne transmission risk in hospitals, effective prevention measures are crucial. After a mother accompanying her child on a paediatric ward lacking a negative pressure room was diagnosed with measles, exposed persons without evidence of immunity (documentary evidence of receiving two doses of measles-mumps-rubella vaccine) were treated with vaccination or intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). The interruption of transmission with these treatments was evaluated. There were 44 children and 101 adults exposed to the index patient. Twenty-five children and 88 adults were considered immune, providing evidence of immunity. Nineteen children and 13 adults were either given vaccination or IVIG for post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). There were no additional cases of measles after 3 weeks follow-up. We conclude that measles is highly preventable by adequate PEP with vaccination or IVIG in a healthcare setting that lacks the benefit of a negative pressure room.

  13. The measles epidemic trend over the past 30 years in a central district in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jie; Shen, Bing; Xiong, JianJing; Lu, Yihan; Jiang, Qingwu

    2017-01-01

    Measles vaccination over the past 50 years has greatly reduced the incidence of measles. However, measles among migrants and the resulting changes in epidemiological characteristics have brought new challenges to the elimination of measles. We aim to describe the measles epidemic trend over the past 30 years in a central district in Shanghai, China. The present study was conducted in the Jing'an District, which is located in the center of Shanghai. Based on historical surveillance data of measles, we calculated the incidence of measles among local residents and migrants separately. Next, we classified all of the cases of the measles among local residents between 1984 and 2015 into 8 age groups and 5 birth cohorts. Finally, we calculated the measles incidence in each time period by the different age groups and birth cohorts, to understand the measles epidemic trend over past 30 years in the Jing'an District. A total of 103 cases of measles were reported from the Jing'an District, Shanghai, from 1984 to 2015. For infants less than 1 year of age and adults over 30 years of age, the incidence of measles continued to rise over the past 30 years. For a specific birth cohort, the incidence of measles after measles vaccination declined initially, and was then followed by a rebound. The incidence of measles in older adults and infants increased in some developed regions, which slows the process of measles elimination. This suggested that the population immunity against measles after measles vaccination would gradually reduce with time. We recommend supplemental immunization against measles in adults in order to reduce the immunity decline, especially for migrants.

  14. 2010年玉溪市儿童麻疹强化免疫接种率快速评估%Rapid assessment on supplementary immunization coverage rate for measles vaccination among children in Yuxi City in 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴丽清; 张耀喜; 李秀华; 杨晓娟; 祁昆; 任志艳; 杨晶; 张丽芳; 王卫华

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To assess the effect of supplementary immunization for lire attenuated measles virus vaccine ( MV) in Yuxi City in 2010, summarize experience, and provide the basis for developing the immunization strategies and of measles elimination. [ Methods]The urban area and two districts were sampled from every county, and rapid assessment for field immunization coverage rate was conducted among 30 children in each object area. [Results]The supplementary immunization coverage rate for measles vaccination in Yuxi city was 99. 66%. The supplementary immunization coverage rates for measles vaccination of different age groups reach 99.36% , and those of children with different inhabitation types were above 97.78%. The local and migrant children who had no immunization history were concentrated in 8 months old to 2 years old. [ Conclusion] The measles supplementary immunization in Yuxi City in 2010 has achieved the expected target. In order to realize the target of measles elimination, it is important to strengthen the management in floating children, and duly find and eliminate the immunization blank population.%目的 评估玉溪市2010年麻疹减毒活疫苗(MV)后续强化免疫效果,总结经验,为控制并加快消除麻疹工作进程制定针对性的免疫策略提供依据.方法 每县抽取城区和2个乡镇各30名目标儿童进行现场接种率快速评估.结果 全市麻疹疫苗强化免疫接种率为99.66%,不同年龄段麻疹疫苗强化免疫接种率均在99.36%以上;不同居住形式麻疹疫苗强化免疫接种率均在97.78%以上,0剂次免疫史该县及外地的儿童均集中分布于8月龄~2岁年龄组.结论 玉溪市2010年麻疹疫苗强化免疫达到了预期的目标.加强流动儿童管理,发现并适时消除免疫空白人群是实现2012年消除麻疹目标的工作重点.

  15. Attitudinal and Demographic Predictors of Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine (MMR) Uptake during the UK Catch-Up Campaign 2008–09: Cross-Sectional Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Katrina; Fraser, Graham; Ramsay, Mary; Shanley, Ruth; Cowley, Noel; van Wijgerden, Johan; Toff, Penelope; Falconer, Michelle; Hudson, Michael; Green, John; Kroll, J. Simon; Vincent, Charles; Sevdalis, Nick

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objective Continued suboptimal measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine uptake has re-established measles epidemic risk, prompting a UK catch-up campaign in 2008–09 for children who missed MMR doses at scheduled age. Predictors of vaccine uptake during catch-ups are poorly understood, however evidence from routine schedule uptake suggests demographics and attitudes may be central. This work explored this hypothesis using a robust evidence-based measure. Design Cross-sectional self-administered questionnaire with objective behavioural outcome. Setting and Participants 365 UK parents, whose children were aged 5–18 years and had received <2 MMR doses before the 2008–09 UK catch-up started. Main Outcome Measures Parents' attitudes and demographics, parent-reported receipt of invitation to receive catch-up MMR dose(s), and catch-up MMR uptake according to child's medical record (receipt of MMR doses during year 1 of the catch-up). Results Perceived social desirability/benefit of MMR uptake (OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.09–2.87) and younger child age (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.68–0.89) were the only independent predictors of catch-up MMR uptake in the sample overall. Uptake predictors differed by whether the child had received 0 MMR doses or 1 MMR dose before the catch-up. Receipt of catch-up invitation predicted uptake only in the 0 dose group (OR = 3.45, 95% CI = 1.18–10.05), whilst perceived social desirability/benefit of MMR uptake predicted uptake only in the 1 dose group (OR = 9.61, 95% CI = 2.57–35.97). Attitudes and demographics explained only 28% of MMR uptake in the 0 dose group compared with 61% in the 1 dose group. Conclusions Catch-up MMR invitations may effectively move children from 0 to 1 MMR doses (unimmunised to partially immunised), whilst attitudinal interventions highlighting social benefits of MMR may effectively move children from 1 to 2 MMR doses (partially to fully immunised). Older children may be

  16. Attitudinal and demographic predictors of measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (MMR uptake during the UK catch-up campaign 2008-09: cross-sectional survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina Brown

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Continued suboptimal measles-mumps-rubella (MMR vaccine uptake has re-established measles epidemic risk, prompting a UK catch-up campaign in 2008-09 for children who missed MMR doses at scheduled age. Predictors of vaccine uptake during catch-ups are poorly understood, however evidence from routine schedule uptake suggests demographics and attitudes may be central. This work explored this hypothesis using a robust evidence-based measure. DESIGN: Cross-sectional self-administered questionnaire with objective behavioural outcome. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: 365 UK parents, whose children were aged 5-18 years and had received <2 MMR doses before the 2008-09 UK catch-up started. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Parents' attitudes and demographics, parent-reported receipt of invitation to receive catch-up MMR dose(s, and catch-up MMR uptake according to child's medical record (receipt of MMR doses during year 1 of the catch-up. RESULTS: Perceived social desirability/benefit of MMR uptake (OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.09-2.87 and younger child age (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.68-0.89 were the only independent predictors of catch-up MMR uptake in the sample overall. Uptake predictors differed by whether the child had received 0 MMR doses or 1 MMR dose before the catch-up. Receipt of catch-up invitation predicted uptake only in the 0 dose group (OR = 3.45, 95% CI = 1.18-10.05, whilst perceived social desirability/benefit of MMR uptake predicted uptake only in the 1 dose group (OR = 9.61, 95% CI = 2.57-35.97. Attitudes and demographics explained only 28% of MMR uptake in the 0 dose group compared with 61% in the 1 dose group. CONCLUSIONS: Catch-up MMR invitations may effectively move children from 0 to 1 MMR doses (unimmunised to partially immunised, whilst attitudinal interventions highlighting social benefits of MMR may effectively move children from 1 to 2 MMR doses (partially to fully immunised. Older children may be

  17. Measles Outbreak among Unvaccinated Children in Bajura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sitaula

    2010-12-01

    CFR of this outbreak is higher than the national CFR. Vaccine efficacy of 50% points towards the need for investigation of vaccine logistics and cold chain system. Moreover, this laboratory test confirmed an outbreak showing that the measles virus could be imported from an endemic region and rapidly spread through a susceptible population who were previously not immunized.

  18. Following in the footsteps of smallpox: can we achieve the global eradication of measles?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Oliver WC

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although an effective measles vaccine has been available for almost 40 years, in 2000 there were about 30 million measles infections worldwide and 777,000 measles-related deaths. The history of smallpox suggests that achieving measles eradication depends on several factors; the biological characteristics of the organism; vaccine technology; surveillance and laboratory identification; effective delivery of vaccination programmes and international commitment to eradication. Discussion Like smallpox, measles virus has several biological characteristics that favour eradication. Humans are the only reservoir for the virus, which causes a visible illness and infection leading to life-long immunity. As the measles virus has only one genetic serotype which is relatively stable over time, the same basic vaccine can be used world-wide. Vaccination provides protection against measles infection for at least 15 years, although efficacy may be reduced due to host factors such as nutritional status. Measles vaccination may also confer other non-specific health benefits leading to reduced mortality. Accurate laboratory identification of measles cases enables enhanced surveillance to support elimination programmes. The "catch-up, keep-up, follow-up" vaccination programme implemented in the Americas has shown that measles elimination is possible using existing technologies. On 17th October 2003 the "Cape Town Measles Declaration" by the World Health Organisation and the United Nations Childrens Fund called on governments to intensify efforts to reduce measles mortality by supporting universal vaccination coverage and the development of more effective vaccination. Summary Although more difficult than for smallpox, recent experience in the Americas suggests that measles eradication is technically feasible. Growing international support to deliver these programmes means that measles, like smallpox, may very well become a curiosity of history.

  19. Measles in the 21st Century, a Continuing Preventable Risk to Travelers: Data From the GeoSentinel Global Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotir, Mark J; Esposito, Douglas H; Barnett, Elizabeth D; Leder, Karin; Kozarsky, Phyllis E; Lim, Poh L; Gkrania-Klotsas, Effrossyni; Hamer, Davidson H; Kuhn, Susan; Connor, Bradley A; Pradhan, Rashila; Caumes, Eric

    2016-01-15

    Measles remains a risk for travelers, with 94 measles diagnoses reported to the GeoSentinel network from 2000 to 2014, two-thirds since 2010. Asia was the most common exposure region, then Africa and Europe. Efforts to reduce travel-associated measles should target all vaccine-eligible travelers, including catch-up vaccination of susceptible adults.

  20. Varicella vaccination in Europe – taking the practical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadzot-Delvaux Catherine

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Varicella is a common viral disease affecting almost the entire birth cohort. Although usually self-limiting, some cases of varicella can be serious, with 2 to 6% of cases attending a general practice resulting in complications. The hospitalisation rate for varicella in Europe ranges from 1.3 to 4.5 per 100,000 population/year and up to 10.1% of hospitalised patients report permanent or possible permanent sequelae (for example, scarring or ataxia. However, in many countries the epidemiology of varicella remains largely unknown or incomplete. In countries where routine childhood vaccination against varicella has been implemented, it has had a positive effect on disease prevention and control. Furthermore, mathematical models indicate that this intervention strategy may provide economic benefits for the individual and society. Despite this evidence and recommendations for varicella vaccination by official bodies such as the World Health Organization, and scientific experts in the field, the majority of European countries (with the exception of Germany and Greece have delayed decisions on implementation of routine childhood varicella vaccination, choosing instead to vaccinate high-risk groups or not to vaccinate at all. In this paper, members of the Working Against Varicella in Europe group consider the practicalities of introducing routine childhood varicella vaccination in Europe, discussing the benefits and challenges of different vaccination options (vaccination vs. no vaccination, routine vaccination of infants vs. vaccination of susceptible adolescents or adults, two doses vs. one dose of varicella vaccine, monovalent varicella vaccines vs. tetravalent measles, mumps, rubella and varicella vaccines, as well as the optimal interval between two doses of measles, mumps, rubella and varicella vaccines. Assessment of the epidemiology of varicella in Europe and evidence for the effectiveness of varicella vaccination provides support for

  1. Measles-associated encephalopathy in children with renal transplants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, A; Jeyaratnam, D; Haworth, F; Sinha, M D; Hughes, E; Cohen, B; Jin, L; Kidd, I M; Rigden, S P A; MacMahon, E

    2006-06-01

    Two children, boys of 8 and 13 years, presented with measles-associated encephalopathy several years after kidney transplantation for congenital nephrotic syndrome. In the absence of prior clinical measles, the neurological symptoms initially eluded diagnosis, but retrospective analysis of stored samples facilitated the diagnosis of measles-associated encephalopathy without recourse to biopsy of deep cerebral lesions. Each had received a single dose of measles mumps and rubella vaccine before 12 months of age. Prior vaccination, reduction of immunosuppression and treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin and ribavirin may have contributed to their survival. Persistent measles virus RNA shedding, present in one child, was not controlled by treatment with i.v. ribavirin. Two years later, both patients continue to have functioning allografts with only minimal immunosuppression. These cases illustrate the difficulty in diagnosing measles-associated encephalopathy in the immunocompromised host, even in the era of molecular diagnostics, and highlight the renewed threat of neurological disease in communities with incomplete herd immunity.

  2. Is the current prevention strategy based on vaccination coverage and epidemiological surveillance sufficient to achieve measles and rubella elimination in Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plans-Rubio, Pedro

    2014-07-01

    Elimination of measles and rubella in Europe is a feasible objective, but it requires achieving a maintaining a high prevalence of protected individuals in order to prevent cases and outbreaks from imported cases. The epidemiology of measles and rubella in Europe in the period 2003-2013 suggests that we are far away from the elimination target for measles, while the situation is better for rubella. In this situation, a new preventive strategy based on serological surveillance systems should be developed in Europe in order to identify and immunise individuals in population groups without sufficient herd immunity against measles and rubella.

  3. Study on the feasibility and safety of measles vaccination in women of childbearing age%育龄妇女麻疹疫苗接种的可行性及安全性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏蝉; 温正旺; 刘琦; 董雷; 邱海凡; 陈益平

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the feasibility and safety of measles vaccination in women of childbearing age and to understand the influence of measles vaccination on the fetal transmission measles antibody level of the infants.Methods From January 1,2012 to December 31,2012,600 women of childbearing age were included in this study.The measles IgG antibody was detected,then all participants were randomized according to the IgG level.The measles IgG antibody of participants in non-vaccinated group was detected predelivery in hospital by enzyme linked-immunosorbent assay (ELISA).That of participants in vaccinated group was detected 3 months after vaccination with measles mumps rubella combined vaccine and predelivery by ELISA.And measles nuclear protein fragment gene (measles virus nucleoprotein,MVN) in the blood was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT PCR).A total of 368 participants gave birth within 2 years after vaccination,and 357 infants 8 months after birth were healthy.In non-vaccinated group,8 infants were diagnosed with measles within 8 months after birth.Finally,349 8-month infants were enrolled in the study,including 52 whose mothers in high antibody without vaccination group,65 whose mothers in high antibody with vaccination group,110 whose mothers in low antibody without vaccination group and 122 whose mothers in low antibody with vaccination group.The measles IgG antibody levels in the blood of all the 8-month infants were detected.Data were analyzed using t test,one-way ANOVA (Newman-Keuls was used for comparison between groups) and Pearson analysis.Results The measles IgG antibody level of expectant women in high antibody without vaccination group was significantly lower compared to that in high antibody with vaccination group ([268.5±74.9] IU/mL vs [578.3t208.1] IU/mL,Q=15.57,P<0.01).That in low antibody without vaccination group was also significantly lower than low antibody with vaccination group ([169.4+42.3] IU/mL vs [584

  4. Measles Outbreak - Minnesota April-May 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Victoria; Banerjee, Emily; Kenyon, Cynthia; Strain, Anna; Griffith, Jayne; Como-Sabetti, Kathryn; Heath, Jennifer; Bahta, Lynn; Martin, Karen; McMahon, Melissa; Johnson, Dave; Roddy, Margaret; Dunn, Denise; Ehresmann, Kristen

    2017-07-14

    On April 10, 2017, the Minnesota Department of Health (MDH) was notified about a suspected measles case. The patient was a hospitalized child aged 25 months who was evaluated for fever and rash, with onset on April 8. The child had no history of receipt of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine and no travel history or known exposure to measles. On April 11, MDH received a report of a second hospitalized, unvaccinated child, aged 34 months, with an acute febrile rash illness with onset on April 10. The second patient's sibling, aged 19 months, who had also not received MMR vaccine, had similar symptoms, with rash onset on March 30. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) testing of nasopharyngeal swab or throat specimens performed at MDH confirmed measles in the first two patients on April 11, and in the third patient on April 13; subsequent genotyping identified genotype B3 virus in all three patients, who attended the same child care center. MDH instituted outbreak investigation and response activities in collaboration with local health departments, health care facilities, child care facilities, and schools in affected settings. Because the outbreak occurred in a community with low MMR vaccination coverage, measles spread rapidly, resulting in thousands of exposures in child care centers, schools, and health care facilities. By May 31, 2017, a total of 65 confirmed measles cases had been reported to MDH (Figure 1); transmission is ongoing.

  5. 2013年~2014年辖区适龄儿童的麻疹疫苗强化免疫效果分析%Analysis of Measles Vaccine Strengthened Immune Effect on Children from 2013 to 2014 in the District

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢潮

    2016-01-01

    目的::探究2013年~2014年间辖区内适龄儿童接受麻疹疫苗接种前、后的免疫效果情况。方法:联合疾控相关部门,选择2013年~2014年入某院接受麻疹疫苗接种的309名适龄儿童,评估其接种前、后各项抗体指标情况,探究疫苗接种对麻疹疾病防控的效果。结果:强化免疫前、后,适龄儿童抗体检测阳性率分别是70.23%、91.30%,对比差异较大(P <0.05);不同年龄层次、不同免疫次数儿童的抗体检测指标比对,差异均较大(P <0.05)。结论:麻疹防控工作强化免疫必不可少,并做好健康常识宣教、免疫操作培训等工作。%Objective:To explore the the immune effect of the children before and after receiving measles vaccination from 2013~2014 in the district.Methods:Working together with CDC relevant departments in the city,it chose 309 children having received measles vaccination from 2013 to 2014 in a hospital,and evalu-ated the antibody index before and after receiving vaccination,in order to explore the prevention and control effect of vaccination against measles disease.Results:Positive rate of antibody testing of the children is 70. 23%,91.30% respectively before and after receiving vaccination.The difference is significant (P <0.05);an-tibody testing index of different ages and different immune times have big differences (P <0.05).Conclusion:It's necessary to do prevention and control over strengthening measles vaccination and make healthy common sense mission and immune operation training,etc.

  6. Combination of the oral histone deacetylase inhibitor resminostat with oncolytic measles vaccine virus as a new option for epi-virotherapeutic treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Ruf

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic therapies such as histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi not only have the capability to decrease tumor cell proliferation and to induce tumor cell death but also to silence antiviral response genes. Here, we investigated whether the combination of an oncolytic measles vaccine virus (MeV with the novel oral HDACi resminostat (Res, being in clinical testing in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, results in an enhanced efficacy of this epi-virotherapeutic approach compared to any of the two corresponding monotherapies. When testing a panel of human hepatoma cell lines, we found (i a significantly improved rate of primary infections when using oncolytic MeV under concurrent treatment with resminostat, (ii a boosted cytotoxic effect of the epi-virotherapeutic combination (Res + MeV with enhanced induction of apoptosis, and, quite importantly, (iii an absence of any resminostat-induced impairment of MeV replication and spread. Beyond that, we could also show that (iv resminostat, after hepatoma cell stimulation with exogenous human interferon (IFN-β, is able to prevent the induction of IFN-stimulated genes, such as IFIT-1. This finding outlines the possible impact of resminostat on cellular innate immunity, being instrumental in overcoming resistances to MeV-mediated viral oncolysis. Thus, our results support the onset of epi-virotherapeutic clinical trials in patients exhibiting advanced stages of HCC.

  7. Analysis on effectiveness of measles attenuated live vaccine supplementary immunization activities in Nanchang at 2009%南昌市2009年麻疹减毒活疫苗强化免疫活动效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖征; 彭时辉; 文海蓉; 张艳霞; 熊昌辉

    2012-01-01

    目的 评价2009年南昌市麻疹减毒活疫苗(Measles Attenuated Live Vaccine,MV)强化免疫活动(SupplementaryImmunization Activities,SLA)效果,为消除麻疹提供依据.方法 对南昌市2009年10月麻疹疫苗强化免疫期间的摸底调查、现场接种、评估报告等资料和强化免疫前后的中国疾病预防控制信息系统中麻疹疫情资料进行综合分析.结果 该次强化免疫共接种目标儿童988959剂次,报告接种率为97.91%(988959/1010096),快速评估调查接种率为96.94%(1745/1800);MV SIA后人群麻疹抗体阳性率、保护率分别为91.99%、70.83%,抗体GMT从免疫前的1∶555上升到免疫后的1∶1625.28,免疫前后人群麻疹抗体GMT差异有统计学意义(t=4.795,P=0.000).本次强化免疫共报告疑似预防接种异常反应(Adverse Events Following Immunization,AEFI)25例,发生率为2.53/10万;强化免疫后的2009年11月~2010年10月全市报告麻疹病例10例,发病率为0.20/10万,较2008年11月~2009年10月同期病例明显减少.结论 高质量的MV SIA能迅速提高人群的抗体水平,降低麻疹发病率,适时开展MV SIA是加速麻疹控制最安全有效的措施之一.%Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of measles attenuated live vaccine (MV) supplementary immunization activities (SIA) in Nanchang in 2009 and provide basis for elimination measles. Method Collecting the data of basic investigation, scene vaccination and evaluation reports during measles vaccine supplementary immunization time of October 2009, all them comprehensive analysis with the data before and after supplementary immunization which collected from China Disease Prevention and Control Information System. Results This supplementary immunization had inoculation goal children 988 959 times, the reporting inoculation rate was 97.91% (988 959/1 010 096), the rapid assessment survey inoculation rate was 96. 94% (1 745/1 800) . MV SIA measles antibody positive rate, protection

  8. Changes in Measles Serostatus Among HIV-Infected Zambian Children Initiating Antiretroviral Therapy Before and After the 2010 Measles Outbreak and Supplemental Immunization Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainwater-Lovett, Kaitlin; Nkamba, Hope C.; Mubiana-Mbewe, Mwangelwa; Bolton-Moore, Carolyn; Moss, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Background. In 2010, Zambia had a large measles outbreak, providing an opportunity to measure changes in measles serostatus following highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), exposure to measles virus, and revaccination among children infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Methods. A prospective cohort study of 169 HIV-infected Zambian children aged 9–60 months with a history of measles vaccination was conducted to characterize the effects of HAART and revaccination on measles immunoglobulin G (IgG) serostatus by enzyme immunoassay. Results. Prior to the measles outbreak, only 23% of HIV-infected children were measles IgG seropositive at HAART initiation. After adjusting for 6-month changes in baseline age and 5% changes in nadir CD4+ T-cell percentage, HAART was not associated with measles IgG seroconversion. However, 18 of 19 children seroconverted after revaccination. Eight children seroconverted during the outbreak without revaccination and were likely exposed to wild-type measles virus, but none were reported to have had clinical measles. Conclusions. Immune reconstitution after HAART initiation did not restore protective levels of measles IgG antibodies, but almost all children developed protective antibody levels after revaccination. Some previously vaccinated HIV-infected children had serological evidence of exposure to wild-type measles virus without a reported history of measles. PMID:23911708

  9. Measles immunity among pregnant women aged 15–44 years in Namibia, 2008 and 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina V. Cardemil

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: Late in a large measles outbreak, 13% of pregnant women in Namibia, and almost one in four 15–19-year-old pregnant women, remained susceptible to measles. In Namibia, immunization campaigns with measles-containing vaccine should be considered for adults.

  10. Photos of Measles and People with Measles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Organization Pan American Health Organization Photos of Measles and People with Measles Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... be unsuitable for children. Viewing discretion is advised. Measles Clinical Features Video CDC’s Dr. Raymond Strikas, MD, ...

  11. Measles Case Fatality Rate in Bihar, India, 2011–12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murhekar, Manoj V.; Ahmad, Mohammad; Shukla, Hemant; Abhishek, Kunwar; Perry, Robert T.; Bose, Anindya S.; Shimpi, Rahul; Kumar, Arun; Kaliaperumal, Kanagasabai; Sethi, Raman; Selvaraj, Vadivoo; Kamaraj, Pattabi; Routray, Satyabrata; Das, Vidya Nand; Menabde, Nata; Bahl, Sunil

    2014-01-01

    Background Updated estimates of measles case fatality rates (CFR) are critical for monitoring progress towards measles elimination goals. India accounted for 36% of total measles deaths occurred globally in 2011. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to estimate measles CFR and identify the risk factors for measles death in Bihar–one of the north Indian states historically known for its low vaccination coverage. Methods We systematically selected 16 of the 31 laboratory-confirmed measles outbreaks occurring in Bihar during 1 October 2011 to 30 April 2012. All households of the villages/urban localities affected by these outbreaks were visited to identify measles cases and deaths. We calculated CFR and used multivariate analysis to identify risk factors for measles death. Results The survey found 3670 measles cases and 28 deaths (CFR: 0.78, 95% confidence interval: 0.47–1.30). CFR was higher among under-five children (1.22%) and children belonging to scheduled castes/tribes (SC/ST, 1.72%). On multivariate analysis, independent risk factors associated with measles death were age Measles CFR in Bihar was low. To further reduce case fatality, health authorities need to ensure that SC/ST are targeted by the immunization programme and that outbreak investigations target for vitamin A treatment of cases in high risk groups such as SC/ST and young children and ensure regular visits by health-workers in affected villages to administer vitamin A to new cases. PMID:24824641

  12. Immunogenicity and safety of measles-mumps-rubella and varicella vaccines coadministered with a fourth dose of Haemophilus influenzae type b and Neisseria meningitidis serogroups C and Y-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine in toddlers: a pooled analysis of randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Kristina; McVernon, Jodie; Marchant, Colin; Nolan, Terry; Marshall, Gary; Richmond, Peter; Marshall, Helen; Nissen, Michael; Lambert, Stephen; Aris, Emmanuel; Mesaros, Narcisa; Miller, Jacqueline

    2012-08-01

    A pooled analysis was conducted of 1257 toddlers who received a fourth dose of Haemophilus influenzae type b-Neisseria meningitidis serogroups C and Y-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (HibMenCY-TT) or Hib conjugate vaccine (Hib polysaccharide conjugated to N. meningitidis outer membrane protein) coadministered with measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) and varicella (VAR) vaccines (NCT00134719/NCT00289783). Noninferiority of immunological responses to MMR and VAR was demonstrated between groups and incidences of MMR- and VAR-specific solicited symptoms were similar, indicating that HibMenCY-TT can be coadministered with MMR and VAR.

  13. Sequence analysis of measles virus strains collected during the pre- and early-vaccination era in Denmark reveals a considerable diversity of ancient strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Laurids Siig; Schöller, S.; Schierup, M. H.

    2002-01-01

    A total of 199 serum samples from patients with measles collected in Denmark, Greenland and the Faroe Islands from 1964 to 1983 were analysed by PCR. Measles virus (MV) RNA could be detected in 38 (19%) of the samples and a total of 18 strains were subjected to partial sequence analysis...

  14. Rubella (German Measles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Be Smart About Social Media Rubella (German Measles) KidsHealth > For Parents > Rubella (German Measles) Print A A A What's in this article? ... Rubéola About Rubella Rubella — commonly known as German measles or 3-day measles — is an infection that ...

  15. Measles in Sudan: Diagnosis, Epidemiology and Humoral Immune Response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.S. El Mubarak

    2004-01-01

    textabstractDespite the availability of safe and effective live attenuated vaccines, measles remains endemic in many developing countries. Little is known about the pathogenesis of measles virus (MV) infections in the areas of itsendemicity, largely due to the limited infrastructure and political

  16. Measles in Sudan: Diagnosis, Epidemiology and Humoral Immune Response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.S. El Mubarak

    2004-01-01

    textabstractDespite the availability of safe and effective live attenuated vaccines, measles remains endemic in many developing countries. Little is known about the pathogenesis of measles virus (MV) infections in the areas of itsendemicity, largely due to the limited infrastructure and political in

  17. Analysis of quality control for measles vaccine,live, from 2008 to 2012%2008-2012年麻疹减毒活疫苗的质量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易敏; 刘长暖; 权娅茹; 陈震; 李长贵; 袁力勇

    2014-01-01

    Objective To summarize results for the quality control and discuss the quality status of measles vaccine , live, applied for lot release from 2008 to 2012 .Methods By reviewing the lots summary protocol and testing the crucial items , in combination with trend analysis , the comprehensive quality for measles vaccine , live, was analyzed .Results The qual-ity for domestic measles vaccine , live was consistent during the recent 5 years, the ratio of obtained certification of lot re-lease is 98.6%.The virus titers of all lots are satisfied with the acceptance criteria of 2010 Chinese Pharmacopoeia , but eight lots were withdrawn by manufactures because of out of trend .Conclusion The data presented here demonstrate that safety and efficiency for the domestic measles vaccine , live on market are guaranteed by the improvement of the vaccine quality and production process , lot release program and the application of trend analysis .%目的:对中国2008-2012年连续5年麻疹减毒活疫苗(简称麻疹疫苗)的批签发情况进行总结,评价其麻疹疫苗的总体质量。方法通过对送检样品的资料审查和关键项目的实验室检定,采用趋势分析法对病毒滴度等进行分析和比较,回顾麻疹疫苗质量的整体情况。结果中国麻疹疫苗整体质量较好,批签发通过率为98.6%。疫苗关键指标数据稳定,病毒滴度100%符合国家标准,其中8批疫苗病毒滴度由于超过警戒线企业主动撤检。结论中国麻疹减毒活疫苗的质量稳中有升。国家疫苗批签发程序对确保上市疫苗的质量发挥重要作用,趋势分析在批签发中的应用更加严格保证了上市疫苗的安全性和有效性。

  18. 麻疹病毒疫苗株沪191和宁波麻疹病毒流行株血清交叉中和试验结果分析%Study on the Cross Neutralizing Antibody between Measles Attenuated Live Vaccine S191 and the Measles Epidemic Strain in Ningbo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅燕; 许国章; 董红军; 胡逢蛟; 马瑞; 陆圣诞; 焦素黎

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the protective level of the current measles vaccine (Shanghai 191. S191) and provide evidence for formulating effective strategies of measles prevention. Methods Neutralizing antibody levels to measles vaccine virus strain S191 and wild type virus strain Ningbo2008-06 from different kinds person' s serum were tested by trace neutralization test. Results The geometric mean titer(GMT)to S191 of primarily vaccination serum, acute phase serum of patients immunized with measles vaccine, serum of convalescence patients, serum of pre-emergency vaccination and serum of post-emergency vaccination werel :35.23,:4.16,: 231.74, : 37.81 and 1:61.03 respectively ;while the GMT to Ningbo 2008-06 of the above serum were 1:19.04,: 2.21,: 596.62,: 32.25 and 1:67.54 respectively. The GMT of the serum of primarily vaccine immunization and the serum of acute phase patients against S191 were 1.85 (t=2.537, P<0.05)and 1.88(t=-2.696, P<0.05) times of those against Ningbo 2008-06 respectively. The GMT of the serum of convalescence patients against Ningbo 2008-06 was 2.57 (t=-3.054, P<0.05) times of that against S191.There was no significant difference between the GMT against S191 and Ningbo2008-06 in post-emergency vaccination serum. For infants, their serum' s GMT against S191 and Ningbo2008-06 declined with their growing up. The GMT against Ningbo2008-06 in 6months and 8months old group were 1:2.60 and 1:1.24 respectively. Conclusions The current measles vaccine S191 can neutraliae Ningbo2008-06,but the neutralizing ability decreased. Emergency vaccination can significantly increasebody s neutralization antibody titer to measles. The antibody from mother almost has no protection after 6 months. It is the time to revise current measles immunization strategies.%目的 分析麻疹病毒疫苗株[上海(沪)191,Shanghai191;S191]的免疫保护性,为探讨有效预防控制麻疹的措施提供参考.方法 用微量中和试验测定不同人群血清

  19. Intralesional tuberculin (PPD) versus measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) vaccine in treatment of multiple warts: a comparative clinical and immunological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Maha Adel; Salem, Samar Abdallah M; Fouad, Dina Adel; El-Fatah, Abeer Aly Abd

    2015-01-01

    Intralesional purified protein derivative (PPD) or mumps, measles, rubella (MMR) were not previously compared regarding their efficacy or mechanism of action in treatment of warts. We aimed to compare their efficacy in treatment of multiple warts and investigate their effect on serum interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-12. Thirty patients with multiple warts were included (10 treated with PPD, 10 with MMR, and 10 with normal saline (control)). Injection was done every 3 weeks until clearance or maximum of three treatments. Clinical response of target and distant warts was evaluated. Serum ILs-4 and -12 were assessed before and after treatment. A significantly higher rate of complete response was found in target and distant warts with PPD (60% each) and MMR (80%, 40%, respectively) compared with controls (0%), with no significant difference between both treatments. After treatment, the control group showed the lowest serum IL-12 and IL-4 levels compared with the MMR- and PPD-treated groups with statistically significant difference in between. MMR resulted in a significantly higher serum IL-12 than PPD. With PPD, IL-4 was increased with statistically significant change compared with pretreat-ment level. Intralesional PPD and MMR show comparable efficacy and safety in treatment of multiple warts. Serum ILs-4 and-12 increase following antigen injection. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Investigation of a measles outbreak in Cordillera, northern Philippines, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Katrina Ching

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Measles is a highly infectious viral illness that remains one of the leading causes of death among children worldwide. In the Philippines, decreasing routine vaccination coverage from 2007 to 2011 led to local measles outbreaks. A team investigated a measles outbreak reported in Cordillera of the Philippines in May 2013. Methods: Measles case data with symptom onset from 2 February to 27 May 2013 were obtained from official sources and verified on site. Data included age, sex, residential address, signs and symptoms and vaccination status. Active case-findings were also conducted for contacts of these cases. The living environments of the cases were investigated. A survey was conducted with the cases and caregivers to understand their knowledge and attitudes about measles. Results: There were 50 measles cases identified with an age range from six months to 32 years (median: 16 years. Thirty-two were male (64%. Twenty (40% were hospitalized with one death. Thirty-two (64% cases were laboratory confirmed, and 36 (72% received a single dose of measles vaccine. Overcrowded living environments were observed among many cases. The majority of respondents (46/48, 96% knew about measles, but there were misconceptions about the cause of measles and how it can be prevented and managed. Conclusion: This measles outbreak occurred in an area with low immunization coverage. Achieving 95% measles immunization coverage and strengthening routine immunization strategies to address high-risk populations are recommended. Also, we recommend health education campaigns to include components that address misconceptions about measles.

  1. Investigation of a measles outbreak in Cordillera, Northern Philippines, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapanta, Ma Justina; de los Reyes, Vikki Carr; Tayag, Enrique; Magpantay, Rio

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Measles is a highly infectious viral illness that remains one of the leading causes of death among children worldwide. In the Philippines, decreasing routine vaccination coverage from 2007 to 2011 led to local measles outbreaks. A team investigated a measles outbreak reported in Cordillera of the Philippines in May 2013. Methods Measles case data with symptom onset from 2 February to 27 May 2013 were obtained from official sources and verified on site. Data included age, sex, residential address, signs and symptoms and vaccination status. Active case-findings were also conducted for contacts of these cases. The living environments of the cases were investigated. A survey was conducted with the cases and caregivers to understand their knowledge and attitudes about measles. Results There were 50 measles cases identified with an age range from six months to 32 years (median: 16 years). Thirty-two were male (64%). Twenty (40%) were hospitalized with one death. Thirty-two (64%) cases were laboratory confirmed, and 36 (72%) received a single dose of measles vaccine. Overcrowded living environments were observed among many cases. The majority of respondents (46/48, 96%) knew about measles, but there were misconceptions about the cause of measles and how it can be prevented and managed. Conclusion This measles outbreak occurred in an area with low immunization coverage. Achieving 95% measles immunization coverage and strengthening routine immunization strategies to address high-risk populations are recommended. Also, we recommend health education campaigns to include components that address misconceptions about measles. PMID:27766180

  2. Progress Toward Measles Elimination - Nepal, 2007-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Sudhir; Sedai, Tika Ram; Choudary, Ganga Ram; Giri, Jagat Narain; Bohara, Rajendra; Pant, Rajendra; Gautam, Mukunda; Sharapov, Umid M; Goodson, James L; Alexander, James; Dabbagh, Alya; Strebel, Peter; Perry, Robert T; Bah, Sunil; Abeysinghe, Nihal; Thapa, Arun

    2016-03-04

    In 2013, the 66th session of the Regional Committee of the World Health Organization (WHO) South-East Asia Region (SEAR) established a goal to eliminate measles and to control rubella and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) in SEAR by 2020. Current recommended measles elimination strategies in the region include 1) achieving and maintaining ≥95% coverage with 2 doses of measles-containing vaccine (MCV) in every district, delivered through the routine immunization program or through supplementary immunization activities (SIAs); 2) developing and sustaining a sensitive and timely measles case-based surveillance system that meets minimum recommended performance indicators; 3) developing and maintaining an accredited measles laboratory network; and 4) achieving timely identification, investigation, and response to measles outbreaks. In 2013, Nepal, one of the 11 SEAR member states, adopted a goal for national measles elimination by 2019. This report updates a previous report and summarizes progress toward measles elimination in Nepal during 2007-2014. During 2007-2014, estimated coverage with the first MCV dose (MCV1) increased from 81% to 88%. Approximately 3.9 and 9.7 million children were vaccinated in SIAs conducted in 2008 and 2014, respectively. Reported suspected measles incidence declined by 13% during 2007-2014, from 54 to 47 cases per 1 million population. However, in 2014, 81% of districts did not meet the measles case-based surveillance performance indicator target of ≥2 discarded non-measles cases per 100,000 population per year. To achieve and maintain measles elimination, additional measures are needed to strengthen routine immunization services to increase coverage with MCV1 and a recently introduced second dose of MCV (MCV2) to ≥95% in all districts, and to enhance sensitivity of measles case-based surveillance by adopting a more sensitive case definition, expanding case-based surveillance sites nationwide, and ensuring timely transport of

  3. Controlling measles using supplemental immunization activities: A mathematical model to inform optimal policy

    OpenAIRE

    Verguet, Stéphane; Johri, Mira; Morris, Shaun K; Gauvreau, Cindy L.; Jha, Prabhat; Jit, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Background The Measles & Rubella Initiative, a broad consortium of global health agencies, has provided support to measles-burdened countries, focusing on sustaining high coverage of routine immunization of children and supplementing it with a second dose opportunity for measles vaccine through supplemental immunization activities (SIAs). We estimate optimal scheduling of SIAs in countries with the highest measles burden. Methods We develop an age-stratified dynamic compartmental model of mea...

  4. Long-term measles-induced immunomodulation increases overall childhood infectious disease mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, Michael J; Metcalf, C Jessica E; de Swart, Rik L; Osterhaus, A D M E; Grenfell, Bryan T

    2015-05-08

    Immunosuppression after measles is known to predispose people to opportunistic infections for a period of several weeks to months. Using population-level data, we show that measles has a more prolonged effect on host resistance, extending over 2 to 3 years. We find that nonmeasles infectious disease mortality in high-income countries is tightly coupled to measles incidence at this lag, in both the pre- and post-vaccine eras. We conclude that long-term immunologic sequelae of measles drive interannual fluctuations in nonmeasles deaths. This is consistent with recent experimental work that attributes the immunosuppressive effects of measles to depletion of B and T lymphocytes. Our data provide an explanation for the long-term benefits of measles vaccination in preventing all-cause infectious disease. By preventing measles-associated immune memory loss, vaccination protects polymicrobial herd immunity.

  5. Andean region: measles on the way out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-10-01

    In August 1996, health officials, program managers, epidemiologists, laboratory representatives, UNICEF, Rotary International, and Pan American Health Organization staff attended the VII Andean EPI Meeting in Quito, Ecuador, to review the progress of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI). All Andean countries have conducted catch-up measles vaccination campaigns targeting children 9 months to 15 years old. These campaigns achieved 90% vaccine coverage and a strong reduction in measles incidence (only 7 confirmed cases in 1996). Follow-up campaigns were conducted during 1995-1996 in Colombia, Peru, and Chile. They were expected in Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela during 1997-1999. The Andean countries implemented a national surveillance system for measles in 1995. Meeting representatives made eight recommendations regarding measles. For example, health officials should reach and maintain routine vaccination coverage greater than 95% for children 12-23 months old in each municipality. Laboratory representatives proposed recommendations on uniform criteria for measles diagnosis. The last indigenous wild poliovirus in the Americas was isolated in 1991. Imported wild poliovirus remains a concern. The Andean countries are expanding surveillance of neonatal tetanus activities. Since 1989 the frequency of neonatal tetanus has been falling in the Andean region, especially in Bolivia and Peru. The impact of migration on the control of neonatal tetanus should be a higher priority. Participants repeated the need for systematic use and continuous monitoring of EPI indicators (e.g., vaccination coverage). Three countries plan on analyzing surveys on missed opportunities for vaccination in 1996. Three countries presented progress reports on hepatitis B vaccination and surveillance. Participants issued recommendations on quality control of vaccines. The responsibility for quality control lies with the manufacturers and the government. Vaccines for invasive diseases (e

  6. Progress Toward Measles Elimination - South-East Asia Region, 2003-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Arun; Khanal, Sudhir; Sharapov, Umid; Swezy, Virginia; Sedai, Tika; Dabbagh, Alya; Rota, Paul; Goodson, James L; McFarland, Jeffrey

    2015-06-12

    In 2013, the 66th session of the Regional Committee of the World Health Organization (WHO) South-East Asia Region adopted the goal of measles elimination and rubella and congenital rubella syndrome control by 2020 after rigorous prior consultations. The recommended strategies include 1) achieving and maintaining ≥95% coverage with 2 doses of measles- and rubella-containing vaccine in every district through routine or supplementary immunization activities (SIAs); 2) developing and sustaining a sensitive and timely case-based measles surveillance system that meets recommended performance indicators; 3) developing and maintaining an accredited measles laboratory network; and 4) achieving timely identification, investigation, and response to measles outbreaks. This report updates previous reports and summarizes progress toward measles elimination in the South-East Asia Region during 2003-2013. Within the region, coverage with the first dose of a measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) increased from 67% to 78%; an estimated 286 million children (95% of the target population) were vaccinated in SIAs; measles incidence decreased 73%, from 59 to 16 cases per million population; and estimated measles deaths decreased 63%. To achieve measles elimination in the region, additional efforts are needed in countries with measles case-based surveillance and laboratory diagnosis of measles.

  7. Measles outbreak associated with an arriving refugee - Los Angeles County, California, August-September 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Measles is a highly communicable, acute viral illness with potential for severe complications, including death. Although endemic measles was eliminated in the United States in 2000 as a result of widespread vaccination, sporadic measles outbreaks still occur, largely associated with international travel from measles-endemic countries and pockets of unvaccinated persons. On August 26, 2011, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health (LACDPH) was notified of suspected measles in a refugee from Burma who had arrived in Los Angeles, California, on August 24, after a flight from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Passengers on the flight included 31 other refugees who then traveled to seven other states, widening the measles investigation and response activities. In California alone, 50 staff members from LACDPH and the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) interviewed and reinterviewed 298 contacts. Measles was diagnosed in three contacts of the index patient (patient A). The three contacts with measles were two passengers on the same flight as patient A and a customs worker; no secondary cases were identified. Delayed diagnosis of measles in patient A and delayed notification of health officials precluded use of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine as an outbreak intervention. This outbreak emphasizes the importance of maintaining a high level of vaccination coverage and continued high vigilance for measles in the United States, particularly among incoming international travelers; clinicians should immediately isolate persons with suspected measles and promptly report them to health authorities.

  8. Application of Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Method to Identify H1 Genotype of Measles Virus Infection and Measles Vaccine Related Cases%应用限制性片段长度多态性分析方法鉴别H1基因型麻疹野病毒感染病例和麻疹疫苗相关病例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李立群; 余文; 赵智娴; 丁峥嵘

    2012-01-01

    Objective Application the method to rapid identify the wild measles strain and China measles vaccine strain in Yunnan province. Method To apply method of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RT-PCR-RFLP) and sequence analysis method to detect 8 strains of measles virus. Results The RT-PCR-RFLP method for H1 genotype was used for identifying 8 strains of measles virus, the 5 specimens of wild-type, measles viruses RT-PCR products were cut into 2 fragments, 408 bp and 159 bp, the results showed that 5 specimens of wild-type measles viruses were caused by H1 genotype. The RT-PCR-RFLP method for China vaccine strain identification was used for identifying 3 specimen of measles. 1 specimen RT-PCR products were cut into 2 fragments, 287 bp and 151 bp, which showed that this case was caused by China vaccine strain. 2 specimens of measles were non-H1 wild-type measles viruses. Conclusion The RT-PCR-RFLP method can be used to identify H1 genotype of measles virus and measles vaccine strain. The results are same as the method of nucleoprotein gene sequencing.%目的 在云南省应用H1基因型麻疹野病毒鉴定方法,鉴别H1基因型麻疹野病毒感染病例,应用中国麻疹疫苗株病毒鉴定方法,鉴别接种麻疹疫苗后出现的麻疹样病例是否为麻疹疫苗相关病例.方法 采用逆转录-聚合酶链反应-限制性片段长度多态性分析(Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism,RT-PCR-RFLP)方法、序列分析方法鉴别8株麻疹病毒.结果 应用H1基因型麻疹野病毒RT-PCR-RFLP方法对8份标本进行鉴定,其中5份标本RT-PCR产物经 Sal I酶切后,被切成两个片段,分别为408个碱基对(base pair,bp)和159bp,显示5个病例是由H1基因型麻疹野病毒引起的.应用中国麻疹疫苗株病毒RT-PCR-RFLP方法对3份标本进行鉴定,其中1份标本RT-PCR产物经Af1Ⅱ酶切,被切成两个片段,分别为287

  9. Measles outbreak in Europe: susceptibility of infants too young to be immunized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuridan, E; Sabbe, M; Van Damme, P

    2012-09-07

    As women vaccinated against measles transfer low amounts of antibodies, an increasing number of infants lack early protection through maternal antibodies until being immunised themselves. This paper reviews the literature on disease burden of measles in the population too young to be immunized according to the respective national recommendations during recent outbreaks in EU and EEA/EFTA countries. In addition, specific control strategies adopted to protect this young population are reviewed. Pubmed, Unbound Medline, Web of Knowledge and the Eurosurveillance database were searched using MESH terms: measles and epidemiology, measles