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Sample records for monovalent flavobacterium columnare

  1. Fish mucus alters the Flavobacterium columnare transcriptome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columnaris disease which is caused by Flavobacterium columnare severely impacts the production of freshwater finfish species. Due to the impact on the aquaculture industry, research efforts to better understand the biological processes of F. columnare including the formation of biofilms and their co...

  2. Proteomic analysis of the fish pathogen Flavobacterium columnare

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    Lawrence Mark L

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flavobacterium columnare causes columnaris disease in cultured and wild fish populations worldwide. Columnaris is the second most prevalent bacterial disease of commercial channel catfish industry in the United States. Despite its economic importance, little is known about the expressed proteins and virulence mechanisms of F. columnare. Here, we report the first high throughput proteomic analysis of F. columnare using 2-D LC ESI MS/MS and 2-DE MALDI TOF/TOF MS. Results Proteins identified in this study and predicted from the draft F. columnare genome were clustered into functional groups using clusters of orthologous groups (COGs, and their subcellular locations were predicted. Possible functional relations among the identified proteins were determined using pathway analysis. The total number of unique F. columnare proteins identified using both 2-D LC and 2-DE approaches was 621, of which 10.95% (68 were identified by both methods, while 77.29% (480 and 11.76% (73 were unique in 2-D LC and 2-DE, respectively. COG groupings and subcellular localizations were similar between our data set and proteins predicted from the whole genome. Twenty eight pathways were significantly represented in our dataset (P Conclusion Results from this study provide experimental evidence for many proteins that were predicted from the F. columnare genome annotation, and they should accelerate functional and comparative studies aimed at understanding virulence mechanisms of this important pathogen.

  3. Walleye Autochthonous Bacteria as Promising Probiotic Candidates against Flavobacterium columnare

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    Hamza Seghouani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Walleye (Sander vitreus is the second most fished freshwater species in Canada. While much sought by anglers, walleye also supports substantial commercial fisheries. To cope with the recent decline of wild walleye populations, fish farmers produce juveniles for lake stocking. However, walleye breeding is particularly tedious, mostly due to high disease susceptibility at larval and juvenile developmental stages. The main threat is the columnaris disease, which is caused by Flavobacterium columnare, an opportunistic bacteria. As F. columnare strains exhibit increasing antibiotic resistance, there is a strong need to develop efficient and sustainable alternative strategies to control columnaris disease. Bacterial probiotics have been shown to mitigate infections either by enhancing host immune response or by inhibiting pathogen growth. Being successfully assessed in many fish/pathogen combinations, we developed a tailored probiotic strategy for walleye to prevent and treat columnaris disease. Thirty-seven endogenous bacterial strains were isolated from healthy walleye’s skin and gut, were tested in vitro against F. columnare. Significant antagonistic effect against F. columnare was measured for 2 out of 37 endogenous strains. These two probiotic strains were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens. The antagonistic effect of these two successful probiotics was further validated in vivo during a 2-month stress trial: groups receiving probiotic treatments showed on average 53.74% survival improvement.

  4. Virulence of Flavobacterium columnare genomovars in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenhuis, Jason P; LaFrentz, Benjamin R

    2016-08-09

    Flavobacterium columnare is the causative agent of columnaris disease and is responsible for significant economic losses in aquaculture. F. columnare is a Gram-negative bacterium, and 5 genetic types or genomovars have been described based on restriction fragment length polymorphism of the 16S rRNA gene. Previous research has suggested that genomovar II isolates are more virulent than genomovar I isolates to multiple species of fish, including rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. In addition, improved genotyping methods have shown that some isolates previously classified as genomovar I, and used in challenge experiments, were in fact genomovar III. Our objective was to confirm previous results with respect to genomovar II virulence, and to determine the susceptibility of rainbow trout to other genomovars. The virulence of 8 genomovar I, 4 genomovar II, 3 genomovar II-B, and 5 genomovar III isolates originating from various sources was determined through 3 independent challenges in rainbow trout using an immersion challenge model. Mean cumulative percent mortality (CPM) of ~49% for genomovar I isolates, ~1% for genomovar II, ~5% for the II-B isolates, and ~7% for the III isolates was observed. The inability of genomovar II isolates to produce mortalities in rainbow trout was unanticipated based on previous studies, but may be due to a number of factors including rainbow trout source and water chemistry. The source of fish and/or the presence of sub-optimal environment may influence the susceptibility of rainbow trout to different F. columnare genomovars.

  5. Comparative analysis of the Flavobacterium columnare genomovar I and II genomes

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    Columnaris disease caused by Gram-negative rod Flavobacterium columnare is one of the most common diseases of catfish. F. columnare is also a common problem in other cultured fish species worldwide. F. columnare has three major genomovars; we have sequenced a representative strain from genomovar I (...

  6. The carbohydrate L-rhamnose promotes biofilm formation which enhances Flavobacterium columnare virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavobacterium columnare, the causative agent of columnaris disease causes substantial mortality worldwide in numerous freshwater finfish species. Due to its global significance and impact on the aquaculture industry, continual efforts to better understand basic mechanisms that contribute to disease...

  7. Sickeningly sweet: L-rhamnose stimulates Flavobacterium columnare biofilm formation and virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavobacterium columnare, the causative agent of columnaris disease causes substantial mortality worldwide in numerous freshwater finfish species. Due to its global significance and impact on the aquaculture industry continual efforts to better understand basic mechanisms that contribute to disease ...

  8. Composition of Extracellular Polymeric Substances (EPS) produced by Flavobacterium columnare isolated from tropical fish in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Alexandre Sebastião, Fernanda; Pilarski, Fabiana; Lemos, Manoel Victor Franco

    2013-01-01

    Thirty nine isolates of Flavobacterium columnare from Brazilian fish farms had their carbohydrate composition of EPS evaluated by high efficiency liquid chromatography, using the phenol-sulfuric acid method of EPS. The occurrence of capsules on F. columnare cells was not directly related to biofilm formation, and the predominant monosaccharide is glucose.

  9. Identification of four distinct phylogenetic groups in Flavobacterium columnare with fish host associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columnaris disease, caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Flavobacterium columnare, is one of the most prevalent fish diseases worldwide. An exceptionally high level of genetic diversity among isolates of F. columnare has long been recognized, whereby six established genomovars have been described t...

  10. Reproducible challenge model to investigate the virulence of Flavobacterium columnare genomovars in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavobacterium columnare is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes columnaris disease and has significant economic impacts on aquaculture production worldwide. Molecular analyses have demonstrated that there is genetic diversity among F. columnare isolates. A review of the published literature that u...

  11. Evaluation of the antibody response to the LV-359-01 strain of flavobacterium columnare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavobacterium columnare, the causative agent of columnaris disease produces substantial mortality worldwide among numerous freshwater farmed finfish species. As aquaculture production continues to increase the frequency of columnaris disease will only continue to rise. Add to this an increase in re...

  12. Effectiveness of copper sulfate and potassium permanganate on channel catfish infected with Flavobacterium columnare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copper sulfate (CuSO4) and potassium permanganate (KMnO4) were evaluated for their effectiveness to curtail mortality and decrease bacterial load in fish tissues and water in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus naturally infected with Flavobacterium columnare, the causative agent of columnaris. Fis...

  13. Draft genome sequence of the fish pathogen Flavobacterium columnare strain CSF-298-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    We announce the genome assembly of Flavobacterium columnare strain CSF-298-10, a strain isolated from an outbreak of Columnaris disease at a commercial trout farm in Snake River Valley Idaho, USA. The complete genome consists of 13 contigs totaling 3,284,579 bp, average G+C content of 31.5% and 2933...

  14. Influence of native catfish mucus on Flavobacterium columnare growth and proteolytic activity

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    Flavobacterium columnare causes columnaris disease of farmed and wild freshwater fish. Skin mucus is an important factor in early stages of columnaris pathogenesis, albeit little studied. Our objectives were to 1) characterize the terminal glycosylation pattern (TGP) of catfish mucus, 2) determine t...

  15. Quality control ranges for testing broth microdilution susceptibility of Flavobacterium columnare and F. psychrophilium to nine antimicrobials

    Science.gov (United States)

    A multi-laboratory broth microdilution method trial was performed to standardize the specialized test conditions required for fish pathogens Flavobacterium columnare and F. pyschrophilum. Nine laboratories tested the quality control (QC) strains Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Aeromonas salmonicid...

  16. In vitro comparisons of the inhibitory activity of florfenicol copper sulfate and potassium permanganate towards Aeromonas hydrophila and Flavobacterium columnare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeromonas hydrophila and Flavobacterium columnare, the etiological agents of motile aeromonas septicemia (MAS) and columnaris disease, respectively, have been recently causing crippling moralities to the sunshine bass, Morone chrysops female X Morone saxatilis male (Percichthyidae), industry in the ...

  17. Evaluation of potassium permanganate against an experimental subacute infection of Flavobacterium columnare in channel catfish, Icatlurus punctatus

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    The efficacy of potassium permanganate (KMnO4) as a prophylactic and therapeutic treatment for subacute infection of Flavobacterium columnare was demonstrated in experimentally infected channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. Catfish experimentally infected with F. columnare to mimic a subacute infec...

  18. Development of a reproducible challenge model to investigate the virulence of Flavobacterium columnare genomovars in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavobacterium columnare is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes columnaris disease and has significant economic impacts on aquaculture production worldwide. Molecular analyses have demonstrated that there is genetic diversity among F. columnare isolates. A review of the published literature that...

  19. Identification of Four Distinct Phylogenetic Groups in Flavobacterium columnare With Fish Host Associations

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    Benjamin R. LaFrentz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Columnaris disease, caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Flavobacterium columnare, is one of the most prevalent fish diseases worldwide. An exceptionally high level of genetic diversity among isolates of F. columnare has long been recognized, whereby six established genomovars have been described to date. However, little has been done to quantify or characterize this diversity further in a systematic fashion. The objective of this research was to perform phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA and housekeeping gene sequences to decipher the genetic diversity of F. columnare. Fifty isolates and/or genomes of F. columnare, originating from diverse years, geographic locations, fish hosts, and representative of the six genomovars were analyzed in this study. A multilocus phylogenetic analysis (MLPA of the 16S rRNA and six housekeeping genes supported four distinct F. columnare genetic groups. There were associations between genomovar and genetic group, but these relationships were imperfect indicating that genomovar assignment does not accurately reflect F. columnare genetic diversity. To expand the dataset, an additional 90 16S rRNA gene sequences were retrieved from GenBank and a phylogenetic analysis of this larger dataset also supported the establishment of four genetic groups. Examination of isolate historical data indicated biological relevance to the identified genetic diversity, with some genetic groups isolated preferentially from specific fish species or families. It is proposed that F. columnare isolates be assigned to the four genetic groups defined in this study rather than genomovar in order to facilitate a standard nomenclature across the scientific community. An increased understanding of which genetic groups are most prevalent in different regions and/or aquaculture industries may allow for the development of improved targeted control and treatment measures for columnaris disease.

  20. Identification of genes encoding the type IX secretion system and secreted proteins in Flavobacterium columnare IA-S-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavobacterium columnare, a member of the phylum Bacteroidetes, causes columnaris disease in wild and aquaculture-reared freshwater fish. The mechanisms responsible for columnaris disease are not known. Many members of the phylum Bacteroidetes use type IX secretion systems (T9SSs) to secrete enzymes...

  1. Isolation and characterization of Flavobacterium columnare (Bernardet et al. 2002 from four tropical fish species in Brazil

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    F. Pilarski

    Full Text Available Flavobacterium columnare is the causative agent of columnaris disease in freshwater fish, implicated in skin and gill disease, often causing high mortality. The aim of this study was the isolation and characterization of Flavobacterium columnare in tropical fish in Brazil. Piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus, pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus, tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum and cascudo (Hypostomus plecostomus were examined for external lesions showing signs of colunmaris disease such as greyish white spots, especially on the head, dorsal part and caudal fin of the fish. The sampling comprised 50 samples representing four different fish species selected for study. Samples for culture were obtained by skin and kidney scrapes with a sterile cotton swabs of columnaris disease fish and streaked onto Carlson and Pacha (1968 artificial culture medium (broth and solid which were used for isolation. The strains in the liquid medium were Gram negative, long, filamentous, exhibited flexing movements (gliding motility, contained a large number of long slender bacteria and gathered into ‘columns'. Strains on the agar produced yellow-pale colonies, rather small, flat that had rhizoid edges. A total of four Flavobacterium columnare were isolated: 01 Brycon orbignyanus strain, 01 Piaractus mesopotamicus strain, 01 Colossoma macropomum strain, and 01 Hypostomus plecostomus strain. Biochemical characterization, with its absorption of Congo red dye, production of flexirubin-type pigments, H2S production and reduction of nitrates proved that the isolate could be classified as Flavobacterium columnare.

  2. Comparative effects of copper sulfate or potassium permanganate on channel catfish concurrently infected with Flavobacterium columnare and Ichthyobodo necator

    Science.gov (United States)

    An opportunistic study was conducted to determine the effects of two chemical therapeutants on channel catfish (CCF) Ictalurus punctatus concurrently infected Flavobacterium columnare and Ichthyobodo necator. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) and potassium permanganate (KMnO4) were investigated for their abil...

  3. Adaptive response to starvation in the fish pathogen Flavobacterium columnare: cell viability and ultrastructural changes

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    Arias Covadonga R

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ecology of columnaris disease, caused by Flavobacterium columnare, is poorly understood despite the economic losses that this disease inflicts on aquaculture farms worldwide. Currently, the natural reservoir for this pathogen is unknown but limited data have shown its ability to survive in water for extended periods of time. The objective of this study was to describe the ultrastructural changes that F. columnare cells undergo under starvation conditions. Four genetically distinct strains of this pathogen were monitored for 14 days in media without nutrients. Culturability and cell viability was assessed throughout the study. In addition, cell morphology and ultrastructure was analyzed using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Revival of starved cells under different nutrient conditions and the virulence potential of the starved cells were also investigated. Results Starvation induced unique and consistent morphological changes in all strains studied. Cells maintained their length and did not transition into a shortened, coccus shape as observed in many other Gram negative bacteria. Flavobacterium columnare cells modified their shape by morphing into coiled forms that comprised more than 80% of all the cells after 2 weeks of starvation. Coiled cells remained culturable as determined by using a dilution to extinction strategy. Statistically significant differences in cell viability were found between strains although all were able to survive in absence of nutrients for at least 14 days. In later stages of starvation, an extracellular matrix was observed covering the coiled cells. A difference in growth curves between fresh and starved cultures was evident when cultures were 3-months old but not when cultures were starved for only 1 month. Revival of starved cultures under different nutrients revealed that cells return back to their original elongated rod shape upon

  4. Evaluation of the therapeutic effect of potassium permanganate at early stages of an experimental acute infection of Flavobacterium columnare in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

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    The efficacy of potassium permanganate (KMnO4) against early stages of an experimental acute infection of Flavobacterium columnare in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) was evaluated. Fish were experimentally challenged, by waterborne exposure for 2 h to F. columnare after cutaneous abrasion, an...

  5. Complete genome sequence analysis of the fish pathogen Flavobacterium columnare provides insights into antibiotic resistance and pathogenicity related genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yulei; Zhao, Lijuan; Chen, Wenjie; Huang, Yunmao; Yang, Ling; Sarathbabu, V; Wu, Zaohe; Li, Jun; Nie, Pin; Lin, Li

    2017-10-01

    We analyzed here the complete genome sequences of a highly virulent Flavobacterium columnare Pf1 strain isolated in our laboratory. The complete genome consists of a 3,171,081 bp circular DNA with 2784 predicted protein-coding genes. Among these, 286 genes were predicted as antibiotic resistance genes, including 32 RND-type efflux pump related genes which were associated with the export of aminoglycosides, indicating inducible aminoglycosides resistances in F. columnare. On the other hand, 328 genes were predicted as pathogenicity related genes which could be classified as virulence factors, gliding motility proteins, adhesins, and many putative secreted proteases. These genes were probably involved in the colonization, invasion and destruction of fish tissues during the infection of F. columnare. Apparently, our obtained complete genome sequences provide the basis for the explanation of the interactions between the F. columnare and the infected fish. The predicted antibiotic resistance and pathogenicity related genes will shed a new light on the development of more efficient preventional strategies against the infection of F. columnare, which is a major worldwide fish pathogen. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Computer-aided vaccine designing approach against fish pathogens Edwardsiella tarda and Flavobacterium columnare using bioinformatics softwares

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    Mahendran R

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Radha Mahendran,1 Suganya Jeyabaskar,1 Gayathri Sitharaman,1 Rajamani Dinakaran Michael,2 Agnal Vincent Paul1 1Department of Bioinformatics, 2Centre for Fish Immunology, School of Life Sciences, Vels University, Pallavaram, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India Abstract: Edwardsiella tarda and Flavobacterium columnare are two important intracellular pathogenic bacteria that cause the infectious diseases edwardsiellosis and columnaris in wild and cultured fish. Prediction of major histocompatibility complex (MHC binding is an important issue in T-cell epitope prediction. In a healthy immune system, the T-cells must recognize epitopes and induce the immune response. In this study, T-cell epitopes were predicted by using in silico immunoinformatics approach with the help of bioinformatics tools that are less expensive and are not time consuming. Such identification of binding interaction between peptides and MHC alleles aids in the discovery of new peptide vaccines. We have reported the potential peptides chosen from the outer membrane proteins (OMPs of E. tarda and F. columnare, which interact well with MHC class I alleles. OMPs from E. tarda and F. columnare were selected and analyzed based on their antigenic and immunogenic properties. The OMPs of the genes TolC and FCOL_04620, respectively, from E. tarda and F. columnare were taken for study. Finally, two epitopes from the OMP of E. tarda exhibited excellent protein–peptide interaction when docked with MHC class I alleles. Five epitopes from the OMP of F. columnare had good protein–peptide interaction when docked with MHC class I alleles. Further in vitro studies can aid in the development of potential peptide vaccines using the predicted peptides. Keywords: E. tarda, F. columnare, edwardsiellosis, columnaris, T-cell epitopes, MHC class I, peptide vaccine, outer membrane proteins 

  7. Assessment of Aquaflor (c), copper sulfate and potassium permanganate for control of Aeromonas hydrophila and Flavobacterium columnare infection in sunshine bass, Morone chrysops female x Morone saxatilis male

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two experiments were conducted to assess different therapeutants against a mixed infection of Aeromonas hydrophila and Flavobacterium columnare in sunshine bass (SB) (Morone chrysops female x Morone saxatilis male). Experiment 1 assessed the efficacy of copper sulfate (CuSO4), florfenicol-medicated...

  8. Colorimetric Method of Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification with the Pre-Addition of Calcein for Detecting Flavobacterium columnare and its Assessment in Tilapia Farms.

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    Suebsing, Rungkarn; Kampeera, Jantana; Sirithammajak, Sarawut; Withyachumnarnkul, Boonsirm; Turner, Warren; Kiatpathomchai, Wansika

    2015-03-01

    Flavobacterium columnare, the causative agent of columnaris disease in fish, affects many economically important freshwater fish species. A colorimetric method of loop-mediated isothermal amplification with the pre-addition of calcein (LAMP-calcein) was developed and used to detect the presence of F. columnare in farmed tilapia (Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus and red tilapia [Nile Tilapia × Mozambique Tilapia O. mossambicus]) and rearing water. The detection method, based on a change in color from orange to green, could be performed within 45 min at 63°C. The method was highly specific, as it had no cross-detections with 14 other bacterial species, including other fish pathogens and two Flavobacterium species. The method has a minimum detection limit of 2.2 × 10(2) F. columnare CFU; thus, it is about 10 times more sensitive than conventional PCR. With this method, F. columnare was detected in gonad, gill, and blood samples from apparently healthy tilapia broodstock as well as in samples of fertilized eggs, newly hatched fry, and rearing water. The bacteria isolated from the blood were further characterized biochemically and found to be phenotypically identical to F. columnare. The amplified products from the LAMP-calcein method had 97% homology with the DNA sequence of F. columnare.

  9. Profilings of MicroRNAs in the Liver of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) Infected with Flavobacterium columnare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lijuan; Lu, Hong; Meng, Qinglei; Wang, Jinfu; Wang, Weimin; Yang, Ling; Lin, Li

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in regulation of many biological processes in eukaryotes, including pathogen infection and host interactions. Flavobacterium columnare (FC) infection can cause great economic loss of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) which is one of the most important cultured fish in the world. However, miRNAs in response to FC infection in common carp has not been characterized. To identify specific miRNAs involved in common carp infected with FC, we performed microRNA sequencing using livers of common carp infected with and without FC. A total of 698 miRNAs were identified, including 142 which were identified and deposited in the miRbase database (Available online: http://www.mirbase.org/) and 556 had only predicted miRNAs. Among the deposited miRNAs, eight miRNAs were first identified in common carp. Thirty of the 698 miRNAs were differentially expressed miRNAs (DIE-miRNAs) between the FC infected and control samples. From the DIE-miRNAs, seven were selected randomly and their expression profiles were confirmed to be consistent with the microRNA sequencing results using RT-PCR and qRT-PCR. In addition, a total of 27,363 target genes of the 30 DIE-miRNAs were predicted. The target genes were enriched in five Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways, including focal adhesion, extracellular matrix (ECM)-receptor interaction, erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog (ErbB) signaling pathway, regulation of actin cytoskeleton, and adherent junction. The miRNA expression profile of the liver of common carp infected with FC will pave the way for the development of effective strategies to fight against FC infection. PMID:27092486

  10. Efficacy of florfenicol, copper sulfate and potassium permanganate in controlling a natural infection of Aeromonas hydrophila and Flavobacterium columnare in sunshine bass, Morone chrysops female x Morone saxatilis male

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    Sunshine bass (Morone chrysops female ' Morone saxatilis male) naturally infected with Aeromonas hydrophila and Flavobacterium columnare were randomly assigned to six treatments: 1) two treatments of waterborne exposures to copper sulfate (CuSO4), at 2.1 and at 4.2 mg/L (approximately one and two pe...

  11. Effect of Pseudomonas sp. MT5 baths on Flavobacterium columnare infection of rainbow trout and on microbial diversity on fish skin and gills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suomalainen, L R; Tiirola, M A; Valtonen, E T

    2005-01-25

    Use of Pseudomonas sp. strain MT5 to prevent and treat Flavobacterium columnare infection was studied in 2 experiments with fingerling rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. In the first experiment, length heterogeneity analysis of PCR-amplified DNA fragments (LH-PCR) was used to assess the effect of antagonistic baths on the microbial diversity of healthy and experimentally infected fish. In the 148 samples studied, no difference was found between bathed and unbathed fish, and 3 fragment lengths were detected most frequently: 500 (in 75.7% of the samples), 523 (62.2%) and 517 bp (40.5%). The species contributing to these fragment sizes were Pseudomonas sp., Rhodococcus sp. and F. columnare, respectively. A specific PCR for detection of Pseudomonas sp. MT5 was designed, but none of the tissue samples were found to be positive, most likely indicating poor adhesion of the strain during bathing. LH-PCR was found to be a more powerful tool for detecting F. columnare in fish tissue than traditional culture methods (chi2 = 3.9, df = 1, p < 0.05). Antagonistic baths had no effect on the outbreak of infection or on fish mortality. F. columnare was also detected in healthy fish prior to and after experimental infection, indicating that these fish were carriers of the disease. In the second experiment, intensive Pseudomonas sp. MT5 antagonistic baths were given daily to rainbow trout suffering from a natural columnaris infection. Again, the antagonistic bacteria had no effect on fish mortality, which reached 95 % in both control and antagonist-treated groups in 7 d.

  12. Multivalent protein assembly using monovalent self-assembling building blocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petkau - Milroy, K.; Sonntag, M.H.; Colditz, A.; Brunsveld, L.

    2013-01-01

    Discotic molecules, which self-assemble in water into columnar supramolecular polymers, emerged as an alternative platform for the organization of proteins. Here, a monovalent discotic decorated with one single biotin was synthesized to study the self-assembling multivalency of this system in regard

  13. Commercial demonstration of kaolinitic clay for protection of Flavobacterium columnaris in sportfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sportfish farms in Arkansas routinely battle Columnaris disease, which is caused by Flavobacterium columnare. Columnaris is especially prevalent during the feed training of centrarchids such as largemouth bass and immediately following harvest of crappie, redear sunfish, and bluegill while they are ...

  14. The stress hormone cortisol: a (co)regulator of biofilm formation in Flavobacterum columnare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previously, we demonstrated a direct effect of cortisol on Flavobacterium columnare, a notorious fish pathogenic bacterium, engendering a new perspective to bacteria-host communication in aquaculture. As stressed fish harbour increased cortisol levels in the skin and gill mucus, highly virulent F. c...

  15. Dietary copper effects survival of channel catfish challenged with Flavobacterium columnare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columnaris disease is one of the most important bacterial diseases of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, commercially grown in the US. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) has also been shown to be both therapeutic and prophylactic as a water treatment for columnaris disease. As copper is an essential dietar...

  16. Hematology and productive performance of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus naturally infected with Flavobacterium columnare

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    F. A Sebastião

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Columnaris disease is one of the main causes of mortality in tilapia rearing and is responsible for large economic losses worldwide. Hematology is a tool that makes it possible to study organisms' physiological responses to pathogens. It may assist in making diagnoses and prognoses on diseases in fish populations. The hematological variables of nile tilapia were studied in specimens with a clinical diagnosis of columnaris disease and in specimens that were disease-free. The total erythrocyte count, hemoglobin rate, hematocrit percentage, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, organic defense blood cell percentages (leukocytes and thrombocytes and hepatosomatic and splenosomatic index were determined. The results showed that there were changes in the erythrocytic series and in organic defense blood cells, in the fish infected with the bacterium, with reductions in erythrocytic variables and significant increases in the numbers of circulating lymphocytes and neutrophils.

  17. Flavobacterium psychrophilum, prevention and immune response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Maya Maria Mihályi; Dalsgaard, Inger

    The fish pathogen Flavobacterium psychrophilum is one of the main causes of mortality in farmed rainbow trout and other salmonid fish. The disease following infection is often called bacterial coldwater disease (BCWD) in USA or rainbow trout fry syndrome (RTFS) in Europe. An infected farm can exp...... goal is to examine gene expression and location of transcription products in rainbow trout fry, in order to optimize vaccination or immune-stimulation. The presentation will focus on the future plans for the project, since no data have yet been obtained....

  18. Use of ribosomal proteins as biomarkers for identification of Flavobacterium psychrophilum by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

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    Fernández-Álvarez, Clara; Torres-Corral, Yolanda; Santos, Ysabel

    2018-01-06

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) is a rapid methodology for identification of bacteria that is increasingly used in diagnostic laboratories. This work aimed at evaluating the potential of MALDI-TOF-MS for identification of the main serotypes of Flavobacterium psychrophilum isolated from salmonids, and its discrimination from closely related Flavobacterium spp. A mass spectra library was constructed by analysing 70 F. psychrophilum strains representing the serotypes O1, O2a, O2b and O3, including reference and clinical isolates. Peak mass lists were examined using the Mass-Up software for the detection of potential biomarkers, similarity and cluster analysis. Fourteen species-identifying biomarkers were detected in all the F. psychrophilum isolates tested, moreover, sets of serotype-identifying biomarkers ions were selected. F. psychrophilum-specific biomarkers were identified as ribosomal proteins by matching with protein databases. Furthermore, sequence variation corresponding to amino acid exchanges in several biomarker proteins were tentatively assigned. Closely related Flavobacterium species (F. flevense, F. succinicans, F. columnare, F. branchiophilum and F. johnsoniae) could be differentiated from F. psychrophilum by defining species identifying biomarkers and hierarchical cluster analysis. These results demonstrated that MALDI-TOF spectrometry represents a powerful tool for an accurate identification of the fish pathogen F. psychrophilum as well as for epidemiological studies. The results obtained in this study demonstrated that MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry represents a powerful tool that can be used by diagnostic laboratories for rapid identification of the fish pathogen Flavobacterium psychrophilum and its differentiation from other Flavobacterium-related species. Analysis of mass peak lists revealed the potential of the MALDI-TOF technique to identify epidemiologically important serotypes affecting

  19. Strong and Reversible Monovalent Supramolecular Protein Immobilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Young, Jacqui F.; Nguyen, Hoang D.; Yang, Lanti; Huskens, Jurriaan; Jonkheijm, Pascal; Brunsveld, Luc

    2010-01-01

    Proteins with an iron clasp: Site-selective incorporation of a ferrocene molecule into a protein allows for easy, strong, and reversible supramolecular protein immobilization through a selective monovalent interaction of the ferrocene with a cucurbit[7]uril immobilized on a gold surface. The

  20. Columnar apple tree named 'Moonlight'

    OpenAIRE

    Tupý, J. (Jaroslav); Louda, O. (Otto); Zima, J. (Jan)

    2010-01-01

    A new and distinct Malus domestica (Borkh.) apple tree variety is provided which exhibits a columnar tree type, weakly vigorous compact growth, predominant bearing on spurs and V.sub.f-resistance against scab. The new variety yields late maturing, medium-sized, globose-conical to conical fruits having good storage quality. The fruit color is yellow-green to yellow with a partial red to orange blush. The fruits have a yellow-colored firm flesh that is crisp and juicy with a good sweet/sour bal...

  1. Yield surface evolution for columnar ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhiwei; Ma, Wei; Zhang, Shujuan; Mu, Yanhu; Zhao, Shunpin; Li, Guoyu

    A series of triaxial compression tests, which has capable of measuring the volumetric strain of the sample, were conducted on columnar ice. A new testing approach of probing the experimental yield surface was performed from a single sample in order to investigate yield and hardening behaviors of the columnar ice under complex stress states. Based on the characteristic of the volumetric strain, a new method of defined the multiaxial yield strengths of the columnar ice is proposed. The experimental yield surface remains elliptical shape in the stress space of effective stress versus mean stress. The effect of temperature, loading rate and loading path in the initial yield surface and deformation properties of the columnar ice were also studied. Subsequent yield surfaces of the columnar ice have been explored by using uniaxial and hydrostatic paths. The evolution of the subsequent yield surface exhibits significant path-dependent characteristics. The multiaxial hardening law of the columnar ice was established experimentally. A phenomenological yield criterion was presented for multiaxial yield and hardening behaviors of the columnar ice. The comparisons between the theoretical and measured results indicate that this current model is capable of giving a reasonable prediction for the multiaxial yield and post-yield properties of the columnar ice subjected to different temperature, loading rate and path conditions.

  2. Flavobacterium lindanitolerans sp. nov., isolated from hexachlorocyclohexane-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jit, Simran; Dadhwal, Mandeep; Prakash, Om; Lal, Rup

    2008-07-01

    A Gram-negative, non-spore-forming, cream-yellow-pigmented bacterial strain, IP-10(T), was isolated from soil samples from a waste site highly contaminated with hexachlorocyclohexane in Ummari village, India. The organism showed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 92.7 % with Flavobacterium soli KCTC 12542(T) and levels of 87-92 % with the type strains of other recognized species of the genus Flavobacterium. The DNA G+C content of strain IP-10(T) was 31 mol%. The predominant fatty acids were iso-C(15 : 0) (22.1 %), iso-C(17 : 0) 3-OH (18.5 %) and summed feature 3 (comprising C(16 : 1)omega7c and/or iso-C(15 : 0) 2-OH; 13.2 %). Strain IP-10(T) could be differentiated from recognized species of the genus Flavobacterium based on a number of phenotypic features. Strain IP-10(T) is therefore considered to represent a novel species of the genus Flavobacterium, for which the name Flavobacterium lindanitolerans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is IP-10(T) (=MTCC 8597(T)=CCM 7424(T)).

  3. Luminescent sulfides of monovalent and trivalent cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The invention discloses a family of luminescent materials or phosphors having a rhombohedral crystal structure and consisting essentially of a mixed host sulfide of at least one monovalent host cation and at least one trivalent host cation, and containing, for each mole of phosphor, 0.0005 to 0.05 mole of at least one activating cation. The monovalent host cations may be Na, K or Rb and Cs. The trivalent host cations may be Gd, La, Lu, Sc and Y. The activating cations may be one or more of trivalent As, Bi, Ce, Dy, Er, Pr, Sb, Sm, Tb and Tm; divalent Lu, Mn, Pb and Sn; and monovalent Ag, Cu and Tl. The novel phosphors may be used in devices to convert electron-beam, ultraviolet or x-ray energy to light in the visible spectrum. Such energy conversion can be employed for example in fluoroscopic screens, and in viewing screens of cathode-ray tubes and other electron tubes

  4. Electron transport through monovalent atomic wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Y. J.; Brandbyge, Mads; Puska, M. J.

    2004-01-01

    at the chain determine the conductance. As a result, the conductance for noble-metal chains is close to one quantum of conductance, and it oscillates moderately so that an even number of chain atoms yields a higher value than an odd number. The conductance oscillations are large for alkali-metal chains......Using a first-principles density-functional method we model electron transport through linear chains of monovalent atoms between two bulk electrodes. For noble-metal chains the transport resembles that for free electrons over a potential barrier whereas for alkali-metal chains resonance states...... and their phase is opposite to that of noble-metal chains....

  5. Monovalent IgG4 molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Ian C.; Fowler, Susan B.; Machiesky, LeeAnn; Miller, Kenneth; Hayes, David B.; Adib, Morshed; Her, Cheng; Borrok, M. Jack; Tsui, Ping; Burrell, Matthew; Corkill, Dominic J.; Witt, Susanne; Lowe, David C.; Webster, Carl I.

    2013-01-01

    Antibodies have become the fastest growing class of biological therapeutics, in part due to their exquisite specificity and ability to modulate protein-protein interactions with a high biological potency. The relatively large size and bivalency of antibodies, however, limits their use as therapeutics in certain circumstances. Antibody fragments, such as single-chain variable fragments and antigen binding-fragments, have emerged as viable alternatives, but without further modifications these monovalent formats have reduced terminal serum half-lives because of their small size and lack of an Fc domain, which is required for FcRn-mediated recycling. Using rational engineering of the IgG4 Fc domain to disrupt key interactions at the CH3-CH3 interface, we identified a number of point mutations that abolish Fc dimerization and created half-antibodies, a novel monovalent antibody format that retains a monomeric Fc domain. Introduction of these mutations into an IgG1 framework also led to the creation of half-antibodies. These half-antibodies were shown to be soluble, thermodynamically stable and monomeric, characteristics that are favorable for use as therapeutic proteins. Despite significantly reduced FcRn binding in vitro, which suggests that avidity gains in a dimeric Fc are critical to optimal FcRn binding, this format demonstrated an increased terminal serum half-life compared with that expected for most alternative antibody fragments. PMID:23567207

  6. Quality control ranges for testing broth microdilution susceptibility of Flavobacterium columnare and F. psychrophilum to nine antimicrobials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gieseker, Charles M.; Mayer, Tamara D.; Crosby, Tina C.

    2012-01-01

    salmonicida subsp. salmonicida ATCC 33658 against 10 antimicrobials (ampicillin, enrofloxacin, erythromycin, florfenicol, flumequine, gentamicin, ormetoprim/sulfadimethoxine, oxolinic acid, oxytetracycline, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole) in diluted (4 g l−1) cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth incubated...

  7. Flavobacterium meningosepticum sepsis in an infant with a diarrheal prodrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, S C; Johnson, G M

    1999-02-01

    A full term, previously normal 2 1/2-month-old black boy was transferred to our hospital from an outlying facility on hospital day 5 for failure to thrive. Three weeks before transfer, the infant was hospitalized for a diarrheal illness with fever. The baby received 3 days of ceftriaxone empirically and was discharged home after the sepsis evaluation was negative. Mild diarrhea and steady weight loss continued and the baby was readmitted. Blood culture done on admission grew Flavobacterium meningosepticum, an organism previously described as an uncommon cause of sepsis in neonates and immunocompromised individuals. As it is water-borne, it has been associated with infection via contaminated water. This organism is usually resistant to antibiotics commonly used for empiric treatment. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Flavobacterium bacteremia associated with a prodromal and concurrent diarrheal illness.

  8. Recent results on some columnar paramagnetic metallomesogens

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A broader view on some physical properties of columnar paramagnetic ... was evident by X-ray crystal structure determination in the solid state on a homologous ... leading to interfacial polarization as described for other LC materials before [9]. ... dodecyloxy tail on the phenyl rings) was described to exhibit a Colho phase ...

  9. Deformation strain inhomogeneity in columnar grain nickel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, G.L.; Godfrey, A.; Juul Jensen, D.

    2005-01-01

    A method is presented for determination of the local deformation strain of individual grains in the bulk of a columnar grain sample. The method, based on measurement of the change in grain area of each grain, is applied to 12% cold rolled nickel. Large variations are observed in the local strain...... associated with each grain. (c) 2005 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  10. Anomalous columnar order of charged colloidal platelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Anda, L.; Wensink, H. H.; Galindo, A.; Gil-Villegas, A.

    2012-01-01

    Monte Carlo computer simulations are carried out for a model system of like-charged colloidal platelets in the isothermal-isobaric ensemble (NpT). The aim is to elucidate the role of electrostatic interactions on the structure of synthetic clay systems at high particle densities. Short-range repulsions between particles are described by a suitable hard-core model representing a discotic particle. This potential is supplemented with an electrostatic potential based on a Yukawa model for the screened Coulombic potential between infinitely thin disklike macro-ions. The particle aspect-ratio and electrostatic parameters were chosen to mimic an aqueous dispersion of thin, like-charged, rigid colloidal platelets at finite salt concentration. An examination of the fluid phase diagram reveals a marked shift in the isotropic-nematic transition compared to the hard cut-sphere reference system. Several statistical functions, such as the pair correlation function for the center-of-mass coordinates and structure factor, are obtained to characterize the structural organization of the platelets phases. At low salinity and high osmotic pressure we observe anomalous hexagonal columnar structures characterized by interpenetrating columns with a typical intercolumnar distance corresponding to about half of that of a regular columnar phase. Increasing the ionic strength leads to the formation of glassy, disordered structures consisting of compact clusters of platelets stacked into finite-sized columns. These so-called "nematic columnar" structures have been recently observed in systems of charge-stabilized gibbsite platelets. Our findings are corroborated by an analysis of the static structure factor from a simple density functional theory.

  11. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Flavobacterium psychrophilum from Finnish fish farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madetoja, J.; Hanninen, M.L.; Hirvela-Koski, V.

    2001-01-01

    Finnish isolates (n = 37) of Flavobacterium psychrophilum isolated from farmed salmonids were studied using phenotypic and genotypic characteristics. The characteristics of isolates were compared with the characteristics of Swedish and Estonian F. psychrophilum isolates and the type strain, F...

  12. Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (VNTR) analysis of Flavobacterium psychrophilum from salmonids in Chile and Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Apablaza, Patricia; Brevik, Oyvind J.; Mjos, Svein

    2015-01-01

    Background: Flavobacterium psychrophilum causes serious fish diseases such RTFS and BCWD, affecting the aquaculture industry worldwide. Commercial vaccines are not available and control of the disease depends on the use of antibiotics. Reliable methods for detection and identification of differen...

  13. Immunization of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) with a crude lipopolysaccharide extract from Flavobacterium psychrophilum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Control methods for Flavobacterium psychrophilum, the etiologic agent of bacterial coldwater disease (CWD) and rainbow trout fry syndrome, are limited and oftentimes ineffective; hence, research efforts have focused on vaccine development. This study tested the hypothesis that a crude lipopolysacch...

  14. Empirical formula for the parameters of metallic monovalent halides ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    By collating the data on melting properties and transport coefficients obtained from various experiments and theories for certain halides of monovalent metals, allinclusive linear relationship has been fashioned out. This expression holds between the change in entropy and volume on melting; it is approximately obeyed by ...

  15. Immunogenic Response of Rabbits to Monovalent and Polyvalent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work was carried out in University of Surrey UK Department of Microbiology. In this study, the efficacy of monovalent and polyvalent vaccines made from Mannhaemia haemolytica antigens, were evaluated by measuring specific serum antibody titers produced against the bacteria in immunized rabbits. Eleven biotype A ...

  16. Diversity and relative abundance of the bacterial pathogen, Flavobacterium spp., infecting reproductive ecotypes of kokanee salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemay, Matthew A; Russello, Michael A

    2014-11-04

    Understanding the distribution and abundance of pathogens can provide insight into the evolution and ecology of their host species. Previous research in kokanee, the freshwater form of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), found evidence that populations spawning in streams may experience a greater pathogen load compared with populations that spawn on beaches. In this study we tested for differences in the abundance and diversity of the gram-negative bacteria, Flavobacterium spp., infecting tissues of kokanee in both of these spawning habitats (streams and beaches). Molecular assays were carried out using primers designed to amplify a ~200 nucleotide region of the gene encoding the ATP synthase alpha subunit (AtpA) within the genus Flavobacterium. Using a combination of DNA sequencing and quantitative PCR (qPCR) we compared the diversity and relative abundance of Flavobacterium AtpA amplicons present in DNA extracted from tissue samples of kokanee collected from each spawning habitat. We identified 10 Flavobacterium AtpA haplotypes among the tissues of stream-spawning kokanee and seven haplotypes among the tissues of beach-spawning kokanee, with only two haplotypes shared between spawning habitats. Haplotypes occurring in the same clade as F. psychrophilum were the most prevalent (92% of all reads, 60% of all haplotypes), and occurred in kokanee from both spawning habitats (streams and beaches). Subsequent qPCR assays did not find any significant difference in the relative abundance of Flavobacterium AtpA amplicons between samples from the different spawning habitats. We confirmed the presence of Flavobacterium spp. in both spawning habitats and found weak evidence for increased Flavobacterium diversity in kokanee sampled from stream-spawning sites. However, the quantity of Flavobacterium DNA did not differ between spawning habitats. We recommend further study aimed at quantifying pathogen diversity and abundance in population-level samples of kokanee combined with

  17. Vortex trapping by tilted columnar defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baladie, I.; Buzdin, A.

    2000-01-01

    The irradiation of high-T c superconductors by inclined heavy-ion beam can create columnar defects (CD's) practically at any angle towards the crystal c axis. We calculate the energy of a tilted vortex trapped on an inclined columnar defect within the framework of an electromagnetic model. Under a weak perpendicular magnetic field, and if the CD radius is larger than the superconducting coherence length, vortices always prefer to be on a tilted CD than to be aligned along the external field. We calculate also the interaction energy between two tilted vortices and find that large attractive regions appear. In particular, in the plane defined by c axis and the CD axis, tilted vortices attract each other at long distances, leading to the formation of vortex chains. The equilibrium distance between vortices in a chain is of the order of the magnitude of the in-plane London penetration depth. The existence of the inclined trapped vortices could be revealed by torque measurements, and could also lead to the anisotropy of the in-plane resistivity and the critical current

  18. Occurrence of Flavobacterium psychrophilum in fish-farming environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madetoja, J.; Dalsgaard, Inger; Wiklund, T.

    2002-01-01

    Occurrence of Flavobacterium psychrophilum in fish farms and fish-farming environments was studied using agar plate cultivation,the immunoflourescence antibody technique (IFAT) and nested PCR. Characteristics of 64 F. psychrophilum isolates from rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, fish farm rearing....... F. psychrophilum was detected and isolated from skin mucus, skin lesions and internal organs of diseased rainbow trout and from fish without clinical disease. The pathogen was also present in wild perch Perca fluviatilis, roach Rutilus rutilus, and ovarian fluids of farmed rainbow trout brood fish...... ribopatterns), ribotype A was the most dominant. Farmed rainbow trout brood fish carried a broad-spectrum of serologically and genetically different F. psychrophilum in ovarian fluids. Virulence of the tested isolates in rainbow trout varied and naturally infected rainbow trout shed 104 to 108 cells fish-1 h-1...

  19. Critical currents in columnar vanadium films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherkasova, V.G.; Kolin'ko, A.E.; Slatin, A.E.; Fogel, N.Y.

    1982-01-01

    The angular dependence of the critical current I/sub c/ is studied in columnar vanadium films. In measurements in constant magnetic fields an anomalous maximum I/sub c/ is found on the I/sub c/(theta) curves at arbitrary values of the external magnetic field and temperature, when the magnetic field is perpendicular to the plane of the specimen. The angular dependence of I/sub c/ measured in constant reduced magnetic fields h = H/H/sub c/2(T,theta) shows no singularities in the vicinity of the angle at which the I/sub c/ peak is found in the case H = const, i.e., the critical current is isotropic. This implies that a change in the relative orientation of the vortices and column boundaries produces no change in critical current. The experimental data obtained permit the conclusion that the anisotropy of I/sub c/ observed in a constant magnetic field H is merely a consequence of the anisotropy of the critical magnetic field H/sub c/: the critical current ''tracking'' the magnitude and angular dependence of H/sub c/

  20. Superconducting state parameters of monovalent and polyvalent amorphous

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonvane, Y. A., E-mail: yas@ashd.svnit.ac.in [Department of Applied Physics, S. V. National Institute of Technology, Surat 395 007, Gujarat (India); Patel, H. P., E-mail: patel.harshal2@gmail.com; Thakor, P. B., E-mail: pbthakor@rediffmail.com [Department of Physics, Veer Narmad South Gujarat University, Surat 395 007, Gujarat (India)

    2015-08-28

    In the present study deals, we have calculated superconducting state parameter (SSP) like electron-phonon coupling strength λ, coulomb pseudo potential, μ*, transition temperature Tc, isotope effect exponent α and effective interaction strength N{sub 0}V of monovalent (Li), divalent (Zn), trivalent (In) and tetravalent (Pb) amorphous. To carry out this work we have used our newly constructed model pseudo potential to describe electron ion interaction along with three different local field correction functions like Hartree, Taylor and Sarkar et al. The present results are found in good agreement with other available theoretical as well as experimental data.

  1. Utilization of oligo- and polysaccharides at microgram-per-litre levels in freshwater by Flavobacterium johnsoniae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sack, E.L.W.; Wielen, van der P.W.J.J.; Kooij, van der D.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: To obtain a bacterial strain that can be used to quantify biodegradable polysaccharides at concentrations of a few micrograms per litre in freshwater. Methods and Results: Flavobacterium johnsoniae strain A3 was isolated from tap water supplemented with laminarin, pectin or amylopectin at 100

  2. Genomic characterization of Flavobacterium psychrophilum serotypes and development of a multiplex PCR-based serotyping scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rochat, Tatiana; Fujiwara-Nagata, Erina; Calvez, Ségolène

    2017-01-01

    Flavobacterium psychrophilum is a devastating bacterial pathogen of salmonids reared in freshwater worldwide. So far, serological diversity between isolates has been described but the underlying molecular factors remain unknown. By combining complete genome sequence analysis and the serotyping me...... for bacterial coldwater disease resistance and future vaccine formulation....

  3. Survival of Flavobacterium psychrophilum in rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ) serum in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiklund, T.; Dalsgaard, Inger

    2002-01-01

    Virulent and non-virulent strains of Flavobacterium psychrophilum of different serotypes were examined for survival and growth in non-immune and immune rainbow trout serum, in vitro. A majority of the examined strains consumed complement of non-immune serum, but the complement cascade was not able...

  4. Satellite growth of Legionella pneumophila with an environmental isolate of Flavobacterium breve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadowsky, R M; Yee, R B

    1983-12-01

    Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 was observed to satellite around colonies of Flavobacterium breve on an L-cysteine-deficient medium which did not support growth of legionellae. Both isolates were recovered from the hot water tanks of hospitals. Ferric PPi stimulated satellite growth between 0.01 and 0.1%.

  5. Satellite growth of Legionella pneumophila with an environmental isolate of Flavobacterium breve.

    OpenAIRE

    Wadowsky, R M; Yee, R B

    1983-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 was observed to satellite around colonies of Flavobacterium breve on an L-cysteine-deficient medium which did not support growth of legionellae. Both isolates were recovered from the hot water tanks of hospitals. Ferric PPi stimulated satellite growth between 0.01 and 0.1%.

  6. Columnar structure of reactively sputtered aluminium nitride films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Chisan; Hwang Binghwai; Lu Hongyang; Hsu Tzuchien

    2002-01-01

    Columnar structure of thin aluminium nitride (AlN) films is examined by x-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The films were deposited on SiO 2 /Si(100) substrate using radiofrequency reactive sputtering method. Strong [0001] preferred orientation is observed by XRD and confirmed by selected area diffraction pattern of TEM. Columnar grains of ∼50-100 nm inclined at an angle of ∼10 deg. to the substrate normal are observed by SEM. As revealed by TEM, each columnar grain is composed of nano-grains of the order of 10 nm and no faceting is observed in the nano-grains and columns. The [0001] preferred orientation results as columnar grains are oriented at various azimuthal angles with their c-axes perpendicular to the substrate surface. A slight tilt of a few tenths of a degree between adjacent nano-grains within a column is also observed. The random azimuthal orientation of columnar grains and small tilt between nano-grains in the films are accommodated by the amorphous phase present in the grain boundaries

  7. Disclosing the temperature of columnar jointing in lavas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamur, Anthony; Lavallée, Yan; Iddon, Fiona E; Hornby, Adrian J; Kendrick, Jackie E; von Aulock, Felix W; Wadsworth, Fabian B

    2018-04-12

    Columnar joints form by cracking during cooling-induced contraction of lava, allowing hydrothermal fluid circulation. A lack of direct observations of their formation has led to ambiguity about the temperature window of jointing and its impact on fluid flow. Here we develop a novel thermo-mechanical experiment to disclose the temperature of columnar jointing in lavas. Using basalts from Eyjafjallajökull volcano (Iceland) we show that contraction during cooling induces stress build-up below the solidus temperature (980 °C), resulting in localised macroscopic failure between 890 and 840 °C. This temperature window for incipient columnar jointing is supported by modelling informed by mechanical testing and thermal expansivity measurements. We demonstrate that columnar jointing takes place well within the solid state of volcanic rocks, and is followed by a nonlinear increase in system permeability of <9 orders of magnitude during cooling. Columnar jointing may promote advective cooling in magmatic-hydrothermal environments and fluid loss during geothermal drilling and thermal stimulation.

  8. Genomic Diversity and Evolution of the Fish Pathogen Flavobacterium psychrophilum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Duchaud

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Flavobacterium psychrophilum, the etiological agent of rainbow trout fry syndrome and bacterial cold-water disease in salmonid fish, is currently one of the main bacterial pathogens hampering the productivity of salmonid farming worldwide. In this study, the genomic diversity of the F. psychrophilum species is analyzed using a set of 41 genomes, including 30 newly sequenced isolates. These were selected on the basis of available MLST data with the two-fold objective of maximizing the coverage of the species diversity and of allowing a focus on the main clonal complex (CC-ST10 infecting farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss worldwide. The results reveal a bacterial species harboring a limited genomic diversity both in terms of nucleotide diversity, with ~0.3% nucleotide divergence inside CDSs in pairwise genome comparisons, and in terms of gene repertoire, with the core genome accounting for ~80% of the genes in each genome. The pan-genome seems nevertheless “open” according to the scaling exponent of a power-law fitted on the rate of new gene discovery when genomes are added one-by-one. Recombination is a key component of the evolutionary process of the species as seen in the high level of apparent homoplasy in the core genome. Using a Hidden Markov Model to delineate recombination tracts in pairs of closely related genomes, the average recombination tract length was estimated to ~4.0 Kbp and the typical ratio of the contributions of recombination and mutations to nucleotide-level differentiation (r/m was estimated to ~13. Within CC-ST10, evolutionary distances computed on non-recombined regions and comparisons between 22 isolates sampled up to 27 years apart suggest a most recent common ancestor in the second half of the nineteenth century in North America with subsequent diversification and transmission of this clonal complex coinciding with the worldwide expansion of rainbow trout farming. With the goal to promote the development of

  9. UV laser micromachining of ceramic materials: formation of columnar topographies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, V.; Vilar, R.; Conde, O.

    2001-01-01

    Laser machining is increasingly appearing as an alternative for micromachining of ceramics. Using ceramic materials using excimer lasers can result in smooth surfaces or in the formation of cone-like or columnar topography. Potential applications of cone-shaped or columnar surface topography include, for example, light trapping in anti-reflection coatings and improvement of adhesion bonding between ceramic materials. In this communication results of a comparative study of surface topography change during micromachining of several ceramic materials with different ablation behaviors are reported. (orig.)

  10. Hyperfine-mediated static polarizabilities of monovalent atoms and ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzuba, V. A.; Flambaum, V. V.; Beloy, K.; Derevianko, A.

    2010-01-01

    We apply relativistic many-body methods to compute static differential polarizabilities for transitions inside the ground-state hyperfine manifolds of monovalent atoms and ions. Knowledge of this transition polarizability is required in a number of high-precision experiments, such as microwave atomic clocks and searches for CP-violating permanent electric dipole moments. While the traditional polarizability arises in the second order of interaction with the externally applied electric field, the differential polarizability involves an additional contribution from the hyperfine interaction of atomic electrons with nuclear moments. We derive formulas for the scalar and tensor polarizabilities including contributions from magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole hyperfine interactions. Numerical results are presented for Al, Rb, Cs, Yb + , Hg + , and Fr.

  11. Ensemble averaged multi-phase Eulerian model for columnar/equiaxed solidification of a binary alloy: II. Simulation of the columnar-to-equiaxed transition (CET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciobanas, A I; Fautrelle, Y

    2007-01-01

    A new multi-phase Eulerian model for the columnar and equiaxed dendritic solidification has been developed. In this paper we first focus on the numerical simulation of quasi-steady solidification experiments in order to obtain corresponding CET maps. We have identified three main zones on the CET map: the pure columnar, the pure equiaxed zone and finally the mixed columnar+equiaxed zone. The mixed c/e zone was further quantified by means of a columnar fraction ε c which quantifies in a rigorous way the two coexisting structures. Since it intrinsically includes the solutal and the mechanical blocking effects, the new ensemble model unifies the semi-empirical Hunt's approach (pure mechanical blocking mechanism) and the Martorano et al approach (pure solutal blocking mechanism). Secondly the present model was used to simulate unidirectional solidification experiments. It was found that the columnar front evolved in a quasi-steady state until a time very close to the critical CET moment. It is also found that the equiaxed nucleation undercooling is close to the maximum columnar dendrite tip undercooling and that the CET is virtually independent of the equiaxed zone ahead of the columnar front. If the equiaxed zone is not taken into account it is observed that the columnar front velocity exhibits a sudden increase at the beginning of the solidification followed by a quasi-plateau corresponding to a quasi-state at the columnar tips and finally, above a critical time, an oscillatory evolution. The beginning of the oscillatory evolution of the columnar front was well correlated with the CET position measured in the experiments. We also find that this oscillatory evolution of the columnar front is very favourable for the fragmentation of the columnar dendrites and thus for the CET. In this respect, it seems that the unsteady regime of the columnar front with respect to the local cooling conditions represents the main cause for the CET phenomena, at least for the non

  12. Fast Formation of Opal-like Columnar Colloidal Crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Beek, D.; Radstake, P.B.; Petukhov, A.V.; Lekkerkerker, H.N.W.

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate that highly polydisperse colloidal gibbsite platelets easily form an opal-like columnar crystal with striking iridescent Bragg reflections. The formation process can be accelerated by orders of magnitude under a centrifugation force of 900g without arresting the system in a disordered

  13. Influence of columnar defects on the thermodynamic properties of BSCCO

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Beek, C. J.; Indenbom, M. V.; Berseth, V.; Konczykowski, M.; Li, T. W.; Kes, P. H.; Benoit, W.

    1996-03-01

    Amorphous columnar defects strongly affect the reversible magnetization of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ single crystals both in the vortex solid, where the change reflects the change in vortex energy due to pinning, and in the vortex liquid, where the randomly positioned columns disrupt the interaction between superconducting fluctuations.

  14. Fractional Hoppinglike Motion in Columnar Mesophases of Semiflexible Rodlike Particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naderi, S.; Pouget, E.; Ballesta, P.; van der Schoot, P. P. A. M.; Lettinga, M.P.; Grelet, E

    2013-01-01

    We report on single-particle dynamics of strongly interacting filamentous fd virus particles in the liquid-crystalline columnar state in aqueous solution. From fluorescence microscopy, we find that rare, discrete events take place, in which individual particles engage in sudden, jumplike motion

  15. Orientation dependent emission properties of columnar quantum dash laser structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hein, S.; Podemski, P.; Sek, G.; Misiewicz, J.; Ridha, P.; Fiore, A.; Patriarche, G.; Höfling, S.; Forchel, A.

    2009-01-01

    InAs columnar quantum dash (CQDash) structures on (100) InP have been realized by gas source molecular beam epitaxy for stacking numbers of up to 24. Laser devices show low threshold current densities between 0.73 and 3.5 kA/ cm2, dependent on the CQDash orientation within the cavity.

  16. Flavobacterium kingsejongi sp. nov., a carotenoid-producing species isolated from Antarctic penguin faeces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jun Young; Kim, Jin Ho; Lee, Pyung Cheon

    2018-03-01

    Taxonomic studies were carried out on a carotenoid-producing strain, designated WV39 T , isolated from the faeces of Antarctic penguins. Cells of strain WV39 T were Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic, yellow and rod-shaped. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain WV39 T was closely related to Flavobacterium qiangtangense JCM 19739 T (96.3 % similarity), Flavobacterium noncentrifugens NBRC 108844 T (95.5 %) and Flavobacterium aquatile LMG 4008 T (94.9 %). The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 3-OH and summed feature 3 (comprising iso-C15 : 0 2-OH and/or C16 : 1ω7c). Menaquinone-6 was the sole quinone identified, and the major pigment was zeaxanthin. The major polar lipid was phosphatidylethanolamine. DNA-DNA relatedness of strain WV39 T with respect to its closest phylogenetic neighbours was 41.8 % for F. qiangtangense JCM 19739 T , 25.5 % for F. aquatile LMG 4008 T and 25.2 % for F. noncentrifugens NBRC 108844 T . The DNA G+C content of strain WV39 T was 39.8 mol%. Based on the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, strain WV39 T is concluded to represent a novel species of the genus Flavobacterium, for which the name Flavobacteriumkingsejongi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is WV39 T (=KCTC 42908 T =CECT 9085 T ).

  17. Isolation and characterization of an Antarctic Flavobacterium strain with agarase and alginate lyase activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavín Paris

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Several bacteria that are associated with macroalgae can use phycocolloids as a carbon source. Strain INACH002, isolated from decomposing Porphyra (Rhodophyta, in King George Island, Antarctica, was screened and characterized for the ability to produce agarase and alginate-lyase enzymatic activities. Our strain INACH002 was identified as a member of the genus Flavobacterium, closely related to Flavobacterium faecale, using 16S rRNA gene analysis. The INACH002 strain was characterized as psychrotrophic due to its optimal temperature (17ºC and maximum temperature (20°C of growth. Agarase and alginate-lyase displayed enzymatic activities within a range of 10°C to 50°C, with differences in the optimal temperature to hydrolyze agar (50°C, agarose (50°C and alginate (30°C during the first 30 min of activity. Strain Flavobacterium INACH002 is a promising Antarctic biotechnological resource; however, further research is required to illustrate the structural and functional bases of the enzymatic performance observed during the degradation of different substrates at different temperatures.

  18. Differential Impact of the Monovalent Ions Li+, Na+, K+, and Rb+ on DNA Conformational Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Savelyev, Alexey; MacKerell, Alexander D.

    2014-01-01

    The present report demonstrates that the conformational properties of DNA in solution are sensitive to the type of monovalent ion. Results are based on the ability of a polarizable force field using the classical Drude oscillator to reproduce experimental solution X-ray scattering data more accurately than two nonpolarizable DNA models, AMBER Parmbsc0 and CHARMM36. The polarizable model is then used to calculate scattering profiles of DNA in the presence of four different monovalent salts, Li...

  19. Photophysical properties of columnar phases formed by triphenylene derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigal, Herve

    1997-01-01

    This research thesis reports the study of the spectroscopic properties and of the migration of excitation energy in the singlet state in columnar phases formed by alkyloxy and alkylthio derivatives of triphenylene. First, the author studied the spectroscopic properties of chromophores in solutions, and characterized excited states by using computation codes (CS-INDO-CIPSI). Then, by using the excitonic theory in the case of the considered triphenylene derivatives, the author studied the influence of molecular movements and of the intra-columnar order on the spectroscopic properties. In some circumstances, the non-radiative transfer of excitation energy is governed by a mechanism displaying a random evolution. This stochastic movement is studied by using Monte Carlo simulations. The author shows that the energy migration is one-dimensional on short times, and then becomes three-dimensional. The evolution of excitation energy in space and in time is determined [fr

  20. Electrodeposited Ni-W magnetic thin films with columnar nanocrystallites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulitanu, N.; Brinza, F.

    2002-01-01

    Nanocrystalline Ni-W thin films (140 nm) containing from zero to 18 wt % W were electrolytically prepared and structural and magnetic characterized. XRD, SEM and TEM investigations have revealed that all segregated Ni columns are fcc-type whose [111] axis is oriented perpendicular to the film plane and have 140 nm in height and 6-27 nm in diameter. Depending on film composition, two types of nanostructures were observed: (a) single-phase nanostructure ( i nterphases , namely W enriched particles boundaries, and (b) two-phase nanostructure (7-18 wt %) in which a second Ni-W amorphous phase or even amorphous-disordered mixture separates the magnetic columnar Ni nanocrystallites (d = 6-14 nm). The columnar crystallites have an easy magnetization direction along their long axis mainly due to the in-plane internal biaxial stresses. Magnetic characteristics of prepared thin films are presented. (Authors)

  1. Columnar apple primary roots share some features of the columnar-specific gene expression profile of aerial plant parts as evidenced by RNA-Seq analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Romina; Djozgic, Haris; Rieger, Benjamin; Rapp, Steffen; Schmidt, Erwin Robert

    2015-02-04

    Primary roots (radicles) represent the first visible developmental stages of the plant and are crucial for nutrient supply and the integration of environmental signals. Few studies have analyzed primary roots at a molecular level, and were mostly limited to Arabidopsis. Here we study the primary root transcriptomes of standard type, heterozygous columnar and homozygous columnar apple (Malus x domestica) by RNA-Seq and quantitative real-time PCR. The columnar growth habit is characterized by a stunted main axis and the development of short fruit spurs instead of long lateral branches. This compact growth possesses economic potential because it allows high density planting and mechanical harvesting of the trees. Its molecular basis has been identified as a nested Gypsy-44 retrotransposon insertion; however the link between the insertion and the phenotype as well as the timing of the phenotype emergence are as yet unclear. We extend the transcriptomic studies of columnar tissues to the radicles, which are the earliest developmental stage and investigate whether homozygous columnar seedlings are viable. Radicles mainly express genes associated with primary metabolism, growth and development. About 200 genes show differential regulation in a comparison of heterozygous columnar radicles with non-columnar radicles, whereas the comparison of homozygous columnar radicles with non-columnar radicles yields about 300 differentially regulated genes. Genes involved in cellulose and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, cell wall modification, transcription and translation, ethylene and jasmonate biosynthesis are upregulated in columnar radicles. Genes in the vicinity of the columnar-specific Gypsy-44 insertion experience an especially strong differential regulation: the direct downstream neighbor, dmr6-like, is downregulated in heterozygous columnar radicles, but strongly upregulated in columnar shoot apical meristems. The transcriptomic profile of primary roots reflects their pivotal

  2. Quantum depinning of flux lines from columnar defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudnovsky, E.M.; Ferrera, A.; Vilenkin, A.

    1995-01-01

    The depinning of a flux line from a columnar defect is studied within the path-integral approach. Instantons of the quantum field theory in 1+1 dimensions are computed for the flux line whose dynamics is dominated by the Magnus force. The universal temperature dependence of the decay rate in the proximity of the critical current is obtained. This problem provides an example of macroscopic quantum tunneling, which is accessible to the direct comparison between theory and experiment

  3. Effectiveness of Monovalent and Pentavalent Rotavirus Vaccines in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastañaduy, Paul A; Contreras-Roldán, Ingrid; Bernart, Chris; López, Beatriz; Benoit, Stephen R; Xuya, Marvin; Muñoz, Fredy; Desai, Rishi; Quaye, Osbourne; Tam, Ka Ian; Evans-Bowen, Diana K; Parashar, Umesh D; Patel, Manish; McCracken, John P

    2016-05-01

    Concerns remain about lower effectiveness and waning immunity of rotavirus vaccines in resource-poor populations. We assessed vaccine effectiveness against rotavirus in Guatemala, where both the monovalent (RV1; 2-dose series) and pentavalent (RV5; 3-dose series) vaccines were introduced in 2010. A case-control evaluation was conducted in 4 hospitals from January 2012 to August 2013. Vaccine status was compared between case patients (children with laboratory-confirmed rotavirus diarrhea) and 2 sets of controls: nondiarrhea "hospital" controls (matched by birth date and site) and nonrotavirus "test-negative" diarrhea controls (adjusted for age, birth month/year, and site). Vaccine effectiveness ([1 - odds ratio of vaccination] × 100%) was computed using logistic regression models. We evaluated 213 case patients, 657 hospital controls, and 334 test-negative controls. Effectiveness of 2-3 doses of a rotavirus vaccine against rotavirus requiring emergency department visit or hospitalization was 74% (95% confidence interval [CI], 58%-84%) with hospital controls, and 52% (95% CI, 26%-69%) with test-negative controls. Using hospital controls, no significant difference in effectiveness was observed between infants 6-11 months (74% [95% CI, 18%-92%]) and children ≥12 months of age (71% [95% CI, 44%-85%]) (P= .85), nor between complete courses of RV1 (63% [95% CI, 23%-82%]) and RV5 (69% [95% CI, 29%-87%]) (P= .96). An uncommon G12P[8] strain, partially heterotypic to strains in both vaccines, was identified in 89% of cases. RV1 and RV5 were similarly effective against severe rotavirus diarrhea caused by a heterotypic strain in Guatemala. This supports broader implementation of rotavirus vaccination in low-income countries where >90% global deaths from rotavirus occur. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  4. Flavobacterium hibisci sp. nov., isolated from the rhizosphere of Hibiscus syriacus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, Gabriela; Yan, Zheng-Fei; Trinh, Huan; Won, Kyung-Hwa; Yang, Jung-Eun; Kook, Moo-Chang; Yi, Tae-Hoo

    2017-04-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, smooth, bright-yellow-pigmented, rod-shaped bacterial strain, slightly motile by gliding, catalase- and oxidase-positive and aerobic, but growing weakly under anaerobic conditions, was isolated from the rhizosphere of the flower mugunghwa (Hibiscus syriacus L.) located in Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi, South Korea. The strain named THG-HG1.4T grew at 15-35 °C, pH 6.5-9.0 and in the presence of 0-2.5 % (w/v) NaCl. The phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain THG-HG1.4T was most closely related to Flavobacterium gyeonganense HME7524T (98.83 %) and Flavobacterium arsenitoxidans S2-3HT (97.28 %). The DNA G+C content of strain THG-HG1.4T was 41.2 mol%. In DNA-DNA hybridization, the DNA-DNA relatedness between strain THG-HG1.4T and its closest phylogenetic neighbour was below 64.1 %. The predominant isoprenoid quinone detected in strain THG-HG1.4T was menaquinone-6 (MK-6). The major polar lipids were found to be phosphatidylethanolamine, three unidentified lipids, two unidentified glycolipids and an unidentified aminolipid. The major fatty acids were identified as iso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 3-OH, C16 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH and summed feature 3. Thus, based on the report of the phenotypic, genotypic and phylogenetic characterization of strain THG-HG1.4T, it has been concluded that the novel isolate represents a novel species of the genus Flavobacterium.Flavobacterium hibisci sp. nov. is proposed, with THG-HG1.4T (=KACC 18852T=CCTCC AB 2016178T) as the type strain.

  5. Flavobacterium psychrophilum, invasion into and shedding by rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madetoja, J.; Nyman, P.; Wiklund, T.

    2000-01-01

    The infection route of Flavobacterium psychrophilum into rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss was studied using bath and cohabitation challenges as well as oral challenge with live feed as a vector. Additionally, the number of bacterial cells shed by infected fish into the surrounding water...... is discussed as an important invasion route for F. psychrophilum into the fish. The shedding rate of F. psychrophiIlun by infected fish was associated with water temperature and the mortality of the infected fish. High numbers of F. psychrophilum cells were released into the water by dead rainbow trout during...

  6. Architecture of Columnar Nacre, and Implications for Its Formation Mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metzler, Rebecca A.; Olabisi, Ronke M.; Coppersmith, Susan N.; Gilbert, P. U. P. A.; Abrecht, Mike; Frazer, Bradley H.; Ariosa, Daniel; Johnson, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the structure of Haliotis rufescens nacre, or mother-of-pearl, using synchrotron spectromicroscopy and x-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy. We observe imaging contrast between adjacent individual nacre tablets, arising because different tablets have different crystal orientations with respect to the radiation's polarization vector. Comparing previous data and our new data with models for columnar nacre growth, we find the data are most consistent with a model in which nacre tablets are nucleated by randomly distributed sites in the organic matrix layers

  7. Ultraviolet spectrophotometer for measuring columnar atmospheric ozone from aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanser, F. A.; Sellers, B.; Briehl, D. C.

    1978-01-01

    An ultraviolet spectrophotometer (UVS) to measure downward solar fluxes from an aircraft or other high altitude platform is described. The UVS uses an ultraviolet diffuser to obtain large angular response with no aiming requirement, a twelve-position filter wheel with narrow (2-nm) and broad (20-nm) bandpass filters, and an ultraviolet photodiode. The columnar atmospheric ozone above the UVS (aircraft) is calculated from the ratios of the measured ultraviolet fluxes. Comparison with some Dobson station measurements gives agreement to 2%. Some UVS measured ozone profiles over the Pacific Ocean for November 1976 are shown to illustrate the instrument's performance.

  8. Morphological and physiological characteristics of columnar apple trees

    OpenAIRE

    Gelvonauskis, Bronislovas; Brazaitytė, Aušra; Sasnauskas, Audrius; Duchovskis, Pavelas; Gelvonauskienė, Dalia

    2006-01-01

    There were investigated two columnar apple cultivars ‘Arbat’ and No. 24217 and apple cultivar ‘Aldas’ in an orchard at the Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture. The two latter cultivars were released at the Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture, ‘Arbat’ – in Russia. Cultivars and selections were budded on rootstocks P 60, M.26 and MM.106. In orchard apple trees were spaced at 1.0 x 3.5 m. Tree height, stem diameter, total length of one-year-old shoot, leaf area on a tree was measured and numbe...

  9. Tumour targeting with monovalent fragments of anti-neuroblastoma antibody chCE7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrel, F.; Novak-Hofer, I.; Ruch, C.; Zimmermann, K.; Amstutz, H.

    1997-01-01

    The in vitro and in vivo behaviour of the monovalent single chain (scFv) and Fab-fragments derived from anti-neuroblastoma antibody chCE7 is reported. When comparing tumour uptake and -retention of radioactivity of 67 Cu-labelled monovalent chCE7 with divalent chCE7 F(ab') 2 the advantage of the radiocopper label over the radioiodine label was more pronounced with the divalent (internalising) F(ab') 2 fragments. (author) 1 fig., 1 ref

  10. Suppression of surface barriers in superconductors by columnar defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshelev, A. E.; Vinokur, V. M.

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the influence of columnar defects in layered superconductors on the thermally activated penetration of pancake vortices through the surface barrier. Columnar defects, located near the surface, facilitate penetration of vortices through the surface barrier, by creating ''weak spots,'' through which pancakes can penetrate into the superconductor. Penetration of a pancake mediated by an isolated column, located near the surface, is a two-stage process involving hopping from the surface to the column and the detachment from the column into the bulk; each stage is controlled by its own activation barrier. The resulting effective energy is equal to the maximum of those two barriers. For a given external field there exists an optimum location of the column for which the barriers for the both processes are equal and the reduction of the effective penetration barrier is maximal. At high fields the effective penetration field is approximately 2 times smaller than in unirradiated samples. We also estimate the suppression of the effective penetration field by column clusters. This mechanism provides further reduction of the penetration field at low temperatures

  11. Modeling of columnar and equiaxed solidification of binary mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roux, P.

    2005-12-01

    This work deals with the modelling of dendritic solidification in binary mixtures. Large scale phenomena are represented by volume averaging of the local conservation equations. This method allows to rigorously derive the partial differential equations of averaged fields and the closure problems associated to the deviations. Such problems can be resolved numerically on periodic cells, representative of dendritic structures, in order to give a precise evaluation of macroscopic transfer coefficients (Drag coefficients, exchange coefficients, diffusion-dispersion tensors...). The method had already been applied for a model of columnar dendritic mushy zone and it is extended to the case of equiaxed dendritic solidification, where solid grains can move. The two-phase flow is modelled with an Eulerian-Eulerian approach and the novelty is to account for the dispersion of solid velocity through the kinetic agitation of the particles. A coupling of the two models is proposed thanks to an original adaptation of the columnar model, allowing for undercooling calculation: a solid-liquid interfacial area density is introduced and calculated. At last, direct numerical simulations of crystal growth are proposed with a diffuse interface method for a representation of local phenomena. (author)

  12. Effect of Bacteriophages on the Growth of Flavobacterium psychrophilum and Development of Phage-Resistant Strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Rói Hammershaimb; Madsen, Lone; Dalsgaard, Inger

    2016-01-01

    The controlling effect of single and multiple phages on the density of Flavobacterium psychrophilum at different initial multiplicity of infection (MOI) was assessed in batch cultures to explore the potential for phage-based treatment of this important fish pathogen. A high initial phage concentr......The controlling effect of single and multiple phages on the density of Flavobacterium psychrophilum at different initial multiplicity of infection (MOI) was assessed in batch cultures to explore the potential for phage-based treatment of this important fish pathogen. A high initial phage...... concentration (MOI = 0.3–4) was crucial for efficient viral lysis, resulting in a 104–105-fold reduction of phage-sensitive cells (both single phages and phage cocktails), which was maintained throughout the incubation (>10 days). Following cell lysis, regrowth of phage-resistant strains was examined...... and resistant strains were isolated for further characterization. The application of a mathematical model allowed simulation of phage-host interactions and resistance development, confirming indications from strain isolations that phage-sensitive strains dominated the regrowing population (>99.8 %) at low MOI...

  13. Epidemiological cut-off values for Flavobacterium psychrophilum MIC data generated by a standard test protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P; Endris, R; Kronvall, G; Thomas, V; Verner-Jeffreys, D; Wilhelm, C; Dalsgaard, I

    2016-02-01

    Epidemiological cut-off values were developed for application to antibiotic susceptibility data for Flavobacterium psychrophilum generated by standard CLSI test protocols. The MIC values for ten antibiotic agents against Flavobacterium psychrophilum were determined in two laboratories. For five antibiotics, the data sets were of sufficient quality and quantity to allow the setting of valid epidemiological cut-off values. For these agents, the cut-off values, calculated by the application of the statistically based normalized resistance interpretation method, were ≤16 mg L(-1) for erythromycin, ≤2 mg L(-1) for florfenicol, ≤0.025 mg L(-1) for oxolinic acid (OXO), ≤0.125 mg L(-1) for oxytetracycline and ≤20 (1/19) mg L(-1) for trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole. For ampicillin and amoxicillin, the majority of putative wild-type observations were 'off scale', and therefore, statistically valid cut-off values could not be calculated. For ormetoprim/sulphadimethoxine, the data were excessively diverse and a valid cut-off could not be determined. For flumequine, the putative wild-type data were extremely skewed, and for enrofloxacin, there was inadequate separation in the MIC values for putative wild-type and non-wild-type strains. It is argued that the adoption of OXO as a class representative for the quinolone group would be a valid method of determining susceptibilities to these agents. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Monovalent Strep-Tactin for strong and site-specific tethering in nanospectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Fabian; Bauer, Magnus S; Milles, Lukas F; Alexandrovich, Alexander; Gaub, Hermann E; Pippig, Diana A

    2016-01-01

    Strep-Tactin, an engineered form of streptavidin, binds avidly to the genetically encoded peptide Strep-tag II in a manner comparable to streptavidin binding to biotin. These interactions have been used in protein purification and detection applications. However, in single-molecule studies, for example using atomic force microscopy-based single-molecule force spectroscopy (AFM-SMFS), the tetravalency of these systems impedes the measurement of monodispersed data. Here, we introduce a monovalent form of Strep-Tactin that harbours a unique binding site for Strep-tag II and a single cysteine that allows Strep-Tactin to specifically attach to the atomic force microscope cantilever and form a consistent pulling geometry to obtain homogeneous rupture data. Using AFM-SMFS, the mechanical properties of the interaction between Strep-tag II and monovalent Strep-Tactin were characterized. Rupture forces comparable to biotin:streptavidin unbinding were observed. Using titin kinase and green fluorescent protein, we show that monovalent Strep-Tactin is generally applicable to protein unfolding experiments. We expect monovalent Strep-Tactin to be a reliable anchoring tool for a range of single-molecule studies.

  15. Monovalent RIVM meningococcal B OMP vesicle F91 vaccines in toddlers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lafeber AB; Limpt CJP van; Labadie J; Berbers GAM; Kleijn ED de; Groot R de; Rumke HC; Alphen AJW; Sophia Kinderziekenhuis /; LVO

    2001-01-01

    This report gives the results of a randomised phase-II clinical study into the safety and immunogenicity of a monovalent MenB OMV vaccine expressing P1.7h,4 PorA (MonoMen) in toddlers. Safety and immunogenicity are compared for two types of vaccine that are differently adjuvated (either

  16. The apparent monovalency of human IgG4 is due to bispecificity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalberse, R. C.; Schuurman, J.; van Ree, R.

    1999-01-01

    A hypothesis is put forward to explain the apparent monovalency of human IgG4. It is based upon the known instability of the IgG4 hinge. IgG4 is secreted as a regular bivalent antibody, but after secretion interacts with another IgG4 molecule. This interaction results in the exchange of half

  17. Self-assembling multivalency : supramolecular polymers assembled from monovalent mannose-labelled discotic molecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petkau - Milroy, K.; Brunsveld, L.

    2013-01-01

    Supramolecular synthesis, the "bottom-up" construction of higher-order structures from monomeric building blocks, represents a flexible approach for the generation of multivalent materials. Here, monovalent building blocks decorated with a single bioactive ligand were synthesized. In water, these

  18. Crystallographic contribution to the formation of the columnar grain structure in cobalt films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, K.; Itoh, K.; Okamoto, K.; Hashimoto, T.

    1996-01-01

    In order to clarify the crystallographic contribution to the formation of the columnar grain structure, the geometric and crystallographic alignments of columnar grains in cobalt films were investigated on the basis of magnetic and optical measurements. The films were deposited by sputtering at an incidence angle of 45 on glass substrates heated at 332 K. The film thickness ranged from 20 to 850 nm. Above 50 nm the columnar grains align in the direction parallel to the incidence plane and form a two-degree crystallographic orientation. The packing density of columnar grains decreases with increasing thickness when the thickness exceeds 50 nm. From these results we conclude that the crystal habit appearing on column tops induces the two-degree orientation through geometric selection and aligns the selected columnar grains in the parallel direction. (orig.)

  19. Selective removal of arsenic and monovalent ions from brackish water reverse osmosis concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Pei; Capito, Marissa; Cath, Tzahi Y

    2013-09-15

    Concentrate disposal and management is a considerable challenge for the implementation of desalination technologies, especially for inland applications where concentrate disposal options are limited. This study has focused on selective removal of arsenic and monovalent ions from brackish groundwater reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate for beneficial use and safe environmental disposal using in situ and pre-formed hydrous ferric oxides/hydroxides adsorption, and electrodialysis (ED) with monovalent permselective membranes. Coagulation with ferric salts is highly efficient at removing arsenic from RO concentrate to meet a drinking water standard of 10 μg/L. The chemical demand for ferric chloride however is much lower than ferric sulfate as coagulant. An alternative method using ferric sludge from surface water treatment plant is demonstrated as an efficient adsorbent to remove arsenic from RO concentrate, providing a promising low cost, "waste treat waste" approach. The monovalent permselective anion exchange membranes exhibit high selectivity in removing monovalent anions over di- and multi-valent anions. The transport of sulfate and phosphate through the anion exchange membranes was negligible over a broad range of electrical current density. However, the transport of divalent cations such as calcium and magnesium increases through monovalent permselective cation exchange membranes with increasing current density. Higher overall salt concentration reduction is achieved around limiting current density while higher normalized salt removal rate in terms of mass of salt per membrane area and applied energy is attained at lower current density because the energy unitization efficiency decreases at higher current density. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A novel serrated columnar phased array ultrasonic transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Cheng; Sun, Zhenguo; Cai, Dong; Song, Hongwei; Chen, Qiang

    2016-02-01

    Traditionally, wedges are required to generate transverse waves in a solid specimen and mechanical rotation device is needed for interrogation of a specimen with a hollow bore, such as high speed railway locomotive axles, turbine rotors, etc. In order to eliminate the mechanical rotation process, a novel array pattern of phased array ultrasonic transducers named as serrated columnar phased array ultrasonic transducer (SCPAUT) is designed. The elementary transducers are planar rectangular, located on the outside surface of a cylinder. This layout is aimed to generate electrically rotating transverse waveforms so as to inspect the longitudinal cracks on the outside surface of a specimen which has a hollow bore at the center, such as the high speed railway locomotive axles. The general geometry of the SCPAUT and the inspection system are illustrated. A FEM model and mockup experiment has been carried out. The experiment results are in good agreement with the FEM simulation results.

  1. Equi-axed and columnar grain growth in UO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    The grain size of UO 2 is an important parameter in the actual performance and the modelling of the performance of reactor fuel elements. Many processes depend critically on the grain size, for example, the degree of initial densification, the evolution rate of stable fission gases, the release rates of radiologically hazardous fission products, the fission gas bubble swelling rates and the fuel creep. Many of these processes are thermally activated and further impact on the fuel thermal behavior thus creating complex feedback processes. In order to model the fuel performance accurately it is necessary to model the evolution of the fuel grain radius. When UO 2 is irradiated, the fission gases xenon and krypton are created from the fissioning uranium nucleus. At high temperatures these gases diffuse rapidly to the grain boundaries where they nucleate immobile lenticular shaped fission gas bubbles. In this paper the Hillert grain growth model is adapted to account for the inhibiting ''Zener'' effects of grain boundary fission gas porosity on grain boundary mobility and hence grain growth. It is shown that normal grain growth ceases at relatively low levels of irradiation. At high burnups, high temperatures and in regions of high temperature gradients, columnar grain growth is often observed, in some cases extending over more than fifty percent of the fuel radius. The model is further extended to account for the de-pinning of grains in the radial direction by the thermal gradient induced force on a fission gas grain boundary bubble. The observed columnar/equi-axed boundary is in fair agreement with the predictions of an evaporation/condensation model. The grain growth model described in this paper requires information concerning the scale of grain boundary porosity, the local fuel temperature and the local temperature gradient. The model is currently used in the Nuclear Electric version of the ENIGMA fuel modelling code. (author). 14 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  2. Application of a complete factorial design for the production of zeaxanthin by Flavobacterium sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masetto, A; Flores-Cotera, L B; Díaz, C; Langley, E; Sanchez, S

    2001-01-01

    Utilizing a four-liter fermentor and applying a complete factorial design 2(3), the combined effects of agitation speed, aeration rate, and corn steep liquor concentration on zeaxanthin production by Flavobacterium sp. were studied. Maximum growth and production of total carotenoids and zeaxanthin were obtained at 600 rpm, 2 vvm and 4.6% corn steep liquor. Under these conditions, zeaxanthin represented 86% of the total carotenoids produced. Lower values of the variables studied resulted in lower growth, volumetric production of zeaxanthin and total carotenoids, and favored the formation of other carotenoids such as beta-carotene and canthaxanthin. The positive effects on growth and total carotenoids and zeaxanthin formation were in a large extent due to the interaction of agitation/corn steep liquor. However, aeration also had a positive effect on growth.

  3. Genomic Characterization of Flavobacterium psychrophilum Serotypes and Development of a Multiplex PCR-Based Serotyping Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Rochat

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Flavobacterium psychrophilum is a devastating bacterial pathogen of salmonids reared in freshwater worldwide. So far, serological diversity between isolates has been described but the underlying molecular factors remain unknown. By combining complete genome sequence analysis and the serotyping method proposed by Lorenzen and Olesen (1997 for a set of 34 strains, we identified key molecular determinants of the serotypes. This knowledge allowed us to develop a robust multiplex PCR-based serotyping scheme, which was applied to 244 bacterial isolates. The results revealed a striking association between PCR-serotype and fish host species and illustrate the use of this approach as a simple and cost-effective method for the determination of F. psychrophilum serogroups. PCR-based serotyping could be a useful tool in a range of applications such as disease surveillance, selection of salmonids for bacterial coldwater disease resistance and future vaccine formulation.

  4. Microseismic monitoring of columnar jointed basalt fracture activity: a trial at the Baihetan Hydropower Station, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bing-Rui; Li, Qing-Peng; Feng, Xia-Ting; Xiao, Ya-Xun; Feng, Guang-Liang; Hu, Lian-Xing

    2014-10-01

    Severe stress release has occurred to the surrounding rocks of the typically columnar jointed basalt after excavation at the Baihetan Hydropower Station, Jinsha River, China, where cracking, collapse, and other types of failure may take place occasionally due to relaxation fracture. In order to understand the relaxation fracture characteristics of the columnar jointed basalt in the entire excavation process at the diversion tunnel of the Baihetan Hydropower Station, real-time microseismic monitoring tests were performed. First, the applicability of a geophone and accelerometer was analyzed in the columnar jointed basalt tunnel, and the results show that the accelerometer was more applicable to the cracking monitoring of the columnar jointed basalt. Next, the waveform characteristics of the microseismic signals were analyzed, and the microseismic signals were identified as follows: rock fracture signal, drilling signal, electrical signal, heavy vehicle passing signal, and blast signal. Then, the attenuation characteristics of the microseismic signals in the columnar jointed basalt tunnel were studied, as well as the types and characteristics of the columnar jointed basalt fracture. Finally, location analysis was conducted on the strong rock fracture events, in which four or more sensors were triggered, to obtain the temporal and spatial evolution characteristics and laws of the columnar jointed basalt relaxation fracture after excavation. The test results are not only of important reference value to the excavation and support of diversion tunnel at the Baihetan Hydropower Station, but also of great referential significance and value to the conduction of similar tests.

  5. Columnar cell lesions of the canine mammary gland: pathological features and immunophenotypic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassali Geovanni D

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been suggested that columnar cell lesions indicate an alteration of the human mammary gland involved in the development of breast cancer. They have not previously been described in canine mammary gland. The aim of this paper is describe the morphologic spectrum of columnar cell lesions in canine mammary gland specimens and their association with other breast lesions. Methods A total of 126 lesions were subjected to a comprehensive morphological review based upon the human breast classification system for columnar cell lesions. The presence of preinvasive (epithelial hyperplasia and in situ carcinoma and invasive lesions was determined and immunophenotypic analysis (estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PgR, high molecular weight cytokeratin (34βE-12, E-cadherin, Ki-67, HER-2 and P53 was perfomed. Results Columnar cell lesions were identified in 67 (53.1% of the 126 canine mammary glands with intraepithelial alterations. They were observed in the terminal duct lobular units and characterized at dilated acini may be lined by several layers of columnar epithelial cells with elongated nuclei. Of the columnar cell lesions identified, 41 (61.2% were without and 26 (38.8% with atypia. Association with ductal hyperplasia was observed in 45/67 (67.1%. Sixty (89.5% of the columnar cell lesions coexisted with neoplastic lesions (20 in situ carcinomas, 19 invasive carcinomas and 21 benign tumors. The columnar cells were ER, PgR and E-cadherin positive but negative for cytokeratin 34βE-12, HER-2 and P53. The proliferation rate as measured by Ki-67 appeared higher in the lesions analyzed than in normal TDLUs. Conclusions Columnar cell lesions in canine mammary gland are pathologically and immunophenotypically similar to those in human breast. This may suggest that dogs are a suitable model for the comparative study of noninvasive breast lesions.

  6. Columnar cell lesions of the canine mammary gland: pathological features and immunophenotypic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Enio; Gobbi, Helenice; Saraiva, Bruna S; Cassali, Geovanni D

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that columnar cell lesions indicate an alteration of the human mammary gland involved in the development of breast cancer. They have not previously been described in canine mammary gland. The aim of this paper is describe the morphologic spectrum of columnar cell lesions in canine mammary gland specimens and their association with other breast lesions. A total of 126 lesions were subjected to a comprehensive morphological review based upon the human breast classification system for columnar cell lesions. The presence of preinvasive (epithelial hyperplasia and in situ carcinoma) and invasive lesions was determined and immunophenotypic analysis (estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR), high molecular weight cytokeratin (34βE-12), E-cadherin, Ki-67, HER-2 and P53) was perfomed. Columnar cell lesions were identified in 67 (53.1%) of the 126 canine mammary glands with intraepithelial alterations. They were observed in the terminal duct lobular units and characterized at dilated acini may be lined by several layers of columnar epithelial cells with elongated nuclei. Of the columnar cell lesions identified, 41 (61.2%) were without and 26 (38.8%) with atypia. Association with ductal hyperplasia was observed in 45/67 (67.1%). Sixty (89.5%) of the columnar cell lesions coexisted with neoplastic lesions (20 in situ carcinomas, 19 invasive carcinomas and 21 benign tumors). The columnar cells were ER, PgR and E-cadherin positive but negative for cytokeratin 34βE-12, HER-2 and P53. The proliferation rate as measured by Ki-67 appeared higher in the lesions analyzed than in normal TDLUs. Columnar cell lesions in canine mammary gland are pathologically and immunophenotypically similar to those in human breast. This may suggest that dogs are a suitable model for the comparative study of noninvasive breast lesions

  7. Flavobacterium capsulatum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    long on the human skin surface. ... It produces septicaemia with serious lung and brain damage in the newborn, ... aches, tiredness and lack ofappetite, and lost IQ kg in weight. In ... globulin, complement and auto-antibody levels and full blood.

  8. Derivation of Aerosol Columnar Mass from MODIS Optical Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasso, Santiago; Hegg, Dean A.

    2003-01-01

    In order to verify performance, aerosol transport models (ATM) compare aerosol columnar mass (ACM) with those derived from satellite measurements. The comparison is inherently indirect since satellites derive optical depths and they use a proportionality constant to derive the ACM. Analogously, ATMs output a four dimensional ACM distribution and the optical depth is linearly derived. In both cases, the proportionality constant requires a direct intervention of the user by prescribing the aerosol composition and size distribution. This study introduces a method that minimizes the direct user intervention by making use of the new aerosol products of MODIS. A parameterization is introduced for the derivation of columnar aerosol mass (AMC) and CCN concentration (CCNC) and comparisons between sunphotometer, MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) and in-measurements are shown. The method still relies on the scaling between AMC and optical depth but the proportionality constant is dependent on the MODIS derived r$_{eff}$,\\eta (contribution of the accumulation mode radiance to the total radiance), ambient RH and an assumed constant aerosol composition. The CCNC is derived fkom a recent parameterization of CCNC as a function of the retrieved aerosol volume. By comparing with in-situ data (ACE-2 and TARFOX campaigns), it is shown that retrievals in dry ambient conditions (dust) are improved when using a proportionality constant dependent on r$ {eff}$ and \\eta derived in the same pixel. In high humidity environments, the improvement inthe new method is inconclusive because of the difficulty in accounting for the uneven vertical distribution of relative humidity. Additionally, two detailed comparisons of AMC and CCNC retrieved by the MAS algorithm and the new method are shown. The new method and MAS retrievals of AMC are within the same order of magnitude with respect to the in-situ measurements of aerosol mass. However, the proposed method is closer to the in-situ measurements than

  9. A comparative study on phyllosphere nitrogen fixation by newly isolated Corynebacterium sp. & Flavobacterium sp. and their potentialities as biofertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, S; Pati, B R

    2004-01-01

    A number of nitrogen fixing bacteria has been isolated from forest phyllosphere on the basis of nitrogenase activity. Among them two best isolates are selected and identified as Corynebacterium sp. AN1 & Flavobacterium sp. TK2 able to reduce 88 and 132 n mol of acetylene (10(8)cells(-1)h(-1)) respectively. They were grown in large amount and sprayed on the phyllosphere of maize plants as a substitute for nitrogenous fertilizer. Marked improvements in growth and total nitrogen content of the plant have been observed by the application of these nitrogen-fixing bacteria. An average 30-37% increase in yield was obtained, which is nearer to chemical fertilizer treatment. Comparatively better effect was obtained by application of Flavobacterium sp.

  10. Fouling prevention of peptides from a tryptic whey hydrolysate during electromembrane processes by use of monovalent ion permselective membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Persico, Mathieu; Bazinet, Laurent

    2017-01-01

    Peptide adsorption occurring on conventional anion- and cation-exchange membranes is one of the main technological locks in electrodialysis (ED) for hydrolysate demineralization. Hence, the peptide fouling of monovalent anion (MAP) and monovalent cation (MCP) permselective membranes was studied and compared to conventional membranes (AMX-SB and CMX-SB). It appeared that the main peptide sequences responsible for fouling were TPEVDDEALEKFDK, VAGTWY and VLVLDTDYK for both anionic membranes; and...

  11. EVALUATION OF REACTOGENICITY, SAFETY AND IMMUNOGENICITY OF INACTIVATED MONOVALENT VACCINE IN CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    A.N. Mironov; A.A. Romanova; R.Ya. Meshkova; I.V. Fel’dblyum; N.V. Kupina; D.S. Bushmenkov; A.A. Tsaan

    2010-01-01

    NPO «Microgen» developed vaccine «PANDEFLU» — influenza inactivated subunit adsorbed monovalent vaccine, strain A/California/7/2009 (H1N1), for specific prophylaxis of pandemic influenza in different age groups of citizens. Reactogenicity, safety and immunogenicity were analyzed in a study of volunteers 18–60 years old. The article presents results of administration of vaccine «PANDEFLU» in children. The study performed in two clinical centers proves good tolerability, reactogenicity, safety ...

  12. Circular Dichroism is Sensitive to Monovalent Cation Binding in Monensin Complexes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nedzhib, A.; Kessler, Jiří; Bouř, Petr; Gyurcsik, B.; Pantcheva, I.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 5 (2016), s. 420-428 ISSN 0899-0042 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-09072S; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-05935S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : monovalent polyether ionophore * metal complexes * synchrotron radiation circular dichroism * time-dependent density functional theory Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.956, year: 2016

  13. Thermal study of monovalent-divalent phase transition in npBifc-F1TCNQ System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Michiko; Nishio, Yutaka; Kajita, Koji; Mochida, Tomoyuki

    2009-01-01

    In a new molecular solid composed of di-neopentyl-biferrocene (npBifc) and fluorotetracyanoquinodimethane (F 1 TCNQ) 3 , Mochida reported the discovery of a reversible valence transfer that can be regarded as an 'ionic(I)-ionic(II)' phase transfer between the monovalent state (D + A - ) and the divalent state (D 2+ A 2- ). We have studied thermo-dynamical properties of this transformation for this complex using the differential thermal analyses (DTA). We observed a broad excess specific heat with multi-peaks attributed to micro-domain structure over the corresponding temperature range (100-150K) accompanied by temperature hysteresis of 7K. The transition entropy (ΔS) was determined to be 22 ± 2 J/mol-K and almost satisfied a Clausius-Clapeyron relation. These experimental results provide an experimental confirmation of the first order phase transition for the monovalent-divalent transfer. At the transition, we observe that the electronic degrees of freedom remained constant values, while large entropy absorbed crossing from low temperature phase to high temperature one is contributed by the lattice one. We finally estimated the internal energy and concluded that delicate energy valance between Madelung, ionization and affinity energies enable this system to exhibit a temperature induce monovalent-divalent phase transition.

  14. More Than Gliding: Involvement of GldD and GldG in the Virulence of Flavobacterium psychrophilum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pérez-Pascual

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A fascinating characteristic of most members of the genus Flavobacterium is their ability to move over surfaces by gliding motility. Flavobacterium psychrophilum, an important pathogen of farmed salmonids worldwide, contains in its genome the 19 gld and spr genes shown to be required for gliding or spreading in Flavobacterium johnsoniae; however, their relative role in its lifestyle remains unknown. In order to address this issue, two spreading deficient mutants were produced as part of a Tn4351 mutant library in F. psychrophilum strain THCO2-90. The transposons were inserted in gldD and gldG genes. While the wild-type strain is proficient in adhesion, biofilm formation and displays strong proteolytic activity, both mutants lost these characteristics. Extracellular proteome comparisons revealed important modifications for both mutants, with a significant reduction of the amounts of proteins likely transported through the outer membrane by the Type IX secretion system, indicating that GldD and GldG proteins are required for an effective activity of this system. In addition, a significant decrease in virulence was observed using rainbow trout bath and injection infection models. Our results reveal additional roles of gldD and gldG genes that are likely of importance for the F. psychrophilum lifestyle, including virulence.

  15. Gold nanoparticles in plastic columnar discotic liquid crystalline material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Mukesh, E-mail: mukeshphysics927@gmail.com [Center of Material Sciences, Institute of Interdisciplinary Studies, University of Allahabad, Allahabad 211002 (India); Kumar, Sandeep [Raman Research Institute, C.V. Raman Avenue, Sadashivanagar, Bangalore 560080 (India); Dhar, Ravindra, E-mail: dr.ravindra.dhar@gmail.com [Center of Material Sciences, Institute of Interdisciplinary Studies, University of Allahabad, Allahabad 211002 (India)

    2016-05-10

    Highlights: • Dispersion of Gold nanoparticles in a discotic liquid crystal has been studied. • σ{sub i} increases by seven orders of magnitude in the case of 1.2 wt% GNPs composites. • X-ray scattering results revel that a decrement in the core–core separation. • Study suggests that dispersion at low concentrations is uniform. • Band gap has decreased due to dispersion of GNPs in HAT4. - Abstract: We have studied the effect of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) on the thermodynamical, optical and dielectrical parameters of a discotic liquid crystal (DLC) namely hexabutyloxytriphenylene (HAT4). It has been observed that with the increase of GNPs concentration in DLC, composites shows two different regions. In the first regions i.e. low concentrations (<1 wt%), columnar hexagonal-isotropic (Col{sub hp}-I{sub L}) transition temperature and enthalpy (ΔH) decrease rapidly while in the second region i.e. higher concentrations (>1 wt%) Col{sub hp}-I{sub L} transition temperature and ΔH are approximately constant. It has been observed that, in the case of composites having 0.2 and 0.6 wt% of GNPs, conductivity has enhanced but it is poor as compared to the composite having 1.2 wt% of GNPs. For 1.2 wt% of GNPs, conductivity has increased by seven orders of magnitude as compared to the DLC. Optical study suggests that band gap of nanocomposites has decreased due to dispersion of GNPs.

  16. Formation of columnar (In,Ga)As quantum dots on GaAs(100)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, J.; Noetzel, R.; Offermans, P.; Koenraad, P.M.; Gong, Q.; Hamhuis, G.J.; Eijkemans, T.J.; Wolter, J.H.

    2004-01-01

    Columnar (In,Ga)As quantum dots (QDs) with homogeneous composition and shape in the growth direction are realized by molecular-beam epitaxy on GaAs(100) substrates. The columnar (In,Ga)As QDs are formed on InAs seed QDs by alternating deposition of thin GaAs intermediate layers and monolayers of InAs with extended growth interruptions after each layer. The height of the columnar (In,Ga)As QDs is controlled by varying the number of stacked GaAs/InAs layers. The structural and optical properties are studied by cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. With increase of the aspect ratio of the columnar QDs, the emission wavelength is redshifted and the linewidth is reduced

  17. Innovative Columnar Type of Grid Array SJ BIST HALT Method, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ridgetop will develop a superior method for testing and qualifying columnar type of grid arrays such as field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) packaged in column...

  18. Sintering and microstructure evolution of columnar nickel-based superalloy sheets prepared by EB-PVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.; Qu, S.J.; Liang, J.; Han, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → EB-PVD technology is commonly used to deposit thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) and columnar structure is commonly seen in EB-PVD condensates. The unique columnar structure can provide outstanding resistance against thermal shock and mechanical strains for TBCs. However, a number of researchers have found that the columnar structure can affect the mechanical properties of EB-PVD alloy thin sheet significantly. As yet, works on how to reduce this kind of effects are seldom done. In the present article, we tried to reveal the sintering effects on microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of columnar Ni-based superalloy sheet. The results suggests that after sintering, the columnar structure degrades. Degradation depends on sintering temperature and time. Both the ultimate tensile strength and the elongation percentage are effectively improved after sintering. - Abstract: A ∼0.15 mm-thick columnar nickel-based superalloy sheet was obtained by electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD). The as-deposited alloy sheet was sintered at different conditions. The microstructure of the specimens before and after sintering was characterized by using scanning electron microscopy. An X'Pert texture facility was used to determine the crystallographic orientation of the as-deposited alloy sheet. The phase transformation was investigated by X-ray diffraction. Tensile tests were conducted at room temperature on as-deposited and sintered specimens. The results show that the as-deposited sheet is composed of typical columnar structures. After sintering, however, the columnar structure degrades. The degradation depends on sintering temperature and time. Both the ultimate tensile strength and the elongation percentage are effectively improved after sintering.

  19. Physiological and phenotypic variations between columnar and standard apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talwara, Susheela

    Columnar apple trees have very determined growth habit, short internodes, nearly absent branching and can be planted densely in the orchards to obtain higher yields. Such tree architecture provides a possibility for automation and mechanization in agriculture and hence lowering the labour cost wh...... the variations between columnar and standard apple trees. This knowledge provides a better insight on the production abilities of the columnar apple trees which may be useful for future crop improvement strategies.......Columnar apple trees have very determined growth habit, short internodes, nearly absent branching and can be planted densely in the orchards to obtain higher yields. Such tree architecture provides a possibility for automation and mechanization in agriculture and hence lowering the labour cost...... on the physiological and phenotypic characteristics of the columnar apple trees were made by comparing them with the standard traditionally grown non-columnar apple trees. Data from the leaves morphological and anatomical studies and from various physiological investigations have been assembled to compare...

  20. Polyelectrolyte-mediated bridging interactions: columnar macromolecular phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Licer, Matjaz; Podgornik, Rudolf

    2010-01-01

    We present a mean-field theory for charged polymer chains in an external electrostatic field in the weak and strong coupling limits. We apply the theory to describe the statistical mechanics of flexible polyelectrolyte chains in a hexagonal columnar lattice of stiff cylindrical macroions, such as DNA, in a bathing solution of a uni-univalent salt (e.g. NaCl). The salt effects are first described in the Debye-Hueckel framework. This yields the macroion electrostatic field in the screened Coulomb form, which we take to represent the mean field into which the chains are immersed. We introduce the Green's function for the polyelectrolyte chains and derive the corresponding Edwards equation which we solve numerically in the Wigner-Seitz cylindrical cell using the ground state dominance ansatz. The solutions indicate the presence of polyelectrolyte bridging, which results in a like-charge attraction between stiff macroions. Then we reformulate the Edwards theory for the strong coupling case and use the standard Poisson-Boltzmann picture to describe the salt solution. We begin with the free energy which we minimize to obtain the Euler-Lagrange equations. The solutions yield self-consistently determined monomer density and electrostatic fields. We furthermore calculate the free energy density as well as the total osmotic pressure in the system. We again show that bridging implicates like-charge attractions of entropic origin between stiff cylindrical macroions. By analyzing the osmotic pressure we demonstrate that, in certain parts of the parameter space, a phase transition occurs between two phases of the same hexagonal symmetry.

  1. Feral livestock threatens landscapes dominated by columnar cacti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malo, J. E.; Acebes, P.; Giannoni, S. M.; Traba, J.

    2011-05-01

    The introduction and naturalization of alien species represents a serious threat to many natural protected areas. One such case of worldwide concern is the impact of feral livestock on arid ecosystems. Damage suffered by Echinopsis (= Trichocereus) terscheckii dominating the landscape of rocky slopes was surveyed in seven locations within the Ischigualasto-Talampaya World Heritage Site (Argentina) by measuring the frequency, position on the plant and extent of damage. At the same time we employed transects to estimate the abundance of autochtonous and feral large herbivores ( Lama guanicoe, Bos taurus, Equus asinus) from their dung. Our results show relatively high damage levels (40-77% of individuals damaged, more than 5 dm 3 removed by plant in some sites), particularly within 0.50-1.75 m above the ground, showing herbivores to be the main responsible for them. We also found significant differences between sites in variables measuring damage level and in the intensity of use by the two feral livestock species but not by guanacos. The frequency of damaged cacti below 1.75 m (but not above) was significantly positively correlated among locations with the frequencies of cattle and donkey dung, and the damage suffered by individual cacti was also correlated with donkey and cattle dung in their surroundings after correcting for spatial effects. However, all correlations were non-significant in the case of guanacos. We conclude that the continued presence of feral livestock, particularly donkeys, leads to damages to columnar cacti with potential effects on their populations and the physiognomy of this protected landscape.

  2. Preparation and purification of Flavobacterium heparinum chondroitinases AC and B by hydrophobic interaction chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguiar J.A.K.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Flavobacterium heparinum is a soil bacterium that produces several mucopolysaccharidases such as heparinase, heparitinases I and II, and chondroitinases AC, B, C and ABC. The purpose of the present study was to optimize the preparation of F. heparinum chondroitinases, which are very useful tools for the identification and structural characterization of chondroitin and dermatan sulfates. We observed that during the routine procedure for cell disruption (ultrasound, 100 kHz, 5 min some of the chondroitinase B activity was lost. Using milder conditions (2 min, most of the chondroitinase B and AC protein was solubilized and the enzyme activities were preserved. Tryptic soy broth without glucose was the best culture medium both for bacterial growth and enzyme induction. Chondroitinases AC and B were separated from each other and also from glucuronidases and sulfatases by hydrophobic interaction chromatography on HP Phenyl-Sepharose. A rapid method for screening of the column fractions was also developed based on the metachromatic shift of the color of dimethylmethylene blue.

  3. Transcriptional responses of resistant and susceptible fish clones to the bacterial pathogen Flavobacterium psychrophilum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christelle Langevin

    Full Text Available Flavobacterium psychrophilum is a bacterial species that represents one of the most important pathogens for aquaculture worldwide, especially for salmonids. To gain insights into the genetic basis of the natural resistance to F. psychrophilum, we selected homozygous clones of rainbow trout with contrasted susceptibility to the infection. We compared the transcriptional response to the bacteria in the pronephros of a susceptible and a resistant line by micro-array analysis five days after infection. While the basal transcriptome of healthy fish was significantly different in the resistant and susceptible lines, the transcriptome modifications induced by the bacteria involved essentially the same genes and pathways. The response to F. psychrophilum involved antimicrobial peptides, complement, and a number of enzymes and chemokines. The matrix metalloproteases mmp9 and mmp13 were among the most highly induced genes in both genetic backgrounds. Key genes of both pro- and anti-inflammatory response such as IL1 and IL10, were up-regulated with a greater magnitude in susceptible animals where the bacterial load was also much higher. While higher resistance to F. psychrophilum does not seem to be based on extensive differences in the orientation of the immune response, several genes including complement C3 showed stronger induction in the resistant fish. They may be important for the variation of susceptibility to the infection.

  4. A thermostable serralysin inhibitor from marine bacterium Flavobacterium sp. YS-80-122

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Pengjuan; Li, Shangyong; Wang, Kun; Wang, Fang; Xing, Mengxin; Hao, Jianhua; Sun, Mi

    2018-03-01

    Serralysin inhibitors have been proposed as potent drugs against many diseases and may help to prevent further development of antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria. In this study, a novel serralysin inhibitor gene, lupI, was cloned from the marine bacterium Flavobacterium sp. YS-80-122 and expressed in Escherichia coli. The deduced serralysin inhibitor, LupI, shows <40% amino acid identity to other reported serralysin inhibitors. Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis of LupI with other serralysin inhibitors indicated that LupI was a novel type of serralysin inhibitor. The inhibitory constant for LupI towards its target metalloprotease was 0.64 μmol/L. LupI was thermostable at high temperature, in which 35.6%-90.7% of its inhibitory activity was recovered after treatment at 100°C for 1-60 min followed by incubation at 0°C. This novel inhibitor may represent a candidate drug for the treatment of serralysin-related infections.

  5. Genetic and serological diversity of Flavobacterium psychrophilum isolates from salmonids in United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Thao P H; Bartie, Kerry L; Thompson, Kim D; Verner-Jeffreys, David W; Hoare, Rowena; Adams, Alexandra

    2017-03-01

    Flavobacterium psychrophilum is one of the most important bacterial pathogens affecting cultured rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and is increasingly causing problems in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) hatcheries. Little is known about the heterogeneity of F. psychrophilum isolates on UK salmonid farms. A total of 315 F. psychrophilum isolates, 293 of which were collected from 27 sites within the UK, were characterised using four genotyping methods and a serotyping scheme. A high strain diversity was identified among the isolates with 54 pulsotypes, ten (GTG) 5 -PCR types, two 16S rRNA allele lineages, seven plasmid profiles and three serotypes. Seven PFGE groups and 27 singletons were formed at a band similarity of 80%. PFGE group P (n=75) was found to be numerically predominant in eight sites within the UK. Two major PFGE clusters and 13 outliers were found at the band similarity of 40%. The predominant profileobserved within the F. psychrophilum isolates examined was PFGE cluster II - (GTG) 5 -PCR type r1-16S rRNA lineage II - serotype Th (70/156 isolates examined, 45%). Co-existence of genetically and serologically heterogeneous isolates within each farm was detected, confounding the ability to control RTFS outbreaks. The occurrence over time (up to 11 years) of F. psychrophilum pulsotypes in three representative sites (Scot I, Scot III and Scot V) within Scotland was examined, potentially providing important epidemiological data for farm management and the development of site-specific vaccines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Absorption Spectroscopy Analysis of Calcium-Phosphate Glasses Highly Doped with Monovalent Copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, José A

    2016-06-03

    CaO-P2 O5 glasses with high concentrations of monovalent copper ions were prepared by a simple melt-quench method through CuO and SnO co-doping. Spectroscopic characterization was carried out by optical absorption with the aim of analyzing the effects of Cu(+) ions on the optical band-gap energies, which were estimated on the basis of indirect-allowed transitions. The copper(I) content is estimated in the CuO/SnO-containing glasses after the assessment of the concentration dependence of Cu(2+) absorption in the visible region for CuO singly doped glasses. An exponential dependence of the change in optical band gaps (relative to the host) with Cu(+) concentration is inferred up to about 10 mol %. However, the entire range is divided into two distinct linear regions that are characterized by different rates of change with respect to concentration: 1) below 5 mol %, where the linear dependence presents a relatively high magnitude of the slope; and 2) from 5-10 mol %, where a lower magnitude of the slope is manifested. With increasing concentration, the mean Cu(+) -Cu(+) interionic distance decreases, thereby decreasing the sensitivity of monovalent copper for light absorption. The decrease in optical band-gap energies is ultimately shown to follow a linear dependence with the interionic distance, suggesting the potential of the approach to gauge the concentration of monovalent copper straightforwardly in amorphous hosts. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Monovalent Cation Activation of the Radical SAM Enzyme Pyruvate Formate-Lyase Activating Enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shisler, Krista A; Hutcheson, Rachel U; Horitani, Masaki; Duschene, Kaitlin S; Crain, Adam V; Byer, Amanda S; Shepard, Eric M; Rasmussen, Ashley; Yang, Jian; Broderick, William E; Vey, Jessica L; Drennan, Catherine L; Hoffman, Brian M; Broderick, Joan B

    2017-08-30

    Pyruvate formate-lyase activating enzyme (PFL-AE) is a radical S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) enzyme that installs a catalytically essential glycyl radical on pyruvate formate-lyase. We show that PFL-AE binds a catalytically essential monovalent cation at its active site, yet another parallel with B 12 enzymes, and we characterize this cation site by a combination of structural, biochemical, and spectroscopic approaches. Refinement of the PFL-AE crystal structure reveals Na + as the most likely ion present in the solved structures, and pulsed electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) demonstrates that the same cation site is occupied by 23 Na in the solution state of the as-isolated enzyme. A SAM carboxylate-oxygen is an M + ligand, and EPR and circular dichroism spectroscopies reveal that both the site occupancy and the identity of the cation perturb the electronic properties of the SAM-chelated iron-sulfur cluster. ENDOR studies of the PFL-AE/[ 13 C-methyl]-SAM complex show that the target sulfonium positioning varies with the cation, while the observation of an isotropic hyperfine coupling to the cation by ENDOR measurements establishes its intimate, SAM-mediated interaction with the cluster. This monovalent cation site controls enzyme activity: (i) PFL-AE in the absence of any simple monovalent cations has little-no activity; and (ii) among monocations, going down Group 1 of the periodic table from Li + to Cs + , PFL-AE activity sharply maximizes at K + , with NH 4 + closely matching the efficacy of K + . PFL-AE is thus a type I M + -activated enzyme whose M + controls reactivity by interactions with the cosubstrate, SAM, which is bound to the catalytic iron-sulfur cluster.

  8. A theoretical study of CsI:Tl columnar scintillator image quality parameters by analytical modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalyvas, N., E-mail: nkalyvas@teiath.gr; Valais, I.; Michail, C.; Fountos, G.; Kandarakis, I.; Cavouras, D.

    2015-04-11

    Medical X-ray digital imaging systems such as mammography, radiography and computed tomography (CT), are composed from efficient radiation detectors, which can transform the X-rays to electron signal. Scintillators are materials that emit light when excited by X-rays and incorporated in X-ray medical imaging detectors. Columnar scintillator, like CsI:T1 is very often used for X-ray detection due to its higher performance. The columnar form limits the lateral spread of the optical photons to the scintillator output, thus it demonstrates superior spatial resolution compared to granular scintillators. The aim of this work is to provide an analytical model for calculating the MTF, the DQE and the emission efficiency of a columnar scintillator. The model parameters were validated against published Monte Carlo data. The model was able to predict the overall performance of CsI:Tl scintillators and suggested an optimum thickness of 300 μm for radiography applications. - Highlights: • An analytical model for calculating MTF, DQE and Detector Optical Gain (DOG) of columnar phosphors was developed. • The model was fitted to published efficiency and MTF Monte Carlo data. • A good fit was observed for 300 µm columnar CsI:Tl thickness. • The performance of the 300 µm column thickness CsI:Tl was better in terms of MTF and DOG for radiographic applications.

  9. Diversity of Flavobacterium psychrophilum and the potential use of its phages for protection against bacterial cold water disease in salmonids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo, D.; Higuera, G.; Villa, M.

    2012-01-01

    Flavobacterium psychrophilum causes rainbow trout fry syndrome (RTFS) and cold water disease (CWD) in salmonid aquaculture. We report characterization of F. psychrophilum strains and their bacteriophages isolated in Chilean salmonid aquaculture. Results suggest that under laboratory conditions ph...... together with the bacteria in a ratio of 10 plaque‐forming units per colony‐forming unit. While we recognize the artificial laboratory conditions used for these protection assays, this work is the first to demonstrate that phages might be able protect salmonids from RTFS or CWD....

  10. Genomic structure of bacteriophage 6H and its distribution as prophage in Flavobacterium psychrophilum strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo Bermúdez, Daniel Elías; Espejo, Romilio; Middelboe, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    Flavobacterium psychrophilum is currently one of the most devastating fish pathogens worldwide causing considerable economic losses in salmonid aquaculture. Recently, attention has been drawn to the use of phages for controlling F. psychrophilum, and phages infecting the pathogen have been isolated...... showed > 80% amino acid similarity to a specific region found in the virulent F. psychrophilum strain JIP02/86 (ATCC 49511), suggesting that a prophage similar to phage 6H was present in this strain. Screening for a collection of 49 F. psychrophilum strains isolated in Chile, Denmark, and USA...

  11. Efficiency of oxytetracycline treatment in rainbow trout experimentally infected with Flavobacterium psychrophilum strains having different in vitro antibiotic susceptibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Morten Sichlau; Madsen, Lone; Dalsgaard, Inger

    2003-01-01

    The medication effect of oxytetracycline on groups of rainbow trout fry experimentally infected with three strains of Flavobacterium psychrophilum was investigated. The infection model was based on intraperitoneal injection of the pathogen and treatment was done using medicated feed resulting...... in 100 mg oxytetracycline/kg fish for 10 days. The three F. psychrophilum strains had different antimicrobial susceptibilities and successful treatment was only obtained in the trial using a strain with a MICOTC of 0.25 mug/ml. No effect of treatment was seen in the group infected with a strain having...

  12. Radiological examination of the spinal column in farmed rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum): experiments with Flavobacterium psychrophilum and oxytetracycline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lone; Arnbjerg, J.; Dalsgaard, Inger

    2001-01-01

    Flavobacterium psychrophilum and oxytetracycline have both been associated with spinal deformities in salmonids. Experiments were carried out to investigate whether infection with F, psychrophilum or medication with oxytetracycline (OTC) at the fry stage would result in an increased occurrence...... of infected fish. OTC treatments of up to 200 mg of OTC(kgfish)(-1) day(-1) for 10 days and repeated three times did not result in increased spinal deformities relative to untreated control groups; therefore, medication of rainbow trout with oxytetracycline did not cause deformities of the spinal column under...

  13. Effect of hydrogen peroxide and/or Flavobacterium psychrophilum on the gills of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Maya Maria Mihályi; Kania, P. W.; Buchmann, K.

    2015-01-01

    The immune response and morphological changes in the gills of rainbow trout fry after immersion in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), Flavobacterium psychrophilum or combined exposure were examined. The gills were sampled 4, 48, 125 and 192 h after exposure, and the regulation of expression of the following...... with gene expression. Although pretreatment with H2O2 before immersion in F. psychrophilum did not significantly alter the amount of bacteria found in the gill, the immune response was influenced: exposure to F. psychrophilum resulted in a negative correlation with expression of IL‐17c1, MHC I and MHC II...

  14. Columnar transmitter based wireless power delivery system for implantable device in freely moving animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Kyungsik; Jeong, Joonsoo; Lee, Tae Hyung; Lee, Sung Eun; Jun, Sang Bum; Kim, Sung June

    2013-01-01

    A wireless power delivery system is developed to deliver electrical power to the neuroprosthetic devices that are implanted into animals freely moving inside the cage. The wireless powering cage is designed for long-term animal experiments without cumbersome wires for power supply or the replacement of batteries. In the present study, we propose a novel wireless power transmission system using resonator-based inductive links to increase power efficiency and to minimize the efficiency variations. A columnar transmitter coil is proposed to provide lateral uniformity of power efficiency. Using this columnar transmitter coil, only 7.2% efficiency fluctuation occurs from the maximum transmission efficiency of 25.9%. A flexible polymer-based planar type receiver coil is fabricated and assembled with a neural stimulator and an electrode. Using the designed columnar transmitter coil, the implantable device successfully operates while it moves freely inside the cage.

  15. MESOSCALE SIMULATIONS OF MICROSTRUCTURE AND TEXTURE EVOLUTION DURING DEFORMATION OF COLUMNAR GRAINS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarma, G.

    2001-01-01

    In recent years, microstructure evolution in metals during deformation processing has been modeled at the mesoscale by combining the finite element method to discretize the individual grains with crystal plasticity to provide the constitutive relations. This approach allows the simulations to capture the heterogeneous nature of grain deformations due to interactions with neighboring grains. The application of this approach to study the deformations of columnar grains present in solidification microstructures is described. The microstructures are deformed in simple compression, assuming the easy growth direction of the columnar grains to be parallel to the compression axis in one case, and perpendicular in the other. These deformations are similar to those experienced by the columnar zones of a large cast billet when processed by upsetting and drawing, respectively. The simulations show that there is a significant influence of the initial microstructure orientation relative to the loading axis on the resulting changes in grain shape and orientation

  16. Ion current prediction model considering columnar recombination in alpha radioactivity measurement using ionized air transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, Susumu; Hirata, Yosuke; Izumi, Mikio; Sano, Akira; Miyamoto, Yasuaki; Aoyama, Yoshio; Yamaguchi, Hiromi

    2007-01-01

    We present a reinforced ion current prediction model in alpha radioactivity measurement using ionized air transportation. Although our previous model explained the qualitative trend of the measured ion current values, the absolute values of the theoretical curves were about two times as large as the measured values. In order to accurately predict the measured values, we reinforced our model by considering columnar recombination and turbulent diffusion, which affects columnar recombination. Our new model explained the considerable ion loss in the early stage of ion diffusion and narrowed the gap between the theoretical and measured values. The model also predicted suppression of ion loss due to columnar recombination by spraying a high-speed air flow near a contaminated surface. This suppression was experimentally investigated and confirmed. In conclusion, we quantitatively clarified the theoretical relation between alpha radioactivity and ion current in laminar flow and turbulent pipe flow. (author)

  17. In silico prediction of monovalent and chimeric tetravalent vaccines for prevention and treatment of dengue fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Subramaniyan; Ramesh, Venkatachalam; Prabhu, Srinivasan; Manogar, Palani

    2017-11-01

    Reverse vaccinology method was used to predict the monovalent peptide vaccine candidate to produce antibodies for therapeutic purpose and to predict tetravalent vaccine candidate to act as a common vaccine to cover all the fever dengue virus serotypes. Envelope (E)-proteins of DENV-1-4 serotypes were used for vaccine prediction using NCBI, Uniprot/Swissprot, Swiss-prot viewer, VaxiJen V2.0, TMHMM, BCPREDS, Propred-1, Propred and MHC Pred,. E-proteins of DENV-1-4 serotypes were identified as antigen from which T cell epitopes, through B cell epitopes, were predicted to act as peptide vaccine candidates. Each selected T cell epitope of E-protein was confirmed to act as vaccine and to induce complementary antibody against particular serotype of dengue virus. Chimeric tetravalent vaccine was formed by the conjugation of four vaccines, each from four dengue serotypes to act as a common vaccine candidate for all the four dengue serotypes. It can be justifiably concluded that the monovalent 9-mer T cell epitope for each DENV serotypes can be used to produce specific antibody agaomst dengue virus and a chimeric common tetravalent vaccine candidate to yield a comparative vaccine to cover any of the four dengue virus serotype. This vaccine is expected to act as highly immunogenic against preventing dengue fever.

  18. Columnar cell lesions and pseudoangiomatous hyperplasia like stroma: is there an epithelial-stromal interaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recavarren, Rosemary A; Chivukula, Mamatha; Carter, Gloria; Dabbs, David J

    2009-10-10

    The significance of association between cancer and its microenvironment has been increasingly recognized. It has been shown in animal models that interaction between neoplastic epithelial cells and adjacent stroma can modulate tumor behavior. Carcinoma associated stromal cells can transform normal epithelial cells into neoplastic cells. In breast, columnar cell lesions are non-obligate precursors of low grade ductal carcinoma in situ. Columnar cell lesions can be seen intimately associated with PASH-like-stroma, a lesion we termed as CCPLS. Our aim is to investigate epithelial-stromal interactions in CCPLS and compare them to PASH without columnar cell lesions in breast core needle biopsies. Normal terminal duct lobular unit (TDLU) epithelium was seen in association with columnar cell lesions as well as PASH. Eight (8) cases of each category were examined by a panel of immunostains: CD117 (C-kit), CD34, CD105, bFGF, AR, ER-beta, MIB-1. We observed a markedly decreased expression of c-kit in columnar cell lesions compared to TDLU-epithelium. CD105 showed a quantitative increase in activated vessels in CCPLS compared to PASH. A subset of CCPLS and PASH were androgen receptor positive. A strong nuclear positivity for ER-beta is observed in the epithelium and stroma of all CCPLS cases. We conclude that (1) activated blood vessels predominate in CCPLS; (2) A molecular alteration is signified by c-kit loss in columnar cell lesions; (3) ER-beta and androgen receptor positivity indicate CCPLS are hormonally responsive lesions. Our study suggests an intimate vascular and hormone dependent epithelial-stromal interaction exists in CCPLS lesions.

  19. Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (VNTR) analysis of Flavobacterium psychrophilum from salmonids in Chile and Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apablaza, Patricia; Brevik, Øyvind J; Mjøs, Svein; Valdebenito, Samuel; Ilardi, Pedro; Battaglia, Juan; Dalsgaard, Inger; Nylund, Are

    2015-07-14

    Flavobacterium psychrophilum causes serious fish diseases such RTFS and BCWD, affecting the aquaculture industry worldwide. Commercial vaccines are not available and control of the disease depends on the use of antibiotics. Reliable methods for detection and identification of different isolates of this bacterium could play an important role in the development of good management strategies. The aim of this study was to identify genetic markers for discrimination between isolates. A selection of eight VNTRs from 53 F. psychrophilum isolates from Norway, Chile, Denmark and Scotland were analyzed. The results were compared with previous work on the same pathogen using MLST for genetic differentiation. The VNTR analysis gave a separation between the F. psychrophilum isolates supporting the results of previous MLST work. A higher diversity was found among the Chilean isolates compared to those from Norway, which suggests a more homogenous reservoir in Norway. Transgenerational transmission of F. psychrophilum from other countries, exporting salmon embryos to Chile, may explain the differences in diversity. The same transmission mechanisms could also explain the wide geographical distribution of identical isolates in Norway. But, this could also be a result of movement of smolts and embryos. The selected VNTRs are stable genetic markers and no variation was observed after several passages on agar plates at different temperatures. These VNTRs are important additions for genotyping of F. psychrophilum isolates. Future studies on VNTRs of F. psychrophilum should include isolates from more host species from a wider geographical area. To get a more robust genotyping the VNTRs should be used in concert with MLST. Future studies of isolates with high and low virulence should focus on identifying virulence markers using VTNRs and MLST.

  20. Genomics and physiology of a marine flavobacterium encoding a proteorhodopsin and a xanthorhodopsin-like protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Riedel

    Full Text Available Proteorhodopsin (PR photoheterotrophy in the marine flavobacterium Dokdonia sp. PRO95 has previously been investigated, showing no growth stimulation in the light at intermediate carbon concentrations. Here we report the genome sequence of strain PRO95 and compare it to two other PR encoding Dokdonia genomes: that of strain 4H-3-7-5 which shows the most similar genome, and that of strain MED134 which grows better in the light under oligotrophic conditions. Our genome analysis revealed that the PRO95 genome as well as the 4H-3-7-5 genome encode a protein related to xanthorhodopsins. The genomic environment and phylogenetic distribution of this gene suggest that it may have frequently been recruited by lateral gene transfer. Expression analyses by RT-PCR and direct mRNA-sequencing showed that both rhodopsins and the complete β-carotene pathway necessary for retinal production are transcribed in PRO95. Proton translocation measurements showed enhanced proton pump activity in response to light, supporting that one or both rhodopsins are functional. Genomic information and carbon source respiration data were used to develop a defined cultivation medium for PRO95, but reproducible growth always required small amounts of yeast extract. Although PRO95 contains and expresses two rhodopsin genes, light did not stimulate its growth as determined by cell numbers in a nutrient poor seawater medium that mimics its natural environment, confirming previous experiments at intermediate carbon concentrations. Starvation or stress conditions might be needed to observe the physiological effect of light induced energy acquisition.

  1. Alignment control of columnar liquid crystals with wavelength tunable CO2 laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monobe, Hirosato; Awazu, Kunio; Shimizu, Yo

    2008-01-01

    Infrared-induced alignment change with wavelength tunable CO 2 laser irradiation for columnar liquid crystal domains was investigated for a liquid crystalline triphenylene derivative. A uniformly aligned alignment change of domains was observed when a chopped linearly polarized infrared laser light corresponding to the wavelength of the aromatic C-O-C stretching vibration band (9.65 μm) was irradiated. The results strongly imply that the infrared irradiation is a possible technique for device fabrication by use of columnar mesophase as a liquid crystalline semiconductor

  2. Columnar discharge mode between parallel dielectric barrier electrodes in atmospheric pressure helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Yanpeng; Zheng, Bin; Liu, Yaoge [School of Electric Power, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2014-01-15

    Using a fast-gated intensified charge-coupled device, end- and side-view photographs were taken of columnar discharge between parallel dielectric barrier electrodes in atmospheric pressure helium. Based on three-dimensional images generated from end-view photographs, the number of discharge columns increased, whereas the diameter of each column decreased as the applied voltage was increased. Side-view photographs indicate that columnar discharges exhibited a mode transition ranging from Townsend to glow discharges generated by the same discharge physics as atmospheric pressure glow discharge.

  3. Intrinsic Resistance Switching in Amorphous Silicon Suboxides: The Role of Columnar Microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munde, M S; Mehonic, A; Ng, W H; Buckwell, M; Montesi, L; Bosman, M; Shluger, A L; Kenyon, A J

    2017-08-24

    We studied intrinsic resistance switching behaviour in sputter-deposited amorphous silicon suboxide (a-SiO x ) films with varying degrees of roughness at the oxide-electrode interface. By combining electrical probing measurements, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), we observe that devices with rougher oxide-electrode interfaces exhibit lower electroforming voltages and more reliable switching behaviour. We show that rougher interfaces are consistent with enhanced columnar microstructure in the oxide layer. Our results suggest that columnar microstructure in the oxide will be a key factor to consider for the optimization of future SiOx-based resistance random access memory.

  4. Does flat epithelial atypia have rounder nuclei than columnar cell change/hyperplasia? A morphometric approach to columnar cell lesions of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Yoshiko; Ichihara, Shu; Moritani, Suzuko; Yoon, Han-Seung; Yamaguchi, Masahiro

    2016-06-01

    Columnar cell lesions of the breast encompass columnar cell change/hyperplasia (CCC/CCH) and flat epithelial atypia (FEA). These have attracted researchers because emerging data suggest that FEA may represent the earliest histologically detectable non-obligate precursor of breast cancer. However, it is occasionally difficult to distinguish FEA from CCC/CCH because of similar histology. Although the nuclei of FEA are frequently described as relatively round compared with those of CCC/CCH, there are few morphometric studies to support this statement. The aim of this study was to provide objective data as to the nuclear shape in columnar cell lesions. As a shape descriptor, we adopted ellipticity that is defined by the formula 2b/2a, where a is the length of the long axis of the ellipse and b is the length of the short axis. Contrary to circularity, ellipticity reflects the overall configuration of an ellipse irrespective of surface irregularity. Our image analysis included generating whole slide images, extracting glandular cell nuclei, measuring nuclear ellipticity, and superimposing graded colors based on execution of results on the captured images. A total of 7917 nuclei extracted from 22 FEA images and 5010 nuclei extracted from 13 CCC/CCH images were analyzed. There was a significant difference in nuclear roundness between FEA and CCC/CCH with mean ellipticity values of 0.723 and 0.679, respectively (p < 0.001, Welch's t test). Furthermore, FEA with malignancy had significantly rounder nuclei than FEA without malignancy (p < 0.001). Our preliminary results suggest that nuclear ellipticity is a key parameter in reproducibly classifying columnar cell lesions of the breast.

  5. A simple and efficient method for the extraction and separation of menaquinone homologs from wet biomass of Flavobacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hongfei; Zhao, Genhai; Liu, Hui; Wang, Han; Ni, Wenfeng; Wang, Peng; Zheng, Zhiming

    2018-01-01

    Menaquinone homologs (MK-n), that is, MK-4, MK-5, and MK-6, can be produced by the fermentation of Flavobacterium. In this study, we proposed a simple and efficient method for the extraction of menaquinones from wet cells without the process of drying the biomass. Meanwhile, a rapid and effective solution for the separation of menaquinone homologs was developed using a single organic solvent, which was conducive to the recovery of the solvent. The results showed that the highest yield was obtained with pretreatment using absolute ethanol at a ratio of 6:1 (v/m) for 30 min and then two extractions of 30 min each using methanol at a ratio of 6:1 (v/m). The recovery efficiency of the menaquinones reached to 102.8% compared to the positive control. The menaquinone homologs were effectively separated using methanol as eluent at a flow rate of 0.52 mL/min by a glass reverse-phase C18 silica gel column with a height-to-diameter ratio of 5.5:1. The recovery of menaquinones achieved was 99.6%. In conclusion, the methods for extraction and separation of menaquinone homologs from wet Flavobacterium cells were simple and efficient, which makes them suitable not only on a laboratory scale but also for application on a large scale.

  6. Leaf micro-environment influence the altered foliar phenotype of columnar apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talwara, Susheela; Grout, Brian William Wilson; Toldam-Andersen, Torben Bo

    2015-01-01

    in the phenotype of the leaves in the leaf clusters that subtend the fruits of CATs, compared to their standard counterparts. This initial investigation considers standard and columnar trees at different levels of genetic relatedness and records significant increases in leaf area, leaf mass per unit area......Columnar apple trees (CATs) have radically-altered architecture (significantly shorter internodes and lateral branches) when compared to standard apple trees, attributed to a mutation of the Co gene involved in apical dominance. These changes in architecture have been associated with changes......, chlorophyll content and competitive shading in the fruiting leaf clusters of columnar cultivars. Additionally, significant increases in intercepted light have been shown to be associated with the columnar structure, and carbon fixation is also increased. We propose that leaf micro-environment of columnar...

  7. Competition of a parathion-hydrolyzing Flavobacterium with bacteria from ditch water in carbon-, nitrate- and phosphate-limited continuous cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprenger, W.; Dijkstra, A.; Zwart, G.; Van Agterveld, M.P.; Van Noort, P.C.M.; Parsons, J.R.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of competition for macroelements with bacteria from ditch water on the parathion-hydrolyzing Flavobacterium sp. ATCC 27551 (FB) was investigated within mixed continuous cultures under carbon-, nitrate- or phosphate-limited conditions. The high initial rate of parathion hydrolysis

  8. Simultaneous demonstration of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) and Flavobacterium psychrophilum in paraffin-embedded specimens of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss fry by use of paired immunohistochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evensen, Ø.; Lorenzen, Ellen

    1997-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Flavobacterium psychrophilum, which is the causative agent of rainbow trout fry syndrome (RTFS), and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV), the causative agent of infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN), are both highly pathogenic for rainbow trout fry. Several...

  9. Orientations of recrystallization nuclei developed in columnar-grained Ni at triple junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, C.L.; Huang, S.; Zhang, Yubin

    2015-01-01

    A high purity columnar grained nickel sample with a strong <001> fiber texture was cold rolled to 50% reduction in thickness, followed by annealing at different temperatures. Optical microscopy was used to depict the grain boundaries prior to annealing and to detect nuclei formed on grain boundar...

  10. Experimental test of the postulate that continuous columnar pinning centers produce the highest Jc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinstein, Roy; Gandini, Alberto; Sawh, Ravi-Persad; Mayes, Bill; Parks, Drew

    2004-01-01

    Continuous columnar pinning centers, created by energetic ions, have been usefully studied theoretically and experimentally to investigate vortex physics in high T c superconductors. However, along the way, in error, their discontinuities have been downplayed, and they have been anointed as the way to produce high J c

  11. Tunnel current through virus particles between columnar structures in mesoporous silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vashpanov, Yuriy; Jung, Jae-Il; Dal Kwack, Kae [Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Division of Hanyang Institute of Technology, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, 133-791 Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-15

    Earlier we reported on a tunnel charge transport mechanism in mesoporous silicon with columnar structures under adsorption of plant nematode-transmitted polyhedral (NEPO) viruses at room temperature. Additional experiments are performed in this paper to establish that this observed tunnel current is connected to a conduction path through virus particles. The plant NEPO viruses have an orbicular shape with a diameter of around 25-30 nm. This size is matched well to the porous size distribution in manufactured samples. The tunnel charge transport in semiconductor structures was not observed on loading protein macromolecules of smaller sizes. A physical mechanism of the observed phenomena can be interpreted to be the result of a shunting effect through virus particles between the two closely located columnar silicon structures. This effect is likely to result from double points at virus adsorption under the condition of matching of pore and virus sizes. The magnitudes of the tunnel barrier heights depend on the type of loaded plant viruses. The investigated columnar structures of mesoporous silicon can be used for research on the electrical properties of different viruses with corresponding sizes in the range of 20-30 nm. The existence of a tunnel current between columnar structures in mesoporous silicon under virus adsorption can be used as a simple method for their detection in the environment. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Simulation and observation of line-slip structures in columnar structures of soft spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, J.; Haffner, B.; Weaire, D.; Mughal, A.; Hutzler, S.

    2017-07-01

    We present the computed phase diagram of columnar structures of soft spheres under pressure, of which the main feature is the appearance and disappearance of line slips, the shearing of adjacent spirals, as pressure is increased. A comparable experimental observation is made on a column of bubbles under forced drainage, clearly exhibiting the expected line slip.

  13. Behaviors of Deformation, Recrystallization and Textures Evolution of Columnar Grains in 3%Si Electrical Steel Slabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAO Yuan-yuan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The behaviors of deformation and recrystallization and textures evolution of 3% (mass fraction Si columnar-grained electrical steel slabs were investigated by electron backscatter diffractometer technique and X-ray diffraction. The results indicate that the three columnar-grained samples have different initial textures with the long axes arranged along rolling, transverse and normal directions. Three shear orientations can be obtained in surface layer after hot rolling, of which Goss orientation is formed easily. The α and γ fibre rolling orientations are obtained in RD sample, while strong γ fibre orientations in TD sample and sharp {100} orientations in ND sample are developed respectively. In addition, cube orientation can be found in all the three samples. The characteristics of hot rolled orientations in center region reveal distinct dependence on initial columnar-grained orientations. Strong {111}〈112〉 orientation in RD and TD samples separately comes from Goss orientation of hot rolled sheets, and sharp rotated cube orientation in ND sample originates from the initial {100} orientation of hot rolled sheets after cold rolling. Influenced by initial deviated orientations and coarse grain size, large orientation gradient of rotated cube oriented grain can be observed in ND sample. The coarse {100} orientated grains of center region in the annealed sheets show the heredity of the initial columnar-grained orientations.

  14. In vitro neutralisation of rotavirus infection by two broadly specific recombinant monovalent llama-derived antibody fragments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Aladin (Farah); A.W.C. Einerhand (Sandra); J. Bouma (Janneke); S. Bezemer (Sandra); P. Hermans (Pim); D. Wolvers (Danielle); K. Bellamy (Kate); L.G.J. Frenken (Leon); J. Gray (Jim); M. Iturriza-Gómara (Miren)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractRotavirus is the main cause of viral gastroenteritis in young children. Therefore, the development of inexpensive antiviral products for the prevention and/or treatment of rotavirus disease remains a priority. Previously we have shown that a recombinant monovalent antibody fragment

  15. International collaboration to assess the risk of Guillain Barre Syndrome following Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dodd, Caitlin N.; Romio, Silvana A.; Black, Steven; Vellozzi, Claudia; Andrews, Nick; Sturkenboom, Miriam; Zuber, Patrick; Hua, Wei; Bonhoeffer, Jan; Buttery, Jim; Crawford, Nigel; Deceuninck, Genevieve; de Vries, Corinne; De Wals, Philippe; Gutierrez-Gimeno, M. Victoria; Heijbel, Harald; Hughes, Hayley; Hur, Kwan; Hviid, Anders; Kelman, Jeffrey; Kilpi, Tehri; Chuang, S. K.; Macartney, Kristine; Rett, Melisa; Lopez-Callada, Vesta Richardson; Salmon, Daniel; Sanchez, Francisco Gimenez; Sanz, Nuria; Silverman, Barbara; Storsaeter, Jann; Thirugnanam, Umapathi; van der Maas, Nicoline; Yih, Katherine; Zhang, Tao; Izurieta, Hector

    2013-01-01

    Background: The global spread of the 2009 novel pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus led to the accelerated production and distribution of monovalent 2009 Influenza A (H1N1) vaccines (pH1N1). This pandemic provided the opportunity to evaluate the risk of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS), which has been an

  16. The role of monovalent cations in the ATPase reaction of DNA gyrase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearnshaw, Stephen James; Chung, Terence Tsz-Hong; Stevenson, Clare Elizabeth Mary; Maxwell, Anthony; Lawson, David Mark

    2015-04-01

    Four new crystal structures of the ATPase domain of the GyrB subunit of Escherichia coli DNA gyrase have been determined. One of these, solved in the presence of K(+), is the highest resolution structure reported so far for this domain and, in conjunction with the three other structures, reveals new insights into the function of this domain. Evidence is provided for the existence of two monovalent cation-binding sites: site 1, which preferentially binds a K(+) ion that interacts directly with the α-phosphate of ATP, and site 2, which preferentially binds an Na(+) ion and the functional significance of which is not clear. The crystallographic data are corroborated by ATPase data, and the structures are compared with those of homologues to investigate the broader conservation of these sites.

  17. Attractive non-DLVO forces induced by adsorption of monovalent organic ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alexander M; Maroni, Plinio; Borkovec, Michal

    2017-12-20

    Direct force measurements between negatively charged colloidal particles were carried out using an atomic force microscope (AFM) in aqueous solutions containing monovalent organic cations, namely tetraphenylarsonium (Ph 4 As + ), 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium (HMIM + ), and 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium (OMIM + ). These ions adsorb to the particle surface, and induce a charge reversal. The forces become attractive at the charge neutralization point, but they are stronger than van der Waals forces. This additional and unexpected attraction decays exponentially with a decay length of a few nanometers, and is strikingly similar to the one previously observed in the presence of multivalent ions. This attractive force probably originates from coupled spontaneous charge fluctuations on the respective surfaces as initially suggested by Kirkwood and Shumaker.

  18. Monovalent cations transfer through isolated human amnion: a new pharmacological model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bara, M.; Guiet-Bara, A.; Durlach, J.

    1985-04-01

    Transfer of monovalent cations through the isolated human amnion consists of different factors: paracellular, coupling, ATPase dependent cellular transfer, leak cellular transfer. Understanding this transfer permits testing of the action of various substances. Physiological substances (Mg, taurine) increase ionic transfer and there is a vicarious effect between Mg and taurine. The tocolytic agents MgSO/sub 4/ and ethanol do not exhibit a good effect on the transfer: decrease with ethanol; equality between entry and exit fluxes with MgSO/sub 4/. On the other hand, amphotericin B increases mother-to-fetus transfer. Polluting metals (Pb, Cd, Hg, As) dramatically reduce exchanges and almost completely inhibit amnion permeability. Ingestion of ethanol also exhibits a dramatic effect on the exchange between mother and fetus through the amnion. Study of ionic transfer in vitro can be considered a pharmacological model to investigate the modifications of mother-fetus exchanges by various substances.

  19. EVALUATION OF REACTOGENICITY, SAFETY AND IMMUNOGENICITY OF INACTIVATED MONOVALENT VACCINE IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Mironov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available NPO «Microgen» developed vaccine «PANDEFLU» — influenza inactivated subunit adsorbed monovalent vaccine, strain A/California/7/2009 (H1N1, for specific prophylaxis of pandemic influenza in different age groups of citizens. Reactogenicity, safety and immunogenicity were analyzed in a study of volunteers 18–60 years old. The article presents results of administration of vaccine «PANDEFLU» in children. The study performed in two clinical centers proves good tolerability, reactogenicity, safety and high immunogenicity of this vaccine.Key words: children, influenza, influenza virus А/H1N1, inactivated influenza vaccine, reactogenicity, safety, immunogenicity.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. – 2010;9(4:106-109

  20. Diphtheria toxin-induced channels in Vero cells selective for monovalent cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandvig, K.; Olsnes, S.

    1988-01-01

    Ion fluxes associated with translocation of diphtheria toxin across the surface membrane of Vero cells were studied. When cells with surface-bound toxin were exposed to low pH to induce toxin entry, the cells became permeable to Na+, K+, H+, choline+, and glucosamine+. There was no increased permeability to Cl-, SO4(-2), glucose, or sucrose, whereas the uptake of 45 Ca2+ was slightly increased. The influx of Ca2+, which appears to be different from that of monovalent cations, was reduced by several inhibitors of anion transport and by verapamil, Mn2+, Co2+, and Ca2+, but not by Mg2+. The toxin-induced fluxes of N+, K+, and protons were inhibited by Cd2+. Cd2+ also protected the cells against intoxication by diphtheria toxin, suggesting that the open cation-selective channel is required for toxin translocation. The involvement of the toxin receptor is discussed

  1. Contribution to the physicochemical investigation of monovalent thallium and tetravalent uranium fluorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsini, M.S.

    1983-07-01

    Ionic transport properties are studied in monovalent elements and tetravalent uranium fluorides and oxyfluorides. Crystal structure of the oxyfluoride: TlUsub(2.75)OF 10 was determined by X-ray diffraction on a monocrystal. The particular role played by oxygen is evidenced in the stabilization of the crystal structure based on an original arrangement of Archimedes antiprisms: UOF 7 corresponding to a long distance order oxygen-fluorine in the anionic network. Electric conductivity measurements in AC by the complex impedance method or in DC by the Van der Pauw method allowed performance estimation of these materials which are solid electrolytes. Correlations between electrical properties and structure give information in basic diffusion mechanism in these materials [fr

  2. Solvation of monovalent anions in formamide and methanol: Parameterization of the IEF-PCM model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boees, Elvis S.; Bernardi, Edson; Stassen, Hubert; Goncalves, Paulo F.B.

    2008-01-01

    The thermodynamics of solvation for a series of monovalent anions in formamide and methanol has been studied using the polarizable continuum model (PCM). The parameterization of this continuum model was guided by molecular dynamics simulations. The parameterized PCM model predicts the Gibbs free energies of solvation for 13 anions in formamide and 16 anions in methanol in very good agreement with experimental data. Two sets of atomic radii were tested in the definition of the solute cavities in the PCM and their performances are evaluated and discussed. Mean absolute deviations of the calculated free energies of solvation from the experimental values are in the range of 1.3-2.1 kcal/mol

  3. Stress Tolerance-Related Genetic Traits of Fish Pathogen Flavobacterium psychrophilum in a Mature Biofilm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Levipan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Flavobacterium psychrophilum is the causative agent of bacterial cold-water disease and rainbow trout fry syndrome, and hence this bacterium is placed among the most important salmonid pathogens in the freshwater aquaculture industry. Since bacteria in biofilms differ substantially from free-living counterparts, this study sought to find the main differences in gene expression between sessile and planktonic states of F. psychrophilum LM-02-Fp and NCMB1947T, with focus on stress-related changes in gene expression occurring during biofilm formation. To this end, biofilm and planktonic samples were analyzed by RNA sequencing to detect differentially expressed candidate genes (DECGs between the two growth states, and decreasing the effects of interstrain variation by considering only genes with log2-fold changes ≤ −2 and ≥ 2 at Padj-values ≤ 0.001 as DECGs. Overall, 349 genes accounting for ~15% of total number of genes expressed in transcriptomes of F. psychrophilum LM-02-Fp and NCMB1947T (n = 2327 were DECGs between biofilm and planktonic states. Approximately 83 and 81% of all up- and down-regulated candidate genes in mature biofilms, respectively, were assigned to at least one gene ontology term; these were primarily associated with the molecular function term “catalytic activity.” We detected a potential stress response in mature biofilms, characterized by a generalized down-regulation of DECGs with roles in the protein synthesis machinery (n = 63, primarily ribosomal proteins and energy conservation (seven ATP synthase subunit genes, as well as an up-regulation of DECGs involved in DNA repair (ruvC, recO, phrB1, smf, and dnaQ and oxidative stress response (cytochrome C peroxidase, probable peroxiredoxin, and a probable thioredoxin. These results support the idea of a strategic trade-off between growth-related processes and cell homeostasis to preserve biofilm structure and metabolic functioning. In addition, LDH-based cytotoxicity

  4. Analysis of EDZ Development of Columnar Jointed Rock Mass in the Baihetan Diversion Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xian-Jie; Feng, Xia-Ting; Yang, Cheng-Xiang; Jiang, Quan; Li, Shao-Jun

    2016-04-01

    Due to the time dependency of the crack propagation, columnar jointed rock masses exhibit marked time-dependent behaviour. In this study, in situ measurements, scanning electron microscope (SEM), back-analysis method and numerical simulations are presented to study the time-dependent development of the excavation damaged zone (EDZ) around underground diversion tunnels in a columnar jointed rock mass. Through in situ measurements of crack propagation and EDZ development, their extent is seen to have increased over time, despite the fact that the advancing face has passed. Similar to creep behaviour, the time-dependent EDZ development curve also consists of three stages: a deceleration stage, a stabilization stage, and an acceleration stage. A corresponding constitutive model of columnar jointed rock mass considering time-dependent behaviour is proposed. The time-dependent degradation coefficient of the roughness coefficient and residual friction angle in the Barton-Bandis strength criterion are taken into account. An intelligent back-analysis method is adopted to obtain the unknown time-dependent degradation coefficients for the proposed constitutive model. The numerical modelling results are in good agreement with the measured EDZ. Not only that, the failure pattern simulated by this time-dependent constitutive model is consistent with that observed in the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and in situ observation, indicating that this model could accurately simulate the failure pattern and time-dependent EDZ development of columnar joints. Moreover, the effects of the support system provided and the in situ stress on the time-dependent coefficients are studied. Finally, the long-term stability analysis of diversion tunnels excavated in columnar jointed rock masses is performed.

  5. Columnar Self-Assembly of Electron-Deficient Dendronized Bay-Annulated Perylene Bisimides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ravindra Kumar; Shankar Rao, Doddamane S; Prasad, S Krishna; Achalkumar, Ammathnadu S

    2018-03-07

    Three new heteroatom bay-annulated perylene bisimides (PBIs) have been synthesized by microwave-assisted synthesis in excellent yield. N-annulated and S-annulated perylene bisimides exhibited columnar hexagonal phase, whereas Se-annulated perylene bisimide exhibited low temperature columnar oblique phase in addition to the high temperature columnar hexagonal phase. The cup shaped bay-annulated PBIs pack into columns with enhanced intermolecular interactions. In comparison to PBI, these molecules exhibited lower melting and clearing temperature, with good solubility. A small red shift in the absorption was seen in the case of N-annulated PBI, whereas S- and Se-annulated PBIs exhibited blue-shifted absorption spectra. Bay-annulation increased the HOMO and LUMO levels of the N-annulated perylene bisimide, whereas a slight increase in the LUMO level and a decrease in the HOMO levels were observed in the case of S- and Se-annulated perylene bisimides, in comparison to the simple perylene bisimide. The band gaps of PBI and PBI-N were almost same, whereas an increase in the band gaps were observed in the case of S- and Se-annulated PBIs. The tendency to freeze in the ordered glassy columnar phase for PBI-N and PBI-S will help to overcome the charge traps due to crystallization, which are detrimental to one-dimensional charge carrier mobility. These solution processable electron deficient columnar semiconductors possessing good thermal stability may form an easily accessible promising class of n-type materials. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Evaluation of the hormonal state of columnar apple trees (Malus x domestica) based on high throughput gene expression studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krost, Clemens; Petersen, Romina; Lokan, Stefanie; Brauksiepe, Bastienne; Braun, Peter; Schmidt, Erwin R

    2013-02-01

    The columnar phenotype of apple trees (Malus x domestica) is characterized by a compact growth habit with fruit spurs instead of lateral branches. These properties provide significant economic advantages by enabling high density plantings. The columnar growth results from the presence of a dominant allele of the gene Columnar (Co) located on chromosome 10 which can appear in a heterozygous (Co/co) or homozygous (Co/Co) state. Although two deep sequencing approaches could shed some light on the transcriptome of columnar shoot apical meristems (SAMs), the molecular mechanisms of columnar growth are not yet elaborated. Since the influence of phytohormones is believed to have a pivotal role in the establishment of the phenotype, we performed RNA-Seq experiments to study genes associated with hormone homeostasis and clearly affected by the presence of Co. Our results provide a molecular explanation for earlier findings on the hormonal state of columnar apple trees. Additionally, they allow hypotheses on how the columnar phenotype might develop. Furthermore, we show a statistically approved enrichment of differentially regulated genes on chromosome 10 in the course of validating RNA-Seq results using additional gene expression studies.

  7. Crash worthy capacity of a hybridized epoxy-glass fiber aluminum columnar tube using repeated axial resistive force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paruka, Perowansa [Jalan Politeknik, Kota Kinabalu (Malaysia); Siswanto, Waluyo Adi [Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Parit Raja (Malaysia); Maleque, Md Abdul [Universiti Islam Antarabangsa Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Shah, Mohd Kamal Mohd [Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    A combination of aluminum columnar member with composite laminate to form a hybrid structure can be used as collapsible energy absorbers especially in automotive vehicular structures to protect occupants and cargo. A key advantage of aluminum member in composite is that it provides ductile and stable plastic collapse mechanisms with progressive deformation in a stable manner by increasing energy absorption during collision. This paper presents an experimental investigation on the influence of the number of hybrid epoxy glass layers in overwrap composite columnar tubes. Three columnar tube specimens were used and fabricated by hand lay-up method. Aluminum square hollow shape was combined with externally wrapped by using an isophthalic epoxy resin reinforced with glass fiber skin with an orientation angle of 0 .deg. /90 .deg. The aluminum columnar tube was used as reference material. Crushed hybrid-composite columnar tubes were prepared using one, two, and three layers to determine the crash worthy capacity. Quasi-static crush test was conducted using INSTRON machine with an axial loading. Results showed that crush force and the number of layers were related to the enhancement of energy absorption before the collapse of columnar tubes. The energy absorption properties of the crushed hybrid-composite columnar tubes improved significantly with the addition of layers in the overwrap. Microscopic analysis on the modes of epoxy-glass fiber laminate failure was conducted by using scanning electron microscopy.

  8. Crash worthy capacity of a hybridized epoxy-glass fiber aluminum columnar tube using repeated axial resistive force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paruka, Perowansa; Siswanto, Waluyo Adi; Maleque, Md Abdul; Shah, Mohd Kamal Mohd

    2015-01-01

    A combination of aluminum columnar member with composite laminate to form a hybrid structure can be used as collapsible energy absorbers especially in automotive vehicular structures to protect occupants and cargo. A key advantage of aluminum member in composite is that it provides ductile and stable plastic collapse mechanisms with progressive deformation in a stable manner by increasing energy absorption during collision. This paper presents an experimental investigation on the influence of the number of hybrid epoxy glass layers in overwrap composite columnar tubes. Three columnar tube specimens were used and fabricated by hand lay-up method. Aluminum square hollow shape was combined with externally wrapped by using an isophthalic epoxy resin reinforced with glass fiber skin with an orientation angle of 0 .deg. /90 .deg. The aluminum columnar tube was used as reference material. Crushed hybrid-composite columnar tubes were prepared using one, two, and three layers to determine the crash worthy capacity. Quasi-static crush test was conducted using INSTRON machine with an axial loading. Results showed that crush force and the number of layers were related to the enhancement of energy absorption before the collapse of columnar tubes. The energy absorption properties of the crushed hybrid-composite columnar tubes improved significantly with the addition of layers in the overwrap. Microscopic analysis on the modes of epoxy-glass fiber laminate failure was conducted by using scanning electron microscopy.

  9. Two-phase coexistence in the monovalent-to-divalent phase transition of dineopentylbiferrocene-fluorotetracyanoquinodimethane [npBifc-(F1TCNQ)3], charge-transfer salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uruichi, Mikio; Yue, Yue; Yakushi, Kyuya; Mochida, Tomoyuki

    2007-01-01

    We present experimental findings showing that for npBifc-(F 1 TCNQ) 3 , two phases coexist over a wide temperature interval of 100-150 K near the monovalent-to-divalent phase transition temperature. Macroscopic domains of the high-temperature (monovalent) and low-temperature (divalent) phases were detected in the transition temperature region using X-ray diffraction and micro-Raman spectroscopy techniques. The volume fraction of the two domains continuously varied depending upon the temperature. A considerably large volume difference was found between the monovalent and divalent phases. The effect of volumetric strain due to this volume difference is discussed to understand this inhomogeneous state. (author)

  10. Characterization of isolates of Flavobacterium psychrophilum associated with coldwater disease or rainbow trout fry syndrome II: serological studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Ellen; Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    The possibility of seroIogical differentiation between isolates of Flavobacterium psychrophilum was analyzed by ELISA and slide agglutination. Twenty-five Danish isolates and 20 isolates from other European countries were studied using polyclonal rabbit antisera and whole-cell preparations....... Unabsorbed as well as reciprocally absorbed antisera and purified Ig preparations derived from the antisera were included. Most of the isolates originated from clinical outbreaks of rainbow trout fry syndrome (RTFS) or coldwater disease (CWD), but some were isolated from asymptomatic fish or from other fish...... species with different disease signs, The ELISA showed the existence of different serotypes most distinctly, but slide agglutination supported the ELISA results. Three serotypes were found among the isolates studied: 1 major serotype (serotype Th) represented most of the Danish isolates and isolates from...

  11. Vortex Matter dynamics in a thin film of Nb with columnar indentations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, J.S. [Grupo de Supercondutividade e Magnetism, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: julianakapp@gmail.com; Zadorosny, R.; Oliveira, A.A.M. [Grupo de Supercondutividade e Magnetism, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Lepienski, C.M. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Patino, E.J.; Blamire, M.G. [Department of Materials Science, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); Ortiz, W.A. [Grupo de Supercondutividade e Magnetism, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-15

    A superconducting film with columnar defects constitutes a rich scenario for studying Vortex Matter dynamics. This paper reports on the magnetic response of a 200 nm thick Nb film, pierced with a set of 900 columnar indentations of nearly triangular cross section, forming a square lattice. The column diameter is 1 {mu}m and the distance between columns is 10 {mu}m. To probe the interaction of Vortex Matter with the array of antidots, we have excited the sample with a significantly large AC-field, so that flux originally trapped by the columns could be unpinned and admitted into the superconducting sea surrounding the defects. The melting line of this system has a kink separating two different regimes, suggesting a crossover from the efficient pinning regime, at lower temperatures, to a temperature-induced depinning.

  12. Vortex Matter dynamics in a thin film of Nb with columnar indentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, J.S.; Zadorosny, R.; Oliveira, A.A.M.; Lepienski, C.M.; Patino, E.J.; Blamire, M.G.; Ortiz, W.A.

    2008-01-01

    A superconducting film with columnar defects constitutes a rich scenario for studying Vortex Matter dynamics. This paper reports on the magnetic response of a 200 nm thick Nb film, pierced with a set of 900 columnar indentations of nearly triangular cross section, forming a square lattice. The column diameter is 1 μm and the distance between columns is 10 μm. To probe the interaction of Vortex Matter with the array of antidots, we have excited the sample with a significantly large AC-field, so that flux originally trapped by the columns could be unpinned and admitted into the superconducting sea surrounding the defects. The melting line of this system has a kink separating two different regimes, suggesting a crossover from the efficient pinning regime, at lower temperatures, to a temperature-induced depinning

  13. Modelling the viscoplastic behavior and the heterogeneous intracrystalline deformation of columnar ice polycrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebensohn, Ricardo A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Montagnat, Maurine [LGGE (FRANCE); Mansuy, Philippe [MICHELIN (FRANCE); Duval, Paul [LGGE (FRANCE); Philip, A [LGGE (FRANCE)

    2008-01-01

    A full-field formulation based on Fast Fourier Transforms (FFT) has been adapted and used to predict the micromechanical fields that develop in columnar Ih ice polycrystals deforming in compression by dislocation creep. The predicted intragranular mechanical fields are in qualitative good agreement with experimental observations, in particular those involving the formation of shear and kink bands. These localization bands are associated with the large internal stresses that develop during creep in such anisotropic material, and their location, intensity, morphology and extension are found to depend strongly on the crystallographic orientation of the grains and on their interaction with neighbor crystals. The predictions of the model are also discussed in relation with the deformation of columnar sea and lake ice, and with the mechanical behavior of granular ice of glaciers and polar ice sheets, as well.

  14. Transitional basal cells at the squamous-columnar junction generate Barrett’s oesophagus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ming; Li, Haiyan; Zhang, Yongchun; Yang, Ying; Lu, Rong; Liu, Kuancan; Lin, Sijie; Lan, Xiaopeng; Wang, Haikun; Wu, Han; Zhu, Jian; Zhou, Zhongren; Xu, Jianming; Lee, Dong-Kee; Zhang, Lanjing; Lee, Yuan-Cho; Yuan, Jingsong; Abrams, Julian A.; Wang, Timothy G.; Sepulveda, Antonia R.; Wu, Qi; Chen, Huaiyong; Sun, Xin; She, Junjun; Chen, Xiaoxin; Que, Jianwen

    2017-01-01

    In several organ systems the transitional zone between different types of epithelia is a hotspot for pre-neoplastic metaplasia and malignancy1–3. However, the cell-of-origin for the metaplastic epithelium and subsequent malignancy, remains obscure1–3. In the case of Barrett’s oesophagus (BE), intestinal metaplasia occurs at the gastro-oesophageal junction, where stratified squamous epithelium transitions into simple columnar cells4. Based on different experimental models, several alternative cell types have been proposed as the source of the metaplasia, but in all cases the evidence is inconclusive and no model completely mimics BE with the presence of intestinal goblet cells5–8. Here, we describe a novel transitional columnar epithelium with distinct basal progenitor cells (p63+ KRT5+ KRT7+) in the squamous-columnar junction (SCJ) in the upper gastrointestinal tract of the mouse. We use multiple models and lineage tracing strategies to show that this unique SCJ basal cell population serves as a source of progenitors for the transitional epithelium. Moreover, upon ectopic expression of CDX2 these transitional basal progenitors differentiate into intestinal-like epithelium including goblet cells, thus reproducing Barrett’s metaplasia. A similar transitional columnar epithelium is present at the transitional zones of other mouse tissues, including the anorectal junction, and, importantly, at the gastro-oesophageal junction in the human gut. Acid reflux-induced oesophagitis and the multilayered epithelium (MLE) believed to be a precursor of BE are both characterized by the expansion of the transitional basal progenitor cells. Taken together our findings reveal the presence of a previously unidentified transitional zone in the epithelium of the upper gastrointestinal tract and provide evidence that the p63+ KRT7+ basal cells in this zone are the cell-of-origin for MLE and BE. PMID:29019984

  15. Formation of {1 0 0} textured columnar grain structure in a non-oriented electrical steel by phase transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Li; Yang, Ping, E-mail: yangp@mater.ustb.edu.cn; Zhang, Ning; Zong, Cui; Xia, Dongsheng; Mao, Weimin

    2014-04-01

    This study confirms the effect of anisotropic strain energy on the formation of {1 0 0} textured columnar grain structure induced by temperature gradient during γ to α phase transformation in pure hydrogen atmosphere. Results indicate that high temperature gradient in pure hydrogen atmosphere induces a significant strain energy difference across grain boundaries during γ to α phase transformation, leading to the formation of {1 0 0} texture with columnar grains. Given its simplicity in processing and its ability to obtain good texture-related magnetic properties, the proposed approach is helpful to the development of new types of non-oriented electrical steel. - Highlights: • A strong {1 0 0} texture with columnar grains was obtained. • Good texture and magnetic properties are attributed to the anisotropic strain energy. • The anisotropy in elastic strain energy was induced by the temperature gradient. • The phase transformation rate affects columnar grain morphology.

  16. The pinning property of Bi-2212 single crystals with columnar defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, Kazunori; Kiuchi, Masaru; Otabe, Edmund Soji; Yasuda, Takashi; Matsushita, Teruo; Okayasu, Satoru

    2004-01-01

    It is qualitatively understood that the condensation energy density in oxide superconductors, which is one of the essential parameters for determining their pinning strength, becomes large with increasing dimensionality of the superconductor. However, the condensation energy density has not yet been evaluated quantitatively. Its value can be estimated from the elementary pinning force of a known defect. Columnar defects created by heavy ion irradiation are candidates for being such defects. That is, the size and number density of columnar defects can be given. In addition, it is known that two-dimensional vortices like those in Bi-2212 are forced into three-dimensional states by these defects in a magnetic field parallel to the defects. Thus, the condensation energy density can be estimated from the pinning property of the columnar defects even for two-dimensional superconductors. A similar analysis was performed also for three-dimensional Y-123. A discussion is given of the relationship between the condensation energy density and the anisotropy parameter estimated from measurements of anisotropic resistivity and peak field

  17. Immunohistochemical/histochemical double staining method in the study of the columnar metaplasia of the oesophagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Cabibi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal metaplasia in Barrett’s oesophagus (BO represents an important risk factor for oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Instead, few and controversial data are reported about the progression risk of columnar-lined oesophagus without intestinal metaplasia (CLO, posing an issue about its clinical management. The aim was to evaluate if some immunophenotypic changes were present in CLO independently of the presence of the goblet cells. We studied a series of oesophageal biopsies from patients with endoscopic finding of columnar metaplasia, by performing some immunohistochemical stainings (CK7, p53, AuroraA combined with histochemistry (Alcian-blue and Alcian/PAS, with the aim of simultaneously assess the histochemical features in cells that shows an aberrant expression of such antigens. We evidenced a cytoplasmic expression of CK7 and a nuclear expression of Aurora A and p53,  both in goblet cells of BO and in non-goblet cells of CLO, some of which showing mild dysplasia. These findings suggest that some immunophenotypic changes are present in CLO and they can precede the appearance of the goblet cells or can be present independently of them, confirming the conception of BO as the condition characterized by any extention of columnar epithelium. This is the first study in which a combined immunohistochemical/histochemical method has been applied to Barrett pathology.

  18. Dependence of columnar aerosol size distribution, optical properties, and chemical components on regional transport in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuo; Zhao, Weixiong; Xu, Xuezhe; Fang, Bo; Zhang, Qilei; Qian, Xiaodong; Zhang, Weijun; Chen, Weidong; Pu, Wei; Wang, Xin

    2017-11-01

    Seasonal dependence of the columnar aerosol optical and chemical properties on regional transport in Beijing over 10 years (from January 2005 to December 2014) were analyzed by using the ground-based remote sensing combined with backward trajectory analysis. Daily air mass backward trajectories terminated in Beijing were computed with HYSPLIT-4 model and were categorized into five clusters. The columnar mass concentrations of black carbon (BC), brown carbon (BrC), dust (DU), aerosol water content (AW), and ammonium sulfate like aerosol (AS) of each cluster were retrieved from the optical data obtained from the Aerosol Robotic NETwork (AERONET) with five-component model. It was found that the columnar aerosol properties in different seasons were changed, and they were related to the air mass origins. In spring, aerosol was dominated by coarse particles. Summer was characterized by higher single scattering albedo (SSA), lower real part of complex refractive index (n), and obvious hygroscopic growth due to humid air from the south. During autumn and winter, there was an observable increase in absorption aerosol optical thickness (AAOT) and the imaginary part of complex refraction (k), with high levels of retrieved BC and BrC. However, concentrations of BC showed less dependence on the clusters during the two seasons owing to the widely spread coal heating in north China.

  19. Monovalent cation and amiloride analog modulation of adrenergic ligand binding to the unglycosylated alpha 2B-adrenergic receptor subtype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, A.L.; Seibert, K.; Brandon, S.; Cragoe, E.J. Jr.; Limbird, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    The unglycosylated alpha 2B subtype of the alpha 2-adrenergic receptor found in NG-108-15 cells possesses allosteric regulation of adrenergic ligand binding by monovalent cations and 5-amino-substituted amiloride analogs. These findings demonstrate that allosteric modulation of adrenergic ligand binding is not a property unique to the alpha 2A subtype. The observation that amiloride analogs as well as monovalent cations can modulate adrenergic ligand binding to the nonglycosylated alpha 2B subtype indicates that charge shielding due to carbohydrate moieties does not play a role in this allosteric modulation but, rather, these regulatory effects result from interactions of cations and amiloride analogs with the protein moiety of the receptor. Furthermore, the observation that both alpha 2A and alpha 2B receptor subtypes are modulated by amiloride analogs suggests that structural domains that are conserved between the two are likely to be involved in this allosteric modulation

  20. Competition among Li+, Na+, K+ and Rb+ Monovalent Ions for DNA in Molecular Dynamics Simulations using the Additive CHARMM36 and Drude Polarizable Force Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Savelyev, Alexey; MacKerell, Alexander D.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we report on interactions of and competition between monovalent ions for two DNA sequences in MD simulations. Efforts included the development and validation of parameters for interactions among the first-group monovalent cations, Li+, Na+, K+ and Rb+, and DNA in the Drude polarizable and additive CHARMM36 force fields (FF). The optimization process targeted gas-phase QM interaction energies of various model compounds with ions and osmotic pressures of bulk electrolyte so...

  1. Modification of leaf morphology and anatomy as a consequence of columnar architecture in domestic apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talwara, Susheela; Grout, Brian William Wilson; Toldam-Andersen, Torben Bo

    2013-01-01

    A quantitative study has been made of the modifications to leaf morphology and anatomy evident in columnar apples trees when compared to standard ones, using the original cultivar and the first columnar mutant derived from it, as well as other closely and more distantly related cultivars. Signifi......A quantitative study has been made of the modifications to leaf morphology and anatomy evident in columnar apples trees when compared to standard ones, using the original cultivar and the first columnar mutant derived from it, as well as other closely and more distantly related cultivars....... Significant increases in leaf number, area, weight per unit area, thickness and midrib angle, together with altered shape, have been recorded consistently for the leaves subtending the developing fruits of the columnar cultivars. Additionally, significant increases in leaf rolling, epicuticular wax, stomatal...... of leaf characteristics is considered in terms of the very open architectural phenotype of columnar trees and the impact this may have on the canopy microclimate that influences leaf development....

  2. Thermal study of monovalent-divalent phase transition in npBifc-F{sub 1}TCNQ System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Michiko; Nishio, Yutaka; Kajita, Koji [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Toho University, Miyama 2-2-1, Funabashi, Chiba, 274-8510 (Japan); Mochida, Tomoyuki, E-mail: nishio@ph.sci.toho-u.ac.j [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Kobe University, Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2009-03-01

    In a new molecular solid composed of di-neopentyl-biferrocene (npBifc) and fluorotetracyanoquinodimethane (F{sub 1}TCNQ){sub 3}, Mochida reported the discovery of a reversible valence transfer that can be regarded as an 'ionic(I)-ionic(II)' phase transfer between the monovalent state (D{sup +}A{sup -}) and the divalent state (D{sup 2+}A{sup 2-}). We have studied thermo-dynamical properties of this transformation for this complex using the differential thermal analyses (DTA). We observed a broad excess specific heat with multi-peaks attributed to micro-domain structure over the corresponding temperature range (100-150K) accompanied by temperature hysteresis of 7K. The transition entropy (DELTAS) was determined to be 22 +- 2 J/mol-K and almost satisfied a Clausius-Clapeyron relation. These experimental results provide an experimental confirmation of the first order phase transition for the monovalent-divalent transfer. At the transition, we observe that the electronic degrees of freedom remained constant values, while large entropy absorbed crossing from low temperature phase to high temperature one is contributed by the lattice one. We finally estimated the internal energy and concluded that delicate energy valance between Madelung, ionization and affinity energies enable this system to exhibit a temperature induce monovalent-divalent phase transition.

  3. Impact of monovalent cations on soil structure. Part I. Results of an Iranian soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahani, Elham; Emami, Hojat; Keller, Thomas; Fotovat, Amir; Khorassani, Reza

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of monovalent cations on clay dispersion, aggregate stability, soil pore size distribution, and saturated hydraulic conductivity on agricultural soil in Iran. The soil was incubated with treatment solutions containing different concentrations (0-54.4 mmol l-1) of potassium and sodium cations. The treatment solutions included two levels of electrical conductivity (EC=3 or 6 dS m-1) and six K:Na ratios per electrical conductivity level. At both electrical conductivity levels, spontaneously dispersible clay increased with increasing K concentration, and with increasing K:Na ratio. A negative linear relationship between percentage of water-stable aggregates and spontaneously dispersible clay was observed. Clay dispersion generally reduced the mean pore size, presumably due to clogging of pores, resulting in increased water retention. At both electrical conductivity levels, hydraulic conductivity increased with increasing exchangeable potassium percentage at low exchangeable potassium percentage values, but decreased with further increases in exchangeable potassium percentage at higher exchangeable potassium percentage. This is in agreement with earlier studies, but seems in conflict with our data showing increasing spontaneously dispersible clay with increasing exchangeable potassium percentage. Our findings show that clay dispersion increased with increasing K concentration and increasing K:Na ratio, demonstrating that K can have negative impacts on soil structure.

  4. Excited state fluorescence quenching of the U O2++ ion by monovalent anions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santarine, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    The reactions of the Uranyl ion U O 2 ++ in the excited state with the monovalent inorganic ions N O 3 - and I O 3 - in aqueous solutions at normal temperature were studied, using three techniques: Fluorescence in the steady state - Flash photolysis - Fluorescence decay after excitation. With increasing concentration of these ions it was observed a decrease in the normalized intensity and a decrease in the decay time of the fluorescence of the Uranyl ion in the solution and a corresponding appearance of the radicals N O 3 . or I O 3 . . In each case the radical was identified by its optical absorption spectrum. These results suggest that the quenching of fluorescence of the Uranyl ion in each case is owing to an electron transfer reaction. In the case of the Nitrate ion the transfer may occur after the formation of an ionic par (U O 2 + ...N O 3 ) in the ground state. Evidence for static quenching in the system Uranyl iodate was not forthcoming. A mechanism for the determination of the velocity constant (probability per ion pair per unit time) is proposed for each of the systems. (author)

  5. Compliance with future emission standards of mobile machines by developing a monovalent natural gas combustion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prehn, Sascha; Wichmann, Volker; Harndorf, Horst; Beberdick, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Within the presented project a monovalent natural gas engine is being developed. Based on a serial diesel engine the operation mode of this prototype is changed to a spark ignition concept. The long term purpose of this new engine is an agricultural application. One major objective of the project is the investigation and evaluation of a combustion process, able to fulfil the performance requests as well as the European emission limits for nitrogen oxides NO x , and carbon monoxide CO of mobile machinery, which become into law in October 2014 (EU stage IV). At the time there are no legislative regulations existing regarding the methane emissions of the observed engines. To get a benefit in greenhouse gas emissions compared to diesel or gasoline engines the methane emissions have to be minimized while operating in natural gas mode. In the course of the current project an engine operation with a methane emission less than 0.5 g/kWh (representing the EURO VI limit for heavy duty vehicles) could be demonstrated. In contrast to diesel engines for agricultural applications it is possible to comply with the emission standards without using a high sophisticated after treatment system consisting of diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), particulate filter (DPF) and SCR catalyst. The usage of a three way catalyst optimized for high methane conversions is sufficient for a stoichiometry gas operation with exhaust gas recirculation. Therefore a significant cost advantage is given.

  6. Higher cytotoxicity of divalent antibody-toxins than monovalent antibody-toxins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, JaeSeon; Nam, PilWon; Lee, YongChan; Choe, MuHyeon

    2009-01-01

    Recombinant antibody-toxins are constructed via the fusion of a 'carcinoma-specific' antibody fragment to a toxin. Due to the high affinity and high selectivity of the antibody fragments, antibody-toxins can bind to surface antigens on cancer cells and kill them without harming normal cells [L.H. Pai, J.K. Batra, D.J. FitzGerald, M.C. Willingham, I. Pastan, Anti-tumor activities of immunotoxins made of monoclonal antibody B3 and various forms of Pseudomonas exotoxin, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88 (1991) 3358-3362]. In this study, we constructed the antibody-toxin, Fab-SWn-PE38, with SWn (n = 3, 6, 9) sequences containing n-time repeated (G 4 S) between the Fab fragment and PE38 (38 kDa truncated form of Pseudomonas exotoxin A). The SWn sequence also harbored one cysteine residue that could form a disulfide bridge between two Fab-SWn-PE38 monomers. We assessed the cytotoxicity of the monovalent (Fab-SWn-PE38), and divalent ([Fab-SWn-PE38] 2 ) antibody-toxins. The cytotoxicity of the dimer against the CRL1739 cell line was approximately 18.8-fold higher than that of the monomer on the ng/ml scale, which was approximately 37.6-fold higher on the pM scale. These results strongly indicate that divalency provides higher cytotoxicity for an antibody-toxin.

  7. Effect of age on the incidence of aseptic meningitis following immunization with monovalent mumps vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muta, Hiromi; Nagai, Takao; Ito, Yuhei; Ihara, Toshiaki; Nakayama, Tetsuo

    2015-11-09

    The purpose of this study was to determine the risk of aseptic meningitis after mumps vaccination in younger children compared with older children. This prospective cohort study included a total of 21,465 children under 18 years of age who had received the first dose of three of the Japanese mumps monovalent vaccine. We compared the cumulative incidence of aseptic meningitis for 30 days after vaccination among the following age groups: ≤ 1, 2, 3-4, and ≥ 5 years old. We also investigated the cumulative incidence of salivary gland swelling, a fever (≥ 38°C) lasting at least 3 days during the 10 to 25 days following immunization, vomiting of 3 times or more, headache, and seizure. A total of 10 aseptic meningitis, 551 salivary gland swelling, 844 fevers, 669 vomiting, 757 headaches, and 29 seizure cases were identified. The cumulative incidence of aseptic meningitis increased with age (0.016%, 0.021%, 0.066%, and 0.096%, respectively). Statistical significance was observed between children ≥ 3 years old and those mumps vaccine that is currently available for use in Japan may be administered in children less than 3 years of age in order to complicate a less aseptic meningitis after immunization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Robust Multilayer Graphene-Organic Frameworks for Selective Separation of Monovalent Anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Zhu, Jiajie; Li, Jian; Zhao, Zhijuan; Charchalac Ochoa, Sebastian Ignacio; Shen, Jiangnan; Gao, Congjie; Van der Bruggen, Bart

    2018-05-30

    The chemical and mechanical stability of graphene nanosheets was used in this work to design a multilayer architecture of graphene, grafted with sulfonated 4,4'-diaminodiphenyl sulfone (SDDS). Quaternized poly(phenylene oxide) (QPPO) was synthesized and mixed with SDDS (rGO-SDDS-rGO@QPPO), yielding a multilayer graphene-organic framework (MGOF) with positive as well as negative functional groups that can be applied as a versatile electrodriven membrane in electrodialysis (ED). Multilayer graphene-organic frameworks are a new class of multilayer structures, with an architecture having a tunable interlayer spacing connected by cationic polymer material. MGOF membranes were demonstrated to allow for an excellent selective separation of monovalent anions in aqueous solution. Furthermore, different types of rGO-SDDS-rGO@QPPO membranes were found to have a good mechanical strength, with a tensile strength up to 66.43 MPa. The membrane (rGO-SDDS-rGO@QPPO-2) also has a low surface electric resistance (2.79 Ω·cm 2 ) and a low water content (14.5%) and swelling rate (4.7%). In addition, the selective separation between Cl - and SO 4 2- of the MGOF membranes could be as high as 36.6%.

  9. Impact of universal mass vaccination with monovalent inactivated hepatitis A vaccines – A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuurman, Anke L.; Marano, Cinzia; Bunge, Eveline M.; De Moerlooze, Laurence; Shouval, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The WHO recommends integration of universal mass vaccination (UMV) against hepatitis A virus (HAV) in national immunization schedules for children aged ≥1 year, if justified on the basis of acute HAV incidence, declining endemicity from high to intermediate and cost-effectiveness. This recommendation has been implemented in several countries. Our aim was to assess the impact of UMV using monovalent inactivated hepatitis A vaccines on incidence and persistence of anti-HAV (IgG) antibodies in pediatric populations. We conducted a systematic review of literature published between 2000 and 2015 in PubMed, Cochrane Library, LILACS, IBECS identifying a total of 27 studies (Argentina, Belgium, China, Greece, Israel, Panama, the United States and Uruguay). All except one study showed a marked decline in the incidence of hepatitis A post introduction of UMV. The incidence in non-vaccinated age groups decreased as well, suggesting herd immunity but also rising susceptibility. Long-term anti-HAV antibody persistence was documented up to 17 y after a 2-dose primary vaccination. In conclusion, introduction of UMV in countries with intermediate endemicity for HAV infection led to a considerable decrease in the incidence of hepatitis A in vaccinated and in non-vaccinated age groups alike. PMID:27786671

  10. Antigenic specificity of a monovalent versus polyvalent MOMP based Chlamydia pecorum vaccine in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollipara, Avinash; Wan, Charles; Rawlinson, Galit; Brumm, Jacqui; Nilsson, Karen; Polkinghorne, Adam; Beagley, Kenneth; Timms, Peter

    2013-02-06

    Chlamydia continues to be a major pathogen of koalas. The bacterium is associated with ocular, respiratory and urogenital tract infections and a vaccine is considered the best option to limit the decline of mainland koala populations. Over the last 20 years, efforts to develop a chlamydial vaccine in humans have focussed on the use of the chlamydial major outer membrane protein (MOMP). Potential problems with the use of MOMP-based vaccines relate to the wide range of genetic diversity in its four variable domains. In the present study, we evaluated the immune response of koalas vaccinated with a MOMP-based C. pecorum vaccine formulated with genetically and serologically diverse MOMPs. Animals immunised with individual MOMPs developed strong antibody and lymphocyte proliferation responses to both homologous as well as heterologous MOMP proteins. Importantly, we also showed that vaccine induced antibodies which effectively neutralised various heterologous strains of koala C. pecorum in an in vitro assay. Finally, we also demonstrated that the immune responses in monovalent as well as polyvalent MOMP vaccine groups were able to recognise whole chlamydial elementary bodies, illustrating the feasibility of developing an effective MOMP based C. pecorum vaccine that could protect against a range of strains. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Impact and Effectiveness of Monovalent Rotavirus Vaccine Against Severe Rotavirus Diarrhea in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armah, George; Pringle, Kimberly; Enweronu-Laryea, Christabel C; Ansong, Daniel; Mwenda, Jason M; Diamenu, Stanley K; Narh, Clement; Lartey, Belinda; Binka, Fred; Grytdal, Scott; Patel, Manish; Parashar, Umesh; Lopman, Ben

    2016-05-01

    Ghana was among the first African nations to introduce monovalent rotavirus vaccine (RV1) into its childhood immunization schedule in April 2012. We aimed to assess the impact of vaccine introduction on rotavirus and acute gastroenteritis (AGE) hospitalizations and to estimate vaccine effectiveness (VE). Using data from 2 teaching hospitals, monthly AGE and rotavirus admissions by age were examined 40 months before and 31 months after RV1 introduction using interrupted time-series analyses. From January 2013, we enrolled children vaccination by rotavirus case-patient status, controlling for potential confounders. Vaccine coverage ranged from 95% to 100% for dose 1 and 93% to 100% for dose 2. In the first 3 years after vaccine introduction, the percentage of hospital admissions positive for rotavirus fell from 48% in the prevaccine period to 28% (49% adjusted rate reduction; 95% confidence interval [CI], 32%-63%) postvaccination among vaccine coverage, it was not possible to arrive at robust VE estimates; any-dose VE against rotavirus hospitalization was estimated at 60% (95% CI, -2% to 84%;P= .056). Results from the first 3 years following RV1 introduction suggest substantial reductions of pediatric diarrheal disease as a result of vaccination. Our VE estimate is consistent with the observed rotavirus decrease and with efficacy estimates from elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  12. Paralytic poliomyelitis associated with Sabin monovalent and bivalent oral polio vaccines in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estívariz, Concepción F; Molnár, Zsuzsanna; Venczel, Linda; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Zingeser, James A; Lipskaya, Galina Y; Kew, Olen M; Berencsi, György; Csohán, Agnes

    2011-08-01

    Historical records of patients with vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) in Hungary during 1961-1981 were reviewed to assess the risk of VAPP after oral polio vaccine (OPV) administration. A confirmed VAPP case was defined as a diagnosis of paralytic poliomyelitis and residual paralysis at 60 days in a patient with an epidemiologic link to the vaccine. Archived poliovirus isolates were retested using polymerase chain reaction and sequencing of the viral protein 1 capsid region. This review confirmed 46 of 47 cases previously reported as VAPP. Three cases originally linked to monovalent OPV (mOPV) 3 and one case linked to mOPV1 presented after administration of bivalent OPV 1 + 3 (bOPV). The adjusted VAPP risk per million doses administered was 0.18 for mOPV1 (2 cases/11.13 million doses), 2.96 for mOPV3 (32 cases/10.81 million doses), and 12.82 for bOPV (5 cases/390,000 doses). Absence of protection from immunization with inactivated poliovirus vaccine or exposure to OPV virus from routine immunization and recent injections could explain the higher relative risk of VAPP in Hungarian children. In polio-endemic areas in which mOPV3 and bOPV are needed to achieve eradication, the higher risk of VAPP would be offset by the high risk of paralysis due to wild poliovirus and higher per-dose efficacy of mOPV3 and bOPV compared with trivalent OPV.

  13. The structural and electronic properties of monovalent sidewall functionalized double-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalili, Seifollah; Jamali, Maryam

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► (6,0)-(13,0) DWCNT, built from (6,0) and (13,0) SWCNTs, is a metallic nanotubes. ► NH 2 /(6,0)-(13,0) and COOH/(6,0)-(13,0) is semimetal and semiconductor, respectively. ► In NH 2 /(6,0)-(13,0) electrons transferred mainly from inner tube to NH 2 group. - Abstract: The structural and electronic properties of (6,0)-(13,0) double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) and monovalent sidewall functionalized DWCNTs with –NH 2 and –COOH groups were studied using density functional theory. The results show that pure (6,0)-(13,0) DWCNTs are metallic. However, by functionalizing a DWCNT, local distortions are induced in the outer tube sidewall along the radial direction. The resulting structures, NH 2 /(6,0)-(13,0) and COOH/(6,0)-(13,0) DWCNTs, exhibit significant structural changes, and are semimetal with no energy gap and semiconducting with a small energy gap, respectively. In NH 2 /(6,0)-(13,0) DWCNTs, new electronic states are created and distributed on the outer wall and NH 2 group by electron transfer from the inner tube to the NH 2 group. In COOH/(6,0)-(13,0) DWCNTs, new states are created and distributed on the inner wall, but there is insignificant charge transfer between the inner tube and the COOH group. These results confirm that local atomic structural distortion on DWCNTs caused by sidewall functionalization can modify the electronic structures of DWCNTs.

  14. Deposition kinetics of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) on silica in monovalent and divalent salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Pingting; Long, Guoyu; Ni, Jinren; Tong, Meiping

    2009-08-01

    The deposition kinetics of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) on silica surfaces were examined in both monovalent and divalent solutions under a variety of environmentally relevant ionic strength and pH conditions by employing a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (DCM-D). Soluble EPS (SEPS) and bound EPS (BEPS) were extracted from four bacterial strains with different characteristics. Maximum favorable deposition rates (k(fa)) were observed for all EPS at low ionic strengths in both NaCl and CaCl2 solutions. With the increase of ionic strength, k(fa) decreased due to the simultaneous occurrence of EPS aggregation in solutions. Deposition efficiency (alpha; the ratio of deposition rates obtained under unfavorable versus corresponding favorable conditions) for all EPS increased with increasing ionic strength in both NaCl and CaCl2 solutions, which agreed with the trends of zeta potentials and was consistent with the classic Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory. Comparison of alpha for SEPS and BEPS extracted from the same strain showed that the trends of alpha did not totally agree with trends of zeta potentials, indicating the deposition kinetics of EPS on silica surfaces were not only controlled by DLVO interactions, but also non-DLVO forces. Close comparison of alpha for EPS extracted from different sources showed alpha increased with increasing proteins to polysaccharides ratio. Subsequent experiments for EPS extracted from the same strain but with different proteins to polysaccharides ratios and from activated sludge also showed that alpha were largest for EPS with greatest proteins to polysaccharides ratio. Additional experiments for pure protein and solutions with different pure proteins to pure saccharides ratios further corroborated that larger proteins to polysaccharides ratio resulted in greater EPS deposition.

  15. Experimental study on combustion characteristics of sodium fire in a columnar flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhigang; Peng Kangwei; Guo Ming; Huo Yan

    2014-01-01

    In the operation of the sodium-cooled fast reactor, the accident caused by the leakage and combustion of liquid sodium is common and frequent in sodium-related facilities. This paper is based on an experimental study of sodium fire in a columnar flow, which was carried out to focus on the burning characteristics by analyzing the temperature fields in the burner. The injection of 200°C liquid sodium with the flux of 0.5 m 3 /h was poured into a 7.9 m 3 volume stainless steel cylindrical burner to shape a sodium fire, and the data of temperature fields in the burner have been collected by dozens of thermocouples which are laid in the combustion space and sodium collection plate. These results show that the sodium fire in a columnar flow is composed of the foregoing centered columnar fire, the subsequent spray fire caused by atomization and the pool fire on the collection plate. The temperature close to the burning sodium flow maximally reaches up to 950°C. The radial temperatures apart from the sodium flow are relatively low and generally about 200°C, and maximally just 300°C even when close to the sodium collection plate. The maximum temperature of the burning sodium dropping on the collection plate rises in the center of plate, about 528°C. This study is helpful to evaluate the combustion characteristics, formation process and composing forms of the sodium fire in the sodium-related facilities. (author)

  16. Scales of columnar jointing in igneous rocks: field measurements and controlling factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetényi, György; Taisne, Benoît; Garel, Fanny; Médard, Étienne; Bosshard, Sonja; Mattsson, Hannes B.

    2012-03-01

    Columnar jointing is a common feature of solidified lavas, sills and dikes, but the factors controlling the characteristic stoutness of columns remain debated, and quantitative field observations are few in number. In this paper, we provide quantitative measurements on sizing of columnar joint sets and our assessment of the principal factors controlling it. We focus on (1) chemistry, as it is the major determinant of the physical (mechanical and thermal) properties of the lava, and (2) geology, as it influences the style of emplacement and lava geometry, setting boundary conditions for the cooling process and the rate of heat loss. In our analysis, we cover lavas with a broad range of chemical compositions (from basanite to phonolite, for six of which we provide new geochemical analyses) and of geological settings. Our field measurements cover 50 columnar jointing sites in three countries. We provide reliable, manually digitized data on the size of individual columns and focus the mathematical analysis on their geometry (23,889 data on side length, of which 17,312 are from full column sections and 3,033 data on cross-sectional area and order of polygonality). The geometrical observations show that the variation in characteristic size of columns between different sites exceeds one order of magnitude (side length ranging from 8 to 338 cm) and that the column-bounding polygons' average order is less than 6. The network of fractures is found to be longer than required by a minimum-energy hexagonal configuration, indicating a non-equilibrium, geologically quick process. In terms of the development and characteristic sizing of columnar joint sets, our observations suggest that columns are the result of an interplay between the geological setting of emplacement and magma chemistry. When the geological setting constrains the geometry of the emplaced body, it exerts a stronger control on characteristic column stoutness. At unconstrained geometries (e.g. unconfined lava

  17. Impact of rootstocks on columnar apple tree growth in a nursery

    OpenAIRE

    Gelvonauskienė, Dalia; Gelvonauskis, Bronislovas; Sasnauskas, Audrius

    2006-01-01

    There were investigated 24 columnar apple selections and 2 cultivars ‘Arbat’ and ‘Ostankino’ in a nursery at the Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture. The two latter cultivars and selections M38-35, M38-33, M38-2, M38-15, No. 376-100 and No. 385-380 were released in Russia and 16 hybrids (No. 23733, No. 23753, No. 24217, No. 24218, No. 24219, No. 24220, No. 24271, No. 24583, No. 24599, No. 24637, No. 24690, No. 25134, No. 26075, No. 26094 No. 26148, No. 26325) – at the Lithuanian Institute of...

  18. Symmetry of trapped-field profiles in square columnar Josephson-junction arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, J.J.; Chen, D.; Hernando, A.

    1995-01-01

    The remanence of NxN square-columnar Josephson-junction arrays with normalized maximum junction current i max is calculated from the dc and ac Josephson equations, the Ampere theorem, and the gauge invariance. A transition line on the i max- N plane is obtained, on the high-i max side of which the remanence is nonzero. It is found that in the nonzero remanence state the symmetry degree of field profile can be lower than expected by intuition. The meaning and importance of this finding are discussed

  19. Evolution of orientations and deformation structures within individual grains in cold rolled columnar grained nickel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, G.L.; Godfrey, A.; Winther, Grethe

    2011-01-01

    Columnar grained Ni is used as a model material allowing simultaneous non-surface investigations of the evolution of crystallographic orientations and deformation microstructures within individual grains as a function of rolling strain up to ε=0.7. Electron channelling contrast and electron...... backscattered diffraction are used to visualise microstructures and crystallographic orientations. It is found that both the microstructural and the textural development depend strongly on the initial grain orientation. A grain size effect is observed on the deformation-induced orientation scatter within...

  20. Measurement of oxygen disorder and nano-twin microstructure associated with columnar defects in YBCO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Y.

    1998-01-01

    Studies of defects generated by high energy (>1 GeV) heavy ion irradiation in high-Tc superconductors have been performed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our study shows that high dose irradiation leads to the formation of nano-twins, by which the columnar defects are connected. An analysis of the local Fourier components of the image intensity in [001] lattice images indicates that these new ''twin'' boundaries are much more diffuse than pre-existing twin boundaries in YBCO. The mechanism of the formation of nano-twin boundaries on {110} planes and their possible relation to superconducting properties are discussed

  1. Alkaline active cyanide dihydratase of Flavobacterium indicum MTCC 6936: Growth optimization, purification, characterization and in silico analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Virender; Kumar, Vijay; Bhalla, Tek Chand

    2018-05-15

    The present work explores a rare cyanide dihydratase of Flavobacterium indicum MTCC 6936 for its potential of cyanide degradation. The enzyme is purified to 12 fold with a yield of 76%. SDS and native-PAGE analysis revealed that enzyme was monomer of 40 kDa size. The enzyme works well in mesophilic range at wide array of pH. The thermostability profile of cyanide dihydratase revealed that the enzyme is quite stable at 30 °C and 35 °C with half-life of 6 h 30 min and 5 h respectively. K m and V max for cyanide dihydratase of F. indicum was measured to be 4.76 mM and 45 U mg -1 with k cat calculated to be 27.3 s -1 and specificity constant (k cat /K m ) to be around 5.67 mM -1  s -1 . MALDI-TOF analysis of purified protein revealed that the amino acid sequence has 50% and 43% sequence identity with putative amino acid sequence of F. indicum and earlier reported cyanide dihydratase of Bacillus pumilus respectively. Homology modeling studies of cyanide dihydratase of F. indicum predicted the catalytic triad of the enzyme indicating Cys at 164, Glu at 46 and Lys at 130th position. The purified enzyme has potential applications in bioremediation and analytical sector. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Genomic makeup of the marine flavobacterium Nonlabens (Donghaeana) dokdonensis and identification of a novel class of rhodopsins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Soon-Kyeong; Kim, Byung Kwon; Song, Ju Yeon; Kwak, Min-Jung; Lee, Choong Hoon; Yoon, Jung-Hoon; Oh, Tae Kwang; Kim, Jihyun F

    2013-01-01

    Rhodopsin-containing marine microbes such as those in the class Flavobacteriia play a pivotal role in the biogeochemical cycle of the euphotic zone (Fuhrman JA, Schwalbach MS, Stingl U. 2008. Proteorhodopsins: an array of physiological roles? Nat Rev Microbiol. 6:488-494). Deciphering the genome information of flavobacteria and accessing the diversity and ecological impact of microbial rhodopsins are important in understanding and preserving the global ecosystems. The genome sequence of the orange-pigmented marine flavobacterium Nonlabens dokdonensis (basonym: Donghaeana dokdonensis) DSW-6 was determined. As a marine photoheterotroph, DSW-6 has written in its genome physiological features that allow survival in the oligotrophic environments. The sequence analysis also uncovered a gene encoding an unexpected type of microbial rhodopsin containing a unique motif in addition to a proteorhodopsin gene and a number of photolyase or cryptochrome genes. Homologs of the novel rhodopsin gene were found in other flavobacteria, alphaproteobacteria, a species of Cytophagia, a deinococcus, and even a eukaryote diatom. They all contain the characteristic NQ motif and form a phylogenetically distinct group. Expression analysis of this rhodopsin gene in DSW-6 indicated that it is induced at high NaCl concentrations, as well as in the presence of light and the absence of nutrients. Genomic and metagenomic surveys demonstrate the diversity of the NQ rhodopsins in nature and the prevalent occurrence of the encoding genes among microbial communities inhabiting hypersaline niches, suggesting its involvement in sodium metabolism and the sodium-adapted lifestyle.

  3. Genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of Flavobacterium psychrophilum isolated from cultured rainbow trout, Onchorynchus mykiss (Walbaum), in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Cerro, A; Márquez, I; Prieto, J M

    2010-04-01

    Flavobacterium psychrophilum is the causative agent of bacterial cold-water disease (CWD) and rainbow trout fry syndrome (RTFS) in salmonids. These diseases are a major problem in the aquaculture industry in Spain, and a better understanding of the epidemiology of F. psychrophilum isolates is necessary to improve management strategies. In this study, to investigate genetic variability of this bacterium, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis after DNA digestion with endonuclease StuI, plasmid profiling analysis and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were undertaken with 25 isolates of F. psychrophilum from Spain. These isolates were classified into 17 patterns by PFGE analysis, which were grouped into four clusters and seven independent branches. Twenty isolates (80%) possessed plasmids of 3.5 kb (n = 13) or 5.5 kb (n = 7). No plasmids were associated with antibiotic resistance to oxytetracycline (OTC) or florfenicol (FLO). Twenty isolates (80%) had minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) to OTC of between 2.4 and 9.7 microg mL(-1), and all isolates were susceptible to FLO. A relationship between the origin of the isolates and PFGE genotypes was found. Plasmid profile typing correlated with PFGE profile typing, whereas no correlation was found between antimicrobial susceptibility testing and PFGE profiles. These results suggest that the population of F. psychrophilum with pathogenic potential in northern Spain is quite heterogeneous.

  4. Role of monovalent alkali ions in the Yb{sup 3+} centers of CaF{sub 2} laser crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hraiech, Sana [Physical Chemistry of Luminescent Materials (LPCML), University of Lyon, Claude Bernard/Lyon 1 University, UMR 5620 CNRS, La Doua, 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Jouini, Anis [Physical Chemistry of Luminescent Materials (LPCML), University of Lyon, Claude Bernard/Lyon 1 University, UMR 5620 CNRS, La Doua, 69622 Villeurbanne (France); IMRAM, Tohoku University, 2-1-1, Katahira, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Jin Kim, Kyoung [IMRAM, Tohoku University, 2-1-1, Katahira, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Guyot, Yannick [Physical Chemistry of Luminescent Materials (LPCML), University of Lyon, Claude Bernard/Lyon 1 University, UMR 5620 CNRS, La Doua, 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Yoshikawa, Akira [IMRAM, Tohoku University, 2-1-1, Katahira, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Boulon, Georges, E-mail: georges.boulon@pcml.univ-lyon1.f [Physical Chemistry of Luminescent Materials (LPCML), University of Lyon, Claude Bernard/Lyon 1 University, UMR 5620 CNRS, La Doua, 69622 Villeurbanne (France)

    2010-03-15

    Yb{sup 3+} and M{sup +} monovalent alkali ions (M{sup +} = Li{sup +}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +})-co-doped CaF{sub 2} cubic laser crystals were grown by the micro-pulling-down method ({mu}-PD) under CF{sub 4} atmosphere. Structural and spectroscopic characterizations of Yb{sup 3+} in substitution of Ca{sup 2+} (absorption, emission and decay curves) were carried out to study the effect of M{sup +} ions as charge compensators.

  5. Annealing dependent evolution of columnar nanostructures in RF magnetron sputtered PTFE films for hydrophobic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, S.; De, Rajnarayan; Maidul Haque, S.; Divakar Rao, K.; Misal, J. S.; Prathap, C.; Das, S. C.; Patidar, Manju M.; Ganesan, V.; Sahoo, N. K.

    2018-01-01

    Present communication focuses on a relatively less explored direction of producing rough polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) surfaces for possible hydrophobic applications. The experiments were carried out to make rough PTFE films without losing much of the transmission, which is an important factor while designing futuristic solar cell protection covers. After annealing temperature optimization, as grown RF magnetron sputtered PTFE films (prepared at 160 W RF power) were subjected to vacuum annealing at 200 °C for different time durations ranging from 1 to 4 h. The films show morphological evolution exhibiting formation and growth of columnar nanostructures that are responsible for roughening of the films due to annealing induced molecular migration and rearrangement. In agreement with this, qualitative analysis of corresponding x-ray reflectivity data shows modification in film thickness, which may again be attributed to the growth of columns at the expense of the atoms of remaining film molecules. However, the observations reveal that the film annealed at 200 °C for 2 h gives a combination of patterned columnar structures and reasonable transmission of >85% (in 500-1000 nm wavelength range), both of which are deteriorated when the films are annealed either at high temperature beyond 200 °C or for long durations >3 h. In addition, attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results reveal that the molecular bonds remain intact upon annealing at any temperature within the studied range indicating the stable nature of the films.

  6. Enhanced columnar structure in CsI layer by substrate patterning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, T.; Cho, G.; Drewery, J.; Kaplan, S.N.; Mireshghi, A.; Perez-Mendez, V.; Wildermuth, D. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Fujieda, I. [Xerox Palo Alto Research Center, CA (United States)

    1991-10-01

    Columnar structure in evaporated CsI layers can be controlled by patterning substrates as well as varying evaporation conditions. Mesh-patterned substrates with various dimensions were created by spin-coating polyimide on glass or amorphous silicon substrates and defining patterns with standard photolithography technique. CsI(Tl) layers 200--1000 {mu}m were evaporated. Scintillation properties of these evaporated layers, such as light yield and speed, were equivalent to those of the source materials. Spatial resolution of X-ray detectors consisting of these layers and a linear array of X-ray detectors consisting of these layers and a linear array of Si photodiodes was evaluated by exposing them to a 25{mu}m narrow beam of X-ray. The results obtained with 200{mu}m thick CsI layers coupled to a linear photodiode array with 20 dots/mm resolution showed that the spatial resolution of CsI(Tl) evaporated on patterned substrates was about 75 {mu}m FWHM, whereas that on CsI(Tl) on flat substrates was about 230 {mu}m FWHM. Micrographs taken by SEM revealed that these layers retained the well-defined columnar structure originating from substrate patterns. Adhesion and light transmission of CsI(Tl) were also improved by patterning the substrate.

  7. Unloading performances and stabilizing practices for columnar jointed basalt: A case study of Baihetan hydropower station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qixiang Fan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The columnar jointed rock mass (CJR, composed of polygonal cross-sectional columns cut by several groups of joints in various directions, was exposed during the excavations of the Baihetan hydropower station, China. In order to investigate the unloading performances and the stability conditions during excavation of the columns, an experimental field study was performed. Firstly, on-site investigations indicated that the geotechnical problems, including rock relaxation, cracking and collapse, were the most prominent for the CJR Class I that contains intensive joint network and the smallest column sizes. Comprehensive field tests, including deformation measurement by multi-point extensometers, ultrasonic wave testing, borehole television observation and stress monitoring of rock anchors, revealed that the time-dependent relaxation of the CJRs was marked. The practical excavation experiences for the Baihetan columnar jointed rock masses, such as blasting scheme, supporting time of shotcrete and rock bolts, were presented in the excavations of the diversion tunnels. These detailed investigations and practical construction experiences can provide helpful information for similar geotechnical works in jointed rock mass.

  8. Hierarchical columnar silicon anode structures for high energy density lithium sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piwko, Markus; Kuntze, Thomas; Winkler, Sebastian; Straach, Steffen; Härtel, Paul; Althues, Holger; Kaskel, Stefan

    2017-05-01

    Silicon is a promising anode material for next generation lithium secondary batteries. To significantly increase the energy density of state of the art batteries with silicon, new concepts have to be developed and electrode structuring will become a key technology. Structuring is essential to reduce the macroscopic and microscopic electrode deformation, caused by the volume change during cycling. We report pulsed laser structuring for the generation of hierarchical columnar silicon films with outstanding high areal capacities up to 7.5 mAh cm-2 and good capacity retention. Unstructured columnar electrodes form a micron-sized block structure during the first cycle to compensate the volume expansion leading to macroscopic electrode deformation. At increased silicon loading, without additional structuring, pronounced distortion and the formation of cracks through the current collector causes cell failure. Pulsed laser ablation instead is demonstrated to avoid macroscopic electrode deformation by initial formation of the block structure. A full cell with lithiated silicon versus a carbon-sulfur cathode is assembled with only 15% overbalanced anode and low electrolyte amount (8 μl mgsulfur-1). While the capacity retention over 50 cycles is identical to a cell with high excess lithium anode, the volumetric energy density could be increased by 30%.

  9. Does cell lineage in the developing cerebral cortex contribute to its columnar organization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos R Costa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the pioneer work of Lorente de Nó, Ramón y Cajal, Brodmann, Mountcastle, Hubel and Wiesel and others, the cerebral cortex has been seen as a jigsaw of anatomic and functional modules involved in the processing of different sets of information. In fact, a columnar distribution of neurons displaying similar functional properties throughout the cerebral cortex has been observed by many researchers. Although it has been suggested that much of the anatomical substrate for such organization would be already specified at early developmental stages, before activity-dependent mechanisms could take place, it is still unclear whether gene expression in the ventricular zone could play a role in the development of discrete functional units, such as minicolumns or columns. Cell lineage experiments using replication-incompetent retroviral vectors have shown that the progeny of a single neuroepithelial/radial glial cell in the dorsal telencephalon is organized into discrete radial clusters of sibling excitatory neurons, which have a higher propensity for developing chemical synapses with each other rather than with neighbouring non-siblings. Here, we will discuss the possibility that the cell lineage of single neuroepithelial/radial glia cells could contribute for the columnar organization of the neocortex by generating radial columns of sibling, interconnected neurons. Borrowing some concepts from the studies on cell-cell recognition and transcription factor networks, we will also touch upon the potential molecular mechanisms involved in the establishment of sibling-neuron circuits.

  10. Systematic magnetization measurements on single crystalline Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ with columnar defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Kazuhiro; Koshida, Ryo; Kwok, W.K.; Crabtree, G.W.; Okayasu, Satoru; Sataka, Masao; Kazumata, Yukio; Kadowaki, Kazuo

    1999-01-01

    The authors have performed systematic magnetization measurements on single crystalline Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+δ with columnar defects of B Φ = 0.005 to 1 T by using a SQUID magnetometer. Magnetization hysteresis curves of the pristine sample show a weak irreversible behavior in the vortex liquid state, suggesting the existence of the new vortex state in the vortex liquid state. This weak irreversible region persists systematically in the samples with columnar defects even up to B Φ = 1 T. It is shown that the weak hysteresis of magnetization is sensitive to the disorder level of the sample and shifts systematically to higher temperature and field region with increasing the number of columnar defects. This behavior clearly indicates that effective pinning mechanism exists even in the vortex liquid state and generates a finite critical current

  11. Mimicking the cell membrane: bio-inspired simultaneous functions with monovalent anion selectivity and antifouling properties of anion exchange membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Liu, Huimin; Tang, Kaini; Jin, Yali; Pan, Jiefeng; der Bruggen, Bart Van; Shen, Jiangnan; Gao, Congjie

    2016-11-01

    A new bio-inspired method was applied in this study to simultaneously improve the monovalent anion selectivity and antifouling properties of anion exchange membranes (AEMs). Three-layer architecture was developed by deposition of polydopamine (PDA) and electro-deposition of N-O-sulfonic acid benzyl chitosan (NSBC). The innermost and outermost layers were PDA with different deposition time. The middle layer was prepared by NSBC. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy confirmed that PDA and NSBC were successfully modified on the surfaces of AEMs. The contact angle of the membranes indicated an improved hydrophilicity of the modified membranes. A series of electrodialysis experiments in which Cl-/SO42- separation was studied, demonstrating the monovalent anion selectivity of the samples. The Cl-/SO42- permselectivity of the modified membranes can reach up to 2.20, higher than that of the commercial membrane (only 0.78) during 90 minutes in electrodialysis (ED). The increase value of the resistance of the membranes was also measured to evaluate the antifouling properties. Sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) was used as the fouling material in the ED process and the membrane area resistance of modified membrane increase value of was only 0.08 Ωcm2 30 minutes later.

  12. Establishment of an in vivo potency assay for the recombinant hepatit is B surface antigen in monovalent and combined vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabel Izquierdo-López

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the development of potency assay in animals (mice was made, with the objective of demonstrating the immunogenic power of the recombinant Hepatitis B surface antigen in monovalent and combined vaccines, produced at the Center of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology. The potency test is a parameter in quality control and it is also a tool to demonstrate the consistency of the production process. Parameters such as duration of the test, number of animals in the test, as well as different areas for the maintenance of the animals were evaluated. The results on the applicability of the potency test, to two presentations of the vaccines; monovalent Heberbiovac HB and pentavalent liquid in one vial Heberpenta-L are shown, for which specificity studies, evaluating different vaccine lots, the behavior of linearity, and parallelism, as well as establishing quality specification of the test were performed. This assay led to the obtainment of reliable results for the vaccines evaluated, the consistent evaluation of the immunogenic power and the monitoring of different production processes.

  13. Mimicking the cell membrane: bio-inspired simultaneous functions with monovalent anion selectivity and antifouling properties of anion exchange membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Liu, Huimin; Tang, Kaini; Jin, Yali; Pan, Jiefeng; der Bruggen, Bart Van; Shen, Jiangnan; Gao, Congjie

    2016-01-01

    A new bio-inspired method was applied in this study to simultaneously improve the monovalent anion selectivity and antifouling properties of anion exchange membranes (AEMs). Three-layer architecture was developed by deposition of polydopamine (PDA) and electro-deposition of N-O-sulfonic acid benzyl chitosan (NSBC). The innermost and outermost layers were PDA with different deposition time. The middle layer was prepared by NSBC. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy confirmed that PDA and NSBC were successfully modified on the surfaces of AEMs. The contact angle of the membranes indicated an improved hydrophilicity of the modified membranes. A series of electrodialysis experiments in which Cl−/SO42− separation was studied, demonstrating the monovalent anion selectivity of the samples. The Cl−/SO42− permselectivity of the modified membranes can reach up to 2.20, higher than that of the commercial membrane (only 0.78) during 90 minutes in electrodialysis (ED). The increase value of the resistance of the membranes was also measured to evaluate the antifouling properties. Sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) was used as the fouling material in the ED process and the membrane area resistance of modified membrane increase value of was only 0.08 Ωcm2 30 minutes later. PMID:27853255

  14. High-Performance Thin-Film-Nanocomposite Cation Exchange Membranes Containing Hydrophobic Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework for Monovalent Selectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Li

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8 offers good hydrothermal, chemical, and thermal stabilities, and is therefore of interest in membrane synthesis. In this work, an interfacial polymerization (IP method was applied by anchoring ZIF-8 to the skin layer of thin-film nanocomposite (TFN membranes in order to obtain monovalent selectivity in electrodialysis. Organic trimesoyl chloride (TMC, 0.1 wt % solutions and aqueous m-phenyl diamine (MPD, 2% w/v solutions were used during the interfacial polymerization process. A range of polyamine (PA/ZIF-8 based membranes was fabricated by varying the concentration of ZIF-8 in the organic solution. The properties of the primary and modified membrane were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM, energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX, atomic force microscopy (AFM, water uptake, ion exchange capacity, and contact angle measurements. No significant changes of the surface structure of the PA/ZIF-8 based membranes were observed. Nevertheless, the presence of ZIF-8 under the PA layer plays a key role in the separation process. For single salt solutions that were applied in electrodialysis (ED, faster transport of Na+ and Mg2+ was obtained after introducing the ZIF-8 nanoparticles, however, the desalination efficiency remained constant. When the hybrid membranes were applied to electrodialysis for binary mixtures containing Na+ as well as Mg2+, it was demonstrated that the monovalent selectivity and Na+ flux were enhanced by a higher ZIF-8 loading.

  15. Columnar metaplasia in a surgical mouse model of gastro-esophageal reflux disease is not derived from bone marrow-derived cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikou, Susumu; Aida, Junko; Takubo, Kaiyo; Yamagata, Yukinori; Seto, Yasuyuki; Kaminishi, Michio; Nomura, Sachiyo

    2013-09-01

    The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma has increased in the last 25 years. Columnar metaplasia in Barrett's mucosa is assumed to be a precancerous lesion for esophageal adenocarcinoma. However, the induction process of Barrett's mucosa is still unknown. To analyze the induction of esophageal columnar metaplasia, we established a mouse gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) model with associated development of columnar metaplasia in the esophagus. C57BL/6 mice received side-to-side anastomosis of the esophagogastric junction with the jejunum, and mice were killed 10, 20, and 40 weeks after operation. To analyze the contribution of bone marrow-derived cells to columnar metaplasia in this surgical GERD model, some mice were transplanted with GFP-marked bone marrow after the operation. Seventy-three percent of the mice (16/22) showed thickened mucosa in esophagus and 41% of mice (9/22) developed columnar metaplasia 40 weeks after the operation with a mortality rate of 4%. Bone marrow-derived cells were not detected in columnar metaplastic epithelia. However, scattered epithelial cells in the thickened squamous epithelia in regions of esophagitis did show bone marrow derivation. The results demonstrate that reflux induced by esophago-jejunostomy in mice leads to the development of columnar metaplasia in the esophagus. However, bone marrow-derived cells do not contribute directly to columnar metaplasia in this mouse model. © 2013 Japanese Cancer Association.

  16. Columnar characteristics of aerosols by spectroradiometer measurements in the maritime area of the Cadiz Gulf (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergaz, Ricardo; Cachorro, Victoria E.; de Frutos, Ángel M.; Vilaplana, José M.; de La Morena, Benito A.

    2005-11-01

    Atmospheric aerosol characteristics represented by the spectral aerosol optical depth AOD) and the Ångström turbidity parameter were determined in the coastal area of the Gulf of Cádiz, (southwest of Spain). The columnar aerosol properties presented here correspond to the 1996-1999 period, and were obtained by solar direct irradiance measurements carried out by a Licor1800 spectroradiometer. The performance of this type of medium-spectral resolution radiometric system is analysed over the measured period. The detailed spectral information of these irradiance measurements enabled the use of selected non-absorption gases spectral windows to determine the columnar spectral AOD that was modelled by Ångström formula to obtain the coefficient. Temporal evolutions of instantaneous values together with a general statistical analysis represented by seasonal values, frequency distributions and some representative correlations for the AOD and the derived Ångström coefficient gave us the first insight of aerosol characteristics in this coastal area. Special attention was paid to the analysis of these aerosol properties at the nominal wavelengths of 440 nm, 670 nm, 870 nm and 1020 nm for the near-future comparisons with the Cimel sun-photometer data. However, taking the most representative aerosol wavelength of 500 nm, the variability of the AOD ranges from 0.005 to 0.53, with a mean of 0.12 (s.d = 0.07) and that of the parameter is given by a mean value of 0.93 (s.d. = 0.58) falling inside the range of marine aerosols. A quantitative discrimination of aerosol types was conducted on the basis of the spectral aerosol properties and air mass back trajectory analysis, which resulted in a mixed type because of the specificity of this area, given by very frequent desert dust episodes, continental and polluted local influences. This study represents the first extended data characterization about columnar properties of aerosols in Spain which has been continued by Cimel

  17. Optimization of nested polymerase chain reaction assays for identification of Aeromonas salmonicida, Yersinia ruckeri and Flavobacterium psychrophilum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, P.W.; Winton, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    Nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were developed using first-round primers complementary to highly conserved regions within the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene (universal eubacterial primers) and second-round primers specific for sequences within the 16S rRNA genes of Aeromonas salmonicida, Yersinia ruckeri, andFlavobacterium psychrophilum. Following optimization of the MgCl2 concentration and primer annealing temperature, PCR employing the universal eubacterial primers was used to amplify a 1,500-base-pair (bp) product visible in agarose gels stained with ethidium bromide. The calculated detection limit of this single-round assay was less than 1.4 × 104 colony-forming units (CFU) per reaction for all bacterial species tested. Single-round PCR using primer sets specific for A. salmonicida, Y. ruckeri, and F. psychrophilumamplified bands of 271, 575, and 1,100 bp, respectively, with detection limits of less than 1.4 × 104, 1.4 × 105, and 1.4 × 105 CFU per reaction. Using the universal eubacterial primers in the first round and the species-specific primer sets in the second round of nested PCR assays improved the detection ability by approximately four orders of magnitude to fewer than 14 CFU per sample for each of the three bacterial species. Such nested assays could be adapted to a wide variety of bacterial fish pathogens for which 16S sequences are available.

  18. Vapour growth of Cd(Zn)Te columnar nanopixels into porous alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sochinskii, N.V.; Abellan, M.; Martin Gonzalez, M.; Saucedo, E.; Dieguez, E.; Briones, F.

    2006-01-01

    The vapour phase growth (VPG) of CdTe and Cd 1- x Zn x Te was performed in order to investigate the formation of Cd(Zn)Te columnar nanostructures, which could serve as a basis for micropixels usable for further development of X- and gamma-ray high-resolution imaging devices. The possibility to form the 'Cd(Zn)Te-in-porous alumina' nanostructures by VPG has been demonstrated. The Cd(Zn)Te crystals integrated into nanoporous alumina have shown to have photoluminescence properties compatible with those of the bulk crystals and planar epitaxial layers. Further investigations are going on to improve the structural quality of Cd(Zn)Te nanocrystals

  19. Stochastic modeling of columnar dendritic grain growth in weld pool of Al-Cu alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Z.B.; Tian, N. [The State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding Production Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China); Wei, Y.H. [College of Materials Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing (China); The State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding Production Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China); Zhan, X.H.

    2009-04-15

    A multi-scale model is used to simulate columnar dendritic growth in TIG (tungsten inert-gas) weld molten pool of Al-Cu alloy. The grain morphologies at the edge of the weld pool are studied. The simulated results indicate that the average primary dendrite spacing changes during the solidification process in the weld pool because of the complicated thermal field, solute diffusion field and competitive growth. And it is shown that the secondary dendrite arms grow insufficiently in the space between dendrite trunks if the primary dendrite spacing is small. And the phenomenon has been explained by analyzing the influence of the solute accumulation on the constitutional undercooling and undercooling gradient when there are two different opposite solute diffusion fields. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  20. One- and two-dimensional fluids properties of smectic, lamellar and columnar liquid crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Jakli, Antal

    2006-01-01

    Smectic and lamellar liquid crystals are three-dimensional layered structures in which each layer behaves as a two-dimensional fluid. Because of their reduced dimensionality they have unique physical properties and challenging theoretical descriptions, and are the subject of much current research. One- and Two-Dimensional Fluids: Properties of Smectic, Lamellar and Columnar Liquid Crystals offers a comprehensive review of these phases and their applications. The book details the basic structures and properties of one- and two-dimensional fluids and the nature of phase transitions. The later chapters consider the optical, magnetic, and electrical properties of special structures, including uniformly and non-uniformly aligned anisotropic films, lyotropic lamellar systems, helical and chiral structures, and organic anisotropic materials. Topics also include typical and defective features, magnetic susceptibility, and electrical conductivity. The book concludes with a review of current and potential applications ...

  1. Multiple oxide content media for columnar grain growth in L10 FePt thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Hoan; Yang, En; Laughlin, David E.; Zhu, Jian-Gang

    2013-01-01

    An approach to enhance the height-to-diameter ratio of FePt grains in heat-assisted magnetic recording media is proposed. The FePt-SiO x thin films are deposited with a decrease of the SiO x percentage along the film growth direction. When bi-layer and tri-layer media are sputtered at 410 °C, we observe discontinuities in the FePt grains at interfaces between layers, which lead to poor epitaxial growth. Due to increased atomic diffusion, the bi-layer media sputtered at 450 °C is shown to (1) grow into continuous columnar grains with similar size as single-layer media but much higher aspect ratio, (2) have better L1 0 ordering and larger coercivity.

  2. Columnar grain growth of FePt(L10) thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang En; Ho Hoan; Laughlin, David E.; Zhu Jiangang

    2012-01-01

    An experimental approach for obtaining perpendicular FePt-SiOx thin films with a large height to diameter ratio FePt(L1 0 ) columnar grains is presented in this work. The microstructure for FePt-SiOx composite thin films as a function of oxide volume fraction, substrate temperature, and film thickness is studied by plan view and cross section TEM. The relations between processing, microstructure, epitaxial texture, and magnetic properties are discussed. By tuning the thickness of the magnetic layer and the volume fraction of oxide in the film at a sputtering temperature of 410 deg. C, a 16 nm thick perpendicular FePt film with ∼8 nm diameter of FePt grains was obtained. The height to diameter ratio of the FePt grains was as large as 2. Ordering at lower temperature can be achieved by introducing a Ag sacrificial layer.

  3. Effect of Processing Parameters on Thickness of Columnar Structured Silicon Wafers Directly Grown from Silicon Melts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Seok Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain optimum growth conditions for desired thickness and more effective silicon feedstock usage, effects of processing parameters such as preheated substrate temperatures, time intervals, moving velocity of substrates, and Ar gas blowing rates on silicon ribbon thickness were investigated in the horizontal growth process. Most of the parameters strongly affected in the control of ribbon thickness with columnar grain structure depended on the solidification rate. The thickness of the silicon ribbon decreased with an increasing substrate temperature, decreasing time interval, and increasing moving velocity of the substrate. However, the blowing of Ar gas onto a liquid layer existing on the surface of solidified ribbon contributed to achieving smooth surface roughness but did not closely affect the change of ribbon thickness in the case of a blowing rate of ≥0.65 Nm3/h because the thickness of the solidified layer was already determined by the exit height of the reservoir.

  4. Experimental test of the postulate that continuous columnar pinning centers produce the highest J{sub c}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, Roy [Texas Center for Superconductivity and Advanced Materials, and Physics Department, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States)]. E-mail: weinstein@uh.edu; Gandini, Alberto [Texas Center for Superconductivity and Advanced Materials, and Physics Department, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States); Sawh, Ravi-Persad [Texas Center for Superconductivity and Advanced Materials, and Physics Department, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States); Mayes, Bill [Texas Center for Superconductivity and Advanced Materials, and Physics Department, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States); Parks, Drew [Texas Center for Superconductivity and Advanced Materials, and Physics Department, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States)

    2004-10-18

    Continuous columnar pinning centers, created by energetic ions, have been usefully studied theoretically and experimentally to investigate vortex physics in high T{sub c} superconductors. However, along the way, in error, their discontinuities have been downplayed, and they have been anointed as the way to produce high J{sub c}.

  5. Equi-axed and columnar grain growth in UO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, R J [Berkely Technology Centre, Nuclear Electric plc, Berkeley (United Kingdom)

    1997-08-01

    The grain size of UO{sub 2} is an important parameter in the actual performance and the modelling of the performance of reactor fuel elements. Many processes depend critically on the grain size, for example, the degree of initial densification, the evolution rate of stable fission gases, the release rates of radiologically hazardous fission products, the fission gas bubble swelling rates and the fuel creep. Many of these processes are thermally activated and further impact on the fuel thermal behavior thus creating complex feedback processes. In order to model the fuel performance accurately it is necessary to model the evolution of the fuel grain radius. When UO{sub 2} is irradiated, the fission gases xenon and krypton are created from the fissioning uranium nucleus. At high temperatures these gases diffuse rapidly to the grain boundaries where they nucleate immobile lenticular shaped fission gas bubbles. In this paper the Hillert grain growth model is adapted to account for the inhibiting ``Zener`` effects of grain boundary fission gas porosity on grain boundary mobility and hence grain growth. It is shown that normal grain growth ceases at relatively low levels of irradiation. At high burnups, high temperatures and in regions of high temperature gradients, columnar grain growth is often observed, in some cases extending over more than fifty percent of the fuel radius. The model is further extended to account for the de-pinning of grains in the radial direction by the thermal gradient induced force on a fission gas grain boundary bubble. The observed columnar/equi-axed boundary is in fair agreement with the predictions of an evaporation/condensation model. The grain growth model described in this paper requires information concerning the scale of grain boundary porosity, the local fuel temperature and the local temperature gradient. The model is currently used in the Nuclear Electric version of the ENIGMA fuel modelling code. (author). 14 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab.

  6. Strongly Enhanced Piezoelectric Response in Lead Zirconate Titanate Films with Vertically Aligned Columnar Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT) films with (001) orientation were deposited on Pt(111)/Ti/SiO2/Si(100) substrates using pulsed laser deposition. Variation of the laser pulse rate during the deposition of the PZT films was found to play a key role in the control of the microstructure and to change strongly the piezoelectric response of the thin film. The film deposited at low pulse rate has a denser columnar microstructure, which improves the transverse piezoelectric coefficient (d31f) and ferroelectric remanent polarization (Pr), whereas the less densely packed columnar grains in the film deposited at high pulse rates give rise to a significantly higher longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient (d33f) value. The effect of film thickness on the ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of the PZT films was also investigated. With increasing film thickness, the grain column diameter gradually increases, and also the average Pr and d33f values become larger. The largest piezoelectric coefficient of d33f = 408 pm V–1 was found for a 4-μm film thickness. From a series of films in the thickness range 0.5–5 μm, the z-position dependence of the piezoelectric coefficient could be deduced. A local maximum value of 600 pm V–1 was deduced in the 3.5–4.5 μm section of the thickest films. The dependence of the film properties on film thickness is attributed to the decreasing effect of the clamping constraint imposed by the substrate and the increasing spatial separation between the grains with increasing film thickness. PMID:28247756

  7. Columnar interactions determine horizontal propagation of recurrent network activity in neocortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, Jason C.; Contreras, Diego

    2012-01-01

    The cortex is organized in vertical and horizontal circuits that determine the spatiotemporal properties of distributed cortical activity. Despite detailed knowledge of synaptic interactions among individual cells in the neocortex, little is known about the rules governing interactions among local populations. Here we used self-sustained recurrent activity generated in cortex, also known as up-states, in rat thalamocortical slices in vitro to understand interactions among laminar and horizontal circuits. By means of intracellular recordings and fast optical imaging with voltage sensitive dyes, we show that single thalamic inputs activate the cortical column in a preferential L4→L2/3→L5 sequence, followed by horizontal propagation with a leading front in supra and infragranular layers. To understand the laminar and columnar interactions, we used focal injections of TTX to block activity in small local populations, while preserving functional connectivity in the rest of the network. We show that L2/3 alone, without underlying L5, does not generate self-sustained activity and is inefficient propagating activity horizontally. In contrast, L5 sustains activity in the absence of L2/3 and is necessary and sufficient to propagate activity horizontally. However, loss of L2/3 delays horizontal propagation via L5. Finally, L5 amplifies activity in L2/3. Our results show for the first time that columnar interactions between supra and infragranular layers are required for the normal propagation of activity in the neocortex. Our data suggest that supra and infragranular circuits with their specific and complex set of inputs and outputs, work in tandem to determine the patterns of cortical activation observed in vivo. PMID:22514308

  8. Effect of Suspension Plasma-Sprayed YSZ Columnar Microstructure and Bond Coat Surface Preparation on Thermal Barrier Coating Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Benjamin; Quet, Aurélie; Bianchi, Luc; Schick, Vincent; Joulia, Aurélien; Malié, André; Rémy, Benjamin

    2017-08-01

    Suspension plasma spraying (SPS) is identified as promising for the enhancement of thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems used in gas turbines. Particularly, the emerging columnar microstructure enabled by the SPS process is likely to bring about an interesting TBC lifetime. At the same time, the SPS process opens the way to a decrease in thermal conductivity, one of the main issues for the next generation of gas turbines, compared to the state-of-the-art deposition technique, so-called electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD). In this paper, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings presenting columnar structures, performed using both SPS and EB-PVD processes, were studied. Depending on the columnar microstructure readily adaptable in the SPS process, low thermal conductivities can be obtained. At 1100 °C, a decrease from 1.3 W m-1 K-1 for EB-PVD YSZ coatings to about 0.7 W m-1 K-1 for SPS coatings was shown. The higher content of porosity in the case of SPS coatings increases the thermal resistance through the thickness and decreases thermal conductivity. The lifetime of SPS YSZ coatings was studied by isothermal cyclic tests, showing equivalent or even higher performances compared to EB-PVD ones. Tests were performed using classical bond coats used for EB-PVD TBC coatings. Thermal cyclic fatigue performance of the best SPS coating reached 1000 cycles to failure on AM1 substrates with a β-(Ni,Pt)Al bond coat. Tests were also performed on AM1 substrates with a Pt-diffused γ-Ni/γ'-Ni3Al bond coat for which more than 2000 cycles to failure were observed for columnar SPS YSZ coatings. The high thermal compliance offered by both the columnar structure and the porosity allowed the reaching of a high lifetime, promising for a TBC application.

  9. Columnar and Equiaxed Solidification of Al-7 wt.% Si Alloys in Reduced Gravity in the Framework of the CETSOL Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, G.; Sturz, L.; Nguyen-Thi, H.; Mangelinck-Noel, N.; Li, Y. Z.; Gandin, C.-A.; Fleurisson, R.; Guillemot, G.; McFadden, S.; Mooney, R. P.; Voorhees, P.; Roosz, A.; Ronaföldi, A.; Beckermann, C.; Karma, A.; Chen, C.-H.; Warnken, N.; Saad, A.; Grün, G.-U.; Grohn, M.; Poitrault, I.; Pehl, T.; Nagy, I.; Todt, D.; Minster, O.; Sillekens, W.

    2017-08-01

    During casting, often a dendritic microstructure is formed, resulting in a columnar or an equiaxed grain structure, or leading to a transition from columnar to equiaxed growth (CET). The detailed knowledge of the critical parameters for the CET is important because the microstructure affects materials properties. To provide unique data for testing of fundamental theories of grain and microstructure formation, solidification experiments in microgravity environment were performed within the European Space Agency Microgravity Application Promotion (ESA MAP) project Columnar-to-Equiaxed Transition in SOLidification Processing (CETSOL). Reduced gravity allows for purely diffusive solidification conditions, i.e., suppressing melt flow and sedimentation and floatation effects. On-board the International Space Station, Al-7 wt.% Si alloys with and without grain refiners were solidified in different temperature gradients and with different cooling conditions. Detailed analysis of the microstructure and the grain structure showed purely columnar growth for nonrefined alloys. The CET was detected only for refined alloys, either as a sharp CET in the case of a sudden increase in the solidification velocity or as a progressive CET in the case of a continuous decrease of the temperature gradient. The present experimental data were used for numerical modeling of the CET with three different approaches: (1) a front tracking model using an equiaxed growth model, (2) a three-dimensional (3D) cellular automaton-finite element model, and (3) a 3D dendrite needle network method. Each model allows for predicting the columnar dendrite tip undercooling and the growth rate with respect to time. Furthermore, the positions of CET and the spatial extent of the CET, being sharp or progressive, are in reasonably good quantitative agreement with experimental measurements.

  10. Evaluation of radioiodinated and radiocopper labeled monovalent fragments of monoclonal antibody chCE7 for targeting of neuroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrel, Francois; Amstutz, Hanspeter; Novak-Hofer, Ilse; Schubiger, P. August

    1997-01-01

    Monovalent fragments of antineuroblastoma antibody mAb chCE7 were evaluated for their in vitro and in vivo tumor cell binding properties. Single chain fragments were constructed from the variable region genes cloned from hybridoma cells, expressed in E.coli and purified by metal chelate affinity chromatography. Radioiodinated CE7-scFv fragments were found to bind with high affinity (K d ∼10 -9 M) to target cells in vitro but formed aggregates at 37 deg. C, and bound to serum proteins in vitro and in vivo. Circular Dichroism spectra revealed the protein to be in a conformationally altered form and no permanent 'refolding' could be achieved. In contrast, chCE7-Fab fragments were found to bind to target tumor cells with similar affinity than the parent mAb chCE7 (K d ∼10 -10 M), showed no tendency to aggregate and were stable in serum both in vitro and in vivo. Kinetics of association and dissociation of radioiodinated scFv and Fab fragments were found to be rapid. Radioiodination with the Iodogen method led to impaired immunoreactivity which was found to further increase the off- rates of radioiodinated fragments from tumor cells. Radioiodination with the Bolton-Hunter reagent as well as labeling of chCE7-Fab fragments with 67 Cu via the macrocyclic CPTA ligand led to fully immunoreactive Fab fragments. Radioiodinated and radiocopper labeled monovalent CE7 fragments did not internalize into target tumor cells as the parent mAb and its F(ab') 2 fragment. A comparison of the biodistribution in tumor bearing nude mice of the radiocopper labeled monovalent, non internalizing Fab fragments with the internalizing divalent F(ab') 2 fragments showed in both cases high levels of radioactivity in the kidneys. Concerning tumor uptake, radioactivity from both internalizing and non internalizing fragments remained associated with tumor tissue for longer times than in case of the corresponding radioiodinated fragments. When compared with the radioiodinated forms, tumor uptake

  11. Immunogenicity and safety of monovalent RIVM meningococcal B OMP vesicle F91 vaccine administered to children that received hexavalent meningococcal B vaccine 2.5 years ago

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lafeber AB; Limpt CJP van; Berbers GAM; Labadie J; Kleijn ED de; Groot R de; Rumke HC; Alphen AJW van; Sophia Kinderziekenhuis /; LVO

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the results with respect to immunogenicity as well as reactogenicity of a monovalent P1.7h,4 OMV vaccine (MonoMen) used as booster vaccination in children previously vaccinated with a hexavalent MenB vaccine. The participants in this study were immunised in 1995-1996 with

  12. International collaboration to assess the risk of Guillain Barré Syndrome following Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Dodd (Caitlin); S.A. Romio (Silvana); S. Black (Steve); C. Vellozzi (Claudia); N.J. Andrews (Nick); M.C.J.M. Sturkenboom (Miriam); P. Zuber (Patrick); W. Hua (Wei); J. Bonhoeffer (Jan); J. Buttery (Jim); N. Crawford (Nigel); G. Deceuninck (Genevieve); C.S. de Vries (Corinne); P. de Wals (Philippe); D. Gimeno (David); H. Heijbel (Harald); H. Hughes (Hayley); K. Hur (Kwan); A. Hviid (Anders); J. Kelman (Jeffrey); T. Kilpi (Tehri); S.K. Chuang (S.); T. Macartney (Thomas); M. Rett (Melisa); V.R. Lopez-Callada (Vesta Richardson); D. Salmon (Daniel); F.G. Sanchez (Francisco Gimenez); N. Sanz (Nuria); B. Silverman (Bernard); J. Storsaeter (Jann); U. Thirugnanam (Umapathi); N.A.T. van der Maas (Nicoline); K. Yih (Katherine); T. Zhang (Teng Fei); H.S. Izurieta (Hector); B.J. Addis; A. Akhtar (Aysha); J. Cope (Judith); R.L. Davis (Robert); P. Gargiullo (Paul); X. Kurz (Xavier); B. Law (Barbara); I. Sahinovic (Isabelle); J. Tokars (Jerry); P. Serrano (Pedro); A. Cheng (Aixin); N.J. Andrews (Nick); P. Charles (Pat); H. Clothier (Hazel); B. Day (Bruce); T. Day (Timothy); P. Gates (Peter); R. MacDonnell (Richard); L. Roberts (Les); V. Rodriguez-Casero (Vic-toria); T. Wijeratne (Tissa); H.A.L. Kiers (Henk); C. Blyth (Christopher); R. Booy (Robert); E. Elliott (Elizabeth); M.R. Gold (Michael); H. Marshall; P. McIntyre (Peter); P. Richmond (Peter); J. Royle (Jenny); N.W. Wood (Nicholas); Y. Zurynski (Yvonne); G. Calvo (Gonzalo); M. Campins (Magda); N. Corominas (Nuria); F. Torres (Ferran); V. Valls; A. Vilella (Ángels); A. Dutra (Amalia); A. Eick-Cost (Angelia); H.M. Jackson (Henry); K. Garman (Katherine); Z. Hu (Zheng); J. Rigo; J. Badoo (Judith); D Cho (David); L.L. Polakowski (Laura); S.K. Sandhu (Sukhminder); G. Sun (Guoying); H.-S.S. Chan (Hoi-Shan Sophelia); K.-Y. Chan (Kwok-Yin); R. Cheung (Raymond); Y-F. Cheung (Yuk-Fai); S. Cherk (Sharon); S.K Chuang (S.); D. Fok (Dennis); B.-H. Fung (Bun-Hey); K.-F. Ko (Kwai-Fu); K.W. Lau (Ka Wing); K.-K. Lau (Kwok-Kwong); P. Li (Pulin); H.-T. Liu (Hui-Tung); S.-H. Liu (Shao-Haei); K. Mok (Kin); J. So (Joanna); W. Wong (Winnie); S.-P. Wu (Shun-Ping); V. Avagyan (Vardan); R. Ball (Robert); D. Burwen (Dale); R.L. Franks (Riley); J.M. Gibbs (Jonathan); R.E. Kliman (Rebecca); S. Kropp (Silke); T.E. MaCurdy (Thomas); D.B. Martin (David); S.-D.K. Sandhu (Sukhmin-Der); B.B. Worrall (Bradford B.); D.E.F. Fuentes (Dra. Elvira Fuentes); P.C.O. González (Paola Carolina Ojeda); V.F. Reyna (Valerie ); M. Kulldorff (Martin); G. Lee (Grace); T.A. Lieu (Tracy); S. Platt; G.D. Serres (Gaston De); K. Jabin (Kamilah); B.L.S. Soh (Bee Leng Sally); L. Arnheim-Dahlström (Lisen); A. Castot (Anne); H.E. de Melker (Hester); J.P. Dieleman (Jeanne); J. Hallgren (Jonal); B.C. Jacobs (Bart); K. Johansen (Kari); P Kramarz (Piotr); M. Lapeyre (Maryse); T. Leino (Tuija); D. Mølgaard-Nielsen (Ditte); M. Mosseveld (Mees); H.K. Olberg (Henning K); C.-M. Sammon (Cor-Mac); C. Saussier (Christel); M.J. Schuemie (Martijn); A. Sommet (Agnès); P. Sparen (Pär); H. Svanström (Henrik); A.M. Vanrolleghem (Ann M.); D.M. Weibel (Daniel); J.D. Domingo (Javier Diez); J.L. Esparza (José LuísMicó); R.M.O. Lucas (Rafael M. Ortí); J.B.M. Maseres (Juan B. Mollar); J.L.A. Sánchez (José Luís Alfonso); M.G. Sánchez (Mercedes Garcés); V.Z. Viguer (Vicente Zanón); F. Cunningham (Francesca); B. Thakkar (Bharat); R. Zhang (Rongping)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The global spread of the 2009 novel pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus led to the accelerated production and distribution of monovalent 2009 Influenza A (H1N1) vaccines (pH1N1). This pandemic provided the opportunity to evaluate the risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), which

  13. Evaluation of the immune response in rainbow trout fry, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), after waterborne exposure to Flavobacterium psychrophilum and/or hydrogen peroxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Maya Maria Mihályi; Kania, P. W.; Buchmann, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    The immune response in rainbow trout fry against Flavobacterium psychrophilum was elucidated using an immersion-based challenge with or without prior exposure to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Samples were taken from the head kidney 4, 48, 125 and 192 h after immersion, and the regulation of several...

  14. A novel antibody engineering strategy for making monovalent bispecific heterodimeric IgG antibodies by electrostatic steering mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi; Leng, Esther C; Gunasekaran, Kannan; Pentony, Martin; Shen, Min; Howard, Monique; Stoops, Janelle; Manchulenko, Kathy; Razinkov, Vladimir; Liu, Hua; Fanslow, William; Hu, Zhonghua; Sun, Nancy; Hasegawa, Haruki; Clark, Rutilio; Foltz, Ian N; Yan, Wei

    2015-03-20

    Producing pure and well behaved bispecific antibodies (bsAbs) on a large scale for preclinical and clinical testing is a challenging task. Here, we describe a new strategy for making monovalent bispecific heterodimeric IgG antibodies in mammalian cells. We applied an electrostatic steering mechanism to engineer antibody light chain-heavy chain (LC-HC) interface residues in such a way that each LC strongly favors its cognate HC when two different HCs and two different LCs are co-expressed in the same cell to assemble a functional bispecific antibody. We produced heterodimeric IgGs from transiently and stably transfected mammalian cells. The engineered heterodimeric IgG molecules maintain the overall IgG structure with correct LC-HC pairings, bind to two different antigens with comparable affinity when compared with their parental antibodies, and retain the functionality of parental antibodies in biological assays. In addition, the bispecific heterodimeric IgG derived from anti-HER2 and anti-EGF receptor (EGFR) antibody was shown to induce a higher level of receptor internalization than the combination of two parental antibodies. Mouse xenograft BxPC-3, Panc-1, and Calu-3 human tumor models showed that the heterodimeric IgGs strongly inhibited tumor growth. The described approach can be used to generate tools from two pre-existent antibodies and explore the potential of bispecific antibodies. The asymmetrically engineered Fc variants for antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity enhancement could be embedded in monovalent bispecific heterodimeric IgG to make best-in-class therapeutic antibodies. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Epidemiological and Economic Impact of Monovalent and Pentavalent Rotavirus Vaccines in Low and Middle Income Countries: A Cost-effectiveness Modeling Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paternina-Caicedo, Angel; De la Hoz-Restrepo, Fernando; Alvis-Guzmán, Nelson

    2015-07-01

    The competing choices of vaccination with either RV1 or RV5, the potential budget impact of vaccines on the EPI with different prices and new evidence make important an updated analysis for health decision makers in each country. The objective of this study is to assess cost-effectiveness of the monovalent and pentavalent rotavirus vaccines and impact on children deaths, inpatient and outpatient visits in 116 low and middle income countries that represent approximately 99% of rotavirus mortality. A decision tree model followed hypothetical cohorts of children from birth up to 5 years of age for each country in 2010. Inputs were gathered from international databases and previous research on incidence and effectiveness of monovalent and pentavalent vaccines. Costs were expressed in 2010 international dollars. Outcomes were reported in terms of cost per disability-adjusted life-year averted, comparing no vaccination with either monovalent or pentavalent mass introduction. Vaccine price was assumed fixed for all world low-income and middle-income countries. Around 292,000 deaths, 3.34 million inpatient cases and 23.09 million outpatient cases would occur with no vaccination. In the base-case scenario, monovalent vaccination would prevent 54.7% of inpatient cases and 45.4% of deaths. Pentavalent vaccination would prevent 51.4% of inpatient cases and 41.1% of deaths. The vaccine was cost-effective in all world countries in the base-case scenario for both vaccines. Cost per disability-adjusted life-year averted in all selected countries was I$372 for monovalent, and I$453 for pentavalent vaccination. Rotavirus vaccine is cost-effective in most analyzed countries. Despite cost-effectiveness analysis is a useful tool for decision making in middle-income countries, for low-income countries health decision makers should also assess the impact of introducing either vaccine on local resources and budget impact analysis of vaccination.

  16. Measurements and estimation of the columnar optical depth of tropospheric aerosols in the UV spectral region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Cachorro

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available We report values of the columnar tropospheric aerosol optical depth at UV wavelengths based on experimental measurements of the direct spectral irradiances carried out by a commercial spectroradiometer (Li1800 of Licor company covering the range from 300–1100 nm at two stations with different climate characteristics in Spain. The first station is located in a rural site in north central Spain with continental climate. The data extend from March to the end of October of 1995. The other station is a coastal site in the Gulf of Cádiz (southwest Spain of maritime climate type. This study is mainly focused on the capability of estimating aerosol optical depth values in the UV region based on the extracted information in the visible and near infrared ranges. A first method has been used based on the Ångström turbidity parameters. However, since this method requires detailed spectral information, a second method has also been used, based on the correlation between wavelengths. A correlation has been established between the experimental aerosol optical depth values at 350 nm and 500 nm wavelengths. Although the type of aerosol seems to be the key factor that determines the quality of these estimations, the evaluation of the associated error is necessary to know the behaviour of these estimations in each area of study.Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (aerosols and particles; transmission and scattering of radiation; troposphere – composition and chemistry

  17. Novel Prospects for Plasma Spray-Physical Vapor Deposition of Columnar Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwaar, Aleem; Wei, Lianglinag; Guo, Qian; Zhang, Baopeng; Guo, Hongbo

    2017-12-01

    Plasma spray-physical vapor deposition (PS-PVD) is an emerging coating technique that can produce columnar thermal barrier coatings from vapor phase. Feedstock treatment at the start of its trajectory in the plasma torch nozzle is important for such vapor-phase deposition. This study describes the effects of the plasma composition (Ar/He) on the plasma characteristics, plasma-particle interaction, and particle dynamics at different points spatially distributed inside the plasma torch nozzle. The results of calculations show that increasing the fraction of argon in the plasma gas mixture enhances the momentum and heat flow between the plasma and injected feedstock. For the plasma gas combination of 45Ar/45He, the total enthalpy transferred to a representative powder particle inside the plasma torch nozzle is highest ( 9828 kJ/kg). Moreover, due to the properties of the plasma, the contribution of the cylindrical throat, i.e., from the feed injection point (FIP) to the start of divergence (SOD), to the total transferred energy is 69%. The carrier gas flow for different plasma gas mixtures was also investigated by optical emission spectroscopy (OES) measurements of zirconium emissions. Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coating microstructures were produced when using selected plasma gas compositions and corresponding carrier gas flows; structural morphologies were found to be in good agreement with OES and theoretical predictions. Quasicolumnar microstructure was obtained with porosity of 15% when applying the plasma composition of 45Ar/45He.

  18. Thermal stability in a newly designed columnar-conical fluidized bed for combustion of rice husk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozainee, M.; Salema, A.A.; Ngo, S.P.; Chye, G.B. [Malaysian Technological Univ., Johor Bahru (Malaysia). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2006-07-01

    The effects of fluidizing and liquid propane gas (LPG) flow rates on thermal stability of a fluidized bed were examined. The aim of the study was to hybridize a columnar and conical fluidized bed (CCFB) in order to encourage the combustion of low-calorific fuels such as rice husks. Experiments were conducted to examine the thermal stability of the CCFB. Premixed primary air and liquid propane gas (LPG) was fed into the bed in order to verify its thermal stability. Temperature profiles of the combustor and bed were measured. The impact of the fluidizing velocity and LPG flow rate on the temperature profile was examined in order to analyze the influence of the fluidizing velocity and LPG rate on combustion rates. Results of the study showed that the combustion of the CCFB was sustained at a fluidizing velocity of 1.5 U{sub mf} and at an LPG flow rate of 8 liters per minute. Results of the study showed that fluidizing velocity played an important role on the thermal stability of the bed. It was concluded that the thermal stability of the combustor is sufficient for the CCFB. 13 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  19. Measurements and estimation of the columnar optical depth of tropospheric aerosols in the UV spectral region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Cachorro

    Full Text Available We report values of the columnar tropospheric aerosol optical depth at UV wavelengths based on experimental measurements of the direct spectral irradiances carried out by a commercial spectroradiometer (Li1800 of Licor company covering the range from 300–1100 nm at two stations with different climate characteristics in Spain. The first station is located in a rural site in north central Spain with continental climate. The data extend from March to the end of October of 1995. The other station is a coastal site in the Gulf of Cádiz (southwest Spain of maritime climate type. This study is mainly focused on the capability of estimating aerosol optical depth values in the UV region based on the extracted information in the visible and near infrared ranges. A first method has been used based on the Ångström turbidity parameters. However, since this method requires detailed spectral information, a second method has also been used, based on the correlation between wavelengths. A correlation has been established between the experimental aerosol optical depth values at 350 nm and 500 nm wavelengths. Although the type of aerosol seems to be the key factor that determines the quality of these estimations, the evaluation of the associated error is necessary to know the behaviour of these estimations in each area of study.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (aerosols and particles; transmission and scattering of radiation; troposphere – composition and chemistry

  20. Enabling electrolyte compositions for columnar silicon anodes in high energy secondary batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piwko, Markus; Thieme, Sören; Weller, Christine; Althues, Holger; Kaskel, Stefan

    2017-09-01

    Columnar silicon structures are proven as high performance anodes for high energy batteries paired with low (sulfur) or high (nickel-cobalt-aluminum oxide, NCA) voltage cathodes. The introduction of a fluorinated ether/sulfolane solvent mixture drastically improves the capacity retention for both battery types due to an improved solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on the surface of the silicon electrode which reduces irreversible reactions normally causing lithium loss and rapid capacity fading. For the lithium silicide/sulfur battery cycling stability is significantly improved as compared to a frequently used reference electrolyte (DME/DOL) reaching a constant coulombic efficiency (CE) as high as 98%. For the silicon/NCA battery with higher voltage, the addition of only small amounts of fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) to the novel electrolyte leads to a stable capacity over at least 50 cycles and a CE as high as 99.9%. A high volumetric energy density close to 1000 Wh l-1 was achieved with the new electrolyte taking all inactive components of the stack into account for the estimation.

  1. Branching-induced grain boundary evolution during directional solidification of columnar dendritic grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Chunwen; Li, Junjie; Yu, Honglei; Wang, Zhijun; Lin, Xin; Wang, Jincheng

    2017-01-01

    We present an investigation of secondary and tertiary branching behavior in diverging grain boundaries (GBs) between two columnar dendritic grains with different crystallographic orientations, both by two-dimensional phase-field simulations and thin-sample experiments. The stochasticity of the GB trajectories and the statistically averaged GB orientations were analyzed in detail. The side-branching dynamics and subsequent branch competition behaviors found in the simulations agreed well with the experimental results. When the orientations of two grains are given, the experimental results indicated that the average GB orientation was independent of the pulling velocity in the dendritic growth regime. The simulation and experimental results, as well as the results reported in the literature exhibit a uniform relation between the percentage of the whole gap region occupied by the favorably oriented grain and the difference in the absolute values of the secondary arm growth directions of the two competitive grains. By describing such a uniform relation with a simple fitting equation, we proposed a simple analytical model for the GB orientation at diverging GBs, which gives a more accurate description of GB orientation selection than the existing models.

  2. A study of the endocervical columnar cells I - morphology and frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eitel Duarte

    1966-01-01

    Full Text Available After the observation of many thousands of histological sections of the endocervical mucosa it became evident that its columnar cells present a great variety of aspects not only those of the surface of the canal but also those of the glands. A classification of these cells was made taking into account the staining affinity, the intensity staining of the cytoplasm, the presence or absence of cilia, the shape and location of the nucleus. The various combinations of these different data made possible the characterization of 26 types of cells which we labelled by the alphabetical letters. Two hundred and fifty cervices obtained by cervical amputation and by hysterectomy were studied. The uteri presented lesions in the course of routine laboratory examination. In each of the 250 histological sections there were specifically counted 2,000 columnar cells which cover the cervical canal and 2,000columnar cells which form the glands. A graphic representation of the frequency of both the superficial and glandular columnar cells was presented; this was given the name EPITHELIOGRAM. The variation of the cellular "composition" of each epithelium is discussed and the frequency of the various cellular types after the count of one million of cells is presented.O estudo minucioso do epitélio da mucosa endocervical possibilitou o reconhecimento de vinte e seis tipos de células cilíndricas, tanto na superfície de revestimento do canal, como nas chamadas glândulas endocervicais. Para a classificação destas 26 células, que tomaram, cada uma, uma letra do alfabeto, foram levados em consideração a intensidade de coloração, a apresença ou não de cílios, a forma e dimensões dos núcleos e sua posição na célula. Foram analisados inicialmente 250 cortes histológicos, sendo contadas especìficamente, em cada corte, 2000 células cilíndricas de revestimento e 2000 células cilíndricas das glândulas. Em cada caso foram anotados, nas tabelas, além dos

  3. Atmospheric Pre-Corrected Differential Absorption Techniques to Retrieve Columnar Water Vapor: Theory and Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borel, Christoph C.; Schlaepfer, Daniel

    1996-01-01

    Two different approaches exist to retrieve columnar water vapor from imaging spectrometer data: (1) Differential absorption techniques based on: (a) Narrow-Wide (N/W) ratio between overlapping spectrally wide and narrow channels; (b) Continuum Interpolated Band Ratio (CIBR) between a measurement channel and the weighted sum of two reference channels. (2) Non-linear fitting techniques which are based on spectral radiative transfer calculations. The advantage of the first approach is computational speed and of the second, improved retrieval accuracy. Our goal was to improve the accuracy of the first technique using physics based on radiative transfer. Using a modified version of the Duntley equation, we derived an "Atmospheric Pre-corrected Differential Absorption" (APDA) technique and described an iterative scheme to retrieve water vapor on a pixel-by-pixel basis. Next we compared both, the CIBR and the APDA using the Duntley equation for MODTRAN3 computed irradiances, transmissions and path radiance (using the DISORT option). This simulation showed that the CIBR is very sensitive to reflectance effects and that the APDA performs much better. An extensive data set was created with the radiative transfer code 6S over 379 different ground reflectance spectra. The calculated relative water vapor error was reduced significantly for the APDA. The APDA technique had about 8% (vs. over 35% for the CIBR) of the 379 spectra with a relative water vapor error of greater than +5%. The APDA has been applied to 1991 and 1995 AVIRIS scenes which visually demonstrate the improvement over the CIBR technique.

  4. Triphenylene columnar liquid crystals: spectroscopic study of triplets states and charge carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondkowski, Jens

    2000-01-01

    This research thesis reports the study of three oxygenated derivatives of triphenylene (two monomers, a symmetric one and an asymmetric one, and a tetramer) by using different experimental techniques: absorption spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy in stationary regime, and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (also said single photon counting). Moreover, the author adapted an existing experiment of transient absorption spectroscopy time-resolved at the microsecond level to obtain spectra of thin layers under electric field. A cyclic voltammetry experiment and a spectro-electrochemistry experiment have also been performed. The report first presents the studied materials, the characterisation of singlet states, and the study of the effect molecular symmetry decreasing have on molecular transitions. Then, the author reports the study of cationic species of the triphenylene derivatives. The next chapters address the characterisation of derivative triplet states, and the study of energy transfer within the meso phase of one of these derivatives. The last chapters address charge carriers of columnar liquid crystals, and the molecular nature of these charge carriers

  5. Anisotropic propagation imaging of elastic waves in oriented columnar thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffy, E.; Dodane, G.; Euphrasie, S.; Mosset, A.; Vairac, P.; Martin, N.; Baida, H.; Rampnoux, J. M.; Dilhaire, S.

    2017-12-01

    We report on the observation of strongly anisotropic surface acoustic wave propagation on nanostructured thin films. Two kinds of tungsten samples were prepared by sputtering on a silicon substrate: a conventional thin film with columns normal to the substrate surface, and an oriented columnar architecture using the glancing angle deposition (GLAD) process. Pseudo-Rayleigh waves (PRWs) were imaged as a function of time in x and y directions for both films thanks to a femtosecond heterodyne pump-probe setup. A strong anisotropic propagation as well as a high velocity reduction of the PRWs were exhibited for the GLAD sample. For the wavevector k/2π  =  3  ×  105 m-1 the measured group velocities v x and v y equal 2220 m s-1 for the sample prepared with conventional sputtering, whereas a strong anisotropy appears (v x   =  1600 m s-1 and v y   =  870 m s-1) for the sample prepared with the GLAD process. Using the finite element method, the anisotropy is related to the structural anisotropy of the thin film’s architecture. The drop of PRWs group velocities is mainly assigned to the porous microstructure, especially favored by atomic shadowing effects which appear during the growth of the inclined columns. Such GLAD thin films constitute a new tool for the control of the propagation of surface elastic waves and for the design of new devices with useful properties.

  6. Generation of DNA profiles from fingerprints developed with columnar thin film technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plazibat, Stephanie L; Roy, Reena; Swiontek, Stephen E; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2015-12-01

    Partial-bloody fingerprints and partial fingerprints with saliva are often encountered at crime scenes, potentially enabling the combination of fingerprint and DNA analyses for absolute identification, provided that the development technique for fingerprint analysis does not inhibit DNA analysis. 36 partial-bloody fingerprints and 30 fingerprints wetted with saliva, all deposited on brass, were first developed using the columnar-thin-film (CTF) technique and then subjected to short tandem repeat (STR) DNA analysis. Equal numbers of samples were subjected to the same DNA analysis without development. Tris (8-hydroxyquinolinato) aluminum, or Alq3, was evaporated to deposit CTFs for development of the prints. DNA was extracted from all 132 samples, quantified, and amplified with AmpFlSTR(®) Identifiler Plus Amplification Kit. Additionally, DNA analyses were conducted on four blood smears on un-fingerprinted brass that had been subjected to CTF deposition and four blood smears on un-fingerprinted brass that had not been subjected to CTF deposition. Complete and concordant autosomal STR profiles of the same quality were obtained from both undeveloped and CTF-developed fingerprints, indicating that CTF development of fingerprints preserves DNA and does not inhibit subsequent DNA analysis. Even when there were no fingerprints, CTF deposition did not lead to inhibition of DNA analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Dicyanamide Salts that Adopt Smectic, Columnar, or Bicontinuous Cubic Liquid-Crystalline Mesophases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Geonhui; Goossens, Karel; Shin, Tae Joo; Bielawski, Christopher W

    2018-04-25

    Although dicyanamide (i.e., [N(CN) 2 ] - ) has been commonly used to obtain low-viscosity, halogen-free, room-temperature ionic liquids, liquid-crystalline salts containing such anions have remained virtually unexplored. Here we report a series of amphiphilic dicyanamide salts that, depending on their structures and compositions, adopt smectic, columnar, or bicontinuous cubic thermotropic liquid-crystalline mesophases, even at room temperature in some cases. Their thermal properties were explored by polarized light optical microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis (including evolved gas analysis), and variable-temperature synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Comparison of the thermal phase characteristics of these new liquid-crystalline salts featuring "V-shaped" [N(CN) 2 ] - anions with those of structural analogues containing [SCN] - , [BF 4 ] - , [PF 6 ] - , or [CF 3 SO 3 ] - anions indicated that not only the size of the counterion but also its shape should be considered in the development of mesomorphic salts. Collectively, these discoveries may be expected to facilitate the design of thermotropic ionic liquid crystals that form inverted-type bicontinuous cubic and other sophisticated liquid-crystalline phases. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. The role of the dendritic growth model dimensionality in predicting the Columnar to Equiaxed Transition (CET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seredyński, M.; Rebow, M.; Banaszek, J.

    2017-06-01

    The dendrite tip kinetics model accuracy relies on the reliability of the stability constant used, which is usually experimentally determined for 3D situations and applied to 2D models. The paper reports authors` attempts to cure the situation by deriving 2D dendritic tip scaling parameter for aluminium-based alloy: Al-4wt%Cu. The obtained parameter is then incorporated into the KGT dendritic growth model in order to compare it with the original 3D KGT counterpart and to derive two-dimensional and three-dimensional versions of the modified Hunt's analytical model for the columnar-to-equiaxed transition (CET). The conclusions drawn from the above analysis are further confirmed through numerical calculations of the two cases of Al-4wt%Cu metallic alloy solidification using the front tracking technique. Results, including the porous zone-under-cooled liquid front position, the calculated solutal under-cooling, the average temperature gradient at a front of the dendrite tip envelope and a new predictor of the relative tendency to form an equiaxed zone, are shown, compared and discussed for two numerical cases. The necessity to calculate sufficiently precise values of the tip scaling parameter in 2D and 3D is stressed.

  9. Sub-0.1 mu m line fabrication by Focused ion beam and columnar structural Se-Ge resist

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, H Y; Chung, H B

    1998-01-01

    As a method to enhance the sensitivity (S) of an inorganic resist for focused-ion-beam (FIB), lithography, sub-0.1 mu m patterning properties of a columnar structural alpha-Se sub 7 sub 5 Ge sub 2 sub 5 resist have been investigated using 30 keV low-energy Ga sup + -FIB exposure and CF sub 4 reactive-ion etching (RIE). development. The Se sub 7 sub 5 Ge sub 2 sub 5 thin films were 60 .deg. and 80 .deg. -obliquely deposited on Si substrate and parts of the films were annealed for several minutes at the glass transition temperature (T sub g =approx 220 .deg. C). Columnar structures with the angles of approximately 40 .deg. and 65 .deg. are observed in 60 .deg. and 80 .deg. -obliquely deposited films, respectively, and they disappear after annealing. Despite the disappearance of the columnar structures, a critical decrease in thickness is not observed. For the FIB exposures with a beam diameter of approx 0.1 mu m and around the threshold dose, the negative-type fine patterns with linewidth of about 0.06 approx 0...

  10. Detection and quantification of Flavobacterium psychrophilum specific bacteriophages in rainbow trout upon different administration methods: Implications for disease control in aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Rói Hammershaimb; Madsen, Lone; Dalsgaard, Inger

    2013-01-01

    Flavobacterium psychrophilum is the pathogen causing the disease rainbow trout fry syndrome (RTFS), which has important implications for aquaculture production and trade worldwide. RTFS can be treated by antibiotic administration, but with the increasing problem of antibiotic resistant bacteria...... in the internal organs in rainbow trout, following different administration methods. Three phage administration methods using phage FpV-9 were used: phage bath, oral administration of phagesuspension directly into the stomach and feeding with phage-coated feed pellets. Phages were detected in all the four...... examined organs (intestine, brain, spleen and liver) with all three administration methods, demonstrating that the phages are capable of passing the intestinal wall and entering the bloodstream. The highest phage concentration was found in the intestine where a maximum of 3x1010 phages g-1 was obtained...

  11. Tracing a key player in the regulation of plant architecture: the columnar growth habit of apple trees (Malus × domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Romina; Krost, Clemens

    2013-07-01

    Plant architecture is regulated by a complex interplay of some key players (often transcription factors), phytohormones and other signaling molecules such as microRNAs. The columnar growth habit of apple trees is a unique form of plant architecture characterized by thick and upright stems showing a compaction of internodes and carrying short fruit spurs instead of lateral branches. The molecular basis for columnar growth is a single dominant allele of the gene Columnar, whose identity, function and gene product are unknown. As a result of marker analyses, this gene has recently been fine-mapped to chromosome 10 at 18.51-19.09 Mb [according to the annotation of the apple genome by Velasco (2010)], a region containing a cluster of quantitative trait loci associated with plant architecture, but no homologs to the well-known key regulators of plant architecture. Columnar apple trees have a higher auxin/cytokinin ratio and lower levels of gibberellins and abscisic acid than normal apple trees. Transcriptome analyses corroborate these results and additionally show differences in cell membrane and cell wall function. It can be expected that within the next year or two, an integration of these different research methodologies will reveal the identity of the Columnar gene. Besides enabling breeders to efficiently create new apple (and maybe related pear, peach, cherry, etc.) cultivars which combine desirable characteristics of commercial cultivars with the advantageous columnar growth habit using gene technology, this will also provide new insights into an elevated level of plant growth regulation.

  12. Yeast Kch1 and Kch2 membrane proteins play a pleiotropic role in membrane potential establishment and monovalent cation homeostasis regulation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Felcmanová, Kristina; Nevečeřalová, Petra; Sychrová, Hana; Zimmermannová, Olga

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 5 (2017), č. článku fox053. ISSN 1567-1356 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-03398S; GA MŠk(CZ) LH14297 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : Kch proteins * plasma-membrane potential * monovalent cation homeostasis * intracellular pH * Saccharomyces cerevisiae * Candida albicans Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Mycology Impact factor: 3.299, year: 2016

  13. Prevalence and predictors of columnar lined esophagus in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) patients undergoing upper endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Gokulakrishnan; Singh, Mandeep; Gupta, Neil; Gaddam, Srinivas; Giacchino, Maria; Wani, Sachin B; Moloney, Brian; Higbee, April D; Rastogi, Amit; Bansal, Ajay; Sharma, Prateek

    2012-11-01

    Chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a risk factor for Barrett's esophagus (BE), the most important surrogate marker for the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). The need to document the presence of intestinal metaplasia in esophageal biopsies from a columnar lined esophagus (CLE) to diagnose BE is debated. The objective of this study was to prospectively evaluate the prevalence and risk factors of CLE in a large cohort of GERD patients undergoing upper endoscopy. Consecutive patients presenting to the endoscopy unit at a tertiary referral center for their index upper endoscopy for evaluation of GERD symptoms were enrolled in this prospective cohort study. Patients were asked to complete a validated GERD questionnaire that documents the onset of GERD symptoms (heartburn and acid regurgitation) and grades the frequency and severity of symptoms experienced over the past year. Demographic information, body mass index, and use of aspirin/nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs were recorded. Endoscopic details including length of CLE, presence and size of hiatal hernia were noted. Patients with CLE (cases) were compared with those without CLE (controls) using Fischer's exact test and t-test. All factors that were statistically significant (PGERD symptoms were prospectively enrolled. On index endoscopy, the prevalence of CLE was 23.3%, whereas of CLE with documented intestinal metaplasia was 14.1%. On univariate analysis, male gender, Caucasian race, heartburn duration of >5 years, presence and size of hiatal hernia were significantly associated with the presence of CLE compared with controls (P5 years (odds ratio (OR): 1.50, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07-2.09, P=0.01), Caucasian race (OR: 2.40, 95% CI: 1.42-4.03, P=0.001), and hiatal hernia (OR: 2.07, 95% CI: 1.50-2.87, PGERD patients are diagnosed with this lesion. Enrolling all these patients in surveillance programs would have significant ramifications on health-care resources.

  14. Atmospheric pre-corrected differential absorption techniques to retrieve columnar water vapor: Theory and simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borel, C.C.; Schlaepfer, D.

    1996-03-01

    Two different approaches exist to retrieve columnar water vapor from imaging spectrometer data: (1) Differential absorption techniques based on: (a) Narrow-Wide (N/W) ratio between overlapping spectrally wide and narrow channels (b) Continuum Interpolated Band Ratio (CIBR) between a measurement channel and the weighted sum of two reference channels; and (2) Non-linear fitting techniques which are based on spectral radiative transfer calculations. The advantage of the first approach is computational speed and of the second, improved retrieval accuracy. Our goal was to improve the accuracy of the first technique using physics based on radiative transfer. Using a modified version of the Duntley equation, we derived an {open_quote}Atmospheric Pre-corrected Differential Absorption{close_quote} (APDA) technique and described an iterative scheme to retrieve water vapor on a pixel-by-pixel basis. Next we compared both, the CIBR and the APDA using the Duntley equation for MODTRAN3 computed irradiances, transmissions and path radiance (using the DISORT option). This simulation showed that the CIBR is very sensitive to reflectance effects and that the APDA performs much better. An extensive data set was created with the radiative transfer code 6S over 379 different ground reflectance spectra. The calculated relative water vapor error was reduced significantly for the APDA. The APDA technique had about 8% (vs. over 35% for the CIBR) of the 379 spectra with a relative water vapor error of greater than {+-}5%. The APDA has been applied to 1991 and 1995 AVIRIS scenes which visually demonstrate the improvement over the CIBR technique.

  15. Growth and characterization of InAs columnar quantum dots on GaAs substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, L. H.; Patriarche, G.; Rossetti, M.; Fiore, A.

    2007-01-01

    The growth of InAs columnar quantum dots (CQDs) on GaAs substrates by molecular beam epitaxy was investigated. The CQDs were formed by depositing a 1.8 monolayer (ML) InAs seed dot layer and a short period GaAs/InAs superlattice (SL). It was found that the growth of the CQDs is very sensitive to growth interruption (GI) and growth temperature. Both longer GI and higher growth temperature impact the size dispersion of the CQDs, which causes the broadening of photoluminescence (PL) spectrum and the presence of the additional PL peak tails. By properly choosing the GI and the growth temperature, CQDs including GaAs (3 ML)/InAs (0.62 ML) SL with period number up to 35 without plastic relaxation were grown. The corresponding equivalent thickness of the SL is 41 nm which is two times higher than the theoretical critical thickness of the strained InGaAs layer with the same average In composition of 16%. The increase of the critical thickness is partially associated with the formation of the CQDs. Based on a five-stack CQD active region, laser diodes emitting around 1120 nm at room temperature were demonstrated, indicating a high material quality. CQDs with nearly isotropic cross section (20 nmx20 nm dimensions) were formed by depositing a 16-period GaAs (3 ML)/InAs (0.62 ML) SL on an InAs seed dot layer, indicating the feasibility of artificial shape engineering of QDs. Such a structure is expected to be very promising for polarization insensitive device applications, such as semiconductor optical amplifiers

  16. In-vitro Neurotoxicity of Two Malaysian Krait Species (Bungarus candidus and Bungarus fasciatus Venoms: Neutralization by Monovalent and Polyvalent Antivenoms from Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Rusdi Ahmad Rusmili

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Bungarus candidus and Bungarus fasciatus are two species of krait found in Southeast Asia. Envenoming by these snakes is often characterized by neurotoxicity and, without treatment, causes considerable morbidity and mortality. In this study, the in vitro neurotoxicity of each species, and the effectiveness of two monovalent antivenoms and a polyvalent antivenom, against the neurotoxic effects of the venoms, were examined in a skeletal muscle preparation. Both venoms caused concentration-dependent inhibition of indirect twitches, and attenuated responses to exogenous nicotinic receptor agonists, in the chick biventer preparation, with B. candidus venom being more potent than B. fasciatus venom. SDS-PAGE and western blot analysis indicated different profiles between the venoms. Despite these differences, most proteins bands were recognized by all three antivenoms. Antivenom, added prior to the venoms, attenuated the neurotoxic effect of the venoms. Interestingly, the respective monovalent antivenoms did not neutralize the effects of the venom from the other Bungarus species indicating a relative absence of cross-neutralization. Addition of a high concentration of polyvalent antivenom, at the t90 time point after addition of venom, partially reversed the neurotoxicity of B. fasciatus venom but not B. candidus venom. The monovalent antivenoms had no significant effect when added at the t90 time point. This study showed that B. candidus and B. fasciatus venoms display marked in vitro neurotoxicity in the chick biventer preparation and administration of antivenoms at high dose is necessary to prevent or reverse neurotoxicity.

  17. Competition among Li+, Na+, K+ and Rb+ Monovalent Ions for DNA in Molecular Dynamics Simulations using the Additive CHARMM36 and Drude Polarizable Force Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savelyev, Alexey; MacKerell, Alexander D.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we report on interactions of and competition between monovalent ions for two DNA sequences in MD simulations. Efforts included the development and validation of parameters for interactions among the first-group monovalent cations, Li+, Na+, K+ and Rb+, and DNA in the Drude polarizable and additive CHARMM36 force fields (FF). The optimization process targeted gas-phase QM interaction energies of various model compounds with ions and osmotic pressures of bulk electrolyte solutions of chemically relevant ions. The optimized ionic parameters are validated against counterion condensation theory and buffer exchange-atomic emission spectroscopy measurements providing quantitative data on the competitive association of different monovalent ions with DNA. Comparison between experimental and MD simulation results demonstrates that, compared to the additive CHARMM36 model, the Drude FF provides an improved description of the general features of the ionic atmosphere around DNA and leads to closer agreement with experiment on the ionic competition within the ion atmosphere. Results indicate the importance of extended simulation systems on the order of 25 Å beyond the DNA surface to obtain proper convergence of ion distributions. PMID:25751286

  18. Cross-reactivity and neutralization of Indian King cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) venom by polyvalent and monovalent antivenoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowtham, Yashonandana J; Mahadeswaraswamy, Y H; Girish, K S; K, Kemparaju

    2014-07-01

    The venom of the largest venomous snake, the king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah), is still out of league for the production of therapeutic polyvalent antivenom nor it is characterized immunologically in the Indian subcontinent. In the present study, the king cobra venom is comparatively studied for the cross-reactivity/reactivity and toxicity neutralization by the locally available equine therapeutic polyvalent BSV and VB antivenoms, and monovalent antivenom (OH-IgG) prepared in rabbit. None of the two therapeutic antivenoms procured from two different firms showed any signs of cross-reactivity in terms of antigen-antibody precipitin lines in immunodouble diffusion assay; however, a weak and an insignificant cross-reactivity pattern was observed in ELISA and Western blot studies. Further, both BSV and VB antivenoms failed to neutralize proteolytic, hyaluronidase and phospholipase activities as well as toxic properties such as edema, myotoxicity and lethality of the venom. As expected, OH-IgG showed strong reactivity in immunodouble diffusion, ELISA and in Western blot analysis and also neutralized both enzyme activities as well as the toxic properties of the venom. Thus, the study provides insight into the likely measures that are to be taken in cases of accidental king cobra bites for which the Indian subcontinent is still not prepared for. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Modification of thermal sensitivity of Chinese hamster cells by exposure to solutions of monovalent and divalent cationic salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raaphorst, G.P.; Azzam, E.I.; Vadasz, J.

    1984-06-01

    Chinese hamster V79 cells were heated in culture medium or in 0.155-mol.dm -3 solutions of LiCl, NaCl, KCl, MgCl 2 , CaCl 2 and BaCl 2 . The presence of any one of these ionic solutions during heating increased the thermal sensitivity of the cells. The order of increased thermal sensitivity was KCl > LiCl > NaCl for the monovalent salts and BaCl 2 > MgCl 2 > CaCl 2 for the divalent cation salts. The addition of glucose to LiCl or NaCl solutions did not reduce the thermal sensitization caused by these solutions. When cells were sensitized by LiCl or NaCl treatment, a change in pH from 7.2 to 6.6 did not further increase thermal sensitivity. These data show that nutrient and ionic factors and their interplay are involved in cellular thermal sensitivity

  20. Influence of competing inorganic cations on the ion exchange equilibrium of the monovalent organic cation metoprolol on natural sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedbala, Anne; Schaffer, Mario; Licha, Tobias; Nödler, Karsten; Börnick, Hilmar; Ruppert, Hans; Worch, Eckhard

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically investigate the influence of the mono- and divalent inorganic ions Na(+) and Ca(2+) on the sorption behavior of the monovalent organic cation metoprolol on a natural sandy sediment at pH=7. Isotherms for the beta-blocker metoprolol were obtained by sediment-water batch tests over a wide concentration range (1-100000 μg L(-1)). Concentrations of the competing inorganic ions were varied within freshwater relevant ranges. Data fitted well with the Freundlich sorption model and resulted in very similar Freundlich exponents (n=0.9), indicating slightly non-linear behavior. Results show that the influence of Ca(2+) compared to Na(+) is more pronounced. A logarithmic correlation between the Freundlich coefficient K(Fr) and the concentration or activity of the competing inorganic ions was found allowing the prediction of metoprolol sorption on the investigated sediment at different electrolyte concentrations. Additionally, the organic carbon of the sediment was completely removed for investigating the influence of organic matter on the sorption of metoprolol. The comparison between the experiments with and without organic carbon removal revealed no significant contribution of the organic carbon fraction (0.1%) to the sorption of metoprolol on the in this study investigated sediment. Results of this study will contribute to the development of predictive models for the transport of organic cations in the subsurface. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of divalent versus monovalent cations on the MS2 retention capacity of amino-functionalized ceramic filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, J; Hildebrand, N; Nawrocki, M; Kroll, S; Maas, M; Colombi Ciacchi, L; Rezwan, K

    2018-04-25

    Ceramic capillary membranes conditioned for virus filtration via functionalization with n-(3-trimethoxysilylpropyl)diethylenetriamine (TPDA) are analyzed with respect to their virus retention capacity when using feed solutions based on monovalent and divalent salts (NaCl, MgCl2). The log reduction value (LRV) by operating in dead-end mode using the model bacteriophage MS2 with a diameter of 25 nm and an IEP of 3.9 is as high as 9.6 when using feeds containing MgCl2. In contrast, a lesser LRV of 6.4 is observed for feed solutions based on NaCl. The TPDA functionalized surface is simulated at the atomistic scale using explicit-solvent molecular dynamics in the presence of either Na+ or Mg2+ ions. Computational prediction of the binding free energy reveals that the Mg2+ ions remain preferentially adsorbed at the surface, whereas Na+ ions form a weakly bound dissolved ionic layer. The charge shielding between surface and amino groups by the adsorbed Mg2+ ions leads to an upright orientation of the TPDA molecules as opposed to a more tilted orientation in the presence of Na+ ions. The resulting better accessibility of the TPDA molecules is very likely responsible for the enhanced virus retention capacity using a feed solution with Mg2+ ions.

  2. Internal Flow Structures in Columnar Jointed Basalt from HREPPHÓLAR, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, H. B.; Bosshard, S. A.; Hetenyi, G.; Almqvist, B.; Hirt, A. M.; Caricchi, L.; Caddick, M.

    2010-12-01

    Columnar jointed basalt from Hrepphólar in southern Iceland display spectacular internal structures when cut. These structures follow the overall orientation of the columns and display semi-circular to circular features when cross-cut. It was previously believed that these internal structures formed as a result of alteration due to circulation of meteoric water within the column-bounding fractures after emplacement. However, new field observations of viscous fingering within the columns and the fact that approximately 80% of the semi-circular features are found within the column whereas the remaining 20% are cut by the column-bounding fractures clearly shows that these internal structures must have formed prior to crack-propagation (and are thus primary features). Here we present the results of textural and petrological analyses through a cross-section of a column, in combination with magnetic susceptibility and anisotropy measurements of the same samples. The variation in textures and geochemistry can be attributed to the presence of diffuse banding caused by variations in the modal proportions of the main phenocryst phases (i.e., plagioclase, clinopyroxene, olivine and titanomagnetite/ilmenite). Orientation of plagioclase laths and titanomagnetite crystals (based on measurements in thin sections and AMS-measurements) are consistent with vertical flow alignment. Nowhere in the column can evidence for downwards flow be found (excluding the possibility of small-scale convection cells generating these features). It is proposed here, that the volume decrease associated with solidification (typically 10-15 vol.% for basaltic systems) and the increasing weight of the overlying crust results in upwelling of partially crystallized material into the centre of the columns. Preliminary numerical modeling indicates that the isotherms within individual columns become steeper with increasing depth in a lava flow (allowing for larger displacement distances). We propose that

  3. Anisotropy and vortex behaviour in BiSrCaCuO thin films and multilayers probed by columnar pinning centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raffy, H.; Murrills, C.D.; Pomar, A.; Stiufiuc, G.; Stiufiuc, R.; Li, Z.Z.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we review typical mixed state transport results obtained on a variety of Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca n-1 Cu n O y thin films and artificial multilayers, which allowed us to cover the range from low to high anisotropy. The vortex behaviour, 2D or 3D, probed by the pinning properties of columnar defects, is shown to be highly dependant on the anisotropy, and therefore on the microstructure of the system. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  4. Influence of chirality on the thermal and electric properties of the columnar mesophase exhibited by homomeric dipeptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathi, Srividhya; Shankar Rao, D. S.; Prabhu, Rashmi; Yelamaggad, C. V.; Krishna Prasad, S.

    2017-10-01

    We present the first investigation of the influence of chirality on the thermal and electric properties in a biologically important homomeric dipeptide that exhibits a hexagonal columnar liquid crystal mesophase. The peptide employed has two chiral centres, and thus the two possible enantiopures are the (R,R) and (S,S) forms having opposite chirality. The measurements reported the span of the binary phase space between these two enantiopures. Any point in the binary diagram is identified by the enantiomeric excess Xee (the excess content of the R,R enantiopure over its S,S counterpart). We observe that the magnitude of Xee plays a pivotal role in governing the properties as evidenced by X-ray diffraction (XRD), electric polarization (Ps), dielectric relaxation spectroscopy (DRS) measurements, and the isotropic-columnar transition temperature. For example, XRD shows that while other features pointing to a hexagonal columnar phase remain the same, additional short-range ordering, indicating correlated discs within the column, is present for the enantiopures (Xee = ±1) but not for the racemate (Xee = 0). Similarly, an electric-field driven switching whose profile suggests the phase structure to be antiferroelectric is seen over the entire binary space, but the magnitude is dependent on Xee; interestingly the polarization direction is axial, i.e., along the column axis. DRS studies display two dielectric modes over a limited temperature range and one mode (mode 2) connected with the antiferroelectric nature of the columnar structure covering the entire mesophase. The relaxation frequency and the thermal behaviour of mode 2 are strongly influenced by Xee. The most attractive effect of chirality is its influence on the polar order, a measure of which is the magnitude of the axial polarization. This result can be taken to be a direct evidence of the manifestation of molecular recognition and the delicate interplay between chiral perturbations and the magnitude of the

  5. Columnar to equiaxed transition in a refined Al-Cu alloy under diffusive and convective transport conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupouy, M.D.; Camel, D.; Mazille, J.E. [CEA Centre d' Etudes et de Recherches sur les Materiaux, 38 - Grenoble (France); Hugon, I. [Lab. de Metallographie, DCC/DTE/SIM, CEA Valrho (France)

    2000-07-01

    The columnar-equiaxed transition under diffusive transport conditions was studied in microgravity (EUROMIR95 and spacelab-LMS96) by solidifying four Al-4wt%Cu alloys refined at different levels, with a constant cooling rate (1 K/min), both under nearly isothermal conditions and under a decreasing temperature gradient. Isothermal samples showed a homogeneous equiaxed structure with no fading of the refiner efficiency. Gradient samples revealed a continuous transition consisting of an orientation of the microsegregation parallel to the solidification direction, without any grain selection effect. For comparison, ground samples evidence the influence of the motion of both refiner particles and growing equiaxed grains. (orig.)

  6. CAFE simulation of columnar-to-equiaxed transition in Al-7wt%Si alloys directionally solidified under microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D. R.; Mangelinck-Noël, N.; Gandin, Ch-A.; Zimmermann, G.; Sturz, L.; Nguyen Thi, H.; Billia, B.

    2016-03-01

    A two-dimensional multi-scale cellular automaton - finite element (CAFE) model is used to simulate grain structure evolution and microsegregation formation during solidification of refined Al-7wt%Si alloys under microgravity. The CAFE simulations are first qualitatively compared with the benchmark experimental data under microgravity. Qualitative agreement is obtained for the position of columnar to equiaxed transition (CET) and the CET transition mode (sharp or progressive). Further comparisons of the distributions of grain elongation factor and equivalent diameter are conducted and reveal a fair quantitative agreement.

  7. CAFE simulation of columnar-to-equiaxed transition in Al-7wt%Si alloys directionally solidified under microgravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, D R; Mangelinck-Noël, N; Thi, H Nguyen; Billia, B; Gandin, Ch-A; Zimmermann, G; Sturz, L

    2016-01-01

    A two-dimensional multi-scale cellular automaton - finite element (CAFE) model is used to simulate grain structure evolution and microsegregation formation during solidification of refined Al-7wt%Si alloys under microgravity. The CAFE simulations are first qualitatively compared with the benchmark experimental data under microgravity. Qualitative agreement is obtained for the position of columnar to equiaxed transition (CET) and the CET transition mode (sharp or progressive). Further comparisons of the distributions of grain elongation factor and equivalent diameter are conducted and reveal a fair quantitative agreement. (paper)

  8. Simulation of the as-cast structure of Al-4.0wt.%Cu ingots with a 5-phase mixed columnar-equiaxed solidification model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, M; Ahmadein, M; Kharicha, A; Ludwig, A; Li, J H; Schumacher, P

    2012-01-01

    Empirical knowledge about the formation of the as-cast structure, mostly obtained before 1980s, has revealed two critical issues: one is the origin of the equiaxed crystals; one is the competing growth of the columnar and equiaxed structures, and the columnar-to-equiaxed transition (CET). Unfortunately, the application of empirical knowledge to predict and control the as-cast structure was very limited, as the flow and crystal transport were not considered. Therefore, a 5-phase mixed columnar-equiaxed solidification model was recently proposed by the current authors based on modeling the multiphase transport phenomena. The motivation of the recent work is to determine and evaluate the necessary modeling parameters, and to validate the mixed columnar-equiaxed solidification model by comparison with laboratory castings. In this regard an experimental method was recommended for in-situ determination of the nucleation parameters. Additionally, some classical experiments of the Al-Cu ingots were conducted and the as-cast structural information including distinct columnar and equiaxed zones, macrosegregation, and grain size distribution were analysed. The final simulation results exhibited good agreement with experiments in the case of high pouring temperature, whereas disagreement in the case of low pouring temperature. The reasons for the disagreement are discussed.

  9. Simulation of the as-cast structure of Al-4.0wt.%Cu ingots with a 5-phase mixed columnar-equiaxed solidification model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, M.; Ahmadein, M.; Kharicha, A.; Ludwig, A.; Li, J. H.; Schumacher, P.

    2012-07-01

    Empirical knowledge about the formation of the as-cast structure, mostly obtained before 1980s, has revealed two critical issues: one is the origin of the equiaxed crystals; one is the competing growth of the columnar and equiaxed structures, and the columnar-to-equiaxed transition (CET). Unfortunately, the application of empirical knowledge to predict and control the as-cast structure was very limited, as the flow and crystal transport were not considered. Therefore, a 5-phase mixed columnar-equiaxed solidification model was recently proposed by the current authors based on modeling the multiphase transport phenomena. The motivation of the recent work is to determine and evaluate the necessary modeling parameters, and to validate the mixed columnar-equiaxed solidification model by comparison with laboratory castings. In this regard an experimental method was recommended for in-situ determination of the nucleation parameters. Additionally, some classical experiments of the Al-Cu ingots were conducted and the as-cast structural information including distinct columnar and equiaxed zones, macrosegregation, and grain size distribution were analysed. The final simulation results exhibited good agreement with experiments in the case of high pouring temperature, whereas disagreement in the case of low pouring temperature. The reasons for the disagreement are discussed.

  10. Competitive separation of di- vs. mono-valent cations in electrodialysis: effects of the boundary layer properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Younggy; Walker, W Shane; Lawler, Desmond F

    2012-05-01

    In electrodialysis desalination, the boundary layer near ion-exchange membranes is the limiting region for the overall rate of ionic separation due to concentration polarization over tens of micrometers in that layer. Under high current conditions, this sharp concentration gradient, creating substantial ionic diffusion, can drive a preferential separation for certain ions depending on their concentration and diffusivity in the solution. Thus, this study tested a hypothesis that the boundary layer affects the competitive transport between di- and mono-valent cations, which is known to be governed primarily by the partitioning with cation-exchange membranes. A laboratory-scale electrodialyzer was operated at steady state with a mixture of 10mM KCl and 10mM CaCl(2) at various flow rates. Increased flows increased the relative calcium transport. A two-dimensional model was built with analytical solutions of the Nernst-Planck equation. In the model, the boundary layer thickness was considered as a random variable defined with three statistical parameters: mean, standard deviation, and correlation coefficient between the thicknesses of the two boundary layers facing across a spacer. Model simulations with the Monte Carlo method found that a greater calcium separation was achieved with a smaller mean, greater standard deviation, or more negative correlation coefficient. The model and experimental results were compared for the cationic transport number as well as the current and potential relationship. The mean boundary layer thickness was found to decrease from 40 to less than 10 μm as the superficial water velocity increased from 1.06 to 4.24 cm/s. The standard deviation was greater than the mean thickness at slower water velocities and smaller at faster water velocities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Active surveillance for intussusception in a phase III efficacy trial of an oral monovalent rotavirus vaccine in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Jacob; Kawade, Anand; Rongsen-Chandola, Temsunaro; Bavdekar, Ashish; Bhandari, Nita; Taneja, Sunita; Antony, Kalpana; Bhatnagar, Veereshwar; Gupta, Arun; Kabra, Madhulika; Kang, Gagandeep

    2014-08-11

    Post licensure studies have identified an increased risk of intussusception following vaccination with currently licensed rotavirus vaccines, raising safety concerns generic to all rotavirus vaccines. We describe the surveillance for intussusception in a phase III clinical trial with an oral monovalent rotavirus vaccine developed from the neonatal 116E strain. Using broad screening criteria and active surveillance, the incidence of intussusception between 6 weeks and 2 years of age was measured in 4532 children who received three doses of vaccine and 2267 children who received a placebo in the clinical trial. Possible intussusceptions were evaluated with a screening ultrasonogram. An independent intussusception case adjudication committee reviewed all intussusceptions and graded them on Brighton Collaboration criteria for diagnostic certainty. We identified twenty-three intussusceptions on ultrasound from 1361 evaluated sentinel events. Eleven were of level 1 diagnostic certainty as determined by the independent intussusception case adjudication committee. None required surgical intervention, and the earliest identified intussusception was at 36 days following the third dose in a placebo recipient. Among vaccine recipients the first event of intussusception occurred 112 days after the third dose. The incidence of ultrasound-diagnosed intussusception was 200/100,000 child-years (95% CI, 120, 320) among those receiving the vaccine and 141/100,000 child-years (95% CI, 50, 310) among those receiving the placebo. The incidence rate of confirmed intussusception among vaccine recipients was 94/100,000 child-years (95% CI, 41, 185) and 71/100,000 child-years (95% CI, 15, 206) among those receiving the placebo. In this licensure study, 23 cases of intussusception were identified through an active surveillance system, but there was no temporal association with rotavirus vaccination. The use of active surveillance with broad criteria intended for ensuring safety of children

  12. Identification of a 4-Deoxy-l-erythro-5-hexoseulose Uronic Acid Reductase, FlRed, in an Alginolytic Bacterium Flavobacterium sp. Strain UMI-01

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Inoue

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In alginate-assimilating bacteria, alginate is depolymerized to unsaturated monosaccharide by the actions of endolytic and exolytic alginate lyases (EC 4.2.2.3 and EC 4.2.2.11. The monosaccharide is non-enzymatically converted to 4-deoxy-l-ery thro-5-hexoseulose uronic acid (DEH, then reduced to 2-keto-3-deoxy-d-gluconate (KDG by a specific reductase, and metabolized through the Entner–Doudoroff pathway. Recently, the NADPH-dependent reductase A1-R that belongs to short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDR superfamily was identified as the DEH-reductase in Sphingomonas sp. A1. We have subsequently noticed that an SDR-like enzyme gene, flred, occurred in the genome of an alginolytic bacterium Flavobacterium sp. strain UMI-01. In the present study, we report on the deduced amino-acid sequence of flred and DEH-reducing activity of recombinant FlRed. The deduced amino-acid sequence of flred comprised 254 residues and showed 34% amino-acid identities to that of A1-R from Sphingomonas sp. A1 and 80%–88% to those of SDR-like enzymes from several alginolytic bacteria. Common sequence motifs of SDR-superfamily enzymes, e.g., the catalytic tetrad Asn-Lys-Tyr-Ser and the cofactor-binding sequence Thr-Gly-x-x-x-Gly-x-Gly in Rossmann fold, were completely conserved in FlRed. On the other hand, an Arg residue that determined the NADPH-specificity of Sphingomonas A1-R was replaced by Glu in FlRed. Thus, we investigated cofactor-preference of FlRed using a recombinant enzyme. As a result, the recombinant FlRed (recFlRed was found to show high specificity to NADH. recFlRed exhibited practically no activity toward variety of aldehyde, ketone, keto ester, keto acid and aldose substrates except for DEH. On the basis of these results, we conclude that FlRed is the NADH-dependent DEH-specific SDR of Flavobacterium sp. strain UMI-01.

  13. Experimental study on combustion and suppression characteristics of sodium fire in a columnar flow using extinguishing powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo Yan; Zhang Zhigang; Li Jinke; Liu Zhongkun; Ma Yaolong

    2017-01-01

    In the operation of the sodium-cooled fast reactor, the leakage and fire accident of liquid sodium is common and it is frequent in sodium-related facilities. This study focuses on the combustion and suppression characteristics of sodium fire in a columnar flow. Liquid sodium (250°C) is injected into a 7.9 m"3 cylindrical chamber at a flow rate of about 1.0 m"3/h to create a columnar sodium fire, and 18.4 kg class D extinguishing powder is sprayed after the liquid sodium injection. The temperature in the chamber space and sodium collection plate and the heat release rate from sodium fire are measured and analyzed. Based on the temperature data the sodium fire under suppression could be divided into four phases of dropping sharply, continuously remaining lower, rising and declining mildly, and depressing. The sodium fire in the space could be suppressed and cooled down if the extinguishing agent could spray in the early period of the liquid sodium injection. The extinguishing agent could suppress the combustion and spreading of liquid sodium dropping on the collection plate, limit the pool combustion area and postpone the commencement of sodium pool burning in spite of its later re-ignition happening. This study promises to evaluate the combustion and suppression characteristics of sodium fire in the sodium-related facilities. (author)

  14. Strongly enhanced irreversibility fields and Bose-glass behaviour in bulk YBCO with discontinuous columnar irradiation defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, G; Nenkov, K; Krabbes, G; Weinstein, R; Gandini, A; Sawh, R; Mayes, B; Parks, D

    2007-01-01

    Flux pinning properties and irreversibility fields B irr (T) of melt-textured YBCO with discontinuous or multiple-in-line-damage (MILD) columnar defects produced by irradiation with high-energy U 238 ions were studied at a constant matching field of B φ = 10 T and for several energy losses between S e = 1.67 and 2.4 keV A -1 . With increasing S e and increasing length of the MILD pins, the critical current density j c (H,T) strongly increases and B irr (T) for fields along the c axis progressively shifts upwards reaching 9 T at 77 K. For S e = 2.4 keV A -1 , a pronounced kink is observed in B irr (T) at 8 T which is a strong indication of Bose-glass behaviour. The j c (H) dependence of this sample shows a peak at a low applied field B p . This peak effect is explained by the entanglement of vortices. It is argued that for MILD pins single vortices interact simultaneously with many short columnar defects in neighbouring ion trails resulting in an automatic splay in the vortex orientation. The observed decrease of B p with increasing temperature is estimated taking the increasing thermal fluctuations into account

  15. The collapse of the columnar spatial topology of pseudogap excitations in the underdoped-overdoped transition of cuprate superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roehler, Juergen [Universitaet zu Koeln, 50937 Koeln (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The intensity I{sub Q{sub 0}} of the Q=0 nematic pseudogap excitations in Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+x} was found to increase between p ≥ 0.06 and 0.14 and to collapse at p{sub opt}=0.16, reaching zero at p=0.2. Evidentially it maps the growth and the collapse of the bulge in the doping dependence of the basal-plane area (ab) of p-type cuprates. The nematic topology of the pseudogap excitations results from the non-occupancy constraint for nn ZR-holes excluding 1a dimerization, but favoring 3a pair states with inequivalent O{sub x,y} sites. 3a pair states have hard core properties, yield d-type CDW excitations, and inflate the basal-plane area by a columnar topology against covalency-driven contraction. We show that optimal delocalization of ZR-holes at p{sub opt}=1/6 ≅ 0.17, tantamount to maximal connectedness of 3a pair states, will transform the columnar nematic pattern into isotropic tweedy striations, hence collapses I{sub Q{sub 0}}, and the bulge.

  16. Wong-Type Dermatomyositis Showing Porokeratosis-Like Changes (Columnar Dyskeratosis: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Umanoff

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wong-type dermatomyositis (DM exhibits simultaneous pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP features. Case Report: A 50-year-old woman presented with a heliotrope rash, Gottron's papules, and a poikilodermic, erythematous rash in shawl distribution without evidence of muscle weakness. Despite topical corticosteroids, the eruption progressed 9 months later to include generalized hyperkeratotic follicular papules, islands of sparing, and atrophic macules with a collarette of scale suggestive of porokeratosis. Mild dysphonia was the only sign of muscle weakness. Serology showed positive ANA. Histopathology revealed interface dermatitis with dermal mucin and melanophages, irregular psoriasiform hyperplasia, alternating mounds of para- and orthokeratosis, and tiers of dyskeratotic cells (columnar dyskeratosis. Systemic corticosteroid therapy was not tolerated; acitretin diminished the hyperkeratosis. While hyperpigmentation persisted, no progression of cutaneous or muscular symptoms has occurred after 22 months of follow-up and cessation of the therapy. Overall, her course did not differ from the natural history documented in the literature review of Wong-type DM. The most similar case also exhibited pseudocornoid lamella changes. Conclusion: Wong-type DM is a clinicopathologic DM-PRP hybrid that can also exhibit porokeratosis-like features best described as columnar dyskeratosis. Recognizing these types of lesions in DM is warranted in order to make an accurate assessment of their prognostic significance.

  17. Dust events in Beijing, China (2004–2006: comparison of ground-based measurements with columnar integrated observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. J. Wu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Ambient particle number size distributions spanning three years were used to characterize the frequency and intensity of atmospheric dust events in the urban areas of Beijing, China in combination with AERONET sun/sky radiometer data. Dust events were classified into two types based on the differences in particle number and volume size distributions and local weather conditions. This categorization was confirmed by aerosol index images, columnar aerosol optical properties, and vertical potential temperature profiles. During the type-1 events, dust particles dominated the total particle volume concentration (<10 μm, with a relative share over 70%. Anthropogenic particles in the Aitken and accumulation mode played a subordinate role here because of high wind speeds (>4 m s−1. The type-2 events occurred in rather stagnant air masses and were characterized by a lower volume fraction of coarse mode particles (on average, 55%. Columnar optical properties showed that the superposition of dust and anthropogenic aerosols in type-2 events resulted in a much higher AOD (average: 1.51 than for the rather pure dust aerosols in type-1 events (average AOD: 0.36. A discrepancy was found between the ground-based and column integrated particle volume size distributions, especially for the coarse mode particles. This discrepancy likely originates from both the limited comparability of particle volume size distributions derived from Sun photometer and in situ number size distributions, and the inhomogeneous vertical distribution of particles during dust events.

  18. Effects of film thickness on scintillation characteristics of columnar CsI:Tl films exposed to high gamma radiation doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinde, Seema; Singh, S.G.; Sen, S.; Gadkari, S.C., E-mail: gadkari@barc.gov.in

    2016-02-21

    Oriented columnar films of Tl doped CsI (CsI:Tl) of varying thicknesses from 50 µm to 1000 µm have been deposited on silica glass substrates by a thermal evaporation technique. The SEM micrographs confirmed the columnar structure of the film while the powder X-ray diffraction pattern recorded for the films revealed a preferred orientation of the grown columns along the <200> direction. Effects of high energy gamma exposure up to 1000 Gy on luminescence properties of the films were investigated. Results of radio-luminescence, photo-luminescence and scintillation studies on the films are compared with those of a CsI:Tl single crystal with similar thickness. A possible correlation between the film thicknesses and radiation damage in films has been observed. - Highlights: • CsI:Tl films of different thicknesses deposited for γ and α detection. • Pulse-height spectra found to degrade with increasing thickness. • Radiation damage is found more in films than single crystal of comparable thickness. • Detection efficiency increases for γ while it is invariant for α beyond 50 µm.

  19. Modeling of columnar and equiaxed solidification of binary mixtures; Modelisation de la solidification colonnaire et equiaxe de melanges binaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roux, P

    2005-12-15

    This work deals with the modelling of dendritic solidification in binary mixtures. Large scale phenomena are represented by volume averaging of the local conservation equations. This method allows to rigorously derive the partial differential equations of averaged fields and the closure problems associated to the deviations. Such problems can be resolved numerically on periodic cells, representative of dendritic structures, in order to give a precise evaluation of macroscopic transfer coefficients (Drag coefficients, exchange coefficients, diffusion-dispersion tensors...). The method had already been applied for a model of columnar dendritic mushy zone and it is extended to the case of equiaxed dendritic solidification, where solid grains can move. The two-phase flow is modelled with an Eulerian-Eulerian approach and the novelty is to account for the dispersion of solid velocity through the kinetic agitation of the particles. A coupling of the two models is proposed thanks to an original adaptation of the columnar model, allowing for undercooling calculation: a solid-liquid interfacial area density is introduced and calculated. At last, direct numerical simulations of crystal growth are proposed with a diffuse interface method for a representation of local phenomena. (author)

  20. Effects of film thickness on scintillation characteristics of columnar CsI:Tl films exposed to high gamma radiation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinde, Seema; Singh, S.G.; Sen, S.; Gadkari, S.C.

    2016-01-01

    Oriented columnar films of Tl doped CsI (CsI:Tl) of varying thicknesses from 50 µm to 1000 µm have been deposited on silica glass substrates by a thermal evaporation technique. The SEM micrographs confirmed the columnar structure of the film while the powder X-ray diffraction pattern recorded for the films revealed a preferred orientation of the grown columns along the direction. Effects of high energy gamma exposure up to 1000 Gy on luminescence properties of the films were investigated. Results of radio-luminescence, photo-luminescence and scintillation studies on the films are compared with those of a CsI:Tl single crystal with similar thickness. A possible correlation between the film thicknesses and radiation damage in films has been observed. - Highlights: • CsI:Tl films of different thicknesses deposited for γ and α detection. • Pulse-height spectra found to degrade with increasing thickness. • Radiation damage is found more in films than single crystal of comparable thickness. • Detection efficiency increases for γ while it is invariant for α beyond 50 µm.

  1. Critical current densities and flux creep rate in Co-doped BaFe2As2 with columnar defects introduced by heavy-Ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Y.; Tsuchiya, Y.; Taen, T.; Yagyuda, H.; Tamegai, T.; Okayasu, S.; Sasase, M.; Kitamura, H.; Murakami, T.

    2010-01-01

    We report the formation of columnar defects in Co-doped BaFe 2 As 2 single crystals with different heavy-ion irradiations. The formation of columnar defects by 200 MeV Au ion irradiation is confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and their density is about 40% of the irradiation dose. Magneto-optical imaging and bulk magnetization measurements reveal that the critical current density J c is enhanced in the 200 MeV Au and 800 MeV Xe ion irradiated samples while J c is unchanged in the 200 MeV Ni ion irradiated sample. We also find that vortex creep rates are strongly suppressed by the columnar defects. We compare the effect of heavy-ion irradiation into Co-doped BaFe 2 As 2 and cuprate superconductors.

  2. What controls the seasonal cycle of columnar methane observed by GOSAT over different regions in India?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Naveen; Hayashida, Sachiko; Saeki, Tazu; Patra, Prabir K.

    2017-10-01

    Methane (CH4) is one of the most important short-lived climate forcers for its critical roles in greenhouse warming and air pollution chemistry in the troposphere, and the water vapor budget in the stratosphere. It is estimated that up to about 8 % of global CH4 emissions occur from South Asia, covering less than 1 % of the global land. With the availability of satellite observations from space, variability in CH4 has been captured for most parts of the global land with major emissions, which were otherwise not covered by the surface observation network. The satellite observation of the columnar dry-air mole fractions of methane (XCH4) is an integrated measure of CH4 densities at all altitudes from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. Here, we present an analysis of XCH4 variability over different parts of India and the surrounding cleaner oceanic regions as measured by the Greenhouse gases Observation SATellite (GOSAT) and simulated by an atmospheric chemistry-transport model (ACTM). Distinct seasonal variations of XCH4 have been observed over the northern (north of 15° N) and southern (south of 15° N) parts of India, corresponding to the peak during the southwestern monsoon (July-September) and early autumn (October-December) seasons, respectively. Analysis of the transport, emission, and chemistry contributions to XCH4 using ACTM suggests that a distinct XCH4 seasonal cycle over northern and southern regions of India is governed by both the heterogeneous distributions of surface emissions and a contribution of the partial CH4 column in the upper troposphere. Over most of the northern Indian Gangetic Plain regions, up to 40 % of the peak-to-trough amplitude during the southwestern (SW) monsoon season is attributed to the lower troposphere ( ˜ 1000-600 hPa), and ˜ 40 % to uplifted high-CH4 air masses in the upper troposphere ( ˜ 600-200 hPa). In contrast, the XCH4 seasonal enhancement over semi-arid western India is attributed mainly ( ˜ 70 %) to the

  3. Cloning and characterization of a new cold-adapted and thermo-tolerant ι-carrageenase from marine bacterium Flavobacterium sp. YS-80-122.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shangyong; Hao, Jianhua; Sun, Mi

    2017-09-01

    ι-Carrageenases play a role in marine ι-carrageenan degradation, and their enzymatic hydrolysates are thought to be excellent antioxidants. In this study, we identified a new ι-carrageenase, encoded by cgiF, in psychrophilic bacterium Flavobacterium sp. YS-80-122. The deduced ι-carrageenase, CgiF, belongs to glycoside hydrolase family 82 and shows less than 40% amino acid identity with characterized ι-carrageenases. The activity of recombinant CgiF peaked at 30°C (1,207.8U/mg). Notably, CgiF is a cold-adapted ι-carrageenase, which showed 36.5% and 57% of the maximum activity at 10°C and 15°C, respectively. In addition, it is a thermo-tolerant enzyme that recovered 58.2% of its initial activity after heat shock. Furthermore, although the activity of CgiF was enhanced by NaCl, the enzyme is active in absence of NaCl. This study also shows that CgiF is an endo-type ι-carrageenase that hydrolyzes β-1,4-linkages of ι-carrageenan, yielding neo-ι-carratetraose as the main product. Its cold-adaptation, thermo-tolerance, NaCl independence and high neo-ι-carratetraose yield make CgiF an excellent candidate for industrial applications in production of ι-carrageen oligosaccharides from seaweed polysaccharides. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Flavobacterium psychrophilum y su patología en alevines de Onchorhynchus mykiss del centro piscícola El Ingenio, Huancayo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge León

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se reporta la presencia de Flavobacterium psychrophilum, como agente causante de la patología “enfermedad bacteriana del agua fría” en alevines de Onchorhynchus mykiss “trucha arco iris” del Centro Piscícola El Ingenio, Junín (3250 m de altitud. La lesión macroscópica externa más frecuente fue la ulceración profunda de la región dorsal del pez acompañado de un ennegrecimiento localizado de la piel. Internamente se observó una marcada esplenomegalia, palidez del hígado, riñón y branquias, inflamación del intestino y acumulación de líquido ascítico en el peritoneo. No se detectó hemorragia interna. En Agar Cytophaga Modificado (ACM según Anaker & Ordal (1959 fueron aisladas inicialmente 29 Gram negativas, de las cuales según la caracterización fenotípica y pruebas bioquímicas 9 fueron consideradas como F. psychrophilum. Pruebas de susceptibilidad antibiótica mostraron alta sensibilidad de las cepas a Gentamicina, Ceftazidina, oxitetraciclina, Norfloxacina, furazolidona, Ciprofloxacina y Cefoxitina.

  5. The risk of intussusception following monovalent rotavirus vaccination in England: A self-controlled case-series evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowe, Julia; Andrews, Nick; Ladhani, Shamez; Miller, Elizabeth

    2016-07-12

    To investigate the risk of intussusception after monovalent rotavirus vaccine (RV1) given to infants aged 2 and 3 months in England. Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) were used to identify infants aged 48-183 days admitted between 11/03/2013 and 31/10/2014 with intussusception. Diagnosis was confirmed from medical records and HES procedure codes. Vaccination status was obtained from general practitioners. The risk of admission within 1-7 and 8-21 days of vaccination was analysed using the self-controlled case-series (SCCS) method with age effect adjustment by including historical data before RVI introduction in July 2013. A total of 119 cases were identified during the study period and intussusception confirmed in 95 of whom 39 were vaccinated 1-21 days before onset. An increased relative incidence (RI) in this period was found, 4.53 (95% confidence interval 2.34-8.58) and 2.60 (1.43-4.81) respectively after the 1st and 2nd doses with an attributable risk of 1.91 and 1.49 per 100,000 doses respectively. The peak risk was 1-7 days after the first dose, RI 13.81 (6.44-28.32), with an estimated 93% of the 15 cases being vaccine-attributable. Mean interval between onset and admission, and clinical features were similar between vaccine-associated and background cases. Despite intussusception being a contraindication to rotavirus vaccination, 10 infants received a further dose; none had a recurrence. The RIs in a meta-analysis combing our results with Australia, Mexico, Brazil and Singapore using RV1, a 2, 4 month schedule and SCCS gave pooled RI estimates of 2.35 (1.45-3.8) and 1.77 (1.29-2.43) in the 21 day period after the 1st and 2nd doses, respectively. The earlier age at the 2nd dose in England did not affect the risk. We estimate that the RVI programme causes around 21 intussusception admissions annually in England but, since it prevents around 25,000 gastro-intestinal infection admissions, its benefit/risk profile remains strongly positive. Crown Copyright

  6. Assessment of epicutaneous testing of a monovalent Influenza A (H1N1 2009 vaccine in egg allergic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitt Tracy

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background H1N1 is responsible for the first influenza pandemic in 41 years. In the fall of 2009, an H1N1 vaccine became available in Canada with the hopes of reducing the overall effect of the pandemic. The purpose of this study was to assess the safety of administering 2 different doses of a monovalent split virus 2009 H1N1 vaccine in egg allergic patients. Methods Patients were skin tested to the H1N1 vaccine in the outpatient paediatric and adult allergy and immunology clinics of the Health Sciences Centre and Children's Hospital of Winnipeg, Manitoba Canada. Individuals Results A total of 61 patients with egg allergy (history of an allergic reaction to egg with either positive skin test &/or specific IgE to egg >0.35 Ku/L were referred to our allergy clinics for skin testing to the H1N1 vaccine. 2 patients were excluded, one did not have a skin prick test to the H1N1 vaccine (only vaccine administration and the other passed an egg challenge during the study period. Ages ranged from 1 to 27 years (mean 5.6 years. There were 41(69.5% males and 18(30.5% females. All but one patient with a history of egg allergy, positive skin test to egg and/or elevated specific IgE level to egg had negative skin tests to the H1N1 vaccine. The 58 patients with negative skin testing to the H1N1 vaccine were administered the vaccine and observed for 30 minutes post vaccination with no adverse results. The patient with the positive skin test to the H1N1 vaccine was also administered the vaccine intramuscularly with no adverse results. Conclusions Despite concern regarding possible anaphylaxis to the H1N1 vaccine in egg allergic patients, in our case series 1/59(1.7% patients with sensitization to egg were also sensitized to the H1N1 vaccine. Administration of the H1N1 vaccine in egg allergic patients with negative H1N1 skin tests and observation is safe. Administering the vaccine in a 1 or 2 dose protocol without skin testing is a reasonable alternative

  7. Cost-effectiveness of alternate strategies for childhood immunization against meningococcal disease with monovalent and quadrivalent conjugate vaccines in Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E Delea

    Full Text Available Public health programs to prevent invasive meningococcal disease (IMD with monovalent serogroup C meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MCV-C and quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccines (MCV-4 in infancy and adolescence vary across Canadian provinces. This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of various vaccination strategies against IMD using current and anticipated future pricing and recent epidemiology.A cohort model was developed to estimate the clinical burden and costs (CAN$2014 of IMD in the Canadian population over a 100-year time horizon for three strategies: (1 MCV-C in infants and adolescents (MCV-C/C; (2 MCV-C in infants and MCV-4 in adolescents (MCV-C/4; and (3 MCV-4 in infants (2 doses and adolescents (MCV-4/4. The source for IMD incidence was Canadian surveillance data. The effectiveness of MCV-C was based on published literature. The effectiveness of MCV-4 against all vaccination regimens was assumed to be the same as for MCV-C regimens against serogroup C. Herd effects were estimated by calibration to estimates reported in prior analyses. Costs were from published sources. Vaccines prices were projected to decline over time reflecting historical procurement trends.Over the modeling horizon there are a projected 11,438 IMD cases and 1,195 IMD deaths with MCV-C/C; expected total costs are $597.5 million. MCV-C/4 is projected to reduce cases of IMD by 1,826 (16% and IMD deaths by 161 (13%. Vaccination costs are increased by $32 million but direct and indirect IMD costs are projected to be reduced by $46 million. MCV-C/4 is therefore dominant vs. MCV-C/C in the base case. Cost-effectiveness of MCV-4/4 was $111,286 per QALY gained versus MCV-C/4 (2575/206 IMD cases/deaths prevented; incremental costs $68 million.If historical trends in Canadian vaccines prices continue, use of MCV-4 instead of MCV-C in adolescents may be cost-effective. From an economic perspective, switching to MCV-4 as the adolescent booster should be considered.

  8. Cost-effectiveness of alternate strategies for childhood immunization against meningococcal disease with monovalent and quadrivalent conjugate vaccines in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delea, Thomas E; Weycker, Derek; Atwood, Mark; Neame, Dion; Alvarez, Fabián P; Forget, Evelyn; Langley, Joanne M; Chit, Ayman

    2017-01-01

    Public health programs to prevent invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) with monovalent serogroup C meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MCV-C) and quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccines (MCV-4) in infancy and adolescence vary across Canadian provinces. This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of various vaccination strategies against IMD using current and anticipated future pricing and recent epidemiology. A cohort model was developed to estimate the clinical burden and costs (CAN$2014) of IMD in the Canadian population over a 100-year time horizon for three strategies: (1) MCV-C in infants and adolescents (MCV-C/C); (2) MCV-C in infants and MCV-4 in adolescents (MCV-C/4); and (3) MCV-4 in infants (2 doses) and adolescents (MCV-4/4). The source for IMD incidence was Canadian surveillance data. The effectiveness of MCV-C was based on published literature. The effectiveness of MCV-4 against all vaccination regimens was assumed to be the same as for MCV-C regimens against serogroup C. Herd effects were estimated by calibration to estimates reported in prior analyses. Costs were from published sources. Vaccines prices were projected to decline over time reflecting historical procurement trends. Over the modeling horizon there are a projected 11,438 IMD cases and 1,195 IMD deaths with MCV-C/C; expected total costs are $597.5 million. MCV-C/4 is projected to reduce cases of IMD by 1,826 (16%) and IMD deaths by 161 (13%). Vaccination costs are increased by $32 million but direct and indirect IMD costs are projected to be reduced by $46 million. MCV-C/4 is therefore dominant vs. MCV-C/C in the base case. Cost-effectiveness of MCV-4/4 was $111,286 per QALY gained versus MCV-C/4 (2575/206 IMD cases/deaths prevented; incremental costs $68 million). If historical trends in Canadian vaccines prices continue, use of MCV-4 instead of MCV-C in adolescents may be cost-effective. From an economic perspective, switching to MCV-4 as the adolescent booster should be considered.

  9. Clinical study of columnar balloon dilatation therapy for severe dysphagia caused by upper esophageal sphincter achalasia after stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-bo SHAO

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the mechanism and effect of columnar balloon dilatation therapy on treating patients with severe dysphagia caused by upper esophageal sphincter (UES achalasia after stroke. Methods Sixty -four patients with severe dysphagia caused by UES achalasia after stroke were diagnosed through Video Fluoroscopic Swallowing Study (VFSS and esophageal dynamics testing. The patients were randomly divided into control group (N = 32 and treatment group (N = 32. Patients in control group were treated with routine drug treatment and routine rehabilitation training, while patients in treatment group were treated with columnar balloon dilatation therapy on the basis of routine treatment. The treatment end point was either the patient resuming an oral diet or after 4-weeks treatment. All cases were evaluated by swallowing function of VFSS, high resolution manometry (HRM and scores of the severity of dysphagia before treatment and at treatment end point. Results Compared with before treatment, UES resting pressure (P = 0.000 and residual pressure (P = 0.000 were significantly decreased, peak pressure was significantly increased (P = 0.000, duration of relaxation was prolonged (P = 0.000, and scores of the severity of dysphagia were significantly increased (P = 0.000, 0.000 in both groups after treatment. Compared with control group, UES resting pressure (P = 0.001 and residual pressure (P = 0.000 were significantly decreased, peak pressure was significantly increased (P = 0.002, duration of relaxation was prolonged (P = 0.000, and scores of the severity of dysphagia were significantly increased (P = 0.000 in treatment group after treatment. Until the treatment end point or after 4-week treatment, the total effective rate in treatment group was significantly higher than that in control group [93.75% (30/32 vs. 81.25% (26/32; χ2 = 4.010, P = 0.000]. Conclusions Columnar balloon dilatation therapy is effective for reducing the tension of upper

  10. Seroprevalence of influenza A H1N1 and seroconversion of mothers and infants induced by a single dose of monovalent vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Anne; Huang, Yhu-Chering; Chang, Yao-Lung; Wang, Tzu-Hao; Chang, Shuenn-Dyh; Wu, Ting-Shu; Wu, Tsu-Lan; Chao, An-Shine

    2013-09-01

    To determine the prevalence of preexisting antibodies against the pandemic 2009 Influenza A (H1N1) virus in pregnant women and to evaluate the seroprotection of the mothers and infants by a single injection of monovalent vaccine during the pandemic. Seropositivity rate of H1N1 among the nonvaccinated were compared with the vaccinated women. A single dose of vaccine, either nonadjuvanted AdimFlu-S or MF59-adjuvanted vaccine, was injected to the voluntarily vaccinated group. Maternal and cord blood sera were collected to evaluate the antibody response of the H1N1 virus. Seropositivity was defined as a hemagglutination inhibition titer to H1N1 (A/Taiwan/126/09) ≥ 1:40. A total of 210 healthy, singleton, pregnant women were enrolled between January 2010 and May 2010. Seropositivity (≥ 1:40) of maternal hemagglutination inhibition was significantly higher in the vaccinated group (78%) than the nonvaccinated group (9.5%); 41.6% (20/48) of seropositive titers were >1:80. In nine vaccinated cases resulting in negative serum titers (75% could be achieved in the paired maternal and cord serum samples by a single injection of monovalent H1N1 vaccine. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Simultaneous Analysis of Monovalent Anions and Cations with a Sub-Microliter Dead-Volume Flow-Through Potentiometric Detector for Ion Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumanli, Rukiye; Attar, Azade; Erci, Vildan; Isildak, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    A microliter dead-volume flow-through cell as a potentiometric detector is described in this article for sensitive, selective and simultaneous detection of common monovalent anions and cations in single column ion chromatography for the first time. The detection cell consisted of less selective anion- and cation-selective composite membrane electrodes together with a solid-state composite matrix reference electrode. The simultaneous separation and sensitive detection of sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), ammonium (NH4+), chloride (Cl−) and nitrate (NO3−) in a single run was achieved by using 98% 1.5 mM MgSO4 and 2% acetonitrile eluent with a mixed-bed ion-exchange separation column without suppressor column system. The separation and simultaneous detection of the anions and cations were completed in 6 min at the eluent flow-rate of 0.8 mL/min. Detection limits, at S/N = 3, were ranged from 0.2 to 1.0 µM for the anions and 0.3 to 3.0 µM for the cations, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of monovalent anions and cations in several environmental and biological samples. PMID:26786906

  12. Electron magnetic resonance study of monovalent Na doping in Pr0.6Sr0.4−xNaxMnO3 manganites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thaljaoui, Rachid; Boujelben, Wahiba; Pękała, Marek; Szydłowska, Jadwiga; Cheikhrouhou, Abdelwaheb

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► New monovalent doped manganites Pr 0.6 Sr 0.4−x Na x MnO 3 (x = 0, 0.05). ► Comparison of electron magnetic resonance spectra in ferro- and paramagnetic phases. ► Double exchange interactions weakened by Na doping as indicated by activation energy. ► Magnetic susceptibility derived from resonance intensity obeys Curie–Weiss law. - Abstract: Effect of monovalent Na doping on the magnetic properties is studied in Pr 0.6 Sr 0.4−x Na x MnO 3 system (x = 0, 0.05) using X-band electron magnetic resonance and magnetization measurements. Temperature variation of magnetic resonance spectra of doped and undoped manganites is analyzed for paramagnetic and ferromagnetic states and compared to similar systems. In paramagnetic phase the magnetic susceptibility proportional to resonance signal intensity is found to obey the Curie–Weiss law. The effective magnetic moment becomes smaller in doped manganite. The paramagnetic Curie temperature derived from signal intensity equals to 312 and 306 K for the undoped and doped manganites, respectively, and is close to values obtained from magnetization variation in paramagnetic phase. The activation energy determined using the adiabatic small polaron hopping model is higher for the undoped than the doped manganite, which proves that the Na doping slightly reduces the Mn 3+ /Mn 4+ double exchange interactions.

  13. Preliminary analysis of columnar aerosol properties in relation to surface PM measurements in the DAMOCLES 2006 field campaign (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estelles, V.; Esteve, A.; Pey, J.; Martinez-Lozano, J. A.; Utrillas, M. P.; Querol, X.; de La Rosa, J.; Gonzalez-Castanedo, Y.; Alastuey, A.; Gangoiti, G.

    2009-04-01

    The DAMOCLES network is a Spanish thematic network, started in 2004, whose main objective is the establishment of a link among the different groups that perform research on atmospheric aerosols in Spain. Under the DAMOCLES coordination, a field campaign was held in summer 2006 at the INTA installations (El Arenosillo, Huelva) for the intercomparison of different kind of instruments devoted to in - situ and columnar aerosol measurement. During this field campaign, two daily meteorological soundings were carried out at noon and midnight for characterization of the atmospheric condition. A plane was also flown by the National Institute of Aerospace Technology (INTA) to carry airborne sensors for measuring different atmospheric factors: meteorological parameters, ozone with a 2BTech analyzer, and aerosol particle size distributions in the range (0.01-2) microns, by using a PCASP probe. The columnar aerosol properties were measured by seven CIMEL CE318 sun photometers. For in situ aerosol characterization, high volume collectors (DIGITEL and MCV) with DIGITEL for PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 measurement were used, with two cascade impactors for particulate matter measurement in 7 -8 granulometric fractions. For the PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 measurement, quartz fibre filters of 150 mm diameter were adapted. Other in situ deployed instruments were a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS, Model 3936), two Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS Model 3321) and one Grimm Spectrometer (Model #190). For characterization of the aerosol scattering at ground level, three integrating nephelometers TSI-3563 were used. For the columnar profiling we deployed five LIDAR instruments. In this study we have related the columnar aerosol measurements retrieved with one CE318 sun photometer to the surface PM measurements, mainly in some interesting situations where nearby pollution sources were influencing the local atmosphere. For the sun photometric analysis, we have applied the EuroSkyRad package (ESR

  14. Corrected Article: Simulation and observation of line-slip structures in columnar structures of soft spheres [Phys. Rev. E 96, 012610 (2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, J.; Haffner, B.; Weaire, D.; Mughal, A.; Hutzler, S.

    2017-07-01

    We present the computed phase diagram of columnar structures of soft spheres under pressure, of which the main feature is the appearance and disappearance of line slips, the shearing of adjacent spirals, as pressure is increased. A comparable experimental observation is made on a column of bubbles under forced drainage, clearly exhibiting the expected line slip.

  15. Determination of the columnar aerosol size distribution by inversion of spectral aerosol optical depth measurements at different areas in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EI-Metwally, M.; Madkour, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Aerosols have a great effects on nuclear safety calculations and atmospheric environment. The aerosol optical depth measurements are carried out at four areas in Egypt: Cairo and Helwan as urban/industrial areas, Aswan as an arid area and Mansoura as an agricultural area covering the period from Jun 1992 to May 1993. These measurements were recorded by ground-based pyrheliometers with large band-pass filters. Monthly average values of aerosol optical depth (AOD) showed a pronounced temporal trend, with a maximum AOD during summer and the transition seasons (spring and autumn) at all sites. Levels of AODs are higher at both urban and industrial areas than at other areas. Variation of Angstrom exponent a with the AOD was clear at most sites and the a value depends on the spectral range used in its determination. The mean contribution of anthropogenic sources to AOD over Cairo was at the range of 25.1-54.3%, whereas those values in Helwan were at the range of 34.5-59.8%. Finally, columnar aerosol size distributions have been inferred by inverting particularly AOD measurements as a function of wavelength. The Junge (type I) and bimodal (type III) distributions are dominant at urban and arid areas (Cairo and Aswan), whereas mono dispersion distribution (type II) are dominant in industrial and agricultural areas (Helwan and Mansoura). In Cairo and Aswan, the peak of columnar size distribution for the fine mode at radius r is around 0.1 and 0.2 μm respectively, while it is around 1.0 and 2.0 μm for the coarse mode. .Also, the peak of size distribution for the mono dispersion mode was marked at radius around 0.2 μm at both Helwan and Mansoura. A comprehensive comparison of our results with literature size distributions is very sparse, nevertheless, our size distributions in general agree with them

  16. Efficacy of a polyvalent immersion vaccine against Flavobacterium psychrophilum and evaluation of immune response to vaccination in rainbow trout fry (Onchorynchus mykiss L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoare, R; Ngo, T P H; Bartie, K L; Adams, A

    2017-08-18

    Rainbow trout fry syndrome (RTFS) is a disease caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Flavobacterium psychrophilum, responsible for significant economic losses in salmonid aquaculture worldwide. The diversity of F. psychrophilum isolates and the inherent difficulties in vaccinating juvenile fish has hampered the development of a vaccine for RTFS. Disease episodes tend to occur between 10-14 °C with necrotic lesions often seen on the skin surrounding the dorsal fin and tail. At present no commercial vaccines are available for RTFS in the UK, leaving antibiotics as the only course of action to control disease outbreaks. The current work was performed as a pilot study to assess the efficacy of a polyvalent, whole cell vaccine containing formalin-inactivated F. psychrophilum, to induce protective immunity in rainbow trout fry. Duplicate groups of 30 trout (5 g) were immersed in 1 L of the vaccine for 30 s. Samples were taken 4 h, day 2 and 7 post-vaccination (pv) of skin mucus, tissues for histology and gene expression analysis; serum and histology samples were taken 6 weeks pv. A booster vaccination was given at 315 degree days (dd) also by immersion. Challenge was by immersion with a heterologous isolate of F. psychrophilum 630 dd post primary vaccination. The vaccine provided significant protection to the trout fry with a RPS of 84% (p < 0.0001). Detection of increased numbers of IgT positive cells in systemic organs, up-regulation of IgT expression in hind-gut and an increase in total IgT in serum was observed in vaccinated fish; however a functional role of IgT in the observed protection remains to be demonstrated.

  17. Evaluation of long-acting oxytetracycline and a commercial monovalent vaccine for the control of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis infection in beef bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Nathan E N; Lanigan, Emily; Waugh, Taryn; Gesy, Karen; Waldner, Cheryl

    2017-10-01

    A blinded randomized controlled trial was used to evaluate a multi-modal therapeutic regime for treatment of beef bulls infected with Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis (Cfv) . Treatment included 2 doses of a commercially available monovalent vaccine and long-acting oxytetracycline applied twice at a 2-week interval with treatment completed 2 weeks before post-treatment observation. Fifteen confirmed Cfv infected bulls were randomly allocated to control ( n = 8) or treatment groups ( n = 7). Preputial scrapings were collected each week from before infection to 11 weeks following the last treatment. When the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results for both culture and preputial scrapings were interpreted in parallel, there were no significant differences between treated and untreated bulls. Regardless of the type of diagnostic testing considered, treatment with 2 label doses of this regime did not stop shedding of Cfv in all treated bulls and is, therefore, not recommended as an effective management strategy.

  18. A metal-ion NMR investigation of the antibiotic facilitated transport of monovalent cations through the walls of phospholipid vesicles. II. Sulfur-33 NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buster, D.C.

    1988-01-01

    A technique has been developed to investigate the antibiotic facilitated transmembrane transport of monovalent cations using 23 Na and 7 Li Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy. The initial portion of this thesis outlines the production and characterization of a model lipid system amenable to the NMR detection of cation transport. Large unilamellar vesicles (LUV) have been prepared from a 4:1 mixture of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylglycerol. The presence of the anionic chemical shift reagent dysprosium (III) tripolyphosphate, either inside or outside of the vesicles, allows for the spectroscopic separation of the NMR resonances arising from the inter- and extravesicular cation pools. The cation transporting properties of the channel-forming pentadecapeptide, gramicidin D, have been studied using the NMR technique

  19. Balance of unidirectional monovalent ion fluxes in cells undergoing apoptosis: why does Na+/K+ pump suppression not cause cell swelling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurinskaya, Valentina E; Rubashkin, Andrey A; Vereninov, Alexey A

    2011-05-01

    Cells dying according to the apoptotic program, unlike cells dying via an unprogrammed mode, are able to avoid swelling and osmotic bursting with membrane disruption.There are indications that apoptosis is accompanied by suppression of the Na+/K+ pump and changes in the K+ and Cl− channels. It remains unclear how ion fluxes through individual ion pathways are integrated so as to induce loss of intracellular ions and concomitant apoptotic volume decrease. A decrease in activity of the sodium pump during apoptosis should cause cell swelling rather than shrinkage. We have made the first systemic analysis of the monovalent ion flux balance in apoptotic cells. Experimental data were obtained for human U937 cells treated with staurosporine for 4–5 h, which is known to induce apoptosis. The data include cellular Cl− content and fluxes, K+, Na+, water content and ouabain-sensitive and -resistant Rb+ fluxes.Unidirectional monovalent ion fluxeswere calculated using these data and a cell model comprising the double Donnan system with the Na+/K+ pump, Cl−, K+, Na+ channels, the Na+–K+–2Cl−cotransporter (NKCC), the Na+–Cl− cotransporter (NC), and the equivalent Cl−/Cl− exchange.Apoptotic cell shrinkage was found to be caused, depending on conditions, either by an increase in the integral channel permeability of membrane for K+ or by suppression of the pump coupledwith a decrease in the integral channel permeability of membrane for Na+. The decrease in the channel permeability of membrane for Na+ plays a crucial role in cell dehydration in apoptosis accompanied by suppression of the pump. Supplemental Table S1 is given for easy calculating flux balance under specified conditions.

  20. Near-UV sensitized 1.06 μm emission of Nd{sup 3+} ions via monovalent copper in phosphate glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiménez, José A., E-mail: jose.jimenez@unf.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of North Florida, Jacksonville, FL 32224 (United States); Sendova, Mariana [Optical Spectroscopy & Nano-Materials Lab, New College of Florida, Sarasota, FL 34243 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Monovalent copper ions effectively incorporated in Nd-containing phosphate glass by a single-step melt-quench method have been established as near-ultraviolet (UV) sensitizers of Nd{sup 3+} ions, resulting in a remarkable {sup 4}F{sub 3/2} → {sup 4}I{sub 11/2} emission at 1.06 μm. The spectroscopic data indicates an efficient energy conversion process. The Cu{sup +} ions first absorb photons broadly around 360 nm, and subsequently transfer the energy from the Stokes-shifted emitting states to resonant Nd{sup 3+} energy levels in the visible. Ultimately, the Nd{sup 3+} electronic excited states decay and the upper lasing state {sup 4}F{sub 3/2} is populated, leading to the enhanced emission at 1.06 μm. The characteristic features of the Cu{sup +} visible emission spectra and the reduced lifetime of the corresponding Cu{sup +} donor states indicate an efficient non-radiative transfer. The Cu{sup +}/Nd{sup 3+} co-doped phosphate glass appears suitable as solid-state laser material with enhanced pump range in the near-UV part of the spectrum and for solar spectral conversion in photovoltaic cells. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Monovalent copper ions effectively stabilized in Nd{sup 3+}-containing phosphate glass. • Enhanced Nd{sup 3+} near-infrared emission observed upon the Cu{sup +} ions incorporation. • Cu{sup +} → Nd{sup 3+} non-radiative energy transfer efficiencies and likely energy transfer pathways evaluated. • Potential for solid-state lasers and solar spectral conversion suggested.

  1. Regulation of formyl peptide receptor binding to rabbit neutrophil plasma membranes. Use of monovalent cations, guanine nucleotides, and bacterial toxins to discriminate among different states of the receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feltner, D.E.; Marasco, W.A.

    1989-01-01

    The regulation by monovalent cations, guanine nucleotides, and bacterial toxins of [3H]FMLP binding to rabbit neutrophil plasma membranes was studied by using dissociation techniques to identify regulatory effects on separate receptor states. Under conditions of low receptor occupancy (1 nM [3H]FMLP) and in both Na+ and K+ buffers, dissociation is heterogenous, displaying two distinct, statistically significant off rates. [3H]FMLP binding was enhanced by substituting other monovalent cations for Na+. In particular, enhanced binding in the presence of K+ relative to Na+ was caused by additional binding to both rapidly and slowly dissociating receptors. Three receptor dissociation rates, two of which appear to correspond to the two affinity states detected in equilibrium binding studies, were defined by specific GTP and pertussis toxin (PT) treatments. Neither GTP, nor PT or cholera toxins (CT) had an effect on the rate of dissociation of [3H]FMLP from the rapidly dissociating form of the receptor. Both 100 microM GTP and PT treatments increased the percentage of rapidly dissociating receptors, correspondingly decreasing the percentage of slowly dissociating receptors. The observed changes in the rapidly and slowly dissociating receptors after GTP, PT, and CT treatments were caused by an absolute decrease in the amount of binding to the slowly dissociating receptors. However, complete inhibition of slowly dissociating receptor binding by GTP, PT, or both was never observed. Both GTP and PT treatments, but not CT treatment, increased by two-fold the rate of dissociation of 1 nM [3H]FMLP from the slowly dissociating form of the receptor, resulting in a third dissociation rate. Thus, slowly dissociating receptors comprise two different receptor states, a G protein-associated guanine nucleotide and PT-sensitive state and a guanine nucleotide-insensitive state

  2. Columnar Aerosol Properties from Sun-and-star Photometry: Statistical Comparisons and Day-to-night Dynamic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Daniel Perez; Lyamani, H.; Olmo, F. J.; Whiteman, D. N.; Alados-Arboledas, L.

    2012-01-01

    This work presents the first analysis of longterm correlative day-to-night columnar aerosol optical properties. The aim is to better understand columnar aerosol dynamic from ground-based observations, which are poorly studied until now. To this end we have used a combination of sun-and-star photometry measurements acquired in the city of Granada (37.16 N, 3.60 W, 680 ma.s.l.; South-East of Spain) from 2007 to 2010. For the whole study period, mean aerosol optical depth (AOD) around 440 nm (+/-standard deviation) is 0.18 +/- 0.10 and 0.19 +/- 0.11 for daytime and nighttime, respectively, while the mean Angstr¨om exponent (alpha ) is 1.0 +/- 0.4 and 0.9 +/- 0.4 for daytime and nighttime. The ANOVA statistical tests reveal that there are no significant differences between AOD and obtained at daytime and those at nighttime. Additionally, the mean daytime values of AOD and obtained during this study period are coherent with the values obtained in the surrounding AERONET stations. On the other hand, AOD around 440 nm present evident seasonal patterns characterised by large values in summer (mean value of 0.20 +/- 0.10 both at daytime and nighttime) and low values in winter (mean value of 0.15 +/- 0.09 at daytime and 0.17 +/- 0.10 at nighttime). The Angstr¨om exponents also present seasonal patterns, but with low values in summer (mean values of 0.8 +/- 0.4 and 0.9 +/- 0.4 at dayand night-time) and relatively large values in winter (mean values of 1.2 +/- 0.4 and 1.0 +/- 0.3 at daytime and nighttime). These seasonal patterns are explained by the differences in the meteorological conditions and by the differences in the strength of the aerosol sources. To take more insight about the changes in aerosol particles between day and night, the spectral differences of the Angstrom exponent as function of the Angstr¨om exponent are also studied. These analyses reveal increases of the fine mode radius and of the fine mode contribution to AOD during nighttime, being more

  3. Giant elastocaloric effect covering wide temperature range in columnar-grained Cu71.5Al17.5Mn11 shape memory alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Xu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The elastocaloric effect in a columnar-grained Cu71.5Al17.5Mn11 shape memory alloy fabricated by directional solidification was investigated. A large entropy change of 25.0 J/kg K generated by the reversible martensitic transformation was demonstrated. The adiabatic temperature change of 12-13 K was directly measured, covering a wide temperature range of more than 100 K. The low applied stress with a specific elastocaloric ability of 100.8 K/GPa was identified and the potentially attainable operational temperature window as wide as more than 215 K was also discussed. The outstanding elastocaloric refrigeration capability, together with the low applying stress and uniform phase transformation, makes the columnar-grained Cu–Al–Mn shape memory alloy a promising material for solid-state refrigeration.

  4. How and why discontinuous multiple-in-line-damage results in much higher Jc than continuous columnar pinning centres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinstein, Roy; Gandini, Alberto; Sawh, Ravi; Mayes, Bill; Parks, Drew

    2006-01-01

    We review a recent experiment in which pinning centres, composed of discontinuous multiple-in-line damage (MILD), were compared to continuous columnar pinning centres (CCPCs). The methods used, results of the experiment, and the initial steps taken toward a phenomenological theory explaining the unusual results, are discussed. Experimental results show that MILD pinning centres, despite their reduced pinning potential, are far superior to CCPCs. Using MILD pinning, a new record J c has been achieved in large grain YBCO. The value of H irr (MILD) is comparable to, or larger, than H irr (CCPCs). Pinning effects alone, with no modification of texture, weak links or oxygenation of the YBCO, increase J c by as much as a factor of 17. Splay is expected to further increase this factor. The experimental dependence of J c on the energy lost by the ion per unit length is approximately reproduced by a phenomenological theory, including only the effects of diminished percolation, critical temperature, and pinning potential

  5. Dimensional analysis of the transition from columnar to equiaxial structure in aluminium-copper and lead-tin alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueijman, Sergio Fabian; Ares, Alicia Esther; Schvezov, Carlos E

    2004-01-01

    The importance of directional solidification studies is well known from systematic scientific research undertaken to understand the characteristics of the solidification of alloys. Such studies offer much information about the morphology of the interphase and the distribution of solute during solidification. Most alloys grow while attaining dendritic interphases. So considerable effort has been expended to understand the dendritic growth characteristics under controlled solidification conditions. A treatment that can quantitatively explain all the available test data and that correctly includes the physics of the problem is not yet available. This work carries out a theoretical analysis of columnar and equiaxial growth and of dendritic spacing under different conditions of solidification of the test pieces. The basic parameters that are used characterize a given alloy system. Next, we define non-dimensional parameters, that are used to formulate the final result of our problem regardless of the specific alloy being studied. We present the important functional relationships of our study, including the physical interpretation of the results obtained in the first work (CW)

  6. Failure analysis of thermally cycled columnar thermal barrier coatings produced by high-velocity-air fuel and axial-suspension-plasma spraying: A design perspective

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ganvir, A.; Vaidhyanathan, V.; Markocsan, N.; Gupta, M.; Pala, Zdeněk; Lukáč, František

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 3 (2018), s. 3161-3172 ISSN 0272-8842 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Columnar Thermal Barrier Coatings * Axial Suspension Plasma spraying * Thermal Cyclic Fatigue * High Velocity Air Fuel Spraying Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials OBOR OECD: Coating and films Impact factor: 2.986, year: 2016 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272884217325403

  7. Detection and quantification of Flavobacterium psychrophilum-specific bacteriophages in vivo in rainbow trout upon oral administration: implications for disease control in aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Rói Hammershaimb; Dalsgaard, Inger; Middelboe, Mathias; Lauritsen, Anne H; Madsen, Lone

    2014-12-01

    The use of bacteriophages in the treatment and prevention of infections by the fish pathogen Flavobacterium psychrophilum has attracted increased attention in recent years. It has been shown recently that phage delivery via the parenteral route resulted in immediate distribution of phages to the circulatory system and the different organs. However, little is known about phage dispersal and survival in vivo in rainbow trout after delivery via the oral route. Here we examined the dispersal and survival of F. psychrophilum phage FpV-9 in vivo in juvenile rainbow trout after administration by three different methods-bath, oral intubation into the stomach, and phage-coated feed-with special emphasis on the oral route of delivery. Phages could be detected in all the organs investigated (intestine, spleen, brain, and kidney) 0.5 h postadministration, reaching concentrations as high as ∼10(5) PFU mg intestine(-1) and ∼10(3) PFU mg spleen(-1) within the first 24 h following the bath and ∼10(7) PFU mg intestine(-1) and ∼10(4) PFU mg spleen(-1) within the first 24 h following oral intubation. The phages were most persistent in the organs for the first 24 h and then decreased exponentially; no phages were detected after 83 h in the organs investigated. Phage administration via feed resulted in the detection of phages in the intestine, spleen, and kidney 1 h after feeding. Average concentrations of ∼10(4) PFU mg intestine(-1) and ∼10(1) PFU mg spleen(-1) were found throughout the experimental period (200 h) following continuous delivery of phages with feed. These experiments clearly demonstrate the ability of the phages to survive passage through the fish stomach and to penetrate the intestinal barrier and enter the circulatory system after oral delivery, although the quantity of phages found in the spleen was 100- to 1,000-fold lower than that in the intestine. It was also shown that phages could tolerate long periods of desiccation on the feed pellets, with 60

  8. Hymenobacter roseosalivarius gen. nov., sp. nov. from continental Antartica soils and sandstone: bacteria of the Cytophaga/Flavobacterium/Bacteroides line of phylogenetic descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, P; Ludwig, W; Hethke, C; Sittig, M; Hoffmann, B; Gallikowski, C A

    1998-08-01

    Aseptically collected sandstone and soil samples from the antarctic Dry Valleys were inoculated into oligotrophic media and incubated under low light intensities. A total of 41 Gram-negative isolates were obtained with reddish colonies spreading on agar. A sandstone isolate and four soil strains were characterized further. They were nearly identical in morphological, physiological, biochemical and chemotaxonomic properties. They produced large amounts of extracellular polymer and utilized for growth: glucose, saccharose, mannitol, sorbitol, L-aspartate, malate and acetate, but not D-ribose, adonitol, DL-alanine, glutamate, glycolate, lactate or succinate. All strains hydrolyzed gelatin, starch, casein, xylan, Tweens 80 or 60 and dead or living yeast cells, but not cellulose or pectin. Nitrate was not reduced, ethanol was not oxidized and acid was not produced from maltose, mannitol or dulcitol. Ammonia was not produced from peptone. They were strictly aerobic. Major fatty acids were n 16:1 d 9, n 16:1 d 11, n 17:1 d 11, and i 15:0. The strains contained the quinone MK-7 and phosphatidylethanolamine as the main phospholipid. The base ratio ranged from 55 to 61 mol% G+C. A 16S rRNA sequence analysis of strains AA-688 and AA-718 showed these to be identical and to represent a special phylogenetic group within the Cytophaga/Flavobacterium/Bacteroides major line of descent. Three soil strains labeled "Taxeobacter" Txc1, Txg1, and Txo1 (Reichenbach, 1992) belonged to the same group but had lower sequence similarities (<95%). Some of their characteristics were different from those of the antarctic strains: the utilization of C-compounds, hydrolysis of polymers, temperature tolerances, major fatty acids and base ratios. Txc1 and Txg1 may later have to be considered as members of this group, possibly on the species level, while Txo1 could represent a different related genus. It is concluded that the five antarctic strains represent a new genus and species for which the name

  9. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Flavobacterium psychrophilum from Chilean Salmon Farms and Their Epidemiological Cut-Off Values Using Agar Dilution and Disk Diffusion Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Claudio D; Smith, Peter; Rojas, Rodrigo; Contreras-Lynch, Sergio; Vega, J M Alonso

    2016-01-01

    Flavobacterium psychrophilum is the most important bacterial pathogen for freshwater farmed salmonids in Chile. The aims of this study were to determine the susceptibility to antimicrobials used in fish farming of Chilean isolates and to calculate their epidemiological cut-off (CO WT ) values. A number of 125 Chilean isolates of F. psychrophilum were isolated from reared salmonids presenting clinical symptoms indicative of flavobacteriosis and their identities were confirmed by 16S rRNA polymerase chain reaction. Susceptibility to antibacterials was tested on diluted Mueller-Hinton by using an agar dilution MIC method and a disk diffusion method. The CO WT values calculated by Normalized Resistance Interpretation (NRI) analysis allow isolates to be categorized either as wild-type fully susceptible (WT) or as manifesting reduced susceptibility (NWT). When MIC data was used, NRI analysis calculated a CO WT of ≤0.125, ≤2, and ≤0.5 μg mL -1 for amoxicillin, florfenicol, and oxytetracycline, respectively. For the quinolones, the CO WT were ≤1, ≤0.5, and ≤0.125 μg mL -1 for oxolinic acid, flumequine, and enrofloxacin, respectively. The disk diffusion data sets obtained in this work were extremely diverse and were spread over a wide range. For the quinolones there was a close agreement between the frequencies of NWT isolates calculated using MIC and disk data. For oxolinic acid, flumequine, and enrofloxacin the frequencies were 45, 39, and 38% using MIC data, and 42, 41, and 44%, when disk data were used. There was less agreement with the other antimicrobials, because NWT frequencies obtained using MIC and disk data, respectively, were 24 and 10% for amoxicillin, 8 and 2% for florfenicol, and 70 and 64% for oxytetracycline. Considering that the MIC data was more precise than the disk diffusion data, MIC determination would be the preferred method for susceptibility testing for this species and the NWT frequencies derived from the MIC data sets should be

  10. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Flavobacterium psychrophilum from Chilean Salmon Farms and their Epidemiological Cut-off Values using Agar Dilution and Disk Diffusion Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio D Miranda

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Flavobacterium psychrophilum is the most important bacterial pathogen for freshwater farmed salmonids in Chile. The aims of this study were to determine the susceptibility to antimicrobials used in fish farming of Chilean isolates and to calculate their epidemiological cut-off (COWT values. A number of 125 Chilean isolates of F. psychrophilum were isolated from reared salmonids presenting clinical symptoms indicative of flavobacteriosis and their identities were confirmed by 16S rRNA polymerase chain reaction. Susceptibility to antibacterials was tested on diluted Mueller-Hinton by using an agar dilution MIC method and a disk diffusion method. The COWT values calculated by Normalised Resistance Interpretation (NRI analysis allow isolates to be categorized either as wild-type fully susceptible (WT or as manifesting reduced susceptibility (NWT. When MIC data was used, NRI analysis calculated a COWT of ≤ 0.125 μg mL-1, ≤ 2 μg mL-1 and ≤ 0.5 μg mL-1 for amoxicillin, florfenicol and oxytetracycline, respectively. For the quinolones, the COWT were ≤1 μg mL-1, ≤ 0.5 μg mL-1 and ≤ 0.125 μg mL-1 for oxolinic acid, flumequine and enrofloxacin respectively. The disc diffusion data sets obtained in this work were extremely diverse and were spread over a wide range. For the quinolones there was a close agreement between the frequencies of NWT isolates calculated using MIC and disc data. For oxolinic acid, flumequine and enrofloxacin the frequencies were 45, 39 and 38% using MIC data, and 42, 41 and 44%, when disc data were used. There was less agreement with the other antimicrobials, because NWT frequencies obtained using MIC and disc data respectively, were 24% and 10% for amoxicillin, 8% and 2% for florfenicol and 70% and 64% for oxytetracycline. Considering that the MIC data was more precise than the disc diffusion data, MIC determination would be the preferred method for susceptibility testing for this species and the NWT frequencies

  11. Investigation of columnar-to-equiaxed transition in solidification processing of AlSi alloys in microgravity – The CETSOL project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, G; Sturz, L; Billia, B; Mangelinck-Noël, N; Thi, H Nguyen; Gandin, Ch- A; Browne, D J; Mirihanage, W U

    2011-01-01

    Grain structures observed in most casting processes of metallic alloys are the result of a competition between the growth of several arrays of dendrites that develop under constrained and unconstrained conditions. Often this leads to a transition from columnar to equiaxed grain growth during solidification (CET). A microgravity environment results in suppression of buoyancy-driven melt flow and so enables growth of equiaxed grains free of sedimentation and buoyancy effects. This contribution presents first results obtained in experiments on-board the International Space Station (ISS), which were performed in the frame of the ESA-MAP programme CETSOL. Hypoeutectic aluminium-silicon alloys with and without grain refiners were processed successfully in a low gradient furnace (MSL-LGF). First analysis shows that in the non grain refined samples columnar dendritic growth exists, whereas CET is observed in the grain refined samples. From analysis of the thermal data and the grain structure the critical parameters for the temperature gradient and the cooling rate describing CET are determined. These data are used for initial numerical simulations to predict the position of the columnar-to-equiaxed transition and will form a unique database for calibration and further development of numerical CET-modeling.

  12. Columnar modelling of nucleation burst evolution in the convective boundary layer – first results from a feasibility study Part IV: A compilation of previous observations for valuation of simulation results from a columnar modelling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Hellmuth

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the preceding Papers I, II and III a revised columnar high-order modelling approach to model gas-aerosol-turbulence interactions in the convective boundary layer (CBL was proposed, and simulation results of two synthetic nucleation scenarios (binary vs. ternary on new particle formation (NPF in the anthropogenically influenced CBL were presented and discussed. The purpose of the present finishing Paper IV is twofold: Firstly, an attempt is made to compile previous observational findings on NPF bursts in the CBL, obtained from a number of field experiments. Secondly, the scenario simulations discussed in Paper III will be evaluated with respect to the role of CBL turbulence in NPF burst evolution. It was demonstrated, that completely different nucleation mechanisms can lead to the occurrence of NPF bursts in the surface layer, but the corresponding evolution patterns strongly differ with respect to the origin, amplitude and phase of the NPF burst as well as with respect to the time-height evolution of turbulent vertical fluxes and double correlation terms of physicochemical and aerosoldynamical variables. The large differences between the binary and ternary case scenario indicate, that ammonia (NH3 can not be considered as a time-independent tuning parameter in nucleation modelling. Its contribution to the evolution of the NPF burst pattern is much more complicated and reflects the influence of CBL turbulence as well as the strong non-linearity of the ternary nucleation rate. The impact of water (H2O vapour on the nucleation rate is quite varying depending on the considered nucleation mechanism. According to the classical theory of binary nucleation involving H2O and sulphuric acid (H2SO4, H2O vapour favours NPF, according to the classical theory of ternary nuncleation involving H2O, H2SO4 and NH3 and according to organic nucleation via chemical reactions involving stabilised Criegee intermediates (SCIs, H2O vapour disfavours nucleation, and

  13. SU-E-I-11: Cascaded Linear System Model for Columnar CsI Flat Panel Imagers with Depth Dependent Gain and Blur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, B; Lubinsky, A; Zheng, H; Zhao, W; Teymurazyan, A

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To implement a depth dependent gain and blur cascaded linear system model (CLSM) for optimizing columnar structured CsI indirect conversion flat panel imager (FPI) for advanced imaging applications. Methods: For experimental validation, depth dependent escape efficiency, e(z), was extracted from PHS measurement of different CsI scintillators (thickness, substrate and light output). The inherent MTF and DQE of CsI was measured using high resolution CMOS sensor. For CLSM, e(z) and the depth dependent MTF(f,z), were estimated using Monte Carlo simulation (Geant4) of optical photon transport through columnar CsI. Previous work showed that Monte Carlo simulation for CsI was hindered by the non-ideality of its columnar structure. In the present work we allowed variation in columnar width with depth, and assumed diffusive reflective backing and columns. Monte Carlo simulation was performed using an optical point source placed at different depth of the CsI layer, from which MTF(z,f) and e(z) were computed. The resulting e(z) with excellent matching with experimental measurements were then applied to the CLSM, Monte Carlo simulation was repeated until the modeled MTF, DQE(f) also match experimental measurement. Results: For a 150 micron FOS HL type CsI, e(z) varies between 0.56 to 0.45, and the MTF at 14 cycles/mm varies between 62.1% to 3.9%, from the front to the back of the scintillator. The overall MTF and DQE(f) at all frequencies are in excellent agreement with experimental measurements at all frequencies. Conclusion: We have developed a CLSM for columnar CsI scintillators with depth dependent gain and MTF, which were estimated from Monte Carlo simulation with novel optical simulation settings. Preliminary results showed excellent agreement between simulation results and experimental measurements. Future work is aimed at extending this approach to optimize CsI screen optic design and sensor structure for achieving higher DQE(f) in cone-beam CT, which uses

  14. Experimental measurements of deep directional columnar heating by laser-generated relativistic electrons at near-solid density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, J.A.; Key, M.H.; Hatchett, S.P.; Lee, R.W.; Pennington, D.; Tabak, M.; Freeman, R.R.; Stephens, R.B.

    2002-01-01

    In our experiments, we irradiated solid CH targets with a 400 J, 5 ps, 3x10 19 W/cm 2 laser, and we used x-ray imaging and spectroscopic diagnostics to monitor the keV x-ray emission from thin Al or Au tracer layers buried within the targets. The experiments were designed to quantify the spatial distribution of the thermal electron temperature and density as a function of buried layer depth; these data provide insights into the behavior of relativistic electron currents which flow within the solid target and are directly and indirectly responsible for the heating. We measured ∼200-350 eV temperatures and near-solid densities at depths ranging from 5 to 100 μm beneath the target surface. Time-resolved x-ray spectra from Al tracers indicate that the tracers emit thermal x rays and cool slowly compared to the time scale of the laser pulse. Most intriguingly, we consistently observe annular x-ray images in all buried tracer-layer experiments, and these data show that the temperature distribution is columnar, with enhanced heating along the edges of the column. The ring diameters are much greater than the laser focal spot diameter and do not vary significantly with the depth of the tracer layer for depths greater than 30 μm. The local temperatures are 200-350 eV for all tracer depths. We discuss recent simulations of the evolution of electron currents deep within solid targets irradiated by ultra-high-intensity lasers, and we discuss how modeling and analytical results suggest that the annular patterns we observe may be related to locally strong growth of the Weibel instability. We also suggest avenues for future research in order to further illuminate the complex physics of relativistic electron transport and energy deposition inside ultra-high-intensity laser-irradiated solid targets

  15. Effect of habitat disturbance on pollination biology of the columnar cactus Stenocereus quevedonis at landscape-level in central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Oseguera, A G; Casas, A; Herrerías-Diego, Y; Pérez-Negrón, E

    2013-05-01

    Stenocereus quevedonis ('pitire') is a columnar cactus endemic to central Mexico, grown for its edible fruit. Phenology, pollination biology and behaviour of flower visitors of this species were compared in six conserved and disturbed sites, hypothesising that: (i) pitire pollination is self-incompatible, requiring animal vectors; (ii) higher incidence of radiation on plants in cleared forest may lead to a higher number of flowers per pitire plant and longer blooming season, and disturbing and differential spatial availability of flower resources may determine differential attraction of pollinators to conserved and disturbed areas; (iii) if pitire pollination system is specialised, reproductive success would decrease with pollinator scarcity, or other species may substitute for main pollinators. In all sites, pitire reproduction started in January, flowering peak occurring in April, anthesis duration was 15 h and predominantly nocturnal (9 h), pollen was released at 23:00 h, nectar was produced throughout anthesis, and breeding system was self-incompatible. Flower production per plant was similar in disturbed and conserved sites, but flower availability was higher (because of higher tree density) and longer in disturbed sites. Pollination is nocturnal, the most frequent legitimate pollinator being the bat Leptonycteris yerbabuenae; diurnal pollination is rare but possible, carried out by bee species. Fruit and seed set in control and nocturnal pollination treatments at disturbed sites were higher than in conserved sites. Frequency of L. yerbabuenae visits was similar among site types, but more visits of complementary nocturnal and diurnal pollinators were recorded in disturbed sites, which could explain differences in reproductive success. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  16. Equiaxed and columnar dendrite growth simulation in Al-7Si- Mg ternary alloys using cellular automaton method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Rui; Xu, Qingyan; Liu, Baicheng

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a modified cellular automaton (MCA) model allowing for the prediction of dendrite growth of Al-Si-Mg ternary alloys in two and three dimensions is presented. The growth kinetic of S/L interface is calculated based on the solute equilibrium approach. In order to describe the dendrite growth with arbitrarily crystallographic orientations, this model introduces a modified decentered octahedron algorithm for neighborhood tracking to eliminate the effect of mesh dependency on dendrite growth. The thermody namic and kinetic data needed for dendrite growth is obtained through coupling with Pandat software package in combination with thermodynamic/kinetic/equilibrium phase diagram calculation databases. The effect of interactions between various alloying elements on solute diffusion coefficient is considered in the model. This model has first been used to simulate Al-7Si (weight percent) binary dendrite growth followed by a validation using theoretical predictions. For ternary alloy, Al-7Si-0.5Mg dendrite simulation has been carried out and the effects of solute interactions on diffusion matrix as well as the differences of Si and Mg in solute distribution have been analyzed. For actual application, this model has been applied to simulate the equiaxed dendrite growth with various crystallographic orientations of Al-7Si-0.36Mg ternary alloy, and the predicted secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS) shows a reasonable agreement with the experimental ones. Furthermore, the columnar dendrite growth in directional solidification has also been simulated and the predicted primary dendrite arm spacing (PDAS) is in good agreement with experiments. The simulated results effectively demonstrate the abilities of the model in prediction of dendritic microstructure of Al-Si-Mg ternary alloy. (paper)

  17. Equiaxed and columnar dendrite growth simulation in Al-7Si- Mg ternary alloys using cellular automaton method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Xu, Qingyan; Liu, Baicheng

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, a modified cellular automaton (MCA) model allowing for the prediction of dendrite growth of Al-Si-Mg ternary alloys in two and three dimensions is presented. The growth kinetic of S/L interface is calculated based on the solute equilibrium approach. In order to describe the dendrite growth with arbitrarily crystallographic orientations, this model introduces a modified decentered octahedron algorithm for neighborhood tracking to eliminate the effect of mesh dependency on dendrite growth. The thermody namic and kinetic data needed for dendrite growth is obtained through coupling with Pandat software package in combination with thermodynamic/kinetic/equilibrium phase diagram calculation databases. The effect of interactions between various alloying elements on solute diffusion coefficient is considered in the model. This model has first been used to simulate Al-7Si (weight percent) binary dendrite growth followed by a validation using theoretical predictions. For ternary alloy, Al-7Si-0.5Mg dendrite simulation has been carried out and the effects of solute interactions on diffusion matrix as well as the differences of Si and Mg in solute distribution have been analyzed. For actual application, this model has been applied to simulate the equiaxed dendrite growth with various crystallographic orientations of Al-7Si-0.36Mg ternary alloy, and the predicted secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS) shows a reasonable agreement with the experimental ones. Furthermore, the columnar dendrite growth in directional solidification has also been simulated and the predicted primary dendrite arm spacing (PDAS) is in good agreement with experiments. The simulated results effectively demonstrate the abilities of the model in prediction of dendritic microstructure of Al-Si-Mg ternary alloy.

  18. Guillain-Barré syndrome following receipt of influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccine in Korea with an emphasis on Brighton Collaboration case definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Young June; Cho, Heeyeon; Bae, Geun-Ryang; Lee, Jong-Koo

    2011-03-03

    In 2009-2010 season, with ongoing of influenza A (H1N1), employment of mass vaccination has generated concerns in issue of adverse events following immunization (AEFI). This study investigates the clinical and laboratory data of reported cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and Fisher syndrome (FS) following receipt of influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccine to the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program (NVICP) in Korea, with all cases reviewed under case definition developed by Brighton Collaboration GBS Working Group. Retrospective review of medical records for all suspected cases of GBS ad FS following receipt of influenza A (H1N1) monovalent vaccine reported to NVICP from December 1, 2009, through April 28, 2010 was conducted. Additional analyses were performed for identification of levels of diagnostic certainty according to Brighton Collaboration case definition. Of 29 reported cases, 22 were confirmed to meet Brighton criteria level 1, 2, or 3 for GBS (21) or FS (1). Of those, 2 (9.1%) met level 1, 9 (40.9%) met level 2, and 11 (50.0%) met level 3. The male to female ratio was 2:0 in cases with level 1, 8:1 in cases with level 2, and 3:8 in cases with level 3. The mean age was older in cases with level 1 (54.0 ± 26.9) than that of cases with level 2 (25.6 ± 22.8), and level 3 (13.6 ± 2.4, P=0.005). The median onset interval was longer in cases with level 1 (16 days) than that of cases that met level 2 (12.44 days), and 3 (1.09 days, P=0.019). The Brighton case definition was used to improve the quality of AEFI data in Korea, and was applicable in retrospective review of medical records in cases with GBS and FS after influenza A (H1N1) vaccination. These findings suggest that standardized case definition was feasible in clarifying the AEFI data, and to further increase the understanding of possible relationship of influenza vaccine and GBS. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The influence of monovalent cations on trimeric G protein Gi1alfa activity in HEK293 cells stably expressing DOR-Gi1alfa (Cys351-Ile351) fusion protein

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vošahlíková, Miroslava; Svoboda, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 3 (2011), s. 541-547 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500110606; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA ČR(CZ) GD305/08/H037 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : delta-opioid receptor (DOR) * monovalent ions * G(i)1alfa protein Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.555, year: 2011

  20. Growing large columnar grains of CH3NH3PbI3 using the solid-state reaction method enhanced by less-crystallized nanoporous PbI2 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huifeng; Wang, Weiqi; Liu, Yangqiao; Sun, Jing

    2017-03-01

    Compact, pinhole-free and PbI2-free perovskite films, are desirable for high-performance perovskite solar cells (PSCs), especially if large columnar grains are obtained in which the adverse effects of grain boundaries will be minimized. However, the conventional solid-state reaction methods, originated from the two-step method, failed to grow columnar grains of CH3NH3PbI3 in a facile way. Here, we demonstrate a strategy for growing large columnar grains of CH3NH3PbI3, by less-crystallized nanoporous PbI2 (ln-PbI2) film enhanced solid-state reaction method. We demonstrated columnar grains were obtainable only when ln-PbI2 films were applied. Therefore, the replacement of compact PbI2 by ln-PbI2 in the solid-sate reaction, leads to higher power conversion efficiency, better reproducibility, better stability and less hysteresis. Furthermore, by systematically investigating the effects of annealing temperature and duration, we found that an annealing temperature ≥120 °C was also critical for growing columnar grains. With the optimal process, a champion efficiency of 16.4% was obtained and the average efficiency reached 14.2%. Finally, the mechanism of growing columnar grains was investigated, in which a VPb″ -assisted hooping model was proposed. This work reveals the origins of grain growth in the solid-state reaction method, which will contribute to preparing high quality perovskite films with much larger columnar grains.

  1. On the use of dimensionless parameters in acid-base theory: VI. The buffer capacities of equimolar binary mixtures of monovalent weak protolytes as compared to that of bivalent protolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rilbe, H

    1994-05-01

    The general equation for the relative molar buffer capacity, earlier shown to be valid for bivalent acids, bases, and ampholytes, is shown to hold also for equimolar, binary mixtures of monovalent protolytes if only the parameter s = square root of K1'/4K2' is exchanged for t = s + 1/4s. The same applies to the equations for the mean valence of the two classes of protolytes. As a consequence thereof, the titration and buffer capacity curves of a bivalent protolyte are identical with those of a monovalent protolyte with a pK' value equal to the with those of a monovalent protolyte with a pK' value equal to square root of K1'K2' of the bivalent one (the isoprotic point of an ampholyte). For a hypothetical bivalent acid, base, or ampholyte with s = 1, delta pK' = log 4, this implies that the intrinsic rather than the hybrid dissociation constants are responsible for the titration and buffer capacity curves.

  2. Experimental Characterization and Modelization of Ion Exchange Kinetics for a Carboxylic Resin in Infinite Solution Volume Conditions. Application to Monovalent-Trivalent Cations Exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picart, S.; Mokhtari, H.; Jobelin, I. [CEA Marcoule, Nucl Energy Div, RadioChem and Proc Dept, Actinides Chem and Convers Lab, F-30207 Bagnols Sur Ceze (France); Ramiere, I. [Fuel Simulat Lab, Fuel Study Dept, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance (France)

    2010-07-01

    This study is devoted to the characterization of ion exchange inside a microsphere of carboxylic resin. It aims at describing the kinetics of this exchange reaction which is known to be controlled by interdiffusion in the particle. The fractional attainment of equilibrium function of time depends on the concentration of the cations in the resin which can be modelled by the Nernst-Planck equation. A powerful approach for the numerical resolution of this equation is introduced in this paper. This modeling is based on the work of Helfferich but involves an implicit numerical scheme which reduces the computational cost. Knowing the diffusion coefficients of the cations in the resin and the radius of the spherical exchanger, the kinetics can be hence completely determined. When those diffusion parameters are missing, they can be deduced by fitting experimental data of fractional attainment of equilibrium. An efficient optimization tool coupled with the implicit resolution has been developed for this purpose. A monovalent/trivalent cation exchange had been experimentally characterized for a carboxylic resin. Diffusion coefficients and concentration profiles in the resin were then deduced through this new model. (authors)

  3. CLINICAL STUDIES OF REACTOGENICITY, SAFETY AND IMMUNOGENICITY OF LIVE MONOVALENT INFLUENZA VACCINE (STRAIN А/17/CALIFORNIA/2009/38 — H1N1 IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.S. Bushmenkov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of performed pre-clinical and clinical studies with volunteers 18-60 years old allowed registration of vaccine «INFLUVIR» (live monovalent vaccine for the prophylaxis of influenza A/H1N1, strain A/17/California/2009/38 (H1N1, developed by NPO «Microgen» in Russian Federation so timely vaccination campaign was performed. As a result, the level of morbidity with influenza A/H1N1 in Russia was decreased, and development of complication was prevented. Clinical studies in different groups of children were performed for the purpose of widening indications for vaccine «INFLUVIR» administration. According to the results of studies vaccine «INFLUVIR» has good tolerability and safety, low reactogenicity, and significant immunogenicity. This fact will allow changing of present normative documentation and administration of «INFLUVIR» in children of different age for prophylaxis of influenza A/H1N1.Key words: children, influenza, virus A/H1N1, live influenza vaccine, tolerability, safety, immunogenicity.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. – 2010;9(4:101-105

  4. A single molecule assay to probe monovalent and multivalent bonds between hyaluronan and its key leukocyte receptor CD44 under force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bano, Fouzia; Banerji, Suneale; Howarth, Mark; Jackson, David G.; Richter, Ralf P.

    2016-09-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), a category of linear, anionic polysaccharides, are ubiquitous in the extracellular space, and important extrinsic regulators of cell function. Despite the recognized significance of mechanical stimuli in cellular communication, however, only few single molecule methods are currently available to study how monovalent and multivalent GAG·protein bonds respond to directed mechanical forces. Here, we have devised such a method, by combining purpose-designed surfaces that afford immobilization of GAGs and receptors at controlled nanoscale organizations with single molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS). We apply the method to study the interaction of the GAG polymer hyaluronan (HA) with CD44, its receptor in vascular endothelium. Individual bonds between HA and CD44 are remarkably resistant to rupture under force in comparison to their low binding affinity. Multiple bonds along a single HA chain rupture sequentially and independently under load. We also demonstrate how strong non-covalent bonds, which are versatile for controlled protein and GAG immobilization, can be effectively used as molecular anchors in SMFS. We thus establish a versatile method for analyzing the nanomechanics of GAG·protein interactions at the level of single GAG chains, which provides new molecular-level insight into the role of mechanical forces in the assembly and function of GAG-rich extracellular matrices.

  5. Yeast Kch1 and Kch2 membrane proteins play a pleiotropic role in membrane potential establishment and monovalent cation homeostasis regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felcmanova, Kristina; Neveceralova, Petra; Sychrova, Hana; Zimmermannova, Olga

    2017-08-01

    The Kch1 and Kch2 plasma-membrane proteins were identified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae as being essential for the activation of a high-affinity Ca2+ influx system. We searched for Kch proteins roles in the maintenance of cation homeostasis and tested the effect of kch1 and/or kch2 deletions on various physiological parameters. Compared to wild-type, kch1 kch2 mutant cells were smaller, relatively hyperpolarised, grew better under limited K+ conditions and exhibited altered growth in the presence of monovalent cations. The absence of Kch1 and Kch2 did not change the intracellular pH in cells growing at low potassium or the tolerance of cells to divalent cations, high concentration of sorbitol or extreme external pH. The overexpression of KCH1 only increased the intracellular pH in the presence of elevated K+ in media. None of the phenotypes associated with the deletion of KCH1 and KCH2 in wild type were observed in a strain lacking KCH genes and main K+ uptake systems Trk1 and Trk2. The role of the Kch homologue in cation homeostasis was also tested in Candida albicans cells. Our data demonstrate that Kch proteins significantly contribute to the maintenance of optimal cation homeostasis and membrane potential in S. cerevisiae but not in C. albicans. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Experimental Characterization and Modelization of Ion Exchange Kinetics for a Carboxylic Resin in Infinite Solution Volume Conditions. Application to Monovalent-Trivalent Cations Exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picart, S.; Mokhtari, H.; Jobelin, I.; Ramiere, I.

    2010-01-01

    This study is devoted to the characterization of ion exchange inside a microsphere of carboxylic resin. It aims at describing the kinetics of this exchange reaction which is known to be controlled by interdiffusion in the particle. The fractional attainment of equilibrium function of time depends on the concentration of the cations in the resin which can be modelled by the Nernst-Planck equation. A powerful approach for the numerical resolution of this equation is introduced in this paper. This modeling is based on the work of Helfferich but involves an implicit numerical scheme which reduces the computational cost. Knowing the diffusion coefficients of the cations in the resin and the radius of the spherical exchanger, the kinetics can be hence completely determined. When those diffusion parameters are missing, they can be deduced by fitting experimental data of fractional attainment of equilibrium. An efficient optimization tool coupled with the implicit resolution has been developed for this purpose. A monovalent/trivalent cation exchange had been experimentally characterized for a carboxylic resin. Diffusion coefficients and concentration profiles in the resin were then deduced through this new model. (authors)

  7. Self-Organization of +-Crown Ether Derivatives into Double-Columnar Arrays Controlled by Supramolecular Isomers of Hydrogen-Bonded Anionic Biimidazolate Ni Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Tadokoro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Anionic tris (biimidazolate nickelate (II ([Ni(Hbim3]−, which is a hydrogen-bonding (H-bonding molecular building block, undergoes self-organization into honeycomb-sheet superstructures connected by complementary intermolecular H-bonds. The crystal obtained from the stacking of these sheets is assembled into channel frameworks, approximately 2 nm wide, that clathrate two cationic K+-crown ether derivatives organised into one-dimensional (1D double-columnar arrays. In this study, we have shown that all five cationic guest-included crystals form nanochannel structures that clathrate the 1-D double-columnar arrays of one of the four types of K+-crown ether derivatives, one of which induces a polymorph. This is accomplished by adaptably fitting two types of anionic [Ni(Hbim3]− host arrays. One is a ΔΛ−ΔΛ−ΔΛ⋯ network with H-bonded linkages alternating between the two different optical isomers of the Δ and Λ types with flexible H-bonded [Ni(Hbim3]−. The other is a ΔΔΔ−ΛΛΛ⋯ network of a racemate with 1-D H-bonded arrays of the same optical isomer for each type. Thus, [Ni(Hbim3]− can assemble large cations such as K+ crown-ether derivatives into double-columnar arrays by highly recognizing flexible H-bonding arrangements with two host networks of ΔΛ−ΔΛ−ΔΛ⋯ and ΔΔΔ−ΛΛΛ⋯.

  8. Applications of a pnCCD detector coupled to columnar structure CsI(Tl) scintillator system in ultra high energy X-ray Laue diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokr, M.; Schlosser, D.; Abboud, A.; Algashi, A.; Tosson, A.; Conka, T.; Hartmann, R.; Klaus, M.; Genzel, C.; Strüder, L.; Pietsch, U.

    2017-12-01

    Most charge coupled devices (CCDs) are made of silicon (Si) with typical active layer thicknesses of several microns. In case of a pnCCD detector the sensitive Si thickness is 450 μm. However, for silicon based detectors the quantum efficiency for hard X-rays drops significantly for photon energies above 10 keV . This drawback can be overcome by combining a pixelated silicon-based detector system with a columnar scintillator. Here we report on the characterization of a low noise, fully depleted 128×128 pixels pnCCD detector with 75×75 μm2 pixel size coupled to a 700 μm thick columnar CsI(Tl) scintillator in the photon range between 1 keV to 130 keV . The excellent performance of the detection system in the hard X-ray range is demonstrated in a Laue type X-ray diffraction experiment performed at EDDI beamline of the BESSY II synchrotron taken at a set of several GaAs single crystals irradiated by white synchrotron radiation. With the columnar structure of the scintillator, the position resolution of the whole system reaches a value of less than one pixel. Using the presented detector system and considering the functional relation between indirect and direct photon events Laue diffraction peaks with X-ray energies up to 120 keV were efficiently detected. As one of possible applications of the combined CsI-pnCCD system we demonstrate that the accuracy of X-ray structure factors extracted from Laue diffraction peaks can be significantly improved in hard X-ray range using the combined CsI(Tl)-pnCCD system compared to a bare pnCCD.

  9. Ultrasonic Characterization of Cast Austenitic Stainless Steel Microstructure: Discrimination between Equiaxed- and Columnar-Grain Material – An Interim Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Good, Morris S.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Anderson, Michael T.; Watson, Bruce E.; Peters, Timothy J.; Dixit, Mukul; Bond, Leonard J.

    2009-10-27

    Ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and inspection of cast austenitic stainless steel (CASS) components used in the nuclear power industry is neither as effective nor reliable as is needed due to detrimental effects upon the interrogating ultrasonic beam and interference from ultrasonic backscatter. The root cause is the coarse-grain microstructure inherent to this class of materials. Some ultrasonic techniques perform better for particular microstructural classifications and this has led to the hypothesis that an ultrasonic inspection can be optimized for a particular microstructural class, if a technique exists to reliably classify the microstructure for feedback to the inspection. This document summarizes scoping experiments of in-situ ultrasonic methods for classification and/or characterization of the material microstructures in CASS components from the outside surface of a pipe. The focus of this study was to evaluate ultrasonic methods and provide an interim report that documents results and technical progress. An initial set of experiments were performed to test the hypothesis that in-service characterization of cast austenitic stainless steel (CASS) is feasible, and that, if reliably performed, such data would provide real-time feedback to optimize in-service inspections in the field. With this objective in mind, measurements for the experiment were restricted to techniques that should be robust if carried forward to eventual field implementation. Two parameters were investigated for their ability to discriminate between different microstructures in CASS components. The first parameter was a time-of-flight ratio of a normal incidence shear wave to that of a normal incidence longitudinal wave (TOFRSL). The ratio removed dependency on component thickness which may not be accurately reported in the field. The second parameter was longitudinal wave attenuation. The selected CASS specimens provided five equiaxed-grain material samples and five columnar

  10. Columnar aerosol characteristics and radiative forcing over the Doon Valley in the Shivalik range of northwestern Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumka, U C; Saheb, Shaik Darga; Kaskaoutis, D G; Kant, Yogesh; Mitra, D

    2016-12-01

    Spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements obtained from multi-wavelength radiometer under cloudless conditions over Doon Valley, in the foothills of the western Himalayas, are analysed during the period January 2007 to December 2012. High AOD values of 0.46 ± 0.08 and 0.52 ± 0.1 at 500 nm, along with low values of Ångström exponent (0.49 ± 0.01 and 0.44 ± 0.03) during spring (March-May) and summer (June-August), respectively, suggest a flat AOD spectrum indicative of coarse-mode aerosol abundance compared with winter (December-February) and autumn (September-November), which are mostly dominated by fine aerosols from urban/industrial emissions and biomass burning. The columnar size distributions (CSD) retrieved from the King's inversion of spectral AOD exhibit bimodal size patterns during spring and autumn, while combinations of the power-law and unimodal distributions better simulate the retrieved CSDs during winter and summer. High values of extinction coefficient near the surface (∼0.8-1.0 km -1 at 532 nm) and a steep decreasing gradient above are observed via CALIPSO profiles in autumn and winter, while spring and summer exhibit elevated aerosol layers between ∼1.5 and 3.5 km due to the presence of dust. The particle depolarisation ratio shows a slight increasing trend with altitude, with higher values in spring and summer indicative of non-spherical particles of dust origin. The aerosol-climate implications are evaluated via the aerosol radiative forcing (ARF), which is estimated via the synergy of OPAC and SBDART models. On the monthly basis, the ARF values range from ∼ -30 to -90 W m -2 at the surface, while aerosols cause an overall cooling effect at the top of atmosphere (approx. -5 to -15 W m -2 ). The atmospheric heating via aerosol absorption results in heating rates of 1.2-1.6 K day -1 during March-June, which may contribute to changes in monsoon circulation over northern India and the Himalayas.

  11. Observation of Individual Particle Morphology, Mineralogy in tandem with Columnar Spectral Aerosol Optics: A Summertime Study over North western India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, S.; Saha, N.; Singh, S.; Agnihotri, R.; Sharma, C.; Prasad, M. V. S. N.; Arya, B. C.; Naaraayanan, T.; Gautam, S.; Rathore, J. S.; Soni, V. K.; Tawale, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Limitation over region specific data on dust morphology (particle shape, size) and mineralogy gives rise to uncertainty in estimation of optical and radiative properties of mineral dust (Mishra and Tripathi, 2008; Mishra et al., 2008). To address this issue over Indian arid zone (local source of mineral dust), a short field campaign was organized in Jodhpur, located in Rajasthan, a north western state of India, over seven sites (four in city and three far from city) with varying altitudes in June 2013. Jodhpur lies in vicinity of the Thar Desert of Rajasthan. Particles were collected on pure Tin substrates for individual particle morphological and elemental composition analysis using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) equipped with Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS). The morphological parameters (e.g. Aspect ratio; AR, Circulatory parameter; CIR.) were retrieved following Okada et al. (2001) using Image J software. Columnar spectral aerosol optical thickness has been measured by Microtops-II sun photometer for a set of five wavelengths (380 to 1020 nm) over all the sites in tandem with regional aerosol collection. SEM analysis reveals that the particles close to spherical shape (AR range 1.0-1.2) were found to be ~ 18% whereas particles with AR range 1.2-1.4 were found to be abundant (25%) followed with that of AR range 1.4-1.6 and 1.6-1.8 (each ~ 17%) and 1.8-2.0 (~ 14%) while the particles with AR >2 (highly non-spherical) were found to be ~ 8%. Here, it is noteworthy to mention that AR=1 for spherical particle while increasing AR (>1) exhibit increasing non-sphericity of particles. The EDS analysis reveals that 43% particles were observed with low hematite (H ≤ 1%; volume percentage), 24% (H 1-2 %), 14% (H 2-3%), 5% (H 3-4%) and 14% (H >4%). The aforementioned proportions will be extremely useful for simulating the optical and radiative properties of regional aerosols. From the Microtops-II observations, Ångström exponent for spectral interval of 380 to

  12. Large effect of columnar defects on the thermodynamic properties of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Beek, C. J.; Konczykowski, M.; Li, T. W.; Kes, P. H.; Benoit, W.

    1996-07-01

    The introduction of columnar defects by irradiation with 5.8-GeV Pb ions is shown to affect significantly the reversible magnetic properties of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ single crystals. Notably, the suppression of superconducting fluctuations on length scales greater than the separation between columns leads to the disappearance of the ``crossing point'' in the critical fluctuation regime. At lower temperatures, the strong modification of the vortex energy due to pinning leads to an important change of the reversible magnetization. The analysis of the latter permits the direct determination of the pinning energy.

  13. Dependence of J c on pinning center morphology: An explanation of record J c observed for discontinuous columnar pinning of vortices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinstein, R.; Gandini, A.; Parks, D.; Sawh, R.; Mayes, B.

    2006-01-01

    An experimental study of defects caused by ion irradiation has proven that very discontinuous multiple-in-line-damage results in much higher J c than continuous columnar pinning centers. This is contrary to conventional wisdom. We develop a first approximation to a theory relating J c to the morphology of pinning centers. Qualitative agreement with experiment is achieved. Conclusions indicate the relative importance of pinning potential, percolation, and critical temperature for various morphologies. Results suggest the leading importance of pinning, compared to texture, weak links and oxygenation in achievement of the goal of high J c especially in large grain HTS

  14. The importance of orientation in proton transport of a polymer film based on an oriented self-organized columnar liquid-crystalline polyether

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tylkowski, Bartosz; Castelao, Nuria [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. Paiesos Catalans, 26, E-43007, Tarragona (Spain); Giamberini, Marta, E-mail: marta.giamberini@urv.net [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. Paiesos Catalans, 26, E-43007, Tarragona (Spain); Garcia-Valls, Ricard [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. Paiesos Catalans, 26, E-43007, Tarragona (Spain); Reina, Jose Antonio [Departament de Quimica Analitica i Quimica Organica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Carrer Marcel.li Domingo s/n, E-43007, Tarragona (Spain); Gumi, Tania [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. Paiesos Catalans, 26, E-43007, Tarragona (Spain)

    2012-02-01

    We prepared membranes based on a liquid-crystalline side-chain polyether obtained by chemical modification of commercial poly(epichlorohydrin) (PECH) with dendrons. This polymer exhibited a columnar structure, which could form an ion channel in the inner part. The columns were successfully oriented by taking advantage of surface interactions between the polymer and hydrophilic substrates, as confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) and optical microscopy between crossed polars (POM). Column orientation was found to be crucial for effective transport: the oriented membranes exhibited proton transport comparable to that of Nafion Registered-Sign N117 and no water uptake. An increase in sodium ion concentration in the feed phase suggested a proton/cation antiport. On the contrary, no proton transport was detected on unoriented membranes based on the same liquid-crystalline side-chain polyether or on unmodified PECH. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We prepared oriented membranes based on a liquid crystalline columnar polyether. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In this structure, the inner polyether chain could work as an ion channel. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We obtained membranes by casting a chloroform solution in the presence of water. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Membranes showed good proton permeability due to the presence of oriented channels.

  15. The importance of orientation in proton transport of a polymer film based on an oriented self-organized columnar liquid-crystalline polyether

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tylkowski, Bartosz; Castelao, Nuria; Giamberini, Marta; Garcia-Valls, Ricard; Reina, José Antonio; Gumí, Tània

    2012-01-01

    We prepared membranes based on a liquid-crystalline side-chain polyether obtained by chemical modification of commercial poly(epichlorohydrin) (PECH) with dendrons. This polymer exhibited a columnar structure, which could form an ion channel in the inner part. The columns were successfully oriented by taking advantage of surface interactions between the polymer and hydrophilic substrates, as confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) and optical microscopy between crossed polars (POM). Column orientation was found to be crucial for effective transport: the oriented membranes exhibited proton transport comparable to that of Nafion® N117 and no water uptake. An increase in sodium ion concentration in the feed phase suggested a proton/cation antiport. On the contrary, no proton transport was detected on unoriented membranes based on the same liquid-crystalline side-chain polyether or on unmodified PECH. - Highlights: ► We prepared oriented membranes based on a liquid crystalline columnar polyether. ► In this structure, the inner polyether chain could work as an ion channel. ► We obtained membranes by casting a chloroform solution in the presence of water. ► Membranes showed good proton permeability due to the presence of oriented channels.

  16. Broad hexagonal columnar mesophases formation in bioinspired transition-metal complexes of simple fatty acid meta-octaester derivatives of meso-tetraphenyl porphyrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin; Chen, Keyang; Deng, Yuchen; Chen, Jian; Liu, Chengjie; Cheng, Rongshi; Chen, Dongzhong

    2015-02-23

    A series of meta-substituted fatty acid octaester derivatives and their transition-metal complexes of meso- tetraphenyl porphyrins (TPP-8OOCR, with R = C(n-1)H(2n-1), n = 8, 12, or 16) have been prepared through very simple synthesis protocols. The thermotropic phase behavior and the liquid crystalline (LC) organization structures of the synthesized porphyrin derivatives were systematically investigated by a combination of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), polarized optical microscopy (POM), and variable-temperature small-angle X-ray scattering/wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS) techniques. The shorter octanoic acid ester substituted porphyrin (C8-TPP) did not show liquid crystallinity and its metal porphyrins exhibited an uncommon columnar mesophase. The lauric acid octaester (C12-TPP) and the palmitic acid octaester (C16-TPP) series porphyrins generated hexagonal columnar mesophase Colh. Moreover, the metal porphyrins C12-TPPM and C16-TPPM with M = Zn, Cu, or Ni, exhibited well-organized Colh mesophases of broad LC temperature ranges increasing in the order of TPPNiacid octaester porphyrins and their metal complexes very attractive for variant applications. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Fabrication of field-effect transistor utilizing oriented thin film of octahexyl-substituted phthalocyanine and its electrical anisotropy based on columnar structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmori, Masashi; Nakatani, Mitsuhiro; Kajii, Hirotake; Miyamoto, Ayano; Yoneya, Makoto; Fujii, Akihiko; Ozaki, Masanori

    2018-03-01

    Field-effect transistors with molecularly oriented thin films of metal-free non-peripherally octahexyl-substituted phthalocyanine (C6PcH2), which characteristically form a columnar structure, have been fabricated, and the electrical anisotropy of C6PcH2 has been investigated. The molecularly oriented thin films of C6PcH2 were prepared by the bar-coating technique, and the uniform orientation in a large area and the surface roughness at a molecular level were observed by polarized spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy, respectively. The field effect mobilities parallel and perpendicular to the column axis of C6PcH2 were estimated to be (1.54 ± 0.24) × 10-2 and (2.10 ± 0.23) × 10-3 cm2 V-1 s-1, respectively. The electrical anisotropy based on the columnar structure has been discussed by taking the simulated results obtained by density functional theory calculation into consideration.

  18. Columnar recombination for X-ray generated electron-holes in amorphous selenium and its significance in a-Se x-ray detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bubon, O.; Jandieri, K.; Baranovskii, S. D.; Kasap, S. O.; Reznik, A.

    2016-01-01

    Although amorphous selenium (a-Se) has a long and successful history of application in optical and X-ray imaging, some of its fundamental properties are still puzzling. In particularly, the mechanism of carrier recombination following x-ray excitation and electric field and temperature dependences of the electron-hole pair creation energy (W_e_h_p) remain unclear. Using the combination of X-ray photocurrent and pulse height spectroscopy measurements, we measure W_e_h_p in a wide range of temperatures (218–320 K) and electric fields (10–100 V/µm) and show that the conventional columnar recombination model which assumes Langevin recombination within a column (a primary electron track) fails to explain experimental results in a wide range of electric fields and temperatures. The reason for the failure of the conventional model is revealed in this work, and the theory of the columnar recombination is modified to include the saturation of the recombination rate at high electric field in order to account for the experimental results in the entire range of fields and temperatures.

  19. Immunogenicity and safety of a novel monovalent high-dose inactivated poliovirus type 2 vaccine in infants: a comparative, observer-blind, randomised, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez-Llorens, Xavier; Clemens, Ralf; Leroux-Roels, Geert; Jimeno, José; Clemens, Sue Ann Costa; Weldon, William C; Oberste, M Steven; Molina, Natanael; Bandyopadhyay, Ananda S

    2016-03-01

    Following the proposed worldwide switch from trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (tOPV) to bivalent types 1 and 3 OPV (bOPV) in 2016, inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) will be the only source of protection against poliovirus type 2. With most countries opting for one dose of IPV in routine immunisation schedules during this transition because of cost and manufacturing constraints, optimisation of protection against all poliovirus types will be a priority of the global eradication programme. We assessed the immunogenicity and safety of a novel monovalent high-dose inactivated poliovirus type 2 vaccine (mIPV2HD) in infants. This observer-blind, comparative, randomised controlled trial was done in a single centre in Panama. We enrolled healthy infants who had not received any previous vaccination against poliovirus. Infants were randomly assigned (1:1) by computer-generated randomisation sequence to receive a single dose of either mIPV2HD or standard trivalent IPV given concurrently with a third dose of bOPV at 14 weeks of age. At 18 weeks, all infants were challenged with one dose of monovalent type 2 OPV (mOPV2). Primary endpoints were seroconversion and median antibody titres to type 2 poliovirus 4 weeks after vaccination with mIPV2HD or IPV; and safety (as determined by the proportion and nature of serious adverse events and important medical events for 8 weeks after vaccination). The primary immunogenicity analyses included all participants for whom a post-vaccination blood sample was available. All randomised participants were included in the safety analyses. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02111135. Between April 14 and May 9, 2014, 233 children were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive mIPV2HD (117 infants) or IPV (116 infants). 4 weeks after vaccination with mIPV2HD or IPV, seroconversion to poliovirus type 2 was recorded in 107 (93·0%, 95% CI 86·8-96·9) of 115 infants in the mIPV2HD group compared with 86 (74·8%, 65·8

  20. Cloning and identification of Group 1 mrp operon encoding a novel monovalent cation/proton antiporter system from the moderate halophile Halomonas zhaodongensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lin; Hong, Shan; Liu, Henan; Huang, Haipeng; Sun, Hao; Xu, Tong; Jiang, Juquan

    2014-11-01

    The novel species Halomonas zhaodongensis NEAU-ST10-25(T) recently identified by our group is a moderate halophile which can grow at the range of 0-2.5 M NaCl (optimum 0.5 M) and pH 6-12 (optimum pH 9). To explore its halo-alkaline tolerant mechanism, genomic DNA was screened from NEAU-ST10-25(T) in this study for Na(+)(Li(+))/H(+) antiporter genes by selection in Escherichia coli KNabc lacking three major Na(+)(Li(+))/H(+) antiporters. One mrp operon could confer tolerance of E. coli KNabc to 0.8 M NaCl and 100 mM LiCl, and an alkaline pH. This operon was previously mainly designated mrp (also mnh, pha or sha) due to its multiple resistance and pH-related activity. Here, we will also use mrp to designate the homolog from H. zhaodongensis (Hz_mrp). Sequence analysis and protein alignment showed that Hz_mrp should belong to Group 1 mrp operons. Further phylogenetic analysis reveals that Hz_Mrp system should represent a novel sub-class of Group 1 Mrp systems. This was confirmed by a significant difference in pH-dependent activity profile or the specificity and affinity for the transported monovalent cations between Hz_Mrp system and all the known Mrp systems. Therefore, we propose that Hz_Mrp should be categorized as a novel Group 1 Mrp system.

  1. International collaboration to assess the risk of Guillain Barré Syndrome following Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Caitlin N; Romio, Silvana A; Black, Steven; Vellozzi, Claudia; Andrews, Nick; Sturkenboom, Miriam; Zuber, Patrick; Hua, Wei; Bonhoeffer, Jan; Buttery, Jim; Crawford, Nigel; Deceuninck, Genevieve; de Vries, Corinne; De Wals, Philippe; Gutierrez-Gimeno, M Victoria; Heijbel, Harald; Hughes, Hayley; Hur, Kwan; Hviid, Anders; Kelman, Jeffrey; Kilpi, Tehri; Chuang, S K; Macartney, Kristine; Rett, Melisa; Lopez-Callada, Vesta Richardson; Salmon, Daniel; Gimenez-Sanchez, Francisco; Sanz, Nuria; Silverman, Barbara; Storsaeter, Jann; Thirugnanam, Umapathi; van der Maas, Nicoline; Yih, Katherine; Zhang, Tao; Izurieta, Hector

    2013-09-13

    The global spread of the 2009 novel pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus led to the accelerated production and distribution of monovalent 2009 Influenza A (H1N1) vaccines (pH1N1). This pandemic provided the opportunity to evaluate the risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), which has been an influenza vaccine safety concern since the swine flu pandemic of 1976, using a common protocol among high and middle-income countries. The primary objective of this project was to demonstrate the feasibility and utility of global collaboration in the assessment of vaccine safety, including countries both with and without an established infrastructure for vaccine active safety surveillance. A second objective, included a priori, was to assess the risk of GBS following pH1N1 vaccination. The primary analysis used the self-controlled case series (SCCS) design to estimate the relative incidence (RI) of GBS in the 42 days following vaccination with pH1N1 vaccine in a pooled analysis across databases and in analysis using a meta-analytic approach. We found a relative incidence of GBS of 2.42 (95% CI 1.58-3.72) in the 42 days following exposure to pH1N1 vaccine in analysis of pooled data and 2.09 (95% CI 1.28-3.42) using the meta-analytic approach. This study demonstrates that international collaboration to evaluate serious outcomes using a common protocol is feasible. The significance and consistency of our findings support a conclusion of an association between 2009 H1N1 vaccination and GBS. Given the rarity of the event the relative incidence found does not provide evidence in contradiction to international recommendations for the continued use of influenza vaccines. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Benzannulated tris(2-mercapto-1-imidazolyl)hydroborato ligands: tetradentate κ4-S3H binding and access to monomeric monovalent thallium in an [S3] coordination environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Yi; Palmer, Joshua H; Parkin, Gerard

    2014-01-21

    The benzannulated tris(mercaptoimidazolyl)borohydride sodium complex, [Tm(Bu(t)Benz)]Na, has been synthesized via the reaction of NaBH4 with 1-tert-butyl-1,3-dihydro-2H-benzimidazole-2-thione, while [Tm(MeBenz)]K has been synthesized via the reaction of KBH4 with 1-methyl-1,3-dihydro-2H-benzimidazole-2-thione. The molecular structures of the solvated adducts, {[Tm(Bu(t)Benz)]Na(THF)}2(μ-THF)2 and [Tm(MeBenz)]K(OCMe2)3, have been determined by X-ray diffraction, which demonstrates that the [Tm(R)] ligands in these complexes adopt different coordination modes to that in {[Tm(MeBenz)]Na}2(μ-THF)3. Specifically, while the [Tm(MeBenz)] ligand of the sodium complex {[Tm(MeBenz)]Na}2(μ-THF)3 adopts a κ(3)-S3 coordination mode, the potassium complex [Tm(MeBenz)]K(OCMe2)3 adopts a most uncommon inverted κ(4)-S3H coordination mode in which the potassium binds to all three sulfur donors and the hydrogen of the B-H group in a linear KH-B manner. Furthermore, the [Tm(Bu(t)Benz)] ligand of {[Tm(Bu(t)Benz)]Na(THF)}2(μ-THF)2 adopts a κ(3)-S2H coordination mode, thereby demonstrating the flexibility of this ligand system. The monovalent thallium compounds, [Tm(MeBenz)]Tl and [Tm(Bu(t)Benz)]Tl, have been obtained via the corresponding reactions of [Tm(MeBenz)]Na and [Tm(Bu(t)Benz)]Na with TlOAc. X-ray diffraction demonstrates that the three sulfur donors of the [Tm(RBenz)] ligands of both [Tm(MeBenz)]Tl and [Tm(Bu(t)Benz)]Tl chelate to thallium. This coordination mode is in marked contrast to that in other [Tm(R)]Tl compounds, which exist as dinuclear molecules wherein two of the sulfur donors coordinate to different thallium centers. As such, this observation provides further evidence that benzannulation promotes κ(3)-S3 coordination in this system.

  3. Efficacy of a Monovalent Human-Bovine (116E) Rotavirus Vaccine in Indian Infants: A Randomised Double Blind Placebo Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Nita; Rongsen-Chandola, Temsunaro; Bavdekar, Ashish; John, Jacob; Antony, Kalpana; Taneja, Sunita; Goyal, Nidhi; Kawade, Anand; Kang, Gagandeep; Rathore, Sudeep Singh; Juvekar, Sanjay; Muliyil, Jayaprakash; Arya, Alok; Shaikh, Hanif; Abraham, Vinod; Vrati, Sudhanshu; Proschan, Michael; Kohberger, Robert; Thiry, Georges; Glass, Roger; Greenberg, Harry B; Curlin, George; Mohan, Krishna; Harshavardhan, GVJA; Prasad, Sai; Rao, TS; Boslego, John; Bhan, Maharaj Kishan

    2015-01-01

    , the minimum interval between dosing and intussusception was 112 and 36 days, respectively. Interpretation The monovalent human-bovine (116E) rotavirus vaccine is effective and well-tolerated in Indian infants. PMID:24629994

  4. A boomerang-shaped reduction in interlayer phase coherence in Bi2Sr2CaCu208+y with splayed columnar defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, T; Shibauchi, T; Matsuda, Y; Thompson, J R; Krusin-Elbaum, L

    2009-01-01

    We present evidence for entangled solid vortex matter in a glassy state in a layered superconductor Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+y containing randomly splayed linear defects. The interlayer phase coherence(IPC)-probed by the Josephson plasma resonance-is enhanced at high temperatures, reflecting the recoupling of vortex liquid by the defects. At low temperatures in the vortex solid state, the interlayer coherence follows a boomerang-shaped reentrant temperature path with an unusual low field decrease in coherence, indicative of meandering vortices. This behavior suggests strongly suppressed IPC in this system, which may be explained by the vortex entanglement induced by the columnar defects in the 'splayed-glass' state.

  5. Study of the influence of volume fraction of ceramic inclusions in NiCr-TiC composite with columnar structure on its mechanical behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eremina, Galina M.; Smolin, Alexey Yu.; Shilko, Evgeny V.

    2017-12-01

    Metal-ceramic materials are characterized by high mechanical and tribological properties. The surface treatment of the composite by an electron beam in inert gas plasma leads to a qualitative and quantitative change in its microstructure as well as to a change in mechanical properties of the components: a columnar structure forms in the modified layer. Different treatment regimes result in different concentrations of inclusions in the surface layer. In this paper, the effect of the volume concentration of inclusions on the integral mechanical properties of a dispersion-strengthened NiCr-TiC composite is studied on the basis of 3D numerical simulation. The results of computer simulation show that the change in concentration significantly affects the integral mechanical characteristics of the composite material as well as the nature of the nucleation and development of damages in it.

  6. Growth of Hexagonal Columnar Nanograin Structured SiC Thin Films on Silicon Substrates with Graphene–Graphitic Carbon Nanoflakes Templates from Solid Carbon Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanshun Zhao

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We report a new method for growing hexagonal columnar nanograin structured silicon carbide (SiC thin films on silicon substrates by using graphene–graphitic carbon nanoflakes (GGNs templates from solid carbon sources. The growth was carried out in a conventional low pressure chemical vapor deposition system (LPCVD. The GGNs are small plates with lateral sizes of around 100 nm and overlap each other, and are made up of nanosized multilayer graphene and graphitic carbon matrix (GCM. Long and straight SiC nanograins with hexagonal shapes, and with lateral sizes of around 200–400 nm are synthesized on the GGNs, which form compact SiC thin films.

  7. Large piezoelectric strain with ultra-low strain hysteresis in highly c-axis oriented Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 films with columnar growth on amorphous glass substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Minh D.; Houwman, Evert P.; Rijnders, Guus

    2017-01-01

    Thin films of PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 (PZT) with largely detached columnar grains, deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on amorphous glass substrates covered with Ca2Nb3O10 nanosheets as growth template and using LaNiO3 electrode layers, are shown to exhibit very high unipolar piezoelectric strain

  8. Rainbow trout fed diets with varying content of marine and plant origin; how does that influence the outcome of experimental infections of the fry with Flavobacterium psychrophilum and Yersinia ruckeri?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lone; Ingerslev, Hans-Christian; Boye, Mette

    2014-01-01

    disease caused by Yersinia ruckeri is also an economically important disease which causes problems in rainbow trout fry as well as larger fish. Rainbow trout were fed from first-feeding with five different diets; diet A with marine fish oil (conventional fry diet), diet B (an organic version of A), diet C......Feed for rainbow trout aquaculture has traditionally been based on marine resources such as fish meal and fish oil. Because of a shortage of marine resources as well as the growing production of farmed fish, the feed industry has been forced to partially exchange fish meal protein with proteins...... with rape seed oil (like B but with rape seed oil exchanging marine fish oil), diet C with pea protein (like B but added pea protein) and diet E with rape seed oil and pea protein. When the fry had reached sizes 1.5 g and 4 g, groups of fish from the five diet groups were infected with Flavobacterium...

  9. Purified deoxynivalenol or feed restriction reduces mortality in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), with experimental bacterial coldwater disease but biologically relevant concentrations of deoxynivalenol do not impair the growth of Flavobacterium psychrophilum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryerse, I A; Hooft, J M; Bureau, D P; Hayes, M A; Lumsden, J S

    2015-09-01

    Diets containing deoxynivalenol (DON) were fed to rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) for 4 weeks followed by experimental infection (intraperitoneal) with Flavobacterium psychrophilum (4.1 × 10(6) colony-forming units [CFU] mL(-1) ). Mortality of rainbow trout fed either 6.4 mg kg(-1) DON or trout pair-fed the control diet was significantly reduced (P trout fed the control diet to apparent satiation (trout were fed one of three experimental diets; a control diet, a diet produced with corn naturally contaminated with DON (3.3 mg kg(-1) DON) or a diet containing purified DON (3.8 mg kg(-1) ); however, these fish were not experimentally infected. The presence of DON resulted in significant reduction (P trout fed diets containing purified DON (3.8 mg kg(-1) ) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) at 35 day post-exposure compared with controls. The antimicrobial activity of DON was examined by subjecting F. psychrophilum in vitro to serial dilutions of the chemical. Complete inhibition occurred at a concentration of 75 mg L(-1) DON, but no effect was observed below this concentration (0-30 mg L(-1) ). © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Impacts of parasite infection on columnaris disease of tilapia

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is no information available on whether parasite infection will increase the susceptibility of tilapia to Flavobacterium columnare and whether parasite treatment could improve fish survival after F. columnare exposure. Two trials were conducted to evaluate 1) the susceptibility of hybrid tilapi...

  11. Efecto de la densidad de semillas en la germinación de Isolatocereus dumortieri y Myrtillocactus geometrizans, cactáceas columnares endémicas de México Effect of seed density on germination of Isolatocereus dumortieri and Myrtillocactus geometrizans, endemic columnar cacti species from Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Flores

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto de la densidad de semillas en la germinación de 2 cactáceas columnares: Isolatocereus dumortieri y Myrtillocactus geometrizans. Se utilizaron 5 tratamientos de densidad de semillas (1, 5, 10, 20 y 50 semillas. Isolatocereus dumortieri mostró menor porcentaje de germinación con el aumento de la densidad, mientras que la germinación de M. geometrizans no fue afectada por la densidad de semillas. Estos resultados sugieren que las plántulas de I. dumortieri podrían competir por recursos.The effect of seed density on the germination of 2 columnar cactus species (Isolatocereus dumortieri and Myrtillocactus geometrizans was evaluated using 5 seed density treatments (1, 5, 10, 20 and 50 seeds. Isolatocereus dumortieri had a lower germination percentage with increasing seed density; germination of M. geometrizans was not affected by seed density. These results suggest that I. dumortieri seedlings might compete for resources with siblings.

  12. Monovalent type-1 oral poliovirus vaccine given at short intervals in Pakistan: a randomised controlled, four-arm, open-label, non-inferiority trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Fatima; Quadri, Farheen; Mach, Ondrej; Ahmed, Imran; Bhatti, Zaid; Khan, Asia; Rehman, Najeeb Ur; Durry, Elias; Salama, Maha; Oberste, Steven M; Weldon, William C; Sutter, Roland W; Zaidi, Anita K M

    2015-08-01

    Supplementary immunisation activities with oral poliovirus vaccines (OPVs) are usually separated by 4 week intervals; however, shorter intervals have been used in security-compromised areas and for rapid outbreak responses. We assessed the immunogenicity of monovalent type-1 oral poliovirus vaccine (mOPV1) given at shorter than usual intervals in Karachi, Pakistan. This was a multicentre, randomised, controlled, four-arm, open-label, non-inferiority trial done at five primary health-care centres in low-income communities in and around Karachi, Pakistan. Eligible participants were healthy newborn babies with a birthweight of at least 2·5 kg, for whom informed consent was provided by their parent or guardian, and lived less than 30 km from the study clinic. After receiving a birth dose of trivalent OPV, we enrolled and randomly assigned newborn babies (1:1:1:1) to receive two doses of mOPV1 with an interval of 1 week (mOPV1-1 week), 2 weeks (mOPV1-2 weeks), or 4 weeks (mOPV1-4 weeks) between doses, or two doses of bivalent OPV (bOPV) with an interval of 4 weeks between doses (bOPV-4 weeks). We gave the first study dose of OPV at age 6 weeks. We did the randomisation with a centrally generated, computerised allocation sequence with blocks of 16; participants' families and study physicians could not feasibly be masked to the allocations. Trial participants were excluded from local supplementary immunisation activities during the study period. The primary outcome was non-inferiority (within a 20% margin) between groups in seroconversion to type-1 poliovirus. The primary and safety analyses were done in the per-protocol population of infants who received all three doses of vaccine. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01586572, and is closed to new participants. Between March 1, 2012, and May 31, 2013, we enrolled 1009 newborn babies, and randomly assigned 829 (82%) to treatment. 554 (67%) of the 829 babies were included in the per

  13. Immunogenicity of type 2 monovalent oral and inactivated poliovirus vaccines for type 2 poliovirus outbreak response: an open-label, randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Khalequ; Estívariz, Concepción F; Morales, Michelle; Yunus, Mohammad; Snider, Cynthia J; Gary, Howard E; Weldon, William C; Oberste, M Steven; Wassilak, Steven G; Pallansch, Mark A; Anand, Abhijeet

    2018-03-20

    Monovalent type 2 oral poliovirus vaccine (mOPV2) and inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) are used to respond to type 2 poliovirus outbreaks. We aimed to assess the effect of two mOPV2 doses on the type 2 immune response by varying the time interval between mOPV2 doses and IPV co-administration with mOPV2. We did a randomised, controlled, parallel, open-label, non-inferiority, inequality trial at two study clinics in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Healthy infants aged 6 weeks (42-48 days) at enrolment were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1) to receive two mOPV2 doses (each dose consisting of two drops [0·1 mL in total] of about 10 5 50% cell culture infectious dose of type 2 Sabin strain) at intervals of 1 week, 2 weeks, 4 weeks (standard or control group), or 4 weeks with IPV (0·5 mL of type 1 [Mahoney, 40 D-antigen units], type 2 [MEF-1, 8 D-antigen units], and type 3 [Saukett, 32 D-antigen units]) administered intramuscularly with the first mOPV2 dose. We used block randomisation, randomly selecting blocks of sizes four, eight, 12, or 16 stratified by study sites. We concealed randomisation assignment from staff managing participants in opaque, sequentially numbered, sealed envelopes. Parents and clinic staff were unmasked to assignment after the randomisation envelope was opened. Laboratory staff analysing sera were masked to assignment, but investigators analysing data and assessing outcomes were not. The primary outcome was type 2 immune response measured 4 weeks after mOPV2 administration. The primary modified intention-to-treat analysis included participants with testable serum samples before and after vaccination. A non-inferiority margin of 10% and p=0·05 (one-tailed) was used. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02643368, and is closed to accrual. Between Dec 7, 2015, and Jan 5, 2016, we randomly assigned 760 infants to receive two mOPV2 doses at intervals of 1 week (n=191), 2 weeks (n=191), 4 weeks (n=188), or 4 weeks plus IPV (n=190). Immune

  14. Efficacy of a monovalent human-bovine (116E) rotavirus vaccine in Indian infants: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Nita; Rongsen-Chandola, Temsunaro; Bavdekar, Ashish; John, Jacob; Antony, Kalpana; Taneja, Sunita; Goyal, Nidhi; Kawade, Anand; Kang, Gagandeep; Rathore, Sudeep Singh; Juvekar, Sanjay; Muliyil, Jayaprakash; Arya, Alok; Shaikh, Hanif; Abraham, Vinod; Vrati, Sudhanshu; Proschan, Michael; Kohberger, Robert; Thiry, Georges; Glass, Roger; Greenberg, Harry B; Curlin, George; Mohan, Krishna; Harshavardhan, G V J A; Prasad, Sai; Rao, T S; Boslego, John; Bhan, Maharaj Kishan

    2014-06-21

    Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe dehydrating gastroenteritis in developing countries. Safe, effective, and affordable rotavirus vaccines are needed in these countries. We aimed to assess the efficacy and tolerability of a monovalent human-bovine rotavirus vaccine for severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in low-resource urban and rural settings in India. We did a randomised double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial at three sites in Delhi (urban), Pune (rural), and Vellore (urban and rural) between March 11, 2011, and Nov 5, 2012. Infants aged 6-7 weeks were randomly assigned (2:1), via a central interactive voice or web response system with a block size of 12, to receive either three doses of oral human-bovine natural reassortant vaccine (116E) or placebo at ages 6-7 weeks, 10 weeks, and 14 weeks. Infants' families, study investigators, paediatricians in referral hospitals, laboratory staff, and committee members were all masked to treatment allocation. The primary outcome was incidence of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis (≥11 on the Vesikari scale). Efficacy outcomes and adverse events were ascertained through active surveillance. Analysis was by intention to treat and per protocol. The trial is registered with Clinical Trial Registry-India (CTRI/2010/091/000102) and ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01305109). 4532 infants were assigned to receive the 116E vaccine and 2267 to receive placebo, of whom 4354 (96%) and 2187 (96%) infants, respectively, were included in the primary per-protocol efficacy analysis. 71 events of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis were reported in 4752 person-years in infants in the vaccine group compared with 76 events in 2360 person-years in those in the placebo group; vaccine efficacy against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis was 53·6% (95% CI 35·0-66·9; p=0·0013) and 56·4% (36·6-70·1; protavirus gastroenteritis episode was 55 (95% CI 37-97). The incidence of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis per 100 person-years was 1·5

  15. Experimental study on Hg{sup 0} removal from flue gas over columnar MnO{sub x}-CeO{sub 2}/activated coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Yine [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control, Hunan University, Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Li, Caiting, E-mail: ctli@hnu.edu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control, Hunan University, Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Zhao, Lingkui; Zhang, Jie; Zeng, Guangming; Zhang, Xunan; Zhang, Wei; Tao, Shasha [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control, Hunan University, Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2015-04-01

    Highlights: • The Hg{sup 0} removal efficiency over columnar MnCe6/activated coke up to 94%. • MnO{sub x} and CeO{sub 2} exhibited a significant synergistic role in Hg{sup 0} removal over MnCe/AC. • Lattice oxygen, chemisorbed oxygen and OH groups on the surface of MnCe/AC contributed to Hg{sup 0} oxidation. • Hg{sup 0} removal mechanisms over MnCe/AC were identified firstly. - Abstract: Mn-Ce mixed oxides supported on commercial columnar activated coke (MnCe/AC) were employed to remove elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) at low temperatures (100–250 °C) without the assistance of HCl in flue gas. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and temperature programmed desorption (TPD). Effects of some factors, including Mn-Ce loading values, active component, reaction temperatures and flue gas components (O{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, NO, H{sub 2}O), on Hg{sup 0} removal efficiency were investigated. Results indicated that the optimal Mn-Ce loading value and reaction temperature were 6% and 190 °C, respectively. Considerable high Hg{sup 0} removal efficiency (>90%) can be obtained over MnCe6/AC under both N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} atmosphere and simulated flue gas atmosphere at 190 °C. Besides, it was observed that O{sub 2} and NO exerted a promotional effect on Hg{sup 0} removal, H{sub 2}O exhibited a suppressive effect, and SO{sub 2} hindered Hg{sup 0} removal seriously when in the absence of O{sub 2}. Furthermore, the XPS spectra of Hg 4f and Hg-TPD results showed that the captured mercury were existed as Hg{sup 0} and HgO on the MnCe6/AC, and HgO was the major species, which illustrated that adsorption and catalytic oxidation process were included for Hg{sup 0} removal over MnCe6/AC, and catalytic oxidation played the critical role. What's more, both lattice oxygen and chemisorbed oxygen or OH groups on MnCe6/AC contributed to Hg{sup 0} oxidation. MnCe6/AC, which exhibited

  16. hybrid\\scriptsize{{MANTIS}}: a CPU-GPU Monte Carlo method for modeling indirect x-ray detectors with columnar scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Diksha; Badal, Andreu; Badano, Aldo

    2012-04-01

    The computational modeling of medical imaging systems often requires obtaining a large number of simulated images with low statistical uncertainty which translates into prohibitive computing times. We describe a novel hybrid approach for Monte Carlo simulations that maximizes utilization of CPUs and GPUs in modern workstations. We apply the method to the modeling of indirect x-ray detectors using a new and improved version of the code \\scriptsize{{MANTIS}}, an open source software tool used for the Monte Carlo simulations of indirect x-ray imagers. We first describe a GPU implementation of the physics and geometry models in fast\\scriptsize{{DETECT}}2 (the optical transport model) and a serial CPU version of the same code. We discuss its new features like on-the-fly column geometry and columnar crosstalk in relation to the \\scriptsize{{MANTIS}} code, and point out areas where our model provides more flexibility for the modeling of realistic columnar structures in large area detectors. Second, we modify \\scriptsize{{PENELOPE}} (the open source software package that handles the x-ray and electron transport in \\scriptsize{{MANTIS}}) to allow direct output of location and energy deposited during x-ray and electron interactions occurring within the scintillator. This information is then handled by optical transport routines in fast\\scriptsize{{DETECT}}2. A load balancer dynamically allocates optical transport showers to the GPU and CPU computing cores. Our hybrid\\scriptsize{{MANTIS}} approach achieves a significant speed-up factor of 627 when compared to \\scriptsize{{MANTIS}} and of 35 when compared to the same code running only in a CPU instead of a GPU. Using hybrid\\scriptsize{{MANTIS}}, we successfully hide hours of optical transport time by running it in parallel with the x-ray and electron transport, thus shifting the computational bottleneck from optical to x-ray transport. The new code requires much less memory than \\scriptsize{{MANTIS}} and, as a result

  17. Micron-sized columnar grains of CH3NH3PbI3 grown by solvent-vapor assisted low-temperature (75 °C) solid-state reaction: The role of non-coordinating solvent-vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huifeng; Liu, Yangqiao; Sun, Jing

    2018-04-01

    The preparation of hybrid perovskite films with large columnar grains via low-temperature solid-state reaction remains a big challenge. Conventional solvent annealing using DMF, DMSO and ethanol, etc. fails to work effectively at low temperature (solar cells based on benzyl-alcohol-vapor annealing (75 °C), delivered much higher photovoltaic performance, better stability and smaller hysteresis than those based on conventional thermal annealing. Additionally, a champion power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 15.1% was obtained and the average PCE reached 12.2% with a tiny deviation. Finally, the mechanism of solvent annealing with non-coordinating solvent was discussed. Moreover, we revealed that high polarity and high boiling point of the solvent used for generating vapor, was critical to grow micron-sized columnar grains at such a low temperature (75 °C). This work will contribute to understanding the mechanism of grain growth in solvent annealing and improving its facility and effectiveness.

  18. Gas-operated heat pump for monovalent space heating and tap water heating. A seizable contribution to carbon dioxide emission control; Gasbetriebene Waermepumpe zur monovalenten Raumbeheizung und Trinkwassererwaermung. Ein greifbarer Beitrag zur Reduktion der CO{sub 2}-Emissionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heikrodt, K.; Heckt, R. [Viessmann Werke GmbH und Co., Allendorf (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    The project had the objectives to develop a Vuilleumier heat pump for space heating and make an experimental study testing it as a heat generator for a heating system for one- and multi-family houses. Apart from monovalent operation, the following boundary conditions were defined: provision for connection to existing heating systems, even radiator heatings with 75 C/60 C, tap water heating, and air-source heat. Performance constant, manufacturing cost, freedom from maintenance, and service life were taken into consideration in the design, rating and construction of the unit. (orig.) [German] Ziel des Vorhabens war die Entwicklung einer Vuilleumier-Waermepumpe zur Raumbeheizung und deren experimentelle Untersuchung als Waermeerzeuger fuer ein Heizungssystem in Ein- und Mehrfamilienhaeusern. Als Rahmebedingungen wurden neben einer monovalenten Betriebsweise auch die moegliche Anbindung an bestehende Heizungssysteme, sogar Radiatorheizungen mit 75 C/60 C, Trinkwassererwaermung und Luft als Waermequelle festgelegt. Leistungszahl, Herstellkosten, Wartungsfreiheit und Lebensdauer wurden in Konzeption, Auslegung und Konstruktion beruecksichtigt. (orig.)

  19. Photoluminescence and charge-transport characteristics of nano-columnar titanium dioxide films prepared by rf-sputtering on alumina templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirandish, E.; Hosseini, T.; Yavarishad, N.; King, S.; Kouklin, N.

    2018-02-01

    The current study presents the synthesis and characterization of poly-crystalline TiO2 thin-film prepared by rf-sputtering on top of a highly regimented nanoporous Au-coated Al2O3 substrate. The film’s physical and electronic properties were characterized via SEM, EDS, x-ray diffraction and RAMAN spectroscopy as well as temperature dependent photoluminescence (PL) and I-V measurements. The films feature a 1D, columnar-like structure and exhibit a medium strength, spectrally-broad light emission in the UV-visible range. PL emission shows a weak T-dependence and is attributed to interband electronic transitions and defect-assisted radiative recombinations. The charge transport is confirmed to be polaronic in nature with both thermally-assisted hopping and quantum mechanical tunneling regulating a charge flow within the columns in the intermediate temperature regime of ˜200-320 K. These results open a door to utilizing nano-textured substrates/scaffolds to produce electronic-grade anatase TiO2 by sputtering for advanced opto-electronic device applications.

  20. Pinning effect on critical dynamics in Tl2Ba2CaCu2O8 films before and after introducing columnar defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.-T.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of columnar defects on the critical dynamics of superconducting Tl 2 Ba 2 CaCu 2 O 8 (Tl-2212) film has been investigated. The Tl-2212 film was irradiated at 0 C by 1.3 GeV U-ions along the normal of the film surface. The dose of 6.0 x 10 10 ions/cm 2 of the U-ion irradiation corresponds to a matching field of 1.2 T. The in-plane longitudinal resistivity of the irradiated Tl-2212 has been measured as a function of magnetic field H and temperature T. The extracted fluctuation part of the conductivity σ xx (T, H) of the unirradiated sample exhibits 3D-XY scaling behavior that reveals dynamic critical exponent z = 1.8 ± 0.1 and static critical exponent v ∼ 1.338. The results indicate that the weak interlayer coupling along the c-axis of Tl-2212 significantly influences static critical exponent v and does not change dynamical critical exponent. After the irradiation, the fluctuation conductivities are enhanced by the strong pinnings and do not exhibit the same 3D-XY scaling behavior as for the unirradiated Tl-2212. Particularly at the low magnetic field values near the matching field of 1.2 T, the fluctuation conductivities show a clear deviation from the critical dynamics, suggesting that the pinning effect on the critical dynamics is significant

  1. Evidence for low temperature line-like behaviour of vortices in columnar defected Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebert, S; Perkins, G K; El-Salam, M Abd; Caplin, A D

    2003-01-01

    The interaction between vortices and columnar defects has been investigated in detail in Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8 crystals irradiated with heavy ions along one direction, in one sample at 45 deg. from the c-axis, and in another at 75 deg. At all temperatures down to ∼30 K the irreversible magnetization is a maximum when the field is aligned with columns, although this peak is much more prominent at high temperatures and when the irreversibility field is approached. In the temperature-field-angle regime where the effect of the columns is dominant, the creep rate is close to 0.3, with little field or temperature dependence. These results can be understood in terms of line-like vortices, pinned both by columns and by point-like disorder, with much of the latter arising from collateral damage by the irradiation. The narrowness of the peak in the angular dependences is consistent with a locked state of the vortices to the columns

  2. SIMULACIÓN DE FORMACIÓN DE ESTRUCTURAS DE GRANO PERIMETRAL, COLUMNAR Y EQUIAXIAL EN SECCIONES DE ACERO INCLUYENDO RUTINAS DE PRE-SOLIDIFICACIÓN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adán Ramírez-López

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo muestra el desarrollo y la implementación de algoritmos computacionales basados en teoría del caos y autómatas celulares para la simulación del crecimiento de granos en secciones cuadradas de acero producidas por colada continua. Se desarrollaron tres algoritmos para la simulación de las estructuras de grano en las zonas perimetral, columnar y equiaxial; incluyen rutinas para estimular la nucleación y crecimiento del grano. Estas fueron compiladas separadamente al algoritmo principal con el objeto de hacer más eficiente el sistema de simulación. Los algoritmos analizan todos los nodos a cada paso, durante la simulación de cálculo y una interfase de despliegue gráfico muestra en la pantalla el proceso de solidificación. La teoría del caos fue empleada integrando un proceso aleatorio de selección. El resultado de este análisis es una imagen digital de celdas que representan a los granos (autómata celular y es desplegada en la pantalla en función a un código numérico asignado a las posiciones nodales.

  3. A new strategy to engineer polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells with thick active layers via self-assembly of the tertiary columnar phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongfei; Yang, Zhenhua; Pan, Cheng; Jiang, Naisheng; Satija, Sushil K; Xu, Di; Gersappe, Dilip; Nam, Chang-Yong; Rafailovich, Miriam H

    2017-08-17

    We report that the addition of a non-photoactive tertiary polymer phase in the binary bulk heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cell leads to a self-assembled columnar nanostructure, enhancing the charge mobilities and photovoltaic efficiency with surprisingly increased optimal active blend thicknesses over 300 nm, 3-4 times larger than that of the binary counterpart. Using the prototypical poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):fullerene blend as a model BHJ system, we discover that the inert poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) added in the binary BHJ blend self-assembles into vertical columns, which not only template the phase segregation of electron acceptor fullerenes but also induce the out-of-plane rotation of the edge-on-orientated crystalline P3HT phase. Using complementary interrogation methods including neutron reflectivity, X-ray scattering, atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and molecular dynamics simulations, we show that the enhanced charge transport originates from the more randomized molecular stacking of the P3HT phase and the spontaneous segregation of fullerenes at the P3HT/PMMA interface, driven by the high surface tension between the two polymeric components. The results demonstrate a potential method for increasing the thicknesses of high-performance polymer BHJ solar cells with improved photovoltaic efficiency, alleviating the burden of stringently controlling the ultrathin blend thickness during the roll-to-roll-type large-area manufacturing environment.

  4. Selective Electron Beam Manufacturing of Ti-6Al-4V Strips: Effect of Build Orientation, Columnar Grain Orientation, and Hot Isostatic Pressing on Tensile Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Tang, H. P.; Yang, K.; Liu, N.; Jia, L.; Qian, M.

    2018-03-01

    Many novel designs for additive manufacturing (AM) contain thin-walled (≤ 3 mm) sections in different orientations. Selective electron beam melting (SEBM) is particularly suited to AM of such thin-walled titanium components because of its high preheating temperature and high vacuum. However, experimental data on SEBM of Ti-6Al-4V thin sections remains scarce because of the difficulty and high cost of producing long, thin and smooth strip tensile specimens (see Fig. 1). In this study, 80 SEBM Ti-6Al-4V strips (180 mm long, 42 mm wide, 3 mm thick) were built both vertically (V-strips) and horizontally (H-strips). Their density, microstructure and tensile properties were investigated. The V-strips showed clearly higher tensile strengths but lower elongation than the H-strips. Hot isostatic pressing (HIP) produced the same lamellar α-β microstructures in terms of the average α-lath thickness in both types of strips. The retained prior-β columnar grain boundaries after HIP showed no measurable influence on the tensile properties, irrespective of their length and orientation, because of the formation of randomly distributed fine α-laths.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  5. The accuracy of a 2D and 3D dendritic tip scaling parameter in predicting the columnar to equiaxed transition (CET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seredyński, M.; Rebow, M.; Banaszek, J.

    2016-09-01

    The dendrite tip kinetics model accuracy relies on the reliability of the stability constant used, which is usually experimentally determined for 3D situations and applied to 2D models. The paper reports authors' attempts to cure the situation by deriving 2D dendritic tip scaling parameter for aluminium-based alloy: Al-4wt%Cu. The obtained parameter is then incorporated into the KGT dendritic growth model in order to compare it with the original 3D KGT counterpart and to derive two-dimensional and three-dimensional versions of the modified Hunt's analytical model for the columnar-to-equiaxed transition (CET). The conclusions drawn from the above analysis are further confirmed through numerical calculations of the two cases of Al-4wt%Cu metallic alloy solidification using the front tracking technique. Results, including the porous zone-under-cooled liquid front position, the calculated solutal under-cooling and a new predictor of the relative tendency to form an equiaxed zone, are shown, compared and discussed two numerical cases. The necessity to calculate sufficiently precise values of the tip scaling parameter in 2D and 3D is stressed.

  6. The lack of age-pigments and the alterations in intracellular monovalent electrolytes in spontaneously hypertensive, stroke-prone (SHRsp) rats as revealed by electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, I.; Nagy, V.; Casoli, T.; Lustyik, G.

    1989-01-01

    Male, spontaneously hypertensive, stroke-prone (SHRsp) rats established by Okamoto et al. were studied. About 80% of the males of this strain have a particularly short life span (33-41 weeks); they display a considerable hypertension (above 220 mmHg) and a tendency for plurifocal brain strokes. Hypertension and strokes can be provoked in an accelerated and synchronized fashion by supplementing 1% NaCl into their drinking water. Symptoms of the appearance of brain strokes can be judged from characteristic signs of motor disorders, and can be established also by pathohistology. Since hypertension and arteriosclerosis are frequently involved in aging, the question we intended to answer was whether these animals may represent a model of the normal aging process or not. Two approaches are described: (1) Accumulation of lipofuscin granules in their brain, liver and myocardium was followed by transmission electron microscopy before and after the appearance of strokes. It has been established that these tissues do not show any typical accumulation of lipofuscin granules, although submicroscopic signs of an enhanced damage of cell organelles (especially of mitochondria in liver and brain cells, but not in myocardium) were encountered. (2) The intracellular monovalent composition in the brain and liver was measured by using bulk-specimen X-ray microanalysis. The intracellular Na-content (mEq/kg water) was significantly higher (170-200%) in both the brain and liver cells, whereas the K-content increased only moderately (118-130%). The results suggest that although the SHRsp rats do not represent a direct model for the normal aging process from the point of view of lipofuscin accumulation, the shifts of the monovalent electrolyte contents in the brain and liver cells observed already in the youngest ages, are similar to those observed in aged normal rats

  7. The effects of monovalent and divalent cations on the stability of silver nanoparticles formed from direct reduction of silver ions by Suwannee River humic acid/natural organic matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akaighe, Nelson [Chemistry Department, Florida Institute of Technology, 150 West University Boulevard, Melbourne, FL 32901 (United States); Depner, Sean W.; Banerjee, Sarbajit [Department of Chemistry, 410 Natural Sciences Complex, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260-3000 (United States); Sharma, Virender K. [Chemistry Department, Florida Institute of Technology, 150 West University Boulevard, Melbourne, FL 32901 (United States); Sohn, Mary, E-mail: msohn@fit.edu [Chemistry Department, Florida Institute of Technology, 150 West University Boulevard, Melbourne, FL 32901 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    The formation and characterization of AgNPs (silver nanoparticles) formed from the reduction of Ag{sup +} by SRNOM (Suwannee River natural organic matter) is reported. The images of SRNOM-formed AgNPs and the selected area electron diffraction (SAED) were captured by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The colloidal and chemical stability of SRNOM- and SRHA (Suwannee River humic acid)-formed AgNPs in different ionic strength solutions of NaCl, KCl, CaCl{sub 2} and MgCl{sub 2} was investigated in an effort to evaluate the key fate and transport processes of these nanoparticles in natural aqueous environments. The aggregation state, stability and sedimentation rate of the AgNPs were monitored by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), zeta potential, and UV-vis measurements. The results indicate that both types of AgNPs are very unstable in high ionic strength solutions. Interestingly, the nanoparticles appeared more unstable in divalent cation solutions than in monovalent cation solutions at similar concentrations. Furthermore, the presence of SRNOM and SRHA contributed to the nanoparticle instability at high ionic strength in divalent metallic cation solutions, most likely due to intermolecular bridging with the organic matter. The results clearly suggest that changes in solution chemistry greatly affect nanoparticle long term stability and transport in natural aqueous environments. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Formation of SRNOM-AgNPs under environmentally relevant conditions Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Influence of monovalent versus divalent cations on SRHA- and SRNOM-AgNP stability Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effect of AgNPs on organic matter removal from water columns.

  8. Differential Deformability of the DNA Minor Groove and Altered BI/BII Backbone Conformational Equilibrium by the Monovalent Ions Li+, Na+, K+ and Rb+ via Water-Mediated Hydrogen Bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savelyev, Alexey; MacKerell, Alexander D.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we reported the differential impact of the monovalent cations Li+, Na+, K+ and Rb+ on DNA conformational properties. These were identified from variations in the calculated solution-state X-ray DNA spectra as a function of the ion type in the solvation buffer in MD simulations using our recently developed polarizable force field based on the classical Drude oscillator. Changes in the DNA structure were found to mainly involve variations in the minor groove width. Because minor groove dimensions vary significantly in protein-DNA complexes and have been shown to play a critical role in both specific and nonspecific DNA readout, understanding the origins of the observed differential DNA modulation by the first-group monovalent ions is of great biological importance. In the present study we show that the primary microscopic mechanism for the phenomenon is the formation of the water-mediated hydrogen bonds between solvated cations located inside the minor groove and simultaneously to two DNA strands, a process whose intensity and impact on DNA structure depends on both the type of the ion and DNA sequence. Additionally, it is shown that formation of such ion-DNA hydrogen bond complexes appreciably modulates the conformation of the backbone by increasing the population of the BII substate. Notably, the differential impact of the ions on DNA conformational behavior is only predicted by the Drude polarizable model for DNA, with virtually no effect observed from MD simulations utilizing the additive CHARMM36 model. Analysis of dipole moments of the water shows the Drude SWM4 model to possess high sensitivity to changes in the local environment, which indicates the important role of electronic polarization in the salt-dependent conformational properties. This also suggests that inclusion of polarization effects is required to model even relatively simple biological systems such as DNA in various ionic solutions. PMID:26575937

  9. Comparison of Head Scatter Factor for 6MV and 10MV flattened (FB) and Unflattened (FFF) Photon Beam using indigenously Designed Columnar Mini Phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashokkumar, Sigamani; Nambi Raj, N Arunai; Sinha, Sujit Nath; Yadav, Girigesh; Thiyagarajan, Rajesh; Raman, Kothanda; Mishra, Manindra Bhushan

    2014-07-01

    To measure and compare the head scatter factor for flattened (FB) and unflattened (FFF) of 6MV and 10MV photon beam using indigenously designed mini phantom. A columnar mini phantom was designed as recommended by AAPM Task Group 74 with low and high atomic number materials at 10 cm (mini phantom) and at approximately twice the depth of maximum dose water equivalent thickness (brass build-up cap). Scatter in the accelerator (Sc) values of 6MV-FFF photon beams are lesser than that of the 6MV-FB photon beams (0.66-2.8%; Clinac iX, 2300CD) and (0.47-1.74%; True beam) for field sizes ranging from 10 × 10 cm(2) to 40 × 40 cm(2). Sc values of 10MV-FFF photon beams are lesser (0.61-2.19%; True beam) than that of the 10MV-FB photons beams for field sizes ranging from 10 × 10 cm(2) to 40 × 40 cm(2). The SSD had no influence on head scatter for both flattened and unflattened beams and irrespective of head design of the different linear accelerators. The presence of field shaping device influences the Sc values. The collimator exchange effect reveals that the opening of the upper jaw increases Sc irrespective of FB or FFF photon beams and different linear accelerators, and it is less significant in FFF beams. Sc values of 6MV-FB square field were in good agreement with that of AAPM, TG-74 published data for Varian (Clinac iX, 2300CD) accelerator. Our results confirm that the removal of flattening filter decreases in the head scatter factor compared to flattened beam. This could reduce the out-of-field dose in advanced treatment delivery techniques.

  10. Growth and microstructure of columnar Y-doped SrZrO{sub 3} films deposited on Pt-coated MgO by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Sijun, E-mail: sluo1@tulane.edu; Riggs, Brian C.; Shipman, Joshua T.; Adireddy, Shiva; Sklare, Samuel C.; Chrisey, Douglas B., E-mail: dchrisey@tulane.edu [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana 70118 (United States); Zhang, Xiaodong; Koplitz, Brent [Department of Chemistry, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana 70118 (United States)

    2015-07-21

    Direct integration of proton conductor films on Pt-coated substrates opens the way to film-based proton transport devices. Columnar SrZr{sub 0.95}Y{sub 0.05}O{sub 3−δ} (SZY) films with dense microstructure were deposited on Pt-coated MgO(100) substrates at 830 °C by pulsed laser deposition. The optimal window of ambient O{sub 2} pressure for good crystallinity of SZY films is from 400 to 600 mTorr. The ambient O{sub 2} compresses the plasma plume of SZY and increases the deposition rate. The 10 nm thick Ti adhesion layer on MgO(100) greatly affects the orientation of the sputtered Pt layers. Pt deposited directly on MgO shows a highly (111)-preferred orientation and leads to preferentially oriented SZY films while the addition of a Ti adhesion layer makes Pt show a less preferential orientation that leads to randomly oriented SZY films. The RMS surface roughness of preferentially oriented SZY films is larger than that of randomly oriented SZY films deposited under the same ambient O{sub 2} pressure. As the O{sub 2} pressure increased, the RMS surface roughness of preferentially oriented SZY films increased, reaching 45.7 nm (2.61% of film thickness) at 600 mTorr. This study revealed the ambient O{sub 2} pressure and orientation dependent surface roughness of SZY films grown on Pt-coated MgO substrates, which provides the potential to control the surface microstructure of SZY films for electrochemical applications in film-based hydrogen devices.

  11. Enhanced solar cell efficiency and stability using ZnS passivation layer for CdS quantum-dot sensitized actinomorphic hexagonal columnar ZnO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yanli; Tao, Qiang; Fu, Wuyou; Yang, Haibin; Zhou, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yanyan; Su, Shi; Wang, Peng; Li, Minghui

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The synthetic of ZnS/CdS QDs/AHC-ZnO photoanode with a simple method. • The power conversion efficiency of the ZnS/CdS QDs/AHC-ZnO is 1.81%. • The effects of photovoltaic performances caused by CdS and ZnS amounts were studied. • ZnS passivation layer enhanced electron lifetime significantly. - Abstract: We report the photoanodes consisting of CdS quantum-dots (QDs) sensitized actinomorphic hexagonal columnar ZnO (CdS QDs/AHC-ZnO) with ZnS passivation layer are applied for solar cells. Simple chemical solution synthesized AHC-ZnO films on transparent conducting glass substrates, and then, AHC-ZnO is functionalized with uniform CdS and ZnS QDs via successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The as-prepared materials were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, UV–vis diffused reflectance absorption spectra and photovoltaic performances analysis. Photovoltaic performances results indicate the quantity of CdS QDs as well as the visible light absorption threshold can be effectively controlled by varying the coating cycles during the SILAR process, and the photocurrent density (Jsc) is greatly improved by increasing the amount of ZnS. By optimizing the AHC-ZnO with the amount of CdS and ZnS, the best efficiency of 1.81% was achieved for solar cell under AM 1.5 G illumination with Jsc = 7.44 mA/cm 2 , Voc = 0.57 V and FF = 43%

  12. Origin of surface and columnar Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) aerosols using source- and region-tagged emissions transport in a general circulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, S.; Venkataraman, C.; Boucher, O.

    2008-12-01

    We study the relative influence of aerosols emitted from different sectors and geographical regions on aerosol loading in south Asia. Sectors contributing aerosol emissions include biofuel and fossil fuel combustion, open biomass burning, and natural sources. Geographical regions include India (the Indo-Gangetic plain, central India, south India, and northwest India), southeast Asia, east Asia, Africa-west Asia, and the rest of the world. Simulations of the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX), from January to March 1999, are made in the general circulation model of Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique (LMD-ZT GCM) with emissions tagged by sector and geographical region. Anthropogenic emissions dominate (54-88%) the predicted aerosol optical depth (AOD) over all the receptor regions. Among the anthropogenic sectors, fossil fuel combustion has the largest overall influence on aerosol loading, primarily sulfate, with emissions from India (50-80%) and rest of the world significantly influencing surface concentrations and AOD. Biofuel combustion has a significant influence on both the surface and columnar black carbon (BC) in particular over the Indian subcontinent and Bay of Bengal with emissions largely from the Indian region (60-80%). Open biomass burning emissions influence organic matter (OM) significantly, and arise largely from Africa-west Asia. The emissions from Africa-west Asia affect the carbonaceous aerosols AOD in all receptor regions, with their largest influence (AOD-BC: 60%; and AOD-OM: 70%) over the Arabian Sea. Among Indian regions, the Indo-Gangetic Plain is the largest contributor to anthropogenic surface mass concentrations and AOD over the Bay of Bengal and India. Dust aerosols are contributed mainly through the long-range transport from Africa-west Asia over the receptor regions. Overall, the model estimates significant intercontinental incursion of aerosol, for example, BC, OM, and dust from Africa-west Asia and sulfate from distant regions (rest

  13. Breccia-cored columnar rosettes in a rubbly pahoehoe lava flow, Elephanta Island, Deccan Traps, and a model for their origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hetu Sheth

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Rubbly pahoehoe lava flows are abundant in many continental flood basalts including the Deccan Traps. However, structures with radial joint columns surrounding cores of flow-top breccia (FTB, reported from some Deccan rubbly pahoehoe flows, are yet unknown from other basaltic provinces. A previous study of these Deccan “breccia-cored columnar rosettes” ruled out explanations such as volcanic vents and lava tubes, and showed that the radial joint columns had grown outwards from cold FTB inclusions incorporated into the hot molten interiors. How the highly vesicular (thus low-density FTB blocks might have sunk into the flow interiors has remained a puzzle. Here we describe a new example of a Deccan rubbly pahoehoe flow with FTB-cored rosettes, from Elephanta Island in the Mumbai harbor. Noting that (1 thick rubbly pahoehoe flows probably form by rapid inflation (involving many lava injections into a largely molten advancing flow, and (2 such flows are transitional to ‘a’ā flows (which continuously shed their top clinker in front of them as they advance, we propose a model for the FTB-cored rosettes. We suggest that the Deccan flows under study were shedding some of their FTB in front of them as they advanced and, with high-eruption rate lava injection and inflation, frontal breakouts would incorporate this FTB rubble, with thickening of the flow carrying the rubble into the flow interior. This implies that, far from sinking into the molten interior, the FTB blocks may have been rising, until lava supply and inflation stopped, the flow began solidifying, and joint columns developed outward from each cold FTB inclusion as already inferred, forming the FTB-cored rosettes. Those rubbly pahoehoe flows which began recycling most of their FTB became the ‘a’ā flows of the Deccan.

  14. A clinical trial to assess the immunogenicity and safety of Inactivated Influenza Vaccine (Whole Virion IP (Pandemic Influenza (H1N1 2009 Monovalent Vaccine; VaxiFlu-S ™ in healthy Indian adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A H Kubavat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The pandemic of H1N1 2009 influenza has spread world over and low degree of virus transmission has continued in several regions of India. Aims : To assess the immunogenicity and safety of Pandemic Influenza (H1N1 2009 Monovalent Vaccine in healthy adult Indian population. Settings and Design : Prospective, open label, multicentric, phase 2/3 clinical trial. Materials and Methods : Healthy adult Indian subjects belonging to either 18-59 years or ≥60 years age groups were enrolled and administered a single 0.5 ml (≥15 mcg of hemagglutinin antigen dose of vaccine in the deltoid muscle. Anti-hemagglutinin antibody titer was assessed at baseline and 21 (±2 days after vaccination by Hemagglutination Inhibition (HI test. Safety assessments were done for a period of 42 days. Statistical Analysis Used : Percentages of appropriate population with 95% confidence intervals calculated, log transformation of the data to calculate Geometric Mean Titers (GMTs and chi-square test and student′s t-test applied for significance testing. Results : 182/198 and 53/63 volunteers in age groups of 18-59 years and ≥60 years, respectively, achieved an HI titer ≥1 : 40 at Day 21 (91.9% [95% confidence interval: 88.1-95.7%] and 84.1% [75.1-93.2%]; P=0.072. Further, 171/198 and 50/63 volunteers in the respective age groups achieved seroconversion/four-fold increase in titer at Day 21 (86.4% [81.6-91.1%] and 79.4% [69.4-89.4%]; P=0.179. A significant rise of 22.6-fold [18.0-28.4] and 10.5-fold [7.4-15.0] was noted in GMT in the respective age groups (P<0.001 for both groups as compared to baseline. Nine vaccine-related adverse events were reported (3.4% incidence [1.2-5.6%], which were of low severity only. Conclusions : Pandemic Influenza (H1N1 2009 Monovalent Vaccine produces excellent immunogenic response with a good tolerability profile in adult Indian population.

  15. Inmunogenicidad y capacidad protectora en hamsters de vacunas antileptospirósicas monovalentes de células enteras del serogrupo Ballum Immunogenicity and protective capacity of leptospiral whole-cell monovalent serogroup Ballum vaccines in hamsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. González

    2005-12-01

    challenge with 100 and 10 000 LD50 of five virulent strains belonging to serogroups Ballum, Canicola, Icterohaemorrhagiae and Pomona. Both monovalent serogroup Ballum vaccines were immunogenic and induced complete homologous protection in the animal model. Cross-protection was only significant in one of the two vaccines against challenge with 100 LD50 of serogroup Canicola. The results of this study demonstrate the high immunogenicity and protective capacity in hamsters of whole-cell monovalent vaccines formulated with two vaccine candidate strains belonging to the most prevalent serogroup of Leptospira in Cuba.

  16. Modeled and Empirical Approaches for Retrieving Columnar Water Vapor from Solar Transmittance Measurements in the 0.72, 0.82, and 0.94 Micrometer Absorption Bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingold, T.; Schmid, B.; Maetzler, C.; Demoulin, P.; Kaempfer, N.

    2000-01-01

    A Sun photometer (18 channels between 300 and 1024 nm) has been used for measuring the columnar content of atmospheric water vapor (CWV) by solar transmittance measurements in absorption bands with channels centered at 719, 817, and 946 nm. The observable is the band-weighted transmittance function defined by the spectral absorption of water vapor and the spectral features of solar irradiance and system response. The transmittance function is approximated by a three-parameter model. Its parameters are determined from MODTRAN and LBLRTM simulations or empirical approaches using CWV data of a dual-channel microwave radiometer (MWR) or a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS). Data acquired over a 2-year period during 1996-1998 at two different sites in Switzerland, Bern (560 m above sea level (asl)) and Jungfraujoch (3580 m asl) were compared to MWR, radiosonde (RS), and FTS retrievals. At the low-altitude station with an average CWV amount of 15 mm the LBLRTM approach (based on recently corrected line intensities) leads to negligible biases at 719 and 946 nm if compared to an average of MWR, RS, and GPS retrievals. However, at 817 nm an overestimate of 2.7 to 4.3 mm (18-29%) remains. At the high-altitude station with an average CWV amount of 1.4 mm the LBLRTM approaches overestimate the CWV by 1.0, 1.4. and 0.1 mm (58, 76, and 3%) at 719, 817, and 946 nm, compared to the ITS instrument. At the low-altitude station, CWV estimates, based on empirical approaches, agree with the MWR within 0.4 mm (2.5% of the mean); at the high-altitude site with a factor of 10 less water vapor the agreement of the sun photometers (SPM) with the ITS is 0.0 to 0.2 mm (1 to 9% of the mean CWV there). Sensitivity analyses show that for the conditions met at the two stations with CWV ranging from 0.2 to 30 mm, the retrieval errors are smallest if the 946 nm channel is used.

  17. Characteristics of columnar aerosol optical and microphysical properties retrieved from the sun photometer and its impact on radiative forcing over Skukuza (South Africa) during 1999-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesina, Ayodele Joseph; Piketh, Stuart; Kanike, Raghavendra Kumar; Venkataraman, Sivakumar

    2017-07-01

    The detailed analysis of columnar optical and microphysical properties of aerosols obtained from the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) Cimel sun photometer operated at Skukuza (24.98° S, 31.60° E, 150 m above sea level), South Africa was carried out using the level 2.0 direct sun and inversion products measured during 1999-2010. The observed aerosol optical depth (AOD) was generally low over the region, with high values noted in late winter (August) and mid-spring (September and October) seasons. The major aerosol types found during the study period were made of 3.74, 69.63, 9.34, 8.83, and 8.41% for polluted dust (PD), polluted continental (PC), non-absorbing (NA), slightly absorbing (SA), and moderately absorbing (MA) aerosols, respectively. Much attention was given to the aerosol fine- and coarse-modes deduced from the particle volume concentration, effective radius, and fine-mode volume fraction. The aerosol volume size distribution pattern was found to be bimodal with the fine-mode showing predominance relative to coarse-mode during the winter and spring seasons, owing to the onset of the biomass burning season. The mean values of total, fine-, and coarse-mode volume particle concentrations were 0.07 ± 0.04, 0.03 ± 0.03, and 0.04 ± 0.02 μm 3  μm -2 , respectively, whereas the mean respective effective radii observed at Skukuza for the abovementioned modes were 0.35 ± 0.17, 0.14 ± 0.02, and 2.08 ± 0.02 μm. The averaged shortwave direct aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) observed within the atmosphere was found to be positive (absorption or heating effect), whereas the negative forcing in the surface and TOA depicted significant cooling effect due to more scattering type particles.

  18. Compliance with future emission standards of mobile machines by developing a monovalent natural gas combustion process; Einhaltung zukuenftiger Abgasnormen von mobilen Arbeitsmaschinen durch Entwicklung eines monovalenten Erdgas-Brennverfahrens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prehn, Sascha [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Kolbenmaschinen und Verbrennungsmotoren; Wichmann, Volker; Harndorf, Horst; Beberdick, Wolfgang

    2014-08-01

    Within the presented project a monovalent natural gas engine is being developed. Based on a serial diesel engine the operation mode of this prototype is changed to a spark ignition concept. The long term purpose of this new engine is an agricultural application. One major objective of the project is the investigation and evaluation of a combustion process, able to fulfil the performance requests as well as the European emission limits for nitrogen oxides NO{sub x}, and carbon monoxide CO of mobile machinery, which become into law in October 2014 (EU stage IV). At the time there are no legislative regulations existing regarding the methane emissions of the observed engines. To get a benefit in greenhouse gas emissions compared to diesel or gasoline engines the methane emissions have to be minimized while operating in natural gas mode. In the course of the current project an engine operation with a methane emission less than 0.5 g/kWh (representing the EURO VI limit for heavy duty vehicles) could be demonstrated. In contrast to diesel engines for agricultural applications it is possible to comply with the emission standards without using a high sophisticated after treatment system consisting of diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), particulate filter (DPF) and SCR catalyst. The usage of a three way catalyst optimized for high methane conversions is sufficient for a stoichiometry gas operation with exhaust gas recirculation. Therefore a significant cost advantage is given.

  19. Open-Structured V 2 O 5 · n H 2 O Nanoflakes as Highly Reversible Cathode Material for Monovalent and Multivalent Intercalation Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Huali [Beijing Key Laboratory of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 China; Bi, Xuanxuan [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue Lemont IL 60439 USA; Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Ohio State University, 100 West 18th Avenue Columbus OH 43210 USA; Bai, Ying [Beijing Key Laboratory of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 China; Wu, Chuan [Beijing Key Laboratory of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 China; Collaborative Innovation Center of Electric Vehicles in Beijing, Beijing 100081 China; Gu, Sichen [Beijing Key Laboratory of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 China; Chen, Shi [Beijing Key Laboratory of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 China; Collaborative Innovation Center of Electric Vehicles in Beijing, Beijing 100081 China; Wu, Feng [Beijing Key Laboratory of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 China; Collaborative Innovation Center of Electric Vehicles in Beijing, Beijing 100081 China; Amine, Khalil [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue Lemont IL 60439 USA; Lu, Jun [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue Lemont IL 60439 USA

    2017-04-21

    The high-capacity cathode material V2O5·nH2O has attracted considerable attention for metal ion batteries due to the multielectron redox reaction during electrochemical processes. It has an expanded layer structure, which can host large ions or multivalent ions. However, structural instability and poor electronic and ionic conductivities greatly handicap its application. Here, in cell tests, self-assembly V2O5·nH2O nanoflakes shows excellent electrochemical performance with either monovalent or multivalent cation intercalation. They are directly grown on a 3D conductive stainless steel mesh substrate via a simple and green hydrothermal method. Well-layered nanoflakes are obtained after heat treatment at 300 °C (V2O5·0.3H2O). Nanoflakes with ultrathin flower petals deliver a stable capacity of 250 mA h g-1 in a Li-ion cell, 110 mA h g-1 in a Na-ion cell, and 80 mA h g-1 in an Al-ion cell in their respective potential ranges (2.0–4.0 V for Li and Na-ion batteries and 0.1–2.5 V for Al-ion battery) after 100 cycles.

  20. Iron acquisition mechanisms of Flavobacterium psychrophilum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jeannette Dan; Ellis, A.E.; Barnes, A.C.

    2005-01-01

    strains and was lacking from negative strains. While a weak catechol reaction was detectable in CAS+ culture supernatants, the CAS reaction was, to some extent, heat sensitive, questioning whether the positive reaction was caused only by siderophores. The ability to grow in vitro under iron......-restricted conditions did not correlate with the CAS reactivity, as growth of both CAS+ and CAS- strains was similarly impaired under iron restriction induced by 2,2 dipyridyl. Suppressed growth under these conditions was restored by addition of FeCl3, haemoglobin and transferrin for both CAS+ and CAS- strains...

  1. Flavobacterium psychrophilum - Experimental challenge and immune response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Maya Maria Mihályi

    the immune system of the fry is not fully developed. Theoretically, the infection pressure could be subdued by vaccinating larger fish, but no commercial vaccine is yet available. Diagnostic methods are well described and the disease is treated with antibiotics. To prevent disease outbreaks and subsequent......-time PCR (RT-PCR) was used to examine the immune response in the head kidney during the first eight days after infection, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to evaluate the production of antibodies 50 days post-exposure. A pro-inflammatory response was observed in both groups infected...... of edemas, but in both cases the tissue was regenerating after 192 hours. However, when the fish had been exposed to both H2O2 and F. psychrophilum, the damage was still evident at this time point. The relative pathogen load measured as 16S rRNA was highest at the first sampling and decreased steadily...

  2. Fatigue properties for the fracture strength of columnar accessory minerals embedded within metamorphic tectonites: implications for stress magnitude in continental crust at the depth of the brittle-plastic transition zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, N.; Iwashita, N.; Masuda, T.

    2009-04-01

    1. Introduction Previous studies have compiled yield-strength profiles of continental lithosphere based on the results of laboratory measurements and numerical calculations; however, yield-strength values remain poorly constrained, especially at depths below the brittle-plastic transition zone. Recent studies by the authors have refined the microboudin technique for estimating palaeostress magnitude in the deep crust (> 10 km depth). This technique has the potential to provide important information on stress levels in the deep continental crust, an environment to which available in situ stress measurements and palaeopiezometric methods cannot be applied. In applying the microboudinage technique, obtaining an estimate of the palaeostress magnitude requires knowledge of the fracture strength of columnar accessory minerals (e.g., tourmaline, amphibole, and epidote) that are subjected to brittle fracturing during plastic deformation of the surrounding matrix minerals. The absolute magnitude of fracture strength is known to show a marked reduction in the case of fatigue fracture. Fatigue fracture falls into two categories: static fatigue and cyclic fatigue. In the field of experimental rock deformation, stress corrosion by water molecules (static fatigue) is commonly invoked as the mechanism of fatigue fracture; however, evidence of both static and cyclic fatigue has been reported from studies of natural geological samples. The present study focused on the fatigue properties of columnar accessory minerals at high temperatures, with the aim of improving the accuracy of estimates of natural palaeostress magnitude at depth in the crust. 2. Constant stress-rate test A constant stress-rate test was performed to determine the influence of static fatigue on the strength of columnar accessory minerals. The test was conducted under three-point bending with a span distance of 10 mm. Temperature conditions and the crosshead speed were set in the ranges of ambient to 600°C, and 0

  3. Large piezoelectric strain with ultra-low strain hysteresis in highly c-axis oriented Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 films with columnar growth on amorphous glass substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh D; Houwman, Evert P; Rijnders, Guus

    2017-10-10

    Thin films of PbZr 0 . 52 Ti 0 . 48 O 3 (PZT) with largely detached columnar grains, deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on amorphous glass substrates covered with Ca 2 Nb 3 O 10 nanosheets as growth template and using LaNiO 3 electrode layers, are shown to exhibit very high unipolar piezoelectric strain and ultra-low strain hysteresis. The observed increase of the piezoelectric coefficient with increasing film thickness is attributed to the reduction of clamping, because of the increasingly less dense columnar microstructure (more separation between the grains) with across the film thickness. A very large piezoelectric coefficient (490 pm/V) and a high piezoelectric strain (~0.9%) are obtained in 4-µm-thick film under an applied electric field of 200 kV/cm, which is several times larger than in usual PZT ceramics. Further very low strain hysteresis (H≈2-4%) is observed in 4 to 5 µm thick films. These belong to the best values demonstrated so far in piezoelectric films. Fatigue testing shows that the piezoelectric properties are stable up to 10 10 cycles. The growth of high quality PZT films with very large strain and piezoelectric coefficients, very low hysteresis and with long-term stability on a technologically important substrate as glass is of great significance for the development of practical piezo driven microelectromechanical actuator systems.

  4. A new spectroscopic imager for X-rays from 0.5 keV to 150 keV combining a pnCCD and a columnar CsI(Tl) scintillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, D. M.; Hartmann, R.; Kalok, D.; Bechteler, A.; Abboud, A.; Shokr, M.; Çonka, T.; Pietsch, U.; Strüder, L.

    2017-04-01

    By combining a low noise fully depleted pnCCD detector with a columnar CsI(Tl) scintillator an energy dispersive spatial resolving detector can be realized with a high quantum efficiency in the range from below 0.5 keV to above 150 keV. The used scintillator system increases the pulse height of gamma-rays converted in the CsI(Tl), due to focusing properties of the columnar scintillator structure by reducing the event size in indirect detection mode (conversion in the scintillator). In case of direct detection (conversion in the silicon of the pnCCD) the relative energy resolution is 0.7% at 122 keV (FWHM = 850 eV) and the spatial resolution is less than 75 μm. In case of indirect detection the relative energy resolution, integrated over all event sizes is about 9% at 122 keV with an expected spatial precision of below 75 μm.

  5. Structural and optical properties of glancing angle deposited In{sub 2}O{sub 3} columnar arrays and Si/In{sub 2}O{sub 3} photodetector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondal, A.; Shougaijam, B.; Goswami, T.; Dhar, J.C.; Singh, N.K. [National Institute of Technology, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Agartala (India); Choudhury, S. [North Eastern Hill University, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Shillong (India); Chattopadhay, K.K. [Jadavpur University, Department of Physics, Kolkata (India)

    2014-04-15

    Ordered and perpendicular columnar arrays of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} were synthesized on conducting ITO electrode by a simple glancing angle deposition (GLAD) technique. The as-deposited In{sub 2}O{sub 3} columns were investigated by field emission gun-scanning electron microscope (FEG-SEM). The average length and diameter of the columns were estimated ∝400 nm and ∝100 nm, respectively. The morphology of the structure was examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis shows the polycrystalline nature of the sample which was verified by selective area electron diffraction (SAED) analysis. The growth mechanism and optical properties of the columns were also discussed. Optical absorption shows that In{sub 2}O{sub 3} columns have a high band to band transition at ∝3.75 eV. The ultraviolet and green emissions were obtained from the In{sub 2}O{sub 3} columnar arrays. The P-N junction was formed between In{sub 2}O{sub 3} and P-type Si substrate. The GLAD synthesized In{sub 2}O{sub 3} film exhibits low current conduction compared to In{sub 2}O{sub 3} TF. However, the Si/GLAD-In{sub 2}O{sub 3} detector shows ∝1.5 times enhanced photoresponsivity than that of Si/In{sub 2}O{sub 3} TF. (orig.)

  6. Structural, magnetic and magneto-transport properties of monovalent doped manganite Pr{sub 0.55}K{sub 0.05}Sr{sub 0.4}MnO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thaljaoui, R., E-mail: thaljaoui@gmail.com [Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Université de Sfax, B.P. 1171, 3000 Sfax (Tunisia); Faculty of Physics, Warsaw University of Technology, Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warsaw (Poland); Department of Chemistry, University of Warsaw, Al. Zwirki i Wigury 101, 02-089 Warsaw (Poland); Boujelben, W. [Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Université de Sfax, B.P. 1171, 3000 Sfax (Tunisia); Pękała, M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Warsaw, Al. Zwirki i Wigury 101, 02-089 Warsaw (Poland); Pękała, K.; Antonowicz, J. [Faculty of Physics, Warsaw University of Technology, Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warsaw (Poland); Fagnard, J.-F.; Vanderbemden, Ph. [SUPRATECS, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (B28), University of Liege (Belgium); Dąbrowska, S. [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Materials Science, ul. Wołoska 141, 02-507 Warsaw (Poland); Mucha, J. [Institute of Low Temperature Physics and Structural Research, 50-422 Wrocław (Poland)

    2014-10-25

    Highlights: • Investigation of a new monovalent doped manganite Pr{sub 0.55}K{sub 0.05}Sr{sub 0.4}MnO{sub 3}. • The stability of the sample has been carried by using the DTA analysis. • Magnetic entropy change around 2.26 J kg{sup −1} K{sup −1} resulting RCP value of 70 J/kg for an applied magnetic field of 2 T. • Second order phase transition is confirmed by Arrott plots: A and B Landau coefficients. • Thermal conductivity values are found to be higher for sample with the largest crystallite sizes. - Abstract: Pr{sub 0.55}K{sub 0.05}Sr{sub 0.4}MnO{sub 3} sample have been synthesized using the conventional solid state reaction. Rietveld refinements of the X-ray diffraction patterns at room temperature confirm that the sample is single phase and crystallizes in the orthorhombic structure with Pnma space group; the crystallite size is around 70 nm. The SEM images show that grain size spreads around 1000–1200 nm. DTA analysis does not reveal any clear transition in temperature range studied. The low-temperature DSC indicates that Curie temperature is around 297 K. Magnetization measurements in a magnetic applied field of 0.01 T exhibit a paramagnetic–ferromagnetic transition at the Curie temperature T{sub C} = 303 K. A magnetic entropy change under an applied magnetic field of 2 T is found to be 2.26 J kg{sup −1} K{sup −1}, resulting in a large relative cooling power around 70 J/kg. Electrical resistivity measurements reveal a transition from semiconductor to metallic phase. The thermal conductivity is found to be higher than that reported for undoped and Na doped manganites reported by Thaljaoui et al. (2013)

  7. A boomerang-shaped reduction in interlayer phase coherence in Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}0{sub 8+y} with splayed columnar defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, T; Shibauchi, T; Matsuda, Y [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Thompson, J R [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States); Krusin-Elbaum, L, E-mail: katou@scphys.kyoto-u.ac.j [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States)

    2009-03-01

    We present evidence for entangled solid vortex matter in a glassy state in a layered superconductor Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+y} containing randomly splayed linear defects. The interlayer phase coherence(IPC)-probed by the Josephson plasma resonance-is enhanced at high temperatures, reflecting the recoupling of vortex liquid by the defects. At low temperatures in the vortex solid state, the interlayer coherence follows a boomerang-shaped reentrant temperature path with an unusual low field decrease in coherence, indicative of meandering vortices. This behavior suggests strongly suppressed IPC in this system, which may be explained by the vortex entanglement induced by the columnar defects in the 'splayed-glass' state.

  8. Toward understanding atmospheric physics impacting the relationship between columnar aerosol optical depth and near-surface PM2.5 mass concentrations in Nevada and California, U.S.A., during 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loría-Salazar, S. Marcela; Panorska, Anna; Arnott, W. Patrick; Barnard, James C.; Boehmler, Jayne M.; Holmes, Heather A.

    2017-12-01

    Determining the relationship between columnar aerosol optical depth (τext) and surface particulate matter concentrations (PM2.5) is desired to estimate surface aerosol concentrations over broad spatial and temporal scales using satellite remote sensing. However, remote sensing studies incur challenges when surface aerosol pollution (i.e. PM2.5) is not correlated with columnar conditions (i.e., τext). PM2.5 data fusion models that rely on satellite data and statistical relationships of τext and PM2.5 may not be able to capture the physical conditions impacting the relationships that cause columnar and surface aerosols to not be correlated in the western U.S. Therefore, an extensive examination of the atmospheric conditions is required to improve surface estimates of PM2.5 that rely on columnar aerosol measurements. This investigation uses datasets from both routine monitoring networks and models of meteorological variables and aerosol physical parameters to understand the atmospheric conditions under which surface aerosol pollution can be explained by column measurements in California and Nevada during 2013. A novel quadrant method, that utilizes statistical analysis, was developed to investigate the relationship between τext and PM2.5. The results from this investigation show that τext and PM2.5 had a positive association (τext and PM2.5 increase together) when local sources of pollution or wildfires dominated aerosol pollution in the presence of a deep and well-mixed planetary boundary layer (PBL). Moreover, τext and PM2.5 had no association (where the variables are not related) when stable conditions, long-range transport, or entrainment of air from above the PBL were observed. It was found that seasonal categorization of the relationship between τext and PM2.5, an approach commonly used in statistical models to estimate surface concentrations with satellite remote sensing, may not be enough to account for the atmospheric conditions that drive the

  9. High-pressure synthesis and magnetic behavior of A-site columnar-ordered double perovskites, LnMn(Ga{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5}){sub 2}O{sub 6} (Ln = Sm, Gd)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimura, Gen; Niwa, Ken; Shirako, Yuichi; Hasegawa, Masashi [Department of Crystalline Materials Science, Nagoya University, 464-8601, Nagoya (Japan)

    2017-01-26

    A-site columnar-ordered double perovskites, LnMn(Ga{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5}){sub 2}O{sub 6} (Ln = Sm, Gd), were successfully synthesized under high pressure and high temperature (6 GPa, 1375 K). From the synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction patterns, all of the diffraction peaks can be indexed by the P4{sub 2}/nmc space group with lattice parameters a, c ∼ 2a{sub p} (a{sub p}: primitive cubic perovskite lattice) and no ordering of the B-site cations. Rietveld analysis of the synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction patterns and Curie-Weiss fitting of their magnetizations reveal that the ionic formulae of these perovskites are Ln{sup 3+}Mn{sup 2+}(Ga{sup 3+}{sub 0.5}Ti{sup 4+}{sub 0.5}){sub 2}O{sup 2-}{sub 6}. SmMn(Ga{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5}){sub 2}O{sub 6} shows canted-antiferromagnetic behavior, whereas GdMn(Ga{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5}){sub 2}O{sub 6} exhibits two different magnetic states at low temperature depending on the applied magnetic field and shows an unusual magnetization curve. These magnetic behaviors originate by decreasing the antiferromagnetic interaction by substituting Ga{sup 3+}(d{sup 10}) for Ti{sup 4+}(d{sup 0}) and by decreasing the ferromagnetic interaction between columnar-ordered Ln{sup 3+} and Mn{sup 2+}. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. A Direct in Vivo Comparison of the Melanocortin Monovalent Agonist Ac-His-DPhe-Arg-Trp-NH2 versus the Bivalent Agonist Ac-His-DPhe-Arg-Trp-PEDG20-His-DPhe-Arg-Trp-NH2: A Bivalent Advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lensing, Cody J; Adank, Danielle N; Wilber, Stacey L; Freeman, Katie T; Schnell, Sathya M; Speth, Robert C; Zarth, Adam T; Haskell-Luevano, Carrie

    2017-06-21

    Bivalent ligands targeting putative melanocortin receptor dimers have been developed and characterized in vitro; however, studies of their functional in vivo effects have been limited. The current report compares the effects of homobivalent ligand CJL-1-87, Ac-His-DPhe-Arg-Trp-PEDG20-His-DPhe-Arg-Trp-NH 2 , to monovalent ligand CJL-1-14, Ac-His-DPhe-Arg-Trp-NH 2 , on energy homeostasis in mice after central intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration into the lateral ventricle of the brain. Bivalent ligand CJL-1-87 had noteworthy advantages as an antiobesity probe over CJL-1-14 in a fasting-refeeding in vivo paradigm. Treatment with CJL-1-87 significantly decreased food intake compared to CJL-1-14 or saline (50% less intake 2-8 h after treatment). Furthermore, CJL-1-87 treatment decreased the respiratory exchange ratio (RER) without changing the energy expenditure indicating that fats were being burned as the primary fuel source. Additionally, CJL-1-87 treatment significantly lowered body fat mass percentage 6 h after administration (p < 0.05) without changing the lean mass percentage. The bivalent ligand significantly decreased insulin, C-peptide, leptin, GIP, and resistin plasma levels compared to levels after CJL-1-14 or saline treatments. Alternatively, ghrelin plasma levels were significantly increased. Serum stability of CJL-1-87 and CJL-1-14 (T 1/2 = 6.0 and 16.8 h, respectively) was sufficient to permit physiological effects. The differences in binding affinity of CJL-1-14 compared to CJL-1-87 are speculated as a possible mechanism for the bivalent ligand's unique effects. We also provide in vitro evidence for the formation of a MC3R-MC4R heterodimer complex, for the first time to our knowledge, that may be an unexploited neuronal molecular target. Regardless of the exact mechanism, the advantageous ability of CJL-1-87 compared to CJL-1-14 to increase in vitro binding affinity, increase the duration of action in spite of decreased serum stability, decrease

  11. Meningococcal serogroup C immunogenicity, antibody persistence and memory B-cells induced by the monovalent meningococcal serogroup C versus quadrivalent meningococcal serogroup ACWY conjugate booster vaccine: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ravenhorst, Mariëtte B; van der Klis, Fiona R M; van Rooijen, Debbie M; Knol, Mirjam J; Stoof, Susanne P; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Berbers, Guy A M

    2017-08-24

    Adolescents are considered the key transmitters of meningococci in the population. Meningococcal serogroup C (MenC) antibody levels wane rapidly after MenC conjugate vaccination in young children, leaving adolescents with low antibody levels. In this study, we compared MenC immune responses after booster vaccination in adolescence with either tetanus toxoid conjugated MenC (MenC-TT) or MenACWY (MenACWY-TT) vaccine, and aimed to establish an optimal age for this booster. Healthy 10-, 12-, and 15-year-olds, who received a single dose of MenC-TT vaccine in early childhood, were randomized to receive MenC-TT or MenACWY-TT vaccine. MenC serum bactericidal antibody (rSBA) titers, MenC polysaccharide (PS) specific IgG, IgG1 and IgG2 and MenC-specific IgG and IgA memory B-cells were determined before, one month and one year after the booster. Non-inferiority was tested by comparing geometric mean titers (GMTs) between vaccinees at one year. Of 501 participants, 464 (92.6%) were included in the 'according to protocol' cohort analysis. At one month, all participants developed high MenC rSBA titers (>24,000 in all groups) and MenC-PS-specific IgG levels. Non-inferiority was not demonstrated one year after the booster with higher MenC GMTs after the monovalent vaccine, but 462/464 (99.6%) participants maintained protective MenC rSBA titers. IgG levels mainly consisted of IgG1, but similar levels of increase were observed for IgG1 and IgG2. Both vaccines induced a clear increase in the number of circulating MenC-PS specific IgG and IgA memory B-cells. Between one month and one year, the highest antibody decay rate was observed in the 10-year-olds. Both MenC-TT and MenACWY-TT vaccines induced robust protective MenC immune responses after the booster vaccination, although non-inferiority could not be demonstrated for the MenACWY-TT vaccine after one year. Our results underline the importance of optimal timing of a meningococcal booster vaccination to protect against MenC disease

  12. Benzannulated Tris(2-mercapto-1-imidazolyl)hydroborato Ligands: Tetradentate κ4–S3H Binding and Access to Monomeric Monovalent Thallium in an [S3] Coordination Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Yi; Palmer, Joshua H.; Parkin, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    The benzannulated tris(mercaptoimidazolyl)borohydride sodium complex, [TmButBenz]Na, has been synthesized via the reaction of NaBH4 with 1-tert-butyl-1,3-dihydro-2H-benzimidazole-2-thione, while [TmMeBenz]K has been synthesized via the reaction of KBH4 with 1-methyl-1,3-dihydro-2H-benzimidazole-2-thione. The molecular structures of the solvated adducts, {[TmButBenz]Na(THF)}2(μ-THF)2 and [TmMeBenz]K(OCMe2)3, have been determined by X-ray diffraction, which demonstrates that the [TmR] ligands in these complexes adopt different coordination modes to that in {[TmMeBenz]Na}2(μ-THF)3. Specifically, while the [TmMeBenz] ligand of the sodium complex {[TmMeBenz]Na}2(μ-THF)3 adopts a κ3-S3 coordination mode, the potassium complex [TmMeBenz]K(OCMe2)3 adopts a most uncommon inverted κ4-S3H coordination mode in which the potassium binds to all three sulfur donors and the hydrogen of the B–H group in a linear K•••H–B manner. Furthermore, the [TmButBenz] ligand of {[TmButBenz]Na(THF)}2(μ-THF)2 adopts a κ3-S2H coordination mode, thereby demonstrating the flexibility of this ligand system. The monovalent thallium compounds, [TmMeBenz]Tl and [TmButBenz]Tl, have been obtained via the corresponding reactions of [TmMeBenz]Na and [TmButBenz]Na with TlOAc. X-ray diffraction demonstrates that the three sulfur donors of the [TmRBenz] ligands of both [TmMeBenz]Tl and [TmButBenz]Tl chelate to thallium. This coordination mode is in marked contrast to that in other [TmR]Tl compounds, which exist as dinuclear molecules wherein two of the sulfur donors coordinate to different thallium centers. As such, this observation provides further evidence that benzannulation promotes κ3-S3 coordination in this system. PMID:24201311

  13. Rapid detection and identification of viral and bacterial fish pathogens using a DNA array‐based multiplex assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lievens, B.; Frans, I.; Heusdens, C.

    2011-01-01

    for the simultaneous detection and identification of all cyprinid herpesviruses (CyHV‐1, CyHV‐2 and CyHV‐3) and some of the most important fish pathogenic Flavobacterium species, including F. branchiophilum, F. columnare and F. psychrophilum. For virus identification, the DNA polymerase and helicase genes were...

  14. A supramolecular ''Double-cable'' structure with a 129{sub 44} helix in a columnar porphyrin-C{sub 60} dyad and its application in polymer solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chien-Lung [College of Polymer Science and Polymer Engineering, The University of Akron, Akron, OH (United States); Department of Applied Chemistry, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Zhang, Wen-Bin; Sun, Hao-Jan; Van Horn, Ryan M.; Kulkarni, Rahul R.; Tsai, Chi-Chun; Gong, Xiong; Cheng, Stephen Z.D. [College of Polymer Science and Polymer Engineering, The University of Akron, Akron, OH (United States); Hsu, Chain-Shu [Department of Applied Chemistry, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Lotz, Bernard [Institut Charles Sadron, Strasbourg (France)

    2012-11-15

    A novel porphyrin-C{sub 60} dyad (PCD1) is designed and synthesized to investigate and manipulate the supramolecular structure where geometrically isotropic [such as [60]fullerene (C{sub 60})] and anisotropic [such as porphyrin (Por)] units coexist. It is observed that PCD1 possesses an enantiomeric phase behavior. The melting temperature of the stable PCD1 thermotropic phase is 160 C with a latent heat ({Delta}H) of 18.5 kJ mol{sup -1}. The phase formation is majorly driven by the cooperative intermolecular Por-Por and C{sub 60}-C{sub 60} interactions. Structural analysis reveals that this stable phase possesses a supramolecular ''double-cable'' structure with one p-type Por core columnar channel and three helical n-type C{sub 60} peripheral channels. These ''double-cable'' columns further pack into a hexagonal lattice with a = b = 4.65 nm, c = 41.3 nm, {alpha} = {beta} = 90 , and {gamma} = 120 . The column repeat unit is determined to possess a 129{sub 44} helix. With both donor (D; Pro) and acceptor (A; C{sub 60}) units having their own connecting channels as well as the large D/A interface within the supramolecular ''double-cable'' structure, PCD1 has photogenerated carriers with longer lifetimes compared to the conventional electron acceptor [6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester. A phase-separated columnar morphology is observed in a bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) material made by the physical blend of a low band-gap conjugated polymer, poly[2,6-(4,4-bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-cyclopenta [2,1-b;3,4-b']-dithiophene)-alt-4,7-(2,1,3-benzothia-diazole)] (PCPDTBT), and PCD1. With a specific phase structure in the solid state and in the blend, PCD1 is shown to be a promising candidate as a new electron acceptor in high performance BHJ polymer solar cells. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. The initial establishment and epithelial morphogenesis of the esophagus: a new model of tracheal–esophageal separation and transition of simple columnar into stratified squamous epithelium in the developing esophagus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Que, Jianwen

    2016-01-01

    The esophagus and trachea are tubular organs that initially share a single common lumen in the anterior foregut. Several models have been proposed to explain how this single-lumen developmental intermediate generates two tubular organs. However, new evidence suggests that these models are not comprehensive. I will first briefly review these models and then propose a novel ‘splitting and extension’ model based on our in vitro modeling of the foregut separation process. Signaling molecules (e.g., SHHs, WNTs, BMPs) and transcription factors (e.g., NKX2.1 and SOX2) are critical for the separation of the foregut. Intriguingly, some of these molecules continue to play essential roles during the transition of simple columnar into stratified squamous epithelium in the developing esophagus, and they are also closely involved in epithelial maintenance in the adults. Alterations in the levels of these molecules have been associated with the initiation and progression of several esophageal diseases and cancer in adults. PMID:25727889

  16. Morphology of the boron-rich phase along columnar grain boundary and its effect on the compression crack of Fe-6.5Si-0.05B alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Huadong; Zhang Zhihao; Yang Qiang; Xie Jianxin

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Three morphologies of alloy phases were observed under different conditions. → Three different morphologies were thick-strip, fish-bone like and thin-strip. → These phases were all with enrichment of boron and dilution of silicon. → Three morphologies of alloy phases had different influences on mechanical property. - Abstract: The morphology of precipitated phases along Fe-6.5Si-0.05B columnar grain boundary and its effect on the initiation and propagation of compression cracks were investigated. Under the present experimental condition, alloy phases along the grain boundary exhibited three different morphologies, i.e., thick-strip, fish-bone like and thin-strip. These phases were all with enrichment of boron and dilution of silicon. The grain boundary with dendrite growth mode was apt to generate the thick-strip and fish-bone like phases, while the boundary with cellular growth mode was easy to form the thin-strip phase. The thick-strip phase was favorable to form 'weak plane' containing numerous micropores, which ultimately led to intergranular cracks. The fish-bone like phase was one of the main crack sources under the compression processing and easily caused transgranular cracks. The thin-strip phase enhanced the bond strength of the grain boundary and detained the crack propagation.

  17. LANGEVIN DYNAMICS OF THE TWO STAGE MELTING TRANSITION OF VORTEX MATTER IN Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+{delta}} IN THE PRESENCE OF STRAIGHT AND OF TILTED COLUMNAR DEFECTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GOLDSCHMIDT, YADIN Y.; LIU, Jin-Tao

    2007-08-07

    In this paper we use London Langevin molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the vortex matter melting transition in the highly anisotropic high-temperature superconductor material Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+{delta}} in the presence of low concentration of columnar defects (CDs). We reproduce with further details our previous results obtained by using Multilevel Monte Carlo simulations that showed that the melting of the nanocrystalline vortex matter occurs in two stages: a first stage melting into nanoliquid vortex matter and a second stage delocalization transition into a homogeneous liquid. Furthermore, we report on new dynamical measurements in the presence of a current that identifies clearly the irreversibility line and the second stage delocalization transition. In addition to CDs aligned along the c-axis we also simulate the case of tilted CDs which are aligned at an angle with respect to the applied magnetic field. Results for CDs tilted by 45{degree} with respect to c-axis show that the locations of the melting and delocalization transitions are not affected by the tilt when the ratio of flux lines to CDs remains constant. On the other hand we argue that some dynamical properties and in particular the position of the irreversibility line should be affected.

  18. Immunoexpression of P16INK4a, Rb and TP53 proteins in bronchiolar columnar cell dysplasia (BCCD in lungs resected due to primary non-small cell lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lech Chyczewski

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cause of death worldwide. High mortality comes out mainly of the fact that majority of the cases are diagnosed in advanced stadium. An expanded diagnostics of precancerous conditions would certainly contribute to lowering the mortality rate. Many of the molecular changes accompanying the multistep cancer development could be observed using the immunohistochemistry method. In this paper we describe the morphology and cell cycle proteins immunoexpression of the novel probable preinvasive lesion - bronchiolar columnar cell dysplasia (BCCD. Thirty cases of BCCD selected out of 193 patients population, treated for primary non-small cell lung cancer were investigated. Loss of P16INK4a protein was observed in 70% of all cases and was statistically significant in patients with adenocarcinoma. Two cases show abnormal cytoplasmic localization of this protein. TP53 protein accumulates in 26.7% of all BCCD. Rb protein was active in 48.3% of the BCCD cases. In two cases we observed differentiation of the cells composing BCCD into multilayer epithelium of the squamous type, which occurs with formation of desmosomes. We suppose that BCCD may be preneoplastic lesion leading to adenocarcinoma as well as to peripheral squamous cell lung cancer.

  19. Radioautographic visualization of differences in the pattern of [3H]uridine and [3H]orotic acid incorporation into the RNA of migrating columnar cells in the rat small intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uddin, M.; Altmann, G.G.; Leblond, C.P.

    1984-01-01

    The epithelium of rat small intestine was radioautographed to examine whether RNA is synthesized by the salvage pathway as shown after [ 3 H]uridine injection or by the de novo pathway as shown after [ 3 H]orotic acid injection. The two modes of RNA synthesis were thus investigated during the migration of columnar cells from crypt base to villus top, and the rate of synthesis was assessed by counting silver grains over the nucleolus and nucleoplasm at six levels along the duodenal epithelium - that is, in the base, mid, and top regions of the crypts and in the base, mid, and top regions of the villi. Concomitant biochemical analyses established that, after injection of either [5- 3 H]uridine or [5- 3 H]orotic acid: (a) buffered glutaraldehyde fixative was as effective as perchloric acid or trichloroacetic acid in insolubilizing the nucleic acids of rat small intestine; (b) a major fraction of the nucleic acid label was in RNA, that is, 91% after [ 3 H]uridine and 72% after [ 3 H]orotic acid, with the rest in DNA; and (c) a substantial fraction of the RNA label was in poly A + RNA (presumed to be messenger RNA). In radioautographs of duodenum prepared after [ 3 H]uridine injection, the count of silver grains was high over nucleolus and nucleoplasm in crypt base cells and gradually decreased at the upper levels up to the villus base. In the rest of the villus, the grain count over the nucleolus was negligible, while over the nucleoplasm it was low but significant

  20. Anaerobic columnar denitrification of high nitrate wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, C.W.; Malone, C.D.

    1975-01-01

    Anaerobic columns were used to test the effectiveness of biological denitrification of nitrate solutions ranging in concentration from 1 to 10 kg NO 3 /m 3 . Several sources of nitrate (Ca(CNO 3 ) 2 , NaNO 3 , NH 4 NO 3 , and actual nitrate wastes from a UO 2 fuel fabrication plant) were evaluated as well as two packing media. The packing media were anthracite coal particles, whose effective diameter size ranged between 2 and 3 mm, and polypropylene Raschig rings 1.6 x 1.6 diameter. The anthracite coal proved to be the better packing media as excessive hydraulic short circuiting occurred in a 120 x 15 cm diameter glass column packed with the polypropylene rings after 40 days operation. With anthracite coal, floatation of the bed occurred at flow rates greater than 0.80 cm 3 /s. Tapered columns packed with anthracite coal eliminated the floatation problem, even at flow rates as high as 5 cm 3 /s. Under optimum operating conditions the anthracite coal behaved as a fluidized bed. Maximum denitrification rates were 1.0--1.4 g NO 3 /m 3 /s based on initial bed volume. Denitrification kinetics indicated that rates of denitrification became substrate inhibited at nitrate concentrations greater than 6.5 kg NO 3 /m 3 Anaerobic columns packed with anthracite coal appear to be an effective method of nitrate disposal for nitrate rich wastewater generated at UO 2 fuel fabrication plants and fuel reprocessing facilities. (U.S.)

  1. Immunoreactivity of cytokeratins 7 and 20 in goblet cells and columnar blue cells in patients with endoscopic evidence of Barrett's esophagus Imunoreatividade das citoqueratinas 7 e 20 nas células caliciformes e células colunares azuis em pacientes com evidência endoscópica de esôfago de Barrett

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Cantarelli Jr.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Barrett's esophagus is characterized by the presence of goblet cells. However, when alcian-blue is utilized, another type of cells, called columnar blue cells, is frequently present in the distal esophagus of patients with endoscopic evidence of Barrett's esophagus. Cytokeratin 7 and 20 immunoreactivity has been previously studied in areas of intestinal metaplasia at the esophagogastric junction. However, the expression of these cytokeratins in columnar blue cells has not been characterized. OBJECTIVE: To compare the expression of cytokeratin 7 and 20 in goblet cells and columnar blue cells in patients with endoscopic evidence of Barrett's esophagus. METHODS: Biopsies from 86 patients with endoscopic evidence of Barrett's esophagus were evaluated. The biopsies were stained for cytokeratin 7 and 20. RESULTS: Goblet cells were present in 75 cases and columnar blue cells in 50 cases. Overall, cytokeratin 7 expression was similar in goblet cells and columnar blue cells (P = 0.25, while cytokeratin 20 was more common in goblet cells (P CONTEXTO: Esôfago de Barrett é caracterizado pela presença de células caliciformes. Entretanto, quando "alcian blue" é utilizado, outro tipo de células, chamadas células colunares azuis, estão frequentemente presentes no esôfago distal de pacientes com evidência endoscópica de esôfago de Barrett. A imunoreatividade das citoqueratinas 7 e 20 tem sido estudada previamente em áreas de metaplasia intestinal na junção esôfago-gástrica. Entretanto, a expressão destas citoqueratinas nas células colunares azuis não foi caracterizada. OBJETIVO: Comparar a expressão das citoqueratinas 7 e 20 nas células caliciformes e células colunares azuis em pacientes com evidência endoscópica de esôfago de Barrett. MÉTODOS: Biopsias de 86 pacientes com evidência endoscópica de esôfago de Barrett foram avaliadas. Estas foram coradas com citoqueratinas 7 e 20. RESULTADOS: Células caliciformes estavam

  2. Columnar modelling of nucleation burst evolution in the convective boundary layer – first results from a feasibility study Part III: Preliminary results on physicochemical model performance using two "clean air mass" reference scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Hellmuth

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In Paper I of four papers, a revised columnar high-order model to investigate gas-aerosol-turbulence interactions in the convective boundary layer (CBL was proposed. In Paper II, the model capability to predict first-, second- and third-order moments of meteorological variables in the CBL was demonstrated using available observational data. In the present Paper III, the high-order modelling concept is extended to sulphur and ammonia chemistry as well as to aerosol dynamics. Based on the previous CBL simulation, a feasibility study is performed using two "clean air mass" scenarios with an emission source at the ground but low aerosol background concentration. Such scenarios synoptically correspond to the advection of fresh post-frontal air in an anthropogenically influenced region. The aim is to evaluate the time-height evolution of ultrafine condensation nuclei (UCNs and to elucidate the interactions between meteorological and physicochemical variables in a CBL column. The scenarios differ in the treatment of new particle formation (NPF, whereas homogeneous nucleation according to the classical nucleation theory (CNT is considered. The first scenario considers nucleation of a binary system consisting of water vapour and sulphuric acid (H2SO4 vapour, the second one nucleation of a ternary system additionally involving ammonia (NH3. Here, the two synthetic scenarios are discussed in detail, whereas special attention is payed to the role of turbulence in the formation of the typical UCN burst behaviour, that can often be observed in the surface layer. The intercomparison of the two scenarios reveals large differences in the evolution of the UCN number concentration in the surface layer as well as in the time-height cross-sections of first-order moments and double correlation terms. Although in both cases the occurrence of NPF bursts could be simulated, the burst characteristics and genesis of the bursts are completely different. It is demonstrated

  3. 21 CFR 866.3270 - Flavobacterium spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3270.... from cultured isolates derived from clinical specimens. The identification aids in the diagnosis of...

  4. Antimicrobial resistance patterns in Danish isolates of Flavobacterium psychrophilum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Morten Sichlau; Schmidt, A.S.; Madsen, Lone

    2000-01-01

    were tested and the resulting antibiograms were used to predict the theoretical therapeutic efficacy and to evaluate if resistance had changed as a course of time. Antimicrobial agents included in this investigation were oxolinic acid (OXA), amoxicillin (AMX), potentiated sulfadiazine, oxytetracycline...

  5. Immune response in rainbow trout against infection with Flavobacterium psychrophilum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Maya Maria Mihályi; Kania, Per; Madsen, Lone

    farmers control the disease with antibiotics. The pathogen has a limited ability to cause disease in an experimental setting without applying a stressor. A bath-model using 150mg/L H2O2 for 60 minutes as a stressor was used on 1.4g rainbow trout fry in four experimental groups: 1) no H2O2/no bath...... infection, 2) H2O2/no bath infection, 3) no H2O2/ bath infection and 4) H2O2/ bath infection. Bath infections were carried out in 107 CFU/ml F. psychrophilum bath solution and control groups were bathed in sterile medium. Samples from all internal organs, head and skin were taken before pathogen exposure...

  6. Genomic Diversity and Evolution of the Fish Pathogen Flavobacterium psychrophilum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duchaud, Eric; Rochat, Tatiana; Habib, Christophe

    2018-01-01

    genome accounting for similar to 80% of the genes in each genome. The pan-genome seems nevertheless "open" according to the scaling exponent of a power-law fitted on the rate of new gene discovery when genomes are added one-by-one. Recombination is a key component of the evolutionary process...... of recombination and mutations to nucleotide-level differentiation (r/m) was estimated to similar to 13. Within CC-ST10, evolutionary distances computed on non-recombined regions and comparisons between 22 isolates sampled up to 27 years apart suggest a most recent common ancestor in the second half...

  7. Dynamic and bio-orthogonal protein assembly along a supramolecular polymer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petkau - Milroy, K.; Uhlenheuer, D.A.; Spiering, A.J.H.; Vekemans, J.A.J.M.; Brunsveld, L.

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic protein assembly along supramolecular columnar polymers has been achieved through the site-specific covalent attachment of different SNAP-tag fusion proteins to self-assembled benzylguanine-decorated discotics. The self-assembly of monovalent discotics into supramolecular polymers creates a

  8. Incorporation of Monovalent Cations in Sulfate Green Rust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, B. C.; Dideriksen, K.; Katz, A.

    2014-01-01

    Green rust is a naturally occurring layered mixed-valent ferrous-ferric hydroxide, which can react with a range of redox-active compounds. Sulfate-bearing green rust is generally thought to have interlayers composed of sulfate and water. Here, we provide evidence that the interlayers also contain...... with water showed that Na+ and K+ were structurally fixed in the interlayer, whereas Rb+ and Cs+ could be removed, resulting in a decrease in the basal layer spacing. The incorporation of cations in the interlayer opens up new possibilities for the use of sulfate green rust for exchange reactions with both...

  9. Monovalent-ion-selective membranes for reserve electrodialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Güler, E.; van Baak, Willem; Saakes, Michel; Nijmeijer, Dorothea C.

    2014-01-01

    Reverse electrodialysis (RED) is a process that can be used to generate energy from salinity gradients. Since its application in practice requires the use of natural seawater and river water, the presence of multivalent ions is inevitable, but this currently limits RED performance. Membranes with

  10. Evaluation of the elastic properties of monovalent oxides using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-06-09

    Jun 9, 2017 ... velocities (longitudinal and shear) were measured in these glasses using the pulse-echo technique at ... tellurite glass systems show excellent thermal resistance .... Microhardness (H), in GPa, is the quantity that determines.

  11. Neutralisation and binding of VHS virus by monovalent antibody fragments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cupit, P.M.; Lorenzen, Niels; Strachan, G.

    2001-01-01

    We have previously reported the cloning and characterisation of the heavy and light chain variable domain genes encoding three monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) that bind viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV). Two of these antibodies, 3F1H10 and 3F1A2 both neutralised the virus though 3F1A2...... appeared to recognise a broader range of virus isolates. The variable domains of these two antibodies differ by only four residues (Lorenzen et al., 2000a. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 10, 129-142). To further study the mechanism of neutralisation, Fab fragments as well as a series of recombinant bacterial...... single chain antibody (scAb) fragments were generated from the three anti-VHSV Mabs and their variable domain genes, respectively. Fabs and scAbs derived from the neutralising Mabs were both able to neutralise the VHSV type 1 isolate DK-F1. In addition, a series of scAb fragments were produced using...

  12. Hot atom chemistry of monovalent atoms in organic condensed phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoecklin, G.

    1975-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of hot atom studies in condensed organic phases are considered, and recent advances in condensed phase organic hot atom chemistry of recoil tritium and halogen atoms are discussed. Details are presented of the present status and understanding of liquid phase hot atom chemistry and also that of organic solids. The consequences of the Auger effect in condensed organic systems are also considered. (author)

  13. Monovalent ions control proliferation of Ehrlich Lettre ascites cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Thomas Kjaer; Preisler, Sarah; Pedersen, Stine Helene Falsig

    2010-01-01

    of Ehrlich Lettre ascites (ELA) cells. We measured the intracellular concentration of each ion in G(0), G(1), and S phases of the cell cycle following synchronization by serum starvation and release. We show that intracellular concentrations and content of Na+ and Cl(-) were reduced in the G(0)-G(1) phase...... effect. Western blots showed reduced chloride intracellular channel CLIC1 and chloride channel ClC-2 expression in the plasma membrane in S compared with G(1). Our results suggest that Na+ regulates ELA cell proliferation by regulating intracellular pH while Cl(-) may regulate proliferation by fine...

  14. Photoluminescence of monovalent indium centres in phosphate glass

    OpenAIRE

    Masai, Hirokazu; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Okumura, Shun; Yanagida, Takayuki; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiko; Ina, Toshiaki

    2015-01-01

    Valence control of polyvalent cations is important for functionalization of various kinds of materials. Indium oxides have been used in various applications, such as indium tin oxide in transparent electrical conduction films. However, although metastable In+ (5 s2 configuration) species exhibit photoluminescence (PL), they have attracted little attention. Valence control of In+ cations in these materials will be important for further functionalization. Here, we describe In+ species using PL ...

  15. Monovalent and with activation of components. Administration building for a winery; Monovalent und mit Bauteilaktivierung. Verwaltungsgebaeude fuer eine Weinkellerei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freytag, Michaela [Uponor GmbH, Hassfurt (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The climate is the key aspect: That what is recommended crucial for a good wine, also is recommended for the employees of the winery Zimmermann-Graeff and Mueller GmbH and Co. KG (Zell/Mosel, Federal Republic of Germany): Creation of an all-season comfort climate in order to achieve best results in quality and work. This in particular is valid for the management of this company on an area of 2,200 square meters. The owner laid great emphasis on quality and contemporarily solutions.

  16. H-Bond stabilized columnar discotic liquid crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paraschiv, I.

    2007-01-01

    Since 1977, more than 2300 publications on discotic (disk-like) liquid crystalline materials have appeared. Discotic liquid crystals, which usually consist of polyaromatic molecules surrounded by long peripheral alkyl tails, can form liquid crystalline mesophases in a wide temperature range. Within

  17. Sintering and microstructure evolution in columnar thermal barrier coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamurthy, Ramanathan; Srolovitz, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Sintering of thermal barrier coatings changes their key properties, such as thermal conductivity and thermal shock resistance, thus adversely impacting their reliability. We present a novel modeling approach to study the evolution of coating structure during sintering. We model the sintering of individual columns using a thermodynamic principle, and incorporate the center-to-center approach rates for the columns calculated using this principle in a larger scale discrete dynamics model for the evolution of a large number of columns. Surface energies, grain boundary energies and strain energies associated with the deformation of the columns are all included in this framework, while sintering is assumed to occur by the concerted action of surface and grain boundary diffusion. Two sets of initial conditions corresponding to different extents of pre-sintering among neighboring columns are considered. When the extent of pre-sintering is small, we observe that small clusters containing 5-20 columns are formed. In contrast, where a larger amount of pre-sintering exists, we observe, especially at large column densities, that clusters containing 50-100 columns separated by large inter-cluster pores/channels that appear to organize themselves into a network are formed. These observations are in good agreement with recently published experimental observations. We also explain how these results can explain the development of a 'mud-crack'-like pattern

  18. Scaling behavior of columnar structure during physical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meese, W. J.; Lu, T.-M.

    2018-02-01

    The statistical effects of different conditions in physical vapor deposition, such as sputter deposition, have on thin film morphology has long been the subject of interest. One notable effect is that of column development due to differential chamber pressure in the well-known empirical model called the Thornton's Structure Zone Model. The model is qualitative in nature and theoretical understanding with quantitative predictions of the morphology is still lacking due, in part, to the absence of a quantitative description of the incident flux distribution on the growth front. In this work, we propose an incident Gaussian flux model developed from a series of binary hard-sphere collisions and simulate its effects using Monte Carlo methods and a solid-on-solid growth scheme. We also propose an approximate cosine-power distribution for faster Monte Carlo sampling. With this model, it is observed that higher chamber pressures widen the average deposition angle, and similarly increase the growth of column diameters (or lateral correlation length) and the column-to-column separation (film surface wavelength). We treat both the column diameter and the surface wavelength as power laws. It is seen that both the column diameter exponent and the wavelength exponent are very sensitive to changes in pressure for low pressures (0.13 Pa to 0.80 Pa); meanwhile, both exponents saturate for higher pressures (0.80 Pa to 6.7 Pa) around a value of 0.6. These predictions will serve as guides to future experiments for quantitative description of the film morphology under a wide range of vapor pressure.

  19. Hydrogen bonded columnar liquid crystals for nanostructured functional materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fitié, C.F.C.

    2010-01-01

    Many functional materials rely on a well-organized internal structure for their functional properties. The length scale of this organization can vary from the atomic level (e.g., piezoelectric crystals) to a macroscopic length scale exceeding the dimensions of individual molecules (e.g., porous

  20. Plant Natural compounds with antibacterial activity towards common pathogens of pond-cultured channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Kevin K

    2010-07-01

    The bacteria Edwardsiella ictaluri and Flavobacterium columnare cause enteric septicemia and columnaris disease, respectively, in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Natural therapeutants may provide an alternative to current management approaches used by producers. In this study, a rapid bioassay identified plant compounds as potential therapeutants. Chelerythrine chloride and ellagic acid were the most toxic toward E. ictaluri, with 24-h IC50 of 7.3 mg/L and 15.1 mg/L, respectively, and MIC of 2.1 mg/L and 6.5 mg/L, respectively. Chelerythrine chloride, ellagic acid, β-glycyrrhetinic acid, sorgoleone, and wogonin were the most toxic towards two genomovars of F. columnare, and wogonin had the strongest antibacterial activity (MIC = 0.3 mg/L).

  1. Ribotyping for differentiating Flavobacterium meningosepticum isolates from clinical and environmental sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colding, H; Bangsborg, J; Fiehn, N E

    1994-01-01

    RI), a discriminatory index of 0.95 to 0.97 was found. The value of ribotyping in an epidemiological setting was assessed for three clinical isolates of F. meningosepticum from an outbreak of meningitis and bacteremia in the neonatal intensive care unit, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark. The three clinical isolates...

  2. Immune Response in Head Kidney of Rainbow Trout Fry Following Stress and Infection with Flavobacterium Psychrophilum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Maya Maria Mihályi; Kania, P. W.; Madsen, Lone

    response in rainbow trout against F. psychrophilum in order to create preventive measures against RTFS. A limited number of studies have been carried out so far and have relied on samples from either naturally infected or injection-challenged fish. The use of naturally infected fish introduces many...... before pathogen exposure to elevate mortality. The model was used to examine the immune response to infection in rainbow trout fry (≈1 g); both with and without preceding H2O2 treatment. Samples from the head kidney were taken before pathogen exposure and 4 hours, 48 hours, 125 hours and 192 hours after...... exposure. The regulation of several immune relevant genes was examined and the relative bacterial load was assessed. Although it is not determined how H2O2 increases mortality, it is assumed to be due to stress. Exposure to H2O2 prior to infection altered the regulation of several genes, and several...

  3. Flavobacterium nitratireducens sp. nov., an amylolytic bacterium of the family Flavobacteriaceae isolated from coastal surface seawater

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nupur; Bhumika, V.; Srinivas, T.N.R.; AnilKumar, P.

    A novel Gram-negative, rod-shaped, non-motile bacterium, designated strain N1 sup(T), was isolated from a marine water sample collected from the sea shore, Bay of Bengal, Visakhapatnam, India. The strain was positive for starch hydrolysis, nitrate...

  4. Characterisation of surface blebbing and membrane vesicles produced by Flavobacterium psychrophilum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jeannette Dan; Barnes, A.C.; Dalsgaard, Inger

    2005-01-01

    anti-whole-cell antisera. Two distinct bands of approximately 62 and 58 kDA were highly expressed in the MVs and not seen in the OMP. MVs contained proteolytic activity towards gelatine but not towards casein and elastin, which were only degraded by live cells. Low molecular weight lipopolysaccharides...

  5. Reproducible methods for experimental infection with Flavobacterium psychrophilum in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lone; Dalsgaard, Inger

    1999-01-01

    , and this method was tested using isolates with different elastin- degrading profiles and representing different serotypes. Injecting trout, average weight 1 g, with 10(4) CFU (colony- forming units) per fish caused cumulative mortalities around 60 to 70%. The virulent strains belonged to certain serotypes...... and degraded elastin. The intraperitoneal injection challenge method could be used on larger fish, but the infection dose was 10(7) CFU per fish before mortalities occurred. Bath infection and bath infection in combination with formalin treatment (stress) seemed to be reproducible methods that could be used...

  6. Flavobacterium plurextorum sp. nov. Isolated from Farmed Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    OpenAIRE

    Zamora, Leydis; Fern?ndez-Garayz?bal, Jos? F.; S?nchez-Porro, Cristina; Palacios, Mari Angel; Moore, Edward R. B.; Dom?nguez, Lucas; Ventosa, Antonio; Vela, Ana I.

    2013-01-01

    Five strains (1126-1H-08(T), 51B-09, 986-08, 1084B-08 and 424-08) were isolated from diseased rainbow trout. Cells were Gram-negative rods, 0.7 µm wide and 3 µm long, non-endospore-forming, catalase and oxidase positive. Colonies were circular, yellow-pigmented, smooth and entire on TGE agar after 72 hours incubation at 25°C. They grew in a temperature range between 15°C to 30°C, but they did not grow at 37°Cor 42°C. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the isolates belonged to the genus...

  7. Flavobacterium plurextorum sp. nov. isolated from farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhyncus mykiss)

    OpenAIRE

    Zamora, Leydis; Fernández Garayzábal, José F.; Sánchez-Porro Álvarez, Cristina; Palacios, Maria Ángel; Moore, Edward R. B.; Domínguez, Lucas; Ventosa Ucero, Antonio; Vela, Ana I.

    2013-01-01

    Five strains (1126-1H-08T, 51B-09, 986-08, 1084B-08 and 424-08) were isolated from diseased rainbow trout. Cells were Gram-negative rods, 0.7 mm wide and 3 mm long, non-endospore-forming, catalase and oxidase positive. Colonies were circular, yellow-pigmented, smooth and entire on TGE agar after 72 hours incubation at 25uC. They grew in a temperature range between 15uC to 30uC, but they did not grow at 37uCor 42uC. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the isolates belonged to the genus F...

  8. Epidemiological cut-off values for Flavobacterium psychrophilum MIC data generated by a standard test protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, P.; Endris, R.; Kronvall, G.

    2016-01-01

    -1 for florfenicol, ≤0.025 mg L-1 for oxolinic acid (OXO), ≤0.125 mg L-1 for oxytetracycline and ≤20 (1/19) mg L-1 for trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole. For ampicillin and amoxicillin, the majority of putative wild-type observations were 'off scale', and therefore, statistically valid cut-off values...

  9. Effect of Hydrogen Peroxide on Immersion Challenge of Rainbow Trout Fry with Flavobacterium psychrophilum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Maya Maria Mihályi; Madsen, Lone; Dalsgaard, Inger

    2013-01-01

    and produce high levels of mortality attempts to establish a reproducible immersion model have been less successful. Various concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were evaluated before being used as a pre-treatment stressor prior to immersion exposure to F. psychrophilum. H2O2 accelerated the onset...... of mortality and increased mortality approximately two-fold; from 9.1% to 19.2% and from 14.7% to 30.3% in two separate experiments. Clinical signs observed in the infected fish corresponded to symptoms characteristically seen during natural outbreaks. These findings indicate that pre-treatment with H2O2 can...

  10. Effect of heavy metals on marine Bacillus sp. and Flavobacterium sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, S.; LokaBharathi, P.A.; Chandramohan, D.

    stream_size 10 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Ecotoxicology_2_220.pdf.txt stream_source_info Ecotoxicology_2_220.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  11. Influence of organic diets and probiotics on an experimental Flavobacterium psychrophilum infection in rainbow trout fry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lone; Ingerslev, Hans-Christian; Boye, Mette

    2012-01-01

    following exposure to pathogenic microorganisms. The aim of the Danish project OPTIFISH is to optimize growth and survival for organic cultured rainbow trout. OPTIFISH investigates how organic vs. non-organic diet types as well as diets with or without probiotics affect the intestine, the intestinal...... of fry to pathogens, e.g. F .psychrophilum. In the current experiment four diet types were tested on fry, a conventional type (Inicio®, BioMar A/S) with and without probiotics, as well as an organic type with and without probiotic. Bactocell® (Lallemand) was used as the probiotic. Studies were done...... been fed diets that were organic or conventional nor if the feed had been added probiotic. No significance in mortalities was seen between the diet groups. The bacteriological examinations showed that the bacterium had entered the fish, as it was found in inner organs in one fourth of the sampled fish...

  12. Coupling of dimethylsulfide oxidation to biomass production by a marine flavobacterium

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Green, D.H.; Shenoy, D.M.; Hart, M.C.; Hatton, A.D.

    . Stirling, and J. R. Quayle. 1982. Co-metabolism [and discussion]. Phil Trans R Soc Lond B 297:481-496. 7. del Valle, D. A., D. J. Kieber, and R. P. Kiene. 2007. Depth-dependent fate of biologically- consumed dimethylsulfide in the Sargasso Sea. Mar Chem.... Klenk. 1985. Measurement of protein using bicinchoninic acid. Anal Biochem 150:76-85. 27. Vila-Costa, M., D. A. del Valle, J. M. Gonzalez, D. Slezak, R. P. Kiene, O. Sanchez, and R. Simo. 2006. Phylogenetic identification and metabolism of marine...

  13. Detection of Flavobacterium psychrophilum from fish tissue and water samples by PCR amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiklund, T.; Madsen, Lone; Bruun, Morten Sichlau

    2000-01-01

    investigation, the possible detection of Fl. psychrophilum from fish tissue and water samples was examined using nested PCR with DNA probes against a sequence of the 16S rRNA genes. The DNA was extracted using Chelex(R) 100 chelating resin. The primers, which were tested against strains isolated from diseased...... fish, healthy fish, fish farm environments and reference strains, proved to be specific for Fl. psychrophilum. The obtained detection limit of Fl. psychrophilum seeded into rainbow trout brain tissue was 0.4 cfu in the PCR tube, corresponding to 17 cfu mg(-1) brain tissue. The PCR-assay proved...... to be more sensitive than agar cultivation of tissue samples from the brain of rainbow trout injected with Fl. psychrophilum. In non-sterile fresh water seeded with Fl. psychrophilum the detection limit of the PCR- assay was 1.7 cfu in the PCR tube, corresponding to 110 cfu ml(-1) water. The PCR...

  14. Specificity of the metalloregulator CueR for monovalent metal ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szunyogh, Dániel; Szokolai, Hajnalka; Thulstrup, Peter Waaben

    2015-01-01

    (II) , and Hg(II) binding to model systems encompassing the metal-ion-binding loop of CueR from E. coli and V. cholerae. In the presence of Ag(I) , a conserved cysteine residue displays a pKa value for deprotonation of the thiol that is close to the physiological pH value. This property is only observed...

  15. Relative Free Energies for Hydration of Monovalent Ions from QM and QM/MM Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev, Bogdan; Roux, Benoît; Noskov, Sergei Yu

    2013-09-10

    Methods directly evaluating the hydration structure and thermodynamics of physiologically relevant cations (Na(+), K(+), Cl(-), etc.) have wide ranging applications in the fields of inorganic, physical, and biological chemistry. All-atom simulations based on accurate potential energy surfaces appear to offer a viable option for assessing the chemistry of ion solvation. Although MD and free energy simulations of ion solvation with classical force fields have proven their usefulness, a number of challenges still remain. One of them is the difficulty of force field benchmarking and validation against structural and thermodynamic data obtained for a condensed phase. Hybrid quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) models combined with sampling algorithms have the potential to provide an accurate solvation model and to incorporate the effects from the surrounding, which is often missing in gas-phase ab initio computations. Herein, we report the results from QM/MM free energy simulations of Na(+)/K(+) and Cl(-)/Br(-) hydration where we simultaneously characterized the relative thermodynamics of ion solvation and changes in the solvation structure. The Flexible Inner Region Ensemble Separator (FIRES) method was used to impose a spatial separation between QM region and the outer sphere of solvent molecules treated with the CHARMM27 force field. FEP calculations based on QM/MM simulations utilizing the CHARMM/deMon2k interface were performed with different basis set combinations for K(+)/Na(+) and Cl(-)/Br(-) perturbations to establish the dependence of the computed free energies on the basis set level. The dependence of the computed relative free energies on the size of the QM and MM regions is discussed. The current methodology offers an accurate description of structural and thermodynamic aspects of the hydration of alkali and halide ions in neat solvents and can be used to obtain thermodynamic data on ion solvation in condensed phase along with underlying structural properties of the ion-solvent system.

  16. Monovalent cation induced structural transitions in telomeric DNAs: G-DNA folding intermediates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardin, C.C.; Watson, T.; Henderson, E.; Prosser, J.K.

    1991-01-01

    Telomeric DNA consists of G- and C-rich strands that are always polarized such that the G-rich strand extends past the 3' end of the duplex to form a 12-16-base overhang. These overhanging strands can self-associate in vitro to form intramolecular structures that have several unusual physical properties and at least one common feature, the presence of non-Watson-Crick G·G base pairs. The term G-DNA was coined for this class of structures. On the basis of gel electrophoresis, imino proton NMR, and circular dichroism (CD) results, the authors find that changing the counterions from sodium to potassium specifically induces conformational transitions in the G-rich telomeric DNA from Tetrahymena, d(T 2 G 4 ) 4 (TET4), which results in a change from the intramolecular species to an apparent multistranded structure, accompanied by an increase in the melting temperature of the base pairs of >25 degree, as monitored by loss of the imino proton NMR signals. They infer that the multistranded structure is a quadruplex. The results indicate that specific differences in ionic interactions can result in a switch in telomeric DNAs between intramolecular hairpin-like or quadruplex-containing species and intermolecular quadruplex structures, all of which involve G·G base pairing interaction. They propose a model in which duplex or hairpin forms of G-DNA are folding intermediates in the formation of either 1-, 2-, or 4-stranded quadruplex structures

  17. Immunocytochemistry by electron spectroscopic imaging using well defined boronated monovalent antibody fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessels, M M; Qualmann, B; Sierralta, W D

    1996-01-01

    Contributing to the rapidly developing field of immunoelectron microscopy a new kind of markers has been created. The element boron, incorporated as very stable carborane clusters into different kinds of peptides, served as a marker detectable by electron spectroscopic imaging (ESI)--an electron microscopic technique with high-resolution potential. Covalently linked immunoreagents conspicuous by the small size of both antigen recognizing part and marker moiety are accessible by using peptide concepts for label construction and their conjugation with Fab' fragments. Due to a specific labeling of the free thiol groups of the Fab' fragments, the antigen binding capacity was not affected by the attachment of the markers and the resulting immunoprobes exhibited an elongated shape with the antigen combining site and the label located at opposite ends. The labeling densities observed with these reagents were found to be significantly higher than those obtained by using conventional colloidal gold methods. Combined with digital image processing and analysis systems, boron-based ESI proved to be a powerful approach in ultrastructural immunocytochemistry employing pre- and post-embedding methods.

  18. Effect of Monovalent Ion Parameters on Molecular Dynamics Simulations of G-Quadruplexes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havrila, Marek; Stadlbauer, Petr; Islam, Barira; Otyepka, M.; Šponer, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 8 (2017), s. 3911-3926 ISSN 1549-9618 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EF15_003/0000477; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-13721S Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : telomeric g-quadruplex * amber force-field * nucleic-acid quadruplexes Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 5.245, year: 2016

  19. Monovalent engagement of the BCR activates ovalbumin-specific transnuclear B cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avalos, Ana M.; Bilate, Angelina M.; Witte, Martin D.; Tai, Albert K.; He, Jiang; Frushicheva, Maria P.; Thill, Peter D.; Meyer-Wentrup, Friederike; Theile, Christopher S.; Chakraborty, Arup K.; Zhuang, Xiaowei; Ploegh, Hidde L.

    2014-01-01

    Valency requirements for B cell activation upon antigen encounter are poorly understood. OB1 transnuclear B cells express an IgG1 B cell receptor (BCR) specific for ovalbumin (OVA), the epitope of which can be mimicked using short synthetic peptides to allow antigen-specific engagement of the BCR.

  20. Impact of monovalent cations on soil structure. Part II. Results of two Swiss soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahani, Elham; Emami, Hojat; Keller, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the impact of adding solutions with different potassium and sodium concentrations on dispersible clay, water retention characteristics, air permeability, and soil shrinkage behaviour using two agricultural soils from Switzerland with different clay content but similar organic carbon to clay ratio. Three different solutions (including only Na, only K, and the combination of both) were added to soil samples at three different cation ratio of soil structural stability levels, and the soil samples were incubated for one month. Our findings showed that the amount of readily dispersible clay increased with increasing Na concentrations and with increasing cation ratio of soil structural stability. The treatment with the maximum Na concentration resulted in the highest water retention and in the lowest shrinkage capacity. This was was associated with high amounts of readily dispersible clay. Air permeability generally increased during incubation due to moderate wetting and drying cycles, but the increase was negatively correlated with readily dispersible clay. Readily dispersible clay decreased with increasing K, while readily dispersible clay increased with increasing K in Iranian soil (Part I of our study). This can be attributed to the different clay mineralogy of the studied soils (muscovite in Part I and illite in Part II).

  1. Promotion effect of monovalent metals (K and Cs) on the GaAs (110) surface oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valeri, S.; Sberveglieri, P.; Angeli, E.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of thin (∼ 1 monolayer) overlayers of low electronegativity metals (Cs and K) on the RT oxidation behaviour of GaAs(110) cleavage surface is studied. This study was with Auger and Photoemission spectroscopies. Attention has been focused on the core-valence-valence and Auger lineshapes on the Ga and As 3d peaks. Presence of the alkali metal enhances the GaAs (110) oxidation rate several orders of magnitude above the clean surface value has been found. The range 0-100 Langmuir is investigated in detail. The oxidation process of the GaAs(110) surface in the presence of both K and Cs overlayer follows a multi-step kinetic and reaches a saturation at exposure lower than 100 Langmuir. Both Ga and As atoms are involved in the oxygen bonding. The metal enhanced semiconductor oxidation is generally reported to be a process involving predominantly the semiconductor surface atoms. However in the Cs - and K - GaAs case, an involvement of the alkali metal atoms too, reflected in the shape modification of their Auger line has been found. The promotion effect of K and Cs is discussed in terms of their low electronegativity and in comparison with the results recently reported in the literature for the other low electronegativity metals

  2. Electrochemical Behaviour of Organonickel Complexes: Monovalent – Divalent – Trivalent Nickel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klein, A.; Kaiser, A.; Sarkar, B.; Wanner, M.; Fiedler, Jan

    -, č. 7 (2007), s. 965-976 ISSN 1434-1948 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400400505; GA MŠk LC510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : electron transfer * nickel * electrochemistry * EPR spectroscopy * spectroelectrochemistry Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 2.597, year: 2007

  3. Systems Biology of Monovalent Cation Homeostasis in Yeast: The Translucent Contribution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ariňo, J.; Aydar, E.; Drulhe, S.; Ganser, D.; Jorrín, J.; Kahm, M.; Krause, F.; Petrezsélyová, Silvia; Yenush, L.; Zimmermannová, Olga; Van Heusden, G.P.H.; Kschischo, M.; Ludwig, J.; Palmer, Ch.; Ramos, J.; Sychrová, Hana

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 2014 (2014), s. 1-63 ISSN 0065-2911 R&D Project s: GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/10/0307; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500110801; GA MŠk(CZ) LD13037 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : yeast * cation homeostasis * osmotolerance Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.250, year: 2014

  4. Immunization-Safety Monitoring Systems for the 2009 H1N1 Monovalent Influenza Vaccination Program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salmon, Daniel A.; Akhtar, Aysha; Mergler, Michelle J.; Vannice, Kirsten S.; Izurieta, Hector; Ball, Robert; Lee, Grace M.; Vellozzi, Claudia; Garman, Patrick; Cunningham, Francesca; Gellin, Bruce; Koh, Howard; Lurie, Nicole

    The effort to vaccinate the US population against the 2009 H1N1 influenza virus hinged, in part, on public confidence in vaccine safety. Early in the vaccine program, >20% of parents reported that they would not vaccinate their children. Concerns about the safety of the vaccines were reported by

  5. Increased mineral oil bioavailability in slurries by monovalent cation-induced dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonge, H. de; Verstraten, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    Bioavailability of apolar contaminants is an important limiting factor for microbial reclamation of polluted soils. This paper describes a laboratory study of the relation between microaggregate stability and bioavailability of mineral oil in soil-water slurries. The stability of microaggregates in slurries is regulated by the valence and surface affinity of the cations in the system, and by the complexing anion P 2 O 7 4- (metaphosphate). A silt loam, contaminated with a weathered gas oil, was collected from an oil refinery site. Degradation rates were monitored in small-scale incubations at solid:liquid ratios of 1:5 (w/w). The solution contained Ca, Na, or K as the dominant cation. The levels of nutrients and metaphosphate were varied. Biodegradation rates increased with the sequence Ca 2 treatment. Measurements of the particle size distribution the slurry showed that an increase in the finer fractions qualitatively correlated with enhanced biodegradation. This is a strong indication that dispersion of the microaggregates increased bioavailability of the contaminant

  6. GROWTH AND ELECTRONIC-STRUCTURE OF SOME MONOVALENT METALS ON TIS2(001)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WEITERING, HH; HIBMA, T

    1991-01-01

    The epitaxial growth of Ag on TiS2(001) is characterized using reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED), low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Ag grows in the (111) orientation epitaxially on TiS2(001) with Ag[110BAR]parallel-toTiS2[100]. The growth

  7. A Thermodynamic Model of Monovalent Cation Homeostasis in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Gerber

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cationic and heavy metal toxicity is involved in a substantial number of diseases in mammals and crop plants. Therefore, the understanding of tightly regulated transporter activities, as well as conceiving the interplay of regulatory mechanisms, is of substantial interest. A generalized thermodynamic description is developed for the complex interplay of the plasma membrane ion transporters, membrane potential and the consumption of energy for maintaining and restoring specific intracellular cation concentrations. This concept is applied to the homeostasis of cation concentrations in the yeast cells of S. cerevisiae. The thermodynamic approach allows to model passive ion fluxes driven by the electrochemical potential differences, but also primary or secondary active transport processes driven by the inter- play of different ions (symport, antiport or by ATP consumption (ATPases. The model-confronted with experimental data-reproduces the experimentally observed potassium and proton fluxes induced by the external stimuli KCl and glucose. The estimated phenomenological constants combine kinetic parameters and transport coefficients. These are in good agreement with the biological understanding of the transporters thus providing a better understanding of the control exerted by the coupled fluxes. The model predicts the flux of additional ion species, like e.g. chloride, as a potential candidate for counterbalancing positive charges. Furthermore, the effect of a second KCl stimulus is simulated, predicting a reduced cellular response for cells that were first exposed to a high KCl stimulus compared to cells pretreated with a mild KCl stimulus. By describing the generalized forces that are responsible for a given flow, the model provides information and suggestions for new experiments. Furthermore, it can be extended to other systems such as e.g. Candida albicans, or selected plant cells.

  8. Efficiency of the heat pump cooperating with various heat sources in monovalent and bivalent systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurpaska, S.; Latala, H. [Krakow Univ. of Agriculture, Krakow (Poland). Inst. of Agricultural Engineering and Computer Science

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a study that tested the efficiency of compressor heat pumps cooperating with various types of lower heat sources such as horizontal ground heat exchangers, vertical exchangers and sources operating in the bivalent system. The system for receiving energy consisted of a traditional heating system and liquid-air exchangers. The study identified a strong relationship between the heating efficiency of the analysed systems and temperature inside the structure. The study showed that the bivalent system was fully capable of meeting a heat requirement of about 1 MJ -2.

  9. Ion Pairing in Aqueous Lithium Salt Solutions with Monovalent and Divalent Counter-Anions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pluhařová, Eva; Mason, Philip E.; Jungwirth, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 117, č. 46 (2013), s. 11766-11773 ISSN 1089-5639 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12001 Grant - others:MŠMT(CZ) LM2010005 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : lithium * aqueous solution * neutron scattering * molecular dynamics * polarizability Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.775, year: 2013

  10. Evaluation of the elastic properties of monovalent oxides using TeO 2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt; Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, King Khalid University, Abha 9004, Saudi Arabia; Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Al-Azhar University, Nasr City 11884, Egypt; Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Al-Azhar University, ...

  11. Influence of oral polio vaccines on performance of the monovalent and pentavalent rotavirus vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Manish; Steele, A Duncan; Parashar, Umesh D

    2012-04-27

    In recent years, two live, oral rotavirus vaccines have been successfully tested in developing and industrialized countries, and both vaccines are now recommended by the World Health Organization for all children worldwide. Both immunogenicity and efficacy of these rotavirus vaccines has been lower in developing compared to industrialized settings. We reviewed the data on the effect of trivalent OPV on the immunogenicity and efficacy of two rotavirus vaccines currently recommended by the WHO. While rotavirus vaccines have not affected immune responses to OPV, in general, the immune responses (i.e., antibody levels) to rotavirus vaccination were lower when rotavirus vaccines were co-administered with OPV. Limited data suggests that the interference is greater after the first dose of OPV, presumably because the first dose is associated with greatest intestinal replication of vaccine polio virus strains, and this interference is largely overcome with subsequent rotavirus vaccine doses. Despite the lower immunogenicity, one large efficacy study in middle income Latin American countries showed no decrease in protective efficacy of rotavirus vaccine in infants receiving concurrent OPV. While these data are encouraging and support simultaneous administration of rotavirus vaccines and OPV, additional evidence should be gathered as rotavirus vaccines are used more widely in developing country settings, where OPV is routinely used, rather than inactivated polio vaccine. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Pathogen Screening of Naturally Produced Yakima River Spring Chinook Smolts; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation Report 6 of 7, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Joan B. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    2004-05-01

    In 1999 the Cle Elum Hatchery began releasing spring chinook salmon smolts into the upper Yakima River to increase natural production. Part of the evaluation of this program is to monitor whether introduction of hatchery produced smolts would impact the prevalence of specific pathogens in the naturally produced spring chinook smolts. Increases in prevalence of any of these pathogens could negatively impact the survival of these fish. In 1998 and 2000 through 2003 naturally produced smolts were collected for monitoring at the Chandler smolt collection facility on the lower Yakima River. Smolts were collected from mid to late outmigration, with a target of 200 fish each year. The pathogens monitored were infectious hematopoeitic necrosis virus, infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus, Flavobacterium psychrophilum, Flavobacterium columnare, Aeromonas salmonicida, Yersinia ruckeri, Edwardsiella ictaluri, Renibacterium salmoninarum and Myxobolus cerebralis. To date, only the bacterial pathogens have been detected and prevalences have been low. Prevalences have varied each year and these changes are attributed to normal fluctuation of prevalence. All of the pathogens detected are widely distributed in Washington State.

  13. Pathogen Screening of Naturally Produced Yakima River Spring Chinook Smolts; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Joan B. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    2005-05-01

    In the spring of 2004 naturally produced smolts outmigrating from the Yakima River Basin were collected for the sixth year of pathogen screening. This component of the evaluation is to monitor whether introduction of hatchery produced smolts would impact the prevalence of specific pathogens in the naturally produced spring chinook smolts. Increases in prevalence of any of these pathogens could negatively impact the survival of these fish. Since 1999 the Cle Elum Hatchery has been releasing spring chinook salmon smolts into the upper Yakima River to increase natural production. In 1998 and 2000 through 2004 naturally produced smolts were collected for monitoring at the Chandler smolt collection facility on the lower Yakima River. Smolts were collected from mid to late outmigration, with a target of 200 fish each year. The pathogens monitored were infectious hematopoeitic necrosis virus, infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus, Flavobacterium psychrophilum, Flavobacterium columnare, Aeromonas salmonicida, Yersinia ruckeri, Edwardsiella ictaluri, Renibacterium salmoninarum and Myxobolus cerebralis. Of these pathogens, only R. salmoninarum was detected in very low levels in the naturally produced smolts outmigrating in 2004. To date, only bacterial pathogens have been detected and prevalences have been low. There have been small variations each year and these changes are attributed to normal fluctuations in prevalence. All of the pathogens detected are widely distributed in Washington State.

  14. Phage-Host Interactions in Flavobacterium psychrophilum and the Potential for Phage Therapy in Aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Rói Hammershaimb

    , the increasing problem with antibiotic resistance has led to increased attention to the use of phages for controlling F. psychrophilum infections in aquaculture. In a synopsis and four scientific papers, this PhD project studies the potential and optimizes the use of phage therapy for treatment and prevention......, studies of the genetic diversity and susceptibility patterns of F. psychrophilum strains and phages isolated in three geographically distinct areas (Chile, Denmark, and USA) showed that the strains and phages clustered into geographically distinct groups. However, cross-infectivity between Chilean phage......-phage. In the third paper, a detailed analysis of the resistance mechanisms in F. psychrophilum and six phage resistant mutants was done. The results revealed unique changes in the genomes in all the phage resistant strains and that some of these changes were related to cell surface properties which were suggested...

  15. Bacteriophage Resistance Mechanisms in the Fish Pathogen Flavobacterium psychrophilum: Linking Genomic Mutations to Changes in Bacterial Virulence Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo, Daniel; Christiansen, Rói Hammershaimb; Dalsgaard, Inger

    2015-01-01

    -resistant strains had all obtained unique insertions and/or deletions and point mutations distributed among intergenic and genic regions. Mutations in genes related to cell surface properties, gliding motility, and biosynthesis of lipopolysaccharides and cell wall were found. The observed links between phage...

  16. Hydrogen peroxide as pre-treatment stressor in experimental immer-sion challenge of rainbow trout fry with Flavobacterium psychrophilum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Maya Maria Mihályi; Madsen, Lone; Dalsgaard, Inger

    2012-01-01

    . Non-medical therapeutic substances are routinely used against pathogens in aquacultures, including copper sulphate, chloramine-T, sodium carbonates, sodium chloride, formalin and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). One of the more successful immersion models used formalin as a stressor, but a less harmful...

  17. Building a columnar database on shared main memory-based storage

    OpenAIRE

    Tinnefeld, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In the field of disk-based parallel database management systems exists a great variety of solutions based on a shared-storage or a shared-nothing architecture. In contrast, main memory-based parallel database management systems are dominated solely by the shared-nothing approach as it preserves the in-memory performance advantage by processing data locally on each server. We argue that this unilateral development is going to cease due to the combination of the following three trends: a) Nowad...

  18. An EPR investigation of SiO{sub x} films with columnar structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bratus' , V., E-mail: v_bratus@isp.kiev.ua [V. Lashkaryov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, NAS of Ukraine, Kyiv 03680 (Ukraine); Indutnyi, I.; Shepeliavyi, P. [V. Lashkaryov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, NAS of Ukraine, Kyiv 03680 (Ukraine); Torchynska, T. [ESFM-Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México D.F. 07738 (Mexico)

    2014-11-15

    The results of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study of obliquely deposited porous SiO{sub x} films before and after thermal annealing in vacuum at 950 °C are presented. The low intensity slightly asymmetrical and featureless EPR line with a g-value of 2.0044 and a linewidth of 0.77 mT has been detected in as-sputtered films and attributed to dangling bonds of silicon atoms in amorphous SiO{sub x} domains with x=0.8. Successive annealing results in decreasing this line and the appearance of an intense EPR line with g=2.0025, linewidth of 0.11 mT and a hyperfine doublet with 1.6 mT splitting. According to the parameters this spectrum has been attributed to the EX center, a hole delocalized over four non-bridging oxygen atoms grouped around a Si vacancy in SiO{sub 2}. The impact of chemical treatment before annealing and duration of anneals on the defect system is discussed.

  19. Crypt base columnar stem cells in small intestines of mice are radioresistant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hua, G.; Thin, T.H.; Feldman, R.; Haimovitz-Friedman, A.; Clevers, H.; Fuks, Z.; Kolesnick, R.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Adult stem cells have been proposed to be quiescent and radiation resistant, repairing DNA double-strand breaks by nonhomologous end joining. However, the population of putative small intestinal stem cells (ISCs) at position +4 from the crypt base contradicts this model, in that

  20. Fabrication of 3D detectors with columnar electrodes of the same doping type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronchin, Sabina; Boscardin, Maurizio; Piemonte, Claudio; Pozza, Alberto; Zorzi, Nicola; Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco; Bosisio, Luciano; Pellegrini, Giulio

    2007-01-01

    Recently, we presented a new 3D detector architecture aimed at simplifying the manufacturing process, making it more suitable for high-volume production. In particular, the proposed device features electrodes of one doping type only, e.g., n + columns in a p-type substrate. In this paper we report on the fabrication at ITC-irst of the first batch of prototypes. The main issues related to the fabrication process along with preliminary results from the electrical characterization of different detectors and test structures are discussed

  1. Critical fields and growth rates of the Tayler instability as probed by a columnar gallium experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Ruediger, Guenther; Gellert, Marcus; Schultz, Manfred; Strassmeier, Klaus G.; Stefani, Frank; Gundrum, Thomas; Seilmayer, Martin; Gerbeth, Gunter

    2012-01-01

    Many astrophysical phenomena (such as the slow rotation of neutron stars or the rigid rotation of the solar core) can be explained by the action of the Tayler instability of toroidal magnetic fields in the radiative zones of stars. In order to place the theory of this instability on a safe fundament it has been realized in a laboratory experiment measuring the critical field strength, the growth rates as well as the shape of the supercritical modes. A strong electrical current flows through a...

  2. A review of columnar cell lesions of the breast in a Lagos Tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CCLs) in Nigerian women using Fibrocystic changes (FCC) of the breast as a surrogate lesion as well as to determine the variants of CCLs found using the standard histologic criteria.The materials for this study consisted of all consecutive ...

  3. Frustrated magnetic response of a superconducting Nb film with a square lattice of columnar defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zadorosny, R; Ortiz, W A [Grupo de Supercondutividade e Magnetismo, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Lepienski, C M [Universidade Federal do Parana, Departamento de Fisica, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Patino, E; Blamire, M G [Department of Materials Science, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: rafazad@df.ufscar.br

    2008-02-01

    The magnetic response of a superconducting system presenting a frustrated state is investigated. The system is a superconducting film with mechanically pierced columns, cooled in a field which is then removed. Frustration originates from the competition between return flux of a dipole - created by flux trapped in the empty columns - and flux exclusion by the surrounding superconductor in the Meissner state. The system resolves the incompatibility among conflicting constraints, leading to frustration, by eliminating return flux, which is possibly assimilated by nearby columns, as manifested by a sudden reduction of the magnetic moment on the decreasing field branch of the hysteresis loop.

  4. Frustrated magnetic response of a superconducting Nb film with a square lattice of columnar defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zadorosny, R; Ortiz, W A; Lepienski, C M; Patino, E; Blamire, M G

    2008-01-01

    The magnetic response of a superconducting system presenting a frustrated state is investigated. The system is a superconducting film with mechanically pierced columns, cooled in a field which is then removed. Frustration originates from the competition between return flux of a dipole - created by flux trapped in the empty columns - and flux exclusion by the surrounding superconductor in the Meissner state. The system resolves the incompatibility among conflicting constraints, leading to frustration, by eliminating return flux, which is possibly assimilated by nearby columns, as manifested by a sudden reduction of the magnetic moment on the decreasing field branch of the hysteresis loop

  5. MOBIUS-STRIP-LIKE COLUMNAR FUNCTIONAL CONNECTIONS ARE REVEALED IN SOMATO-SENSORY RECEPTIVE FIELD CENTROIDS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Joseph Wright

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Receptive fields of neurons in the forelimb region of areas 3b and 1 of primary somatosensory cortex, in cats and monkeys, were mapped using extracellular recordings obtained sequentially from nearly radial penetrations. Locations of the field centroids indicated the presence of a functional system, in which cortical homotypic representations of the limb surfaces are entwined in three-dimensional Mobius-strip-like patterns of synaptic connections. Boundaries of somatosensory receptive field in nested groups irregularly overlie the centroid order, and are interpreted as arising from the superposition of learned connections upon the embryonic order. Since the theory of embryonic synaptic self-organisation used to model these results was devised and earlier used to explain findings in primary visual cortex, the present findings suggest the theory may be of general application throughout cortex, and may reveal a modular functional synaptic system, which, only in some parts of the cortex, and in some species, is manifest as anatomical ordering into columns.

  6. Development of microsatellite markers using next-generation sequencing for the columnar cactus Echinopsis chiloensis (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossa, Carmen G; Larridon, Isabel; Peralta, Gioconda; Asselman, Pieter; Pérez, Fernanda

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to develop microsatellite markers as a tool to study population structure, genetic diversity and effective population size of Echinopsis chiloensis, an endemic cactus from arid and semiarid regions of Central Chile. We developed 12 polymorphic microsatellite markers for E. chiloensis using next-generation sequencing and tested them in 60 individuals from six sites, covering all the latitudinal range of this species. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 3 to 8, while the observed (Ho) and expected (He) heterozygosity ranged from 0.0 to 0.80 and from 0.10 to 0.76, respectively. We also detected significant differences between sites, with F ST values ranging from 0.05 to 0.29. Microsatellite markers will enable us to estimate genetic diversity and population structure of E. chiloensis in future ecological and phylogeographic studies.

  7. Controlling the aspect ratio of quantum dots: from columnar dots to quantum rods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, L.; Patriarche, G.; Chauvin, N.J.G.; Ridha, P.; Rossetti, M.; Andrzejewski, J.; Sek, G.; Misiewicz, J.; Fiore, A.

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate the feasibility and flexibility of artificial shape engineering of epitaxial semiconductor nanostructures. Novel nanostructures including InGaAs quantum rods (QRs), nanocandles, and quantum dots (QDs)-in-rods were realized on a GaAs substrate. They were formed by depositing a

  8. The use of phage FCL-2 as an alternative to chemotherapy against columnaris disease in aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina eLaanto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Flavobacterium columnare, the causative agent of columnaris disease in fish, causes millions of dollars of losses in the US channel catfish industry alone, not to mention aquaculture industry worldwide. Novel methods are needed for the control and treatment of bacterial diseases in aquaculture to replace traditionally used chemotherapies. A potential solution could be the use of phages, i.e., bacterial viruses, host-specific and self-enriching particles that can be can easily distributed via water flow. We examined the efficacy of phages to combat columnaris disease. A previously isolated phage, FCL-2, infecting F. columnare, was characterized by sequencing. The 47 142 bp genome of the phage had G + C content of 30.2%, and the closest similarities regarding the structural proteins were found in Cellulophaga phage phiSM. Under controlled experimental conditions, two host fish species, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss and zebrafish (Danio rerio, were used to study the success of phage therapy to prevent F. columnare infections. The survival of both fish species was significantly higher in the presence of the phage. Hundred percent of the zebrafish and 50 % of the rainbow trout survived in the phage treatment (survival without phage 0 % and 8.3 %, respectively. Most importantly, the rainbow trout population was rescued from infection by a single addition of the phage into the water in a flow-through fish tank system. Thus, F. columnare could be used as a model system to test the benefits and risks of phage therapy on a larger scale.

  9. A Pencil Graphite Electrode In Situ Modified by Monovalent Copper: a Promising Tool for the Determination of Methylxanthines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Navrátil, R.; Jelen, František; Kayran, Y.U.; Trnková, L.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 5 (2014), s. 952-961 ISSN 1040-0397 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : Methylxanthines * Pencil graphite electrode * Elimination voltammetry Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.138, year: 2014

  10. Differential effect of HOE642 on two separate monovalent cation transporters in the human red cell membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernhardt, Ingolf; Weiss, Erwin; Robinson, Hannah C

    2007-01-01

    Residual K(+) fluxes in red blood cells can be stimulated in conditions of low ionic strength. Previous studies have identified both the non-selective, voltage-dependent cation (NSVDC) channel and the K(+)(Na(+))/H(+) exchanger as candidate pathways mediating this effect, although it is possible...... blood cell apoptosis (eryptosis) and disease....

  11. Succinate, iron chelation, and monovalent cations affect the transformation efficiency of Acinetobacter baylyi ATCC 33305 during growth in complex media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Colleen G; Boyd, Caroline M; Roush, Kaleb S; Tenente, Ricardo; Lang, Kristine M; Lostroh, C Phoebe

    2017-10-01

    Natural transformation is the acquisition of new genetic material via the uptake of exogenous DNA by competent bacteria. Acinetobacter baylyi is model for natural transformation. Here we focus on the natural transformation of A. baylyi ATCC 33305 grown in complex media and seek environmental conditions that appreciably affect transformation efficiency. We find that the transformation efficiency for A. baylyi is a resilient characteristic that remains high under most conditions tested. We do find several distinct conditions that alter natural transformation efficiency including addition of succinate, Fe 2+ (ferrous) iron chelation, and substitution of sodium ions with potassium ones. These distinct conditions could be useful to fine tune transformation efficiency for researchers using A. baylyi as a model organism to study natural transformation.

  12. Monovalent Virus-Like Particle Vaccine Protects Guinea Pigs and Nonhuman Primates Against Infection with Multiple Marburg Viruses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Swenson, Dana L; Warfield, Kelly L; Larsen, Tom; Alves, D. A; Coberley, Sadie S; Bavari, Sina

    2008-01-01

    .... Guinea pigs vaccinated with marburgvirus (m)VLPs or inactivated MARV (iMARV) develop homologous humoral and T cell responses and are completely protected from a lethal homologous MARV challenge...

  13. Stable isotope (C, O) and monovalent cation fractionation upon synthesis of carbonate-bearing hydroxyl apatite (CHAP) via calcite transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, Michael E.; Schmiedinger, Iris; Wacker, Ulrike; Conrad, Anika C.; Grathoff, Georg; Schmidt, Burkhard; Bahlo, Rainer; Gehlken, Peer-L.; Fiebig, Jens

    2016-04-01

    Carbonate-bearing hydroxyl-apatite (CHAP) is of fundamental and applied interest to the (bio)geochemical, paleontological, medical and material science communities, since it forms the basic mineral phase in human and animal teeth and bones. In addition, it is found in non-biogenic phosphate deposits. The stable isotope and foreign element composition of biogenic CHAP is widely used to estimate the formation conditions. This requires careful experimental calibration under well-defined boundary conditions. Within the DFG project EXCALIBOR, synthesis of carbonate-bearing hydroxyapatite was conducted via the transformation of synthetic calcite powder in aqueous solution as a function of time, pH, and temperature using batch-type experiments. The aqueous solution was analyzed for the carbon isotope composition of dissolved inorganic carbonate (gas irmMS), the oxygen isotope composition of water (LCRDS), and the cationic composition. The solid was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, micro Raman and FTIR spectroscopy, SEM-EDX, elemental analysis (EA, ICP-OES) and gas irmMS. Temperature was found to significantly impact the transformation rate of calcite to CHAP. Upon complete transformation, CHAP was found to contain up to 5% dwt carbonate, depending on the solution composition (e.g., pH), both incorporated on the A and B type position of the crystal lattice. The oxygen isotope fractionation between water and CHAP decreased with increasing temperature with a tentative slope shallower than those reported in the literature for apatite, calcite or aragonite. In addition, the presence of dissolved NH4+, K+ or Na+ in aqueous solution led to partial incorporation into the CHAP lattice. How these distortions of the crystal lattice may impact stable isotope discrimination is subject of future investigations.

  14. Brain delivery of AAV9 expressing an anti-PrP monovalent antibody delays prion disease in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moda, Fabio; Vimercati, Chiara; Campagnani, Ilaria; Ruggerone, Margherita; Giaccone, Giorgio; Morbin, Michela; Zentilin, Lorena; Giacca, Mauro; Zucca, Ileana; Legname, Giuseppe; Tagliavini, Fabrizio

    2012-01-01

    Prion diseases are caused by a conformational modification of the cellular prion protein (PrP (C)) into disease-specific forms, termed PrP (Sc), that have the ability to interact with PrP (C) promoting its conversion to PrP (Sc). In vitro studies demonstrated that anti-PrP antibodies inhibit this process. In particular, the single chain variable fragment D18 antibody (scFvD18) showed high efficiency in curing chronically prion-infected cells. This molecule binds the PrP (C) region involved in the interaction with PrP (Sc) thus halting further prion formation. These findings prompted us to test the efficiency of scFvD18 in vivo. A recombinant Adeno-Associated Viral vector serotype 9 was used to deliver scFvD18 to the brain of mice that were subsequently infected by intraperitoneal route with the mouse-adapted scrapie strain RML. We found that the treatment was safe, prolonged the incubation time of scrapie-infected animals and decreased the burden of total proteinase-resistant PrP (Sc) in the brain, suggesting that scFvD18 interferes with prion replication in vivo. This approach is relevant for designing new therapeutic strategies for prion diseases and other disorders characterized by protein misfolding.

  15. Efficacy of a monovalent human-bovine (116E) rotavirus vaccine in Indian children in the second year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Nita; Rongsen-Chandola, Temsunaro; Bavdekar, Ashish; John, Jacob; Antony, Kalpana; Taneja, Sunita; Goyal, Nidhi; Kawade, Anand; Kang, Gagandeep; Rathore, Sudeep Singh; Juvekar, Sanjay; Muliyil, Jayaprakash; Arya, Alok; Shaikh, Hanif; Abraham, Vinod; Vrati, Sudhanshu; Proschan, Michael; Kohberger, Robert; Thiry, Georges; Glass, Roger; Greenberg, Harry B; Curlin, George; Mohan, Krishna; Harshavardhan, G V J A; Prasad, Sai; Rao, T S; Boslego, John; Bhan, Maharaj Kishan

    2014-08-11

    Rotavirus gastroenteritis is one of the leading causes of diarrhea in Indian children less than 2 years of age. The 116E rotavirus strain was developed as part of the Indo-US Vaccine Action Program and has undergone efficacy trials. This paper reports the efficacy and additional safety data in children up to 2 years of age. In a double-blind placebo controlled multicenter trial, 6799 infants aged 6-7 weeks were randomized to receive three doses of an oral human-bovine natural reassortant vaccine (116E) or placebo at ages 6, 10, and 14 weeks. The primary outcome was severe (≥11 on the Vesikari scale) rotavirus gastroenteritis. Efficacy outcomes and adverse events were ascertained through active surveillance. We randomly assigned 4532 and 2267 subjects to receive vaccine and placebo, respectively, with over 96% subjects receiving all three doses of the vaccine or placebo. The per protocol analyses included 4354 subjects in the vaccine and 2187 subjects in the placebo group. The overall incidence of severe RVGE per 100 person years was 1.3 in the vaccine group and 2.9 in the placebo recipients. Vaccine efficacy against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in children up to 2 years of age was 55.1% (95% CI 39.9 to 66.4; pvaccine efficacy in the second year of life of 48.9% (95% CI 17.4 to 68.4; p=0.0056) was only marginally less than in the first year of life [56.3% (95% CI 36.7 to 69.9; pvaccine dose and all were reported only after the third dose. The sustained efficacy of the 116E in the second year of life is reassuring. The trial is registered with Clinical Trial Registry-India (# CTRI/2010/091/000102) and Clinicaltrials.gov (# NCT01305109). Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Epidemiology of group A rotavirus infection after the introduction of monovalent vaccine in the National Immunization Program of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ayed, Mohammed Saeed Zayed; Asaad, Ahmed Morad; Qureshi, Mohamed Ansar; Hawan, Ali Abdullah

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of group A rotavirus (RVA) gastroenteritis and the distribution of the RVA genotypes as well as to determine a possible change in the age of occurrence of the RVA infection in the first 2 years after Rotarix® vaccine introduction in Saudi Arabia. This descriptive study included 850 hospitalized children vaccine introduction, especially in the age group between 1 and 12 months, and a reduction in the circulation of G1P[6]. The parallel rise and spread of G2P[4] in post-vaccination period might pose an impact to long-term vaccine efficacy. Continued surveillance studies in different Saudi regions are crucial to document the effectiveness of Rotarix® vaccine and evaluate the potential emergence of rare/novel RVA genotypes. J. Med. Virol. 89:429-434, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Impact of feed additives on surface mucosal health and columnaris susceptibility in channel catfish fingerlings, Ictalurus punctatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Honggang; Li, Chao; Beck, Benjamin H; Zhang, Ran; Thongda, Wilawan; Davis, D Allen; Peatman, Eric

    2015-10-01

    One of the highest priority areas for improvement in aquaculture is the development of dietary additives and formulations which provide for complete mucosal health and protection of fish raised in intensive systems. Far greater attention has been paid to dietary impact on gut health than to protective effects at other mucosal surfaces such as skin and gill. These exterior surfaces, however, are important primary targets for pathogen attachment and invasion. Flavobacterium columnare, the causative agent of columnaris disease, is among the most prevalent of all freshwater disease-causing bacteria, impacting global aquaculture of catfish, salmonids, baitfish and aquaria-trade species among others. This study evaluated whether the feeding of a standard catfish diet supplemented with Alltech dietary additives Actigen(®), a concentrated source of yeast cell wall-derived material and/or Allzyme(®) SSF, a fermented strain of Aspergillus niger, could offer protection against F. columnare mortality. A nine-week feeding trial of channel catfish fingerlings with basal diet (B), B + Allzyme(®) SSF, B + Actigen(®) and B + Actigen(®)+Allzyme(®) SSF revealed good growth in all conditions (FCR additives may provide protection extending beyond the gut to surface mucosa. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Influence of Infective Dose on the Virulence of a Generalist Pathogen in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss and Zebra Fish (Danio rerio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Kinnula

    Full Text Available Pathogen density and genetic diversity fluctuate in the outside-host environment during and between epidemics, affecting disease emergence and the severity and probability of infections. Although the importance of these factors for pathogen virulence and infection probability has been acknowledged, their interactive effects are not well understood. We studied how an infective dose in an environmentally transmitted opportunistic fish pathogen, Flavobacterium columnare, affects its virulence both in rainbow trout, which are frequently infected at fish farms, and in zebra fish, a host that is not naturally infected by F. columnare. We used previously isolated strains of confirmed high and low virulence in a single infection and in a co-infection. Infection success (measured as host morbidity correlated positively with dose when the hosts were exposed to the high-virulence strain, but no response for the dose increase was found when the hosts were exposed to the low-virulence strain. Interestingly, the co-infection resulted in poorer infection success than the single infection with the high-virulence strain. The rainbow trout were more susceptible to the infection than the zebra fish but, in both species, the effects of the doses and the strains were qualitatively similar. We suggest that as an increase in dose can lead to increased host morbidity, both the interstrain interactions and differences in infectivity in different hosts may influence the severity and consequently the evolution of disease. Our results also confirm that the zebra fish is a good laboratory model to study F. columnare infection.

  19. Near-surface and columnar measurements with a micro pulse lidar of atmospheric pollen in Barcelona, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sicard

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We present for the first time continuous hourly measurements of pollen near-surface concentration and lidar-derived profiles of particle backscatter coefficients and of volume and particle depolarization ratios during a 5-day pollination event observed in Barcelona, Spain, between 27 and 31 March 2015. Daily average concentrations ranged from 1082 to 2830 pollen m−3. Platanus and Pinus pollen types represented together more than 80 % of the total pollen. Maximum hourly pollen concentrations of 4700 and 1200 m−3 were found for Platanus and Pinus, respectively. Every day a clear diurnal cycle caused by the vertical transport of the airborne pollen was visible on the lidar-derived profiles with maxima usually reached between 12:00 and 15:00 UT. A method based on the lidar polarization capabilities was used to retrieve the contribution of the pollen to the total aerosol optical depth (AOD. On average the diurnal (09:00–17:00 UT pollen AOD was 0.05, which represented 29 % of the total AOD. Maximum values of the pollen AOD and its contribution to the total AOD reached 0.12 and 78 %, respectively. The diurnal means of the volume and particle depolarization ratios in the pollen plume were 0.08 and 0.14, with hourly maxima of 0.18 and 0.33, respectively. The diurnal mean of the height of the pollen plume was found at 1.24 km with maxima varying in the range of 1.47–1.78 km. A correlation study is performed (1 between the depolarization ratios and the pollen near-surface concentration to evaluate the ability of the former parameter to monitor pollen release and (2 between the depolarization ratios as well as pollen AOD and surface downward solar fluxes, which cause the atmospheric turbulences responsible for the particle vertical motion, to examine the dependency of the depolarization ratios and the pollen AOD upon solar fluxes. For the volume depolarization ratio the first correlation study yields to correlation coefficients ranging 0.00–0.81 and the second to correlation coefficients ranging 0.49–0.86.

  20. Estimation of atmospheric columnar organic matter (OM) mass concentration from remote sensing measurements of aerosol spectral refractive indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Li, Zhengqiang; Sun, Yele; Lv, Yang; Xie, Yisong

    2018-04-01

    Aerosols have adverse effects on human health and air quality, changing Earth's energy balance and lead to climate change. The components of aerosol are important because of the different spectral characteristics. Based on the low hygroscopic and high scattering properties of organic matter (OM) in fine modal atmospheric aerosols, we develop an inversion algorithm using remote sensing to obtain aerosol components including black carbon (BC), organic matter (OM), ammonium nitrate-like (AN), dust-like (DU) components and aerosol water content (AW). In the algorithm, the microphysical characteristics (i.e. volume distribution and complex refractive index) of particulates are preliminarily separated to fine and coarse modes, and then aerosol components are retrieved using bimodal parameters. We execute the algorithm using remote sensing measurements of sun-sky radiometer at AERONET site (Beijing RADI) in a period from October of 2014 to January of 2015. The results show a reasonable distribution of aerosol components and a good fit for spectral feature calculations. The mean OM mass concentration in atmospheric column is account for 14.93% of the total and 56.34% of dry and fine-mode aerosol, being a fairly good correlation (R = 0.56) with the in situ observations near the surface layer.

  1. Columnar aerosol optical and radiative properties according to season and air mass transport pattern over East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Young M; Müller, Detlef; Lee, Hanlim; Lee, Kwonho; Kim, Young Joon

    2012-08-01

    The column-integrated optical and radiative properties of aerosols in the downwind area of East Asia were investigated based on sun/sky radiometer measurements performed from February 2004 to June 2005 at Gwangju (35.23° N, 126.84° E) and Anmyeon (36.54° N, 126.33° E), Korea. The observed aerosol data were analyzed for differences among three seasons: spring (March-May), summer (June-August), and autumn/winter (September-February). The data were also categorized into five types depending on the air mass origin in arriving in the measurement sites: (a) from a northerly direction in spring (S(N)), (b) from a westerly direction in spring (S(W)), (c) cases with a low Ångström exponent (air mass origin. The forcing efficiency in summer was -131.7 and -125.6 W m(-2) at the surface in Gwangju and Anmyeon, respectively. These values are lower than those under the atmospheric conditions of spring and autumn/winter. The highest forcing efficiencies in autumn/winter were -214.3 and -255.9 W m(-2) at the surface in Gwangju and Anmyeon, respectively, when the air mass was transported from westerly directions.

  2. Comparison of cancer-associated genetic abnormalities in columnar-lined esophagus tissues with and without goblet cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandla, Santhoshi; Peters, Jeffrey H; Ruff, David; Chen, Shiaw-Min; Li, Chieh-Yuan; Song, Kunchang; Thoms, Kimberly; Litle, Virginia R; Watson, Thomas; Chapurin, Nikita; Lada, Michal; Pennathur, Arjun; Luketich, James D; Peterson, Derick; Dulak, Austin; Lin, Lin; Bass, Adam; Beer, David G; Godfrey, Tony E; Zhou, Zhongren

    2014-07-01

    To determine and compare the frequency of cancer-associated genetic abnormalities in esophageal metaplasia biopsies with and without goblet cells. Barrett's esophagus is associated with increased risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), but the appropriate histologic definition of Barrett's esophagus is debated. Intestinal metaplasia (IM) is defined by the presence of goblet cells whereas nongoblet cell metaplasia (NGM) lacks goblet cells. Both have been implicated in EAC risk but this is controversial. Although IM is known to harbor genetic changes associated with EAC, little is known about NGM. We hypothesized that if NGM and IM infer similar EAC risk, then they would harbor similar genetic aberrations in genes associated with EAC. Ninety frozen NGM, IM, and normal tissues from 45 subjects were studied. DNA copy number abnormalities were identified using microarrays and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Targeted sequencing of all exons from 20 EAC-associated genes was performed on metaplasia biopsies using Ion AmpliSeq DNA sequencing. Frequent copy number abnormalities targeting cancer-associated genes were found in IM whereas no such changes were observed in NGM. In 1 subject, fluorescence in situ hybridization confirmed loss of CDKN2A and amplification of chromosome 8 in IM but not in a nearby NGM biopsy. Targeted sequencing revealed 11 nonsynonymous mutations in 16 IM samples and 2 mutations in 19 NGM samples. This study reports the largest and most comprehensive comparison of DNA aberrations in IM and NGM genomes. Our results show that IM has a much higher frequency of cancer-associated mutations than NGM.

  3. Origin of the irreversibility line in thin YBa2Cu3O7-δ films with and without columnar defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prozorov, R.; Konczykowski, M.; Schmidt, B.; Yeshurun, Y.; Shaulov, A.; Villard, C.; Koren, G.

    1996-01-01

    We report on measurements of the angular dependence of the irreversibility temperature T irr (θ) in YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ thin films, defined by the onset of a third-harmonic signal and measured by a miniature Hall probe. From the functional form of T irr (θ) we conclude that the origin of the irreversibility line in unirradiated films is a dynamic crossover from an unpinned to a pinned vortex liquid. In irradiated films the irreversibility temperature is determined by the trapping angle. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  4. Atmospheric Pre-Corrected Differential Absorption Techniques to Retrieve Columnar Water Vapor: Application to AVIRIS 91/95 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaepfer, Daniel; Borel, Christoph C.; Keller, Johannes; Itten, Klaus I.

    1996-01-01

    Water vapor is one of the main forces for weather development as well as for mesoscale air transport processes. The monitoring of water vapor is therefore an important aim in remote sensing of the atmosphere. Current operational systems for water vapor detection use primarily the emission in the thermal infrared (AVHRR, GOES, ATSR, Meteosat) or in the microwave radiation bands (DMSP). The disadvantage of current satellite systems is either a coarse spatial (horizontal) resolution ranging from one to tens of kilometers or a limited insight into the lower atmosphere. Imaging spectrometry on the other hand measures total column water vapor contents at a high spatial horizontal resolution and has therefore the potential of filling these gaps. The sensors of the AVIRIS instrument are capable of acquiring hyperspectral data in 224 bands located in the visible and near infrared at 10 nm resolution. This data includes the information on constituents of the earth's surface as well as of the atmosphere. The optical measurement of water vapor can be performed using sensor channels located in bands or lines of the absorption spectrum. The AVIRIS sensor has been used to retrieve water vapor and with less accuracy carbon dioxide, oxygen and ozone. To retrieve the water vapor amount, the so called differential absorption technique has been applied. The goal of this technique is to eliminate background factors by taking a ratio between channels within the absorption band and others besides the band. Various ratioing methods on the basis of different channels and calculation techniques were developed. The influence of a trace gas of interest on the radiance at the sensor level is usually simulated by using radiative transfer codes. In this study, the spectral transmittance and radiance are calculated by MODTRAN3 simulations with the new DISORT option. The objective of this work is to test the best performing differential absorption techniques for imaging spectrometry of tropospheric water vapor.

  5. Influence of intermediate annealing on abnormal Goss grain growth in the rolled columnar-grained Fe-Ga-Al alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yangyang; Li, Jiheng; Gao, Xuexu

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Texture of primary IA sample was dominated by γ-fiber with a peak at {1 1 1}<1 1 0>. • Texture of primary CR sample was dominated by {1 1 3}<1 1 4> texture. • Inhomogeneous microstructure was significantly improved in primary IA sample. • Strong Goss texture was obtained in final IA sample without surface energy control. - Abstract: Magnetostrictive Fe 82 Ga 4.5 Al 13.5 sheets with 0.1 at% NbC were prepared from directional solidified alloys with <0 0 1> preferred orientation. The slabs were hot rolled at 650 °C and warm rolled at 500 °C. Then some warm-rolled sheets were annealed intermediately at 850 °C for 5 min but the others not. After that, all the sheets were cold rolled to a final thickness of ∼0.3 mm. The microstructures, the textures and the distributions of second phase particles in the primary recrystallized samples were investigated. With intermediate annealing, the inhomogeneous microstructure was improved remarkably and strong Goss ({1 1 0}<0 0 1>) and γ-fiber (<1 1 1>//normal direction [ND]) textures were produced in the primary recrystallized samples. But, an evident disadvantage in size and quantity was observed for Goss grains in the primary recrystallized sample without intermediate annealing. After a final annealing, the final textures and magnetostrictions of samples with and without intermediate annealing were characterized. For samples without intermediate annealing, abnormal growth of {1 1 3} grains occurred and deteriorated the magnetostriction. In contrast, abnormal Goss grain growth occurred completely in samples with intermediate annealing and led to saturation magnetostriction as high as 156 ppm.

  6. Atmospheric pre-corrected differential absorption techniques to retrieve columnar water vapor: Application to AVIRIS 91/95 data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlaepfer, D. [Univ. of Zuerich (Switzerland). Dept. of Geography; Borel, C.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Keller, J. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen (Switzerland)] [and others

    1996-03-01

    Water vapor is one of the main forces for weather development as well as for mesoscale air transport processes. The monitoring of water vapor is therefore an important aim in remote sensing of the atmosphere. Current operational systems for water vapor detection use primarily the emission in the thermal infrared (AVHRR, GOES, ATSR, Meteosat) or in the microwave radiation bands (DMSP). The disadvantage of current satellite systems is either a coarse spatial (horizontal) resolution ranging from one to tens of kilometers or a limited insight into the lower atmosphere. Imaging spectrometry on the other hand measures total column water vapor contents at a high spatial horizontal resolution and has therefore the potential of filling these gaps. The sensors of the AVIRIS instrument are capable of acquiring hyperspectral data in 224 bands located in the visible and near infrared at 10 run resolution. This data includes information on constituents of the earth`s surface as well as of the atmosphere. The optical measurement of water vapor can be performed using sensor channels located in bands or lines of the absorption spectrum. The AVIRIS sensor has been used to retrieve water vapor and with less accuracy carbon dioxide, oxygen and ozone. To retrieve the water vapor amount, the so called differential absorption technique has been applied. The goal of this technique is to eliminate background factors by taking a ratio between channels within the absorption band and others besides the band. Various rationing methods on the basis of different channels and calculation techniques were developed. The influence of a trace gas of interest on the radiance at the sensor level is usually simulated by using radiative transfer codes. In this study, spectral transmittance and radiance are calculated by MODTRAN3 simulations with the new DISORT option. This work testS the best performing differential absorption techniques for imaging spectrometry of tropospheric water vapor.

  7. High spatial correspondence at a columnar level between activation and resting state fMRI signals and local field potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhaoyue; Wu, Ruiqi; Yang, Pai-Feng; Wang, Feng; Wu, Tung-Lin; Mishra, Arabinda; Chen, Li Min; Gore, John C

    2017-05-16

    Although blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI has been widely used to map brain responses to external stimuli and to delineate functional circuits at rest, the extent to which BOLD signals correlate spatially with underlying neuronal activity, the spatial relationships between stimulus-evoked BOLD activations and local correlations of BOLD signals in a resting state, and whether these spatial relationships vary across functionally distinct cortical areas are not known. To address these critical questions, we directly compared the spatial extents of stimulated activations and the local profiles of intervoxel resting state correlations for both high-resolution BOLD at 9.4 T and local field potentials (LFPs), using 98-channel microelectrode arrays, in functionally distinct primary somatosensory areas 3b and 1 in nonhuman primates. Anatomic images of LFP and BOLD were coregistered within 0.10 mm accuracy. We found that the point spread functions (PSFs) of BOLD and LFP responses were comparable in the stimulus condition, and both estimates of activations were slightly more spatially constrained than local correlations at rest. The magnitudes of stimulus responses in area 3b were stronger than those in area 1 and extended in a medial to lateral direction. In addition, the reproducibility and stability of stimulus-evoked activation locations within and across both modalities were robust. Our work suggests that the intrinsic resolution of BOLD is not a limiting feature in practice and approaches the intrinsic precision achievable by multielectrode electrophysiology.

  8. Influence of intermediate annealing on abnormal Goss grain growth in the rolled columnar-grained Fe-Ga-Al alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yangyang; Li, Jiheng; Gao, Xuexu, E-mail: gaox@skl.ustb.edu.cn

    2017-08-01

    Highlights: • Texture of primary IA sample was dominated by γ-fiber with a peak at {1 1 1}<1 1 0>. • Texture of primary CR sample was dominated by {1 1 3}<1 1 4> texture. • Inhomogeneous microstructure was significantly improved in primary IA sample. • Strong Goss texture was obtained in final IA sample without surface energy control. - Abstract: Magnetostrictive Fe{sub 82}Ga{sub 4.5}Al{sub 13.5} sheets with 0.1 at% NbC were prepared from directional solidified alloys with <0 0 1> preferred orientation. The slabs were hot rolled at 650 °C and warm rolled at 500 °C. Then some warm-rolled sheets were annealed intermediately at 850 °C for 5 min but the others not. After that, all the sheets were cold rolled to a final thickness of ∼0.3 mm. The microstructures, the textures and the distributions of second phase particles in the primary recrystallized samples were investigated. With intermediate annealing, the inhomogeneous microstructure was improved remarkably and strong Goss ({1 1 0}<0 0 1>) and γ-fiber (<1 1 1>//normal direction [ND]) textures were produced in the primary recrystallized samples. But, an evident disadvantage in size and quantity was observed for Goss grains in the primary recrystallized sample without intermediate annealing. After a final annealing, the final textures and magnetostrictions of samples with and without intermediate annealing were characterized. For samples without intermediate annealing, abnormal growth of {1 1 3} grains occurred and deteriorated the magnetostriction. In contrast, abnormal Goss grain growth occurred completely in samples with intermediate annealing and led to saturation magnetostriction as high as 156 ppm.

  9. A Columnar Primary Visual Cortex (V1) Model Emulation Using a PS3 Cell-Be Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    23 July 2010, pp 1-8, Barcelona , Spain, ISSN: 1098-7576, Print ISBN: 978-1-4244-6916, INSPEC Accession No.: 11593936, Digital Object Identifier...98subfields) X (128 FCs per subfield) X (64 minicolumns/ FC ) works out to 802816 minicolumns per hemisphere. All minicolumns within a

  10. Transition from columnar to point pinning in coated conductors: critical currents that are independent of magnetic field direction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuev, Yuri L; Hun Wee, Sung; Christen, David K

    2012-01-01

    We identify a sharp crossover in the vortex pinning of a high-temperature superconductor with nanocolumnar stacks of precipitates as strong vortex pinning centers. Above a particular, temperature-dependent field B X (T) the vortex response is no longer determined by the nanocolumns, and is instead determined by point-like pinning. This crossover is evident as a change in the dependence of the critical current density on the angle between the applied magnetic field and the nanocolumns. It also leads to the field-orientation-independent power law index n of the E–J curves. Below the transition, there is a strong maximum in J C when the field is aligned parallel to the columns and n depends on field direction. Above the transition, n is independent of the field direction and there is a J C minimum for H parallel to the columns. We discuss a possible mechanism for such behavior change, as well as testing and confirming a prediction that the crossover must become very broad at high temperatures and low fields. (paper)

  11. Aquiflexum balticum gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel marine bacterium of the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides group isolated from surface water of the central Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brettar, Ingrid; Christen, Richard; Höfle, Manfred G

    2004-11-01

    A bacterial isolate from the Baltic Sea, BA160(T), was characterized for its physiological and biochemical features, fatty acid profile, G+C content and phylogenetic position based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. The strain was isolated from the surface water of the central Baltic Sea during the decay of a plankton bloom. Phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed a clear affiliation with the family 'Flexibacteraceae', and showed the closest phylogenetic relationship with the species Belliella baltica and Cyclobacterium marinum. The G+C content of the DNA was 38.4 mol%. The strain was red-coloured due to carotenoids, Gram-negative, rod-shaped, and catalase- and oxidase-positive. Growth was observed at salinities from 0 to 6 %, with an optimum around 1.5 %. Temperature for growth ranged from 4 to 40 degrees C, with an optimum around 30 degrees C. The fatty acids were dominated by branched-chain fatty acids (>87 %), with a high abundance of iso-C(15 : 0) (23 %) and anteiso-C(15 : 0) (19 %). According to its morphology, physiology, fatty acid composition, G+C content and 16S rRNA gene sequence, strain BA160(T) is considered to represent a new genus of the family 'Flexibacteraceae'. Due to its aquatic origin, the name Aquiflexum balticum gen. nov, sp. nov. is suggested for the type species (type strain, BA160(T)=DSM 16537(T)=LMG 22565(T)=CIP 108445(T)) of the new genus.

  12. Diversity and Geographical Distribution of Flavobacterium psychrophilum Isolates and Their Phages: Patterns of Susceptibility to Phage Infection and Phage Host Range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo, Daniel; Christiansen, Rói Hammershaimb; Espejo, Romilio

    2014-01-01

    in disease control requires detailed knowledge about the diversity and dynamics of host susceptibility to phage infection. For this reason, we examined the genetic diversity of 49 F. psychrophilum strains isolated in three different areas (Chile, Denmark, and USA) through direct genome restriction enzyme...... analysis (DGREA) and their susceptibility to 33 bacteriophages isolated in Chile and Denmark, thus covering large geographical (>12,000 km) and temporal (>60 years) scales of isolation. An additional 40 phage-resistant isolates obtained from culture experiments after exposure to specific phages were...... examined for changes in phage susceptibility against the 33 phages. The F. psychrophilum and phage populations isolated from Chile and Denmark clustered into geographically distinct groups with respect to DGREA profile and host range, respectively. However, cross infection between Chilean phage isolates...

  13. The immune response of rainbow trout to Flavobacterium psychrophilum following immersion-challenge model with and without hydrogen peroxide pre-treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Maya Maria Mihályi; Madsen, Lone; Kania, P. W.

    2013-01-01

    , no commercial vaccine is currently available and the disease is treated with antibiotics. Injection-based challenges with F. psychrophilum are standardized but the route of infection does not reflect a natural situation. Therefore, we established an immersion-based model investigating if hydrogen peroxide (H2O2...... in the gill tissue were evaluated using hematoxylin and eosin stained tissue sections. Exposure to both H2O2 and F. psychrophilum intensified tissue damage and postponed healing. The results indicate that F. psychrophilum may have an immunosuppressive action and that environmental stress may be one of several...

  14. Detection and Quantification of Flavobacterium psychrophilum-Specific Bacteriophages In Vivo in Rainbow Trout upon Oral Administration: Implications for Disease Control in Aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Rói Hammershaimb; Dalsgaard, Inger; Middelboe, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    different methods-bath, oral intubation into the stomach, and phage-coated feed-with special emphasis on the oral route of delivery. Phages could be detected in all the organs investigated (intestine, spleen, brain, and kidney) 0.5 h postadministration, reaching concentrations as high as ∼10(5) PFU mg...... intestine(-1) and ∼10(3) PFU mg spleen(-1) within the first 24 h following the bath and ∼10(7) PFU mg intestine(-1) and ∼10(4) PFU mg spleen(-1) within the first 24 h following oral intubation. The phages were most persistent in the organs for the first 24 h and then decreased exponentially; no phages were...... detected after 83 h in the organs investigated. Phage administration via feed resulted in the detection of phages in the intestine, spleen, and kidney 1 h after feeding. Average concentrations of ∼10(4) PFU mg intestine(-1) and ∼10(1) PFU mg spleen(-1) were found throughout the experimental period (200 h...

  15. Flavobacterium branchiophilum and F. succinicans associated with bacterial gill disease in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) in water recirculation aquaculture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raised rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in six replicated water recirculation aquaculture systems (WRAS), and manipulated environmental conditions to promote bacterial gill disease (BGD). For each episode of BGD, gill tissue was sampling from affected fish, unaffected fish within the same WRAS, and...

  16. Effective Protection Induced by a Monovalent DNA Vaccine against Dengue Virus (DV Serotype 1 and a Bivalent DNA Vaccine against DV1 and DV2 in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Zheng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DV is the causal pathogen of dengue fever, which is one of the most rapidly spread mosquito-borne disease worldwide and has become a severe public health problem. Currently, there is no specific treatment for dengue; thus, a vaccine would be an effective countermeasure to reduce the morbidity and mortality. Although, the chimeric Yellow fever dengue tetravalent vaccine has been approved in some countries, it is still necessary to develop safer, more effective, and less costly vaccines. In this study, a DNA vaccine candidate pVAX1-D1ME expressing the prME protein of DV1 was inoculated in BALB/c mice via intramuscular injection or electroporation, and the immunogenicity and protection were evaluated. Compared with traditional intramuscular injection, administration with 50 μg pVAX1-D1ME via electroporation with three immunizations induced persistent humoral and cellular immune responses and effectively protected mice against lethal DV1 challenge. In addition, immunization with a bivalent vaccine consisting of pVAX1-D1ME and pVAX1-D2ME via electroporation generated a balanced IgG response and neutralizing antibodies against DV1 and DV2 and could protect mice from lethal challenge with DV1 and DV2. This study sheds new light on developing a dengue tetravalent DNA vaccine.

  17. Recombinant monovalent llama-derived antibody fragments (VHH to rotavirus VP6 protect neonatal gnotobiotic piglets against human rotavirus-induced diarrhea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celina G Vega

    Full Text Available Group A Rotavirus (RVA is the leading cause of severe diarrhea in children. The aims of the present study were to determine the neutralizing activity of VP6-specific llama-derived single domain nanoantibodies (VHH nanoAbs against different RVA strains in vitro and to evaluate the ability of G6P[1] VP6-specific llama-derived single domain nanoantibodies (VHH to protect against human rotavirus in gnotobiotic (Gn piglets experimentally inoculated with virulent Wa G1P[8] rotavirus. Supplementation of the daily milk diet with 3B2 VHH clone produced using a baculovirus vector expression system (final ELISA antibody -Ab- titer of 4096; virus neutralization -VN- titer of 256 for 9 days conferred full protection against rotavirus associated diarrhea and significantly reduced virus shedding. The administration of comparable levels of porcine IgG Abs only protected 4 out of 6 of the animals from human RVA diarrhea but significantly reduced virus shedding. In contrast, G6P[1]-VP6 rotavirus-specific IgY Abs purified from eggs of hyperimmunized hens failed to protect piglets against human RVA-induced diarrhea or virus shedding when administering similar quantities of Abs. The oral administration of VHH nanoAb neither interfered with the host's isotype profiles of the Ab secreting cell responses to rotavirus, nor induced detectable host Ab responses to the treatment in serum or intestinal contents. This study shows that the oral administration of rotavirus VP6-VHH nanoAb is a broadly reactive and effective treatment against rotavirus-induced diarrhea in neonatal pigs. Our findings highlight the potential value of a broad neutralizing VP6-specific VHH nanoAb as a treatment that can complement or be used as an alternative to the current strain-specific RVA vaccines. Nanobodies could also be scaled-up to develop pediatric medication or functional food like infant milk formulas that might help treat RVA diarrhea.

  18. Protective effects of high-potency FMDV O1 Manisa monovalent vaccine in cattle challenged with FMDV O/SKR/2010 at 7 or 4 days post vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsington, Jacquelyn; Perez, Claudia Beascoechea; Maradei, Eduardo; Novo, Sabrina Galdo; Gonzales, Jose L; Singanallur, Nagendrakumar B; Bonastre, Paula; Vosloo, Wilna

    2017-09-12

    Serotype O foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus belonging to the SEA topotype continues to be a significant problem in the Eastern Asia region, with outbreaks in Japan and South Korea resulting in the culling of over 3.5 million cattle and pigs in recent years. High-potency O1 Manisa vaccine was previously shown to provide protection in cattle 21days post vaccination (dpv) following challenge with a representative virus, O/SKR/2010. This study tested the ability of the O1 Manisa vaccine to protect cattle from infection and disease with the O/SKR/2010 virus within just 4 or 7days post vaccination. The vaccine protected 50% of cattle from clinical disease when administered 7days prior to challenge, but was not protective with just 4days between vaccination and challenge. Viraemia was significantly reduced in animals challenged 7 dpv but not 4 dpv, compared to unvaccinated controls, however, there were no effects on the level of virus detected in nasal and oral secretions regardless of vaccination time. The level of neutralising antibodies detected in cattle challenged 7 dpv correlated with protection from clinical disease. All animals seroconverted to FMDV non-structural proteins, suggesting no sterile protection. An equal number of animals became persistently infected in both vaccine groups. The results indicated that high-potency O1 Manisa vaccine administered just 7days prior to challenge should provide partial protection of cattle if an outbreak of O/SKR/2010, or related viruses, occurs, and would be useful to limit spread of FMDV when used in conjunction with other control measures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A comparative study of the incidence of aseptic meningitis in symptomatic natural mumps patients and monovalent mumps vaccine recipients in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Takao; Okafuji, Teruo; Miyazaki, Chiaki; Ito, Yuhei; Kamada, Makoto; Kumagai, Takuji; Yuri, Kenji; Sakiyama, Hiroshi; Miyata, Akiko; Ihara, Toshiaki; Ochiai, Hitoshi; Shimomura, Kunihisa; Suzuki, Eitaro; Torigoe, Sadayoshi; Igarashi, Masahiro; Kase, Tetsuo; Okuno, Yoshinobu; Nakayama, Tetsuo

    2007-03-30

    To compare the incidence of aseptic meningitis associated with symptomatic natural mumps infection and in mumps vaccine recipients, we conducted a prospective comparative study. Consecutive samples of 1051 children with mumps were enrolled by 10 pediatricians and 21,465 vaccine recipients by 143 pediatric primary care practitioners, from January 1, 2000 to January 1, 2003. Parents used a daily diary to record symptoms during the period of illness (15 days) or 30-day period following immunization. Mumps infection was confirmed by virus isolation and/or detection of mumps virus genome in salivary and CSF samples. The incidence of aseptic meningitis was 13/1051 (1.24%) in patients with symptomatic natural mumps infection and was estimated to be 0.7-1.1% of overall infection in considering asymptomatic infection, and 10/21,465 (0.05%) in vaccine recipients. Although aseptic meningitis is a clear side effect of the mumps vaccine, the incidence is considerably lower than among those with symptomatic natural infection. Our results provide an informative data for consideration to resume mumps vaccine as a part of routine immunization schedule for Japanese children.

  20. Recombinant monovalent llama-derived antibody fragments (VHH) to rotavirus VP6 protect neonatal gnotobiotic piglets against human rotavirus-induced diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Celina G; Bok, Marina; Vlasova, Anastasia N; Chattha, Kuldeep S; Gómez-Sebastián, Silvia; Nuñez, Carmen; Alvarado, Carmen; Lasa, Rodrigo; Escribano, José M; Garaicoechea, Lorena L; Fernandez, Fernando; Bok, Karin; Wigdorovitz, Andrés; Saif, Linda J; Parreño, Viviana

    2013-01-01

    Group A Rotavirus (RVA) is the leading cause of severe diarrhea in children. The aims of the present study were to determine the neutralizing activity of VP6-specific llama-derived single domain nanoantibodies (VHH nanoAbs) against different RVA strains in vitro and to evaluate the ability of G6P[1] VP6-specific llama-derived single domain nanoantibodies (VHH) to protect against human rotavirus in gnotobiotic (Gn) piglets experimentally inoculated with virulent Wa G1P[8] rotavirus. Supplementation of the daily milk diet with 3B2 VHH clone produced using a baculovirus vector expression system (final ELISA antibody -Ab- titer of 4096; virus neutralization -VN- titer of 256) for 9 days conferred full protection against rotavirus associated diarrhea and significantly reduced virus shedding. The administration of comparable levels of porcine IgG Abs only protected 4 out of 6 of the animals from human RVA diarrhea but significantly reduced virus shedding. In contrast, G6P[1]-VP6 rotavirus-specific IgY Abs purified from eggs of hyperimmunized hens failed to protect piglets against human RVA-induced diarrhea or virus shedding when administering similar quantities of Abs. The oral administration of VHH nanoAb neither interfered with the host's isotype profiles of the Ab secreting cell responses to rotavirus, nor induced detectable host Ab responses to the treatment in serum or intestinal contents. This study shows that the oral administration of rotavirus VP6-VHH nanoAb is a broadly reactive and effective treatment against rotavirus-induced diarrhea in neonatal pigs. Our findings highlight the potential value of a broad neutralizing VP6-specific VHH nanoAb as a treatment that can complement or be used as an alternative to the current strain-specific RVA vaccines. Nanobodies could also be scaled-up to develop pediatric medication or functional food like infant milk formulas that might help treat RVA diarrhea.