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Sample records for monounsaturated fat intake

  1. Facts about monounsaturated fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... room temperature, but start to harden when chilled. Saturated fats and trans fats are solid at room temperature. ... fats are monounsaturated or polyunsaturated. You should limit saturated fat to less than 10% of your daily calories. ...

  2. Monounsaturated fats and immune function

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    P. Yaqoob

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Animal studies suggest that olive oil is capable of modulating functions of cells of the immune system in a manner similar to, albeit weaker than, fish oils. There is some evidence that the effects of olive oil on immune function in animal studies are due to oleic acid rather than to trace elements or antioxidants. Importantly, several studies have demonstrated effects of oleic acid-containing diets on in vivo immune responses. In contrast, consumption of a monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA-rich diet by humans does not appear to bring about a general suppression of immune cell functions. The effects of this diet in humans are limited to decreasing aspects of adhesion of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, although there are trends towards decreases in natural killer cell activity and proliferation. The lack of a clear effect of MUFA in humans may be attributable to the higher level of monounsaturated fat used in the animal studies, although it is ultimately of importance to examine the effects of intakes which are in no way extreme. The effects of MUFA on adhesion molecules are potentially important, since these molecules appear to have a role in the pathology of a number of diseases involving the immune system. This area clearly deserves further exploration

  3. Dietary monounsaturated fatty acids intake and risk of skin photoaging.

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    Julie Latreille

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intake of monounsaturated fatty acids has been reported to reduce oxidative stress, insulin resistance and related inflammatory processes and may thus protect from skin photoaging. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between the risk of photoaging, monounsaturated fatty acids intake and the sources of monounsaturated fatty acids. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross sectional study was conducted within the framework of the SUVIMAX cohort. The survey included 1264 women and 1655 men aged between 45 and 60 years old. Dietary monounsaturated fatty acids intakes were estimated by dietary source through at least ten 24-h diet records completed during the first 2.5 years of the follow-up period. Severity of facial skin photoaging was graded by trained investigators at baseline during a clinical examination using a 6-grade scale illustrated by photographs. A lower risk of severe photoaging was associated with higher intakes of monounsaturated fatty acids from olive oil in both sexes. Strikingly, no association was found with intake of monounsaturated fatty acids from animal sources whether from dairy products, meat or processed meat. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings support the beneficial effect of dietary olive oil or healthy diet habits associated with olive oil consumption on the severity of facial photoaging.

  4. Monounsaturated fatty acid, carbohydrate intake, and diabetes status are associated with arterial pulse pressure

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    Vaccaro Joan A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes is a global epidemic. Cardiovascular disease (CVD is one of the most prevalent consequences of diabetes. Nutrition is considered a modifiable risk factor for CVD, particularly for individuals with diabetes; albeit, there is little consensus on the role of carbohydrates, proteins and fats for arterial health for persons with or without diabetes. In this study, we examined the association of macronutrients with arterial pulse pressure (APP, a surrogate measure of arterial health by diabetes status and race. Methods Participants were 892 Mexican Americans (MA, 1059 Black, non-Hispanics (BNH and 2473 White, non-Hispanics (WNH with and without diabetes of a weighted sample from the National Nutrition and Health Examination Survey (NHANES 2007-2008. The cross-sectional analysis was performed with IBM-SPSS version 18 with the complex sample analysis module. The two-year sample weight for the sub-sample with laboratory values was applied to reduce bias and approximate a nationally, representative sample. Arterial stiffness was assessed by arterial pulse pressure (APP. Results APP was higher for MA [B = 0.063 (95% CI 0.015 to 0.111, p = 0.013] and BNH [B = 0.044 (95% CI 0.006 to 0.082, p = 0.018] than WNH, controlling for diabetes, age, gender, body mass index (BMI, fiber intake, energy intake (Kcal and smoking. A two-way interaction of diabetes by carbohydrate intake (grams was inversely associated with APP [B = -1.18 (95% CI -0.178 to -0.058, p = 0.001], controlling for race, age, gender, BMI, Kcal and smoking. BNH with diabetes who consumed more mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA than WNH with diabetes had lower APP [B = -0.112 (95%CI-0.179 to -0.045, p = 0.003] adjusting for saturated fatty acids, Kcal, age, gender, BMI and smoking. Conclusion Higher MUFA and carbohydrate intake for persons with diabetes reflecting lower APP may be due to replacement of saturated fats with CHO and MUFA. The associations of APP with

  5. Substitution of saturated with monounsaturated fat in a 4-week diet affects body weight and composition of overweight and obese men.

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    Piers, L S; Walker, Karen Z; Stoney, Rachel M; Soares, Mario J; O'Dea, Kerin

    2003-09-01

    A randomised crossover study of eight overweight or obese men (aged 24-49 years, BMI 25.5-31.3 kg/m(2)), who followed two diets for 4 weeks each, was performed to determine whether substitution of saturated fat with monounsaturated fat affects body weight and composition. Subjects were provided with all food and beverages as modules (selected ad libitum) of constant macronutrient composition, but differing energy content. The % total energy from saturated fat, monounsaturated fat and polyunsaturated fat was 24, 13 and 3 % respectively on the saturated fatty acid (SFA)-rich diet and 11, 22 and 7 % respectively on the monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA)-rich diet. MUFA accounted for about 80 % of the unsaturated fats consumed on both diets. Body composition, blood pressure, energy expenditure (resting and postprandial metabolic rates, substrate oxidation rate, physical activity), serum lipids, the fatty acid profile of serum cholesteryl esters and plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were measured before and after each diet period. Significant (Psaturated with unsaturated fat, predominantly MUFA, can induce a small but significant loss of body weight and fat mass without a significant change in total energy or fat intake.

  6. Flow-mediated vasodilation is not impaired when HDL-cholesterol is lowered by substituting carbohydrates for monounsaturated fat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Roos, NM; Bots, ML; Siebelink, E; Katan, MB

    2001-01-01

    Low-fat diets, in which carbohydrates replace some of the fat, decrease serum cholesterol. This decrease is due to decreases in LDL-cholesterol but in part to possibly harmful decreases in HDL-cholesterol. High-oil diets, in which oils rich in monounsaturated fat replace some of the saturated fat, d

  7. Flow-mediated vasodilation is not impaired when HDL-cholesterol is lowered by substituting carbohydrates for monounsaturated fat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Roos, NM; Bots, ML; Siebelink, E; Katan, MB

    2001-01-01

    Low-fat diets, in which carbohydrates replace some of the fat, decrease serum cholesterol. This decrease is due to decreases in LDL-cholesterol but in part to possibly harmful decreases in HDL-cholesterol. High-oil diets, in which oils rich in monounsaturated fat replace some of the saturated fat, d

  8. Diets high and low in glycemic index versus high monounsaturated fat diets: effects on glucose and lipid metabolism in NIDDM.

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    Luscombe, N D; Noakes, M; Clifton, P M

    1999-06-01

    To examine the relative effects of high and low glycemic index (GI) carbohydrates, and monounsaturated fats on blood glucose and lipid metabolism in NIDDM subjects. Fourteen male and seven female variably controlled NIDDM subjects recruited by advertisement. Free living outpatients. A repeated measures, within-subject design was used such that each subject consumed three diets: (a) a high-GI diet (53% CHO -21% fat, 63 GI units (glucose= 100)); (b) a low-GI diet (51% CHO -23% fat, 43 GI units); and (c) a high-mono high-GI diet (42% CHO -35% fat, 59 GI units) in random order and cross-over fashion for four weeks. Approximately 45% energy was provided as key foods which differed in published GI values and specifically excluded legumes. Dietary fibre intake was > 30 g/d on each diet. At the end of each dietary intervention, we measured fasting plasma lipids, glucose, insulin, total glycated plasma protein, fructosamine, LDL and HDL particle size as well as 24 h urinary excretion of glucose and C-peptide. HDL-cholesterol was higher on the low-GI and high-mono high-GI diets compared to the high-GI diet (P < 0.05 for overall diet effect). There were no other significant differences in metabolic control between diets, even when adjusted for BMI, glucose control or gender. Body weight and saturated fat intake remained stable between dietary interventions. High-mono high-GI and high-CHO, low-GI diets are superior to high-CHO, high-GI diets with respect to HDL metabolism but no effect was noted on glucose metabolism in variably controlled NIDDM subjects.

  9. Effects of a high-monounsaturated fat diet on glucose and lipid metabolisms in normal and diabetic mice.

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    Kotake, Jiro; Tanaka, Yoshiaki; Umehara, Norimitsu; Miyashita, Akira; Tsuru, Tomomitsu; Hikida, Shigeki; Mizote, Hiroyoshi

    2004-04-01

    The beneficial effects of high-monounsaturated fat (high-MUFA) diets on diabetic patients have been reported, whereas studies concerning the effects on animals have been few. Although experiments on animals should be useful in elucidating underlying mechanisms, it is not clear even whether there are benefits of a high-MUFA diet in animals. This study examined the short-term effects of a high-MUFA diet on normal and genetically diabetic mice. The high-MUFA diet supplied 38% of the total calories as fat (26% from MUFA), while a regular diet was 13% fat (3% from MUFA). Normal C5 7BL/6J and diabetic C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice were fed either the regular or the high-MUFA diet for 1 wk. Serum glucose and lipid levels were then measured. In normal mice, hepatic triglyceride production was also compared between the two dietary groups using the Triton WR1339 method. An oral glucose tolerance test was conducted on the diabetic mice. After 1 wk of feeding to normal mice, the high-MUFA diet was seen to lower serum triglyceride levels and reduce hepatic triglyceride production in comparison with the regular diet; it is suggested that the lowering of triglyceride consists of mechanisms including reduced hepatic triglyceride production. When diabetic mice were fed the high-MUFA diet with a controlled caloric intake, the serum glucose levels lowered without an accompanying deterioration in lipid metabolism and the impaired glucose tolerance was ameliorated. This study demonstrates that a high-MUFA diet can lower serum triglyceride levels in normal mice and improve disorders of glucose metabolism in diabetic mice.

  10. Effects of Saturated Fat, Polyunsaturated Fat, Monounsaturated Fat, and Carbohydrate on Glucose-Insulin Homeostasis: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomised Controlled Feeding Trials.

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    Fumiaki Imamura

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Effects of major dietary macronutrients on glucose-insulin homeostasis remain controversial and may vary by the clinical measures examined. We aimed to assess how saturated fat (SFA, monounsaturated fat (MUFA, polyunsaturated fat (PUFA, and carbohydrate affect key metrics of glucose-insulin homeostasis.We systematically searched multiple databases (PubMed, EMBASE, OVID, BIOSIS, Web-of-Knowledge, CAB, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, SIGLE, Faculty1000 for randomised controlled feeding trials published by 26 Nov 2015 that tested effects of macronutrient intake on blood glucose, insulin, HbA1c, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion in adults aged ≥18 years. We excluded trials with non-isocaloric comparisons and trials providing dietary advice or supplements rather than meals. Studies were reviewed and data extracted independently in duplicate. Among 6,124 abstracts, 102 trials, including 239 diet arms and 4,220 adults, met eligibility requirements. Using multiple-treatment meta-regression, we estimated dose-response effects of isocaloric replacements between SFA, MUFA, PUFA, and carbohydrate, adjusted for protein, trans fat, and dietary fibre. Replacing 5% energy from carbohydrate with SFA had no significant effect on fasting glucose (+0.02 mmol/L, 95% CI = -0.01, +0.04; n trials = 99, but lowered fasting insulin (-1.1 pmol/L; -1.7, -0.5; n = 90. Replacing carbohydrate with MUFA lowered HbA1c (-0.09%; -0.12, -0.05; n = 23, 2 h post-challenge insulin (-20.3 pmol/L; -32.2, -8.4; n = 11, and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR (-2.4%; -4.6, -0.3; n = 30. Replacing carbohydrate with PUFA significantly lowered HbA1c (-0.11%; -0.17, -0.05 and fasting insulin (-1.6 pmol/L; -2.8, -0.4. Replacing SFA with PUFA significantly lowered glucose, HbA1c, C-peptide, and HOMA. Based on gold-standard acute insulin response in ten trials, PUFA significantly improved insulin secretion capacity (+0.5 pmol/L/min; 0.2, 0.8 whether replacing

  11. Saturated fats: what dietary intake?

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    German, J Bruce; Dillard, Cora J

    2004-09-01

    Public health recommendations for the US population in 1977 were to reduce fat intake to as low as 30% of calories to lower the incidence of coronary artery disease. These recommendations resulted in a compositional shift in food materials throughout the agricultural industry, and the fractional content of fats was replaced principally with carbohydrates. Subsequently, high-carbohydrate diets were recognized as contributing to the lipoprotein pattern that characterizes atherogenic dyslipidemia and hypertriacylglycerolemia. The rising incidences of metabolic syndrome and obesity are becoming common themes in the literature. Current recommendations are to keep saturated fatty acid, trans fatty acid, and cholesterol intakes as low as possible while consuming a nutritionally adequate diet. In the face of such recommendations, the agricultural industry is shifting food composition toward lower proportions of all saturated fatty acids. To date, no lower safe limit of specific saturated fatty acid intakes has been identified. This review summarizes research findings and observations on the disparate functions of saturated fatty acids and seeks to bring a more quantitative balance to the debate on dietary saturated fat. Whether a finite quantity of specific dietary saturated fatty acids actually benefits health is not yet known. Because agricultural practices to reduce saturated fat will require a prolonged and concerted effort, and because the world is moving toward more individualized dietary recommendations, should the steps to decrease saturated fatty acids to as low as agriculturally possible not wait until evidence clearly indicates which amounts and types of saturated fatty acids are optimal?

  12. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for fats, including saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, and cholesterol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    This Opinion of the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA) deals with the setting of Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for fats. A lower bound of the reference intake range for total fat of 20 energy % (E%) and an upper bound of 35 E% are proposed. Fat intake in infants can...... gradually be reduced from 40 E% in the 6-12 month period to 35-40 E% in the 2nd and 3rd year of life. For specific fatty acids the following is proposed: saturated fatty acid (SFA) and trans fatty acid intake should be as low as possible; not to set any DRV for cis-monounsaturated fatty acids...

  13. Reduction in saturated fat intake for cardiovascular disease.

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    Hooper, Lee; Martin, Nicole; Abdelhamid, Asmaa; Davey Smith, George

    2015-06-10

    Reducing saturated fat reduces serum cholesterol, but effects on other intermediate outcomes may be less clear. Additionally it is unclear whether the energy from saturated fats that are lost in the diet are more helpfully replaced by polyunsaturated fats, monounsaturated fats, carbohydrate or protein. This review is part of a series split from and updating an overarching review. To assess the effect of reducing saturated fat intake and replacing it with carbohydrate (CHO), polyunsaturated (PUFA) or monounsaturated fat (MUFA) and/or protein on mortality and cardiovascular morbidity, using all available randomised clinical trials. We updated our searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE (Ovid) and EMBASE (Ovid) on 5 March 2014. We also checked references of included studies and reviews. Trials fulfilled the following criteria: 1) randomised with appropriate control group; 2) intention to reduce saturated fat intake OR intention to alter dietary fats and achieving a reduction in saturated fat; 3) not multifactorial; 4) adult humans with or without cardiovascular disease (but not acutely ill, pregnant or breastfeeding); 5) intervention at least 24 months; 6) mortality or cardiovascular morbidity data available. Two review authors working independently extracted participant numbers experiencing health outcomes in each arm, and we performed random-effects meta-analyses, meta-regression, subgrouping, sensitivity analyses and funnel plots. We include 15 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) (17 comparisons, ˜59,000 participants), which used a variety of interventions from providing all food to advice on how to reduce saturated fat. The included long-term trials suggested that reducing dietary saturated fat reduced the risk of cardiovascular events by 17% (risk ratio (RR) 0.83; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.72 to 0.96, 13 comparisons, 53,300 participants of whom 8% had a cardiovascular event, I² 65%, GRADE moderate quality of

  14. [Recommendations concerning the rational consumption of fats. I. Population and clinical studies on the role of monounsaturated fatty acids].

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    Okolska, G; Ziemlański, S

    1989-01-01

    On the basis of world literature a review is presented of the achievements of the science and practice of the principles of rational nutrition concerning fats. A particular attention was paid to the amount of fat in the diet of healthy and ill people and the role of monounsaturated fatty acids. These acids present in high amounts in olive oil and repeseed oil may be very useful in replacing saturated fatty acids for decreasing the serum cholesterol level. In accordance with the results of recent investigations (Ziemlański et al.) no-erucic acid repeseed oil shows a strong antiatheromatous action, and, similarly as sunflower oil, it reduces the serum level of cholesterol.

  15. Higher body mass, older age and higher monounsaturated fatty acids intake reflect better quantitative ultrasound parameters in Inuit preschoolers

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    Jessy El Hayek

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Investigate the effects of selected factors associated with quantitative ultrasound parameters among Inuit preschoolers living in Arctic communities (56° 32′–72° 40′N. Materials and methods. Children were selected randomly in summer and early fall (n=296. Dietary intake was assessed through the administration of a 24-h dietary recall (24-h recall and a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. Anthropometry was measured using standardized procedures. Plasma 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OHD and parathyroid hormone (PTH were measured using a chemiluminescent assay (Liaison, Diasorin. Quantitative ultrasound parameters were measured using Sahara Sonometer, (Hologic Inc.. Results. Children divided by speed of sound (SoS and broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA quartiles were not different for age (years, sex (M/F, calcium (mg/d and vitamin D intake (µg/d and plasma 25(OHD concentration (nmol/L. However, children in the highest BUA and SoS quartile had higher body mass index (BMI compared to those in quartile 1. Using multivariate linear regression, higher BMI, older age and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA intake were predictors of BUA while only BMI was a predictor of SoS. Conclusions. Further investigation assessing intakes of traditional foods (TF and nutrients affecting bone parameters along with assessment of vitamin D status of Inuit children across seasons is required.

  16. Higher body mass, older age and higher monounsaturated fatty acids intake reflect better quantitative ultrasound parameters in Inuit preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayek, Jessy El; Egeland, Grace; Weiler, Hope

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Investigate the effects of selected factors associated with quantitative ultrasound parameters among Inuit preschoolers living in Arctic communities (56° 32′–72° 40′N). Materials and methods Children were selected randomly in summer and early fall (n=296). Dietary intake was assessed through the administration of a 24-h dietary recall (24-h recall) and a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Anthropometry was measured using standardized procedures. Plasma 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were measured using a chemiluminescent assay (Liaison, Diasorin). Quantitative ultrasound parameters were measured using Sahara Sonometer, (Hologic Inc.). Results Children divided by speed of sound (SoS) and broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) quartiles were not different for age (years), sex (M/F), calcium (mg/d) and vitamin D intake (µg/d) and plasma 25(OH)D concentration (nmol/L). However, children in the highest BUA and SoS quartile had higher body mass index (BMI) compared to those in quartile 1. Using multivariate linear regression, higher BMI, older age and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) intake were predictors of BUA while only BMI was a predictor of SoS. Conclusions Further investigation assessing intakes of traditional foods (TF) and nutrients affecting bone parameters along with assessment of vitamin D status of Inuit children across seasons is required. PMID:22789515

  17. INCREASED FAT INTAKE MAY STABILIZED CKD PROGRESSION IN LOW-FAT INTAKE PATIENTS

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    Min-Yu Chang

    2012-06-01

    Inadequate calories intake will induce excessive protein catabolism, which can cause accumulation of uremic toxins and acceleration of renal failure. Increasing fats intake is an easy way to achieve adequate calories acquirement and may stabilize the progression of CKD especially in low-fat intake patients.

  18. Eating behavior toward oil and fat consumption versus dietary fat intake

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    Renata Andrade de Medeiros Moreira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze whether the stages of change of the Transtheoretical Model are in accordance with the fat consumption of members of the Academia da Cidade of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais. Methods: This cross-sectional study included a simple random sample of users aged ≥20 years frequenting an Academia da Cidade. Eating behavior toward oil and fat consumption was evaluated by the transtheoretical model and compared with fat intake adequacy, obtained through mean fat intake was investigated by three 24-hour recalls. Anthropometric and sociodemographic data were also collected. Additionally, the stages of change were verified, after reclassification the stages of change agreed with the consumption of fatty foods, fats, and fractions. Results: A total of 131 women with a mean age of 53.9±12.1 had an average fatty acid consumption of 556.0 mL. Some participants consumed high-fat foods, lipids (20.6%, saturated (31.3% and polyunsaturated (38.2% fatty acids, and cholesterol (16.0% in excess. The stages of eating behavior were significantly different after reclassification. The number of women in action and maintenance decreased in a way that in the end, 4.6% were in precontemplation, 19.8% were in contemplation, 26.0% were in preparation, 28.2% were in action, and 21.4% were in maintenance. The consumption of chicken skin; fatty salad dressing; bread, doughnuts or cake with butter/margarine; and fats, saturated fatty acids, and monounsaturated fatty acids was lower in the final stages of the transtheoretical model. Conclusion: After reclassification the algorithm is in agreement with the ingestion of high-fat foods, which denotes its applicability for the evaluation of eating behavior and for providing data to food and nutrition education actions.

  19. Fat intake and injury in female runners

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    Leddy John J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our purpose was to determine the relationship between energy intake, energy availability, dietary fat and lower extremity injury in adult female runners. We hypothesized that runners who develop overuse running-related injuries have lower energy intakes, lower energy availability and lower fat intake compared to non-injured runners. Methods Eighty-six female subjects, running a minimum of 20 miles/week, completed a food frequency questionnaire and informed us about injury incidence over the next year. Results Injured runners had significantly lower intakes of total fat (63 ± 20 vs. 80 ± 50 g/d and percentage of kilocalories from fat (27 ± 5 vs. 30 ± 8 % compared with non-injured runners. A logistic regression analysis found that fat intake was the best dietary predictor, correctly identifying 64% of future injuries. Lower energy intake and lower energy availability approached, but did not reach, a significant association with overuse injury in this study. Conclusion Fat intake is likely associated with injury risk in female runners. By documenting these associations, better strategies can be developed to reduce running injuries in women.

  20. Monounsaturated fat decreases hepatic lipid content in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Osamah Hussein; Masha Grosovski; Etti Lasri; Sergio Svalb; Uzi Ravid; Nimer Assy

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effects of different types of dietary fats on the hepatic lipid content and oxidative stress parameters in rat liver with experimental non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).METHODS: A total of 32 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups. The rats in the control group (n = 8) were on chow diet (Group 1), rats (n =6) on methionine choline-deficient diet (MCDD) (Group 2), rats (n = 6) on MCDD enriched with olive oil (Group 3), rats (n = 6) on MCDD with fish oil (Group 4) and rats (n = 6) on MCDD with butter fat (Group 5). After 2 mo, blood and liver sections were examined for lipids composition and oxidative stress parameters.RESULTS: The liver weight/rat weight ratio increased in all treatment groups as compared with the control group. Severe fatty liver was seen in MCDD + fish oil and in MCDD + butter fat groups, but not in MCDD and MCDD + olive oil groups. The increase in hepatic triglycerides (TG) levels was blunted by 30% in MCDD+ olive oil group (0.59 ± 0.09) compared with MCDD group (0.85 ± 0.04, P < 0.004), by 37% compared with MCDD + fish oil group (0.95±0.07, P < 0.001), and by 33% compared with MCDD + butter group (0.09±0.1,P < 0.01). The increase in serum TG was lowered by10% in MCDD + olive oil group (0.9 ± 0.07) compared with MCDD group (1.05 ± 0.06). Hepatic cholesterol increased by 15-fold in MCDD group [(0.08 ± 0.02, this increment was blunted by 21% in MCDD + fish oil group(0.09 ± 0.02)]. In comparison with the control group,ratio of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids omega-6/omega-3 increased in MCDD + olive oil, MCDD + fish oil and MCDD + butter fat groups by 345-, 30- and 397-fold, respectively. In comparison to MCDD group(1.58±0.08), hepatic MDA contents in MCDD + olive oil(3.3±0.6), MCDD + fish oil (3.0±0.4), and MCDD +butter group (2.9±0.36) were increased by 108%, 91%and 87%, respectively (P < 0.004). Hepatic paraoxonase activity decreased significantly in all treatment groups

  1. The association between different kinds of fat intake and breast cancer risk in women

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    Mahdieh Khodarahmi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available So far several animal and case-control studies have confirmed this hypothesis that dietary fat increases the risk of breast cancer. However, cohort studies have not shown this relationship. The aim of this study was to review the studies on the relationship between dietary fat intake and breast cancer risk among women. Electronic database PubMed and Google Scholar were searched using the key words: Breast cancer, dietary fat, serum estrogen, saturated fatty acids (SFAs, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs. The evidence of the studies regarding to the association of total and subtypes of fat intake with breast cancer risk are inconsistent. Several studies have shown that, among several types of fat, SFAs and w-3 PUFA intake are associated with an increased and reduced risk of breast cancer, respectively. The relationship between MUFAs intake and breast cancer risk is conflicting. Narrow ranges of fat intake among populations, measurement errors, high correlation between specific types of dietary fat, the confounding variables like body fatness and high-energy intake and other dietary components such as fiber and antioxidants might be probable explanations for these inconsistent results. Although we are not at a stage where we can justifiably advise women to reduce their fat intake to decrease the risk of developing breast cancer, it seems the current guidelines to lower total fat consumption and recommendation to consumption of unsaturated fats such as MUFAs and w-3 fatty acids and also reduction of SFAs (meat and dairy products intake to avoid heart disease is also useful for breast cancer risk.

  2. Fat and vitamin intakes during pregnancy have stronger relations with a pro-inflammatory maternal microbiota than does carbohydrate intake.

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    Mandal, Siddhartha; Godfrey, Keith M; McDonald, Daniel; Treuren, Will V; Bjørnholt, Jørgen V; Midtvedt, Tore; Moen, Birgitte; Rudi, Knut; Knight, Rob; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Peddada, Shyamal D; Eggesbø, Merete

    2016-10-19

    Although diet is known to have a major modulatory influence on gut microbiota, knowledge of the specific roles of particular vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients is limited. Modulation of the composition of the microbiota in pregnant women is especially important as maternal microbes are transferred during delivery and initiate the colonization process in the infant. We studied the associations between intake of specific dietary nutrients during pregnancy and gut microbiota composition. Utilizing the Norwegian NoMIC cohort, we examined the relations between intakes of 28 dietary macro- and micronutrients during pregnancy, derived from food frequency questionnaires administered to 60 women in the second trimester, and observed taxonomic differences in their gut microbiota four days after delivery (assessed through Illumina 16S rRNA amplicon analysis). Higher dietary intakes of fat-soluble vitamins, especially vitamin D, were associated with reduced microbial alpha diversity (p value vitamins, saturated and mono-unsaturated fat, and cholesterol intake, were associated with changes in phyla composition. Specifically, vitamin D, mono-unsaturated fat, cholesterol, and retinol were associated with relative increases in Proteobacteria, which is a phylum known to encompass multiple pathogens and to have pro-inflammatory properties. In contrast, saturated fat, vitamin E, and protein were associated with relative decreases in Proteobacteria. The results in this article indicate that fats and fat-soluble vitamins are among the most potent dietary modulators of gut microbiota in mothers. The shifts in microbiota due to diet need to be further studied alongside gut microbiota changes during pregnancy to better understand the impact on infant gut microbiota.

  3. A lower proportion of dietary saturated/monounsaturated/polyunsaturated fatty acids reduces the expression of adiponectin in rats fed a high-fat diet.

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    Yang, Xuefeng; Zhang, Yi; Lin, Jieyi; Pen, Anfang; Ying, Chenjiang; Cao, Wenhong; Mao, Limei

    2012-04-01

    The role for the amount of different dietary fatty acids in regulating expression of adiponectin and metabolism of glucose and lipids has been implicated, but the optimal amount has not been established yet. To address this issue, we fed male Wistar rats with either chow diet or various high-fat diets (HFDs) for 12 weeks. The HFDs contained the same percentage of fat (35% energy from fat) but had different proportions of saturated/monounsaturated/polyunsaturated (S/M/P) (1:1.7:1.2, 1:1:1, 2:1.5:1, 1:2:1, or 1:1:2) fat. Glucose and lipid metabolism and adiponectin expression were subsequently examined. In comparison with chow diet, HFD with any proportion of S/M/P increased energy intake but had no obvious effect on body weight gain. The HFD with the S/M/P proportion at 1:1:1 or 1:1:2 significantly decreased the serum triglyceride level and increased the serum level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in comparison with the HFD with the S/M/P proportion at 1:1.7:1.2, 2:1.5:1, or 1:2:1. The HFD containing the highest level of saturated fatty acids (S/M/P proportion at 2:1.5:1) increased levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and blood glucose. Levels of serum insulin and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index were significantly increased by HFD with S/M/P proportions at 1:1.7:1.2, 1:1:1, 2:1.5:1, or 1:2:1 but not by the HFD with the S/M/P proportions at 1:1:2 (containing the highest level of polyunsaturated fatty acids). Levels of adiponectin messenger RNA in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues were reduced by the HFD with the S/M/P proportion at 1:1.7:1.2 or 1:1:1 but increased by the HFD with the S/M/P proportion at 1:1:2. These changes in expression of adiponectin were inversely associated with those in levels of triglyceride, insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. Together, the proportion of different fatty acids in diets plays an important role in expression of adiponectin and

  4. A high energy intake from dietary fat among middle-aged and older adults is associated with increased risk of malnutrition 10 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderström, Lisa; Rosenblad, Andreas; Adolfsson, Eva T; Wolk, Alicja; Håkansson, Niclas; Bergkvist, Leif

    2015-09-28

    A higher fat content in the diet could be an advantage for preventing malnutrition among older adults. However, there is sparse scientific evidence to determine the optimal fat intake among older adults. This prospective cohort study examined whether a high energy intake of dietary fat among middle-aged and older adults is associated with the risk of malnutrition 10 years later. The study population comprised 725 Swedish men and women aged 53-80 years who had completed a questionnaire about dietary intake and lifestyle factors in 1997 (baseline) and whose nutritional status was assessed when admitted to the hospital in 2008-2009 (follow-up). At the follow-up, 383 (52.8%) participants were identified as being at risk of malnutrition and fifty-two (7.2%) were identified as malnourished. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to analyse the association between previous dietary fat intake and nutritional status later in life. Contrary to what was expected, a high energy intake from total fat, saturated fat and monounsaturated fat among middle-aged and older adults increased the risk of exhibiting malnutrition 10 years later. However, this applied only to individuals with a BMImalnutrition in older adults should focus on limiting the intake of total fat in the diet by reducing consumption of food with a high content of saturated and monounsaturated fat.

  5. Dietary fat intake, supplements, and weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyck, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Although there remains controversy regarding the role of macronutrient balance in the etiology of obesity, the consumption of high-fat diets appears to be strongly implicated in its development. Evidence that fat oxidation does not adjust rapidly to acute increases in dietary fat, as well as a decreased capacity to oxidize fat in the postprandial state in the obese, suggest that diets high in fat may lead to the accumulation of fat stores. Novel data is also presented suggesting that in rodents, high-fat diets may lead to the development of leptin resistance in skeletal muscle and subsequent accumulations of muscle triacylglycerol. Nevertheless, several current fad diets recommend drastically reduced carbohydrate intake, with a concurrent increase in fat content. Such recommendations are based on the underlying assumption that by reducing circulating insulin levels, lipolysis and lipid oxidation will be enhanced and fat storage reduced. Numerous supplements are purported to increase fat oxidation (carnitine, conjugated linoleic acid), increase metabolic rate (ephedrine, pyruvate), or inhibit hepatic lipogenesis (hydroxycitrate). All of these compounds are currently marketed in supplemental form to increase weight loss, but few have actually been shown to be effective in scientific studies. To date, there is little or no evidence supporting that carnitine or hydroxycitrate supplementation are of any value for weight loss in humans. Supplements such as pyruvate have been shown to be effective at high dosages, but there is little mechanistic information to explain its purported effect or data to indicate its effectiveness at lower dosages. Conjugated linoleic acid has been shown to stimulate fat utilization and decrease body fat content in mice but has not been tested in humans. The effects of ephedrine, in conjunction with methylxanthines and aspirin, in humans appears unequivocal but includes various cardiovascular side effects. None of these compounds have been

  6. Dietary fat intake, supplements, and weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyck, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Although there remains controversy regarding the role of macronutrient balance in the etiology of obesity, the consumption of high-fat diets appears to be strongly implicated in its development. Evidence that fat oxidation does not adjust rapidly to acute increases in dietary fat, as well as a decreased capacity to oxidize fat in the postprandial state in the obese, suggest that diets high in fat may lead to the accumulation of fat stores. Novel data is also presented suggesting that in rodents, high-fat diets may lead to the development of leptin resistance in skeletal muscle and subsequent accumulations of muscle triacylglycerol. Nevertheless, several current fad diets recommend drastically reduced carbohydrate intake, with a concurrent increase in fat content. Such recommendations are based on the underlying assumption that by reducing circulating insulin levels, lipolysis and lipid oxidation will be enhanced and fat storage reduced. Numerous supplements are purported to increase fat oxidation (carnitine, conjugated linoleic acid), increase metabolic rate (ephedrine, pyruvate), or inhibit hepatic lipogenesis (hydroxycitrate). All of these compounds are currently marketed in supplemental form to increase weight loss, but few have actually been shown to be effective in scientific studies. To date, there is little or no evidence supporting that carnitine or hydroxycitrate supplementation are of any value for weight loss in humans. Supplements such as pyruvate have been shown to be effective at high dosages, but there is little mechanistic information to explain its purported effect or data to indicate its effectiveness at lower dosages. Conjugated linoleic acid has been shown to stimulate fat utilization and decrease body fat content in mice but has not been tested in humans. The effects of ephedrine, in conjunction with methylxanthines and aspirin, in humans appears unequivocal but includes various cardiovascular side effects. None of these compounds have been

  7. Acute effects of monounsaturated fat on postprandial lipemia and gene expression in first-degree relatives of subjects with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, J J; Gregersen, S; Pedersen, S B

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives:Subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and their nondiabetic first-degree relatives (REL) have increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Postprandial triglyceridemia (PPL), influenced by diet, is an independent risk factor for CVD. Dietary fat elicits increased PPL in T2D...... compared with nondiabetic controls, but our knowledge of PPL responses to fat in REL is sparse. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that REL respond to a monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) challenge with a higher PPL response compared with controls who have no family history of T2D (CON) and that MUFAs exert...... a differential impact on incretin responses and on the expression of genes involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in muscle and adipose tissues of REL and CON.Subjects/Methods:A total of 17 REL and 17 CON consumed a meal with 72 energy percent derived from MUFAs (macadamia nut oil). Plasma triglycerides...

  8. Associations of red meat, fat, and protein intake with distal colorectal cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Christina Dawn; Satia, Jessie A; Adair, Linda S; Stevens, June; Galanko, Joseph; Keku, Temitope O; Sandler, Robert S

    2010-01-01

    Studies have suggested that red and processed meat consumption elevate the risk of colon cancer; however, the relationship between red meat, as well as fat and protein, and distal colorectal cancer (CRC) specifically is not clear. We determined the risk of distal CRC associated with red and processed meat, fat, and protein intakes in Whites and African Americans. There were 945 cases (720 White, 225 African American) of distal CRC and 959 controls (800 White, 159 African American). We assessed dietary intake in the previous 12 mo. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to obtain odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). There was no association between total, saturated, or monounsaturated fat and distal CRC risk. In African Americans, the OR of distal CRC for the highest category of polyunsaturated fat intake was 0.28 (95% CI = 0.08-0.96). The percent of energy from protein was associated with a 47% risk reduction in Whites (Q4 OR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.37-0.77). Red meat consumption in Whites was associated with a marginally significant risk reduction (Q4 OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.43-1.00). Our results do not support the hypotheses that fat, protein, and red meat increase the risk of distal CRC.

  9. Relation of -55CT polymorphism of UCP3 gene with weight loss and metabolic changes after a high monounsaturated fat diet in obese non diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luis, D A; Aller, R; Izaola, O; De La Fuente, B; Conde, R; Eiros Bouza, J M

    2013-10-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of -55CT polymorphism of UCP3 gene on metabolic response, weight loss and serum adipokine levels to a high monounsaturated fat hypocaloric diet in obese patients. A sample of 128 obese patients was analyzed in a prospective way during 3 months. Eighty eight patients (21 males/67 females) (68.8%) had the genotype 55CC (wild genotype group) and 40 patients (8 males/32 females) (31.3%) 55CT (mutant genotype group). In wild genotype group, BMI (-1.6±1.3 kg/m2), weight (-4.3±3.7 kg), fat mass (-3.5±3.3 kg), waist circumference (-5.1±2.9 cm), total cholesterol (-7.2±10.6 mg/dl), LDL cholesterol (-5.3±12.8 mg/dl) and leptin (-4.7±10.1 ng/ml) decreased. In mutant genotype group, BMI (1.3±2.2 kg/m2), weight (-3.0±1.4 kg), fat mass (-2.5±1.1 kg), waist circumference (-2.8±3.1 cm) and leptin (-5.8±10.7 decreased. In patients with -55CC UCP3 genotype, a high mono-unsaturated hypocaloric diet reduced BMI, weight, waist circumference, waist to hip ratio, fat mass, LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol and leptin levels. Carriers of T allele had a different response than -55CC patients, with a significant decrease of the same antropometric parameters, but lower than in the wild genotype group, and without significant changes in cholesterol levels.

  10. Fat Intake Is Not Linked to Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review and Dose-Response Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Xu

    Full Text Available Since the late 1960s, the average global supply of fat has increased by 20 g per capita per day. While fat intake has been considered a potential risk factor for prostate cancer (Pca, the hypothesis from previous epidemiologic studies remained equivocal.Relevant cohort studies were identified through a literature search in PubMed, ScienceDirect and Wiley Online Library up to March 1, 2015. A systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis were used to assess the relationship between fat intake and the risk for Pca.We identified 14 cohort studies, which included 37,349 cases and a total of 751,030 participants. We found no evidence of a non-linear association between fat intake and the risk for Pca. Overall, the summarized relative risks for every 28.35 g increment a day was 0.99 (95%CI: 0.98, 1.01; P=0.94; n=13 for total fat intake, 1.00 (95%CI: 1.00, 1.00; P=0.72; n=9 for saturated fat, 0.99 (95%CI: 0.95, 1.03; P=0.55; n=7 for polyunsaturated fat, and 1.00 (95%CI: 0.95, 1.04; P=0.85; n=8 for monounsaturated fat. Additionally, there was no link to the risk for advanced stage Pca regarding total fat intake (RR=1.02, 95%CI: 0.96, 1.08; P=0.63; n=5, saturated fat (RR=0.96, 95%CI: 0.84, 1.11; P=0.61; n=6, polyunsaturated fat (RR=0.96, 95%CI: 0.79, 1.17; P=0.68; n=6, or monounsaturated fat (RR=0.96, 95%CI: 0.86, 1.07; P=0.42; n=6. Subgroup and sensitively analyses showed consistent results.Little evidence from published cohort studies supports the statement that total fat, saturated fat or unsaturated fat intake increases the risk for Pca or advanced stage Pca.

  11. Interrelation of saturated fat, trans fat, alcohol intake, and subclinical atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Anwar T; Kelemen, Linda E; de Koning, Lawrence; Lonn, Eva; Vuksan, Vlad; Jacobs, Ruby; Davis, Bonnie; Teo, Koon K; Yusuf, Salim; Anand, Sonia S

    2008-01-01

    Intake of saturated fat, trans fat, and alcohol alter cardiovascular disease risk, but their effect on subclinical atherosclerosis remains understudied. The objective was to examine and quantify the interrelation of saturated fat, trans fat, alcohol intake, and mean carotid artery intimal medial thickness (IMT). We conducted a population-based, cross-sectional study among 620 persons of Aboriginal, South Asian, Chinese, or European origin aged 35-75 y, who had lived in Canada for >or=5 y. Mean IMT was calculated from 6 well-defined segments of the right and left carotid arteries with standardized B-mode ultrasound, and saturated fat, trans fat, and alcohol intakes were measured with validated food-frequency questionnaires. For every 10-g/d increase in saturated fat intake, IMT was 0.03 mm higher (P=0.01) after multivariate adjustment. A 1-g/d higher intake of trans fat was associated with a 0.03-mm higher IMT (P=0.02) after multivariate adjustment. The ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fat (P:S) was inversely associated with IMT after multivariate adjustment (change in IMT: -0.06 mm; PSaturated and trans fat intakes were independently associated with IMT thickness (change in IMT: 0.03 mm; Pfat intakes were unrelated to IMT. The relation between saturated fat intake and IMT strengthened (beta=0.0066, Psaturated and trans fats are independently associated with increased subclinical atherosclerosis, and alcohol intake may attenuate the relation between saturated fat and subclinical atherosclerosis.

  12. High fat diet enriched with saturated, but not monounsaturated fatty acids adversely affects femur, and both diets increase calcium absorption in older female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Dellatore, Peter; Douard, Veronique; Qin, Ling; Watford, Malcolm; Ferraris, Ronaldo P; Lin, Tiao; Shapses, Sue A

    2016-07-01

    Diet induced obesity has been shown to reduce bone mineral density (BMD) and Ca absorption. However, previous experiments have not examined the effect of high fat diet (HFD) in the absence of obesity or addressed the type of dietary fatty acids. The primary objective of this study was to determine the effects of different types of high fat feeding, without obesity, on fractional calcium absorption (FCA) and bone health. It was hypothesized that dietary fat would increase FCA and reduce BMD. Mature 8-month-old female C57BL/6J mice were fed one of three diets: a HFD (45% fat) enriched either with monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) or with saturated fatty acids (SFAs), and a normal fat diet (NFD; 10% fat). Food consumption was controlled to achieve a similar body weight gain in all groups. After 8wk, total body bone mineral content and BMD as well as femur total and cortical volumetric BMD were lower in SFA compared with NFD groups (P<.05). In contrast, femoral trabecular bone was not affected by the SFAs, whereas MUFAs increased trabecular volume fraction and thickness. The rise over time in FCA was greater in mice fed HFD than NFD and final FCA was higher with HFD (P<.05). Intestinal calbindin-D9k gene and hepatic cytochrome P450 2r1 protein levels were higher with the MUFA than the NFD diet (P<.05). In conclusion, HFDs elevated FCA overtime; however, an adverse effect of HFD on bone was only observed in the SFA group, while MUFAs show neutral or beneficial effects.

  13. Fat intake and metabolism in Swedish and Italian infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akeson, P K; Axelsson, I E; Räihä, N C; Warm, A; Minoli, I; Moro, G

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare fat intake and metabolism between two infant populations from Sweden and Italy given breast milk or similar infant formulas, but different weaning foods. Nutrient intake and fat metabolism were studied prospectively from 3-12 mo in 68 Swedish and 46 Italian healthy infants, breastfed or given similar infant formulas in combination with Swedish or Mediterranean weaning foods. Although nutrient intake and fat metabolism were similar at 6 mo, fat intake was lower at 12 mo in the Italian than in the Swedish formula group (p breast milk composition may also have influenced our results.

  14. Comparison of fat intake between patients with stroke and normal population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Darvishi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stroke happens when blood flow to parts of brain stops. Stroke is sometimes called "brain attack." Risk factor is something that increases the chance of getting a disease. Some risk factors for stroke cannot be changed, but some can be altered. The chance of stroke is higher in people who live an unhealthy lifestyle by: Being overweight as a result of over-eating, eating too much fat, smoking, etc., Therefore, we compared the fat intake between patients with stroke and normal population. Materials and Methods: Sixty nine patients with stroke (46 men and 23 women as cases and 60 subjects (30 men and 30 women as controls during April 2009 and May 2010 from Alzzahra hospital, Isfahan, Iran were evaluated. Dietary intakes were collected using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ through their close relatives such as spouse, daughter or mother. Also, anthropometry measurements such as weight, height and waist extracted from their medical files, however, body mass index (BMI and waist to hip ratio (WHR were calculated. Result: The intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA both in men and women with stroke were significantly higher than controls (P = 0.04 and P = 0.03 for men and P = 0.05 and P = 0.02 for women, respectively. Also, the mean intake of hydrogenated fats, butter, cream, mayonnaise sauce and nuts were higher in men with stroke with respect in control group; while, women with stroke consumed more hydrogenated fats, vegetable oils, cream and mayonnaise sauce than controls. Conclusion : Increased fat intake was observed in patients with stroke compared with normal population.

  15. Fatty acid composition and contents of trans monounsaturated fatty acids in frying fats, and in margarines and shortenings marketed in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovesen, L.; Leth, Torben; Hansen, K.

    1998-01-01

    This study examined trans monounsaturated fatty acid contents in all margarines and shortenings marketed in Denmark, and in frying fats used by the fast-food restaurants Burger King and McDonald's. Trans C-18:1 content was 4.1 +/- 3.8% (g per 100 g fatty acids) in hard margarines, significantly...... higher than the content in soft margarines of 0.4 +/- 0.8%. Shortenings had an even higher content of trans C-18:1, 6.7 +/- 2.3%, than the hard margarines. Margarines and shortenings with high contents of long-chain fatty acids had about 20% total trans monoenoic of which close to 50% were made up...... of trans long-chain fatty acids. Both fast-food frying fats contained large amounts of trans C-18:1, 21.9 +/- 2.9% in Burger King and 16.6 +/- 0.4% in McDonald's. In Denmark the per capita supply of trans C-18:1 from margarines and shortenings and frying fats has decreased steadily during recent years...

  16. Metabolic fate of saturated and monounsaturated dietary fats: the Mediterranean diet revisited from epidemiological evidence to cellular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergouignan, Audrey; Momken, Iman; Schoeller, Dale A; Simon, Chantal; Blanc, Stéphane

    2009-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates favourable effects of the Mediterranean diet, partly associated to its monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) content on both obesity and diabetes. However, neither the underlying mechanisms by which the Mediterranean diet exerts its protective effect, nor the interplay with other environmental factors (i.e. physical activity), are fully characterised. In this review, we examined recent data on how the metabolic fate of MUFA and saturated fatty acids (SFA) differs. Because of differential packaging into lipoproteins, hydrolysis of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins by lipoprotein lipase and transport into oxidative tissues, MUFA are oxidised more than SFA. This high MUFA oxidation favour lipid oxidation and according to the oxidative balance concept reduces the risk of obesity. It also improves the intra-muscular triacylglycerol turnover, which mitigates the SFA-induced accumulation of diacylglycerol and ceramides, and thus protects the insulin sensitivity and cell viability. Finally, physical activity through its action on the energy turnover differentially regulates the metabolism of SFA and MUFA. The putative combined role of AMP-activated kinase and mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate transferase on the intra-muscular partitioning of MUFA and SFA provides new areas of research to better understand the beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet and physical activity on obesity and diabetes.

  17. Dietary intakes and food sources of fat and fatty acids in Guatemalan schoolchildren: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doak Colleen

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumption of healthy diets that contribute with adequate amounts of fat and fatty acids is needed for children. Among Guatemalan children, there is little information about fat intakes. Therefore, the present study sought to assess intakes of dietary fats and examine food sources of those fats in Guatemalan children. Methods The study subjects consisted of a convenience sample of 449 third- and fourth-grade schoolchildren (8-10 y, attending public or private schools in Quetzaltenango City, Guatemala. Dietary data was obtained by means of a single pictorial 24-h record. Results The percentages of total energy (%E from total fat, saturated fat (SFA and monounsaturated fat (MUFA reached 29%E for total fat and 10%E for each SFA and MUFA, without gender differences. %E from fats in high vs. low-socio economic status (SES children were significantly higher for boys, but not for girls, for total fat (p = 0.002 and SFA (p 97% of all groups consuming less than 1%E from this fats. Fried eggs, sweet rolls, whole milk and cheese were main sources of total fat and, SFA. Whole milk and sweet bread were important sources of n-3 FA for high- and low-SES boys and girls, respectively. Fried plantain was the main source of n-3 FA for girls in the high-SES group. Fried fish, seafood soup, and shrimp, consumed only by boys in low amounts, were sources of eicosapentaenoic (EPA and docosahexaenoic (DHA acids, which may explain the low intakes of these nutrients. Conclusions α-linolenic acid, EPA and DHA were the most limiting fatty acids in diets of Guatemalan schoolchildren, which could be partially explained by the low consumption of sources of these nutrients, particularly fish and seafood (for EPA and DHA. This population will benefit from a higher consumption of culturally acceptable foods that are rich in these limiting nutrients.

  18. Dietary Fat Intake and Lung Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Jae Jeong; Yu, Danxia; Takata, Yumie

    2017-01-01

    . Results Among 1,445,850 participants, 18,822 incident cases were identified (mean follow-up, 9.4 years). High intakes of total and saturated fat were associated with an increased risk of lung cancer (for highest v lowest quintile: HR, 1.07 and 1.14, respectively; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.15 and 1.07 to 1...... with lung cancer risk. Methods Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs in each cohort. Study-specific risk estimates were pooled by random- or fixed-effects meta-analysis. The first 2 years of follow-up were excluded to address potential influence of preclinical dietary changes.......40, respectively; 95% CI, 1.38 to 1.88 and 1.17 to 1.67, respectively; P for trend for both risk of lung cancer (HR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.87 to 0.98 for highest v lowest...

  19. Traffic-light labels could reduce population intakes of calories, total fat, saturated fat, and sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emrich, Teri E.; Qi, Ying; Lou, Wendy Y.; L’Abbe, Mary R.

    2017-01-01

    Traffic-light labelling has been proposed as a public health intervention to improve the dietary intakes of consumers. OBJECTIVES: to model the potential impact of avoiding foods with red traffic lights on the label on the energy, total fat, saturated fat, sodium, and sugars intakes of Canadian adults. METHODS: Canadian adults aged 19 and older (n = 19,915) who responded to the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS), Cycle 2.2. The nutrient levels in foods consumed by Canadians in CCHS were profiled using the United Kingdom’s criteria for traffic light labelling. Whenever possible, foods assigned a red traffic light for one or more of the profiled nutrients were replaced with a similar food currently sold in Canada, with nutrient levels not assigned any red traffic lights. Average intakes of calories, total fat, saturated fat, sodium, and sugars under the traffic light scenario were compared with actual intakes of calories and these nutrients (baseline) reported in CCHS. RESULTS: Under the traffic light scenario, Canadian’s intake of energy, total fat, saturated fat, and sodium were significantly reduced compared to baseline; sugars intakes were not significantly reduced. Calorie intake was reduced by 5%, total fat 13%, saturated fat 14%, and sodium 6%. CONCLUSION: Governments and policy makers should consider the adoption of traffic light labelling as a population level intervention to improve dietary intakes and chronic disease risk. PMID:28182630

  20. Kupffer cells ameliorate hepatic insulin resistance induced by high-fat diet rich in monounsaturated fatty acids: the evidence for the involvement of alternatively activated macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papackova Zuzana

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Resident macrophages (Kupffer cells, KCs in the liver can undergo both pro- or anti-inflammatory activation pathway and exert either beneficiary or detrimental effects on liver metabolism. Until now, their role in the metabolically dysfunctional state of steatosis remains enigmatic. Aim of our study was to characterize the role of KCs in relation to the onset of hepatic insulin resistance induced by a high-fat (HF diet rich in monounsaturated fatty acids. Methods Male Wistar rats were fed either standard (SD or high-fat (HF diet for 4 weeks. Half of the animals were subjected to the acute GdCl3 treatment 24 and 72 hrs prior to the end of the experiment in order to induce the reduction of KCs population. We determined the effect of HF diet on activation status of liver macrophages and on the changes in hepatic insulin sensitivity and triacylglycerol metabolism imposed by acute KCs depletion by GdCl3. Results We found that a HF diet rich in MUFA itself triggers an alternative but not the classical activation program in KCs. In a steatotic, but not in normal liver, a reduction of the KCs population was associated with a decrease of alternative activation and with a shift towards the expression of pro-inflammatory activation markers, with the increased autophagy, elevated lysosomal lipolysis, increased formation of DAG, PKCε activation and marked exacerbation of HF diet-induced hepatic insulin resistance. Conclusions We propose that in the presence of a high MUFA content the population of alternatively activated resident liver macrophages may mediate beneficial effects on liver insulin sensitivity and alleviate the metabolic disturbances imposed by HF diet feeding and steatosis. Our data indicate that macrophage polarization towards an alternative state might be a useful strategy for treating type 2 diabetes.

  1. Saturated fat intake and cardiovascular disease in Japanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Kazumasa; Iso, Hiroyasu; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2015-01-01

    The evidence for the impact of saturated fat intake on cardiovascular disease remains inconsistent. One reason for this inconsistency may be the large difference in the distribution of saturated fat intake between the East and West. In this review, we focus on the published literature on this topic among Japanese population. Three studies have examined the link between saturated fat intake and intraparenchymal hemorrhage, consistently showing an inverse association. However, the association for ischemic stroke is less clear, although it is generally inverse. As for myocardial infarction, the findings in Japanese studies are inconsistent, as are those of Western studies. The JPHC study, however, found a positive association, the first report in Asia. Taken together with the results of the JPHC and Western studies, a saturated fat intake of around 20 g/day (approximately 10% of total energy) may be optimal, which corresponds to 200 g of milk a day and 150 g of meat every other day.

  2. Calorie Intake and Gambling: Is Fat and Sugar Consumption 'Impulsive'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Samuel R; A Redden, Sarah; Grant, Jon E

    2016-10-20

    Excessive calorie intake constitutes a global public health concern, due to its associated range of untoward outcomes. Gambling is commonplace and gambling disorder is now considered a behavioral addiction in DSM-5. The relationships between calorie intake, gambling, and other types of putatively addictive and impulsive behaviors have received virtually no research attention. Two-hundred twenty-five young adults who gamble were recruited from two Mid-Western university communities in the United States using media advertisements. Dietary intake over the preceding year was quantified using the Dietary Fat and Free Sugar Short questionnaire (DFS). Clinician rating scales, questionnaires, and cognitive tests germane to impulsivity were completed. Relationships between dietary fat/sugar intake and gambling behaviors, as well as other measures of psychopathology and cognition germane to addiction, were evaluated using correlational analyses controlling for multiple comparisons. Greater dietary fat and sugar intake were associated with lower educational levels and with male gender. Controlling for these variables, higher dietary fat and sugar intake were correlated significantly with worse gambling pathology and anxiety scores. Dietary sugar intake was also significantly associated with higher depressive scores, more alcohol intake, lower self-esteem, and with greater risk of having one or more mental disorders in general. Dietary intake did not correlate significantly with ADHD symptoms, presence of one or more impulse control disorders, Barratt impulsiveness, or cognitive functioning. These data suggest a particularly strong relationship between fat/sugar intake and symptoms of gambling pathology, but not most other forms of impulsivity and behavioral addiction (excepting alcohol intake). Providing education about healthy diet may be especially valuable in gamblers and in community settings where gambling advertisements feature prominently. Future work should explore

  3. Dietary fat knowledge and intake of mid-adolescents attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-07-29

    Jul 29, 2009 ... dominate nutrition strategies for the prevention of chronic disease.10 ... the value of teaching dietary knowledge to pupils, as it does not ... reliable nutritional information and dietary fat knowledge positively affected their fat intake. .... test score equalled 18 marks.28 These scores were used in this study.

  4. Habitual fat intake predicts memory function in younger women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Leigh eGibson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available High intakes of fat have been linked to greater cognitive decline in old age, but such associations may already occur in younger adults. We tested memory and learning in 38 women (25-45 years old, recruited for a larger observational study in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. These women varied in health status, though not significantly between cases (n=23 and controls (n=15. Performance on tests sensitive to medial temporal lobe function (CANTABeclipse, Cambridge Cognition Ltd., i.e. verbal memory, visuo-spatial learning and delayed pattern matching, were compared with intakes of macronutrients from 7-day diet diaries and physiological indices of metabolic syndrome. Partial correlations were adjusted for age, activity and verbal IQ (National Adult Reading Test. Greater intakes of saturated and trans fats, and higher saturated to unsaturated fat ratio (Sat:UFA, were associated with more errors on the visuo-spatial task and with poorer word recall and recognition. Unexpectedly, higher UFA intake predicted poorer performance on the word recall and recognition measures. Fasting insulin was positively correlated with poorer word recognition only, whereas higher blood total cholesterol was associated only with visuo-spatial learning errors. None of these variables predicted performance on a delayed pattern matching test. The significant nutrient-cognition relationships were tested for mediation by total energy intake: saturated and trans fat intakes, and Sat:UFA, remained significant predictors specifically of visuo-spatial learning errors, whereas total fat and UFA intakes now predicted only poorer word recall. Examination of associations separately for mono- (MUFA and polyunsaturated fats suggested that only MUFA intake was predictive of poorer word recall. Saturated and trans fats, and fasting insulin, may already be associated with cognitive deficits in younger women. The findings need extending but may have important implications for public

  5. Comparison of the effects on insulin resistance and glucose tolerance of 6-mo high-monounsaturated-fat, low-fat, and control diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Anette; Larsen, Thomas M; Hermansen, Kjeld

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effect of dietary fat and carbohydrate on glucose metabolism has been debated for decades. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to compare the effect of 3 ad libitum diets, different in type and amount of fat and carbohydrate, on insulin resistance and glucose tolerance subsequent to weight...... and after the 6-mo dietary intervention. All foods were provided by a purpose-built supermarket. RESULTS: After 6 mo, the MUFA diet reduced fasting glucose (-3.0%), insulin (-9.4%), and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance score (-12.1%). Compared with the MUFA diet, the control diet...... loss. DESIGN: Forty-six nondiabetic, obese [mean (+/-SEM) body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 31.2 +/- 0.3] men (n = 20) and premenopausal women (n = 26) aged 28.0 +/- 0.7 y were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 diets after > or = 8% weight loss: 1) MUFA diet (n = 16): moderate in fat (35-45% of energy) and high...

  6. Changes in mean intake of fatty acids and intake of saturated and trans fats from potatoes: NHANES 2005-2006, 2007-2008, and 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Maureen L; Anderson, Patricia A

    2015-05-01

    Studies have shown that higher than usual intakes of trans fatty acids (TFAs) have adverse effects on blood lipids. Because of this, in 2006 the US FDA mandated labeling of TFAs on food packages. The food and restaurant industries, including the potato industry, reformulated their foods to reduce or eliminate partially hydrogenated vegetable oils and TFAs. Before mandatory labeling, grain-based desserts, yeast breads, and French-fried potatoes (FFPs) were the top sources of TFAs in the food supply; by 2007, potato food manufacturers and quick-service restaurants had reduced or eliminated TFAs without increasing saturated fatty acids (SFAs). FFPs are no longer a source of TFAs in the food supply. This study examined energy and fatty acid intake among children aged 6-11 y, adolescents aged 12-18 y, and adults aged ≥19 y across 3 time periods by using data from the NHANES 2005-2006, 2007-2008, and 2009-2010. On average, intakes of total energy, total fat, SFAs, and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) decreased significantly between 2005-2006 and 2009-2010 among children and adolescents; however, the intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) did not change. Among adults, intakes of total fat, SFAs, and MUFAs decreased; however, total energy and PUFA intake did not change. On the day of the 2009-2010 survey, ∼13% of children and 10% of adolescents reported consuming fried FFPs, whereas <7% of adults reported consumption of fried FFPs. Intakes of SFAs and TFAs from fried FFPs decreased significantly between 2005-2006 and 2009-2010 among children, adolescents, and adults. This study confirms that intake of TFAs from FFPs is trivial.

  7. Dampened Mesolimbic Dopamine Function and Signaling by Saturated but not Monounsaturated Dietary Lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hryhorczuk, Cecile; Florea, Marc; Rodaros, Demetra; Poirier, Isabelle; Daneault, Caroline; Des Rosiers, Christine; Arvanitogiannis, Andreas; Alquier, Thierry; Fulton, Stephanie

    2016-02-01

    Overconsumption of dietary fat is increasingly linked with motivational and emotional impairments. Human and animal studies demonstrate associations between obesity and blunted reward function at the behavioral and neural level, but it is unclear to what degree such changes are a consequence of an obese state and whether they are contingent on dietary lipid class. We sought to determine the impact of prolonged ad libitum intake of diets rich in saturated or monounsaturated fat, separate from metabolic signals associated with increased adiposity, on dopamine (DA)-dependent behaviors and to identify pertinent signaling changes in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Male rats fed a saturated (palm oil), but not an isocaloric monounsaturated (olive oil), high-fat diet exhibited decreased sensitivity to the rewarding (place preference) and locomotor-sensitizing effects of amphetamine as compared with low-fat diet controls. Blunted amphetamine action by saturated high-fat feeding was entirely independent of caloric intake, weight gain, and plasma levels of leptin, insulin, and glucose and was accompanied by biochemical and behavioral evidence of reduced D1R signaling in the NAc. Saturated high-fat feeding was also tied to protein markers of increased AMPA receptor-mediated plasticity and decreased DA transporter expression in the NAc but not to alterations in DA turnover and biosynthesis. Collectively, the results suggest that intake of saturated lipids can suppress DA signaling apart from increases in body weight and adiposity-related signals known to affect mesolimbic DA function, in part by diminishing D1 receptor signaling, and that equivalent intake of monounsaturated dietary fat protects against such changes.

  8. Effects of exchanging carbohydrate or monounsaturated fat with saturated fat on inflammatory and thrombogenic responses in subjects with abdominal obesity: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Kim-Tiu; Chang, Lin Faun; Vethakkan, Shireene Ratna; Nesaretnam, Kalanithi; Sanders, Tom A B

    2017-10-01

    Modification of the amount and type of dietary fat has diverse effects on cardiovascular risk. We recruited 54 abdominally obese subjects to participate in a prospective cross-over design, single-blind trial comparing isocaloric 2000 kcal MUFA or carbohydrate-enriched diet with SFA-enriched diet (control). The control diet consisted of 15E% protein, 53E% carbohydrate and 32E% fat (12E% SFA, 13E% MUFA). A total of ∼7E% of MUFA or refined carbohydrate was exchanged with SFA in the MUFA-rich and carbohydrate-rich diets respectively for 6-weeks. Blood samples were collected at fasting upon trial commencement and at week-5 and 6 of each dietary-intervention phase to measure levels of cytokines (IL-6, IL-1β), C-reactive protein (CRP), thrombogenic markers (E-selectin, PAI-1, D-dimer) and lipid subfractions. Radial pulse wave analysis and a 6-h postprandial mixed meal challenge were carried out at week-6 of each dietary intervention. Blood samples were collected at fasting, 15 and 30 min and hourly intervals thereafter till 6 h after a mixed meal challenge (muffin and milkshake) with SFA or MUFA (872.5 kcal, 50 g fat, 88 g carbohydrates) or CARB (881.3 kcal, 20 g fat, 158 g carbohydrates)- enrichment corresponding to the background diets. No significant differences in fasting inflammatory and thrombogenic factors were noted between diets (P > 0.05). CARB meal was found to increase plasma IL-6 whereas MUFA meal elevated plasma D-dimer postprandially compared with SAFA meal (P < 0.05). Comparing the 3 meals, there were similar postprandial elevations in IL-6 and D-dimer and postprandial reductions in PAI-1, augmentation index and pressure (time effect: P < 0.05). CARB diet was found to reduce HDL3 by 7.8% and increase small dense HDL (sdHDL) by 8.6% compared with SFA diet (P < 0.05). SFA diet increased large HDL subfractions compared with both CARB and MUFA diets by 4.9% and 6.6% (P < 0.05), respectively. Overall, the evidence presented in this study

  9. Fat discrimination: a phenotype with potential implications for studying fat intake behaviors and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Lisa C H; Sakimura, Johannah; May, Daniel; Breen, Cameron; Driggin, Elissa; Tepper, Beverly J; Chung, Wendy K; Keller, Kathleen L

    2012-01-18

    Variations in fat preference and intake across humans are poorly understood in part because of difficulties in studying this behavior. The objective of this study was to develop a simple procedure to assess fat discrimination, the ability to accurately perceive differences in the fat content of foods, and assess the associations between this phenotype and fat ingestive behaviors and adiposity. African-American adults (n=317) were tested for fat discrimination using 7 forced choice same/different tests with Italian salad dressings that ranged in fat-by-weight content from 5 to 55%. Performance on this procedure was determined by tallying the number of trials in which a participant correctly identified the pair of samples as "same" or "different" across all test pairs (ranging from 1 to 7). Individuals who received the lowest scores on this task (≤3 out of 7 correct) were classified as fat non-discriminators (n=33) and those who received the highest scores (7 out of 7 correct) were classified as fat discriminators (n=59). These 2 groups were compared for the primary outcome variables: reported food intake, preferences, and adiposity. After adjusting for BMI, sex, age, and dietary restraint and disinhibition, fat non-discriminators reported greater consumption of both added fats and reduced fat foods (pFat non-discriminators also had greater abdominal adiposity compared to fat discriminators (pfat discrimination test (rho=0.53; pfat discrimination may serve as clinical research tool to identify participants who are at risk for obesity and other chronic diseases due to increased fat intake. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of the effects on insulin resistance and glucose tolerance of 6-mo high-monounsaturated-fat, low-fat, and control diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Anette; Larsen, Thomas M; Hermansen, Kjeld

    2008-01-01

    and after the 6-mo dietary intervention. All foods were provided by a purpose-built supermarket. RESULTS: After 6 mo, the MUFA diet reduced fasting glucose (-3.0%), insulin (-9.4%), and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance score (-12.1%). Compared with the MUFA diet, the control diet...... loss. DESIGN: Forty-six nondiabetic, obese [mean (+/-SEM) body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 31.2 +/- 0.3] men (n = 20) and premenopausal women (n = 26) aged 28.0 +/- 0.7 y were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 diets after > or = 8% weight loss: 1) MUFA diet (n = 16): moderate in fat (35-45% of energy) and high...

  11. The effect of a high monounsaturated fat diet on body weight, back fat and loin muscle growth in high and medium-lean pig genotypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mas, G.; Soler, J.; Llavall, M.; Tibau, J.; Roca, R.; Coll, D.; Fabrega, E.

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the use of a diet rich in oleic acid could have an effect on daily weight gain, backfat and loin muscle (Longissimus thoracis) depth. One hundred and ninety-two barrows and gilts, from two genotypes were fed a grain and soy diet (CONTROL with 28% C18:1) or a similar diet enriched with oleic acid (HO with 43% C18:1, Greedy-Grass OLIVA). The pigs were housed in 16 pens in groups of 12 according to their sex, diet and genotype. From 75 days of age every three weeks, the pigs were weighed and the backfat and loin muscle depth were ultrasonically recorded (PIGLOG). The inclusion of the dietary fat had no significant effect on the growth variables nor on the backfat and loin muscle depth measurements taken. However, the barrows resulted in higher live weight and backfat compared to the gilts at the end of the trial. Conversely, the gilts showed higher loin depth. Moreover, York-sired pigs were heavier than Pietrain-sired pigs during the whole trial and showed higher backfat at the last two measurements. Pietrain-sired pigs had higher loin muscle depth at the last measurements. The results of the present study suggest that the addition of a dietary fat into diets aiming at modifying the meat fatty acid profile has no detrimental effects on performance variables, or on backfat and loin muscle growth and thus, no negative economic impact for producers. (Author) 37 refs.

  12. High fat intake and equine lipid metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geelen, Suzanne Nicole Jeanne

    2001-01-01

    This thesis deals with the influence of fat feeding on lipid metabolism in horses. Highfat diets have attained considerable interest as a potential tool to improve performance.Many factors affect performance so that large numbers of horses are needed to unequivocally determine the effect of diet on

  13. Maternal fat intake during pregnancy and wheeze and eczema in Japanese infants: the Kyushu Okinawa Maternal and Child Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Keiko; Okubo, Hitomi; Sasaki, Satoshi; Arakawa, Masashi

    2013-11-01

    This cohort study examined the relationship between maternal intake of individual fatty acids, meat, and fish during pregnancy and the risk of wheeze and eczema in children aged 23-29 months because epidemiologic evidence on this topic is inconclusive. Subjects were 1354 Japanese mother-child pairs. Data on maternal intake during pregnancy were assessed with a validated diet history questionnaire. Data on symptoms of wheeze and eczema were based on criteria of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. Significant inverse exposure-response relationships were observed between maternal intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and EPA plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) during pregnancy and infantile wheeze although the adjusted odds ratios between extreme quartiles fell just short of the significance level. No such inverse relationships were detected for infantile eczema. Maternal intake of total fat, saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), α-linolenic acid, DHA, total n-6 PUFA, linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, cholesterol, fish, and meat and the ratio of n-3 to n-6 PUFA consumption were not significantly related to infantile wheeze or eczema. Higher maternal intake of EPA and EPA plus DHA during pregnancy may reduce the risk of infantile wheeze. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Associations between dietary intake and body fat independent of genetic and familial environmental background

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Ann Louise; Heitmann, B L; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm;

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether habitual dietary intake was associated with body fat mass and body fat distribution, independently of possible confounding by the genetic and shared environmental background.......To determine whether habitual dietary intake was associated with body fat mass and body fat distribution, independently of possible confounding by the genetic and shared environmental background....

  15. Dietary intake mediates the relationship of body fat to pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Charles F; Olson, KayLoni L; Bodine, Andrew; Lee, Victoria; Habash, Diane L

    2017-02-01

    Prior studies have documented an association of obesity with chronic pain, but the mechanism explaining the association remains unknown. This study evaluated the degree to which dietary intake of foods with anti-inflammatory effects mediates the relationship of body fat to body pain. Ninety-eight community-residing healthy adults (60% women; mean age = 43.2 ± 15.3 years; range: 20-78 years) participated in a home-based study of home environment, food-related behaviors, health, and adiposity. During a 3-hour home visit evaluation, 3 measures of body fat were collected, including height and weight for calculation of body mass index (BMI). Participants also completed a 24-hour food recall interview and self-report measures of bodily pain (BP; BP subscale from the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36) and psychological distress (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale). Quality of dietary intake was rated using the Healthy Eating Index-2010. Mediation models were conducted with the PROCESS macro in SAS 9.3. Mean BMI was consistent with obesity (30.4 ± 7.8; range: 18.2-53.3), and BP values (73.2 ± 22.1; range: 0-100) and dietary intake quality (59.4 ± 15.5; range: 26.8-88.1) were consistent with population norms. Modeling in PROCESS revealed that Healthy Eating Index-2010 scores mediated the relationship between BMI and BP (bindirect = -0.34, 95% confidence interval = -0.68 to -0.13). The mediation model remained significant when controlling for biomechanical factors (arthritis/joint pain), medication use, psychological distress, age, and education, and models remained significant using the other 2 body fat measures. Thus, the data indicate that dietary intake of foods with anti-inflammatory effects mediates the relationship of body fat to body pain in healthy men and women.

  16. Fat Taste Sensitivity Is Associated with Short-Term and Habitual Fat Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Costanzo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests individuals less sensitive to fat taste (high fat taste thresholds (FTT may be overweight or obese and consume greater amounts of dietary fat than more sensitive individuals. The aims of this study were to assess associations between FTT, anthropometric measurements, fat intake, and liking of fatty foods. FTT was assessed in 69 Australian females (mean age 41.3 (15.6 (SD years and mean body mass index 26.3 (5.7 kg/m2 by a 3-alternate forced choice methodology and transformed to an ordinal scale (FT rank. Food liking was assessed by hedonic ratings of high-fat and reduced-fat foods, and a 24-h food recall and food frequency questionnaire was completed. Linear mixed regression models were fitted. FT rank was associated with dietary % energy from fat ( β ^ = 0.110 [95% CI: 0.003, 0.216], % energy from carbohydrate ( β ^ = −0.112 [−0.188, −0.035], and frequency of consumption of foods per day from food groups: high-fat dairy ( β ^ = 1.091 [0.106, 2.242], meat & meat alternatives ( β ^ = 0.669 [0.168, 1.170], and grain & cereals ( β ^ = 0.771 [0.212, 1.329] (adjusted for energy and age. There were no associations between FT rank and anthropometric measurements or hedonic ratings. Therefore, fat taste sensitivity appears to be associated with short-term fat intake, but not body size in this group of females.

  17. Fat and non-absorbable fat and the regulation of food intake.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshof, A.F.J.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of consumption of meals with differences in energy-, fat-, protein-, carbohydrate-content, and physical state on subsequent dietary intake and feelings of appetite, were investigated in eight different studies. The main objective was to study whether or not humans compensate for the cove

  18. Intake of Total and Subgroups of Fat Minimally Affect the Associations between Selected Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the PPARγ Pathway and Changes in Anthropometry among European Adults from Cohorts of the DiOGenes Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sofus C; Ängquist, Lars; Nautrup Østergaard, Jane

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) pathway is central in adipogenesis, it remains unknown whether it influences change in body weight (BW) and whether dietary fat has a modifying effect on the association. OBJECTIVES: We examined whether 27 single...... nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within 4 genes in the PPARγ pathway are associated with the OR of being a BW gainer or with annual changes in anthropometry and whether intake of total fat, monounsaturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, or saturated fat has a modifying effect on these associations. METHODS: A case......), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 2, PPARγ gene (PPARG), and sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1] according to evidence about biologic plausibility for interactions with dietary fat in weight regulation. Diet was assessed at baseline, and anthropometry was followed for 7 y. RESULTS: The ORs...

  19. Role of G308 promoter variant of tumor necrosis factor alpha gene on weight loss and metabolic parameters after a high monounsaturated versus a high polyunsaturated fat hypocaloric diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luis, Daniel A; Aller, Rocío; Izaola, Olatz; Gonzalez Sagrado, Manuel; Conde, Rosa

    2013-09-07

    The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of G-308 promoter variant of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha gene on metabolic changes and weight loss secondary to a high monounsaturated fat vs a high polyunsaturated fat hypocaloric diet in obese subjects. A sample of 261 obese subjects were enrolled in a consecutive prospective way, from May 2011 to July 2012 in a tertiary hospital. In the basal visit, patients were randomly allocated during 3 months to Diet M (high monounsaturated fat hypocaloric diet) and Diet P (high polyunsaturated fat hypocaloric diet). One hundred and ninety seven patients (73.2%) had the genotype G-308G and 64 (26.8%) patients had the genotype G-308A. There were no significant differences between the effects (on weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, fat mass) in either genotype group with both diets. With the diet type P and in genotype G-308G, glucose levels (-6.7(22.1)mg/dl vs -3.7(2.2)mg/dl: p = 0.02), HOMA-R (-0.6(2.1)units vs -0.26(3.1)units: p = 0.01), insulin levels (-1.7(6.6)UI/L vs -0.6(7.1)UI/L: p = 0.009), total cholesterol levels (-15.3(31.1)mg/dl vs -8.4(22.1)mg/dl: p = 0.01), LDL cholesterol levels (-10.7(28.1)mg/dl vs -3.8(21.1)mg/dl: p = 0.008) and triglycerides (-12.1(52.1)mg/dl vs -6.6(43.1)mg/dl: p = 0.02) decreased. Carriers of the G-308G promoter variant of TNF alpha gene have a better metabolic response than A-308 obese with a high polyunsaturated fat hypocaloric diet. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  20. Dietary fat intake and risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in a population at high risk of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guasch-Ferré, Marta; Babio, Nancy; Martínez-González, Miguel A; Corella, Dolores; Ros, Emilio; Martín-Peláez, Sandra; Estruch, Ramon; Arós, Fernando; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Santos-Lozano, José M; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Bulló, Mònica; Toledo, Estefanía; Barragán, Rocío; Fitó, Montserrat; Gea, Alfredo; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2015-12-01

    Dietary fat quality and fat replacement are more important for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention than is total dietary fat intake. The aim was to evaluate the association between total fat intake and fat subtypes with the risk of CVD (myocardial infarction, stroke, or death from cardiovascular causes) and cardiovascular and all-cause death. We also examined the hypothetical effect of the isocaloric substitution of one macronutrient for another. We prospectively studied 7038 participants at high CVD risk from the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) study. The trial was conducted from 2003 to 2010, but the present analysis was based on an expanded follow-up until 2012. At baseline and yearly thereafter, total and specific fat subtypes were repeatedly measured by using validated food-frequency questionnaires. Time-dependent Cox proportional hazards models were used. After 6 y of follow-up, we documented 336 CVD cases and 414 total deaths. HRs (95% CIs) for CVD for those in the highest quintile of total fat, monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake compared with those in the lowest quintile were 0.58 (0.39, 0.86), 0.50 (0.31, 0.81), and 0.68 (0.48, 0.96), respectively. In the comparison between extreme quintiles, higher saturated fatty acid (SFA) and trans-fat intakes were associated with 81% (HR: 1.81; 95% CI: 1.05, 3.13) and 67% (HR: 1.67; 95% CI: 1.09, 2.57) higher risk of CVD. Inverse associations with all-cause death were also observed for PUFA and MUFA intakes. Isocaloric replacements of SFAs with MUFAs and PUFAs or trans fat with MUFAs were associated with a lower risk of CVD. SFAs from pastries and processed foods were associated with a higher risk of CVD. Intakes of MUFAs and PUFAs were associated with a lower risk of CVD and death, whereas SFA and trans-fat intakes were associated with a higher risk of CVD. The replacement of SFAs with MUFAs and PUFAs or of trans fat with MUFAs was inversely associated

  1. [Macronutrients, food intake and body weight; the role of fat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalá-Bejarano Carrillo, Jesús; Yago Torregrosa, Maria Dolores; Mañas Almendros, Mariano; López Millán, María Belén; Martínez Burgos, María Alba; Martínez de Victoria Muñoz, Emilio

    2014-11-27

    "Globesity" is the term that the World Health Organization (WHO) employs to define the growth of obesity in the world from the last 40 years which started in the developed countries and has been inevitably propagated to the developing ones. Governments and international organizations are aware of the problem and they are trying to implement measures to fight it. To analyze the current evidence in terms of studies about the relationship between macronutrients (especially fat and lipid release systems) and the secretion of gastrointestinal peptides that are involved with satiety and satiation. The search was conducted in Medline (via Pubmed) using different combinations of MeSH terms and in the database LILACs using "DeCS". A selection of another articles relevant to the review topic was also examined. At present, there are several laboratories and industries developing novel bioactive ingredients aimed at the regulation of food intake, with emphasis on those related with fat intake and the different ways in which fat can be technologically processed in order to create structures able to enhance satiety and/ or diminish hunger. These ingredients will be the future of functional foods focused on the prevention of weight gain and the support of other strategies against obesity (dietary, behavioral, etc…). Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  2. Plasma phospholipid fatty acid profile confirms compliance to a novel saturated fat-reduced, monounsaturated fat-enriched dairy product intervention in adults at moderate cardiovascular risk: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markey, Oonagh; Vasilopoulou, Dafni; Kliem, Kirsty E; Koulman, Albert; Fagan, Colette C; Summerhill, Keith; Wang, Laura Y; Grandison, Alistair S; Humphries, David J; Todd, Susan; Jackson, Kim G; Givens, David I; Lovegrove, Julie A

    2017-05-23

    Dairy products are a major contributor to dietary SFA. Partial replacement of milk SFA with unsaturated fatty acids (FAs) is possible through oleic-acid rich supplementation of the dairy cow diet. To assess adherence to the intervention of SFA-reduced, MUFA-enriched dairy product consumption in the RESET (REplacement of SaturatEd fat in dairy on Total cholesterol) study using 4-d weighed dietary records, in addition to plasma phospholipid FA (PL-FA) status. In a randomised, controlled, crossover design, free-living UK participants identified as moderate risk for CVD (n = 54) were required to replace habitually consumed dairy foods (milk, cheese and butter), with study products with a FA profile typical of retail products (control) or SFA-reduced, MUFA-enriched profile (modified), for two 12-week periods, separated by an 8-week washout period. A flexible food-exchange model was used to implement each isoenergetic high-fat, high-dairy diet (38% of total energy intake (%TE) total fat): control (dietary target: 19%TE SFA; 11%TE MUFA) and modified (16%TE SFA; 14%TE MUFA). Following the modified diet, there was a smaller increase in SFA (17.2%TE vs. 19.1%TE; p < 0.001) and greater increase in MUFA intake (15.4%TE vs. 11.8%TE; p < 0.0001) when compared with the control. PL-FA analysis revealed lower total SFAs (p = 0.006), higher total cis-MUFAs and trans-MUFAs (both p < 0.0001) following the modified diet. The food-exchange model was successfully used to achieve RESET dietary targets by partial replacement of SFAs with MUFAs in dairy products, a finding reflected in the PL-FA profile and indicative of objective dietary compliance. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02089035 , date 05-01-2014.

  3. It is more important to increase the intake of unsaturated fats than to decrease the intake of saturated fats: evidence from clinical trials relating to ischemic heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, M F

    1997-10-01

    The evidence from formal, controlled, long-term clinical trials that changes in dietary fats reduce the incidence of ischemic (coronary) heart disease (IHD) is unimpressive. Mostly these trials were underpowered and in several the rigor of dietary control in the intervention and control groups was inadequate. Six controlled clinical trials in healthy people of diets low in saturated fat and cholesterol, also accompanied by changes in other risk factors, were unsuccessful in reducing the incidence of IHD. An exception was the Oslo trial in which concurrent cigarette smoking was almost halved. Similarly, in the only two clinical trials of the secondary prevention of IHD through use of diets low in saturated fats and cholesterol there was no significant effect on IHD recurrence rate. This may relate to poor compliance outside strict clinic conditions. In contrast, five of six secondary prevention trials in which diets low in saturated fats were supplemented with polyunsaturated fats reduced IHD deaths and, to a lesser extent, all-cause mortality. No formal trial has been reported of the effects on IHD of diets high in monounsaturated fats. The greatest benefit for patients with IHD has come from diets supplemented with n-3 fatty acids (two trials), and this benefit was independent of changes in plasma lipoproteins. The evidence from these clinical trials indicates that more emphasis should be given in national and international dietary recommendations to supplementation with polyunsaturated fats, particularly foods rich in n-3 fatty acids, than to diets low in total and saturated fats.

  4. What Are Solid Fats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fatty acids. Most solid fats are high in saturated fats and/or trans fats and have less monounsaturated ... Animal products containing solid fats also contain cholesterol. Saturated fats and trans fats tend to raise "bad" (LDL) ...

  5. Facts about polyunsaturated fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... benefit your health. Polyunsaturated fat is different than saturated fat and trans fat. These unhealthy fats can increase ... of those fats are monounsaturated or polyunsaturated. Limit saturated fat (found in red meat, butter, cheese, and whole- ...

  6. Food, fat, family and friends: studies on the impact of the social environment on dietary intake.

    OpenAIRE

    Feunekes, G.I.J.

    1996-01-01

    The impact of the social environment on food and fat intake was investigated in several samples including family members, close friends, and meal time companions in the Netherlands. Firstly, a food frequency questionnaire to assess the intake of fat, fatty acids and cholesterol was developed. Biomarker-based validity (n = 99), relative validity against a dietary history (n = 191), and reproducibility (n = 93) were satisfactory for adults.Up to 40% of the variance in fat intake, expressed as %...

  7. Increasing the percentage of energy from dietary sugar, fats, and alcohol in adults is associated with increased energy intake but has minimal association with biomarkers of cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Gregory L; Krueger, Patrick M

    2013-10-01

    The optimal diet composition to prevent obesity and its complications is unknown. Study aims were to determine the association of diet composition with energy intake, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and C-reactive protein (CRP). Data were from the NHANES for eligible adults aged 20-74 y from 2005 to 2006 (n = 3073). Energy intake and diet composition were obtained by dietary recall. HOMA-IR was calculated from fasting insulin and glucose concentrations, and CRP was measured directly. Changes for a 1-point increase in percentage of sugar, saturated fatty acids (SFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and alcohol were determined across their means in exchange for a 1-point decrease in percentage of nonsugar carbohydrates. Regression analyses were performed, and means ± SEs were estimated. Increasing the percentage of sugar was associated with increased energy intake in men (23 ± 5 kcal; P intake. In women, increasing percentages of SFAs (27 ± 10 kcal; P = 0.02), PUFAs (43 ± 6 kcal; P intake. Increasing the percentage of alcohol was associated with increased energy intake in men (38 ± 7 kcal; P sugar, fats, and alcohol was associated with substantially increased energy intake but had minimal association with HOMA-IR and CRP.

  8. Trans Fat Intake and Its Dietary Sources in General Populations Worldwide: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanders, Anne J.; Zock, Peter L.; Brouwer, Ingeborg A.

    2017-01-01

    After the discovery that trans fat increases the risk of coronary heart disease, trans fat content of foods have considerably changed. The aim of this study was to systematically review available data on intakes of trans fat and its dietary sources in general populations worldwide. Data from national dietary surveys and population studies published from 1995 onward were searched via Scopus and websites of national public health institutes. Relevant data from 29 countries were identified. The most up to date estimates of total trans fat intake ranged from 0.3 to 4.2 percent of total energy intake (En%) across countries. Seven countries had trans fat intakes higher than the World Health Organization recommendation of 1 En%. In 16 out of 21 countries with data on dietary sources, intakes of trans fat from animal sources were higher than that from industrial sources. Time trend data from 20 countries showed substantial declines in industrial trans fat intake since 1995. In conclusion, nowadays, in the majority of countries for which data are available, average trans fat intake is lower than the recommended maximum intake of 1 En%, with intakes from animal sources being higher than from industrial sources. In the past 20 years, substantial reductions in industrial trans fat have been achieved in many countries. PMID:28783062

  9. Trans Fat Intake and Its Dietary Sources in General Populations Worldwide: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne J. Wanders

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available After the discovery that trans fat increases the risk of coronary heart disease, trans fat content of foods have considerably changed. The aim of this study was to systematically review available data on intakes of trans fat and its dietary sources in general populations worldwide. Data from national dietary surveys and population studies published from 1995 onward were searched via Scopus and websites of national public health institutes. Relevant data from 29 countries were identified. The most up to date estimates of total trans fat intake ranged from 0.3 to 4.2 percent of total energy intake (En% across countries. Seven countries had trans fat intakes higher than the World Health Organization recommendation of 1 En%. In 16 out of 21 countries with data on dietary sources, intakes of trans fat from animal sources were higher than that from industrial sources. Time trend data from 20 countries showed substantial declines in industrial trans fat intake since 1995. In conclusion, nowadays, in the majority of countries for which data are available, average trans fat intake is lower than the recommended maximum intake of 1 En%, with intakes from animal sources being higher than from industrial sources. In the past 20 years, substantial reductions in industrial trans fat have been achieved in many countries.

  10. Food sources of fat may clarify the inconsistent role of dietary fat intake for incidence of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericson, Ulrika; Hellstrand, Sophie; Brunkwall, Louise; Schulz, Christina-Alexandra; Sonestedt, Emily; Wallström, Peter; Gullberg, Bo; Wirfält, Elisabet; Orho-Melander, Marju

    2015-05-01

    Dietary fats could affect glucose metabolism and obesity development and, thereby, may have a crucial role in the cause of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Studies indicated that replacing saturated with unsaturated fats might be favorable, and plant foods might be a better choice than animal foods. Nevertheless, epidemiologic studies suggested that dairy foods are protective. We hypothesized that, by examining dietary fat and its food sources classified according to fat type and fat content, some clarification regarding the role of dietary fat in T2D incidence could be provided. A total of 26,930 individuals (61% women), aged 45-74 y, from the Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort were included in the study. Dietary data were collected by using a modified diet-history method. During 14 y of follow-up, 2860 incident T2D cases were identified. Total intake of high-fat dairy products (regular-fat alternatives) was inversely associated with incident T2D (HR for highest compared with lowest quintiles: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.68, 0.87; P-trend intakes of cream and high-fat fermented milk (P-trend intake of low-fat dairy products was associated with increased risk, but this association disappeared when low- and high-fat dairy were mutually adjusted (P-trend = 0.18). Intakes of both high-fat meat (P-trend = 0.04) and low-fat meat (P-trend fat content and T2D (P-trend = 0.24), but intakes of saturated fatty acids with 4-10 carbons, lauric acid (12:0), and myristic acid (14:0) were associated with decreased risk (P-trend intake of high- but not of low-fat dairy products suggests that dairy fat partly could have contributed to previously observed protective associations between dairy intake and T2D. Meat intake was associated with increased risk independently of the fat content. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  11. Influence of the frying process on the real fat intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varela, G.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available As shown in the former presentation, one fact about repeated frying is that there comes a moment, when the oil used is no longer suitable for frying, that is discarded. The amount may be quite large depending, among other factors, on the composition of the oil itself and on that of the foodstuffs fried. This can be of practical significance for the total lipid intake, since the unsuitable oil is no longer ingested. It is difficult to know the amount of oil discarded for this reason and there is no scientific information in the literature on this subject. In this paper we try to know the quantitative and qualitative importance of the oil proceeding of repeated frying (RF which normally is discarded in relation to the total fat intake (Fl in Madrid, as well at domestic level (96 families as in catering (hospitals, restaurants and schools. For this purpose discarded oils proceeding of the frying of food were collected in the usual quantity, variety and conditions (only olive and sunflower oils were used, both in the households and in the institutions. In the oils, raw and discarded, we also determined their composition in fatty acids. Our results show that at domestic level, although the dispersion is big, the average values of the discarded oil are the 19.3 ± 18.4% of the inventoried oil. However, in the institutional frying, in which, of course, industrial fryer are utilised, the proportion of discarded oil was much bigger, some time doubling the quantity discarded at domestic level. Curiously, the discarded oils proceeding either from the households or from catering do not show significative differences regarding their composition in fatty acids with respect to raw oil. The reason is that the oils are discarded due to subjective reasons, although they probably might be utilised again. At this moment, we are trying to confirm this last statement. In conclusion, if you do not take into consideration this percentage of losses, when utilising the

  12. Fatty acid composition and contents of trans monounsaturated fatty acids in frying fats, and in margarines and shortenings marketed in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovesen, L.; Leth, Torben; Hansen, K.

    1998-01-01

    of trans long-chain fatty acids. Both fast-food frying fats contained large amounts of trans C-18:1, 21.9 +/- 2.9% in Burger King and 16.6 +/- 0.4% in McDonald's. In Denmark the per capita supply of trans C-18:1 from margarines and shortenings and frying fats has decreased steadily during recent years....... The supply of trans C-18:1 from margarines and shortenings in the Danish diet is now 1.1 g per day....

  13. Food, fat, family and friends : studies on the impact of the social environment on dietary intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feunekes, G.I.J.

    1996-01-01


    The impact of the social environment on food and fat intake was investigated in several samples including family members, close friends, and meal time companions in the Netherlands. Firstly, a food frequency questionnaire to assess the intake of fat, fatty acids and cholesterol was

  14. Macronutrient distribution over a period of 23 years in relation to energy intake and body fatness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppes, L.L.J.; Boon, N.; Nooyens, A.C.J.; Mechelen, W. van; Saris, W.H.M.

    2009-01-01

    The distribution of the four macronutrients is associated with energy intake and body fatness according to short-term interventions. The present study involves macronutrient distribution in relation to energy intake and body fatness over a period of 23 years in individuals who have ad libitum access

  15. Macronutrient distribution over a period of 23 years in relation to energy intake and body fatness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppes, L.L.J.; Boon, N.; Nooyens, A.C.J.; Mechelen, W. van; Saris, W.H.M.

    2009-01-01

    The distribution of the four macronutrients is associated with energy intake and body fatness according to short-term interventions. The present study involves macronutrient distribution in relation to energy intake and body fatness over a period of 23 years in individuals who have ad libitum access

  16. Food, fat, family and friends: studies on the impact of the social environment on dietary intake.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feunekes, G.I.J.

    1996-01-01

    The impact of the social environment on food and fat intake was investigated in several samples including family members, close friends, and meal time companions in the Netherlands. Firstly, a food frequency questionnaire to assess the intake of fat, fatty acids and cholesterol was developed. Biomar

  17. δ-Opioid receptor activation stimulates normal diet intake but conversely suppresses high-fat diet intake in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Kentaro; Mizushige, Takafumi; Miyazaki, Yuri; Lazarus, Michael; Urade, Yoshihiro; Yoshikawa, Masaaki; Kanamoto, Ryuhei; Ohinata, Kousaku

    2014-02-15

    The central opioid system is involved in a broadly distributed neural network that regulates food intake. Here, we show that activation of central δ-opioid receptor not only stimulated normal diet intake but conversely suppressed high-fat diet intake as well. [D-Pen(2,5)]-enkephalin (DPDPE), an agonist selective for the δ-receptor, increased normal diet intake after central administration to nonfasted male mice. The orexigenic activity of DPDPE was inhibited by blockade of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS), D-type prostanoid receptor 1 (DP(1)), and neuropeptide Y (NPY) receptor type 1 (Y1) for PGD(2) and NPY, respectively, suggesting that this was mediated by the PGD(2)-NPY system. In contrast, DPDPE decreased high-fat diet intake in mice fed a high-fat diet. DPDPE-induced suppression of high-fat diet intake was blocked by antagonists of melanocortin 4 (MC(4)) and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptors but not by knockout of the L-PGDS gene. These results suggest that central δ-opioid receptor activation suppresses high-fat diet intake via the MC-CRF system, independent of the orexigenic PGD(2) system. Furthermore, orally administered rubiscolin-6, an opioid peptide derived from spinach Rubisco, suppressed high-fat diet intake. This suppression was also blocked by centrally administered naltrindole, an antagonist for the δ-receptor, suggesting that rubiscolin-6 suppressed high-fat diet intake via activation of central δ-opioid receptor.

  18. Dietary total fat and fatty acids intake, serum fatty acids and risk of breast cancer: A meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yi; Hou, Lin; Wang, Weijing

    2016-04-15

    Results from prospective cohort studies on the association between dietary total fat and fatty acids intake and risk of breast cancer remain controversial. Pertinent prospective cohort studies were identified by a search of Embase and PubMed from inception to September 2015. Study-specific relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals were pooled using a random-effect model. Between-study heterogeneity and publication bias were assessed, and sensitivity analysis was conducted. Twenty-four independent studies on dietary total fat and fatty acids intake and seven studies on serum fatty acids were included. The pooled RR of breast cancer for the highest vs. lowest category of dietary total fat intake was 1.10 (1.02-1.19); however, no association was observed in studies adjusting for traditional risk factors of breast cancer. No association was observed between animal fat, vegetable fat, saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), n-3 PUFA, n-6 PUFA, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and arachidonic acid and risk of breast cancer. The pooled RRs of breast cancer for the highest vs. lowest category of serum SFA, MUFA, PUFA, n-3 PUFA and n-6 PUFA were 1.00 (0.78-1.28), 1.41 (0.99-2.03), 0.59 (0.27-1.30), 0.81 (0.60-1.10) and 0.84 (0.60-1.18), respectively. Results from this meta-analysis suggested that dietary total fat and fatty acids might be not associated with risk of breast cancer.

  19. Dietary meat and fat intake and prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis in pregnant Japanese women: baseline data from the Kyushu Okinawa Maternal and Child Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Keiko; Okubo, Hitomi; Sasaki, Satoshi; Arakawa, Masashi

    2012-03-27

    Dietary fat exerts numerous complex effects on proinflammatory and immunologic pathways. Several epidemiological studies have examined the relationships between intake of fatty acids and/or foods high in fat and allergic rhinitis, but have provided conflicting findings. The current cross-sectional study investigated such relationships in Japan. Study subjects were 1745 pregnant women. The definition of rhinoconjunctivitis was based on criteria from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. Information on dietary factors was collected using a validated self-administered diet history questionnaire. Adjustment was made for age; gestation; region of residence; number of older siblings; number of children; smoking; secondhand smoke exposure at home and at work; family history of asthma, atopic eczema, and allergic rhinitis; household income; education; and body mass index. The prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis in the past 12 months was 25.9%. Higher meat intake was significantly associated with an increased prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis: the adjusted odds ratio between extreme quartiles was 1.71 (95% confidence interval: 1.25-2.35, P for trend = 0.002). No measurable association was found between fish intake and rhinoconjunctivitis. Intake of total fat, saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, α-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, and cholesterol and the ratio of n-3 to n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake were not evidently related to the prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis. The current results suggest that meat intake may be positively associated with the prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis in young adult Japanese women.

  20. Dietary meat and fat intake and prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis in pregnant Japanese women: baseline data from the Kyushu Okinawa Maternal and Child Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyake Yoshihiro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary fat exerts numerous complex effects on proinflammatory and immunologic pathways. Several epidemiological studies have examined the relationships between intake of fatty acids and/or foods high in fat and allergic rhinitis, but have provided conflicting findings. The current cross-sectional study investigated such relationships in Japan. Methods Study subjects were 1745 pregnant women. The definition of rhinoconjunctivitis was based on criteria from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. Information on dietary factors was collected using a validated self-administered diet history questionnaire. Adjustment was made for age; gestation; region of residence; number of older siblings; number of children; smoking; secondhand smoke exposure at home and at work; family history of asthma, atopic eczema, and allergic rhinitis; household income; education; and body mass index. Results The prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis in the past 12 months was 25.9%. Higher meat intake was significantly associated with an increased prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis: the adjusted odds ratio between extreme quartiles was 1.71 (95% confidence interval: 1.25-2.35, P for trend = 0.002. No measurable association was found between fish intake and rhinoconjunctivitis. Intake of total fat, saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, α-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, and cholesterol and the ratio of n-3 to n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake were not evidently related to the prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis. Conclusions The current results suggest that meat intake may be positively associated with the prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis in young adult Japanese women.

  1. Dietary saturated and monounsaturated fats protect against acute acetaminophen hepatotoxicity by altering fatty acid composition of liver microsomal membrane in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shim Eugene

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary polyunsaturated fats increase liver injury in response to ethanol feeding. We evaluated the effect of dietary corn oil (CO, olive oil (OO, and beef tallow (BT on fatty acid composition of liver microsomal membrane and acute acetaminophen hepatotoxicity. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed 15% (wt/wt CO, OO or BT for 6 weeks. After treatment with acetaminophen (600 mg/kg, samples of plasma and liver were taken for analyses of the fatty acid composition and toxicity. Results Treatment with acetaminophen significantly elevated levels of plasma GOT and GPT as well as hepatic TBARS but reduced hepatic GSH levels in CO compared to OO and BT groups. Acetaminophen significantly induced protein expression of cytochrome P450 2E1 in the CO group. In comparison with the CO diet, lower levels of linoleic acid, higher levels of oleic acids and therefore much lower ratios of linoleic to oleic acid were detected in rats fed OO and BT diets. Conclusions Dietary OO and BT produces similar liver microsomal fatty acid composition and may account for less severe liver injury after acetaminophen treatment compared to animals fed diets with CO rich in linoleic acid. These findings imply that types of dietary fat may be important in the nutritional management of drug-induced hepatotoxicity.

  2. Food Sources, Dietary Behavior, and the Saturated Fat Intake of Latino Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Charles E.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Studies dietary patterns that distinguish children with higher and lower mean daily percentages of calories from saturated fat using data from mothers of 205 Latino children aged 4-7 years in New York City. Substituting low-fat for whole milk appears a key strategy for lowering saturated fat intake. (SLD)

  3. Fat intake and apperent digestibility of fibre in horses and ponies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, W.L.

    2001-01-01

    Performance horses are frequently given high-fat diets with fat contents up to 130 g/kg dry matter. The addition of extra fat raises the energy density of feeds. Diets with a high energy density facilitate a high-energy intake, which is advantageous for horses with high-energy requirements.

  4. The adaptation of nutrient oxidation to nutrient intake on a high-fat diet.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrauwen, P.; van Marken Lichtenbelt, W.D.; Saris, W.H.M.; Westerterp, K.R.

    1997-01-01

    Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, The Netherlands. Intervention studies have shown that the adaptation of fat oxidation to fat intake, when changing the dietary fat content, is not abrupt. This study was conducted to measure the time course of adaptation of oxidation rates to incre

  5. Fat intake and apperent digestibility of fibre in horses and ponies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, W.L.

    2001-01-01

    Performance horses are frequently given high-fat diets with fat contents up to 130 g/kg dry matter. The addition of extra fat raises the energy density of feeds. Diets with a high energy density facilitate a high-energy intake, which is advantageous for horses with high-energy requirements. High-ene

  6. Food Sources, Dietary Behavior, and the Saturated Fat Intake of Latino Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Charles E.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Studies dietary patterns that distinguish children with higher and lower mean daily percentages of calories from saturated fat using data from mothers of 205 Latino children aged 4-7 years in New York City. Substituting low-fat for whole milk appears a key strategy for lowering saturated fat intake. (SLD)

  7. The adaptation of nutrient oxidation to nutrient intake on a high-fat diet.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrauwen, P.; van Marken Lichtenbelt, W.D.; Saris, W.H.M.; Westerterp, K.R.

    1997-01-01

    Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, The Netherlands. Intervention studies have shown that the adaptation of fat oxidation to fat intake, when changing the dietary fat content, is not abrupt. This study was conducted to measure the time course of adaptation of oxidation rates to incre

  8. Differential effects of saturated and monounsaturated fats on postprandial lipemia and glucagon-like peptide 1 responses in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Claus; Storm, Hanne; Holst, Jens Juul

    2003-01-01

    butter, and the control meal plus 80 g olive oil. Triacylglycerol responses were measured in total plasma and in a chylomicron-rich and a chylomicron-poor fraction. RESULTS: No significant differences in the glucose, insulin, or fatty acid responses to the 2 fat-rich meals were seen. The plasma...... triacylglycerol and chylomicron triacylglycerol responses were highest after the butter meal. HDL-cholesterol concentrations decreased significantly after the butter meal but did not change significantly after the olive oil meal. GLP-1 responses were highest after the olive oil meal. CONCLUSIONS: Olive oil...... induced lower triacylglycerol concentrations and higher HDL-cholesterol concentrations than did butter, without eliciting significant changes in glucose, insulin, or fatty acids. Furthermore, olive oil induced higher concentrations of GLP-1, which may indicate a relation between fatty acid composition...

  9. Trends in dietary fat and high-fat food intakes from 1991 to 2008 in the Framingham Heart Study participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadiveloo, Maya; Scott, Marc; Quatromoni, Paula; Jacques, Paul; Parekh, Niyati

    2014-02-01

    Few longitudinal studies carried out in US adults have evaluated long-term dietary fat intakes and compared them with the national recommendations during the two-decade period when the prevalence of obesity and insulin resistance increased substantively. In the present study, we examined trends in the intakes of dietary fats and rich dietary sources of fats in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort over a 17-year period. The cohort was established in 1971-75 with follow-up examinations being conducted approximately every 4 years. Dietary data were collected using a semi-quantitative FFQ beginning in 1991 (exam 5). We included 2732 adults aged ≥ 25 years with complete dietary data in at least three examinations from 1991 to 2008. Descriptive statistics were generated using SAS version 9.3, and a repeated-measures model was used to examine trends in macronutrient and food intakes using R. Over the 17 years of follow-up, the percentage of energy derived from total fat and protein increased (27·3-29·8% of energy and 16·8-18·0% of energy, respectively) and that derived from carbohydrate decreased (51·0-46·8% of energy; P-trend fat subtypes were observed, except for that derived from trans-fats, which decreased over time (P-trend fat and less reduction in the percentage of energy derived from trans-fats (P interaction fat intake were similar across the BMI categories. The number of weekly servings of cheese, eggs, ice cream desserts, nuts, butter and sausages/processed meats increased, whereas the intake of milk, margarine, poultry, confectioneries, chips and breads decreased (P-trend fats increased over time, but it remained within the national recommendations of less than 35 % of total energy, on average.

  10. Correlation Between Dietary Fat Intake and Atherogenic Indices in Normal, Overweight and Obese Adults with or Without Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diaf Mustapha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: We investigated the association of dietary intake, particularly fat and its constituent fatty acids, with atherogenic indices in adult patients with overweight, obesity and/or type 2 diabetes (T2D. Material and Methods: Two hundred eighty-five outpatients were selected in two cities located in the Northwestern region of Algeria. Anthropometric measurements for body weight, height, body mass index (BMI and waist circumference were performed. Relationships between dietary intakes, estimated by a 3- days food record, and fasting blood atherogenic indices - total cholesterol-to-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (TC/HDL-c and apolipoprotein (apo B-to-apo A1 ratio, were analysed. Results: Study group included 58.59% overweight/obese T2D patients, 24.91% normal weight T2D patients and 16.49 % overweight/obese patients without diabetes. Higher dietary consumption (p= 0.003 of total fat, saturated fatty acids (SFAs and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, was recorded in the group of overweight/obese T2D patients. Significant positive correlations were observed between apo B/apo A1 and total fat (p= 0.035, total SFAs (p= 0.042 and palmitic acid (p= 0.042 in the group of overweight/obese T2D patients and with ω6 fatty acid (p= 0.030 in the group of overweight/obese patients without diabetes. In the two groups of T2D patients, whether normal weight, overweight/obese, numerous positive correlations with TC/HDL-c were disclosed for PUFAs, ω6 and fatty acids ratios, namely, ω6/ω3, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA/SFAs and (MUFAs+PUFAs/SFAs. Conclusion: Most adults, whom are either affected by an excess weight or T2D or both together, are prone to cardiovascular risk. Dietary intakes, particularly in fat and its constituent fatty acids, have an important effect on blood lipid atherogenic indices (TC/HDL-c and apo B/apo A1 ratios.

  11. Obesity-prone high-fat-fed rats reduce caloric intake and adiposity and gain more fat-free mass when allowed to self-select protein from carbohydrate:fat intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzout-Marniche, Dalila; Chalvon-Demersay, Tristan; Pimentel, Grégory; Chaumontet, Catherine; Nadkarni, Nachiket A; Piedcoq, Julien; Fromentin, Gilles; Tomé, Daniel; Gaudichon, Claire; Even, Patrick C

    2016-06-01

    We tested the hypothesis that, for rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD), a prioritization of maintaining protein intake may increase energy consumption and hence result in obesity, particularly for individuals prone to obesity ("fat sensitive," FS, vs. "fat resistant," FR). Male Wistar rats (n = 80) first received 3 wk of HFD (protein 15%, fat 42%, carbohydrate 42%), under which they were characterized as being FS (n = 18) or FR (n = 20) based on body weight gain. They then continued on the same HFD but in which protein (100%) was available separately from the carbohydrate:fat (50:50%) mixture. Under this second regimen, all rats maintained their previous protein intake, whereas intake of fat and carbohydrate was reduced by 50%. This increased protein intake to 26% and decreased fat intake to 37%. Adiposity gain was prevented in both FR and FS rats, and gain in fat-free mass was increased only in FS rats. At the end of the study, the rats were killed 2 h after ingestion of a protein meal, and their tissues and organs were collected for analysis of body composition and measurement of mRNA levels in the liver, adipose tissue, arcuate nucleus, and nucleus accumbens. FS rats had a higher expression of genes encoding enzymes involved in lipogenesis in the liver and white adipose tissue. These results show that FS rats strongly reduced food intake and adiposity gain through macronutrient selection, despite maintenance of a relatively high-fat intake and overexpression of genes favoring lipogenesis.

  12. Interaction between dietary fat intake and the cholesterol ester transfer protein TaqIB polymorphism in relation to HDL-cholesterol concentrations among US diabetic men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tricia Y; Zhang, Cuilin; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Qi, Lu; Rimm, Eric; Hunter, David J; Hu, Frank B

    2007-11-01

    A low plasma HDL-cholesterol concentration is a major characteristic of diabetic dyslipidemia. HDL concentrations are determined by both environmental factors and genetic factors. Cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP) plays an important role in the regulation of HDL metabolism, and the TaqIB polymorphism of the CETP gene has been associated with elevated HDL concentrations. We examined the association between the CETP TaqIB polymorphism and plasma HDL concentrations and evaluated whether this association was modified by dietary fat intake. We followed 780 diabetic men aged 40-75 y who participated in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study since its initiation in 1986. The participants had confirmed type 2 diabetes and were free of cardiovascular disease at the time blood was drawn. After adjustment for age, smoking, alcohol consumption, fasting status, hemoglobin A(1c), physical activity, total energy intake, and body mass index, HDL concentrations were significantly higher in men with the B2B2 or B1B2 genotype than in those with the B1B1 genotype (adjusted x +/- SE: 37.9 +/- 0.02, 40.3 +/- 0.01, and 42.6 +/- 0.02 mg/dL for B1B1, B1B2, and B2B2, respectively; P for trend = 0.0004). This inverse association of the B1 allele with plasma HDL concentrations existed for those with a high consumption of animal fat (P for interaction = 0.02), saturated fat (P for interaction = 0.02), and monounsaturated fat (P for interaction = 0.04). These data confirmed a significant effect of the CETP Taq1 gene on HDL concentrations and suggested a potential interaction between the CETP TaqIB polymorphism and intake of dietary fat on plasma HDL concentration.

  13. A prospective study of trans fat intake and risk of preeclampsia in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chavarro, J. E.; Halldorsson, T. I.; Leth, Torben;

    2011-01-01

    Association of intake of trans fatty acids in the 2nd trimester of pregnancy with risk of preeclampsia was studied by following 67 186 pregnancies of women participating in the Danish National Birth Cohort between 1998 and 2003. Diet was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire at gestation wk...... 25; preeclampsia diagnosis was obtained by linkage with the Danish National Patient Registry. 1804 cases of preeclampsia and 402 cases of severe preeclampsia were identified in the cohort. Intake of trans fats decreased during the study period as a consequence of reduction in industrial trans fat...... intake. Intake of trans fats in the 2nd trimester was unrelated to risk of preeclampsia or severe preeclampsia. Relative risk (95% confidence interval; P, trend) of preeclampsia and severe preeclampsia comparing top to bottom quintiles of trans fat intake were 0.95 (0.81; 1.11, 0.33) and 1.07 (0.78; 1...

  14. Associations of fats and carbohydrate intake with cardiovascular disease and mortality in 18 countries from five continents (PURE): a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghan, Mahshid; Mente, Andrew; Zhang, Xiaohe; Swaminathan, Sumathi; Li, Wei; Mohan, Viswanathan; Iqbal, Romaina; Kumar, Rajesh; Wentzel-Viljoen, Edelweiss; Rosengren, Annika; Amma, Leela Itty; Avezum, Alvaro; Chifamba, Jephat; Diaz, Rafael; Khatib, Rasha; Lear, Scott; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; Liu, Xiaoyun; Gupta, Rajeev; Mohammadifard, Noushin; Gao, Nan; Oguz, Aytekin; Ramli, Anis Safura; Seron, Pamela; Sun, Yi; Szuba, Andrzej; Tsolekile, Lungiswa; Wielgosz, Andreas; Yusuf, Rita; Hussein Yusufali, Afzal; Teo, Koon K; Rangarajan, Sumathy; Dagenais, Gilles; Bangdiwala, Shrikant I; Islam, Shofiqul; Anand, Sonia S; Yusuf, Salim

    2017-08-28

    The relationship between macronutrients and cardiovascular disease and mortality is controversial. Most available data are from European and North American populations where nutrition excess is more likely, so their applicability to other populations is unclear. The Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study is a large, epidemiological cohort study of individuals aged 35-70 years (enrolled between Jan 1, 2003, and March 31, 2013) in 18 countries with a median follow-up of 7·4 years (IQR 5·3-9·3). Dietary intake of 135 335 individuals was recorded using validated food frequency questionnaires. The primary outcomes were total mortality and major cardiovascular events (fatal cardiovascular disease, non-fatal myocardial infarction, stroke, and heart failure). Secondary outcomes were all myocardial infarctions, stroke, cardiovascular disease mortality, and non-cardiovascular disease mortality. Participants were categorised into quintiles of nutrient intake (carbohydrate, fats, and protein) based on percentage of energy provided by nutrients. We assessed the associations between consumption of carbohydrate, total fat, and each type of fat with cardiovascular disease and total mortality. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) using a multivariable Cox frailty model with random intercepts to account for centre clustering. During follow-up, we documented 5796 deaths and 4784 major cardiovascular disease events. Higher carbohydrate intake was associated with an increased risk of total mortality (highest [quintile 5] vs lowest quintile [quintile 1] category, HR 1·28 [95% CI 1·12-1·46], ptrend=0·0001) but not with the risk of cardiovascular disease or cardiovascular disease mortality. Intake of total fat and each type of fat was associated with lower risk of total mortality (quintile 5 vs quintile 1, total fat: HR 0·77 [95% CI 0·67-0·87], ptrendsaturated fat, HR 0·86 [0·76-0·99], ptrend=0·0088; monounsaturated fat: HR 0·81 [0·71-0·92], ptrendfat: HR 0·80

  15. Opioid receptor mu 1 gene, fat intake and obesity in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighi, A; Melka, M G; Bernard, M; Abrahamowicz, M; Leonard, G T; Richer, L; Perron, M; Veillette, S; Xu, C J; Greenwood, C M T; Dias, A; El-Sohemy, A; Gaudet, D; Paus, T; Pausova, Z

    2014-01-01

    Dietary preference for fat may increase risk for obesity. It is a complex behavior regulated in part by the amygdala, a brain structure involved in reward processing and food behavior, and modulated by genetic factors. Here, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to search for gene loci associated with dietary intake of fat, and we tested whether these loci are also associated with adiposity and amygdala volume. We studied 598 adolescents (12-18 years) recruited from the French-Canadian founder population and genotyped them with 530 011 single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Fat intake was assessed with a 24-hour food recall. Adiposity was examined with anthropometry and bioimpedance. Amygdala volume was measured by magnetic resonance imaging. GWAS identified a locus of fat intake in the μ-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1, rs2281617, P=5.2 × 10(-6)), which encodes a receptor expressed in the brain-reward system and shown previously to modulate fat preference in animals. The minor OPRM1 allele appeared to have a 'protective' effect: it was associated with lower fat intake (by 4%) and lower body-fat mass (by ∼2 kg, P=0.02). Consistent with the possible amygdala-mediated inhibition of fat preference, this allele was additionally associated with higher amygdala volume (by 69 mm(3), P=0.02) and, in the carriers of this allele, amygdala volume correlated inversely with fat intake (P=0.02). Finally, OPRM1 was associated with fat intake in an independent sample of 490 young adults. In summary, OPRM1 may modulate dietary intake of fat and hence risk for obesity, and this effect may be modulated by subtle variations in the amygdala volume.

  16. Dietary fat intakes in Irish adults in 2011: how much has changed in 10 years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kaifeng; McNulty, Breige A; Tiernery, Ann M; Devlin, Niamh F C; Joyce, Triona; Leite, Joao C; Flynn, Albert; Walton, Janette; Brennan, Lorraine; Gibney, Michael J; Nugent, Anne P

    2016-05-28

    Imbalances in dietary fat intakes are linked to several chronic diseases. This study describes dietary intakes and food sources of fat and fatty acids in 1051 Irish adults (aged 18-90 years), using data from the 2011 national food consumption survey, the National Adult Nutrition Survey. It also compares current intakes for 18-64-year-olds with those reported in the last such survey in 2001, the North/South Ireland Food Consumption Survey. Dietary fat intakes were estimated using data from 4-d semi-weighed (2011) and 7-d estimated (2001) food diaries. In 2011, intakes for 18-64-year-olds were as follows: total fat, 34·1 (sd 6·1) % total energy (%TE); SFA, 13·3 (sd 3·3) %TE; MUFA, 12·5 (sd 2·6) %TE; PUFA, 6·1 (sd 2·2) %TE; and trans-fat, 0·511 (sd 0·282) %TE. Apart from MUFA, intakes decreased (P65 years had the highest intakes of SFA; however, intakes were typically higher than UK-recommended values for all groups. In contrast, intakes of long-chain n-3 fatty acids were lowest in younger age groups. Intakes of trans-fat were well within UK-recommended levels. Although there have been some improvements in the profile of intakes since 2001, imbalances persist in the quantity and quality of dietary fat consumed by Irish adults, most notably for total and SFA and for younger age groups for long-chain n-3 fatty acids.

  17. Interactions between Obesity Status and Dietary Intake of Monounsaturated and Polyunsaturated Oils on Human Gut Microbiome Profiles in the Canola Oil Multicenter Intervention Trial (COMIT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Shuaihua; Khazanehei, Hamidreza; Jones, Peter J.; Khafipour, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    Long-term dietary fatty acid intake is believed to induce changes in the human gut microbiome which might be associated with human health or obesity status; however, considerable debate remains regarding the most favorable ratios of fatty acids to optimize these processes. The objective of this sub-study of a double-blinded randomized crossover clinical study, the canola oil multi-center intervention trial, was to investigate effects of five different novel oil blends fed for 30 days each on the intestinal microbiota in 25 volunteers with risk of metabolic syndrome. The 60 g treatments included three MUFA-rich diets: (1) conventional canola oil (Canola); (2) DHA-enriched high oleic canola oil (CanolaDHA); (3) high oleic canola oil (CanolaOleic); and two PUFA-rich diets: (4) a blend of corn/safflower oil (25:75) (CornSaff); and (5) a blend of flax/safflower oil (60:40) (FlaxSaff). Stool samples were collected at the end of each period. DNA was extracted and amplified for 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. A total of 17 phyla and 187 genera were identified. While five novel oil treatments failed to alter bacterial phyla composition, obese participants resulted in a higher proportion of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes than overweight or normal weight groups (P = 0.01). Similarly at the genus level, overall bacterial distribution was highly associated with subjects’ body mass index (BMI). Treatment effects were observed between MUFA- and PUFA-rich diets, with the three MUFA diets elevating Parabacteroides, Prevotella, Turicibacter, and Enterobacteriaceae’s populations, while the two PUFA-rich diets favored the higher abundance of Isobaculum. High MUFA content feedings also resulted in an increase of Parabacteroides and a decrease of Isobaculum in obese, but not overweight subjects. Data suggest that BMI is a predominant factor in characterization of human gut microbiota profile, and that MUFA-rich and PUFA-rich diets impact the composition of gut microbiota at lower

  18. Interactions between Obesity Status and Dietary Intake of Monounsaturated and Polyunsaturated Oils on Human Gut Microbiome Profiles in the Canola Oil Multicenter Intervention Trial (COMIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuaihua Pu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Long-term dietary fatty acid intake is believed to induce changes in the human gut microbiome which might be associated with human health or obesity status; however, considerable debate remains regarding the most favorable ratios of fatty acids to optimize these processes. The objective of this sub-study of a double-blinded randomized crossover clinical study, the canola oil multi-center intervention trial (COMIT, was to investigate effects of five different novel oil blends fed for 30 days each on the intestinal microbiota in 25 volunteers with risk of metabolic syndrome. The 60 g treatments included three MUFA-rich diets: 1 conventional canola oil (Canola; 2 DHA-enriched high oleic canola oil (CanolaDHA; 3 high oleic canola oil (CanolaOleic; and two PUFA-rich diets: 4 a blend of corn/safflower oil (25:75 (CornSaff; and 5 a blend of flax/safflower oil (60:40 (FlaxSaff. Stool samples were collected at the end of each period. DNA was extracted and amplified for pyrosequencing. A total of 17 phyla and 187 genera were identified. While five novel oil treatments failed to alter bacterial phyla composition, obese participants produced a higher proportion of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes than overweight or normal weight groups (P = 0.01. Similarly at the genus level, overall bacterial distribution was highly associated with subjects’ body mass index (BMI. Treatment effects were observed between MUFA- and PUFA-rich diets, with the three MUFA diets elevating Parabacteroides, Prevotella, Turicibacter, and Enterobacteriaceae (F’s populations, while the two PUFA-rich diets favored the abundance of Isobaculum. High MUFA content feedings also resulted in an increase of Parabacteroides and a decrease of Isobaculum in obese, but not overweight subjects. Data suggest that BMI is a predominant factor in characterization of human gut microbiota profiles, and that MUFA-rich and PUFA-rich diets impact the composition of gut microbiota at lower taxonomical levels

  19. Fish and fat intake and prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy in Japan: baseline data from the Kyushu Okinawa Maternal and Child Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Keiko; Okubo, Hitomi; Sasaki, Satoshi; Arakawa, Masashi

    2013-05-01

    The present study aimed to examine the relationship between consumption of meat, fish, and specific types of fatty acids and the prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy in Japan. Study subjects were 1745 pregnant women. Depressive symptoms were defined as present when subjects had a Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale score of 16 or higher. Information on dietary factors was collected using a self-administered diet history questionnaire. The prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy was 19.3%. Higher intake levels of fish, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were independently associated with a lower prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy: the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) between extreme quartiles (95% confidence intervals [CIs], P for trend) were 0.61 (0.42-0.87, 0.01), 0.66 (0.46-0.95, 0.02) and 0.64 (0.44-0.93, 0.007), respectively. Higher intake levels of total fat and saturated fatty acids were independently related to a higher prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy: the adjusted ORs between extreme quartiles (95% CIs, P for trend) were 1.42 (1.00-2.03, 0.06) and 1.74 (1.22-2.49, 0.001), respectively. There were no significant associations between intake of monounsaturated fatty acids, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), α-linolenic acid, n-6 PUFAs, linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, or cholesterol or the ratio of n-3 to n-6 PUFA intake and depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Intake levels of fish, EPA, and DHA may be inversely associated with depressive symptoms during pregnancy while intake levels of total fat and saturated fatty acids may be positively related to depressive symptoms during pregnancy.

  20. Effect of dairy calcium or supplementary calcium intake on postprandial fat metabolism, appetite, and subsequent energy intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, J.K.; Nielsen, S.; Holst, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: High calcium intake has been shown to increase fecal fat excretion. Objective: Our aim was to examine whether a high calcium intake from dairy products or from supplements affects postprandial fat metabolism and appetite through fat malabsorption. Design: Four different isocaloric meals...... were tested in 18 subjects according to a randomized crossover design. The test meals contained high (HC meal: 172 mg/MJ), medium (MC meal: 84 mg/MJ), or low (LC meal: 15 mg/MJ) amounts of calcium from dairy products or a high amount of calcium given as a calcium carbonate supplement (Suppl meal: 183...... and approximate to 15% lower after the MC meal (P = 0.0495) and approximate to 17% lower after the HC meal (P = 0.02) than after the Suppl meal. No consistent effects of calcium on appetite sensation, or on energy intake at the subsequent meal, or on the postprandial responses of cholecystokinin, glucagon...

  1. Association of energy and fat intake with prostate carcinoma risk: Results from the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman, A.G.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Dorant, E.; Brants, H.A.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND. The roles of energy and fat intake as risk factors for prostate carcinoma are still questionable. Therefore, these factors were evaluated in the Netherlands Cohort Study described in this article.

  2. Association of energy and fat intake with prostate carcinoma risk: Results from the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman, A.G.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Dorant, E.; Brants, H.A.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND. The roles of energy and fat intake as risk factors for prostate carcinoma are still questionable. Therefore, these factors were evaluated in the Netherlands Cohort Study described in this article.

  3. A very-low-fat vegan diet increases intake of protective dietary factors and decreases intake of pathogenic dietary factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewell, Antonella; Weidner, Gerdi; Sumner, Michael D; Chi, Christine S; Ornish, Dean

    2008-02-01

    There is increasing evidence that dietary factors in plant-based diets are important in the prevention of chronic disease. This study examined protective (eg, antioxidant vitamins, carotenoids, and fiber) and pathogenic (eg, saturated fatty acids and cholesterol) dietary factors in a very-low-fat vegan diet. Ninety-three early-stage prostate cancer patients participated in a randomized controlled trial and were assigned to a very-low-fat (10% fat) vegan diet supplemented with soy protein and lifestyle changes or to usual care. Three-day food records were collected at baseline (n=42 intervention, n=43 control) and after 1 year (n=37 in each group). Analyses of changes in dietary intake of macronutrients, vitamins, minerals, carotenoids, and isoflavones from baseline to 1 year showed significantly increased intake of most protective dietary factors (eg, fiber increased from a mean of 31 to 59 g/day, lycopene increased from 8,693 to 34,464 mug/day) and significantly decreased intake of most pathogenic dietary factors (eg, saturated fatty acids decreased from 20 to 5 g/day, cholesterol decreased from 200 to 10 mg/day) in the intervention group compared to controls. These results suggest that a very-low-fat vegan diet can be useful in increasing intake of protective nutrients and phytochemicals and minimizing intake of dietary factors implicated in several chronic diseases.

  4. Increased fruit, vegetable and fiber intake and lower fat intake reported among women previously treated for invasive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Cynthia A; Flatt, Shirley W; Rock, Cheryl L; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl; Newman, Vicky; Pierce, John P

    2002-06-01

    To describe the dietary intake patterns of women before and after breast cancer diagnosis. 3,084 women (age range 27 to 70 years) who had been treated for early-stage breast cancer, who were free of recurrent disease, and who were willing to complete study questionnaires. A descriptive analysis of baseline demographic and lifestyle questionnaire data, including reported dietary intake data from women who have had breast cancer participating in a randomized, controlled dietary intervention trial. Outcomes include dietary intakes of high- and low-fat foods, fruits and vegetables, and whole grains. Analyses included frequency of intake of selected food items, chi2 analysis to determine associations between reported intakes and demographic and personal characteristics, and logistic regression to assess odds of making more healthful changes. Women who have had breast cancer reported higher fruit, vegetable, and fiber-rich food intakes (58%, 60%, 38% more, respectively) and lower intakes of high-fat foods, including fast foods, after diagnosis. Those older than age 60 years were more likely to report no change in intake, including red meat (41%), vegetables (51%), and whole grains (62%). Odds ratios (OR) for more healthful diet choices varied by age and time since diagnosis. The longer the time since diagnosis the more likely women selected low-fat (vs high-fat) foods (OR 1.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.16-2.09 for 3 to 4 years vs dietetics professionals may be able to promote healthful and evidence-based eating habits among women previously treated for breast cancer.

  5. What Are the Types of Fat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... types of fats are: • Monounsaturated fats • Polyunsaturated fats • Saturated fats • Trans fats Monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats are known ... your own salads instead of using commercial dressings. Saturated fats and trans fats are known as the “harmful ...

  6. The administration of long-term high-fat diet in ovariectomized wistar rat (Study on Daily Food Intake, Lee Index, Abdominal Fat Mass and Leptin Serum Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dita Fitriani

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Serum leptin levels positively correlated with Lee index and abdominal fat mass, but negatively correlated with daily food intake. Administration of long-term high-fat diet in this study cannot induce leptin resistance.

  7. Relationship of the reported intakes of fat and fatty acids to body weight in US adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary fat composition may modulate energy expenditure and body weight. Little is known about the relationship between fatty acid intake and body weight at a population level. The purposes of this study were to compare intakes of energy, macronutrients, and individual fatty acids across BMI categor...

  8. Stages of Change in Adopting Healthy Diets: Fat, Fiber, and Correlates of Nutrient Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanz, Karen; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Data on dietary intake and stages of change from 17,121 employees in the Working Well Trail show that a greater proportion have tried to reduce fat rather than increase fiber consumption. Stage of change predicted 8-13% of variance in dietary intake. (SK)

  9. Association between dietary fat intake and insulin resistance in Chinese child twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Beaty, Terri; Li, Ji; Liu, Huijuan; Zhao, Wei; Wang, Youfa

    2017-01-01

    Dietary fat intake is correlated with increased insulin resistance (IR). However, it is unknown whether gene-diet interaction modulates the association. This study estimated heritability of IR measures and the related genetic correlations with fat intake, and tested whether dietary fat intake modifies the genetic influence on type 2 diabetes (T2D)-related traits in Chinese child twins. We included 622 twins aged 7-15 years (n 311 pairs, 162 monozygotic (MZ), 149 dizygotic (DZ)) from south-eastern China. Dietary factors were measured using FFQ. Structural equation models were fit using Mx statistical package. The intra-class correlation coefficients for all traits related to T2D were higher for MZ twins than for DZ twins. Dietary fat and fasting serum insulin (additive genetic correlation (r A) 0·20; 95 % CI 0·08, 0·43), glucose (r A 0·12; 95 % CI 0·01, 0·40), homoeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance (Homa-IR) (r A 0·22; 95 % CI 0·10, 0·50) and the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (Quicki) (r A -0·22; 95 % CI -0·40, 0·04) showed strong genetic correlations. Heritabilities of dietary fat intake, fasting glucose and insulin were estimated to be 52, 70 and 70 %, respectively. More than 70 % of the phenotypic correlations between dietary fat and insulin, glucose, Homa-IR and the Quicki index appeared to be mediated by shared genetic influence. Dietary fat significantly modified additive genetic effects on these quantitative traits associated with T2D. Analysis of Chinese twins yielded high estimates of heritability of dietary fat intake and IR. Genetic factors appear to contribute to a high proportion of the variance for both insulin sensitivity and IR. Dietary fat intake modifies the genetic influence on blood levels of insulin and glucose, Homa-IR and the Quicki index.

  10. Relationship Between Vitamin A and Fat Intake, with Growth Retardation. Villa Maria del Triunfo, Lima – Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Guerra Cossio, Vladimir; Facultad de Medicina Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    OBJETIVE: To evaluate the relationship between Vitamin A and fat intake, with growth retardation (GR) among 12- to 47-months-old children. METHODS: A prospective, analytic study on 70 children from "Las Torres de Melgar", Villa Maria del Triunfo, Lima–Peru. Vitamin A and fat intake were assessed through self-reported remind intake, and usual intake through the IVACG method. Growth was measured by anthropometric evaluations. RESULTS: We found GR in 27,22%; inadequate amounts of Vitamin A intak...

  11. Influence of habitual high dietary fat intake on endothelium-dependent vasodilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Caitlin A; Stauffer, Brian L; Greiner, Jared J; DeSouza, Christopher A

    2015-07-01

    High-fat diets are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. A potential underlying mechanism for the increased cardiovascular risk is endothelial dysfunction. Nitric oxide (NO)-mediated endothelium-dependent vasodilation is critical in the regulation of vascular tone and overall vascular health. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of dietary fat intake on endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Forty-four middle-aged and older sedentary, healthy adults were studied: 24 consumed a lower fat diet (LFD; 29% ± 1% calories from fat) and 20 consumed a high-fat diet (HFD; 41% ± 1% calories from fat). Four-day diet records were used to assess fat intake, and classifications were based on American Heart Association guidelines (vasodilator response to sodium nitroprusside. These data indicate that a high-fat diet is associated with endothelium-dependent vasodilator dysfunction due, in part, to diminished NO bioavailability. Impaired NO-mediated endothelium-dependent vasodilation may contribute to the increased cardiovascular risk with high dietary fat intake.

  12. Fat intake and apperent digestibility of fibre in horses and ponies

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, W.L.

    2001-01-01

    Performance horses are frequently given high-fat diets with fat contents up to 130 g/kg dry matter. The addition of extra fat raises the energy density of feeds. Diets with a high energy density facilitate a high-energy intake, which is advantageous for horses with high-energy requirements. High-energy diets also allow a reduction in total feed intake, which lowers the weight of gastrointestinal contents, this effect being considered beneficial to performance horses. The first hypothesis test...

  13. Dietary whey protein decreases food intake and body fat in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, June; Keenan, Michael J; Losso, Jack N; Raggio, Anne M; Shen, Li; McCutcheon, Kathleen L; Tulley, Richard T; Blackman, Marc R; Martin, Roy J

    2011-08-01

    We investigated the effects of dietary whey protein on food intake, body fat, and body weight gain in rats. Adult (11-12 week) male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three dietary treatment groups for a 10-week study: control. Whey protein (HP-W), or high-protein content control (HP-S). Albumin was used as the basic protein source for all three diets. HP-W and HP-S diets contained an additional 24% (wt/wt) whey or isoflavone-free soy protein, respectively. Food intake, body weight, body fat, respiratory quotient (RQ), plasma cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY), and leptin were measured during and/or at the end of the study. The results showed that body fat and body weight gain were lower (P food intake measured over the 10-week study period was lower in the HP-W vs. control and HP-S groups (P fat accumulation and body weight gain, the mechanism(s) involved appear to be different. HP-S fed rats exhibit increased fat oxidation, whereas HP-W fed rats show decreased food intake and increased fat oxidation, which may contribute to the effects of whey protein on body fat.

  14. Associations of Obesity and Dyslipidemia with Intake of Sodium, Fat, and Sugar among Koreans: a Qualitative Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Yoon Jung; Wang, Hye Won; Cheon, Se Young; Lee, Hwa Jung; Hwang, Kyung Mi; Yoon, Hae Seong

    2016-01-01

    A qualitative systematic review was performed to identify associations of obesity and dyslipidemia with intake of sodium, fat, and sugar among Koreans. We reviewed 6 Korean research databases (KMbase, KoreaMed, NDSL, DBpia, RISS, KISS) with the keywords “sodium intake,” “fat intake,” and “sugar intake.” Total of 11 studies were investigated in this present study. Of these articles, 7 studies were related to sodium intake, 2 studies had a relation to fat intake, and 2 studies were associated w...

  15. Associations of Obesity and Dyslipidemia with Intake of Sodium, Fat, and Sugar among Koreans: a Qualitative Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yoon Jung; Wang, Hye Won; Cheon, Se Young; Lee, Hwa Jung; Hwang, Kyung Mi; Yoon, Hae Seong

    2016-10-01

    A qualitative systematic review was performed to identify associations of obesity and dyslipidemia with intake of sodium, fat, and sugar among Koreans. We reviewed 6 Korean research databases (KMbase, KoreaMed, NDSL, DBpia, RISS, KISS) with the keywords "sodium intake," "fat intake," and "sugar intake." Total of 11 studies were investigated in this present study. Of these articles, 7 studies were related to sodium intake, 2 studies had a relation to fat intake, and 2 studies were associated with sugar intake. We indicated general characteristics, concentration of serum lipids, nutrition intake, and statistically significant results. High sodium intake contributed to increased etiology of hypertriglyceridemia, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) hypocholesterolemia, and a risk of being overweight. Fat intake was significantly associated with body fat, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) hypercholesterolemia, and HDL hypocholesterolemia. Sugar intake from coffee drinks and sugar-sweetened beverages contributed to increased HDL hypocholesterolemia and continuous metabolic syndrome score. This qualitative review among Koreans represented that intake of sodium, fat, and sugar has a positive relationship with cause of obesity-related diseases. Especially, this present study has a great significance in terms of considered study that intake of the potentially hazardous nutrients among Koreans has an association with obesity and dyslipidemia. However, further studies such as randomized controlled trials on associations between sodium, fat, and sugar and obesity and dyslipidemia need to be continuously required in order to conduct quantitative systematic reviews and a meta-analysis for Koreans.

  16. Association between dietary fat intake and colorectal adenoma in korean adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeehyun; Oh, Seung-Won; Kim, Young-Sun; Kwon, Hyuktae; Joh, Hee-Kyung; Lee, Ji-Eun; Park, Danbee; Park, Jae-Hong; Ko, Ah-Ryoung; Kim, Ye-Ji

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The incidence of colorectal cancer is rapidly increasing in South Korea. It is important to clarify the association between colorectal cancer and diet, being one of the main modifiable risk factors, as such studies in the Korean population are lacking. A cross-sectional study was performed using data from participants who had undergone a screening colonoscopy and a nutritional assessment during a routine health check-up from January 2008 to December 2011. Dietary intake data were derived from 1-day food records; colorectal adenoma was histopathologically confirmed by biopsy during colonoscopy. Eventually, 2604 participants were included in the analysis. The risk of colorectal adenoma by quintile of dietary fat intake was analyzed using logistic regression. Subgroup analyses by degree of risk and by location of colorectal adenoma were additionally performed. In men, total fat intake was not associated with risk of colorectal adenoma. However, risk of colorectal adenoma increased with higher saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake. The adjusted odds ratio in the highest quintile was 1.71 (95% confidence interval, 1.01–2.91) compared with that in the lowest quintile. There was no significant association between fat intake and risk of colorectal adenoma characterized by subsite. In female participants, total fat and specific fatty acid intake were not associated with risk of colorectal adenoma. These data support that high SFA intake is associated with risk of colorectal adenoma in Korean men. PMID:28072719

  17. High Fat Intakes Are Unhealthy But Do Children Know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherratt, Emma

    1996-01-01

    A British survey of dietary awareness and food preferences received 7,825 replies from 9,600 children in years 7 and 10. Although aware of the link between fat consumption and heart disease, many lacked knowledge about the fat content of foods and ways to make healthy lifestyle choices. (SK)

  18. Prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking, amygdala volume, and fat intake in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighi, Amirreza; Schwartz, Deborah H; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Leonard, Gabriel T; Perron, Michel; Richer, Louis; Veillette, Suzanne; Gaudet, Daniel; Paus, Tomáš; Pausova, Zdenka

    2013-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking is a well-established risk factor for obesity, but the underlying mechanisms are not known. Preference for fatty foods, regulated in part by the brain reward system, may contribute to the development of obesity. To examine whether prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking is associated with enhanced fat intake and risk for obesity, and whether these associations may be related to subtle structural variations in brain regions involved in reward processing. Cross-sectional study of a population-based cohort. The Saguenay Youth Study, Quebec, Canada. A total of 378 adolescents (aged 13 to 19 years; Tanner stage 4 and 5 of sexual maturation), half of whom were exposed prenatally to maternal cigarette smoking (mean [SD], 11.1 [6.8] cigarettes/d). Fat intake was assessed with a 24-hour food recall (percentage of energy intake consumed as fat). Body adiposity was measured with anthropometry and multifrequency bioimpedance. Volumes of key brain structures involved in reward processing, namely the amygdala, nucleus accumbens, and orbitofrontal cortex, were measured with magnetic resonance imaging. Exposed vs nonexposed subjects exhibited a higher total body fat (by approximately 1.7 kg; P = .009) and fat intake (by 2.7%; P = .001). They also exhibited a lower volume of the amygdala (by 95 mm3; P fat intake, amygdala volume correlated inversely with fat intake (r = -0.15; P = .006). Prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking may promote obesity by enhancing dietary preference for fat, and this effect may be mediated in part through subtle structural variations in the amygdala.

  19. Monounsaturated oils do not all have the same effect on plasma cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truswell, A S; Choudhury, N

    1998-05-01

    Evidence assembled here indicates that when olive oil forms a major part of dietary fat in controlled human experiments, total and LDL-cholesterols are somewhat higher than when the same amount of fat is one of the modern predominantly monounsaturated oils: low erucic rapeseed or high oleic sunflower oil. Oils rich in monounsaturated fatty acids thus do not all have the same effect on plasma cholesterol. This phenomenon is explicable by consideration of the content of other fatty acids and the non-saponifiable fractions of the different monounsaturated oils. It helps to explain the discrepancy that has existed between the classic experiments (using olive oil), which found monounsaturated oils 'neutral', and some of the more recent experiments which found them more cholesterol-lowering than carbohydrates. Four published meta-analyses are reviewed. The three which included most of the published experiments show that monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) have less plasma cholesterol-lowering effect than polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  20. Effect of 3 modified fats and a conventional fat on appetite, energy intake, energy expenditure, and substrate oxidation in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, H.; Flint, A.; Raben, A.

    2002-01-01

    Background: Different dietary fats are metabolized differently in humans and may influence energy expenditure, substrate oxidation, appetite regulation, and body weight regulation.Objective: We examined the short-term effects of 4 triacylglycerols (test fats) on subjective appetite, ad libitum en...... fat)] in a randomized, double-blind, crossover design.Results: No significant differences in appetite sensations or ad libitum energy intakes were observed between the 4 test fats. Overall, the 4 fats exerted different effects on energy expenditure (meal effect: P...... energy intake, meal-induced thermogenesis, and postprandial substrate oxidation.Design: Eleven healthy, normal-weight men (mean age: 25.1 +/-0.5 y) consumed 4 different test fats [conventional fat (rapeseed oil) and 3 modified fats (lipase-structured fat, chemically structured fat, and physically mixed...

  1. Significant Beneficial Association of High Dietary Selenium Intake with Reduced Body Fat in the CODING Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongbo; Gao, Xiang; Pedram, Pardis; Shahidi, Mariam; Du, Jianling; Yi, Yanqing; Gulliver, Wayne; Zhang, Hongwei; Sun, Guang

    2016-01-04

    Selenium (Se) is a trace element which plays an important role in adipocyte hypertrophy and adipogenesis. Some studies suggest that variations in serum Se may be associated with obesity. However, there are few studies examining the relationship between dietary Se and obesity, and findings are inconsistent. We aimed to investigate the association between dietary Se intake and a panel of obesity measurements with systematic control of major confounding factors. A total of 3214 subjects participated in the study. Dietary Se intake was determined from the Willett food frequency questionnaire. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Obese men and women had the lowest dietary Se intake, being 24% to 31% lower than corresponding normal weight men and women, classified by both BMI and body fat percentage. Moreover, subjects with the highest dietary Se intake had the lowest BMI, waist circumference, and trunk, android, gynoid and total body fat percentages, with a clear dose-dependent inverse relationship observed in both gender groups. Furthermore, significant negative associations discovered between dietary Se intake and obesity measurements were independent of age, total dietary calorie intake, physical activity, smoking, alcohol, medication, and menopausal status. Dietary Se intake alone may account for 9%-27% of the observed variations in body fat percentage. The findings from this study strongly suggest that high dietary Se intake is associated with a beneficial body composition profile.

  2. Fat/Fiber intakes and sex hormones in healthy premenopausal women in USA

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The mechanisms by which diet affects breast cancer (BC) risk are poorly understood but a positive relationship between fat and a negative association with fiber intake and BC risk have been demonstrated. Here we study the association between dietary fat/fiber ratio and estrogen metabolism. Fifty women were recruited, 22 were included in the low fat/high fiber and 22 were in the high fat/low fiber and 6 did not meet our criteria. Estrogens (determined in plasma, urine and feces) and dietary re...

  3. The effect of dietary carbohydrate:fat ratio on energy intake by adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Stratum, P; Lussenburg, R N; van Wezel, L A; Vergroesen, A J; Cremer, H D

    1978-02-01

    The effect of the dietary carbohydrate:fat (C:F) ratio on the spontaneous energy intake by healthy adults was investigated by comparing a high-carbohydrate diet (fat 24%, carbohydrate 58%, protein 18% of energy) and a high-fat diet (fat 47%, carbohydrate 35%, protein 18% of energy) in a 2 X 2 week cross-over design. Subjects were 22 healthy nuns in a Trappist convent with very regular activities. The diets consisted of combinations of liquid formula (75%) and standardized snacks (25%). The difference in C:F ratio was concealed: energy density, taste and appearance were similar. Energy consumption was recorded continuously. The mean daily energy intakes remained constant: 8276 kJ (1978 kcal). The difference in mean daily energy intake between diets was 73 kJ +/- 180 (SEM). Small changes in body weight were observed, but these are argued not to indicate definitive effects. It is concluded that changing the C:F ratio within commonly occurring ranges does not influence the spontaneous energy intake of healthy adults. The composition of the dietary fat was kept constant. Under practical conditions a change in the C:F ratio will also induce a change in the fatty acid composition of the diet, which might affect the energy intake regulation. Other experiments are required to see whether the C:F ratio can affect body composition or other physiological parameters in the long run.

  4. Influence of dietary saturated fat intake on endothelial fibrinolytic capacity in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Caitlin A; Stauffer, Brian L; Greiner, Jared J; DeSouza, Christopher A

    2014-09-01

    Approximately 50% of middle-aged and older adults in the United States regularly consume a diet high in saturated fat. High dietary saturated fat intake has been linked to promote atherothrombotic vascular disease. We tested the hypothesis that endothelial fibrinolytic function is diminished in middle-aged and older adults who habitually consume a diet high in saturated fat. Twenty-four healthy, sedentary middle-aged, and older adults (54 to 71 years) were studied: 10 (8 men and 2 women) with a dietary saturated fat intake saturated fat) of total calories and 14 (9 men and 5 women) with a dietary saturated fat intake ≥10% of total calories (high saturated fat). Net endothelial release of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), the primary activator of fibrinolysis, was determined, in vivo, in response to intrabrachial infusions of bradykinin (12.5 to 50.0 ng/100 ml tissue/min) and sodium nitroprusside (1.0 to 4.0 μg/100 ml tissue/min). Capacity of the endothelium to release t-PA in response to bradykinin was ∼30% less (p saturated fat group. Moreover, total amount of t-PA released was significantly less (∼30%) (201 ± 22 vs 274 ± 29 ng/100 ml tissue) in the adults who reported consuming a diet high in saturated fat. These results indicate that the capacity of the endothelium to release t-PA is lower in middle-aged and older adults who habitually consume a diet high in saturated fat. In conclusion, endothelial fibrinolytic dysfunction may underlie the increased atherothrombotic disease risk with a diet high in saturated fat.

  5. Regulation of Food Intake, Energy Balance, and Body Fat Mass: Implications for the Pathogenesis and Treatment of Obesity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guyenet, Stephan J; Schwartz, Michael W

    2012-01-01

    .... Because the growing obesity epidemic is linked to a substantial increase in daily energy intake, a key priority is to delineate how mechanisms governing food intake and body fat content are altered...

  6. Clinical review: Regulation of food intake, energy balance, and body fat mass: implications for the pathogenesis and treatment of obesity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guyenet, Stephan J; Schwartz, Michael W

    2012-01-01

    .... Because the growing obesity epidemic is linked to a substantial increase in daily energy intake, a key priority is to delineate how mechanisms governing food intake and body fat content are altered...

  7. Obesity-prone high-fat-fed rats reduce caloric intake and adiposity and gain more fat-free mass when allowed to self-select protein from carbohydrate: fat intake

    OpenAIRE

    Azzout-Marniche, Dalila; Chalvon Demersay, Tristan; Pimentel, Gregory; Chaumontet, Catherine; Nadkarni, Nachiket A.; Piedcoq, Julien; Fromentin, Gilles; Tomé, Daniel; Gaudichon, Claire

    2016-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that, for rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD), a prioritization of maintaining protein intake may increase energy consumption and hence result in obesity, particularly for individuals prone to obesity ("fat sensitive," FS, vs. "fat resistant," FR). Male Wistar rats (n = 80) first received 3 wk of HFD (protein 15%, fat 42%, carbohydrate 42%), under which they were characterized as being FS (n = 18) or FR (n = 20) based on body weight gain. They then continued on the same HF...

  8. Fat intake and weight development from 9 to 16 years of age: the European youth heart study - a longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brixval, Carina Sjöberg; Andersen, Lars Bo; Heitmann, Berit

    2009-01-01

    intake and weight development among a cohort of children aged 9-10 years at baseline and 15-16 years at follow-up, and, further, at investigating whether parents' obesity is modifying the association. METHOD: Among 384 subjects aged 9 years, data on dietary intake, BMI z-score, physical activity...... fat intake and 6-year weight change among 9-year-old children. No interaction was seen between number of overweight parents on the relation between fat intake and subsequent weight change.......OBJECTIVE: The literature on associations between fat intake and weight development among both children and adults is inconsistent, even if it is generally assumed that a high dietary fat intake is a major determinant of obesity. The present study aimed at investigating the association between fat...

  9. Influence of dietary fat intake on the endocannabinoid system in lean and obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeli, Stefan; Lehmann, Anne-Christin; Kaminski, Jana; Haas, Verena; Janke, Jürgen; Zoerner, Alexander A; Luft, Friedrich C; Tsikas, Dimitrios; Jordan, Jens

    2014-05-01

    Endocannabinoid system (ECS) activation promotes obesity-associated metabolic disease. Increased dietary fat intake increases blood endocannabinoids and alters adipose and skeletal muscle ECS gene expression in human. Two weeks isocaloric low- (LFD) and high-fat diets (HFD) in obese (n = 12) and normal-weight (n = 17) subjects in a randomized cross-over study were compared. Blood endocannabinoids were measured in the fasting condition and after food intake using mass spectrometry. Adipose and skeletal muscle gene expression was determined using real-time RT-PCR. Baseline fasting plasma endocannabinoids were similar with both diets. Anandamide decreased similarly with high- or low-fat test meals in both groups. Baseline arachidonoylglycerol plasma concentrations were similar between groups and diets, and unresponsive to eating. In subcutaneous adipose tissue, DAGL-α mRNA was upregulated and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) mRNAs were down-regulated in obese subjects, but the diets had no influence. In contrast, the HFD produced pronounced reductions in skeletal muscle CB1-R and MAGL mRNA expression, whereas obesity did not affect muscular gene expression. Weight-neutral changes in dietary fat intake cannot explain excessive endocannabinoid availability in human obesity. Obesity and dietary fat intake affect ECS gene expression in a tissue-specific manner. Copyright © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  10. Perceived parenting behaviours predict young adolescents' nutritional intake and body fatness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi-Jeong; McIntosh, William A; Anding, Jenna; Kubena, Karen S; Reed, Debra B; Moon, Gap-Soon

    2008-10-01

    This study investigated whether perceptions of parenting behaviours predict young adolescents' nutritional intake and body fatness. The randomly selected study sample consisted of 106 13-15 years olds from Houston Metropolitan Statistical Area. Parenting style variables were created by cluster analysis and factor analysis. A two-cluster solution for both maternal and paternal parenting style represented authoritative vs. non-authoritative parenting. Two parenting dimension factors derived were maternal/paternal nurturing and control. For adolescents' energy and nutrient intake, greater maternal nurturing appeared to be most beneficial given its association with lower consumption of total kilocalorie and lower saturated fat intake. Paternal nurturing was associated with lower sodium intake, whereas paternal control predicted lower percentage of kilocalories from carbohydrate and percentage Dietary Reference Intake for dietary fibre, and greater percentage of kilocalories from total fat. Maternal authoritative parenting and lower maternal control over their adolescents may have protective effects against having heavier and fatter adolescents given their associations with adolescents' body weight, sub-scapular skinfold, waist circumference, body mass index, and the tendencies of being at risk of overweight and being overweight. None of paternal parenting styles or dimensions appeared to be significantly related to adolescents' body fatness.

  11. Vegetables, Unsaturated Fats, Moderate Alcohol Intake, and Mild Cognitive Impairment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roberts, Rosebud O; Geda, Yonas E; Cerhan, James R; Knopman, David S; Cha, Ruth H; Christianson, Teresa J.H; Pankratz, V. Shane; Ivnik, Robert J; Boeve, Bradley F; O'Connor, Helen M; Petersen, Ronald C

    2010-01-01

    .... The risk of incident MCI or dementia was reduced in subjects with a high MeDi score [hazard ratio = 0.75 (95% CI = 0.46-1.21), p = 0.24]. Conclusion: Vegetables, unsaturated fats, and a high MeDi score may be beneficial to cognitive function.

  12. A comparison of the effect of free access to reduced fat products or their full fat equivalents on food intake, body weight, blood lipids and fat-soluble antioxidants levels and haemostasis variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weststrate, J.A.; Hof, K.H. van het; Berg, H. van den; Velthuis-te-Wierik, E.J.M. te; Graaf, C. de; Zimmermanns, N.J.H.; Westerterp, K.R.; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S.; Verboeket-Venne, W.P.H.G. van de

    1998-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the effects of free access to reduced fat products or their full fat equivalents on fat and energy intake, body weight, plasma lipids and fat-soluble antioxidants concentrations and haemostasis variables. Design: A multicentre open randomised controlled trial in which

  13. Peripheral oxytocin treatment ameliorates obesity by reducing food intake and visceral fat mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maejima, Yuko; Iwasaki, Yusaku; Yamahara, Yui; Kodaira, Misato; Sedbazar, Udval; Yada, Toshihiko

    2011-12-01

    Recent studies suggest that oxytocin (Oxt) is implicated in energy metabolism. We aimed to explore acute and sub-chronic effects of peripheral Oxt treatment via different routes on food intake and energy balance. Intraperitoneal (ip) injection of Oxt concentration-dependently decreased food intake in mice. Ip Oxt injection induced c-Fos expression in the hypothalamus and brain stem including arcuate nucleus (ARC), paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). Subcutaneous (sc) injection of Oxt suppressed food intake in normal and high fat diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. Daily sc injection of Oxt for 17 days in DIO mice reduced food intake for 6 days and body weight for the entire treatment period and additional 9 days after terminating Oxt. Oxt infusion by sc implanted osmotic minipumps for 13 days in DIO mice reduced food intake, body weight, and visceral fat mass and adipocyte size. Oxt infusion also decreased respiratory quotient specifically in light phase, ameliorated fatty liver and glucose intolerance, without affecting normal blood pressure in DIO mice. These results demonstrate that peripheral Oxt treatment reduces food intake and visceral fat mass, and ameliorates obesity, fatty liver and glucose intolerance. Peripheral Oxt treatment provides a new therapeutic avenue for treating obesity and hyperphagia.

  14. Saturated fat, carbohydrate, and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siri-Tarino, Patty W; Sun, Qi; Hu, Frank B; Krauss, Ronald M

    2010-03-01

    A focus of dietary recommendations for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention and treatment has been a reduction in saturated fat intake, primarily as a means of lowering LDL-cholesterol concentrations. However, the evidence that supports a reduction in saturated fat intake must be evaluated in the context of replacement by other macronutrients. Clinical trials that replaced saturated fat with polyunsaturated fat have generally shown a reduction in CVD events, although several studies showed no effects. An independent association of saturated fat intake with CVD risk has not been consistently shown in prospective epidemiologic studies, although some have provided evidence of an increased risk in young individuals and in women. Replacement of saturated fat by polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fat lowers both LDL and HDL cholesterol. However, replacement with a higher carbohydrate intake, particularly refined carbohydrate, can exacerbate the atherogenic dyslipidemia associated with insulin resistance and obesity that includes increased triglycerides, small LDL particles, and reduced HDL cholesterol. In summary, although substitution of dietary polyunsaturated fat for saturated fat has been shown to lower CVD risk, there are few epidemiologic or clinical trial data to support a benefit of replacing saturated fat with carbohydrate. Furthermore, particularly given the differential effects of dietary saturated fats and carbohydrates on concentrations of larger and smaller LDL particles, respectively, dietary efforts to improve the increasing burden of CVD risk associated with atherogenic dyslipidemia should primarily emphasize the limitation of refined carbohydrate intakes and a reduction in excess adiposity.

  15. Saturated fat, carbohydrate, and cardiovascular disease1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siri-Tarino, Patty W; Sun, Qi; Hu, Frank B; Krauss, Ronald M

    2010-01-01

    A focus of dietary recommendations for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention and treatment has been a reduction in saturated fat intake, primarily as a means of lowering LDL-cholesterol concentrations. However, the evidence that supports a reduction in saturated fat intake must be evaluated in the context of replacement by other macronutrients. Clinical trials that replaced saturated fat with polyunsaturated fat have generally shown a reduction in CVD events, although several studies showed no effects. An independent association of saturated fat intake with CVD risk has not been consistently shown in prospective epidemiologic studies, although some have provided evidence of an increased risk in young individuals and in women. Replacement of saturated fat by polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fat lowers both LDL and HDL cholesterol. However, replacement with a higher carbohydrate intake, particularly refined carbohydrate, can exacerbate the atherogenic dyslipidemia associated with insulin resistance and obesity that includes increased triglycerides, small LDL particles, and reduced HDL cholesterol. In summary, although substitution of dietary polyunsaturated fat for saturated fat has been shown to lower CVD risk, there are few epidemiologic or clinical trial data to support a benefit of replacing saturated fat with carbohydrate. Furthermore, particularly given the differential effects of dietary saturated fats and carbohydrates on concentrations of larger and smaller LDL particles, respectively, dietary efforts to improve the increasing burden of CVD risk associated with atherogenic dyslipidemia should primarily emphasize the limitation of refined carbohydrate intakes and a reduction in excess adiposity. PMID:20089734

  16. Fat watch: A nationwide campaign in the Netherlands to reduce fat intake-process evaluations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelie, J.; Feen van der, Lille, J.C.J.F. de; Riedstra, M.; Hardeman, W.; Wedel, M.; Brug, J.; Pruyn, J.F.A.; Löwik, M.R.H.

    1998-01-01

    Fat Watch was a four-year campaign carried out in cooperation with retailers and industry, aiming at a reduction of fat consumption by 10% among the Dutch population. Mass media and supermarkets were the main conveyers of the message. Supermarkets participated well in the first (53%) and in the thir

  17. Dietary monounsaturated fatty acids are protective against metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillingham, Leah G; Harris-Janz, Sydney; Jones, Peter J H

    2011-03-01

    Over 50 years of research has sought to define the role dietary fat plays in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Although optimal dietary fat quantity has been keenly pursued over past decades, attention has recently centered on the value of dietary fat quality. The purpose of the present review is to provide a critical assessment of the current body of evidence surrounding efficacy of dietary monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) for reduction of traditional risk factors defining metabolic syndrome (MetS) and CVD. Due to existing and emerging research on health attributes of MUFA rich diets, and to the low prevalence of chronic disease in populations consuming MUFA rich Mediterranean diets, national dietary guidelines are increasingly recommending dietary MUFA, primarily at the expense of saturated fatty acids (SFA). Consumption of dietary MUFA promotes healthy blood lipid profiles, mediates blood pressure, improves insulin sensitivity and regulates glucose levels. Moreover, provocative newer data suggest a role for preferential oxidation and metabolism of dietary MUFA, influencing body composition and ameliorating the risk of obesity. Mounting epidemiological and human clinical trial data continue to demonstrate the cardioprotective activity of the MUFA content of dietary fat. As the debate on the optimal fatty acid composition of the diet continues, the benefit of increasing MUFA intakes, particularly as a substitute for dietary SFA, deserves considerable attention.

  18. [Intake recommendations and labeling of trans fat in processed foods in Brazil: analysis of official documents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Bruna Maria; Proença, Rossana Pacheco da Costa

    2012-10-01

    Consumption of trans fat has been proven to be harmful to human health. This lipid is found mainly in partially hydrogenated vegetable fat, which is widely used in processed foods. The aim of this study was to analyze official publications on maximum limits for consumption of trans fat and the regulations for its mandatory notification on the nutritional labeling of processed foods in Brazil. Weaknesses in the content of the documents analyzed were found, especially regarding the need for reformulation of both the maximum recommended consumption and the notification of trans fat on nutritional labeling for processed foods. This paper makes suggestions for this reformulation, through which it is sought to help consumers in controlling their trans fat intake and, consequently, in promotion of health.

  19. Potential link between excess added sugar intake and ectopic fat: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Context: The effect of added sugar intake on ectopic fat accumulation is a subject of debate. Objective: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to examine the potential effect of added sugar intake on ectopic fat depots. Data Sources: MEDLINE, CA...

  20. Differences in fat and sodium intake across hypertension subgroups in the Mississippi Communities for Healthy Living (MCHL) Nutrition Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study is to examine differences between self-reported intakes of sodium, trans-fat, and total fat among hypertension (HTN) subgroups of participants in Mississippi Communities for Healthy Living nutrition education intervention. Dietary intake was measured using a food frequenc...

  1. Moderators of the mediated effect of intentions, planning, and saturated-fat intake in obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soureti, Anastasia; Hurling, Robert; van Mechelen, Willem; Cobain, Mark; ChinAPaw, Mai

    2012-05-01

    The present study aimed to advance our understanding of health-related theory, that is, the alleged intention-behavior gap in an obese population. It examined the mediating effects of planning on the intention-behavior relationship and the moderated mediation effects of age, self-efficacy and intentions within this relationship. The study was conducted over a five-week period. Complete data from 571 obese participants were analyzed. The moderated mediation hypothesis was conducted using multiple-regression analysis. To test our theoretical model, intentions (Week 2), action self-efficacy (Week 2), maintenance self-efficacy (Week 5), planning (Week 5), and saturated-fat intake (Weeks 1 and 5) were measured by self-report. As hypothesized, planning mediated the intention-behavior relationship for perceived (two-item scale) and percentage-saturated-fat intake (measured by a food frequency questionnaire). Age, self-efficacy, and intention acted as moderators in the above mediation analysis. In specific, younger individuals, those with stronger intention, and people with higher levels of maintenance self-efficacy at higher levels of planning showed greater reductions in their perceived saturated-fat intake. For successful behavior change, knowledge of its mediators and moderators is needed. Future interventions targeting planning to change saturated-fat intake should be guided by people's intentions, age, and self-efficacy levels.

  2. Dietary Fat Intake and the Risk of Depression: The SUN Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez-Villegas, A.; Verberne, L.D.M.; Irala, De J.; Ruiz-Canela, M.; Toledo, E.; Serra-Majem, L.; Martinez-Gonzalez, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Emerging evidence relates some nutritional factors to depression risk. However, there is a scarcity of longitudinal assessments on this relationship. Objective: To evaluate the association between fatty acid intake or the use of culinary fats and depression incidence in a Mediterranean population. M

  3. Family resemblance in fat intake, nutrition attitudes and beliefs : a study among three generations of women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stafleu, A.

    1994-01-01

    In this thesis nutrition attitudes, beliefs, and fat intake in three generations of women are described. The aim of the study was twofold: the development of methods, and to study family resemblance in food habits. Based on literature study and qualitative pilot studies a questionnaire on

  4. Family resemblance in fat intake, nutrition attitudes and beliefs: a study among three generations of women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stafleu, A.

    1994-01-01

    In this thesis nutrition attitudes, beliefs, and fat intake in three generations of women are described. The aim of the study was twofold: the development of methods, and to study family resemblance in food habits. Based on literature study and qualitative pilot studies a questionnaire on beliefs an

  5. Do Negative Emotions Predict Alcohol Consumption, Saturated Fat Intake, and Physical Activity in Older Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Stephen D.; Miller, Peter M.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined anger, depression, and stress as related to alcohol consumption, saturated fat intake, and physical activity. Participants were 23 older adults enrolled in either an outpatient or in-residence executive health program. Participants completed (a) a health-risk appraisal assessing medical history and current health habits, (b)…

  6. Nutrition knowledge, attitudes and fat intake: application of the theory of reasoned action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, R; Towler, G

    2007-06-01

    Validated questionnaires eliciting information on nutrition knowledge and attitudes, related to fat intake from meat, meat products, dairy products and fried foods, were completed by 538 subjects. There were high correlations (ranging from 0.40 to 0.77) between the sums of belief-evaluations, attitudes, intention and self-reported behaviour, with similar correlations for a subgroup of males aged 35-54 years. Nutrition knowledge, showed some statistically significant (but small) negative correlations with components of attitudes. Females had higher nutrition knowledge scores and more negative views of the foods than did males. Fat intake, measured using 3 day weighed intakes, correlated with self-reported behaviour (r = 0.55, p<0.01) in a subsample of 30 males, aged 35-54 years. Thus, nutrition knowledge seems less clearly related to consumption of these foods than are more specific beliefs and attitudes.

  7. The impact of salt, fat and sugar levels on toddler food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhlal, Sofia; Issanchou, Sylvie; Nicklaus, Sophie

    2011-02-01

    Understanding the early determinants of food intake, in particular the role of food sensory quality, is a necessary step to improve the prevention of unhealthy food habits. However, the extent to which food intake varies according to salt, fat and sugar content is imperfectly known. The present study aimed at evaluating whether toddler food intake varied during lunches or snacks in which salt, fat or sugar contents had been modified in common foods. Seventy-four children (30 (se 0·5) months old) participated in the study in their usual day-care centres. Every other week, they were served lunches composed, among other items, of green beans and pasta with varying salt (0, 0·6 and 1·2 % added salt) or fat (0, 2·5 and 5 % added butter) levels and afternoon snacks composed of fruit purée varying in sugar level (0, 5 and 10 % added sugar). During each meal, children could eat as much as they wanted from the target foods. Each food was weighed before and after the meal. Salt level had a positive impact on the intake of the target foods. On the contrary, no impact of added fat or added sugar levels was observed. This implies that fat and sugar addition could be avoided in foods for children without having an impact on palatability, allowing the energy density of children's diet to be limited. Salt addition should be limited, but its suppression in vegetables, whose intake is to be promoted, should be considered cautiously.

  8. Twenty four year time trends in fats and cholesterol intake by adolescents. Warsaw Adolescents Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charzewska Jadwiga

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine time trends (1982–2006 in total fat intake and changes in fatty acid structure intake in adolescents from Warsaw in view of increasing prevalence of obesity. Data come from four successive surveys randomly selected samples of adolescents (aged 11–15 years old, from Warsaw region. In total 9747 pupils have been examined, with response rate varying from 55% to 87% depending on year. Surveys were done always in the spring season of the year. Food intake was assessed by using 24 hours recall method of consumption by the pupils all products, including enriched, dishes and beverages as well as diet supplements, in the last 24 hours preceding the examination. The content of energy and nutrients was calculated by means of own computer softwares (DIET 2 and 4, taking into account successive revisions of the tables of food composition and nutritional values, as well as current Polish DRI. A significant decreasing trend was found in intake of total fat, of saturated fatty acids (SFA and cholesterol. The percentage of energy from total fat, also decreased both in boys (to 35,1% and girls (to 33,7%, what failed to reach the desired level below 30% of energy from fat which is recommended. Also significant decrease of SFA consumption was not satisfactory enough to approach the values <10% of energy recommended as was from 13% to 15%. Decreasing trends in fat intake was not in accordance with the trend in obesity prevalence in the adolescents as average BMI is going up. To stabilize the health-oriented changes especially in the diets of adolescents, further activity is desired from professionals working with prevention of adolescents obesity.

  9. Patients with MAC Lung Disease Have a Low Visceral Fat Area and Low Nutrient Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Wakamatsu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study aimed to examine the nutritional status and nutrient intake of patients with MAC lung disease with a focus on visceral fat area. Patients and Methods. Among 116 patients of our hospital with nontuberculous mycobacteriosis who were registered between May 2010 and August 2011, 103 patients with MAC lung disease were included in this study. In all patients, nutritional status and nutrient intake were prospectively examined. Results. Patients were 23 men and 80 women (mean age, 72.3±10.9 years. BMI (kg/m2 at the time of registration was 20.4±2.7 in men and 19.2±2.9 in women. Visceral fat area (cm2 was significantly lower in women (35.7±26.6 than in men (57.5±47.4 (p=0.0111. The comparison with general healthy adults according to age revealed a markedly reduced visceral fat area among patients with MAC lung disease. With respect to nutrient intake, energy adequacy (86.1±15.7%, protein adequacy (82.4±18.2%, lipid adequacy (78.1±21.8%, and carbohydrate adequacy (89.6±19.2% ratios were all low at the time of registration. BMI was significantly correlated with protein adequacy (p=0.0397 and lipid adequacy (p=0.0214 ratios, while no association was found between visceral fat area and nutrient intake. Conclusion. Patients with MAC lung disease had a low visceral fat area and low nutrient intake.

  10. Effect of Fat Intake on the Inflammatory Process and Cardiometabolic Risk in Obesity After Interdisciplinary Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamar, G; Pisani, L P; Medeiros, A; Oyama, L M; Masquio, D C L; Colantonio, E; Garcia, S; Sanches, R B; dos Santos Moraes, A; Belote, C; Caranti, D A

    2016-02-01

    Changes in diet and eating behavior along with excessive consumption of sugar or fat and a sedentary lifestyle are related to increased obesity and its associated comorbidities. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the type of macronutrients on specific health benefits associated with the weight loss in treating obesity. A total of 30 obese women (34.89±3.04 kg/m(2) and 43.3±5.34 years) participated in an interdisciplinary therapy approach to lifestyle change, which consisted of nutritional counseling, exercise, and psychological therapy for over a period of 26 weeks. The profile was obtained by anthropometric measurements and body composition by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Usual food intake was assessed with 3-day food record diaries and blood tests were used to determine metabolic and adipokines parameters. After therapy, there was significant reduction in all anthropometric and body composition variables. Food consumption also decreased while still providing adequate nutrient intake. There was significant improvement in LDL-cholesterol, PAI-1, leptin, CRP, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1. Lower dietary carbohydrate and fat intake led to weight loss. The effect of lower carbohydrate intake on weight loss is related to changes in body composition and leptin levels. Weight loss by reducing fat intake modified the inflammatory process and cardiovascular risk, indicating dietary fat as an independent predictor factor of cell adhesion molecules. Therefore, decreasing dietary fat consumption had greater impact on the inflammatory process on obese individuals. Our results show that the type of macronutrient influences the health benefits associated with weight loss. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. The correlation between dietary fat intake and blood pressure among people with spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabour, Hadis; Norouzi-Javidan, Abbas; Soltani, Zahra; Mousavifar, Seyede Azemat; Latifi, Sahar; Emami-Razavi, Seyed Hassan; Ghodsi, Seyed Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies have demonstrated the effect of different dietary fats on blood pressure (BP) in general population. However, these associations have not yet been described in people with spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods: Referred patients to Brain and SCI Research Center between 2011 and 2014 have been invited to participate. Only paraplegic individuals were recruited and patients with injury at cervical or higher thoracic sections were excluded to omit the bias effect of autonomic dysreflexia. Dietary intakes were assessed by recording consumed foods by 24-hour dietary recall interviews using Nutritionist IV 3.5.3 modified for Iranian foods. Systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) were measured 3 times and the mean values entered analysis. Results: Higher intakes of cholesterol were related to higher BP (P = 0.010 and 0.011 for SBP and DBP, respectively). Similarly, intake of saturated fat was positively correlated to both SBP (P = 0.016, r = 0.21) and DBP (P = 0.011, r = 0.22). The effect of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on BP was insignificant (P = 0.760 and 0.720 for SBP and DBP, respectively). However, intake of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was related to lower BP among people with SCI. Conclusion: This study has demonstrated that higher intakes of cholesterol and saturated fat are associated with increased BP, whereas DHA is an antihypertensive agent. Dietary modifications with reduction of cholesterol and saturated fat along with intake of additional DHA supplements may help to reduce BP in spinal cord injured-individuals with hypertension. PMID:27648172

  12. Executive functioning and dietary intake: Neurocognitive correlates of fruit, vegetable, and saturated fat intake in adults with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyckoff, Emily P; Evans, Brittney C; Manasse, Stephanie M; Butryn, Meghan L; Forman, Evan M

    2017-04-01

    Obesity is a significant public health issue, and is associated with poor diet. Evidence suggests that eating behavior is related to individual differences in executive functioning. Poor executive functioning is associated with poorer diet (few fruits and vegetables and high saturated fat) in normal weight samples; however, the relationship between these specific dietary behaviors and executive functioning have not been investigated in adults with obesity. The current study examined the association between executive functioning and intake of saturated fat, fruits, and vegetables in an overweight/obese sample using behavioral measures of executive function and dietary recall. One-hundred-ninety overweight and obese adults completed neuropsychological assessments measuring intelligence, planning ability, and inhibitory control followed by three dietary recall assessments within a month prior to beginning a behavioral weight loss treatment program. Inhibitory control and two of the three indices of planning each independently significantly predicted fruit and vegetable consumption such that those with better inhibition and planning ability consumed more fruits and vegetables. No relationship was found between executive functioning and saturated fat intake. Results increase understanding of how executive functioning influences eating behavior in overweight and obese adults, and suggest the importance of including executive functioning training components in dietary interventions for those with obesity. Further research is needed to determine causality as diet and executive functioning may bidirectionally influence each other.

  13. Associations of Obesity and Dyslipidemia with Intake of Sodium, Fat, and Sugar among Koreans: a Qualitative Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hye Won; Cheon, Se Young; Lee, Hwa Jung; Hwang, Kyung Mi; Yoon, Hae Seong

    2016-01-01

    A qualitative systematic review was performed to identify associations of obesity and dyslipidemia with intake of sodium, fat, and sugar among Koreans. We reviewed 6 Korean research databases (KMbase, KoreaMed, NDSL, DBpia, RISS, KISS) with the keywords “sodium intake,” “fat intake,” and “sugar intake.” Total of 11 studies were investigated in this present study. Of these articles, 7 studies were related to sodium intake, 2 studies had a relation to fat intake, and 2 studies were associated with sugar intake. We indicated general characteristics, concentration of serum lipids, nutrition intake, and statistically significant results. High sodium intake contributed to increased etiology of hypertriglyceridemia, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) hypocholesterolemia, and a risk of being overweight. Fat intake was significantly associated with body fat, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) hypercholesterolemia, and HDL hypocholesterolemia. Sugar intake from coffee drinks and sugar-sweetened beverages contributed to increased HDL hypocholesterolemia and continuous metabolic syndrome score. This qualitative review among Koreans represented that intake of sodium, fat, and sugar has a positive relationship with cause of obesity-related diseases. Especially, this present study has a great significance in terms of considered study that intake of the potentially hazardous nutrients among Koreans has an association with obesity and dyslipidemia. However, further studies such as randomized controlled trials on associations between sodium, fat, and sugar and obesity and dyslipidemia need to be continuously required in order to conduct quantitative systematic reviews and a meta-analysis for Koreans. PMID:27812518

  14. Length and site of the small intestine exposed to fat influences hunger and food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maljaars, P W Jeroen; Peters, Harry P F; Kodde, Andrea; Geraedts, Maartje; Troost, Fred J; Haddeman, Edward; Masclee, Ad A M

    2011-11-01

    The site of intestinal fat delivery affects satiety and may affect food intake in humans. Animal data suggest that the length of the small intestine exposed to fat is also relevant. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether increasing the areas of intestinal fat exposure and the way it is exposed would affect satiety parameters and food intake. In the present single-blind, randomised, cross-over study, fifteen volunteers, each intubated with a naso-ileal tube, received four treatments on consecutive days. The oral control (control treatment) was a liquid meal (LM) containing 6 g fat ingested at t = 0 min, with saline infusion at t = 30-120 min. Experimental treatments were a fat-free LM at t = 0 min, with either 6 g oil delivered sequentially (2 g duodenal, t = 30-60 min; 2 g jejunal, t = 60-90 min; 2 g ileal, t = 90-120 min), simultaneously (2 g each to all sites, t = 30-120 min) or ileal only (6 g ileal, t = 30-120 min). Satiety parameters (hunger and fullness) and cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY) secretion were measured until t = 180 min, when ad libitum food intake was assessed. Only the ileum treatment reduced food intake significantly over the control treatment. The ileum and simultaneous treatments significantly reduced hunger compared with the control treatment. Compared with control, no differences were observed for PYY, CCK and GLP-1 with regard to 180 min integrated secretion. Ileal fat infusion had the most pronounced effect on food intake and satiety. Increasing the areas of intestinal fat exposure only affected hunger when fat was delivered simultaneously, not sequentially, to the exposed areas. These results demonstrate that ileal brake activation offers an interesting target for the regulation of ingestive behaviour.

  15. The Relationship between the Amount of Saturated Fat Intake and Semen Quality in Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadkhah, Hajar; Kazemi, Ashraf; Nasr-Isfahani, Mohammad-Hossien; Ehsanpour, Soheila

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Infertility in men is one of the current problems of human society. Some studies suggest that the metabolic status of a man, including cholesterol intake, closely correlates with sperm function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between saturated fat intake and semen quality among men referring to the Isfahan Fertility and Infertility Center, Iran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on all men who referred to the Isfahan Fertility and Infertility Center. The study population consisted of 120 men selected through simple random sampling. The data collection tool consisted of a two-part questionnaire including a demographic and anthropometric characteristics form and the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). The FFQ consists of 168 items that assess food and nutrient intake for 3 months. The reliability and validity of the instruments were confirmed in previous studies. Semen analysis was performed using computer-aided semen analysis (CASA) method. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression test were used to analyze the data. Results: Results showed that the chances of having semen volume of higher than 1.5 ml (normal volume) increased by 27.5% for every 1 g increase in total fat (CI: 1.11–1.46) (P = 0.001) and reduced 38% for every 1 g increase in saturated fat (CI: 0.42–0.90, P = 0.010). No association was found between semen quality and intake of dietary fats. Conclusions: Based on the findings of this study and the prevalence of infertility in recent decades, changes in diet and saturated fatty acids intake may improve semen quality.

  16. Patterns of food and nutrient intakes of Dutch adults according to intakes of total fat, saturated fatty acids, dietary fibre, and of fruit and vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Löwik, M.R.H.; Hulshof, K.F.A.M.; Brussaard, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    Dietary intake characteristics were studied among 3833 adults of the second Dutch National Food Consumption Survey held in 1992. The subjects were classified into three groups based on their intake of total fat (% energy), saturated fatty acids (% energy), dietary fibre (g/MJ), and fruit and vegetab

  17. Association between intake of nutrients and food groups and liking for fat (The Nutrinet-Santé Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méjean, Caroline; Deglaire, Amélie; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Hercberg, Serge; Schlich, Pascal; Castetbon, Katia

    2014-07-01

    Apart from the established association between liking for fat and fat intake, little is known about the association between liking for fat and intake of specific nutrients or food groups. We investigated the association between dietary intake and liking for fat, fat-and-sweet and fat-and-salt. Liking scores were constructed using a validated preference questionnaire administered to 41,595 French adults participating in the Nutrinet-Santé study. Dietary data were collected using web-based 24 h records. Relationships between liking and dietary intake were assessed using linear regression adjusted for age and energy intake. Results are expressed in percentage difference of intake between individuals with low liking and those with high liking. Compared with participants with low liking for fat, individuals with a strong liking for fat had higher intakes of total energy (+10.1% in women (W); +8.4% in men (M)), fats (W: +7.3%; M: +10.0%), saturated fats (W: +10.8%; M+15.4%), meat (W: +13.0%; M: +12.6%), butter (W: +34.0%; M: +48.1%), sweetened cream desserts (W: +14.8%; M: +21.1%) and croissant-like pastries (W: +27.2%; M: +36.9). They also consumed lower quantities of omega-3 fatty acids (W: -6.2%;M: -6.0%), fiber (W: -16.4%; M: -18.9%), fruits (W: -28.8%; M: -29.5%), vegetables (W: -16.4%; M: -19.7%) and yogurt (W: -12.1%; M: -14.8%). Participants with high liking for fat-and-salt had higher intakes of total energy, sodium and alcoholic beverages and lower consumption of total and simple carbohydrates and fruit and vegetables than persons with high liking for fat-and-sweet. Our study contributes to the understanding of liking as a determinant of dietary intake. It highlighted that increased liking for fat, especially fat-and-salt liking, was associated with a lower intake of healthy foods, such as fruit and vegetables.

  18. Effects of consuming diets containing various fats or citrus flavanones on plasma lipid and urinary F2-isoprostane concentrations in overweight cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeusette, Isabelle; Torre, Celina; Salas, Anna; Iraculis, Neus; Compagnucci, Marco; Romano, Victor; Kirschvink, Nathalie

    2010-09-01

    To compare in overweight cats the effects of feeding moderate-energy diets with moderate fat content but with saturated fat (beef tallow), saturated fat plus citrus flavanones, or monounsaturated fat (olive oil) on plasma lipids and urinary F2-isoprostane concentrations. 20 overweight cats with mean+/-SD body weight of 5.2+/-0.2 kg and mean body condition score of 7.8+/-0.2 (9-point scale). Body weight, plasma total cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations, and urinary F2-isoprostane concentration (as marker of oxidative stress) were measured at the beginning of the study, when the cats were fed a maintenance diet, and after 1, 3, and 5 months of consuming test diets. In overweight cats, citrus flavanones supplementation of the saturated fat diet was associated with lower energy intake and with lower plasma lipids and urinary F2-isoprostane concentrations than in cats fed the saturated fat alone. Monounsaturated fat feeding resulted in lower food intake than in cats fed saturated fat. However, plasma lipids concentrations remained within reference limits throughout the study. Although the clinical relevance of these findings is unknown, the significant differences detected indicated that lower energy intake with citrus flavanones supplementation or with substitution of saturated fat for monounsaturated fat could be good strategies for decreasing plasma lipids concentration and oxidative stress in overweight cats, even before considerable loss of body weight is observed.

  19. Reported food intake and distribution of body fat: a repeated cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stenlund Hans

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body mass, as well as distribution of body fat, are predictors of both diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In Northern Sweden, despite a marked increase in average body mass, prevalence of diabetes was stagnant and myocardial infarctions decreased. A more favourable distribution of body fat is a possible contributing factor. This study investigates the relative importance of individual food items for time trends in waist circumference (WC and hip circumference (HC on a population level. Methods Independent cross-sectional surveys conducted in 1986, 1990, 1994 and 1999 in the two northernmost counties of Sweden with a common population of 250000. Randomly selected age stratified samples, altogether 2982 men and 3087 women aged 25–64 years. Questionnaires were completed and anthropometric measurements taken. For each food item, associations between frequency of consumption and waist and hip circumferences were estimated. Partial regression coefficients for every level of reported intake were multiplied with differences in proportion of the population reporting the corresponding levels of intake in 1986 and 1999. The sum of these product terms for every food item was the respective estimated impact on mean circumference. Results Time trends in reported food consumption associated with the more favourable gynoid distribution of adipose tissue were increased use of vegetable oil, pasta and 1.5% fat milk. Trends associated with abdominal obesity were increased consumption of beer in men and higher intake of hamburgers and French fried potatoes in women. Conclusion Food trends as markers of time trends in body fat distribution have been identified. The method is a complement to conventional approaches to establish associations between food intake and disease risk on a population level.

  20. Body fat and dairy product intake in lactase persistent and non-persistent children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Almon

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background : Lactase non-persistent (LNP individuals may be lactose intolerant and therefore on a more restricted diet concerning milk and milk products compared to lactase persistent (LP individuals. This may have an impact on body fat mass. Objective : This study examines if LP and LNP children and adolescents, defined by genotyping for the LCT-13910 C > T polymorphism, differ from each other with regard to milk and milk product intake, and measures of body fat mass. Design : Children (n=298, mean age 9.6 years and adolescents (n=386, mean age 15.6 years, belonging to the Swedish part of the European Youth Heart Study, were genotyped for the LCT-13910 C > T polymorphism. Dietary intakes of reduced and full-fat dairy varieties were determined. Results : LNP (CC genotype subjects consumed less milk, soured milk and yoghurt compared to LP (CT/TT genotype subjects (p<0.001. Subsequent partitioning for age group attenuated this observation (p=0.002 for children and p=0.023 in adolescents. Six subjects were reported by parents to be ‘lactose intolerant’, none of whom were LNP. LNP children and adolescents consumed significantly less reduced fat milk and milk products than LP children and adolescents (p=0.009 for children and p = 0.001 for adolescents. Conclusions : We conclude that LP is linked to an overall higher milk and dairy intake, but is not linked to higher body fat mass in children and adolescents.

  1. Diet-gene interactions between dietary fat intake and common polymorphisms in determining lipid metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corella, D.

    2009-07-01

    Current dietary guidelines for fat intake have not taken into consideration the possible genetic differences underlying the individual variability in responsiveness to dietary components. Genetic variability has been identified in humans for all the known lipid metabolism-related genes resulting in a plethora of candidate genes and genetic variants to examine in diet-gene interaction studies focused on fat consumption. Some examples of fat-gene interaction are reviewed. These include: the interaction between total intake and the 14C/T in the hepatic lipase gene promoter in determining high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) metabolism; the interaction between polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and the 5G/A polymorphism in the APOA1 gene plasma HDL-C concentrations; the interaction between PUFA and the L162V polymorphism in the PPARA gene in determining triglycerides and APOC3 concentrations; and the interaction between PUFA intake and the -1131T>C in the APOA5 gene in determining triglyceride metabolism. Although hundreds of diet-gene interaction studies in lipid metabolism have been published, the level of evidence to make specific nutritional recommendations to the population is still low and more research in nutrigenetics has to be undertaken. (Author) 31 refs.

  2. High Vegetable Fats Intake Is Associated with High Resting Energy Expenditure in Vegetarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Montalcini

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated that a vegetarian diet may be effective in reducing body weight, however, the underlying mechanisms are not entirely clear. We investigated whether there is a difference in resting energy expenditure between 26 vegetarians and 26 non-vegetarians and the correlation between some nutritional factors and inflammatory markers with resting energy expenditure. In this cross-sectional study, vegetarians and non-vegetarians were matched by age, body mass index and gender. All underwent instrumental examinations to assess the difference in body composition, nutrient intake and resting energy expenditure. Biochemical analyses and 12 different cytokines and growth factors were measured as an index of inflammatory state. A higher resting energy expenditure was found in vegetarians than in non-vegetarians (p = 0.008. Furthermore, a higher energy from diet, fibre, vegetable fats intake and interleukin-β (IL-1β was found between the groups. In the univariate and multivariable analysis, resting energy expenditure was associated with vegetarian diet, free-fat mass and vegetable fats (p < 0.001; Slope in statistic (B = 4.8; β = 0.42. After adjustment for cytokines, log10 interleukin-10 (IL-10 still correlated with resting energy expenditure (p = 0.02. Resting energy expenditure was positively correlated with a specific component of the vegetarian’s diet, i.e., vegetable fats. Furthermore, we showed that IL-10 was positively associated with resting energy expenditure in this population.

  3. High Vegetable Fats Intake Is Associated with High Resting Energy Expenditure in Vegetarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalcini, Tiziana; De Bonis, Daniele; Ferro, Yvelise; Carè, Ilaria; Mazza, Elisa; Accattato, Francesca; Greco, Marta; Foti, Daniela; Romeo, Stefano; Gulletta, Elio; Pujia, Arturo

    2015-07-17

    It has been demonstrated that a vegetarian diet may be effective in reducing body weight, however, the underlying mechanisms are not entirely clear. We investigated whether there is a difference in resting energy expenditure between 26 vegetarians and 26 non-vegetarians and the correlation between some nutritional factors and inflammatory markers with resting energy expenditure. In this cross-sectional study, vegetarians and non-vegetarians were matched by age, body mass index and gender. All underwent instrumental examinations to assess the difference in body composition, nutrient intake and resting energy expenditure. Biochemical analyses and 12 different cytokines and growth factors were measured as an index of inflammatory state. A higher resting energy expenditure was found in vegetarians than in non-vegetarians (p = 0.008). Furthermore, a higher energy from diet, fibre, vegetable fats intake and interleukin-β (IL-1β) was found between the groups. In the univariate and multivariable analysis, resting energy expenditure was associated with vegetarian diet, free-fat mass and vegetable fats (p vegetarian's diet, i.e., vegetable fats. Furthermore, we showed that IL-10 was positively associated with resting energy expenditure in this population.

  4. Effect of carbohydrate and fat intake on nitrogen excretion during total intravenous feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, J M; Wilmore, D W; Mason, A D; Pruitt, B A

    1977-04-01

    Recent availability of intravenous soy bean oil emulsion for clinical trials in the United States prompted infusion of intravenous diets containing a constant nitrogen level (11.7 grams/m2/day) and 13 different combinations of carbohydrate (110-2300 kcal/m2/day) and fat (0-1100 kcal/m2/day) during 34 three-day studies in 5 patients who were clinically stable after injury or operation. Urea nitrogen excretion was inversely related to carbohydrate intake (P less than 0.01) and directly related to resting metabolic rate (P less than 0.01). Fat infusion did not affect nitrogen excretion at any level of carbohydrate intake. This study suggests that, when a primary clinical goal is nitrogen conservation, carbohydrate calories should be given in amounts approximating the resting metabolic rate. Additional calories and essential fatty acids now can be safely given as intravenous fat emulsion, but fat did not affect nitrogen conservation under the conditions of this study.

  5. Advice for salt, sugar and fat intake habits among adults: a national-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suele Manjourany Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : A healthy diet is recognized as an important strategy for promoting health as an essential part of non-pharmacological therapy of various health problems. OBJECTIVE : To analyze the reported advice for the intake of salt, sugar and fat for the Brazilian adults living in urban areas. METHODOLOGY : National-based cross-sectional study with 12,402 adults interviewed in 100 Brazilian cities. RESULTS : The most prevalent advice was to low fat intake (38%, followed by the advice to low salt and sugar intake (36% and sugar (29%. The percentage of receiving different advice was similar and more common among women, older people, those with a partner, higher economic class, former smokers, active and in person with physician diagnoses of hypertension, diabetes and overweight. People with white skin color received more advice to eat healthy food, except for the orientation to low salt intake. CONCLUSION : The results show a low prevalence of advice, which configures a missed opportunity to prevent health problems. Although dietary counseling should not be understood only as the transmission of advice regarding some nutrients, it is important to develop actions in order to qualify services and health professionals, allowing the population to have access to qualified information about the benefits of having healthy lifestyles.

  6. Metabolism and Whole-Body Fat Oxidation Following Post-Exercise Carbohydrate or Protein Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Ulrika Andersson; Pettersson, Stefan; Edin, Fredrik; Pedersen, Anders; Malmodin, Daniel; Madsen, Klavs

    2017-09-05

    This study investigated how post-exercise intake of placebo (PLA), protein (PRO) or carbohydrate (CHO) affected fat oxidation (FO) and metabolic parameters during recovery and subsequent exercise. In a cross-over design, 12 moderately trained women (VO2max 45 ± 6 ml·min(-1)·kg(-1)) performed three days of testing. A 23 min control (CON) incremental FO bike test (30-80% VO2max) was followed by 60 min exercise at 75% VO2max. Immediately post-exercise, subjects ingested PLA, 20 g PRO or 40 g CHO followed by a second FO bike test 2h later. Maximal fat oxidation (MFO) and the intensity at which MFO occurs (Fatmax) increased at the second FO test compared to the first following all three post-exercise drinks (MFO for CON=0.28±0.08, PLA=0.57±0.13, PRO=0.52±0.08, CHO=0.44±0.12 g fat·min(-1); Fatmax for CON=41±7, PLA=54±4, PRO=55±6, CHO=50±8 %VO2max, P<0.01 for all values compared to CON). Resting FO, MFO and Fatmax were not significantly different between PLA and PRO, but lower for CHO. PRO and CHO increased insulin levels at 1h post-exercise, though both glucose and insulin were equal with PLA at 2h. Increased post-exercise ketone levels only occurred with PLA. Protein supplementation immediately post-exercise did not affect the doubling in whole body fat oxidation seen during a subsequent exercise trial 2 hours later. Neither did it affect resting fat oxidation during the post-exercise period despite increased insulin levels and attenuated ketosis. Carbohydrate intake dampened the increase in fat oxidation during the second test, though a significant increase was still observed compared to the first test.

  7. Relationship between back and rump fat thickness and residual feed intake of young Nellore cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Eimar de Oliveira Lara

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Residual feed intake (RFI is a feed efficiency trait defined as the difference between actual feed intake and the one predicted on the basis of requirements for production and maintenance of body weight. Evidence exists of a positive correlation between RFI and fat thickness in Bos taurus, suggesting that low RFI cattle (feed efficient ones are leaner. The objective of this study was to access the relationship between fat thickness and RFI by partial correlation including all animals (n=603, 300 bulls and 303 heifers, and by means comparison including only animals divergently classified by RFI (low RFI, n=192 and high RFI, n=186. The animals were born from 2004 to 2010, and were performance tested after weaning for 56 to 112 days, depending of test year and sex. The average age and body weight at the beginning of performance test were 286±42 days and 225±51kg. At the end of performance test images of backfat thickness (BF were obtained by ultrasound (Pie Medical-Aquila-3.5 MHz linear probe between the 12th and 13th ribs, transversely over the longissimus muscle. Images of rump fat thickness (RF were obtained at the junction of the gluteus medius and biceps femoris muscles between the hook and pin bones. The images were saved and subsequently analyzed using Echo Image Viewer 1.0. For partial correlations (MANOVA, SAS 9.3, the model included fixed effect of contemporary group (GC=year, sex and installation and age of the beginning of performance test and age of ultrasound fat measurement (average of 373±42 days as covariates (linear effect. For means comparison (GLM, SAS 9.3, the model included fixed effects of GC, RFI classes (only low RFI and high RFI, excluding medium RFI and age of beginning of performance test. Partial correlations between fat thickness and RFI were close to zero (-0.006 for BF and 0.010 for RF. Reinforcing these results, there were no significant differences of BF and RF from feed efficient (low RFI class and feed

  8. THE EFFECTS OF FOOD INTAKE AND ITS FAT COMPOSITION ON INTESTINAL ECHOGENICITY IN HEALTHY DOGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaschen, Lorrie; Granger, L Abbigail; Oubre, Olivia; Shannon, Dylan; Kearney, Michael; Gaschen, Frederic

    2016-09-01

    Dogs presenting for ultrasonography due to suspected gastrointestinal disease might have residual ingesta and this could have an affect on the appearance of intestinal mucosa unrelated to pathology. The purpose of this prospective descriptive study was to determine effects of a recent meal consisting of the recommended daily fat content (meal 1) and a higher fat one (meal 2) on mucosal echogenicity in healthy dogs. Sixty client-owned and clinically healthy dogs were recruited. Two meals, one with 15% fat dry matter basis (meal 1) and a second with 1.5 ml/kg body weight corn oil added to result in a range of 41-63% fat dry matter basis (meal 2), were fed 1 week apart after a 12 h fast. Mucosal echogenicity scores were assigned at fasting, immediate postprandial and at 60 min after each meal. Duodenal scores were significantly greater for meal 1 at 60 min (P dogs after food intake, regardless of fat content. This effect should be taken into consideration when increased mucosal echogenicity is identified in clinical patients. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  9. Thylakoids suppress appetite by increasing cholecystokinin resulting in lower food intake and body weight in high-fat fed mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köhnke, Rickard; Lindqvist, Andreas; Göransson, Nathanael

    2009-01-01

    affect food intake and body weight during long-term feeding in mice. Female apolipoprotein E-deficient mice were fed a high-fat diet containing 41% of fat by energy with and without thylakoids for 100 days. Mice fed the thylakoid-enriched diet had suppressed food intake, body weight gain and body fat...... fat mass. There was no sign of desensitization in the animals treated with thylakoids. The results suggest that thylakoids are useful to suppress appetite and body weight gain when supplemented to a high-fat food during long-term feeding....... compared with the high-fat fed control mice. Reduced serum glucose, serum triglyceride and serum free fatty acid levels were found in the thylakoid-treated animals. The satiety hormone cholecystokinin was elevated, suggesting this hormone mediates satiety. Leptin levels were reduced, reflecting a decreased...

  10. A pooled analysis of 12 cohort studies of dietary fat, cholesterol and egg intake and ovarian cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genkinger, J.M.; Hunter, D.J.; Spiegelman, D.; Anderson, K.E.; Beeson, W.L.; Buring, J.E.; Colditz, G.A.; Fraser, G.E.; Freudenheim, J.L.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Hankinson, S.E.; Koenig, K.L.; Larsson, S.C.; Leitzmann, M.; McCullough, M.L.; Miller, A.B.; Rodriguez, C.; Rohan, T.E.; Ross, J.A.; Schatzkin, A.; Schouten, L.J.; Smit, E.; Willett, W.C.; Wolk, A.; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, A.; Zhang, S.M.; Smith-Warner, S.A.

    2006-01-01

    Fat and cholesterol are theorized to promote ovarian carcinogenesis by increasing circulating estrogen levels. Although case-control studies have reported positive associations between total and saturated fat intake and ovarian cancer risk, two cohort studies have observed null associations. Dietary

  11. Validation of the MEDFICTS dietary questionnaire: A clinical tool to assess adherence to American Heart Association dietary fat intake guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindeman Jody

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary assessment tools are often too long, difficult to quantify, expensive to process, and largely used for research purposes. A rapid and accurate assessment of dietary fat intake is critically important in clinical decision-making regarding dietary advice for coronary risk reduction. We assessed the validity of the MEDFICTS (MF questionnaire, a brief instrument developed to assess fat intake according to the American Heart Association (AHA dietary "steps". Methods We surveyed 164 active-duty US Army personnel without known coronary artery disease at their intake interview for a primary prevention cardiac intervention trial using the Block food frequency (FFQ and MF questionnaires. Both surveys were completed on the same intake visit and independently scored. Correlations between each tools' assessment of fat intake, the agreement in AHA step categorization of dietary quality with each tool, and the test characteristics of the MF using the FFQ as the gold standard were assessed. Results Subjects consumed a mean of 36.0 ± 13.0% of their total calories as fat, which included saturated fat consumption of 13.0 ± 0.4%. The majority of subjects (125/164; 76.2% had a high fat (worse than AHA Step 1 diet. There were significant correlations between the MF and the FFQ for the intake of total fat (r = 0.52, P 70 [high fat diet] was negligible (kappa statistic = 0.036. The MF was accurate at the extremes of fat intake, but could not reliably identify the 3 AHA dietary classifications. Alternative MF cutpoints of 50 (high fat diet were highly sensitive (96%, but had low specificity (46% for a high fat diet. ROC curve analysis identified that a MF score cutoff of 38 provided optimal sensitivity 75% and specificity 72%, and had modest agreement (kappa = 0.39, P Conclusions The MEDFICTS questionnaire is most suitable as a tool to identify high fat diets, rather than discriminate AHA Step 1 and Step 2 diets. Currently recommended

  12. Dairy consumption and insulin resistance: the role of body fat, physical activity, and energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Larry A; Erickson, Andrea; LeCheminant, James D; Bailey, Bruce W

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between dairy consumption and insulin resistance was ascertained in 272 middle-aged, nondiabetic women using a cross-sectional design. Participants kept 7-day, weighed food records to report their diets, including dairy intake. Insulin resistance was assessed using the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA). The Bod Pod was used to measure body fat percentage, and accelerometry for 7 days was used to objectively index physical activity. Regression analysis was used to determine the extent to which mean HOMA levels differed across low, moderate, and high dairy intake categories. Results showed that women in the highest quartile of dairy consumption had significantly greater log-transformed HOMA values (0.41 ± 0.53) than those in the middle-two quartiles (0.22 ± 0.55) or the lowest quartile (0.19 ± 0.58) (F = 6.90, P = 0.0091). The association remained significant after controlling for each potential confounder individually and all covariates simultaneously. Adjusting for differences in energy intake weakened the relationship most, but the association remained significant. Of the 11 potential confounders, only protein intake differed significantly across the dairy categories, with those consuming high dairy also consuming more total protein than their counterparts. Apparently, high dairy intake is a significant predictor of insulin resistance in middle-aged, nondiabetic women.

  13. Dairy Consumption and Insulin Resistance: The Role of Body Fat, Physical Activity, and Energy Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry A. Tucker

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between dairy consumption and insulin resistance was ascertained in 272 middle-aged, nondiabetic women using a cross-sectional design. Participants kept 7-day, weighed food records to report their diets, including dairy intake. Insulin resistance was assessed using the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA. The Bod Pod was used to measure body fat percentage, and accelerometry for 7 days was used to objectively index physical activity. Regression analysis was used to determine the extent to which mean HOMA levels differed across low, moderate, and high dairy intake categories. Results showed that women in the highest quartile of dairy consumption had significantly greater log-transformed HOMA values (0.41 ± 0.53 than those in the middle-two quartiles (0.22 ± 0.55 or the lowest quartile (0.19 ± 0.58 (F = 6.90, P = 0.0091. The association remained significant after controlling for each potential confounder individually and all covariates simultaneously. Adjusting for differences in energy intake weakened the relationship most, but the association remained significant. Of the 11 potential confounders, only protein intake differed significantly across the dairy categories, with those consuming high dairy also consuming more total protein than their counterparts. Apparently, high dairy intake is a significant predictor of insulin resistance in middle-aged, nondiabetic women.

  14. Dietary protein and fat intake in relation to risk of colorectal adenoma in Korean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sun Young; Kim, Young Sun; Lee, Jung Eun; Seol, Jueun; Song, Ji Hyun; Chung, Goh Eun; Yim, Jeong Yoon; Lim, Sun Hee; Kim, Joo Sung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Consumption of red meat and alcohol are known risk factors for colorectal cancer, but associations for dietary fat remain unclear. We investigated the associations of dietary fat, protein, and energy intake with prevalence of colorectal adenoma. We performed a prospective cross-sectional study on asymptomatic persons who underwent a screening colonoscopy at a single center during a routine health check-up from May to December 2011. Dietary data were obtained via a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), assisted by a registered dietician. We also obtained information on alcohol consumption and smoking status, and measured metabolic syndrome markers including abdominal circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose, serum triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. We calculated odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) to evaluate the associations using the polytomous logistic regression models. As a secondary analysis, we also conducted a matched analysis, matched by age and sex (557 cases and 557 non-cases). The study sample included 557 cases (406 males and 151 females) with histopathologically confirmed colorectal adenoma, and 1157 controls (650 males and 507 females). The proportion of advanced adenoma was 28.1% of men and 18.5% of female, respectively. Although vegetable protein intake was inversely associated with the prevalence of colorectal adenoma, further adjustment for potential confounding factors attenuated the association, resulting in no significant associations. There were no significant associations between dietary fat intake and colorectal adenoma in energy-adjusted models. For vegetable protein in women, the OR for the comparison of those in the highest tertile with those in the lowest tertile was 0.47 (95% CI 0.25–0.91, P for trend = 0.07) after adjustment for total energy intake. However, after controlling for metabolic syndrome markers, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and family history

  15. Dietary protein and fat intake in relation to risk of colorectal adenoma in Korean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sun Young; Kim, Young Sun; Lee, Jung Eun; Seol, Jueun; Song, Ji Hyun; Chung, Goh Eun; Yim, Jeong Yoon; Lim, Sun Hee; Kim, Joo Sung

    2016-12-01

    Consumption of red meat and alcohol are known risk factors for colorectal cancer, but associations for dietary fat remain unclear. We investigated the associations of dietary fat, protein, and energy intake with prevalence of colorectal adenoma.We performed a prospective cross-sectional study on asymptomatic persons who underwent a screening colonoscopy at a single center during a routine health check-up from May to December 2011. Dietary data were obtained via a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), assisted by a registered dietician. We also obtained information on alcohol consumption and smoking status, and measured metabolic syndrome markers including abdominal circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose, serum triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. We calculated odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) to evaluate the associations using the polytomous logistic regression models. As a secondary analysis, we also conducted a matched analysis, matched by age and sex (557 cases and 557 non-cases).The study sample included 557 cases (406 males and 151 females) with histopathologically confirmed colorectal adenoma, and 1157 controls (650 males and 507 females). The proportion of advanced adenoma was 28.1% of men and 18.5% of female, respectively. Although vegetable protein intake was inversely associated with the prevalence of colorectal adenoma, further adjustment for potential confounding factors attenuated the association, resulting in no significant associations. There were no significant associations between dietary fat intake and colorectal adenoma in energy-adjusted models. For vegetable protein in women, the OR for the comparison of those in the highest tertile with those in the lowest tertile was 0.47 (95% CI 0.25-0.91, P for trend = 0.07) after adjustment for total energy intake. However, after controlling for metabolic syndrome markers, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and family history of

  16. Dietary fat, cooking fat, and breast cancer risk in a multiethnic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; John, Esther M; Horn-Ross, Pamela L; Ingles, Sue Ann

    2008-01-01

    Our objective was to examine the association between dietary fat intake, cooking fat usage, and breast cancer risk in a population-based, multiethnic, case-control study conducted in the San Francisco Bay area. Intake of total fat and types of fat were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire among 1,703 breast cancer cases diagnosed between 1995 and 1999 and 2,045 controls. In addition, preferred use of fat for cooking was assessed. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). High fat intake was associated with increased risk of breast cancer (highest vs. lowest quartile, adjusted OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.10-1.65, P(trend) < 0.01). A positive association was found for oleic acid (OR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.14-2.10, P(trend) < 0.01) but not for linoleic acid or saturated fat. Risk was increased for women cooking with hydrogenated fats (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.20-2.10) or vegetable/corn oil (rich in linoleic acid; OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.06-1.58) compared to women using olive/canola oil (rich in oleic acid). Our results suggest that a low-fat diet may play a role in breast cancer prevention. We speculate that monounsaturated trans fats may have driven the discrepant associations between types of fat and breast cancer.

  17. Interleukin-6 Gene Polymorphisms, Dietary Fat Intake, Obesity and Serum Lipid Concentrations in Black and White South African Women

    OpenAIRE

    Yael T. Joffe; Lize van der Merwe; Juliet Evans; Malcolm Collins; Lambert, Estelle V.; September, Alison V; Goedecke, Julia H.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated interactions between dietary fat intake and IL-6 polymorphisms on obesity and serum lipids in black and white South African (SA) women. Normal-weight and obese, black and white women underwent measurements of body composition, serum lipids and dietary fat intake, and were genotyped for the IL-6 −174 G>C, IVS3 +281 G>T and IVS4 +869 A>G polymorphisms. In black women the IVS4 +869 G allele was associated with greater adiposity, and with increasing dietary fat i...

  18. Relation of blood pressure to reported intake of salt, saturated fats, and alcohol in healthy middle-aged population.

    OpenAIRE

    Salonen, J.T.; Tuomilehto, J; A. Tanskanen

    1983-01-01

    The association of blood pressure with reported intake of salt, saturated fats, and alcohol was studied in a sample of 8479 subjects based on a cross sectional survey in a population aged 30 to 64 years. A consistent association was found between the mean arterial pressure and the intake of alcohol (p less than 0.001) and saturated fats (p less than 0.01). There was also a weak association between blood pressure and dietary salt intake, but this association was mostly explained by the correla...

  19. Validity and Reproducibility of a Self-Administered Semi-Quantitative Food-Frequency Questionnaire for Estimating Usual Daily Fat, Fibre, Alcohol, Caffeine and Theobromine Intakes among Belgian Post-Menopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selin Bolca

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ was developed and validated to assess the usual daily fat, saturated, mono-unsaturated and poly-unsaturated fatty acid, fibre, alcohol, caffeine, and theobromine intakes among Belgian post-menopausal women participating in dietary intervention trials with phyto-oestrogens. The relative validity of the FFQ was estimated by comparison with 7 day (d estimated diet records (EDR, n 64 and its reproducibility was evaluated by repeated administrations 6 weeks apart (n 79. Although the questionnaire underestimated significantly all intakes compared to the 7 d EDR, it had a good ranking ability (r 0.47-0.94; weighted κ 0.25-0.66 and it could reliably distinguish extreme intakes for all the estimated nutrients, except for saturated fatty acids. Furthermore, the correlation between repeated administrations was high (r 0.71-0.87 with a maximal misclassification of 7% (weighted κ 0.33-0.80. In conclusion, these results compare favourably with those reported by others and indicate that the FFQ is a satisfactorily reliable and valid instrument for ranking individuals within this study population.

  20. Validity and reproducibility of a self-administered semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire for estimating usual daily fat, fibre, alcohol, caffeine and theobromine intakes among Belgian post-menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolca, Selin; Huybrechts, Inge; Verschraegen, Mia; De Henauw, Stefaan; Van de Wiele, Tom

    2009-01-01

    A novel food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was developed and validated to assess the usual daily fat, saturated, mono-unsaturated and poly-unsaturated fatty acid, fibre, alcohol, caffeine, and theobromine intakes among Belgian post-menopausal women participating in dietary intervention trials with phyto-oestrogens. The relative validity of the FFQ was estimated by comparison with 7 day (d) estimated diet records (EDR, n 64) and its reproducibility was evaluated by repeated administrations 6 weeks apart (n 79). Although the questionnaire underestimated significantly all intakes compared to the 7 d EDR, it had a good ranking ability (r 0.47-0.94; weighted kappa 0.25-0.66) and it could reliably distinguish extreme intakes for all the estimated nutrients, except for saturated fatty acids. Furthermore, the correlation between repeated administrations was high (r 0.71-0.87) with a maximal misclassification of 7% (weighted kappa 0.33-0.80). In conclusion, these results compare favourably with those reported by others and indicate that the FFQ is a satisfactorily reliable and valid instrument for ranking individuals within this study population.

  1. Consumption of low-fat dairy products and energy and protein intake in cancer patients at risk of malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Casariego, Alfonso; Pintor-de la Maza, Begoña; Calleja-Fernández, Alicia; Villar-Taibo, Rocío; Cano-Rodríguez, Isidoro; Ballesteros-Pomar, María D

    2015-01-01

    Current nutritional guidelines encourage the reduction of fat intake from animal sources like dairy products. The aim was to determine whether the consumption of low-fat dairy is related to poorer dietary intake and nutritional status in cancer patients at risk of malnutrition. This cross-sectional included patients with solid or hematological malignancies at risk of malnutrition. Nutritional status was studied using Subjective Global Assessment, anthropometry, and grip strength. Dietary intake was evaluated with a 24-h recall and dairy consumption with a structured questionnaire. Seventy-four patients were recruited; 71.6% males of 64.8 yr, most with gastrointestinal malignancies. Only 37.8% consumed whole milk, and 61.4% consumed whole yogurt. Reasons for consumption of low-fat dairies were healthy diet (58.0%), hypercholesterolemia (20.0%), and digestive intolerance (10.0%). There were similar rates of malnutrition according the type of dairy (whole 60.9% vs. low-fat 66.7%, P = 0.640). Low-fat dairies were related to a reduction in energy (whole 1980.1 kcal vs. low-fat 1480.9, P = 0.007) and protein intake (whole 86.0 g vs. low-fat 63.0 g, P = 0.030).

  2. Effects of the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen administered orally on normal food intake and intraperitoneally on fat intake in non-deprived rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bains, Rasneer S; Ebenezer, Ivor S

    2013-01-01

    It has been previously reported that the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen decreases food intake after oral administration and fat intake after intraperitoneal administration. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of baclofen (1-4 mg/ kg) administered orally (Experiment 1) on food intake in non-deprived rats (n=6) and intraperitoneally (Experiment 2) on fat intake in non-deprived rats (n=8) that were naïve to baclofen (1st set of trials) and in the same group of rats after they were sub-chronically exposed to baclofen (2nd set of trials). The results from Experiment 1 show that baclofen had no effects on food intake during the 1st set of trials, but the 2 and 4 mg/kg doses significantly increased food consumption during the 2nd set of trials. Baclofen produced sedation during the 1st set of trials, but tolerance occurred to this effect and was not apparent during the 2nd set of trials. These observations suggest that the motor effects may have competed with the hyperphagic effects of baclofen during the 1st set of trials. The data from Experiment 2 show that baclofen had no effects on fat intake during either the 1st or 2nd set of trials. The results of the study thus indicate that orally administrated baclofen increases food intake and intraperitoneal administration has no effect on fat intake in non-deprived rats under the conditions used in this study. These findings may have important implications for research on the use of baclofen in studies concerned with ingestive behaviours.

  3. Effect of trans fatty acid intake on abdominal and liver fat deposition and blood lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendsen, Nathalie Tommerup; Chabanova, E.; Thomsen, Henrik S.

    2011-01-01

    abdominal and liver fat deposition.Objective:We examined the effect of a high intake of TFA as part of an isocaloric diet on whole-body, abdominal and hepatic fat deposition, and blood lipids in postmenopausal women.Methods:In a 16-week double-blind parallel intervention study, 52 healthy overweight...... postmenopausal women were randomized to receive either partially hydrogenated soybean oil providing 15.7 g day(-1) of TFA or a control oil with mainly oleic and palmitic acid. Before and after the intervention, body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, abdominal fat by magnetic resonance...... (MR) imaging, and liver fat by (1)H MR spectroscopy.Results:Compared with the control fat, TFA intake decreased plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol by 10%, increased low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol by 18% and resulted in an increased LDL/HDL-cholesterol ratio (baseline adjusted...

  4. CD36 genetic variation, fat intake and liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Lopez, Omar; Roman, Sonia; Martinez-Lopez, Erika; Fierro, Nora A; Gonzalez-Aldaco, Karina; Jose-Abrego, Alexis; Panduro, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    AIM To analyze the association of the CD36 polymorphism (rs1761667) with dietary intake and liver fibrosis (LF) in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients. METHODS In this study, 73 patients with CHC were recruited. The CD36 genotype (G > A) was determined by a TaqMan real-time PCR system. Dietary assessment was carried out using a three-day food record to register the daily intake of macronutrients. Serum lipids and liver enzymes were measured by a dry chemistry assay. LF evaluated by transient elastography (Fibroscan®) and APRI score was classified as mild LF (F1-F2) and advanced LF (F3-F4). RESULTS Overall, the CD36 genotypic frequencies were AA (30.1%), AG (54.8%), and GG (15.1%), whereas the allelic A and G frequencies were 57.5% and 42.5%, respectively. CHC patients who were carriers of the CD36 AA genotype had a higher intake of calories attributable to total fat and saturated fatty acids than those with the non-AA genotypes. Additionally, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) serum values were higher in AA genotype carriers compared to non-AA carriers (91.7 IU/L vs 69.8 IU/L, P = 0.02). Moreover, the AA genotype was associated with an increase of 30.23 IU/L of AST (β = 30.23, 95%CI: 9.0-51.46, P = 0.006). Likewise, the AA genotype was associated with advanced LF compared to the AG (OR = 3.60, 95%CI: 1.16-11.15, P = 0.02) or AG + GG genotypes (OR = 3.52, 95%CI: 1.18-10.45, P = 0.02). CONCLUSION This study suggests that the CD36 (rs1761667) AA genotype is associated with higher fat intake and more instances of advanced LF in CHC patients. PMID:27660673

  5. Later circadian timing of food intake is associated with increased body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHill, Andrew W; Phillips, Andrew Jk; Czeisler, Charles A; Keating, Leigh; Yee, Karen; Barger, Laura K; Garaulet, Marta; Scheer, Frank Ajl; Klerman, Elizabeth B

    2017-09-06

    Background: Weight gain and obesity have reached alarming levels. Eating at a later clock hour is a newly described risk factor for adverse metabolic health; yet, how eating at a later circadian time influences body composition is unknown. Using clock hour to document eating times may be misleading owing to individual differences in circadian timing relative to clock hour.Objective: This study examined the relations between the timing of food consumption relative to clock hour and endogenous circadian time, content of food intake, and body composition.Design: We enrolled 110 participants, aged 18-22 y, in a 30-d cross-sectional study to document sleep and circadian behaviors within their regular daily routines. We used a time-stamped-picture mobile phone application to record all food intake across 7 consecutive days during a participant's regular daily routines and assessed their body composition and timing of melatonin release during an in-laboratory assessment.Results: Nonlean individuals (high body fat) consumed most of their calories 1.1 h closer to melatonin onset, which heralds the beginning of the biological night, than did lean individuals (low body fat) (log-rank P = 0.009). In contrast, there were no differences between lean and nonlean individuals in the clock hour of food consumption (P = 0.72). Multiple regression analysis showed that the timing of food intake relative to melatonin onset was significantly associated with the percentage of body fat and body mass index (both P food intake, caloric amount, meal macronutrient composition, activity or exercise level, or sleep duration and either of these body composition measures (all P > 0.72).Conclusions: These results provide evidence that the consumption of food during the circadian evening and/or night, independent of more traditional risk factors such as amount or content of food intake and activity level, plays an important role in body composition. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as

  6. Soluble Fermentable Dietary Fibre (Pectin Decreases Caloric Intake, Adiposity and Lipidaemia in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare L Adam

    Full Text Available Consumption of a high fat diet promotes obesity and poor metabolic health, both of which may be improved by decreasing caloric intake. Satiety-inducing ingredients such as dietary fibre may be beneficial and this study investigates in diet-induced obese (DIO rats the effects of high or low fat diet with or without soluble fermentable fibre (pectin. In two independently replicated experiments, young adult male DIO rats that had been reared on high fat diet (HF; 45% energy from fat were given HF, low fat diet (LF; 10% energy from fat, HF with 10% w/w pectin (HF+P, or LF with 10% w/w pectin (LF+P ad libitum for 4 weeks (n = 8/group/experiment. Food intake, body weight, body composition (by magnetic resonance imaging, plasma hormones, and plasma and liver lipid concentrations were measured. Caloric intake and body weight gain were greatest in HF, lower in LF and HF+P, and lowest in the LF+P group. Body fat mass increased in HF, was maintained in LF, but decreased significantly in LF+P and HF+P groups. Final plasma leptin, insulin, total cholesterol and triglycerides were lower, and plasma satiety hormone PYY concentrations were higher, in LF+P and HF+P than in LF and HF groups, respectively. Total fat and triglyceride concentrations in liver were greatest in HF, lower in LF and HF+P, and lowest in the LF+P group. Therefore, the inclusion of soluble fibre in a high fat (or low fat diet promoted increased satiety and decreased caloric intake, weight gain, adiposity, lipidaemia, leptinaemia and insulinaemia. These data support the potential of fermentable dietary fibre for weight loss and improving metabolic health in obesity.

  7. Soluble Fermentable Dietary Fibre (Pectin) Decreases Caloric Intake, Adiposity and Lipidaemia in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Clare L.; Thomson, Lynn M.; Williams, Patricia A.; Ross, Alexander W.

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of a high fat diet promotes obesity and poor metabolic health, both of which may be improved by decreasing caloric intake. Satiety-inducing ingredients such as dietary fibre may be beneficial and this study investigates in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats the effects of high or low fat diet with or without soluble fermentable fibre (pectin). In two independently replicated experiments, young adult male DIO rats that had been reared on high fat diet (HF; 45% energy from fat) were given HF, low fat diet (LF; 10% energy from fat), HF with 10% w/w pectin (HF+P), or LF with 10% w/w pectin (LF+P) ad libitum for 4 weeks (n = 8/group/experiment). Food intake, body weight, body composition (by magnetic resonance imaging), plasma hormones, and plasma and liver lipid concentrations were measured. Caloric intake and body weight gain were greatest in HF, lower in LF and HF+P, and lowest in the LF+P group. Body fat mass increased in HF, was maintained in LF, but decreased significantly in LF+P and HF+P groups. Final plasma leptin, insulin, total cholesterol and triglycerides were lower, and plasma satiety hormone PYY concentrations were higher, in LF+P and HF+P than in LF and HF groups, respectively. Total fat and triglyceride concentrations in liver were greatest in HF, lower in LF and HF+P, and lowest in the LF+P group. Therefore, the inclusion of soluble fibre in a high fat (or low fat) diet promoted increased satiety and decreased caloric intake, weight gain, adiposity, lipidaemia, leptinaemia and insulinaemia. These data support the potential of fermentable dietary fibre for weight loss and improving metabolic health in obesity. PMID:26447990

  8. Soluble Fermentable Dietary Fibre (Pectin) Decreases Caloric Intake, Adiposity and Lipidaemia in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Clare L; Thomson, Lynn M; Williams, Patricia A; Ross, Alexander W

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of a high fat diet promotes obesity and poor metabolic health, both of which may be improved by decreasing caloric intake. Satiety-inducing ingredients such as dietary fibre may be beneficial and this study investigates in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats the effects of high or low fat diet with or without soluble fermentable fibre (pectin). In two independently replicated experiments, young adult male DIO rats that had been reared on high fat diet (HF; 45% energy from fat) were given HF, low fat diet (LF; 10% energy from fat), HF with 10% w/w pectin (HF+P), or LF with 10% w/w pectin (LF+P) ad libitum for 4 weeks (n = 8/group/experiment). Food intake, body weight, body composition (by magnetic resonance imaging), plasma hormones, and plasma and liver lipid concentrations were measured. Caloric intake and body weight gain were greatest in HF, lower in LF and HF+P, and lowest in the LF+P group. Body fat mass increased in HF, was maintained in LF, but decreased significantly in LF+P and HF+P groups. Final plasma leptin, insulin, total cholesterol and triglycerides were lower, and plasma satiety hormone PYY concentrations were higher, in LF+P and HF+P than in LF and HF groups, respectively. Total fat and triglyceride concentrations in liver were greatest in HF, lower in LF and HF+P, and lowest in the LF+P group. Therefore, the inclusion of soluble fibre in a high fat (or low fat) diet promoted increased satiety and decreased caloric intake, weight gain, adiposity, lipidaemia, leptinaemia and insulinaemia. These data support the potential of fermentable dietary fibre for weight loss and improving metabolic health in obesity.

  9. Effect of pre-partum prilled fat supplementation on feed intake, energy balance and milk production in Murrah buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikha Sharma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the effect of pre-partum prilled fat feeding on dry matter intake (DMI, energy balance and milk production in Murrah buffaloes. Materials and Methods: Advance pregnant Murrah buffaloes were either received a dietary supplement of prilled fat at 100 g/day for 35 days pre-partum and at 150 g/day for 95 days post-partum (supplemented group [SG] or did not receive fat supplement (control group [CG]. DMI and the yields of milk and milk component were measured. A body condition score (BCS was recorded. Energy balance and gross feed efficiency (GFE were calculated. DMI and BCS were recorded and milk yield (MY, fat, protein, lactose, solid not fat, energy balance were measured. The fat corrected milk yield was calculated. Results: The DMI was non-significant between groups and periods of study. BCS of buffaloes improved in the SG than CG (p<0.01. The energy intake in terms of total digestible nutrients (TDN%, TDN intake, digestible energy (DE, metabolizable energy/kg of milk, DE of milk, net energy, and GFE were higher (p<0.01 in SG during post-partum period. Crude protein intake was statistically similar in both the groups. MY was higher (p<0.01 in SG than in CG during 95 days of early lactation. Milk fat, fat corrected MY was higher (p<0.01 in SG however protein, lactose and solid not fat content did not varied between the groups. The feed efficiency of the SG was higher (p<0.01 than the CG during the post-partum period. Conclusion: It was inferred that prilled fat supplementation augments energy balance and milk production in transition Murrah buffaloes.

  10. Snack food intake in ad libitum fed rats is triggered by the combination of fat and carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, Tobias; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Hess, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Snack food like potato chips substantially contributes to energy intake in humans. In contrast to basic food, snacks are consumed additionally to other meals and may thereby lead to non-homeostatic energy intake. Snack food is also frequently associated with hedonic hyperphagia, a food intake independent from hunger. Analysis of brain activity patterns by manganese-enhanced MRI has previously revealed that the intake of potato chips in ad libitum fed rats strongly activates the reward system of the rat brain, which may lead to hedonic hyperphagia. The purpose of the present study was to develop a two-choice preference test to identify molecular determinants of snack food triggering extra food intake in ad libitum fed rats. Different kinds of test food were presented three times a day for 10 min each time. To minimize the influence of organoleptic properties, each test food was applied in a homogenous mixture with standard chow. Food intake as well as food intake-related locomotor activity were analyzed to evaluate the effects induced by the test foods in the two-choice preference test. In summary, fat (F), carbohydrates (CH), and a mixture of fat and carbohydrates (FCH) led to a higher food intake compared to standard chow. Notably, potato chip test food (PC) was highly significantly preferred over standard chow (STD) and also over their single main macronutrients F and CH. Only FCH induced an intake comparable to PC. Despite its low energy density, fat-free potato chip test food (ffPC) was also significantly preferred over STD and CH, but not over F, FCH, and PC. Thus, it can be concluded that the combination of fat and carbohydrates is a major molecular determinant of potato chips triggering hedonic hyperphagia. The applied two-choice preference test will facilitate future studies on stimulating and suppressive effects of other food components on non-homeostatic food intake.

  11. Snack food intake in ad libitum fed rats is triggered by the combination of fat and carbohydrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias eHoch

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Snack food like potato chips substantially contributes to energy intake in humans. In contrast to basic food, snacks are consumed additionally to other meals and may thereby lead to non-homeostatic energy intake. Snack food is also frequently associated with hedonic hyperphagia, a food intake independent from hunger.Analysis of brain activity patterns by manganese-enhanced MRI has previously revealed that the intake of potato chips in ad libitum fed rats strongly activates the reward system of the rat brain, which may lead to hedonic hyperphagia. The purpose of the present study was to develop a two-choice preference test to identify molecular determinants of snack food triggering extra food intake in ad libitum fed rats. Different kinds of test food were presented three times a day for ten minutes each time. To minimize the influence of organoleptic properties, each test food was applied in a homogenous mixture with standard chow. Food intake as well as food intake-related locomotor activity were analyzed to evaluate the effects induced by the test foods in the two-choice preference test.In summary, fat (F, carbohydrates (CH, and a mixture of fat and carbohydrates (FCH led to a higher food intake compared to standard chow. Notably, potato chips (PC were highly significantly preferred over standard chow (STD and also over their single main macronutrients F and CH. Only FCH induced an intake comparable to PC. Despite their low energy density, fat-free potato chips (ffPC were also highly significantly preferred over STD and CH, but not over F, FCH and PC.Thus, it can be concluded that the combination of fat and carbohydrates is a major molecular determinant of potato chips triggering hedonic hyperphagia. The applied two-choice preference test will facilitate future studies on stimulating and suppressive effects of other food components on non-homeostatic food intake.

  12. Food intake and energy expenditure are increased in high-fat-sensitive but not in high-carbohydrate-sensitive obesity-prone rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Azzout-Marniche, Dalila; Chaumontet, Catherine; Nadkarni, Nachiket A; Piedcoq, Julien; Fromentin, Gilles; Tomé, Daniel; Even, Patrick C

    2014-01-01

    .... Energy expenditure (EE), respiratory quotient (RQ), caloric intake (CI), and locomotor activity measured during HFD identified no differences in EE and RQ between fat-resistant (FR) and fat-sensitive (FS...

  13. Fat intake leads to differential response of rat adipocytes to glucose, insulin and ascorbic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Diaz, Diego F; Campion, Javier; Arellano, Arianna V; Milagro, Fermin I; Moreno-Aliaga, Maria J; Martinez, J Alfredo

    2012-04-01

    Antioxidant-based treatments have emerged as novel and interesting approaches to counteract fat accumulation in obesity and associated metabolic disturbances. Adipocytes from rats that were fed on chow or high-fat diet (HFD) for 50 d were isolated (primary adipocytes) and incubated (72 h) on low (LG; 5.6 mmol/L) or high (HG; 25 mmol/L) glucose levels, in the presence or absence of 1.6 nmol/L insulin and 200 μmol/L vitamin C (VC). Adipocytes from HFD-fed animals presented lower insulin-induced glucose uptake, lower lactate and glycerol release, and lower insulin-induced secretion of some adipokines as compared with controls. HG treatment restored the blunted response to insulin regarding apelin secretion in adipocytes from HFD-fed rats. VC treatment inhibited the levels of nearly all variables, irrespective of the adipocytes' dietary origin. The HG treatment reduced adipocyte viability, and VC protected from this toxic effect, although more drastically in control adipocytes. Summing up, in vivo chow or HFD intake determines a differential response to insulin and glucose treatments that appears to be dependent on the insulin-resistance status of the adipocytes, while VC modifies some responses from adipocytes independently of the previous dietary intake of the animals.

  14. Stability and Reliability of Plasma Level of Lipid Biomarkers and Their Correlation with Dietary Fat Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Ah Lee

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The reliability and stability of plasma lipid biomarkers and their association with dietary fat intake were evaluated among 48 subjects who were randomly chosen from the participants of a validation study of the population-based cohort, the Shanghai Men's Health Study (SMHS. Four spot blood samples, one taken each season, were measured for total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol levels. The reliability and stability of these measurements were assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC and by the correlations between a randomly chosen measurement with the mean of measurements across seasons using a bootstrap approach. The median levels for total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol were 177.5, 164.5, 41.0, and 102.5 (mg/dl, respectively. The ICCs of the biomarkers ranged from 0.58 (LDL-cholesterol to 0.83 (HDL-cholesterol. The correlation between randomly chosen spot measurements and the mean measurement were 0.91, 0.86, 0.93, and 0.83 for total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol, respectively. The correlations of lipid biomarkers with dietary fat intake and other lifestyle factors were comparable to other previous reports. In conclusion, this study suggests that measurements of lipid biomarkers from a single spot blood sample are a good representation of the average blood levels of these biomarkers in the study population and could be a useful tool for epidemiological studies.

  15. Intake of Fat-Soluble Vitamins in the Belgian Population: Adequacy and Contribution of Foods, Fortified Foods and Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Dekkers, Arnold; de Ridder, Karin; Tafforeau, Jean; van Camp, John; van Oyen, Herman; Lachat, Carl

    2017-01-01

    A key challenge of public health nutrition is to provide the majority of the population with a sufficient level of micronutrients while preventing high-consumers from exceeding the tolerable upper intake level. Data of the 2014 Belgian food consumption survey (n = 3200) were used to assess fat-soluble vitamin (vitamins A, D, E and K) intake from the consumption of foods, fortified foods and supplements. This study revealed inadequate intakes for vitamin A, from all sources, in the entire Belgian population and possible inadequacies for vitamin D. The prevalence of inadequate intake of vitamin A was lowest in children aged 3–6 (6–7%) and highest in adolescents (girls, 26%; boys, 34–37%). Except for women aged 60–64 years, more than 95% of the subjects had vitamin D intake from all sources below the adequate intake (AI) of 15 μg/day. The risk for inadequate intake of vitamins K and E was low (median > AI). Belgian fortification and supplementation practices are currently inadequate to eradicate suboptimal intakes of vitamins A and D, but increase median vitamin E intake close to the adequate intake. For vitamin A, a small proportion (1–4%) of young children were at risk of exceeding the upper intake level (UL), while for vitamin D, inclusion of supplements slightly increased the risk for excessive intakes (% > UL) in adult women and young children. The results may guide health authorities when developing population health interventions and regulations to ensure adequate intake of fat-soluble vitamins in Belgium. PMID:28800115

  16. Intake of trans fatty acids causes nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and reduces adipose tissue fat content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Roberta M; Stefano, José T; Oliveira, Claudia P M S; Mello, Evandro S; Ferreira, Fabiana D; Nunes, Valeria S; de Lima, Vicência M R; Quintão, Eder C R; Catanozi, Sergio; Nakandakare, Edna R; Lottenberg, Ana Maria P

    2010-06-01

    We investigated the effects of dietary trans fatty acids, PUFA, and SFA on body and liver fat content, liver histology, and mRNA of enzymes involved in fatty acid metabolism. LDL receptor knockout weaning male mice were fed for 16 wk with diets containing 40% energy as either trans fatty acids (TRANS), PUFA, or SFA. Afterwards, subcutaneous and epididymal fat were weighed and histological markers of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) were assessed according to the Histological Scoring System for NAFLD. PPARalpha, PPARgamma, microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP), carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 (CPT-1), and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) mRNA were measured by quantitative RT-PCR. Food intake was similar in the 3 groups, although mice fed the TRANS diet gained less weight than those receiving the PUFA diet. Compared with the PUFA- and SFA-fed mice, TRANS-fed mice had greater plasma total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) concentrations, less epididymal and subcutaneous fat, larger livers with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)-like lesions, and greater liver TC and TG concentrations. Macrosteatosis in TRANS-fed mice was associated with a higher homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA(IR)) index and upregulated mRNA related to hepatic fatty acid synthesis (SREBP-1c and PPARgamma) and to downregulated MTP mRNA. Diet consumption did not alter hepatic mRNA related to fatty acid oxidation (PPARalpha and CPT-1). In conclusion, compared with PUFA- and SFA-fed mice, TRANS-fed mice had less adiposity, impaired glucose tolerance characterized by greater HOMA(IR) index, and NASH-like lesions due to greater hepatic lipogenesis. These results demonstrate the role of trans fatty acid intake on the development of key features of metabolic syndrome.

  17. Reduction in saturated fat intake improves cardiovascular risks in obese adolescents during interdisciplinary therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masquio, D C L; de Piano, A; Campos, R M S; Sanches, P L; Carnier, J; Corgosinho, F C; Netto, B D M; Carvalho-Ferreira, J P; Oyama, L M; Oller do Nascimento, C M; Tock, L; de Mello, M T; Tufik, S; Dâmaso, A R

    2015-05-01

    Obesity is related to inflammation and cardiovascular disease. The increase in saturated fatty acid intake (SFA) can potentiate cardiovascular risks. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of change in SFA on carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), metabolic profile and anti/pro-inflammatory adipokines in obese adolescents. Sixty obese adolescents were subjected to 1 year of interdisciplinary intervention (nutrition, psychology, physical exercise and clinical therapy). Blood glucose, insulin, lipid profile, leptin and adiponectin were analysed. Insulin resistance was estimated by HOMA-IR and HOMA-AD. cIMT was measured by ultrasonography. Dietetic intake was calculated by 3-day dietary record. Volunteers were analysed according to tertiles of change (Δ) in SFA intake: Low-SFA reduction13.67 g. Moderate and High-SFA tertiles presented reduction in insulin, leptin/adiponectin ratio, cIMT and increase in adiponectin and adiponectin/leptin ratio. Adiponectin/leptin ratio was predictor of cIMT. HOMA-IR, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol reduced only in High-SFA tertile, and was associated with SFA independent of visceral fat. Negative correlations between Δ of SFA and adiponectin and adiponectin/leptin ratio were observed. Obese adolescents with moderate and high reduction in SFA presented improvements on pro/anti-inflammatory biomarkers and cIMT, leading to reduction in cardiovascular risks. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Fat/carbohydrate ratio but not energy density determines snack food intake and activates brain reward areas

    OpenAIRE

    Hoch, Tobias; Kreitz, Silke; Gaffling, Simone; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Hess, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The snack food potato chips induces food intake in ad libitum fed rats, which is associated with modulation of the brain reward system and other circuits. Here, we show that food intake in satiated rats is triggered by an optimal fat/carbohydrate ratio. Like potato chips, an isocaloric fat/carbohydrate mixture influenced whole brain activity pattern of rats, affecting circuits related e.g. to reward/addiction, but the number of modulated areas and the extent of modulation was lower compared t...

  19. Fat/carbohydrate ratio but not energy density determines snack food intake and activates brain reward areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, Tobias; Kreitz, Silke; Gaffling, Simone; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Hess, Andreas

    2015-05-14

    The snack food potato chips induces food intake in ad libitum fed rats, which is associated with modulation of the brain reward system and other circuits. Here, we show that food intake in satiated rats is triggered by an optimal fat/carbohydrate ratio. Like potato chips, an isocaloric fat/carbohydrate mixture influenced whole brain activity pattern of rats, affecting circuits related e.g. to reward/addiction, but the number of modulated areas and the extent of modulation was lower compared to the snack food itself.

  20. High dietary intake of saturated fat is associated with reduced semen quality among 701 young Danish men from the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Tina K; Heitmann, Berit L; Blomberg Jensen, Martin; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Skakkebæk, Niels E; Joensen, Ulla N; Lauritsen, Mette P; Christiansen, Peter; Dalgård, Christine; Lassen, Tina H; Jørgensen, Niels

    2013-02-01

    Saturated fat intake has been associated with both cardiovascular disease and cancer risk, and a newly published study found an association between saturated fat intake and a lower sperm concentration in infertile men. The objective was to examine the association between dietary fat intake and semen quality among 701 young Danish men from the general population. In this cross-sectional study, men were recruited when they were examined to determine their fitness for military service from 2008 to 2010. They delivered a semen sample, underwent a physical examination, and answered a questionnaire comprising a quantitative food-frequency questionnaire to assess food and nutrient intakes. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed with semen variables as outcomes and dietary fat intakes as exposure variables, adjusted for confounders. A lower sperm concentration and total sperm count in men with a high intake of saturated fat was found. A significant dose-response association was found, and men in the highest quartile of saturated fat intake had a 38% (95% CI: 0.1%, 61%) lower sperm concentration and a 41% (95% CI: 4%, 64%) lower total sperm count than did men in the lowest quartile. No association between semen quality and intake of other types of fat was found. Our findings are of potentially great public interest, because changes in diet over the past decades may be part of the explanation for the recently reported high frequency of subnormal human sperm counts. A reduction in saturated fat intake may be beneficial for both general and reproductive health.

  1. Intake of carbohydrates during pregnancy in obese women is associated with fat mass in the newborn offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, Kristina M; Carlsen, Emma M; Nørgaard, Kirsten; Nilas, Lisbeth; Pryds, Ole; Secher, Niels J; Cortes, Dina; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck; Olsen, Sjurdur F; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I

    2015-12-01

    Transmission of obesity across generations is of concern. Offspring of obese women have short- and long-term increased morbidities. A high intake of carbohydrate during pregnancy combined with impaired glucose tolerance is postulated to result in high birth weight, which is linked to subsequent metabolic disease. The objective was to examine the association between carbohydrate intake in obese pregnant women and their offspring's body composition. Secondary analyses were performed in an observational setting of 222 pregnant women with a pregestational BMI (in kg/m(2)) ≥30 participating in a randomized controlled trial. Diet was assessed at gestational weeks 11-14 and 36-37 by using a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Body composition in the offspring was assessed at birth by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Relative fat mass (%) was the primary outcome. Absolute measures (total fat, abdominal fat, and lean body mass) were secondary outcomes. Mean ± SD weight and absolute and relative fat mass in the offspring at birth were 3769 ± 542 g, 436 ± 214 g, and 11% ± 4%, respectively. Maternal intake of digestible carbohydrates was associated with the offspring's relative fat mass in late (P-trend = 0.006) but not early (P-trend = 0.15) pregnancy. A comparison of mothers in the highest (median: 238 g/d) compared with the lowest (median: 188 g/d) quartile of digestible carbohydrate intake showed a mean adjusted higher value in the offspring's relative fat mass of 2.1% (95% CI: 0.6%, 3.7%), which corresponded in absolute terms to a 103-g (95% CI: 27, 179-g) higher fat mass. Abdominal fat mass was also higher. In a strata of women with well-controlled glucose (2-h glucose values ≤6.6 mmol/L), no association between carbohydrate intake and offspring fat mass was observed, but the associations became significant and increased in strength with higher intolerance (strata with 2-h glucose values between 6.7-7.7 and ≥7.8 mmol/L). In obese women, even those

  2. Sodium, Saturated Fat, and Sugar Added Intake of The Diet of Children 2-12 Years Old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angga Hardiansyah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the study were to analyze intake of sodium, saturated fat (SFA, and added sugar of children 2-12 years old. For this purpose, 38.890 children 2-12 years old from the food consumption data of the basic health survey of the Ministry of Health were analyzed. The intake of sodium, SFA, and added sugar were calculated by using food composition table (FCT of Indonesia and USDA, and from nutrition facts of labeled foods.The sodium and SFA calculated include both natural resources and which added to food and beverage products. The sugar added calculated include all sugar which added to food and beverage products. The results showed that the intake of sodium, SFA, and added sugar of each childern varies greatly. The mean of sodium, SFA, and added sugar intake was 1010.3 ± 963.5 mg, 10.9 ± 9,2 g, and 19.0 ± 35.1 g respectively. There were 30% of childern have excessive sodium intake, 28% of childern have excessive SFA intake (> 8%-e, and 14% of childern have excessive added sugar intake (> 10%-e. This implies that some childern exposed to high intake of sodium, saturated fat, and added sugar. 

  3. Food-based recommendations to reduce fat intake: an evidence-based approach to the development of a family-focused child weight management programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehling, R K; Magarey, A M; Daniels, L A

    2005-03-01

    To develop food-based recommendations to lower fat and energy intake for use in a family-focussed weight management programme for 6-9 year old children. Secondary analysis of the 1995 National Nutrition Survey (NNS95) informed the development of food-based recommendations aiming to reduce fat and energy intake. Each recommendation was used to progressively modify a model 3-day high fat dietary intake with the accumulative effect on energy and nutrient intake of each recommendation assessed. Six to nine-year-olds in the NNS95 consuming 35-45% energy as fat (n= 280) consumed more total energy (mean +/- SD, 8671 +/- 2741 vs. 7571 +/- 2328 kJ/day) than children consuming a 'low fat' (23-27% energy as fat, n= 85) diet (P recommendations found to be most effective for reducing energy and fat intake included; changing to reduced fat milk, reducing intake of cereal-based and snack foods and replacing juice or soft drink with water. These changes, together with avoiding adding fat to vegetables and using sources of lean meat, reduced energy intake by approximately 10%, total fat intake by approximately 30% and saturated fat intake by 53%. Modifying six areas of food choices results in a moderate reduction in fat and energy intake. An eating pattern that is consistent with Australian dietary guidelines and uses foods commonly eaten by children is achievable for children aged 6-9 years. These food-based recommendations provide an evidence-based dietary framework for prevention and management of overweight in children.

  4. Maternal methyl donors supplementation during lactation prevents the hyperhomocysteinemia induced by a high-fat-sucrose intake by dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, Paul; Milagro, Fermin I; Campion, Javier; Martinez, J Alfredo

    2013-12-16

    Maternal perinatal nutrition may program offspring metabolic features. Epigenetic regulation is one of the candidate mechanisms that may be affected by maternal dietary methyl donors intake as potential controllers of plasma homocysteine levels. Thirty-two Wistar pregnant rats were randomly assigned into four dietary groups during lactation: control, control supplemented with methyl donors, high-fat-sucrose and high-fat-sucrose supplemented with methyl donors. Physiological outcomes in the offspring were measured, including hepatic mRNA expression and global DNA methylation after weaning. The newborns whose mothers were fed the obesogenic diet were heavier longer and with a higher adiposity and intrahepatic fat content. Interestingly, increased levels of plasma homocysteine induced by the maternal high-fat-sucrose dietary intake were prevented in both sexes by maternal methyl donors supplementation. Total hepatic DNA methylation decreased in females due to maternal methyl donors administration, while Dnmt3a hepatic mRNA levels decreased accompanying the high-fat-sucrose consumption. Furthermore, a negative association between Dnmt3a liver mRNA levels and plasma homocysteine concentrations was found. Maternal high-fat-sucrose diet during lactation could program offspring obesity features, while methyl donors supplementation prevented the onset of high hyperhomocysteinemia. Maternal dietary intake also affected hepatic DNA methylation metabolism, which could be linked with the regulation of the methionine-homocysteine cycle.

  5. Maternal Methyl Donors Supplementation during Lactation Prevents the Hyperhomocysteinemia Induced by a High-Fat-Sucrose Intake by Dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Cordero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Maternal perinatal nutrition may program offspring metabolic features. Epigenetic regulation is one of the candidate mechanisms that may be affected by maternal dietary methyl donors intake as potential controllers of plasma homocysteine levels. Thirty-two Wistar pregnant rats were randomly assigned into four dietary groups during lactation: control, control supplemented with methyl donors, high-fat-sucrose and high-fat-sucrose supplemented with methyl donors. Physiological outcomes in the offspring were measured, including hepatic mRNA expression and global DNA methylation after weaning. The newborns whose mothers were fed the obesogenic diet were heavier longer and with a higher adiposity and intrahepatic fat content. Interestingly, increased levels of plasma homocysteine induced by the maternal high-fat-sucrose dietary intake were prevented in both sexes by maternal methyl donors supplementation. Total hepatic DNA methylation decreased in females due to maternal methyl donors administration, while Dnmt3a hepatic mRNA levels decreased accompanying the high-fat-sucrose consumption. Furthermore, a negative association between Dnmt3a liver mRNA levels and plasma homocysteine concentrations was found. Maternal high-fat-sucrose diet during lactation could program offspring obesity features, while methyl donors supplementation prevented the onset of high hyperhomocysteinemia. Maternal dietary intake also affected hepatic DNA methylation metabolism, which could be linked with the regulation of the methionine-homocysteine cycle.

  6. Interleukin-6 gene polymorphisms, dietary fat intake, obesity and serum lipid concentrations in black and white South African women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, Yael T; van der Merwe, Lize; Evans, Juliet; Collins, Malcolm; Lambert, Estelle V; September, Alison V; Goedecke, Julia H

    2014-06-24

    This study investigated interactions between dietary fat intake and IL-6 polymorphisms on obesity and serum lipids in black and white South African (SA) women. Normal-weight and obese, black and white women underwent measurements of body composition, serum lipids and dietary fat intake, and were genotyped for the IL-6 -174 G>C, IVS3 +281 G>T and IVS4 +869 A>G polymorphisms. In black women the IVS4 +869 G allele was associated with greater adiposity, and with increasing dietary fat intake adiposity increased in the IVS3 +281 GT+GG and IVS4 +869 AA or AG genotypes. In white women, with increasing omega-3 (n-3) intake and decreasing n-6:n-3 ratio, body mass index (BMI) decreased in those with the -174 C allele, IVS3 +281 T allele and IVS4 +869 AG genotype. In the white women, those with the IVS3 +281 T allele had lower triglycerides. Further, with increasing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA); triglyceride and total cholesterol:high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (T-C:HDL-C) ratio decreased in those with the -174 C allele. In black women, with increasing total fat intake, triglycerides and T-C:HDL-C ratio increased in those with the IVS4 +869 G allele. This study is the first to show that dietary fat intake modulates the relationship between the IL-6 -174 G>C, IVS3 +281 G>T and IVS4 +869 A>G polymorphisms on obesity and serum lipids in black and white SA women.

  7. Interactions of dietary fat intake and the hepatic kipase -480C-->T polymorphism in determining hepatic lipase activity: the Hoorn Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Griët; Dekker, J.M.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Ocke, M.C.; Nijpels, Giel

    2005-01-01

    Background: Gene-nutrient interactions affecting hepatic lipase (HL) activity may contribute to the interindividual variability of the cardiovascular disease risk associated with dietary fat intake. Objective: We determined the associations of dietary fat intake with postheparin HL activity and the

  8. Saturated fat intake modulates the association between an obesity genetic risk score and body mass index in two US populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas-Agustench, Patricia; Arnett, Donna K; Smith, Caren E; Lai, Chao-Qiang; Parnell, Laurence D; Borecki, Ingrid B; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C; Allison, Matthew; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Taylor, Kent D; Rich, Stephen S; Rotter, Jerome I; Lee, Yu-Chi; Ordovás, José M

    2014-12-01

    Combining multiple genetic variants related to obesity into a genetic risk score (GRS) might improve identification of individuals at risk of developing obesity. Moreover, characterizing gene-diet interactions is a research challenge to establish dietary recommendations to individuals with higher predisposition to obesity. Our objective was to analyze the association between an obesity GRS and body mass index (BMI) in the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) population, focusing on gene-diet interactions with total fat and saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake, and to replicate findings in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) population. Cross-sectional analyses included 783 white US participants from GOLDN and 2,035 from MESA. Dietary intakes were estimated with validated food frequency questionnaires. Height and weight were measured. A weighted GRS was calculated on the basis of 63 obesity-associated variants. Multiple linear regression models adjusted by potential confounders were used to examine gene-diet interactions between dietary intake (total fat and SFA) and the obesity GRS in determining BMI. Significant interactions were found between total fat intake and the obesity GRS using these variables as continuous for BMI (P for interaction=0.010, 0.046, and 0.002 in GOLDN, MESA, and meta-analysis, respectively). These association terms were stronger when assessing interactions between SFA intake and GRS for BMI (P for interaction=0.005, 0.018, and intake interacts with an obesity GRS in modulating BMI in two US populations. Although determining the causal direction requires further investigation, these findings suggest that potential dietary recommendations to reduce BMI effectively in populations with high obesity GRS would be to reduce total fat intake mainly by limiting SFAs. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Saturated fat intake modulates the association between a genetic risk score of obesity and BMI in two US populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas-Agustench, Patricia; Arnett, Donna K.; Smith, Caren E.; Lai, Chao-Qiang; Parnell, Laurence D.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C.; Allison, Matthew; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Taylor, Kent D.; Rich, Stephen S.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Lee, Yu-Chi; Ordovás, José M.

    2014-01-01

    Combining multiple genetic variants related to obesity into a genetic risk score (GRS) might improve identification of individuals at risk of developing obesity. Moreover, characterizing gene-diet interactions is a research challenge to establish dietary recommendations to individuals with higher predisposition to obesity. Our objective was to analyze the association between an obesity GRS and BMI in the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) population, focusing on gene-diet interactions with total fat and saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake and to replicate findings in Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) population. Cross-sectional analyses included 783 US Caucasian participants from GOLDN and 2035 from MESA. Dietary intakes were estimated with validated food frequency questionnaires. Height and weight were measured. A weighted GRS was calculated on the basis of 63 obesity-associated variants. Multiple linear regression models adjusted by potential confounders were used to examine gene-diet interactions between dietary intake (total fat and SFA) and the obesity GRS in determining BMI. Significant interactions were found between total fat intake and the obesity GRS using these variables as continuous for BMI (P for interaction=0.010, 0.046, and 0.002 in GOLDN, MESA and meta-analysis, respectively). These association terms were stronger when assessing interactions between SFA intake and GRS for BMI (P for interaction=0.005, 0.018, and intake interacts with an obesity GRS in modulating BMI in two US populations. Although to determine the causal direction requires further investigation, these findings suggest that potential dietary recommendations to reduce BMI effectively in populations with high obesity GRS would be to reduce total fat intake mainly by limiting SFAs. PMID:24794412

  10. Fat and protein intake and subsequent breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieri, Sabina; Krogh, Vittorio; Muti, Paola; Micheli, Andrea; Pala, Valeria; Crosignani, Paolo; Berrino, Franco

    2002-01-01

    The role of diet in the etiology of breast cancer has been extensively evaluated. Case-control studies generally support an association, while cohort studies have produced inconsistent results. This study, carried out on the ORDET cohort, is the first prospective Italian study to address the relation between diet and breast cancer. Female volunteers were recruited from 1987 to 1992 among residents of Varese Province, Northern Italy, an area covered by a cancer registry. A semiquantitative self-administered food questionnaire was completed by participants. After a mean 5.5 yr of follow-up, 56 cases of invasive breast cancer were identified among the 3,367 postmenopausal members; 214 controls were randomly chosen from the cohort, matched to cases for age, menopausal status at recruitment, recruitment center, and recruitment period. The adjusted odds ratios for the highest tertile of intake vs. the lowest were 3.47 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.43-8.44] for total fat, 3.78 (95% CI = 0.95-15.0) for animal protein, and 0.42 (95% CI = 0.18-0.95) for total carbohydrates. These findings indicate a significant positive association between total fat and animal protein and risk of breast cancer and an inverse association with carbohydrates and constitute new evidence for a role of diet in the etiology of breast cancer.

  11. Gene knockout of Acc2 has little effect on body weight, fat mass, or food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, David P; Pulinilkunnil, Thomas; Cline, Gary W; Shulman, Gerald I; Lowell, Bradford B

    2010-04-20

    Deletion of acetyl CoA carboxylase-2 (Acc2) reportedly causes leanness in the setting of hyperphagia. To determine the cellular basis for these effects, we generated a mouse model in which Acc2 can be selectively deleted by the action of Cre recombinase. Deletion of Acc2 from skeletal muscle, the predominant site of Acc2 expression, had no effect on body weight, food intake, or body composition. When Acc2 was inactivated in the germline, Acc2 knockout (Acc2KO) mice displayed no differences in body weight, food intake, body composition, or glucose homeostasis as compared to controls on chow or high fat diet. Total malonyl CoA content and fatty acid oxidation rates in skeletal muscle of Acc2KO mice were unchanged, suggesting metabolic compensation in response to the loss of Acc2. The limited impact of Acc2 deletion on energy balance raises the possibility that selective pharmacological inhibition of Acc2 for the treatment of obesity may be ineffective.

  12. Impact of foods with health logo on ssaturated fat, sodium and sugar intake of young Dutch adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temme, E.H.M.; Voet, van der H.; Roodenburg, A.; Bulder, A.; Donkersgoed, van A.; Klaveren, van J.D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Health logos are introduced to distinguish foods with ‘healthier’ nutrient composition from regular foods. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of changed food compositions according to health logo criteria on the intake of saturated fat, sugar and sodium in a Dutch population of

  13. Dietary Fat Intake and Exercise among Two- and Four-Year College Students: Differences in Behavior and Psychosocial Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Carla J.; An, Lawrence C.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2013-01-01

    Given the demographic differences among two-year colleges and four-year universities and the relatively limited access to health education and campus-based health resources, this study compares the frequency of limiting dietary fat intake and exercising among two- and four-year college students. A total of 2,265 undergraduate students aged 18-25…

  14. Dietary fat intake and subsequent weight change in adults: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forouhi, Nita G; Sharp, Stephen J; Du, Huaidong;

    2009-01-01

    weight divided by duration of follow-up). DESIGN: We analyzed data from 89,432 men and women from 6 cohorts of the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) study. Using country-specific food-frequency questionnaires, we examined the association between baseline fat intake...

  15. Dietary intake of saturated fat by food source and incident cardiovascular disease: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliveira Otto, de M.C.; Mozaffarian, D.; Kromhout, D.; Bertoni, A.G.; Sibley, C.T.; Jacobs, D.R.; Nettleton, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although dietary recommendations have focused on restricting saturated fat (SF) consumption to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, evidence from prospective studies has not supported a strong link between total SF intake and CVD events. An understanding of whether food sources of S

  16. Impact of foods with health logo on ssaturated fat, sodium and sugar intake of young Dutch adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temme, E.H.M.; Voet, van der H.; Roodenburg, A.; Bulder, A.; Donkersgoed, van A.; Klaveren, van J.D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Health logos are introduced to distinguish foods with ‘healthier’ nutrient composition from regular foods. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of changed food compositions according to health logo criteria on the intake of saturated fat, sugar and sodium in a Dutch population of

  17. Appetite and food intake after consumption of sausages with 10% fat and added wheat or rye bran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vuholm, Stine; Arildsen Jakobsen, Louise Margrethe; Sørensen, Karina Vejrum

    2014-01-01

    The use of dietary fibers as fat-replacers in sausages gives less energy-dense and thereby healthier foods. Also, dietary fibers have been shown to induce satiety. The objectives of this study were to investigate if appetite sensations and energy intake was affected by (1) addition of dietary fib...

  18. Effects of sleep disruption and high fat intake on glucose metabolism in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Jacqueline M; Barf, R Paulien; Opp, Mark R

    2016-06-01

    Poor sleep quality or quantity impairs glycemic control and increases risk of disease under chronic conditions. Recovery sleep may offset adverse metabolic outcomes of accumulated sleep debt, but the extent to which this occurs is unclear. We examined whether recovery sleep improves glucose metabolism in mice subjected to prolonged sleep disruption, and whether high fat intake during sleep disruption exacerbates glycemic control. Adult male C57BL/6J mice were subjected to 18-h sleep fragmentation daily for 9 days, followed by 1 day of recovery. During sleep disruption, one group of mice was fed a high-fat diet (HFD) while another group was fed standard laboratory chow. Insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance were assessed by insulin and glucose tolerance testing at baseline, after 3 and 7 days of sleep disruption, and at the end of the protocol after 24h of undisturbed sleep opportunity (recovery). To characterize changes in sleep architecture that are associated with sleep debt and recovery, we quantified electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings during sleep fragmentation and recovery periods from an additional group of mice. We now report that 9 days of 18-h daily sleep fragmentation significantly reduces rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) and non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS). Mice respond with increases in REMS, but not NREMS, during the daily 6-h undisturbed sleep opportunity. However, both REMS and NREMS increase significantly during the 24-h recovery period. Although sleep disruption alone has no effect in this protocol, high fat feeding in combination with sleep disruption impairs glucose tolerance, effects that are reversed by recovery sleep. Insulin sensitivity modestly improves after 3 days of sleep fragmentation and after 24h of recovery, with significantly greater improvements in mice exposed to HFD during sleep disruption. Improvements in both glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity are associated with NREMS rebound, raising the possibility that this

  19. Maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy, early growth and body fat distribution at school-age. The Generation R Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voerman, Ellis; Jaddoe, Vincent WV; Gishti, Olta; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H.; Gaillard, Romy

    2017-01-01

    Objective We examined the associations of maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy with offspring growth patterns, and body fat and insulin levels at school-age. Methods In a population-based birth cohort among 7,857 mothers and their children, we assessed maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy by questionnaires. Growth characteristics were measured from birth onwards. At 6 years, body fat and insulin levels were measured. Results Compared to children whose mothers consumed <2 units of caffeine per day during pregnancy (1 unit of caffeine is equivalent to 1 cup of coffee (90 mg caffeine)), those whose mothers consumed ≥6 units of caffeine per day tended to have a lower weight at birth, higher weight gain from birth to 6 years and higher body mass index from 6 months to 6 years. Both children whose mothers consumed 4-5.9 and ≥6 units of caffeine per day during pregnancy tended to have a higher childhood body mass index and total body fat mass. Only children whose mothers consumed ≥6 units of caffeine per day had a higher android/gynoid fat mass ratio. Conclusions Our results suggest that high levels of maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy are associated with adverse offspring growth patterns and childhood body fat distribution. PMID:27015969

  20. Clinical review: Regulation of food intake, energy balance, and body fat mass: implications for the pathogenesis and treatment of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyenet, Stephan J; Schwartz, Michael W

    2012-03-01

    Obesity has emerged as one of the leading medical challenges of the 21st century. The resistance of this disorder to effective, long-term treatment can be traced to the fact that body fat stores are subject to homeostatic regulation in obese individuals, just as in lean individuals. Because the growing obesity epidemic is linked to a substantial increase in daily energy intake, a key priority is to delineate how mechanisms governing food intake and body fat content are altered in an obesogenic environment. We considered all relevant published research and cited references that represented the highest quality evidence available. Where space permitted, primary references were cited. The increase of energy intake that has fueled the U.S. obesity epidemic is linked to greater availability of highly rewarding/palatable and energy-dense food. Obesity occurs in genetically susceptible individuals and involves the biological defense of an elevated body fat mass, which may result in part from interactions between brain reward and homeostatic circuits. Inflammatory signaling, accumulation of lipid metabolites, or other mechanisms that impair hypothalamic neurons may also contribute to the development of obesity and offer a plausible mechanism to explain the biological defense of elevated body fat mass. Despite steady research progress, mechanisms underlying the resistance to fat loss once obesity is established remain incompletely understood. Breakthroughs in this area may be required for the development of effective new obesity prevention and treatment strategies.

  1. Regulation of Food Intake, Energy Balance, and Body Fat Mass: Implications for the Pathogenesis and Treatment of Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyenet, Stephan J.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Obesity has emerged as one of the leading medical challenges of the 21st century. The resistance of this disorder to effective, long-term treatment can be traced to the fact that body fat stores are subject to homeostatic regulation in obese individuals, just as in lean individuals. Because the growing obesity epidemic is linked to a substantial increase in daily energy intake, a key priority is to delineate how mechanisms governing food intake and body fat content are altered in an obesogenic environment. Evidence Acquisition: We considered all relevant published research and cited references that represented the highest quality evidence available. Where space permitted, primary references were cited. Evidence Synthesis: The increase of energy intake that has fueled the U.S. obesity epidemic is linked to greater availability of highly rewarding/palatable and energy-dense food. Obesity occurs in genetically susceptible individuals and involves the biological defense of an elevated body fat mass, which may result in part from interactions between brain reward and homeostatic circuits. Inflammatory signaling, accumulation of lipid metabolites, or other mechanisms that impair hypothalamic neurons may also contribute to the development of obesity and offer a plausible mechanism to explain the biological defense of elevated body fat mass. Conclusions: Despite steady research progress, mechanisms underlying the resistance to fat loss once obesity is established remain incompletely understood. Breakthroughs in this area may be required for the development of effective new obesity prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:22238401

  2. Intake of carbohydrates during pregnancy in obese women is associated with fat mass in the newborn offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renault, Kristina M; Carlsen, Emma M; Nørgaard, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Transmission of obesity across generations is of concern. Offspring of obese women have short- and long-term increased morbidities. A high intake of carbohydrate during pregnancy combined with impaired glucose tolerance is postulated to result in high birth weight, which is linked...... to subsequent metabolic disease. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine the association between carbohydrate intake in obese pregnant women and their offspring's body composition. DESIGN: Secondary analyses were performed in an observational setting of 222 pregnant women with a pregestational BMI (in kg/m(2...... with the offspring's relative fat mass in late (P-trend = 0.006) but not early (P-trend = 0.15) pregnancy. A comparison of mothers in the highest (median: 238 g/d) compared with the lowest (median: 188 g/d) quartile of digestible carbohydrate intake showed a mean adjusted higher value in the offspring's relative fat...

  3. The effect of increasing dairy calcium intake of adolescent girls on changes in body fat and weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappe, Joan M; McMahon, Donald J; Laughlin, Ann; Hanson, Corrine; Desmangles, Jean Claude; Begley, Margaret; Schwartz, Misty

    2017-03-15

    Background: Overweight is epidemic in adolescents and is a major concern because it tracks into adulthood. Evidence supports the efficacy of high-calcium, high-dairy diets in achieving healthy weight in adults. However, no randomized controlled trials of the effect of dairy food on weight and body fat in adolescents have been reported to our knowledge.Objective: The aim was to determine whether increasing calcium intake to recommended amounts with dairy foods in adolescent girls with habitually low calcium intakes would decrease body fat gain compared with girls who continued their low calcium intake. Participants had above-the-median body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)).Design: We enrolled 274 healthy postmenarcheal 13- to 14-y-old overweight girls who had calcium intakes of ≤600 mg/d in a 12-mo randomized controlled trial. Girls were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to 1 of 2 groups within each of 3 BMI percentiles: 50th to dairy, which included low-fat milk or yogurt servings providing ≥1200 mg Ca/d or 2) control, which included the usual diet of ≤600 mg Ca/d.Results: We failed to detect a statistically significant difference between groups in percentage of body fat gain over 12 mo (mean ± SEM: dairy 0.40% ± 0.53% > control; P dairy group gained body fat similar to the control group provide no support for dairy food as a stratagem to decrease body fat or weight gain in overweight adolescent girls. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01066806.

  4. The correlation between dietary fatintake and blood pressure among ‎people with spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadis Sabour

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies have demonstrated the effect of different dietary fats on blood pressure (BP in general population. However, these associations have not yet been described in people with spinal cord injury (SCI.Methods: Referred patients to Brain and SCI Research Center between 2011 and 2014 have been invited to participate. Only paraplegic individuals were recruited and patients with injury at cervical or higher thoracic sections were excluded to omit the bias effect of autonomic dysreflexia. Dietary intakes were assessed by recording consumed foods by 24-hour dietary recall interviews using Nutritionist IV 3.5.3 modified for Iranian foods. Systolic BP (SBP and diastolic BP (DBP were measured 3 times and the mean values entered analysis.Results: Higher intakes of cholesterol were related to higher BP (P = 0.010 and 0.011 for SBP and DBP, respectively. Similarly, intake of saturated fat was positively correlated to both SBP (P = 0.016, r = 0.21 and DBP (P = 0.011, r = 0.22. The effect of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA on BP was insignificant (P = 0.760 and 0.720 for SBP and DBP, respectively. However, intake of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA was related to lower BP among people with SCI.Conclusion: This study has demonstrated that higher intakes of cholesterol and saturated fat are associated with increased BP, whereas DHA is an antihypertensive agent. Dietary modifications with reduction of cholesterol and saturated fat along with intake of additional DHA supplements may help to reduce BP in spinal cord injured-individuals with hypertension.

  5. Effects of estradiol on food intake and meal patterns for diets that differ in flavor and fat content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butera, Peter C; Wojcik, Danielle M; Clough, Shannon J

    2010-01-12

    Apart from the well known inhibitory effects of estradiol on food intake, meal size, and body weight in female rats that have been documented over the past thirty years, a more recent report presents the opposite finding; that a large dose of estradiol can increase food intake and weight gain in gonadally intact female rats presented with a palatable diet. The purpose of the present experiment was to further examine this hypothesis by evaluating the ability of estradiol to influence feeding behavior in ovariectomized rats presented with diets that differ in flavor and fat content. Female rats were given a cyclic regimen of estradiol benzoate treatment (5.0 or 20.0 microg) or the oil vehicle and were presented with the standard chow diet or a diet with a higher fat content and chocolate flavor. Food intake, meal size, and meal number were monitored three days after the first injection of estradiol or oil. Compared to the chow diet, food intake increased when animals had access to the chocolate/fat diet during the vehicle treatment condition. Both doses of estradiol significantly decreased food intake, meal size, and body weight gain when animals were presented with either the standard chow diet or the chocolate/fat diet. These findings indicate that estradiol does not stimulate the intake of a palatable diet in ovariectomized rats, and suggest that previous results showing that estradiol enhanced eating and weight gain stemmed from a disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis when intact females received a large dose of exogenous estradiol.

  6. Effect of increased intake of dietary animal fat and fat energy on oxidative damage, mutation frequency, DNA adduct level and DNA repair in rat colon and liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Ulla; Daneshvar, Bahram; Autrup, Herman;

    2003-01-01

    was observed. Intake of lard fat resulted in increased ascorbate synthesis and affected markers of oxidative damage to proteins in liver cytosol, but not in plasma. The effect was observed at all lard doses and was not dose-dependent. However, no evidence of increased oxidative DNA damage was found in liver...... supplemented with 0, 3, 10 or 30% w/w lard. After 3 weeks, the mutation frequency, DNA repair gene expression, DNA damage and oxidative markers were determined in liver, colon and plasma. The mutation frequency of the lambda gene cII did not increase with increased fat or energy intake in colon or liver....... The DNA-adduct level measured by 32P-postlabelling decreased in both liver and colon with increased fat intake. In liver, this was accompanied by a 2-fold increase of the mRNA level of nucleotide excision repair (NER) gene ERCC1. In colon, a non-statistically significant increase in the ERCC1 mRNA levels...

  7. Effect of increased intake of dietary animal fat and fat energy on oxidative damage, mutation frequency, DNA adduct level and DNA repair in rat colon and liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Ulla Birgitte; Danesvar, B.; Autrup, H.;

    2003-01-01

    was observed. Intake of lard fat resulted in increased ascorbate synthesis and affected markers of oxidative damage to proteins in liver cytosol, but not in plasma. The effect was observed at all lard doses and was not dose-dependent. However, no evidence of increased oxidative DNA damage was found in liver...... supplemented with 0, 3, 10 or 30% w/w lard. After 3 weeks, the mutation frequency, DNA repair gene expression, DNA damage and oxidative markers were determined in liver, colon and plasma. The mutation frequency of the lambda gene cII did not increase with increased fat or energy intake in colon or liver....... The DNA-adduct level measured by P-32-postlabelling decreased in both liver and colon with increased fat intake. In liver, this was accompanied by a 2-fold increase of the mRNA level of nucleotide excision repair (NER) gene ERCC1. In colon, a non-statistically significant increase in the ERCC1 mRNA levels...

  8. Association of intakes of fat, dietary fibre, soya isoflavones and alcohol with uterine fibroids in Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Chisato; Nakamura, Kozue; Oba, Shino; Hayashi, Makoto; Takeda, Noriyuki; Yasuda, Keigo

    2009-05-01

    Certain dietary components which could affect oestrogen may have implications in the aetiology of uterine fibroids. We previously found that soya intake was inversely associated with a subsequent risk of hysterectomy, suggesting a potentially protective effect of soya against uterine fibroids, the major clinical indication for hysterectomy. We cross-sectionally assessed the associations of intakes of fat, soya foods, dietary fibre and alcohol with uterine fibroids. Study subjects were 285 premenopausal Japanese women participating in a health-check up programme, including gynaecological examinations, provided by a general hospital between October 2003 and March 2006. The presence of fibroids was confirmed by transvaginal sonogram. If women had undergone hysterectomy, self-report of fibroids was accepted. Each subject's usual diet, including alcohol, was determined with the use of a validated FFQ. Fifty-four women were identified as prevalent cases of fibroids or having had hysterectomy due to fibroids. The mean alcohol intake was statistically significantly higher among women with fibroids than among those without fibroids after controlling for known or suspected risk factors. For the highest compared with the lowest tertile of alcohol intake, the OR of uterine fibroids was 2.78 (95% CI 1.25, 6.20). There was no significant association of intake of fats, soya isoflavones or dietary fibre with uterine fibroids. The data suggest that higher alcohol intake is associated with a higher prevalence of uterine fibroids. Further studies on diet, especially phyto-oestrogens, and uterine fibroids are needed given the limited data currently available.

  9. Effect of a 3-day high-fat feeding period on carbohydrate balance and ad libitum energy intake in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galgani, J E; de Jonge, L; Most, M M; Bray, G A; Smith, S R

    2010-05-01

    A reduction in glycogen after the switch to an isoenergetic high-fat diet (HFD) might promote a compensatory increase in food intake to reestablish carbohydrate balance. We assessed the effect of an isoenergetic switch from a 49%-carbohydrate to 50%-fat diet on nutrient balance and ad libitum food intake. We hypothesized that carbohydrate balance would be inversely related to ad libitum energy intake. In 47 men and 11 women (22.6+/-0.4 years; 26.1+/-0.5 kg m(-2)), fuel balance was measured in a respiration chamber over 4 days. During the first day, an isoenergetic, high-carbohydrate diet was provided followed by a 3-day isoenergetic, HFD. At the end of this period and after 16 h of fasting, three options of foods (cookies, fruit salad and turkey sandwich) were offered ad libitum for 4 h. The relationships between post-chamber ad libitum intake and macronutrient oxidation and balance measured day-to-day and over the 4-day respiration chamber stay were studied. After switching to a HFD, 24-h respiratory quotient decreased from 0.87+/-0.02 to 0.83+/-0.02 (Plibitum energy intake. However, we detected that 4-day carbohydrate balance was a positive and independent predictor of post-chamber ad libitum energy intake (R (2)=0.10; P=0.01), whereas no significant influence of fat and protein balances was found. In response to an isoenergetic change from a high-carbohydrate to HFD, higher carbohydrate balance related to increased energy intake.

  10. Effects of a low-fat vegan diet and a Step II diet on macro- and micronutrient intakes in overweight postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Barnard, Neal D; Scialli, Anthony R; Lanou, Amy J

    2004-09-01

    This study investigated the nutrient intake of overweight postmenopausal women assigned to a low-fat vegan diet or a Step II diet. Fifty-nine overweight (body mass index, 26 to 44 kg/m2) postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to a self-selected low-fat vegan or a National Cholesterol Education Program Step II diet in a 14-wk controlled trial on weight loss and metabolism. Nutrient intake, which was measured per 1000 kcal, was the main outcome measure. Statistical analyses included within-group and between-group t tests examining changes associated with each diet. Consumption of a low-fat vegan diet was associated with greater decreases in fat, saturated fat, protein, and cholesterol intakes and greater increases in carbohydrate, fiber, beta-carotene, and total vitamin A intakes than was a Step II diet. The low-fat vegan group also increased thiamin, vitamin B6, and magnesium intakes more than the Step II group, and both groups increased folic acid, vitamin C, and potassium intakes. If considering only food sources of micronutrients, the low-fat vegan group decreased vitamin D, vitamin B12, calcium, selenium, phosphorous, and zinc intakes compared with baseline. However, with incidental supplements included, decreases were evident only in phosphorous and selenium intakes. No micronutrient decreases were found in the Step II group. Individuals on a low-fat vegan or Step II diet should take steps to meet the recommended intakes of vitamin D, vitamin K, folic acid, calcium, magnesium, and zinc. Individuals on a low-fat vegan diet should also ensure adequate intakes of vitamin B12, phosphorous, and selenium.

  11. The relationship between the social environment within religious organizations and intake of fat versus fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Alton; Bowen, Deborah J; Kuniyuki, Alan; Hannon, Peggy; Campbell, Marci K

    2007-06-01

    The authors explored associations of social environment with dietary behavior among participants in the Eating for a Healthy Life study, a randomized, low-fat, high-fruit-and-vegetable dietary intervention trial in religious organizations. Data in this report are from baseline telephone surveys of 1,520 persons that assessed dietary behaviors (Fat- and Fiber-Related Diet Behavior Questionnaire) and social environment (Moos Group Environment Scale). After adjusting for demographic characteristics, higher scores on the Cohesion and Order/Organization subscales were associated with higher fruit/vegetable scores (indicating higher fruit and vegetable consumption). Higher scores on the Cohesion, Leader Support, and Order/Organization subscales were also associated with lower fat scores (indicating lower fat intake). Dietary behaviors within religious organizations may be related to positive perceptions of the social environment. These results support further exploration of the potential influence of religious organizations' social environment on health behaviors and its applicability to dietary change interventions.

  12. Diet-gene interactions between dietary fat intake and common polymorphisms in determining lipid metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corella, Dolores

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Current dietary guidelines for fat intake have not taken into consideration the possible genetic differences underlying the individual variability in responsiveness to dietary components. Genetic variability has been identified in humans for all the known lipid metabolim-related genes resulting in a plethora of candidate genes and genetic variants to examine in diet-gene interaction studies focused on fat consumption. Some examples of fat-gene interaction are reviewed. These include: the interaction between total intake and the 514C/T in the hepatic lipase gene promoter in determining high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C metabolism; the interaction between polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and the 75G/A polymorphism in the APOA1 gene plasma HDL-C concentrations; the interaction between PUFA and the L162V polymorphism in the PPARA gene in determining triglycerides and APOC3 concentrations; and the interaction between PUFA intake and the 1131TC in the APOA5 gene in determining triglyceride metabolism. Although hundreds of diet-gene interaction studies in lipid metabolism have been published, the level of evidence to make specific nutritional recommendations to the population is still low and more research in nutrigenetics has to be undertaken.Las recomendaciones dietéticas actuales referentes al consumo de grasas en la dieta han sido realizadas sin tener en cuenta las posibles diferencias genéticas de las personas que podrían ser las responsables de las diferentes respuestas interindividuales que frecuentemente se observan ante la misma dieta. La presencia de variabilidad genética ha sido puesta de manifiesto para todos los genes relacionados con el metabolismo lipídico, por lo que existe un ingente número de genes y de variantes genéticas para ser incluidas en los estudios sobre interacciones dieta-genotipo en el ámbito específico del consumo de grasas y aceites. Se revisarán algunos ejemplos sobre interacciones grasa

  13. Isocaloric intake of a high-fat diet modifies adiposity and lipid handling in a sex dependent manner in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lladó Isabel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-fat (HF diet feeding usually leads to hyperphagia and body weight gain, but macronutrient proportions in the diet can modulate energy intake and fat deposition. The mechanisms of fat accumulation and mobilization may differ significantly between depots, and gender can also influence these differences. Aim To investigate, in rats of both sexes, the effect of an isocaloric intake of a diet with an unbalanced proportion of macronutrients on fatty acid composition of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues and how this is influenced by both dietary fatty acids and levels of proteins involved in tissue lipid handling. Methods Eight-week-old Wistar rats of both sexes were fed a control diet (3% w/w fat or high-fat diet (30% w/w fat for 14 weeks. Fatty acid composition was analyzed by gas-chromatography and levels of LPL, HSL, α2-AR, β3-AR, PKA and CPT1 were determined by Western blot. Results The HF diet did not induce hyperphagia or body weight gain, but promoted an increase of adiposity index only in male rats. HF diet produced an increase of the proportion of MUFA and a decrease in that of PUFA in both adipose depots and in both sexes. The levels of proteins involved in the adrenergic control of the lipolytic pathway increased in the gonadal fat of HF females, whereas LPL levels increased in the inguinal fat of HF males and decreased in that of females. Conclusion Sexual dimorphism in adiposity index reflects a differential sex response to dietary fatty acid content and could be related to the levels of the proteins involved in tissue lipid management.

  14. Effects of dietary protein to carbohydrate balance on energy intake, fat storage, and heat production in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xin; Hancock, Dale P; Gosby, Alison K; McMahon, Aisling C; Solon, Samantha M C; Le Couteur, David G; Conigrave, Arthur D; Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J

    2013-01-01

    Protein leverage plays a role in driving increased energy intakes that may promote weight gain. The influence of the protein to carbohydrate ratio (P:C) in diets of C57BL/6J mice on total energy intake, fat storage, and thermogenesis was investigated. Male mice (9 weeks old) were provided ad libitum access to one of five isocaloric diets that differed in P:C. Food intake was recorded for 12 weeks. After 16 weeks, white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) deposits were dissected, weighed, and the expression levels of key metabolic regulators were determined in BAT. In a separate cohort, body surface temperature was measured in response to 25 diets differing in protein, fat, and carbohydrate content. Mice on low P:C diets (9:72 and 17:64) had greater total energy intake and increased WAT and BAT stores. Body surface temperature increased with total energy intake and with protein, fat, and carbohydrate, making similar contributions per kJ ingested. Expression of three key regulators of thermogenesis were downregulated in BAT in mice on the lowest P:C diet. Low-protein diets induced sustained hyperphagia and a generalized expansion of fat stores. Increased body surface temperature on low P:C diets was consistent with diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) as a means to dissipate excess ingested energy on such diets, although this was not sufficient to prevent development of increased adiposity. Whether BAT was involved in DIT is not clear. Increased BAT mass on low P:C diets might suggest so, but patterns of thermogenic gene expression do not support a role for BAT in DIT, although they might reflect failure of thermogenic function with prolonged exposure to a low P:C diet. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  15. 富含缓释淀粉高单不饱和脂肪酸型肠内营养制剂对糖耐量异常患者糖脂代谢的影响%Effect of enteral nutrition containing slow-release starch and high-monounsaturated-fat on blood glucose and lipid metabolism in patients with impaired glucose tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴文俊; 项松英; 沈飞霞; 王毅; 陈雄; 谷雪梅

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察富含缓释淀粉高单不饱和脂肪酸(MUFA)肠内营养(EN)制剂对糖耐量异常(IGT)患者糖脂代谢的影响。方法:62例IGT患者随机分为试验餐组(n=32)和普通餐组(n=30)。试验餐组服用富含缓释淀粉高MUFA的EN制剂(雅培益力佳SR)替代早餐,普通餐组服用等热量的纯牛奶+淡馒头,所有患者分别于干预前和干预4周后检测空腹血糖(FPG)、餐后2 h血糖(PPG)、空腹胰岛素(FINS)、餐后2 h胰岛素(PINS)以及血脂系列,就各项指标进行组内前后比较和组间比较。结果:试验餐组干预4周后体质量以及PPG、PINS、血清甘油三脂(TG)、总胆固醇(TC)、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-c)均低于干预前,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05或P<0.01);干预后,试验餐组PPG、PINS、TG、TC和LDL-c均低于普通餐组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01或P<0.05)。结论:富含缓释淀粉高MUFA的EN制剂有利于降低单纯IGT患者PPG和PINS水平,并改善脂质代谢。%Objective: To investigate the effects of enteral nutrition containing slow-release starch and high-monounsaturated-fat on blood and lipid metabolism in patients with impaired glucose tolerance.Methods:Sixty-two patients with impaired glucose tolerance from out-patient clinic were randomized to experimental meal group (Abbott Glucerna SR,n=32) and common breakfast group (isocaloric normal oral diet,n=30), the fasting plasma glucose, 2-hour postprandial plasma glucose, fasting insulin, 2-hour postprandial insulin, serum lipid pro-ifle were examined before and after 4-week intervention, and the parameters were compared within groups and between groups.Results: The 2-hour postprandial plasma glucose, postprandial serum insulin, serum triglycer-ide, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol signiifcantly decreased in experimental meal group (P<0.05 orP<0.01), when compared with that of

  16. Changes in Dietary Fat Intake and Projections for Coronary Heart Disease Mortality in Sweden: A Simulation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björck, Lena; Rosengren, Annika; Winkvist, Anna; Capewell, Simon; Adiels, Martin; Bandosz, Piotr; Critchley, Julia; Boman, Kurt; Guzman-Castillo, Maria; O’Flaherty, Martin; Johansson, Ingegerd

    2016-01-01

    Objective In Sweden, previous favourable trends in blood cholesterol levels have recently levelled off or even increased in some age groups since 2003, potentially reflecting changing fashions and attitudes towards dietary saturated fatty acids (SFA). We aimed to examine the potential effect of different SFA intake on future coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality in 2025. Methods We compared the effect on future CHD mortality of two different scenarios for fat intake a) daily SFA intake decreasing to 10 energy percent (E%), and b) daily SFA intake rising to 20 E%. We assumed that there would be moderate improvements in smoking (5%), salt intake (1g/day) and physical inactivity (5% decrease) to continue recent, positive trends. Results In the baseline scenario which assumed that recent mortality declines continue, approximately 5,975 CHD deaths might occur in year 2025. Anticipated improvements in smoking, dietary salt intake and physical activity, would result in some 380 (-6.4%) fewer deaths (235 in men and 145 in women). In combination with a mean SFA daily intake of 10 E%, a total of 810 (-14%) fewer deaths would occur in 2025 (535 in men and 275 in women). If the overall consumption of SFA rose to 20 E%, the expected mortality decline would be wiped out and approximately 20 (0.3%) additional deaths might occur. Conclusion CHD mortality may increase as a result of unfavourable trends in diets rich in saturated fats resulting in increases in blood cholesterol levels. These could cancel out the favourable trends in salt intake, smoking and physical activity. PMID:27490257

  17. The effect of fat intake and antihypertensive drug therapy on serum lipid profile: a cross-sectional survey of serum lipids in male and female hypertensives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rakesh; Raghuram, T C; Rao, U Brahmoji; Moffatt, Robert J; Krishnaswamy, Kamla

    2010-10-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of betablocker with diuretics therapy on serum cholesterol and high density lipoprotein (HDL-C) lipids in cross-sectional data (age, sex, weight, and body mass index (BMI), smoking/alcoholic consumption) and supplemented vegetarian low-fat diet with daily low fat energy intake, salt intake, duration of drug therapy, and serum protein as effective measures of lowering blood pressure among hypertensives in both males and females. Hypertensive patients on betablocker and/or thiazide therapy were compared in cross-section study with their age, blood pressure, fat intake, serum lipid profile, BMI, and serum albumin in males and females. Dietary fat intake and serum lipid profile were income related. Betablocker and diuretics therapy in combination with dietary fat intervention was beneficial for prolonged dyslipidemia control. Serum cholesterol level was main contributing factor dependent on BMI, duration of drug, and socio-economic factors. Fat intake contributed in hypertension and serum cholesterol levels. A cross-sectional data analysis showed beneficial effects of "low fat-salt-smoking-alcohol consumption and combined polyunsaturated fatty acid with antihypertensive therapy approach" to keep normal dyslipidemia and hypertension. Low fat intake, low salt, smoking, alcohol consumption, and combination of dietary oil supplements with lipid betablockers and diuretic modulators were associated with low hypertension and controlled dyslipidemia in Asian sedentary population.

  18. A common polymorphism near the interleukin-6 gene modifies the association between dietary fat intake and insulin sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuda C

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cristina Cuda1, Bibiana Garcia-Bailo1,2, Mohamed Karmali1,2, Ahmed El-Sohemy1, Alaa Badawi21Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, 2Office of Biotechnology, Genomics and Population Health, Public Health Agency of Canada, Toronto, Ontario, CanadaBackground: Increasing evidence suggests a role for inflammation in the development of type 2 diabetes. Elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-6, have been associated with insulin resistance, and dietary lipids can increase cytokine production. The objective of this study was to determine whether a single nucleotide polymorphism near the IL6 gene (rs7801406 modifies the relationship between dietary fat and markers of insulin sensitivity.Methods: Subjects were healthy men and women aged 20–29 years from the Toronto Nutrigenomics and Health Study. Dietary intake was estimated using a one-month semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Fasting blood samples were taken for genotyping and biomarker measurement.Results: The single nucleotide polymorphism was not associated with any of the measures of insulin sensitivity. However, it modified the relationship between total dietary fat and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (P = 0.053 for interaction. Total fat intake was positively related to HOMA-IR in individuals homozygous for the G allele (ß = 0.005 ± 0.002, P = 0.03, but not among heterozygotes. There was an inverse relationship between total fat intake and HOMA-IR in individuals who were homozygous for the A allele (β= –0.012 ± 0.006, P = 0.047.Conclusion: These findings suggest that dietary fat influences insulin sensitivity differently depending on genotype.Keywords: interleukin-6, insulin sensitivity, nutrigenomics, dietary fat

  19. Bromocriptine increased operant responding for high fat food but decreased chow intake in both obesity-prone and resistant rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thanos, P.K.; Wang, G.; Thanos, P.K.; Cho, J. Kim, R.; Michaelides, M.; Primeaux, S.; Bray, G.; Wang, G.-J.; Volkow, N.D.

    2010-10-27

    Dopamine (DA) and DAD{sub 2} receptors (D2R) have been implicated in obesity and are thought to be involved in the rewarding properties of food. Osborne-Mendel (OM) rats are susceptible to diet induced obesity (DIO) while S5B/P (S5B) rats are resistant when given a high-fat diet. Here we hypothesized that the two strains would differ in high-fat food self-administration (FSA) and that the D2R agonist bromocriptine (BC) would differently affect their behavior. Ad-libitum fed OM and S5B/P rats were tested in a FSA operant chamber and were trained to lever press for high-fat food pellets under a fixed-ratio (FR1) and a progressive ratio (PR) schedule. After sixteen days of PR sessions, rats were treated with three different doses of BC (1, 10 and 20 mg/kg). No significant differences were found between the two strains in the number of active lever presses. BC treatment (10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg) increased the number of active lever presses (10 mg/kg having the strongest effect) whereas it decreased rat chow intake in the home cage with equivalent effects in both strains. These effects were not observed on the day of BC administration but on the day following its administration. Our results suggest that these two strains have similar motivation for procuring high fat food using this paradigm. BC increased operant responding for high-fat pellets but decreased chow intake in both strains, suggesting that D2R stimulation may have enhanced the motivational drive to procure the fatty food while correspondingly decreasing the intake of regular food. These findings suggest that susceptibility to dietary obesity (prior to the onset of obesity) may not affect operant motivation for a palatable high fat food and that differential susceptibility to obesity may be related to differential sensitivity to D2R stimulation.

  20. Specific food intake, fat and fiber intake, and behavioral correlates of BMI among overweight and obese members of a managed care organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherwood Nancy E

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study examined correlates of body mass index (BMI in overweight and obese members of a managed care organization seeking treatment for obesity. It assessed intake of specific foods, dietary fat or fiber, and behaviors attempted to control weight. Methods Participants were 508 men and 1293 women who were > 18 years and had a self-reported BMI > 27.0. This paper reports analyses of baseline and 24-month follow-up data from a randomized weight-loss trial. Cross-sectional and prospective relationships between BMI and behaviors were examined with regression analyses controlling for age and education. Results At baseline, hamburger and beef consumption were associated with higher BMI for men; for women, hamburger, fried chicken, hot dog, bacon or sausage, egg, French fry, and overall fat consumption were associated with higher BMI, while eating high fiber cereal, fruit, and overall fiber intake were associated with lower BMI. Virtually all forms of weight control behavior were reported more often in heavier people. Subscribing to exercise magazines, however, was associated with lower BMI. Decreased fat intake and increased fruit/vegetable/fiber intake over the course of the study were associated with reductions in BMI at 24 months. Conclusion The same behaviors that differentiate individuals with different body weight in the general population also differentiate between individuals of different body weights at the high end of the weight distribution. Educational efforts aimed at preventing weight gain and reducing obesity might benefit from focusing on specific foods known to be associated empirically with body weight and weight change over time.

  1. Passive and active roles of fat-free mass in the control of energy intake and body composition regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulloo, A G; Jacquet, J; Miles-Chan, J L; Schutz, Y

    2017-03-01

    While putative feedback signals arising from adipose tissue are commonly assumed to provide the molecular links between the body's long-term energy requirements and energy intake, the available evidence suggests that the lean body or fat-free mass (FFM) also plays a role in the drive to eat. A distinction must, however, be made between a 'passive' role of FFM in driving energy intake, which is likely to be mediated by 'energy-sensing' mechanisms that translate FFM-induced energy requirements to energy intake, and a more 'active' role of FFM in the drive to eat through feedback signaling between FFM deficit and energy intake. Consequently, a loss of FFM that results from dieting or sedentarity should be viewed as a risk factor for weight regain and increased fatness not only because of the impact of the FFM deficit in lowering the maintenance energy requirement but also because of the body's attempt to restore FFM by overeating-a phenomenon referred to as 'collateral fattening'. A better understanding of these passive and active roles of FFM in the control of energy intake will necessitate the elucidation of peripheral signals and energy-sensing mechanisms that drive hunger and appetite, with implications for both obesity prevention and its management.

  2. Time restricted feeding without reducing caloric intake prevents metabolic diseases in mice fed a high fat diet

    OpenAIRE

    Hatori, Megumi; Vollmers, Christopher; Zarrinpar, Amir; DiTacchio, Luciano; Bushong, Eric A.; Gill, Shubhroz; Leblanc, Mathias; Chaix, Amandine; Joens, Matthew; Fitzpatrick, James A. J.; Ellisman, Mark H.; Panda, Satchidananda

    2012-01-01

    While diet-induced obesity has been exclusively attributed to increased caloric intake from fat, animals fed high fat diet (HFD) ad libitum (ad lib) eat frequently throughout day and night disrupting the normal feeding cycle. To test whether obesity and metabolic diseases result from HFD or disruption of metabolic cycles, we subjected mice to either ad lib or time restricted feeding (tRF) of a HFD for 8 h/day. Mice under tRF consume equivalent calories from HFD as those with ad lib access, ye...

  3. Sodium, Saturated Fat, and Sugar Added Intake of The Diet of Children 2-12 Years Old

    OpenAIRE

    Angga Hardiansyah; Hardinsyah Hardinsyah; Dadang Sukandar

    2015-01-01

    The aims of the study were to analyze intake of sodium, saturated fat (SFA), and added sugar of children 2-12 years old. For this purpose, 38.890 children 2-12 years old from the food consumption data of the basic health survey of the Ministry of Health were analyzed. The intake of sodium, SFA, and added sugar were calculated by using food composition table (FCT) of Indonesia and USDA, and from nutrition facts of labeled foods.The sodium and SFA calculated include both natural resources and w...

  4. Dietary fat and antioxidant vitamin intake in patients of neurodegenerative disease in a rural region of Jalisco, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Meza, Mónica; Gabriel-Ortiz, Genaro; Pacheco-Moisés, Fermín P.; Cruz-Ramos, José A.; López-Espinoza, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate and compare the intake of lipids and (A, E, and C) vitamins in patients with and without possible neurodegenerative diseases. Methods Twenty adults with possible Alzheimer's disease or Parkinson's disease and 41 control subjects (50–89 years old) from a rural region were studied. Dietary intake was evaluated with the analysis of macronutrients and micronutrients conducted by a food frequency questionnaire and 24 hours dietary record. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, and energy intake. Through interrogation and use of medical record form of health secretary we obtained information about the sociodemographic characteristics. Multivariate analysis of variance to allow for covariated adjustment was used. Results Patients had a lower energy intake, vitamin C (P = 0.016), fruits (P < 0.001), vegetables (P = 0.037), and oils and fat (P = 0.002), than the controls. Interestingly, the C vitamin intake in patients was still higher than the recommended. Patients had a higher consumption of cereals (P = 0.017), high-animal fat diet (P = 0.024), and whole milk (P < 0.001); 2.4% of the controls smoke and 5% are alcohol consumers. Eighty-five percent of patients and 78% of the controls do not have physical activity. Family history of subjects in this study indicated chronic diseases. Conclusion The subjects included in this study had a high intake of C vitamin, this is due to the consumption of fruits and vegetables. However, patients with possible Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease had a lower intake of fruits and vegetables, which could be due to type of food to which they have access. PMID:24257159

  5. Fear of Fatness Among Young Irish Adolescents : Association with Obesity, Reported Iron and Folate Intake, and Dental Health

    OpenAIRE

    Griffin, Anne C.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To establish the prevalence of fear of fatness (the desire to be thinner) and associated factors, including obesity, reported energy, iron and folate intakes. The difficulties in defining overweight among Irish children and an assessment of dietary and socio-economic factors related to dental caries and also reported in the group. METHODS: A one-year follow up study of 251 healthy schoolchildren at baseline (119 boys and 132 girls; mean age 11 years) attending 7 fee-paying (6 singl...

  6. Impact of Nonoptimal Intakes of Saturated, Polyunsaturated, and Trans Fat on Global Burdens of Coronary Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qianyi; Afshin, Ashkan; Yakoob, Mohammad Yawar; Singh, Gitanjali M; Rehm, Colin D; Khatibzadeh, Shahab; Micha, Renata; Shi, Peilin; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2016-01-20

    Saturated fat (SFA), ω-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fat (PUFA), and trans fat (TFA) influence risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), but attributable CHD mortalities by country, age, sex, and time are unclear. National intakes of SFA, n-6 PUFA, and TFA were estimated using a Bayesian hierarchical model based on country-specific dietary surveys; food availability data; and, for TFA, industry reports on fats/oils and packaged foods. Etiologic effects of dietary fats on CHD mortality were derived from meta-analyses of prospective cohorts and CHD mortality rates from the 2010 Global Burden of Diseases study. Absolute and proportional attributable CHD mortality were computed using a comparative risk assessment framework. In 2010, nonoptimal intakes of n-6 PUFA, SFA, and TFA were estimated to result in 711 800 (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 680 700-745 000), 250 900 (95% UI 236 900-265 800), and 537 200 (95% UI 517 600-557 000) CHD deaths per year worldwide, accounting for 10.3% (95% UI 9.9%-10.6%), 3.6%, (95% UI 3.5%-3.6%) and 7.7% (95% UI 7.6%-7.9%) of global CHD mortality. Tropical oil-consuming countries were estimated to have the highest proportional n-6 PUFA- and SFA-attributable CHD mortality, whereas Egypt, Pakistan, and Canada were estimated to have the highest proportional TFA-attributable CHD mortality. From 1990 to 2010 globally, the estimated proportional CHD mortality decreased by 9% for insufficient n-6 PUFA and by 21% for higher SFA, whereas it increased by 4% for higher TFA, with the latter driven by increases in low- and middle-income countries. Nonoptimal intakes of n-6 PUFA, TFA, and SFA each contribute to significant estimated CHD mortality, with important heterogeneity across countries that informs nation-specific clinical, public health, and policy priorities. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  7. Intraperitoneal injection of d-serine inhibits high-fat diet intake and preference in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Tsutomu; Yasoshima, Yasunobu; Matsui, Sho; Yokota-Hashimoto, Hiromi; Kobayashi, Masaki; Kitamura, Tadahiro

    2017-11-01

    d-serine is a co-agonist of the N-methyl d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, an important modulator of glutamatergic excitatory synaptic transmission. We previously reported that oral d-serine ingestion inhibited the intake of highly preferred food and promoted the intake of less preferred food in mice. Here, we analyzed the effects of intraperitoneal (IP) d-serine injections on feeding behavior in mice. We assessed the effects of d-serine during both the acquisition and maintenance of a preference for high-fat diets (HFDs). Aversiveness of IP d-serine was analyzed in the conditioned taste aversion paradigm. The effects on food intake were assessed by providing liquid meals with different fat contents. Finally, we measured brain d-serine and l-serine levels after d-serine administration. We found that IP-injected d-serine effectively inhibited the acquisition of a HFD preference, but failed to prevent expression of a previously learned HFD preference. IP-injected d-serine was not sufficient to condition taste aversion. The effect on HFD preference acquisition was associated with increases in d-serine levels in the cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, and cerebellum. IP-injected d-serine most effectively inhibited the intake of liquid meals with high fat content. This effect was dose-dependent, but the responses varied significantly among male C57BL/6J mice. The differential responses to d-serine were consistent among multiple trials in each mouse. In summary, IP-injected d-serine inhibited HFD intake and the acquisition of an HFD preference. Individual mice with the same genetic background showed different sensitivities to d-serine; thus, d-serine sensitivity may be associated with unidentified traits. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. A high-protein breakfast prevents body fat gain, through reductions in daily intake and hunger, in "Breakfast skipping" adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidy, Heather J; Hoertel, Heather A; Douglas, Steve M; Higgins, Kelly A; Shafer, Rebecca S

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether the daily consumption of normal-protein (NP) vs. high-protein (HP) breakfast meals improves appetite control, food intake, and body composition in "breakfast skipping" young people with overweight/obesity. Fifty-seven adolescents (age: 19 ± 1 years; BMI: 29.7 ± 4.6 kg m(-2)) completed a 12-week randomized controlled trial in which the adolescents consumed either a 1,464 kJ NP breakfast (13 g protein) or a HP breakfast (35 g protein) or continued to skip breakfast (CON). Pre- and post-study appetite, food intake, body weight, and body composition were assessed. Time-by-group interactions (P fat mass, daily intake, and perceived hunger. Specifically, HP prevented fat mass gains over the 12 weeks (-0.4 ± 0.5 kg) vs. CON (+1.6 ± 0.9 kg; P = 0.02), whereas NP did not (+0.3 ± 0.5 kg). HP led to reductions in daily intake (-1,724 ± 954 kJ) vs. CON (+1,556 ± 745 kJ; P = 0.03), whereas NP did not (+494 ± 213 kJ). Lastly, only the HP group experienced reductions in daily hunger vs. CON (P fat gain, voluntary reductions in daily intake, and reductions in daily hunger in breakfast skipping adolescents with overweight/obesity. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  9. Genetic analysis of residual feed intake adjusted for fat and carcass and performance traits in a Nellore herd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Faria de Moraes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The study of the genetic evaluation of residual feed intake adjusted for fat (RFIFat is important for the appropriate use of feed efficiency in selection programs. The objective was to analyze the influence of selection for RFIF at on carcass and performance traits by estimating various genetic parameters. Data were analyzed from five tests of feed efficiency, which were conducted with 677 Nellore males. Genetic evaluation was performed by Bayesian inference using an animal model via single- and two-trait analyses. Variables analyzed were dry matter intake, average daily gain, RFIFat, rib eye area, back fat thickness, rump fat thickness, marbling score, and subcutaneous fat thickness. The posterior mean distributions estimated at each analysis were used to estimate heritability of the traits and to perform various correlations. The studied traits showed high heritability estimates, and they should respond well to selection. The RFIFat presented a phenotypic correlation with carcass traits (which was next to zero, and there was also a negative genetic correlation. Additive genetic variability for RFIFat showed that selection for this trait can promote genetic gains in future generations, resulting in animals that are efficient in terms of nutrient use, and according to the genetic and phenotypic correlations, with no significant negative changes to carcass traits.

  10. Combined low-saturated fat intake and high fitness may counterbalance diabetogenic effects of obesity: the DR's EXTRA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkilä, H M; Krachler, B; Savonen, K; Hassinen, M; Rauramaa, R; Schwab, U S

    2013-09-01

    We report associations of saturated fat (SF) intake with impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), concurrent IFG+IGT and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) at different levels of cardiorespiratory fitness and body mass index (BMI). In a population-based sample (n=1261, age 58-78 years), oral glucose tolerance, 4-day food intake and maximal oxygen uptake were measured. High intake of SF (>11.4 E%) was associated with elevated risk for IFG (4.36; 1.93-9.88), concurrent IFG+IGT (6.03; 1.25-29.20) and T2DM (4.77; 1.93-11.82) in the category of high BMI (>26.5) and high fitness, whereas there was no significantly elevated risk in individuals reporting low intake of SF. Concurrent high BMI and low fitness were associated with elevated risks. In general, SF intake and fitness did not differentiate the risk of abnormal glucose metabolism among subjects with low BMI. Limited intake of SF may protect from diabetogenic effects of adiposity, but only in individuals with high level of fitness.

  11. Association of dietary fat intakes with risk of esophageal and gastric cancer in the NIH-AARP diet and health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Doherty, Mark G; Freedman, Neal D; Hollenbeck, Albert R; Schatzkin, Arthur; Murray, Liam J; Cantwell, Marie M; Abnet, Christian C

    2012-09-15

    The aim of our study was to investigate whether intakes of total fat and fat subtypes were associated with esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), gastric cardia or gastric noncardia adenocarcinoma. From 1995-1996, dietary intake data was reported by 494,978 participants of the NIH-AARP cohort. The 630 EAC, 215 ESCC, 454 gastric cardia and 501 gastric noncardia adenocarcinomas accrued to the cohort. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine the association between the dietary fat intakes, whilst adjusting for potential confounders. Although apparent associations were observed in energy-adjusted models, multivariate adjustment attenuated results to null [e.g., EAC energy adjusted hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.66 (1.27-2.18) p for trend gastric cancer risk; although a protective effect of polyunsaturated fat intake was seen for EAC in subjects with a normal BMI.

  12. Effect of feed intake on heat production and protein and fat deposition in milk-fed veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labussiere, E; Maxin, G; Dubois, S; van Milgen, J; Bertrand, G; Noblet, J

    2009-04-01

    Energy requirements for veal calves have not been updated recently despite the increased age at slaughter and the predominance of the Prim'Holstein breed in Europe. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of four feeding levels (FLs) on protein and fat deposition and heat production in milk-fed calves at three stages of fattening and to determine energy requirements of calves. At each stage, 16 Prim'Holstein male calves (mean body weight (BW): 73.4, 151.6 and 237.4 kg) were fed a milk replacer at 79%, 87%, 95% or 103% of a reference FL. Measurements for one stage were conducted over 4 successive weeks in two open-circuit respiration chambers and consisted of a 6-day nitrogen and energy balance followed by a fasting day for estimating fasting heat production (FHP) of the calves. Heat production (HP) measurements were analyzed using a modeling approach to partition it between HP due to physical activity (AHP), feed intake (thermic effect of feeding (TEF)) and FHP. There was no effect of FL and stage on apparent digestibility coefficients, except for a tendency for increased digestibility coefficient of fat as animals got older. The metabolizable energy (ME)/digestible energy (DE) ratio did not depend on FL but decreased (P AHP and TEF components of HP were not affected by stage or FL and averaged 8.4% and 7.8% of ME intake, respectively. The FHP, expressed per kg BW0.85, increased with increasing FL, suggesting that also ME requirement for maintenance (MEm) may depend on FL. For an average intake of 625 kJ ME/kg BW0.85 per day (95% of the reference FL), FHP was 298 kJ/kg BW0.85 per day. Energy retention as protein and fat increased with increasing FL resulted in higher BW gain. But the rate of increase depended on stage of growth. The slope relating protein deposition to FL was lower in the finishing phase than in the growing phase, while the slope for lipid deposition was greater. Protein and fat contents of BW gain were not affected by FL but

  13. Impact of dietary fat source and concentration and daily fatty acid intake on the composition of carcass fat and iodine value sampled in three regions of the pork carcass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, T A; Prusa, K J; Patience, J F

    2014-12-01

    The increased inclusion of unsaturated fats in pig diets has raised issues related to pork carcass fat quality. The objective of this experiment was to more precisely measure how differing levels of daily fatty acid intake alters the fatty acid composition in 3 different fat depots. A total of 42 gilts and 21 barrows (PIC 337×C22/29) with an average initial weight of 77.80±0.38 kg were allotted randomly based on sex and BW to 7 treatments: 3 and 6% of each of tallow (TAL; iodine value [IV]=41.9), choice white grease (CWG; IV=66.5), or corn oil (CO; IV=123.1) and a control (CNTR) corn-soybean meal-based diet with no added fat. Pigs were individually housed to allow accurate measurement of individual feed intake, in particular, daily dietary fatty acid and energy intake. Fat samples were collected from the jowl, belly, and loin at slaughter. Diet and carcass fat samples were analyzed for IV. Belly weights were recorded at slaughter along with a subjective belly firmness score (1=firmest to 3=least firm). Carcass lipid IV was increased (P0.05) by inclusion levels; however, carcass lipid IV was greater (P<0.001) in pigs fed 6 than 3% CO (80.0 vs. 72.6), and carcasses of gilts had greater IV (P<0.001) than carcasses of barrows (71.5 vs. 69.1). Increasing the level of TAL and CO but not CWG from 3 to 6% decreased the apparent total tract digestibility of GE, resulting in a source×level interaction (P<0.05). Dietary fat source had no effect (P≥0.66) on apparent total tract digestibility of either DM or GE, but feeding 6% dietary fat increased G:F (P=0.006) over pigs fed 3% fat (0.358 vs. 0.337). Of all the fatty acids measured, only linoleic acid intake presented a reasonable coefficient of determination (R2=0.61). Overall, IV product (IVP) was approximately equal to linoleic acid intake as a predictor of carcass IV (R2=0.93 vs. R2=0.94). When inclusion of dietary fat and PUFA intake increased, IVP placed more emphasis on the dietary fat inclusion level rather than

  14. Effects of vegetable fats versus lard in milk replacers on feed intake, digestibility, and growth in Finnish Ayrshire bull calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huuskonen, A; Khalili, H; Kiljala, J; Joki-Tokola, E; Nousiainen, J

    2005-10-01

    The aim was to study whether vegetable fat mixtures could be used instead of lard [15.2% in dry matter (DM)] in milk replacers without impairing the performance of Finnish Ayrshire bull calves (n = 58). The growth performance of the calves was measured before and after weaning from 14 d to 6 mo of age. The following 3 fat sources in a milk replacer were studied: 1) a mixture of palm, coconut, and rapeseed oil, 2) palm and coconut oil, and 3) lard. The calves were bucket-fed 2 L of milk replacer 3 times per day. The milk replacer contained 116 g of DM/L, resulting in an average DM intake of 4.8 g of DM/kg of body weight0.75 (BW0.75) during the 8-wk trial, after which the calves were weaned. All the calves had free access to water, commercial starter, and grass silage before weaning. The weaned calves had free access to water and grass silage and were given 3 kg/d (air-dry basis) of a commercial concentrate mixture. The concentrate was replaced by barley when the bulls were 4.5 mo old. There were no significant differences between the diets in feed intake and apparent diet digestibility. The health and BW of the calves were similar during the study. The feed conversion rate (kg of DM intake/kg of gain) before weaning was significantly greater for the lard diet compared with the 2 vegetable fat mixtures. After weaning, the feed conversion rate was slightly lower for the diet that included the palm, coconut, and rapeseed oil mixture than for the diet that included palm and coconut oil mixture. The study showed that the 2 mixtures consisting solely of vegetable oils were effective dietary components, thus providing 2 alternative fat mixtures of milk replacers, for use instead of lard in formulating commercial calf milk replacers.

  15. Total and subtypes of dietary fat intake and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea (PREDIMED) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guasch-Ferré, Marta; Becerra-Tomás, Nerea; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Corella, Dolores; Schröder, Helmut; Estruch, Ramon; Ros, Emilio; Arós, Fernando; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Lapetra, José; Basora, Josep; Martín-Calvo, Nerea; Portoles, Olga; Fitó, Montserrat; Hu, Frank B; Forga, Lluís; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2017-03-01

    Background: The associations between dietary fat and cardiovascular disease have been evaluated in several studies, but less is known about their influence on the risk of diabetes.Objective: We examined the associations between total fat, subtypes of dietary fat, and food sources rich in saturated fatty acids and the incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D).Design: A prospective cohort analysis of 3349 individuals who were free of diabetes at baseline but were at high cardiovascular risk from the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) study was conducted. Detailed dietary information was assessed at baseline and yearly during the follow-up using a food frequency questionnaire. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate T2D HRs and 95% CIs according to baseline and yearly updated fat intake.Results: We documented 266 incident cases during 4.3 y of follow-up. Baseline saturated and animal fat intake was not associated with the risk of T2D. After multivariable adjustment, participants in the highest quartile of updated intake of saturated and animal fat had a higher risk of diabetes than the lowest quartile (HR: 2.19; 95% CI: 1.28, 3.73; and P-trend = 0.01 compared with HR: 2.00; 95% CI: 1.29, 3.09; and P-trend fat intake had an ∼2-fold higher risk of T2D than their counterparts in the lowest quartile. The consumption of 1 serving of butter and cheese was associated with a higher risk of diabetes, whereas whole-fat yogurt intake was associated with a lower risk.Conclusions: In a Mediterranean trial focused on dietary fat interventions, baseline intake of saturated and animal fat was not associated with T2D incidence, but the yearly updated intake of saturated and animal fat was associated with a higher risk of T2D. Cheese and butter intake was associated with a higher risk of T2D, whereas whole-fat yogurt intake was associated with a lower risk of T2D. This trial was registered at www.isrctn.com as ISRCTN35739639. © 2017 American Society

  16. Variations in body weight, food intake and body composition after long-term high-fat diet feeding in C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongbin; Smith, Daniel L; Keating, Karen D; Allison, David B; Nagy, Tim R

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the variations in body weight, food intake, and body composition of both male and female C57BL/6J mice during a diet-induced obesity model with high-fat diet (HFD) feeding. Mice were individually housed and fed ad libitum either a low-fat diet (LFD, 10% calories from fat; n = 15 male, n = 15 female) or HFD (45% calories from fat; n = 277 male, n = 278 female) from 8 to 43 weeks of age. Body weight, food intake, and body composition were routinely measured. Body weight was significantly increased with HFD (vs. LFD) in males from week 14 (P = 0.0221) and in females from week 27 (P = 0.0076). Fat mass and fat-free mass of all groups were significantly increased over time (all P weight for both sexes (P weight. Copyright © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  17. A high intake of saturated fatty acids strengthens the association between the fat mass and obesity-associated gene and BMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evidence that physical activity (PA) modulates the association between the fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) and BMI is emerging; however, information about dietary factors modulating this association is scarce. We investigated whether fat and carbohydrate intake modified the association of...

  18. Effect of High Fat Dietary Intake during Maternal Gestation on Offspring Ovarian Health in a Pig Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mengmeng; Che, Long; Yang, Zhenguo; Zhang, Pan; Shi, Jiankai; Li, Jian; Lin, Yan; Fang, Zhengfeng; Che, Lianqiang; Feng, Bin; Wu, De; Xu, Shengyu

    2016-01-01

    Excessive fat intake is a global health concern as women of childbearing age increasingly ingest a high fat diet. We therefore determined the association of a maternal high fat diet in pregnancy with offspring ovarian health during the gestation and postnatal female offspring in pig a model. Thirty-two Yorkshire gilts with similar bodyweights mated at the third estrus were randomly assigned to two nutrition levels of either a control (CON, crude fat: 7.27%) or a high fat diet (HFD, crude fat: 11.78%). Ovary samples were collected during the fetal (Day 55 (g55) and Day 90 of gestation (g90)) and offspring (prepuberty Day 160 (d160) and age at puberty) period to detect ovary development, antioxidant status and apoptosis cells. Maternal HFD did not influence notch signaling gene expression, which regulates primordial follicle formation and transformation, and ovarian histological effect at g55 and g90. However, maternal HFD reduced the numbers of large follicles at d160 and small follicle numbers upon puberty compared to CON in offspring. The results also revealed that the antioxidant index of total antioxidative capability (T-AOC), cytoplasmic copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities and mRNA expression were higher in the CON than the HFD at g90 and d160, whereas, malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration was decreased in the CON. Maternal HFD increased the inhibitor of the apoptosis-related gene of B-cell lymphoma-2 (bcl2) mRNA expression at g90 and d160, whereas, pro-apoptotic-related gene bcl-2 assaciated X protein (bax) was reduced. These data show that the maternal high fat diet does not delay fetal ovarian development, but it changes ovarian health by the induction of oxidative stress and accelerating cell apoptosis in offspring. PMID:27529279

  19. Effect of High Fat Dietary Intake during Maternal Gestation on Offspring Ovarian Health in a Pig Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengmeng Xu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Excessive fat intake is a global health concern as women of childbearing age increasingly ingest a high fat diet. We therefore determined the association of a maternal high fat diet in pregnancy with offspring ovarian health during the gestation and postnatal female offspring in pig a model. Thirty-two Yorkshire gilts with similar bodyweights mated at the third estrus were randomly assigned to two nutrition levels of either a control (CON, crude fat: 7.27% or a high fat diet (HFD, crude fat: 11.78%. Ovary samples were collected during the fetal (Day 55 (g55 and Day 90 of gestation (g90 and offspring (prepuberty Day 160 (d160 and age at puberty period to detect ovary development, antioxidant status and apoptosis cells. Maternal HFD did not influence notch signaling gene expression, which regulates primordial follicle formation and transformation, and ovarian histological effect at g55 and g90. However, maternal HFD reduced the numbers of large follicles at d160 and small follicle numbers upon puberty compared to CON in offspring. The results also revealed that the antioxidant index of total antioxidative capability (T-AOC, cytoplasmic copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx activities and mRNA expression were higher in the CON than the HFD at g90 and d160, whereas, malondialdehyde (MDA concentration was decreased in the CON. Maternal HFD increased the inhibitor of the apoptosis-related gene of B-cell lymphoma-2 (bcl2 mRNA expression at g90 and d160, whereas, pro-apoptotic-related gene bcl-2 assaciated X protein (bax was reduced. These data show that the maternal high fat diet does not delay fetal ovarian development, but it changes ovarian health by the induction of oxidative stress and accelerating cell apoptosis in offspring.

  20. Effect of High Fat Dietary Intake during Maternal Gestation on Offspring Ovarian Health in a Pig Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mengmeng; Che, Long; Yang, Zhenguo; Zhang, Pan; Shi, Jiankai; Li, Jian; Lin, Yan; Fang, Zhengfeng; Che, Lianqiang; Feng, Bin; Wu, De; Xu, Shengyu

    2016-01-01

    Excessive fat intake is a global health concern as women of childbearing age increasingly ingest a high fat diet. We therefore determined the association of a maternal high fat diet in pregnancy with offspring ovarian health during the gestation and postnatal female offspring in pig a model. Thirty-two Yorkshire gilts with similar bodyweights mated at the third estrus were randomly assigned to two nutrition levels of either a control (CON, crude fat: 7.27%) or a high fat diet (HFD, crude fat: 11.78%). Ovary samples were collected during the fetal (Day 55 (g55) and Day 90 of gestation (g90)) and offspring (prepuberty Day 160 (d160) and age at puberty) period to detect ovary development, antioxidant status and apoptosis cells. Maternal HFD did not influence notch signaling gene expression, which regulates primordial follicle formation and transformation, and ovarian histological effect at g55 and g90. However, maternal HFD reduced the numbers of large follicles at d160 and small follicle numbers upon puberty compared to CON in offspring. The results also revealed that the antioxidant index of total antioxidative capability (T-AOC), cytoplasmic copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities and mRNA expression were higher in the CON than the HFD at g90 and d160, whereas, malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration was decreased in the CON. Maternal HFD increased the inhibitor of the apoptosis-related gene of B-cell lymphoma-2 (bcl2) mRNA expression at g90 and d160, whereas, pro-apoptotic-related gene bcl-2 assaciated X protein (bax) was reduced. These data show that the maternal high fat diet does not delay fetal ovarian development, but it changes ovarian health by the induction of oxidative stress and accelerating cell apoptosis in offspring.

  1. Leptin contributes to the adaptive responses of mice to high-fat diet intake through suppressing the lipogenic pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Jiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone that plays a critical role in energy homeostasis and lipid metabolism. Overnutrition-associated obesity is known to be accompanied by hyperleptinemia. However, the physiological actions of leptin in the metabolic responses to high-fat diet (HFD intake remain to be completely elucidated. Here we characterized the metabolic features of mice fed high-fat diets and investigated the impact of leptin upon the lipogenic program which was found to be suppressed by HFD feeding through a proteomics approach. RESULTS: When maintained on two types of high-fat diets for up to 16 weeks, mice with a higher fat intake exhibited increased body fat accumulation at a greater pace, developing more severely impaired glucose tolerance. Notably, HFD feeding at 4 weeks elicited the onset of marked hyperleptinemia, prior to the occurrence of apparent insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. Proteomic analysis revealed dramatically decreased expression of lipogenic enzymes in the white adipose tissue (WAT from HFD-fed mice, including ATP-citrate lyase (ACL and fatty acid synthase (FAS. The expression of ACL and FAS in the liver was similarly suppressed in response to HFD feeding. By contrast, HFD-induced downregulation of hepatic ACL and FAS was significantly attenuated in leptin receptor-deficient db/db mice. Furthermore, in the liver and WAT of wild type animals, intraperitoneal leptin administration was able to directly suppress the expression of these two lipogenic enzymes, accompanied by reduced triglyceride levels both in the liver and serum. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that leptin contributes to the metabolic responses in adaptation to overnutrition through suppressing the expression of lipogenic enzymes, and that the lipogenic pathway represents a key targeted peripheral component in exerting leptin's liporegulatory actions.

  2. Oral intake of encapsulated dried ginger root powder hardly affects human thermoregulatory function, but appears to facilitate fat utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Mayumi; Matsuzaki, Kentaro; Katakura, Masanori; Hara, Toshiko; Tanabe, Yoko; Shido, Osamu

    2015-10-01

    The present study investigated the impact of a single oral ingestion of ginger on thermoregulatory function and fat oxidation in humans. Morning and afternoon oral intake of 1.0 g dried ginger root powder did not alter rectal temperature, skin blood flow, O2 consumption, CO2 production, and thermal sensation and comfort, or induce sweating at an ambient temperature of 28 °C. Ginger ingestion had no effect on threshold temperatures for skin blood flow or thermal sweating. Serum levels of free fatty acids were significantly elevated at 120 min after ginger ingestion in both the morning and afternoon. Morning ginger intake significantly reduced respiratory exchange ratios and elevated fat oxidation by 13.5 % at 120 min after ingestion. This was not the case in the afternoon. These results suggest that the effect of a single oral ginger administration on the peripheral and central thermoregulatory function is miniscule, but does facilitate fat utilization although the timing of the administration may be relevant.

  3. Bromocriptine increased operant responding for high fat food but decreased chow intake in both obesity-prone and resistant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanos, Panayotis K; Cho, Jacob; Kim, Ronald; Michaelides, Michael; Primeaux, Stefany; Bray, George; Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D

    2011-02-02

    Dopamine (DA) and DA D₂ receptors (D2R) have been implicated in obesity and are thought to be involved in the rewarding properties of food. Osborne-Mendel (OM) rats are susceptible to diet induced obesity (DIO) while S5B/P (S5B) rats are resistant when given a high-fat diet. Here we hypothesized that the two strains would differ in high-fat food self-administration (FSA) and that the D2R agonist bromocriptine (BC) would differently affect their behavior. Ad-libitum fed OM and S5B/P rats were tested in a FSA operant chamber and were trained to lever press for high-fat food pellets under a fixed-ratio (FR1) and a progressive ratio (PR) schedule. After sixteen days of PR sessions, rats were treated with three different doses of BC (1, 10 and 20 mg/kg). No significant differences were found between the two strains in the number of active lever presses. BC treatment (10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg) increased the number of active lever presses (10 mg/kg having the strongest effect) whereas it decreased rat chow intake in the home cage with equivalent effects in both strains. These effects were not observed on the day of BC administration but on the day following its administration. Our results suggest that these two strains have similar motivation for procuring high fat food using this paradigm. BC increased operant responding for high-fat pellets but decreased chow intake in both strains, suggesting that D2R stimulation may have enhanced the motivational drive to procure the fatty food while correspondingly decreasing the intake of regular food. These findings suggest that susceptibility to dietary obesity (prior to the onset of obesity) may not affect operant motivation for a palatable high fat food and that differential susceptibility to obesity may be related to differential sensitivity to D2R stimulation. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Katrine Kleberg

    In 1727, the English physician Thomas Short wrote: “I believe no Age did ever afford more instances of Corpulency than our own.” Even in the 18th century, fatness was addressed as an issue of special contemporary concern. This thesis probes concepts and perceptions of fatness in Western European...... Medicine c. 1700–1900. It has been written with particular attention to whether and how fatness has been regarded as a disease during that period in history. One purpose of the thesis is to investigate the immediate period before fatness allegedly became problematized. Another purpose has been to grasp...

  5. Change in Proportional Protein Intake in a 10-Week Energy-Restricted Low- or High-Fat Diet, in Relation to Changes in Body Size and Metabolic Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Stocks

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate in a secondary analysis of a randomised trial the effects of a low-/high-fat diet and reported change from baseline in energy% from protein (prot%, in relation to changes in body size and metabolic factors. Methods: Obese adults (n = 771 were randomised to a 600 kcal energy-deficient low-fat (20-25 fat% or high-fat (40-45 fat% diet over 10 weeks. Dietary intake data at baseline and during the intervention were available in 585 completers. We used linear regression to calculate the combined effects of randomised group and groups of prot% change (2 on outcomes. Results: The low-fat group with >2 prot% increase lost 1.1 kg more weight (p = 0.03 and reduced cholesterol by 0.25 mmol/l more (p = 0.003 than the high-fat group with >2 prot% decrease. These differences were 2.5-fold and 1.8-fold greater than the differences between the low-fat and high-fat groups while not considering prot% change. The high-fat group reduced plasma triglycerides more than the low-fat group, but not compared to those in the low-fat group with >2 units prot% increase (p fat-protein interaction = 0.01. Conclusions: Under energy restriction, participants on a low-fat diet who had increased the percentage energy intake from protein showed the greatest reduction in weight and cholesterol, and a triglyceride reduction equally large to that of participants on a high-fat diet.

  6. High dietary intake of saturated fat is associated with reduced semen quality among 701 young Danish men from the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Heitmann, Berit L; Jensen, Martin Blomberg

    2013-01-01

    dietary fat intake and semen quality among 701 young Danish men from the general population. DESIGN: In this cross-sectional study, men were recruited when they were examined to determine their fitness for military service from 2008 to 2010. They delivered a semen sample, underwent a physical examination......, and answered a questionnaire comprising a quantitative food-frequency questionnaire to assess food and nutrient intakes. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed with semen variables as outcomes and dietary fat intakes as exposure variables, adjusted for confounders. RESULTS: A lower sperm...... did men in the lowest quartile. No association between semen quality and intake of other types of fat was found. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings are of potentially great public interest, because changes in diet over the past decades may be part of the explanation for the recently reported high frequency...

  7. Toll-like receptor 4 mediates fat, sugar, and umami taste preference and food intake and body weight regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camandola, Simonetta; Mattson, Mark P

    2017-07-01

    Immune and inflammatory pathways play important roles in the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders. This study investigated the role of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in orosensory detection of dietary lipids and sugars. Taste preferences of TLR4 knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) male mice under a standard and a high-fat, high-sugar diet were assessed with two-bottle tests. Gene expression of taste signaling molecules was analyzed in the tongue epithelium. The role of TLR4 in food intake and weight gain was investigated in TLR4 KO and WT mice fed a high-fat and high-sugar diet for 12 weeks. Compared to WT mice, TLR4 KO mice showed reduced preference for lipids, sugars, and umami in a two-bottle preference test. The altered taste perception was associated with decreased levels of key taste regulatory molecules in the tongue epithelium. TLR4 KO mice on a high-fat and high-sugar diet consumed less food and drink, resulting in diminished weight gain. TLR4 signaling promotes ingestion of sugar and fat by a mechanism involving increased preference for such obesogenic foods. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  8. The impact of home, work, and church environments on fat intake over time among rural residents: a longitudinal observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Haardörfer, Regine; Alcantara, Iris; Addison, Ann; Glanz, Karen; Kegler, Michelle C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Dietary behaviors are influenced by many individual and environmental factors. This study explores how dietary fat intake in high-risk midlife adults living in the rural south is influenced by three behavior settings, i.e. in the home, at work, and at church. Methods Self-report data were collected from rural African American or Caucasian adults age 40–70 at three time points at baseline, 6, and 12 months post baseline. Multilevel analyses investigated the impact of determinants of...

  9. Healthcare Costs Associated with an Adequate Intake of Sugars, Salt and Saturated Fat in Germany: A Health Econometrical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Toni; Senftleben, Karolin; Deumelandt, Peter; Christen, Olaf; Riedel, Katja; Langer, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) represent not only the major driver for quality-restricted and lost life years; NCDs and their related medical treatment costs also pose a substantial economic burden on healthcare and intra-generational tax distribution systems. The main objective of this study was therefore to quantify the economic burden of unbalanced nutrition in Germany--in particular the effects of an excessive consumption of fat, salt and sugar--and to examine different reduction scenarios on this basis. In this study, the avoidable direct cost savings in the German healthcare system attributable to an adequate intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA), salt and sugar (mono- & disaccharides, MDS) were calculated. To this end, disease-specific healthcare cost data from the official Federal Health Monitoring for the years 2002-2008 and disease-related risk factors, obtained by thoroughly searching the literature, were used. A total of 22 clinical endpoints with 48 risk-outcome pairs were considered. Direct healthcare costs attributable to an unbalanced intake of fat, salt and sugar are calculated to be 16.8 billion EUR (CI95%: 6.3-24.1 billion EUR) in the year 2008, which represents 7% (CI95% 2%-10%) of the total treatment costs in Germany (254 billion EUR). This is equal to 205 EUR per person annually. The excessive consumption of sugar poses the highest burden, at 8.6 billion EUR (CI95%: 3.0-12.1); salt ranks 2nd at 5.3 billion EUR (CI95%: 3.2-7.3) and saturated fat ranks 3rd at 2.9 billion EUR (CI95%: 32 million-4.7 billion). Predicted direct healthcare cost savings by means of a balanced intake of sugars, salt and saturated fat are substantial. However, as this study solely considered direct medical treatment costs regarding an adequate consumption of fat, salt and sugars, the actual societal and economic gains, resulting both from direct and indirect cost savings, may easily exceed 16.8 billion EUR.

  10. Healthcare Costs Associated with an Adequate Intake of Sugars, Salt and Saturated Fat in Germany: A Health Econometrical Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni Meier

    Full Text Available Non-communicable diseases (NCDs represent not only the major driver for quality-restricted and lost life years; NCDs and their related medical treatment costs also pose a substantial economic burden on healthcare and intra-generational tax distribution systems. The main objective of this study was therefore to quantify the economic burden of unbalanced nutrition in Germany--in particular the effects of an excessive consumption of fat, salt and sugar--and to examine different reduction scenarios on this basis. In this study, the avoidable direct cost savings in the German healthcare system attributable to an adequate intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA, salt and sugar (mono- & disaccharides, MDS were calculated. To this end, disease-specific healthcare cost data from the official Federal Health Monitoring for the years 2002-2008 and disease-related risk factors, obtained by thoroughly searching the literature, were used. A total of 22 clinical endpoints with 48 risk-outcome pairs were considered. Direct healthcare costs attributable to an unbalanced intake of fat, salt and sugar are calculated to be 16.8 billion EUR (CI95%: 6.3-24.1 billion EUR in the year 2008, which represents 7% (CI95% 2%-10% of the total treatment costs in Germany (254 billion EUR. This is equal to 205 EUR per person annually. The excessive consumption of sugar poses the highest burden, at 8.6 billion EUR (CI95%: 3.0-12.1; salt ranks 2nd at 5.3 billion EUR (CI95%: 3.2-7.3 and saturated fat ranks 3rd at 2.9 billion EUR (CI95%: 32 million-4.7 billion. Predicted direct healthcare cost savings by means of a balanced intake of sugars, salt and saturated fat are substantial. However, as this study solely considered direct medical treatment costs regarding an adequate consumption of fat, salt and sugars, the actual societal and economic gains, resulting both from direct and indirect cost savings, may easily exceed 16.8 billion EUR.

  11. Comparative study of two techniques for assessing fat intake in a Mediterranean diet. The influence of culinary oils changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Roso, B; Cuesta, I; Varela-Moreiras, G; Carmena, R; Pérez-Olleros, L

    2000-07-01

    The diet usually consumed by a community of 18 normolipemic monks was studied. It included olive oil as cooking fat (basal period BP). This diet was modified by substituting olive oil for sunflower oil during a 21-day period (experimental period EP). The precise individual weighing technique was utilised for the determination of intake, and by means of the food composition tables (FCTs) the energy and nutrient of the diet were calculated. By chemical analysis of the duplicate sample (CA) of the cooked dishes the lipid intake was also determined. Total serum cholesterol HDL and LDL cholesterol, serum triglycerides, AI and B-100 apolipoproteins and Lp(a) were also analysed. Similarly the absolute and relative values for SFA, MUFA and PUFA obtained by both techniques were also different and these were maintained when the (PUFA + MUFA)/SFA ratio was calculated by both techniques and in the two periods. The correction of the lipid intake by means of the CA technique did not improve either the correlation between the intake or the plasma lipid concentration or the cholesterolemia prediction (r = 0.83 for FCT and CA).

  12. Apolipoprotein A5 deficiency aggravates high-fat diet-induced obesity due to impaired central regulation of food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Sjoerd A A; Heemskerk, Mattijs M; Geerling, Janine J; van Klinken, Jan-Bert; Schaap, Frank G; Bijland, Silvia; Berbée, Jimmy F P; van Harmelen, Vanessa J A; Pronk, Amanda C M; Schreurs, Marijke; Havekes, Louis M; Rensen, Patrick C N; van Dijk, Ko Willems

    2013-08-01

    Mutations in apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) have been associated with hypertriglyceridemia in humans and mice. This has been attributed to a stimulating role for APOA5 in lipoprotein lipase-mediated triglyceride hydrolysis and hepatic clearance of lipoprotein remnant particles. However, because of the low APOA5 plasma abundance, we investigated an additional signaling role for APOA5 in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Wild-type (WT) and Apoa5(-/-) mice fed a chow diet showed no difference in body weight or 24-h food intake (Apoa5(-/-), 4.5±0.6 g; WT, 4.2±0.5 g), while Apoa5(-/-) mice fed an HFD ate more in 24 h (Apoa5(-/-), 2.8±0.4 g; WT, 2.5±0.3 g, Pobese than WT mice. Also, intravenous injection of APOA5-loaded VLDL-like particles lowered food intake (VLDL control, 0.26±0.04 g; VLDL+APOA5, 0.11±0.07 g, Pfood intake compared to injection of the same mouse with artificial cerebral spinal fluid (0.40±0.11 g; APOA5, 0.23±0.08 g, Pobesity of Apoa5(-/-) mice as compared to WT mice is at least partly explained by hyperphagia and that APOA5 plays a role in the central regulation of food intake.

  13. Effect of reducing total fat intake on body weight: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials and cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Lee; Abdelhamid, Asmaa; Moore, Helen J; Douthwaite, Wayne; Skeaff, C Murray; Summerbell, Carolyn D

    2012-12-06

    To investigate the relation between total fat intake and body weight in adults and children. Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials and cohort studies. Medline, Embase, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials to June 2010. Randomised controlled trials and cohort studies of adults or children that compared lower versus usual total fat intake and assessed the effects on measures of body fatness (body weight, body mass index, or waist circumference) after at least six months (randomised controlled trials) or one year (in cohorts). Randomised controlled trials with any intention to reduce weight in participants or confounded by additional medical or lifestyle interventions were excluded. Data were extracted and validity was assessed independently and in duplicate. Random effects meta-analyses, subgroups, sensitivity analyses, and metaregression were done. 33 randomised controlled trials (73,589 participants) and 10 cohort studies were included, all from developed countries. Meta-analysis of data from the trials suggested that diets lower in total fat were associated with lower relative body weight (by 1.6 kg, 95% confidence interval -2.0 to -1.2 kg, I(2)=75%, 57,735 participants). Lower weight gain in the low fat arm compared with the control arm was consistent across trials, but the size of the effect varied. Metaregression suggested that greater reduction in total fat intake and lower baseline fat intake were associated with greater relative weight loss, explaining most of the heterogeneity. The significant effect of a low fat diet on weight was not lost in sensitivity analyses (including removing trials that expended greater time and attention on low fat groups). Lower total fat intake also led to lower body mass index (-0.51 kg/m(2), 95% confidence interval -0.76 to -0.26, nine trials, I(2)=77%) and waist circumference (by 0.3 cm, 95% confidence interval -0.58 to -0.02, 15,671 women, one trial). There was no

  14. Association of NOS3 Glu298Asp SNP with hypertension and possible effect modification of dietary fat intake in the ARIC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingah, Pascal L; Luu, Hung N; Volcik, Kelly A; Morrison, Alanna C; Nettleton, Jennifer A; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2010-02-01

    Endothelial nitric oxide synthase breaks down nitric oxide and has a key role in blood pressure regulation. Earlier studies have shown associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the NOS3 gene and hypertension. Studies also suggest that such associations may vary by dietary fat intake. We investigated associations between the NOS3 Glu298Asp SNP (rs1799983) and hypertension, as well as the interaction between NOS3 genotypes and dietary fat intake using data from baseline examination in white and African American participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Community (ARIC) study. Dietary fat intake was measured by a Food Frequency Questionnaire during the baseline examination in 15 792 individuals aged 45-64 years in ARIC study participants. Race-stratified unconditional logistic regression was performed to investigate the association between prevalent hypertension and NOS3 Glu298Asp genotypes. There was no significant interaction between dietary fat intake and NOS3 Glu298Asp genotype with regards to hypertension status in either African Americans or whites (P for interaction=0.3 and 0.4, respectively). We found a significant relationship between NOS3 Glu298Asp and triglycerides in African Americans. We did not find an association between the NOS3 Glu298Asp polymorphism and hypertension, and dietary fat intake did not interact with NOS3 genotypes to influence hypertension. We recommend further exploration of the relationship between NOS3 Glu298Asp and triglycerides in African Americans.

  15. Fruit and Vegetable Consumption, Fat Intake, and Physical Activity Participation in Relation to Socio-demographic Factors Among Medically Underserved Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir A. Hadi Alakaam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Fruit and vegetable intake as well as physical activity participation in Mississippi is consistently lower than recommendations. We conducted a cross-sectional study to examine fruit and vegetables consumption, fat intake, and moderate-intensity physical activity participation and how these variables relate to socio-demographic factors among medically underserved adults in south Mississippi. Fruit and vegetable consumption and fat intake along with physical activity participation and socio-demographic characteristics was collected from a sample of 161 (48 male and 113 female adults in south Mississippi. A majority (81.9% of participants reported consuming less than five servings of fruits and vegetables per day and 54% reported exercising less than three times a week. Only 14% of participants reported eating a low fat diet. Bivariate correlations revealed no significant relationships between fruit and vegetable consumption and fat intake as well as no significant relationships between fruit and vegetable consumption and gender, ethnicity, income, marital status, or education. However, there were significant correlations between physical activity and fat intake (r = -0.21, p = 0.01, and physical activity with fruit and vegetable consumption (r = 0.16, p = 0.05. Higher physical activity rates were associated with decreased fat intake and increased fruit and vegetable consumption. Physical activity was also higher among men (r = -0.16, p = 0.05 and positively correlated with income level (r = 0.21 p = 0.01. In order to effectively identify or develop strategies to improve health by promoting increased fruit and vegetable intake and physical activity, further research is needed to understand the factors that affect behavior choices regarding nutrition and physical activity in this medically underserved adult population.

  16. Interleukin-18 null mutation increases weight and food intake and reduces energy expenditure and lipid substrate utilization in high-fat diet fed mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorrilla, Eric P.; Conti, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Objective The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-18 (IL-18) putatively modulates food intake and energy metabolism, but the effects of IL-18 in high-fat diet fed animals are unknown. Whether IL-18 alters basal metabolic rate or metabolic processes of living is unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that IL-18 modulates weight gain, energy intake, whole-body energy expenditure, and utilization of lipid as a fuel substrate in high-fat diet fed mice. Methods Food intake, whole-body metabolism, and motor activity of IL-18 knockout mice were compared to those of wildtype littermates; anorectic effects of intracerebroventricular IL-18 administration were compared between IL-18 receptor knockout, IL-18/IL-18R knockout and wildtype mice. Results Chow-reared IL-18 knockout mice were overweight at 6 months of age and then gained excess weight on both low-fat and high-fat diets, ate more high-fat diet, and showed reduced whole-body energy expenditure and increased respiratory exchange ratios. Reductions in energy expenditure of IL-18 knockout mice were seen across fasting vs. feeding conditions, low- vs. high-fat diets, high vs. low levels of physical activity and times of day, suggesting actions on basal metabolic rate. The circadian amplitude of energy expenditure, but not respiratory exchange ratio, food intake, or motor activity, also was blunted in IL-18 knockout mice. Central IL-18 administration reduced high-fat diet intake in wildtype mice, but not in mice lacking the IL-18 receptor. Conclusion The loss-of-function results support the hypothesis that endogenous IL-18 suppresses appetite and promote energy expenditure and lipid fuel substrate utilization not only during sickness, but also in healthy adults consuming high-fat diets. PMID:24316258

  17. Interleukin-18 null mutation increases weight and food intake and reduces energy expenditure and lipid substrate utilization in high-fat diet fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorrilla, Eric P; Conti, Bruno

    2014-03-01

    The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-18 (IL-18) putatively modulates food intake and energy metabolism, but the effects of IL-18 in high-fat diet fed animals are unknown. Whether IL-18 alters basal metabolic rate or metabolic processes of living is unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that IL-18 modulates weight gain, energy intake, whole-body energy expenditure, and utilization of lipid as a fuel substrate in high-fat diet fed mice. Food intake, whole-body metabolism, and motor activity of IL-18 knockout mice were compared to those of wildtype littermates; anorectic effects of intracerebroventricular IL-18 administration were compared between IL-18 receptor knockout, IL-18/IL-18R knockout and wildtype mice. Chow-reared IL-18 knockout mice were overweight at 6 months of age and then gained excess weight on both low-fat and high-fat diets, ate more high-fat diet, and showed reduced whole-body energy expenditure and increased respiratory exchange ratios. Reductions in energy expenditure of IL-18 knockout mice were seen across fasting vs. feeding conditions, low- vs. high-fat diets, high vs. low levels of physical activity and times of day, suggesting actions on basal metabolic rate. The circadian amplitude of energy expenditure, but not respiratory exchange ratio, food intake, or motor activity, also was blunted in IL-18 knockout mice. Central IL-18 administration reduced high-fat diet intake in wildtype mice, but not in mice lacking the IL-18 receptor. The loss-of-function results support the hypothesis that endogenous IL-18 suppresses appetite and promote energy expenditure and lipid fuel substrate utilization not only during sickness, but also in healthy adults consuming high-fat diets. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Dietary Fats and Cardiovascular Disease: A Presidential Advisory From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Frank M; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Wu, Jason H Y; Appel, Lawrence J; Creager, Mark A; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Miller, Michael; Rimm, Eric B; Rudel, Lawrence L; Robinson, Jennifer G; Stone, Neil J; Van Horn, Linda V

    2017-07-18

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading global cause of death, accounting for 17.3 million deaths per year. Preventive treatment that reduces CVD by even a small percentage can substantially reduce, nationally and globally, the number of people who develop CVD and the costs of caring for them. This American Heart Association presidential advisory on dietary fats and CVD reviews and discusses the scientific evidence, including the most recent studies, on the effects of dietary saturated fat intake and its replacement by other types of fats and carbohydrates on CVD. In summary, randomized controlled trials that lowered intake of dietary saturated fat and replaced it with polyunsaturated vegetable oil reduced CVD by ≈30%, similar to the reduction achieved by statin treatment. Prospective observational studies in many populations showed that lower intake of saturated fat coupled with higher intake of polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fat is associated with lower rates of CVD and of other major causes of death and all-cause mortality. In contrast, replacement of saturated fat with mostly refined carbohydrates and sugars is not associated with lower rates of CVD and did not reduce CVD in clinical trials. Replacement of saturated with unsaturated fats lowers low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, a cause of atherosclerosis, linking biological evidence with incidence of CVD in populations and in clinical trials. Taking into consideration the totality of the scientific evidence, satisfying rigorous criteria for causality, we conclude strongly that lowering intake of saturated fat and replacing it with unsaturated fats, especially polyunsaturated fats, will lower the incidence of CVD. This recommended shift from saturated to unsaturated fats should occur simultaneously in an overall healthful dietary pattern such as DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) or the Mediterranean diet as emphasized by the 2013 American Heart Association/American College of

  19. Appetite and food intake after consumption of sausages with 10% fat and added wheat or rye bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuholm, Stine; Arildsen Jakobsen, Louise Margrethe; Vejrum Sørensen, Karina; Kehlet, Ursula; Raben, Anne; Kristensen, Mette

    2014-02-01

    The use of dietary fibers as fat-replacers in sausages gives less energy-dense and thereby healthier foods. Also, dietary fibers have been shown to induce satiety. The objectives of this study were to investigate if appetite sensations and energy intake was affected by (1) addition of dietary fibers to sausages, (2) type of dietary fibers and (3) the food matrix of the dietary fibers. In this randomized cross-over study 25 young men were served four test meals; wheat bran sausages, rye bran sausages, rye bran bread and wheat flour sausages. The test meals were served as breakfast after an overnight fast. Appetite sensations were evaluated by visual analogue scales (VAS) assessed every 30 min for 240 min followed by an ad libitum lunch meal where energy intake was calculated. Both rye bran and wheat bran sausages increased satiety (P decreased hunger (P decreased prospective consumption (P decreased appetite sensations and thereby has a potential added health benefit beyond the role as fat-replacer. The satisfying effect of dietary fibers appears to be more pronounced when added to sausages than when added to bread, stressing the importance of food matrix and food processing.

  20. Maternal High-Fat Diet and Obesity Impact Palatable Food Intake and Dopamine Signaling in Nonhuman Primate Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Heidi M.; Kievit, Paul; Kirigiti, Melissa A.; Bauman, Leigh Ann; Baquero, Karalee; Blundell, Peter; Dean, Tyler A.; Valleau, Jeanette C.; Takahashi, Diana L.; Frazee, Tim; Douville, Luke; Majer, Jordan; Smith, M. Susan; Grove, Kevin L.; Sullivan, Elinor L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To utilize a nonhuman primate model to examine the impact of maternal high-fat diet (HFD) consumption and pre-pregnancy obesity on offspring intake of palatable food. We will also examine whether maternal HFD consumption impaired development of the dopamine system, critical for the regulation of hedonic feeding. Methods The impact of exposure to maternal HFD and obesity on offspring consumption of diets of varying composition was assessed after weaning. We also examined the influence of maternal HFD consumption on the development of the prefrontal cortex-dopamine system at 13 months of age. Results During a preference test, offspring exposed to maternal obesity and HFD consumption displayed increased intake of food high in fat and sugar content relative to offspring from lean control mothers. Maternal HFD consumption suppressed offspring dopamine signaling (as assessed by immunohistochemistry) relative to control offspring. Specifically, there was decreased abundance of dopamine fibers and of dopamine receptor 1 and 2 protein. Conclusion Our findings reveal that offspring exposed to both maternal HFD consumption and maternal obesity during early development are at increased risk for obesity due to overconsumption of palatable energy-dense food, a behavior that may be related to reduced central dopamine signaling. PMID:26530932

  1. Maternal high-fat diet and obesity impact palatable food intake and dopamine signaling in nonhuman primate offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Heidi M; Kievit, Paul; Kirigiti, Melissa A; Bauman, Leigh Ann; Baquero, Karalee; Blundell, Peter; Dean, Tyler A; Valleau, Jeanette C; Takahashi, Diana L; Frazee, Tim; Douville, Luke; Majer, Jordan; Smith, M Susan; Grove, Kevin L; Sullivan, Elinor L

    2015-11-01

    To utilize a nonhuman primate model to examine the impact of maternal high-fat diet (HFD) consumption and pre-pregnancy obesity on offspring intake of palatable food and to examine whether maternal HFD consumption impaired development of the dopamine system, critical for the regulation of hedonic feeding. The impact of exposure to maternal HFD and obesity on offspring consumption of diets of varying composition was assessed after weaning. The influence of maternal HFD consumption on the development of the prefrontal cortex-dopaminergic system at 13 months of age was also examined. During a preference test, offspring exposed to maternal HFD consumption and obesity displayed increased intake of food high in fat and sugar content relative to offspring from lean control mothers. Maternal HFD consumption suppressed offspring dopamine signaling (as assessed by immunohistochemistry) relative to control offspring. Specifically, there was decreased abundance of dopamine fibers and of dopamine receptor 1 and 2 proteins. This study reveals that offspring exposed to both maternal HFD consumption and maternal obesity during early development are at increased risk for obesity due to overconsumption of palatable energy-dense food, a behavior that may be related to reduced central dopamine signaling. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  2. Liver glycogen reduces food intake and attenuates obesity in a high-fat diet-fed mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Soldado, Iliana; Zafra, Delia; Duran, Jordi; Adrover, Anna; Calbó, Joaquim; Guinovart, Joan J

    2015-03-01

    We generated mice that overexpress protein targeting to glycogen (PTG) in the liver (PTG(OE)), which results in an increase in liver glycogen. When fed a high-fat diet (HFD), these animals reduced their food intake. The resulting effect was a lower body weight, decreased fat mass, and reduced leptin levels. Furthermore, PTG overexpression reversed the glucose intolerance and hyperinsulinemia caused by the HFD and protected against HFD-induced hepatic steatosis. Of note, when fed an HFD, PTG(OE) mice did not show the decrease in hepatic ATP content observed in control animals and had lower expression of neuropeptide Y and higher expression of proopiomelanocortin in the hypothalamus. Additionally, after an overnight fast, PTG(OE) animals presented high liver glycogen content, lower liver triacylglycerol content, and lower serum concentrations of fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate than control mice, regardless of whether they were fed an HFD or a standard diet. In conclusion, liver glycogen accumulation caused a reduced food intake, protected against the deleterious effects of an HFD, and diminished the metabolic impact of fasting. Therefore, we propose that hepatic glycogen content be considered a potential target for the pharmacological manipulation of diabetes and obesity. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  3. Peripheral oxytocin treatment ameliorates obesity by reducing food intake and visceral fat mass

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maejima, Yuko; Iwasaki, Yusaku; Yamahara, Yui; Kodaira, Misato; Sedbazar, Udval; Yada, Toshihiko

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that oxytocin (Oxt) is implicated in energy metabolism. We aimed to explore acute and sub-chronic effects of peripheral Oxt treatment via different routes on food intake and energy balance. Intraperitoneal (ip...

  4. Dietary saturated fat intake and atherosclerotic vascular disease mortality in elderly women: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blekkenhorst, Lauren C; Prince, Richard L; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Lim, Wai H; Zhu, Kun; Devine, Amanda; Thompson, Peter L; Lewis, Joshua R

    2015-06-01

    The reduction of saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake has been the basis of long-standing dietary recommendations. However, recent epidemiologic studies have reported conflicting evidence in the relation between SFA consumption and risk of atherosclerotic vascular disease (ASVD) mortality. We investigated the association of SFA intake with serum lipid profiles and ASVD mortality in a population-based 10-y cohort study. At baseline (1998) 1469 women living in Perth, Western Australia, with a mean ± SD age of 75.2 ± 2.7 y had SFA intake measured by using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Outcome data were serum lipids at baseline and ASVD deaths over 10 y (13,649 person-years of follow-up), retrieved from the Western Australian Data Linkage System. Other risk factors for ASVD were assessed and adjusted for in multivariable analyses. ASVD deaths occurred in 9.1% (134) of participants. The highest quartile of SFA intake (>31.28 g/d) had an ~16% cumulative mortality risk compared with ~5% in the lowest quartile (<17.39 g/d) (HR: 3.07; 95% CI: 1.54, 6.11; P = 0.001). Baseline SFA intake was associated with baseline serum total and LDL cholesterol in multivariable-adjusted models (β: 0.199, SE: 0.056, P < 0.001 and β: 0.190, SE: 0.051, P < 0.001, respectively). However, baseline serum total and LDL cholesterol were not associated with ASVD mortality. High SFA intake was associated with the risk of ASVD mortality in this population of elderly women. Although there was a strong positive association between SFA intake and LDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol was not associated with ASVD mortality in this cohort. Nevertheless, these data support dietary advice to reduce SFA intake. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. Associations between energy and fat intakes with adiposity in schoolchildren – the Cuenca Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lahoz García, Noelia; García Hermoso, Antonio; Sánchez López, Mairena; Cañete García-Prieto, Jorge; Milla Tobarra, Marta; Martínez Vizcaíno, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: the relationship between changes in energy intake (EI) over the last few decades and the trends towards of excess weight in children is still debated. Objective: to examine the relationship between energy and macronutrient intakes with adipostity in children, controlling for cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) as a surrogate measure of physical activity. Method: we conducted a cross-sectional study of 320 schoolchildren aged 9-11 years (54.5% girls). We collected data on so...

  6. Peripheral oxytocin treatment ameliorates obesity by reducing food intake and visceral fat mass

    OpenAIRE

    Maejima, Yuko; Iwasaki, Yusaku; Yamahara, Yui; Kodaira, Misato; Sedbazar, Udval; Yada, Toshihiko

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that oxytocin (Oxt) is implicated in energy metabolism. We aimed to explore acute and sub-chronic effects of peripheral Oxt treatment via different routes on food intake and energy balance. Intraperitoneal (ip) injection of Oxt concentration-dependently decreased food intake in mice. Ip Oxt injection induced c-Fos expression in the hypothalamus and brain stem including arcuate nucleus (ARC), paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). Subcutaneou...

  7. Timing of fat and liquid sugar intake alters substrate oxidation and food efficiency in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterman, Johanneke E; Foppen, Ewout; van der Spek, Rianne; Fliers, Eric; Kalsbeek, Andries; la Fleur, Susanne E

    2015-03-01

    In addition to the amount of ingested calories, both timing of food intake and meal composition are determinants of body weight gain. However, at present, it is unknown if the inappropriate timing of diet components is responsible for body weight gain. In the present study, we therefore studied a time-dependent effect of the diet composition on energy homeostasis. Male Wistar rats were subjected to chow ad libitum (chow group) or a choice diet with saturated fat, a 30% sugar solution, chow and tap water. The choice diet was provided either with all components ad libitum (AL), with ad libitum access to chow, tap water and a 30% sugar solution, but with access to saturated fat only during the light period (LF), or with ad libitum access to chow, tap water and saturated fat, but access to a 30% sugar solution only during the light period (LS). Caloric intake and body weight gain were monitored during 31 days. Energy expenditure was measured in the third week in calorimetric cages. All rats on a choice diet showed hyperphagia and gained more body weight compared to the chow group. Within the choice diet groups, rats on the LS diet were most food efficient (i.e. gained most body weight per ingested calorie) and showed a lower respiratory exchange ratio (RER) with an anti-phasic pattern, whereas no differences in locomotor activity or heat production were found. Collectively these data indicate that the timing of the diet composition affects food efficiency, most likely due to a shifted oxidation pattern, which can predispose for obesity. Further studies are underway to assess putative mechanisms involved in this dysregulation.

  8. High-fat but not sucrose intake is essential for induction of dyslipidemia and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, David Højland; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Rolin, Bidda;

    2016-01-01

    Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and dyslipidemia are closely related. Diet plays an important role in the progression of these diseases, but the role of specific dietary components is not completely understood. Therefore, we investigated the role of dietary sucrose and fat....../cholesterol on the development of dyslipidemia and NAFLD. Methods Seventy female guinea pigs were block-randomized (based on weight) into five groups and fed a normal chow diet (control: 4 % fat), a very high-sucrose diet (vHS: 4 % fat, 25 % sucrose), a high-fat diet (HF: 20 % fat, 0.35 % cholesterol), a high...... Collectively, our results suggest that intake of fat and cholesterol, but not sucrose, are the main factors driving the development and progression of dyslipidemia and NAFLD/NASH....

  9. Fat mass- and obesity-associated genotype, dietary intakes and anthropometric measures in European adults: the Food4Me study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Katherine M; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; San-Cristobal, Rodrigo; Forster, Hannah; O'Donovan, Clare B; Woolhead, Clara; Marsaux, Cyril F M; Macready, Anna L; Fallaize, Rosalind; Kolossa, Silvia; Tsirigoti, Lydia; Lambrinou, Christina P; Moschonis, George; Godlewska, Magdalena; Surwiłło, Agnieszka; Drevon, Christian A; Manios, Yannis; Traczyk, Iwona; Gibney, Eileen R; Brennan, Lorraine; Walsh, Marianne C; Lovegrove, Julie A; Martinez, J Alfredo; Saris, Wim H M; Daniel, Hannelore; Gibney, Mike; Mathers, John C

    2016-02-14

    The interplay between the fat mass- and obesity-associated (FTO) gene variants and diet has been implicated in the development of obesity. The aim of the present analysis was to investigate associations between FTO genotype, dietary intakes and anthropometrics among European adults. Participants in the Food4Me randomised controlled trial were genotyped for FTO genotype (rs9939609) and their dietary intakes, and diet quality scores (Healthy Eating Index and PREDIMED-based Mediterranean diet score) were estimated from FFQ. Relationships between FTO genotype, diet and anthropometrics (weight, waist circumference (WC) and BMI) were evaluated at baseline. European adults with the FTO risk genotype had greater WC (AA v. TT: +1·4 cm; P=0·003) and BMI (+0·9 kg/m2; P=0·001) than individuals with no risk alleles. Subjects with the lowest fried food consumption and two copies of the FTO risk variant had on average 1·4 kg/m2 greater BMI (Ptrend=0·028) and 3·1 cm greater WC (Ptrend=0·045) compared with individuals with no copies of the risk allele and with the lowest fried food consumption. However, there was no evidence of interactions between FTO genotype and dietary intakes on BMI and WC, and thus further research is required to confirm or refute these findings.

  10. Genetic associations of residual feed intake with serum insulin-like growth factor-I and leptin concentrations, meat quality, and carcass cross sectional fat area ratios in Duroc pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, M A; Katoh, K; Suzuki, K

    2009-10-01

    Genetic relationships of measures of residual feed intake and daily feed intake with serum IGF-I concentrations at 8 wk of age and at 105 kg of BW, serum leptin concentration at 105 kg of BW, meat quality, and different fat accumulation traits on 834 Duroc pigs in 7 generations were estimated. Two measures of residual feed intake were estimated from the differences between actual and predicted feed intake: phenotypic residual feed intake (RFI(phe)) and nutritional residual feed intake (RFI(nut)). Meat quality traits included drip loss, cooking loss, pork color score, pork lightness (L*), and pH, whereas fat accumulation traits were subcutaneous fat, intermuscular fat, and total fat percent at 5-6th thoracic vertebra; subcutaneous fat, intermuscular fat, abdominal fat, and total fat percent at one-half body length and at last thoracic vertebra, and seam fat score. The IGF-I concentrations at 8 wk of age and 105 kg of BW had weak genetic correlations with measures of residual feed intake and daily feed intake (absolute values ranging from 0.14 to 0.24). The genetic correlations between measures of residual feed intake and serum leptin concentration were strong and positive (r(g) with RFI(phe) and RFI(nut) were 0.74 and 0.80, respectively). Residual feed intake was moderately but negatively correlated with cooking loss (r(g) with RFI(phe) and RFI(nut) were -0.42 and -0.49, respectively), whereas daily feed intake was moderately and positively correlated with drip loss and pH (0.33 and 0.36, respectively). Daily feed intake was also moderately correlated with subcutaneous fat accumulations at the 5-6th thoracic vertebra (0.31) and one-half body length (0.31) regions and was strongly correlated with accumulations at the last thoracic vertebra region (0.57). The genetic correlations between daily feed intake and intermuscular fat accumulations at all of the carcass sites were strong (0.60, 0.76, and 0.56 for intermuscular fat at 5-6th thoracic vertebra, one-half body

  11. High-fat diet offsets the long-lasting effects of running-wheel access on food intake and body weight in OLETF rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Pei-Ting; Terrillion, Chantelle E; Moran, Timothy H; Bi, Sheng

    2011-06-01

    We have previously demonstrated that running-wheel access normalizes the food intake and body weight of Otsuka Long-Evens Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. Following 6 wk of running-wheel access beginning at 8 wk of age, the body weight of OLETF rats remains reduced, demonstrating a lasting effect on their phenotype. In contrast, access to a high-fat diet exacerbates the hyperphagia and obesity of OLETF rats. To determine whether diet modulates the long-term effects of exercise, we examined the effects of high-fat diet on food intake and body weight in OLETF rats that had prior access to running wheels for 4 wk. We found that 4 wk of running exercise significantly decreased food intake and body weight of OLETF rats. Consistent with prior results, 4 wk of exercise also produced long-lasting effects on food intake and body weight in OLETF rats fed a regular chow. When running wheels were relocked, OLETF rats stabilized at lower levels of body weight than sedentary OLETF rats. However, access to a high-fat diet offset these effects. When OLETF rats were switched to a high-fat diet following wheel relocking, they significantly increased food intake and body weight, so that they reached levels similar to those of sedentary OLETF rats fed a high-fat diet. Gene expression determination of hypothalamic neuropeptides revealed changes that appeared to be appropriate responses to the effects of diet and running exercise. Together, these results demonstrate that high-fat diet modulates the long-lasting effects of exercise on food intake and body weight in OLETF rats.

  12. Energy and fat intakes of children and adolescents in the united states: data from the national health and nutrition examination surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troiano, R P; Briefel, R R; Carroll, M D; Bialostosky, K

    2000-11-01

    Dietary factors related to body weight and chronic disease risk are of interest because of recent increases in the prevalence of overweight. Secular trends in energy and fat intakes of youths aged 2-19 y were assessed. Current intakes were compared with recommendations. Dietary 24-h recall data from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994) and earlier national surveys were examined. Mean energy intake changed little from the 1970s to 1988-1994 except for an increase among adolescent females. Over the same time period, the mean percentage of energy from total and saturated fat decreased, but remained above recommendations, with overall means of 33.5% of energy from fat and 12.2% of energy from saturated fat. In 1988-1994, approximately 1 in 4 youths met the recommendations for intakes of fat and saturated fat and 3 in 4 met the recommendation for cholesterol intake. Beverages contributed 20-24% of energy across all ages and soft drinks provided 8% of energy in adolescents. Except for adolescent girls, beverage energy contributions were generally higher among overweight than nonoverweight youths; soft drink energy contribution was higher among overweight youths than among nonoverweight youths for all groups. The lack of evidence of a general increase in energy intake among youths despite an increase in the prevalence of overweight suggests that physical inactivity is a major public health challenge in this age group. Efforts to increase physical activity and decrease nonnutritive sources of energy may be important approaches to counter the rise in overweight prevalence.

  13. Reduced access to insulin-sensitive tissues in dogs with obesity secondary to increased fat intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellmerer, Martin; Hamilton-Wessler, Marianthe; Kim, Stella P; Huecking, Katrin; Kirkman, Erlinda; Chiu, Jenny; Richey, Joyce; Bergman, Richard N

    2006-06-01

    Physiological hyperinsulinemia provokes hemodynamic actions and augments access of macromolecules to insulin-sensitive tissues. We investigated whether induction of insulin resistance by a hypercaloric high-fat diet has an effect on the extracellular distribution of macromolecules to insulin-sensitive tissues. Male mongrel dogs were randomly selected into two groups: seven dogs were fed an isocaloric control diet ( approximately 3,900 kcal, 35% from fat), and six dogs were fed a hypercaloric high-fat diet ( approximately 5,300 kcal, 54% from fat) for a period of 12 weeks. During hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps, we determined transport parameters and distribution volumes of [(14)C]inulin by applying a three-compartment model to the plasma clearance data of intravenously injected [(14)C]inulin (0.8 microCi/kg). In another study with direct cannulation of the hindlimb skeletal muscle lymphatics, we investigated the effect of physiological hyperinsulinemia on the appearance of intravenously injected [(14)C]inulin in skeletal muscle interstitial fluid and compared the effect of insulin between control and high-fat diet groups. The hypercaloric high-fat diet resulted in significant weight gain (18%; Pfat depots, as well as peripheral insulin resistance, measured as a significant reduction of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake during clamps (-35%; Pinsulin action to stimulate access of macromolecules to insulin-sensitive tissues (control diet 32%, Pfat diet 18%, NS). The present results indicate that access of macromolecules to insulin-sensitive tissues is impaired during diet-induced insulin resistance and suggest that the ability of insulin itself to stimulate tissue access is diminished. We speculate that the observed diet-induced defects in stimulation of tissue perfusion contribute to the development of peripheral insulin resistance.

  14. Cross-generational trans fat intake exacerbates UV radiation-induced damage in rat skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelos, R C S; Vey, L T; Segat, H J; Roversi, K; Roversi, Kr; Dias, V T; Trevizol, F; Kuhn, F T; Dolci, G S; Pase, C S; Piccolo, J; Veit, J C; Emanuelli, T; Luz, S C A; Bürger, M E

    2014-07-01

    We evaluated the influence of dietary fats on ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced oxidative damage in skin of rats. Animals from two consecutive generations born of dams supplemented with fats during pregnancy and breastfeeding were maintained in the same supplementation: soybean-oil (SO, rich in n-6 FA, control group), fish-oil (FO, rich in n-3 FA) or hydrogenated-vegetable-fat (HVF, rich in TFA). At 90 days of age, half the animals from the 2nd generation were exposed to UVR (0.25 J/cm(2)) 3×/week for 12 weeks. The FO group presented higher incorporation of n-3 FA in dorsal skin, while the HVF group incorporated TFA. Biochemical changes per se were observed in skin of the HVF group: greater generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lower mitochondrial integrity and increased Na(+)K(+)-ATPase activity. UVR exposure increased skin wrinkles scores and ROS generation and decreased mitochondrial integrity and reduced-glutathione levels in the HVF group. In FO, UVR exposure was associated with smaller skin thickness and reduced levels of protein-carbonyl, together with increased catalase activity and preserved Na(+)K(+)-ATPase function. In conclusion, while FO may be protective, trans fat may be harmful to skin health by making it more vulnerable to UVR injury and thus more prone to develop photoaging and skin cancer.

  15. Fatty acid intake in relation to reproductive hormones and testicular volume among young healthy men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Mínguez-Alarcón

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence suggests that dietary fats may influence testicular function. However, most of the published literature on this field has used semen quality parameters as the only proxy for testicular function. We examined the association of fat intake with circulating reproductive hormone levels and testicular volume among healthy young Spanish men. This is a cross-sectional study among 209 healthy male volunteers conducted between October 2010 and November 2011 in Murcia Region of Spain. Participants completed questionnaires on lifestyle, diet, and smoking, and each underwent a physical examination, and provided a blood sample. Linear regression was used to examine the association between each fatty acid type and reproductive hormone levels and testicular volumes. Monounsaturated fatty acids intake was inversely associated with serum blood levels of calculated free testosterone, total testosterone, and inhibin B. A positive association was observed between the intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and luteinizing hormone concentrations. In addition, the intake of trans fatty acids was associated with lower total testosterone and calculated free testosterone concentrations (P trend = 0.01 and 0.02, respectively. The intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids was positively related to testicular volume while the intake of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and trans fatty acids was inversely related to testicular volume. These data suggest that fat intake, and particularly intake of omega 3, omega 6, and trans fatty acids, may influence testicular function.

  16. Dietary intake of saturated fat by food source and incident cardiovascular disease: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Otto, Marcia C; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Kromhout, Daan; Bertoni, Alain G; Sibley, Christopher T; Jacobs, David R; Nettleton, Jennifer A

    2012-08-01

    Although dietary recommendations have focused on restricting saturated fat (SF) consumption to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, evidence from prospective studies has not supported a strong link between total SF intake and CVD events. An understanding of whether food sources of SF influence these relations may provide new insights. We investigated the association of SF consumption from different food sources and the incidence of CVD events in a multiethnic population. Participants who were 45-84 y old at baseline (n = 5209) were followed from 2000 to 2010. Diet was assessed by using a 120-item food-frequency questionnaire. CVD incidence (316 cases) was assessed during follow-up visits. After adjustment for demographics, lifestyle, and dietary confounders, a higher intake of dairy SF was associated with lower CVD risk [HR (95% CI) for +5 g/d and +5% of energy from dairy SF: 0.79 (0.68, 0.92) and 0.62 (0.47, 0.82), respectively]. In contrast, a higher intake of meat SF was associated with greater CVD risk [HR (95% CI) for +5 g/d and a +5% of energy from meat SF: 1.26 (1.02, 1.54) and 1.48 (0.98, 2.23), respectively]. The substitution of 2% of energy from meat SF with energy from dairy SF was associated with a 25% lower CVD risk [HR (95% CI): 0.75 (0.63, 0.91)]. No associations were observed between plant or butter SF and CVD risk, but ranges of intakes were narrow. Associations of SF with health may depend on food-specific fatty acids or other nutrient constituents in foods that contain SF, in addition to SF.

  17. Longitudinal assessment of food intake, fecal energy loss, and energy expenditure after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery in high-fat-fed obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Andrew C; Zheng, Huiyuan; Townsend, R Leigh; Patterson, Laurel M; Holmes, Gregory M; Berthoud, Hans-Rudolf

    2013-04-01

    The efficacy of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery to produce weight loss has been well-documented, but few studies have measured the key components of energy balance, food intake, and energy expenditure longitudinally. Male Sprague-Dawley rats on a high-fat diet underwent either RYGB, sham operation, or pair feeding and were compared to chow-fed lean controls. Body weight and composition, food intake and preference, energy expenditure, fecal output, and gastric emptying were monitored before and up to 4 months after intervention. Despite the recovery of initially decreased food intake to levels slightly higher than before surgery and comparable to sham-operated rats after about 1 month, RYGB rats maintained a lower level of body weight and fat mass for 4 months that was not different from chow-fed age-matched controls. Energy expenditure corrected for lean body mass at 1 and 4 months after RYGB was not different from presurgical levels and from all other groups. Fecal energy loss was significantly increased at 6 and 16 weeks after RYGB compared to sham operation, and there was a progressive decrease in fat preference after RYGB. In this rat model of RYGB, sustained weight loss is achieved by a combination of initial hypophagia and sustained increases in fecal energy loss, without change in energy expenditure per lean mass. A shift away from high-fat towards low-fat/high-carbohydrate food preference occurring in parallel suggests long-term adaptive mechanisms related to fat absorption.

  18. Estimating the cardiovascular mortality burden attributable to the European Common Agricultural Policy on dietary saturated fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd-Williams, Ffion; O'Flaherty, Martin; Mwatsama, Modi; Birt, Christopher; Ireland, Robin; Capewell, Simon

    2008-07-01

    To estimate the burden of cardiovascular disease within 15 European Union countries (before the 2004 enlargement) as a result of excess dietary saturated fats attributable to the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). A spreadsheet model was developed to synthesize data on population, diet, cholesterol levels and mortality rates. A conservative estimate of a reduction in saturated fat consumption of just 2.2 g was chosen, representing 1% of daily energy intake. The fall in serum cholesterol concentration was then calculated, assuming that this 1% reduction in saturated fat consumption was replaced with 0.5% monounsaturated and 0.5% polyunsaturated fats. The resulting reduction in cardiovascular and stroke deaths was then estimated, and a sensitivity analysis conducted. Reducing saturated fat consumption by 1% and increasing monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fat by 0.5% each would lower blood cholesterol levels by approximately 0.06 mmol/l, resulting in approximately 9800 fewer coronary heart disease deaths and 3000 fewer stroke deaths each year. The cardiovascular disease burden attributable to CAP appears substantial. Furthermore, these calculations were conservative estimates, and the true mortality burden may be higher. The analysis contributes to the current wider debate concerning the relationship between CAP, health and chronic disease across Europe, together with recent international developments and commitments to reduce chronic diseases. The reported mortality estimates should be considered in relation to the current CAP and any future reforms.

  19. Dietary fruit, vegetable, fat, and red and processed meat intakes and Barrett's esophagus risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhanwei; Pu, Zhongshu; Yin, Zifang; Yu, Pengfei; Hao, Yiming; Wang, Qian; Guo, Min; Zhao, Qingchuan

    2016-06-03

    The relationships between dietary fruit, vegetable, fat, and red and processed meat intakes and Barrett's esophagus (BE) risk remain inconclusive. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize the available evidence on these issues. PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library were searched for studies published from inception through October 2015. A total of eight studies were included in this analysis. Fruit intake was not associated with BE risk (OR = 0.65, 95% CI = 0.37-1.13), but vegetable intake was strongly associated with BE risk (OR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.29-0.71). Saturated fat, red meat and processed meat intakes were not associated with BE risk with OR = 1.25 (95% CI = 0.82-1.91), OR = 0.85 (95% CI = 0.61-1.17) and OR = 1.03 (95% CI = 0.73-1.46), respectively. Dietary vegetable not fruits intake may be associated with decreased BE risk. Fat and red and processed meat intakes may not contribute to an increased BE risk. Well-designed, large prospective studies with better established dose-response relationships are needed to further validate these issues.

  20. Incremental effect of a calcium salt of cis-monounsaturated fatty acids supplement on milk fatty acid composition in cows fed maize silage-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliem, K E; Reynolds, C K; Humphries, D J; Kirkland, R M; Barratt, C E S; Livingstone, K M; Givens, D I

    2013-05-01

    In most Western countries, saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake exceeds recommended levels, which is considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). As milk and dairy products are major contributors to SFA intake in many countries, recent research has focused on sustainable methods of producing milk with a lower saturated fat concentration by altering dairy cow diets. Human intervention studies have shown that CVD risk can be reduced by consuming dairy products with reduced SFA and increased cis-monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) concentrations. This milk fatty acid profile can be achieved by supplementing dairy cow diets with cis-MUFA-rich unsaturated oils. However, rumen exposure of unsaturated oils also leads to enhanced milk trans fatty acid (TFA) concentrations. Because of concerns about the effects of TFA consumption on CVD, feeding strategies that increase MUFA concentrations in milk without concomitant increases in TFA concentration are preferred by milk processors. In an attempt to limit TFA production and increase the replacement of SFA by cis-MUFA, a preparation of rumen-protected unsaturated oils was developed using saponification with calcium salts. Four multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows in mid-late lactation were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with 21-d periods to investigate the effect of incremental dietary inclusion of a calcium salt of cis-MUFA product (Ca-MUFA; 20, 40, and 60 g/kg of dry matter of a maize silage-based diet), on milk production, composition, and fatty acid concentration. Increasing Ca-MUFA inclusion reduced dry matter intake linearly, but no change was observed in estimated ME intake. No change in milk yield was noted, but milk fat and protein concentrations were linearly reduced. Supplementation with Ca-MUFA resulted in a linear reduction in total SFA (from 71 to 52 g/100 g of fatty acids for control and 60 g/kg of dry matter diets, respectively). In addition, concentrations of both cis- and trans-MUFA were

  1. Interruption of Ghrelin Signaling in the PVN Increases High-Fat Diet Intake and Body Weight in Stressed & Non-Stressed C57BL6J Male Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary Robert Patterson

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic social stress has been associated with increased caloric intake and adiposity. These effects have been linked to stress induced changes in the secretion of ghrelin, a hormone that targets a number of brain regions to increase food intake and energy expenditure and promote increased body fat content. One of the brain sites targeted by ghrelin is the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN, a region critical for both the regulation of the stress response and the regulation of energy balance. Given these data, we examined the contribution of ghrelin receptors in the PVN to the metabolic and behavioral changes that are seen during chronic social stress in mice. To do this, mice were implanted with cannulae attached to osmotic minipumps and delivering either vehicle or the ghrelin receptor (growth hormone secretagogue receptor antagonist [D-Lys-3]-GHRP-6 (20nmol/day/mouse. Following a week of recovery, half of the animals in each group were exposed to chronic social defeat stress for a period of three weeks whereas the other half were left undisturbed. During this time, all animals were given ad libitum access to standard laboratory chow and presented a high-fat diet for 4 hours during the day. Results showed that the ghrelin receptor antagonism did not decrease stressed induced caloric intake, but paradoxically increased the intake of the high fat diet. This would suggest that ghrelin acts on the PVN to promote the intake of carbohydrate rich diets while decreasing fat intake and blockade of ghrelin receptors in the PVN leads to more consumption of foods that are high in fat.

  2. Resistant starch and protein intake enhances fat oxidation and feelings of fullness in lean and overweight/obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentile, Christopher L; Ward, Emery; Holst, Jens Juul

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diets high in either resistant starch or protein have been shown to aid in weight management. We examined the effects of meals high in non-resistant or resistant starch with and without elevated protein intake on substrate utilization, energy expenditure, and satiety in lean...... and overweight/obese women. METHODS: Women of varying levels of adiposity consumed one of four pancake test meals in a single-blind, randomized crossover design: 1) waxy maize (control) starch (WMS); 2) waxy maize starch and whey protein (WMS+WP); 3) resistant starch (RS); or 4) RS and whey protein (RS...... factors were not different among any of the test meals. However, peptide YY (PYY) was significantly elevated at 180 min following RS+WP meal. CONCLUSIONS: The combined consumption of dietary resistant starch and protein increases fat oxidation, PYY, and enhances feelings of satiety and fullness to levels...

  3. Change in proportional protein intake in a 10-week energy-restricted low- or high-fat diet, in relation to changes in body size and metabolic factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stocks, Tanja; Taylor, Moira A; Ängquist, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate in a secondary analysis of a randomised trial the effects of a low-/high-fat diet and reported change from baseline in energy% from protein (prot%), in relation to changes in body size and metabolic factors. Methods: Obese adults (n = 771) were randomised to a 600 kcal e...... increased the percentage energy intake from protein showed the greatest reduction in weight and cholesterol, and a triglyceride reduction equally large to that of participants on a high-fat diet. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.......Objective: To investigate in a secondary analysis of a randomised trial the effects of a low-/high-fat diet and reported change from baseline in energy% from protein (prot%), in relation to changes in body size and metabolic factors. Methods: Obese adults (n = 771) were randomised to a 600 kcal...... energy-deficient low-fat (20-25 fat%) or high-fat (40-45 fat%) diet over 10 weeks. Dietary intake data at baseline and during the intervention were available in 585 completers. We used linear regression to calculate the combined effects of randomised group and groups of prot% change (2) on outcomes...

  4. Is less always more? The effects of low-fat labeling and caloric information on food intake, calorie estimates, taste preference, and health attributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebneter, Daria S; Latner, Janet D; Nigg, Claudio R

    2013-09-01

    The present study examined whether low-fat labeling and caloric information affect food intake, calorie estimates, taste preference, and health perceptions. Participants included 175 female undergraduate students who were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions. A 2×2 between subjects factorial design was used in which the fat content label and caloric information of chocolate candy was manipulated. The differences in food intake across conditions did not reach statistical significance. However, participants significantly underestimated the calorie content of low-fat-labeled candy. Participants also rated low-fat-labeled candy as significantly better tasting when they had caloric information available. Participants endorsed more positive health attributions for low-fat-labeled candy than for regular-labeled candy, independent of caloric information. The inclusion of eating attitudes and behaviors as covariates did not alter the results. The study findings may be related to the "health halo" associated with low-fat foods and add to the research base by examining the interaction between low-fat and calorie labeling.

  5. Association of High Dietary Saturated Fat Intake and Uncontrolled Diabetes with Constipation: Evidence from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taba Vakili, Sahar Taba; Nezami, Behtash Ghazi; Shetty, Akshay; Chetty, Veerappa. K.; Srinivasan, Shanthi

    2015-01-01

    Background Constipation is highly prevalent in the United States. The association of dietary fat intake with constipation has not been well studied. We recently reported that mice fed a high-fat diet had higher incidence of constipation than regular diet fed mice. The aim of this study was to assess if increased intake of dietary saturated fat in humans is also associated with higher risk of constipation and reduced stool frequency. Methods Analyses were based on data from 6,207 adults (≥20 years) from the 2005–2006 and 2007–2008 cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) who had completed the bowel health questionnaire. Constipation was defined as a stool frequency of less than three times per week. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to calculate adjusted prevalence odds ratio estimates. Statistical analyses were performed using R and RStudio softwares. Key Results The prevalence of constipation in this sample was 3.1%. After multivariable adjustment high saturated fat remained associated with constipation. The odds ratio for high saturated fat intake associated with constipation was much higher in diabetics above 65 years, especially in non-Hispanic blacks, females, and those with poor glycemic control, compared to the control group. Conclusions & Inferences To our knowledge, this is the first report to investigate the association of high saturated fat diet, bowel frequency and diabetes. This study demonstrates that a high dietary saturated fat intake is associated with significant increase in the prevalence of constipation, especially in the uncontrolled diabetic, non-Hispanic black, female patients. PMID:26176421

  6. Effect of fat replacement by inulin or lupin-kernel fibre on sausage patty acceptability, post-meal perceptions of satiety and food intake in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Bridie J; Johnson, Stuart K; Devereux, Helen M; Baxter, Amynta L

    2004-04-01

    The present study examined whether replacing fat with inulin or lupin-kernel fibre influenced palatability, perceptions of satiety, and food intake in thirty-three healthy men (mean age 52 years, BMI 27.4 kg/m(2)), using a within-subject design. On separate occasions, after fasting overnight, the participants consumed a breakfast consisting primarily of either a full-fat sausage patty (FFP) or a reduced-fat patty containing inulin (INP) or lupin-kernel fibre (LKP). Breakfast variants were alike in mass, protein and carbohydrate content; however the INP and LKP breakfasts were 36 and 37 % lower in fat and 15 and 17 % lower in energy density respectively compared with the FFP breakfast. The participants rated their satiety before breakfast then evaluated patty acceptability. Satiety was rated immediately after consuming the breakfast, then over the subsequent 4.5 h whilst fasting. Food consumed until the end of the following day was recorded. All patties were rated above 'neither acceptable or unacceptable', however the INP rated lower for general acceptability (P=0.039) and the LKP lower for flavour (P=0.023) than the FFP. The LKP breakfast rated more satiating than the INP (P=0.010) and FFP (P=0.016) breakfasts. Total fat intake was 18 g lower on the day of the INP (P=0.035) and 26 g lower on the day of the LKP breakfast (P=0.013) than the FFP breakfast day. Energy intake was lower (1521 kJ) only on the day of the INP breakfast (P=0.039). Both inulin and lupin-kernel fibre appear to have potential as fat replacers in meat products and for reducing fat and energy intake in men.

  7. Whey protein isolate counteracts the effects of a high-fat diet on energy intake and hypothalamic and adipose tissue expression of energy balance-related genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllan, Liam; Keane, Deirdre; Schellekens, Harriët; Roche, Helen M; Korpela, Riitta; Cryan, John F; Nilaweera, Kanishka N

    2013-12-14

    The intake of whey protein isolate (WPI) is known to reduce high-fat diet (HFD)-induced body-weight gain and adiposity. However, the molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. To this end, we fed C57BL/6J mice for 8 weeks with diets containing 10 % energy as fat (low-fat diet, LFD) or 45 % energy as fat (HFD) enriched with either 20 % energy as casein (LFD and HFD) or WPI (high-fat WPI). Metabolic parameters and the hypothalamic and epididymal adipose tissue expression of energy balance-related genes were investigated. The HFD increased fat mass and plasma leptin levels and decreased the dark-phase energy intake, meal number, RER, and metabolic (VO₂ and heat) and locomotor activities compared with the LFD. The HFD increased the hypothalamic tissue mRNA expression of the leptin receptor, insulin receptor (INSR) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1b (CPT1b). The HFD also reduced the adipose tissue mRNA expression of GLUT4 and INSR. In contrast, WPI reduced fat mass, normalised dark-phase energy intake and increased meal size in HFD-fed mice. The dietary protein did not have an impact on plasma leptin, insulin, glucose or glucagon-like peptide 1 levels, but increased plasma TAG levels in HFD-fed mice. At a cellular level, WPI significantly reduced the HFD-associated increase in the hypothalamic tissue mRNA expression of the leptin receptor, INSR and CPT1b. Also, WPI prevented the HFD-induced reduction in the adipose tissue mRNA expression of INSR and GLUT4. In comparison with casein, the effects of WPI on energy intake and hypothalamic and adipose tissue gene expression may thus represent a state of reduced susceptibility to weight gain on a HFD.

  8. Significant Beneficial Association of High Dietary Selenium Intake with Reduced Body Fat in the CODING Study

    OpenAIRE

    Yongbo Wang; Xiang Gao; Pardis Pedram; Mariam Shahidi; Jianling Du; Yanqing Yi; Wayne Gulliver; Hongwei Zhang; Guang Sun

    2016-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is a trace element which plays an important role in adipocyte hypertrophy and adipogenesis. Some studies suggest that variations in serum Se may be associated with obesity. However, there are few studies examining the relationship between dietary Se and obesity, and findings are inconsistent. We aimed to investigate the association between dietary Se intake and a panel of obesity measurements with systematic control of major confounding factors. A total of 3214 subjects particip...

  9. Time-restricted feeding without reducing caloric intake prevents metabolic diseases in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatori, Megumi; Vollmers, Christopher; Zarrinpar, Amir; DiTacchio, Luciano; Bushong, Eric A; Gill, Shubhroz; Leblanc, Mathias; Chaix, Amandine; Joens, Matthew; Fitzpatrick, James A J; Ellisman, Mark H; Panda, Satchidananda

    2012-06-06

    While diet-induced obesity has been exclusively attributed to increased caloric intake from fat, animals fed a high-fat diet (HFD) ad libitum (ad lib) eat frequently throughout day and night, disrupting the normal feeding cycle. To test whether obesity and metabolic diseases result from HFD or disruption of metabolic cycles, we subjected mice to either ad lib or time-restricted feeding (tRF) of a HFD for 8 hr per day. Mice under tRF consume equivalent calories from HFD as those with ad lib access yet are protected against obesity, hyperinsulinemia, hepatic steatosis, and inflammation and have improved motor coordination. The tRF regimen improved CREB, mTOR, and AMPK pathway function and oscillations of the circadian clock and their target genes' expression. These changes in catabolic and anabolic pathways altered liver metabolome and improved nutrient utilization and energy expenditure. We demonstrate in mice that tRF regimen is a nonpharmacological strategy against obesity and associated diseases.

  10. Time restricted feeding without reducing caloric intake prevents metabolic diseases in mice fed a high fat diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatori, Megumi; Vollmers, Christopher; Zarrinpar, Amir; DiTacchio, Luciano; Bushong, Eric A.; Gill, Shubhroz; Leblanc, Mathias; Chaix, Amandine; Joens, Matthew; Fitzpatrick, James A. J.; Ellisman, Mark H.; Panda, Satchidananda

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY While diet-induced obesity has been exclusively attributed to increased caloric intake from fat, animals fed high fat diet (HFD) ad libitum (ad lib) eat frequently throughout day and night disrupting the normal feeding cycle. To test whether obesity and metabolic diseases result from HFD or disruption of metabolic cycles, we subjected mice to either ad lib or time restricted feeding (tRF) of a HFD for 8 h/day. Mice under tRF consume equivalent calories from HFD as those with ad lib access, yet are protected against obesity, hyperinsulinemia, hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and have improved motor coordination. The tRF regimen improved CREB, mTOR and AMPK pathway function and oscillations of the circadian clock and their target genes' expression. These changes in catabolic and anabolic pathways altered liver metabolome, improved nutrient utilization and energy expenditure. We demonstrate in mice that tRF regimen is a non-pharmacological strategy against obesity and associated diseases. PMID:22608008

  11. 膳食限脂减钠的必要性%Necessity for Limitation of Fat and Salt Intake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭辉; 张铭辉; 殷光玲

    2014-01-01

    With the improvement of living standard, disease patterns had changed enormously. Tumors and cardio-vascular disease became one of the most dangerous threats to human health. Changes of dietary Structure became an important influence to disease spectrum. Animal derived food and fat intake had a significant correlation with death from disease. Hypertension and cancer closely related to high salt intake.%随着国民经济和生活水平的提高,居民疾病模式发生了巨大转变,肿瘤和心血管疾病已成为人类生命健康的严重威胁,膳食结构变化是影响疾病谱的主要因素之一,动物性食物和油脂的消费量与疾病的死亡率呈明显的正相关;而高盐的摄入与高血压、癌症的发生有密切联系。

  12. Mediating Effects of Home-Related Factors on Fat Intake from Snacks in a School-Based Nutrition Intervention among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lippevelde, Wendy; van Stralen, Maartje; Verloigne, Maite; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte; Brug, Johannes; Maes, Lea; Haerens, Leen

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate if the effects of the parental component of a school-based intervention on dietary fat intake from snacking were mediated by changes in home-related factors. A random sample of 10 schools with 2232 pupils aged 11-15 years was randomly assigned to one of two intervention groups [one with (n =…

  13. ENERGY-INTAKE AND PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY IN RELATION TO INDEXES OF BODY-FAT - THE NATIONAL-HEART,-LUNG,-AND-BLOOD-INSTITUTE GROWTH AND HEALTH STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OBARZANEK, E; SCHREIBER, GB; CRAWFORD, PB; GOLDMAN, [No Value; BARRIER, PM; FREDERICK, MM; LAKATOS, E

    The relationship between energy intake, physical activity, and body fat was investigated in the baseline visit of 2379 black and white girls aged 9-10 y enrolled in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study. Three-day food records, three-day physical activity diaries,

  14. Increasing protein intake modulates lipid metabolism in healthy young men and women consuming a high-fat hypercaloric diet 1-3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietman, A.; Schwarz, J.; Blokker, B.A.; Siebelink, E.; Kok, F.J.; Afman, L.A.; Tome, D.; Mensink, M.R.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of increasing protein intake, at the expense of carbohydrates, on intrahepatic lipids (IHLs), circulating triglycerides (TGs), and body composition in healthy humans consuming a high-fat, hypercaloric diet. A crossover randomized trial with a pa

  15. ENERGY-INTAKE AND PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY IN RELATION TO INDEXES OF BODY-FAT - THE NATIONAL-HEART,-LUNG,-AND-BLOOD-INSTITUTE GROWTH AND HEALTH STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OBARZANEK, E; SCHREIBER, GB; CRAWFORD, PB; GOLDMAN, [No Value; BARRIER, PM; FREDERICK, MM; LAKATOS, E

    1994-01-01

    The relationship between energy intake, physical activity, and body fat was investigated in the baseline visit of 2379 black and white girls aged 9-10 y enrolled in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study. Three-day food records, three-day physical activity diaries, phy

  16. Leptin intake during the suckling period improves the metabolic response of adipose tissue to a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priego, T; Sánchez, J; Palou, A; Picó, C

    2010-05-01

    The intake of leptin during the suckling period protects against obesity and improves insulin and central leptin sensitivity in adult rats. We analyzed whether leptin treatment to neonates may also improve later peripheral leptin sensitivity in adipose tissue under high-fat (HF) diet conditions. Male rats were supplemented with a daily oral dose of leptin or the vehicle (controls) during the suckling period. After weaning, animals were fed a normal-fat or an HF diet until the age of 6 months. At this age, mRNA and protein levels of the long-form leptin receptor (OB-Rb) and the expression of other genes related with energy metabolism were measured in various adipose depots (inguinal, mesenteric and retroperitoneal). HF-diet feeding resulted in lower OB-Rb mRNA and protein levels in internal depots in controls but not in leptin-treated animals; these animals maintained OB-Rb mRNA and protein levels under HF-diet conditions in these depots, particularly in the mesenteric one, and this was accompanied by increased expression of genes related with energy uptake (GLUT4, CD36), fatty acid oxidation (peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-alpha (PPARalpha), CPT1, UCP3) and lipogenesis (PPARgamma, GPAT). Leptin-treatment also ameliorated HF-diet-induced hepatic fat accumulation occurring in control animals. Leptin treatment during the suckling period may improve the lasting effects of HF-diet feeding on leptin receptor abundance in the adipose tissue and increase its oxidative capacity, resulting in a better handling and partitioning of excess fuel. This, together with the described improvement of central leptin sensitivity, may explain why these animals are more protected against diet-induced obesity and its metabolic-related disorders.

  17. Whole-fat dairy food intake is inversely associated with obesity prevalence: findings from the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Georgina E; Alkerwi, Ala'a

    2014-11-01

    Because research focusing on dairy food consumption and the risk for obesity is inconsistent and only a few studies have even examined specific dairy products, in regard to type of food and fat content, in relation to obesity risk, this cross-sectional study investigated whether dairy food consumption is associated with the prevalence of global and abdominal obesity. Data were analyzed from 1352 participants in the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg survey. We hypothesized that higher total dairy food consumption would be independently associated with reduced prevalence of obesity. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to measure intakes of dairy foods. Odds for global obesity (body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2)) and abdominal obesity (waist circumference >102 cm for men and >88cm for women) were determined based on total dairy food intake as well as intakes of individual low- and whole-fat dairy products (milk, yogurt, and cheese). Total dairy food intake was inversely associated with the likelihood of global obesity (odds ratio [OR], 0.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.30-0.89; P whole-fat dairy intakes (milk, cheese, yogurt) had significantly lower odds for being obese (global obesity: OR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.29-0.72; P foods may have the potential to lower the prevalence of global and abdominal obesity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Sleep disturbances, body fat distribution, food intake and/or energy expenditure: pathophysiological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Onge, Marie-Pierre; Shechter, Ari

    2014-01-01

    Data from cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have illustrated a relationship between short sleep duration (SSD) and weight gain. Individuals with SSD are heavier and gain more weight over time than normal-duration sleepers. This sleep-obesity relationship may have consequences for obesity treatments, as it appears that short sleepers have reduced ability to lose weight. Laboratory-based clinical studies found that experimental sleep restriction affects energy expenditure and intake, possibly providing a mechanistic explanation for the weight gain observed in chronic short sleepers. Specifically, compared to normal sleep duration, sleep restriction increases food intake beyond the energetic costs of increased time spent awake. Reasons for this increased energy intake after sleep restriction are unclear but may include disrupted appetite-regulating hormones, altered brain mechanisms involved in the hedonic aspects of appetite, and/or changes in sleep quality and architecture. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a disorder at the intersection of sleep and obesity, and the characteristics of the disorder illustrate many of the effects of sleep disturbances on body weight and vice versa. Specifically, while obesity is among the main risk factors for OSA, the disorder itself and its associated disturbances in sleep quality and architecture seem to alter energy balance parameters and may induce further weight gain. Several intervention trials have shown that weight loss is associated with reduced OSA severity. Thus, weight loss may improve sleep, and these improvements may promote further weight loss. Future studies should establish whether increasing sleep duration/improving sleep quality can induce weight loss.

  19. The intake of saturated fat and dietary fibre: a possible indicator of diet quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Fagt, Sisse; Groth, Margit Velsing

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess if a simple dietary quality index (SDQI) is a useful indicator for nutritional quality in the Danish diet. Data from the Danish National Dietary Survey 2000-2 for adults (n 3151; age 18-75 years) were used to construct an SDQI based on the intake......-dense foods, for example, salty snacks, confectionery, and beverages, for example, soft drinks and alcohol. The SDQI is a simple and useful tool to characterise the diet quality of Danish adults....

  20. Ten-year increase in the prevalence of obesity and reduction in fat intake in Brazilian women aged 35 years and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Roseli Gomes; Pereira, Rosangela Alves; Sichieri, Rosely

    2010-03-01

    Data from two population-based surveys conducted in 1995 and 2005 in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil were examined to determine changes in the prevalence of obesity and macronutrient intake among women according to socio-economic level. Weight and height were measured, and food intake was based on a food-frequency questionnaire. A probabilistic sample of about 1000 women aged 35 years or older participated in each survey. Prevalence of obesity (BMI>30 kg/m(2)) increased in the 10-year period (17-24%), as well as energy intake (2.408-2.912 kcal) (pintake adjusted for energy, although lipid intake decreased among those women of low education but not among the more educated women. An overall reduction in the intake of cholesterol was also observed (273 mg vs 212 mg; pfat intake, Brazilian women at greatest risk of obesity had a reduction in fat intake and cholesterol, and increased intake of carbohydrate. This group needs to be given a clear message regarding energy reduction in order to curb the obesity epidemic.

  1. Saturated fats: a perspective from lactation and milk composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, J Bruce; Dillard, Cora J

    2010-10-01

    For recommendations of specific targets for the absolute amount of saturated fat intake, we need to know what dietary intake is most appropriate? Changing agricultural production and processing to lower the relative quantities of macronutrients requires years to accomplish. Changes can have unintended consequences on diets and the health of subsets of the population. Hence, what are the appropriate absolute amounts of saturated fat in our diets? Is the scientific evidence consistent with an optimal intake of zero? If not, is it also possible that a finite intake of saturated fats is beneficial to overall health, at least to a subset of the population? Conclusive evidence from prospective human trials is not available, hence other sources of information must be considered. One approach is to examine the evolution of lactation, and the composition of milks that developed through millennia of natural selective pressure and natural selection processes. Mammalian milks, including human milk, contain 50% of their total fatty acids as saturated fatty acids. The biochemical formation of a single double bond converting a saturated to a monounsaturated fatty acid is a pathway that exists in all eukaryotic organisms and is active within the mammary gland. In the face of selective pressure, mammary lipid synthesis in all mammals continues to release a significant content of saturated fatty acids into milk. Is it possible that evolution of the mammary gland reveals benefits to saturated fatty acids that current recommendations do not consider?

  2. Red wine intake but not other alcoholic beverages increases total antioxidant capacity and improves pro-inflammatory profile after an oral fat diet in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, A; Cachofeiro, V; Millán, J; Lahera, V; Nieto, M L; Martín, R; Bello, E; Alvarez-Sala, L A

    2015-12-01

    Different alcoholic beverages exert different effects on inflammation and oxidative stress but these results are controversial and scanty in some aspects. We analyze the effect of different alcoholic beverages after a fat-enriched diet on lipid profile, inflammatory factors and oxidative stress in healthy people in a controlled environment. We have performed a cross-over design in five different weeks. Sixteen healthy volunteers have received the same oral fat-enriched diet (1486kcal/m(2)) and a daily total amount of 16g/m(2) of alcohol, of different beverages (red wine, vodka, brandy or rum) and equivalent caloric intakes as sugar with water in the control group. We have measured the levels of serum lipids, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), interleukin 6 (IL-6), soluble phospholipase A2 (sPLA2), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Red wine intake was associated with decreased of mean concentrations of hsCRP, TNFα and IL-6 induced by fat-enriched diet (palcoholic beverages, decreased pro-inflammatory factors and increased total antioxidant capacity despite a fat-enriched diet intake in healthy young volunteers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  3. PPARγ Pro12Ala interacts with fat intake for obesity and weight loss in a behavioural treatment based on the Mediterranean diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaulet, Marta; Smith, Caren E; Hernández-González, Teresa; Lee, Yu-Chi; Ordovás, Jose M

    2011-12-01

    The goal of this study was to examine whether the Pro12Ala polymorphism of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is associated with insulin resistance, obesity and weight loss and to analyze potential interactions between fat intake and PPARγ polymorphism in a Spanish overweight/obese population. We recruited 1465 subjects enrolled in a behavioural treatment program for obesity based on a Mediterranean diet, which included the following: dietary treatment, physical activity, nutritional education and behavioral techniques. A significant association was found between PPARγ2 Pro12Ala genotype and plasma insulin concentration and homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance. Subjects with the Ala12 genotype had lower insulin levels than those with the Pro12Pro genotype. We detected a gene-diet interaction between the PPARγ Pro12Ala polymorphism and MUFA for BMI and body fat. Furthermore, we detected an interaction between the PPARγ Pro12Ala polymorphism and fat intake for total weight loss (pPro12Ala and fat intake for weight loss may explain previous discrepancies among different studies. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Rapid post-oral stimulation of intake and flavor conditioning by glucose and fat in the mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukerman, Steven; Ackroff, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Although widely assumed to have only satiating actions, nutrients in the gut can also condition increases in intake in some cases. Here we studied the time course of post-oral nutrient stimulation of ingestion in food-restricted C57BL/6J mice. In experiment 1, mice adapted to drink a 0.8% sucralose solution 1 h/day, rapidly increased their rate of licking (within 4–6 min) when first tested with an 8% glucose solution and even more so in tests 2 and 3. Other mice decreased their licking rate when switched from sucralose to 8% fructose, a sugar that is sweet like glucose but lacks positive post-oral effects in mice. The glucose-stimulated drinking is due to the sugar's post-oral rather than taste properties, because sucralose is highly preferred to glucose and fructose in brief choice tests. A second experiment showed that the glucose-stimulated ingestion is associated with a conditioned flavor preference in both intact and capsaicin-treated mice. This indicates that the post-oral stimulatory action of glucose is not mediated by capsaicin-sensitive visceral afferents. In experiment 3, mice consumed flavored saccharin solutions as they self-infused water or glucose via an intragastric (IG) catheter. The glucose self-infusion stimulated ingestion within 13–15 min in test 1 and produced a conditioned increase in licking that was apparent in the initial minute of tests 2 and 3. Experiment 4 revealed that IG self-infusions of a fat emulsion also resulted in post-oral stimulation of licking in test 1 and conditioned increases in tests 2 and 3. These findings indicate that glucose and fat can generate stimulatory post-oral signals early in a feeding session that increase ongoing ingestion and condition increases in flavor acceptance and preference revealed in subsequent feeding sessions. The test procedures developed here can be used to investigate the peripheral and central processes involved in stimulation of intake by post-oral nutrients. PMID:21975648

  5. Rapid post-oral stimulation of intake and flavor conditioning by glucose and fat in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukerman, Steven; Ackroff, Karen; Sclafani, Anthony

    2011-12-01

    Although widely assumed to have only satiating actions, nutrients in the gut can also condition increases in intake in some cases. Here we studied the time course of post-oral nutrient stimulation of ingestion in food-restricted C57BL/6J mice. In experiment 1, mice adapted to drink a 0.8% sucralose solution 1 h/day, rapidly increased their rate of licking (within 4-6 min) when first tested with an 8% glucose solution and even more so in tests 2 and 3. Other mice decreased their licking rate when switched from sucralose to 8% fructose, a sugar that is sweet like glucose but lacks positive post-oral effects in mice. The glucose-stimulated drinking is due to the sugar's post-oral rather than taste properties, because sucralose is highly preferred to glucose and fructose in brief choice tests. A second experiment showed that the glucose-stimulated ingestion is associated with a conditioned flavor preference in both intact and capsaicin-treated mice. This indicates that the post-oral stimulatory action of glucose is not mediated by capsaicin-sensitive visceral afferents. In experiment 3, mice consumed flavored saccharin solutions as they self-infused water or glucose via an intragastric (IG) catheter. The glucose self-infusion stimulated ingestion within 13-15 min in test 1 and produced a conditioned increase in licking that was apparent in the initial minute of tests 2 and 3. Experiment 4 revealed that IG self-infusions of a fat emulsion also resulted in post-oral stimulation of licking in test 1 and conditioned increases in tests 2 and 3. These findings indicate that glucose and fat can generate stimulatory post-oral signals early in a feeding session that increase ongoing ingestion and condition increases in flavor acceptance and preference revealed in subsequent feeding sessions. The test procedures developed here can be used to investigate the peripheral and central processes involved in stimulation of intake by post-oral nutrients.

  6. Post-oral fat stimulation of intake and conditioned flavor preference in C57BL/6J mice: A concentration-response study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackroff, Karen; Sclafani, Anthony

    2014-04-22

    Fat appetite is determined not only by orosensory (flavor) stimuli but also by the post-oral actions of dietary fat, which promote increased attraction to the flavors of high-fat foods. Experiment 1 presents a concentration-response analysis of how intragastric (IG) fat self-infusions stimulate intake and condition flavor preferences in C57BL/6J mice trained 1h/day. Separate groups of food-restricted mice consumed a flavored saccharin solution (the CS-) paired with IG self-infusions of water (Test 0) followed by a different flavored solution (the CS+) paired with IG self-infusions of 1.6, 3.2, 6.4 or 12.8% Intralipid (IL, soybean oil) (Tests 1-3). Following additional CS- and CS+ training sessions, a two-bottle CS+ vs. CS- choice test was conducted without infusions. Infusions of 3.2-12.8% IL stimulated CS+ licking in the first test session and more so in subsequent test sessions, and also conditioned significant CS+ preferences. These effects were similar to those previously observed with isocaloric glucose infusions (8-32%). IG infusion of 1.6% IL stimulated intake slightly but did not condition a CS+ preference comparable to the actions of isocaloric 4% glucose. Experiment 2 compared these subthreshold IL and glucose concentrations with that of a 1.6% IL+4% glucose infusion. This mixture stimulated 1-h CS+ licking more rapidly but generated a preference similar to that of 1.6% IL. In 23h/day tests, however, the IL+glucose mixture stimulated greater CS+ intakes and preferences than did 1.6% IL or 4% glucose. These findings show that fat, like glucose, rapidly generates concentration-dependent post-oral signals that stimulate intake and enhance preferences for energy-rich foods in mice.

  7. Intake of small-to-medium-chain saturated fatty acids is associated with peripheral leukocyte telomere length in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yan; You, Nai-Chieh Y; Song, Yiqing; Kang, Mo K; Hou, Lifang; Wallace, Robert; Eaton, Charles B; Tinker, Lesley F; Liu, Simin

    2013-06-01

    Dietary factors, including dietary fat, may affect the biological aging process, as reflected by the shortening of telomere length (TL), by affecting levels of oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. We examined the direct relations of total and types of dietary fats and fat-rich foods to peripheral leukocyte TL. In 4029 apparently healthy postmenopausal women who participated in the Women's Health Initiative, intakes of total fat, individual fatty acids, and fat-rich foods were assessed by a questionnaire. TL was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Intake of short-to-medium-chain saturated fatty acids (SMSFAs; aliphatic tails of ≤ 12 carbons) was inversely associated with TL. Compared with participants in other quartiles of SMSFA intake, women who were in the highest quartile (median: 1.29% of energy) had shorter TLs [mean: 4.00 kb (95% CI: 3.89, 4.11 kb)], whereas women in the lowest quartile of intake (median: 0.29% of energy) had longer TLs [mean: 4.13 kb (95% CI: 4.03, 4.24 kb); P-trend = 0.046]. Except for lauric acid, all other individual SMSFAs were inversely associated with TL (P saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. In conclusion, we found that higher intakes of SMSFAs and SMSFA-rich foods were associated with shorter peripheral leukocyte TL among postmenopausal women. These findings suggest the potential roles of SMSFAs in the rate of biological aging.

  8. N-3 fatty acid intake altered fat content and fatty acid distribution in chicken breast muscle, but did not influence mRNA expression of lipid-related enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Anna; Nyquist, Nicole F; Thomassen, Magny; Høstmark, Arne T; Ostbye, Tone-Kari Knutsdatter

    2014-06-03

    The conversions of the n-3 and n-6 fatty acid of plant origin to the C20 and C22 very long chain fatty acids (LCPUFAs) is regulated by several cellular enzymes such as elongases and desaturases. Sixty-five male one-day old chickens (Ross 308) were randomly divided into four groups and given one of four diets; with or without linseed oil (LO), (the diets contained equal amounts of fat) and with low or high selenium (Se). Final body weight, amount of Se and fat in breast muscle, fatty acid profile, and gene expression for fatty acid desaturases (Fads1, Fads2, Fads9), HMG-CoA reductase, Acyl-CoA oxidase (Acox), carnitine palmitoyl transferase1 (Cpt1), superoxide dismutase (Sod) and glutathione peroxidase4 (Gpx4) were analyzed in all animals, and Gpx activity in whole blood was determined. mRNA expression of elongases and desaturases in chicken breast muscle was not affected by feed rich in C18:3n-3. The highly positive correlation between amount of fat in breast muscle and the product/precursor indices of monounsaturated fatty acid synthesis, and the negative correlation between muscle fat and indices of LCPUFA synthesis should be further studied. mRNA expression in chicken breast muscle of elongases and desaturases was not affected by feed rich in C18:3n-3. The highly positive correlation between amount of fat in breast muscle and the product/precursor indices of monounsaturated fatty acid synthesis, and the negative correlation between muscle fat and indices of LCPUFA synthesis should be further studied.

  9. Interaction of dietary fat intake with APOA2, APOA5 and LEPR polymorphisms and its relationship with obesity and dyslipidemia in young subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Reyes, Teresa; Astudillo-López, Constanza C; Salgado-Goytia, Lorenzo; Muñoz-Valle, José F; Salgado-Bernabé, Aralia B; Guzmán-Guzmán, Iris P; Castro-Alarcón, Natividad; Moreno-Godínez, Ma E; Parra-Rojas, Isela

    2015-09-13

    Diet is an important environmental factor that interacts with genes to modulate the likelihood of developing disorders in lipid metabolism and the relationship between diet and genes in the presence of other chronic diseases such as obesity. The objective of this study was to analyze the interaction of a high fat diet with the APOA2 (rs3813627 and rs5082), APOA5 (rs662799 and rs3135506) and LEPR (rs8179183 and rs1137101) polymorphisms and its relationship with obesity and dyslipidemia in young subjects. The study included 200 young subjects aged 18 to 25 years (100 normal-weight and 100 obese subjects). Dietary fat intake was measured using the frequency food consumption questionnaire. Genotyping of polymorphisms was performed by PCR-RFLP. Individuals carrying the APOA5 56 G/G genotype with a high saturated fatty acid consumption (OR = 2.7, p = 0.006) and/or total fat (OR = 2.4, p = 0.018), associated with an increased risk of obesity. We also found that A/G + G/G genotypes of the 668 A/G polymorphism in the LEPR gene with an intake ≥ 12 g/d of saturated fatty acids, have 2.9 times higher risk of obesity (p = 0.002), 3.8 times higher risk of hypercholesterolemia (p = 0.002) and 2.4 times higher risk of hypertriglyceridemia (p = 0.02), than those with an intake intake had 3.0 times higher risk of obesity (p = 0.002) and 4.1 times higher risk of hypercholesterolemia (p = 0.001). Our results suggest that dietary fat intake modifies the effect of APOA5 and LEPR polymorphisms on serum triglycerides, cholesterol levels and obesity in young subjects.

  10. Impact of fried foods on macronutrient intake, with special reference to fat and protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry, CJ K.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Thermal treatment of protein is known to reduce protein quality and the destruction of certain amino acids. Fish and chips still remain a popular food source in Britain. Little work has been done on the changes in protein quality during fish frying. The paper will present results obtained from the assessment of protein quality using net protein utilisation (NPU in fried and steamed fish. Weanling male Sprague-Dawley rats were given stock diet {RM1 expanded, SDS Ltd., Witham, Essex for 7 days at 30 days of age, groups of four were offered one of four diets that differed only in the type of fish and processing used. Diets contained 200g of fish protein, 550g carbohydrate (400g sucrose and 150g corn-meal, 50g mineral and vitamin mix and 200g fat/kg diet. The different fish species used were Cod and Plaice and the processing used was either steaming or frying. Although a fall in NPU was noted in fried fish compared to the steamed fish these changes in NPU could be reduced if the fish was covered with batter prior to frying.

  11. Dietary Intake of the Urban Black Population of Cape Town: The Cardiovascular Risk in Black South Africans (CRIBSA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelia P. Steyn

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To determine dietary intake of 19 to 64 years old urban Africans in Cape Town in 2009 and examine the changes between 1990 and 2009. Methods: A representative cross-sectional sample (n = 544, stratified by gender and age was randomly selected in 2009 from the same areas sampled in 1990. Socio-demographic data and a 24-h dietary recall were obtained by trained field workers. The associations of dietary data with an asset index and degree of urbanization were assessed. Results: Fat intakes were higher in 19–44-year-old men (32% energy (E and women (33.4%E in 2009 compared with 1990 (men: 25.9%E, women: 27.0%E while carbohydrate intakes were lower in 2009 (men 53.2%E, women: 55.5%E than in 1990 (men: 61.3%E; women: 62%E while sugar intake increased significantly (p < 0.01 in women. There were significant positive correlations between urbanization and total fat (p = 0.016, saturated fat (p = 0.001, monounsaturated fat (p = 0.002 and fat as a %E intake (p = 0.046. Urbanization was inversely associated with intake of carbohydrate %E (p < 0.001. Overall micronutrient intakes improved significantly compared with 1990. It should also be noted that energy and macronutrient intakes were all significant in a linear regression model using mean adequacy ratio (MAR as a measure of dietary quality in 2009, as was duration of urbanization. Discussion: The higher fat and lower carbohydrate %E intakes in this population demonstrate a transition to a more urbanized diet over last two decades. These dietary changes reflect the nutrition transitions that typically occur as a longer time is spent in urban centers.

  12. High-fat diet-related stimulation of sweetness desire is greater in women than in men despite high vegetable intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bei; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Adachi, Chisaki; Kawakami, Yuka; Katayama, Takafumi; Takeda, Eiji

    2015-05-01

    To examine the effects of lunches with different dietary energy densities on food preferences between genders. Randomized crossover study. Participants were administered the following packed test meals once weekly on a specified day during six sessions: control (150 g of rice with a sautéed beef entrée containing 40 g of raw beef and 240 g of vegetables), high-meat/low-rice, low-vegetable, medium-fat/low-vegetable, high-fat and high-fat/low-vegetable meals. Subjective levels of sensory properties were assessed over time using visual analogue scales. University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima, Japan. Sixty-five men and sixty-five women matched by age and BMI. Men showed significantly stronger desires for salty and fatty foods after meals (Pmeal, and increasing fat content under high-vegetable conditions caused a significant stimulated sweetness desire in women more than in men (Pmeal with 100 g of rice, sweetness desire was stronger in women (P=0.024), whereas no significant differences in sweetness desire were shown between genders after another low-energy-density control meal with 150 g of rice. Men had significantly stronger desires for salty and fatty foods, whereas women preferred sweet food after meals. The sweetness desire in women was stimulated by increasing fat content, even with a high vegetable intake. Low rice intake in a low-energy-density diet also caused a relative stimulation of sweetness desire in women.

  13. Changes in nutrient intake and dietary quality among participants with type 2 diabetes following a low-fat vegan diet or a conventional diabetes diet for 22 weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Barnard, Neal D; Cohen, Joshua; Jenkins, David J A; Gloede, Lise; Green, Amber A

    2008-10-01

    Although vegan diets improve diabetes management, little is known about the nutrient profiles or diet quality of individuals with type 2 diabetes who adopt a vegan diet. To assess the changes in nutrient intake and dietary quality among participants following a low-fat vegan diet or the 2003 American Diabetes Association dietary recommendations. A 22-week randomized, controlled clinical trial examining changes in nutrient intake and diet quality. Participants with type 2 diabetes (n=99) in a free-living setting. Participants were randomly assigned to a low-fat vegan diet or a 2003 American Diabetes Association recommended diet. Nutrient intake and Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI) scores were collected at baseline and 22 weeks. Between-group t tests were calculated for changes between groups and paired comparison t tests were calculated for changes within-group. Pearson's correlation assessed relationship of AHEI score to hemoglobin A1c and body weight changes. Both groups reported significant decreases in energy, protein, fat, cholesterol, vitamin D, selenium, and sodium intakes. The vegan group also significantly reduced reported intakes of vitamin B-12 and calcium, and significantly increased carbohydrate, fiber, total vitamin A activity, beta carotene, vitamins K and C, folate, magnesium, and potassium. The American Diabetes Association recommended diet group also reported significant decreases in carbohydrate and iron, but reported no significant increases. The vegan group significantly improved its AHEI score (PVegan diets increase intakes of carbohydrate, fiber, and several micronutrients, in contrast with the American Diabetes Association recommended diet. The vegan group improved its AHEI score whereas the American Diabetes Association recommended diet group's AHEI score remained unchanged.

  14. Long term ingestion of a preload containing fructo-oligosaccharide or guar gum decreases fat mass but not food intake in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadri, Zouheyr; Chaumontet, Catherine; Fromentin, Gilles; Even, Patrick C; Darcel, Nicolas; Bouras, Abdelkader Dilmi; Tomé, Daniel; Rasoamanana, Rojo

    2015-08-01

    Fermentable dietary fibre such as fructo-oligosaccharide and viscous dietary fibers such as guar gum and alginate affect energy homeostasis. The goal of this study was to compare the impact of long term intake of these three dietary fibers on food intake, meal pattern, body weight and fat accumulation in mice. Over a period of 3weeks, the mice were fed daily with a preload containing 32mg of fructo-oligosaccharide or alginate or 13mg of guar gum. Food intake and body weight were monitored weekly, while meal patterns, adiposity and the expression of hypothalamic neuropeptide genes were evaluated at the end of the study period. The 3 dietary fibers produced a similar decrease in total daily food intake (14 to 22%) at the end of the first week, and this effect disappeared over time. The 3 dietary fibers induced a slight variation in satiation parameters. Body weight and expression of hypothalamic neuropeptide genes were not affected by any of the treatment. Preload of fructo-oligosaccharide and guar gum induced a similar and substantial decrease in the development of adiposity (17% and 14%, respectively), while alginate had no effect. Our results demonstrate mainly that the inhibitory effect of dietary fiber on food intake is lost over time, and that guar gum limits fat storage.

  15. Coconut fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasiri, W A L D; Dissanayake, A S

    2006-06-01

    In many areas of Sri Lanka the coconut tree and its products have for centuries been an integral part of life, and it has come to be called the "Tree of life". However, in the last few decades, the relationship between coconut fats and health has been the subject of much debate and misinformation. Coconut fats account for 80% of the fat intake among Sri Lankans. Around 92% of these fats are saturated fats. This has lead to the belief that coconut fats are 'bad for health', particularly in relation to ischaemic heart disease. Yet most of the saturated fats in coconut are medium chain fatty acids whose properties and metabolism are different to those of animal origin. Medium chain fatty acids do not undergo degradation and re-esterification processes and are directly used in the body to produce energy. They are not as 'bad for health' as saturated fats. There is the need to clarify issues relating to intake of coconut fats and health, more particularly for populations that still depend on coconut fats for much of their fat intake. This paper describes the metabolism of coconut fats and its potential benefits, and attempts to highlight its benefits to remove certain misconceptions regarding its use.

  16. Influence of fat intake and BMI on the association of rs1799983 NOS3 polymorphism with blood pressure levels in an Iberian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goni, Leticia; Cuervo, Marta; Milagro, Fermín I; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2017-06-01

    There is controversy about the effect of the rs1799983 nitric oxide synthase (NOS3) genetic variant on hypertension and blood pressure (BP) levels. The aims of the current study were to examine whether rs1799983 affects BP levels and to identify potential interactions between this polymorphism and other non-genetic risk factors. A total of 705 subjects were examined for anthropometric and body composition measurements, BP, dietary habits and physical activity. Oral epithelial cells were collected for the identification of rs1799983 using Luminex(®) 100/200TM System. After adjusted for covariates, TT genotype showed a 2.30-fold higher predisposition of hypertension than GG genotype subjects. According to BP levels, for each risk allele diastolic blood pressure (DBP) increased in 1.99 mmHg. Significant interactions between rs1799983 and saturated fatty acids (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) were found. Moreover, an interaction with body weight status was observed. Among overweight individuals, T allele carriers showed higher DBP than GG genotype. The present study evidenced that rs1799983 NOS3 polymorphism could be associated with hypertension and DBP among Southern Europeans, being this association influenced by dietary fat (SFA and MUFA) and body mass index.

  17. Association of the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene variant (rs9939609) with dietary intake in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappalainen, Tiina; Lindström, Jaana; Paananen, Jussi; Eriksson, Johan G; Karhunen, Leila; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uusitupa, Matti

    2012-11-28

    A cluster of variants in the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene are associated with the common form of obesity. Well-documented dietary data are required for identifying how the genetic risk can be modified by dietary factors. The objective of the present study was to investigate the associations between the FTO risk allele (rs9939609) and dietary intake, and to evaluate how dietary intake affects the association between FTO and BMI in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study during a mean follow-up of 3·2 years. A total of 479 (BMI >25 kg/m2) men and women were genotyped for rs9939609. The participants completed a 3 d food record at baseline and before every annual study visit. The average intakes at baseline and during the years 1, 2 and 3 were calculated. At baseline, the FTO variant rs9939609 was not associated with the mean values of total energy intake, macronutrients or fibre. At baseline, a higher BMI by the FTO risk genotype was detected especially in those who reported a diet high in fat with mean BMI of 30·6 (sd 4·1), 31·3 (sd 4·6) and 34·5 (sd 6·2) kg/m2 for TT, TA and AA carriers, respectively (P =0·005). Higher BMI was also observed in those who had a diet low in carbohydrates (P =0·028) and fibre (P =0·015). However, in the analyses adjusted for total energy intake, age and sex, significant interactions between FTO and dietary intakes were not found. These findings suggest that the association between the FTO genotype and obesity is influenced by the components of dietary intake, and the current dietary recommendations are particularly beneficial for those who are genetically susceptible for obesity.

  18. Effects of a monounsaturated rapeseed oil and a polyunsaturated sunflower oil diet on lipoprotein levels in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valsta, L M; Jauhiainen, M; Aro, A; Katan, M B; Mutanen, M

    1992-01-01

    The effects of high oleic acid rapeseed oil compared with polyunsaturated fats on serum lipoprotein levels are largely unknown. Therefore, we fed 30 women and 29 men a baseline diet rich in saturated fat, which was followed by a diet rich in high oleic and low erucic acid rapeseed oil (total energy content of fat, 38%; saturates, 12.4%; monounsaturates, 16%; n-6 polyunsaturates, 6%; and n-3 polyunsaturates, 2%) and one rich in sunflower oil (total energy content of fat, 38%; saturates, 12.7%; monounsaturates, 10%; n-6 polyunsaturates, 13%; and n-3 polyunsaturates, 0%). The oils were incorporated into mixed natural diets that were dispensed in a random order for 3.5 weeks each in a blinded crossover design. The diet composition was confirmed by analysis of duplicate diets. Both test diets reduced serum total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels from baseline, the monounsaturated rapeseed oil diet more than the polyunsaturated sunflower oil diet (TC: -15% versus -12%, p less than 0.01; LDL cholesterol: -23% versus -17%, p less than 0.01). Very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol and total, VLDL, and LDL triglyceride levels were lower during the sunflower oil diet compared with the rapeseed oil diet. Total high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels remained unchanged by both diets. The consumption of rapeseed oil resulted in a more favorable HDL2 to LDL cholesterol ratio (0.43 +/- 0.19 versus 0.39 +/- 0.18, p less than 0.01) and an apolipoprotein A-I to B ratio (3.0 +/- 1.4 versus 2.4 +/- 1.6, p less than 0.001) than did the sunflower oil.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. The effects of the Danish saturated fat tax on food and nutrient intake and modelled health outcomes: an econometric and comparative risk assessment evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smed, S; Scarborough, P; Rayner, M; Jensen, J D

    2016-06-01

    The World Health Organisation recommends governments to consider the use of fiscal policies to promote healthy eating. However, there is very limited evidence of the effect of food taxation in a real-life setting, as most evidence is based on simulation studies. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of the Danish tax on saturated fat in terms of changes in nutritional quality of the diet, that is, changes in saturated fat consumption, as well as other non-targeted dietary measures, and to model the associated changes in mortality for different age groups and genders. On the basis of household scanner data, we estimate the impact of the tax on consumption of saturated fat, unsaturated fat, salt, fruit, vegetables and fibre. The resultant changes in dietary quality are then used as inputs into a comparative risk assessment model (PRIME (Preventable Risk Integrated ModEl)) to estimate the effect of these changes on non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and mortality. The tax resulted in a 4.0% reduction in saturated fat intake. Vegetable consumption increased, and salt consumption increased for most individuals, except younger females. We find a modelled reduction in mortality with 123 lives saved annually, 76 of them below 75 years equal to 0.4% of all deaths from NCDs. Modelling the effect of the changes in diet on health outcomes suggests that the saturated fat tax made a positive, but minor, contribution to public health in Denmark.

  20. High protein high fibre snack bars reduce food intake and improve short term glucose and insulin profiles compared with high fat snack bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gemma; Noakes, Manny; Keogh, Jennifer; Foster, Paul; Clifton, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The replacement in the diet of refined carbohydrate and fat with fibre and protein has been shown to promote satiety and improve glucose and insulin profiles. It is less clear whether the macronutrient composition of individual foods such as snacks have any meaningful impact on metabolic parameters and satiety. We examined if the consumption of higher protein higher fibre snack bars would result in reducing outcome measures such as food intake and glucose and insulin patterns compared to a conventional isocaloric high fat high refined carbohydrate snack bar. Twenty three women were randomized in a single blind cross over study with 2 interventions, a high fat high sugar snack bar and a comparatively higher protein, higher fibre snack bar intervention. Snack bars were eaten at mid morning and mid afternoon, and a standard breakfast and ad libitum buffet lunch. The glucose and insulin responses over 9 hours were significantly lower (P = 0.014 and P = 0.012 respectively) during the high protein snack bar intervention. Peak glucose levels were also 16% lower after the morning HP bar (P bar reduced the energy intake at the buffet lunch meal by 5% (4657 +/- 1025KJ vs 4901 +/- 1186KJ, P bar can assist in reducing the energy intake at a subsequent meal and improve short term glucose and insulin profiles.

  1. High intake of regular-fat cheese compared with reduced-fat cheese does not affect LDL cholesterol or risk markers of the metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raziani, Farinaz; Tholstrup, Tine; Kristensen, Marlene Dahlwad

    2016-01-01

    was to compare the effects of regular-fat cheese with an equal amount of reduced-fat cheese and an isocaloric amount of carbohydrate-rich foods on LDL cholesterol and risk factors for the metabolic syndrome (MetS). DESIGN: The study was a 12-wk randomized parallel intervention preceded by a 2-wk run-in period...

  2. Fasting substrate oxidation in relation to habitual dietary fat intake and insulin resistance in non-diabetic women: a case for metabolic flexibility?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carstens Madelaine T

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic flexibility described as “the capacity of the body to match fuel oxidation to fuel availability” has been implicated in insulin resistance. We examined fasting substrate oxidation in relation to dietary macronutrient intake, and markers of insulin resistance in otherwise healthy women, with and without a family history of diabetes mellitus (FH DM. Methods We measured body composition (dual x-ray absorptiometry, visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue area (VAT, SAT, using Computerised Tomography, fasting [glucose], [insulin], [free fatty acids], [blood lipids], insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, resting energy expenditure (REE, respiratory exchange ratio(RER and self-reported physical activity in a convenience sample of 180 women (18-45 yrs. A food frequency questionnaire was used to assess energy intake (EI and calculate the RER: Food Quotient (FQ ratio. Only those with EI:REE (1.05 -2.28 were included (N=140. Insulin resistance was defined HOMA-IR (>1.95. Results The Insulin Resistant (IR group had higher energy, carbohydrate and protein intakes (p 2 = 0.50, p  Conclusion In these apparently healthy, weight-stable women, insulin resistance and FH DM were associated with lower fat oxidation in relation to dietary fat intake, suggesting lower metabolic flexibility.

  3. Supplementing chicken broth with monosodium glutamate reduces energy intake from high fat and sweet snacks in middle-aged healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imada, Toshifumi; Hao, Susan Shuzhen; Torii, Kunio; Kimura, Eiichiro

    2014-08-01

    Monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) and inosine monophosphate-5 (IMP) are flavor enhancers for umami taste. However, their effects on appetite and food intake are not well-researched. The objective of the current study was to test their additions in a broth preload on subsequent appetite ratings, energy intake and food choice. Eighty-six healthy middle-aged women with normal body weight received three preload conditions on 3 test days 1 week apart - a low-energy chicken flavor broth (200 ml) as the control preload, and broths with added MSG alone (0.5 g/100 ml, MSG broth) or in combination with IMP (0.05 g/100 ml) (MSG+ broth) served as the experimental conditions. Fifteen minutes after preload administration subjects were provided an ad libitum testing meal which consisted of 16 snacks varying in taste and fat content. MSG and MSG+ enhanced savory taste and broth properties of liking and pleasantness. In comparison with control, the MSG preload resulted in less consumption of total energy, as well as energy from sweet and high-fat snacks. Furthermore, MSG broth preload reduced added sugar intake. These findings were not observed after MSG+ preload. Appetite ratings were not different across the three preloads. Results suggest a potential role of MSG addition to a low-energy broth preload in subsequent energy intake and food choice. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01761045.

  4. Changes induced by dietary energy intake and divergent selection for muscle fat content in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), assessed by transcriptome and proteome analysis of the liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolditz, Catherine-Ines; Paboeuf, Gilles; Borthaire, Maïena; Esquerré, Diane; SanCristobal, Magali; Lefèvre, Florence; Médale, Françoise

    2008-10-29

    Growing interest is turned to fat storage levels and allocation within body compartments, due to their impact on human health and quality properties of farm animals. Energy intake and genetic background are major determinants of fattening in most animals, including humans. Previous studies have evidenced that fat deposition depends upon balance between various metabolic pathways. Using divergent selection, we obtained rainbow trout with differences in fat allocation between visceral adipose tissue and muscle, and no change in overall body fat content. Transcriptome and proteome analysis were applied to characterize the molecular changes occurring between these two lines when fed a low or a high energy diet. We focused on the liver, center of intermediary metabolism and the main site for lipogenesis in fish, as in humans and most avian species. The proteome and transcriptome analyses provided concordant results. The main changes induced by the dietary treatment were observed in lipid metabolism. The level of transcripts and proteins involved in intracellular lipid transport, fatty acid biosynthesis and anti-oxidant metabolism were lower with the lipid rich diet. In addition, genes and proteins involved in amino-acid catabolism and proteolysis were also under expressed with this diet. The major changes related to the selection effect were observed in levels of transcripts and proteins involved in amino-acid catabolism and proteolysis that were higher in the fat muscle line than in the lean muscle line. The present study led to the identification of novel genes and proteins that responded to long term feeding with a high energy/high fat diet. Although muscle was the direct target, the selection procedure applied significantly affected hepatic metabolism, particularly protein and amino acid derivative metabolism. Interestingly, the selection procedure and the dietary treatment used to increase muscle fat content exerted opposite effects on the expression of the liver

  5. Effects of low-fat milk consumption at breakfast on satiety and short-term energy intake in 10- to 12-year-old obese boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabani, Sanaz; Safavi, Seyyed Morteza; Mehrabani, Sepideh; Asemi, Mehdi; Feizi, Awat; Bellissimo, Nick; Salehi-Abargouei, Amin

    2016-06-01

    Although controversy exists, some researchers have proposed that dairy products increase the sense of satiety and decrease energy intake; however, data about these effects are lacking in children. Our objective was to assess the effect of low-fat milk compared with iso-volumic and iso-volumic/iso-energetic controls on satiety and energy intake at lunch in obese boys using a randomized three-way crossover controlled clinical trial. Thirty-four obese boys aged 10-12 years were randomized to consume a fixed content breakfast with low-fat milk (LFM), apple juice (AJ) or water (W) for two consecutive days. Subjective appetite, hunger, fullness, desire to eat and prospective food consumption were measured using a visual analogue scale every 1 h after breakfast followed by an ad libitum buffet lunch at 5 h. All participants completed the study. Energy intake was significantly lower after intake of LFM compared with AJ and W (adjusted mean ± standard error of energy intake: LFM = 1010 ± 14 kcal, AJ = 1059 ± 16 kcal, W = 1236 ± 20 kcal; P Obese children reported higher satiety score after drinking LFM with breakfast compared with W and AJ (P intake in obese boys. Future studies with more participants from both genders and longer follow-up periods are merited. The study protocol was registered with the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (Registration No: IRCT2013022312571N1).

  6. Role of cis-Monounsaturated Fatty Acids in the Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joris, Peter J; Mensink, Ronald P

    2016-07-01

    The effects of cis-monounsaturated fatty acids (cis-MUFAs) on the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and on CHD mortality are not clear. Also, dietary recommendations for cis-MUFA as derived by various organizations are not in agreement. Earlier studies have mainly focused on the effects of cis-MUFA on serum lipids and lipoproteins. More recent studies, however, have also addressed effects of cis-MUFA on other non-traditional CHD risk markers such as vascular function markers, postprandial vascular function, and energy intake and metabolism. Although well-designed randomized controlled trials with CHD events as endpoints are missing, several large prospective cohort studies have recently been published on the relationship between cis-MUFA and CHD risk. The aim of this paper is to review these new studies that have been published in the last 3 years on the effects of cis-MUFA on cardiovascular risk markers and CHD.

  7. Mouse Maternal High-Fat Intake Dynamically Programmed mRNA m6A Modifications in Adipose and Skeletal Muscle Tissues in Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao; Yang, Jing; Zhu, Youbo; Liu, Yuan; Shi, Xin’e; Yang, Gongshe

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms have an important role in the pre- and peri-conceptional programming by maternal nutrition. Yet, whether or not RNA m6A methylation—an old epigenetic marker receiving increased attention recently—is involved remains an unknown question. In this study, mouse high-fat feeding prior to conception was shown to induce overweight and glucose intolerant dams, which then continued to be exposed to a high-fat diet during gestation and lactation. The dams on a standard diet throughout the whole experiment were used as a control. Results showed that maternal high-fat intake impaired postnatal growth in male offspring, indicated by decreased body weight and Lee’s index at 3, 8 and 15 weeks old, but the percentages of visceral fat and tibialis anterior relative to the whole body weights were significantly increased at eight weeks of age. The maternal high-fat exposure significantly increased mRNA N6-methyladenosine (m6A) levels in visceral fat at three weeks old, combined with downregulated Fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) and upregulated Methyltransferase like 3 (METTL3) transcription, and these changes were reversed at eight weeks of age. In the tibialis anterior muscle, the maternal high-fat diet significantly enhanced m6A modifications at three weeks, and lowered m6A levels at 15 weeks of age. Accordingly, FTO transcription was significantly inhibited at three weeks and stimulated at 15 weeks of age, and METTL3 transcripts were significantly improved at three weeks. Interestingly, both FTO and METTL3 transcription was significantly elevated at eight weeks of age, and yet the m6A modifications remained unchanged. Our study showed that maternal high-fat intake could affect mRNA m6A modifications and its related genes in offspring in a tissue-specific and development-dependent way, and provided an interesting indication of the working of the m6A system during the transmission from maternal nutrition to subsequent generations. PMID:27548155

  8. Mouse Maternal High-Fat Intake Dynamically Programmed mRNA m6A Modifications in Adipose and Skeletal Muscle Tissues in Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic mechanisms have an important role in the pre- and peri-conceptional programming by maternal nutrition. Yet, whether or not RNA m6A methylation—an old epigenetic marker receiving increased attention recently—is involved remains an unknown question. In this study, mouse high-fat feeding prior to conception was shown to induce overweight and glucose intolerant dams, which then continued to be exposed to a high-fat diet during gestation and lactation. The dams on a standard diet throughout the whole experiment were used as a control. Results showed that maternal high-fat intake impaired postnatal growth in male offspring, indicated by decreased body weight and Lee’s index at 3, 8 and 15 weeks old, but the percentages of visceral fat and tibialis anterior relative to the whole body weights were significantly increased at eight weeks of age. The maternal high-fat exposure significantly increased mRNA N6-methyladenosine (m6A levels in visceral fat at three weeks old, combined with downregulated Fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO and upregulated Methyltransferase like 3 (METTL3 transcription, and these changes were reversed at eight weeks of age. In the tibialis anterior muscle, the maternal high-fat diet significantly enhanced m6A modifications at three weeks, and lowered m6A levels at 15 weeks of age. Accordingly, FTO transcription was significantly inhibited at three weeks and stimulated at 15 weeks of age, and METTL3 transcripts were significantly improved at three weeks. Interestingly, both FTO and METTL3 transcription was significantly elevated at eight weeks of age, and yet the m6A modifications remained unchanged. Our study showed that maternal high-fat intake could affect mRNA m6A modifications and its related genes in offspring in a tissue-specific and development-dependent way, and provided an interesting indication of the working of the m6A system during the transmission from maternal nutrition to subsequent

  9. Mouse Maternal High-Fat Intake Dynamically Programmed mRNA m⁶A Modifications in Adipose and Skeletal Muscle Tissues in Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao; Yang, Jing; Zhu, Youbo; Liu, Yuan; Shi, Xin'e; Yang, Gongshe

    2016-08-19

    Epigenetic mechanisms have an important role in the pre- and peri-conceptional programming by maternal nutrition. Yet, whether or not RNA m⁶A methylation-an old epigenetic marker receiving increased attention recently-is involved remains an unknown question. In this study, mouse high-fat feeding prior to conception was shown to induce overweight and glucose intolerant dams, which then continued to be exposed to a high-fat diet during gestation and lactation. The dams on a standard diet throughout the whole experiment were used as a control. Results showed that maternal high-fat intake impaired postnatal growth in male offspring, indicated by decreased body weight and Lee's index at 3, 8 and 15 weeks old, but the percentages of visceral fat and tibialis anterior relative to the whole body weights were significantly increased at eight weeks of age. The maternal high-fat exposure significantly increased mRNA N⁶-methyladenosine (m⁶A) levels in visceral fat at three weeks old, combined with downregulated Fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) and upregulated Methyltransferase like 3 (METTL3) transcription, and these changes were reversed at eight weeks of age. In the tibialis anterior muscle, the maternal high-fat diet significantly enhanced m⁶A modifications at three weeks, and lowered m⁶A levels at 15 weeks of age. Accordingly, FTO transcription was significantly inhibited at three weeks and stimulated at 15 weeks of age, and METTL3 transcripts were significantly improved at three weeks. Interestingly, both FTO and METTL3 transcription was significantly elevated at eight weeks of age, and yet the m⁶A modifications remained unchanged. Our study showed that maternal high-fat intake could affect mRNA m⁶A modifications and its related genes in offspring in a tissue-specific and development-dependent way, and provided an interesting indication of the working of the m⁶A system during the transmission from maternal nutrition to subsequent generations.

  10. Intermittent access to liquid sucrose differentially modulates energy intake and related central pathways in control or high-fat fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Marion; Chaumontet, Catherine; Even, Patrick C; Nadkarni, Nachiket; Piedcoq, Julien; Darcel, Nicolas; Tomé, Daniel; Fromentin, Gilles

    2015-03-01

    Intake of sodas has been shown to increase energy intake and to contribute to obesity in humans and in animal models, although the magnitude and importance of these effects are still debated. Moreover, intake of sugar sweetened beverages is often associated with high-fat food consumption in humans. We studied two different accesses to a sucrose-sweetened water (SSW, 12.3%, a concentration similar to that usually found in sugar sweetened beverages) in C57BL/6 mice fed a normal-fat (NF) or a high-fat (HF) diet in a scheduled access (7.5h). NF-fed and HF-fed mice received during 5weeks access to water, to SSW continuously for 7.5h (SSW), or to water plus SSW for 2h (randomly-chosen time slot for only 5 random days/week) (SSW-2h). Mouse preference for SSW was greater in HF-fed mice than NF-fed mice. Continuous SSW access induced weight gain whatever the diet and led to greater caloric intake than mice drinking water in NF-fed mice and in the first three weeks in HF-fed mice. In HF-fed mice, 2h-intermittent access to SSW induced a greater body weight gain than mice drinking water, and led to hyperphagia on the HF diet when SSW was accessible compared to days without SSW 2h-access (leading to greater overall caloric intake), possibly through inactivation of the anorexigenic neuropeptide POMC in the hypothalamus. This was not observed in NF-fed mice, but 2h-intermittent access to SSW stimulated the expression of dopamine, opioid and endocannabinoid receptors in the nucleus accumbens compared to water-access. In conclusion, in mice, a sucrose solution provided 2h-intermittently and a high-fat diet have combined effects on peripheral and central homeostatic systems involved in food intake regulation, a finding which has significant implications for human obesity.

  11. Comparison of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated oils in continuous frying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantzaris, T. P.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Some work carried out by the Turbitak Marmara Research Centre and the Yildiz Technical University in Istanbul, in collaboration with the Palm Oil Research Institute of Malaysia, involved large scale laboratory frying trials of two monounsaturated oils (olive oil and palm olein and two polyunsaturated oils (sunflower and soyabean on potato chips (French fries. The oils were tested in parallel in separate 6-litre fryers on five consecutive days of eight hours and 14 batches of 150g potatoes each. At the end of each day the fryers were cleared of any sediment and topped up with fresh oil (about 250g. The performance of the oils was assessed by 11 physical and chemical tests viz. colour, smoke-point, foam height, free fatty acid content, fatty acid composition, iodine value, peroxide value, anisidine value, totox, polymer content and polar compounds. The monounsaturated oils scored higher in most tests and were clearly superior but in some tests such as colour and FFA the polyunsaturated oils scored higher. Single, simple tests as practised in many commercial establishments can be misleading and multiple tests need careful interpretation. The shelf-life of the chips was not assessed as this food is normally eaten within a short time of preparation. But the tests indicate that fried products intended for longer storage and wide distribution, will have a better shelf-life if fried in monounsaturated oils.

  12. Effect of Low-fat Milk Consumption Compared to Apple Juice and Water on the Energy Intake Among 10-12-Year-Old Obese Boys: A Three-way Cross-over Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabani, Sanaz; Salehi-Abargouei, Amin; Asemi, Mehdi; Mehrabani, Sepideh; Feizi, Awat; Safavi, Seyyed Morteza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Appetite lowering characteristics of dairy have attracted scientists to look for its effect on energy intake particularly among children. In the present study, we tried to assess the effect of low-fat milk on total and short-term energy intake among obese boys in a randomized three-way cross-over clinical trial. Methods: A total of 34 obese 10-12-year-old boys were randomized to consume three beverages (low-fat milk, apple juice, or water) with a fixed energy breakfast for two consecutive days, 1 week apart. Ad libitum lunch was provided for subjects 5 h later. The energy intake from breakfast till lunch and total energy intake on intervention days, and 2 days after intervention were compared. Generalized linear model repeated measures procedure in which test beverages were considered as repeated factors. Results: Energy intake from breakfast till lunch was lower when low-fat milk consumption was included in the breakfast compared with water and apple juice (adjusted mean ± standard error: Low-fat milk = 1484.33 ± 15.30 Kcal, apple juice = 1543.39 ± 20.70 Kcal, water = 1606.6 ± 19.94 Kcal; P 0.05). Conclusions: One serving of low-fat milk might affect the energy intake in a short-term period. The possible effect of frequent consumption of dairy products on long-term energy intake among children is needed to be examined. PMID:25538836

  13. Raspberry ketone fails to reduce adiposity beyond decreasing food intake in C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotten, Bradley M; Diamond, Stephanie A; Banh, Taylor; Hsiao, Yung-Hsuan; Cole, Rachel M; Li, Jinhui; Simons, Christopher T; Bruno, Richard S; Belury, Martha A; Vodovotz, Yael

    2017-04-19

    As the incidence of obesity continues to increase, identifying novel nutritional therapies to enhance weight loss are needed. Raspberry ketone (RK; 4-(4-hydroxyphenyl) butan-2-one) is a bioactive phytochemical that is marketed as a weight loss supplement in the United States, yet there is scant scientific evidence demonstrating that RK promotes weight loss. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of RK on accumulation of adipose mass, hepatic lipid storage, and levels of plasma adiponectin in mice fed a high-fat (HF) diet. Mice were individually housed and fed a HF control diet (45% kcal from fat) for two weeks to induce weight gain, then assigned to HF control, high-dose (1.74% wt/wt) raspberry ketone (HRK), low-dose (0.25% wt/wt) raspberry ketone (LRK), or a pair-fed group (PF) fed similar food intake to LRK mice. Following five weeks of feeding, mice fed LRK and HRK diets showed reduced food intake and body weight compared to mice maintained on control diet. When normalized to body weight, mice fed HRK diet exhibited decreased inguinal fat mass and increased liver mass compared to the control group. Hepatic steatosis was lowest in mice fed HRK diet, whereas LRK diet did not have an effect when compared to the PF group. Plasma adiponectin concentration was unaffected by RK and pair-feeding. Our findings demonstrate that RK supplementation has limited benefit to adipose loss beyond reducing energy intake in mice fed a high-fat diet. The present study supports the need for appropriate study design when validating weight-loss supplements.

  14. Treatment of genetically obese mice with the iminosugar N-(5-adamantane-1-yl-methoxy-pentyl)-deoxynojirimycin reduces body weight by decreasing food intake and increasing fat oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeveld, Mirjam; van den Berg, Sjoerd A A; Bijl, Nora; Bijland, Silvia; van Roomen, Cindy P; Houben-Weerts, Judith H; Ottenhoff, Roelof; Houten, Sander M; van Dijk, Ko Willems; Romijn, Johannes A; Groen, Albert K; Aerts, Johannes M; Voshol, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and its associated conditions such as type 2 diabetes mellitus are major causes of morbidity and mortality. The iminosugar N-(5-adamantane-1-yl-methoxy-pentyl)-deoxynojirimycin (AMP-DNM) improves insulin sensitivity in rodent models of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In the current study, we characterized the impact of AMP-DNM on substrate oxidation patterns, food intake, and body weight gain in obese mice. Eight ob/ob mice treated with 100 mg/(kg d) AMP-DNM mixed in the food and 8 control ob/ob mice were placed in metabolic cages during the first, third, and fifth week of the experiment for measurement of substrate oxidation rates, energy expenditure, activity, and food intake. Mice were killed after 6 weeks of treatment. Initiation of treatment with AMP-DNM resulted in a rapid increase in fat oxidation by 129% (P = .05), a decrease in carbohydrate oxidation by 35% (P = .01), and a reduction in food intake by approximately 26% (P fat oxidation rates, increased hepatic carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1a expression. Treatment with AMP-DNM increased plasma levels of the appetite-regulating peptide YY compared with control mice. Treatment with AMP-DNM rapidly reduces food intake and increases fat oxidation, resulting in improvement of the obese phenotype. These features of AMP-DNM, together with its insulin-sensitizing capacity, make it an attractive candidate drug for the treatment of obesity and its associated metabolic derangements. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Fat and carbohydrate intake over three generations modify growth, metabolism and cardiovascular phenotype in female mice in an age-related manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel P Hoile

    Full Text Available Environmental challenges such as a high fat diet during pregnancy can induce changes in offspring growth, metabolism and cardiovascular function. However, challenges that are sustained over several generations can induce progressive compensatory metabolic adjustments in young adults. It is not known if such effects persist during ageing. We investigated whether diets with different fat and carbohydrate contents over three generations modifies markers of ageing. Female C57BL/6 F0 mice were fed diets containing 5% or 21% fat (w/w throughout pregnancy and lactation. Female offspring were fed the same diet as their dams until the F3 generation. In each generation, body weight, 24-hour food intake were recorded weekly, and plasma metabolites were measured by colorimetric assays, blood pressure by tail cuff plethysmography and vasoconstriction by myography on postnatal day 90 or 456. There was little effect of diet or generation on phenotypic markers in day 90 adults. There was a significant increase in whole body, liver and heart weight with ageing (d456 in the F3 21% fat group compared to the F1 and F3 5% groups. Fasting plasma glucose concentration was significantly increased with ageing in the 5% group in the F3 generation and in the 21% group in both generations. There was a significant effect of diet and generation on ex-vivo vasoconstriction in ageing females. Differences in dietary fat may induce metabolic compensation in young adults that persist over three generations. However, such compensatory effects decline during ageing.

  16. Low fatness, reduced fat intake and adequate plasmatic concentrations of LDL-cholesterol are associated with high bone mineral density in women: a cross-sectional study with control group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkis Karin S

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several parameters are associated with high bone mineral density (BMD, such as overweight, black background, intense physical activity (PA, greater calcium intake and some medications. The objectives are to evaluate the prevalence and the main aspects associated with high BMD in healthy women. Methods After reviewing the database of approximately 21,500 BMD scans performed in the metropolitan area of São Paulo, Brazil, from June 2005 to October 2010, high BMD (over 1400 g/cm2 at lumbar spine and/or above 1200 g/cm2 at femoral neck was found in 421 exams. Exclusion criteria were age below 30 or above 60 years, black ethnicity, pregnant or obese women, disease and/or medications known to interfere with bone metabolism. A total of 40 women with high BMD were included and matched with 40 healthy women with normal BMD, paired to weight, age, skin color and menopausal status. Medical history, food intake and PA were assessed through validated questionnaires. Body composition was evaluated through a GE-Lunar DPX MD + bone densitometer. Radiography of the thoracic and lumbar spine was carried out to exclude degenerative alterations or fractures. Biochemical parameters included both lipid and hormonal profiles, along with mineral and bone metabolism. Statistical analysis included parametric and nonparametric tests and linear regression models. P Results The mean age was 50.9 (8.3 years. There was no significant difference between groups in relation to PA, smoking, intake of calcium and vitamin D, as well as laboratory tests, except serum C-telopeptide of type I collagen (s-CTX, which was lower in the high BMD group (p = 0.04. In the final model of multivariate regression, a lower fat intake and body fatness as well a better profile of LDL-cholesterol predicted almost 35% of high BMD in women. (adjusted R2 = 0.347; p Conclusion Our results demonstrate the potential deleterious effect of lipid metabolism-related components, including

  17. Effect of Low-fat Milk Consumption Compared to Apple Juice and Water on the Energy Intake Among 10-12-Year-Old Obese Boys: A Three-way Cross-over Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Mehrabani

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: One serving of low-fat milk might affect the energy intake in a short-term period. The possible effect of frequent consumption of dairy products on long-term energy intake among children is needed to be examined.

  18. Central amygdala opioid transmission is necessary for increased high-fat intake following 24-h food deprivation, but not following intra-accumbens opioid administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Kyle E; Johns, Howard W; Floros, Ted G; Will, Matthew J

    2014-03-01

    Previous research has demonstrated a dissociation of certain neural mediators that contribute to the increased consumption of a high-fat diet that follows intra-accumbens (Acb) administration of μ-opioid receptor agonists vs. 24-h food deprivation. These two models, both which induce rapid consumption of the diet, have been shown to involve a distributed corticolimbic circuitry, including the amygdala. Specifically, the central amygdala (CeA) has been shown to be involved in high-fat feeding within both opioid and food-deprivation driven models. The present experiments were conducted to examine the more specific role of CeA opioid transmission in mediating high-fat feeding driven by either intra-Acb administration of the μ-opioid agonist d-Ala2-NMe-Phe4-Glyol5-enkephalin (DAMGO) or 24-h home cage food deprivation. Injection of DAMGO into the Acb (0.25 μg/0.5 μl/side) increased consumption of the high-fat diet, but this feeding was unaffected by administration of opioid antagonist, naltrexone (5 μg/0.25 μl/side) administered into the CeA. In contrast, intra-CeA naltrexone administration attenuated high-fat intake driven by 24-h food deprivation, demonstrating a specific role for CeA opioid transmission in high-fat consumption. Intra-CeA naltrexone administration alone had no effect on baseline feeding levels within either feeding model. These findings suggest that CeA opioid transmission mediates consumption of a palatable high-fat diet driven by short-term negative-energy balance (24-h food deprivation), but not intra-Acb opioid receptor activation.

  19. Analysis of trans-fat levels in total diet and one-serving samples using the verified GC-method and estimation of the intake in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takahiro; Maitani, Tamio; Matsuda, Rieko

    2011-01-01

    In Japan, discussions on the regulation and labeling of trans-fat (TF) have under way for several years in the Food Safety Commission and the Consumer Affairs Agency. However, administrative measures for TF have not yet been taken, partly because of the insufficiency of scientific data in Japan. To provide data about the TF intake by Japanese, we determined the levels of TF contained in total diet samples and in food samples that were served as individual meals (one-serving samples). We analyzed 5 groups of total diet samples prepared in 11 regions throughout Japan, and 5 categories of one-serving samples using the GC-method after verifying its performance. The estimated daily intake of TF based on the analytical results of the total diet samples was around 500 mg and no significant difference was observed in the intake of the TF among the 11 surveyed regions. On the other hand, many one-serving samples classified into "hamburger", "pizza" and "Western food" categories contained more than 500 mg of TF per serving, the standard value in the labeling regulation in the United States. If these one-serving meals are taken to represent one meal out of 3 in a day, the intake of TF can easily be expected to exceed the daily intake estimated through the analysis of the total diet samples.

  20. Regular tart cherry intake alters abdominal adiposity, adipose gene transcription, and inflammation in obesity-prone rats fed a high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, E M; Lewis, Sarah K; Urcuyo-Llanes, Daniel E; Tanone, Ignasia I; Kirakosyan, Ara; Kaufman, Peter B; Bolling, Steven F

    2009-10-01

    Obesity, systemic inflammation, and hyperlipidemia are among the components of metabolic syndrome, a spectrum of phenotypes that can precede the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Animal studies show that intake of anthocyanin-rich extracts can affect these phenotypes. Anthocyanins can alter the activity of tissue peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), which affect energy substrate metabolism and inflammation. However, it is unknown if physiologically relevant, anthocyanin-containing whole foods confer similar effects to concentrated, anthocyanin extracts. The effect of anthocyanin-rich tart cherries was tested in the Zucker fatty rat model of obesity and metabolic syndrome. For 90 days, rats were pair-fed a higher fat diet supplemented with either 1% (wt/wt) freeze-dried, whole tart cherry powder or with a calorie- and macronutrient-matched control diet. Tart cherry intake was associated with reduced hyperlipidemia, percentage fat mass, abdominal fat (retroperitoneal) weight, retroperitoneal interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) expression, and plasma IL-6 and TNF-alpha. Tart cherry diet also increased retroperitoneal fat PPAR-alpha and PPAR-gamma mRNA (P = .12), decreased IL-6 and TNF-alpha mRNA, and decreased nuclear factor kappaB activity. In conclusion, in at-risk obese rats fed a high fat diet, physiologically relevant tart cherry consumption reduced several phenotypes of metabolic syndrome and reduced both systemic and local inflammation. Tart cherries may reduce the degree or trajectory of metabolic syndrome, thereby reducing risk for the development of type 2 diabetes and heart disease.

  1. Daily intake of rosehip extract decreases abdominal visceral fat in preobese subjects: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagatomo A

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Akifumi Nagatomo,1 Norihisa Nishida,1 Ikuo Fukuhara,2 Akira Noro,3 Yoshimichi Kozai,3 Hisao Sato,3 Yoichi Matsuura1 1Research and Development Division, Morishita Jintan Co, Ltd, Osaka, Japan; 2Fukuhara Clinic, Hokkaido, Japan; 3New Drug Research Center, Inc., Hokkaido, Japan Background: Obesity has become a great problem all over the world. We repeatedly screened to find an effective food to treat obesity and discovered that rosehip extract shows potent antiobesity effects. Investigations in mice have demonstrated that rosehip extract inhibits body weight gain and decreases visceral fat. Thus, the present study examined the effect of rosehip extract on human body fat in preobese subjects. Methods: We conducted a 12-week, single-center, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of 32 subjects who had a body mass index of ≥25 but <30. The subjects were assigned to two random groups, and they received one tablet of placebo or rosehip that contained 100 mg of rosehip extract once each day for 12 weeks with no dietary intervention. Abdominal fat area and body fat percent were measured as primary outcomes. The other outcomes were body weight and body mass index. Results: Abdominal total fat area, abdominal visceral fat area, body weight, and body mass index decreased significantly in the rosehip group at week 12 compared with their baseline levels (P<0.01 after receiving the rosehip tablet intake, and the decreases in these parameters were significantly higher when compared with those in the placebo group. Additionally, body fat percent tended to decrease compared with the placebo group and their baseline level. Moreover, the abdominal subcutaneous fat area was significantly lower in the rosehip group than in the placebo group at week 12 after the initiation of intake (P<0.05. In addition, there were no abnormalities, subjective symptoms, and findings that may indicate clinical problems during the study period. Conclusion: These results

  2. High saturated-fat and low-fibre intake: a comparative analysis of nutrient intake in individuals with and without type 2 diabetes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Breen, C

    2014-02-01

    The aim of dietary modification, as a cornerstone of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) management, is to optimise metabolic control and overall health. This study describes food and nutrient intake in a sample of adults with T2DM, and compares this to recommendations, and to intake in age, sex, body mass index (BMI) and social-class matched adults without T2DM.

  3. Perinatal Exposure to a Diet High in Saturated Fat, Refined Sugar and Cholesterol Affects Behaviour, Growth, and Feed Intake in Weaned Piglets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrits, Walter J. J.; Kemp, Bas; Val-Laillet, David; Bolhuis, J. Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The increased consumption of diets high in saturated fats and refined sugars is a major public health concern in Western human societies. Recent studies suggest that perinatal exposure to dietary fat and/or sugar may affect behavioural development. We thus investigated the effects of perinatal exposure to a high-fat high-sugar diet (HFS) on behavioural development and production performance of piglets. Thirty-two non-obese sows and their piglets were allocated to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial design, with 8-week prenatal (gestation) and 8-week postnatal (lactation and post-weaning) exposure to a HFS diet (12% saturated fat, 18.5% sucrose, 1% cholesterol) or control low-fat low-sugar high-starch diets as factors. From weaning onwards (4 weeks of age), piglets were housed in group of 3 littermates (n = 8 groups/treatment) and fed ad libitum. After the end of the dietary intervention (8 weeks of age), all the piglets were fed a standard commercial diet. Piglet behaviours in the home pens were scored, and skin lesions, growth, feed intake and feed efficiency were measured up to 8 weeks after the end of the dietary treatment, i.e. until 16 weeks of age. At the end of the dietary treatment (8 weeks of age), response to novelty was assessed in a combined open field and novel object test (OFT/NOT). During the weeks following weaning, piglets fed the postnatal HFS diet tended to be less aggressive (p = 0.06), but exhibited more oral manipulation of pen mates (p = 0.05) than controls. Compared to controls, piglets fed the prenatal or postnatal HFS diet walked more in the home pen (p ≤ 0.05), and tended to have fewer skin lesions (p feeding materials, pen mates, and the environment more than piglets that remained on the same diet. Behaviours during the OFT/NOT were not affected by the diet. The intake of the postnatal HFS diet drastically reduced feed intake, but improved feed efficiency up to 8 weeks after the end of the dietary intervention, i.e. 16 weeks of age

  4. Dietary lipids: less fat or best fat?

    OpenAIRE

    Chardigny Jean-Michel

    2013-01-01

    Obesity and overweight occurrence is growing around the word. This is often considered as a consequence of high fat diets, and some recommendations encourage ‘‘light’’ diets, including low fat intake. However, most trials with low fat intake do not demonstrate any benefit and could be worse than low carbohydrate diets. The key role of insulin could explain that eating fat do not make body fat. On the other hand, several unbalanced fatty acid intake are reported, i.e. saturated/mononunsaturate...

  5. Effects of butter high in ruminant trans and monounsaturated fatty acids on lipoproteins, incorporation of fatty acids into lipid classes, plasma C-reactive protein, oxidative stress, hemostatic variables, and insulin in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tholstrup, T.; Raff, M.; Basu, S.

    2006-01-01

    the effect of butter with a naturally high content of vaccenic acid and a concomitantly higher content of monounsaturated FAs on classic and novel risk markers of IHD. Design: In a double-blind, randomized, 5-wk, parallel intervention study, 42 healthy young men were given 115 g fat/d from test butter...... that was high in vaccenic acid (3.6 g vaccenic acid/d) or a control butter with a low content of vaccenic acid. Blood and urine samples were collected before and after the intervention. Results: The intake of the vaccenic acid-rich diet resulted in 6% and 9% lower total cholesterol and plasma HDL......-cholesterol concentrations, respectively, than did the intake of the control diet (P = 0.05 and 0.002, respectively), whereas the ratio of total to HDL cholesterol did not differ significantly between the groups. The FA composition of lipid classes reflected the FAs' proportion of the test butter. No other differences were...

  6. JTT-130, a novel intestine-specific inhibitor of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, suppresses food intake and gastric emptying with the elevation of plasma peptide YY and glucagon-like peptide-1 in a dietary fat-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, Takahiro; Mera, Yasuko; Ishii, Yukihito; Tadaki, Hironobu; Tomimoto, Daisuke; Kuroki, Yukiharu; Kawai, Takashi; Ohta, Takeshi; Kakutani, Makoto

    2011-03-01

    The microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) takes part in the mobilization and secretion of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins from enterocytes and hepatocytes. In this study, we investigated the effects of diethyl-2-({3-dimethylcarbamoyl-4-[(4'-trifluoromethylbiphenyl-2-carbonyl) amino] phenyl}acetyloxymethyl)-2-phenylmalonate (JTT-130), a novel intestine-specific MTP inhibitor, on food intake, gastric emptying, and gut peptides using Sprague-Dawley rats fed 3.1% fat, 13% fat, or 35% fat diets. JTT-130 treatment suppressed cumulative food intake and gastric emptying in rats fed a 35% fat diet, but not a 3.1% fat diet. In rats fed a 13% fat diet, JTT-130 treatment decreased cumulative food intake but not gastric emptying. In addition, treatment with orlistat, a lipase inhibitor, completely abolished the reduction of food intake and gastric emptying by JTT-130 in rats fed a 35% fat diet. On the other hand, JTT-130 treatment increased the plasma concentrations of gut peptides, peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) but not cholecystokinin, in the portal vein in rats fed a 35% fat diet. These elevations in PYY and GLP-1 were also abolished by treatment with orlistat. Furthermore, JTT-130 treatment in rats fed a 35% fat diet increased the contents of triglycerides and free fatty acids in the intestinal lumen, which might contribute to the elevation of PYY and GLP-1 levels. The present findings indicate that JTT-130 causes satiety responses, decreased food intake, and gastric emptying in a dietary fat-dependent manner, with enhanced production of gut peptides such as PYY and GLP-1 from the intestine.

  7. Effects of a high-fat meal on postprandial incretin responses, appetite scores and ad libitum energy intake in women with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penaforte, Fernanda Rodrigues O; Japur, Camila C; Diez-Garcia, Rosa W; Chiarello, Paula G

    2017-03-30

    Considering the possible role of triglycerides (TG), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in the regulation of appetite, this study aimed to compare high fat meal-induced response of GIP and GLP-1, appetite scores and ad libitum energy intake in women with obesity, according to postprandial increment in triglyceridemia (∆TG).  Methods: Thirty-three no-diabetic women (BMI = 35.0 ± 3.2 kg.m-2) were divided into two groups: Group with ∆TG ≤ median were called "Low TG change -LTG" and ∆TG > median, "High TG change - HTG". Plasma concentrations of GIP, GLP-1 and appetite sensations were measured prior to, and every 30 min for 180 min after ingestion of a high-fat breakfast. An ad libitum lunch was served 3 h after the test meal. The AUC incrementalGIP were significant lower in HTG vs. LTG group (p = 0.03). The same was observed for GIP levels at 150 min (p = 0.03) and at 180 min (p libitum food intake were also similar between groups. The HTG group exhibited differences in satiety scores and lower postprandial secretion of GIP, however with no impact on ad libitum food intake in short term.

  8. Intake of fatty acids in Western Europe with emphasis on trans fatty acids: The TRANSFAIR study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulshof, K. F. A. M.; Erp-Baart, M. A. van; Anttolainen, M.;

    1999-01-01

    and from clusters of fatty acids was less. Only in Finland, Italy, Norway and Portugal total fat did provide on average less than 35% of energy intake. Saturated fatty acids (SFA) provided on average between 10% and 19% of total energy intake, with the lowest contribution in most Mediterranean countries....... TFA intake ranged from 0.5% (Greece, Italy) to 2.1% (Iceland) of energy intake among men and from 0.8% (Greece) to 1.9% among women (Iceland) (1.2-6.7 g/d and 1.7-4.1 g/d, respectively). The TFA intake was lowest in Mediterranean countries (0.5-0.8 en%) but was also below 1% of energy in Finland...... and Germany. Moderate intakes were seen in Belgium, The Netherlands, Norway and UK and highest intake in Iceland. Trans isomers of C-18:1 were the most TFA in the diet. Monounsaturated fatty acids contributed 9-12% of mean daily energy intake (except for Greece, nearly 18%) and polyunsaturated fatty acids 3...

  9. Dietary lipids: less fat or best fat?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chardigny Jean-Michel

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and overweight occurrence is growing around the word. This is often considered as a consequence of high fat diets, and some recommendations encourage ‘‘light’’ diets, including low fat intake. However, most trials with low fat intake do not demonstrate any benefit and could be worse than low carbohydrate diets. The key role of insulin could explain that eating fat do not make body fat. On the other hand, several unbalanced fatty acid intake are reported, i.e. saturated/mononunsaturated fatty acids and w6/w3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Thus, fat intake could be improved in this respect. Moreover, the molecular and supramolecular structures of fat in food are new challenges to address in order to ameliorate the recommendations for healthy diets.

  10. Effect of sterilization and of dietary fat and carbohydrate content on food intake, activity level, and blood satiety-related hormones in female dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauf, S; Salas-Mani, A; Torre, C; Bosch, G; Swarts, H; Castrillo, C

    2016-10-01

    Animal sterilization is suggested to promote food overconsumption, although it is unknown whether this effect is mediated by variations in satiety-related hormones, which are released in response to food intake. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of sterilization and of the main energy-delivery nutrients, fat and nonstructural carbohydrates, on food intake, blood concentration of satiety-related hormones, and activity level in dogs. In a 2-phase experiment (phase I [Ph.I], 74 d, and Ph.II, 84 d), 12 female Beagle dogs were assigned to a control group (intact in both phases) and a sterilization group (spayed 20 d before Ph.II). In each phase, dogs received a high-carbohydrate (HC) diet (313 and 105 g/kg DM starch and fat, respectively) and a high-fat (HF) diet (191 and 213 g/kg DM starch and fat, respectively), both high in total dietary fiber (>200 g/kg DM) and providing 27% ME as protein, in 2 consecutive periods following a crossover arrangement. During each period, dogs' voluntary DMI and activity level were recorded during 5 d. Then, energy allowance was restricted to 0.7 maintenance and the level of intake of a common challenge food offered 4 h after feeding the experimental diets (challenge food intake [ChFI]) was used as an index of the satiety state of dogs. Blood concentration of active ghrelin, cholecystokinin (CCK), total peptide YY (PYY), and insulin were determined before and 15, 60, 120, 240, and 360 min after feeding. Voluntary DMI was greater ( dogs, but ChFI did not differ between diets ( > 0.10). Dogs fed the HF diet showed a lower increase of CCK at 120 ( dogs at 120 min. Only active ghrelin concentration at 240 min and insulin tAUC correlated ( Dog sterilization did not affect voluntary DMI, ChFI, or blood hormones ( > 0.10) but led to a reduced activity level compared with control dogs ( dog sterilization was not associated with an impaired appetite control. Feeding dogs the HF diet led to energy overconsumption and to a lower

  11. High-fat diet offsets the long-lasting effects of running-wheel access on food intake and body weight in OLETF rats

    OpenAIRE

    Chao, Pei-Ting; Terrillion, Chantelle E.; Moran, Timothy H.; Bi, Sheng

    2011-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that running-wheel access normalizes the food intake and body weight of Otsuka Long-Evens Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. Following 6 wk of running-wheel access beginning at 8 wk of age, the body weight of OLETF rats remains reduced, demonstrating a lasting effect on their phenotype. In contrast, access to a high-fat diet exacerbates the hyperphagia and obesity of OLETF rats. To determine whether diet modulates the long-term effects of exercise, we examined the e...

  12. Genetic parameters across lactation for feed intake, fat and protein corrected milk, and live weight in first parity Holstein cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manzanilla Pech, C.I.V.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Calus, M.P.L.; Zom, R.L.G.; Knegsel, van A.; Pryce, J.E.; Haas, de Y.

    2014-01-01

    Breeding values for dry matter intake (DMI) are important to optimize dairy cattle breeding goals for feed efficiency. However, generally, only small data sets are available for feed intake, due to the cost and difficulty of measuring DMI, which makes understanding the genetic associations between t

  13. High vitamin D and calcium intakes increase bone mineral (Ca and P) content in high-fat diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qingming; Sergeev, Igor N

    2015-02-01

    Vitamin D and calcium are essential for bone formation, mineralization, and remodeling. Recent studies demonstrated that an increased body mass can be detrimental to bone health. However, whether an increase in dietary vitamin D and calcium intakes in obesity is beneficial to bone health has not been established. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of increased vitamin D and calcium intakes, alone or in combination, on bone status in a high-fat diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse model. We hypothesized that DIO in growing mice affects bone mineral status and that high vitamin D and calcium intakes will promote mineralization of the growing bone in obesity via Ca(2+) regulatory hormones, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) and parathyroid hormone (PTH). Male mice were fed high vitamin D3 (10 000 IU/kg), high calcium (1.2%), or high vitamin D3 plus high-calcium diets containing 60% energy as fat for 10 weeks. Bone weight, specific gravity, mineral (Ca and P), and collagen (hydroxyproline) content were measured in the femur and the tibia. Regulators of Ca(2+) metabolism and markers of bone status (PTH, 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], 1,25(OH)2D3, and osteocalcin) were measured in blood plasma. Diet-induced obese mice exhibited lower bone Ca and P content and relative bone weight compared with the normal-fat control mice, whereas collagen (hydroxyproline) content was not different between the two groups. High vitamin D3 and calcium intakes significantly increased bone Ca and P content and relative bone weight in DIO mice, which was accompanied by an increase in 1,25(OH)2D3 and a decrease in PTH and osteocalcin concentrations in blood. The findings obtained indicate that increased vitamin D and calcium intakes are effective in increasing mineral (Ca and P) content in the growing bone of obese mice and that the hormonal mechanism of this effect may involve the vitamin D-PTH axis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact of fat source and dietary fibers on feed intake, plasma metabolites, litter gain and the yield and composition of milk in sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogh, U; Bruun, T S; Poulsen, J; Theil, P K

    2017-06-01

    Sow lactation diets often include fat sources without considering the impact on digestion, metabolism and performance. Fiber ingredients may reduce feed intake and are often completely excluded from lactation diets, although locally available ingredients may be cost-efficient alternatives to partly replace cereals in lactation diets. Thus, a standard lactation diet low in dietary fiber, and two high-fiber diets based on sugar beet pulp (SBP) or alfalfa meal (ALF) were formulated. The SBP diet was high in soluble non-starch polysaccharides (NSP), whereas ALF being high in insoluble NSP. Each diet was divided in three portions and combined with 3% soybean oil (SOYO), palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD), or glycerol trioctanoate (C8TG) as the dietary fat source. Equal amounts of metabolizable energy were fed to 36 second parity sows from day 105 of gestation and throughout lactation to study the impact on feed intake, plasma metabolites, milk production and litter performance. Backfat thickness and BW of sows were recorded on days 3, 17 and 28 of lactation; blood was sampled on days 3 and 17; milk samples were obtained on days 3, 10, 17 and 24 of lactation; and piglets were weighed on days 2, 7, 14, 21 and 28 of lactation. Litter gain and milk yield during late lactation were greater in sows fed C8TG or SOYO than in sows fed PFAD (P=0.05), whereas loss of BW (P=0.60) and backfat (P=0.70) was unaffected by fat source. Milk protein on days 3 and 10 of lactation were lower in C8TG and SOYO sows, than in PFAD sows (Psows. Milk yield was unaffected by fiber treatment (P=0.43), whereas milk protein concentration was lowest in ALF sows (Psows. In conclusion, performance was enhanced in SOYO and C8TG compared with PFAD sows, possibly associated with reduced energy intake in PFAD-fed sows. Furthermore, the SBP diet seemed to impair feed intake and litter gain at peak lactation, suggesting that effects of the dietary fiber fraction on energy intake determines the potential

  15. Saturated Fat as Compared With Unsaturated Fats and Sources of Carbohydrates in Relation to Risk of Coronary Heart Disease: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Adam M.; Ley, Sylvia H.; Wang, Dong D.; Chiuve, Stephanie E.; Sampson, Laura; Rexrode, Kathryn M.; Rimm, Eric B.; Willett, Walter C.; Hu, Frank B.

    2015-01-01

    Background The associations between dietary saturated fat and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) remain controversial, but few studies have compared saturated with unsaturated fats and sources of carbohydrates in relation to CHD risk. Objective This study sought to investigate associations of saturated fats as compared with unsaturated fats and different sources of carbohydrates in relation to CHD risk. Methods We followed 84,628 women (Nurses’ Health Study, 1980 to 2010), and 42,908 men (Health Professionals Follow-up Study, 1986 to 2010) who were free of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer at baseline. Diet was assessed by semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire every 4 years. Results During 24 to 30 years of follow-up, we documented 7,667 incident cases of CHD. Higher intakes of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and carbohydrates from whole grains were significantly associated with lower risk of CHD (hazard ratios [HR] (95% confidence intervals [CI]) comparing the highest to the lowest quintile for PUFA: 0.80 [0.73 to 0.88], p trend saturated fats with equivalent energy intake from either PUFAs, monounsaturated fats (MUFAs), or carbohydrates from whole grains was associated with 25%, 15%, and 9% lower risk of CHD, respectively (PUFAs: 0.75 [0.67 to 0.84]; p saturated fat with carbohydrates from refined starches/added sugars was not significantly associated with CHD risk (p > 0.10). Conclusions Our findings indicate that unsaturated fats, especially PUFAs, and/or high-quality carbohydrates should replace dietary saturated fats to reduce CHD risk. PMID:26429077

  16. The Danish fat tax-Effects on consumption patterns and risk of ischaemic heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bødker, Malene; Pisinger, Charlotta; Toft, Ulla; Jørgensen, Torben

    2015-08-01

    To examine the effects on consumption and risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) of the Danish fat tax, effective from October 2011 to January 2013. We used comprehensive retail outlet data on the sale of twelve foodstuff categories targeted by the fat tax. Data covered January 2010 to July 2013. IHD risk was assessed by modelling first the effect of changes in intake of monounsaturated, polyunsaturated and saturated fat and dietary cholesterol on serum cholesterol and subsequently modelling the resulting changes in risk of IHD using two different methods. The total sale of the included foodstuffs decreased by 0.9%. The fat tax was associated with marginal changes in population risk of IHD. One estimate suggests an increased population risk of IHD by 0.2% and the other estimate suggests that the risk of IHD decreased by 0.3%. The Danish fat tax had a marginal effect on population consumption of fat and risk of IHD. Fat taxes have to be carefully designed to prevent possible adverse effects from outweighing its beneficial effects on health outcomes. Policymakers must therefore be more ambitious in relation to food taxes, e.g. by implementing more comprehensive tax-subsidy schemes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Changes induced by dietary energy intake and divergent selection for muscle fat content in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, assessed by transcriptome and proteome analysis of the liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lefèvre Florence

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Growing interest is turned to fat storage levels and allocation within body compartments, due to their impact on human health and quality properties of farm animals. Energy intake and genetic background are major determinants of fattening in most animals, including humans. Previous studies have evidenced that fat deposition depends upon balance between various metabolic pathways. Using divergent selection, we obtained rainbow trout with differences in fat allocation between visceral adipose tissue and muscle, and no change in overall body fat content. Transcriptome and proteome analysis were applied to characterize the molecular changes occurring between these two lines when fed a low or a high energy diet. We focused on the liver, center of intermediary metabolism and the main site for lipogenesis in fish, as in humans and most avian species. Results The proteome and transcriptome analyses provided concordant results. The main changes induced by the dietary treatment were observed in lipid metabolism. The level of transcripts and proteins involved in intracellular lipid transport, fatty acid biosynthesis and anti-oxidant metabolism were lower with the lipid rich diet. In addition, genes and proteins involved in amino-acid catabolism and proteolysis were also under expressed with this diet. The major changes related to the selection effect were observed in levels of transcripts and proteins involved in amino-acid catabolism and proteolysis that were higher in the fat muscle line than in the lean muscle line. Conclusion The present study led to the identification of novel genes and proteins that responded to long term feeding with a high energy/high fat diet. Although muscle was the direct target, the selection procedure applied significantly affected hepatic metabolism, particularly protein and amino acid derivative metabolism. Interestingly, the selection procedure and the dietary treatment used to increase muscle fat

  18. Saturated Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease: Replacements for Saturated Fat to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Michelle A; Petersen, Kristina S; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2017-06-21

    Dietary recommendations to decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) have focused on reducing intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA) for more than 50 years. While the 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans advise substituting both monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids for SFA, evidence supports other nutrient substitutions that will also reduce CVD risk. For example, replacing SFA with whole grains, but not refined carbohydrates, reduces CVD risk. Replacing SFA with protein, especially plant protein, may also reduce CVD risk. While dairy fat (milk, cheese) is associated with a slightly lower CVD risk compared to meat, dairy fat results in a significantly greater CVD risk relative to unsaturated fatty acids. As research continues, we will refine our understanding of dietary patterns associated with lower CVD risk.

  19. Randomised comparison of diets for maintaining obese subjects' weight after major weight loss: ad lib, low fat, high carbohydrate diet v fixed energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toubro, S; Astrup, A

    1997-01-04

    To compare importance of rate of initial weight loss for long term outcome in obese patients and to compare efficacy of two different weight maintenance programmes. Subjects were randomised to either rapid or slow initial weight loss. Completing patients were re-randomised to one year weight maintenance programme of ad lib diet or fixed energy intake diet. Patients were followed up one year later. University research department in Copenhagen, Denmark. 43 (41 women) obese adults (body mass index 27-40) who were otherwise healthy living in or around Copenhagen. 8 weeks of low energy diet (2 MJ/day) or 17 weeks of conventional diet (5 MJ/day), both supported by an anorectic compound (ephedrine 20 mg and caffeine 200 mg thrice daily); one year weight maintenance programme of ad lib, low fat, high carbohydrate diet or fixed energy intake diet ( 5 kg at follow up. Mean initial weight loss was 12.6 kg (95% confidence interval 10.9 to 14.3 kg) in rapid weight loss group and 12.6 (9.9 to 15.3) kg in conventional diet group. Rate of initial weight loss had no effect on weight maintenance after 6 or 12 months of weight maintenance or at follow up. After weight maintenance programme, the ad lib group had maintained 13.2 (8.1 to 18.3) kg of the initial weight loss of 13.5 (11.4 to 15.5) kg, and the fixed energy intake group had maintained 9.7 (6.1 to 13.3) kg of the initial 13.8 (11.8 to 15.7) kg weight loss (group difference 3.5 (-2.4 to 9.3) kg). Regained weight at follow up was greater in fixed energy intake group than in ad lib group (11.3 (7.1 to 15.5) kg v 5.4 (2.3 to 8.6) kg, group difference 5.9 (0.7 to 11.1) kg, P lib group and 40% of fixed energy intake group had maintained a weight loss of > 5 kg (P lib, low fat, high carbohydrate diet was superior to fixed energy intake for maintaining weight after a major weight loss. The rate of the initial weight loss did not influence long term outcome.

  20. The effects of the Danish saturated fat tax on food and nutrient intake and modelled health outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smed, Sinne; Scarborough, P.; Rayner, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objective: The World Health Organisation recommends governments to consider the use of fiscal policies to promote healthy eating. However, there is very limited evidence of the effect of food taxation in a real-life setting, as most evidence is based on simulation studies. The objective...... of this study is to evaluate the effect of the Danish tax on saturated fat in terms of changes in nutritional quality of the diet, that is, changes in saturated fat consumption, as well as other non-targeted dietary measures, and to model the associated changes in mortality for different age groups and genders....... Subjects/Methods: On the basis of household scanner data, we estimate the impact of the tax on consumption of saturated fat, unsaturated fat, salt, fruit, vegetables and fibre. The resultant changes in dietary quality are then used as inputs into a comparative risk assessment model (PRIME (Preventable Risk...

  1. Plasma concentrations of apolipoprotein B are modulated by a gene--diet interaction effect between the LFABP T94A polymorphism and dietary fat intake in French-Canadian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robitaille, J; Brouillette, C; Lemieux, S; Pérusse, L; Gaudet, D; Vohl, M C

    2004-08-01

    Hyperapobetalipoproteinemia is a common feature of the metabolic syndrome and could result from the interaction between genetic and dietary factors. The objective of this study was to verify whether dietary fat intake interacts with the T94A polymorphism of the liver fatty acid-binding protein (LFABP) gene to modulate plasma apolipoprotein (apo) B levels. Dietary fat and saturated fat intakes were obtained by a dietitian-administered food frequency questionnaire and the LFABP T94A genotype was determined by a PCR-RFLP based method in 623 French-Canadian men recruited through the Chicoutimi Lipid Clinic (279 T94/T94, 285 T94/A94, and 59 A94/A94). The LFABP T94A polymorphism was not associated with plasma apo B levels when fat intake was not taken into consideration. However, in a model including the polymorphism, fat intake expressed as a percentage of total energy intake, the interaction term and covariates, the variance in apo B concentrations was partly explained by the LFABP T94A polymorphism (5.24%, p = 0.01) and by the LFABP T94A*fat interaction (6.25%, p = 0.005). Results were similar when saturated fat replaced fat intake in the model (4.49%, p = 0.02 for LFABP T94A and 6.43%, p = 0.004 for the interaction). Moreover, in men consuming more than 30% of energy from fat, the odds ratio for having plasma apo B levels above 1.04 g/L for A94 carriers was of 0.40 (p = 0.02) compared to T94/T94 homozygotes. Results were similar for carriers of the A94 allele consuming more than 10% of energy from saturated fat (OR: 0.32, p = 0.005). In conclusion, T94/T94 exhibit higher apo B levels whereas carriers of the A94 allele seem to be protected against high apo B levels when consuming a high fat and saturated fat diet. These findings reinforce the importance to take into account gene-diet interactions in the prevention and management of the metabolic syndrome.

  2. A Single Day of Excessive Dietary Fat Intake Reduces Whole-Body Insulin Sensitivity: The Metabolic Consequence of Binge Eating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siôn A. Parry

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Consuming excessive amounts of energy as dietary fat for several days or weeks can impair glycemic control and reduce insulin sensitivity in healthy adults. However, individuals who demonstrate binge eating behavior overconsume for much shorter periods of time; the metabolic consequences of such behavior remain unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a single day of high-fat overfeeding on whole-body insulin sensitivity. Fifteen young, healthy adults underwent an oral glucose tolerance test before and after consuming a high-fat (68% of total energy, high-energy (78% greater than daily requirements diet for one day. Fasting and postprandial plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, non-esterified fatty acids, and triglyceride were measured and the Matsuda insulin sensitivity index was calculated. One day of high-fat overfeeding increased postprandial glucose area under the curve (AUC by 17.1% (p < 0.0001 and insulin AUC by 16.4% (p = 0.007. Whole-body insulin sensitivity decreased by 28% (p = 0.001. In conclusion, a single day of high-fat, overfeeding impaired whole-body insulin sensitivity in young, healthy adults. This highlights the rapidity with which excessive consumption of calories through high-fat food can impair glucose metabolism, and suggests that acute binge eating may have immediate metabolic health consequences for the individual.

  3. Increases in weight during chronic stress are partially associated with a switch in food choice towards increased carbohydrate and saturated fat intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Clifford J; Campbell, Iain C; Troop, Nick

    2014-01-01

    We examined if stress associated changes in weight and dietary restraint are associated with changes in the composition of foods consumed. Participants were 38 healthy women on a taught postgraduate university course. Data were obtained at the beginning of the semester and 15 weeks later just prior to a written course exam (the stressor). By using a within subject design, we measured the composition of food consumed, body mass index (BMI), levels of dietary restraint and salivary cortisol. In the larger study from which these data were obtained, it was shown that the effect of increased cortisol secretion on weight gain was mediated by a reduction in dietary restraint. The present data show that increased cortisol secretion, reduced dietary restraint and increased caloric intake, account for 73% of the variance in change in BMI. Further regression analysis indicated that the change in dietary restraint mediated the effect of change in cortisol on change in BMI. Final analysis revealed that the effect of these changes in dietary restraint on weight are partially mediated by increased caloric intake from carbohydrate and saturated fat, that is, a change in dietary composition partially accounts for the link between increased cortisol secretion through heightened hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity resulting in weight gain. These data are consistent with a 'comfort food hypothesis', as they suggest that chronic stress can promote reward associated behaviour through reduced dietary restraint and consumption of food containing more carbohydrate and saturated fat.

  4. Monosodium L-glutamate in soup reduces subsequent energy intake from high-fat savoury food in overweight and obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaki, Takashi; Imada, Toshifumi; Hao, Susan Shuzhen; Kimura, Eiichiro

    2016-01-14

    The umami seasoning, monosodium L-glutamate (MSG), has been shown to increase satiety in normal body weight adults, although the results have not been consistent. The satiety effect of MSG in overweight and obese adults has not been examined yet. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of MSG in a vegetable soup on subsequent energy intakes as well as food selection in overweight and obese adult women without eating disorders. A total of sixty-eight overweight and obese women (BMI range: 25·0-39·9 kg/m²), otherwise healthy, were recruited to our study. A fixed portion (200 ml) of control vegetable soup or the same soup with added MSG (0·5 g/100 ml) was provided 10 min before an ad libitum lunch and an ad libitum snack in the mid-afternoon. The control soup had equivalent amount of Na to the soup with added MSG. Energy intakes at the ad libitum lunch and ad libitum snack time after the soup preload were assessed using a randomised, double-blind, two-way cross-over design. The soup with MSG in comparison with the control soup resulted in significantly lower consumption of energy at lunch. The addition of MSG in the soup also reduced energy intake from high-fat savoury foods. The soup with MSG showed lower but no significant difference in energy intake at mid-afternoon. The addition of umami seasoning MSG in a vegetable soup may decrease subsequent energy intake in overweight and obese women who do not have eating disorders.

  5. EFFECTS OF ESTRADIOL ON FOOD INTAKE AND MEAL PATTERNS FOR DIETS THAT DIFFER IN FLAVOR AND FAT CONTENT

    OpenAIRE

    Butera, Peter C.; Wojcik, Danielle M.; Clough, Shannon J.

    2010-01-01

    Apart from the well known inhibitory effects of estradiol on food intake, meal size, and body weight in female rats that have been documented over the past thirty years, a more recent report presents the opposite finding; that a large dose of estradiol can increase food intake and weight gain in gonadally intact female rats presented with a palatable diet. The purpose of the present experiment was to further examine this hypothesis by evaluating the ability of estradiol to influence feeding b...

  6. OS109. Lifestyle intervention after complicated pregnancy successfully improves saturated fat-intake, but not exercise and smoking habits: results of the pro-active study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berks, D; Hoedjes, M; Raat, H; Franx, A; Duvekot, H J; Steegers, E A

    2012-07-01

    Women with a pregnancy complicated by preeclampsia, intra-uterine growth restriction and/or gestational diabetes are at increased risk of future cardiovascular and metabolic disease. Lifestyle intervention may help these women to effectively lower these risks. To test if offering lifestyle intervention after a complicated pregnancy significantly improves saturated fat-intake and exercise (primary objectives) and/or smoking habits (secondary objective). The Pro-Active study (Postpartum Rotterdam Appraisal of Cardiovascular health and Tailored Intervention) is a feasibility study to develop and evaluate a postpartum lifestyle intervention program. In a prospective case-control setting we tested the effect of the lifestyle intervention. Women were included between April 2007 and August 2009. They were eligible if ⩾18 years old at time of inclusion, being able to understand and speak the Dutch language and not having pre-existing conditions that could interfere with the lifestyle intervention. Cases were offered lifestyle intervention by a trained counsellor between 6 and 10 months postpartum. During 3 private sessions, mainly exercise and fat-intake and to some extend smoking habits were discussed and aims were made to improve lifestyle. Controls did not receive these sessions, but were not restricted to improve lifestyle on their own. Lifestyle habits were scored at 6 and 13 months postpartum. For saturated fat-intake we used the Maastricht Fatlist. For exercise we used the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). For smoking habits we used a short version of the questionnaire of STIVORO (the Dutch anti-smoking association). We also performed a formative evaluation of the intervention program. During our study 1121 women gave birth after a complicated pregnancy. 490 Women were eligible for the study of which 240 women (49%) gave informed consent to participate. 56 Women (23%) were lost-to-follow-up, leaving 186 women for the analysis. Between 6 and 13

  7. Nutrient intake adequacy in schoolchildren from a Mediterranean area (southern Spain). Influence of the use of the school canteen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Frías, Magdalena; Nestares, Teresa; Iañez, Isabel; de la Higuera, Magdalena; Mataix, José; Llopis, Juan

    2005-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare dietary adequacy in 521 schoolchildren in Granada (Spain) with national recommendations and to determine possible differences regarding gender or the use of the school canteen. A food record was used for four consecutive days to evaluate the intake of nutrients and foods. With regard to boys' and girls' intake of the main groups of foods, we observed a tendency for the boys to consume greater quantities of dairy products, cereals, potatoes, and fruit, although the differences were not statistically significant. The children who lunched at school consumed fish, eggs, dairy products, vegetables, and cereals more frequently than those who did so at home. The mean daily intake of energy and nutrients indicates that the studied population exceeded the recommended limits in the proportion of energy derived from protein and fat, while carbohydrate intake was slightly deficient. The children who lunched at school showed a more favorable profile for energy and nutrient intake, with a significantly higher intake of energy, carbohydrates, total fat, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), vitamins B, and E, and calcium, with respect to the children who had lunch at home.

  8. Fruit and vegetable consumption is inversely associated with blood pressure in a Mediterranean population with a high vegetable-fat intake: the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Alvaro; de la Fuente, Carmen; Martín-Arnau, Ana M; de Irala, Jokin; Martínez, J Alfredo; Martínez-González, Miguel Angel

    2004-08-01

    There is evidence that a diet rich in fruit and vegetables reduces blood pressure (BP). Characteristically, the Mediterranean diet is rich in plant-derived foods and also in fat, but studies conducted in Mediterranean countries to relate diet to BP are scarce. We studied the association between fruit and vegetable consumption and BP in a cross-sectional analysis of 4393 participants in the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) Study, an ongoing dynamic cohort study in Spain. Diet was measured using a food-frequency questionnaire previously validated in Spain. Fat represented more than 37 % total energy intake. Subjects were considered to have undiagnosed hypertension if they reported systolic BP > or = 140 mmHg or diastolic BP > or = 90 mmHg, and not a medical diagnosis of hypertension. The adjusted prevalence odds ratio of undiagnosed hypertension (upper v. lowest quintile) was 0.58 (95 % CI 0.36, 0.91; P for trend 0.01) for vegetable consumption and 0.68 (95 % CI 0.43, 1.09; P for trend 0.10) for fruit consumption. Comparing those in the highest quintile of both fruit and vegetable consumption with those in the lowest quintile of both food groups, the prevalence odds ratio was 0.23 (95 % CI 0.10, 0.55; P = 0.001), after adjusting for risk factors for hypertension and other dietary exposures. In a Mediterranean population with an elevated fat consumption, a high fruit and vegetable intake is inversely associated with BP levels.

  9. Intake of high-fat diet stimulates the risk of ultraviolet radiation-induced skin tumors and malignant progression of papillomas to carcinoma in SKH-1 hairless mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaid, Mudit; Singh, Tripti; Prasad, Ram [Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Katiyar, Santosh K., E-mail: skatiyar@uab.edu [Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Birmingham Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we showed that administration of a high-fat diet (HF-diet) to C57BL/6 mice exacerbates their response to short-term UVB radiation-induced inflammation in the skin. To explore the effects of an HF-diet on UVB-induced tumorigenesis, we have used the SKH-1 hairless mouse model in which the mice are exposed to UVB radiation (180 mJ/cm{sup 2}) three times a week for 24 weeks. The development of UVB-induced skin tumors was rapid and the tumor multiplicity and tumor size were significantly higher (P < 0.01–0.005) in the mice fed an HF-diet than the mice fed a control-diet (C-diet). Moreover, the malignant progression of UVB-induced papillomas to carcinomas was higher in HF-diet-fed mice. On analysis of tumors and tumor-uninvolved skin samples from the tumor-bearing mice, we found that administration of an HF-diet significantly enhanced the levels of UVB-induced expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), prostaglandin E{sub 2} (P < 0.01), and PGE{sub 2} receptors, and activation of NF-κB in the UVB-exposed skin as well as in tumors. In addition the HF-diet enhanced the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α (P < 0.01), interleukin (IL)-1β (P < 0.01) and IL-6 (P < 0.05) in the UVB-exposed skin as well as in tumors. Western blot analysis revealed that HF-diet enhanced the levels of epidermal cell proliferation, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and phosphorylation of Akt at Ser{sup 473} in UVB-exposed skin and skin tumors. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the regular consumption of an HF-diet increases the risk of photocarcinogenesis in mice and that this is associated with enhanced expression of inflammatory mediators in the UVB-exposed skin and tumors. - Highlights: • Consumption of high-fat diet increases UVB-induced skin tumor development in mice. • Intake of high-fat diet stimulates progression of UV-induced papilloma to carcinoma. • Intake of high-fat diet enhances inflammation in UV-exposed skin • Regular

  10. Mitochondrial H2O2 emission and cellular redox state link excess fat intake to insulin resistance in both rodents and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ethan J; Lustig, Mary E; Boyle, Kristen E; Woodlief, Tracey L; Kane, Daniel A; Lin, Chien-Te; Price, Jesse W; Kang, Li; Rabinovitch, Peter S; Szeto, Hazel H; Houmard, Joseph A; Cortright, Ronald N; Wasserman, David H; Neufer, P Darrell

    2009-03-01

    High dietary fat intake leads to insulin resistance in skeletal muscle, and this represents a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress have been implicated in the disease process, but the underlying mechanisms are still unknown. Here we show that in skeletal muscle of both rodents and humans, a diet high in fat increases the H(2)O(2)-emitting potential of mitochondria, shifts the cellular redox environment to a more oxidized state, and decreases the redox-buffering capacity in the absence of any change in mitochondrial respiratory function. Furthermore, we show that attenuating mitochondrial H(2)O(2) emission, either by treating rats with a mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant or by genetically engineering the overexpression of catalase in mitochondria of muscle in mice, completely preserves insulin sensitivity despite a high-fat diet. These findings place the etiology of insulin resistance in the context of mitochondrial bioenergetics by demonstrating that mitochondrial H(2)O(2) emission serves as both a gauge of energy balance and a regulator of cellular redox environment, linking intracellular metabolic balance to the control of insulin sensitivity.

  11. [Protective effect of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids on the development of cardiovascular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, C M; Ramírez-Tortosa, M C; Mesa, M D; Gil, A

    2001-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease has a multifactorial aetiology, as is illustrated by the existence of numerous risk indicators, many of which can be influenced by dietary means. In this article, the effects of unsaturated fatty acids on cardiovascular disease are reviewed, with special emphasis on the modifications of the lipoprotein profile and the mechanism by which fatty acids may affect the immune response on the development of the atherosclerotic lesion. Atherosclerosis occurs fundamentally in three stages: dysfunction of the vascular endothelium, fatty streak and fibrous cap formation. Each of the three stages is regulated by the action of vasoactive molecules, growth factors and cytokines, mediators of the immune response. Dietary lipid quality can affect the lipoprotein metabolism, altering their concentrations in the blood, permitting a greater or lesser recruitment of them in the artery wall. The replacement of dietary saturated fat by mono- or polyunsaturated fats significantly lowers the plasma-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels. Likewise, an enriched monounsaturated fatty acid diet prevents LDL oxidative modifications more than an enriched polyunsaturated diet, and the oxidation of LDL in patients with peripheral vascular disease mediated by n-3 fatty acids can be reduced by the simultaneous consumption of olive oil. However, strong controversy surrounds the effect of the different unsaturated fatty acids. The type of dietary fat can directly or indirectly influence some of the mediating factors of the immune response; n-3 fatty acids have powerful antiinflammatory properties. Dietary fatty acids strongly determine the susceptibility of lipoproteins to oxidation, which also has an impact on the activation of molecules of adhesion and other inflammatory factors. Moreover, several works have demonstrated a direct effect of fatty acids on the genetic expression of many of those factors. Finally, certain aspects of blood platelet function, blood coagulability

  12. Effects on nutrient intake of a family-based intervention to promote increased consumption of low-fat starchy foods through education, cooking skills and personalised goal setting: the Family Food and Health Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Peter J; Adamson, Ashley J; Mathers, John C

    2012-06-01

    Reducing the prevalence of fat-rich, energy-dense diets is a public health priority. The present parallel-designed randomised study compared three interventions aimed to increase intakes of low-fat starchy foods and to reduce fat intakes among 589 individuals from 169 families in the Family Food and Health Project (FFHP). Intervention A was education only, intervention B provided 'cook and eat' sessions only, whereas intervention C included personalised goal setting, 'cook and eat' and education. Diet was assessed at baseline (T0) and at 3 months (T1), 6 months (T2) and 18 months (T3) post-intervention. Retention rates were 75 % at T1, 63 % at T2 and 40 % at T3. ANCOVA (baseline intake as covariate) was assessed between intervention differences at T1, T2 and T3. At T1, individuals in intervention C consumed less fat (P = 0·02) and more total carbohydrate (P = 0·001), starch (P = 0·04) vitamin C (P = 0·002) and NSP (P = 0·01) than those in intervention A. Whereas similar dietary intakes were reported across interventions at T2, participants in intervention C had less energy-dense diets that contained more NSP and vitamin C at T3 than intervention A (P fat (P = 0·01) and more total carbohydrate (P = 0·02) at T2 than the least socially deprived (n 240). These data demonstrate the importance of personalised goal setting to translate knowledge and practical cooking skills into healthier food choices, suggesting that low-fat starchy food-focused interventions may be effective in reducing fat intake.

  13. Intake of specific fatty acids and fat alters growth, health, and titers following vaccination in dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esselburn, K M; O'Diam, K M; Hill, T M; Bateman, H G; Aldrich, J M; Schlotterbeck, R L; Daniels, K M

    2013-09-01

    Typical fatty acid profiles of milk and milk replacer (MR) differ. Calf MR in the United States are made from animal fat, which are low in short- and medium-chain fatty acids and linolenic acid. Two 56-d trials compared a control MR containing 27% crude protein and formulated with 3 fat and fatty acid compositions. The 3 MR treatments were (1) only animal fat totaling 17% fat (CON), (2) animal fat supplemented with butyrate, medium-chain fatty acids, and linolenic acid using a commercial product (1.25% NeoTec4 MR; Provimi North America, Brookville, OH) totaling 17% fat (fatty acid-supplemented; FA-S), and (3) milk fat totaling 33% fat (MF). The MR were fed at 660 g of dry matter from d 0 to 42 and weaned. Starter (20% crude protein) and water were fed ad libitum for 56 d. Trial 1 utilized Holstein calves (24 female, 24 male) during summer months and trial 2 utilized Holstein calves (48 male) during fall months. Calves (41±1 kg of initial body weight; 2 to 3d of age) were sourced from a single farm and housed in a naturally ventilated nursery without added heat. Calves were in individual pens with straw bedding. Calf was the experimental unit. Data for each trial were analyzed as a completely randomized design with a 3 (MR treatment) × 2 (sex) factorial arrangement of treatments in trial 1 with repeated measures and as a completely randomized design with 3 MR treatments in trial 2 with repeated measures. Preplanned contrast statements of treatments CON versus FA-S and CON versus MF were used to separate means. We found no interactions of MR treatment by sex. Calf average daily gain, hip width change, and feed efficiency differed (CONFA-S). Titers to bovine respiratory parainfluenza-3 and bovine virus diarrhea type 1 (vaccinations to these pathogens were on d 7 and 28) in serum samples taken on d 49 and 56 differed (CONFA-S; CONFA-S; CON>MF). Calves fed FA-S and MF had improved growth and feed efficiency compared with calves fed CON, whereas calves fed FA-S also

  14. Excessive Vitamin E Intake Does Not Cause Bone Loss in Male or Ovariectomized Female Mice Fed Normal or High-Fat Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, Hiroko; Kawawa, Rie; Ichi, Ikuyo; Ishikawa, Tomoko; Koike, Taisuke; Aoki, Yoshinori; Fujiwara, Yoko

    2017-10-01

    Background: Animal studies on the effects of vitamin E on bone health have yielded conflicting and inconclusive results, and to our knowledge, no studies have addressed the effect of vitamin E on bone in animals consuming a high-fat diet (HFD).Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of excessive vitamin E on bone metabolism in normal male mice and ovariectomized female mice fed a normal diet (ND) or HFD.Methods: In the first 2 experiments, 7-wk-old male mice were fed an ND (16% energy from fat) containing 75 (control), 0 (vitamin E-free), or 1000 (high vitamin E) mg vitamin E/kg (experiment 1) or an HFD (46% energy from fat) containing 0, 200, 500, or 1000 mg vitamin E/kg (experiment 2) for 18 wk. In the third experiment, 7-wk-old sham-operated or ovariectomized female mice were fed the ND (75 mg vitamin E/kg) or HFD containing 0 or 1000 mg vitamin E/kg for 8 wk. At the end of the feeding period, blood and femurs were collected to measure bone turnover markers and analyze histology and microcomputed tomography.Results: In experiments 1 and 2, vitamin E intake had no effect on plasma alkaline phosphatase (ALP), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity, or bone formation, resorption, or volume in femurs in mice fed the ND or HFDs. In experiment 3, bone volume was significantly reduced (85%) in ovariectomized mice compared with that in sham-operated mice (P loss in normal male mice or in ovariectomized or sham-operated female mice, regardless of dietary fat content. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Dietary intakes and food sources of fatty acids in Guatemalan schoolchildren: A cross-sectional study

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bermudez, Odilia I.

    2010-04-23

    Abstract Background Consumption of healthy diets that contribute with adequate amounts of fat and fatty acids is needed for children. Among Guatemalan children, there is little information about fat intakes. Therefore, the present study sought to assess intakes of dietary fats and examine food sources of those fats in Guatemalan children. Methods The study subjects consisted of a convenience sample of 449 third- and fourth-grade schoolchildren (8-10 y), attending public or private schools in Quetzaltenango City, Guatemala. Dietary data was obtained by means of a single pictorial 24-h record. Results The percentages of total energy (%E) from total fat, saturated fat (SFA) and monounsaturated fat (MUFA) reached 29%E for total fat and 10%E for each SFA and MUFA, without gender differences. %E from fats in high vs. low-socio economic status (SES) children were significantly higher for boys, but not for girls, for total fat (p = 0.002) and SFA (p < 0.001). Large proportions of the children had low levels of intakes of some fatty acids (FA), particularly for n-3 FA, with >97% of all groups consuming less than 1%E from this fats. Fried eggs, sweet rolls, whole milk and cheese were main sources of total fat and, SFA. Whole milk and sweet bread were important sources of n-3 FA for high- and low-SES boys and girls, respectively. Fried plantain was the main source of n-3 FA for girls in the high-SES group. Fried fish, seafood soup, and shrimp, consumed only by boys in low amounts, were sources of eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids, which may explain the low intakes of these nutrients. Conclusions α-linolenic acid, EPA and DHA were the most limiting fatty acids in diets of Guatemalan schoolchildren, which could be partially explained by the low consumption of sources of these nutrients, particularly fish and seafood (for EPA and DHA). This population will benefit from a higher consumption of culturally acceptable foods that are rich in these limiting

  16. MILK FAT FATTY ACIDS IN RELATION TO MILK PRODUCTION AND QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Foltys

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Milk fat is from a nutritional point of view of the negative evaluation because of the dominant content of saturated fatty acid with high atherogenic index. Intake of milk fat in the diet is important because of the content of monounsaturated fatty acids, acting favorably against cardiovascular diseases and especially of essential fatty acids, linoleic, alpha linolenic and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, which is found only in meat and milk of ruminants. These are precursors of biologically active substances - hormones and enzymes. The analysis of relations of fatty acids in milk fat to qualitative-production parameters of milk shows that the correlations of fatty acids with lactation stage and qualitative-production parameters of milk are quite weak in dairy cows with stable type of nutrition in form of whole-the-year feeding mixed feed ration in lowland agricultural area. Changes in milk fat composition are caused by the change in the ratio of de novo and depot fatty acids. Relation of fatty acids to the evaluated parameters lies with their metabolic origin and neither acid nor group underlies the specific influence of the studied parameters, by the means of which it would be possible to influence its proportion in milk fat. And so it is not possible to influence some group or a desirable fatty acid, e.g. CLA, without the influence on total milk fat.

  17. Dietary fiber and saturated fat intake associations with cardiovascular disease differ by sex in the Malmö Diet and Cancer Cohort: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallström, Peter; Sonestedt, Emily; Hlebowicz, Joanna; Ericson, Ulrika; Drake, Isabel; Persson, Margaretha; Gullberg, Bo; Hedblad, Bo; Wirfält, Elisabet

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine associations between intake of macronutrients and dietary fiber and incident ischemic cardiovascular disease (iCVD) in men and women. We used data from 8,139 male and 12,535 female participants (aged 44-73 y) of the Swedish population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort. The participants were without history of CVD and diabetes mellitus, and had reported stable dietary habits in the study questionnaire. Diet was assessed by a validated modified diet history method, combining a 7-d registration of cooked meals and cold beverages, a 168-item food questionnaire (covering other foods and meal patterns), and a 1-hour diet interview. Sociodemographic and lifestyle data were collected by questionnaire. iCVD cases, which included coronary events (myocardial infarctions or deaths from chronic ischemic heart disease) and ischemic strokes, were ascertained via national and local registries. Nutrient-disease associations were examined by multivariate Cox regressions. During a mean follow-up of 13.5 years, we identified 1,089 male and 687 female iCVD cases. High fiber intakes were associated with lower incidence rates of iCVD in women and of ischemic stroke in men. In post-hoc analysis, we discovered statistically significant interactions between intake of fiber and saturated fat; these interactions also differed between men and women (p<0.001). In this well-defined population, a high fiber intake was associated with lower risk of iCVD, but there were no robust associations between other macronutrients and iCVD risk. Judging from this study, gender-specific nutrient analysis may be preferable in epidemiology.

  18. Loss of circadian rhythm of circulating insulin concentration induced by high-fat diet intake is associated with disrupted rhythmic expression of circadian clock genes in the liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honma, Kazue; Hikosaka, Maki; Mochizuki, Kazuki; Goda, Toshinao

    2016-04-01

    Peripheral clock genes show a circadian rhythm is correlated with the timing of feeding in peripheral tissues. It was reported that these clock genes are strongly regulated by insulin action and that a high-fat diet (HFD) intake in C57BL/6J mice for 21days induced insulin secretion during the dark phase and reduced the circadian rhythm of clock genes. In this study, we examined the circadian expression patterns of these clock genes in insulin-resistant animal models with excess secretion of insulin during the day. We examined whether insulin resistance induced by a HFD intake for 80days altered blood parameters (glucose and insulin concentrations) and expression of mRNA and proteins encoded by clock and functional genes in the liver using male ICR mice. Serum insulin concentrations were continuously higher during the day in mice fed a HFD than control mice. Expression of lipogenesis-related genes (Fas and Accβ) and the transcription factor Chrebp peaked at zeitgeber time (ZT)24 in the liver of control mice. A HFD intake reduced the expression of these genes at ZT24 and disrupted the circadian rhythm. Expression of Bmal1 and Clock, transcription factors that compose the core feedback loop, showed circadian variation and were synchronously associated with Fas gene expression in control mice, but not in those fed a HFD. These results indicate that the disruption of the circadian rhythm of insulin secretion by HFD intake is closely associated with the disappearance of circadian expression of lipogenic and clock genes in the liver of mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Serum hs-CRP varies with dietary cholesterol, but not dietary fatty acid intake in individuals free of any history of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazidi, M; Heidari-Bakavoli, A; Khayyatzadeh, S S; Azarpazhooh, M R; Nematy, M; Safarian, M; Esmaeili, H; Parizadeh, S M R; Ghayour-Mobarhan, M; Kengne, A P; Ferns, G A

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) concentration varies with dietary fatty acid intake in Iranian adults free of any history of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This cross-sectional study involved 8105 adults (3142 men) aged 35-65 years. Dietary intake was assessed using 24-h dietary recalls. The relationship between anthropometric, cardiometabolic risk factors and dietary data and serum hs-CRP was assessed using SPSS software. Median crude dietary saturated fat decreased across hs-CRP quarters (P =0.009 for linear trend), whereas energy-adjusted total fat (P =0.017), trans-fat (P =0.016), monounsaturated fatty acids (P =0.030) and cholesterol (P =0.005) monotonically increased, with some evidence of statistical interactions by gender. In conclusion, serum hs-CRP concentrations were associated with some components of dietary fatty acid intake in our population of individuals without CVD, suggesting that dietary fat intake could be associated with subclinical inflammation.

  20. Timing of fat and liquid sugar intake alters substrate oxidation and food efficiency in male Wistar rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterman, Johanneke E; Foppen, Ewout; van der Spek, Rianne; Fliers, Eric; Kalsbeek, A.; la Fleur, Susanne E

    2015-01-01

    In addition to the amount of ingested calories, both timing of food intake and meal composition are determinants of body weight gain. However, at present, it is unknown if the inappropriate timing of diet components is responsible for body weight gain. In the present study, we therefore studied a ti

  1. Timing of fat and liquid sugar intake alters substrate oxidation and food efficiency in male Wistar rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterman, Johanneke E; Foppen, Ewout; van der Spek, Rianne; Fliers, Eric; Kalsbeek, A.; la Fleur, Susanne E

    2015-01-01

    In addition to the amount of ingested calories, both timing of food intake and meal composition are determinants of body weight gain. However, at present, it is unknown if the inappropriate timing of diet components is responsible for body weight gain. In the present study, we therefore studied a

  2. Frying process in the relation fat/degenerative diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varela, G.

    1998-08-01

    between frying oil and food. In deep-frying the cooking fat is usually used more than once, and there comes a moment when one considers subjectively that the oil is not longer suitable for frying and is discarded. This can be of practical significance for the total lipid intake, since a not determined quantity of oil is discarded and is not ingested. Consecuently the theoretical lipid intake has been decreased and, at the same time, some compounds, included saturated fats, are eliminated from diet whit the discarded oil. For example, the lipid composition of meats is substantially improved because of the highly favorable monounsaturated fatty acids penetration into them from the frying olive oil. In of the most important features is the possibility of manipulating fat intake by reducing it and improving the quality of the fat really consumed, this is of special interest in the possible relation to degenerative diseases. These changes in the fatty acids composition of oils and foods are repeatedly seen in laboratory experiments. However, their interpretation is not easy, in part because of the complexity of the deep-frying process used in the test. On the other hand, you would have to see the results obtained in the laboratory coincide with the results at practical level as well in the households as in catering, and, in this sense, some of the first results which we are obtaining in the population of Madrid are presented in the second part of this report.

  3. Central Administration of 1-Deoxynojirimycin Attenuates Hypothalamic Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Regulates Food Intake and Body Weight in Mice with High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongwan; Yun, Eun-Young; Quan, Fu-Shi; Park, Seung-Won; Goo, Tae-Won

    2017-01-01

    The α-glucosidase inhibitor, 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), is widely used for its antiobesity and antidiabetic effects. Researchers have demonstrated that DNJ regulates body weight by increasing adiponectin levels, which affects energy intake and prevents diet-induced obesity. However, the mechanism by which centrally administered DNJ exerts anorexigenic effects has not been studied until now. We investigated the effect of DNJ in the hypothalamus of mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity. Results showed that intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of DNJ reduced hypothalamic ER stress, which activated the leptin-induced Janus-activated kinase 2 (JAK2)/signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway to cause appetite suppression. We conclude that DNJ may reduce obesity by moderating feeding behavior and ER stress in the hypothalamic portion of the central nervous system (CNS).

  4. Central Administration of 1-Deoxynojirimycin Attenuates Hypothalamic Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Regulates Food Intake and Body Weight in Mice with High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongwan Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The α-glucosidase inhibitor, 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ, is widely used for its antiobesity and antidiabetic effects. Researchers have demonstrated that DNJ regulates body weight by increasing adiponectin levels, which affects energy intake and prevents diet-induced obesity. However, the mechanism by which centrally administered DNJ exerts anorexigenic effects has not been studied until now. We investigated the effect of DNJ in the hypothalamus of mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity. Results showed that intracerebroventricular (ICV administration of DNJ reduced hypothalamic ER stress, which activated the leptin-induced Janus-activated kinase 2 (JAK2/signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3 signaling pathway to cause appetite suppression. We conclude that DNJ may reduce obesity by moderating feeding behavior and ER stress in the hypothalamic portion of the central nervous system (CNS.

  5. Effects of PYY1-36 and PYY3-36 on appetite, energy intake, energy expenditure, glucose and fat metabolism in obese and lean subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Birgitte; Holst, Jens Juul; Flint, Anne

    2006-01-01

    and eight obese participants completed 0.2 pmol x kg(-1) x min(-1) PYY(3-36) and 1.6 pmol x kg(-1) x min(-1) PYY(1-36) infusions. PYY(3-36) [corrected] produced [corrected] lower ratings of well-being and [corrected] increases in heart rate, [corrected] FFA, and [corrected] postprandial [corrected] insulin......Peptide YY (PYY)(3-36) has been shown to produce dramatic reductions in energy intake (EI), but no human data exist regarding energy expenditure (EE), glucose and fat metabolism. Nothing is known regarding PYY1-36. To compare effects of PYY(1-36) and PYY(3-36) on appetite, EI, EE, insulin, glucose...

  6. Interaction between GPR120 p.R270H loss-of-function variant and dietary fat intake on incident type 2 diabetes risk in the D.E.S.I.R. study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamri, A; Bonnefond, A; Meyre, D; Balkau, B; Roussel, R; Marre, M; Froguel, P; Fumeron, F

    2016-10-01

    GPR120 (encoded by FFAR4) is a lipid sensor that plays an important role in the control of energy balance. GPR120 is activated by long chain fatty acids (FAs) including omega-3 FAs. In humans, the loss of function p.R270H variant of the gene FFAR4 has been associated with a lower protein activity, an increased risk of obesity and higher fasting plasma glucose levels. The aim of this study was to investigate whether p.R270H interacts with dietary fat intake to modulate the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D, 198 incident; 368 prevalent cases) and overweight (787 incident and 2891 prevalent cases) in the prospective D.E.S.I.R. study (n = 5,212, 9 years follow-up). The association of p.R270H with dietary fat and total calories was assessed by linear mixed models. The interaction between p.R270H and dietary fat on T2D and overweight was assessed by logistic regression analysis. The p.R270H variant had a minor allele frequency of 1.45% and was not significantly associated with total calories intake, fat intake or the total calories derived from fat (%). However, there was a significant interaction between p.R270H and dietary fat modulating the incidence of T2D (Pinteraction = 0.02) where the H-carriers had a higher risk of T2D than RR homozygotes in the low fat intake category only. The interaction between p.R270H and fat intake modulating the incidence and prevalence of overweight was not significant. The p.R270H variant of GPR120 modulates the risk of T2D in interaction with dietary fat intake in the D.E.S.I.R. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. High-fat diets containing soybean or canola oil affect differently pancreas function of young male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, C A S; Carlos, A S; de Sousa Dos Santos, A; de Moura, E G; Nascimento-Saba, C C A

    2013-09-01

    The excessive fat intake generally might induce obesity and metabolic disturbances. Thus, the goal of the study was to assess the role of high-fat diets containing soybean or canola oil on intra-abdominal adiposity and pancreatic morphology and function of young rats. After weaning, rats were fed with a control diet (7S) or a high-fat diet containing soybean oil (19S) or canola oil (19C) until they were 60 days old, when they were sacrificed. Food intake (g/day), body mass and length, retroperitoneal and epididymal fat mass, HOMA-IR, HOMA-β and area of pancreatic islets were assessed. The results were considered different with a significant level of pfat mass. The 19C group showed higher HOMA-IR (+43% and +78%) and HOMA-β (+40% and +59%) than 19S and 7S groups, respectively. Both 19S and 19C groups showed lower pancreatic islets area in relation to 7S group. Meantime, 19C presented lower percentage of pancreatic islets area in comparison to 19S (-41%) and 7S group (-70%, poil, the high fat diet promoted development of the obesity. Comparing 19C and 19S groups, the higher concentrations of monounsaturated fatty acids, present in the canola oil were worse than higher concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids, present in the soybean oil.

  8. Translational research to reduce trans-fat intakes in Northern Québec (Nunavik Inuit communities: a success story?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Émilie Counil

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Following our results, based on population studies conducted in Greenland and Northern Canada, that Nunavik Inuit were thrice as highly exposed to dietary trans-fat as were Greenlandic Inuit, and that the biological levels found in Nunavik were already associated with deleterious blood lipid profiles, we decided to engage in translational activities. Our goal was to support Inuit communities in the practical implementation of a reduction of the trans-fat content of food sold in Nunavik. We carried out a preliminary feasibility study in Kuujjuaq and participated in several meetings. This translational phase involved an Inuk leader, an Inuk student, a southern student, a southern nutritionist and a southern researcher in the framework of a public health project. In the present article, we recount the different phases of the process, from research implementation to results dissemination and institutional commitment to implement a primary prevention program of reduction in trans-fat exposure in Nunavik. This is the occasion to draw broader conclusions on the factors that could either act in favour of or, on the contrary, would likely compromise the implementation of primary prevention interventions dealing with food and nutrition in the Arctic. Finally, we share some reflections on future translational activities dealing with trans-fat as well as other junk food issues. The analytical framework we propose integrates a range of factors, from geo-climatic to socio-economic, ethno-cultural, and even political, that we think should be examined while identifying and building preventive recommendations and strategies related to the Northern diet.

  9. Short communication: Forage particle size and fat intake affect rumen passage, the fatty acid profile of milk, and milk fat production in dairy cows consuming dried distillers grains with solubles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez Ramirez, H A; Harvatine, K J; Kononoff, P J

    2016-01-01

    Four ruminally cannulated Holstein cows averaging (± SD) 116 ± 18 d in milk and 686 ± 52 kg of body weight were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to test the effects of forage particle size and concentration of corn oil on milk fat depression. Cows were housed in individual stalls, milked daily at 0700 and 1800 h, and individually fed daily at 0900 h for ad libitum consumption allowing approximately 10% orts. Four 28-d periods, in which each cow was offered 1 of 4 total mixed rations, included reduced-fat dried distillers grains with solubles at 30% of dietary dry matter and differed in forage particle size by inclusion of chopped grass hay (LONGP) or grass hay pellets (SHORTP) and 0 or 2% corn oil (CO). Dietary treatments were 0% corn oil + short particle size (CO0+SHORTP), 0% corn oil + long particle size (CO0+LONGP), 2% corn oil + short particle size (CO2 + SHORTP), and 2% corn oil + long particle size (CO2 + LONGP). Dry matter intake and milk yield were not affected by treatment averaging 26.5 ± 1.19 kg/d and 32.8 ± 3.34 kg/d, respectively. A decrease was found in 3.5% fat-corrected milk with the inclusion of oil resulting in 34.6 and 26.6 ± 2.6 kg/d for 0 and 2% oil diets, respectively. An oil × size interaction was found for milk fat concentration resulting in 2.27, 3.02, 3.62, and 3.62 ± 0.23% for CO2+SHORTP, CO2 + LONGP, CO0 + SHORTP, and CO0 + LONGP, respectively. Fat yield was reduced from 1.22 to 0.81 ± 0.09 kg/d with 2% oil diets. Cows consuming diets with long particle size spent 29 more minutes eating compared with the cows consuming short particle size (198 and 169 ± 15 min/d). Rumination time decreased from 504 to 400 ± 35 min/d for cows consuming short particle size compared with long particle size. Total chewing was reduced from 702 to 570 ± 4 min/d when cows consumed short particle size. Feeding long particle size decreased rate of passage of dry matter from 3.38 to 2.89 ± 0.42%/h

  10. Egg Intake and Dietary Quality among Overweight and Obese Mexican-American Postpartum Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Vega-López

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite their low cost and high nutrient density, the contribution of eggs to nutrient intake and dietary quality among Mexican-American postpartum women has not been evaluated. Nutrient intake and dietary quality, as assessed by the Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010, were measured in habitually sedentary overweight/obese (body mass index (BMI = 29.7 ± 3.5 kg/m2 Mexican-American postpartum women (28 ± 6 years and compared between egg consumers (n = 82; any egg intake reported in at least one of three 24-h dietary recalls and non-consumers (n = 57. Egg consumers had greater intake of energy (+808 kJ (193 kcal or 14%; p = 0.033, protein (+9 g or 17%; p = 0.031, total fat (+9 g or 19%; p = 0.039, monounsaturated fat (+4 g or 24%; p = 0.020, and several micronutrients than non-consumers. Regarding HEI-2010 scores, egg consumers had a greater total protein foods score than non-consumers (4.7 ± 0.7 vs. 4.3 ± 1.0; p = 0.004, and trends for greater total fruit (2.4 ± 1.8 vs. 1.9 ± 1.7; p = 0.070 and the total composite HEI-2010 score (56.4 ± 12.6 vs. 52.3 ± 14.4; p = 0.082. Findings suggest that egg intake could contribute to greater nutrient intake and improved dietary quality among postpartum Mexican-American women. Because of greater energy intake among egg consumers, recommendations for overweight/obese individuals should include avoiding excessive energy intake and incorporating eggs to a nutrient-dense, fiber-rich dietary pattern.

  11. Negative, Null and Beneficial Effects of Drinking Water on Energy Intake, Energy Expenditure, Fat Oxidation and Weight Change in Randomized Trials: A Qualitative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stookey, Jodi J D

    2016-01-02

    Drinking water has heterogeneous effects on energy intake (EI), energy expenditure (EE), fat oxidation (FO) and weight change in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving adults and/or children. The aim of this qualitative review of RCTs was to identify conditions associated with negative, null and beneficial effects of drinking water on EI, EE, FO and weight, to generate hypotheses about ways to optimize drinking water interventions for weight management. RCT conditions that are associated with negative or null effects of drinking water on EI, EE and/or FO in the short term are associated with negative or null effects on weight over the longer term. RCT conditions that are associated with lower EI, increased EE and/or increased FO in the short term are associated with less weight gain or greater weight loss over time. Drinking water instead of caloric beverages decreases EI when food intake is ad libitum. Drinking water increases EE in metabolically-inflexible, obese individuals. Drinking water increases FO when blood carbohydrate and/or insulin concentrations are not elevated and when it is consumed instead of caloric beverages or in volumes that alter hydration status. Further research is needed to confirm the observed associations and to determine if/what specific conditions optimize drinking water interventions for weight management.

  12. Negative, Null and Beneficial Effects of Drinking Water on Energy Intake, Energy Expenditure, Fat Oxidation and Weight Change in Randomized Trials: A Qualitative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stookey, Jodi J. D.

    2016-01-01

    Drinking water has heterogeneous effects on energy intake (EI), energy expenditure (EE), fat oxidation (FO) and weight change in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving adults and/or children. The aim of this qualitative review of RCTs was to identify conditions associated with negative, null and beneficial effects of drinking water on EI, EE, FO and weight, to generate hypotheses about ways to optimize drinking water interventions for weight management. RCT conditions that are associated with negative or null effects of drinking water on EI, EE and/or FO in the short term are associated with negative or null effects on weight over the longer term. RCT conditions that are associated with lower EI, increased EE and/or increased FO in the short term are associated with less weight gain or greater weight loss over time. Drinking water instead of caloric beverages decreases EI when food intake is ad libitum. Drinking water increases EE in metabolically-inflexible, obese individuals. Drinking water increases FO when blood carbohydrate and/or insulin concentrations are not elevated and when it is consumed instead of caloric beverages or in volumes that alter hydration status. Further research is needed to confirm the observed associations and to determine if/what specific conditions optimize drinking water interventions for weight management. PMID:26729162

  13. Negative, Null and Beneficial Effects of Drinking Water on Energy Intake, Energy Expenditure, Fat Oxidation and Weight Change in Randomized Trials: A Qualitative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi J. D. Stookey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Drinking water has heterogeneous effects on energy intake (EI, energy expenditure (EE, fat oxidation (FO and weight change in randomized controlled trials (RCTs involving adults and/or children. The aim of this qualitative review of RCTs was to identify conditions associated with negative, null and beneficial effects of drinking water on EI, EE, FO and weight, to generate hypotheses about ways to optimize drinking water interventions for weight management. RCT conditions that are associated with negative or null effects of drinking water on EI, EE and/or FO in the short term are associated with negative or null effects on weight over the longer term. RCT conditions that are associated with lower EI, increased EE and/or increased FO in the short term are associated with less weight gain or greater weight loss over time. Drinking water instead of caloric beverages decreases EI when food intake is ad libitum. Drinking water increases EE in metabolically-inflexible, obese individuals. Drinking water increases FO when blood carbohydrate and/or insulin concentrations are not elevated and when it is consumed instead of caloric beverages or in volumes that alter hydration status. Further research is needed to confirm the observed associations and to determine if/what specific conditions optimize drinking water interventions for weight management.

  14. Food intake and energy expenditure are increased in high-fat-sensitive but not in high-carbohydrate-sensitive obesity-prone rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzout-Marniche, Dalila; Chaumontet, Catherine; Nadkarni, Nachiket A; Piedcoq, Julien; Fromentin, Gilles; Tomé, Daniel; Even, Patrick C

    2014-08-01

    Obesity-prone (OP) rodents are used as models of human obesity predisposition. The goal of the present study was to identify preexisting defects in energy expenditure components in OP rats. Two studies were performed. In the first one, male Wistar rats (n = 48) were fed a high-carbohydrate diet (HCD) for 3 wk and then a high-fat diet (HFD) for the next 3 wk. This study showed that adiposity gain under HCD was 2.9-fold larger in carbohydrate-sensitive (CS) than in carbohydrate-resistant (CR) rats, confirming the concept of "carbohydrate-sensitive" rats. Energy expenditure (EE), respiratory quotient (RQ), caloric intake (CI), and locomotor activity measured during HFD identified no differences in EE and RQ between fat-resistant (FR) and fat-sensitive (FS) rats, and indicated that obesity developed in FS rats only as the result of a larger CI not fully compensated by a parallel increase in EE. A specific pattern of spontaneous activity, characterized by reduced activity burst intensity, was identified in FS rats but not in CS ones. This mirrors a previous observation that under HCD, CS but not FS rats, exhibited bursts of activity of reduced intensity. In a second study, rats were fed a HFD for 3 wk, and the components of energy expenditure were examined by indirect calorimetry in 10 FR and 10 FS rats. This study confirmed that a low basal EE, reduced thermic effect of feeding, defective postprandial energy partitioning, or a defective substrate utilization by the working muscle are not involved in the FS phenotype. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  15. High Dietary Fat Intake during Lactation Promotes the Development of Social Stress-Induced Obesity in the Offspring of Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Tsuduki

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined how a maternal high-fat diet (HD during lactation and exposure of offspring to isolation stress influence the susceptibility of offspring to the development of obesity. C57BL/6J mice were fed a commercial diet (CD during pregnancy and a CD or HD during lactation. Male offspring were weaned at three weeks of age, fed a CD until seven weeks of age, and fed a CD or HD until 11 weeks of age. Offspring were housed alone (isolation stress or at six per cage (ordinary circumstances. Thus, offspring were assigned to one of eight groups: dams fed a CD or HD during lactation and offspring fed a CD or HD and housed under ordinary circumstances or isolation stress. Serum corticosterone level was significantly elevated by isolation stress. High-fat feeding of offspring reduced their serum corticosterone level, which was significantly elevated by a maternal HD. A maternal HD and isolation stress had combined effects in elevating the serum corticosterone level. These findings suggest that a maternal HD during lactation enhances the stress sensitivity of offspring. White adipose tissue weights were significantly increased by a maternal HD and isolation stress and by their combination. In addition, significant adipocyte hypertrophy was induced by a maternal HD and isolation stress and exacerbated by their combination. Thus, a maternal HD and isolation stress promote visceral fat accumulation and adipocyte hypertrophy, accelerating the progression of obesity through their combined effects. The mechanism may involve enhanced fatty acid synthesis and lipid influx from blood into adipose tissue. These findings demonstrate that a maternal HD during lactation may increase the susceptibility of offspring to the development of stress-induced obesity.

  16. Energy Sufficiency of Feed Containing Fermented Mulberry Leaves (Morus alba) Determined by measurement of Glucose, Abdominal Fat and Feed Intake

    OpenAIRE

    Has, Hamdan; V. D.Yunianto; Sukamto, B.

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of using rumen liquid fermented mulberry leaves in boiler???s diet on feed consumption, blood glucose, and abdominal fat. This research used 100 of day old CP 707 broiler chicks, as well as concentrate, fermented mulberry leaves and other feed stuffs. The experiment was carried out according to completely randomized design consisted of five treatments, i.e. T0 (control), T1 (10% mulberry leaf), T2 (10% fermented mulberry leaf), T3 (20% mulberry...

  17. Cross-generational trans fat intake facilitates mania-like behavior: oxidative and molecular markers in brain cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevizol, F; Roversi, Kr; Dias, V T; Roversi, K; Barcelos, R C S; Kuhn, F T; Pase, C S; Golombieski, R; Veit, J C; Piccolo, J; Pochmann, D; Porciúncula, L O; Emanuelli, T; Rocha, J B T; Bürger, M E

    2015-02-12

    Since that fast food consumption have raised concerns about people's health, we evaluated the influence of trans fat consumption on behavioral, biochemical and molecular changes in the brain-cortex of second generation rats exposed to a model of mania. Two successive generations of female rats were supplemented with soybean oil (SO, rich in n-6 FA, control group), fish oil (FO, rich in n-3 FA) and hydrogenated vegetable fat (HVF, rich in trans FA) from pregnancy, lactation to adulthood, when male rats from 2nd generation received amphetamine (AMPH-4 mg/kg-i.p., once a day, for 14 days) treatment. AMPH increased locomotor index in all animals, which was higher in the HVF group. While the FO group showed increased n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) incorporation and reduced n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio, HVF allowed trans fatty acid (TFA) incorporation and increased n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio in the brain-cortex. In fact, the FO group showed minor AMPH-induced hyperactivity, decreased reactive species (RS) generation per se, causing no changes in protein carbonyl (PC) levels and dopamine transporter (DAT). FO supplementation showed molecular changes, since proBDNF was increased per se and reduced by AMPH, decreasing the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) level following drug treatment. Conversely, HVF was related to increased hyperactivity, higher PC level per se and higher AMPH-induced PC level, reflecting on DAT, whose levels were decreased per se as well as in AMPH-treated groups. In addition, while HVF increased BDNF-mRNA per se, AMPH reduced this value, acting on BDNF, whose level was lower in the same AMPH-treated experimental group. ProBDNF level was influenced by HVF supplementation, but it was not sufficient to modify BDNF level. These findings reinforce that prolonged consumption of trans fat allows TFA incorporation in the cortex, facilitating hyperactive behavior, oxidative damages and molecular changes. Our study is a warning about cross-generational consumption

  18. Public health economic evaluation of different European Union-level policy options aimed at reducing population dietary trans fat intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Saborido, Carlos; Mouratidou, Theodora; Livaniou, Anastasia; Caldeira, Sandra; Wollgast, Jan

    2016-11-01

    The adverse relation between dietary trans fatty acid (TFA) intake and coronary artery disease risk is well established. Many countries in the European Union (EU) and worldwide have implemented different policies to reduce the TFA intake of their populations. The aim of this study was to assess the added value of EU-level action by estimating the cost-effectiveness of 3 possible EU-level policy measures to reduce population dietary TFA intake. This was calculated against a reference situation of not implementing any EU-level policy (i.e., by assuming only national or self-regulatory measures). We developed a mathematical model to compare different policy options at the EU level: 1) to do nothing beyond the current state (reference situation), 2) to impose mandatory TFA labeling of prepackaged foods, 3) to seek voluntary agreements toward further reducing industrially produced TFA (iTFA) content in foods, and 4) to impose a legislative limit for iTFA content in foods. The model indicated that to impose an EU-level legal limit or to make voluntary agreements may, over the course of a lifetime (85 y), avoid the loss of 3.73 and 2.19 million disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), respectively, and save >51 and 23 billion euros when compared with the reference situation. Implementing mandatory TFA labeling can also avoid the loss of 0.98 million DALYs, but this option incurs more costs than it saves compared with the reference option. The model indicates that there is added value of an EU-level action, either via a legal limit or through voluntary agreements, with the legal limit option producing the highest additional health benefits. Introducing mandatory TFA labeling for the EU common market may provide some additional health benefits; however, this would likely not be a cost-effective strategy.

  19. Effects of cafeteria diet and high fat diet intake on anxiety, learning and memory in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pini, Renata Tavares Beschizza; Ferreira do Vales, Lucas Duarte Manhas; Braga Costa, Telma Maria; Almeida, Sebastião Sousa

    2017-09-01

    The effects of cafeteria and high fat diets were investigated on animal models of behavior. Male Wistar rats were treated with Control (C), Cafeteria (CD) and High Fat (FD) diets and tested in the Elevated Plus-Maze (EPM) and Morris Water Maze (MWM) procedures. Body weight, length, abdominal circumference, retroperitoneal and epididymal adipose tissues were recorded. Physical parameters, weight of tissues, EPM, and MWM data were subjected to ANOVA followed by Newman-Keuls test (P < 0.05). There were no differences on weight and length parameters between CD and C rats up to 98 days of age. However, abdominal circumferences were higher in CD as compared to C at 35 and 70 days of age, respectively, the 5th and the 7th weeks. FD presented lower measures of weight and abdominal circumference; nevertheless there was an increase on those parameters at the end of the nutritional treatment. Even without an apparent weight gain of CD and FD these animals presented a greater accumulation of retroperitoneal and epididymal adipose tissues. In addition, CD and FD demonstrated behaviors that can suggest lower anxiety. CD showed a better learning performance and FD showed better recall of previous learned information in the memory retention test. According to those data it was concluded that hypercaloric diet ingestion was capable of triggering metabolic alterations and possibly lowering anxiety associated to learning or memory improvement on a spatial task.

  20. Jersey calf performance in response to high-protein, high-fat liquid feeds with varied fatty acid profiles: intake and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen Yoho, W S; Swank, V A; Eastridge, M L; O'Diam, K M; Daniels, K M

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether altering the fatty acid (FA) profile of milk replacer (MR) with coconut oil, which contains a high concentration of medium-chain FA, to more closely match the FA profile typically found in whole milk from Jersey cows, would improve Jersey calf performance. Male (n=18) and female (n=32) Jersey calves were assigned at birth to 1 of 4 liquid diets: (1) pasteurized Jersey saleable whole milk [pSWM; 27.9% crude protein (CP) and 33.5% fat]; (2) 29.3% CP and 29.1% fat MR, containing 100% of fat as edible lard (100:00); (3) 28.2% CP and 28.0% fat MR, containing 80% of fat as lard and 20% as coconut oil (80:20); and (4) 28.2% CP and 28.3% fat MR, containing 60% of the fat as lard and 40% as coconut oil (60:40). Calves were fed their respective liquid diet twice daily during wk 1 through 7 and once daily until weaning (approximately wk 8). Calves had ad libitum access to grain and water, and calves were monitored 1 wk postweaning. Average daily gain and body weight did not differ by treatment. Calves fed pSWM tended to have greater hip height (HH) than calves fed 80:20 (80.5 vs. 79.7 cm). Coconut oil tended to have a quadratic effect on HH, with calves fed 100:00, 80:20, and 60:40 at 79.2, 79.7, and 78.5 cm, respectively. No difference was observed in withers height between pSWM and 80:20. Coconut oil had a quadratic effect on withers height, with calves fed 100:00, 80:20, and 60:40 at 76.6, 77.5, and 76.5 cm, respectively. Change in HH from birth to 9 wk tended to be greater for calves fed pSWM than calves fed 80:20 (0.218 vs. 0.194 cm/d). Calves fed pSWM had higher milk dry matter intake (DMI) than calves fed 80:20 (0.580 vs. 0.518 kg/d). No effect of coconut oil was observed on milk DMI. Grain DMI and total DMI did not differ among treatments. Calves fed pSWM had an increase in days with a fecal score >2 compared with calves fed 80:20 (4.24 vs. 2.00 d). Coconut oil had a quadratic effect on fecal score, with calves fed

  1. The effects of leptin in combination with a cannabinoid receptor 1 antagonist, AM 251, or cannabidiol on food intake and body weight in rats fed a high-fat or a free-choice high sugar diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierucka-Rybak, M; Wolak, M; Bojanowska, E

    2014-08-01

    High intake of fats and sugars has prompted a rapid growth in the number of obese individuals worldwide. To further investigate whether simultaneous pharmacological intervention in the leptin and cannabinoid system might change food and water intake, preferences for palatable foods, and body weight, we have examined the effects of concomitant intraperitoneal administration of leptin and AM 251, a cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptor antagonist, or cannabidiol (CBD), a plant cannabinoid, in rats maintained on either a high-fat (HF) diet (45% energy from fat) or free-choice (FC) diet consisting of high-sucrose and normal rat chow (83% and 61% energy from carbohydrates, respectively). Leptin at a dose of 100 μg/kg injected individually for 3 subsequent days to rats fed a HF diet reduced significantly the daily caloric intake and inhibited body weight gain. The hormone had no significant effects, however, on either caloric intake, body weight or food preferences in rats fed an FC diet. Co-injection of leptin and 1 mg/kg AM 251 resulted in a further significant decrease in HF diet intake and a profound reduction in body weight gain both in HF diet- and FC diet-fed rats. This drug combination, however, had no effect on the consumption of high-sucrose chow. In contrast, 3mg/kg of CBD co-injected with leptin did not modify leptin effects on food intake in rats maintained on an FC or HF diet. None of the drug combinations affected water consumption. It is concluded that the concomitant treatment with leptin and AM 251 attenuated markedly body weight gain in rats maintained on high-calorie diets rich in fat and carbohydrates but did not affect preferences for sweet food.

  2. Energy and macronutrient intake and risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Rinaldi, Sabina; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Rostgaard-Hansen, Agnetha Linn; Tjønneland, Anne; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Mesrine, Sylvie; Katzke, Verena A; Kühn, Tilman; Förster, Jana; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Klinaki, Eleni; Masala, Giovanna; Sieri, Sabina; Ricceri, Fulvio; Tumino, Rosario; Mattiello, Amalia; Peeters, Petra H M; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Engeset, Dagrun; Skeie, Guri; Argüelles, Marcial; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, María-José; Chirlaque, María-Dolores; Barricarte, Aurelio; Chamosa, Saioa; Almquist, Martin; Tosovic, Ada; Hennings, Joakim; Sandström, Maria; Schmidt, Julie A; Khaw, Kay-Thee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Cross, Amanda J; Slimani, Nadia; Byrnes, Graham; Romieu, Isabelle; Riboli, Elio; Franceschi, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Incidence rates of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (TC) have increased in many countries. Adiposity and dietary risk factors may play a role, but little is known on the influence of energy intake and macronutrient composition. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between TC and the intake of energy, macronutrients, glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. The study included 477,274 middle-age participants (70.2% women) from ten European countries. Dietary data were collected using country-specific validated dietary questionnaires. Total carbohydrates, proteins, fats, saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats (PUFA), starch, sugar, and fiber were computed as g/1,000 kcal. Multivariable Cox regression was used to calculate multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) by intake quartile (Q). After a mean follow-up time of 11 years, differentiated TC was diagnosed in 556 participants (90% women). Overall, we found significant associations only with total energy (HRQ4 vs .Q1 , 1.29; 95% CI, 1.00-1.68) and PUFA intakes (HRQ4 vs .Q1 , 0.74; 95% CI, 0.57-0.95). However, the associations with starch and sugar intake and GI were significantly heterogeneous across body mass index (BMI) groups, i.e., positive associations with starch and GI were found in participants with a BMI ≥ 25 and with sugar intake in those with BMI < 25. Moreover, inverse associations with starch and GI were observed in subjects with BMI < 25. In conclusion, our results suggest that high total energy and low PUFA intakes may increase the risk of differentiated TC. Positive associations with starch intake and GI in participants with BMI ≥ 25 suggest that those persons may have a greater insulin response to high starch intake and GI than lean people.

  3. Dietary Intake and Cardiometabolic Risk in Ethnically Diverse Urban Schoolchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Lauren E.; Economos, Christina D.; Goodman, Elizabeth; Houser, Robert F.; Must, Aviva; Chomitz, Virginia R.; Morgan, Emily H.; Sacheck, Jennifer M.

    2017-01-01

    Dietary factors vary widely among ethnic groups. However, the effect of specific nutrients on cardiometabolic risk is not well understood, especially in children. Four dietary factors known to influence cardiometabolic risk (ie, carbohydrate, saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fat intake) were assessed by the Block Kids 2004 Food Frequency Questionnaire in a cross-sectional sample of racially diverse fourth- through eighth-grade students (n=148) in a Boston-area school district studied between January and April 2010. Fasting total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglyceride, C-reactive protein (CRP), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels, and body mass index z scores were measured. Differences in dietary factors and cardiometabolic risk factors were examined among the following racial/ethnic groups: white (39%), Hispanic (32%), black (8%), Asian (10%), and multiracial/other (11%). In bivariate analyses, total, saturated, and polyunsaturated fat intakes differed by race/ethnicity (Psaturated fat intakes above the recommended level. Forty-seven percent of children had at least one suboptimal cardiometabolic risk factor. HDL cholesterol, triglyceride, and IL-6 concentrations differed by race/ethnicity (P<0.05, P<0.01, and P<0.01, respectively), with Hispanics having low HDL cholesterol levels and high triglyceride levels, whereas Asians had high IL-6 levels. In multivariate analyses controlling for demographic characteristics, none of the dietary factors examined explained racial/ethnic differences in lipid profiles or inflammatory markers. Body mass index z score was associated with lower HDL cholesterol, higher triglyceride, higher CRP, and higher IL-6 levels (P<0.0001). Further research is warranted to determine the influence of dietary recommendations at a young age among different racial/ethnic groups on cardiometabolic health. PMID:23102181

  4. Dietary fat and the prevention of type 2 diabetes: impact on inflammation and underlying mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van S.J.

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of metabolic syndrome, which is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing rapidly. Changes in dietary fat composition from saturated fat (SFA) to monounsaturated fat (MUFA) from olive oil, which is highly consumed in a Mediterranea

  5. Dietary fat and the prevention of type 2 diabetes: impact on inflammation and underlying mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van S.J.

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of metabolic syndrome, which is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing rapidly. Changes in dietary fat composition from saturated fat (SFA) to monounsaturated fat (MUFA) from olive oil, which is highly consumed in a

  6. Oxidative Stress and Dietary Fat Type in Relation to Periodontal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela-López, Alfonso; Quiles, José L; Cordero, Mario; Giampieri, Francesca; Bullón, Pedro

    2015-04-28

    Oxidative stress is one of the main factors studied to explain the pathophysiological mechanisms of inflammatory conditions, such as periodontitis. In this respect, nutrition may be of great importance. Actually, research on nutrients' effects on periodontal diseases has expanded to include those influencing the redox status, which correlates to the inflammatory process. Dietary fat or lipids are often blamed as the major source of excess energy. Consequently, when caloric intake exceeds energy expenditure, the resultant substrate-induced increase in citric acid cycle activity generates an excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, dietary fatty acid intake influences in relative fatty acid composition of biological membranes determining its susceptibility to oxidative alterations. From this standpoint, here, we reviewed studies analyzing the dietary fat role in periodontal disease. Research data suggest that periodontal health could be achieved by main dietary strategies which include substitution of saturated fats with monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), particularly n-3 PUFA. Maybe in the future, we should analyze the diet and provide some advice to periodontitis patients to improve treatment outcomes.

  7. Oxidative Stress and Dietary Fat Type in Relation to Periodontal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Varela-López

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is one of the main factors studied to explain the pathophysiological mechanisms of inflammatory conditions, such as periodontitis. In this respect, nutrition may be of great importance. Actually, research on nutrients’ effects on periodontal diseases has expanded to include those influencing the redox status, which correlates to the inflammatory process. Dietary fat or lipids are often blamed as the major source of excess energy. Consequently, when caloric intake exceeds energy expenditure, the resultant substrate-induced increase in citric acid cycle activity generates an excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS. In addition, dietary fatty acid intake influences in relative fatty acid composition of biological membranes determining its susceptibility to oxidative alterations. From this standpoint, here, we reviewed studies analyzing the dietary fat role in periodontal disease. Research data suggest that periodontal health could be achieved by main dietary strategies which include substitution of saturated fats with monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, particularly n-3 PUFA. Maybe in the future, we should analyze the diet and provide some advice to periodontitis patients to improve treatment outcomes.

  8. Effects on Health Outcomes of a Mediterranean Diet With No Restriction on Fat Intake: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Hanna E; Koeller, Eva; Greer, Nancy; MacDonald, Roderick; Kane, Robert; Wilt, Timothy J

    2016-10-04

    Mediterranean diets may be healthier than typical Western diets. To summarize the literature comparing a Mediterranean diet with unrestricted fat intake with other diets regarding their effects on health outcomes in adults. Ovid MEDLINE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library from 1990 through April 2016. Controlled trials of 100 or more persons followed for at least 1 year for mortality, cardiovascular, hypertension, diabetes, and adherence outcomes, as well as cohort studies for cancer outcomes. Data extracted by 1 investigator was verified by another. Two reviewers assessed risk of bias and strength of evidence. Two primary prevention trials found no difference in all-cause mortality between diet groups. One large primary prevention trial found that a Mediterranean diet resulted in a lower incidence of major cardiovascular events (hazard ratio [HR], 0.71 [95% CI, 0.56 to 0.90]), breast cancer (HR, 0.43 [CI, 0.21 to 0.88]), and diabetes (HR, 0.70 [CI, 0.54 to 0.92]). Pooled analyses of primary prevention cohort studies showed that compared with the lowest quantile, the highest quantile of adherence to a Mediterranean diet was associated with a reduction in total cancer mortality (risk ratio [RR], 0.86 [CI, 0.82 to 0.91]; 13 studies) and in the incidence of total (RR, 0.96 [CI, 0.95 to 0.97]; 3 studies) and colorectal (RR, 0.91 [CI, 0.84 to 0.98; 9 studies]) cancer. Of 3 secondary prevention studies reporting cardiovascular outcomes, 1 found a lower risk for recurrent myocardial infarction and cardiovascular death with the Mediterranean diet. There was inconsistent, minimal, or no evidence pertaining to any other outcome, including adherence, hypertension, cognitive function, kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and quality of life. Few trials; medium risk-of-bias ratings for many studies; low or insufficient strength of evidence for outcomes; heterogeneous diet definitions and components. Limited evidence suggests that a Mediterranean diet with no restriction on fat

  9. Intragastric pH and pressure profiles after intake of the high-caloric, high-fat meal as used for food effect studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koziolek, M; Schneider, F; Grimm, M; Modeβ, Chr; Seekamp, A; Roustom, T; Siegmund, W; Weitschies, W

    2015-12-28

    The intraluminal conditions of the fed stomach are critical for drug release from solid oral dosage forms and thus, often associated with the occurrence of food effects on oral bioavailability. In this study, intragastric pH and pressure profiles present after the ingestion of the high-caloric, high-fat (964 kcal) FDA standard breakfast were investigated in 19 healthy human subjects by using the telemetric SmartPill® capsule system (26 × 13 mm). Since the gastric emptying of such large non-digestible objects is typically accomplished by the migrating motor complex phase III activity, the time required for recurrence of fasted state motility determined the gastric emptying time (GET). Following the diet recommendations of the FDA guidance on food effect studies, the mean GET of the telemetric motility capsule was 15.3 ± 4.7 h. Thus, the high caloric value of the standard breakfast impeded gastric emptying before lunch in 18 out of 19 subjects. During its gastric transit, the capsule was exposed to highly dynamic conditions in terms of pH and pressure, which were mainly dependent on further meal and liquid intake, as well as the intragastric capsule deposition behavior. Maximum pH values in the stomach were measured immediately after capsule intake. The median pH value of the 5 min period after capsule ingestion ranged between pH 3.3 and 5.3. Subsequently, the pH decreased relatively constantly and reached minimum values of pH 0-1 after approximately 4 h. The maximum pressure within the stomach amounted to 293 ± 109 mbar and was clearly higher than the maximum pressure measured at the ileocaecal junction (60 ± 35 mbar). The physiological data on the intraluminal conditions within the fed stomach generated in this study will hopefully contribute to a better understanding of food effects on oral drug product performance.

  10. Food-intake patterns assessed by using front-of-pack labeling program criteria associated with better diet quality and lower cardiometabolic risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, Alice H; Carson, JoAnn S; Johnson, Rachel K; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Pappas, Antigoni; Rupp, Linda; Stitzel, Kimberly F; Vafiadis, Dorothea K; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2014-03-01

    Front-of-pack labeling systems may provide additional guidance to that already available to facilitate the identification of foods that improve diet quality. We examined the association between choosing foods that meet criteria of an established front-of-pack labeling system with food-group and nutrient intakes and cardiometabolic risk factors. The association between the consumption of foods that met 2014 American Heart Association (AHA) Heart-Check Food Certification Program criteria and 2005 Healthy Eating Index (HEI-2005) scores, food-group intake, energy intake, nutrient intake, and cardiometabolic risk factors was analyzed in 11,296 men and women ≥ 19 y old by using 1-d dietary recall data from the NHANES 2007-2010. Individuals were categorized into consumers and nonconsumers of AHA Heart-Check Food Certification Program-certifiable foods and quartiles of intakes on the basis of the percentage of calories. The consumption of AHA Heart-Check Food Certification Program-certifiable foods was positively associated with HEI-2005 scores and fruit, vegetable, whole-grain, total sugar, fiber, potassium, calcium, and vitamin D intakes and inversely associated with the percentage of energy from saturated fat, monounsaturated fat, added sugars, alcohol, and intakes of cholesterol and sodium. The highest quartile of daily energy intake from AHA Heart-Check Food Certification Program-certifiable foods was associated with lower risk of obesity (26%), lower risk of elevated waist circumference (29%), and lower risk of metabolic syndrome (24%) than with lowest intakes (all P foods meeting one front-of-pack labeling system positively influences food-group and nutrient intakes and is associated with a higher diet quality and lower risk of cardiometabolic syndrome.

  11. Dietary fiber showed no preventive effect against colon and rectal cancers in Japanese with low fat intake: an analysis from the results of nutrition surveys from 23 Japanese prefectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugawara Kazuo

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since Fuchs' report in 1999, the reported protective effect of dietary fiber from colorectal carcinogenesis has led many researchers to question its real benefit. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between diet, especially dietary fiber and fat and colorectal cancer in Japan. Methods A multiple regression analysis (using the stepwise variable selection method was performed using the standardized mortality ratios (SMRs of colon and rectal cancer in 23 Japanese prefectures as objective variables and dietary fiber, nutrients and food groups as explanatory variables. Results As for colon cancer, the standardized partial correlation coefficients were positively significant for fat (1,13, P = 0.000, seaweeds (0.41, P = 0.026 and beans (0.45, P = 0.017 and were negatively significant for vitamin A (-0.63, P = 0.003, vitamin C (-0.42, P = 0.019 and yellow-green vegetables (-0.37, P = 0.046. For rectal cancer, the standardized partial correlation coefficient in fat (0.60, P = 0.002 was positively significant. Dietary fiber was not found to have a significant relationship with either colon or rectal cancers. Conclusions This study failed to show any protective effect of dietary fiber in subjects with a low fat intake (Japanese in this analysis, which supports Fuchs' findings in subjects with a high fat intake (US Americans.

  12. A gestational diet high in fat-soluble vitamins alters expression of genes in brain pathways and reduces sucrose preference, but not food intake, in Wistar male rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Hernandez, Diana; Poon, Abraham N; Kubant, Ruslan; Kim, Hwanki; Huot, Pedro S P; Cho, Clara E; Pannia, Emanuela; Pausova, Zdenka; Anderson, G Harvey

    2015-04-01

    High intakes of multivitamins (HV) during pregnancy by Wistar rats increase food intake, body weight, and characteristics of the metabolic syndrome in male offspring. In this study, high-fat soluble vitamins were fed in combination during gestation to test the hypothesis that they partially account for the effects of the HV diet. Pregnant Wistar rats (14-16/group) were fed a recommended multivitamin diet (1-fold all vitamins) or high-fat soluble vitamin diet (HFS; 10-fold vitamins A, D, E, and K) during pregnancy. Offspring body weight, food intake, and preference as well as expression of selected genes in the hypothalamus and hippocampus were evaluated at birth, weaning, and 14 weeks postweaning. Body weight and food intake were not affected but sucrose preference decreased by 4% in those born to dams fed the HFS gestational diet. Gene expressions of the hypothalamic anorexogenic pro-opiomelanocortin (Pomc) and orexogenic neuropeptide Y (Npy) (∼30% p = 0.008, ∼40% p = 0.007) were increased in weaning and adult rats, respectively. Hippocampal dopaminergic genes (35%-50% p food intake but may affect the development of higher hedonic regulatory pathways associated with food preference.

  13. Gestating sows have greater digestibility of energy in full fat rice bran and defatted rice bran than growing gilts regardless of level of feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, G A; Stein, H H

    2017-07-01

    The first objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of GE and nutrients in full fat rice bran (FFRB) and defatted rice bran (DFRB) determined in gestating sows is greater if feed is provided at 1.5 × the ME required for maintenance than at 3.5 × the ME requirement. The second objective was to test the hypothesis that the ATTD of GE and nutrients and the concentrations of DE and ME in FFRB and DFRB is not different between growing gilts and gestating sows if both groups of animals are fed 3.5 × the maintenance requirement for ME. Forty eight gestating sows (parity 2 to 6) were allotted to 3 diets and 2 levels of feed intake (i.e., 1.5 or 3.5 × the maintenance requirement for ME) in a randomized complete block design, with 4 blocks of 12 sows and 2 replicate sows per block for a total of 8 replicate sows per diet. Twenty four growing gilts (51.53 ± 3.1 kg BW) were randomly allotted to the same 3 diets, but all gilts were fed at 3.5 × the maintenance requirement for ME. A basal diet containing corn and soybean meal and 2 diets that consisted of 60% basal diet and 40% FFRB or DFRB were used. Results of the experiment indicated that there were no effects of level of feed intake of sows on ATTD of GE, DM, OM, or NDF, or on concentrations of DE and ME. However, concentrations of DE and ME were greater ( sows than in growing gilts. Concentrations of DE and ME in the diets were also greater ( sows than in growing gilts. The ATTD of GE and the concentrations of DE and ME of FFRB were greater ( sows than in growing gilts. In conclusion, the level of feed intake by gestating sows did not affect the digestibility of GE and nutrients or the concentrations of DE and ME in diets or in FFRB or DFRB, but the ATTD of GE and the concentration of DE and ME in diets and in FFRB and DFRB were greater in gestating sows than in growing gilts.

  14. Growth performance, feed digestibility, body composition, and feeding behavior of high- and low-residual feed intake fat-tailed lambs under moderate feed restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaei Sharifabadi, H; Naserian, A A; Valizadeh, R; Nassiry, M R; Bottje, W G; Redden, R R

    2016-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of moderate feed restriction on productivity of lambs classified on the basis of phenotypic expression of residual feed intake (RFI). In Exp. 1, 58 fat-tailed Kurdi ram lambs (32.1 ± 4.2 kg BW) were individually fed, ad libitum, a pelleted diet (35% alfalfa hay and 65% concentrate). Feed intake and ADG were determined for a 6-wk period and 3 feed efficiency measures including RFI, G:F, and partial efficiency of maintenance (PEM) were calculated. The lambs were sorted based on RFI and the 16 highest RFI (RFI ≥ mean + 0.5 SD) and 16 lowest RFI (RFI ≤ mean - 0.5 SD) lambs were subjected to body composition (BC) and DM digestibility (DMD) analysis. Feeding behavior traits (FB) were also evaluated for 24 h using a regular 5-min interval observation method. The high- and low-RFI lambs (14 lambs/RFI group) so classified in Exp. 1 were used in Exp. 2. Half of the lambs in each RFI group were randomly selected to be fed ad libitum or 85% of ad libitum (restricted feeding), which resulted in 4 experimental groups: 1) ad libitum high-RFI, 2) feed restricted high-RFI, 3) ad libitum low-RFI, and 4) feed restricted low-RFI. The lambs were fed the same diet as Exp. 1, and growth efficiency during a 6-wk test period as well as BC, DMD, and FB were also determined in Exp. 2. In Exp. 1, the low-RFI lambs consumed 14% ( feed than high-RFI lambs. Differences were also observed between high- and low-RFI groups for G:F ( = 0.01), RFI ( 0.72), and FB ( > 0.24). In Exp.2, the restriction feeding regime negatively affected ADG ( feed restriction condition. No effects of feed restriction on DMD ( = 0.87) and BC ( > 0.05) were observed. The lambs fed at the restricted level of intake presented a greater time ( feeding events were decreased ( feed restriction, no interaction ( > 0.05) was detected between RFI phenotype and feeding regime for FB. In summary, feeding high-RFI lambs at 85% of ad libitum level improved G:F with no effect

  15. High-fat but not sucrose intake is essential for induction of dyslipidemia and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, David Højland; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Rolin, Bidda;

    2016-01-01

    .0001) and VLDL-C (p triglycerides were increased in control and vHS compared to high-fat fed animals (p ...-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with progressive inflammation and bridging fibrosis in high-fat fed animals. Accordingly, hepatic triglycerides (p .../cholesterol on the development of dyslipidemia and NAFLD. Methods Seventy female guinea pigs were block-randomized (based on weight) into five groups and fed a normal chow diet (control: 4 % fat), a very high-sucrose diet (vHS: 4 % fat, 25 % sucrose), a high-fat diet (HF: 20 % fat, 0.35 % cholesterol), a high-fat/high...

  16. Maternal high fat feeding and gestational dietary restriction: effects on offspring body weight, food intake and hypothalamic gene expression over three generations in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraudo, Silvia Q; Della-Fera, Mary Anne; Proctor, Lindsey; Wickwire, Kathie; Ambati, Suresh; Baile, Clifton A

    2010-11-01

    Excessive gestational weight gain and maternal obesity have both been associated with increased incidence of obesity and metabolic disorder in offspring in both humans and animal models. The objectives of this study were to determine (1) whether mild gestational food restriction during the third trimester (GFR) would alter food intake and growth parameters of offspring, (2) whether effects of GFR depended on diet (high fat [HF] vs chow), (3) whether effects of excessive gestational weight gain (WG) would become magnified across generations, and (4) whether diet and GFR would alter hypothalamic gene expression in adult offspring. Three generations of female C57BL/6 mice were fed chow or HF diet, mated at 11 weeks of age and assigned to ad libitum feeding or 25% GFR. Offspring were fed the same diet as their mothers. Results showed (1) maternal gestational WG was positively correlated with offspring WG. (2) HF offspring weighed less (pfood restriction of obese mothers during pregnancy may have beneficial effects in reducing the risk or degree of obesity in offspring. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Serum adiponectin concentration in relation to macronutrient and food intake in young Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kentaro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Uenishi, Kazuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the relation of modifiable dietary factors to circulating adiponectin concentrations, particularly in young adults and non-Western populations. The aim of this study was to determine the association between macronutrient and food intake and serum adiponectin concentration in a group of young Japanese women. This cross-sectional study included 1047 female Japanese dietetic students aged 18 to 22 y. Using a validated, self-administered, comprehensive diet history questionnaire, we assessed intake of nutrients (protein, total fat, saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, and polyunsaturated fatty acids, carbohydrates, and dietary fiber) and foods (rice, bread, noodles, potatoes, confectioneries, fats and oils, pulses, fish and shellfish, meats, eggs, dairy products, vegetables, fruits, coffee, green and oolong tea, black tea, and soft drinks) and glycemic index and load. Fasting blood samples were collected and serum adiponectin concentrations were measured. Adjustment was made for survey year, region, municipality level, current smoking, current alcohol drinking, physical activity, body mass index, energy intake, and intakes of other nutrients or foods. After adjustment for potential confounding factors, none of the nutrients examined was a significant determinant of serum adiponectin concentration. There was no association for glycemic index or load. Coffee was the only food significantly and independently associated with serum adiponectin concentration. Mean (SE) values of serum adiponectin concentration for each quartile of coffee intake were 12.4 (0.2), 12.4 (0.5), 12.5 (0.3), and 13.2 (0.3) μg/mL, respectively (P for trend = 0.04). In a group of young Japanese women, higher coffee intake was independently associated with higher serum adiponectin concentration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Fatty Acids Composition of Vegetable Oils and Its Contribution to Dietary Energy Intake and Dependence of Cardiovascular Mortality on Dietary Intake of Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Orsavova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Characterizations of fatty acids composition in % of total methylester of fatty acids (FAMEs of fourteen vegetable oils—safflower, grape, silybum marianum, hemp, sunflower, wheat germ, pumpkin seed, sesame, rice bran, almond, rapeseed, peanut, olive, and coconut oil—were obtained by using gas chromatography (GC. Saturated (SFA, monounsaturated (MUFA and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, palmitic acid (C16:0; 4.6%–20.0%, oleic acid (C18:1; 6.2%–71.1% and linoleic acid (C18:2; 1.6%–79%, respectively, were found predominant. The nutritional aspect of analyzed oils was evaluated by determination of the energy contribution of SFAs (19.4%–695.7% ERDI, PUFAs (10.6%–786.8% ERDI, n-3 FAs (4.4%–117.1% ERDI and n-6 FAs (1.8%–959.2% ERDI, expressed in % ERDI of 1 g oil to energy recommended dietary intakes (ERDI for total fat (ERDI—37.7 kJ/g. The significant relationship between the reported data of total fat, SFAs, MUFAs and PUFAs intakes (% ERDI for adults and mortality caused by coronary heart diseases (CHD and cardiovascular diseases (CVD in twelve countries has not been confirmed by Spearman’s correlations.

  19. Effect of long-term high-fat diet intake on peripheral insulin sensibility, blood pressure, and renal function in female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemi A. V. Roza

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study determines whether -week high-fat diet (HFD consumption alters insulin sensitivity, kidney function, and blood pressure (BP in female rats when compared with standard rodent diet (ND intake in gender- and age-matched rats. Methods: The present study investigates, in female Wistar HanUnib rats, the effect of long-term high-fat fed group (HFD compared with standard chow on BP by an indirect tail-cuff method using an electrosphygmomanometer, insulin and glucose function, and kidney function by creatinine and lithium clearances. Results: The current study shows glucose tolerance impairment, as demonstrated by increased fasting blood glucose (ND: ±2.8 vs. HFD: 87±3.8 mg/dL associated with reduced insulin secretion (ND: 0.58±0.07 vs. HFD: 0.40±0.03 ng/mL in 8-week female HFD-treated rats. The incremental area under the curve (AUC, ND: 1,4558.0±536.0 vs. HFD: 1,6507.8±661.9, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR index, and the first-order rate constant for the disappearance of glucose (Kitt were significantly enhanced in 8-week HFD-treated rats compared with age-matched ND group (respectively, P=0.03, P=0.002, and P<0.0001. The current study also shows a significantly higher systolic BP measured in 5 and 8 weeks posttreatment in HFD (5-week HFD-treated: 155.25±10.54 mmHg and 8-week HFD-treated: 165±5.8 mmHg (P=0.0001, when compared to BP values in 5-week ND, 137±4.24 mmHg and 8-week ND, 131.75±5.8 mmHg age-matched group. Otherwise, the glomerular filtration rate and renal sodium handling evaluated by FENa, FEPNa and FEPPNa, were unchanged in both groups. Conclusion: We may conclude that 8-week female HFD-fed rats compared with ND group stimulate harmful effects, such as BP rise and peripheral glucose intolerance. The increased BP occurs through insulin resistance and supposedly decreased vasodilatation response without any change on renal function.

  20. A High-Protein Diet Reduces Weight Gain, Decreases Food Intake, Decreases Liver Fat Deposition, and Improves Markers of Muscle Metabolism in Obese Zucker Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William W. French

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A primary factor in controlling and preventing obesity is through dietary manipulation. Diets higher in protein have been shown to improve body composition and metabolic health during weight loss. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of a high-protein diet versus a moderate-protein diet on muscle, liver and fat metabolism and glucose regulation using the obese Zucker rat. Twelve-week old, male, Zucker (fa/fa and lean control (Fa/fa rats were randomly assigned to either a high-protein (40% energy or moderate-protein (20% energy diet for 12 weeks, with a total of four groups: lean 20% protein (L20; n = 8, lean 40% protein (L40; n = 10, obese 20% protein (O20; n = 8, and obese 40% protein (O40; n = 10. At the end of 12 weeks, animals were fasted and euthanized. There was no difference in food intake between L20 and L40. O40 rats gained less weight and had lower food intake (p < 0.05 compared to O20. O40 rats had lower liver weight (p < 0.05 compared to O20. However, O40 rats had higher orexin (p < 0.05 levels compared to L20, L40 and O20. Rats in the L40 and O40 groups had less liver and muscle lipid deposition compared to L20 and L40 diet rats, respectively. O40 had decreased skeletal muscle mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1 phosphorylation and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ mRNA expression compared to O20 (p < 0.05, with no difference in 5′ AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4EBP1, protein kinase B (Akt or p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K phosphorylation. The data suggest that high-protein diets have the potential to reduce weight gain and alter metabolism, possibly through regulation of an mTORC1-dependent pathway in skeletal muscle.

  1. Genetic parameters across lactation for feed intake, fat- and protein-corrected milk, and liveweight in first-parity Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzanilla Pech, C I V; Veerkamp, R F; Calus, M P L; Zom, R; van Knegsel, A; Pryce, J E; De Haas, Y

    2014-09-01

    Breeding values for dry matter intake (DMI) are important to optimize dairy cattle breeding goals for feed efficiency. However, generally, only small data sets are available for feed intake, due to the cost and difficulty of measuring DMI, which makes understanding the genetic associations between traits across lactation difficult, let alone the possibility for selection of breeding animals. However, estimating national breeding values through cheaper and more easily measured correlated traits, such as milk yield and liveweight (LW), could be a first step to predict DMI. Combining DMI data across historical nutritional experiments might help to expand the data sets. Therefore, the objective was to estimate genetic parameters for DMI, fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM) yield, and LW across the entire first lactation using a relatively large data set combining experimental data across the Netherlands. A total of 30,483 weekly records for DMI, 49,977 for FPCM yield, and 31,956 for LW were available from 2,283 Dutch Holstein-Friesian first-parity cows between 1990 and 2011. Heritabilities, covariance components, and genetic correlations were estimated using a multivariate random regression model. The model included an effect for year-season of calving, and polynomials for age of cow at calving and days in milk (DIM). The random effects were experimental treatment, year-month of measurement, and the additive genetic, permanent environmental, and residual term. Additive genetic and permanent environmental effects were modeled using a third-order orthogonal polynomial. Estimated heritabilities ranged from 0.21 to 0.40 for DMI, from 0.20 to 0.43 for FPCM yield, and from 0.25 to 0.48 for LW across DIM. Genetic correlations between DMI at different DIM were relatively low during early and late lactation, compared with mid lactation. The genetic correlations between DMI and FPCM yield varied across DIM. This correlation was negative (up to -0.5) between FPCM yield in

  2. Small HDL subclasses become cholesterol-poor during postprandial period after a fat diet intake in subjects with high triglyceridemia increases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintanilla-Cantú, Armando; Peña-de-la-Sancha, Paola; Flores-Castillo, Cristobal; Mejía-Domínguez, Ana María; Posadas-Sánchez, Rosalinda; Pérez-Hernández, Nonanzit; Bautista-Pérez, Rocío; Enriquez-Calderón, Reyna Esmeralda; Juárez-Oropeza, Marco Antonio; Fragoso, José Manuel; Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto; Pérez-Méndez, Oscar

    2017-01-01

    Postprandial triglyceridemia may transitory affect the structure of HDL subclasses and probably their antiatherogenic properties but little is known in this f