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Sample records for monotypic genus endemic

  1. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of an endemic monotypic genus Hagenia (Rosaceae: structural comparative analysis, gene content and microsatellite detection

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    Andrew W. Gichira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hagenia is an endangered monotypic genus endemic to the topical mountains of Africa. The only species, Hagenia abyssinica (Bruce J.F. Gmel, is an important medicinal plant producing bioactive compounds that have been traditionally used by African communities as a remedy for gastrointestinal ailments in both humans and animals. Complete chloroplast genomes have been applied in resolving phylogenetic relationships within plant families. We employed high-throughput sequencing technologies to determine the complete chloroplast genome sequence of H. abyssinica. The genome is a circular molecule of 154,961 base pairs (bp, with a pair of Inverted Repeats (IR 25,971 bp each, separated by two single copies; a large (LSC, 84,320 bp and a small single copy (SSC, 18,696. H. abyssinica’s chloroplast genome has a 37.1% GC content and encodes 112 unique genes, 78 of which code for proteins, 30 are tRNA genes and four are rRNA genes. A comparative analysis with twenty other species, sequenced to-date from the family Rosaceae, revealed similarities in structural organization, gene content and arrangement. The observed size differences are attributed to the contraction/expansion of the inverted repeats. The translational initiation factor gene (infA which had been previously reported in other chloroplast genomes was conspicuously missing in H. abyssinica. A total of 172 microsatellites and 49 large repeat sequences were detected in the chloroplast genome. A Maximum Likelihood analyses of 71 protein-coding genes placed Hagenia in Rosoideae. The availability of a complete chloroplast genome, the first in the Sanguisorbeae tribe, is beneficial for further molecular studies on taxonomic and phylogenomic resolution within the Rosaceae family.

  2. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of an endemic monotypic genus Hagenia (Rosaceae): structural comparative analysis, gene content and microsatellite detection.

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    Gichira, Andrew W; Li, Zhizhong; Saina, Josphat K; Long, Zhicheng; Hu, Guangwan; Gituru, Robert W; Wang, Qingfeng; Chen, Jinming

    2017-01-01

    Hagenia is an endangered monotypic genus endemic to the topical mountains of Africa. The only species, Hagenia abyssinica (Bruce) J.F. Gmel, is an important medicinal plant producing bioactive compounds that have been traditionally used by African communities as a remedy for gastrointestinal ailments in both humans and animals. Complete chloroplast genomes have been applied in resolving phylogenetic relationships within plant families. We employed high-throughput sequencing technologies to determine the complete chloroplast genome sequence of H. abyssinica. The genome is a circular molecule of 154,961 base pairs (bp), with a pair of Inverted Repeats (IR) 25,971 bp each, separated by two single copies; a large (LSC, 84,320 bp) and a small single copy (SSC, 18,696). H. abyssinica 's chloroplast genome has a 37.1% GC content and encodes 112 unique genes, 78 of which code for proteins, 30 are tRNA genes and four are rRNA genes. A comparative analysis with twenty other species, sequenced to-date from the family Rosaceae, revealed similarities in structural organization, gene content and arrangement. The observed size differences are attributed to the contraction/expansion of the inverted repeats. The translational initiation factor gene ( infA ) which had been previously reported in other chloroplast genomes was conspicuously missing in H. abyssinica . A total of 172 microsatellites and 49 large repeat sequences were detected in the chloroplast genome. A Maximum Likelihood analyses of 71 protein-coding genes placed Hagenia in Rosoideae. The availability of a complete chloroplast genome, the first in the Sanguisorbeae tribe, is beneficial for further molecular studies on taxonomic and phylogenomic resolution within the Rosaceae family.

  3. Khmeriosicyos, a new monotypic genus of Cucurbitaceae from Cambodia

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    Wilde, de W.J.J.O.; Duyfjes, B.E.E.; Ham, van der R.W.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    A new monotypic genus from Cambodia is described. The genus is defined by a unique combination of characters and has distinct pollen features. The only species is Khmeriosicyos harmandii W.J. de Wilde & Duyfjes.

  4. A taxonomic revision of Maurocenia (Celastraceae, a Western Cape monotypic endemic

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    R. H. Archer

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available A taxonomic account is given of the monotypic genus Maurocenia Mill. Maurocenia frangula Mill, has a restricted range and is endemic to the Cape Peninsula and the West Coast National Park. Western Cape. Maurocenia frangularia (L.Mill., the species name and author citation widely used in the past, is incorrect. It is characterized by. among others, pendulous ovules and gynodioecy, rare states in the Celastraceae. Maurocenia is apparently most closely related to the southern African genus Lauridia Eckl. & Zeyh.

  5. Oberholzeria (Fabaceae subfam. Faboideae), a new monotypic legume genus from Namibia.

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    Swanepoel, Wessel; le Roux, M Marianne; Wojciechowski, Martin F; van Wyk, Abraham E

    2015-01-01

    Oberholzeria etendekaensis, a succulent biennial or short-lived perennial shrublet is described as a new species, and a new monotypic genus. Discovered in 2012, it is a rare species known only from a single locality in the Kaokoveld Centre of Plant Endemism, north-western Namibia. Phylogenetic analyses of molecular sequence data from the plastid matK gene resolves Oberholzeria as the sister group to the Genisteae clade while data from the nuclear rDNA ITS region showed that it is sister to a clade comprising both the Crotalarieae and Genisteae clades. Morphological characters diagnostic of the new genus include: 1) succulent stems with woody remains; 2) pinnately trifoliolate, fleshy leaves; 3) monadelphous stamens in a sheath that is fused above; 4) dimorphic anthers with five long, basifixed anthers alternating with five short, dorsifixed anthers, and 5) pendent, membranous, one-seeded, laterally flattened, slightly inflated but indehiscent fruits.

  6. Review of the Oriental Monotypic Genus Pibrocha Kirkaldy (Hemiptera, Fulgoromorpha, Fulgoridae, Dorysarthrinae

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    Zhi-Shun Song

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The monotypic genus Pibrocha Kirkaldy, 1902, known only from Sri Lanka in the Oriental region, is closely related to Dorysarthrus Puton, 1895 from southwestern Asia and northern Africa (Palaearctic region. The genus is revised to include a first description of the male genital structures and a discussion of relationships between Pibrocha, Dorysarthrus and Dichoptera Spinola, 1839. A diagnostic key to the three genera and photos of their type species are provided for better comparison in these taxa. Pibrocha is assigned tentatively from Dictyopharidae to the subfamily Dorysarthrinae (Fulgoridae.

  7. Eithea lagopaivae, a new critically endangered species in the previously monotypic genus Eithea Ravenna (Amaryllidaceae).

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    Campos-Rocha, Antonio; Meerow, Alan William; Lopes, Edimar Faria Menezes; Semir, João; Mayer, Juliana Lischka Sampaio; Dutilh, Julie Henriette Antoinette

    2017-01-01

    Eithea lagopaivae Campos-Rocha & Dutilh, sp. nov. is described as the second species of the formerly monotypic genus Eithea . It is characterized by a one flowered inflorescence, completely hollow scape, white or lightly magenta-striated flower that is enclosed by spathe bracts fused for more than the lower fifth of its length. Comments on its range, habitat, phenology, as well as photographs and illustrations are provided. In addition, a distribution map and an identification key for the two species of the genus are presented and anatomical and ecological differences compared. Known by only two small populations exposed to several types of threats and without any guarantee of protection, E. lagopaivae is considered a Critically Endangered (CR) species.

  8. Watercolor Monotypes.

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    Mejer, Robert Lee; Riddell, Terrence J.

    1985-01-01

    The monotype is a singular work of art created by transferring an image from one surface to another. Methods and suggestions to help elementary and secondary students make watercolor monotypes are discussed. (RM)

  9. Lectotypification of three Iberian endemic species belonging to monotypic genera described by Cosson

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    Buira, Antoni

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Three lectotypes are here designated for Euzomodendron bourgaeanum Coss., Guiraoa arvensis Coss. and Laserpitium scabrum Cav. (Guillonea scabra (Cav. Coss., whose genera are monospecific and endemic to the Iberian Peninsula. The selected types of the two former species are kept at P and belong to Cosson’s personal herbarium, whilst the last one is kept at MA and belongs to the historical herbarium of Cavanilles.Se designan los lectótipos de Euzomodendron bourgaeanum Coss., Guiraoa arvensis Coss. y Laserpitium scabrum Cav. (Guillonea scabra (Cav. Coss., cuyos géneros son monoespecíficos y endémicos de la Península Ibérica. Los tipos seleccionados para las dos primeras especies se encuentran en P y pertenecen al herbario personal de Cosson, mientras que el de la última se encuentra en MA y pertenece al herbario histórico de Cavanilles.

  10. Phylogenetic position of a monotypic Ethiopian endemic rodent genus Megadendromus (Rodentia, Nesomyidae)

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    Lavrenchenko, L. A.; Nadjafova, R. S.; Bekele, A.; Mironova, T. A.; Bryja, Josef

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 1 (2017), s. 71-82 ISSN 0025-1461 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Dendromurinae * Ethiopia * karyotype * Megadendromus * phylogeny Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 0.805, year: 2016

  11. Cupreoboletus (Boletaceae, Boletineae), a new monotypic genus segregated from Boletus sect. Luridi to reassign the Mediterranean species B. poikilochromus.

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    Gelardi, Matteo; Simonini, Giampaolo; Ercole, Enrico; Davoli, Paolo; Vizzini, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Cupreoboletus is erected as a new monospecific genus of Boletaceae to accommodate the thermophilic southern European species Boletus poikilochromus, characterized by discoloration toward copper-red tints overall, hymenophore forming tiny crystals on drying, a pervasive and long lasting sweet odor and presence of pseudocystidia. Macro- and microscopic descriptions of the species based on re-examination of the type material and recent Italian collections including additional topotypical samples are provided and accompanied by photos and line drawings of the main anatomical structures. In addition, an epitype specimen is selected. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred from multigene molecular analysis based on partial sequences of the nuc rDNA 28S D1/D2 (28S) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions and genes for ribosomal RNA polymerase II subunits 1 (rpb1) and 2 (rpb2) and translation-elongation factor 1-α (tef1α). Ecological context, geographical range and delimitation from closely allied taxa also were elucidated. B. martaluciae is treated as a synonym of C. poikilochromus according to the morphological and molecular comparative study. © 2015 by The Mycological Society of America.

  12. The Australian endemic woodwasp genus Austrocyrta Riek (Hymenoptera: Xiphydriidae)

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    J.T. Jennings; A.D. Austin; N.M. Schiff

    2009-01-01

    The Australian xiphydriid woodwasp genus, previously known only from a single species, A. australiensis Riek, is revised. A second distinctive species from Carnarvon National Park in southcentral Queensland, A. fasciculata Jennings & Austin, sp. nov., is described, and a key to separate the males of the two species is provided.

  13. Acronymolpus, a new genus of Eumolpinae, endemic to New Caledonia (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae).

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    Samuelson, G Allan

    2015-01-01

    The genus Acronymolpus is proposed as new. It is represented by four new species, all of which are endemic to New Caledonia. Proposed are: Acronymolpus joliveti sp. n. (type species), Acronymolpus gressitti sp. n., Acronymolpus meteorus sp. n., and Acronymolpus turbo sp. n.

  14. Phylogeography of the endemic grasshopper genus Betiscoides (Lentulidae) in the South African Cape Floristic Region.

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    Matenaar, Daniela; Fingerle, Marcus; Heym, Eva; Wirtz, Sarah; Hochkirch, Axel

    2018-01-01

    Vicariance and dispersal are two important processes shaping biodiversity patterns. The South African Cape Floristic Region (CFR) is known for its high biotic diversity and endemism. However, studies on the phylogeography of endemic invertebrates in this biodiversity hotspot are still scarce. Here, we present a phylogenetic study of the flightless grasshopper genus Betiscoides, which is endemic to the CFR and strongly associated with restio plants (Restionaceae). We hypothesized that the genus originated in the southwestern part of the CFR, that differentiation within the genus is mainly an effect of vicariance and that the three known species only represent a minor fraction of the real genetic diversity of the genus. We inferred the phylogeny based on sequences of three mitochondrial and two nuclear genes from 99 Betiscoides specimens collected across the CFR. Furthermore, we conducted a SDIVA analysis to detect distributions of ancestral nodes and the possible spatial origin of these lineages. Strong differentiation among genetic lineages was shown. The ancestor of this genus was most likely distributed in the southwestern CFR. Five major lineages were detected, three of which were ancestrally distributed in the southwestern CFR. The ancestors of the two other lineages were distributed in the northern and eastern margins of the CFR. A total of 24 divergent evolutionary lineages were found, reflecting the geographical isolation of restio-dominated fynbos habitats. Dispersal played a more prominent role than expected in differentiation of Betiscoides. While the five main lineages were separated during a first phase via dispersal, differentiation occurred later and on smaller spatial scale, predominantly driven by isolation in montane refugia (i.e. vicariance). Our study also suggests that flightless insect taxa likely show high levels of differentiation in biodiversity hotspots with their taxonomy often being incomplete. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  15. Complete chloroplast DNA sequence from a Korean endemic genus, Megaleranthis saniculifolia, and its evolutionary implications.

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    Kim, Young-Kyu; Park, Chong-wook; Kim, Ki-Joong

    2009-03-31

    The chloroplast DNA sequences of Megaleranthis saniculifolia, an endemic and monotypic endangered plant species, were completed in this study (GenBank FJ597983). The genome is 159,924 bp in length. It harbors a pair of IR regions consisting of 26,608 bp each. The lengths of the LSC and SSC regions are 88,326 bp and 18,382 bp, respectively. The structural organizations, gene and intron contents, gene orders, AT contents, codon usages, and transcription units of the Megaleranthis chloroplast genome are similar to those of typical land plant cp DNAs. However, the detailed features of Megaleranthis chloroplast genomes are substantially different from that of Ranunculus, which belongs to the same family, the Ranunculaceae. First, the Megaleranthis cp DNA was 4,797 bp longer than that of Ranunculus due to an expanded IR region into the SSC region and duplicated sequence elements in several spacer regions of the Megaleranthis cp genome. Second, the chloroplast genomes of Megaleranthis and Ranunculus evidence 5.6% sequence divergence in the coding regions, 8.9% sequence divergence in the intron regions, and 18.7% sequence divergence in the intergenic spacer regions, respectively. In both the coding and noncoding regions, average nucleotide substitution rates differed markedly, depending on the genome position. Our data strongly implicate the positional effects of the evolutionary modes of chloroplast genes. The genes evidencing higher levels of base substitutions also have higher incidences of indel mutations and low Ka/Ks ratios. A total of 54 simple sequence repeat loci were identified from the Megaleranthis cp genome. The existence of rich cp SSR loci in the Megaleranthis cp genome provides a rare opportunity to study the population genetic structures of this endangered species. Our phylogenetic trees based on the two independent markers, the nuclear ITS and chloroplast matK sequences, strongly support the inclusion of the Megaleranthis to the Trollius. Therefore, our

  16. Javorella, a new genus of endemic ground beetles (Trechini, Carabidae, Coleoptera from west and southwest Serbia

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    Ćurčić Srećko B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A new genus and species of cave ground beetles (Javorella javorensis n. gen. n. sp has been described from the Pećina pod Kapilijama Cave, village Trudovo, nr. Nova Varoš, southwestern Serbia. This new genus is clearly distinct from all other genera in many important respects such as: the presence of unfunctional flattened reduced eyes, the presence of 10-14 depigmented ommatidia, the presence of a pigmented oval eye border, the presence of deep and complete frontal furrows (but shallow and less visible in their posterior thirds, the presence of completely smooth cheeks, the presence of distinct furrows on fore tibias along their length, the ratio of the length/breadth of the first article of protarsomere in male; the presence of 2 elytral discal setae, the specific position of humeral setae and the unique shape of the copulatory piece. This new genus comprises also an additional species, J. suvoborensis (Pavićević and Popović, described elsewhere from the Pećina u Brezacima Cave, village Brezaci, Rajac, Mt. Suvobor, near Valjevo, western Serbia. The two species clearly differ in many important respects; the new genus and its members belong to an old and separate phyletic lineage, distinct from all other existing species groups. Additionally, these forms are relic and endemic to Serbian caves.

  17. Mitochondrial introgression via ancient hybridization, and systematics of the Australian endemic pygopodid gecko genus Delma.

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    Brennan, Ian G; Bauer, Aaron M; Jackman, Todd R

    2016-01-01

    Of the more than 1500 species of geckos found across six continents, few remain as unfamiliar as the pygopodids - Family Pygopodidae (Gray, 1845). These gekkotans are limited to Australia (44 species) and New Guinea (2 species), but have diverged extensively into the most ecologically diverse limbless radiation save Serpentes. Current phylogenetic understanding of the family has relied almost exclusively on two works, which have produced and synthesized an immense amount of morphological, geographical, and molecular data. However, current interspecific relationships within the largest genus Delma Gray 1831 are based chiefly upon data from two mitochondrial loci (16s, ND2). Here, we reevaluate the interspecific relationships within the genus Delma using two mitochondrial and four nuclear loci (RAG1, MXRA5, MOS, DYNLL1), and identify points of strong conflict between nuclear and mitochondrial genomic data. We address mito-nuclear discordance, and remedy this conflict by recognizing several points of mitochondrial introgression as the result of ancient hybridization events. Owing to the legacy value and intraspecific informativeness, we suggest the continued use of ND2 as a phylogenetic marker. Results identify strong support for species groups, but relationships among these clades, and the placement of several enigmatic taxa remain uncertain. We suggest a more careful review of Delma australis and the 'northwest Australia' clade. Accurately assessing and addressing species richness and relationships within this endemic Australian Gekkotan genus is relevant for understanding patterns of squamate speciation across the region. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The role of peripheral endemism in species diversification: evidence from the coral reef fish genus Anampses (Family: Labridae).

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    Hodge, Jennifer R; Read, Charmaine I; van Herwerden, Lynne; Bellwood, David R

    2012-02-01

    We examined how peripherally isolated endemic species may have contributed to the biodiversity of the Indo-Australian Archipelago biodiversity hotspot by reconstructing the evolutionary history of the wrasse genus Anampses. We identified three alternate models of diversification: the vicariance-based 'successive division' model, and the dispersal-based 'successive colonisation' and 'peripheral budding' models. The genus was well suited for this study given its relatively high proportion (42%) of endemic species, its reasonably low diversity (12 species), which permitted complete taxon sampling, and its widespread tropical Indo-Pacific distribution. Monophyly of the genus was strongly supported by three phylogenetic analyses: maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference based on mitochondrial CO1 and 12S rRNA and nuclear S7 sequences. Estimates of species divergence times from fossil-calibrated Bayesian inference suggest that Anampses arose in the mid-Eocene and subsequently diversified throughout the Miocene. Evolutionary relationships within the genus, combined with limited spatial and temporal concordance among endemics, offer support for all three alternate models of diversification. Our findings emphasise the importance of peripherally isolated locations in creating and maintaining endemic species and their contribution to the biodiversity of the Indo-Australian Archipelago. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A new genus and species of felt scale (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Eriococcidae) from New Caledonia on an endemic species of Casuarinaceae.

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    Hodgson, Chris; Germain, Jean-franÇois; Matile-Ferrero, DaniÈle

    2018-02-26

    A new genus of Eriococcidae, Dzumacoccus Hodgson gen. n., is erected for a new species, Dzumacoccus baylaci Hodgson, Germain Matile-Ferrero, feeding on Gymnostoma poissonianum, a species of Casuarinaceae endemic to New Caledonia. The adult female and first-instar nymph are described and illustrated.

  20. Molecular adaptation during adaptive radiation in the Hawaiian endemic genus Schiedea.

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    Maxim V Kapralov

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available "Explosive" adaptive radiations on islands remain one of the most puzzling evolutionary phenomena. The rate of phenotypic and ecological adaptations is extremely fast during such events, suggesting that many genes may be under fairly strong selection. However, no evidence for adaptation at the level of protein coding genes was found, so it has been suggested that selection may work mainly on regulatory elements. Here we report the first evidence that positive selection does operate at the level of protein coding genes during rapid adaptive radiations. We studied molecular adaptation in Hawaiian endemic plant genus Schiedea (Caryophyllaceae, which includes closely related species with a striking range of morphological and ecological forms, varying from rainforest vines to woody shrubs growing in desert-like conditions on cliffs. Given the remarkable difference in photosynthetic performance between Schiedea species from different habitats, we focused on the "photosynthetic" Rubisco enzyme, the efficiency of which is known to be a limiting step in plant photosynthesis.We demonstrate that the chloroplast rbcL gene, encoding the large subunit of Rubisco enzyme, evolved under strong positive selection in Schiedea. Adaptive amino acid changes occurred in functionally important regions of Rubisco that interact with Rubisco activase, a chaperone which promotes and maintains the catalytic activity of Rubisco. Interestingly, positive selection acting on the rbcL might have caused favorable cytotypes to spread across several Schiedea species.We report the first evidence for adaptive changes at the DNA and protein sequence level that may have been associated with the evolution of photosynthetic performance and colonization of new habitats during a recent adaptive radiation in an island plant genus. This illustrates how small changes at the molecular level may change ecological species performance and helps us to understand the molecular bases of extremely

  1. A review of the genus Curtisia (Curtisiaceae

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    E. YU Yembaturova

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A review of the monotypic southern African endemic genus Curtisia Aiton is presented. Detailed studies of the fruit and seed structure provided new evidence in support of a close relationship between the family Curtisiaceae and Comaceae. Comparisons with several other members of the Comales revealed carpological similarities to certain species of Comus s.I., sometimes treated as segregate genera Dendrobenthamia Hutch, and Benthamidia Spach. We also provide information on the history of the assegai tree, Curtisia dentata (Burm.f. C.A.Sm. and its uses, as well as a formal taxonomic revision, including nomenclature, typification, detailed description and geographical distribution.

  2. A New Species of the Bay Goby Genus Eucyclogobius, Endemic to Southern California: Evolution, Conservation, and Decline.

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    Camm C Swift

    Full Text Available A geographically isolated set of southern localities of the formerly monotypic goby genus Eucyclogobius is known to be reciprocally monophyletic and substantially divergent in mitochondrial sequence and nuclear microsatellite-based phylogenies relative to populations to the north along the California coast. To clarify taxonomic and conservation status, we conducted a suite of analyses on a comprehensive set of morphological counts and measures from across the range of Eucyclogobius and describe the southern populations as a new species, the Southern Tidewater Goby, Eucyclogobius kristinae, now separate from the Northern Tidewater Goby Eucyclogobius newberryi (Girard 1856. In addition to molecular distinction, adults of E. kristinae are diagnosed by: 1 loss of the anterior supratemporal lateral-line canals resulting in higher neuromast counts, 2 lower pectoral and branched caudal ray counts, and 3 sets of measurements identified via discriminant analysis. These differences suggest ecological distinction of the two species. Previous studies estimated lineage separation at 2-4 million years ago, and mitochondrial sequence divergence exceeds that of other recognized fish species. Fish from Santa Monica Artesian Springs (Los Angeles County northward belong to E. newberryi; those from Aliso Creek (Orange County southward constitute E. kristinae. The lagoonal habitat of Eucyclogobius has been diminished or degraded, leading to special conservation status at state and federal levels beginning in 1980. Habitat of the newly described species has been impacted by a range of anthropogenic activities, including the conversion of closing lagoons to open tidal systems in the name of restoration. In the last 30 years, E. kristinae has only been observed in nine intermittently occupied lagoonal systems in northern San Diego County; it currently persists in only three sites. Thus, the new species is in imminent danger of extinction and will require ongoing active

  3. What happened in the South American Gran Chaco? Diversification of the endemic frog genus Lepidobatrachus Budgett, 1899 (Anura: Ceratophryidae).

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    Brusquetti, Francisco; Netto, Flavia; Baldo, Diego; Haddad, Célio F B

    2018-06-01

    The Chaco is one the most neglected and least studied regions of the world. This highly-seasonal semiarid biome is an extensive continuous plain without any geographic barrier, and in spite of its high species diversity, the events and processes responsible have never been assessed. Miocene marine introgressions and Pleistocene glaciations have been mentioned as putative drivers of diversification for some groups of vertebrates in adjacent biomes of southern South America. Here we used multilocus data (one mitochondrial and six nuclear loci) from the three species of the endemic frog genus Lepidobatrachus (Lepidobatrachus asper, Lepidobatrachus laevis, and Lepidobatrachus llanensis) to determine if any of the historical events suggested as drivers of vertebrate diversification in southern South America are related to the diversification of the genus and if the Chaco is indeed a biome without barriers. Using fossil calibration in a coalescent framework we estimated that the genus diversified in the second half of the Miocene, coinciding with marine introgressions. Genetic patterns and historical demography suggest an important role of old archs and cratons as refuges during floods. In one species of the genus, L. llanensis, genetic structure reveals some breaks along the landscape, the main one of which corresponds to an area of the central Chaco that may act as a climatic barrier. Additionally, we found differential effects of the main Chacoan rivers on species of Lepidobatrachus that could be related to the time of persistence of populations in the areas influenced by these rivers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Monotypic no longer: a new species of Panca Evans (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae: Hesperiinae: Moncini) from South America.

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    Dolibaina, Diego Rodrigo; Carneiro, Eduardo; Mielke, Olaf Hermann Hendrik; Casagrande, Mirna Martins; Lamas, Gerardo

    2017-05-19

    A new species belonging to the previously monotypic genus Panca Evans, 1955, P. moseri Dolibaina, Carneiro & O. Mielke sp. nov., from grasslands areas of Peru, Bolivia and Brazil is described. Adults and male and female genitalia of the new species are illustrated, described in detail, and compared with the type species of the genus, Lerodea subpunctuli Hayward, 1934, and with its externally most similar and sympatric species, Vidius mictra Evans, 1955. The systematic position of the genus Panca and its association with lowland open natural habitats of South America are discussed.

  5. Pharmacological potential and conservation prospect of the genus Eucomis (Hyacinthaceae) endemic to southern Africa.

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    Masondo, Nqobile A; Finnie, Jeffrey F; Van Staden, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    The genus Eucomis (Hyacinthaceae) consists of 10 species that are extensively used in African traditional medicine. This review is an appraisal of current information on the distribution and morphology, traditional uses, pharmacology, toxicology and approaches devised to enhance the conservation of the genus. A systematic and comprehensive literature search using electronic searches such as Scopus, Google Scholar, Web of Science and ethnobotanical books was conducted. Evidence from traditional medicine usage shows wide utilization of this genus for ailments such as respiratory, venereal diseases, rheumatism as well as kidney and bladder infections. Pharmacological screening reported antimicrobial, antiplasmodial, antitumor, cytotoxic, phytotoxic and anti-inflammatory properties. The potential of the genus Eucomis especially in terms of pharmacology cannot be overemphasized. Apart from the anti-inflammatory properties, the antifungal activity of Eucomis remains a valuable reservoir with potential application in the agriculture sector as a source of an affordable biocontrol agent. Based on the speculated toxic constituents in the genus Eucomis, it will be valuable to conduct detailed toxicological studies. Extensive utilization of members of the genus Eucomis is causing severe strain on wild populations. Although conventional propagation has been relatively effective in the alleviation of the declining status, micropropagation of members may be vital to guarantee the conservation of wild populations. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Mitochondrial phylogeny and biogeographic history of the Greek endemic land-snail genus Codringtonia Kobelt 1898 (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Helicidae).

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    Kotsakiozi, Panayiota; Parmakelis, Aristeidis; Giokas, Sinos; Papanikolaou, Irene; Valakos, Efstratios D

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this work was to infer the phylogeny of the Greek endemic land-snail genus Codringtonia Kobelt 1898, estimate the time frame of the radiation of the genus, and propose a biogeographic scenario that could explain the contemporary distribution of Codringtonia lineages. The study took place in the districts of Peloponnese, Central Greece and Epirus of mainland Greece. Sequence data originating from three mtDNA genes (COI, COII, and 16S rDNA) were used to infer the phylogeny of the eight nominal Codringtonia species. Furthermore, the radiation time-frame of extant Codringtonia species was estimated using a relaxed molecular clock analysis and mtDNA substitution rates of land snails. The phylogenetic analysis supported the existence of six Codringtonia lineages in Greece and indicated that one nominal species (Codringtonia neocrassa) might belong to a separate genus distantly related to Codringtonia. The time frame of differentiation of Codringtonia species was placed in the Late Miocene-Pleistocene epoch. The dispersal-vicariance analysis performed indicated that most probably Codringtonia exhibited a north-to-south spread with the ancestral area being that of central Greek mainland, accompanied with duplication (speciation) and vicariance events. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Allopatric diversification, multiple habitat shifts, and hybridization in the evolution of Pericallis (Asteraceae), a Macaronesian endemic genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Katy E; Reyes-Betancort, J Alfredo; Hiscock, Simon J; Carine, Mark A

    2014-04-01

    Geographic isolation, habitat shifts, and hybridization have contributed to the diversification of oceanic island floras. We investigated the contribution of these processes to the diversification of Pericallis, a genus endemic to Macaronesia. Data from the chloroplast psaI-accD and trnV-ndhC regions and the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) were sampled for multiple accessions of all taxa and used to establish phylogenetic hypotheses. Habitat preferences were optimized to investigate habitat shifts, and divergence times were estimated. Species nonmonophyly was investigated using Bayes factors. Much of the diversification in Pericallis has occurred recently, within the past 1.7 Ma. Three habitat shifts have occurred in the evolution of the genus. However, geographic isolation has played a greater role in its diversification. Novel allopatric patterns were revealed within some species, highlighting the significance of geographic isolation in the evolution of Pericallis. One species (P. appendiculata) that resolved as monophyletic in the ITS analysis was polyphyletic in the chloroplast analysis. Bayes factors provide strong support for the nonmonophyly of P. appendiculata haplotypes, and their phylogenetic placement suggests that ancient hybridization is responsible for the haplotype diversity observed. Multiple markers and extensive sampling provided new insights into the evolution of Pericallis. In contrast to previous studies, our results reveal a more significant role for allopatry than habitat shifts and new evidence for ancient hybridization in the evolution of Pericallis. Our study highlights the power of broad taxon sampling for unraveling diversity patterns and processes within oceanic island radiations.

  8. Rostral horn evolution among agamid lizards of the genus ceratophora endemic to Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulte II, James A.; Macey, J. Robert; Pethiyagoda, Rohan; Larson, Allan

    2001-07-10

    The first phylogenetic hypothesis for the Sri Lankan agamid lizard genus Ceratophora is presented based on 1670 aligned base positions (472 parsimony informative) of mitochondrial DNA sequences, representing coding regions for eight tRNAs, ND2, and portions of ND1 and COI. Phylogenetic analysis reveals multiple origins and possibly losses of rostral horns in the evolutionary history of Ceratophora. Our data suggest a middle Miocene origin of Ceratophora with the most recent branching of recognized species occurring at the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary. Haplotype divergence suggests that an outgroup species, Lyriocephalus scutatus, dates at least to the Pliocene. These phylogenetic results provide a framework for comparative studies of the behavioral ecological importance of horn evolution in this group.

  9. Two new giant pill-millipede species of the genus Zoosphaerium endemic to the Bemanevika area in northern Madagascar (Diplopoda, Sphaerotheriida, Arthrosphaeridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagorny, Christina; Wesener, Thomas

    2017-05-09

    Madagascar is one of the world's most important hotspots of biodiversity and a center for localized endemism. Among the highly endemic faunal elements are the giant pill-millipedes, order Sphaerotheriida, which are severely understudied in Madagascar. Here we provide descriptions of two new species of endemic giant-pill millipedes of the genus Zoosphaerium Pocock, 1895: Zoosphaerium bemanevika n. sp. and Zoosphaerium minutus n. sp.. Zoosphaerium bemanevika n. sp. belongs to the Z. coquerelianum species-group, while Z. minutus n. sp. is not assignable to a species-group. An updated key to the 19 species of the Z. coquerelianum group is provided. Zoosphaerium minutus n. sp. has a body length of Madagascar, an only recently protected area that represents a Malagasy center of endemism.

  10. Phylogenetic analyses place the monotypic Dryopolystichum within Lomariopsidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Wei Chen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The monotypic fern genus Dryopolystichum Copel. combines a unique assortment of characters that obscures its relationship to other ferns. Its thin-walled sporangium with a vertical and interrupted annulus, round sorus with peltate indusium, and petiole with several vascular bundles place it in suborder Polypodiineae, but more precise placement has eluded previous authors. Here we investigate its phylogenetic position using three plastid DNA markers, rbcL, rps4-trnS, and trnL-F, and a broad sampling of Polypodiineae. We also provide new data on Dryopolystichum including spore number counts, reproductive mode, spore SEM images, and chromosome counts. Our maximum-likelihood and Bayesian-inference phylogenetic analyses unambiguously place Dryopolystichum within Lomariopsidaceae, a position not previously suggested. Dryopolystichum was resolved as sister to a clade comprising Dracoglossum and Lomariopsis, with Cyclopeltis as sister to these, but clade support is not robust. All examined sporangia of Dryopolystichum produced 32 spores, and the chromosome number of sporophyte somatic cells is ca. 164. Flow cytometric results indicated that the genome size in the spore nuclei is approximately half the size of those from sporophyte leaf tissues, suggesting that Dryopolystichum reproduces sexually. Our findings render Lomariopsidaceae as one of the most morphologically heterogeneous fern families. A recircumscription is provided for both Lomariopsidaceae and Dryopolystichum, and selected characters are briefly discussed considering the newly generated data.

  11. Transcriptome Sequencing and Development of Genic SSR Markers of an Endangered Chinese Endemic Genus Dipteronia Oliver (Aceraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tao; Li, Zhong-Hu; Bai, Guo-Qing; Feng, Li; Chen, Chen; Wei, Yue; Chang, Yong-Xia; Zhao, Gui-Fang

    2016-02-23

    Dipteronia Oliver (Aceraceae) is an endangered Chinese endemic genus consisting of two living species, Dipteronia sinensis and Dipteronia dyeriana. However, studies on the population genetics and evolutionary analyses of Dipteronia have been hindered by limited genomic resources and genetic markers. Here, the generation, de novo assembly and annotation of transcriptome datasets, and a large set of microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers derived from Dipteronia have been described. After Illumina pair-end sequencing, approximately 93.2 million reads were generated and assembled to yield a total of 99,358 unigenes. A majority of these unigenes (53%, 52,789) had at least one blast hit against the public protein databases. Further, 12,377 SSR loci were detected and 4179 primer pairs were designed for experimental validation. Of these 4179 primer pairs, 435 primer pairs were randomly selected to test polymorphism. Our results show that products from 132 primer pairs were polymorphic, in which 97 polymorphic SSR markers were further selected to analyze the genetic diversity of 10 natural populations of Dipteronia. The identification of SSR markers during our research will provide the much valuable data for population genetic analyses and evolutionary studies in Dipteronia.

  12. Two species of Southeast Asian cats in the genus Catopuma with diverging histories: an island endemic forest specialist and a widespread habitat generalist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Riddhi P; Förster, Daniel W; Kitchener, Andrew C; Rayan, Mark D; Mohamed, Shariff W; Werner, Laura; Lenz, Dorina; Pfestorf, Hans; Kramer-Schadt, Stephanie; Radchuk, Viktoriia; Fickel, Jörns; Wilting, Andreas

    2016-10-01

    Background. The bay cat Catopuma badia is endemic to Borneo, whereas its sister species the Asian golden cat Catopuma temminckii is distributed from the Himalayas and southern China through Indochina, Peninsular Malaysia and Sumatra. Based on morphological data, up to five subspecies of the Asian golden cat have been recognized, but a taxonomic assessment, including molecular data and morphological characters, is still lacking. Results. We combined molecular data (whole mitochondrial genomes), morphological data (pelage) and species distribution projections (up to the Late Pleistocene) to infer how environmental changes may have influenced the distribution of these sister species over the past 120 000 years. The molecular analysis was based on sequenced mitogenomes of 3 bay cats and 40 Asian golden cats derived mainly from archival samples. Our molecular data suggested a time of split between the two species approximately 3.16 Ma and revealed very low nucleotide diversity within the Asian golden cat population, which supports recent expansion of the population. Discussion. The low nucleotide diversity suggested a population bottleneck in the Asian golden cat, possibly caused by the eruption of the Toba volcano in Northern Sumatra (approx. 74 kya), followed by a continuous population expansion in the Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene. Species distribution projections, the reconstruction of the demographic history, a genetic isolation-by-distance pattern and a gradual variation of pelage pattern support the hypothesis of a post-Toba population expansion of the Asian golden cat from south China/Indochina to Peninsular Malaysia and Sumatra. Our findings reject the current classification of five subspecies for the Asian golden cat, but instead support either a monotypic species or one comprising two subspecies: (i) the Sunda golden cat, distributed south of the Isthmus of Kra: C. t. temminckii and (ii) Indochinese, Indian, Himalayan and Chinese golden cats

  13. Phylogeographic analysis of the true lemurs (genus Eulemur) underlines the role of river catchments for the evolution of micro-endemism in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markolf, Matthias; Kappeler, Peter M

    2013-11-14

    Due to its remarkable species diversity and micro-endemism, Madagascar has recently been suggested to serve as a biogeographic model region. However, hypothesis-based tests of various diversification mechanisms that have been proposed for the evolution of the island's micro-endemic lineages are still limited. Here, we test the fit of several diversification hypotheses with new data on the broadly distributed genus Eulemur using coalescent-based phylogeographic analyses. Time-calibrated species tree analyses and population genetic clustering resolved the previously polytomic species relationships among eulemurs. The most recent common ancestor of eulemurs was estimated to have lived about 4.45 million years ago (mya). Divergence date estimates furthermore suggested a very recent diversification among the members of the "brown lemur complex", i.e. former subspecies of E. fulvus, during the Pleistocene (0.33-1.43 mya). Phylogeographic model comparisons of past migration rates showed significant levels of gene flow between lineages of neighboring river catchments as well as between eastern and western populations of the redfronted lemur (E. rufifrons). Together, our results are concordant with the centers of endemism hypothesis (Wilmé et al. 2006, Science 312:1063-1065), highlight the importance of river catchments for the evolution of Madagascar's micro-endemic biota, and they underline the usefulness of testing diversification mechanisms using coalescent-based phylogeographic methods.

  14. A multi-locus plastid phylogenetic analysis of the pantropical genus Diospyros (Ebenaceae), with an emphasis on the radiation and biogeographic origins of the New Caledonian endemic species

    OpenAIRE

    Duangjai, S.; Samuel, R.; Munzinger, Jérôme; Forest, F.; Wallnofer, B.; Barfuss, M.H.J.; Fischer, G.; Chase, M. W.

    2009-01-01

    We aimed to clarify phylogenetic relationships within the pantropical genus Diospyros (Ebenaceae sensu lato), and ascertain biogeographical patterns in the New Caledonian endemic species. We used DNA sequences from eight plastid regions (rbcL, atpB, matK, ndhF, trnK intron, trnL intron, trnL-trnF spacer, and trnS-trnG spacer) and included 149 accessions representing 119 Diospyros species in our analysis. Results from this study confirmed the monophyly of Diospyros with good support and provid...

  15. First description of leaf-mining Nepticulidae and Tischeriidae (Insecta, Lepidoptera) feeding on the Chilean endemic plant genus Podanthus Lag. (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonis, Jonas R; Diškus, Arūnas; Remeikis, Andrius; Torres, Nixon Cumbicus

    2016-01-05

    Despite taxonomic and conservation interest in the Chilean endemic plant genus Podanthus Lag. (Asteraceae: subfamily Asteroideae, tribe Heliantheae), no Podanthus-feeding Nepticulidae or Tischeriidae have ever been recorded. Here, on the basis of material reared from Podanthus from central Mediterranean Chile, we present the description of Stigmella podanthae sp. nov. (Nepticulidae) and a re-description of Astrotischeria chilei Puplesis & Diškus, 2003. Females and host-plant of the latter species were previously unknown. Both treated species are illustrated with numerous photographs of the leaf-mines, adults of both sexes, and male and female genitalia.

  16. Enigmatic Ethiopian endemic rodent Muriculus imberbis (Rüppell 1842) represents a separate lineage within genus Mus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Meheretu, Yonas; Šumbera, R.; Bryja, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 1 (2015), s. 15-23 ISSN 0025-1461 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/0983; GA ČR GCP502/11/J070 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Afroalpine * endemic * Ethiopia * Nannomys * phylogeny Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.538, year: 2015

  17. A new scorpion species of genus Diplocentrus Peters, 1861 (Scorpiones: Diplocentridae) endemic to Islas de la Bahia, Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagastume-Espinoza, Kevin O; Longhorn, Stuart J; Santibáñez-López, Carlos E

    2015-07-01

    Three species of genus Diplocentrus are found in north-northwestern Honduras. These species represent the southern east limits of Diplocentrus' distribution. In recent years, a broad survey of arachnids in Honduras has yielded a collection of several specimens of an undescribed species from two islands in northern Honduras. This new species represents the second species of the genus inhabiting an island. The present contribution describes this new species, and compares it against its most similar relatives. A dichotomous key for the identification of the species of Diplocentrus in Honduras is also included. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Why do different oceanic archipelagos harbour contrasting levels of species diversity? The macaronesian endemic genus Pericallis (Asteraceae) provides insight into explaining the 'Azores diversity Enigma'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, K E; Pérez-Espona, S; Reyes-Betancort, J A; Pattinson, D; Caujapé-Castells, J; Hiscock, S J; Carine, M A

    2016-10-08

    Oceanic archipelagos typically harbour extensive radiations of flowering plants and a high proportion of endemics, many of which are restricted to a single island (Single Island Endemics; SIEs). The Azores represents an anomaly as overall levels of endemism are low; there are few SIEs and few documented cases of intra-archipelago radiations. The distinctiveness of the flora was first recognized by Darwin and has been referred to as the 'Azores Diversity Enigma' (ADE). Diversity patterns in the Macaronesian endemic genus Pericallis (Asteraceae) exemplify the ADE. In this study we used morphometric, Amplified Length Polymorphisms, and bioclimatic data for herbaceous Pericallis lineages endemic to the Azores and the Canaries, to test two key hypotheses proposed to explain the ADE: i) that it is a taxonomic artefact or Linnean shortfall, ie. the under description of taxa in the Azores or the over-splitting of taxa in the Canaries and (ii) that it reflects the greater ecological homogeneity of the Azores, which results in limited opportunity for ecological diversification compared to the Canaries. In both the Azores and the Canaries, morphological patterns were generally consistent with current taxonomic classifications. However, the AFLP data showed no genetic differentiation between the two currently recognized Azorean subspecies that are ecologically differentiated. Instead, genetic diversity in the Azores was structured geographically across the archipelago. In contrast, in the Canaries genetic differentiation was mostly consistent with morphology and current taxonomic treatments. Both Azorean and Canarian lineages exhibited ecological differentiation between currently recognized taxa. Neither a Linnean shortfall nor the perceived ecological homogeneity of the Azores fully explained the ADE-like pattern observed in Pericallis. Whilst variation in genetic data and morphological data in the Canaries were largely congruent, this was not the case in the Azores, where

  19. A multi-locus plastid phylogenetic analysis of the pantropical genus Diospyros (Ebenaceae), with an emphasis on the radiation and biogeographic origins of the New Caledonian endemic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duangjai, Sutee; Samuel, Rosabelle; Munzinger, Jérôme; Forest, Félix; Wallnöfer, Bruno; Barfuss, Michael H J; Fischer, Gunter; Chase, Mark W

    2009-09-01

    We aimed to clarify phylogenetic relationships within the pantropical genus Diospyros (Ebenaceae sensulato), and ascertain biogeographical patterns in the New Caledonian endemic species. We used DNA sequences from eight plastid regions (rbcL, atpB, matK, ndhF, trnK intron, trnL intron, trnL-trnF spacer, and trnS-trnG spacer) and included 149 accessions representing 119 Diospyros species in our analysis. Results from this study confirmed the monophyly of Diospyros with good support and provided a clearer picture of the relationships within the genus than in previous studies. Evidence from phylogenetic analyses suggests that Diospyros colonized New Caledonia multiple times. The four lineages of Diospyros in New Caledonia also differ in their degree of diversification. The molecular data indicate that one lineage is paleoendemic and derived from an ancient Australian species. The other three lineages are more closely related to several Southeast Asian species; two of them are neoendemics, and one has radiated rapidly and recently.

  20. High diversity and endemism in the genus Cautires Waterhouse, 1879 (Coleoptera: Lycidae from the Malay mountain forests, with the descriptions of fourteen new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Jiruskova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We identified a high diversity in the net-winged beetles of the genus Cautires in Peninsular Malaysia. Fourteen new species are described: Cautires alexae sp. nov., C. andujari sp. nov., C. arribasae sp. nov., C. berembanensis sp. nov., C. campestris sp. nov., C. communis sp. nov., C. jasarensis sp. nov., C. katarinae sp. nov., C. kirstenae sp. nov., C. kotatinggensis sp. nov., C. linardi sp. nov., C. maseki sp. nov., C. pahangensis sp. nov. and C. renatae sp. nov. Seven previously described species are discussed, illustrated and differential diagnoses provided; all species are keyed. The Cautires species differ in a limited number of diagnostic characters, namely in the shape of male antennae, the relative size of eyes and in the shape of the male genitalia. The females are difficult to assign to a conspecific male due to high intraspecific variability. The characteristically low dispersal propensity of net-winged beetles lead to the evolution of the unique fauna in the Malay mountains and despite an extensive study of the type material we recorded only a single species of Cautires occurring simultaneously in Sumatra. We suggest that the Malay mountain fauna is highly endemic and evolved in situ.

  1. Molecular phylogeny, species limits, and biogeography of the Brazilian endemic lizard genus Enyalius (Squamata: Leiosauridae): an example of the historical relationship between Atlantic Forests and Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut; Bertolotto, Carolina Elena Viña; Amaro, Renata Cecília; Yonenaga-Yassuda, Yatiyo; Freire, Eliza Maria Xavier; Pellegrino, Katia Cristina Machado

    2014-12-01

    The endemic Brazilian Enyalius encompasses a diverse group of forest lizards with most species restricted to the Atlantic Forest (AF). Their taxonomy is problematic due to extensive variation in color pattern and external morphology. We present the first phylogenetic hypothesis for the genus based on 2102 bp of the mtDNA (cyt-b, ND4, and 16S) and nuclear (c-mos) regions, uncovering all previously admitted taxa (9 spp). Different methods of tree reconstruction were explored with Urostrophus vautieri, Anisolepis grilli and A. longicauda as outgroups. The monophyly of Enyalius and its split into two deeply divergent clades (late Oligocene and early Miocene) is strongly supported. Clade A assembles most lineages restricted to south and southeastern Brazil, and within it Enyalius brasiliensis is polyphyletic; herein full species status of E. brasiliensis and E. boulengeri is resurrected. Clade B unites the Amazonian E. leechii as sister-group to a major clade containing E. bilineatus as sister-group to all remaining species from northeastern Brazil. We detected unrecognized diversity in several populations suggesting putative species. Biogeographical analyses indicate that Enyalius keeps fidelity to shadowed forests, with few cases of dispersal into open regions. Ancient dispersal into the Amazon from an AF ancestor may have occurred through northeastern Brazil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. An integrative approach to understanding the evolution and diversity of Copiapoa (Cactaceae), a threatened endemic Chilean genus from the Atacama Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larridon, Isabel; Walter, Helmut E; Guerrero, Pablo C; Duarte, Milén; Cisternas, Mauricio A; Hernández, Carol Peña; Bauters, Kenneth; Asselman, Pieter; Goetghebeur, Paul; Samain, Marie-Stéphanie

    2015-09-01

    Species of the endemic Chilean cactus genus Copiapoa have cylindrical or (sub)globose stems that are solitary or form (large) clusters and typically yellow flowers. Many species are threatened with extinction. Despite being icons of the Atacama Desert and well loved by cactus enthusiasts, the evolution and diversity of Copiapoa has not yet been studied using a molecular approach. Sequence data of three plastid DNA markers (rpl32-trnL, trnH-psbA, ycf1) of 39 Copiapoa taxa were analyzed using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference approaches. Species distributions were modeled based on geo-referenced localities and climatic data. Evolution of character states of four characters (root morphology, stem branching, stem shape, and stem diameter) as well as ancestral areas were reconstructed using a Bayesian and maximum likelihood framework, respectively. Clades of species are revealed. Though 32 morphologically defined species can be recognized, genetic diversity between some species and infraspecific taxa is too low to delimit their boundaries using plastid DNA markers. Recovered relationships are often supported by morphological and biogeographical patterns. The origin of Copiapoa likely lies between southern Peru and the extreme north of Chile. The Copiapó Valley limited colonization between two biogeographical areas. Copiapoa is here defined to include 32 species and five heterotypic subspecies. Thirty species are classified into four sections and two subsections, while two species remain unplaced. A better understanding of evolution and diversity of Copiapoa will allow allocating conservation resources to the most threatened lineages and focusing conservation action on real biodiversity. © 2015 Botanical Society of America.

  3. The upper reaches of the largest river in Southern China as an “evolutionary front” of tropical plants: Evidences from Asia-endemic genus Hiptage (Malpighiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren, M. X.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The biodiversity hotspot at the Guizhou–Yunnan–Guangxi borders is a distribution centre of tropical plants in China. It spans the whole upper reaches of Zhujiang River, the largest river in Southern China. In this paper, I aimed to explore the roles of the river in the spread and diversification of tropical plants in this area, using the Asia-endemic genus Hiptage Gaertn. (Malpighiaceae as an example. Two diversity and endemism centres of Hiptage are recognized: Indo-China Peninsula and upper reaches of Zhujiang River (UZJ. The area-adjusted endemism index further indicates UZJ as the most important distribution region of endemic species since UZJ has a very small area (~210,000 km2 but six out of the total seven species are narrow endemics. UZJ is located at the northern edge of distribution ranges of Hiptage, which resulted mainly from the north-west–south-east river systems of UZJ promoting northward spreads of this tropical genus. The highly-fragmented limestone landscapes in this region may promote habitat isolation and tends to be the main driving factor for origins of these endemic species. Hiptage is also distinctive for its highly-specialized pollination system, mirror-image flowers, which probably facilitates species diversification via floral and pollination isolation. Other studies also found UZJ as a major diversification centre of the tropical plant families Gesneriaceae and Begoniaceae. Thereafter, it is concluded that UZJ is an “evolutionary front” of tropical plants in China, which contributes significantly to the origin and maintenance of the unique biodiversity in the area.El hotspot de biodiversidad en las fronteras de las provincias Guizhou-Yunnan- Guangxi es un centro de distribución de plantas tropicales en China. Se extiende por toda la cuenca alta del río Zhujiang, el mayor río del sur de China. En este artículo, se explora el papel del río en la propagación y la diversificación de las plantas tropicales

  4. A new species of the genus Linoderus Sharp, 1885 (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Philonthina) from the Colombian Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-García, Margarita M; Méndez-Rojas, Diana M

    2014-05-09

    The monotypic genus Linoderus Sharp, 1885 was described based on a species from Panama and since the original description nearly nothing has been added to its taxonomical knowledge. The aim of the present paper is to describe a new species of the genus from Colombia and to report the genus for the first time from South America, adding some biological notes of the species.

  5. Taxonomic revision of the afrotropical genus Megatrigon Johnson, 1898 (Diptera: Syrphidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doczkal, Dieter; Radenković, Snežana; Lyneborg, Leif

    2016-01-01

    The genus-group taxon Megatrigon Johnson, 1898, stat. nov., is revised and treated as a valid genus within the Merodontini (= Eumerini). Extensive diagnoses are given for the genus and for its three constituent species groups: argenteus group [11 spp.], nivalis group [monotypic], sexfasciatus group...

  6. A two-gene phylogeny shows the lichen genus Niebla (Lecanorales) is endemic to the New World and does not occur in Macaronesia nor in the Mediterranean basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sérusiaux, Emmanuël; van den Boom, Pieter; Ertz, Damien

    2010-07-01

    The generic segregates of the widespread fruticose genus Ramalina (mostly based on empirical data on morphology, cortex anatomy and secondary metabolites) are studied using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses of nuclear LSU and ITS sequences. The species examined include the three species aggregates within Niebla from the western coasts of North America, all species except one assumed to belong to the same genus from Macaronesia and the Mediterranean basin, the type species of Dievernia and Ramalina, and representatives of the genus Fistulariella. The genus Niebla is strongly supported when restricted to species from the New World, and all species referred to it from Macaronesia and the Mediterranean basin belong to Ramalina (R. bourgeana, R. crispatula, R. cupularis, R. hamulosa, R. portosantana, R. rosacea, R. subwebbiana and R. webbii). No support is found for the genera Dievernia and Fistulariella. The internal topology of the large genus Ramalina is unresolved and needs further studies. Copyright © 2010 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A new species of the genus Sagitta (Phylum Chaetognatha) from the Agatti lagoon (Laccadive Archipelago, Indian Ocean) with comments on endemism

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Casanova, J.P.; Nair, V.R.

    that the species is endemic to this lagoon. It appears that isolated waters of lagoons promote speciation as this as well as another species dwelling in the area were found to be new to science. Isolation from surrounding neritic populations of chaetognaths...

  8. Ecological niche models and patterns of richness and endemism of the southern Andean genus Eurymetopum (Coleoptera, Cleridae Modelos de nicho ecológico y patrones de riqueza y endemismo del género andino austral Eurymetopum (Coleoptera, Cleridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Escalante

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Eurymetopum is an Andean clerid genus with 22 species. We modeled the ecological niches of 19 species with Maxent and used them as potential distributional maps to identify patterns of richness and endemicity. All modeled species maps were overlapped in a single map in order to determine richness. We performed an optimality analysis with NDM/VNDM in a grid of 1º latitude-longitude in order to identify endemism. We found a highly rich area, located between 32º and 41º south latitude, where the richest pixels have 16 species. One area of endemism was identified, located in the Maule and Valdivian Forest biogeographic provinces, which extends also to the Santiago province of the Central Chilean subregion, and contains four endemic species (E. parallelum, E. prasinum, E. proteus, and E. viride, as well as 16 non-endemic species. The sympatry of these phylogenetically unrelated species might indicate ancient vicariance processes, followed by episodes of dispersal. Based on our results, we suggest a close relationship between these provinces, with the Maule representing a complex area.Eurymetopum es un género de cléridos andinos con 22 especies. Modelamos los nichos ecológicos de 19 especies con Maxent y los utilizamos como mapas de distribución potencial para identificar patrones de riqueza y endemismo. Todos los mapas de las especies se superpusieron en un mapa único para determinar la riqueza. Realizamos un análisis de optimalidad con NDM/VNDM en una cuadrícula de 1º de latitud-longitud para identificar el endemismo. Hallamos un área de mayor riqueza, localizada entre los 32º y 41º de latitud sur, donde los pixeles más ricos poseen 16 especies. Se identificó un área de endemismo en las provincias biogeográficas del Maule y el Bosque Valdiviano, la cual se extiende también a la provincia de Santiago de la subregión Chilena Central, y que contiene cuatro especies endémicas (E. parallelum, E. prasinum, E. proteus y E. viride, as

  9. Cryptic genetic diversity is paramount in small-bodied amphibians of the genus Euparkerella (Anura: Craugastoridae endemic to the Brazilian Atlantic forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana A Fusinatto

    Full Text Available Morphological similarity associated to restricted distributions and low dispersal abilities make the direct developing "Terrarana" frogs of the genus Euparkerella a good model for examining diversification processes. We here infer phylogenetic relationships within the genus Euparkerella, using DNA sequence data from one mitochondrial and four nuclear genes coupled with traditional Bayesian phylogenetic reconstruction approaches and more recent coalescent methods of species tree inference. We also used Bayesian clustering analysis and a recent Bayesian coalescent-based approach specifically to infer species delimitation. The analysis of 39 individuals from the four known Euparkerella species uncovered high levels of genetic diversity, especially within the two previously morphologically-defined E. cochranae and E. brasiliensis. Within these species, the gene trees at five independent loci and trees from combined data (concatenated dataset and the species tree uncovered six deeply diverged and geographically coherent evolutionary units, which may have diverged between the Miocene and the Pleistocene. These six units were also uncovered in the Bayesian clustering analysis, and supported by the Bayesian coalescent-based species delimitation (BPP, and Genealogical Sorting Index (GSI, providing thus strong evidence for underestimation of the current levels of diversity within Euparkerella. The cryptic diversity now uncovered opens new opportunities to examine the origins and maintenance of microendemism in the context of spatial heterogeneity and/or human induced fragmentation of the highly threatened Brazilian Atlantic forest hotspot.

  10. Species composition and relative abundance of sand flies of the genus Lutzomyia (Diptera: Psychodidae) at an endemic focus of visceral leishmaniasis in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, C; Morrison, A C; Torres, M; Pardo, R; Wilson, M L; Tesh, R B

    1995-07-01

    Ecological studies on the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) were conducted during 1990-1993 at a small rural community in Colombia where American visceral leishmaniasis is endemic. Weekly sand fly collections were made from pigpens, houses, and natural resting sites, using hand-held aspirators, sticky (oiled) paper traps, and opossum-baited Disney traps. In total, 263,094 sand flies were collected; L. longipalpis predominated (86.1%), followed by L. trinidadensis (11.0%), L. cayennensis (2.7%), and 8 other Lutzomyia species. The species composition and sex ratio of these sand flies varied among sites and by collection method. L. longipalpis were captured most efficiently by direct aspiration from animal bait. Conversely, sticky paper traps, especially inside houses and at rock resting sites, collected a greater diversity of species, but a lower relative abundance of L. longipalpis.

  11. An integrative taxonomic review of the agamid genus Bronchocela (Kuhl, 1820) from Peninsular Malaysia with descriptions of new montane and insular endemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grismer, L Lee; Wood, P L; Lee, Cheol Haeng; Quah, Evan S H; Anuar, Shahrul; Ngadi, Ehwan; Sites, Jack W

    2015-04-20

    An integrative taxonomic analysis is used to identify and describe two new species of the agamid genus Bronchocela (Kuhl) from Peninsular Malaysia: an upland species B. shenlong sp. nov. from Bukit Larut, Perak in the Bintang Mountain Range and Parit Falls, Cameron Highlands, Pahang in the Titiwangsa Mountain Range and an insular species, B. rayaensis sp. nov., from Pulau Langkawi, Kedah off the northwest coast on the border with Thailand. Both species are diagnosed from each other and all other species of Bronchocela on the basis of body shape, scale morphology, and color pattern. The analysis also demonstrates the remarkable genetic similarity of B. cristatella (Kuhl) throughout 1120 km of its range from northern Peninsular Malaysia to western Borneo despite its highly variable coloration and pattern. The two new species are appended to a rapidly growing list of newly described lizard species (60 to date) from Peninsular Malaysia tallied within the last decade.

  12. Taxonomy of the ant genus Nesomyrmex Wheeler (Formicidae, Myrmicinae in the Afrotropical region, with a review of current species groups and description of a new species of the N. angulatus group from Mozambique

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    Francisco Hita Garcia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reviews the taxonomy of the ant genus Nesomyrmex Wheeler, 1910 in the Afrotropical region. Previous revisionary studies are discussed and four species groups are proposed on the basis of external morphology. The N. angulatus group contains seven species that are widely distributed throughout the whole Afrotropical region, with one species also occurring in the Palaearctic and Malagasy regions. The N. cataulacoides group is monotypic, with one morphologically bizarre species found in Equatorial rain forests. The N. humerosus group is also monotypic and occurs in East Africa. The last and by far most species-rich group is the N. simoni group that contains 17 species, all of which are endemic to South Africa. The four groups are defined for the first time for the region, and an illustrated identification key is provided. Furthermore, the N. angulatus group is more thoroughly reviewed. One new species from Mozambique is described, N. inhaca sp. nov., and species accounts for the other six are provided. Also, an illustrated identification key to the species of the N. angulatus group is presented.

  13. Mono-Type TFT Logic Architectures for Low Power Systems on Panel Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yifan; Lee, Sungsik; Holburn, David Michael; Nathan, Arokia

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces novel 7-T pseudo-CMOS for enhancement mode and 6-T pseudo-CMOS for depletion mode inverter circuit architectures. The designs are built around mono-type of TFTs and consume less power consumption than existing 4-T pseudo-CMOS circuits. In addition, they provide steep transfer curves, along with embedded control for compensation of device parameter variations. Analysis of the transient behavior for the various circuit architectures is presented, providing quantitative ins...

  14. Population genetic structure of Monimopetalum chinense (Celastraceae), an endangered endemic species of eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Guo-Wen; Wang, De-Lian; Yuan, Yong-Ming; Ge, Xue-Jun

    2005-04-01

    Monimopetalum chinense (Celastraceae) standing for the monotypic genus is endemic to eastern China. Its conservation status is vulnerable as most populations are small and isolated. Monimopetalum chinense is capable of reproducing both sexually and asexually. The aim of this study was to understand the genetic structure of M. chinense and to suggest conservation strategies. One hundred and ninety individuals from ten populations sampled from the entire distribution area of M. chinense were investigated by using inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR). A total of 110 different ISSR bands were generated using ten primers. Low levels of genetic variation were revealed both at the species level (Isp=0.183) and at the population level (Ipop=0.083). High clonal diversity (D = 0.997) was found, and strong genetic differentiation among populations was detected (49.06 %). Small population size, possible inbreeding, limited gene flow due to short distances of seed dispersal, fragmentation of the once continuous range and subsequent genetic drift, may have contributed to shaping the population genetic structure of the species.

  15. THE GENUS CULLENIA Wight * (Bombacaceae

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    A. J. G. H. KOSTERMANS

    1956-12-01

    Full Text Available The monotypic genus Cullenia was established by Wight (IconesPI. Ind. or. 5 (1 : pi. 1761—62 & text, 1851, who differentiated it fromDurio Adans. mainly by the lack of a corolla and the position and shapeof the anthers. The only species, originally described as Durio ceylanicusby Gardner, was cited by Wight as Cullenia excelsa Wight. K. Schumanncorrected the specific epithet rather casually and atributed it (wronglyto Wight. Bentham (in Benth. & Hook., Gen. pi. 1: 212. 1867; Baillon(Hist. pi. 4: 159. 1872, Masters (in Hook, f., Fl. Br. Ind. 1: 350. 1874and Beccari (Malesia 3: 219. 1889 accepted the genus.Bakhuizen van den Brink (in Bull. Jard. bot. Buitenzorg III, 6: 228.1924 incorporated the genus in Durio.In my opinion Cullenia represents a "good" genus by its lack ofcorolla. Alston, although accepting Bakhuizen's reduction, informed mepersonally, that he, too, is inclined to consider Cullenia different fromDurio.The pollen were described as being naked and pedicellate by Gardner;this wrong statement was corrected by Wight; the anthers are pedicellateand one-celled.In this paper a new Cullenia species is described, which strengthensthe position of the genus; both species are restricted to the rain forestregion of Ceylon and the Southern Indian Peninsula.

  16. Meringodes Wappes and Lingafelter (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae), a new genus of Rhopalophorini from Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meringodes Wappes and Lingafelter, a monotypic new genus of Rhopalophorini, is described from Santa Cruz Department, Bolivia. Meringodes is most similar to Disaulax Audinet-Serville, although it also possesses characters of Thalusia Thomson and Cosmisoma Audinet-Serville. A diagnosis and descripti...

  17. Epitope Dampening Monotypic Measles Virus Hemagglutinin Glycoprotein Results in Resistance to Cocktail of Monoclonal Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Patrycja J.; Tobin, Gregory J.; Bushnell, Ruth; Gutschenritter, Emily; Pham, Linh D.; Nace, Rebecca; Verhoeyen, Els; Cosset, François-Loïc; Muller, Claude P.; Russell, Stephen J.; Nara, Peter L.

    2013-01-01

    The measles virus (MV) is serologically monotypic. Life-long immunity is conferred by a single attack of measles or following vaccination with the MV vaccine. This is contrary to viruses such as influenza, which readily develop resistance to the immune system and recur. A better understanding of factors that restrain MV to one serotype may allow us to predict if MV will remain monotypic in the future and influence the design of novel MV vaccines and therapeutics. MV hemagglutinin (H) glycoprotein, binds to cellular receptors and subsequently triggers the fusion (F) glycoprotein to fuse the virus into the cell. H is also the major target for neutralizing antibodies. To explore if MV remains monotypic due to a lack of plasticity of the H glycoprotein, we used the technology of Immune Dampening to generate viruses with rationally designed N-linked glycosylation sites and mutations in different epitopes and screened for viruses that escaped monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). We then combined rationally designed mutations with naturally selected mutations to generate a virus resistant to a cocktail of neutralizing mAbs targeting four different epitopes simultaneously. Two epitopes were protected by engineered N-linked glycosylations and two epitopes acquired escape mutations via two consecutive rounds of artificial selection in the presence of mAbs. Three of these epitopes were targeted by mAbs known to interfere with receptor binding. Results demonstrate that, within the epitopes analyzed, H can tolerate mutations in different residues and additional N-linked glycosylations to escape mAbs. Understanding the degree of change that H can tolerate is important as we follow its evolution in a host whose immunity is vaccine induced by genotype A strains instead of multiple genetically distinct wild-type MVs. PMID:23300970

  18. Taxonomic notes on the genus Bellenden Chandler (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Pselaphinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zi-Wei; Jiang, Ri-Xin

    2016-01-01

    The monotypic genus Buobellenden Yin & Nomura, 2009 is placed as a junior synonym of Bellenden Chandler, 2001. This act results in Bellenden jingyuanensis (Yin & Nomura), comb. n. (from Buobellenden ). A new species, Bellenden siguniang Yin & Jang, sp. n. , collected from the alpine area in Sichuan, SW China, is described, illustrated, and distinguished from all congeners. A new illustration of the aedeagus of Buobellenden jingyuanensis is given.

  19. Development and morphology of the fruit and seed of the hemiparasite genus Jodina (Cervantesiaceae

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    María Luján Luna

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The monotypic genus Jodina is endemic to central and southeastern South America, common in forests and scrubland environments. The fruit type in Jodina is controversial since it has been described at different stages of development. The main objective of this work was to analyze the morphology of the fruit of J. rhombifolia during its maturation to attain a consensus about its type. Also characteristics of seed development and anatomy were analyzed in detail. Material was processed according to conventional techniques for LM and SEM studies. The fruit of J. rhombifolia is a pseudodrupe since the ovary is half-inferior; the fleshy layer of the pericarp is constituted by an increase of the nectary disk whereas the stony layer is represented by the mesocarp. Participation of the nectary disk as part of the fruit wall has not been mentioned previously. The seed is “naked” —the integument disintegrates during development— and the resulting structure is a pyrene. The interpretations made by other authors on the fruit of Jodina are also discussed.

  20. Taxonomic revision of the genus Hirotophora Brown et al. (Diptera: Phoridae) with the description of a new species from Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ament, Danilo cÉsar

    2018-03-16

    The monotypic genus Hirotophora Brown et al. is revised, with a new species from Chile, Hirotophora chilensis sp. nov., described, and Chaetopleurophora dividua and Chaetopleurophora flavimarginata transferred to this genus. The addition of these species is based on the genus diagnosis, which is amended here, and on the synapomorphies recognized for Hirotophora. All species of the genus are extensively illustrated and new diagnostic characters are described. Females of Hirotophora are more structurally divergent than males, which show almost no conspicuous differences in the male terminalia among the species. This is an uncommon scenario for the subfamily Phorinae, and may relate to still-unknown life history particularities of the species of this genus.

  1. Immature stages and phylogenetic importance of Astrapaeus, a rove beetle genus of puzzling systematic position (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Staphylinini)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pietrykowska-Tudruj, E.; Staniec, B.; Wojas, T.; Alexey, A.

    2014-01-01

    For the first time eggs, larvae and pupae obtained by rearing are described for Astrapaeus, a monotypic West Palearctic rove beetle genus of a puzzling phylogenetic position within the megadiverse tribe Staphylinini. Morphology of the immature stages of Astrapaeus ulmi is compared to that of other

  2. Multi-gene phylogeny of jacks and pompanos (Carangidae), including placement of monotypic vadigo Campogramma glaycos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damerau, M; Freese, M; Hanel, R

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the phylogenetic trees of jacks and pompanos (Carangidae), an ecologically and morphologically diverse, globally distributed fish family, are inferred from a complete, concatenated data set of two mitochondrial (cytochrome c oxidase I, cytochrome b) loci and one nuclear (myosin heavy chain 6) locus. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inferences are largely congruent and show a clear separation of Carangidae into the four subfamilies: Scomberoidinae, Trachinotinae, Naucratinae and Caranginae. The inclusion of the carangid sister lineages Coryphaenidae (dolphinfishes) and Rachycentridae (cobia), however, render Carangidae paraphyletic. The phylogenetic trees also show with high statistical support that the monotypic vadigo Campogramma glaycos is the sister to all other species within the Naucratinae. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  3. Taxonomy of the genus Brachyteles Spix, 1823 and its phylogenetic position within the subfamily Atelinae Gray, 1825

    OpenAIRE

    José Eduardo Serrano Villavicencio

    2016-01-01

    Muriquis, genus Brachyteles Spix, 1823, are the largest of the extant New World primates, and they are one of the three extant genera of the subfamily Atelinae along with Ateles (spider monkeys) and Lagothrix (wooly monkeys). The taxonomy of Brachyteles has constantly changed since its first description in the 19th century. First treated as a monotypic genus, and after several modifications in the number of species, Brachyteles currently contains two species, B. arachnoides (Southern muriqui)...

  4. Phylogeny and colonization history of Pringlea antiscorbutica (Brassicaceae), an emblematic endemic from the South Indian Ocean Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartish, Igor V; Aïnouche, Abdelkader; Jia, Dongrui; Bergstrom, Dana; Chown, Steven L; Winkworth, Richard C; Hennion, Françoise

    2012-11-01

    The origins and evolution of sub-Antarctic island floras are not well understood. In particular there is uncertainty about the ages of the contemporary floras and the ultimate origins of the lineages they contain. Pringlea R. Br. (Brassicaceae) is a monotypic genus endemic to four sub-Antarctic island groups in the southern Indian Ocean. Here we used sequences from both the chloroplast and nuclear genomes to examine the phylogenetic position of this enigmatic genus. Our analyses confirm that Pringlea falls within the tribe Thelypodieae and provide a preliminary view of its relationships within the group. Divergence time estimates and ancestral area reconstructions imply Pringlea diverged from a South American ancestor ~5 Myr ago. It remains unclear whether the ancestor of Pringlea dispersed directly to the South Indian Ocean Province (SIOP) or used Antarctica as a stepping-stone; what is clear, however, is that following arrival in the SIOP several additional long-distance dispersal events must be inferred to explain the current distribution of this species. Our analyses also suggest that although Pringlea is likely to have inherited cold tolerance from its closest relatives, the distinctive morphology of this species evolved only after it split from the South American lineage. More generally, our results lend support to the hypothesis that angiosperms persisted on the sub-Antarctic islands throughout the Pliocene and Pleistocene. Taken together with evidence from other sub-Antarctic island plant groups, they suggest the extant flora of sub-Antarctic is likely to have been assembled over a broad time period and from lineages with distinctive biogeographic histories. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Aspidonepsis (Asclepiadaceae, a new southern African genus

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    A. Nicholas

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available Aspidonepsis, an endemic southern African genus, is described and compared to the closely allied genus Aspidoglossum. This newly described genus is composed of two subgenera, Aspidonepsis and Unguilobium. consisting of three and two species respectively.  Asclepias diploglossa, A. flava, A. cognata and A. reneensis are transferred to Aspidonepsis. and A. shebae is newly described. All species are discussed, illustrated and a key is given to aid in their identification.

  6. Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae) with oral rim ducts; description of a new genus and species from Turkey, and discussion of their higher classification within the Pseudococcidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaydan, Mehmet Bora; Szita, Éva

    2017-02-03

    A new monotypic mealybug genus with oral rim ducts, Bromusicoccus Kaydan gen. n. (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae: Pseudococcinae), is described from Turkey. The higher classification of mealybug genera with oral rim tubular ducts worldwide is discussed and a key is provided to separate them.

  7. [Etiological factors of carpal tunnel syndrome in subjects occupationally exposed to monotype wrist movements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewańska, Magdalena; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta

    2014-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common neuropathy of upper limbs and a leading cause of upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders, in terms of work exposure, repetitive and forceful exertions of the hand and use of vibrating hand tools. The aim of the study was to evaluate etiological factors of carpal tunnel syndrome in subjects occupationally exposed to monotype movements in wrist. We conducted the retrospective analysis of 300 patients (261 women, 39 men), mean age 52 years (standard deviation: +/-6.93) hospitalized with the suspicion of occupational CTS. The study revealed high percentage (68.7%) of diseases and systemic factors involved in the pathogenesis of CTS in the analyzed population, especially obesity (32%), thyroid diseases (28.7%), hormone replacement therapy and/or oophorectomy (16.3%) and diabetes mellitus (12%). In 111 patients the coexistence of at least a couple of potential etiological factors of the neuropathy was recognized. Clinical analysis and occupational exposure allowed to diagnose occupational carpal tunnel syndrome in 18 (6%) patients only. The undeniable long-term (20(.2+/-9.3 years) occupational exposure to repetitive, forceful movements in the wrist was observed in this group. The results of our study indicated that non-occupational etiological factors of CTS predominated and in 37% of patients at least several factors were found. The analysis showed the high prevalence of CTS in workers employed in various sectors of industry, including so called "blue collar" workers. Our study confirmed the multifactorial etiology of carpal tunnel syndrome, however, occupational agents contributed to only 6% of cases.

  8. Etiological factors of carpal tunnel syndrome in subjects occupationally exposed to monotype wrist movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Lewańska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS is the most common neuropathy of upper limbs and a leading cause of upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders, in terms of work exposure, repetitive and forceful exertions of the hand and use of vibrating hand tools. The aim of the study was to evaluate etiological factors of carpal tunnel syndrome in subjects occupationally exposed to monotype movements in wrist. Material and Methods: We conducted the retrospective analysis of 300 patients (261 women, 39 men, mean age 52 years (standard deviation: ±6.93 hospitalized with the suspicion of occupational CTS. Results: The study revealed high percentage (68.7% of diseases and systemic factors involved in the pathogenesis of CTS in the analyzed population, especially obesity (32%, thyroid diseases (28.7%, hormone replacement therapy and/or oophorectomy (16.3% and diabetes mellitus (12%. In 111 patients the coexistence of at least a couple of potential etiological factors of the neuropathy was recognized. Clinical analysis and occupational exposure allowed to diagnose occupational carpal tunnel syndrome in 18 (6% patients only. The undeniable long-term (20.2±9.3 years occupational exposure to repetitive, forceful movements in the wrist was observed in this group. Conclusion: The results of our study indicated that non-occupational etiological factors of CTS predominated and in 37% of patients at least several factors were found. The analysis showed the high prevalence of CTS in workers employed in various sectors of industry, including so called "blue collar" workers. Our study confirmed the multifactorial etiology of carpal tunnel syndrome, however, occupational agents contributed to only 6% of cases. Med Pr 2014;65(2:261–270

  9. Revision of Annesijoa, Elateriospermum and the introduced species of Hevea in Malesia (Euphorbiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sam, Hoang Van; Welzen, van P.C.

    2004-01-01

    Annesijoa is an endemic monotypic genus from New Guinea with as single species A. novoguineensis. Elateriospermum is also monotypic (E. tapos) and found in West Malesia. The South American genus Hevea comprises about 10 species. One species (H. brasiliensis) is presently cultivated worldwide in

  10. A new genus and new species of felt scales (Homoptera: Coccinea: Eriococcidae from Tierra del Fuego (Chile

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    Ilya A. Gavrilov-Zimin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Telmatococcus igniumterrae gen. nov. et sp. nov. is described and illustrated based on the material collected from a sphagnum bog in the extreme southern part of South America (Tierra del Fuego. The new monotypic genus differs from all known genera of Eriococcidae in having short cylindrical truncated setae of the anal apparatus and pouches with numerous quinquelocular pores near the anal apparatus. The habitat of the new taxon is characterized.

  11. A new endemic representative of the genus Rascioduvalius S. B. Ćurčić, Brajković, Mitić & B. P. M. Ćurčić from Mt. Zlatibor, Western Serbia (Trechini, Carabidae, Coleoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćurčić Srećko B.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A new species of cavernicolous and endemic trechine ground beetles Rascioduvalis zlatiborensis n. sp., is described and diagnosed in the present paper. Also, all important taxonomic features are considered and illustrated. The type specimens of the new species were collected from the Markova (= Ršumska Pećina Cave, village of Gornji Ljubiš, Mt. Zlatibor, Western Serbia. The new species and its congeners belong to a separate phyletic lineage of Tertiary age. All members of Rascioduvalius S. B. Ćurčić, Brajković, Mitić & B. P. M. Ćurčić are distributed in Western Serbia only, where they have gone through intense differentiation and radiation due to evolution of the karstic relief.

  12. A new species of karst forest Bent-toed Gecko (genus Cyrtodactylus Gray) not yet threatened by foreign cement companies and a summary of Peninsular Malaysia's endemic karst forest herpetofauna and the need for its conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grismer, L Lee; Wood, P L Jr; Anuar, Shahrul; Davis, H R; Cobos, A J; Murdoch, M L

    2016-01-04

    A new species of Bent-toed Gecko, Cyrtodactylus gunungsenyumensis sp. nov. of the sworderi complex, is described from Hutan Lipur Gunung Senyum, Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia and is differentiated from all other species in the sworderi complex by having a unique combination of characters including a maximum SVL of 74.7 mm; low, rounded, weakly keeled, body tubercles; 34-40 paravertebral tubercles; weak ventrolateral body fold lacking tubercles; 38-41 ventral scales; an abrupt transition between the posterior and ventral femoral scales; 20-23 subdigital lamellae on the fourth toe; enlarged femoral scales; no femoral or precloacal pores; no precloacal groove; wide caudal bands; and an evenly banded dorsal pattern. Cyrtodactylus gunungsenyumensis sp. nov. is a scansorial, karst forest-adapted specialist endemic to the karst ecosystem surrounding Gunung Senyum and occurs on the vertical walls of the limestone towers as well as the branches, trunks, and leaves of the vegetation in the associated karst forest. Cyrtodactylus gunungsenyumensis sp. nov. is the seventh species of karst forest-adapted Cyrtodactylus and the sixteenth endemic species of karst ecosystem reptile discovered in Peninsular Malaysia in the last seven years from only 12 different karst forests. This is a clear indication that many species remain to be discovered in the approximately 558 isolated karst ecosystems in Peninsular Malaysia not yet surveyed. These data continue to underscore the importance of karst ecosystems as reservoirs of biodiversity and microendemism and that they constitute an important component of Peninsular Malaysia's natural heritage and should be protected from the quarrying interests of foreign industrial companies.

  13. Genus vesiculoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    The vesiculovirus genus of the family Rhabdoviridae contains a numbers of viruses that have been taxonomically classified using a combination of serological relatedness, host range, genome organization, pathobiology and phylogenetic analysis of sequence data. There are 11 viruses assigned to the gen...

  14. Notes on the genus Pirdana Distant, 1886 (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de R.; Treadaway, C.G.

    1993-01-01

    In the Oriental genus Pirdana Distant, 1886, the new species P. fusca is described from Samar (E Philippines). The phylogeny of the genus is discussed and as a consequence the endemic Sulawesi taxon P. hyela ismene (Felder & Felder, [1867]) is given back its species rank, bringing the total number

  15. Taxonomic status and redescription of the genus Brasicystis Thatcher, 1979 (Digenea: Didymozoidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos; Silva, Jefferson Pereira E; Gonçalves, Evonnildo Costa; Furtado, Adriano Penha; Giese, Elane Guerreiro; Santos, Cláudia Portes; Santos, Jeannie Nascimento

    2013-04-01

    Brasicystis bennetti Thatcher, 1979 was first described from specimens obtained from the subcutaneous tissues of the mouth and operculum of Plagioscyion squamosissimus from the Amazon River in Brazil, however since 2008, Brasicystis has been considered a genus inquirendum. This study reviews some of the diagnostic characters from the original description of B. bennetti from the Amazon Delta, and redescribes the genus and species with a discussion of their taxonomic status. Ultrastructural and molecular approaches complement the data presented on this monotypic genus. The diagnosis of the tribe Didymozoini Monticelli, 1888 is amended to incorporate the genus Brasicystis, which is redescribed and revalidated here, with the proposal of an amended key. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Phylogenetic Analysis of the Synnema-Producing Genus Synnemapestaloides

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    Kyoko Watanabe

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Synnemapestaloides rhododendri, the type species of the genus Synnemapestaloides, is a pathogen of Rhododendron brachycarpum. This fungus produces six-celled conidia with appendages at both end cells, and are generated by annellidic conidiogenous cells on the synnema. These conidial structures are similar to those of the genus Pestalotia. The monotypic genus Synnemapestaloides is currently classified in the family Amphisphaeriaceae solely based on conidial morphology. Here we demonstrate that Synnemapestaloides represents a distinct genus in the family Sporocadaceae (Amphisphaeriales based on differences in the nucleotide sequences of the partial large subunit rDNA gene, the rDNA internal transcribed spacer, and the partial β-tubulin. The genus most closely related to Synnemapestaloides is Seimatosporium and the species most similar to Synnemapestaloides rhododendri is Seim. foliicola which produces short synnema-like conidiomata (sporodochia. These results demonstrate that Seim. foliicola should be transferred to Synnemapestaloides, and also demonstrate that Sporocadaceae can have synnematal in addition to pycnidial and acervular conidiomata.

  17. The Stable Concordance Genus

    OpenAIRE

    Kearney, M. Kate

    2013-01-01

    The concordance genus of a knot is the least genus of any knot in its concordance class. Although difficult to compute, it is a useful invariant that highlights the distinction between the three-genus and four-genus. In this paper we define and discuss the stable concordance genus of a knot, which describes the behavior of the concordance genus under connected sum.

  18. Plant endemics to Sierra de Gredos (central Spain: taxonomic, distributional, and evolutionary aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García, Bernardo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Causes related to a low number of endemics to Sierra de Gredos (central Iberian Peninsula are poorly understood. Taxonomic, distributional and genetic aspects of the 12 endemic taxa (species and subspecies are herein discussed. New populations found in the last years provide new chorological reports and taxa to science. As a result, we extend the distribution range of Pseudomisopates rivas-martinezii and describe a new subspecies (Teucrium oxylepis subsp. Gredense. Genetic variation was investigated by sequencing the ITS (Internal Transcribed Sequence region, which is a widespread nuclear DNA region used to detect significant sequence divergence at the species and population levels. At the species level, only eight endemics to this large mountain range (c. 4,800 km2 indicates both limited speciation events coupled with their persistence, despite the high species richness of the flora of Sierra de Gredos (>2,500. According to the levels of ITS sequence divergence, significant isolation processes may have predated the Quaternary in Sierra de Gredos to account for divergence of the monotypic genus Pseudomisopates from its closest relatives (Misopates, Acanthorrhinum. Isolation of the other seven endemic species from their closest relatives has been a more recent process, as revealed by the limited ITS sequence variation obtained in this study. At the population level, no net nucleotide substitutions were observed between distant populations of the endemic species: Antirrhinum grosii, Astragalus devesae, Centaurea avilae, Dianthus gredensis, Echinospartum barnadesii, Pseudomisopates rivas-martinezii, Santolina oblongifolia. In contrast, the three populations of Sedum lagascae displayed a relatively high number (4 of nucleotide substitutions. These results, together with limited morphological differentiation, may reflect insufficient population isolation of seven of the eight endemic species of Sierra de Gredos in the Quaternary. Recurrent population

  19. A MONOGRAPH OF THE GENUS SCHOUTENIA* Korth. (Tiliaceae

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    ROEKMOWATI ROEKMOWATI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The genus consists of 8 species in Siam, Indochina, the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra,Borneo, Java, and the Lesser Sunda Islands. It is here divided into 2 subgenera,the monotypic Schoutevia with S. cvata Korth. and Chartacalyx with S. accres-cens (Mast. Curtis as type species. Chartacalyx is divided into 2 sections, Char-tacalyx and A disci flora with S. kuiistleri King as type spscies.Three species, S. curtisii, corneri, and kostermansii are considered new.S. hypoleuca Pierre is reduced to synonymy of S. ovata Korth. S. peregrines Craib is reduced to a subspecies of S. glomerata King. The varieties of S. accrescens (Mast. Curtis are deleted. The species is dividedinto 3 subspecies: accrescens, stellata, and borneensis. A forma lepidota is reeog-nized for subspecies accrescens.. S. buurmanii K. et V. and S. kunstleri King- are considered to be differentspecies.

  20. Giant among dwarfs: Meganannus lewisi, gen. n. and sp. n., a new genus and species of minute litter bugs from Costa Rica (Hemiptera: Schizopteridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weirauch, Christiane; Whorrall, Kyle; Knyshov, Alexander; Hoey-Chamberlain, Rochelle

    2018-01-09

    The Neotropical biodiversity of the cryptic and tiny minute litter bugs in the family Schizopteridae-although thought to be the best documented tropical fauna of Schizopteridae-is still poorly known. Sixteen species of Schizopteridae have been described from Costa Rica, 13 of which during the past few years, and the last new genus of Schizopteridae from that country was described more than half a century ago. We here describe and document a new monotypic genus of Schizopteridae from Costa Rica, Meganannus n. gen. The new genus belongs to the "Ogeriinae" + Schizopterinae lineage of Schizopteridae and stands out among other litter bugs by the large body size, among other features. We provide habitus photographs and document morphological details using scanning electron, confocal, and light compound microscopic images. A map and measurements are also produced. An illustrated identification key to genus groups and/or genera of Neotropical Schizopteridae including this new genus is presented.

  1. Phylogenetic placement of the Dominican Republic endemic genus Sarcopilea (Urticaceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jestrow, B.; Valdés, James J.; Rodríguez, F. J.; Francisco-Ortega, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 3 (2012), s. 592-600 ISSN 0040-0262 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : CAM * Caribbean Islands * cystoliths * epistomatic * hyperstomatic * hydathodes * phylogenetics * Pilea * Sarcopilea * succulent * Urticaceae Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.782, year: 2012

  2. Comparative Characterization Of Endemic Lactic Acid Bacteria Of Enterococcus Genus

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    Kristina Karapetyan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of multidrug-resistance MDR of pathogenic strains to antibiotics most widely used for treatment of human diseases in the Republics of Armenia and Nagorno Karabakh were examined. It was shown that difference of resistance of pathogens to antibiotics depends on their isolation sources. It was shown that bacteriocin containing partially purified preparations obtained from different strains of Enterococcus faecium and durans species isolated from various samples of matsun salted cheese and other acid milk products from milk of different domestic animals from rural households inhibited the growth of multidrug-resistant bacteria belonging to different taxonomic groups with different efficiency.

  3. A new genus of Rhytirrhinini from Colombia (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Morrone Juan J.

    1995-01-01

    Rupanius, new genus, comprises the single species R. carinatus, new species, endemic to the Paramo biogeographic province of Colombia. It is diagnosed based on the elytra subquadrate and with a conspicuous declivital carina, and is considered similar to Puranlus Germain and Acrorius Kirsch. The genus and species are described, illustrated, and compared with the other Colombian Rhytirrhinini.Rupanius, gen. n., comprende la única especie R. carinatus, sp. n., endémica de la provincia biogeográf...

  4. A new genus and species of cyclopoid (Crustacea, Copepoda, Cyclopinidae) from a coastal system in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Almeyda-Artigas, Roberto Javier

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new, monotypic genus of the interstitial marine cyclopoid copepod family Cyclopinidae G.O. Sars, 1913 is described from male and female specimens collected at Laguna de Términos, a large coastal lagoon system in the southern Gulf of Mexico. Mexiclopina campechana gen. et sp. n. cannot be adequately placed in any extant genus within the family. It differs from other cyclopinid genera in having a unique combination of characters including: 1) absence of modified brush-like seta on the mandibular exopod; 2) maxillule exopod with stout setal elements and brush-like setae absent; 3) basis of mandible with one seta; 4) presence of a modified seta on endopod of fourth leg; 5) fifth leg exopod unsegmented, armed with three elements in the female and five in the male; 6) intercoxal sclerite of first swimming leg with two medial spiniform processes on distal margin. The new genus is monotypic and appears to be most closely related to Cyclopina Claus, 1863 and Heptnerina Ivanenko & Defaye, 2004; the new species was compared with species of Cyclopina and it resembles Cyclopina americana Herbst, 1982 and Cyclopina caissara Lotufo, 1994. This is the second record of a species of Cyclopinidae in Mexico and the first in the Gulf of Mexico; the number of cyclopinid species recorded from the Americas is now 13. PMID:26668545

  5. The genus Bipolaris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manamgoda, D.S.; Rossman, A.Y.; Castlebury, L.A.; Crous, P.W.; Madrid, H.; Chukeatirote, E.; Hyde, K.D.

    2014-01-01

    The genus Bipolaris includes important plant pathogens with worldwide distribution. Species recognition in the genus has been uncertain due to the lack of molecular data from ex-type cultures as well as overlapping morphological characteristics. In this study, we revise the genus Bipolaris based on

  6. Genomic diversity within the haloalkaliphilic genus Thioalkalivibrio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Anne-Catherine; Meier-Kolthoff, Jan P; Overmars, Lex; Richter, Michael; Woyke, Tanja; Sorokin, Dimitry Y; Muyzer, Gerard

    2017-01-01

    Thioalkalivibrio is a genus of obligate chemolithoautotrophic haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Their habitat are soda lakes which are dual extreme environments with a pH range from 9.5 to 11 and salt concentrations up to saturation. More than 100 strains of this genus have been isolated from various soda lakes all over the world, but only ten species have been effectively described yet. Therefore, the assignment of the remaining strains to either existing or novel species is important and will further elucidate their genomic diversity as well as give a better general understanding of this genus. Recently, the genomes of 76 Thioalkalivibrio strains were sequenced. On these, we applied different methods including (i) 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, (ii) Multilocus Sequence Analysis (MLSA) based on eight housekeeping genes, (iii) Average Nucleotide Identity based on BLAST (ANIb) and MUMmer (ANIm), (iv) Tetranucleotide frequency correlation coefficients (TETRA), (v) digital DNA:DNA hybridization (dDDH) as well as (vi) nucleotide- and amino acid-based Genome BLAST Distance Phylogeny (GBDP) analyses. We detected a high genomic diversity by revealing 15 new "genomic" species and 16 new "genomic" subspecies in addition to the ten already described species. Phylogenetic and phylogenomic analyses showed that the genus is not monophyletic, because four strains were clearly separated from the other Thioalkalivibrio by type strains from other genera. Therefore, it is recommended to classify the latter group as a novel genus. The biogeographic distribution of Thioalkalivibrio suggested that the different "genomic" species can be classified as candidate disjunct or candidate endemic species. This study is a detailed genome-based classification and identification of members within the genus Thioalkalivibrio. However, future phenotypical and chemotaxonomical studies will be needed for a full species description of this genus.

  7. Taxonomic Review Of The Genus Yunnantettix (Orthoptera, Tetrigidae From The Oriental Region

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    Storozhenko S. Yu.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomic review of the genus Yunnantettix Zheng, 1995 is given. It is similar to Aspiditettix Liang, 2009, Pseudepitettix Zheng, 1995, and Epitettix Hancock, 1907. Yunnantettix is the most similar to Aspiditettix in the general appearance, the rugose disc of the pronotum, and the bisinuate lateral lobe of the pronotum, and diff erent from it by the completely reduced hind wing and the position of the antennal socket. Yunnantettix is similar to Pseudepitettix and Epitettix in the moderately widened frontal ridge and low median carina of pronotum, but diff erent from the latter by the presence of the narrow tegmen and a shallow yet distinct tegminal (upper sinus on the pronotal lateral lobe. Originally, Yunnantettix is a monotypic genus (type species: Yunnantettix bannaensis Zheng, 1995 from South China. Two species are additionally included to this genus: Yunnantettix elytratus (Günther, 1939, comb. n. (= Epitettix elytratus Günther, 1939 from India and Yunnantettix thaicus, sp. n. from Th ailand. Th e new species diff ers from all other species of this genus by the shallow excision on apex of the posterior pronotal process and by the external lateral pronotal carina, arch-like and strongly curved upward above the tegmen. A key to the species and redescription of the genus Yunnantettix are provided.

  8. Compartmentalization of HIV-1 within the female genital tract is due to monotypic and low-diversity variants not distinct viral populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Marta; Learn, Gerald; Genowati, Indira; McKernan, Jennifer; Hitti, Jane; Lockhart, David; Tapia, Kenneth; Holte, Sarah; Dragavon, Joan; Coombs, Robert; Mullins, James; Frenkel, Lisa

    2009-09-22

    Compartmentalization of HIV-1 between the genital tract and blood was noted in half of 57 women included in 12 studies primarily using cell-free virus. To further understand differences between genital tract and blood viruses of women with chronic HIV-1 infection cell-free and cell-associated virus populations were sequenced from these tissues, reasoning that integrated viral DNA includes variants archived from earlier in infection, and provides a greater array of genotypes for comparisons. Multiple sequences from single-genome-amplification of HIV-1 RNA and DNA from the genital tract and blood of each woman were compared in a cross-sectional study. Maximum likelihood phylogenies were evaluated for evidence of compartmentalization using four statistical tests. Genital tract and blood HIV-1 appears compartmentalized in 7/13 women by >/=2 statistical analyses. These subjects' phylograms were characterized by low diversity genital-specific viral clades interspersed between clades containing both genital and blood sequences. Many of the genital-specific clades contained monotypic HIV-1 sequences. In 2/7 women, HIV-1 populations were significantly compartmentalized across all four statistical tests; both had low diversity genital tract-only clades. Collapsing monotypic variants into a single sequence diminished the prevalence and extent of compartmentalization. Viral sequences did not demonstrate tissue-specific signature amino acid residues, differential immune selection, or co-receptor usage. In women with chronic HIV-1 infection multiple identical sequences suggest proliferation of HIV-1-infected cells, and low diversity tissue-specific phylogenetic clades are consistent with bursts of viral replication. These monotypic and tissue-specific viruses provide statistical support for compartmentalization of HIV-1 between the female genital tract and blood. However, the intermingling of these clades with clades comprised of both genital and blood sequences and the absence

  9. ANALYSIS OF ENDEMISM OF THE XEROPHILOUS FLORA IN THE RUSSIAN CAUCASUS

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    M. A. Taysumov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our research is to study the endemics of the xerophilous flora of the Russian Caucasus in connection with the matter of knowing the genesis.Methods. The study is based on the field research expeditions.Findings. The presence of endemic species in flora is an indicator of its originality, and the degree of originality is determined by the extent of the endemic species. In general, according to our geographic analysis, the number of endemic species in xerophilous flora of the Russian Caucasus accounts for 32% (326 species, of which 25% of all endemic species have natural habitats within entire Caucasus, 66% are widespread in the Greater Caucasus, and 9% in the Pre-Caucasian region.Conclusion. Endemic species of xerophytes of the flora, in their overwhelming majority, are euxerophytes, and most steno-endemics also belong to this group of xerophytes. In a systematic aspect, the leading family, containing the largest number of endemic species, is Asteraceae (in percentage terms - Lamiaceae and Jurinea is a leading genus (in percentage terms - Psephellus. In relation to the substrate, calcixerophytes are the dominants and most saturated endemics in quantitative terms are the belt of mountain xerophytes. The predominant biomes are hemicryptophytes; as compared with the number of biomorphes, among chamaephytes there is the biggest quantity of endemics

  10. Endemic human fasciolosis in the Bolivian Altiplano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, M; O'Neill, S M; Dalton, J P

    2007-05-01

    Fasciolosis, caused by trematodes of the genus Fasciola, is an emerging disease of humans. One of the highest levels of human fasciolosis hepatica is found amongst the indigenous Aymaran people of the Northern Bolivian Altiplano. A meta-analysis of epidemiological surveys from 38 communities in the region demonstrates that fasciolosis has been endemic in the region since at least 1984 and is a zoonosis of rural communities. Human and bovine fasciolosis is associated with the communities lying in the plain from Lake Titicaca to La Paz, predominantly in the Los Andes province. In Los Andes incidences of up to 67% of population cohorts were found, and prevalence is age-related with the highest infection rate in children aged 8-11 years.

  11. Molecular phylogenetics of the bat genus Scotophilus (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae): Perspectives from paternally and maternally iInherited genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert G. Trujillo; John C. Patton; Duane A. Schlitter; John W. Bickham

    2009-01-01

    The genus Scotophilusis composed of 15 recognized species with 7 species distributed throughout sub-Saharan Africa, 4 distributed across southern and southeastern Asia, 3 endemic to Madagascar, and 1 endemic to Reunion Island. Scotophilusis plagued with problems in species definition, and systematic relationships among members of...

  12. The millipede genus Caucasodesmus Golovatch, 1985, with the description of a new species from the Crimea, Ukraine (Polydesmida, Diplopoda, Trichopolydesmidae

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    Sergei Golovatch

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The hitherto monotypic genus Caucasodesmus is new to the Ukrainian list due to the discovery of C. tauricus sp. n. in a cave in the Crimea. The new species is easily distinguished from C. inexpectatus Golovatch, 1985, the type, and only other, known species of this genus, in the abundantly setose collum and following metaterga, and more elaborate gonopods. The status of Caucasodesmus, which shows in the superfamily Trichopolydesmoidea where it definitely belongs such evident generic-level apomorphies as the absence of bacilliform sensilla on antennomeres 5 and 7, of a cannula on the gonocoxite, and of a seminal groove on a biramous gononod telopodite (apparently, both latter characters are functionally correlated to each other, is refined by formally reassigning it to the family Trichopolydesmidae.

  13. The millipede genus Caucasodesmus Golovatch, 1985, with the description of a new species from the Crimea, Ukraine (Polydesmida, Diplopoda, Trichopolydesmidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovatch, Sergei I

    2011-04-29

    The hitherto monotypic genus Caucasodesmus is new to the Ukrainian list due to the discovery of Caucasodesmus tauricussp. n. in a cave in the Crimea. The new species is easily distinguished from Caucasodesmus inexpectatus Golovatch, 1985, the type, and only other, known species of this genus, in the abundantly setose collum and following metaterga, and more elaborate gonopods. The status of Caucasodesmus, which shows in the superfamily Trichopolydesmoidea where it definitely belongs such evident generic-level apomorphies as the absence of bacilliform sensilla on antennomeres 5 and 7, of a cannula on the gonocoxite, and of a seminal groove on a biramous gononod telopodite (apparently, both latter characters are functionally correlated to each other), is refined by formally reassigning it to the family Trichopolydesmidae.

  14. The genus Bipolaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manamgoda, D S; Rossman, A Y; Castlebury, L A; Crous, P W; Madrid, H; Chukeatirote, E; Hyde, K D

    2014-09-01

    The genus Bipolaris includes important plant pathogens with worldwide distribution. Species recognition in the genus has been uncertain due to the lack of molecular data from ex-type cultures as well as overlapping morphological characteristics. In this study, we revise the genus Bipolaris based on DNA sequence data derived from living cultures of fresh isolates, available ex-type cultures from worldwide collections and observation of type and additional specimens. Combined analyses of ITS, GPDH and TEF gene sequences were used to reconstruct the molecular phylogeny of the genus Bipolaris for species with living cultures. The GPDH gene is determined to be the best single marker for species of Bipolaris. Generic boundaries between Bipolaris and Curvularia are revised and presented in an updated combined ITS and GPDH phylogenetic tree. We accept 47 species in the genus Bipolaris and clarify the taxonomy, host associations, geographic distributions and species' synonymies. Modern descriptions and illustrations are provided for 38 species in the genus with notes provided for the other taxa when recent descriptions are available. Bipolaris cynodontis, B. oryzae, B. victoriae, B. yamadae and B. zeicola are epi- or neotypified and a lectotype is designated for B. stenospila. Excluded and doubtful species are listed with notes on taxonomy and phylogeny. Seven new combinations are introduced in the genus Curvularia to accomodate the species of Bipolaris transferred based on the phylogenetic analysis. A taxonomic key is provided for the morphological identification of species within the genus.

  15. Balechina and the New Genus Cucumeridinium Gen. Nov. (Dinophyceae), Unarmored Dinoflagellates with Thick Cell Coverings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Fernando; López-García, Purificación; Takayama, Haruyoshi; Moreira, David

    2016-01-01

    The genus Balechina (=subgenus Pachydinium) was established for heterotrophic gymnodinioid dinoflagellates with a thick cell covering. The type species, B. pachydermata (=Gymnodinium pachydermatum), showed numerous fine longitudinal striae, whereas B. coerulea (=G. coeruleum) showed ~24 prominent longitudinal surface ridges or furrows and a distinctive blue pigmentation. We have investigated the morphology and molecular phylogeny of these taxa and the species Gymnodinium cucumis, G. lira and G. amphora from the western Mediterranean, Brazil and Japan. Sudden contractions at the cingulum level were seen in B. pachydermata, which also showed a high morphological variability which included morphotypes that have been described as Amphidinium vasculum, G. amphora, G. dogielii and G. gracile sensu Kofoid and Swezy. Molecular phylogeny based on small subunit rRNA gene sequences revealed that Balechina coerulea, G. cucumis and G. lira formed a clade distantly related to the clade of the type species, B. pachydermata, and G. amphora. We propose the new genus Cucumeridinium for the species with longitudinal ridges and a circular apical groove (Cucumeridinium coeruleum comb. nov., C. lira comb. nov. and C. cucumis comb. nov.), and Gymnodinium canus and G. costatum are considered synonyms of C. coeruleum. The genus Balechina remains for the species with a double-layer cell covering, bossed surface with fine striae, and an elongated elliptical apical groove. At present, the genus is monotypic containing only B. pachydermata. PMID:26987004

  16. Revision of the genus Endochilus Weise (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae: Chilocorini)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łączyński, Piotr; Tomaszewska, Wioletta

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The members of the endemic African genus EndochilusWeise, 1898 (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae: Chilocorini) are redescribed, diagnosed, and illustrated. Lectotypes are designated for Endochilus compater Weise, Endochilus minor Weise, Endochilus plagiatus Sicard, Endochilus rubicundus Weise, and Endochilus styx Sicard. One new species is described: Endochilus abdominalissp. nov. Notes on the genus and nomenclatural history for each species are provided. A key for iden- tification of all species is presented. Adult characters concerning similarities of Endochilus to other genera of African Chilocorini are discussed. PMID:25373218

  17. A likely microendemic new species of terrestrial iguana, genus Chalarodon, from Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miralles, Aurelien; Glaw, Frank; Ratsoavina, Fanomezana M; Vences, Miguel

    2015-04-09

    A new species of the hitherto monotypic genus Chalarodon is described from southern Madagascar and a lectotype (ZMB 4360) is designated for C. madagascariensis Peters, 1854. The new species of terrestrial iguana, Chalarodon steinkampi sp. nov., is defined by several morphological characters and by concordant differentiation in mitochondrial and nuclear DNA with >5% uncorrected pairwise genetic distance in the 16S rRNA gene. It can be most clearly recognized by the presence of smooth (vs. keeled) gular and ventral scales, a spotted pattern extending from flanks onto belly, and an unpigmented throat. The new species is known from only a small area between the villages of Amboasary Sud and Esomony, located west of the Andohahela Massif, while C. madagascariensis appears to be widespread over much of southern and western Madagascar. We highlight the need for further exploration of this unprotected region which might host several other microendemic species.

  18. Population genetics of Phaedranassa cuencana Minga, C. Ulloa & Oleas (Amaryllidaceae), an endemic species of Southern Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phaedranassa is a genus of Amaryllidaceae mostly endemic to the Northern Andes. Six out of the eight species described in Ecuador are endangered or vulnerable to extinction. Phaedranassa cuencana was first described in 2015. This species is restricted to the southern part of Ecuador, around the city...

  19. The genus Baijiania (Cucurbitaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, de W.J.J.O.; Duyfjes, B.E.E.

    2003-01-01

    The genus Baijiania, originally thought to be indigenous in China and Borneo, appears to be restricted to Borneo. The only species is Baijiania borneensis, with two varieties, the type variety and var. paludicola Duyfjes, var. nov.

  20. The endemic flora of Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit

    2007-01-01

    The Balkan Peninsula has a rich endemic flora estimated as between 2600 and 2700 taxa; c. 750 are restricted to Greece. Conservationists consider the endemic flora of a country needs protection for all time; there is a tendency to paint an alarming picture. However, unless one knows something or ...... have been mapped and it is already possible to recognize the hot-spots of biodiversity as these are linked to the centres of endemism. Determining the centres of diversity is an important and significant contribution to further conservation measures at the global level....

  1. Molecular phylogeny of the Nearctic and Mesoamerican freshwater mussel genus Megalonaias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, John M.; Sharpe, Ashley; Johnson, Nathan A.; Emery, Kitty F.; Page, Lawrence M.

    2018-01-01

    Megalonaias is the most geographically widespread genus of the subfamily Ambleminae and is distributed across much of the eastern half of North America, from Minnesota to Nicaragua. Despite the large geographic distribution, the species-level diversity of Megalonaias is quite depauperate (2 spp.), suggesting the genus may not be constrained by the same physical, ecological, or physiological barriers that limit dispersal in many other amblemines. However, this hypothesis is contingent on the assumption that the current taxonomy of Megalonaiasaccurately reflects its evolutionary history, which remains incompletely understood due to the marginalization of Mesoamerican populations in systematic research. Using one mitochondrial (COI) and one nuclear marker (ITS1) sequenced from 41 individuals distributed across both the Nearctic and Mesoamerican ecoregions, we set out to better understand the species boundaries and genetic diversity within Megalonaias. The reconstructed molecular phylogeny and the observed genetic diversity suggests that Megalonaias is a monotypic genus and that Megalonaias nickliniana, currently considered a federally endangered species, is not a valid species. These results are discussed in the context of their systematic and conservation implications, as well as how the unusual life history strategy of Megalonaias may be influencing its molecular diversity.

  2. Genetic variability assessment in the genus Passiflora by SSR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Lougon Paiva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The genus Passiflora encompasses many species that are endemic to the Brazilian territory, including some with economic value. Studies on genetic diversity in this genus are fundamental because they allow understanding genetic variability and distance. The present study aimed to determine the genetic variability and distances among 10 species of the genus Passiflora by using microsatellite markers (Simple Sequence Repeat, SSR. Twenty-eight heterologous microsatellite markers were tested, but only 12 were used in the diversity analysis because they amplified in at least 80% of the species. A clear separation was observed among the subgenuses studied, as well as wide variation among the accessions of Passiflora. This knowledge enables breeders to explore diversity and transfer favorable alleles found in wild species.

  3. The ascomycete genus Sordaria

    OpenAIRE

    Guarro, J.; Arx, von, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    Sordaria is restricted to coprophilous, soil-, or seed-borne Pyrenomycetes with aseptate, elongate ascospores with a gelatinous, amorphous sheath. The genus is redescribed and a key to fourteen accepted species is given. A checklist of all taxa described as Sordaria is added.

  4. Genus I. Leptospira

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leptospira comprise a diverse group of bacteria. Some species cause serious infections in animals and humans. These bacteria are aerobes that consume long-chain fatty acids and alcohols as carbon and energy sources. This genus is distinguished from Leptonema or Turneriella by lack of similarity u...

  5. The amphipod genus Acidostoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dahl, E.

    1964-01-01

    The genus Acidostoma was established by Lilljeborg (1865, p. 24) to receive Anonyx obesus Sp. Bate (1862, p. 74). Afterwards two further species have been added, viz. A. laticorne G. O. Sars (1879, p. 440) and A. nodiferum Stephensen (1923, p. 40). In the present paper it will be shown that A.

  6. Sahyadria, a new genus of barbs (Teleostei: Cyprinidae from Western Ghats of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Raghavan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Redline Torpedo Barbs (Teleostei: Cyprinidae, comprising of two species, Puntius denisonii and P. chalakkudiensis, and six evolutionarily distinct lineages are endemic to the streams of the Western Ghats freshwater ecoregion in peninsular India. Based on molecular and osteological evidence, we demonstrate that these barbs comprise a distinct genus, for which we propose the name Sahyadria.

  7. Spiky higher genus strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambjoern, J.; Bellini, A.; Johnston, D.

    1990-10-01

    It is clear from both the non-perturbative and perturbative approaches to two-dimensional quantum gravity that a new strong coupling regime is setting in at d=1, independent of the genus of the worldsheet being considered. It has been suggested that a Kosterlitz-Thouless (KT) phase transition in the Liouville theory is the cause of this behaviour. However, it has recently been pointed out that the XY model, which displays a KT transition on the plane and the sphere, is always in the strong coupling, disordered phase on a surface of constant negative curvature. A higher genus worldsheet can be represented as a fundamental region on just such a surface, which might seem to suggest that the KT picture predicts a strong coupling region for arbitrary d, contradicting the known results. We resolve the apparent paradox. (orig.)

  8. What is the genus?

    CERN Document Server

    Popescu-Pampu, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Exploring several of the evolutionary branches of the mathematical notion of genus, this book traces the idea from its prehistory in problems of integration, through algebraic curves and their associated Riemann surfaces, into algebraic surfaces, and finally into higher dimensions. Its importance in analysis, algebraic geometry, number theory and topology is emphasized through many theorems. Almost every chapter is organized around excerpts from a research paper in which a new perspective was brought on the genus or on one of the objects to which this notion applies. The author was motivated by the belief that a subject may best be understood and communicated by studying its broad lines of development, feeling the way one arrives at the definitions of its fundamental notions, and appreciating the amount of effort spent in order to explore its phenomena.

  9. Phylogenetic placement and taxonomy of the genus Hederorkis (Orchidaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Mytnik-Ejsmont

    Full Text Available Three plastid regions, matK, rpl32-trnL and rpl16 intron and the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 nuclear ribosomal DNA were used to demonstrate a phylogenetic placement of the genus Hederorkis (Orchidaceae for the first time. The taxonomic position of this genus has been unclear thus far. The phylogenetic and morphological relations of Hederorkis to the most closely related genera Sirhookera, Adrorhizon, Bromheadia and Polystachya are also discussed. A hypothesis concerning an origin and evolution of Hederorkis is proposed. Hederorkis is an epiphytic two-leaved orchid genus with lateral inflorescence, non-resupinate flowers, elongate gynostemium and rudimentary column foot. It is native to the Indian Ocean Islands. Two species of Hederorkis are recognized worldwide, H. scandens endemic to Mauritius and Réunion and H. seychellensis endemic to Seychelles. For each of the species treated a full synonymy, detailed description and illustration are included. The distribution map and dichotomous keys to the species have also been provided.

  10. Genus Ranges of Chord Diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jonathan; Jonoska, Nataša; Saito, Masahico

    2015-04-01

    A chord diagram consists of a circle, called the backbone, with line segments, called chords, whose endpoints are attached to distinct points on the circle. The genus of a chord diagram is the genus of the orientable surface obtained by thickening the backbone to an annulus and attaching bands to the inner boundary circle at the ends of each chord. Variations of this construction are considered here, where bands are possibly attached to the outer boundary circle of the annulus. The genus range of a chord diagram is the genus values over all such variations of surfaces thus obtained from a given chord diagram. Genus ranges of chord diagrams for a fixed number of chords are studied. Integer intervals that can be, and those that cannot be, realized as genus ranges are investigated. Computer calculations are presented, and play a key role in discovering and proving the properties of genus ranges.

  11. Glacial refugia and migration routes of the Neotropical genus Trizeuxis (Orchidaceae

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    Marta Kolanowska

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The morphology and anatomy of the monotypic genus Trizeuxis make this taxon almost impossible to recognize in fossil material and hereby difficult object of historical geographic studies. To estimate the distribution of potential refugia during the last glacial maximum and migration routes for Trizeuxis the ecological niche modeling was performed. The potential niche modeling was done using maximum entropy method implemented in Maxent application based on the species presence-only observations. As input data climatic variables and the digital elevation model were used. Two models of suitable glacial habitats distribution were prepared – for the studied species and for its host. The compiled map of the suitable habitats distribution of T. falcata and P. guajava during the last glacial maximum (LGM indicate two possible refugia for the studied orchid genus. The first one was located in the Madre de Dios region and the other one in the Mosquito Coast. The models suggest the existence of two migration routes of Trizeuxis species. The results indicate that the ecological niche modeling (ENM is a useful tool for analyzing not only the possible past distribution of the species, but may be also applied to determine the migration routes of the organisms not found in the fossil material.

  12. Mammal endemism In Italy: A review

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    Giovanni Amori

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Although there are various checklists of Italian mammals, there is not yet a synthesis of those mammals that are endemic to Italy. Therefore, we provide for the first time a detailed review on Italian mammal endemic species including endemic taxa deserving additional studies. This review is based on the most recent taxonomic revisions obtained using Scopus and Google Scholar databases. We also considered the age of endemic species. Some aspects of mammalian conservation are also provided and discussed.

  13. Endemic Images and the Desensitization Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saigh, Philip A.; Antoun, Fouad T.

    1984-01-01

    Examined the effects of endemic images on levels of anxiety and achievement of 48 high school students. Results suggested that a combination of endemic images and study skills training was as effective as desensitization plus study skills training. Includes the endemic image questionnaire. (JAC)

  14. Mitogenomic phylogeny of cone snails endemic to Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abalde, Samuel; Tenorio, Manuel J; Afonso, Carlos M L; Zardoya, Rafael

    2017-07-01

    Cone snails attain in Senegal one of their highest peaks of species diversity throughout the continental coast of Western Africa. A total of 15 endemic species have been described, all placed in the genus Lautoconus. While there is ample data regarding the morphology of the shell and the radular tooth of these species, virtually nothing is known regarding the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of one of the most endangered groups of cones. In this work, we determined the complete or near-complete (only lacking the control region) mitochondrial (mt) genomes of 17 specimens representing 11 endemic species (Lautoconus belairensis, Lautoconus bruguieresi, Lautoconus cacao, Lautoconus cloveri, Lautoconus cf. echinophilus, Lautoconus guinaicus, Lautoconus hybridus, Lautoconus senegalensis, Lautoconus mercator, Lautoconus taslei, and Lautoconus unifasciatus). We also sequenced the complete mt genome of Lautoconus guanche from the Canary Islands, which has been related to the cones endemic to Senegal. All mt genomes share the same gene arrangement, which conforms to the consensus reported for Conidae, Neogastropoda and Caenogastropoda. Phylogenetic analyses using probabilistic methods recovered three major lineages, whose divergence coincided in time with sea level and ocean current changes as well as temperature fluctuations during the Messinian salinity crisis and the Plio-Pleistocene transition. Furthermore, the three lineages corresponded to distinct types of radular tooth (robust, small, and elongated), suggesting that dietary specialization could be an additional evolutionary driver in the diversification of the cones endemic to Senegal. The reconstructed phylogeny showed several cases of phenotypic convergence (cryptic species) and questions the validity of some species (ecotypes or phenotypic plasticity), both results having important taxonomic and conservation consequences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Biogeographical note on Antarctic microflorae: Endemism and cosmopolitanism

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    Waqar Azeem Jadoon

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the biogeography of Antarctic microflora (Antarctica acts as best model to study microbial biogeography such as cyanobacteria and selected halophiles with special emphasis on Halomonas variabilis and Bacillus licheniformis. Halophiles are known to be resistant not only to salt stress, but also to extreme temperature, pressure, and aridity and they are capable of surviving in harsh environments such as polar regions, deep-sea habitats, and deserts. Many microbes are known to be resistant to hostile environmental conditions, and are capable of surviving in harsh environments. Our group has isolated 444 strains belonging to 28 genera of halophiles from various environments around the world. The 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that many of the isolated strains from geographically distant habitats having different environmental conditions, were closely related to each other, with some strains possessing 100% identical sequences. Organisms possessing survival mechanism such as spore formation are usually ubiquitous. The genus Halomonas is represented by potentially endemic strains and the ubiquitous H. variabilis, while spore-forming B. licheniformis showed cosmopolitan distribution. One potentially endemic (moderate endemicity that is regional and/or continental distribution strain was reported from Syowa station, East Antarctica, and Mario Zucchelli station, West Antarctica, which are geographically separated by 3000 km. Moreover, 15 strains having 100% similarity with B. licheniformis were considered cosmopolitans. The results of this work provide support for the middle-ground model that some microbes have moderate endemicity and others have cosmopolitan distribution. These results will contribute to a greater understanding of microbial biogeography with special emphasis on Antarctica.

  16. Endemic Nephropathy Around the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Fiona J; Gifford, Robert M; Eddleston, Michael; Dhaun, Neeraj

    2017-03-01

    There have been several global epidemics of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKD u ). Some, such as Itai-Itai disease in Japan and Balkan endemic nephropathy, have been explained, whereas the etiology of others remains unclear. In countries such as Sri Lanka, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and India, CKD u is a major public health problem and causes significant morbidity and mortality. Despite their geographical separation, however, there are striking similarities between these endemic nephropathies. Young male agricultural workers who perform strenuous labor in extreme conditions are the worst affected. Patients remain asymptomatic until end-stage renal failure. Biomarkers of tubular injury are raised, and kidney biopsy shows chronic interstitial nephritis with associated tubular atrophy. In many of these places access to dialysis and transplantation is limited, leaving few treatment options. In this review we briefly describe the major historic endemic nephropathies. We then summarize the epidemiology, clinical features, histology and clinical course of CKD u in Mesoamerica, Sri Lanka, India, Egypt, and Tunisia. We draw comparisons between the proposed etiologies and supporting research. Recognition of the similarities may reinforce the international drive to establish causality and to effect prevention.

  17. Endemic Nephropathy Around the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona J. Gifford

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available There have been several global epidemics of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu. Some, such as Itai-Itai disease in Japan and Balkan endemic nephropathy, have been explained, whereas the etiology of others remains unclear. In countries such as Sri Lanka, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and India, CKDu is a major public health problem and causes significant morbidity and mortality. Despite their geographical separation, however, there are striking similarities between these endemic nephropathies. Young male agricultural workers who perform strenuous labor in extreme conditions are the worst affected. Patients remain asymptomatic until end-stage renal failure. Biomarkers of tubular injury are raised, and kidney biopsy shows chronic interstitial nephritis with associated tubular atrophy. In many of these places access to dialysis and transplantation is limited, leaving few treatment options. In this review we briefly describe the major historic endemic nephropathies. We then summarize the epidemiology, clinical features, histology and clinical course of CKDu in Mesoamerica, Sri Lanka, India, Egypt, and Tunisia. We draw comparisons between the proposed etiologies and supporting research. Recognition of the similarities may reinforce the international drive to establish causality and to effect prevention.

  18. The genus Vitex: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Rani, Anita; Sharma, Anupam

    2013-01-01

    The review includes 161 references on the genus Vitex, and comprises ethnopharmacology, morphology and microscopy, phytoconstituents, pharmacological reports, clinical studies, and toxicology of the prominent species of Vitex. Essential oils, flavonoids, iridoid glycosides, diterpenoides and ligans constitute major classes of phytoconstituents of the genus. A few species of this genus have medicinal value, among these, leaves and fruits of V. agnus-castus Linn. (Verbenaceae) has been traditio...

  19. A new genus of Rhytirrhinini from Colombia (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

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    Morrone Juan J.

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Rupanius, new genus, comprises the single species R. carinatus, new species, endemic to the Paramo biogeographic province of Colombia. It is diagnosed based on the elytra subquadrate and with a conspicuous declivital carina, and is considered similar to Puranlus Germain and Acrorius Kirsch. The genus and species are described, illustrated, and compared with the other Colombian Rhytirrhinini.Rupanius, gen. n., comprende la única especie R. carinatus, sp. n., endémica de la provincia biogeográfica del Páramo de Colombia. Este género se reconoce por los élitros subcuadrados y con una conspicua carena declivital y es considerado similar a Puranius Germain y Acrorius Kirsch. El género y especie son descritos, ilustrados y comparados con los otros Rhytirrhinini de Colombia.

  20. Snakes of Sulawesi: checklist, key and additional Biogeographical remarks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, in den H.A.J.

    1985-01-01

    A checklist with concise synonymy and a key to the snakes of Sulawesi is presented, comprising 63 species in 38 genera; 3 subspecies and 15 species, of which one constitutes a monotypic genus, are considered endemic. There is a strong Indo-Malayan relationship. Sea-snakes and Candoia carinata

  1. Biodiversity of the genus Cladophialophora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badali, H.; Gueidan, C.; Najafzadeh, M.J.; Bonifaz, A.; Gerrits van den Ende, A.H.G.; de Hoog, G.S.

    2008-01-01

    Cladophialophora is a genus of black yeast-like fungi comprising a number of clinically highly significant species in addition to environmental taxa. The genus has previously been characterized by branched chains of ellipsoidal to fusiform conidia. However, this character was shown to have evolved

  2. A new species of genus Nishada Moore, 1878 (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae) from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Rahul; Kirti, Jagbir S; Singh, Navneet

    2016-10-28

    Genus Nishada Moore (1878) was proposed as a monotypic genus, under subfamily Lithosiinae, family Lithosiidae (now Lithosiini), including only Nishada flabrifera Moore (1878) from Calcutta (now as Kolkata), India. The genus is distributed from China to India, Thailand, Malaysia and up to Australia. The Indian fauna of Nishada is reported from North-East Himalayas, West Bengal (Kolkata) and South India. Members of this genus are unmarked, yellow to brown with short and broad wings. Genus Nishada has been taxonomically dealt by many authors but awaits thorough revision. Hampson (1900) included a total of ten species: Nishada niveola Hampson, 1900, Nishada syntomioides (Walker, 1862), Nishada impervia (Walker, 1865), Nishada marginalis (Felder 1875), Nishada tula Swinhoe, 1900, Nishada nodicornis (Walker 1862), Nishada rotundipennis (Walker 1862), Nishada flabrifera Moore, 1878, Nishada sambara (Moore 1859) and Nishada xantholoma (Snellen 1879). Swinhoe (1902) and Hampson (1911) then described two new species, Nishada melanistis and Nishada brunneipennis, respectively, followed by Rothschild (1912, 1913) who described a further seven new species, Nishada brunnea, Nishada flavens, Nishada testacea, Nishada griseoflava, Nishada fuscofascia, Nishada louisiadensis and Nishada aurantiaca, bringing the total to 19 species. Strand (1922) catalogued only 13 of these species in Nishada, transferring N. brunnea and N. fuscofascia to genus Scoliacma Meyrick (1886); N. testacea, N.griseoflava and N. louisiadensis Rothschild to Eilema Hübner (1819) and synonymising N. flavens with N. sambara. Next, Matsumura (1927) described N. formosibia, followed by two more species, N. aureocincta Debauche, 1938 and N. benjaminea Roepke, 1946. Holloway (2001) synonymised N. nodicornis with N. rotundipennis and added the description of a new subspecies, Nishada chilomorpha adunca Holloway, 2001 from Borneo, indicating a distributional range as far as North East India. The nominotypical

  3. Revision of the cicada genus Dilobopyga (Hemiptera, Cicadidae) from Sulawesi and the Moluccas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffels, J P

    2018-04-13

    This revision of the cicadas of the genus Dilobopyga provides a diagnosis of the genus and descriptions, illustrations and distribution maps for 48 species. The following 33 species described here are new to science: D. angulata, angustata, bifida, curvispina, fasciata, hayashii, hollowayi, johani, knighti, langeraki, laterocurvata, latifascia, luwukensis, macrocerata, maleo, mamasa, mediolobata, nebulosa, operculata, palopoensis, pelengensis, platyacantha, quadrimaculata, rantemario, recurvata, rozendaali, sangihensis, sarasinorum, splendida, tambusisi, toraja, vantoli and watuwila. The key presented is designed for the identification of males of Dilobopyga to the species level. The subdivision of the genus in five species groups viz., opercularis group (17 species), nebulosa group (1 species), chlorogaster group (16 species), minahassae group (6 species) and watuwila group (8 species), is sustained by a phylogenetic analysis of morphological characters of all species described.        The cicadas of the genus Dilobopyga are found in Sulawesi, neighbouring islands and southern Moluccas. Of the 48 species of Dilobopyga 43 species are endemic to Sulawesi. Most of these Sulawesi species are restricted to either one peninsula or to a part of Central Sulawesi. The remaining five species are endemic to either the Sangihe Islands, Banggai Islands or the southern Moluccas. A taxon-area cladogram for the species of Dilobopyga provides a basis for a discussion on the historic biogeography of the genus.

  4. Notes on the genus Amphiprion Bloch & Schneider, 1801 (Teleostei: Pomacentridae) and its host sea anemones in the Seychelles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, den J.C.

    1997-01-01

    The genus Amphiprion Bloch & Schneider, 1801, is represented in the Seychelles by two species, A. akallopisos Bleeker, 1853, and the endemic A. fuscocaudatus Allen, 1972. Throughout its distributional range Amphiprion akallopisos has exclusively been recorded to associate with the clownfish anemones

  5. Taxonomic and geographic novelties in the genus Plantago (Plantaginaceae) in Chile, including the description of a new species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassemer, Gustavo; Shipunov, Alexey; Rønsted, Nina

    2018-01-01

    We present taxonomic and geographic novelties in the genus Plantago from Chile. More specifically, we describe P. nebularis, a new species endemic to Cerro Moreno, Antofagasta region, and propose P. zoellneriana, a new name for P. sericea subsp. araucana. We also lectotypify the name P. sericea, ...

  6. Molecular phylogeny, morphology and bioacoustics reveal five additional species of arboreal microhylid frogs of the genus Anodonthyla from Madagascar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vences, M.; Glaw, F.; Köhler, J.; Wollenberg, K.C.

    2010-01-01

    We provide a partial revision of the microhylid frogs of the genus Anodonthyla, endemic to Madagascar, based on comprehensive molecular, bioacoustic and morphological data sets that include newly collected specimens from multiple localities. The molecular trees provide strong evidence for the

  7. The molecular phylogeny of Matthiola R. Br. (Brassicaceae) inferred from ITS sequences, with special emphasis on the Macaronesian endemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaén-Molina, Ruth; Caujapé-Castells, Juli; Reyes-Betancort, Jorge Alfredo; Akhani, Hossein; Fernández-Palacios, Olga; de Paz, Julia Pérez; Febles-Hernández, Rosa; Marrero-Rodríguez, Aguedo

    2009-12-01

    Matthiola (Brassicaceae) is a genus that is widespread in the Mediterranean and Irano-Turanian regions and includes two species that are endemic to the archipelagos of Madeira and the Canaries in Macaronesia, which is an insular oceanic hotspot of biodiversity harboring many radiating endemic plant lineages. Sequence analyses of the nuclear ITS-1 and ITS-2 regions in a comprehensive geographical sample of Matthiola, encompassing all the endemic Macaronesian populations known to date, suggest independent Mediterranean and NW African origins of the taxa in Madeira and the Canaries, respectively. These molecular data reveal a complex evolutionary landscape that converges with morphological analyses in the recognition of two new Madeiran species. The data also suggest that the Canarian infra-specific endemic taxa described thus far have high (but non-diagnostic) levels of morphological and genetic diversity, and should be included in the single endemic Matthiola bolleana. In agreement with earlier investigations that revealed a high genetic differentiation between the populations of Matthiola in Fuerteventura and Lanzarote, our phylogeny supports independent founder events from the same mainland congener to either island. The consistently derived position of the Moroccan populations within a mostly Canarian clade suggests a further back-colonization of the continent. Notably, the ITS sequence resolution offered by Matthiola is higher than that found in many of the radiating Canarian endemic lineages for which molecular phylogenetic studies abound. Hence, our research discovers largely unexplored pathways to understand plant diversification in this oceanic insular hotspot through the investigation of non-speciose endemics.

  8. The section Atlanticae of the genus Luzula (Juncaceae

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    Boratyński, A.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The section Atlanticae of the genus Luzula (Juncaceae.- Luzula atlantica Braun-Blanq. and Luzula tibestica (Quézel Zarhan ex Romo & Boratyński are the only representatives of the section Atlanticae Kirschner of the genus Luzula. Luzula atlantica is an endemic plant from the High Atlas Mountains and Luzula tibestica is endemic to the Tibesti massif. Both taxa are studied from a nomenclatural, morphological, chorological and biogeographical point of view. These taxa, owing to their low dispersion capacity, have probably diversified in situ.La sección Atlanticae del género Luzula (Juncaceae.- Luzula atlantica Braun-Blanq. y Luzula tibestica (Quézel Zarhan ex Romo & Boratynski son los únicos representantes de la sección Atlanticae Kirschner del género Luzula. Luzula atlantica es un endemismo del Alto Atlas y Luzula tibestica es una planta endémica del macizo de Tibesti. Ambos taxones son estudiados desde el punto de vista morfológico, nomenclatural, corológico y biogeográfico. Estos taxones, por su baja tasa de dispersión, se han diversificado probablemente in situ.

  9. Revisión del género Covasacris (Orthoptera: Acrididae: Acridinae: Hyalopterygini Revision of genus Covasacris (Orthoptera: Acrididae: Acridinae: Hyalopterygini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Donato

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Se llevó a cabo la revisión del género monotípico Covasacris Liebermann. A partir del estudio detallado de la morfología externa e interna en ambos sexos y de la comparación con los restantes integrantes de la tribu, se propone que las especies Covasacris albitarsis Liebermann, Parorphula pallidinota Bruner y Parorphula strigata Bruner son la misma entidad, por ello se establece aquí la nueva combinación Covasacris pallidinota (Bruner.The revision of the monotypic genus Covasacris Liebermann was carried out. Based on the detailed study of the external and internal morphology in both sexes and the comparison with the remaining members of the tribe, the synonymy of the species Covasacris albitarsis Liebermann, Parorphula pallidinota Bruner and Parorphula strigata Bruner is proposed. Therefore, the new combination Covasacris pallidinota (Bruner is established.

  10. Models of genus one curves

    OpenAIRE

    Sadek, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis we give insight into the minimisation problem of genus one curves defined by equations other than Weierstrass equations. We are interested in genus one curves given as double covers of P1, plane cubics, or complete intersections of two quadrics in P3. By minimising such a curve we mean making the invariants associated to its defining equations as small as possible using a suitable change of coordinates. We study the non-uniqueness of minimisations of the genus one curves des...

  11. Chemodiversity in the genus Aspergillus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2015-01-01

    to be characterized. The genus Aspergillus is cladistically holophyletic but phenotypically polythetic and very diverse and is associated to quite different sexual states. Following the one fungus one name system, the genus Aspergillus is restricted to a holophyletic clade that include the morphologically different...... biosynthetic family isoextrolites. However, it appears that secondary metabolites from one Aspergillus section have analogous metabolites in other sections (here also called heteroisoextrolites). In this review, we give a genus-wide overview of secondary metabolite production in Aspergillus species. Extrolites...

  12. A revision of "blanket-hermit crabs" of the genus Paguropsis Henderson, 1888, with the description of a new genus and five new species (Crustacea, Anomura, Diogenidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaitre, Rafael; Rahayu, Dwi Listyo; Komai, Tomoyuki

    2018-01-01

    For 130 years the diogenid genus Paguropsis Henderson, 1888 was considered monotypic for an unusual species, P. typica Henderson, 1888, described from the Philippines and seldom reported since. Although scantly studied, this species is known to live in striking symbiosis with a colonial sea anemone that the hermit can stretch back and forth like a blanket over its cephalic shield and part of cephalothoracic appendages, and thus the common name "blanket-crab". During a study of paguroid collections obtained during recent French-sponsored biodiversity campaigns in the Indo-West Pacific, numerous specimens assignable to Paguropsis were encountered. Analysis and comparison with types and other historical specimens deposited in various museums revealed the existence of five undescribed species. Discovery of these new species, together with the observation of anatomical characters previously undocumented or poorly described, including coloration, required a revision of the genus Paguropsis . The name Chlaenopagurus andersoni Alcock & McArdle, 1901, considered by Alcock (1905) a junior synonym of P. typica , proved to be a valid species and is resurrected as P. andersoni (Alcock, 1899). In two of the new species, the shape of the gills, length/width of exopod of maxilliped 3, width and shape of sternite XI (of pereopods 3), and armature of the dactyls and fixed fingers of the chelate pereopods 4, were found to be characters so markedly different from P. typica and other species discovered that a new genus for them, Paguropsina gen. n. , is justified. As result, the genus Paguropsis is found to contain five species: P. typica , P. andersoni , P. confusa sp. n. , P. gigas sp. n. , and P. lacinia sp. n. Herein, Paguropsina gen. n. , is proposed and diagnosed for two new species, P. pistillata gen. et sp. n. , and P. inermis gen. et sp. n. ; Paguropsis is redefined, P. typica and its previously believed junior synonym, P. andersoni , are redescribed. All species are

  13. The genus Cladosporium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensch, K.; Braun, U.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    A monographic revision of the hyphomycete genus Cladosporium s. lat. (Cladosporiaceae, Capnodiales) is presented. It includes a detailed historic overview of Cladosporium and allied genera, with notes on their phylogeny, systematics and ecology. True species of Cladosporium s. str. (anamorphs of Davidiella), are characterised by having coronate conidiogenous loci and conidial hila, i.e., with a convex central dome surrounded by a raised periclinal rim. Recognised species are treated and illustrated with line drawings and photomicrographs (light as well as scanning electron microscopy). Species known from culture are described in vivo as well as in vitro on standardised media and under controlled conditions. Details on host range/substrates and the geographic distribution are given based on published accounts, and a re-examination of numerous herbarium specimens. Various keys are provided to support the identification of Cladosporium species in vivo and in vitro. Morphological datasets are supplemented by DNA barcodes (nuclear ribosomal RNA gene operon, including the internal transcribed spacer regions ITS1 and ITS2, the 5.8S nrDNA, as well as partial actin and translation elongation factor 1-α gene sequences) diagnostic for individual species. In total 993 names assigned to Cladosporium s. lat., including Heterosporium (854 in Cladosporium and 139 in Heterosporium), are treated, of which 169 are recognized in Cladosporium s. str. The other taxa are doubtful, insufficiently known or have been excluded from Cladosporium in its current circumscription and re-allocated to other genera by the authors of this monograph or previous authors. Taxonomic novelties: Cladosporium allicinum (Fr.: Fr.) Bensch, U. Braun & Crous, comb. nov., C. astroideum var. catalinense U. Braun, var. nov., Fusicladium tectonicola (Yong H. He & Z.Y. Zhang) U. Braun & Bensch, comb. nov., Septoidium uleanum (Henn.) U. Braun, comb. nov., Zasmidium adeniae (Hansf.) U. Braun, comb. nov., Zasmidium

  14. The genus Vitex: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Anita; Sharma, Anupam

    2013-07-01

    The review includes 161 references on the genus Vitex, and comprises ethnopharmacology, morphology and microscopy, phytoconstituents, pharmacological reports, clinical studies, and toxicology of the prominent species of Vitex. Essential oils, flavonoids, iridoid glycosides, diterpenoides and ligans constitute major classes of phytoconstituents of the genus. A few species of this genus have medicinal value, among these, leaves and fruits of V. agnus-castus Linn. (Verbenaceae) has been traditionally used in treatment of women complaints. V. agnus-castus has also been included in herbal remedies, which are in clinical use to regulate the menstrual cycle, reduce premenstrual symptom tension and anxiety, treat some menopausal symptoms as well as to treat hormonally induced acne. Despite a long tradition of use of some species, the genus has not been explored properly. In the concluding part, the future scope of Vitex species has been emphasized with a view to establish their multifarious biological activities and mode of action.

  15. Taxonomic revision of the genus Prionopelta (Hymenoptera, Formicidae in the Malagasy region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick Overson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study we revise the taxonomy of the genus Prionopelta for the Malagasy region, treating seven species, six of which are newly described (P. laurae sp. n., P. seychelles sp. n., P. subtilis sp. n., P. talos sp. n., P. vampira sp. n., P. xerosilva sp. n., and one redescribed (P. descarpentriesi Santschi. One species, P. seychelles, is restricted to Seychelles, while the six remaining species treated are endemic to Madagascar.

  16. First record of the genus Soliperla (Plecoptera: Peltoperlidae) from China with description of a new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Qing-Bo; DU, Yu-Zhou; Yuan, Dan

    2017-12-07

    The genus Soliperla Ricker, 1952 has been considered endemic to western North America, is now reported from Sichuan Province of southwestern China. In this paper, we describe a new species, S. wanglanga Huo & Du, sp. nov. The new species is characterized by a large inverted trapezoid sclerite on tergum 10, a bilobed aedeagal apex, and large dark areas on the frontoclypeus in the adult male. The nymph has conspicuous pale areas on terga 4-7.

  17. Phylogenetic relationships of cone snails endemic to Cabo Verde based on mitochondrial genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abalde, Samuel; Tenorio, Manuel J; Afonso, Carlos M L; Uribe, Juan E; Echeverry, Ana M; Zardoya, Rafael

    2017-11-25

    Due to their great species and ecological diversity as well as their capacity to produce hundreds of different toxins, cone snails are of interest to evolutionary biologists, pharmacologists and amateur naturalists alike. Taxonomic identification of cone snails still relies mostly on the shape, color, and banding patterns of the shell. However, these phenotypic traits are prone to homoplasy. Therefore, the consistent use of genetic data for species delimitation and phylogenetic inference in this apparently hyperdiverse group is largely wanting. Here, we reconstruct the phylogeny of the cones endemic to Cabo Verde archipelago, a well-known radiation of the group, using mitochondrial (mt) genomes. The reconstructed phylogeny grouped the analyzed species into two main clades, one including Kalloconus from West Africa sister to Trovaoconus from Cabo Verde and the other with a paraphyletic Lautoconus due to the sister group relationship of Africonus from Cabo Verde and Lautoconus ventricosus from Mediterranean Sea and neighboring Atlantic Ocean to the exclusion of Lautoconus endemic to Senegal (plus Lautoconus guanche from Mauritania, Morocco, and Canary Islands). Within Trovaoconus, up to three main lineages could be distinguished. The clade of Africonus included four main lineages (named I to IV), each further subdivided into two monophyletic groups. The reconstructed phylogeny allowed inferring the evolution of the radula in the studied lineages as well as biogeographic patterns. The number of cone species endemic to Cabo Verde was revised under the light of sequence divergence data and the inferred phylogenetic relationships. The sequence divergence between continental members of the genus Kalloconus and island endemics ascribed to the genus Trovaoconus is low, prompting for synonymization of the latter. The genus Lautoconus is paraphyletic. Lautoconus ventricosus is the closest living sister group of genus Africonus. Diversification of Africonus was in allopatry

  18. The genus Eremophila (Scrophulariaceae): an ethnobotanical, biological and phytochemical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singab, Abdel Nasser; Youssef, Fadia S; Ashour, Mohamed L; Wink, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Eremophila (Scrophulariaceae) is an endemic Australian genus with 214 species, which is commonly known as Fuchsia bush, Emu bush or Poverty bush. Plants of this genus played an important role for the Australian Aborigines who used them widely for medicinal and ceremonial purposes. Many studies have been carried out on many species of this genus and have generated immense data about the chemical composition and corresponding biological activity of extracts and isolated secondary metabolites. Thorough phytochemical investigations of different Eremophila species have resulted in the isolation of more than 200 secondary metabolites of different classes with diterpenes as major constituents. Biological studies and traditional clinical practice demonstrated that Eremophila and its bioactive compounds possess various pharmacological properties. Plants were employed especially as a cardiotonic drug and also as potent anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antiviral agents. Further investigations are required to explore other Eremophila species, to evaluate the different biological activities of either their extracts or the isolated compounds and the possible underlying modes of action. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  19. Revision of the genus Phaeanthus (Annonaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mols, J.B.; Keßler, P.J.A.

    2000-01-01

    A revision of the genus Phaeanthus Hook.f. & Thomson (Annonaceae) is presented. The genus comprises 8 species. A key to the fruiting and/or flowering specimens of the genus is included. The genus consists of shrubs to small-sized trees from Malesia and Vietnam. It is characterised by sepals and

  20. A new species of Isoperla (Insecta, Plecoptera from the Karawanken, with considerations on the Southern Limestone Alps as centers of endemism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfram Graf

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the genus Isoperla (Plecoptera, Perlodidae, belonging to the oxylepis species-group is described, and the male mating call is characterized. Its range falls within a small region of the Southern Limestone Alps which is well known to be one endemism-centre of aquatic insects.

  1. A new species of Isoperla (Insecta, Plecoptera) from the Karawanken, with considerations on the Southern Limestone Alps as centers of endemism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Wolfram; Konar, Martin; Murányi, Dávid; Orci, Kirill Márk; Vitecek, Simon

    2014-01-01

    A new species of the genus Isoperla (Plecoptera, Perlodidae), belonging to the oxylepis species-group is described, and the male mating call is characterized. Its range falls within a small region of the Southern Limestone Alps which is well known to be one endemism-centre of aquatic insects.

  2. The Impact of the Newly Licensed Dengue Vaccine in Endemic Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Maíra; Stollenwerk, Nico; Halstead, Scott B

    2016-12-01

    With approximately 3 billion people at risk of acquiring the infection, dengue fever is now considered the most important mosquito-borne viral disease in the world, with 390 million dengue infections occurring every year, of which 96 million manifest symptoms with any level of disease severity. Treatment of uncomplicated dengue cases is only supportive and severe dengue cases require hospital intensive care. A vaccine now licensed in several countries and developed by Sanofi Pasteur (CYD-TDV, named Dengvaxia), was able to protect, in the first 25 months of the two Phase III, 66% of a subset of 9-16 year old participants. However, a significantly lower efficacy (including negative vaccine efficacy) was noted for children younger than 9 years of age. Analysis of year 3 results of phase III trials of Dengvaxia suggest high rates of protection of vaccinated partial dengue immunes but high rates of hospitalizations during breakthrough dengue infections of persons who were vaccinated when seronegative, with vaccine appearing to induce enhancing antibodies (ADE). An age structured model was developed based on Sanofi's recommendation to vaccinate persons age 945 years in dengue endemic countries. The model was used to explore the clinical burden of two vaccination strategies: 1) Vaccinate 4 or 20% of individuals, ages 9-45 years, seropositives and seronegatives, and 2) vaccinate 4 or 20% of individuals, ages 9-45 years, who are dengue immune only. Our results show that vaccinating dengue monotypic immune individuals prevents dengue hospitalizations, but at the same time dengue infections of vaccine-sensitized persons increases hospitalizations. When the vaccine is given only to partial immune individuals, after immunological screening of the population, disease burden decreases considerably.

  3. The Impact of the Newly Licensed Dengue Vaccine in Endemic Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra Aguiar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With approximately 3 billion people at risk of acquiring the infection, dengue fever is now considered the most important mosquito-borne viral disease in the world, with 390 million dengue infections occurring every year, of which 96 million manifest symptoms with any level of disease severity. Treatment of uncomplicated dengue cases is only supportive and severe dengue cases require hospital intensive care. A vaccine now licensed in several countries and developed by Sanofi Pasteur (CYD-TDV, named Dengvaxia, was able to protect, in the first 25 months of the two Phase III, 66% of a subset of 9-16 year old participants. However, a significantly lower efficacy (including negative vaccine efficacy was noted for children younger than 9 years of age.Analysis of year 3 results of phase III trials of Dengvaxia suggest high rates of protection of vaccinated partial dengue immunes but high rates of hospitalizations during breakthrough dengue infections of persons who were vaccinated when seronegative, with vaccine appearing to induce enhancing antibodies (ADE. An age structured model was developed based on Sanofi's recommendation to vaccinate persons age 945 years in dengue endemic countries. The model was used to explore the clinical burden of two vaccination strategies: 1 Vaccinate 4 or 20% of individuals, ages 9-45 years, seropositives and seronegatives, and 2 vaccinate 4 or 20% of individuals, ages 9-45 years, who are dengue immune only.Our results show that vaccinating dengue monotypic immune individuals prevents dengue hospitalizations, but at the same time dengue infections of vaccine-sensitized persons increases hospitalizations. When the vaccine is given only to partial immune individuals, after immunological screening of the population, disease burden decreases considerably.

  4. Delimiting areas of endemism through kernel interpolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ubirajara; Brescovit, Antonio D; Santos, Adalberto J

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new approach for identification of areas of endemism, the Geographical Interpolation of Endemism (GIE), based on kernel spatial interpolation. This method differs from others in being independent of grid cells. This new approach is based on estimating the overlap between the distribution of species through a kernel interpolation of centroids of species distribution and areas of influence defined from the distance between the centroid and the farthest point of occurrence of each species. We used this method to delimit areas of endemism of spiders from Brazil. To assess the effectiveness of GIE, we analyzed the same data using Parsimony Analysis of Endemism and NDM and compared the areas identified through each method. The analyses using GIE identified 101 areas of endemism of spiders in Brazil GIE demonstrated to be effective in identifying areas of endemism in multiple scales, with fuzzy edges and supported by more synendemic species than in the other methods. The areas of endemism identified with GIE were generally congruent with those identified for other taxonomic groups, suggesting that common processes can be responsible for the origin and maintenance of these biogeographic units.

  5. Delimiting areas of endemism through kernel interpolation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubirajara Oliveira

    Full Text Available We propose a new approach for identification of areas of endemism, the Geographical Interpolation of Endemism (GIE, based on kernel spatial interpolation. This method differs from others in being independent of grid cells. This new approach is based on estimating the overlap between the distribution of species through a kernel interpolation of centroids of species distribution and areas of influence defined from the distance between the centroid and the farthest point of occurrence of each species. We used this method to delimit areas of endemism of spiders from Brazil. To assess the effectiveness of GIE, we analyzed the same data using Parsimony Analysis of Endemism and NDM and compared the areas identified through each method. The analyses using GIE identified 101 areas of endemism of spiders in Brazil GIE demonstrated to be effective in identifying areas of endemism in multiple scales, with fuzzy edges and supported by more synendemic species than in the other methods. The areas of endemism identified with GIE were generally congruent with those identified for other taxonomic groups, suggesting that common processes can be responsible for the origin and maintenance of these biogeographic units.

  6. Environmental Monitoring of Endemic Cholera

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElNemr, W.; Jutla, A. S.; Constantin de Magny, G.; Hasan, N. A.; Islam, M.; Sack, R.; Huq, A.; Hashem, F.; Colwell, R.

    2012-12-01

    Cholera remains a major public health threat. Since Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the disease, is autochthonous to riverine, estuarine, and coastal waters, it is unlikely the bacteria can be eradicated from its natural habitat. Prediction of disease, in conjunction with preventive vaccination can reduce the prevalence rate of a disease. Understanding the influence of environmental parameters on growth and proliferation of bacteria is an essential first step in developing prediction methods for outbreaks. Large scale geophysical variables, such as SST and coastal chlorophyll, are often associated with conditions favoring growth of V. cholerae. However, local environmental factors, meaning biological activity in ponds from where the bulk of populations in endemic regions derive water for daily usage, are either neglected or oversimplified. Using data collected from several sites in two geographically distinct locations in South Asia, we have identified critical local environmental factors associated with cholera outbreak. Of 18 environmental variables monitored for water sources in Mathbaria (a coastal site near the Bay of Bengal) and Bakergonj (an inland site) of Bangladesh, water depth and chlorophyll were found to be important factors associated with initiation of cholera outbreaks. Cholera in coastal regions appears to be related to intrusion. However, monsoonal flooding creates conditions for cholera epidemics in inland regions. This may be one of the first attempts to relate in-situ environmental observations with cholera. We anticipate that it will be useful for further development of prediction models in the resource constrained regions.

  7. Phylogeny of the Genus Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Grady, Patrick M.; DeSalle, Rob

    2018-01-01

    Understanding phylogenetic relationships among taxa is key to designing and implementing comparative analyses. The genus Drosophila, which contains over 1600 species, is one of the most important model systems in the biological sciences. For over a century, one species in this group, Drosophila melanogaster, has been key to studies of animal development and genetics, genome organization and evolution, and human disease. As whole-genome sequencing becomes more cost-effective, there is increasing interest in other members of this morphologically, ecologically, and behaviorally diverse genus. Phylogenetic relationships within Drosophila are complicated, and the goal of this paper is to provide a review of the recent taxonomic changes and phylogenetic relationships in this genus to aid in further comparative studies. PMID:29716983

  8. Shifts in species interactions due to the evolution of functional differences between endemics and non-endemics: an endemic syndrome hypothesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney E Gorman

    Full Text Available Species ranges have been shifting since the Pleistocene, whereby fragmentation, isolation, and the subsequent reduction in gene flow have resulted in local adaptation of novel genotypes and the repeated evolution of endemic species. While there is a wide body of literature focused on understanding endemic species, very few studies empirically test whether or not the evolution of endemics results in unique function or ecological differences relative to their widespread congeners; in particular while controlling for environmental variation. Using a common garden composed of 15 Eucalyptus species within the subgenus Symphyomyrtus (9 endemic to Tasmania, 6 non-endemic, here we hypothesize and show that endemic species are functionally and ecologically different from non-endemics. Compared to non-endemics, endemic Eucalyptus species have a unique suite of functional plant traits that have extended effects on herbivores. We found that while endemics occupy many diverse habitats, they share similar functional traits potentially resulting in an endemic syndrome of traits. This study provides one of the first empirical datasets analyzing the functional differences between endemics and non-endemics in a common garden setting, and establishes a foundation for additional studies of endemic/non-endemic dynamics that will be essential for understanding global biodiversity in the midst of rapid species extinctions and range shifts as a consequence of global change.

  9. Diversity and levels of endemism of the Bromeliaceae of Costa Rica – an updated checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres González, Daniel A.; Schulte, Katharina; Schmidt, Marco; Zizka, Georg

    2013-01-01

    Abstract An updated inventory of the Bromeliaceae for Costa Rica is presented including citations of representative specimens for each species. The family comprises 18 genera and 198 species in Costa Rica, 32 species being endemic to the country. Additional 36 species are endemic to Costa Rica and Panama. Only 4 of the 8 bromeliad subfamilies occur in Costa Rica, with a strong predominance of Tillandsioideae (7 genera/150 spp.; 75.7% of all bromeliad species in Costa Rica). 124 species (62.6%) grow exclusively epiphytic, additional 59 spp. (29.8%) are facultative epiphytes. The most diverse genus is Werauhia, with 59 species (29.8% of the Costa Rican bromeliad flora), followed by Tillandsia with 40 species (20.2%) and Guzmania with 28 spp. (8.6%). PMID:24399894

  10. Diversity and levels of endemism of the Bromeliaceae of Costa Rica – an updated checklist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Caceres Gonzalez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available An updated inventory of the Bromeliaceae for Costa Rica is presented including citations of representative specimens for each species. The family comprises 18 genera and 198 species in Costa Rica, 32 species being endemic to the country. Additional 36 species are endemic to Costa Rica and Panama. Only 4 of the 8 bromeliad subfamilies occur in Costa Rica, with a strong predominance of Tillandsioideae (7 genera/150 spp.; 75.7% of all bromeliad species in Costa Rica. 124 species (62.6% grow exclusively epiphytic, additional 59 spp. (29.8% are facultative epiphytes. The most diverse genus is Werauhia, with 59 species (29.8% of the Costa Rican bromeliad flora, followed by Tillandsia with 40 species (20.2% and Guzmania with 28 spp. (8.6%.

  11. Non-endemic cases of lymphatic filariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Robert T

    2014-11-01

    Several cases of lymphatic filariasis (LF) have been reported in non-endemic countries due to travellers, military personnel and expatriates spending time in and returning from endemic areas, as well as immigrants coming from these regions. These cases are reviewed to assess the scale and context of non-endemic presentations and to consider the biological factors underlying their relative paucity. Cases reported in the English, French, Spanish and Portuguese literature during the last 30 years were examined through a search of the PubMed, ProMED-mail and TropNet resources. The literature research revealed 11 cases of lymphatic filariasis being reported in non-endemic areas. The extent of further infections in recent migrants to non-endemic countries was also revealed through the published literature. The life-cycle requirements of Wuchereria and Brugia species limit the extent of transmission of LF outside of tropical regions. However, until elimination, programmes are successful in managing the disease, there remains a possibility of low rates of infection being reported in non-endemic areas, and increased international travel can only contribute to this phenomenon. Physicians need to be aware of the signs and symptoms of lymphatic filariasis, and infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of people with a relevant travel history. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Bordasia Krapov., new Malvaceae genus

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    Antonio Krapovickas

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Bordasia bicornis Krapov. new genus and species is described from northwestern ParaguayanChaco. It is related to Sida from which it differs by the mericarp with two apical horns, by theleaves dimorphic and coriaceous and by the fannel-shaped calyx

  13. The genus Actiniceps Berk. & Br

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boedijn, K.B.

    1959-01-01

    The genus Actiniceps Berk. & Br. is shown to be a Basidiomycete. Wiesnerina Höhn. and Dimorphocystis Corner are regarded synonymous. The type species A. thwaitesii Berk. & Br. is redescribed with D. capitatus Corner as synonym. The following new combinations are proposed: A. horrida (Höhn.) Boedijn,

  14. Rank Two Affine Manifolds in Genus 3

    OpenAIRE

    Aulicino, David; Nguyen, Duc-Manh

    2016-01-01

    We complete the classification of rank two affine manifolds in the moduli space of translation surfaces in genus three. Combined with a recent result of Mirzakhani and Wright, this completes the classification of higher rank affine manifolds in genus three.

  15. Taxonomy and phylogeny of the genus Steinera (Arctomiales, Arctomiaceae) in the subantarctic Islands of Crozet and Kerguelen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ertz, Damien; Poulsen, Roar S.; Charrier, Maryvonne

    2017-01-01

    The lichenized genus Steinera is revised for the archipelagos of Crozet and of Kerguelen, with a high level of endemism revealed. It is shown to represent a good example of convergent evolution between two different orders. Phylogenetic analyses using nuLSU, RPB1 and mtSSU sequences show that two...

  16. A review of the genus Erycibe Roxb

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogland, R.D.

    1953-01-01

    In this paper I intend to give a review of the genus Erycibe Roxb. in. which all the names published in the genus will be accounted for. The representatives from Malaysia have been dealt with more extensively in the revision of the genus in Flora Malesiana, Ser. I, Vol. 4, 4th instalment, 1953, pp.

  17. Symbiotic diversity in the cosmopolitan genus Acacia

    Science.gov (United States)

    James K. Leary; Paul W. Singleton; Paul G. Scowcroft; Dulal Borthakur

    2006-01-01

    Acacia is the second largest genus within the Leguminosae, with 1352 species identified. This genus is now known to be polyphyletic and the international scientific community will presumably split Acacia into five new genera. This review examines the diversity of biological nitrogen fixation symbiosis within Acacia as a single genus. Due to its global importance, an...

  18. A Complex System of Glacial Sub-Refugia Drives Endemic Freshwater Biodiversity on the Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clewing, Catharina; Albrecht, Christian; Wilke, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Although only relatively few freshwater invertebrate families are reported from the Tibetan Plateau, the degree of endemism may be high. Many endemic lineages occur within permafrost areas, raising questions about the existence of isolated intra-plateau glacial refugia. Moreover, if such refugia existed, it might be instructive to learn whether they were associated with lakes or with more dynamic ecosystems such as ponds, wetlands, or springs. To study these hypotheses, we used pulmonate snails of the plateau-wide distributed genus Radix as model group and the Lake Donggi Cona drainage system, located in the north-eastern part of the plateau, as model site. First, we performed plateau-wide phylogenetic analyses using mtDNA data to assess the overall relationships of Radix populations inhabiting the Lake Donggi Cona system for revealing refugial lineages. We then conducted regional phylogeographical analyses applying a combination of mtDNA and nuclear AFLP markers to infer the local structure and demographic history of the most abundant endemic Radix clade for identifying location and type of (sub-)refugia within the drainage system. Our phylogenetic analysis showed a high diversity of Radix lineages in the Lake Donggi Cona system. Subsequent phylogeographical analyses of the most abundant endemic clade indicated a habitat-related clustering of genotypes and several Late Pleistocene spatial/demographic expansion events. The most parsimonious explanation for these patterns would be a scenario of an intra-plateau glacial refugium in the Lake Donggi Cona drainage system, which might have consisted of isolated sub-refugia. Though the underlying processes remain unknown, an initial separation of lake and watershed populations could have been triggered by lake-level fluctuations before and during the Last Glacial Maximum. This study inferred the first intra-plateau refugium for freshwater animals on the Tibetan Plateau. It thus sheds new light on the evolutionary history

  19. Plant endemism in the Sierras of Córdoba and San Luis (Argentina): understanding links between phylogeny and regional biogeographical patterns1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiapella, Jorge O.; Demaio, Pablo H.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We compiled a checklist with all known endemic plants occurring in the Sierras of Córdoba and San Luis, an isolated mountainous range located in central Argentina. In order to obtain a better understanding of the evolutionary history, relationships and age of the regional flora, we gathered basic information on the biogeographical and floristic affinities of the endemics, and documented the inclusion of each taxon in molecular phylogenies. We listed 89 taxa (including 69 species and 20 infraspecific taxa) belonging to 53 genera and 29 families. The endemics are not distributed evenly, being more abundant in the lower than in the middle and upper vegetation belts. Thirty-two genera (60.3%) have been included in phylogenetic analyses, but only ten (18.8%) included local endemic taxa. A total of 28 endemic taxa of the Sierras CSL have a clear relationship with a widespread species of the same genus, or with one found close to the area. Available phylogenies for some taxa show divergence times between 7.0 – 1.8 Ma; all endemic taxa are most probably neoendemics sensu Stebbins and Major. Our analysis was specifically aimed at a particular geographic area, but the approach of analyzing phylogenetic patterns together with floristic or biogeographical relationships of the endemic taxa of an area, delimited by clear geomorphological features, could reveal evolutionary trends shaping the area. PMID:25878555

  20. Plant endemism in the Sierras of Córdoba and San Luis (Argentina): understanding links between phylogeny and regional biogeographical patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiapella, Jorge O; Demaio, Pablo H

    2015-01-01

    We compiled a checklist with all known endemic plants occurring in the Sierras of Córdoba and San Luis, an isolated mountainous range located in central Argentina. In order to obtain a better understanding of the evolutionary history, relationships and age of the regional flora, we gathered basic information on the biogeographical and floristic affinities of the endemics, and documented the inclusion of each taxon in molecular phylogenies. We listed 89 taxa (including 69 species and 20 infraspecific taxa) belonging to 53 genera and 29 families. The endemics are not distributed evenly, being more abundant in the lower than in the middle and upper vegetation belts. Thirty-two genera (60.3%) have been included in phylogenetic analyses, but only ten (18.8%) included local endemic taxa. A total of 28 endemic taxa of the Sierras CSL have a clear relationship with a widespread species of the same genus, or with one found close to the area. Available phylogenies for some taxa show divergence times between 7.0 - 1.8 Ma; all endemic taxa are most probably neoendemics sensu Stebbins and Major. Our analysis was specifically aimed at a particular geographic area, but the approach of analyzing phylogenetic patterns together with floristic or biogeographical relationships of the endemic taxa of an area, delimited by clear geomorphological features, could reveal evolutionary trends shaping the area.

  1. Molecular phylogenetics of the genus Costularia (Schoeneae, Cyperaceae) reveals multiple distinct evolutionary lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larridon, Isabel; Bauters, Kenneth; Semmouri, Ilias; Viljoen, Jan-Adriaan; Prychid, Christina J; Muasya, A Muthama; Bruhl, Jeremy J; Wilson, Karen L; Senterre, Bruno; Goetghebeur, Paul

    2018-04-19

    We investigated the monophyly of Costularia (25 species), a genus of tribe Schoeneae (Cyperaceae) that illustrates a remarkable distribution pattern from southeastern Africa, over Madagascar, the Mascarenes and Seychelles, to Malesia and New Caledonia. A further species, Tetraria borneensis, has been suggested to belong to Costularia. Relationships and divergence times were inferred using an existing four marker phylogeny of Cyperaceae tribe Schoeneae expanded with newly generated sequence data mainly for Costularia s.l. species. Phylogenetic reconstruction was executed using Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood approaches. Divergence times were estimated using a relaxed molecular clock model, calibrated with fossil data. Based on our results, Tetraria borneensis is not related to the species of Costularia. Costularia s.l. is composed of four distinct evolutionary lineages. Two lineages, one including the type species, are part of the Oreobolus clade, i.e. a much reduced genus Costularia restricted to southeastern Africa, Madagascar, the Mascarenes and Seychelles, and a small endemic genus from New Caledonia for which a new genus Chamaedendron is erected based on Costularia subgenus Chamaedendron. The other two lineages are part of the Tricostularia clade, i.e. a separate single-species lineage from the Seychelles for which a new genus (Xyroschoenus) is described, and Costularia subgenus Lophoschoenus. For the latter, more research is needed to test whether they are congeneric with the species placed in the reticulate-sheathed Tetraria clade. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The genus Attalea (Arecaceae of Bolivia: regional ecologic system affinities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Moraes R.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The documentation of the Neotropical species of the Arecaceae family, based on the recent contributions to its taxonomy and its relationship with natural landscapes, updates the spatial patterns to which they adapt in their range of distribution. In this case 121 records of specimens of the 11 species of the genus Attalea of Bolivia and their relationship with 30 ecological systems that approximate their scope of distribution at regional level are released. To this end, the geographical coordinates were systematized, verified and corrected. Localities of all the specimens collected from the genus Attalea in order to compare them with ecological systems, using the ArgGis tools. We then elaborate a dendrogram (species vs. ecological systems using the minimum distance method in the R program. The analysis of the relation of the species with the ecological systems highlights a species that does not compose to the southwest amazon: A. eichleri and that is native to ecological systems of the Cerrado. Among the SW Amazonian Attalea species, A. blepharopus (endemic to Bolivia is isolated from the others and the rest subgroup species according to their presence in forests and savannas, in addition to the subandean and alluvial, as it is for A. princeps, which is found in 17 systems (57%. Eight species of Attalea are common with Peru and 10 with Brazil. It is important to relate the hierarchical grouping of the Attalea species with ecological systems in function of landscape dynamics to document their space patterns and also for their conservation.

  3. Scavenging in the genus Natrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Ayres

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Scavenging is reported as an unusual behaviour of snakes. However, it is likely more common than is supposed. Here I report the use of dead newts as prey source by water snakes of the genus Natrix at a dam in north-western Spain. Juveniles and adults viperine snakes (Natrix maura, and also an adult grass snake (Natrix natrix were found feeding on newt carcasses.

  4. Conservation genetics of a critically endangered limpet genus and rediscovery of an extinct species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diarmaid Ó Foighil

    Full Text Available A third of all known freshwater mollusk extinctions worldwide have occurred within a single medium-sized American drainage. The Mobile River Basin (MRB of Alabama, a global hotspot of temperate freshwater biodiversity, was intensively industrialized during the 20(th century, driving 47 of its 139 endemic mollusk species to extinction. These include the ancylinid limpet Rhodacmea filosa, currently classified as extinct (IUCN Red List, a member of a critically endangered southeastern North American genus reduced to a single known extant population (of R. elatior in the MRB.We document here the tripling of known extant populations of this North American limpet genus with the rediscovery of enduring Rhodacmea filosa in a MRB tributary and of R. elatior in its type locality: the Green River, Kentucky, an Ohio River Basin (ORB tributary. Rhodacmea species are diagnosed using untested conchological traits and we reassessed their systematic and conservation status across both basins using morphometric and genetic characters. Our data corroborated the taxonomic validity of Rhodacmea filosa and we inferred a within-MRB cladogenic origin from a common ancestor bearing the R. elatior shell phenotype. The geographically-isolated MRB and ORB R. elatior populations formed a cryptic species complex: although overlapping morphometrically, they exhibited a pronounced phylogenetic disjunction that greatly exceeded that of within-MRB R. elatior and R. filosa sister species.Rhodacmea filosa, the type species of the genus, is not extinct. It persists in a Coosa River tributary and morphometric and phylogenetic analyses confirm its taxonomic validity. All three surviving populations of the genus Rhodacmea merit specific status. They collectively contain all known survivors of a phylogenetically highly distinctive North American endemic genus and therefore represent a concentrated fraction of continental freshwater gastropod biodiversity. We recommend the establishment

  5. CYANOBACTERIA OF THE GENUS PROCHLOROTHRIX

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    Alexander Vasilievich Pinevich

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Green cyanobacteria are distinguished from blue-green ones by the possession of a chlorophyll-containing light harvesting antenna. Three genera of green cyanobacteria, namely Acaryochloris, Prochlorococcus and Prochloron, are unicellular and of marine habitat; Prochlorococcus marinus attracts most attention due to its outstanding role in prime productivity. The fourth genus, Prochlorothrix, is represented by filamentous freshwater strains. Unlike the rest of green cyanobacteria, Prochlorothrix is paradoxically rare: it has been isolated from two European locations only. Taking into account fluctuating blooms, morphological resemblance with Planktothrix and Pseudanabaena, and unsuccessful enrichment of Prochlorothrix, the preferred strategy of search for this cyanobacterium is based on PCR with natural DNA and specific primers. This approach already demonstrates a broader distribution of Prochlorothrix: marker genes have been found in at least two additional locations. Despite the growing evidence for naturally occurring Prochlorothrix, there are only a few cultivated strains, and only one of them (PCC 9006 is claimed to be axenic. In multixenic cultures, Prochlorothrix is accompanied by heterotrophic bacteria, indicating a consortium-type association. The genus Prochlorothrix includes two species: P. hollandica and P. scandica based on distinctions in genomic DNA, cell size, temperature optimum, and fatty acid composition of membrane lipids. In this short review, the properties of cyanobacteria of the genus Prochlorothrix are described, and the evolutionary scenario of green cyanobacteria, especially taking into account their role in the origin of simple chloroplast is given.

  6. Biodiversity of the genus Cladophialophora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badali, H.; Gueidan, C.; Najafzadeh, M.J.; Bonifaz, A.; van den Ende, A.H.G. Gerrits; de Hoog, G.S.

    2008-01-01

    Cladophialophora is a genus of black yeast-like fungi comprising a number of clinically highly significant species in addition to environmental taxa. The genus has previously been characterized by branched chains of ellipsoidal to fusiform conidia. However, this character was shown to have evolved several times independently in the order Chaetothyriales. On the basis of a multigene phylogeny (nucLSU, nucSSU, RPB1), most of the species of Cladophialophora (including its generic type C. carrionii) belong to a monophyletic group comprising two main clades (carrionii- and bantiana-clades). The genus includes species causing chromoblastomycosis and other skin infections, as well as disseminated and cerebral infections, often in immunocompetent individuals. In the present study, multilocus phylogenetic analyses were combined to a morphological study to characterize phenetically similar Cladophialophora strains. Sequences of the ITS region, partial Translation Elongation Factor 1-α and β-Tubulin genes were analysed for a set of 48 strains. Four novel species were discovered, originating from soft drinks, alkylbenzene-polluted soil, and infected patients. Membership of the both carrionii and bantiana clades might be indicative of potential virulence to humans. PMID:19287540

  7. On genus expansion of superpolynomials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mironov, Andrei, E-mail: mironov@itep.ru [Lebedev Physics Institute, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); ITEP, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Morozov, Alexei, E-mail: morozov@itep.ru [ITEP, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Sleptsov, Alexei, E-mail: sleptsov@itep.ru [ITEP, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation); Laboratory of Quantum Topology, Chelyabinsk State University, Chelyabinsk 454001 (Russian Federation); KdVI, University of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Smirnov, Andrey, E-mail: asmirnov@math.columbia.edu [ITEP, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation); Columbia University, Department of Mathematics, New York (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Recently it was shown that the (Ooguri–Vafa) generating function of HOMFLY polynomials is the Hurwitz partition function, i.e. that the dependence of the HOMFLY polynomials on representation R is naturally captured by symmetric group characters (cut-and-join eigenvalues). The genus expansion and expansion through Vassiliev invariants explicitly demonstrate this phenomenon. In the present paper we claim that the superpolynomials are not functions of such a type: symmetric group characters do not provide an adequate linear basis for their expansions. Deformation to superpolynomials is, however, straightforward in the multiplicative basis: the Casimir operators are β-deformed to Hamiltonians of the Calogero–Moser–Sutherland system. Applying this trick to the genus and Vassiliev expansions, we observe that the deformation is fully straightforward only for the thin knots. Beyond the family of thin knots additional algebraically independent terms appear in the Vassiliev and genus expansions. This can suggest that the superpolynomials do in fact contain more information about knots than the colored HOMFLY and Kauffman polynomials. However, even for the thin knots the beta-deformation is non-innocent: already in the simplest examples it seems inconsistent with the positivity of colored superpolynomials in non-(anti)symmetric representations, which also happens in I. Cherednik's (DAHA-based) approach to the torus knots.

  8. An updated review on the Oenothera genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sumitra; Kaur, Rupinder; Sharma, Surendra Kr

    2012-07-01

    Oenothera genus (Onagraceae) has been used as a folk remedy since ancient times for the treatment of asthma, gastrointestinal disorders, neuralgia, skin diseases, and hepatic and kidney diseases. Different chemical constituents like lipids, flavonoids, tannins, steroids and triterpenes have been isolated from this genus. The various notable pharmacological activities reported from the genus are antioxidant, cytotoxic, antibacterial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antihyperlipidaemic, thrombolytic and antidiarrhoeal. The present paper is to summarize the worldwide reported biological activities and phytoconstituents associated with this genus for about 50 years and highlight the medicinally important species belonging to this genus so that these species can be further explored and used as therapeutic agents for various diseases.

  9. Clinical significance of neurocysticercosis in endemic villages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García, H.H.; Gilman, R.H.; Tsang, V.C.W.; Gonzalez, A.E.

    1997-01-01

    Cerebral cysticercosis is the main cause of late-onset epilepsy in most developing countries. Data on the neuroepidemiology of cysticercosis in endemic populations is scarce. In an endemic village on the northern coast of Peru, 49 individuals with neurological symptomatology (41 epileptic and 8 non-epileptic) were screened for antibodies to Taenia solium, using a serum electroimmuno transfer blot assay. Fifteen subjects were seropositive, 14 (34%) of those with epilepsy but only one (13%) of those who were non-epileptic. A history of passing proglottides was associated with positive serology. Thirteen of the 15 seropositive individuals underwent cerebral computed tomography; only 7 (54%) were abnormal. A randomly selected sample of 20 pigs from the village was also tested, and 6 (30%) were seropositive. This study demonstrated the importance of cysticercosis in the aetiology of epilepsy in endemic villages and the close relationship between porcine and human infection

  10. Discovery of the Critically Endangered Tarantula Species of the Genus Poecilotheria (Araneae: Theraphosidae, Poecilotheria hanumavilasumica, From Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranil P. Nanayakkara

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The arboreal spiders in the genus Poecilotheria is represented by 16 species and restricted to India and Sri Lanka. Each country has eight endemic species. During a survey on mygalomorph spiders in the Northern Province of Sri Lanka, the critically endangered species of Theraphosidae Poecilotheria hanumavilasumica was discovered for the first time outside of its native habitat in India, expanding its range to northern Sri Lanka. The discovery of P. hanumavilasumica is unique, as it used to be a critically endangered and endemic species of the genus Poecilotheria found in India, and it is evident that during the land bridge connection between India and Sri Lanka, when the Pleistocene epoch biotic exchange took place between the two countries, taxa were dispersed through the land connections.

  11. Tracing the temporal and spatial origins of island endemics in the Mediterranean region: a case study from the citrus family (Ruta L., Rutaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvo, Gabriele; Ho, Simon Y W; Rosenbaum, Gideon; Ree, Richard; Conti, Elena

    2010-12-01

    Understanding the origin of island endemics is a central task of historical biogeography. Recent methodological advances provide a rigorous framework to determine the relative contribution of different biogeographic processes (e.g., vicariance, land migration, long-distance dispersal) to the origin of island endemics. With its complex but well-known history of microplate movements and climatic oscillations, the Mediterranean region (including the Mediterranean basin and Macaronesia) provides the geographic backdrop for the diversification of Ruta L., the type genus of Rutaceae (citrus family). Phylogenetic, molecular dating, and ancestral range reconstruction analyses were carried out to investigate the extent to which past geological connections and climatic history of the Mediterranean region explain the current distribution of species in Ruta, with emphasis on its island endemics. The analyses showed that Ruta invaded the region from the north well before the onset of the Mediterranean climate and diversified in situ as the climate became Mediterranean. The continental fragment island endemics of the genus originated via processes of land migration/vicariance driven by connections/disconnections between microplates, whereas the oceanic island endemics were the product of a single colonization event from the mainland followed by in situ diversification. This study emphasizes the need for an integrative, hypothesis-based approach to historical biogeography and stresses the importance of temporary land connections and colonization opportunity in the biotic assembly of continental fragment and oceanic islands, respectively.

  12. On the concordance genus of topologically slice knots

    OpenAIRE

    Hom, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The concordance genus of a knot K is the minimum Seifert genus of all knots smoothly concordant to K. Concordance genus is bounded below by the 4-ball genus and above by the Seifert genus. We give a lower bound for the concordance genus of K coming from the knot Floer complex of K. As an application, we prove that there are topologically slice knots with 4-ball genus equal to one and arbitrarily large concordance genus.

  13. A re-evaluation of the genus Myceliophthora (Sordariales, Ascomycota): its segregation into four genera and description of Corynascus fumimontanus sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin-Felix, Yasmina; Stchigel, Alberto M; Miller, Andrew N; Guarro, Josep; Cano-Lira, José F

    2015-01-01

    Based on a number of isolates of Myceliophthora (Chaetomiaceae, Sordariales, Ascomycota) recently isolated from soil samples collected in USA, the taxonomy of the genus was re-evaluated through phylogenetic analyses of sequences from the nuc rDNA internal transcribed spacer region and genes for the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II and translation elongation factor 1α. Members of Myceliophthora were split into four monophyletic clades strongly supported by molecular and phenotypic data. Such clades correspond with Myceliophthora, now restricted only to the type species of the genus Corynascus, which is re-established with five species, the new monotypic genus Crassicarpon and also the new genus Thermothelomyces (comprising four species). Myceliophthora lutea is mesophilic and a permanently asexual morph compared to the members of the other three mentioned genera, which also are able to sexually reproduce morphs with experimentally proven links to their asexual morphs. The asexual morph of M. lutea is characterized by broadly ellipsoidal, smooth-walled conidia with a wide, truncate base. Crassicarpon thermophilum is thermophilic and heterothallic and produces spherical to cuneiform, smooth-walled conidia and cleistothecial ascomata of smooth-walled, angular cells and ascospores with a germ pore at each end. Corynascus spp. are homothallic and mesophilic and produce spherical, mostly ornamented conidia and cleistothecial ascomata with textura epidermoidea composed of ornamented wall cells, and ascospores with one germ pore at each end. Thermothelomyces spp. are thermophilic, heterothallic and characterized by similar ascomata and conidia as Corynascus spp., but its ascospores exhibit only a single germ pore. A dichotomous key to distinguish Myceliophthora from the other mentioned genera are provided, as well as dichotomous keys to identify the species of Corynascus and Thermothelomyces. A new species, namely Corynascus fumimontanus, characterized by

  14. Kankuamo, a new theraphosid genus from Colombia (Araneae, Mygalomorphae), with a new type of urticating setae and divergent male genitalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perafán, Carlos; Galvis, William; Gutiérrez, Miguel; Pérez-Miles, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new monotypic Theraphosidae genus, Kankuamo Perafán, Galvis & Pérez-Miles, gen. n., is described from Colombia, with a new type of urticating setae. These setae differ from others principally by having a small distal oval patch of lanceolate reversed barbs. Males of Kankuamo gen. n. additionally differ by having a palpal bulb organ very divergent from all known species, with many conspicuous keels dispersed across the median tegulum to the tip, mostly with serrated edges. Females differ by having spermathecae with a single notched receptacle, with two granulated lobes and several irregular sclerotized longitudinal striations. The new urticating setae, type VII, is characterized, illustrated and its releasing mechanism is discussed. It is hypothesized that these setae are the first in Theraphosinae subfamily whose release mechanism is by direct contact. Kankuamo gen. n. is described and illustrated on the basis of the type species Kankuamo marquezi Perafán, Galvis & Gutiérrez, sp. n., and their remarkable characteristics, morphological affinities and cladistic relationship are analyzed. PMID:27551189

  15. Revision of the genus Vanenga Schaus, 1928 (Lepidoptera, Mimallonoidea, Mimallonidae with the description of a new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan St. Laurent

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vanenga Schaus, 1928, like many other Mimallonidae genera being revised in recent years, has not been studied since Schaus (1928 in his revision of the family. This currently monotypic genus is entirely restricted to South America, with no known representatives in Central or North America. Prior to this work, Schaus (1928 and subsequent lists of the family (Gaede 1931, Becker 1996 have mentioned the single species V. mera (Dognin, 1924 described from the Brazilian Amazon (Pará state. In Schaus (1928 this species is listed as occurring in both Amazonia and southeastern Brazil. In completing the present article, numerous “type” specimens have been discovered bearing three different manuscript names associated with the populations of southeastern Brazil and adjacent areas. Despite the fact that these names were written on various labels, the absence of any published descriptions results in them being unavailable (ICZN 1999. Therefore, this distinct southern South American species is now officially recognized and formally described, as well as providing a much more thorough distribution for both Vanenga species, including many new records for V. mera.

  16. An Ancient Divide in a Contiguous Rainforest: Endemic Earthworms in the Australian Wet Tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Corrie S; Hugall, Andrew F; McDonald, Keith R; Jamieson, Barrie G M; Moritz, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the factors that shape current species diversity is a fundamental aim of ecology and evolutionary biology. The Australian Wet Tropics (AWT) are a system in which much is known about how the rainforests and the rainforest-dependent organisms reacted to late Pleistocene climate changes, but less is known about how events deeper in time shaped speciation and extinction in this highly endemic biota. We estimate the phylogeny of a species-rich endemic genus of earthworms (Terrisswalkerius) from the region. Using DEC and DIVA historical biogeography methods we find a strong signal of vicariance among known biogeographical sub-regions across the whole phylogeny, congruent with the phylogeography of less diverse vertebrate groups. Absolute dating estimates, in conjunction with relative ages of major biogeographic disjunctions across Australia, indicate that diversification in Terrisswalkerius dates back before the mid-Miocene shift towards aridification, into the Paleogene era of isolation of mesothermal Gondwanan Australia. For the Queensland endemic Terrisswalkerius earthworms, the AWT have acted as both a museum of biological diversity and as the setting for continuing geographically structured diversification. These results suggest that past events affecting organismal diversification can be concordant across phylogeographic to phylogenetic levels and emphasize the value of multi-scale analysis, from intra- to interspecies, for understanding the broad-scale processes that have shaped geographic diversity.

  17. Endemism in the moss flora of North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Benjamin E; Shaw, Blanka; Shaw, A Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    Identifying regions of high endemism is a critical step toward understanding the mechanisms underlying diversification and establishing conservation priorities. Here, we identified regions of high moss endemism across North America. We also identified lineages that contribute disproportionately to endemism and document the progress of efforts to inventory the endemic flora. To understand the documentation of endemic moss diversity in North America, we tabulated species publication dates to document the progress of species discovery across the continent. We analyzed herbarium specimen data and distribution data from the Flora of North America project to delineate major regions of moss endemism. Finally, we surveyed the literature to assess the importance of intercontinental vs. within-continent diversification for generating endemic species. Three primary regions of endemism were identified and two of these were further divided into a total of nine subregions. Overall endemic richness has two peaks, one in northern California and the Pacific Northwest, and the other in the southern Appalachians. Description of new endemic species has risen steeply over the last few decades, especially in western North America. Among the few studies documenting sister species relationships of endemics, recent diversification appears to have played a larger role in western North America, than in the east. Our understanding of bryophyte endemism continues to grow rapidly. Large continent-wide data sets confirm early views on hotspots of endemic bryophyte richness and indicate a high rate of ongoing species discovery in North America. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  18. Warionia (Asteraceae: a relict genus of Cichorieae?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katinas, Liliana

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Warionia, with its only species W. saharae, is endemic to the northwestern edge of the African Sahara desert. This is a somewhat thistle-like aromatic plant, with white latex, and fleshy, pinnately- partite leaves. Warionia is in many respects so different from any other genus of Asteraceae, that it has been tentatively placed in the tribes Cardueae, Cichorieae, Gundelieae, and Mutisieae. Until now, a comprehensive study of Warionia to have a complete context for discussing its taxonomic position is lacking. The general morphology, anatomy, palynology and chromosome number of W. saharae are investigated here, and the species is described and illustrated. Laticifers in leaves and stems indicate a relationship with Cichorieae, and are associated with the phloem, in contact with it or with the surrounding sclerenchyma sheath. The pollen features indicate a strong relation with Cardueae, namely the structure with Anthemoid pattern where the columellae are joined to the foot layer, the ectosexine with thin columellae, the endosexine with stout and ramified columellae, the conspicuous spines with globose bases and conspicuous apical channels, and the tectum surface very perforate. Chromosomal counts resulted in 2n = 34. The morphological and palynological evidence positions Warionia between the tribes Cardueae and Cichorieae suggesting that it could be a remnant of the ancestral stock that gave rise to both tribes.El género Warionia, y su única especie, W. saharae, es endémico del noroeste del desierto africano del Sahara. Es una planta semejante a un cardo, aromática, con látex blanco y hojas carnosas, pinnatipartidas. Warionia es tan diferente de otros géneros de Asteraceae que fue ubicada en las tribus Cardueae, Cichorieae, Gundelieae y Mutisieae. Hasta ahora, no existía un estudio global de Warionia como contexto para discutir su posición taxonómica. Se ha investigado aquí su morfología, anatomía, palinología y n

  19. Chemotaxonomy of the genus Stemphylium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Kresten Jon Kromphardt; Andersen, Birgitte

    2016-01-01

    The filamentous fungal genus Stemphylium (Anamophic Pleospora) is often found on various crops, and especially the common animal feed plant Medicago sativa (alfalfa) is often infected by this plant pathogen. With this in mind it is important to consider what consequences such a contamination can...... have, e.g. production of mycotoxins. (Firsvad et al. (2009)) A clade of Stemphylium spp. i.e. S. herbarum, S. alfalfae, S. sedicola, S. tomatonis and S. vesicariumare troublesome to distinguish as they share both morphological and molecular characteristics. This study has focused on using chemotaxonomy...

  20. Description of a new species of the stag beetle genus Auxicerus Waterhouse, 1883 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea: Lucanidae

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    Robert Perger

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the Andean stag beetle genus Auxicerus Waterhouse, 1883 is described from the humid Tucuman-Bolivian forest in the southern Bolivian Andes. Auxicerus magnipunctatus sp. nov. is distinguished from all congeners by the distinctly larger punctures of the mesosternum; antennomeres 2–6 subquadrate, last two joints of club wider than long; lamellae not widely separated; posterior end of ocular canthus rounded and anterior edge of canthus moderately developed into an obtuse triangle. Auxicerus magnipunctatus sp. nov. is possibly endemic to the Tucuman-Bolivian forest. Along with the presence of other endemic beetle species with tropical congeners, the discovery of A. magnipunctatus sp. nov. supports the idea that the persistence of rather tropical taxa in the subtropical realm is fostered by increased humidity at orographic rain barriers and climatic stability in the Tucuman-Bolivian forest.

  1. A review of the genus Berosus Leach of Cuba (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deler-Hernández, Albert; Fikáček, Martin; Cala-Riquelme, Franklyn

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The Cuban fauna of the genus Berosus Leach, 1817 is reviewed based on newly collected material as well as historical and type specimens. Nine species are recognized, including three recorded from Cuba for the first time: Berosus infuscatus LeConte, 1855, Berosus interstitialis Knisch, 1924 (= Berosus stribalus Orchymont, 1946 syn. n.) and Berosus metalliceps Sharp, 1882. Only one of the nine Cuban species, Berosus chevrolati, remains endemic to Cuba, as two other species previously considered as endemic to Cuba are recorded from elsewhere: Berosus quadridens from Mexico and Central America and Berosus trilobus from the Dominican Republic. Notes on biology and Cuban distribution are provided for all nine species. Berosus quadridens Chevrolat, 1863, stat. restit. is removed from synonym with Berosus truncatipennis and considered a valid species. PMID:23794806

  2. Reconstructing the colonisation and diversification history of the endemic freshwater crab (Seychellum alluaudi) in the granitic and volcanic Seychelles Archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Savel R

    2011-11-01

    The endemic, monotypic freshwater crab species Seychellum alluaudi was used as a template to examine the initial colonisation and evolutionary history among the major islands in the Seychelles Archipelago. Five of the "inner" islands in the Seychelles Archipelago including Mahé, Praslin, Silhouette, La Digue and Frégate were sampled. Two partial mtDNA fragments, 16S rRNA and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) was sequenced for 83 specimens of S. alluaudi. Evolutionary relationships between populations were inferred from the combined mtDNA dataset using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inferences. Analyses of molecular variance (AMOVA) were used to examine genetic variation among and within clades. A haplotype network was constructed using TCS while BEAST was employed to date the colonisation and divergence of lineages on the islands. Phylogenetic analyses of the combined mtDNA data set of 1103 base pairs retrieved a monophyletic S. alluaudi group comprised three statistically well-supported monophyletic clades. Clade one was exclusive to Silhouette; clade two included samples from Praslin sister to La Digue, while clade three comprised samples from Mahé sister to Frégate. The haplotype network corresponded to the three clades. Within Mahé, substantial phylogeographic substructure was evident. AMOVA results revealed limited genetic variation within localities with most variation occurring among localities. Divergence time estimations predated the Holocene sea level regressions and indicated a Pliocene/Pleistocene divergence between the three clades evident within S. alluaudi. The monophyly of each clade suggests that transoceanic dispersal is rare. The absence of shared haplotypes between the three clades, coupled with marked sequence divergence values suggests the presence of three allospecies within S. alluaudi. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. NSR superstring measures in genus 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunin-Barkowski, Petr; Sleptsov, Alexey; Stern, Abel

    2013-01-01

    Currently there are two proposed ansätze for NSR superstring measures: the Grushevsky ansatz and the OPSMY ansatz, which for genera g⩽4 are known to coincide. However, neither the Grushevsky nor the OPSMY ansatz leads to a vanishing two-point function in genus four, which can be constructed from the genus five expressions for the respective ansätze. This is inconsistent with the known properties of superstring amplitudes. In the present paper we show that the Grushevsky and OPSMY ansätze do not coincide in genus five. Then, by combining these ansätze, we propose a new ansatz for genus five, which now leads to a vanishing two-point function in genus four. We also show that one cannot construct an ansatz from the currently known forms in genus 6 that satisfies all known requirements for superstring measures

  4. The genus Retiboletus in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Nian-Kai; Liang, Zhi-Qun; Wu, Gang; Li, Yan-Chun; Yang, Zhu L; Liang, Zhi-Qun

    2016-01-01

    Species of the genus Retiboletus (Boletaceae, Boletales) in China are investigated based on morphology and phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequences from nuc rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and partial 28S regions and sequences from the translation elongation factor 1-a gene (tef1a). Six lineages are recovered among the collections studied. Five of these are documented and presented in the present paper, including three new species and two new combinations. The remaining species is not described due to the paucity of material. The specimens from China identified as "R. ornatipes" or "R. retipes" are in fact R. sinensis or R. kauffmanii, those labeled "R. griseus" are either R. fuscus or R. pseudogriseus A key to all known taxa of the genus is provided. Phylogenetic relationships of taxa within Retiboletus are partially resolved. A preliminary biogeographical analysis shows that allied species of Retiboletus between eastern Asia and North/Central America are common but there are no Retiboletus species common to both continents. Species of Retiboletus in Japan and southern China are conspecific or closely related. © 2016 by The Mycological Society of America.

  5. 2+1 gravity for genus >1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, J.E.; Regge, T.

    1991-01-01

    We analysed the algebra of observables for the simple case of a genus 1 initial data surface Σ 2 for 2+1 De Sitter gravity. Here we extend the analysis to higher genus. We construct for genus 2 the group of automorphisms H of the homotopy group π 1 induced by the mapping class group. The group H induces a group D of canonical transformations on the algebra of observables which is related to the braid group for 6 threads. (orig.)

  6. The genus Lolium : taxonomy and genetic resources

    OpenAIRE

    Loos, B.P.

    1994-01-01

    Several aspects of variation within the genus Lolium, and more in detail within Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass) have been highlighted. As the results are extensively discussed in each chapter, the general discussion is focused on two aspects of the research.

    Speciation
    It is clear that the genus Lolium is a very variable genus. The variation within the species reduces the clarity o...

  7. A new genus and species of Lasiopteridi (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae on Haplopappus foliosus (Asteraceae from Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Cid Maia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A new genus and species of gall midge, Haplopappusmyia gregaria, is described and illustrated (larva, pupa, male, and female. This species induces apical galls on Haplopappus foliosus (Asteraceae, an endemic shrub from central Chile. The specimens were collected at La Ligua Municipality, Petorca Province, Valparaiso region, Chile, during spring of 2011–2014. This area corresponds to one of the fifth Mediterranean Matorral biome, considered among Earth's biodiversity hotspots. The new genus is characterized by presenting lateral margin of antennal scape with a mesal reentrance; four-segmented palpus, one-toothed tarsal claws, R5 straight, reaching C anterior to wing apex; male seventh and eighth tergites lacking sclerotization mesally, beyond proximal margin; presence of trichoid sensilla on the abdominal terga and sterna of both sexes, protrusible ovipositor with elongate fused cerci, and larva with 4 pairs of setose terminal papillae. Keywords: Gall midge, Morphology, Neotropical, Taxonomy

  8. A new genus and species of Lasiopteridi (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae on Haplopappus foliosus (Asteraceae from Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Cid Maia

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A new genus and species of gall midge, Haplopappusmyia gregaria, is described and illustrated (larva, pupa, male, and female. This species induces apical galls on Haplopappus foliosus (Asteraceae, an endemic shrub from central Chile. The specimens were collected at La Ligua Municipality, Petorca Province, Valparaiso region, Chile, during spring of 2011-2014. This area corresponds to one of the fifth Mediterranean Matorral biome, considered among Earth's biodiversity hotspots. The new genus is characterized by presenting lateral margin of antennal scape with a mesal reentrance; four-segmented palpus, one-toothed tarsal claws, R5 straight, reaching C anterior to wing apex; male seventh and eighth tergites lacking sclerotization mesally, beyond proximal margin; presence of trichoid sensilla on the abdominal terga and sterna of both sexes, protrusible ovipositor with elongate fused cerci, and larva with 4 pairs of setose terminal papillae.

  9. COMPARATIVE SPERM ULTRASTRUCTURE OF BAIKALIAN ENDEMIC PROSOBRANCH GASTROPODS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropstorf, PETER; Healy, JOHN M.; Riedel, FRANK; Sitnikova, TATIANA Y.

    2002-05-01

    Mature euspermatozoan ultrastructure is described for seven species of the rissooidean family Baicaliidae (endemic to Lake Baikal, Russia)-Liobaicalia stiedae, Teratobaikalia ciliata, T. macrostoma, Baicalia carinata, Pseudobaikalia pulla, Maackia bythiniopsis, M. variesculpta, and M. herderiana. For comparison with these species and previously investigated Rissooidea, two species of the Lake Baikal endemic genus Benedictia (B. cf. fragilis and B. baicalensis; Hydrobiidae: Benedictiinae of some authors, Benedictiidae of other authors) in addition to Lithoglyphus naticoides (Hydrobiidae: Lithoglyphinae) and Bythinella austriaca (Hydrobiidae: Bythinellinae) were also investigated. Paraspermatozoa were not observed in any of the species examined, supporting the view that these cells are probably absent in the Rissooidea. In general, the euspermatozoa of all species examined resemble those of many other caenogastropods (basally invaginated acrosomal vesicle, mid-piece with 7-13 helical mitochondria, an annulus, glycogen piece with nine peri-axonemal tracts of granules). However, the presence of a completely flattened acrosomal vesicle and a specialized peri-axonemal membranous sheath (a scroll-like arrangement of 4-6 double membranes) at the termination of the mid-piece, clearly indicates a close relationship between the Baicaliidae and other rissooidean families possessing these features (Bithyniidae, Hydrobiidae, Pyrgulidae, and Stenothyridae). Euspermatozoa of Benedictia, Lithoglyphus, Bythinella, and Pyrgula all have a solid nucleus, which exhibits a short, posterior invagination (housing the centriolar complex and proximal portion of the axoneme). Among the Rissooidea, this form of nucleus is known to occur in the Bithyniidae, Hydrobiidae, Truncatellidae, Pyrgulidae, Iravadiidae, Pomatiopsidae, and Stenothyridae. In contrast, the euspermatozoa of the Baicaliidae all have a long, tubular nucleus, housing not only the centriolar derivative, but also a substantial

  10. A new species of stygobitic freshwater crab of the genus Rodriguezia Bott, 1969 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Trichodactylidae) from Tabasco, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Fernando; Villalobos, JosÉ Luis

    2018-02-07

    A new species of freshwater crab of the family Trichodactylidae, genus Rodriguezia Bott, 1969 is described from Grutas de Agua Blanca in southern Tabasco, Mexico. Rodriguezia is a genus endemic to northern Chiapas and southern Tabasco, distributed over a small area of 70 km. Rodriguezia adani n. sp., the third species of the genus, occurs north of its two congeners, being stygobitic with obvious adaptations to cave life. It can be distinguished from R. villalobosi, an epigean species, by the absence of eyes, lack of pigmentation and elongation of the pereiopods; and from R. mensabak by having less elongated pereiopods relative to carapace breadth, an extremely reduced ocular peduncle, and a smaller adult size.

  11. Rapid assessment of endemic bird areas in Michoacan, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilberto Chavez-Leon; Deborah M. Finch

    1999-01-01

    Non-sustainable land use practices in the state of Michoacan, Mexico, have perturbed endemic bird h~bitats for several decades. Endemic birds have a restricted geographic and ecological distribution. This feature makes them suitable to be used as indicators of biological diversity and environmental perturbation. Forty-one Mexican endemic species have been recorded in...

  12. Endemicity of cholera in Nigeria: A mathematical model to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The focal point is to investigate the persistent endemic nature of cholera in Nigeria using mathematical model. We found that, there can be no backward bifurcation because there existed only one positive endemic equilibrium. In other words, it is not possible for multiple endemic equilibria to exist if the reproduction number ...

  13. Patterns of distribution and protection status of the endemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1995-06-02

    Jun 2, 1995 ... South Africa contains the majority of southern Africa's endemic mammals and hence is an important ... example of an archaic fauna that has undergone local radia- ... Indeed, only six of South Africa's endemic. R eprodu ced by Sabin et G atew ..... of the endemic flora of this region is renowned (Cowling,.

  14. The cone snails of Cape Verde: Marine endemism at a terrestrial scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Peters

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cape Verde in the Eastern Atlantic is typical of many island groups in supporting a wealth of endemic species both terrestrial and marine. Marine gastropod molluscs of the genus Conus, commonly known as cone snails, occur in coastal tropical waters throughout the globe, but in Cape Verde their endemism reaches its apogee with 53 out of 56 species occurring nowhere else, the majority of which are restricted to single islands and frequently to single bays. However, Cape Verde is rapidly moving to a tourism-based economy with a projected boom in infrastructure development often coincidental with the shallow-water habitat of many range-restricted Conus. The conservation assessment of Conus to standards of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN Red List of Endangered Species, found that 45.3% of 53 species assessed from Cape Verde are threatened or near-threatened with extinction compared to 7.4% of 579 species in the rest of the world. The only three Conus species globally assessed as Critically Endangered and on the cusp of extinction are all endemic to Cape Verde. Our analysis of Conus species distribution, together with spatial data of coastal protected areas and tourism development zones, identify important areas for future research and new marine protection. Our findings show that endemism with its associated risks for Conus in Cape Verde has worldwide parallels with many non-marine taxa, while our proposed strategy for Conus conservation extends beyond the confines of the country and this taxonomic group.

  15. Endemics and Pseudo-Endemics in Relation to the Distribution Patterns of Indian Pteridophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Fraser-Jenkins

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Of c. 530 Pteridophytes reported as endemic to the India in recent decades (about half the total number of c. 950-1000 known Indian species, the great bulk are mistaken, particularly those from the Indo-Himalaya. Only 47 endemic Indian ferns, less than 10% of those reported previously, are accepted here. But this figure includes several that are rather doubtfully endemic, mainly due to unresolved taxonomic doubt, or because they may be expected to occur in adjacent Countries. Thus 8 are taxonomically dubious, requiring further study, and a further 7, all from N.E. India, may possibly be expected elsewhere outside India. The c. 483 mistaken pseudo-endemics arose mainly due to naming of erroneous 'new species' thought to be endemic, or due to not knowing the range of species outside political India, combined with insufficient investigative taxonomic research. In the present paper previous reports of endemics are listed and their status is reappraised along with a new list of accepted endemics. Quite opposite to previous conclusions, the great majority of endemic Indian Pteridophytes are peninsular-Indian to south-Indian ferns (27, plus 5 more taxonomically dubious, with far fewer being N.E. Indian (7, all of which may possibly be expected elsewhere outside India and W. Himalayan (2, plus 1 taxonomically dubious; the floristically Malesian Nicobar Islands have (3, plus 2 more taxonomically dubious. These numbers are only to be expected as N.E. India is an intimate part of the Sino-Himalayan and S.E. Asian flora, connected without barriers to Tibet and China or to Myanmar by two mountain chains, while S. India is more isolated geographically since more ancient times and has a partly Malesian fern-flora. Some details of Indian endemics in relation to phytogeographical elements are given. Endemic species: Huperzia - 1, Selaginella - 9, Isoetes - 1, Osmunda - 1, Arthromeris - 1, Phymatosorus - 1, Oreogrammitis - 2, Trichomanes - 1, Pteris - 1, Cyathea

  16. Cosmopolitanism and Biogeography of the Genus Manganonema (Nematoda: Monhysterida in the Deep Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Danovaro

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Spatial patterns of species diversity provide information about the mechanisms that regulate biodiversity and are important for setting conservation priorities. Present knowledge of the biogeography of meiofauna in the deep sea is scarce. This investigation focuses on the distribution of the deep-sea nematode genus Manganonema, which is typically extremely rare in deep-sea sediment samples. Forty-four specimens of eight different species of this genus were recorded from different Atlantic and Mediterranean regions. Four out of the eight species encountered are new to science. We report here that this genus is widespread both in the Atlantic and in the Mediterranean Sea. These new findings together with literature information indicate that Manganonema is a cosmopolitan genus, inhabiting a variety of deep-sea habitats and oceans. Manganonema shows the highest diversity at water depths >4,000 m. Our data, therefore, indicate that this is preferentially an abyssal genus that is able, at the same time, to colonize specific habitats at depths shallower than 1,000 m. The analysis of the distribution of the genus Manganonema indicates the presence of large differences in dispersal strategies among different species, ranging from locally endemic to cosmopolitan. Lacking meroplanktonic larvae and having limited dispersal ability due to their small size, it has been hypothesized that nematodes have limited dispersal potential. However, the investigated deep-sea nematodes were present across different oceans covering macro-scale distances. Among the possible explanations (hydrological conditions, geographical and geological pathways, long-term processes, specific historical events, their apparent preference of colonizing highly hydrodynamic systems, could suggest that these infaunal organisms are transported by means of deep-sea benthic storms and turbidity currents over long distances.

  17. Molecular phylogeny and phylogeography of genus Pseudois (Bovidae, Cetartiodactyla): New insights into the contrasting phylogeographic structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shuai; Wang, Zhihong; Jiang, Lichun; Peng, Rui; Zhang, Tao; Peng, Quekun; Zou, Fangdong

    2017-09-01

    Blue sheep, Pseudois nayaur , is endemic to the Tibetan Plateau and the surrounding mountains, which are the highest-elevation areas in the world. Classical morphological taxonomy suggests that there are two subspecies in genus Pseudois (Bovidae, Artiodactyla), namely Pseudois nayaur nayaur and Pseudois nayaur szechuanensis . However, the validity and geographic characteristics of these subspecies have never been carefully discussed and analyzed. This may be partially because previous studies have mainly focused on the vague taxonomic status of Pseudois schaeferi (dwarf blue sheep). Thus, there is an urgent need to investigate the evolutionary relationship and taxonomy system of this genus. This study enriches a previous dataset by providing a large number of new samples, based on a total of 225 samples covering almost the entire distribution of blue sheep. Molecular data from cytochrome b and the mitochondrial control region sequences were used to reconstruct the phylogeny of this species. The phylogenetic inferences show that vicariance plays an important role in diversification within this genus. In terms of molecular dating results and biogeographic analyses, the striking biogeographic pattern coincides significantly with major geophysical events. Although the results raise doubt about the present recognized distribution range of blue sheep, they have corroborated the validity of the identified subspecies in genus Pseudois . Meanwhile, these results demonstrate that the two geographically distinct populations, the Helan Mountains and Pamir Plateau populations, have been significantly differentiated from the identified subspecies, a finding that challenges the conventional taxonomy of blue sheep.

  18. Distributional patterns of the Neotropical genus Thecomyia Perty (Diptera, Sciomyzidae and phylogenetic support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Ciprandi Pires

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Distributional patterns of the Neotropical genus Thecomyia Perty (Diptera, Sciomyzidae and phylogenetic support. The distributional pattern of the genus Thecomyia Perty, 1833 was defined using panbiogeographic tools, and analyzed based on the phylogeny of the group. This study sought to establish biogeographical homologies in the Neotropical region between different species of the genus, based on their distribution pattern and later corroboration through its phylogeny. Eight individual tracks and 16 generalized tracks were identified, established along nearly the entire swath of the Neotropics. Individual tracks are the basic units of a panbiogeographic study, and correspond to the hypothesis of minimum distribution of the organisms involved. The generalized tracks, obtained from the spatial congruence between two or more individual tracks, are important in the identification of smaller areas of endemism. Thus, we found evidence from the generalized tracks in support of previous classification for the Neotropical region. The Amazon domain is indicated as an area of outstanding importance in the diversification of the group, by the confluence of generalized tracks and biogeographic nodes in the region. Most of the generalized tracks and biogeographical nodes were congruent with the phylogenetic hypothesis of the genus, indicating support of the primary biogeographical homologies originally defined by the track analysis.

  19. Evolutionary history of genus Macrobrachium inferred from mitochondrial markers: a molecular clock approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Deepak; Harikrishnan, Mahadevan

    2018-04-17

    Caridea, an infraorder of shrimps coming under Pleocyemata was first reported from the oceans before 417 million years followed by their radiation recorded during the Permian period. Hitherto, about 3877 extant caridean species were accounted within which one quarter constitute freshwater species. Freshwater prawns of genus Macrobrachium (Infraorder Caridea; Family Palaemonidae), with more than 240 species are inhabitants of diverse aquatic habitats like coastal lagoons, lakes, tropical streams, ponds and rivers. Previous studies on Macrobrachium relied on the highly variable morphological characters which were insufficient for accurate diagnosis of natural species groups. Present study focuses on the utility of molecular markers (viz. COI and 16S rRNA) for resolving the evolutionary history of genus Macrobrachium using a combination of phylogeny and timescale components. It is for the first time a molecular clock approach had been carried out towards genus Macrobrachium in a broad aspect with the incorporation of congeners inhabiting diverse geographical realms including endemic species M. striatum from South West coast of India. Molecular results obtained revealed the phylogenetic relationships between congeners of genus Macrobrachium at intra/inter-continental level along with the corresponding evolutionary time estimates.

  20. Therapy of endemic goiter and hypothyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luft, D.

    1983-09-12

    Successful treatment of endemic goitre depends on the correct diagnosis and the comprehension of the pathophysiologic changes as well. Several criteria, e.g. anamnestic data, general clinical condition, local symptoms and signs, certainty of diagnosis, contraindications, rates of success, and side effects, determine the particular form of therapy (suppression with thyroid hormones, surgical resection, radio-iodine). The decision criteria are discussed. Prophylaxis of recurrent goitre with either thyroid hormones or iodine salts is necessary after successful treatment. Some endemic goitres behave like either hyper- or hypothyroidism. Treatment with thyroid hormones of patients with latent hyperthyroidism is senseless and dangerous, whereas other methods of treatment may be applied. An unequivocal indication for treatment exists in patients with latent hypothyroidism accompanied by goitre, but not in all patients without goitre. Hormonal replacement therapy of manifest hypothydroidism is simple, but long term success is not achieved in all patients.

  1. Therapy of endemic goiter and hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luft, D.

    1983-01-01

    Successful treatment of endemic goitre depends on the correct diagnosis and the comprehension of the pathophysiologic changes as well. Several criteria, e.g. anamnestic data, general clinical condition, local symptoms and signs, certainty of diagnosis, contraindications, rates of success, and side effects, determine the particular form of therapy (suppression with thyroid hormones, surgical resection, radio-iodine). The decision criteria are discussed. Prophylaxis of recurrent goitre with either thyroid hormones or iodine salts is necessary after successful treatment. Some endemic goitres behave like either hyper- or hypothyroidism. Treatment with thyroid hormones of patients with latent hyperthyroidism is senseless and dangerous, whereas other methods of treatment may be applied. An unequivocal indication for treatment exists in patients with laent hypothyroidism accompanied by goitre, but not in all patients without goitre. Hormonal replacement therapy of manifest hypothydroidism is simple, but long term success is not achieved in all patients. (orig.) [de

  2. Population Genetics of the Endemic Hawaiian Species Chrysodracon hawaiiensis and Chrysodracon auwahiensis (Asparagaceae: Insights from RAPD and ISSR Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Luen Lu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The genus Chrysodracon has six endemic species in the Hawaii Islands. Chrysodracon hawaiiensis is endemic to Hawaii Island and was described as a distinct species in 1980. It was listed as an endangered species on the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN Red List in 1997. This woody plant species was, at one time, common in exposed dry forests, but it became very rare due to grazing pressure and human development. The tree species Chrysodracon auwahiensis (C. auwahiensis, endemic to Maui and Molokai, still has large adult populations in dry lands of the islands, but unfortunately no regeneration from seed has been reported in those areas for many years. The two endemic species were examined using the molecular technique of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD and inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR to determine the genetic structure of the populations and the amount of variation. Both species possess similar genetic structure. Larger and smaller populations of both species contain similar levels of genetic diversity as determined by the number of polymorphic loci, estimated heterozygosity, and Shannon’s index of genetic diversity. Although population diversity of Chrysodracon hawaiiensis (C. hawaiiensis is thought to have remained near pre-disturbance levels, population size continues to decline as recruitment is either absent or does not keep pace with senescence of mature plants. Conservation recommendations for both species are suggested.

  3. THE GENUS TEIJSMANNIODENDRON KOORDERS (VERBENACEAE

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    A. J. G. H. KOSTERMANS

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available 1. The present notes on Teijsmanniodendron are based on a study of the spec- imens from Herbarium Bogoriense and the Herbarium of the Singapore Botanic Garden. 2. The taxonomic value of the principal characters and their variation are discussed. Each of the species recognized is annotated. 3. A delimitation and subdivision of the genus in two sections,  Plurifoliolatae Kosterm.  and 'Unifoliolatae Kosterm  is proposed. 4. A key to the 12 species and 1 variety distinguished, is included. 5. One new species is provisionally described (but not named, and one new variety, Teijsmanniodendron pteropodum var. auriculatum Kosterm, is published. 6. The following new combinations are made: Teijsmanniodendron coriaceum B. Clarke Kosterm,, T. hollrungii (Warb. Kosterm. T. holophyllum (Bak. Kos- term, T.novoguineense (Kan. & Hatus. Kosterm., T. sarawakanum (H. H. W. Pears. Kosterm., T. smilacifolium (H. H. W. Pears. Kosterm., and T. subspieatum (Hallier f. Kosterm. 7. The genus Xerocarpa H. 3. Lam (non Spach is rejected; its only species, X. avicenniaefoliola H. J. Lam, is referred to Teijsmanniodendron ahernianum (Merr. Bakh. In addition, the following reductions are made: Teijsmanniodendron mono- phyllum Kurata = T. hollrungii (Warb. Kosterm.; Vitex bankae H. J. Lam = T. ahernianum (Merr. Bakh., V. bogoriensis H. J. Lam = T. ahernianum (Merr. Bakh.; V. koordersii H. J. Lam t= T. pteropodum (Miq. Bakh.; V. tetragona Hallier f. = T. sarawakanum (H. H. W. Pears. Kosterm.; V. venosa H. J. Lam = T. coriaceum (C. B. Clarke Kosterm. Possible identity of T. longifolium (Merr. Merr. and T. bogoriense is suggested: the identity of T. simplicifolium Merr. and T. smilacifolium (H. H-, W. Pears. Kosterm. is indicated as probable. 8. Vitex subspicata Hallier f. and V. holophylla Bak. included by Lam in vitex hollrungii Warb. are reinstated as distinct species of Teijsmanniodendron.

  4. Evolution of the Genus Homo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattersall, Ian; Schwartz, Jeffrey H.

    2009-05-01

    Definition of the genus Homo is almost as fraught as the definition of Homo sapiens. We look at the evidence for “early Homo,” finding little morphological basis for extending our genus to any of the 2.5-1.6-myr-old fossil forms assigned to “early Homo” or Homo habilis/rudolfensis. We also point to heterogeneity among “early African Homo erectus,” and the lack of apomorphies linking these fossils to the Asian Homo erectus group, a cohesive regional clade that shows some internal variation, including brain size increase over time. The first truly cosmopolitan Homo species is Homo heidelbergensis, known from Africa, Europe, and China following 600 kyr ago. One species sympatric with it included the >500-kyr-old Sima de los Huesos fossils from Spain, clearly distinct from Homo heidelbergensis and the oldest hominids assignable to the clade additionally containing Homo neanderthalensis. This clade also shows evidence of brain size expansion with time; but although Homo neanderthalensis had a large brain, it left no unequivocal evidence of the symbolic consciousness that makes our species unique. Homo sapiens clearly originated in Africa, where it existed as a physical entity before it began (also in that continent) to show the first stirrings of symbolism. Most likely, the biological underpinnings of symbolic consciousness were exaptively acquired in the radical developmental reorganization that gave rise to the highly characteristic osteological structure of Homo sapiens, but lay fallow for tens of thousands of years before being “discovered” by a cultural stimulus, plausibly the invention of language.

  5. A taxonomic revision of the genus Podocarpus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laubenfels, de D.J.

    1985-01-01

    In connection with the forthcoming revision of the Coniferae for the Flora Malesiana, the author thought it necessary to revise the genus Podocarpus. Although this genus has a substantial representation in Malesia (30 species), the revision is too involved to be appropriate with the Flora Malesiana

  6. Phylogeny of the Peckia-genus group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buenaventura Ruiz, Ingrid Eliana; Pape, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Peckia is the most species-rich necrophagous genus among the Neotropical sarcophagids, encompassing 67 species distributed in 5 subgenera. Recent phylogenetic studies have challenged the monophyly of this genus with regard to species of the genera Peckiamyia, Titanogrypa, and Villegasia, and the ...

  7. Phytochemistry and pharmacology of the genus Drypetes: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wansi, Jean Duplex; Wandji, Jean; Sewald, Norbert; Nahar, Lutfun; Martin, Claire; Sarker, Satyajit Dey

    2016-08-22

    Traditional medicinal use of species of the genus Drypetes is widespread in the tropical regions. The aim of this review is to systematically appraise the literature available to date on phytochemistry, ethnopharmacology, toxicology and bioactivity (in vitro and in vivo) of crude extracts and purified compounds. Plants of the genus Drypetes (Putranjivaceae) are used in the Subsaharan African and Asian traditional medicines to treat a multitude of disorders, like dysentery, gonorrhoea, malaria, rheumatism, sinusitis, tumours, as well as for the treatment of wounds, headache, urethral problems, fever in young children, typhoid and several other ailments. Some Drypetes species are used to protect food against pests, as an aphrodisiac, a stimulant/depressant, a rodenticide and a fish poison, against insect bites, to induce conception and for general healing. This review deals with updated information on the ethnobotany, phytochemistry, and biological activities of ethnomedicinally important Drypetes species, in order to provide an input for the future research opportunities. An extensive review of the literature available in various recognized databases e.g., Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, SciFinder, Web of Science, www.theplantlist.org and www.gbif.org, as well as the Herbier National du Cameroun (Yaoundé) and Botanic Gardens of Limbe databases on the uses and bioactivity of various species of the Drypetes was undertaken. The literature provided information on ethnopharmacological uses of the Subsaharan African and Asian species of the genus Drypetes, e.g., Drypetes aubrévillii, D. capillipes, D. chevalieri, D. gerrardii, D. gossweileri, D. ivorensis, D. klainei, D. natalensis, D. pellegrini (all endemic to Africa) and D. roxburghii (Asian species), for the treatment of multiple disorders. From a total of 19 species, more than 140 compounds including diterpenes, sesquiterpenes, triterpenes (friedelane, oleanane, lupane and hopane-type), flavonoids, lignans

  8. The elliptic genus and Hidden symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaffe, A.

    2001-01-01

    We study the elliptic genus (a partition function) in certain interacting, twist quantum field theories. Without twists, these theories have N=2 supersymmetry. The twists provide a regularization, and also partially break the supersymmetry. In spite of the regularization, one can establish a homotopy of the elliptic genus in a coupling parameter. Our construction relies on a priori estimates and other methods from constructive quantum field theory; this mathematical underpinning allows us to justify evaluating the elliptic genus at one endpoint of the homotopy. We obtain a version of Witten's proposed formula for the elliptic genus in terms of classical theta functions. As a consequence, the elliptic genus has a hidden SL(2,Z) symmetry characteristic of conformal theory, even though the underlying theory is not conformal. (orig.)

  9. Status sistematico del género geobatrachus ruthven 1915 (amphibia: anura)

    OpenAIRE

    Ardila Robayo, María Cristina

    2012-01-01

    The different familial assignations proposed until now for Geobatracbus are compiled. Through the collection of a virtual topotypical series of this monotypic genus, which is endemic of the NW section of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta Massif (Departamento del Magdalena, Colombia), a detailed description was made.  67 morphological characters were selected according to the criteria used by Lynch and Heyer in their studies on the philogeny and classification of the leptodactylid frogs, and su...

  10. Biogeographic patterns and diversification dynamics of the genus Cardiodactylus Saussure (Orthoptera, Grylloidea, Eneopterinae) in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jiajia; Kergoat, Gael J; Vicente, Natállia; Rahmadi, Cahyo; Xu, Shengquan; Robillard, Tony

    2018-06-07

    Southeast Asia harbors an extraordinary species richness and endemism. While only covering 4% of the Earth's landmass, this region includes four of the planet's 34 biodiversity hotspots. Its complex geological history generated a megadiverse and highly endemic biota, attracting a lot of attention, especially in the field of island biogeography. Here we used the cricket genus Cardiodactylus as a model system to study biogeographic patterns in Southeast Asia. We carried out molecular analyses to: (1) infer phylogenetic relationships based on five mitochondrial and four nuclear markers, (2) estimate divergence times and infer biogeographical ancestral areas, (3) depict colonization routes, and summarize emigration and immigration events, as well as in situ diversification, and (4) determine whether shifts in species diversification occurred during the course of Cardiodactylus evolution. Our results support the monophyly of the genus and of one of its species groups. Dating and biogeographical analyses suggest that Cardiodactylus originated in the Southwest Pacific during the Middle Eocene. Our reconstructions indicate that Southeast Asia was independently colonized twice during the Early Miocene (ca. 19-16 Million years ago), and once during the Middle Miocene (ca. 13 Million years ago), with New Guinea acting as a corridor allowing westward dispersal through four different passageways: Sulawesi, the Philippines, Java and the Lesser Sunda Islands. Sulawesi also served as a diversification hub for Cardiodactylus through a combination of high immigration and in situ diversification events, which can be accounted for by the complex geological history of the Wallacea region. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. CEPF Western Ghats Special Series: First record of the genus Tigidia Simon, 1892 (Araneae: Barychelidae from India with description of three new species from the Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Siliwal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Prior to this study the genus Tigidia Simon, 1892 of the Brush-footed Spider family Barychelidae was represented by eight species endemic to Madagascar and Mauritius Islands. The first occurrence of Tigidia in India is reported here with the description of three new species from the Western Ghats, T. sahyadri sp. nov. from Uttara Kannada District, Karnataka; T. nilgiriensis sp. nov. from Kotagiri, Nilgiri District, Tamil Nadu and T. rutilofronis sp. nov. from Maruthamalai, Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu. This genus is probably a Gondwana relict. Natural history information is provided for all the species.

  12. Parasite prevalence in Worthen’s Sparrow (Spizella wortheni: Mexican endemic and endangered species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Canales-del-Castillo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Worthen’s sparrow is an endemic bird of the Mexican Plateau that due to its limited distribution and population size is considered to be endangered, both nationally and globally. In general, species at risk have been, at least historically, under population size and genetic diversity reductions, which are factors that can act together to increase infections risk and susceptibility. Therefore, with the purpose to determine such propensity in this species, we analyzed the intestinal parasitic infection through fecal samples from 11 individuals, and hemoparasites, hematocrit and differential leukocyte quantification from one sample. Results indicated that 91% of the samples had one parasite taxon, with genus Cryptosporidium showing the highest prevalence (64%, followed by Eimeria (55%, and Ascaridia (9%. However, mean values of oocysts/eggs per gram indicated a low parasitic infection. We found no blood parasites, and the white blood cell counts were among reference values for other sparrow species.

  13. Two new species of endemic Ecuadorean Amaryllidaceae (Asparagales, Amaryllidaceae, Amarylloideae, Eucharideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Meerow

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available New species of the genera Stenomesson and Eucharis (Amaryllidaceae are described from Ecuador. Stenomesson ecuadorense is the second species of the genus reported from that country, and the only endemic one. It is related to S. miniatum and S. campanulatum, both from Peru, with which it shares orange flower color and the fusion of the staminal corona to the perianth tube. It differs from S. miniatum by the non-urceolate perianth, from S. campanulatum by its shorter stamens and longer perianth, and from both by its lower montane, cloud forest habitat. Eucharis ruthiana, found in the vicinity of Zamora, is related to E. moorei from which it differs by the narrower leaves and tepals; short, deeply cleft staminal corona; the long teeth on either side of the free filaments; the narrowly subulate, incurved free filaments; and the shorter style. The green mature fruit and campanulate floral morphology place it in Eucharis subg. Heterocharis.

  14. Beta genus papillomaviruses and skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howley, Peter M; Pfister, Herbert J

    2015-05-01

    A role for the beta genus HPVs in keratinocyte carcinoma (KC) remains to be established. In this article we examine the potential role of the beta HPVs in cancer revealed by the epidemiology associating these viruses with KC and supported by oncogenic properties of the beta HPV proteins. Unlike the cancer associated alpha genus HPVs, in which transcriptionally active viral genomes are invariably found associated with the cancers, that is not the case for the beta genus HPVs and keratinocyte carcinomas. Thus a role for the beta HPVs in KC would necessarily be in the carcinogenesis initiation and not in the maintenance of the tumor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Species delimitation and conservation genetics of the Canarian endemic Bethencourtia (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Priscila; Pérez de Paz, Pedro Luis; Sosa, Pedro A

    2018-04-01

    Bethencourtia Choisy ex Link is an endemic genus of the Canary Islands and comprises three species. Bethencourtia hermosae and Bethencourtia rupicola are restricted to La Gomera, while Bethencourtia palmensis is present in Tenerife and La Palma. Despite the morphological differences previously found between the species, there are still taxonomic incongruities in the group, with evident consequences for its monitoring and conservation. The objectives of this study were to define the species differentiation, perform population genetic analysis and propose conservation strategies for Bethencourtia. To achieve these objectives, we characterized 10 polymorphic SSR markers. Eleven natural populations (276 individuals) were analyzed (three for B. hermosae, five for B. rupicola and three for B. palmensis). The results obtained by AMOVA, PCoA and Bayesian analysis on STRUCTURE confirmed the evidence of well-structured groups corresponding to the three species. At the intra-specific level, B. hermosae and B. rupicola did not show a clear population structure, while B. palmensis was aggregated according to island of origin. This is consistent with self-incompatibility in the group and high gene flow within species. Overall, the genetic diversity of the three species was low, with expected heterozygosity values of 0.302 (B. hermosae), 0.382 (B. rupicola) and 0.454 (B. palmensis). Recent bottleneck events and a low number of individuals per population are probably the causes of the low genetic diversity. We consider that they are naturally rare species associated with specific habitats. The results given in this article will provide useful information to assist in conservation genetics programs for this endemic genus.

  16. The endemic gastropod fauna of Lake Titicaca: correlation between molecular evolution and hydrographic history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Oliver; Hershler, Robert; Albrecht, Christian; Terrazas, Edmundo M; Apaza, Roberto; Fuentealba, Carmen; Wolff, Christian; Wilke, Thomas

    2012-07-01

    Lake Titicaca, situated in the Altiplano high plateau, is the only ancient lake in South America. This 2- to 3-My-old (where My is million years) water body has had a complex history that included at least five major hydrological phases during the Pleistocene. It is generally assumed that these physical events helped shape the evolutionary history of the lake's biota. Herein, we study an endemic species assemblage in Lake Titicaca, composed of members of the microgastropod genus Heleobia, to determine whether the lake has functioned as a reservoir of relic species or the site of local diversification, to evaluate congruence of the regional paleohydrology and the evolutionary history of this assemblage, and to assess whether the geographic distributions of endemic lineages are hierarchical. Our phylogenetic analyses indicate that the Titicaca/Altiplano Heleobia fauna (together with few extralimital taxa) forms a species flock. A molecular clock analysis suggests that the most recent common ancestor (MRCAs) of the Altiplano taxa evolved 0.53 (0.28-0.80) My ago and the MRCAs of the Altiplano taxa and their extralimital sister group 0.92 (0.46-1.52) My ago. The endemic species of Lake Titicaca are younger than the lake itself, implying primarily intralacustrine speciation. Moreover, the timing of evolutionary branching events and the ages of two precursors of Lake Titicaca, lakes Cabana and Ballivián, is congruent. Although Lake Titicaca appears to have been the principal site of speciation for the regional Heleobia fauna, the contemporary spatial patterns of endemism have been masked by immigration and/or emigration events of local riverine taxa, which we attribute to the unstable hydrographic history of the Altiplano. Thus, a hierarchical distribution of endemism is not evident, but instead there is a single genetic break between two regional clades. We also discuss our findings in relation to studies of other regional biota and suggest that salinity tolerance was

  17. A morphological study on the African genus Micralestes (Characidae

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    Pier Giorgio Bianco

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study is based on the compared morphology of most of Micralestes nominal taxa, described from whole Africa, with particular attention to the dentition, meristics counts and, in several cases, the color pattern. Type materials and more than 1.500 additional specimens were analyzed. The genus is spread in sub-sahariana areas, and the Nile. Is absent in estern Africa and the southernmost area of South Africa. About 11 species were recognized. The most spread species are: M. humilis which is found from western Africa to the head water of River Sobat (White Nile basin, and the Congo basin, and M. elongatus which range from western Africa to the Nile Basin, but absent in central and southern Africa All others species have restricted ranges: M. occidentalis in basins of western Africa; M. woosmani, M. holargyreus, M. congicus, M. neglectus. M.ambiguous and M. schelly, are all endemic of Congo Basin. M. acutidens was found only in rivers of southern Africa and I did not found any specimens in the Congo basin which can be identified as this species. In Lake Rudolf exist a populations previously identified as M. acutidens which cannot be assigned to any known species and it should be considered as a new one.

  18. Optimising Regionalisation Techniques: Identifying Centres of Endemism in the Extraordinarily Endemic-Rich Cape Floristic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Peter L.; Colville, Jonathan F.; Linder, H. Peter

    2015-01-01

    We used a very large dataset (>40% of all species) from the endemic-rich Cape Floristic Region (CFR) to explore the impact of different weighting techniques, coefficients to calculate similarity among the cells, and clustering approaches on biogeographical regionalisation. The results were used to revise the biogeographical subdivision of the CFR. We show that weighted data (down-weighting widespread species), similarity calculated using Kulczinsky’s second measure, and clustering using UPGMA resulted in the optimal classification. This maximized the number of endemic species, the number of centres recognized, and operational geographic units assigned to centres of endemism (CoEs). We developed a dendrogram branch order cut-off (BOC) method to locate the optimal cut-off points on the dendrogram to define candidate clusters. Kulczinsky’s second measure dendrograms were combined using consensus, identifying areas of conflict which could be due to biotic element overlap or transitional areas. Post-clustering GIS manipulation substantially enhanced the endemic composition and geographic size of candidate CoEs. Although there was broad spatial congruence with previous phytogeographic studies, our techniques allowed for the recovery of additional phytogeographic detail not previously described for the CFR. PMID:26147438

  19. The role of climatic and geological events in generating diversity in Ethiopian grass frogs (genus Ptychadena).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Megan L; Noonan, Brice P; Colston, Timothy J

    2017-08-01

    Ethiopia is a world biodiversity hotspot and harbours levels of biotic endemism unmatched in the Horn of Africa, largely due to topographic-and thus habitat-complexity, which results from a very active geological and climatic history. Among Ethiopian vertebrate fauna, amphibians harbour the highest levels of endemism, making amphibians a compelling system for the exploration of the impacts of Ethiopia's complex abiotic history on biotic diversification. Grass frogs of the genus Ptychadena are notably diverse in Ethiopia, where they have undergone an evolutionary radiation. We used molecular data and expanded taxon sampling to test for cryptic diversity and to explore diversification patterns in both the highland radiation and two widespread lowland Ptychadena . Species delimitation results support the presence of nine highland species and four lowland species in our dataset, and divergence dating suggests that both geologic events and climatic fluctuations played a complex and confounded role in the diversification of Ptychadena in Ethiopia. We rectify the taxonomy of the endemic P. neumanni species complex, elevating one formally synonymized name and describing three novel taxa. Finally, we describe two novel lowland Ptychadena species that occur in Ethiopia and may be more broadly distributed.

  20. Taenia solium in Europe: Still endemic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Allepuz, Alberto; Dermauw, Veronique; Johansen, Maria V; Laranjo-González, Minerva; Smit, G Suzanne A; Sotiraki, Smaragda; Trevisan, Chiara; Wardrop, Nicola A; Dorny, Pierre; Gabriël, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    The pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, causes an important economic and health burden, mainly in rural or marginalized communities of sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and Latin-America. Although improved pig rearing conditions seem to have eliminated the parasite in most Western European countries, little is known about the true endemicity status of T. solium throughout Europe. Three recent reviews indicate that autochthonous human T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis may be possible in Europe, but that current peer-reviewed literature is biased towards Western Europe. Officially reported data on porcine cysticercosis are highly insufficient. Favourable conditions for local T. solium transmission still exist in eastern parts of Europe, although the ongoing integration of the European Union is speeding up modernisation and intensification of the pig sector. Further evidence is urgently needed to fill the gaps on the European T. solium endemicity map. We urge to make human cysticercosis notifiable and to improve the reporting of porcine cysticercosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Diversity and endemism of Peruvian mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Pacheco

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We present an annotated list for all land, aquatic and marine mammals known to occur in Peru and their distribution by ecoregions. We also present species conservation status according to international organizations and the legal conservation status in Peru. At present, we record 508 species, in 13 orders, 50 families, and 218 genera, making Peru the third most diverse country with regards to mammals in the New World, after Brazil and Mexico, and the fifth most diverse country for mammals in the World. This diversity includes 40 didelphimorphs, 2 paucituberculates, 1 manatee, 6 cingulates, 7 pilosa, 39 primates, 162 rodents, 1 rabbit, 2 soricomorphs, 165 bats, 34 carnivores, 2 perissodactyls, and 47 cetartiodactyls. Bats and rodents (327 species represent almost two thirds of total diversity (64% for Peru. Five genera and 65 species (12.8% are endemics to Peru, with the majority of these being rodents (45 species, 69,2%. Most of the endemic species are restricted to the Yungas of the eastern slope of the Andes (39 species, 60% followed by Selva Baja (14 species, 21.5%. The taxonomic status of some species is commented on, when those depart from accepted taxonomy. The marsupial Marmosa phaea; the rodents Melanomys caliginosus, M. robustulus, and Echinoprocta rufescens; the shrew Cryptotis equatoris; the bats Anoura fistulata, Phyllostomus latifolius, Artibeus ravus, Cynomops greenhalli, Eumops maurus, and Rhogeessa velilla; and the carnivore Nasuella olivacea are first records of species occurrence in Peru. Finally, we also include a list of 15 non-native species.

  2. Hydroclimatological Controls of Endemic and Non-endemic Cholera of the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutla, A. S.; Whitcombe, E.; Colwell, R.

    2012-12-01

    Cholera remains a major public health threat for the developing countries. Since the causative agent, Vibrio cholerae, is autochthonous to aquatic environment, it is not possible to eradicate the agent of the disease. Hydroclimatology based prediction and prevention strategies can be implemented in disease susceptible regions for reducing incidence rates. However, the precise role of hydrological and climatological processes, which will further aid in development of suitable prediction models, in creating spatial and temporal environmental conditions favorable for disease outbreak has not been adequately quantified. Here, we show distinction between seasonality and occurrence of cholera in epidemic and non-endemic regions. Using historical cholera mortality data, from the late 1800s for 27 locations in the Indian subcontinent, we show that non-endemic regions are generally located close to regional river systems but away from the coasts and are characterized by single sporadic outbreak in a given year. Increase in air temperature during the low river flow season increases evaporation, leading to an optimal salinity and pH required for bacterial growth. Thereafter, monsoonal rainfall, leads to interactions of contaminated river waters via human activity resulting in cholera epidemics. Endemic regions are located close to coasts where cholera outbreak occurs twice (spring and fall) in a year. Spring outbreak is generally associated with intrusion of bacterial seawater to inland whereas the fall peak is correlated with widespread flooding and cross-contamination of water resources via increased precipitation. This may be one of the first studies to hydroclimatologically quantitatively the seasonality of cholera in both endemic and non-endemic regions. Our results prompt the need of region and cause-specific prediction models for cholera, employing appropriate environmental determinants.

  3. Genus Pouteria: chemistry and biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia A. M. Silva

    Full Text Available The genus Pouteria belongs to the family Sapotaceae and can be widely found around the World. These plants have been used as building material, as food, because the eatable fruits, as well as remedies in folk medicine. Some biological activities have been reported to species of this genus such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antifungal. However, the real potential of this genus as source of new drugs or phytomedicines remains unknown. Therefore, a review of the so far known chemical composition and biological activities of this genus is presented to stimulate new studies about the species already reported moreover that species have no reference about chemistry or biological activities could be found until now.

  4. Genomic Diversity in the Genus of Aspergillus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jane Lind Nybo

    , sections and genus of Aspergillus. The work uncovers a large genomic diversity across all studied groups of species. The genomic diversity was especially evident on the section level, where the proteins shared by all species only represents ⇠55% of the proteome. This number decreases even further, to 38......, sections Nigri, Usti and Cavericolus, clade Tubingensis, and species A. niger. It lastly uses these results to predict genetic traits that take part in fungal speciation. Within a few years the Aspergillus whole-genus sequencing project will have published all currently-accepted Aspergillus genomes......Aspergillus is a highly important genus of saprotrophic filamentous fungi. It is a very diverse genus that is inextricably intertwined with human a↵airs on a daily basis, holding species relevant to plant and human pathology, enzyme and bulk chemistry production, food and beverage biotechnology...

  5. Infinite genus surfaces and irrational polygonal billiards

    OpenAIRE

    Valdez, Ferrán

    2009-01-01

    We prove that the natural invariant surface associated with the billiard game on an irrational polygonal table is homeomorphic to the Loch Ness monster, that is, the only orientable infinite genus topological real surface with exactly one end.

  6. Phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Gliocephalotrichum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombard, L.; Serrato-Diaz, L.M.; Cheewangkoon, R.; French-Monar, R.D.; Decock, C.; Crous, P.W.

    2014-01-01

    Species in the genus Gliocephalotrichum (= Leuconectria) (Hypocreales, Nectriaceae) are soilborne fungi, associated with post-harvest fruit spoilage of several important tropical fruit crops. Contemporary taxonomic studies of these fungi have relied on morphology and DNA sequence comparisons of the

  7. Phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Gliocephalotrichum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombard, L.; Serrato-Diaz, L. M.; Cheewangkoon, R.; French-Monar, R. D.; Decock, C.; Crous, P. W.

    Species in the genus Gliocephalotrichum (= Leuconectria) (Hypocreales, Nectriaceae) are soilborne fungi, associated with post-harvest fruit spoilage of several important tropical fruit crops. Contemporary taxonomic studies of these fungi have relied on morphology and DNA sequence comparisons of the

  8. Generalized regular genus for manifolds with boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Cristofori

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a generalization of the regular genus, a combinatorial invariant of PL manifolds ([10], which is proved to be strictly related, in dimension three, to generalized Heegaard splittings defined in [12].

  9. Séries monotípicas da bacia de Taubaté 1: pinhão e pinda Monotypical series of Taubate basin 1: pinhão and pinda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco da Costa Verdade

    1962-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, foram estudados as séries monotípicas Pinhão e Pinda, para definição das características necessárias à sua identificação no campo, as propriedades químicos e morfológicas, visando a sua classificação. A série Pinhão, origina-se de sedimento terciário com estratificação horizontal, ocorrendo em profundidade e exposto pela erosão. Aparece, em geral, na meia encosto de zona ondulada. Além dos solos associados com drenagem moderada e imperfeita, surgem outros formando litossequência de distribuição constante. O perfil, tem um horizonte A profundo e pequeno horizonte B, ambos apresentando pouca variação de côr dentro da respectiva camada. A textura, de barrenta, nas superfície, passa a argilosa em profundidade. O solo, tem pequeno teor em nutrientes das plantas, quer na forma assimilável, quer na forma total. A fração coloidal apresenta-se com caulinita, goethita e gibbsita. A análise espectrográfica ondica, que êste solo pode apresentar deficiências de micronutrientes para as culturas e também para os animais. A série Pinda, tem as mesmas características da série Pinhão quanto ao material original, porém ambas são sedimentos argilosos. Distribui-se mais pelos altos dos morros, por ser derivada de sedimentos que cobrem os primeiros. Apresenta a mesma sucessão de horizontes que a anterior, com uma distribuição de matéria orgânica mais profunda. Quimicamente, são solos semelhantes ao primeiro, porém de maior produtividade. A fração argila, também é caulinita associada à goethita, estando ausente a gibbsita. Êsses solos são clossificados na subordem Latossolo, mas, apesar de se definir a morfologia e a gênese assinalando-se os pontos de contacto entre as séries, não se procurou definir um Grande Grupo.Both monotypical series were studied to determine the most important characteristics for their field determination and chemical, physical and morphological properties necessary for

  10. Kops genus - en værkstedsrapport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudiksen, Asgerd

    2008-01-01

     Inden for Ømålsområdet optræder ordet kop både i genus femininum, masku­linum og neutrum. På Sjælland, hvor trekønssystemet er under af­vikling, kan ordet desuden være genus commune. Der kan konstateres en vis dialektgeografisk fordeling af de tre (fire) genera, men især på Sjælland er...

  11. A taxonomic revision of the genus Podocarpus

    OpenAIRE

    Laubenfels, de, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    In connection with the forthcoming revision of the Coniferae for the Flora Malesiana, the author thought it necessary to revise the genus Podocarpus. Although this genus has a substantial representation in Malesia (30 species), the revision is too involved to be appropriate with the Flora Malesiana per se. One new subgenus and 17 new sections are described, and 94 species are enumerated, of which 11 species and 1 variety are described as new, and 3 varieties have been raised to specific rank....

  12. Desert springs: deep phylogeographic structure in an ancient endemic crustacean (Phreatomerus latipes.

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    Michelle T Guzik

    Full Text Available Desert mound springs of the Great Artesian Basin in central Australia maintain an endemic fauna that have historically been considered ubiquitous throughout all of the springs. Recent studies, however, have shown that several endemic invertebrate species are genetically highly structured and contain previously unrecognised species, suggesting that individuals may be geographically 'stranded in desert islands'. Here we further tested the generality of this hypothesis by conducting genetic analyses of the obligate aquatic phreatoicid isopod Phreatomerus latipes. Phylogenetic and phylogeographic relationships amongst P. latipes individuals were examined using a multilocus approach comprising allozymes and mtDNA sequence data. From the Lake Eyre region in South Australia we collected data for 476 individuals from 69 springs for the mtDNA gene COI; in addition, allozyme electrophoresis was conducted on 331 individuals from 19 sites for 25 putative loci. Phylogenetic and population genetic analyses showed three major clades in both allozyme and mtDNA data, with a further nine mtDNA sub-clades, largely supported by the allozymes. Generally, each of these sub-clades was concordant with a traditional geographic grouping known as spring complexes. We observed a coalescent time between ∼2-15 million years ago for haplotypes within each of the nine mtDNA sub-clades, whilst an older total time to coalescence (>15 mya was observed for the three major clades. Overall we observed that multiple layers of phylogeographic history are exemplified by Phreatomerus, suggesting that major climate events and their impact on the landscape have shaped the observed high levels of diversity and endemism. Our results show that this genus reflects a diverse fauna that existed during the early Miocene and appears to have been regionally restricted. Subsequent aridification events have led to substantial contraction of the original habitat, possibly over repeated Pleistocene

  13. CONTRIBUTION FOR THE DIAGNOSIS AND CONTROL OF THE BARK BEETLES OF GENUS IPS (COLEOPTERA: SCOLYTIDAE) IN THE PINE FOREST OF CUBA

    OpenAIRE

    René Alberto López Castilla; Fidel Góngora Rojas; Celia Guerra Rivero; Enrique de Zayas Izaguirre; Antonio Fernández Vera; Natividad Triguero Isasi

    2009-01-01

    There are four pines species endemic from Cuba with width importance, from the Conservation of the Forest Genetic Resources at regional level to the mitigation of the climatic change. Their economical importance is due to forming pure forest stand of fast growth and of straight trunk. The bark beetle of the genus Ips De Geer (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) and the associate mushrooms from the complex Ophiostomatoid (Ceratocystidaceae: Microascales Phylum Ascomycotina) are those that cause the bigge...

  14. Comparison of immune responses to a killed bivalent whole cell oral cholera vaccine between endemic and less endemic settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Sachin N; Akalu, Zenebe; Teferi, Mekonnen; Manna, Byomkesh; Teshome, Samuel; Park, Ju Yeon; Yang, Jae Seung; Kim, Deok Ryun; Kanungo, Suman; Digilio, Laura

    2016-02-01

    Studies on safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of the killed, bivalent whole cell oral cholera vaccine (Shanchol) have been conducted in historically endemic settings of Asia. Recent cholera vaccination campaigns in Haiti and Guinea have also demonstrated favourable immunogenicity and effectiveness in nonendemic outbreak settings. We performed a secondary analysis, comparing immune responses of Shanchol from two randomised controlled trials performed in an endemic and a less endemic area (Addis Ababa) during a nonoutbreak setting. While Shanchol may offer some degree of immediate protection in primed populations living in cholera endemic areas, as well as being highly immunogenic in less endemic settings, understanding the characteristics of immune responses in each of these areas is vital in determining ideal dosing strategies that offer the greatest public health impact to populations from areas with varying degrees of cholera endemicity. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Cryptic diversity and population genetic structure in the rare, endemic, forest-obligate, slender geckos of the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siler, Cameron D; Dececchi, T Alex; Merkord, Chris L; Davis, Drew R; Christiani, Tony J; Brown, Rafe M

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies of forest lizards in Southeast Asia have highlighted spectacular morphological and cryptic genetic diversity in several poorly known clades. Unfortunately, many of the included species have microhabitat preferences for forested environments, and therefore they are threatened by extensive forest destruction throughout the region. This is particularly true in the Philippines, an archipelago with a strikingly high proportion (84%) of endemic geckos. Abundances inferred from historical museum collections suggests that we are in a critical period where apparent declines in population viability and species' abundance have taken place faster than the growth in our understanding of alpha diversity. This phenomenon is exemplified in the exceedingly rare Philippine slender forest geckos of the genus Pseudogekko. Most of the known species are rarely encountered by field biologists, and species boundaries are unclear; this poor state of knowledge impedes effective conservation measures. Using the first multilocus phylogeny for these taxa, and phylogenetic and population genetic approaches, we elucidate evolutionary lineages and delimit species-level conservation targets in this unique radiation of endemic Philippine geckos. The results support the presence of widespread cryptic diversity in the genus, providing a framework for the re-evaluation of conservation priorities aimed at protecting these rare, forest-obligate species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Miocene Fossils Reveal Ancient Roots for New Zealand's Endemic Mystacina (Chiroptera and Its Rainforest Habitat.

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    Suzanne J Hand

    Full Text Available The New Zealand endemic bat family Mystacinidae comprises just two Recent species referred to a single genus, Mystacina. The family was once more diverse and widespread, with an additional six extinct taxa recorded from Australia and New Zealand. Here, a new mystacinid is described from the early Miocene (19-16 Ma St Bathans Fauna of Central Otago, South Island, New Zealand. It is the first pre-Pleistocene record of the modern genus and it extends the evolutionary history of Mystacina back at least 16 million years. Extant Mystacina species occupy old-growth rainforest and are semi-terrestrial with an exceptionally broad omnivorous diet. The majority of the plants inhabited, pollinated, dispersed or eaten by modern Mystacina were well-established in southern New Zealand in the early Miocene, based on the fossil record from sites at or near where the bat fossils are found. Similarly, many of the arthropod prey of living Mystacina are recorded as fossils in the same area. Although none of the Miocene plant and arthropod species is extant, most are closely related to modern taxa, demonstrating potentially long-standing ecological associations with Mystacina.

  17. Montane and coastal species diversification in the economically important Mexican grasshopper genus Sphenarium (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedraza-Lara, Carlos; Barrientos-Lozano, Ludivina; Rocha-Sánchez, Aurora Y; Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro

    2015-03-01

    The genus Sphenarium (Pyrgomorphidae) is a small group of grasshoppers endemic to México and Guatemala that are economically and culturally important both as a food source and as agricultural pests. However, its taxonomy has been largely neglected mainly due to its conserved interspecific external morphology and the considerable intraspecific variation in colour pattern of some taxa. Here we examined morphological as well as mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data to assess the species boundaries and evolutionary history in Sphenarium. Our morphological identification and DNA sequence-based species delimitation, carried out with three different approaches (DNA barcoding, general mixed Yule-coalescent model, Bayesian species delimitation), all recovered a higher number of putative species of Sphenarium than previously recognised. We unambiguously delimit seven species, and between five and ten additional species depending on the data/method analysed. Phylogenetic relationships within the genus strongly support two main clades, one exclusively montane, the other coastal. Divergence time estimates suggest late Miocene to Pliocene ages for the origin and most of the early diversification events in the genus, which were probably influenced by the formation of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. A series of Pleistocene events could have led to the current species diversification in both montane and coastal regions. This study not only reveals an overlooked species richness for the most popular edible insect in Mexico, but also highlights the influence of the dynamic geological and climatic history of the region in shaping its current diversity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. THE SYSTEM AND CONSPECTUS OF THE GENUS PEDICULARIS (OROBANCHACEAE OF ALTAY MOUNTAINS AND TIAN SHAN

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    P. A. Kosachev

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The system and conspectus of the genus Pedicularis L. (Orobanchaceae of Altai and Tien Shan is presented. The system is based of molecular genetic studies of the genus (Ree, 2005; Tkach et al., 2014; own data and is represented by series that are grouped into sections. The building of the higher taxonomic categories is not possible at the moment due to the para- or polyphyletic origin genus of weak support for clads in the phylogenetic tree. Conspectus includes 61 species of the 32 series and 7 sections. 16 species and 1 subspecies of endemic for the territory of the Altai and Tien Shan. For the first time described in one section and 10 series. Three sections published of the lectotypes: Schizocalyx Li, Botryantha Li, Rhizophyllum Li. Clarified the amount and distribution of species, series, sections. Displaying Altai and Tien Shan origin some series (ser. Abrotanifoliae, Amoenae, Achilleifolia, Uliginosae, Physocalyces, Macrochilae, Platyrhynchae, the Tien-Shan (Semenowianae, Pycnanthae, Maximowiczianae, Pubiflorae, Altai (Brachystaches, Elatae.

  19. Bursting endemic bubbles in an adaptive network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherborne, N.; Blyuss, K. B.; Kiss, I. Z.

    2018-04-01

    The spread of an infectious disease is known to change people's behavior, which in turn affects the spread of disease. Adaptive network models that account for both epidemic and behavioral change have found oscillations, but in an extremely narrow region of the parameter space, which contrasts with intuition and available data. In this paper we propose a simple susceptible-infected-susceptible epidemic model on an adaptive network with time-delayed rewiring, and show that oscillatory solutions are now present in a wide region of the parameter space. Altering the transmission or rewiring rates reveals the presence of an endemic bubble—an enclosed region of the parameter space where oscillations are observed.

  20. ANTIGENAEMIA AS AN INDICATOR OF FILARIAL ENDEMICITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Partono

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This is a report of 1 -year evaluation of chemotherapeutic intervention in an area of Indonesia endemic for lymphatic filariasis. Control measures were initiated in 1977 by parasite control, informal health educa­tion, and community participation at the village level, well in accord with the WHO-concept of health for all. Diethylcarbamazine (DEC was mass distributed in 1977 and 1988, and selectively distributed in 1978, 1979, 1981, and 1982 to those who were micro-filaraemic prior to DEC treatments, those with a history of adenoly mphangitis over the previous one year period, and to all new comers. In addition, each villager with acute symptoms of adenolymphangitis was immediately treated with a single course of 300 mg DEC for 10 days. No intervention measures were taken between 1982 to 1988, and no attempt was taken to control the vector or to restrict movement between controlled and uncontrolled areas during the whole studies. With these measures, the microfilaria (mf rate decreased from 30% to 0%, the adenolymphangitis rate from 46% to 11%, and the elephantiasis rate from 35% to 3%. The abatement of acute and chronic filarial symptoms over the study period and the disappearance of microfilaremia in the community are pointing towards the possibility of eradicating the partasite from the community. To test this hypothesis, serum samples were tested for circulating filarial antigen by a two-site antigen capture assay employing anti-phosphorylcholine monoclonal antibodies. There was a sharp fall in circulating antigenaemia, demonstrating that infection has either been eliminated from nearly all villagers, or that intensity of infection is now undetectably low. We feel that antigenaemia can be used as an indicator of filarial endemicity.

  1. Comparative phylogeography of endemic Azorean arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmakelis, Aristeidis; Rigal, François; Mourikis, Thanos; Balanika, Katerina; Terzopoulou, Sofia; Rego, Carla; Amorim, Isabel R; Crespo, Luís; Pereira, Fernando; Triantis, Kostas A; Whittaker, Robert J; Borges, Paulo A V

    2015-11-11

    For a remote oceanic archipelago of up to 8 Myr age, the Azores have a comparatively low level of endemism. We present an analysis of phylogeographic patterns of endemic Azorean island arthropods aimed at testing patterns of diversification in relation to the ontogeny of the archipelago, in order to distinguish between alternative models of evolutionary dynamics on islands. We collected individuals of six species (representing Araneae, Hemiptera and Coleoptera) from 16 forest fragments from 7 islands. Using three mtDNA markers, we analysed the distribution of genetic diversity within and between islands, inferred the differentiation time-frames and investigated the inter-island migration routes and colonization patterns. Each species exhibited very low levels of mtDNA divergence, both within and between islands. The two oldest islands were not strongly involved in the diffusion of genetic diversity within the archipelago. The most haplotype-rich islands varied according to species but the younger, central islands contributed the most to haplotype diversity. Colonization events both in concordance with and in contradiction to an inter-island progression rule were inferred, while a non-intuitive pattern of colonization from western to eastern islands was also inferred. The geological development of the Azores has followed a less tidy progression compared to classic hotspot archipelagos, and this is reflected in our findings. The study species appear to have been differentiating within the Azores for <2 Myr, a fraction of the apparent life span of the archipelago, which may indicate that extinction events linked to active volcanism have played an important role. Assuming that after each extinction event, colonization was initiated from a nearby island hosting derived haplotypes, the apparent age of species diversification in the archipelago would be moved closer to the present after each extinction-recolonization cycle. Exploiting these ideas, we propose a general

  2. The Research of Antioxidant Activity of the Endemic Species of Onopordum Anatolicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. TAŞDELEN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As is the case elsewhere in the world, Turkish people have long utilized plants as remedies, food, fuel, and dye, as well as for furniture, ornamentation, agricultural tools, and construction materials. Onopordum is a valuable medicinal plant that is widely used in traditional medicine in Europe. The application of Onopordum as food is limited and its main importance is due to medicine utilization. Because of having flavonoid compositions, Onopordum is an important plant. The Genus Onopordum L. (Asteraceae includes about 38 species. The representatives of the genus are native to Europe, Northern Africa, the Canary Island, the Caucasus, Southwest and Central Asia. In Turkey, this genus is represented with 20 species, 6 of which are endemic. Onopordum (cotton thistle, also known as Scots or Scotch thistle species are biennials herbaceous plants with branched, spinose winged stems. They have application in medical practice as a bactericide, cardiotonic, and hemostatic agent and are used against hypotonicity. In this study antioxidant activities of ethanol, methanol, acetone and benzen extracts of some endemic Onopordum anatolicum (Boiss. Boiss. & Heldr. ex Eig seeds which are in Denizli were examined. DPPH and β-carotene-Linoleic acid methods were used in order to determinethe antioxidant activity. The highest antioxidant activity (77% was seenin the extract which is obtained by using methanol catalyst. The lowest activity of antioxidant of the extracts is acetone (5%. In terms of impact, the strenght of antioxidant depends on the phenolic amount of it. For that purpose, O. anatolicum total fenolic content was calculated in terms of mg/ml gallic acid in the experiment performed by using Folin-Ciocaltaeu medhod. According to these values, the highest amount of phenolic compounds are in methanol and the lowest amount of phenolic compounds are in benzen. According to the results of the experiment performed by using DPPH method, it is obvious that the

  3. Features of Acquired Immunity in Malaria Endemic Areas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... of Acquired Immunity in Malaria Endemic Areas. Adults (>15 years) do not suffer from the disease. Concomitant presence of low levels of P. falciparum in immune persons. This immunity is lost within 6-12 months if a person moves out of endemic area. Antibodies mediate protection for the asexual stages of P. falciparum.

  4. The genus Isodon (Schrad. ex Benth. Spach in Africa and a new genus Rabdosiella Codd (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Codd

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available The typification of the genus Isodon (Schrad. ex Benth. Spach and its occurrence in Africa are discussed; an allied genus Rabdosiella Codd is described and the combinations R. calycina (Benth. Codd and R. ternifolia (D.Don Codd (the latter an Indian species are effected.

  5. Endemic earthworms (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) of the Balkan Peninsula: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trakić, Tanja; Valchovski, Hristo; Stojanović, Mirjana

    2016-11-10

    A list of the endemic earthworms of the Balkan Peninsula is presented. Comprehensive information on the ecology, distribution on the Balkan Peninsula and zoogeographical type of all endemics is given. The list comprises 90 species and subspecies, belonging to 11 genera of the family Lumbricidae. The largest number of the Balkan endemic earthworms belongs to a narrow range group (63.3%). Broad range endemic species take part with 36.7%. Our study shows that the degree of endemism on the Balkan Peninsula is extremely high (about 40%) suggesting an important process of autochthonous speciation on the Balkan Peninsula. This appearance is attributable to relative isolation of the mountains compared to the lowlands within the context of paleoenvironmental changes.

  6. New Cheilostomata (Bryozoa from NE Atlantic seamounts, islands, and the continental slope: evidence for deep-sea endemism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Berning

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Ten new species belonging to three new genera (Atlantisina gen. nov., Bathycyclopora gen. nov., Calvetopora gen. nov. of umbonulomorph bryozoans from northeastern Atlantic seamounts, islands, and the continental slope are introduced. We furthermore erect the new family Atlantisinidae fam. nov. for these genera. Eight new species belong to the new genus Atlantisina: Atlantisina atlantis gen. et sp. nov. (type species, A. acantha gen. et sp. nov., A. gorringensis gen. et sp. nov., A. inarmata gen. et sp. nov., A. lionensis gen. et sp. nov., A. meteor gen. et sp. nov., A. seinensis gen. et sp. nov., and A. tricornis gen. et sp. nov. The genus Bathycyclopora gen. nov. is introduced for ?Phylactella vibraculata Calvet from the Azores, and also includes Bathycyclopora suroiti gen. et sp. nov. The type species of Calvetopora gen. nov. is Lepralia inflata Calvet from the Gulf of Cadiz; this genus also includes Calvetopora otapostasis gen. et sp. nov. and another species left in open nomenclature. Of the 13 species described herein, 11 occur on seamounts and islands, and nine species are endemic to a single seamount, island or station. The present results show that bryozoans provide striking examples of the function of seamounts as areas of endemism, most likely intrinsically linked to the low dispersal abilities of bryozoan larvae.

  7. Identification and nomenclature of the genus Penicillium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visagie, C M; Houbraken, J; Frisvad, J C; Hong, S-B; Klaassen, C H W; Perrone, G; Seifert, K A; Varga, J; Yaguchi, T; Samson, R A

    2014-06-01

    Penicillium is a diverse genus occurring worldwide and its species play important roles as decomposers of organic materials and cause destructive rots in the food industry where they produce a wide range of mycotoxins. Other species are considered enzyme factories or are common indoor air allergens. Although DNA sequences are essential for robust identification of Penicillium species, there is currently no comprehensive, verified reference database for the genus. To coincide with the move to one fungus one name in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants, the generic concept of Penicillium was re-defined to accommodate species from other genera, such as Chromocleista, Eladia, Eupenicillium, Torulomyces and Thysanophora, which together comprise a large monophyletic clade. As a result of this, and the many new species described in recent years, it was necessary to update the list of accepted species in Penicillium. The genus currently contains 354 accepted species, including new combinations for Aspergillus crystallinus, A. malodoratus and A. paradoxus, which belong to Penicillium section Paradoxa. To add to the taxonomic value of the list, we also provide information on each accepted species MycoBank number, living ex-type strains and provide GenBank accession numbers to ITS, β-tubulin, calmodulin and RPB2 sequences, thereby supplying a verified set of sequences for each species of the genus. In addition to the nomenclatural list, we recommend a standard working method for species descriptions and identifications to be adopted by laboratories working on this genus.

  8. Endemism hotspots are linked to stable climatic refugia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Susan; Noss, Reed

    2017-01-01

    Centres of endemism have received much attention from evolutionists, biogeographers, ecologists and conservationists. Climatic stability is often cited as a major reason for the occurrences of these geographic concentrations of species which are not found anywhere else. The proposed linkage between endemism and climatic stability raises unanswered questions about the persistence of biodiversity during the present era of rapidly changing climate. The current status of evidence linking geographic centres of endemism to climatic stability over evolutionary time was examined. The following questions were asked. Do macroecological analyses support such an endemism-stability linkage? Do comparative studies find that endemic species display traits reflecting evolution in stable climates? Will centres of endemism in microrefugia or macrorefugia remain relatively stable and capable of supporting high biological diversity into the future? What are the implications of the endemism-stability linkage for conservation? Recent work using the concept of climate change velocity supports the classic idea that centres of endemism occur where past climatic fluctuations have been mild and where mountainous topography or favourable ocean currents contribute to creating refugia. Our knowledge of trait differences between narrow endemics and more widely distributed species remains highly incomplete. Current knowledge suggests that centres of endemism will remain relatively climatically buffered in the future, with the important caveat that absolute levels of climatic change and species losses in these regions may still be large. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. DNA barcoding of Rhododendron (Ericaceae), the largest Chinese plant genus in biodiversity hotspots of the Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Li-Jun; Liu, Jie; Möller, Michael; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Xue-Mei; Li, De-Zhu; Gao, Lian-Ming

    2015-07-01

    The Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains encompass two global biodiversity hotspots with high levels of biodiversity and endemism. This area is one of the diversification centres of the genus Rhododendron, which is recognized as one of the most taxonomically challenging plant taxa due to recent adaptive radiations and rampant hybridization. In this study, four DNA barcodes were evaluated on 531 samples representing 173 species of seven sections of four subgenera in Rhododendron, with a high sampling density from the Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains employing three analytical methods. The varied approaches (nj, pwg and blast) had different species identification powers with blast performing best. With the pwg analysis, the discrimination rates for single barcodes varied from 12.21% to 25.19% with ITS biodiversity for the large genus Rhododendron in the biodiversity hotspots of the Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Taxonomic notes on the ground beetles in the genus Trephionus Bates, 1883 from central Honshu, Japan (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Sphodrini, Synuchina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasakawa, Kôji; Itô, Hirotarô

    2018-01-01

    Trephionus Bates, 1883, a Japanese endemic genus in the subtribe Synuchina (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Sphodrini), is revised taxonomically based mainly on the shape of the endophallus, a membranous inner sac everted from the aedeagus of the male genitalia. Three known species from central Honshu, T. kinoshitai Habu, 1954; T. shibataianus Habu, 1978; and T. babai Habu, 1978, are re-defined based on this genital character, and five new species are described from the region: T. cylindriphallus Sasakawa, sp . n ., T. niumontanus Sasakawa, sp . n ., T. inexpectatus Sasakawa & Itô, sp . n ., T. abiba Sasakawa & Itô, sp . n ., and T. bifidilobatus Sasakawa & Itô, sp . n . The observed interspecies differences in endophallus morphology are discussed in terms of the species-level phylogeny and genus-level taxonomy of Trephionus .

  11. Taxonomic notes on the ground beetles in the genus Trephionus Bates, 1883 from central Honshu, Japan (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Sphodrini, Synuchina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kôji Sasakawa

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Trephionus Bates, 1883, a Japanese endemic genus in the subtribe Synuchina (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Sphodrini, is revised taxonomically based mainly on the shape of the endophallus, a membranous inner sac everted from the aedeagus of the male genitalia. Three known species from central Honshu, T. kinoshitai Habu, 1954; T. shibataianus Habu, 1978; and T. babai Habu, 1978, are re-defined based on this genital character, and five new species are described from the region: T. cylindriphallus Sasakawa, sp. n., T. niumontanus Sasakawa, sp. n., T. inexpectatus Sasakawa & Itô, sp. n., T. abiba Sasakawa & Itô, sp. n., and T. bifidilobatus Sasakawa & Itô, sp. n. The observed interspecies differences in endophallus morphology are discussed in terms of the species-level phylogeny and genus-level taxonomy of Trephionus.

  12. A new species of the endemic Australian genus Roscidotoga Hoare from rainforests in southern Queensland (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieukerken, van E.J.; Berg, van den C.; Hoare, R.J.B.

    2011-01-01

    The new species Roscidotoga lamingtonia is described, a leafminer on Sloanea woollsii (Elaeocarpaceae) from the subtropical rainforests of Lamington National Park, southern Queensland, and Border Ranges National Park, New South Wales. R. callicomae Hoare, 2000 is recorded for the first time from

  13. Genetic diversity, endemism and phylogeny of lampreys within the genus Lampetra sensu stricto (Petromyzontiformes: Petromyzontidae) in western North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boguski, D A; Reid, S B; Goodman, D H; Docker, M F

    2012-11-01

    Phylogenetic structure of four Lampetra species from the Pacific drainage of North America (western brook lamprey Lampetra richardsoni, Pacific brook lamprey Lampetra pacifica, river lamprey Lampetra ayresii and Kern brook lamprey Lampetra hubbsi) and unidentified Lampetra specimens (referred to as Lampetra sp.) from 36 locations was estimated using the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Maximum parsimony and Bayesian inferences did not correspond with any taxonomic scheme proposed to date. Rather, although L. richardsoni (from Alaska to California) and L. ayresii (from British Columbia to California) together constituted a well-supported clade distinct from several genetically divergent Lampetra populations in Oregon and California, these two species were not reciprocally monophyletic. The genetically divergent populations included L. pacifica (from the Columbia River basin) and L. hubbsi (from the Kern River basin) and four Lampetra sp. populations in Oregon (Siuslaw River and Fourmile Creek) and California (Kelsey and Mark West Creeks). These four Lampetra sp. populations showed genetic divergence between 2.3 and 5.7% from any known species (and up to 8.0% from each other), and may represent morphologically cryptic and thus previously undescribed species. A fifth population (from Paynes Creek, California) may represent a range extension of L. hubbsi into the Upper Sacramento River. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  14. Genus-level taxonomic changes implied by the mitochondrial phylogeny of grey mullets (Teleostei: Mugilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Jean-Dominique; Chen, Wei-Jen; Shen, Kang-Ning; Fu, Cuizhang; Borsa, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive mitochondrial phylogeny of the family Mugilidae (Durand et al., Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 64 (2012) 73-92) demonstrated the polyphyly or paraphyly of a proportion of the 20 genera in the family. Based on these results, here we propose a revised classification with 25 genera, including 15 genera currently recognized as valid (Agonostomus, Aldrichetta, Cestraeus, Chaenomugil, Chelon, Crenimugil, Ellochelon, Joturus, Mugil, Myxus, Neomyxus, Oedalechilus, Rhinomugil, Sicamugil and Trachystoma), 7 resurrected genera [Dajaus (for Agonostomus monticola), Gracilimugil (for Liza argentea), Minimugil (for Sicamugil cascasia), Osteomugil (for several species currently under Moolgarda and Valamugil, including M. cunnesius, M. engeli, M. perusii, and V. robustus), Planiliza (for Indo-Pacific Chelon spp., Indo-Pacific Liza spp., and Paramugil parmatus), Plicomugil (for Oedalechilus labiosus), and Squalomugil (for Rhinomugil nasutus)] and 3 new genera: Neochelon gen. nov. (for Liza falcipinnis), Parachelon gen. nov. (for L. grandisquamis) and Pseudomyxus gen. nov. (for Myxus capensis). Genus Chelon was shown to include exclusively Chelon spp. and Liza spp. from the Atlantic and the Mediterranean, and Liza spp. species endemic to eastern southern Africa. Genus Crenimugil should now include C. crenilabis, Moolgarda seheli and V. buchanani. Genus names Liza, Moolgarda, Paramugil, Valamugil and Xenomugil should be abandoned because they are no longer valid. Further genetic evidence is required to confirm or infirm the validity of the genus Paracrenimugil Senou 1988. The mitochondrial phylogeny of the 25 genera from the present revision is the following: [(Sicamugil, (Minimugil, Rhinomugil)); Trachystoma; ((Myxus, Neomyxus), (Cestraeus, Chaenomugil, (Agonostomus, Dajaus, Joturus), Mugil)); (Aldrichetta, Gracilimugil); Neochelon gen. nov.; (Pseudomyxus gen. nov., (Chelon, Oedalechilus, Planiliza, Parachelon gen. nov.)); ((Squalomugil, (Ellochelon, Plicomugil)), (Crenimugil

  15. Urinary iodine excretion in relation to goiter prevalence in households of goiter endemic and non endemic regions of Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abuye, Chernet; Hailemariam, Bantiyrgu; Neka Tibeb, Hanna; Urga, Kelbesa; Woldegebriel, Zewidie

    1995-01-01

    A Survey of goiter prevalence, among population of five endemic and four non endemic regions of Ethiopia was carried out prior to the distribution of iodate d salt. urine samples were collected from 327 subjects selected by systematic random sampling from endemic and 276 taken as non endemic. The lowest mean urinary iodine excretion (UIE) value was recorded in Bure (22 micro gl/day) and the highest in Alemmaya (148 micro gl/day). The highest goiter rate ( percent TGR) was recorded in Sawla 55.6 %) and the lowest (0.6 %) in Yabello. Iodine content of drinking was in the range of 0.4 - 48.5 micro gl. Iodine content of water source was correlated positively ( r0.8399) with the mean of UIE and TGR, however, indicates that sites considered as non endemic seem to be affected by iodine deficiency. The study results urge the need for intervention in controlling Iodine Deficiency Disorders. 3 tab

  16. Identification and nomenclature of the genus Penicillium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visagie, C.M.; Houbraken, J.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2014-01-01

    Penicillium is a diverse genus occurring worldwide and its species play important roles as decomposers of organic materials and cause destructive rots in the food industry where they produce a wide range of mycotoxins. Other species are considered enzyme factories or are common indoor air allergens....... Although DNA sequences are essential for robust identification of Penicillium species, there is currently no comprehensive, verified reference database for the genus. To coincide with the move to one fungus one name in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants, the generic concept...... of accepted species in Penicillium. The genus currently contains 354 accepted species, including new combinations for Aspergillus crystallinus, A. malodoratus and A. paradoxus, which belong to Penicillium section Paradoxa. To add to the taxonomic value of the list, we also provide information on each accepted...

  17. The genus curve of the Abell clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, James E.; Gott, J. Richard, III; Postman, Marc

    1994-01-01

    We study the topology of large-scale structure through a genus curve measurement of the recent Abell catalog redshift survey of Postman, Huchra, and Geller (1992). The structure is found to be spongelike near median density and to exhibit isolated superclusters and voids at high and low densities, respectively. The genus curve shows a slight shift toward 'meatball' topology, but remains consistent with the hypothesis of Gaussian random phase initial conditions. The amplitude of the genus curve corresponds to a power-law spectrum with index n = 0.21-0.47+0.43 on scales of 48/h Mpc or to a cold dark matter power spectrum with omega h = 0.36-0.17+0.46.

  18. The genus curve of the Abell clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, James E.; Gott, J. Richard, III; Postman, Marc

    1994-01-01

    We study the topology of large-scale structure through a genus curve measurement of the recent Abell catalog redshift survey of Postman, Huchra, and Geller (1992). The structure is found to be spongelike near median density and to exhibit isolated superclusters and voids at high and low densities, respectively. The genus curve shows a slight shift toward 'meatball' topology, but remains consistent with the hypothesis of Gaussian random phase initial conditions. The amplitude of the genus curve corresponds to a power-law spectrum with index n = 0.21(sub -0.47 sup +0.43) on scales of 48/h Mpc or to a cold dark matter power spectrum with omega h = 0.36(sub -0.17 sup +0.46).

  19. Therapeutic value of the genus Alpinia, Zingiberaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane P. Victório

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Plants containing bioactive substances have increasingly become the object of research studies, particularly those plants with therapeutic value. Many species of the genus Alpinia provide a variety of medicinal properties, such as, Alpinia zerumbet (Pers. Burtt et Smith and A. purpurata (Vieill K. Schum, which have a significant presence in Brazil. These species have been commercialized in the food and cosmetic industries. However, their greatest importance arises from the medicinal properties of their essential oils containing flavonoids, terpenoids and kavalactones which have been used in folk medicine to treat, for example, arterial hypertension and inflammatory processes. In addition, such species are also used in multidisciplinary studies, including phytochemistry, ethnobotany and biology, indicating the key pharmacological role of this genus in everyday life. Therefore, this work aims to present a bibliographic review of the genus Alpinia and its significance in therapeutic applications.

  20. Genetic Drift Linked to Heterogeneous Landscape and Ecological Specialization Drives Diversification in the Alpine Endemic Columbine Aquilegia thalictrifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lega, Margherita; Fior, Simone; Li, Mingai; Leonardi, Stefano; Varotto, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    The European Alpine system is an extensive mountain range, whose heterogeneous landscape together with Quaternary climatic oscillations significantly affected organismal diversity and distribution in Europe. The model genus Aquilegia represents a textbook example of a rapid and recent radiation through the Northern hemisphere, with the majority of the European taxa occuring in the Alpine system. However, the processes governing genetic differentiation of the genus in this complex geographic area are still widely unexplored. In this work, we used 9 microsatellite loci to study the genetic structure and diversity of 11 populations of Aquilegia thalictrifolia Schott & Kotschy, an alpine taxon characterized by a marked ecological specificity. We found that, despite the endemic and fragmented distribution, A. thalictrifolia has overall high levels of heterozygosity, which is consistent to the substantial inbreeding depression that characterizes the genus. Strong spatial genetic structuring of populations suggests a historical prevalence of genetic drift over gene flow, with natural barriers and ecological niche hindering migration. An analytical comparison of fixation and population differentiation indexes allowed us to infer hypotheses of the postglacial history and more recent demographic events that have influenced the genetics of the species. Overall, our results indicate allopatry as a major force of differentiation in the European scenario, likely to underlie the development of taxonomic boundaries in a broader geographic context. This adds to previous notions on the primary evolutionary forces shaping the Aquilegia radiation in Europe. © The American Genetic Association 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Notes on the genus Punctelia in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Steen; Søchting, Ulrik

    2007-01-01

    establishing the genus Punctelia, did not re-combine P. ulophylla, nor include it in the accompanying key. She probably considered it as a synonym of P. subrudecta. In a study on European Punctelia species with lecanoric acid, van Herk & Aptroot (2000) accepted the taxon and made the combination Punctelia...... name at species level, proposed the combination Punctelia jeckeri, and lectotypified the name. As a preparatory work to a forthcoming revision of the Danish lichen checklist (Søchting & Alstrup 2007) it was decided to examine the Danish material of the genus Punctelia....

  2. Contrasting patterns of connectivity among endemic and widespread fire coral species ( Millepora spp.) in the tropical Southwestern Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Júlia N.; Nunes, Flávia L. D.; Zilberberg, Carla; Sanchez, Juan A.; Migotto, Alvaro E.; Hoeksema, Bert W.; Serrano, Xaymara M.; Baker, Andrew C.; Lindner, Alberto

    2017-09-01

    Fire corals are the only branching corals in the South Atlantic and provide an important ecological role as habitat-builders in the region. With three endemic species ( Millepora brazilensis, M. nitida and M. laboreli) and one amphi-Atlantic species ( M. alcicornis), fire coral diversity in the Brazilian Province rivals that of the Caribbean Province. Phylogenetic relationships and patterns of population genetic structure and diversity were investigated in all four fire coral species occurring in the Brazilian Province to understand patterns of speciation and biogeography in the genus. A total of 273 colonies from the four species were collected from 17 locations spanning their geographic ranges. Sequences from the 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) were used to evaluate phylogenetic relationships. Patterns in genetic diversity and connectivity were inferred by measures of molecular diversity, analyses of molecular variance, pairwise differentiation, and by spatial analyses of molecular variance. Morphometrics of the endemic species M. braziliensis and M. nitida were evaluated by discriminant function analysis; macro-morphological characters were not sufficient to distinguish the two species. Genetic analyses showed that, although they are closely related, each species forms a well-supported clade. Furthermore, the endemic species characterized a distinct biogeographic barrier: M. braziliensis is restricted to the north of the São Francisco River, whereas M. nitida occurs only to the south. Millepora laboreli is restricted to a single location and has low genetic diversity. In contrast, the amphi-Atlantic species M. alcicornis shows high genetic connectivity within the Brazilian Province, and within the Caribbean Province (including Bermuda), despite low levels of gene flow between these populations and across the tropical Atlantic. These patterns reflect the importance of the Amazon-Orinoco Plume and the Mid-Atlantic Barrier as biogeographic barriers, and suggest that

  3. Costs of Illness Due to Endemic Cholera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulos, C.; Riewpaiboon, A.; Stewart, J.F.; Clemens, J.; Guh, S.; Agtini, M.; Sur, D.; Islam, Z.; Lucas, M.; Whittington, D.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Economic analyses of cholera immunization programmes require estimates of the costs of cholera. The Diseases of the Most Impoverished programme measured the public, provider, and patient costs of culture-confirmed cholera in four study sites with endemic cholera using a combination of hospital- and community-based studies. Families with culture-proven cases were surveyed at home 7 and 14 days after confirmation of illness. Public costs were measured at local health facilities using a micro-costing methodology. Hospital-based studies found that the costs of severe cholera were USD 32 and 47 in Matlab and Beira. Community-based studies in North Jakarta and Kolkata found that cholera cases cost between USD 28 and USD 206, depending on hospitalization. Patient costs of illness as a percentage of average monthly income were 21% and 65% for hospitalized cases in Kolkata and North Jakarta, respectively. This burden on families is not captured by studies that adopt a provider perspective. PMID:21554781

  4. Endemic pemphigus over a century: Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abréu-Vélez, Ana María; Roselino, Ana Maria; Howard, Michael S; Reason, Iara J de Messias

    2010-03-01

    Endemic pemphigus foliaceus (EPF) is an autoimmune disease, classically occurring in a restricted geographic area. Foci of EPF have been described in several Central and South American countries, often affecting young people and Amerindians, with some female predilection. Although most American EPF cases have been documented in Brazil, cases have been reported in Peru, Paraguay, El Salvador and Venezuela. An additional variant of EPF has been described in El Bagre, Colombia, (El Bagre-EPF) affecting older men and a few post-menopausal females. Finally, one additional type of EPF has been described in nomadic tribes affecting females of child bearing age in Tunisia, Africa. The main aim of this review is to summarize current knowledge about autoantigens, and immunologic and genetic studies in EPF. We utilized a retrospective review of the literature, aiming to compile and compare the multiple geographic foci of EPF. The primary autoantigens in EPF are still considered to be desmogleins in the case of the Tunisian and all American cases, in contradistinction to plakins and desmogleins in El Bagre-EPF. Although several autoantigens are been suggested, their biochemical nature needs further elucidation. Current knowledge still supports the concept that an antibody mediated immune response represents the principal pathophysiology in all variants of EPF. A strong genetic susceptibility appears to contribute to disease development in several people affected by these diseases; however, no specific genes have been confirmed at present. We conclude that further investigation is necessary to define these disorders immunologically and genetically.

  5. Diversification of the yellow-shouldered bats, genus Sturnira (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae), in the New World tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazco, Paúl M; Patterson, Bruce D

    2013-09-01

    The Yellow-shouldered bats, Genus Sturnira, are widespread, diverse, and abundant throughout the Neotropical Region, but little is known of their phylogeny and biogeography. We collected 4409 bp of DNA from three mitochondrial (cyt-b, ND2, D-loop) and two nuclear (RAG1, RAG2) sequences from 138 individuals representing all but two recognized species of Sturnira and five other phyllostomid bats used as outgroups. The sequence data were subjected to maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference analyses. Results overwhelmingly support the monophyly of the genus Sturnira but not continued recognition of Corvira as a subgenus; the two species (bidens and nana) allocated to that group constitute separate, basal branches on the phylogeny. A total of 21 monophyletic putatively species-level groups were recovered; pairs were separated by an average 7.09% (SD=1.61) pairwise genetic distance in cyt-b, and three of these groups are apparently unnamed. Several well-supported clades are evident, including a complex of seven species formerly confused with S. lilium, a species that is actually limited to the Brazilian Shield. We used four calibration points to construct a time-tree for Sturnira, using BEAST. Sturnira diverged from other stenodermatines in the mid-Miocene, and by the end of that epoch (5.3 Ma), three basal lineages were present. Most living species belong to one of two clades, A and B, which appeared and diversified shortly afterwards, during the Pliocene. Both parsimony (DIVA) and likelihood (Lagrange) methods for reconstructing ancestral ranges indicate that the radiation of Sturnira is rooted in the Andes; all three basal lineages (in order, bidens, nana, and aratathomasi) have strictly or mainly Andean distributions. Only later did Sturnira colonize the Pacific lowlands (Chocó) and thence Central America. Sturnira species that are endemic to Central America appeared after the final emergence of the Panamanian landbridge ~3 Ma. Despite its

  6. Updated Global Burden of Cholera in Endemic Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammad; Nelson, Allyson R.; Lopez, Anna Lena; Sack, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The global burden of cholera is largely unknown because the majority of cases are not reported. The low reporting can be attributed to limited capacity of epidemiological surveillance and laboratories, as well as social, political, and economic disincentives for reporting. We previously estimated 2.8 million cases and 91,000 deaths annually due to cholera in 51 endemic countries. A major limitation in our previous estimate was that the endemic and non-endemic countries were defined based on the countries’ reported cholera cases. We overcame the limitation with the use of a spatial modelling technique in defining endemic countries, and accordingly updated the estimates of the global burden of cholera. Methods/Principal Findings Countries were classified as cholera endemic, cholera non-endemic, or cholera-free based on whether a spatial regression model predicted an incidence rate over a certain threshold in at least three of five years (2008-2012). The at-risk populations were calculated for each country based on the percent of the country without sustainable access to improved sanitation facilities. Incidence rates from population-based published studies were used to calculate the estimated annual number of cases in endemic countries. The number of annual cholera deaths was calculated using inverse variance-weighted average case-fatality rate (CFRs) from literature-based CFR estimates. We found that approximately 1.3 billion people are at risk for cholera in endemic countries. An estimated 2.86 million cholera cases (uncertainty range: 1.3m-4.0m) occur annually in endemic countries. Among these cases, there are an estimated 95,000 deaths (uncertainty range: 21,000-143,000). Conclusion/Significance The global burden of cholera remains high. Sub-Saharan Africa accounts for the majority of this burden. Our findings can inform programmatic decision-making for cholera control. PMID:26043000

  7. A new genus of dipnoiformes from the Cretaceous of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E.V. Toledo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Alcântara Formation, an important stratigraphic unit from the early Cenomanian of Brazil, was deposited under transitional (estuarine conditions, and its fossil record includes fragmentary remains of plants, fishes, crocodylomorphs, pterosaurs and dinosaurs, with a noteworthy diversity of dipnoiformes tooth plates. The dipnoiformes material reported here comprises a new taxon, Equinoxiodus alcantarensis, gen. et sp. nov. Most of the identified morphotypes of continental vertebrates collected in the Alcântara Formation are similar to chronocorrelative faunas from Northern Africa, but this new genus of Dipnoiformes indicates some degree of paleogeographic isolation and endemism. This was probably caused by the widening of the equatorial Atlantic Ocean during the early Cenomanian, which may have selectively affected some species.A Formação Alcântara, uma importante unidade estratigráfica do início do Cenomaniano no Brasil, foi depositada sob condições transicionais (estuarinas, e o seu registro fóssil inclui restos fragmentários de vegetais, peixes, crocodilomorfos, pterossauros e dinossauros, com uma notável diversidade de placas dentárias de dipnoiformes. O material de dipnoiformes aqui reportado compreende um novo taxon, Equinoxiodus alcantarensis gen. et sp. nov. A maioria dos morfótipos de vertebrados continentais coletados na Formação Alcântara são similares a faunas cronocorrelatas do norte da África, mas este novo gênero de Dipnoiformes indica algum grau de isolamento paleogeográfico e endemismo, provavelmente causado pelo alargamento do Oceano Atlântico equatorial no início do Cenomaniano, que pode ter afetado, de forma seletiva, algumas espécies.

  8. [Safety threshold of fluorine in endemic fluorosis regions in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yonghua; Wang, Wuyi; Hou, Shaofan

    2002-07-01

    Four endemic fluorosis regions in China and their environmental epidemiological characteristics were summarized in this paper. It shows that the epidemiology of endemic fluorosis is closely related to geochemical parameters of local environment. The food-web and dose-effect relationship of fluoride from environment to human body in different types of endemic fluorosis regions were studied. And the safety threshold of fluoride in different regions was determined. The results have provided a scientific basis for environmental risk assessment of fluoride in China.

  9. THE GENUS TRIGONOSPORA (THELYPTERIDACEAE IN MALESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RE Holttum

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of the genus is discussed, and the Malesian species distinguished and described. Two new combinations are effected, Trigono-spora calcarata (Bl. Holtt. and T. koorderSiiH (Chr. Holtt.; the latter is here recognized for the first time as closely related to T. calcarata,.

  10. Palynology of the Genus Stachytarpheta Vahl. (Verbenaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olubukola ADEDEJI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The exine morphology of pollen grains of Stachytarpheta indica (Linn. Vahl, Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich. Vahl and Stachytarpheta angustifolia (Mill. Vahl is reported. This study was carried out with a light microscope. Pollen grains from fresh anthers were collected and aceolysed. Statistical analysis used to analyse the data collected include cluster analysis, correlation analysis, similarity and distance indices. The pollen grains are spheroidal to oblate to sub-oblate in shape. They are aperturate, both colpate and porate. Tricolpate types occur most frequently, acolpate, monocolpate, bicolpate and tetracolpate types less frequently. The multicolpate and multiporate attributes in all the species indicate that the genus is not primitive in evolutionary history and this species probably, evolved around in the same time. According to the size, the pollen grains of the genus falls into groups permagna (pollen diameter 100-200 ?m and giganta (pollen diameter greater than 200 ?m. S. cayennensis and S. anguistifolia belong to group permagna and S. indica only in the group giganta. This separates S. indica from the other two species. The large pollen grain size in the genus clearly supports the fact that the flowers in the genus are more insect-and-bird pollinated than wind pollinated. The similarity and distance indices of the species showed that S. cayennensis and S. angustifolia are the closest. S. indica is closer to S. angustifolia but farther from S. cayennensis.

  11. Genome Evolution in the Genus Sorghum (Poaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    PRICE, H. JAMES; DILLON, SALLY L.; HODNETT, GEORGE; ROONEY, WILLIAM L.; ROSS, LARRY; JOHNSTON, J. SPENCER

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims The roles of variation in DNA content in plant evolution and adaptation remain a major biological enigma. Chromosome number and 2C DNA content were determined for 21 of the 25 species of the genus Sorghum and analysed from a phylogenetic perspective.

  12. Some genus 3 curves with many points

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Auer, R; Top, J; Fieker, C; Kohel, DR

    2002-01-01

    We explain a naive approach towards the problem of finding genus 3 curves C over any given finite field F-q of odd characteristic, with a number of rational points close to the Hasse-Weil-Serre upper bound q+1+3[2rootq]. The method turns out to be successful at least in characteristic 3.

  13. Phylogeny of the plant genus Pachypodium (Apocynaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan O. Burge

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. The genus Pachypodium contains 21 species of succulent, generally spinescent shrubs and trees found in southern Africa and Madagascar. Pachypodium has diversified mostly into arid and semi-arid habitats of Madagascar, and has been cited as an example of a plant group that links the highly diverse arid-adapted floras of Africa and Madagascar. However, a lack of knowledge about phylogenetic relationships within the genus has prevented testing of this and other hypotheses about the group.Methodology/Principal Findings. We use DNA sequence data from the nuclear ribosomal ITS and chloroplast trnL-F region for all 21 Pachypodium species to reconstruct evolutionary relationships within the genus. We compare phylogenetic results to previous taxonomic classifications and geography. Results support three infrageneric taxa from the most recent classification of Pachypodium, and suggest that a group of African species (P. namaquanum, P. succulentum and P. bispinosum may deserve taxonomic recognition as an infrageneric taxon. However, our results do not resolve relationships among major African and Malagasy lineages of the genus.Conclusions/Significance. We present the first molecular phylogenetic analysis of Pachypodium. Our work has revealed five distinct lineages, most of which correspond to groups recognized in past taxonomic classifications. Our work also suggests that there is a complex biogeographic relationship between Pachypodium of Africa and Madagascar.

  14. A revision of the genus Mastixia (Cornaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthew, K.M.

    1976-01-01

    A revision of the genus in its entire range of distribution is presented. Out of more than 50 published specific names, 9 species (with 13 subspecies or varieties) are recognized, in addition to 4 new species and one new subspecies. The two subgenera Pentamastixia and Tetramastixia of Wangerin

  15. Chloothamnus, a neglected genus of Bambusaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrard, J.Th.

    1936-01-01

    Chloothamnus BUSE ap. MIQUEL, Pl. Jungh. 1854, 386 — Oreiostachys GAMBLE ap. KOORDERS, Verh. Kon. Ak. Wet. 16, 1908, 657.. Hab.: Malay Archipelago. 1. C. chilianthus BUSE, l.c., type species of the genus — Schizostachyum chilianthum (BUSE) KURZ, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. 39, ii, 1870, 88 — non Melocanna

  16. The genus Malassezia and human disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inamadar A

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Sabouraud's Pityrosporum is now recognized as Malassezia. With taxonomic revision of the genus, newer species have been included. The role of this member of the normal human skin flora in different cutaneous and systemic disorders is becoming clearer. The immunological responses it induces in the human body are conflicting and their relevance to clinical features is yet to be explored.

  17. The genus Lolium : taxonomy and genetic resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loos, B.P.

    1994-01-01

    Several aspects of variation within the genus Lolium, and more in detail within Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass) have been highlighted. As the results are extensively discussed in each chapter, the general discussion is focused on two aspects of

  18. A revision of the genus Phacellaria (Santalaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danser, B.H.

    1939-01-01

    On several occasions the author received specimens for determination under the name of Loranthaceae, which in reality appeared to be Phacellarias, usually parasitic on Loranthaceae. When trying to name these Phacellarias, he preceived how difficult it was to survey the literature of the genus.

  19. Conspectus of the genus Amyema Tieghem (Loranthaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barlow, Bryan A.

    1992-01-01

    The Australasian/Malesian genus Amyema is reviewed. Particular attention is given to the species of the Malesian region, as a precursor to a treatment of Loranthaceae for Flora Malesiana. Amyema comprises 92 species, and is distributed from the southeast Asian mainland (Malaya, Thailand) throughout

  20. Phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Cylindrocladiella

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombard, L.; Shivas, R.G.; To-anun, C.; Crous, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    The genus Cylindrocladiella was established to accommodate Cylindrocladium-like fungi that have small, cylindrical conidia and aseptate stipe extensions. Contemporary taxonomic studies of these fungi have relied on morphology and to a lesser extent on DNA sequence comparisons of the internal

  1. Phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Gliocladiopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombard, L.; Crous, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    Using a global set of isolates and a phylogenetic approach employing DNA sequence data from five genes (β-tubulin, histone H3, internal transcribed spacer region, 28S large subunit region and translation elongation factor 1-α), the taxonomic status of the genus Gliocladiopsis (Glionectria)

  2. Phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Gliocladiopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombard, L.; Crous, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    Using a global set of isolates and a phylogenetic approach employing DNA sequence data from five genes (ß-tubulin, histone H3, internal transcribed spacer region, 28S large subunit region and translation elongation factor 1-a), the taxonomic status of the genus Gliocladiopsis (Glionectria)

  3. Records of the genus Coccygidium Saussure (Hymenoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coccygidium arabica sp. nov., (Hym., Braconidae, Agathidinae) is described from Saudi Arabia. Morphological diagnostic characters of the new species were figured and compared with those of the related species Coccygidium angostura. The genus Coccygidium Saussure is recorded for the first time from Saudi Arabia.

  4. Chemotaxonomy of the genus Nuxia (Buddlejaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Rosendal

    1999-01-01

    An investigation of two species of Nuxia (Buddlejaceae) showed that this genus is characterised by the presence of the eight-carbon iridoid glucoside unedoside and/or its derivatives. From N. floribunda was isolated unedoside, nuxioside (6-O-a-L-rhamnopyranosyl-unedoside) and 2''-acetyl-3...

  5. A new genus of Blacinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester P. Gibson

    1977-01-01

    A new genus, Canalicephalus, of the subfamily Blacinae is described along with 4 new species, C. orientalis from Borneo, C. novus from New Guinea, and C. bakeri and C. mindanao, both from the Philippines. Keys are included to separate these 2 genera and the 4...

  6. Thermoregulation of the subterranean rodent genus Bathyergus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The thermoregulation of the largest subterranean rodent, genus Bathyergus, comprising two species, B. suillus and B. janetta,occurring in mesic and semiarid habitats respectively, was investigated and compared with that of other subterranean rodents. Both species display low resting metabolic rates and low body ...

  7. (Lepidoptera: Zygaenoidea) The genus Psycharium Herrich ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The genus Psycharium is revised for the first time. Until now, only a drawing of the female type species was known. The male and female of the type species, P. pellucens Herrich-Schaffer, and four new species, montanum, kammanassiense, bamardi and natalense,are comprehensively described. A key to the species of ...

  8. Biological advances in Bergenia genus plant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-08

    Aug 8, 2011 ... Bergenia, a genus belonging to Saxifragaceae family, is one of the most important medicinal plants, has high application values for human. Currently, wild Bergenia is becoming lacking, due to destruction of ecological environment and excessive excavation; furthermore, the study on it is not deep enough,.

  9. Phytochemical and Pharmacological Properties of the Genus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Melodinus is an important genus comprising of approximately 53 species of medicinal plants (Apocynaceae). Some species have been used in Chinese folk medicine for the treatment of meningitis in children, rheumatic heart diseases, and diuresis, as well as a decongestive against migraine and sinusitis. This paper is a ...

  10. The genus Kochia (Chenopodiaceae) in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge-Lin Chu; Stewart Sanderson

    2008-01-01

    The genus Kochia and Bassia with which it has been combined, of Chenopodiaceae tribe Camphorosmeae, were at one time considered to include plants native to Eurasia, Australia, and North America, and included species of both C3 and C4 photosynthetic types. This aggregate has been reduced in size by removal of a large group of C3 Australian genera and species. Because of...

  11. A study in the genus Vulpia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrard, J.Th.

    1937-01-01

    In conclusion, we propose the following nomenclatural alterations. For a good classification, the genus Vulpia is to be accepted as a member of the Festuceae. Various names of Vulpia are fixed according to our present rules of nomenclature, viz. V. bromoides (L.) GRAY, V. membranacea (L.) LINK, V.

  12. The genus Gymnospermium (Berberidaceae) in the Balkans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Shuka, Lulezim; Siljak-Yakovlev, Sonja

    2011-01-01

    A revision of the genus Gymnospermium (Berberidaceae) in the Balkan Peninsula is carried out. Three species are recognised. Gymnospermium maloi is described as a new species from Mt. Picari in Gjirokastra district, southern Albania. It is compared with the closely related G. scipetarum which has...

  13. Polyphasic taxonomy of the genus Talaromyces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yilmaz, N.; Visagie, C.M.; Houbraken, J.

    2014-01-01

    The genus Talaromyces was described by Benjamin in 1955 as a sexual state of Penicillium that produces soft walled ascomata covered with interwoven hyphae. Phylogenetic information revealed that Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium and Talaromyces form a monophyletic clade distinct from the other...

  14. Interspecific hybridization in the genus Tulipa L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creij, van M.G.M.

    1997-01-01

    The genus Tulipa L. comprises about 55 species. The tulip species are classified in two subgenera, Tulipa and Eriostemones, which are subdivided into five and three sections respectively. Commercial tulips are mainly cultivars

  15. Studies on the Genus Orbitolina (Foraminiferida)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofker, J.

    1963-01-01

    The genus Orbitolina is described in detail and is shown to be represented by one species only: Orbitolina lenticularis (Blumenbach). This species can be subdivided into form-groups, based on the characteristics of the megalospheric embryonic apparatus. The evolution of the species is orthogenetic.

  16. Sarawakodendron, a new genus of Celastraceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Ding

    1967-01-01

    During my trip to Malaysia in 1966, sponsored by the Netherlands Foundation for the Advancement of Tropical Research (WOTRO), for doing field work on Anacardiaceae, a new tree genus was found in Sarawak belonging to the family Celastraceae which I have revised for the Flora Malesiana series I,

  17. The genus Lophopyxis Hook. f. (Lophopyxidaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleumer, H.

    1968-01-01

    When revising the Icacinaceae from SE. Asia and Malesia recently, my interest was drawn again to the genus Lophopyxis Hook. f. Designated by its author (1887) tentatively as a member of the Euphorbiaceae, it was rejected from this family by Pax as early as 1890. Engler (1893) transferred Lophopyxis

  18. A conspectus of the genus Bhesa (Celastraceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Ding

    1958-01-01

    In his Numerical List Wallich inserted four specific epithets in the genus Kurrimia, viz 4334 K. pulcherrima Wall., 4335 K. calophylla Wall., 4336 K. paniculata Wall., and later 7200 K.? macrophylla Wall. The latter one was provided with a question mark; it was a new combination for Itea macrophylla

  19. The Mesozoic megafossil genus Linguifolium Arber 1917

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pattemore Gary A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The plant megafossil genus Linguifolium Arber 1917 is chiefly known from the Middle and Upper Triassic of Gondwana. The range of Linguifolium extended beyond Gondwana by the Late Triassic, persisting there through the earliest Jurassic (Hettangian. The parent plants probably grew in a well-watered, canopied environment.

  20. The Genus Diporochaeta (Oligochaeta Megascolecidae) in Queensland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamieson, B.G.M.

    1976-01-01

    Perionychella is reassigned to Diporochaeta as a junior synonym. 9 new species are added to the 8 previously known Queensland species of Diporochaeta, all of which are redescribed, bringing the generic total for Australia to 77 named species. Distribution of the genus is disjunct, the Queensland

  1. On the genus Galidia and its species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jentink, F.A.

    1879-01-01

    In the year 1839 Is. Geoff. St. Hilaire ¹) described and figured three species of his new genus Galidia, viz: elegans, concolor and olivacea, all natives of Madagascar. It seems that Galidia olivacea has not been captured by the travellers who visited Madagascar after Bernier and Goudot: the only

  2. Difilobotriosis humana: Un caso en área no endémica de la Argentina Human diphyllobothriosis: A case in a non-endemic area of Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego E. Cargnelutti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available La difilobotriosis es una parasitosis intestinal causada por la infección de cestodos del genero Diphyllobothrium. En la Argentina, la Patagonia Andina es considerada una zona endémica para esta parasitosis. La infección por Diphyllobothrium latum no ha sido previamente notificada en la provincia de Mendoza; en este trabajo comunicamos un caso de esta parasitosis que fue confirmada por el análisis de las características morfológicas de los huevos eliminados con la materia fecal de un paciente infectado. Se destaca la necesidad de información y capacitación de los profesionales de la salud en el diagnóstico y tratamiento de parasitosis no endémicas.Diphyllobothriosis is an intestinal parasitosis caused by cestodes infection of the genus Diphyllobothrium. In Argentina, the Andean Patagonia is considered an endemic area for this parasitosis. Diphyllobothrium latum infection has not been previously reported in the province of Mendoza, Argentina. We are now reporting then the first case. Diphyllobothriosis was confirmed by examination of morphologic characteristics of the eggs eliminated in the patients' feces. These results suggest the requirement of a more specific training of health workers in the diagnosis and treatment of non endemic parasitosis. We want to emphasize the need of health workers' education on diagnosis and treatment of endemic and non-endemic parasitosis.

  3. A striking new genus and species of troglobitic Campodeidae (Diplura from Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Sendra

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A striking new genus and species of Campodeidae (Diplura, Turkmenocampa mirabilis Sendra & Stoev, gen.n., sp.n., found in Kaptarhana cave in Eastern Turkmenistan is described. This represents the first record of Diplura from Central Asia and also the first terrestrial troglobiont found in Turkmenistan. The new taxon shows several unique characters such as the lack of crests on the telotarsus, the presence of a side-shoot process and the shape of barbs on the ventral side of the laminar telotarsal processes hitherto unknown in other members of this family. Although T. mirabilis is tentatively placed in the subfamily Plusiocampinae, its true affinities remain uncertain. The new finding provides further support to the importance of Kaptarhana as a refuge for a number of endemic invertebrates.

  4. Endemic infrared divergences in QED3 at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, Pok Man; Swanson, Eric S.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that massless QED in three dimensions contains endemic infrared divergences. It is argued that these divergences do not affect observables; furthermore, it is possible to choose a gauge that renders the theory finite.

  5. Chlamydia trachomatis serovars of endemic trachoma had been ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... The serovars that we identified from Japanese infants and pregnant women ... Once Japan was thought to be belong to an endemic area of trachoma as other Asian countries.

  6. The dynamics of endemic malaria in populations of varying size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngwa, G.A.

    2001-10-01

    A mathematical model for endemic malaria involving variable human and mosquito populations is analysed. A threshold parameter R 0 exists and the disease can persist if and only if R 0 exceeds 1. R 0 is seen to be a generalisation of the basic reproduction ratio associated with the Ross-Macdonald model for malaria transmission. The disease free equilibrium always exist and is globally stable when R 0 is below 1. A perturbation analysis is used to approximate the endemic equilibrium in the important case where the disease related death rate is nonzero. A diffusion approximation is used to approximate the quasi-stationary distribution of the associated stochastic model. Numerical simulations show that when R 0 is distinctly greater than 1, the endemic deterministic equilibrium is globally stable. Furthermore, in quasi-stationarity, the stochastic process undergoes oscillations about a mean population whose size can be approximated by the stable endemic deterministic equilibrium. (author)

  7. Spatial distribution of Madeira Island Laurisilva endemic spiders (Arachnida: Araneae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Madeira island presents a unique spider diversity with a high number of endemic species, many of which are still poorly known. A recent biodiversity survey on the terrestrial arthropods of the native forest, Laurisilva, provided a large set of standardized samples from various patches throughout the island. Out of the fifty two species recorded, approximately 33.3% are Madeiran endemics, many of which had not been collected since their original description. Two new species to science are reported – Ceratinopsis n. sp. and Theridion n. sp. – and the first records of Poeciloneta variegata (Blackwall, 1841) and Tetragnatha intermedia Kulczynski, 1891 are reported for the first time for Madeira island. Considerations on species richness and abundance from different Laurisilva locations are presented, together with distribution maps for endemic species. These results contribute to a better understanding of spider diversity patterns and endemic species distribution in the native forest of Madeira island. PMID:24855443

  8. An Investigation on the antimicrobial activity of some endemic plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-01-04

    Jan 4, 2008 ... Key words: Antimicrobial activity, endemic plants, plant extract. INTRODUCTION ..... The essential oil of A. balsamea was found to be inactive against E. ... Origanum solymicum and Origanum bilgeri from Turkey. Afr. J. Trad.

  9. isoenzyme analysis of five endemic and one widespread kniphofia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    ISOENZYME ANALYSIS OF FIVE ENDEMIC AND ONE WIDESPREAD ... plants. The over all mean inbreeding coefficient (F) was positive indicating slight deficiency in the number of ...... populations, indicates rather recent speciation.

  10. A world malaria map: Plasmodium falciparum endemicity in 2007.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon I Hay

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Efficient allocation of resources to intervene against malaria requires a detailed understanding of the contemporary spatial distribution of malaria risk. It is exactly 40 y since the last global map of malaria endemicity was published. This paper describes the generation of a new world map of Plasmodium falciparum malaria endemicity for the year 2007.A total of 8,938 P. falciparum parasite rate (PfPR surveys were identified using a variety of exhaustive search strategies. Of these, 7,953 passed strict data fidelity tests for inclusion into a global database of PfPR data, age-standardized to 2-10 y for endemicity mapping. A model-based geostatistical procedure was used to create a continuous surface of malaria endemicity within previously defined stable spatial limits of P. falciparum transmission. These procedures were implemented within a Bayesian statistical framework so that the uncertainty of these predictions could be evaluated robustly. The uncertainty was expressed as the probability of predicting correctly one of three endemicity classes; previously stratified to be an informative guide for malaria control. Population at risk estimates, adjusted for the transmission modifying effects of urbanization in Africa, were then derived with reference to human population surfaces in 2007. Of the 1.38 billion people at risk of stable P. falciparum malaria, 0.69 billion were found in Central and South East Asia (CSE Asia, 0.66 billion in Africa, Yemen, and Saudi Arabia (Africa+, and 0.04 billion in the Americas. All those exposed to stable risk in the Americas were in the lowest endemicity class (PfPR2-10 5 to or = 40% areas. High endemicity was widespread in the Africa+ region, where 0.35 billion people are at this level of risk. Most of the rest live at intermediate risk (0.20 billion, with a smaller number (0.11 billion at low stable risk.High levels of P. falciparum malaria endemicity are common in Africa. Uniformly low endemic levels are

  11. A world malaria map: Plasmodium falciparum endemicity in 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Simon I; Guerra, Carlos A; Gething, Peter W; Patil, Anand P; Tatem, Andrew J; Noor, Abdisalan M; Kabaria, Caroline W; Manh, Bui H; Elyazar, Iqbal R F; Brooker, Simon; Smith, David L; Moyeed, Rana A; Snow, Robert W

    2009-03-24

    Efficient allocation of resources to intervene against malaria requires a detailed understanding of the contemporary spatial distribution of malaria risk. It is exactly 40 y since the last global map of malaria endemicity was published. This paper describes the generation of a new world map of Plasmodium falciparum malaria endemicity for the year 2007. A total of 8,938 P. falciparum parasite rate (PfPR) surveys were identified using a variety of exhaustive search strategies. Of these, 7,953 passed strict data fidelity tests for inclusion into a global database of PfPR data, age-standardized to 2-10 y for endemicity mapping. A model-based geostatistical procedure was used to create a continuous surface of malaria endemicity within previously defined stable spatial limits of P. falciparum transmission. These procedures were implemented within a Bayesian statistical framework so that the uncertainty of these predictions could be evaluated robustly. The uncertainty was expressed as the probability of predicting correctly one of three endemicity classes; previously stratified to be an informative guide for malaria control. Population at risk estimates, adjusted for the transmission modifying effects of urbanization in Africa, were then derived with reference to human population surfaces in 2007. Of the 1.38 billion people at risk of stable P. falciparum malaria, 0.69 billion were found in Central and South East Asia (CSE Asia), 0.66 billion in Africa, Yemen, and Saudi Arabia (Africa+), and 0.04 billion in the Americas. All those exposed to stable risk in the Americas were in the lowest endemicity class (PfPR2-10 5 to or = 40%) areas. High endemicity was widespread in the Africa+ region, where 0.35 billion people are at this level of risk. Most of the rest live at intermediate risk (0.20 billion), with a smaller number (0.11 billion) at low stable risk. High levels of P. falciparum malaria endemicity are common in Africa. Uniformly low endemic levels are found in the

  12. The phyletic status of the genus Planaria (Platyhelminthes, Turbellaria, Tricladida)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ball, Ian R.; Gourbault, Nicole

    1978-01-01

    The amphiatlantic distribution of the genus Planaria is incompatible with our current hypothesis of the historical biogeography of freshwater planarians. New anatomical studies suggest the possibility that the genus is not strictly monophyletic; new karyological data are strongly corroborative of

  13. A preliminary survey of the genus Buchwaldoboletus (Boletales: Boletaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatriz Ortiz-Santana; Ernst E. Both

    2011-01-01

    Buchwaldoboletus is a small genus of about a dozen species with a world-wide distribution. The boletes of this genus are non-mycorrhizal, saprophytic and lignicolous. A preliminary survey is provided and seven new combinations are proposed.

  14. Endangered, rare and endemic medicinal plants of the Kopetdag

    OpenAIRE

    AKMURADOV ALLAMURAD; SHAIYMOV BABAGULY; HALMEDOV BAZAR; YAKUBOV ATABEG; HALLIYEVA GULYAIYM

    2016-01-01

    The article presents some information of the place of growing of the endangered, rare and endemic medicinal plants of the Kopetdag. A monitoring has been carried out and the bioecological peculiarities, resource characteristics and modern state of the natural population of the most important species have been studied. Some scientifically based ways of protection and introduction into culture have been worked out to preserve the endangered, rare and endemic medicinal plants of the region.

  15. Selective advantage of ray florets in Scalesia affinis and S. pedunculata (Asteraceae), two endemic species from the Galápagos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene Rostgaard; Philipp, Marianne; Siegismund, Hans R.

    2002-01-01

    The presence of neuter ray florets in species within Asteraceae is generally believed to increase pollinator attraction. In the endemic Galápagos genus Scalesia (Asteraceae) a natural variation in the presence/absence of neuter ray florets is found. To evaluate whether the presence of ray florets...... plays a selective role on female reproductive success we chose two species of Scalesia, Scalesia affinis that carries ray florets and S. pedunculata that is rayless. On Santa Cruz Island capitula of S. pedunculata were equipped with fake ray florets while others were untouched. On Isabela Island ray...

  16. Redescription, distribution and status of the Karwar Large Burrowing Spider Thrigmopoeus truculent us Pocock, 1899 (Araneae: Theraphosidae, a Western Ghats endemic ground mygalomorph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Siliwal

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The genus Thrigmopoeus is endemic to the Western Ghats of India, and is so far represented by two species: Thrigmopoeus truculentus Pocock, 1899 and T. insignis Pocock, 1899. The distribution of T. truculentus was considered to be restricted to its type locality until a few populations were identified in other places. In this paper we provide detail morphometry and characters used in modern-day taxonomy to redescribe the female of T. truculentus, with additional notes on its distribution, range extension, burrow and habitat.

  17. Revisions and key to the Vernonieae (Compositae) of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunwong, Sukhonthip; Chantaranothai, Pranom; Keeley, Sterling C.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Seventeen genera and 48 species, in five subtribes, are recognized in Thailand. These include 15 endemic taxa, half of which are in the largest genus, Acilepis, with others in the genera Camchaya, Koyamasia, and Okia. A new monotypic genus, Pulicarioidea, is established with P. annamica, the new name for the species formerly known as Vernonia pulicarioides. New combinations are also made for Acilepis kerrii, Cyanthillium montanum, Koyamasia curtisii and Okia pseudobirmanica. Forty-six characters including habit, leaf, flower, achene and pollen morphology were analyzed using UPGMA. Five clusters of taxa were identified. Keys to genera, species and varieties, descriptions, vernacular names, ecological data and illustrations are provided. PMID:24843297

  18. Endemic harvestmen and spiders of Austria (Arachnida: Opiliones, Araneae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komposch, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive overview of plant, fungus and animal species of Austria revealed a total of 748 endemic and subendemic species, including, 11 harvestman and 46 spider species. Altogether two endemic harvestmen (Nemastoma bidentatum relictum, Nemastoma schuelleri and 8 endemic spiders (Abacoproeces molestus, Collinsia (caliginosa nemenziana, Mughiphantes severus, Mughiphantes styriacus, Pelecopsis alpica, Scotophaeus nanus, Troglohyphantes novicordis, Troglohyphantes tauriscus, beside 9 subendemic harvestman and 38 subendemic spider species have been recorded from Austria. Hot-spots of endemism in the Eastern Alps are the north-eastern (Ennstaler Alps and southern Calcareous Alps (Karawanken, Karnische Alps and the Central Alps (Hohe Tauern, Gurktaler Alps, Ötztaler and Stubaier Alps. Most of the endemic arachnid species occur from the nival down to the montane zone. Important habitats are rocky areas, caves and woodlands. High absolute numbers and percentages of endemics can be found within the harvestman families Cladonychiidae, Ischyropsalididae and Nemastomatidae and in the spider genera Lepthyphantes s. l. and Troglohyphantes. The conservation status of these highly endangered taxa – 85 % of the spider species and 100 % of the harvestman taxa are endangered in Austria – is poor.

  19. Detection of new genetic variants of Betacoronaviruses in Endemic Frugivorous Bats of Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razanajatovo, Norosoa H; Nomenjanahary, Lalaina A; Wilkinson, David A; Razafimanahaka, Julie H; Goodman, Steven M; Jenkins, Richard K; Jones, Julia P G; Heraud, Jean-Michel

    2015-03-12

    Bats are amongst the natural reservoirs of many coronaviruses (CoVs) of which some can lead to severe infection in human. African bats are known to harbor a range of pathogens (e.g., Ebola and Marburg viruses) that can infect humans and cause disease outbreaks. A recent study in South Africa isolated a genetic variant closely related to MERS-CoV from an insectivorous bat. Though Madagascar is home to 44 bat species (41 insectivorous and 3 frugivorous) of which 34 are endemic, no data exists concerning the circulation of CoVs in the island's chiropteran fauna. Certain Malagasy bats can be frequently found in close contact with humans and frugivorous bats feed in the same trees where people collect and consume fruits and are hunted and consumed as bush meat. The purpose of our study is to detect and identify CoVs from frugivorous bats in Madagascar to evaluate the risk of human infection from infected bats. Frugivorous bats belonging to three species were captured in four different regions of Madagascar. We analyzed fecal and throat swabs to detect the presence of virus through amplification of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene, which is highly conserved in all known coronaviruses. Phylogenetic analyses were performed from positive specimens. From 351 frugivorous bats, we detected 14 coronaviruses from two endemic bats species, of which 13 viruses were identified from Pteropus rufus and one from Eidolon dupreanum, giving an overall prevalence of 4.5%. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the Malagasy strains belong to the genus Betacoronavirus but form three distinct clusters, which seem to represent previously undescribed genetic lineages. Our findings suggest that CoVs circulate in frugivorous bats of Madagascar, demonstrating the needs to evaluate spillover risk to human populations especially for individuals that hunt and consume infected bats. Possible dispersal mechanisms as to how coronaviruses arrived on Madagascar are discussed.

  20. Investigating the pollination syndrome of the Hawaiian lobeliad genus Clermontia (Campanulaceae) using floral nectar traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pender, Richard J; Morden, Clifford W; Paull, Robert E

    2014-01-01

    Floral nectar sugar compositions have, for several decades, been used to predict a plant species' pollinator guild. Plants possessing a generalist ornithophilous pollination syndrome produce nectar that is dilute (8-12% w/v sugars) with a low sucrose to hexose (glucose and fructose) ratio. The Hawaiian lobeliad genus Clermontia contains 22 endemic species of shrubs and small trees that are believed to have evolved flowers adapted for pollination by now mostly extinct or endangered endemic passerines in the Drepanidinae and Mohoidae. We analyzed the nectar sugar compositions, concentration, and nectar standing crop of 23 taxa to test the assumption that Clermontia taxa have evolved floral traits in response to selection pressures from these avian pollinators. All Clermontia taxa produced nectar with sugar concentrations (mean: 9.2% w/v ± 1.8 SD) comparable to the nectar of other plant species with a generalized bird pollination system. Nectar sugars were overwhelmingly composed of hexoses in all taxa (mean sucrose/hexose ratio: 0.02 ± 0.02). Nectar standing crop volumes varied widely among taxa, ranging from 9.7 µL ± 7.1 to 430.5 µL ± 401.8 (mean volume: 177.8 ± 112.0). Collectively, the nectar traits indicate that Clermontia species possess a generalist passerine pollination syndrome.

  1. Multiple independent colonization of the Canary Islands by the winged grasshopper genus Sphingonotus Fieber, 1852.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husemann, Martin; Deppermann, Jana; Hochkirch, Axel

    2014-12-01

    Volcanic archipelagos represent ideal systems to study processes of colonization, differentiation and speciation. The Canary Islands are one of the best studied archipelagos, being composed of seven main islands with a well-known geological history. Most taxa have colonized these islands stepwise from the African or Iberian mainland from east to west, following their geological origin as well as the predominating wind direction and ocean currents. Furthermore, within-island radiations have been reported for several taxa. The grasshopper genus Sphingonotus is species-rich and occurs with nine fully winged species on the Canary Islands, seven of which are endemic to single or few islands. We inferred a phylogeny of these species and their North African and Iberian relatives based upon sequences of three mitochondrial genes and one nuclear gene of 136 specimens. Surprisingly, our results suggest that almost all Sphingonotus species colonized the archipelago independently from the mainland and nearly no inter-island colonization occurred. Despite their strong flight capabilities, only one pair of endemic species are closely related (S. sublaevis from Gran Canary and S. pachecoi from Lanzarote). Moreover, no within-island speciation events were detected. We hypothesize that passive wind dispersal from the African mainland was the main driver of the colonization process and that most Sphingonotus species are not able to cover inter-island distances by active flight. This, together with strong intrageneric niche overlap might explain the lack of within-island speciation in this taxon. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A review of the genus Oosternum Sharp of the West Indies (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae: Sphaeridiinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Deler-Hernández

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The representatives of the genus Oosternum Sharp, 1882 occurring in the West Indies are revised. Ten species are recorded, of which seven are here described as new: Oosternum andersoni sp. n. (Cuba, O. bacharenge sp. n. (Dominican Republic, O. cercyonoides sp. n. (Jamaica, O. insulare sp. n. (Jamaica, O. luciae sp. n. (Saint Lucia, O. megnai sp. n. (Cuba and O. pecki sp. n. (Dominican Republic. Diagnoses and detailed distributional data are also provided for O. sharpi Hansen, 1999 (widespread throughout both Greater and Lesser Antilles, O. latum Fikáček, Hebauer & Hansen, 2009 (endemic to St. Vincent and an undescribed species from the Bahamas. A key to the West Indian Oosternum is provided and important diagnostic characters are illustrated. The West Indian fauna of Oosternum contains representatives of five different species groups and likely originated by multiple independent colonizations from the American continent. Within the study region, the highest diversity is known from the Greater Antilles, where two endemic species each in Cuba, Jamaica, and Hispaniola. The populations of O. sharpi were found to consist exclusively of females on all islands with the exception Puerto Rico.

  3. Modular functors are determined by their genus zero data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Ueno, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    We prove in this paper that the genus zero data of a modular functor determines the modular functor. We do this by establishing that the S-matrix in genus one with one point labeled arbitrarily can be expressed in terms of the genus zero information and we give an explicit formula. We do not assume...

  4. Topological classification and enumeration of RNA structures by genus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Joergen Ellegard; Penner, Robert C.; Reidys, Christian

    2013-01-01

    To an RNA pseudoknot structure is naturally associated a topological surface, which has its associated genus, and structures can thus be classified by the genus. Based on earlier work of Harer-Zagier, we compute the generating function for the number of those structures of fixed genus and minimum...

  5. A Comprehensive review on the genus Plumbago with focus on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The genus Plumbago distributed in warm tropical regions throughout the world is the largest genus in Plumbaginaceae. Medicinal plants are characteristic to the genus Plumbago and are cultivated and utilized worldwide. Plumbago auriculata Lam. is common in South Africa and is often cultivated for its ...

  6. Notes on the genus Digitaria, with descriptions of new species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrard, J.Th.

    1934-01-01

    Some years ago I had the opportunity to study more extensively a very interesting group of grasses, belonging to what is now accepted as a distinct genus, the genus Digitaria, formerly belonging as a subgenus to the genus Panicum. As to living plants of this group I was familiar with two european

  7. A new name for the foraminiferal genus Heterospira

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Umbgrove, J.H.F.

    1937-01-01

    A short time ago I described a new foraminiferal genus from the Tertiary of Borneo 1). I gave this genus the name of Heterospira. Mr. P. H. Oehser of Washington drew my attention to the fact that E. Koken as early as 1896²) had used the name Heterospira for a genus of triassic gastropoda from

  8. Are Iberian endemics Iberian? A case-study using water beetles of family Dytiscidae (Coleoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribera, Ignacio

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The phylogenetic relationships and the geographical origin of 27 of the 34 species and of 3 of the 9 subspecies of Iberian endemic Dytiscidae are studied, based on species level phylogenies constructed with two mitochondrial gene fragments (16S rRNA and Cytochrome Oxidase I. All Iberian endemic species for which more than one specimen was included were monophyletic with the exception of the complex Deronectes aubei sanfilippoi Fery & Brancucci, 1997-D. delarouzei (Jac. Du Val, 1857. The genus Stictotarsus as presently defined is polyphyletic, containing three different lineages: the S. duodecimpustulatus group —including the Iberian endemic S. bertrandi (Legros, 1956—, Trichonectes otini (Guignot, 1941 (new combination and the S. griseostriatus and S. roffii groups, which are in need of a new generic name. The genus Oreodytes is found to be paraphyletic, although with low bootstrap support. The species Nebrioporus (Nebrioporus martinii (Fairmaire, 1858 (new combination is transferred from the subgenus Zimmermannius to Nebrioporus. The Iberian populations of Stictotarsus griseostriatus (De Geer, 1774 and the endemic subspecies Oreodytes davisii rhianae Carr, 2001, O. sanmarkii alienus (Sharp, 1872 and Hydroporus normandi normandi Régimbart, 1903 do not form well characterised lineages, as measured with the mitochondrial markers used in this study. The Iberian endemic species of Dytiscidae are divided in three groups according to the type of vicariant origin: 1 within-Iberian species, when the sister species (or clade of the Iberian endemic is also and Iberian endemic; 2 Iberian/European, when the sister occurs in Europe north of the Pyrenees; and 3 Iberian/North African, when the sister occurs in North Africa. Within-Iberian endemics are found to be on average older than Iberian/European and Iberian/North African species, they have

  9. Phylogenetic relationships and cryptic species diversity in the Brazilian egg-brooding tree frog, genus Fritziana Mello-Leitão 1937 (Anura: Hemiphractidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Marina; Lyra, Mariana L; Haddad, Célio F B

    2018-06-01

    The genus Fritziana (Anura: Hemiphractidae) comprises six described species (F. goeldii, F. ohausi, F. fissilis, F. ulei, F. tonimi, and F. izecksohni) that are endemic to the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Although the genus has been the subject of studies dealing with its taxonomy, phylogeny, and systematics, there is considerable evidence for cryptic diversity hidden among the species. The present study aims to understand the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships among the species of Fritziana, as well as the relationships among populations within species. We analyzed 107 individuals throughout the distribution of the genus using three mitochondrial gene fragments (12S, 16S, and COI) and two nuclear genes (RAG1 and SLC8A3). Our data indicated that the species diversity in the genus Fritziana is underestimated by the existence of at least three candidate species hidden amongst the group of species with a closed dorsal pouch (i.e. F. fissilis and F. ulei). We also found four species presenting geographical population structures and high genetic diversity, and thus require further investigations. In addition, we found that two candidate species show a new arrangement for the tRNA-Phe gene, unique in Anura so far. Based on our results, we suggest that the conservation status of the species, as well as the species diversity in the genus Fritziana, needs to be reviewed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Biogeography of Coptis Salisb. (Ranunculales, Ranunculaceae, Coptidoideae), an Eastern Asian and North American genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Kun-Li; Erst, Andrey S; Xiang, Xiao-Guo; Jabbour, Florian; Wang, Wei

    2018-05-24

    Numerous studies have favored dispersal (colonization) over vicariance (past fragmentation) events to explain eastern Asian-North American distribution patterns. In plants, however the disjunction between eastern Asia and western North America has been rarely examined using the integration of phylogenetic, molecular dating, and biogeographical methods. Meanwhile, the biogeographic patterns within eastern Asia remain poorly understood. The goldthread genus Coptis Salisb. includes 15 species disjunctly distributed in North America, Japan, mainland China, and Taiwan. We present a dated phylogeny for Coptis under the optimal clock model and infer its historical biogeography by comparing different biogeographic models. The split of Coptis and Xanthorhiza Marshall occurred in the middle Miocene (ca. 15.47 Ma). Coptis started their diversification in the early late Miocene (ca. 9.55 Ma). A late Miocene vicariance event resulted in the eastern Asian and western North American disjunction in the genus. Within eastern Asia, dispersals from mainland Asia to Japan and from Japan to Taiwan occurred at ca. 4.85 Ma and at ca. 1.34 Ma, respectively. Our analyses provide evidence that both vicariance and dispersal events have played important roles in shaping the current distribution and endemism of Coptis, likely resulting from eustatic sea-level changes, mountain formation processes and an increasing drier and cooler climate from the middle Miocene onwards.

  11. A need to define characteristics to be used in the taxonomy of the expanding pestivirus genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridpath, Julia F

    2013-01-01

    The relatively high rate of genetic drift observed with pestiviruses results not only in the emergence of new species but also in heterogeneity within recognized species. The grouping of pestiviruses into species was first based on host and to a lesser extent on clinical presentation, then later by antigenic comparisons and more recently genetic comparisons. Subgrouping within species is a more recent taxonomic development and has been based primarily on genetic comparisons. While there are a number of publications proposing new species within the Pestivirus genus or new subgroups within recognized pestivirus species, there is no consensus on the criteria required to declare a new species and subgroup. Defining the criteria used for segregation of species and subgroups within a species is important because differentiating viral species and subspecies and determining the regions in which they are endemic has profound implications for eradication efforts, the design of vaccines and for regulation of trade in livestock and animal derived products, such as fetal bovine serum. This review outlines criteria used for differentiating species within the different genera of the Flaviviridae, compares criteria previously used for differentiating pestiviruses and discusses the need for the development of a unified system for defining species and subgroups within the Pestivirus genus.

  12. A holomorphic anomaly in the elliptic genus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, Sameer

    2014-01-01

    We consider a class of gauged linear sigma models (GLSMs) in two dimensions that flow to non-compact (2,2) superconformal field theories in the infra-red, a prototype of which is the SL(2,ℝ)/U(1) (cigar) coset. We compute the elliptic genus of the GLSMs as a path-integral on the torus using supersymmetric localization. We find that the result is a Jacobi-like form that is non-holomorphic in the modular parameter τ of the torus, with mock modular behavior. This agrees with a previously-computed expression in the cigar coset. We show that the lack of holomorphicity of the elliptic genus arises from the contributions of a compact boson carrying momentum and winding excitations. This boson has an axionic shift symmetry and plays the role of a compensator field that is needed to cancel the chiral anomaly in the rest of the theory.

  13. Phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Gliocephalotrichum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, L; Serrato-Diaz, L M; Cheewangkoon, R; French-Monar, R D; Decock, C; Crous, P W

    2014-06-01

    Species in the genus Gliocephalotrichum (= Leuconectria) (Hypocreales, Nectriaceae) are soilborne fungi, associated with post-harvest fruit spoilage of several important tropical fruit crops. Contemporary taxonomic studies of these fungi have relied on morphology and DNA sequence comparisons of the internal transcribed spacer region of the nuclear rDNA (ITS) and the β-tubulin gene regions. Employing DNA sequence data from four loci (β-tubulin, histone H3, ITS, and translation elongation factor 1-alpha) and morphological comparisons, the taxonomic status of the genus Gliocephalotrichum was re-evaluated. As a result five species are newly described, namely G. humicola (Taiwan, soil), G. mexicanum (rambutan fruit from Mexico), G. nephelii (rambutan fruit from Guatemala), G. queenslandicum (Australia, endophytic isolations) and G. simmonsii (rambutan fruit from Guatemala). Although species of Gliocephalotrichum are generally not regarded as important plant pathogens, their ability to cause post-harvest fruit rot could have an impact on fruit export and storage.

  14. Sexual Communication in the Drosophila Genus

    OpenAIRE

    Gwénaëlle Bontonou; Claude Wicker-Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In insects, sexual behavior depends on chemical and non-chemical cues that might play an important role in sexual isolation. In this review, we present current knowledge about sexual behavior in the Drosophila genus. We describe courtship and signals involved in sexual communication, with a special focus on sex pheromones. We examine the role of cuticular hydrocarbons as sex pheromones, their implication in sexual isolation, and their evolution. Finally, we discuss the roles of male cuticular...

  15. The genus Artemisia: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Kundan Singh; Sharma, Anupam

    2011-01-01

    Medicinal plants are nature's gift to human beings to make disease free healthy life, and play a vital role to preserve our health. They are believed to be much safer and proven elixir in the treatment of various ailments. The genus Artemisia (Astraceae) consists of about 500 species, occurring throughout the world. The present review comprises the ethnopharmacological, phytochemical and therapeutic potential of various species of Artemisia. The aim of this this review is to bring together most of the available scientific research conducted on the genus Artemisia, which is currently scattered across various publications. Through this review the authors hope to attract the attention of natural product researchers throughout the world to focus on the unexplored potential of Artemisia species. This review has been compiled using references from major databases such as Chemical Abstracts, Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Abstracts, ScienceDirect, SciFinder, PubMed, King's American Dispensatory, Henriette's Herbal Homepage, Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. An exhaustive survey of literature revealed that the different species of Artemisia have a vast range of biological activities including antimalarial, cytotoxic, antihepatotoxic, antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activity. Some very important drug leads have been discovered from this genus, notably artemisinin, the well known antimalarial drug isolated from the Chinese herb Artemisia annua. Terpenoids, flavonoids, coumarins, caffeoylquinic acids, sterols and acetylenes constitute major classes of phytoconstituents of the genus. Various species of Artemisia seems to hold great potential for in-depth investigation for various biological activities, especially their effects on the central nervous and cardiovascular systems.

  16. Wild translation surfaces and infinite genus

    OpenAIRE

    Randecker, Anja

    2014-01-01

    The Gauss-Bonnet formula for classical translation surfaces relates the cone angle of the singularities (geometry) to the genus of the surface (topology). When considering more general translation surfaces, we observe so-called wild singularities for which the notion of cone angle is not applicable any more. In this article, we study whether there still exist relations between the geometry and the topology for translation surfaces with wild singularities. By considering short saddle connectio...

  17. Complete chloroplast genome of Prunus yedoensis Matsum.(Rosaceae), wild and endemic flowering cherry on Jeju Island, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Myong-Suk; Hyun Cho, Chung; Yeon Kim, Su; Su Yoon, Hwan; Kim, Seung-Chul

    2016-09-01

    The complete chloroplast genome sequences of the wild flowering cherry, Prunus yedoensis Matsum., which is native and endemic to Jeju Island, Korea, is reported in this study. The genome size is 157 786 bp in length with 36.7% GC content, which is composed of LSC region of 85 908 bp, SSC region of 19 120 bp and two IR copies of 26 379 bp each. The cp genome contains 131 genes, including 86 coding genes, 8 rRNA genes and 37 tRNA genes. The maximum likelihood analysis was conducted to verify a phylogenetic position of the newly sequenced cp genome of P. yedoensis using 11 representatives of complete cp genome sequences within the family Rosaceae. The genus Prunus exhibited monophyly and the result of the phylogenetic relationship agreed with the previous phylogenetic analyses within Rosaceae.

  18. A new species of Dactylogyrus (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) parasitic on an endangered freshwater fish, Rhodeus atremius atremius, endemic to Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, Masato; Nagasawa, Kazuya

    2016-10-01

    A new dactylogyrid monogenean Dactylogyrus bicorniculus sp. nov. is described from the gills of the kazetoge bitterling, Rhodeus atremius atremius (Jordan and Thompson, 1914), an endemic species in Japan, from Saga Prefecture, northern Kyūshū. D. bicorniculus sp. nov. resembles Dactylogyrus bicornis Malevitskaja, 1941 and Dactylogyrus lophogonus Zhang and Ji, 1980 because they have two common features, a large V-shaped ventral bar and well-developed second marginal hooks. However, the new species is distinguished from these congeners by a shorter penis and an accessory piece. A phylogenetic analysis of 28S rDNA shows that D. bicorniculus sp. nov. is a basal species with the T-shaped ventral bar in the genus. The new species has strict host-specificity to R. a. atremius, one of the endangered freshwater fishes in Japan, and may face the danger of co-extinction with its host. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. FOLIAR ANATOMY OF ENDEMICS SPECIES OF Cattleya (ORCHIDACEAE ENDEMIC FROM GUIANA SHIELD

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    Graciene Tomaz Carneiro

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was characterize the leaf's anatomical aspects of Cattleya jenmanii Rolfe and e C. lawrenceana Rchb. f., describing its anatomical structures in order to increase the knowledge of this endemic species from the region of the Guiana Shield. Besides, it also intended to identify foliar characters to assist in the anatomical comparison of these species. For anatomical study, the material was fixed in FAA and to make the slides we used the usual cut freehand technique and stained with double staining from Safranin with Blue Astra (Safrablau. C. jenmanii and C. lawrenceana has fleshy leaves covered with a thick cuticle. The mesophyll presented dorsiventral with collateral vascular bundles. A large number of bundles of smaller caliber fibers are distributed in the mesophyll poles. Only the presence of a subepidermal layer of fibers differed C. lawrenceana from C. jenmanii. Keyword: Roraima; Guiana Shield; Cattleya; Amazon Basin.

  20. The pangenome of the genus Clostridium.

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    Udaondo, Zulema; Duque, Estrella; Ramos, Juan-Luis

    2017-07-01

    The pangenome for the genus Clostridium sensu stricto, which was obtained using highly curated and annotated genomes from 16 species is presented; some of these cause disease, while others are used for the production of added-value chemicals. Multilocus sequencing analysis revealed that species of this genus group into at least two clades that include non-pathogenic and pathogenic strains, suggesting that pathogenicity is dispersed across the phylogenetic tree. The core genome of the genus includes 546 protein families, which mainly comprise those involved in protein translation and DNA repair. The GS-GOGAT may represent the central pathway for generating organic nitrogen from inorganic nitrogen sources. Glycerol and glucose metabolism genes are well represented in the core genome together with a set of energy conservation systems. A metabolic network comprising proteins/enzymes, RNAs and metabolites, whose topological structure is a non-random and scale-free network with hierarchically structured modules was built. These modules shed light on the interactions between RNAs, proteins and metabolites, revealing biological features of transcription and translation, cell wall biosynthesis, C1 metabolism and N metabolism. Network analysis identified four nodes that function as hubs and bottlenecks, namely, coenzyme A, HPr kinases, S-adenosylmethionine and the ribonuclease P-protein, suggesting pivotal roles for them in Clostridium. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Biodegradation of chlorpyrifos by bacterial genus Pseudomonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilani, Razia Alam; Rafique, Mazhar; Rehman, Abdul; Munis, Muhammad Farooq Hussain; Rehman, Shafiq Ur; Chaudhary, Hassan Javed

    2016-02-01

    Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphorus pesticide commonly used in agriculture. It is noxious to a variety of organisms that include living soil biota along with beneficial arthropods, fish, birds, humans, animals, and plants. Exposure to chlorpyrifos may cause detrimental effects as delayed seedling emergence, fruit deformities, and abnormal cell division. Contamination of chlorpyrifos has been found about 24 km from the site of its application. There are many physico-chemical and biological approaches to remove organophosphorus pesticides from the ecosystem, among them most promising is biodegradation. The 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) and diethylthiophosphate (DETP) as primary products are made when chlorpyrifos is degraded by soil microorganisms which further break into nontoxic metabolites as CO(2), H(2)O, and NH(3). Pseudomonas is a diversified genus possessing a series of catabolic pathways and enzymes involved in pesticide degradation. Pseudomonas putida MAS-1 is reported to be more efficient in chlorpyrifos degradation by a rate of 90% in 24 h among Pseudomonas genus. The current review analyzed the comparative potential of bacterial species in Pseudomonas genus for degradation of chlorpyrifos thus, expressing an ecofriendly approach for the treatment of environmental contaminants like pesticides. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Standardized gene nomenclature for the Brassica genus

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    King Graham J

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The genus Brassica (Brassicaceae, Brassiceae is closely related to the model plant Arabidopsis, and includes several important crop plants. Against the background of ongoing genome sequencing, and in line with efforts to standardize and simplify description of genetic entities, we propose a standard systematic gene nomenclature system for the Brassica genus. This is based upon concatenating abbreviated categories, where these are listed in descending order of significance from left to right (i.e. genus – species – genome – gene name – locus – allele. Indicative examples are provided, and the considerations and recommendations for use are discussed, including outlining the relationship with functionally well-characterized Arabidopsis orthologues. A Brassica Gene Registry has been established under the auspices of the Multinational Brassica Genome Project that will enable management of gene names within the research community, and includes provisional allocation of standard names to genes previously described in the literature or in sequence repositories. The proposed standardization of Brassica gene nomenclature has been distributed to editors of plant and genetics journals and curators of sequence repositories, so that it can be adopted universally.

  3. Insights on the genus Acronymolpus Samuelson with new synonymies and exclusion of Stethotes Baly from the fauna of New Caledonia (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Eumolpinae

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    Jesús Gómez-Zurita

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, several taxonomic problems affecting the recently erected genus Acronymolpus Samuelson, 2015, endemic to New Caledonia, are addressed. Two of the three New Caledonian species described in Stethotes Baly are transferred to Acronymolpus and their priority is recognized over the names proposed in the revision of this genus. Moreover, different forms of Acronymolpus always found in sympatry, one reddish and larger, and the other black and smaller, were each given species status in that revision, but they are recognized here as the females and males, respectively, of the same species. The taxonomic summary of these discoveries is: (i A. bertiae (Jolivet, Verma & Mille, 2007, comb. n. = A. meteorus Samuelson, 2015, syn. n., and A. turbo Samuelson, 2015, syn. n.; and (ii A. jourdani (Jolivet, Verma & Mille, 2013, comb. n. = A. gressitti Samuelson, 2015, syn. n., and A. joliveti Samuelson, 2015, syn. n. New distribution data and the male genitalia and the spermatheca of the two valid species of Acronymolpus are described for the first time with reference to taxonomically important characters. Finally, the last New Caledonian species described in Stethotes is recognized here as a member of the endemic genus Taophila Heller: T. mandjeliae (Jolivet, Verma & Mille, 2010, comb. n.

  4. Insights on the genus Acronymolpus Samuelson with new synonymies and exclusion of Stethotes Baly from the fauna of New Caledonia (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Eumolpinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Zurita, Jesús

    2017-01-01

    In this work, several taxonomic problems affecting the recently erected genus Acronymolpus Samuelson, 2015, endemic to New Caledonia, are addressed. Two of the three New Caledonian species described in Stethotes Baly are transferred to Acronymolpus and their priority is recognized over the names proposed in the revision of this genus. Moreover, different forms of Acronymolpus always found in sympatry, one reddish and larger, and the other black and smaller, were each given species status in that revision, but they are recognized here as the females and males, respectively, of the same species. The taxonomic summary of these discoveries is: (i) A. bertiae (Jolivet, Verma & Mille, 2007), comb. n. = A. meteorus Samuelson, 2015, syn. n. , and A. turbo Samuelson, 2015, syn. n. ; and (ii) A. jourdani (Jolivet, Verma & Mille, 2013), comb. n. = A. gressitti Samuelson, 2015, syn. n. , and A. joliveti Samuelson, 2015, syn. n. New distribution data and the male genitalia and the spermatheca of the two valid species of Acronymolpus are described for the first time with reference to taxonomically important characters. Finally, the last New Caledonian species described in Stethotes is recognized here as a member of the endemic genus Taophila Heller: T. mandjeliae (Jolivet, Verma & Mille, 2010), comb. n.

  5. Genus Ranges of 4-Regular Rigid Vertex Graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Dorothy; Dolzhenko, Egor; Jonoska, Nataša; Saito, Masahico; Valencia, Karin

    2015-01-01

    A rigid vertex of a graph is one that has a prescribed cyclic order of its incident edges. We study orientable genus ranges of 4-regular rigid vertex graphs. The (orientable) genus range is a set of genera values over all orientable surfaces into which a graph is embedded cellularly, and the embeddings of rigid vertex graphs are required to preserve the prescribed cyclic order of incident edges at every vertex. The genus ranges of 4-regular rigid vertex graphs are sets of consecutive integers, and we address two questions: which intervals of integers appear as genus ranges of such graphs, and what types of graphs realize a given genus range. For graphs with 2 n vertices ( n > 1), we prove that all intervals [ a, b ] for all a genus ranges. For graphs with 2 n - 1 vertices ( n ≥ 1), we prove that all intervals [ a, b ] for all a genus ranges. We also provide constructions of graphs that realize these ranges.

  6. Kindia (Pavetteae, Rubiaceae, a new cliff-dwelling genus with chemically profiled colleter exudate from Mt Gangan, Republic of Guinea

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    Martin Cheek

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A new genus Kindia (Pavetteae, Rubiaceae is described with a single species, Kindia gangan, based on collections made in 2016 during botanical exploration of Mt Gangan, Kindia, Republic of Guinea in West Africa. The Mt Gangan area is known for its many endemic species including the only native non-neotropical Bromeliaceae Pitcairnia feliciana. Kindia is the fourth endemic vascular plant genus to be described from Guinea. Based on chloroplast sequence data, the genus is part of Clade II of tribe Pavetteae. In this clade, it is sister to Leptactina sensu lato (including Coleactina and Dictyandra. K. gangan is distinguished from Leptactina s.l. by the combination of the following characters: its epilithic habit; several-flowered axillary inflorescences; distinct calyx tube as long as the lobes; a infundibular-campanulate corolla tube with narrow proximal section widening abruptly to the broad distal section; presence of a dense hair band near base of the corolla tube; anthers and style deeply included, reaching about mid-height of the corolla tube; anthers lacking connective appendages and with sub-basal insertion; pollen type 1; pollen presenter (style head winged and glabrous (smooth and usually hairy in Leptactina; orange colleters producing a vivid red exudate, which encircle the hypanthium, and occur inside the calyx and stipules. Kindia is a subshrub that appears restricted to bare, vertical rock faces of sandstone. Fruit dispersal and pollination by bats is postulated. Here, it is assessed as Endangered EN D1 using the 2012 IUCN standard. High resolution LC-MS/MS analysis revealed over 40 triterpenoid compounds in the colleter exudate, including those assigned to the cycloartane class. Triterpenoids are of interest for their diverse chemical structures, varied biological activities, and potential therapeutic value.

  7. Palaeo island-affinities revisited--biogeography and systematics of the Indo-Pacific genus Cethosia Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, C J; Beheregaray, L B

    2010-10-01

    The Indo-Pacific is a very complex region encompassing several micro-continents with unique tectonic and geomorphologic histories. Unsurprisingly, the biogeographic history of Indo-Pacific biota is generally poorly known, especially that of organisms found in the heart of the region, the biodiversity hotspot known as Wallacea. Here, we explore the biogeographic history of the Indo-Pacific butterfly genus Cethosia using all known species and many distinctive subspecies. Cethosia butterflies span the Indo-Pacific tropics, including several lineages with localized endemism that are critically important when reconstructing biogeographic history of the Indo-Pacific and, in particular, of Wallacea. A phylogenetic hypothesis is proposed, based on sequences of the mitochondrial genes cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and NADH dehydrogenase 5 (ND5), and the nuclear wingless gene. Both Maximum Parsimony and Bayesian analyses showed that the genus is monophyletic and consistently recovered seven, generally very well supported, clades, namely the cydippe, leschenault, biblis, nietneri, hypsea, penthesilea and cyane clades. Species group relationships are largely concordant with general morphology (i.e., wing pattern and colouration) and, based on the phylogeny, we propose a revised systematic classification at the species level. The evolution of the genus appears associated with the inferred geological history of the region, in particular with respect to the expanding Wallacea theory, whereby ancient connected terranes were fragmented during the mid Miocene to early Pliocene, approximately 14-3 Mya. Recent diversification events in Cethosia were likely promoted by climatic fluctuations during the Pliocene and, to a lesser extent, the Pleistocene. Our results support the view that, while dispersal has been important for Cethosia throughout much of the region, the high levels of island endemism and the essentially allopatric radiations recovered in Cethosia in Wallacea are

  8. Comments on “A new species of genus Thomisus Walckenaer, 1805 (Araneae: Thomisidae from Telangana, India and a detailed description of Thomisus projectus Tikader, 1960” by Pravalikha & Srinivasulu, 2015

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    Siddharth Kulkarni

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Description of Thomisus telanganaensis Pravalikha & Srinivasulu, 2015 based on two females and their interpretation as intraspecific variation, are likely to be distinct Thomisus species. Further, the proposed endemicity of poorly studied species Thomisus projectus Tikader, 1960 in Pravalikha & Srinivasulu (2015 is doubtful and based on distributional records cited from two dubious publications. Overall, the shortcomings in Pravalikha & Srinivasulu (2015 reflect need for revision of the genus Thomisus Walckenaer, 1805. 

  9. The endemic plants of Micronesia: a geographical checklist and commentary

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    Lorence, D.H.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Micronesia-Polynesia bioregion is recognized as a global biodiversity hotspot. However, until now estimates regarding the number of endemic plant species for the region were not supported by any comprehensive published work for the region. The results of this study indicate that Micronesia has the world’s highest percentage of plant endemism per square kilometer out of all globally recognized insular biodiversity hotspots. A checklist of all endemic plant species for Micronesia is presented here with their corresponding geographical limits within the region. A summary of previous work and estimates is also provided noting the degree of taxonomic progress in the past several decades. A total of 364 vascular plant species are considered endemic to Micronesia, most of them being restricted to the Caroline Islands with a large percentage restricted to Palau. The checklist includes seven new combinations, one new name, and two unverified names that require additional study to verify endemic status. Overviews of each respective botanical family represented in the list are given including additional information on the Micronesian taxa. Recommendations for future work and potential projects are alluded to throughout the text highlighting major data gaps and very poorly known taxa. The following new combinations and names are made: Cyclosorus carolinensis (Hosokawa Lorence, comb. nov. , Cyclosorusgretheri (W. H. Wagner Lorence, comb. nov., Cyclosorusguamensis (Holttum Lorence, comb. nov., Cyclosorus palauensis (Hosokawa Lorence, comb. nov. , Cyclosorus rupiinsularis (Fosberg Lorence, comb. nov., Dalbergia hosokawae (Hosokawa Costion nom. nov., Syzygium trukensis (Hosokawa Costion & E. Lucas comb. nov.

  10. Bacterial communities associated with three Brazilian endemic reef corals (Mussismilia spp.) in a coastal reef of the Abrolhos shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Alinne Pereira; Araújo, Samuel Dias; Reis, Alessandra M. M.; Pompeu, Maira; Hatay, Mark; de Moura, Rodrigo Leão; Francini-Filho, Ronaldo B.; Thompson, Fabiano L.; Krüger, Ricardo H.

    2013-11-01

    The diversity of bacterial communities associated with three Brazilian endemic reef corals from genus Mussismilia (M. hispida, M. braziliensis, and M. harttii) at a single site was assessed using 16S rRNA clone libraries. The study site, Pedra do Leste, is a coastal reef within the largest and richest South Atlantic coralline reef complex (Abrolhos Bank) and is subject to high fishing pressure, high sedimentation loads, and other land-based stressors. The three coral species are Neogene relicts with unique biological and morphological traits that enable them to survive relatively high sedimentation levels. Our results show that sequences affiliated with γ-Proteobacteria predominated, accounting for more than 60% of the examined sequences. Indeed, the most frequent species were related to Alteromonas, Marinomonas, Neptuniibacter, and Vibrio, which are copiotrophic microorganisms common in environments highly affected by anthropogenic stress. Principal component analysis revealed that bacterial communities of M. braziliensis and M. hispida were more similar to each other than to M. harttii-associated bacteria. Such pattern is likely related to distinct morphological properties of M. harttii, such as the existence of phaceloid colonies, in which polyps are not connected by soft tissue. This is the first investigation assessing the bacterial communities of the three Brazilian endemic Mussismilia species at the same location.

  11. Population preference of net texture prior to bed net trial in Kala-Azar-endemic areas.

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    Murari L Das

    Full Text Available Prior to a community-based efficacy trial of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs in the prevention of visceral leishmaniasis (VL; also called kala-azar, a pilot study on preference of tools was held in endemic areas of India and Nepal in September 2005.LLINs made of polyester and polyethylene were distributed to 60 participants, who used the nets sequentially for 7 d. Acceptability and preference were evaluated via indirect indicators through questionnaires at three defined time points before and after use of the LLINs and through focus group discussions (FGDs. In the latter, preferences for color and size were also assessed. Untreated bed nets were owned by 87% of the households prior to the study. All users liked textures of both LLIN types after 7 d of use, but had a slight preference for those made of polyester if they were to recommend a LLIN to relatives or friends (p<0.05, mainly because of their relatively greater softness in comparison to polyethylene LLINs. Users reported that both net types reduced mosquito bites and number of insects, including sand fly (bhusana; genus Phlebotomus, inside the house. Side effects were minor and disappeared quickly.The large-scale intervention trial considered the preferences of the study population to decide on the best tool of intervention--light-blue, rectangular, polyester LLINs of different sizes.

  12. Endemism and long distance dispersal in the waterfleas of Easter Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damme, Kay Van

    2016-08-22

    Easter Island is known for a depauperate terrestrial and aquatic biota. The discovery of new taxa is unusual, even among the island's micro-invertebrates. A new cladoceran, Ovalona pascua sp. nov. (Crustacea: Cladocera: Anomopoda: Chydoridae), is described from freshwater environments. The chydorid, the only known extant cladoceran on the island, is the dominant aquatic invertebrate in the surface waters. Based on detailed morphological comparison, including a character similarity matrix applied across the species in the genus (12 characters/17 spp), the new taxon is proposed here as an insular endemic with affinities in the East (New World). The revision challenges the theory that invasive zooplankton species were introduced from the subantarctic islands during the 18th century. Human introduction is not the main mechanism through which cladocerans could have arrived on Easter Island. Late Pleistocene - Early Holocene fossils in Cañellas-Boltà et al. (2012) from cores in Rano Raraku Lake are identified here as Daphnia O.F. Müller, 1785 (subgenus Ctenodaphnia Dybowski & Grochowski, 1895). The establishment of Daphnia before human colonization on Easter Island provides strong proof of successful long distance dispersal by ephippia over thousands of kilometers of open sea.

  13. Natural history of the narrow endemics Ipomoea cavalcantei and I. marabaensis from Amazon Canga savannahs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiychuk, Elena; Kushnir, Sergei; Vasconcelos, Santelmo; Dias, Mariana Costa; Carvalho-Filho, Nelson; Nunes, Gisele Lopes; Dos Santos, Jorge Filipe; Tyski, Lourival; da Silva, Delmo Fonseca; Castilho, Alexandre; Fonseca, Vera Lucia Imperatriz; Oliveira, Guilherme

    2017-08-08

    Amazon comprises a vast variety of ecosystems, including savannah-like Canga barrens that evolved on iron-lateritic rock plateaus of the Carajás Mountain range. Individual Cangas are enclosed by the rain forest, indicating insular isolation that enables speciation and plant community differentiation. To establish a framework for the research on natural history and conservation management of endemic Canga species, seven chloroplast DNA loci and an ITS2 nuclear DNA locus were used to study natural molecular variation of the red flowered Ipomoea cavalcantei and the lilac flowered I. marabaensis. Partitioning of the nuclear and chloroplast gene alleles strongly suggested that the species share the most recent common ancestor, pointing a new independent event of the red flower origin in the genus. Chloroplast gene allele analysis showed strong genetic differentiation between Canga populations, implying a limited role of seed dispersal in exchange of individuals between Cangas. Closed haplotype network topology indicated a requirement for the paternal inheritance in generation of cytoplasmic genetic variation. Tenfold higher nucleotide diversity in the nuclear ITS2 sequences distinguished I. cavalcantei from I. marabaensis, implying a different pace of evolutionary changes. Thus, Canga ecosystems offer powerful venues for the study of speciation, multitrait adaptation and the origins of genetic variation.

  14. The diversity and antibiotic properties of actinobacteria associated with endemic deepwater amphipods of Lake Baikal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protasov, Eugenii S; Axenov-Gribanov, Denis V; Rebets, Yuriy V; Voytsekhovskaya, Irina V; Tokovenko, Bogdan T; Shatilina, Zhanna M; Luzhetskyy, Andriy N; Timofeyev, Maxim A

    2017-12-01

    The emergence of pathogenic bacteria resistant to antibiotics increases the need for discovery of new effective antimicrobials. Unique habitats such as marine deposits, wetlands and caves or unexplored biological communities are promising sources for the isolation of actinobacteria, which are among the major antibiotic producers. The present study aimed at examining cultivated actinobacteria strains associated with endemic Lake Baikal deepwater amphipods and estimating their antibiotic activity. We isolated 42 actinobacterial strains from crustaceans belonging to Ommatogammarus albinus and Ommatogammarus flavus. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the isolation and initial characterization of representatives of Micromonospora and Pseudonocardia genera from Baikal deepwater invertebrates. Also, as expected, representatives of the genus Streptomyces were the dominant group among the isolated species. Some correlations could be observed between the number of actinobacterial isolates, the depth of sampling and the source of the strains. Nevertheless, >70% of isolated strains demonstrated antifungal activity. The dereplication analysis of extract of one of the isolated strains resulted in annotation of several known compounds that can help to explain the observed biological activities. The characteristics of ecological niche and lifestyle of deepwater amphipods suggests that the observed associations between crustaceans and isolated actinobacteria are not random and might represent long-term symbiotic interactions.

  15. Elevational plant species richness patterns and their drivers across non-endemics, endemics and growth forms in the Eastern Himalaya.

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    Manish, Kumar; Pandit, Maharaj K; Telwala, Yasmeen; Nautiyal, Dinesh C; Koh, Lian Pin; Tiwari, Sudha

    2017-09-01

    Despite decades of research, ecologists continue to debate how spatial patterns of species richness arise across elevational gradients on the Earth. The equivocal results of these studies could emanate from variations in study design, sampling effort and data analysis. In this study, we demonstrate that the richness patterns of 2,781 (2,197 non-endemic and 584 endemic) angiosperm species along an elevational gradient of 300-5,300 m in the Eastern Himalaya are hump-shaped, spatial scale of extent (the proportion of elevational gradient studied) dependent and growth form specific. Endemics peaked at higher elevations than non-endemics across all growth forms (trees, shrubs, climbers, and herbs). Richness patterns were influenced by the proportional representation of the largest physiognomic group (herbs). We show that with increasing spatial scale of extent, the richness patterns change from a monotonic to a hump-shaped pattern and richness maxima shift toward higher elevations across all growth forms. Our investigations revealed that the combination of ambient energy (air temperature, solar radiation, and potential evapo-transpiration) and water availability (soil water content and precipitation) were the main drivers of elevational plant species richness patterns in the Himalaya. This study highlights the importance of factoring in endemism, growth forms, and spatial scale when investigating elevational gradients of plant species distributions and advances our understanding of how macroecological patterns arise.

  16. Reticulate Pleistocene evolution of Ethiopian rodent genus along remarkable altitudinal gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryja, Josef; Kostin, Danila; Meheretu, Yonas; Šumbera, Radim; Bryjová, Anna; Kasso, Mohammed; Mikula, Ondřej; Lavrenchenko, Leonid A

    2018-01-01

    The Ethiopian highlands are the most extensive complex of mountainous habitats in Africa. The presence of the Great Rift Valley (GRV) and the striking elevational ecological gradients inhabited by recently radiated Ethiopian endemics, provide a wide spectrum of model situations for evolutionary studies. The extant species of endemic rodents, often markedly phenotypically differentiated, are expected to possess complex genetic features which evolved asa consequence of the interplay between geomorphology and past climatic changes. In this study, we used the largest available multi-locus genetic dataset of the murid genus Stenocephalemys (347 specimens from ca 40 localities across the known distributional area of all taxa) to investigate the relative importance of disruptive selection, temporary geographic isolation and introgression in their adaptive radiations in the Pleistocene. We confirmed the four main highly supported mitochondrial (mtDNA) clades that were proposed as four species in a previous pilot study: S. albipes is a sister species of S. griseicauda (both lineages are present on both sides of the GRV), while the second clade is formed by two Afro-alpine species, S. albocaudata (east of GRV) and the undescribed Stenocephalemys sp. A (west of GRV). There is a clear elevational gradient in the distribution of the Stenocephalemys taxa with two to three species present at different elevations of the same mountain range. Surprisingly, the nuclear species tree corresponded only a little to the mtDNA tree. Multispecies coalescent models based on six nuclear markers revealed the presence of six separate gene pools (i.e. candidate species), with different topology. Phylogenetic analysis, together with the geographic distribution of the genetic groups, suggests a complex reticulate evolution. We propose a scenario that involves (besides classical allopatric speciation) two cases of disruptive selection along the elevational ecological gradient, multiple crosses of

  17. A new species of Trichogenes from the rio Itapemirim drainage, southeastern Brazil, with comments on the monophyly of the genus (Siluriformes: Trichomycteridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário C. C. de Pinna

    Full Text Available A new species of the formerly monotypic genus Trichogenes is described from a high-altitude stream of the rio Itapemirim system, an isolated Atlantic drainage in the State of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil. Trichogenes claviger, new species, differs from all other trichomycterids by the sexually dimorphic posterior process of the opercle, much elongated in males; the terminal mouth; the deeply bifurcated anterior neural spines and the presence of a large anterodorsal claw-like process on the neural arches of the anterior four free vertebrae. The new species also differs from its only congener, T. longipinnis, by a number of additional traits, including the the lack of branched anal-fin rays in specimens of any size; the broader than long posterior nostril; the deeper head (head depth 72.9-86.6% HL; the presence of a fine dark line along the base of the anal fin; the lack of dark spots on cheeks; the shape of the interopercle; the presence of odontodes on a bony expansion on the posterodorsal margin of the interopercle; the fewer vertebrae (35; the absence of an antorbital; and the fewer pleural ribs (eight. Small juveniles of the new species are also strikingly different from those of all other Trichomycteridae, including T. longipinnis, having a very large lateral eye, an upturned mouth, and compressed head. Trichogenes claviger occurs in shaded sectors of a blackwater sluggish stream with sandy substrate and patchy accumulations of vegetable debris, a habitat markedly different from the rocky torrential environment known for T. longipinnis. A comparison of the internal anatomy of the two species provides the basis for a hypothesis of a monophyletic Trichogenes. Data from the new species further support a sister-group relationship between Trichogeninae and Copionodontinae, as well as the position of that clade as sister group to all remaining Trichomycteridae.

  18. Multilocus sequence data reveal dozens of putative cryptic species in a radiation of endemic Californian mygalomorph spiders (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Nemesiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, Dean H; Starrett, James; Westphal, Michael F; Hedin, Marshal

    2015-10-01

    We use mitochondrial and multi-locus nuclear DNA sequence data to infer both species boundaries and species relationships within California nemesiid spiders. Higher-level phylogenetic data show that the California radiation is monophyletic and distantly related to European members of the genus Brachythele. As such, we consider all California nemesiid taxa to belong to the genus Calisoga Chamberlin, 1937. Rather than find support for one or two taxa as previously hypothesized, genetic data reveal Calisoga to be a species-rich radiation of spiders, including perhaps dozens of species. This conclusion is supported by multiple mitochondrial barcoding analyses, and also independent analyses of nuclear data that reveal general genealogical congruence. We discovered three instances of sympatry, and genetic data indicate reproductive isolation when in sympatry. An examination of female reproductive morphology does not reveal species-specific characters, and observed male morphological differences for a subset of putative species are subtle. Our coalescent species tree analysis of putative species lays the groundwork for future research on the taxonomy and biogeographic history of this remarkable endemic radiation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Endemic pemphigus foliaceus in Venezuela: report of two children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Francisco; Sáenz, Ana Maria; Cirocco, Antonietta; Tacaronte, Inés Maria; Fajardo, Javier Enrique; Calebotta, Adriana

    2006-01-01

    Two native Yanomami children from the Venezuelan Amazonia with erythroderma were hospitalized on our service. Clinical, histologic, and immunofluorescence studies diagnosed endemic pemphigus foliaceous. Human leukocyte antigen class II showed DRB1*04 subtype *0411, which has not been previously associated with this disease. However, it shares a common epitope with all the human leukocyte antigen DRB1 alleles that have been involved in this disease among Brazilian populations. Although this condition is endemic in Brazil, our patients are the first two reported in Venezuela.

  20. Genomic characterization of the Taylorella genus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Hébert

    Full Text Available The Taylorella genus comprises two species: Taylorella equigenitalis, which causes contagious equine metritis, and Taylorella asinigenitalis, a closely-related species mainly found in donkeys. We herein report on the first genome sequence of T. asinigenitalis, analyzing and comparing it with the recently-sequenced T. equigenitalis genome. The T. asinigenitalis genome contains a single circular chromosome of 1,638,559 bp with a 38.3% GC content and 1,534 coding sequences (CDS. While 212 CDSs were T. asinigenitalis-specific, 1,322 had orthologs in T. equigenitalis. Two hundred and thirty-four T. equigenitalis CDSs had no orthologs in T. asinigenitalis. Analysis of the basic nutrition metabolism of both Taylorella species showed that malate, glutamate and alpha-ketoglutarate may be their main carbon and energy sources. For both species, we identified four different secretion systems and several proteins potentially involved in binding and colonization of host cells, suggesting a strong potential for interaction with their host. T. equigenitalis seems better-equipped than T. asinigenitalis in terms of virulence since we identified numerous proteins potentially involved in pathogenicity, including hemagluttinin-related proteins, a type IV secretion system, TonB-dependent lactoferrin and transferrin receptors, and YadA and Hep_Hag domains containing proteins. This is the first molecular characterization of Taylorella genus members, and the first molecular identification of factors potentially involved in T. asinigenitalis and T. equigenitalis pathogenicity and host colonization. This study facilitates a genetic understanding of growth phenotypes, animal host preference and pathogenic capacity, paving the way for future functional investigations into this largely unknown genus.

  1. Sexual Communication in the Drosophila Genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontonou, Gwénaëlle; Wicker-Thomas, Claude

    2014-06-18

    In insects, sexual behavior depends on chemical and non-chemical cues that might play an important role in sexual isolation. In this review, we present current knowledge about sexual behavior in the Drosophila genus. We describe courtship and signals involved in sexual communication, with a special focus on sex pheromones. We examine the role of cuticular hydrocarbons as sex pheromones, their implication in sexual isolation, and their evolution. Finally, we discuss the roles of male cuticular non-hydrocarbon pheromones that act after mating: cis-vaccenyl acetate, developing on its controversial role in courtship behavior and long-chain acetyldienylacetates and triacylglycerides, which act as anti-aphrodisiacs in mated females.

  2. Marine worms (genus Osedax) colonize cow bones

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, William J; Johnson, Shannon B; Rouse, Greg W; Vrijenhoek, Robert C

    2007-01-01

    Bone-eating worms of the genus Osedax colonized and grew on cow bones deployed at depths ranging from 385 to 2893 m in Monterey Bay, California. Colonization occurred as rapidly as two months following deployment of the cow bones, similar to the time it takes to colonize exposed whalebones. Some Osedax females found on the cow bones were producing eggs and some hosted dwarf males in their tubes. Morphological and molecular examinations of these worms confirmed the presence of six Osedax speci...

  3. The genus Bryoerythrophyllum (Musci, Pottiaceae in Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sollman Philip

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Antarctic material of the genus Bryoerythrophyllum P. C. Chen was studied from all specimens present in KRAM. Bryoerythrophyllum recurvirostrum (Hedw. P. C. Chen var. antarcticum L. I. Savicz & Smirnova is treated as a distinct species: B. antarcticum (L. I. Savicz & Smirnova P. Sollman, stat. nov. Three species are now known in the Antarctic region: B. antarcticum, B. recurvirostrum and B. rubrum (Jur. ex Geh. P. C. Chen. Bryoerythrophyllum rubrum is reported for the first time from the Antarctic. It is a bipolar species. A key to the taxa is given. These species are described and briefly discussed, with notes on illustrations, reproduction, habitat, world range, distribution and elevation in Antarctica.

  4. Operators and higher genus mirror curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Codesido, Santiago [Département de Physique Théorique et section de Mathématiques,Université de Genève,Genève, CH-1211 (Switzerland); Gu, Jie [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique de l’École Normale Supérieure,CNRS, PSL Research University,Sorbonne Universités, UPMC, 75005 Paris (France); Mariño, Marcos [Département de Physique Théorique et section de Mathématiques,Université de Genève,Genève, CH-1211 (Switzerland)

    2017-02-17

    We perform further tests of the correspondence between spectral theory and topological strings, focusing on mirror curves of genus greater than one with nontrivial mass parameters. In particular, we analyze the geometry relevant to the SU(3) relativistic Toda lattice, and the resolved ℂ{sup 3}/ℤ{sub 6} orbifold. Furthermore, we give evidence that the correspondence holds for arbitrary values of the mass parameters, where the quantization problem leads to resonant states. We also explore the relation between this correspondence and cluster integrable systems.

  5. Heterogeneity in the genus Allovahlkampfia and the description of the new genus Parafumarolamoeba (Vahlkampfiidae; Heterolobosea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisen, Stefan; Bonkowski, Michael; Zhang, Junling; De Jonckheere, Johan F

    2015-08-01

    Heterolobosean amoebae are common and diverse members of soil protist communities. In this study, we isolated seven strains of amoebae from soil samples taken in Tibet (at high altitude), Sardinia and the Netherlands, all resembling to belong to a similar heterolobosean morphospecies. However, sequences of the small subunit (SSU) rDNA and internal transcribed spacers, including the 5.8S rDNA, revealed a high heterogeneity in the genus Allovahlkampfia to which six of the isolates belong. Some unnamed strains, of which the sequences had been published before, are also included within the genus Allovahlkampfia. One Allovahlkampfia isolated in the Netherlands harbors a twin-ribozyme, containing a His-Cys box, similar to the one found in strain BA of Allovahlkampfia. The other SSU rDNA sequence grouped in phylogenetic analyses with sequences obtained in environmental sequencing studies as sister to the genus Fumarolamoeba. This phylogenetic placement was supported by analyses of the 5.8S rDNA leading us to describe it as a new genus Parafumarolamoeba. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Aggressive behavior in the genus Gallus sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SA Queiroz

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The intensification of the production system in the poultry industry and the vertical integration of the poultry agribusiness have brought profound changes in the physical and social environment of domestic fowls in comparison to their ancestors and have modified the expression of aggression and submission. The present review has covered the studies focusing on the different aspects linked to aggressiveness in the genus Gallus. The evaluated studies have shown that aggressiveness and subordination are complex behavioral expressions that involve genetic differences between breeds, strains and individuals, and differences in the cerebral development during growth, in the hormonal metabolism, in the rearing conditions of individuals, including feed restriction, density, housing type (litter or cage, influence of the opposite sex during the growth period, existence of hostile stimuli (pain and frustration, ability to recognize individuals and social learning. The utilization of fighting birds as experimental material in the study of mechanisms that have influence on the manifestation of aggressiveness in the genus Gallus might comparatively help to elucidate important biological aspects of such behavior.

  7. [Advance in chemical constituents of genus Clematis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Feng; Yang, Depo

    2009-10-01

    Progresses in the studies on chemical constituents of Clematis L. (belonging to the family Ranunculaceae) were systematiically reviewed in this article. The plants in this genus have a wide spectrum of constituents as follows: triterpenes, flavonoids, lignans, coumarins, alkaloids, volatile oils, steroids, organic acids, macrocyclic compounds and phenols, etc., among which triterpenoid saponins, flavonoids and lignans are the main components. The triterpenoid saponins are mainly oleanolic type and hederagenin type, most of which are bidesmosidic saponins, substituted with oligosaccharide chains at both C-3 and C-28, and some are substituted with acetyl, caffeoyl, isoferuloyl, p-methoxy cinnamyl and 3,4-dimethoxy cinnamyl groups in the oligosaccharide chains. The flavonoids from Clematis species are mainly flavones, flavonols, flavanones, isoflavones, xanthones and their glucosides (sugar moieties are connected to the aglycone through either the oxygen or the carbon atoms), the aglycones of which are mainly apigenin, kaempferol, luteolin and quercetin. The lignans from Clematis are mainly eupomatene lignans, cyclolignans, monoepoxylignans, bisepoxylignans and lignanolides. Clematis spp. are rich in resources, however, studies on their chemical constituents have only been carried out on twenty or so spp. As a result, it is necessary to expand our study on other spp. from this genus for better utilization of medicinal resources.

  8. Diversification and microscopic structure of tissues in endemic and endangered species of Dawkinsia tambraparniei from the river Tamiraparani, Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Divya Sapphire; Arumugam, Sabaridasan; Ramaiah, Soranam

    2018-03-01

    We investigated the study on the endemic and endangered species of Dawkinsia tambraparniei were confined only the areas of the river Tamiraparani. These species are under threats due to the menace of anthropogenic stress. To recognize the crisis behind the particular species, it was analyzed histologically and molecularly from the five pollutant levels of river Tamiraparani. Histologically, the microscopic examinations were also carried out from the crucial organs such as the brain, gill, heart, kidney, and liver, which confirm the spiky survivability of the endemic fish. Assessment of fish organ damages was observed highly in Kokkirakulam and Vannarapettai. Probably with conserved molecular sequences, the species can be identified out from the encountered surveillance of the particular taxa leading to the evolutionary circumstances. The phylogenetic analysis of Dawkinsia tambraparniei populations showed that Cheranmadevi and Vallandau sites populations were closely distributed. Even though the species have similarity sequences of each population were shown that the closely related with same genus but other sub-species. The observed results emphasize the conventional measures to conserve the endemic species and more effectual planning to the proximity of endurances in inhabited zone.

  9. Diterpenes from the Marine Algae of the Genus Dictyota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiayun; Li, Hong; Zhao, Zishuo; Xia, Xue; Li, Bo; Zhang, Jinrong; Yan, Xiaojun

    2018-05-11

    Species of the brown algae of the genus Dictyota are rich sources of bioactive secondary metabolites with diverse structural features. Excellent progress has been made in the discovery of diterpenes possessing broad chemical defensive activities from this genus. Most of these diterpenes exhibit significant biological activities, such as antiviral, cytotoxic and chemical defensive activities. In the present review, we summarized diterpenes isolated from the brown algae of the genus.

  10. Comparative Genomics Reveals High Genomic Diversity in the Genus Photobacterium

    OpenAIRE

    Henrique Machado; Henrique Machado; Lone Gram

    2017-01-01

    Vibrionaceae is a large marine bacterial family, which can constitute up to 50% of the prokaryotic population in marine waters. Photobacterium is the second largest genus in the family and we used comparative genomics on 35 strains representing 16 of the 28 species described so far, to understand the genomic diversity present in the Photobacterium genus. Such understanding is important for ecophysiology studies of the genus. We used whole genome sequences to evaluate phylogenetic relationship...

  11. Genus-two characters of the Ising model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, J.H.; Koh, I.G.

    1989-01-01

    As a first step in studying conformal theories on a higher-genus Riemann surface, we construct genus-two characters of the Ising model from their behavior in zero- and nonzero-homology pinching limits, the Goddard-Kent-Oliveco set-space construction, and the branching coefficients in the level-two A 1 /sup (1)/ Kac-Moody characters on the higher-genus Riemann surface

  12. A MONOGRAPH OF THE GENUS DIPLODISCUS* Turcz. (TILIACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. G. H. KOSTERMANS

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 1. Seven species of the genus Diplodiscus are described, of which three(D. microlepis, D. parviflorus and D. decumbens are new to science, and one (D. hookerianus was formerly described as Pentace (for the description of D. decumbens cf. p. 264.2. The area of distribution of the genus covers the Malay Peninsula,Borneo and the Philippines.3. The affinities of the genus are discussed.4. A key to the species is presented.

  13. The semi-aquatic freshwater earthworms of the genus Glyphidrilus Horst, 1889 from Thailand (Oligochaeta, Almidae) with re-descriptions of several species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanabun, Ratmanee; Sutcharit, Chirasak; Tongkerd, Piyoros; Panha, Somsak

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The semi-aquatic freshwater earthworm genus Glyphidrilus Horst, 1889 from Thailand was investigated based on extensive recent collecting. The species in this genus were characterized by their external and internal morphological characters of the location of wings, genital openings, genital organ structures and their locations, as well as the dimensions of body length and number of segments. Several type specimens were compared with both previous and newly collected materials. Ten new species are described from several river systems in Thailand; as Glyphidrilus borealis sp. n., Glyphidrilus chaophraya sp. n., Glyphidrilus chiensis sp. n., Glyphidrilus huailuangensis sp. n., Glyphidrilus kratuensis sp. n., Glyphidrilus quadratus sp. n., Glyphidrilus trangensis sp. n., Glyphidrilus wararamensis sp. n., Glyphidrilus vangthongensis sp. n. and Glyphidrilus vesper sp. n. Each species is endemic to a single river system. All 26 previously described species are re-described, and eight lectotypes have been designated. An identification key and a morphological comparison summary are provided. PMID:23653518

  14. A treasure of endemic fauna of Mauritius and Rodrigues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winters, Ria

    2011-01-01

    This publication deals with the endemic species of the Indian ocean islands of Mauritius and Rodrigues. The author describes the extinct and extant birds and animals in word and art. The book is illustrated with the authors drawings and paintings. Full colour.

  15. Trichomonad infection in endemic and introduced columbids in the Seychelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunbury, N

    2011-07-01

    Island endemic avifaunas face many threats, including the now well-documented impacts of pathogens. The impacts of pathogens on the endemic Seychelles avifauna, however, have been little studied. The protozoan parasite Trichomonas gallinae has been shown to reduce survival and reproductive success of the endemic Pink Pigeon Columba mayeri on the nearby island of Mauritius. I investigated trichomonad infection prevalence and pathogenicity in endemic Seychelles Blue Pigeons, Alectroenas pulcherrima, and two introduced species of columbid, the Madagascar Turtle-dove, Streptopelia picturata, and the Barred Ground Dove, Geopelia striata, on the Seychelles island of Mahé during September-October 2007. I asked whether: 1) trichomonad infections occur in these species; 2) prevalence varies among species; and 3) birds show any signs of pathogenicity consistent with tricho-monosis. I use the results to assess the potential threat of this pathogen to A. pulcherrima. All three species were infected with trichomonads, and the overall prevalence was 27.5%. Alectroenas pulcherrima had higher prevalence (47.1%) than the two introduced species combined (24.3%). No infected individuals showed any signs of disease. These findings suggest that trichomonad parasites should be considered as a potential disease threat to the A. pulcherrima population.

  16. Distribution and protection of endemic or threatened rodents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    highest in the south-western parts of the country, and hotspots of endemism cOincide with those of species rich- ness. However, Red ... species richness hotspot in the Succulent Karoo contains no existing reserves, whereas all Red Data Book spe- ... conserve all aspects of biodiversity, but of historical ad hoc decisions ...

  17. Small mammals distribution and diversity in a plague endemic area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Small mammals play a role in plague transmission as hosts in all plague endemic areas. Information on distribution and diversity of small mammals is therefore important for plague surveillance and control in such areas. The objective of this study was to investigate small mammals' diversity and their distribution in plague ...

  18. Patterns of distribution and protection status of the endemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The majority of these endemics are small mammals and many are listed in the Red Data Book, especially those restricted to the Nama-and Succulent Karoo. This is of concern, as both areas are inadequately protected by the existing protected areas. The coastal forests also contain many Red Data Book species, particularly ...

  19. Biological Invasion and Loss of Endemic Biodiversity in the Thar ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 3. Nature Watch - Biological Invasion and Loss of Endemic Biodiversity in the Thar Desert. Ishwar Prakash. Feature Article Volume 6 Issue 3 March 2001 pp 76-85. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  20. Allozyme diversity in Macbridea alba (Lamiaceae), an endemic Florida mint

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.J.W. Godt; Joan L. Walker; J.L. Hamrick

    2004-01-01

    Macbridea alba is a herbaceous perennial mint endemic to the panhandle region of Florida. We used starch gel electrophoresis to describe allozyme diversity and genetic structure in this federally threatened plant. Ten populations were analyzed, with an average sample size of 47 plants (range 41-48 plants) per population. Of the 22 loci analyzed, 11 (...

  1. Patterns of endemicity and range restriction among southern African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patterns of endemicity and range restriction among southern African coastal marine invertebrates. RJ Scott, CL Griffiths, TB Robinson. Abstract. Southern Africa supports a rich marine biota of 12 734 currently described marine species. Although the distribution and overall species-richness patterns of several component ...

  2. Evolution of endemism on a young tropical mountain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merckx, V.; Hendriks, K.; Beentjes, K.; Mennes, C.B.; Becking, L.E.; Geurts, R.

    2015-01-01

    Tropical mountains are hot spots of biodiversity and endemism1–3, but the evolutionary origins of their unique biotas are poorly understood4. In varying degrees, local and regional extinction, long-distance colonization, and local recruitment may all contribute to the exceptional character of these

  3. The endemicity of dracunculiasis, transmission pattern and ecology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on the endemicity of dracunculiasis, it's transmission pattern and ecology of cyclopoid copepods in Ezza North Local Government Area of Ebonyi State Nigeria were carried out between January and December 2001. Of the 2226 persons examined in eight communities, 426 (19.1%) were infected. This included 24 ...

  4. Evolution of endemism on a young tropical mountain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merckx, Vincent S F T; Hendriks, Kasper P; Beentjes, Kevin K; Mennes, Constantijn B; Becking, Leontine E; Peijnenburg, Katja T C A; Afendy, Aqilah; Arumugam, Nivaarani; de Boer, Hugo; Biun, Alim; Buang, Matsain M; Chen, Ping-Ping; Chung, Arthur Y C; Dow, Rory; Feijen, Frida A A; Feijen, Hans; Feijen-van Soest, Cobi; Geml, József; Geurts, René; Gravendeel, Barbara; Hovenkamp, Peter; Imbun, Paul; Ipor, Isa; Janssens, Steven B; Jocqué, Merlijn; Kappes, Heike; Khoo, Eyen; Koomen, Peter; Lens, Frederic; Majapun, Richard J; Morgado, Luis N; Neupane, Suman; Nieser, Nico; Pereira, Joan T; Rahman, Homathevi; Sabran, Suzana; Sawang, Anati; Schwallier, Rachel M; Shim, Phyau-Soon; Smit, Harry; Sol, Nicolien; Spait, Maipul; Stech, Michael; Stokvis, Frank; Sugau, John B; Suleiman, Monica; Sumail, Sukaibin; Thomas, Daniel C; van Tol, Jan; Tuh, Fred Y Y; Yahya, Bakhtiar E; Nais, Jamili; Repin, Rimi; Lakim, Maklarin; Schilthuizen, Menno

    2015-01-01

    Tropical mountains are hot spots of biodiversity and endemism, but the evolutionary origins of their unique biotas are poorly understood. In varying degrees, local and regional extinction, long-distance colonization, and local recruitment may all contribute to the exceptional character of these

  5. Evolution of endemism on a young tropical mountain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merckx, V.S.F.T.; Hendriks, K.P.; Beentjes, K.K.; Mennes, C.B.; Becking, L.E.; Peijnenburg, K.T.C.A.; Afendy, A.; Arumugam, N.; de Boer, H.; Biun, A.; Buang, M.M.; Chen, P.P.; Chung, A.Y.C.; Dow, R..; Feijen, F.A.A.; Feijen, H.; Feijen-van Soest, C.; Geml, J.; Geurts, R.; Gravendeel, B.; Hovenkamp, P.; Imbun, P.; Ipor, I.; Janssens, S.B.; Jocqué, M.; Kappes, H.; Khoo, E.; Koomen, P.; Lens, F.; Majapun, R.J.; Morgado, L.N.; Neupane, S.; Nieser, N.; Pereira, J.T.; Rahman, H.; Sabran, S.; Sawang, A.; Schwallier, R.M.; Shim, P.S.; Smit, H.; Sol, N.; Spait, M.; Stech, M.; Stokvis, F.; Sugau, J.B.; Suleiman, M.; Sumail, S.; Thomas, D.C.; van Tol, J.; Tuh, F.Y.Y.; Yahya, B.E.; Nais, J.; Repin, R.; Lakim, M.; Schilthuizen, M.

    2015-01-01

    Tropical mountains are hot spots of biodiversity and endemism1, 2, 3, but the evolutionary origins of their unique biotas are poorly understood4. In varying degrees, local and regional extinction, long-distance colonization, and local recruitment may all contribute to the exceptional character of

  6. Genetic variability in the population of the endemic bee Anthophora ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The genetic diversity and spatial genetic population structure of the solitary bee Anthophora pauperata Walker 1871, a species endemic to St Katherine Protectorate, were studied by RAPD markers in seven wadis in the St Katherine Protectorate, South Sinai, Egypt. High levels of genetic diversity were found, mostly within ...

  7. Factors Affecting Agroforestry Sustainability in Bee Endemic Parts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper attempts, in an exploratory manner, to identify the various ways in which bad beekeeping and honey hunting practices result in the loss of important multi-purpose agro-forestry tree species in bee endemic parts of South Eastern Nigeria. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches (Participatory Rural Appraisal ...

  8. Distribution and protection of endemic or threatened rodents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Species richness of the target species is highest in the south-western parts of the country, and hotspots of endemism coincide with those of species richness. However, Red Data Book species hotspots are confined to the north-eastern parts of the country. One species richness hotspol in the Succulent Karoo contains no ...

  9. Evaluation of hospital disinfection as a means of controlling endemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of hospital environment disinfection as a means of controlling endemic nosocomial pathogens in a University Teaching Hospital in Nigeria was evaluated. Disinfectant used in the Hospital was collected from the Infection Control unit and prepared in different concentrations. The isolated bacterial species from the ...

  10. Historic forests and endemic mountain pine beetle and dwarf mistletoe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose Negron

    2012-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle has always been a significant disturbance agent in ponderosa and lodgepole pine forests in Colorado. Most studies have examined the impacts to forest structure associated with epidemic populations of a single disturbance agent. In this paper we address the role of endemic populations of mountain pine and their interactions with dwarf mistletoe...

  11. Cotrimoxazole for childhood febrile illness in Malaria-endemic regions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ren younger than 5 years of age was evaluated in. Malawi. ... limitations in diagnostic technology and personnel, disease-specific clinical ... In practice, the World. Health Organisation (WHO) recommends that in highly endemic areas all young children with fever should be treated for malaria, because of the likeli- hood of ...

  12. Investigating The Travelling Wave Solution For an SIR Endemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the travelling wave solution for an SIR endemic disease model with no disease related death when the spatial spread of the susceptible is not negligible. In this case the disease is driven by both the susceptible and the infective classes. The population is open since the disease is habitually prevalent in ...

  13. An Investigation on the antimicrobial activity of some endemic plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study performed on six endemic plant species, antimicrobial activity was observed in Campanula lyrata subsp.lyrata and Abies nordmanniana subsp. bornmuelleriana plants. The minimum inhibitory concentration of C. lyrata subsp. lyrata (leaf and flower) extract was found to be 29 mg/ml for Baccillus subtilis and 14.5 ...

  14. Rediscovery of Curcuma sumatrana (Zingiberaceae) endemic to West Sumatra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ardiyani, M.; Anggara, A.; Leong-Škorničková, J.

    2011-01-01

    A recent exploration of Sumatra resulted in the re-collection of Curcuma sumatrana, an endemic Zingiberaceae species of unclear identity that was first described by Miquel nearly 150 years ago. The history of this species is discussed, a detailed description with a colour plate is provided and a

  15. Clostridium difficile infection in an endemic setting in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hensgens, M. P. M.; Goorhuis, A.; van Kinschot, C. M. J.; Crobach, M. J. T.; Harmanus, C.; Kuijper, E. J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study risk factors for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in an endemic setting. In a 34-month prospective case-control study, we compared the risk factors and clinical characteristics of all consecutively diagnosed hospitalised CDI patients (n = 93) with

  16. Conservation assessment of the endemic plants from Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millaku Fadil

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen endemic plant taxa were selected from Kosovo, according to the IUCN standards and for each taxon the risk assessment and threat category has been assigned. The taxa were compared with their previous status from fifteen years ago. From sixteen plant taxa, which were included in this work, four are Balkan endemics, whereas, eight of them are local endemics and four of the taxa are stenoendemics. Six of the taxa are grown exclusively on serpentine soils, five of them on limestone substrate, four of them in carbonate substrate, yet only one in silicate substrate. The work has been done based on the standard working methodologies of the IUCN (Guidelines for Using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria – Version 8.1. The most threatened plant taxa is Solenanthus krasniqii – which after its observance has only 20 mature individuals. As a result of the wild collection of the medicinal and aromatic plants, from the local population, Sideritis scardica is about to be completely go extinct. The aim of this study was to assess the state of endemics in the threats possessed to them during the previous times, present and predicting the trends for the upcoming years.

  17. Grass survey of the Itremo Massif records endemic central highland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty species are endemic to the central highlands, and a further 1 4 species are restricted to Madagascar. Five ecological groups of grasses were identified in the Itremo Massif: shade species in gallery forests, open wet area species, fire grasses, anthropogenic disturbance associated grasses and rock-dwelling grasses.

  18. Faeco-histological Method of Studying Worm Endemicity with the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Worms are endemic in various parts of the world, the patterns varying from community to community, even in the same country. A rough index of those common among Nigerians of the Igbo ethnic group has been obtained using a histological study of the ova present in the luminal faeces of the vermiform appendix in 559 ...

  19. Comparative Genomics of Bacteriophage of the Genus Seuratvirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sazinas, Pavelas; Redgwell, Tamsin; Rihtman, Branko

    2017-01-01

    polB and terL showed these bacteriophages to be closely related to members of the genus Seuratvirus. We performed a core-gene analysis using the 14 new and four closely related genomes. A total of 58 core genes were identified, the majority of which has no known function. These genes were used...... to construct a core-gene phylogeny, the results of which confirmed the new isolates to be part of the genus Seuratvirus and expanded the number of species within this genus to four. All bacteriophages within the genus contained the genes queCDE encoding enzymes involved in queuosine biosynthesis. We suggest...

  20. Future of endemic flora of biodiversity hotspots in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishwas Sudhir Chitale

    Full Text Available India is one of the 12 mega biodiversity countries of the world, which represents 11% of world's flora in about 2.4% of global land mass. Approximately 28% of the total Indian flora and 33% of angiosperms occurring in India are endemic. Higher human population density in biodiversity hotspots in India puts undue pressure on these sensitive eco-regions. In the present study, we predict the future distribution of 637 endemic plant species from three biodiversity hotspots in India; Himalaya, Western Ghats, Indo-Burma, based on A1B scenario for year 2050 and 2080. We develop individual variable based models as well as mixed models in MaxEnt by combining ten least co-related bioclimatic variables, two disturbance variables and one physiography variable as predictor variables. The projected changes suggest that the endemic flora will be adversely impacted, even under such a moderate climate scenario. The future distribution is predicted to shift in northern and north-eastern direction in Himalaya and Indo-Burma, while in southern and south-western direction in Western Ghats, due to cooler climatic conditions in these regions. In the future distribution of endemic plants, we observe a significant shift and reduction in the distribution range compared to the present distribution. The model predicts a 23.99% range reduction and a 7.70% range expansion in future distribution by 2050, while a 41.34% range reduction and a 24.10% range expansion by 2080. Integration of disturbance and physiography variables along with bioclimatic variables in the models improved the prediction accuracy. Mixed models provide most accurate results for most of the combinations of climatic and non-climatic variables as compared to individual variable based models. We conclude that a regions with cooler climates and higher moisture availability could serve as refugia for endemic plants in future climatic conditions; b mixed models provide more accurate results, compared to single

  1. Future of endemic flora of biodiversity hotspots in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitale, Vishwas Sudhir; Behera, Mukund Dev; Roy, Partha Sarthi

    2014-01-01

    India is one of the 12 mega biodiversity countries of the world, which represents 11% of world's flora in about 2.4% of global land mass. Approximately 28% of the total Indian flora and 33% of angiosperms occurring in India are endemic. Higher human population density in biodiversity hotspots in India puts undue pressure on these sensitive eco-regions. In the present study, we predict the future distribution of 637 endemic plant species from three biodiversity hotspots in India; Himalaya, Western Ghats, Indo-Burma, based on A1B scenario for year 2050 and 2080. We develop individual variable based models as well as mixed models in MaxEnt by combining ten least co-related bioclimatic variables, two disturbance variables and one physiography variable as predictor variables. The projected changes suggest that the endemic flora will be adversely impacted, even under such a moderate climate scenario. The future distribution is predicted to shift in northern and north-eastern direction in Himalaya and Indo-Burma, while in southern and south-western direction in Western Ghats, due to cooler climatic conditions in these regions. In the future distribution of endemic plants, we observe a significant shift and reduction in the distribution range compared to the present distribution. The model predicts a 23.99% range reduction and a 7.70% range expansion in future distribution by 2050, while a 41.34% range reduction and a 24.10% range expansion by 2080. Integration of disturbance and physiography variables along with bioclimatic variables in the models improved the prediction accuracy. Mixed models provide most accurate results for most of the combinations of climatic and non-climatic variables as compared to individual variable based models. We conclude that a) regions with cooler climates and higher moisture availability could serve as refugia for endemic plants in future climatic conditions; b) mixed models provide more accurate results, compared to single variable based

  2. Moderate and high endemicity of schistosomiasis is a predictor of the endemicity of soil-transmitted helminthiasis - Systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajima, A.; Gabrielli, A. F.; Montresor, A.; Engels, D.

    2017-01-01

    The authors conducted a systematic literature review with the following aims: (i) to investigate how frequently soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) infections are endemic where schistosomiasis is present; and (ii) to assess the correlation between the risk level of schistosomiasis and that of STH. Among 155 sites on which data were collected and analyzed, schistosomiasis was present in 130 sites, all of which were also co-endemic for STH, whereas 25 sites were endemic only for STH. Out of 83 sites where at least one biannual round of preventive chemotherapy (PC) for schistosomiasis is recommended, 94% were also eligible for at least a yearly round of PC against STH. And among 21 sites where PC for schistosomiasis is recommended once a year, 81% were also eligible for at least a yearly round of PC for STH. This fact provides managers of control programmes with the operationally important indication that use of available information on endemicity of schistosomiasis is a valid tool to predict the presence of STH in the same geographical area as well as to estimate the need of PC for STH. The implementation of this tool is expected to save financial and human resources and help accelerate the scale-up of PC throughout the world. PMID:21215979

  3. Moderate and high endemicity of schistosomiasis is a predictor of the endemicity of soil-transmitted helminthiasis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajima, A; Gabrielli, A F; Montresor, A; Engels, D

    2011-02-01

    The authors conducted a systematic literature review with the following aims: to investigate how frequently soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) infections are endemic where schistosomiasis is present; and to assess the correlation between the risk level of schistosomiasis and that of STH. Among 155 sites on which data were collected and analyzed, schistosomiasis was present in 130, all of which were also co-endemic for STH, whereas 25 sites were endemic only for STH. Ninety percent (117 out of 130) of the areas eligible for preventive chemotherapy (PC) against schistosomiasis are also eligible for PC against STH. This fact provides managers of control programmes with the operationally important indication that use of available information on endemicity of schistosomiasis is a valid tool to predict the presence of STH in the same geographical area and to estimate the need of PC for STH. The implementation of this tool is expected to save financial and human resources and help accelerate the scale-up of PC throughout the world. Copyright © 2010 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Transfer of Methanolobus siciliae to the genus Methanosarcina, naming it Methanosarcina siciliae, and emendation of the genus Methanosarcina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, S.; Woese, C. R.; Aldrich, H. C.; Boone, D. R.

    1994-01-01

    A sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA of Methanolobus siciliae T4/M(T) (T = type strain) showed that this strain is closely related to members of the genus Methanosarcina, especially Methanosarcina acetivorans C2A(T). Methanolobus siciliae T4/M(T) and HI350 were morphologically more similar to members of the genus Methanosarcina than to members of the genus Methanolobus in that they both formed massive cell aggregates with pseudosarcinae. Thus, we propose that Methanolobus siciliae should be transferred to the genus Methanosarcina as Methanosarcina siciliae.

  5. Revised concept of the fossil genus Oviparosiphum Shaposhnikov, 1979 with the description of a new genus (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Aphidomorpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmara Żyła

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a revision of the aphid genus Oviparosiphum, which is known from the Cretaceous period. Redescriptions of two species: O. jakovlevi Shaposhnikov, 1979 and O. baissense Shaposhnikov & Wegierek, 1989 are made, and an updated diagnosis of this genus is provided. Oviparosiphum baissense is the type species of a newly described genus Archeoviparosiphum gen. n. Five other species of Oviparosiphum are also transferred to the new genus. The basis for their separation from Oviparosiphum is the structure of the siphunculi and ovipositor. A key is provided to the genera of Oviparosiphidae.

  6. Genetic connectivity and self-replenishment of inshore and offshore populations of the endemic anemonefish, Amphiprion latezonatus

    KAUST Repository

    Steinberg, Rosemary; van der Meer, Martin; Walker, Emily; Berumen, Michael L.; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A.; van Herwerden, Lynne

    2016-01-01

    and small distribution ranges (endemics). Marine endemics often exist as meta-populations distributed among few isolated locations. Determining genetic connectivity among these locations is essential to understanding the recovery potential of endemics after

  7. Review: Natural products from Genus Selaginella (Selaginellaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMAD DWI SETYAWAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Setyawan AD. 2011. Natural products from Genus Selaginella (Selaginellaceae. Nusantara Bioscience 3: 44-58. Selaginella is a potent medicinal-stuff, which contains diverse of natural products such as alkaloid, phenolic (flavonoid, and terpenoid. This species is traditionally used to cure several diseases especially for wound, after childbirth, and menstrual disorder. Biflavonoid, a dimeric form of flavonoids, is the most valuable natural products of Selaginella, which constituted at least 13 compounds, namely amentoflavone, 2',8''-biapigenin, delicaflavone, ginkgetin, heveaflavone, hinokiflavone, isocryptomerin, kayaflavone, ochnaflavone, podocarpusflavone A, robustaflavone, sumaflavone, and taiwaniaflavone. Ecologically, plants use biflavonoid to response environmental condition such as defense against pests, diseases, herbivory, and competitions; while human medically use biflavonoid especially for antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti carcinogenic. Selaginella also contains valuable disaccharide, namely trehalose that has long been known for protecting from desiccation and allows surviving severe environmental stress. The compound has very prospects as molecular stabilizer in the industries based bioresources.

  8. The genus Schoenoxiphium (Cyperaceae. A preliminary account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kukkonen

    1983-11-01

    Full Text Available The genus Schoenoxiphium of the tribe Cariceae of Cyperaceae is conservatively accepted as being restricted to the African continent and Madagascar. The special features of the inflorescence structure are described. The following species are provisionally recognized: S. basutorum Turrill, S. distinctum Kukkonen, S. ecklonii Nees, S.  filiforme Kükenthal, S. gracile Chermezon, S. lanceum (Thunberg Kukenthal, S. lehmannii (Nees Steudel, S.  madagascariense Chermezon, S. perdensum Kukkonen, S. rufum Nees, S. schweickerdtii Merxmiiller & Podlech, and  S. sparteum (Wahlenberg Kukenthal. A key to the species is provided and their distribution is roughly outlined. The morphological variation within the species suggests separation of taxa below specific level, or perhaps even at species level, but this will require more detailed information about the ecology, distribution and the cytology.

  9. Marine worms (genus Osedax) colonize cow bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, William J; Johnson, Shannon B; Rouse, Greg W; Vrijenhoek, Robert C

    2008-02-22

    Bone-eating worms of the genus Osedax colonized and grew on cow bones deployed at depths ranging from 385 to 2893m in Monterey Bay, California. Colonization occurred as rapidly as two months following deployment of the cow bones, similar to the time it takes to colonize exposed whalebones. Some Osedax females found on the cow bones were producing eggs and some hosted dwarf males in their tubes. Morphological and molecular examinations of these worms confirmed the presence of six Osedax species, out of the eight species presently known from Monterey Bay. The ability of Osedax species to colonize, grow and reproduce on cow bones challenges previous notions that these worms are 'whale-fall specialists.'

  10. Transitions between Andean and Amazonian centers of endemism in the radiation of some arboreal rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The tropical Andes and Amazon are among the richest regions of endemism for mammals, and each has given rise to extensive in situ radiations. Various animal lineages have radiated ex situ after colonizing one of these regions from the other: Amazonian clades of dendrobatid frogs and passerine birds may have Andean ancestry, and transitions from the Amazon to Andes may be even more common. To examine biogeographic transitions between these regions, we investigated the evolutionary history of three clades of rodents in the family Echimyidae: bamboo rats (Dactylomys-Olallamys-Kannabateomys), spiny tree-rats (Mesomys-Lonchothrix), and brush-tailed rats (Isothrix). Each clade is distributed in both the Andes and Amazonia, and is more diverse in the lowlands. We used two mitochondrial (cyt-b and 12S) and three nuclear (GHR, vWF, and RAG1) markers to reconstruct their phylogenetic relationships. Tree topologies and ancestral geographic ranges were then used to determine whether Andean forms were basal to or derived from lowland radiations. Results Four biogeographic transitions are identified among the generic radiations. The bamboo rat clade unambiguously originated in the Amazon ca. 9 Ma, followed by either one early transition to the Andes (Olallamys) and a later move to the Amazon (Dactylomys), or two later shifts to the Andes (one in each genus). The Andean species of both Dactylomys and Isothrix are sister to their lowland species, raising the possibility that highland forms colonized the Amazon Basin. However, uncertainty in their reconstructed ancestral ranges obscures the origin of these transitions. The lone Andean species of Mesomys is confidently nested within the lowland radiation, thereby indicating an Amazon-to-Andes transition ca. 2 Ma. Conclusions Differences in the timing of these biogeographic transitions do not appear to explain the different polarities of these trees. Instead, even within the radiation of a single family, both Andean and

  11. A revision of the genus Microtypus Ratzeburg (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Čapek, M.; Achterberg, van C.

    1992-01-01

    The genus Microtypus Ratzeburg, 1848 (Braconidae: Microtypinae) is revised, its species are keyed, and a new species, M. petiolatus van Achterberg spec. nov. is described. The type species is redescribed and fully illustrated. The genus Similearinus Glowacki & Karpinski, 1967 is a new junior synonym

  12. Revision of the genus Trypeticus Marseul (Coleoptera: Histeridae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanaar, P.

    2003-01-01

    The genus Trypeticus Marseul, 1864 is revised and figured. A key to the species is given. Redescriptions of the hitherto described species are presented. The number of species in this genus has been brought up to 100, of which 72 species are described as new: T. adebratti (Sabah, Brunei), T.

  13. Development of DNA barcodes of genus Lygus Hahn (Hemiptera: Miridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genus Lygus (Hemiptera: Miridae) is an important group of insects that contains 43 known species worldwide. Some species within this genus are important agricultural pests in North America. Annual economic impacts in cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., from Lygus spp. due to yield losses and control ...

  14. Quantum field theory on higher-genus Riemann surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Reijiro; Yoshii, Hisahiro; Ojima, Shuichi; Paul, S.K.

    1989-07-01

    Quantum field theory for b-c systems is formulated on Riemann surfaces with arbitrary genus. We make use of the formalism recently developed by Krichever and Novikov. Hamiltonian is defined properly, and the Ward-Takahashi identities are derived on higher-genus Riemann surfaces. (author)

  15. Seiridium (Sporocadaceae): an important genus of plant pathogenic fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonthond, G.; Sandoval-Denis, M.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2018-01-01

    The genus Seiridium includes multiple plant pathogenic fungi well-known as causal organisms of cankers on Cupressaceae. Taxonomically, the status of several species has been a topic of debate, as the phylogeny of the genus remains unresolved and authentic ex-type cultures are mostly absent. In the

  16. The neotropical genus Opeatocerata Melander (Díptera, Empididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth G. V. Smith

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available The Neotropical empidid genus Opeatocerata Melander, hitherto known from only a sigle female from Mexico, is redefined in the light of new material, including males. Three new species are described and illustrated, a key provided and the presence of the genus now additionally established in Costa Rica, Panama, Bolivia, Ecuador, Trinidad and Brazil.

  17. On the entropy of random surfaces with arbitrary genus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostov, I.K.; Krzywicki, A.

    1987-01-01

    We calculate the susceptibility critical exponent γ for Polyakov random surfaces with arbitrary genus, using the Liouville theory to one-loop order. Some rigorous results obtained for special dimensionalities in a discrete version of the model are also noted. In all cases γ grows linearly with the genus of the surface. (orig.)

  18. Biological activities of species in the genus Tulbaghia : A review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Species of the genus Tulbaghia has been widely used in traditional medicine to treat various ailments such rheumatism, fits, fever, earache, tuberculosis etc. It is believed that the species possess several therapeutic properties. This paper evaluates some of the biological activities of the genus Tulbaghia. It is evident from ...

  19. PCR identification of Fusarium genus based on nuclear ribosomal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We have developed two taxon-selective primers for quick identification of the Fusarium genus. These primers, ITS-Fu-f and ITS-Fu-r were designed by comparing the aligned sequences of internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS) of a range of Fusarium species. The primers showed good specificity for the genus Fusarium, ...

  20. Natural genetic variation in Calligonum Tunisian genus analyzed by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Calligonum genus is one of the most economically important resources of the Tunisian desert, playing an important role in the lives of desert local population. A great range of genetic diversity could be seen in diverse populations of this genus which are spread all over Tunisian areas. DNA-based molecular markers are ...

  1. Torsionfree Sheaves over a Nodal Curve of Arithmetic Genus One

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We classify all isomorphism classes of stable torsionfree sheaves on an irreducible nodal curve of arithmetic genus one defined over C C . Let be a nodal curve of arithmetic genus one defined over R R , with exactly one node, such that does not have any real points apart from the node. We classify all isomorphism ...

  2. Genetic diversity within the genus Cynotilapia and its phylogenetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cynotilapia's unicuspid teeth, a unique character used to delineate it from all other mbuna genera, leaves evolutionary biologists wondering which is the closest relative to this genus among mbuna cichlids. This genus has only two described species out of the 10-13 species/taxa, whereby the undescribed taxa are either ...

  3. Karyotype evolution and species differentiation in the genus Rattus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rattus is the most studied genus all over the world but species of the genus are not thoroughly reported from Manipur. The present paper deals with the morphometric, cytotaxonomic and phylogenetic studies of Manipur, India. The different species of Rattus namely Rattus rattus, Rattus brunneusculus, Rattus tanezumi and ...

  4. Phytochemical and Ethno-Pharmacological Review of the Genus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Distribution, traditional uses, isolated chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of some common species of the genus Araucaria are reviewed in this paper. Almost 19 species belong to the genus, Araucaria. It is indigenous to North. America. Biflavanoid, diterpene, phenyl propanoid and lignans are abundant in ...

  5. Phylogeny of the genus Morus (Urticales: Moraceae) inferred from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both nuclear ribosomal ITS and chloroplast trnL-F sequences were acquired from 13 mulberry genotypes belonging to nine species and three varieties, and one paper mulberry. The later belongs to genus B. papyrifera, designed as outgroup, and were analyzed. Within the genus Morus, the sequence diversity of ITS was ...

  6. The Polyakov relation for the sphere and higher genus surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menotti, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    The Polyakov relation, which in the sphere topology gives the changes of the Liouville action under the variation of the position of the sources, is also related in the case of higher genus to the dependence of the action on the moduli of the surface. We write and prove such a relation for genus 1 and for all hyperelliptic surfaces. (paper)

  7. Calongea, a new genus of truffles in the Pezizaceae (Pezizales)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosanne A. Healy; Gregory Bonito; James M. Trappe

    2009-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of the ITS and LSU rDNA of Pachyphloeus species from Europe and North America revealed a new truffle genus. These molecular analyses plus sequences downloaded from a BLAST search in GenBank indicated that Pachyphloeus prieguensis is within the Pezizaceae but well outside of the genus Pachyphloeus...

  8. Non-abelian bosonization in higher genus Riemann surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, I.G.; Yu, M.

    1988-01-01

    We propose a generalization of the character formulas of the SU(2) Kac-Moody algebra to higher genus Riemann surfaces. With this construction, we show that the modular invariant partition funciton of the SO(4) k = 1 Wess-Zumino model is equivalent, in arbitrary genus Riemann surfaces, to that of free fermion theory. (orig.)

  9. Florae Malesianae Precursores XXX. The genus Scleria in Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kern, J.H.

    1961-01-01

    After Boeckeler's treatise on the species of Scleria known in his day (5), no comprehensive study on the genus has ever been published. The preparation of an up-to-date monograph would be an arduous task, not only owing to the large size of the genus, but also to the numerous problems encountered in

  10. A taxonomic revision of the Genus Origanum (Labiatae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ietswaart, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    The present study deals with the systematics and taxonomy of the genus Origanum (Labiatae, Saturejeae). As this difficult genus was never before monographed, a revisional study was much needed. The data presented are mainly based on the study of herbarium specimens and in some cases of living ones.

  11. The genus Gloriosa (Colchicaceae) : ethnobotany, phylogeny and taxonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maroyi, A.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the ethnobotany, phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Gloriosa L. over its distributional range. Some Gloriosa species are known to have economic and commercial value, but the genus is also well known for its complex alpha taxonomy. An appropriate taxonomy for this group is of

  12. Molecular phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Veloporphyrellus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan-Chun Li; Beatriz Ortiz-Santana; Nian-Kai Zeng; Bang Feng; Zhu L. Yang

    2014-01-01

    Veloporphyrellus is a genus known from North and Central America, southeastern Asia, and Africa. Because species of this genus are phenotypically similar to some taxa in several genera, such as Boletellus, Leccinum, Strobilomyces, Suillus and Tylopilus s.l. belonging to Boletales, its phylogenetic disposition has...

  13. The genus Architeuthis was erected, without giving any diagnosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    The genus Architeuthis was erected, without giving any diagnosis, by Steenstrup in 1857 for a specimen stranded on the Danish coast in 1853. In 1880, Verrill gave the first description of the genus. Pfeffer (1912) related this history and also mentioned that traditional narratives and illustrations of the 16th century had.

  14. Effects of natural phenomena and human activity on the species richness of endemic and non-endemic Heteroptera in the Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vargas, J. M.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The geographical patterns of Heteroptera species diversity in the Canary Islands were analysed, and endemic and non–endemic species were studied both together and separately. Causal processes most likely controlling these patterns, as well as the theory of island biogeography, hypotheses about evolutionary time, habitat heterogeneity, climatic stability, intermediate disturbances, energy, environmental favourableness–severity, productivity and human influence were investigated. The combination of habitat heterogeneity and human influence accounted for the total number of species. However, when endemic and non–endemic species were analysed separately, habitat heterogeneity and favourableness–severity explained the richness of endemic species, whereas habitat heterogeneity and human influence explained that of non–endemic species.

  15. A revision of the purse-web spider genus Calommata Lucas, 1837 (Araneae, Atypidae in the Afrotropical Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Fourie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The purse-web spider genus Calommata Lucas, 1837 is revised in the Afrotropical Region. Following examination of the female type material, C. transvaalica Hewitt, 1916 is removed from synonymy with C. simoni Pocock, 1903 and revalidated. The females of both species are redescribed and their males described for the first time. While C. simoni is very widespread across tropical Africa, C. transvaalica is endemic to northern South Africa. Four new species are described, all known only from males: C. megae sp. n. (Zimbabwe, C. meridionalis sp. n. (South Africa, C. namibica sp. n. (Namibia and C. tibialis sp. n. (Ivory Coast and Togo. Notes are presented on the biology of each species.

  16. On RNA-RNA interaction structures of fixed topological genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Benjamin M M; Han, Hillary S W; Reidys, Christian M

    2015-04-01

    Interacting RNA complexes are studied via bicellular maps using a filtration via their topological genus. Our main result is a new bijection for RNA-RNA interaction structures and a linear time uniform sampling algorithm for RNA complexes of fixed topological genus. The bijection allows to either reduce the topological genus of a bicellular map directly, or to lose connectivity by decomposing the complex into a pair of single stranded RNA structures. Our main result is proved bijectively. It provides an explicit algorithm of how to rewire the corresponding complexes and an unambiguous decomposition grammar. Using the concept of genus induction, we construct bicellular maps of fixed topological genus g uniformly in linear time. We present various statistics on these topological RNA complexes and compare our findings with biological complexes. Furthermore we show how to construct loop-energy based complexes using our decomposition grammar. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Tick-borne relapsing fever in a new highland endemic focus of western Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moemenbellah-Fard, M D; Benafshi, O; Rafinejad, J; Ashraf, H

    2009-09-01

    Tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) is a neglected zoonotic disease caused by infection with spirochaetes of the genus Borrelia. Humans usually contract it from the bite of infected soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros. In Iran, where the disease is endemic in the mountainous north-western provinces, reports of over 200 cases annually probably under-estimate the true incidence. The species, distribution and infection of ticks that are potential vectors of Borrelia and the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the local TBRF cases were recently investigated in the villages in and around the county town of Bijar, in north-western Iran. A blood sample from each suspected case of TBRF was checked for B. persica by dark-field microscopy, data were collected on the demographics and clinical manifestations of each confirmed case, and the prevalence of tick infection with borreliae and the monthly incidence of TBRF were evaluated. Between 2000 and 2007, 148 cases of TBRF (each with fever, chills and headache) were passively detected in the town. Most (115) of these were confirmed by microscopy, with the other subjects categorized as probable (21) or suspected cases (12) of TBRF. Most (91%) of the 148 subjects were young people, and most came from rural areas and lived in large households in the old mud-and-thatch houses of Bijar. Most (82%) of the cases occurred during the summer or early autumn. Overall, 8543 soft ticks (Ornithodoros tholozani, O. lahorensis, Argas persicus and A. reflexus) were collected by clustered random sampling. When a random sample of the O. tholozani ticks (96 of the 577 collected) was checked for B. persica infection, by being crushed and then inoculated intraperitoneally into a mouse or suckling Syrian hamster, 19 were found infected. Peaks in the monthly incidence of TBRF occurred as the numbers of O. tholozani in the tick collections peaked, and it seems likely that most of the cases were caused by B. persica transmitted by O

  18. On the origin of endemic species in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    DiBattista, Joseph; Howard Choat, J.; Gaither, Michelle R.; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A.; Lozano-Corté s, Diego; Myers, Robert F.; Paulay, Gustav; Rocha, Luiz A.; Toonen, Robert J.; Westneat, Mark W.; Berumen, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    High endemism observed in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden appears to have multiple origins. A cold, nutrient-rich water barrier separates the Gulf of Aden from the rest of the Arabian Sea, whereas a narrow strait separates the Red Sea from the Gulf of Aden, each providing potential isolating barriers. Additional barriers may arise from environmental gradients, circulation patterns and the constriction at the mouth of the Gulf of Aqaba. Endemics that evolved within the Red Sea basin had to survive glacial cycles in relatively low salinity refugia. It therefore appears that the unique conditions in the Red Sea, in addition to those characteristics of the Arabian Peninsula region as a whole, drive the divergence of populations via a combination of isolation and selection.

  19. Responses to TRH in patients with endemic goiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro, Laureano; Watanabe, Tomas; El Tamer, Elias; Varela, Amalia; Moran, Dardo; Rinaudo, Antonio; Staneloni, Luis; Degrossi, O.J.

    1978-12-01

    The response to TRH was studied in 32 patients from an endemic goiter area, 20 of them had been previously treated with iodized oil. Blood samples were taken at 0, 20, 40 and 120 minutes after de i.v. administration of 400μg of TRH, and serum levels of TSH, T3 and T4 were measured. The results obtained show that in endemic goiter area there is a modification in the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid feedback mechanism, with increased reserve of pituitary TSH and changes in T4 and T3 secretion. The injection of TRH gave exaggerated and delayed responses in the secretion of TSH and T3. Iodized oil used as a prophylatic method produced a disminution of pituitary TSH reserve, and of serum levels of TSH and T3, as a result of the return tonormality of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid feedback mechanism. (author) [es

  20. Patterns of Freshwater Species Richness, Endemism, and Vulnerability in California.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette K Howard

    Full Text Available The ranges and abundances of species that depend on freshwater habitats are declining worldwide. Efforts to counteract those trends are often hampered by a lack of information about species distribution and conservation status and are often strongly biased toward a few well-studied groups. We identified the 3,906 vascular plants, macroinvertebrates, and vertebrates native to California, USA, that depend on fresh water for at least one stage of their life history. We evaluated the conservation status for these taxa using existing government and non-governmental organization assessments (e.g., endangered species act, NatureServe, created a spatial database of locality observations or distribution information from ~400 data sources, and mapped patterns of richness, endemism, and vulnerability. Although nearly half of all taxa with conservation status (n = 1,939 are vulnerable to extinction, only 114 (6% of those vulnerable taxa have a legal mandate for protection in the form of formal inclusion on a state or federal endangered species list. Endemic taxa are at greater risk than non-endemics, with 90% of the 927 endemic taxa vulnerable to extinction. Records with spatial data were available for a total of 2,276 species (61%. The patterns of species richness differ depending on the taxonomic group analyzed, but are similar across taxonomic level. No particular taxonomic group represents an umbrella for all species, but hotspots of high richness for listed species cover 40% of the hotspots for all other species and 58% of the hotspots for vulnerable freshwater species. By mapping freshwater species hotspots we show locations that represent the top priority for conservation action in the state. This study identifies opportunities to fill gaps in the evaluation of conservation status for freshwater taxa in California, to address the lack of occurrence information for nearly 40% of freshwater taxa and nearly 40% of watersheds in the state, and to

  1. Control and eradication of endemic infectious diseases in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houe, Hans; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    "Control and eradication of endemic infectious diseases in cattle" provides the key elements that should be addressed in the establishment of bovine disease control and eradication programmes. The book aims to reach a broad group of readers, including: students; professionals in veterinary practice...... "disease profiling", which is governed by the characteristics of the agent and its interaction with the host and environment. This profile, along with due consideration of the socioeconomic circumstances, can be used to determine how best to address the problem....

  2. [Endemic situation and control progress of taeniasis in western China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Chang-Ping; Qian, Ying-Jun; Li, Tiao-Ying; Fu, Qing; Wang, Qiang; Xiao, Ning

    2014-06-01

    Taeniasis, caused by Taenia species, is one of the common zoonoses in China, particularly in the western region of China. Up to now, not enough attention has been given in the high prevalence and high burden of the diseases. In order to study the endemic patterns and control strategies of taeniasis, a series of epidemiological investigations, molecular researches and pilot control activities have been conducted in recent years. This paper reviews the relevant publications in taeniasis research over the last 10 years.

  3. Evolution of endemism on a young tropical mountain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merckx, Vincent S F T; Hendriks, Kasper P; Beentjes, Kevin K; Mennes, Constantijn B; Becking, Leontine E; Peijnenburg, Katja T C A; Afendy, Aqilah; Arumugam, Nivaarani; de Boer, Hugo; Biun, Alim; Buang, Matsain M; Chen, Ping-Ping; Chung, Arthur Y C; Dow, Rory; Feijen, Frida A A; Feijen, Hans; Feijen-van Soest, Cobi; Geml, József; Geurts, René; Gravendeel, Barbara; Hovenkamp, Peter; Imbun, Paul; Ipor, Isa; Janssens, Steven B; Jocqué, Merlijn; Kappes, Heike; Khoo, Eyen; Koomen, Peter; Lens, Frederic; Majapun, Richard J; Morgado, Luis N; Neupane, Suman; Nieser, Nico; Pereira, Joan T; Rahman, Homathevi; Sabran, Suzana; Sawang, Anati; Schwallier, Rachel M; Shim, Phyau-Soon; Smit, Harry; Sol, Nicolien; Spait, Maipul; Stech, Michael; Stokvis, Frank; Sugau, John B; Suleiman, Monica; Sumail, Sukaibin; Thomas, Daniel C; van Tol, Jan; Tuh, Fred Y Y; Yahya, Bakhtiar E; Nais, Jamili; Repin, Rimi; Lakim, Maklarin; Schilthuizen, Menno

    2015-08-20

    Tropical mountains are hot spots of biodiversity and endemism, but the evolutionary origins of their unique biotas are poorly understood. In varying degrees, local and regional extinction, long-distance colonization, and local recruitment may all contribute to the exceptional character of these communities. Also, it is debated whether mountain endemics mostly originate from local lowland taxa, or from lineages that reach the mountain by long-range dispersal from cool localities elsewhere. Here we investigate the evolutionary routes to endemism by sampling an entire tropical mountain biota on the 4,095-metre-high Mount Kinabalu in Sabah, East Malaysia. We discover that most of its unique biodiversity is younger than the mountain itself (6 million years), and comprises a mix of immigrant pre-adapted lineages and descendants from local lowland ancestors, although substantial shifts from lower to higher vegetation zones in this latter group were rare. These insights could improve forecasts of the likelihood of extinction and 'evolutionary rescue' in montane biodiversity hot spots under climate change scenarios.

  4. Recovery of endemic dragonflies after removal of invasive alien trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samways, Michael J; Sharratt, Norma J

    2010-02-01

    Because dragonflies are very sensitive to alien trees, we assessed their response to large-scale restoration of riparian corridors. We compared three types of disturbance regime--alien invaded, cleared of alien vegetation, and natural vegetation (control)--and recorded data on 22 environmental variables. The most significant variables in determining dragonfly assemblages were percentage of bank cover and tree canopy cover, which indicates the importance of vegetation architecture for these dragonflies. This finding suggests that it is important to restore appropriate marginal vegetation and sunlight conditions. Recovery of dragonfly assemblages after the clearing of alien trees was substantial. Species richness and abundance at restored sites matched those at control sites. Dragonfly assemblage patterns reflected vegetation succession. Thus, initially eurytopic, widespread species were the main beneficiaries of the removal of alien trees, and stenotopic, endemic species appeared after indigenous vegetation recovered over time. Important indicator species were the two national endemics (Allocnemis leucosticta and Pseudagrion furcigerum), which, along with vegetation type, can be used to monitor return of overall integrity of riparian ecology and to make management decisions. Endemic species as a whole responded positively to restoration, which suggests that indigenous vegetation recovery has major benefits for irreplaceable and widespread generalist species.

  5. Fatty acid composition of the cypselae of two endemic Centaurea species (Asteraceae

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    Janaćković Peđa

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acid composition of cypselae of two endemic species from Macedonia, Centaurea galicicae and C. tomorosii, is analysed for the first time, using GC/MS (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. In the cypselae of C. galicicae, 11 fatty acids were identified, palmitic (hexadecanoic acid (32.5% being the most dominant. Other fatty acids were elaidic [(E-octadec-9-enoic] acid (13.9%, stearic (octadecanoic acid (12.8% and linoleic [(9Z,12Z-9,12-octadecadienoic] acid (10.6%. Of the 11 identified fatty acids, seven were saturated fatty acids, which represented 41.5% of total fatty acids, while unsaturated fatty acids altogether constituted 58.5%. In the cypselae of C. tomorosii, five fatty acids were identified. The major fatty acid was linolelaidic [(9E,12E-octadeca- 9,12-dienoic] acid (48.8%. The second most dominant fatty acid was oleic [(9Z-octadec-9-enoic] acid (34.2%. Thus, unsaturated fatty acids were present with 83%. The other three fatty acids identified were saturated fatty acids, which represented 17% of total fatty acids. As a minor fatty acid, levulinic (4-oxopentanoic acid was determined in both C. galicicae and C. tomorosii (0.3% and 3.2%, respectively. The obtained results differ from published data on dominant fatty acids in the cypselae of other species belonging to the same section as the species investigated in the present paper (section Arenariae, subgenus Acrolophus, genus Centaurea. They also, differ from published data referable to other genera belonging to the same tribe (Cardueae. The general chemotaxonomic significance of fatty acids is discussed.

  6. Glacial refugia, recolonization patterns and diversification forces in Alpine-endemic Megabunus harvestmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachter, Gregor A; Papadopoulou, Anna; Muster, Christoph; Arthofer, Wolfgang; Knowles, L Lacey; Steiner, Florian M; Schlick-Steiner, Birgit C

    2016-06-01

    The Pleistocene climatic fluctuations had a huge impact on all life forms, and various hypotheses regarding the survival of organisms during glacial periods have been postulated. In the European Alps, evidence has been found in support of refugia outside the ice shield (massifs de refuge) acting as sources for postglacial recolonization of inner-Alpine areas. In contrast, evidence for survival on nunataks, ice-free areas above the glacier, remains scarce. Here, we combine multivariate genetic analyses with ecological niche models (ENMs) through multiple timescales to elucidate the history of Alpine Megabunus harvestmen throughout the ice ages, a genus that comprises eight high-altitude endemics. ENMs suggest two types of refugia throughout the last glacial maximum, inner-Alpine survival on nunataks for four species and peripheral refugia for further four species. In some geographic regions, the patterns of genetic variation are consistent with long-distance dispersal out of massifs de refuge, repeatedly coupled with geographic parthenogenesis. In other regions, long-term persistence in nunataks may dominate the patterns of genetic divergence. Overall, our results suggest that glacial cycles contributed to allopatric diversification in Alpine Megabunus, both within and at the margins of the ice shield. These findings exemplify the power of ENM projections coupled with genetic analyses to identify hypotheses about the position and the number of glacial refugia and thus to evaluate the role of Pleistocene glaciations in driving species-specific responses of recolonization or persistence that may have contributed to observed patterns of biodiversity. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Morphology and Gene Sequence of Levicoleps biwae n. gen., n. sp. (Ciliophora, Prostomatida), a Proposed Endemic from the Ancient Lake Biwa, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    FOISSNER, WILHELM; KUSUOKA, YASUSHI; SHIMANO, SATOSHI

    2010-01-01

    Levicoleps biwae n. gen., n. sp. was discovered in organic mud on the shore of Lake Biwa, Japan. Its morphology and small subunit rRNA gene sequence were studied with standard methods. Further, we established a terminology for the colepid armour and selected four features for genus recognition: the number of armour tiers, the structure of the tier plates, the presence/absence of armour spines, and the number of adoral organelles (three or five). The Japanese colepid, a barrel-shaped ciliate with an average size of 75 × 45 μm, has six armour tiers and hirtus-type tier plates, but lacks armour spines, both in the environment and in laboratory culture. Thus, it is considered to represent a new genus. This rank is supported by the considerable genetic distance (7%) from the common Coleps hirtus. Although L. biwae looks quite similar to C. hirtus in vivo, it is very likely most closely related to Coleps amphacanthus, a species with conspicuous armour spines, as indicated by body size, the number of ciliary rows and, especially, the multiple caudal cilia. Lake Biwa is about four million years old and inhabited by many endemic organisms, ranging from algae to large fish. Thus, we suspect that L. biwae is restricted to Lake Biwa or, at least, to Asia. Based on literature data and the generic features established, we also propose the new genus Reticoleps for Coleps remanei Kahl, 1933, and resurrect the genus Pinacocoleps Diesing, 1865 to include Coleps incurvus Ehrenberg, 1833, Coleps pulcher Spiegel, 1926, Coleps tessalatus Kahl, 1930 and, probably, Baikalocoleps quadratus Obolkina, 1995a. Nine colepid genera are diagnosed and dichotomously keyed. PMID:18460156

  8. Morphology and gene sequence of Levicoleps biwae n. gen., n. sp. (Ciliophora, Prostomatida), a proposed endemic from the ancient Lake Biwa, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foissner, Wilhelm; Kusuoka, Yasushi; Shimano, Satoshi

    2008-01-01

    Levicoleps biwae n. gen., n. sp. was discovered in organic mud on the shore of Lake Biwa, Japan. Its morphology and small subunit rRNA gene sequence were studied with standard methods. Further, we established a terminology for the colepid armour and selected four features for genus recognition: the number of armour tiers, the structure of the tier plates, the presence/absence of armour spines, and the number of adoral organelles (three or five). The Japanese colepid, a barrel-shaped ciliate with an average size of 75 x 45 microm, has six armour tiers and hirtus-type tier plates, but lacks armour spines, both in the environment and in laboratory culture. Thus, it is considered to represent a new genus. This rank is supported by the considerable genetic distance (7%) from the common Coleps hirtus. Although L. biwae looks quite similar to C. hirtus in vivo, it is very likely most closely related to Coleps amphacanthus, a species with conspicuous armour spines, as indicated by body size, the number of ciliary rows and, especially, the multiple caudal cilia. Lake Biwa is about four million years old and inhabited by many endemic organisms, ranging from algae to large fish. Thus, we suspect that L. biwae is restricted to Lake Biwa or, at least, to Asia. Based on literature data and the generic features established, we also propose the new genus Reticoleps for Coleps remanei Kahl, 1933, and resurrect the genus Pinacocoleps Diesing, 1865 to include Coleps incurvus Ehrenberg, 1833, Coleps pulcher Spiegel, 1926, Coleps tessalatus Kahl, 1930 and, probably, Baikalocoleps quadratus Obolkina, 1995a. Nine colepid genera are diagnosed and dichotomously keyed.

  9. Composition, Endemism and Phytogeographical Affinities of the Taiwan Flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Fu Hsieh

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The Taiwan vascular flora is exceptionally interesting not only because it is rich and diversified, but because it is of great phytogeographic significance owing to its geographic location. The flora of Taiwan, including naturalized plants, comprises 233 families and 1389 genera with 4216 species. In terms of major growth forms, there are 588 trees, 426 shrubs, 249 lianas, 177 vines, and 2776 herbs or ferns. Approximately 234 species are exotics typically associated with pastures, road clearings and other human disturbances. An extremely large percentage of these naturalized plants are of tropical New World origin. Among the native flora, the Orchidaceae (331 species, Gramineae (249, Compositae (194, Leguminosae (176, Cyperaceae (174, Rosaceae (105, Rubiaceae (93 and Euphorbiaceae (76 rank highest in numbers of species. Clearly, the greatest part of Taiwan's floristics richness comes from a wealth of species in primarily lowland (0–600 m asl. taxa. A total of 2571 species were recorded in the lowlands, whereas only about 251 species occur between 3100-3950 m. Endemic genera are extremely scarce in Taiwan, with only four, namely Sinopanax (Araliaceae, Hayatella (Rubiaceae, Kudoacanthus (Acanthaceae, and Haraella (Orchidaceae. In contrast to the low percentage of generic endemism, there is a remarkably higher specific endemism. About 1041 species (26.1% of indigenous plants are known only from Taiwan. A detailed examination of these species shows that there is a distinct trend of increasing endemism with increasing altitude (r² = 0.99. A survey of indigenous non-endemic species on the basis of their geographical distribution outside Taiwan shows that they can be classified into 6 major categories: 1. pantropical and palaeotropical species (1029 species; 2. species distributed in eastern Asia, from Himalayas through southern & eastern China to Taiwan, with some extending to the Ryukyus and Japan (1075 species; 3. widespread species extending

  10. Analysis of synonymous codon usage patterns in the genus Rhizobium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinxin; Wu, Liang; Zhou, Ping; Zhu, Shengfeng; An, Wei; Chen, Yu; Zhao, Lin

    2013-11-01

    The codon usage patterns of rhizobia have received increasing attention. However, little information is available regarding the conserved features of the codon usage patterns in a typical rhizobial genus. The codon usage patterns of six completely sequenced strains belonging to the genus Rhizobium were analysed as model rhizobia in the present study. The relative neutrality plot showed that selection pressure played a role in codon usage in the genus Rhizobium. Spearman's rank correlation analysis combined with correspondence analysis (COA) showed that the codon adaptation index and the effective number of codons (ENC) had strong correlation with the first axis of the COA, which indicated the important role of gene expression level and the ENC in the codon usage patterns in this genus. The relative synonymous codon usage of Cys codons had the strongest correlation with the second axis of the COA. Accordingly, the usage of Cys codons was another important factor that shaped the codon usage patterns in Rhizobium genomes and was a conserved feature of the genus. Moreover, the comparison of codon usage between highly and lowly expressed genes showed that 20 unique preferred codons were shared among Rhizobium genomes, revealing another conserved feature of the genus. This is the first report of the codon usage patterns in the genus Rhizobium.

  11. Genomes-based phylogeny of the genus Xanthomonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez-R Luis M

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Xanthomonas comprises several plant pathogenic bacteria affecting a wide range of hosts. Despite the economic, industrial and biological importance of Xanthomonas, the classification and phylogenetic relationships within the genus are still under active debate. Some of the relationships between pathovars and species have not been thoroughly clarified, with old pathovars becoming new species. A change in the genus name has been recently suggested for Xanthomonas albilineans, an early branching species currently located in this genus, but a thorough phylogenomic reconstruction would aid in solving these and other discrepancies in this genus. Results Here we report the results of the genome-wide analysis of DNA sequences from 989 orthologous groups from 17 Xanthomonas spp. genomes available to date, representing all major lineages within the genus. The phylogenetic and computational analyses used in this study have been automated in a Perl package designated Unus, which provides a framework for phylogenomic analyses which can be applied to other datasets at the genomic level. Unus can also be easily incorporated into other phylogenomic pipelines. Conclusions Our phylogeny agrees with previous phylogenetic topologies on the genus, but revealed that the genomes of Xanthomonas citri and Xanthomonas fuscans belong to the same species, and that of Xanthomonas albilineans is basal to the joint clade of Xanthomonas and Xylella fastidiosa. Genome reduction was identified in the species Xanthomonas vasicola in addition to the previously identified reduction in Xanthomonas albilineans. Lateral gene transfer was also observed in two gene clusters.

  12. Mitochondrial DNA evolution in the genus Equus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, M; Ryder, O A

    1986-11-01

    Employing mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) restriction-endonuclease maps as the basis of comparison, we have investigated the evolutionary affinities of the seven species generally recognized as the genus Equus. Individual species' cleavage maps contained an average of 60 cleavage sites for 16 enzymes, of which 29 were invariant for all species. Based on an average divergence rate of 2%/Myr, the variation between species supports a divergence of extant lineages from a common ancestor approximately 3.9 Myr before the present. Comparisons of cleavage maps between Equus przewalskii (Mongolian wild horse) and E. caballus (domestic horse) yielded estimates of nucleotide sequence divergence ranging from 0.27% to 0.41%. This range was due to intraspecific variation, which was noted only for E. caballus. For pairwise comparisons within this family, estimates of sequence divergence ranged from 0% (E. hemionus onager vs. E. h. kulan) to 7.8% (E. przewalskii vs. E. h. onager). Trees constructed according to the parsimony principle, on the basis of 31 phylogenetically informative restriction sites, indicate that the three extant zebra species represent a monophyletic group with E. grevyi and E. burchelli antiquorum diverging most recently. The phylogenetic relationships of E. africanus and E. hemionus remain enigmatic on the basis of the mtDNA analysis, although a recent divergence is unsupported.

  13. The genus Cuscuta L. in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Aistova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of published data, herbarium collections  and  our  own  research  the  overview  of  the spread  of  7  dodder  species  (genus  Cuscuta  on  the territory of  of the Russian Far East and East Asia is given. The  history  of  research  dodders  on  the  territory  of  the Russian Far East, ecological and spreading peculiarities are described. Certain eurytopic species (C. campestris Yunck., C. japonica Choisy and C. europaea L. growing on the territory of the Russian Far East have plasticity and  rapid  adaptive  response  for  changing  ecological and  geographical  conditions.  C.  epilinum  Weihe, C. epithymum (L. Nathh., C. tinei Insenga have not been naturalized in the Russian Far East.

  14. American Tertiary mollusks of the genus Clementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodring, W.P.

    1927-01-01

    Aside from its value as an aid in determining the age of Tertiary beds, the chief interest of the genus Clementia lies in the anomalous features of its present and former distribution. An attempt is made in this paper to trace its geologic history, to point out its paleobiologic significance, and to describe all the known American Tertiary species. The fossils from Colombia used in preparing this report were collected during explorations made under the direction of Dr. 0. B. Hopkins, chief geologist of the Imperial Oil Co. (Ltd.), who kindly donated them to the United States National Museum. Dr. T. Wayland Vaughan, of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, furnished information relating to specimens collected by him in Mexico. Dr. Bruce L. Clark, of the University of California; Dr. G. Dallas Hanna, of the California Academy of Sciences; Dr. H. A. Pilsbry, of the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences; and Dr. W. D. Matthew, of the American Museum of Natural History, generously loaned type specimens and other material. Doctor Clark and Doctor Hanna also gave information concerning the Tertiary species from California. Mr. Ralph B. Stewart, of the University of California, read the manuscript, and I have taken advantage of his suggestions. I am also indebted to Mr. L. R. Cox, of the British Museum, for information relating to the fossil species from Persia, Zanzibar, and Burma, and to Dr. Axel A. Olsson, of the International Petroleum Co., for data concerning undescribed Tertiary species from Peru.

  15. Sutorius: a new genus for Boletus eximius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halling, Roy E; Nuhn, Mitchell; Fechner, Nigel A; Osmundson, Todd W; Soytong, Kasem; Arora, David; Hibbett, David S; Binder, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    Sutorius is described as a new genus of Boletaceae to accommodate Boletus robustus originally named illegitimately by C.C. Frost from eastern North America. The legitimate name, Boletus eximius, provided by C.H. Peck, has been used since for a dark purple to chocolate brown bolete with finely scaly stipe and reddish brown spore deposit. This iconic taxon has been documented on five continents. Despite the straightforward species identification from morphology, the interpretation of stipe macro-morphology and spore color has led to equivocal generic placement. Phylogenetic analyses of genes encoding large subunit rRNA and translation elongation factor 1α confirm Sutorius as a unique generic lineage in the Boletaceae. Two species are recognized based on multiple accessions: S. eximius, represented by collections from North America, Costa Rica, Guyana, Indonesia and Japan (molecular data are lacking for only the Guyanan and Japanese material); and S. australiensis, represented by material from Queensland, Australia. Additional collections from Zambia and Thailand represent independent lineages, but sampling is insufficient to describe new species for these entities.

  16. Leishmania-specific surface antigens show sub-genus sequence variation and immune recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P Depledge

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A family of hydrophilic acylated surface (HASP proteins, containing extensive and variant amino acid repeats, is expressed at the plasma membrane in infective extracellular (metacyclic and intracellular (amastigote stages of Old World Leishmania species. While HASPs are antigenic in the host and can induce protective immune responses, the biological functions of these Leishmania-specific proteins remain unresolved. Previous genome analysis has suggested that parasites of the sub-genus Leishmania (Viannia have lost HASP genes from their genomes.We have used molecular and cellular methods to analyse HASP expression in New World Leishmania mexicana complex species and show that, unlike in L. major, these proteins are expressed predominantly following differentiation into amastigotes within macrophages. Further genome analysis has revealed that the L. (Viannia species, L. (V. braziliensis, does express HASP-like proteins of low amino acid similarity but with similar biochemical characteristics, from genes present on a region of chromosome 23 that is syntenic with the HASP/SHERP locus in Old World Leishmania species and the L. (L. mexicana complex. A related gene is also present in Leptomonas seymouri and this may represent the ancestral copy of these Leishmania-genus specific sequences. The L. braziliensis HASP-like proteins (named the orthologous (o HASPs are predominantly expressed on the plasma membrane in amastigotes and are recognised by immune sera taken from 4 out of 6 leishmaniasis patients tested in an endemic region of Brazil. Analysis of the repetitive domains of the oHASPs has shown considerable genetic variation in parasite isolates taken from the same patients, suggesting that antigenic change may play a role in immune recognition of this protein family.These findings confirm that antigenic hydrophilic acylated proteins are expressed from genes in the same chromosomal region in species across the genus Leishmania. These proteins are

  17. Species delimitation and interspecific relationships of the genus Orychophragmus (Brassicaceae inferred from whole chloroplast genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Hu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionIt is rather difficult to delimit recently diverged species and construct their interspecific relationships because of insufficient informative variations of sampled DNA fragments (Schluter, 2000; Arnold, 2006. The genome-scale sequence variations were found to increase the phylogenetic resolutions of both high- and low-taxonomic groups (e.g., Yoder et al., 2013; Lamichhaney et al., 2015. It is still expensive to collect nuclear genome variations between species for most none-model genera without the reference genome. However, chloroplast genomes (plastome are relatively easy to be assembled to examine interspecific relationships for phylogenetic analyses, especially in addressing unresolved relationship at low taxonomic levels (Wu et al., 2010; Nock et al., 2011; Yang et al., 2013; Huang et al., 2014; Carbonell-Caballero et al., 2015. Plastomes are haploid with maternal inheritance in most angiosperms (Corriveau and Coleman, 1988; Zhang and Liu, 2003; Hagemann, 2004 and are highly conservative in gene order and genome structure with rare recombinations (Jansen et al., 2007; Moore et al., 2010. In this study, we aimed to examine species delimitation and interspecific relationships in Orychophragmus through assembling chloroplast genomes of multiple individuals of tentatively delimited species (Hu et al., 2015a. Orychophragmus is a small genus in the mustard family (Brassicaceae, Cruciferae distributed in northern, central, and southeastern China (Zhou et al., 2001. Its plants have been widely cultivated as ornamentals, vegetables, or source of seed oil (Sun et al., 2011. Despite controversial species delimitations in the genus (Zhou et al., 1987; Tan et al., 1998; Wu and Zhao, 2003; Al-Shehbaz and Yang, 2000; Zhou et al., 2001; Sun et al., 2012, our recent study based on nuclear (nr ITS sequence variations suggested the recognition of seven species (Hu et al., 2015a. Orychophragmus is sister to Sinalliaria, which is a genus endemic

  18. On the toroidal compactifications of bosonic strings in higher genus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semikhatov, A.M.

    1989-01-01

    For the bosonic string in a higher genus, compactified on the maximal torus of a simply laced Lie group, we discuss a possibility to construct an operator formalism involving only those operators that are well-defined globally over the whole Riemann surface. We find, in particular, higher genus extensions of (some combinations of) the vertex operators for the Kac-Moody algebra. This allows us to derive the relation between the Sugawara and Virasoro constructions of the energy-momentum tensor on Riemann surfaces, and to propose an operator mechanism underlying the construction of group current correlation functions in higher genus. (orig.)

  19. Early Homo and the role of the genus in paleoanthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villmoare, Brian

    2018-01-01

    The history of the discovery of early fossils attributed to the genus Homo has been contentious, with scholars disagreeing over the generic assignment of fossils proposed as members of our genus. In this manuscript I review the history of discovery and debate over early Homo and evaluate the various taxonomic hypotheses for the genus. To get a sense of how hominin taxonomy compares to taxonomic practice outside paleoanthropology, I compare the diversity of Homo to genera in other vertebrate clades. Finally, I propose a taxonomic model that hews closely to current models for hominin phylogeny and is consistent with taxonomic practice across evolutionary biology. © 2018 American Association of Physical Anthropologists.

  20. Review of the Genus Pimpla (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Pimplinae from Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Kyung Choi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed Korean species of the genus Pimpla and confirmed 12 species. In this genus, 36 species have been reported from the Eastern Palaearctic region, eight species were from Korea. Also, we report four species, Pimpla albociliata Kasparyan, 1974, Pimpla femorella Kasparyan, 1974, Pimpla kaszabi (Momoi, 1973 and Pimpla melanacrias Perkins, 1941, which were newly recorded for the first time from Korea. Among them, Pimpla nipponica Uchida, 1928 is recorded from United States and the Nearctic region for the first time. A key to Korean species of the genus Pimpla, diagnoses and illustrations of adult external structures are provided.

  1. Diversity of secondary metabolites from Genus Artocarpus (Moraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALIEFMAN HAKIM

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Hakim A. 2010. The diversity of secondary metabolites from Genus Artocarpus (Moraceae. Nusantara Bioscience 2:146-156. Several species of the Artocarpus genus (Moraceae have been investigated their natural product. The secondary metabolites successfully being isolatad from Artocarpus genus consist of terpenoid, flavonoids, stilbenoid, arylbenzofuran, neolignan, and adduct Diels-Alder. Flavonoid group represent the compound which is the most found from Artocarpus plant. The flavonoids compound which are successfully isolated from Artocarpus plant consist of the varied frameworks like chalcone, flavanone, flavan-3-ol, simple flavone, prenylflavone, oxepinoflavone, pyranoflavone, dihydrobenzoxanthone, furanodihydrobenzoxanthone, pyranodihydrobenzoxanthone, quinonoxanthone, cyclopentenoxanthone, xanthonolide, dihydroxanthone.

  2. Abradeosporangium, a new genus of Mucorales (Fungi: Zygomycetes from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Subrahmanyam

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abradeosporangium, a new genus of Mucorales with its type species A. variosporum, is described from India. The new genus is distinct in producing dimorphic sporangia and multispored, acolumellate and globose macrosporangia with persistent, thin peridium. Sparingly, portions of the sporangial wall at the top and bottom of the sporangia are dissolved at maturity to release the sporangiospores whilst, in its close ally Gilbertella, the sporangium breaks open via a longitudinal suture. Further, the smaller sporangia (microsporangia are without a longitudinal suture and produce variable number of spores. The sporangiospores are pale brown, longitudinally striated without any appendages. Besides, the new genus produces neither rhizoids nor zygospores.

  3. Systematics of the Madagascar Anelosimus spiders: remarkable local richness and endemism, and dual colonization from the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingi Agnarsson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the alarming rates of deforestation and forest fragmentation, Madagascar still harbors extraordinary biodiversity. However, in many arthropod groups, such as spiders, this biodiversity remains mostly unexplored and undescribed. The first subsocial Madagascan species of the theridiid spider genus Anelosimus were described in 2005 when six new species were found to coexist in the Périnet forest fragment within Andasibe-Mantadia NP. However, this discovery was based only on a few specimens and the extent of this Madagascan radiation has remained unknown. We here report on a thorough survey of >350 colonies from Périnet, and three pilot surveys into additional Madagascar forests (Ambohitantely, Ranamofana, and Montagne d’Ambre. The morphological, molecular and natural history data from these surveys facilitated a revised taxonomy and phylogenetic hypothesis of Madagascan Anelosimus. This subsocial clade currently comprises six previously known (A. andasibe Agnarsson & Kuntner, 2005, A. may Agnarsson, 2005, A. nazariani Agnarsson & Kuntner, 2005, A. sallee Agnarsson & Kuntner, 2005, A. salut Agnarsson & Kuntner, 2005, A. vondrona Agnarsson & Kuntner, 2005 and 10 new species: A. ata sp. n., A. buffoni sp. n., A. darwini sp. n., A. hookeri sp. n., A. huxleyi sp. n., A. lamarcki sp. n., A. moramora sp. n., A. tita sp. n., A. torfi sp. n., A. wallacei sp. n.. With the exception of A. may and A. vondrona, all other species appear to be single forest endemics. While additional sampling is necessary, these data imply a much higher local richness and endemism in Madagascan forests than in any other comparable area globally. The phylogenetic results establish a sister clade relationship between the subsocial Anelosimus in Madagascar and the American ‘eximius group’, and between the solitary A. decaryi on Madagascar and a solitary American clade. These findings imply duplicate colonizations from America, an otherwise rare biogeographical

  4. In Situ Conservation of Some Rare and Endemic Species of Iridaceae Family in National Botanical Garden of Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Nadiradze

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article covers some information on anthropogenic influence upon natural ecosystems that is considered to be one of the strongest factors for reducing biodiversity of Georgian flora. With this purpose, some species of fam. Iridaceae that need to be protected under in situ conditions are being studied. The paper focuses on the fam. Iridaceae. This family is particularly interesting as it unites a considerable number of valuable, beautifully flowering plants with ornamental leaves, representing different biomorphs. Particularly rare and endangered species are: Iris iberica, I. Grossheimii, I. Lycotis, I. Camillae, I. Elegantissima, etc. We have carried out complex studies of bio-ecological peculiarities of bulbous geophytes and ephemeroids of genus Iridodictyum winogradowii, Ir. Reticulatum, Siphonastilis lasica and Iuno caucasica. There has been studied rhythm of growth and development of vital cycle of monocarpic shootings and ways of their propagation in the sub arid zone of East Georgia. There should be mentioned that they have perfectly adapted to the conditions. Such rare species of rootstock plants like Iris iberica, I. Carthalinical. Aphylla, I. graminea, I. imbricata, I. timofejewii, I. prilipkoana, I. musulmanica, Siphonastilis lazica and others even give abundant self-seedlings that undoubtedly makes it possible to protect them from being finally extinct. All the investigated plants can be recommended for using in landscape architecture under the conditions of East Georgia that will contribute to conservation of the valuable genofond of relict and endemic plants of Georgian flora. The work deals with the results of in situ conservation of some of rare and endemic species of fam. Iridaceae from Iridaceae Juss family. According to IUCN categories, the studied taxaare discussed as the endangered species in nature.

  5. Large-scale phylogenetic analyses provide insights into unrecognized diversity and historical biogeography of Asian leaf-litter frogs, genus Leptolalax (Anura: Megophryidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jin-Min; Poyarkov, Nikolay A; Suwannapoom, Chatmongkon; Lathrop, Amy; Wu, Yun-He; Zhou, Wei-Wei; Yuan, Zhi-Yong; Jin, Jie-Qiong; Chen, Hong-Man; Liu, He-Qun; Nguyen, Truong Quang; Nguyen, Sang Ngoc; Duong, Tang Van; Eto, Koshiro; Nishikawa, Kanto; Matsui, Masafumi; Orlov, Nikolai L; Stuart, Bryan L; Brown, Rafe M; Rowley, Jodi J L; Murphy, Robert W; Wang, Ying-Yong; Che, Jing

    2018-07-01

    Southeast Asia and southern China (SEA-SC) harbor a highly diverse and endemic flora and fauna that is under increasing threat. An understanding of the biogeographical history and drivers of this diversity is lacking, especially in some of the most diverse and threatened groups. The Asian leaf-litter frog genus Leptolalax Dubois 1980 is a forest-dependent genus distributed throughout SEA-SC, making it an ideal study group to examine specific biogeographic hypotheses. In addition, the diversity of this genus remains poorly understood, and the phylogenetic relationships among species of Leptolalax and closely related Leptobrachella Smith 1928 remain unclear. Herein, we evaluate species-level diversity based on 48 of the 53 described species from throughout the distribution of Leptolalax. Molecular analyses reveal many undescribed species, mostly in southern China and Indochina. Our well-resolved phylogeny based on multiple nuclear DNA markers shows that Leptolalax is not monophyletic with respect to Leptobrachella and, thus, we assign the former to being a junior synonym of the latter. Similarly, analyses reject monophyly of the two subgenera of Leptolalax. The diversification pattern of the group is complex, involving a high degree of sympatry and prevalence of microendemic species. Northern Sundaland (Borneo) and eastern Indochina (Vietnam) appear to have played pivotal roles as geographical centers of diversification, and paleoclimatic changes and tectonic movements seem to have driven the major divergence of clades. Analyses fail to reject an "upstream" colonization hypothesis, and, thus, the genus appears to have originated in Sundaland and then colonized mainland Asia. Our results reveal that both vicariance and dispersal are responsible for current distribution patterns in the genus. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Dwarf char, a new form of chars (the genus Salvelinus) in Lake Kronotskoe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, S.D.; Pivovarov, E.A.; Ostberg, C.O.

    2012-01-01

    Lake Kronotskoe is situated in the Kronotskii State Nature Reserve and is a unique natural heritage of Kamchatka. The lake–river system of the reserve includes numerous springs and small streams and three large inflowing rivers, Listvennichnaya, Unana, and Uzon, which form the main bays of Lake Kronotskoe; one river (Kronotskaya) flows from the lake. This river is characterized by several rapids, which are assumed to be unsurmountable barriers for fish migration. The ichthyofauna of the lake has been isolated for a long time, and some endemic fishes appeared, including char of the genus Salvelinus and the residential form of red salmon Oncorhynchus nerka (the local name is kokanee). These species are perfect model objects to study microevolution processes. Char of Lake Kronotskoe are characterized by significant polymorphism and plasticity [1–3]; therefore, they are extremely valuable for studying the processes of speciation and form development. That is why the populations of char in Lake Kronotskoe are unique and attract special attention of researchers. 

  7. Comparative Study of Worldwide Species of Genus Lentinus (=Lentinula, Higher Basidiomycetes) Based on Linear Mycelium Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Juan Luis; Mishra, Nutan Tulapurkar

    2015-01-01

    Species of mushroom genus Lentinus (=Lentinula) are best known for the commercially important and extensively studied culinary-medicinal shiitake, L. edodes. A few mycelium growth studies have focused on Lentinus boryana, but information is lacking for L. raphanica and L. aciculospora, endemic to the Americas. In this study, 14 dikaryon strains representing 5 Lentinus species were grown on 5 nutritive agar media at increments of 5°C. Growth for each species was significantly slower on corn meal agar, but no differences were found among malt extract, potato dextrose, malt peptone, and yeast malt extract agars. Lentinus aciculospora and L. boryana consistently exhibited the slowest mycelium growth rates among all species and across all temperatures tested, with optima at 15°C and 20°C. The fastest mycelium growth rates for L. edodes, L. novaezelandiae, and L. raphanica occurred at 25°C. Strains of the latter continued to grow well at 30°C, whereas growth of the other 2 species declined significantly. Differences in mycelium growth rates for American strains could be partially explained by their geographic locations, indicating that understanding this physiological parameter has important ramifications for the edible mushroom industry.

  8. Crusticorallina gen. nov., a nongeniculate genus in the subfamily Corallinoideae (Corallinales, Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hind, Katharine R; Gabrielson, Paul W; P Jensen, Cassandra; Martone, Patrick T

    2016-12-01

    Molecular phylogenetic analyses of 18S rDNA (SSU) gene sequences confirm the placement of Crusticorallina gen. nov. in Corallinoideae, the first nongeniculate genus in an otherwise geniculate subfamily. Crusticorallina is distinguished from all other coralline genera by the following suite of morpho-anatomical characters: (i) sunken, uniporate gametangial and bi/tetrasporangial conceptacles, (ii) cells linked by cell fusions, not secondary pit connections, (iii) an epithallus of 1 or 2 cell layers, (iv) a hypothallus that occupies 50% or more of the total thallus thickness, (v) elongate meristematic cells, and (vi) trichocytes absent. Four species are recognized based on rbcL, psbA and COI-5P sequences, C. painei sp. nov., the generitype, C. adhaerens sp. nov., C. nootkana sp. nov. and C. muricata comb. nov., previously known as Pseudolithophyllum muricatum. Type material of Lithophyllum muricatum, basionym of C. muricata, in TRH comprises at least two taxa, and therefore we accept the previously designated lectotype specimen in UC that we sequenced to confirm its identity. Crusticorallina species are very difficult to distinguish using morpho-anatomical and/or habitat characters, although at specific sites, some species may be distinguished by a combination of morpho-anatomy, habitat and biogeography. The Northeast Pacific now boasts six coralline endemic genera, far more than any other region of the world. © 2016 Phycological Society of America.

  9. Three new species of the killifish genus Melanorivulus from the central Brazilian Cerrado savanna (Cyprinodontiformes, Aplocheilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson J.E.M. Costa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Three new species are described from the Neotropical region comprising the Cerrado savannas of the central Brazilian plateaus, which is among the most important biodiversity centres in the world. These species are considered closely related to M. dapazi from the same region, with which they share the presence of a rudimentary interarcual cartilage and a dark reddish brown distal margin on the male anal fin. The group comprising M. dapazi and the three new species is here named as the M. dapazi species group. Melanorivulus ignescens sp. n., from the upper Rio Araguaia basin, is distinguished from all other species of the M. dapazi group by the anal-fin colour pattern in males; M. flavipinnis sp. n. and M. regularis sp. n. from the Rio Paraguai basin are distinguished from all other congeners of the M. dapazi group by the colour pattern of the caudal fin and number of scales in the longitudinal series, respectively. All the new species are further unambiguously diagnosed by unique combinations of morphological characters, including meristic and morphometric data, and colour patterns. This study reinforces the importance of using live colour patterns to diagnose species and species groups of the genus Melanorivulus, but also indicates that osteological characters may be informative for species diagnosis. This study confirms the high diversity of species of Melanorivulus in the central Brazilian Cerrado plateaus already reported in previous studies, indicating that endemic species are often restricted to short segments of a single river drainage.

  10. Evolutionary History of the Genus Capsella (Brassicaceae - Capsella orientalis , New for Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Neuffer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To elucidate the evolutionary history of the genus Capsella , we included the hitherto poorly known species C. orientalis and C. thracica into our studies together with C. grandifl ora , C. rubella , and C. bursa-pastoris . We sequenced the ITS, and four loci of noncoding cpDNA regions (trnL – F, rps16, trnH – psbA, trnQ – rps16. In common garden fi eld experiments C. orientalis turned out as early fl owering with a specifi c leaf type. The crossing ability of the species was tested in pollen germination experiments. Capsella orientalis (self-compatible, SC; 2n = 16 forms a clade (eastern lineage with C . bursa-pastoris (SC; 2n = 32, which is a sister clade (western lineage to C. grandifl ora (self-incompatible, SI; 2n = 16 and C. rubella (SC; 2n = 16. Capsella bursa-pastoris is an autopolyploid species of multiple origin, whereas the Bulgarian endemic C. thracica (SC; 2n = 32 is allopolyploid and emerged from interspecifi c hybridisation between C. bursa-pastoris and C. grandifl ora . The common ancestor of the two lineages was diploid and SI, and its distribution ranged from eastern Europe to central Asia, predominantly confi ned to steppe like habitats. Biogeographic dynamics during the Pleistocene caused geographic and genetic subdivisions within the common ancestor giving rise to the two extant lineages. Capsella orientalis is verifi ed at several positions in western Mongolia.

  11. Population connectivity and the effectiveness of marine protected areas to protect vulnerable, exploited and endemic coral reef fishes at an endemic hotspot

    KAUST Repository

    Van Der Meer, Martin H.; Berumen, Michael L.; Hobbs, Jean Paul Adrian; Van Herwerden, Lynne Van

    2014-01-01

    -replenishment, and the absence of MPAs at NI needs to be rectified to ensure the persistence of endemic species at this location. Other endemic fishes exhibit similar patterns of high self-replenishment across the four locations, indicating that a single spatial management

  12. Morphological and karyological relationship within Alpine-Dinaric populations of the genus Iris L., Pallidae series (A. Kern. Trinajstić (Iridaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Mitić

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationships within the Alpine-Dinaric and cultivated populations of the genus Iris, Pallidae series, have been analysed by methods of multivariate statistics (Cluster, PCA and MST analyses. The bases for multivariate analyses were seven morphological characteristics (stem length, length of largest leaf, greatest width of the largest leaf, length of smallest leaf, greatest width of the smallest leaf, the number of leaves and the number of flowers and relative chromosome length for 12 chromosome pairs. In spite of two similar looking isolated populations (Stara Baška and Konavle, the presence of four groups within the series was established, to which a species status can be ascribed: I. pallida Lam. separated as a horticultural species, /. cengialti Ambr. - endemic in Alpine region, /. illyrica Tomm. - endemic to the northern Adriatic Littoral and I. pseudopallida Trinajstić - endemic to the southern Adriatic Littoral. To differentiate the established groups, in PCA analysis the most significant features turned out to be: relative chromosome length of eleventh and tenth chromosome pairs, the length of the smallest leaf, relative chromosome length of the seventh chromosome pair and length of the stem.

  13. Long non-coding RNA discovery across the genus anopheles reveals conserved secondary structures within and beyond the Gambiae complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Adam M; Waterhouse, Robert M; Muskavitch, Marc A T

    2015-04-23

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been defined as mRNA-like transcripts longer than 200 nucleotides that lack significant protein-coding potential, and many of them constitute scaffolds for ribonucleoprotein complexes with critical roles in epigenetic regulation. Various lncRNAs have been implicated in the modulation of chromatin structure, transcriptional and post-transcriptional gene regulation, and regulation of genomic stability in mammals, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Drosophila melanogaster. The purpose of this study is to identify the lncRNA landscape in the malaria vector An. gambiae and assess the evolutionary conservation of lncRNAs and their secondary structures across the Anopheles genus. Using deep RNA sequencing of multiple Anopheles gambiae life stages, we have identified 2,949 lncRNAs and more than 300 previously unannotated putative protein-coding genes. The lncRNAs exhibit differential expression profiles across life stages and adult genders. We find that across the genus Anopheles, lncRNAs display much lower sequence conservation than protein-coding genes. Additionally, we find that lncRNA secondary structure is highly conserved within the Gambiae complex, but diverges rapidly across the rest of the genus Anopheles. This study offers one of the first lncRNA secondary structure analyses in vector insects. Our description of lncRNAs in An. gambiae offers the most comprehensive genome-wide insights to date into lncRNAs in this vector mosquito, and defines a set of potential targets for the development of vector-based interventions that may further curb the human malaria burden in disease-endemic countries.

  14. The Genus Asparagus in Southern Africa*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Jessop

    1966-11-01

    Full Text Available A revision of the genus Asparagus in South Africa, South West Africa, Bechuanaland, Basutoland, and Swaziland has been undertaken. Notes are given on the value of most o f the characters which have been used in the separation of species, recent literature on the nature of  Asparagus assimilatory organs, and a technique for the examination of chromosomes. Chromosome counts are listed for ten taxa. There is a key to the forty species and four varieties. In the main part of the work these taxa are described, and their synonymy, taxonomy, distribution and habitats dealt with. Six species and one variety are new. The following are the new species and combinations:  A. setaceus (Kunth (Asparagopsis setacea Kunth, A. mueronatus, A. macowanii Bak. var. zuluensis (N. E. Br.  (A. zuluensis N. E. Br., A. rigidus, A. densiflorus (Kunth  {Asparagopsis densiflora Kunth,  A. aethiopicus L. var. angusticladus, A. falcatus L. var. ternifolius (Bak.  (A. aethiopicus L. var.  ternifolius Bak.,  A. aspergillus,  A. obermeyerae,  A. krebsianus (Kunth (Asparagopsis krebsiana Kunth,  A. acocksii.  A. crassicladus. Several plants o f horticultural importance occur in South Africa. The three best known are A. plumosus, which is reduced here to synonymy under  A. setaceus (Kunth Jessop, and  A. sprengeri and  A. myersii. A. sprengeri is being reduced to synonymy under  A. densiflorus (Kunth Jessop,.  A. myersii, which is a  nomen nudum, is also regarded as belonging to  A. densiflorus.

  15. Occurrence of genus Monostroma (Ulvales, Chlorophyta) from Ratnagiri (Maharashtra)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A; Agadi, V.V.; Dhargalkar, V.K.

    The occurrence of a genus Monostroma has been recorded from the Shirgaon creek at Ratnagiri along the central west coast of India. The Monostroma sp. was found in the brackish water environment with low salinity, high nutrients and thick mangrove...

  16. Anticancer Activity Of Plant Genus Clerodendrum (Lamiaceae: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Emilio Kalonio

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Plants of the genus Clerodendrum (Lamiaceae is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions. Plants of this genus are used both empirically and scientifically as anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antimalarial, antiviral, antihypertensive, hypolipidemic, antioxidant, and antitumor. Results of the molecular docking simulation of chemical content of these plants could potentially provide an anticancer effect. This paper aims to review the anticancer activity of plant genus Clerodendrum based on scientific data. The method used in this study is the literature study. Searches were conducted online (in the database PubMed, Science Direct and Google Scholar and on various books (Farmakope Herbal Indonesia and PROSEA. A total 12 plants of the genus Clerodendrum have anticancer activity in vitro and in vivo, thus potentially to be developed as a source of new active compounds with anticancer activity.

  17. Higher genus correlators from the hermitian one-matrix model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambjoern, J.; Chekhov, L.; Makeenko, Yu.

    1992-01-01

    We develop an iterative algorithm for the genus expansion of the hermitian NxN one-matrix model (is the Penner model in an external field). By introducing moments of the external field, we prove that the genus g contribution to the m-loop correlator depends only on 3g-2+m lower moments (3g-2 for the partition function). We present the explicit results for the partition function and the one-loop correlator in genus one. We compare the correlators for the hermitian one-matrix model with those at zero momenta for c=1 CFT and show an agreement of the one-loop correlators for genus zero. (orig.)

  18. Comparative Genomics Reveals High Genomic Diversity in the Genus Photobacterium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machado, Henrique; Gram, Lone

    2017-01-01

    was widespread and abundant in the genus, suggesting a role in genomic evolution. The high genetic variability and indications of genetic exchange make it difficult to elucidate genome evolutionary paths and raise the awareness of the roles of foreign DNA in the genomic evolution of environmental organisms.......Vibrionaceae is a large marine bacterial family, which can constitute up to 50% of the prokaryotic population in marine waters. Photobacterium is the second largest genus in the family and we used comparative genomics on 35 strains representing 16 of the 28 species described so far, to understand...... the genomic diversity present in the Photobacterium genus. Such understanding is important for ecophysiology studies of the genus. We used whole genome sequences to evaluate phylogenetic relationships using several analyses (16S rRNA, MLSA, fur, amino-acid usage, ANI), which allowed us to identify two...

  19. Rational Points on Curves of Genus 2: Experiments and Speculations

    OpenAIRE

    Stoll, Michael

    2009-01-01

    I will present results of computations providing statistics on rational points on (small) curves of genus 2 and use them to present several conjectures. Some of them are based on heuristic considerations, others are not.

  20. Degenerate conformal theories on higher-genus surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerasimov, A.A.

    1989-01-01

    Two-dimensional degenerate field theories on higher-genus surfaces are investigated. Objects are built on the space of moduli, whose linear combinations are hypothetically conformal blocks in degenerate theories

  1. Complete genome sequences of six strains of the genus methylobacterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marx, Christopher J [Harvard University; Bringel, Francoise O. [University of Strasbourg; Christoserdova, Ludmila [University of Washington, Seattle; Moulin, Lionel [UMR, France; Farhan Ul Haque, Muhammad [CNRS, Strasbourg, France; Fleischman, Darrell E. [Wright State University, Dayton, OH; Gruffaz, Christelle [CNRS, Strasbourg, France; Jourand, Philippe [UMR, France; Knief, Claudia [ETH Zurich, Switzerland; Lee, Ming-Chun [Harvard University; Muller, Emilie E. L. [CNRS, Strasbourg, France; Nadalig, Thierry [CNRS, Strasbourg, France; Peyraud, Remi [ETH Zurich, Switzerland; Roselli, Sandro [CNRS, Strasbourg, France; Russ, Lina [ETH Zurich, Switzerland; Aguero, Fernan [Universidad Nacional de General San Martin; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lajus, Aurelie [Genoscope/Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique-Unite Mixte de Recherche; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Medigue, Claudine [Genoscope/Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique-Unite Mixte de Recherche; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Stolyar, Sergey [University of Washington; Vorholt, Julia A. [ETH Zurich, Switzerland; Vuilleumier, Stephane [University of Strasbourg

    2012-01-01

    The complete and assembled genome sequences were determined for six strains of the alphaproteobacterial genus Methylobacterium, chosen for their key adaptations to different plant-associated niches and environmental constraints.

  2. Complete Genome Sequences of Six Strains of the Genus Methylobacterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marx, Christopher J [Harvard University; Bringel, Francoise O. [University of Strasbourg; Christoserdova, Ludmila [University of Washington, Seattle; Moulin, Lionel [UMR, France; UI Hague, Muhammad Farhan [University of Strasbourg; Fleischman, Darrell E. [Wright State University, Dayton, OH; Gruffaz, Christelle [CNRS, Strasbourg, France; Jourand, Philippe [UMR, France; Knief, Claudia [ETH Zurich, Switzerland; Lee, Ming-Chun [Harvard University; Muller, Emilie E. L. [CNRS, Strasbourg, France; Nadalig, Thierry [CNRS, Strasbourg, France; Peyraud, Remi [ETH Zurich, Switzerland; Roselli, Sandro [CNRS, Strasbourg, France; Russ, Lina [ETH Zurich, Switzerland; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Ivanov, Pavel S. [University of Wyoming, Laramie; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lajus, Aurelie [Genoscope/Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique-Unite Mixte de Recherche; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Medigue, Claudine [Genoscope/Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique-Unite Mixte de Recherche; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Stolyar, Sergey [University of Washington; Vorholt, Julia A. [ETH Zurich, Switzerland; Vuilleumier, Stephane [University of Strasbourg

    2012-01-01

    The complete and assembled genome sequences were determined for six strains of the alphaproteobacterial genus Methylobacterium, chosen for their key adaptations to different plant-associated niches and environmental constraints.

  3. A new genus and species of Ceratocanthidae from Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) from the Usambara Mountains (Tanzania), is described. The morphology of the clypeus and mesoepisternum is discussed, also with reference to other Ceratocanthidae. The affinities of the genus are discussed, and ...

  4. New evidence of homoplasy within the African genus Varicorhinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    New evidence of homoplasy within the African genus Varicorhinus (Cyprinidae): an independent origin of specialized scraping forms in the adjacent drainage systems of Ethiopia inferred from mtDNA analysis.

  5. BRST quantization of superconformal theories on higher genus Riemann surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leman Kuang

    1992-01-01

    A complex contour integral method is constructed and applied to the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) quantization procedure of string theories on higher genus Riemann surfaces with N=0 and 1 Krichever-Novikov (KN) algebras. This method makes calculations very simple. It is shown that the critical spacetime dimension of the string theories on a genus-g Riemann surface equals that of the string theories on a genus-zero Riemann surface, and that the 'Regge intercepts' in the genus-g case are α(g)=1-3/4g-9/8g 2 and 1/2-3/4g-17/16g 2 for bosonic strings and superstrings, respectively. (orig.)

  6. Some enigmatic aspects of the marine cyanobacterial genus, Trichodesmium

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhat, S.R.; Verlecar, X.N.

    Trichodesmium, an important nitrogen fixing marine genus has some coupled features that appear contrasting, either in their operational requirements or ecological dominance e.g. N2 fixation and photosynthesis take place in the same trichome, former...

  7. Title: Inventory of the genus Craterellus from Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    Table 1: Described species in the genus Craterellus Persoon as of year 2017. S/ ..... lamps. Each observed mushroom was photographed insitu, prior to picking from .... with other chanterelle mushrooms in the open market in the region.

  8. Cross-genus amplification and characterisation of microsatellite loci ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cross-genus amplification and characterisation of microsatellite loci in the little free tailed bat, Chaerephon pumilus s. l. (Molossidae) from South Eastern Africa. Theshnie Naidoo, Angus Macdonald, Jennifer M Lamb ...

  9. Evolution and host specificity in the ectomycorrhizal genus Leccinum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, den H.C.; Zuccarello, G.C.; Kuyper, T.W.; Noordeloos, M.E.

    2004-01-01

    Species of the ectomycorrhizal genus Leccinum are generally considered to be host specialists. We determined the phylogenetic relationships between species of Leccinum from Europe and North America based on second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase

  10. Title: Inventory of the genus Craterellus from Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    This study presents a preliminary inventory of the genus ... INTRODUCTION. Miombo ..... Sampling methods complies with that of. Tibuhwa (2010 ... in the floor of mixed miombo woodland species in ..... 2000 Concise description of Craterellus.

  11. Diversity distribution patterns of Chinese endemic seed plant species and their implications for conservation planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jihong; Huang, Jianhua; Lu, Xinghui; Ma, Keping

    2016-01-01

    Endemism is an important concept in biogeography and biodiversity conservation. China is one of the richest countries in biodiversity, with very high levels of plant endemism. In this study, we analysed the distribution patterns of diversity, the degree of differentiation, and the endemicity of Chinese endemic seed plants using the floristic unit as a basic spatial analysis unit and 11 indices. The analysis was based on distribution data of 24,951 native seed plant species (excluding subspecies and varieties) and 12,980 Chinese endemic seed plant species, which were sourced from both specimen records and published references. The distribution patterns of Chinese endemic flora were generally consistent but disproportionate across China for diversity, degree of differentiation and endemicity. The South Hengduan Mountains Subregion had the highest values for all indices. At the regional level, both the Hengduan Mountains and the Central China regions were highest in diversity and degrees of differentiation. However, both the rate of local endemic to native species and the rate of local to Chinese endemic species were highest in the Taiwan Region and the South Taiwan Region. The Hengduan Mountains Region and the Central China Region are two key conservation priority areas for Chinese endemic seed plants. PMID:27658845

  12. Evidence for endemic chikungunya virus infections in Bandung, Indonesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Kosasih

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is known to cause sporadic or explosive outbreaks. However, little is known about the endemic transmission of CHIKV. To ascertain the endemic occurrence of CHIKV transmission, we tested blood samples from patients with a non-dengue febrile illness who participated in a prospective cohort study of factory workers in Bandung, Indonesia. From August 2000 to June 2004, and September 2006 to April 2008, 1901 febrile episodes occurred and 231 (12.2% dengue cases were identified. The remaining febrile cases were evaluated for possible CHIKV infection by measuring anti-CHIKV IgM and IgG antibodies in acute and convalescent samples. Acute samples of serologically positive cases were subsequently tested for the presence of CHIKV RNA by RT-PCR and/or virus isolation. A total of 135 (7.1% CHIKV infections were identified, providing an incidence rate of 10.1/1,000 person years. CHIKV infections were identified all year round and tended to increase during the rainy season (January to March. Severe illness was not found and severe arthralgia was not a prominently reported symptom. Serial post-illness samples from nine cases were tested to obtain a kinetic picture of IgM and IgG anti-CHIKV antibodies. Anti-CHIKV IgM antibodies were persistently detected in high titers for approximately one year. Three patients demonstrated evidence of possible sequential CHIKV infections. The high incidence rate and continuous chikungunya cases in this adult cohort suggests that CHIKV is endemically transmitted in Bandung. Further characterization of the circulating strains and surveillance in larger areas are needed to better understand CHIKV epidemiology in Indonesia.

  13. A new caddisfly genus (Trichoptera, Odontoceridae) from Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arefina-Armitage, Tatiana I.; Armitage, Brian J.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Cephalopsyche, a new genus of caddisfly (Trichoptera, Odontoceridae), is described from Vietnam. Two new species are placed in the genus: Cephalopsyche gorgona sp. n. and Cephalopsyche neboissi sp. n. The adult male and female of each species exhibit distinct sexual dimorphism, especially in head morphology. In males, there are hinged, chamber-like structures on the vertex of the head, containing filamentous, columnar tissue when exposed. Descriptions and illustrations of both species are provided. PMID:21594025

  14. A new caddisfly genus (Trichoptera, Odontoceridae from Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Arefina-Armitage

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Cephalopsyche, a new genus of caddisfly (Trichoptera, Odontoceridae, is described from Vietnam. Two new species are placed in the genus: Cephalopsyche gorgona sp. n. and Cephalopsyche neboissi sp. n. The adult male and female of each species exhibit distinct sexual dimorphism, especially in head morphology. In males, there are hinged, chamber-like structures on the vertex of the head, containing filamentous, columnar tissue when exposed. Descriptions and illustrations of both species are provided.

  15. Evidence for Ecological Flexibility in the Cosmopolitan Genus Curtobacterium

    OpenAIRE

    Chase, Alexander B.; Arevalo, Philip; Polz, Martin F.; Berlemont, Renaud; Martiny, Jennifer B. H.

    2016-01-01

    Assigning ecological roles to bacterial taxa remains imperative to understanding how microbial communities will respond to changing environmental conditions. Here we analyze the genus Curtobacterium as it was found to be the most abundant taxon in a leaf litter community in southern California. Traditional characterization of this taxon predominantly associates it as the causal pathogen in the agricultural crops of dry beans. Therefore, we seek to conduct a broad investigation into this genus...

  16. Higher Genus Abelian Functions Associated with Cyclic Trigonal Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew England

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We develop the theory of Abelian functions associated with cyclic trigonal curves by considering two new cases. We investigate curves of genus six and seven and consider whether it is the trigonal nature or the genus which dictates certain areas of the theory. We present solutions to the Jacobi inversion problem, sets of relations between the Abelian function, links to the Boussinesq equation and a new addition formula.

  17. Elliptic genus of singular algebraic varieties and quotients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libgober, Anatoly

    2018-02-01

    This paper discusses the basic properties of various versions of the two-variable elliptic genus with special attention to the equivariant elliptic genus. The main applications are to the elliptic genera attached to non-compact GITs, including the theories regarding the elliptic genera of phases on N  =  2 introduced in Witten (1993 Nucl. Phys. B 403 159-222).

  18. On genus-two solutions for the ILW equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutiya, Y.

    2018-02-01

    The existence of theta function solutions of genus two for the intermediate long-wave equation is established. A numerical example is also presented. The method basically goes along with Krichever's construction of theta function solutions for soliton equations, such as the Kronecker product equation. This idea leads us to a question whether a Riemann surface exists which allows a peculiar abelian integral of the third kind. The answer is affirmative at least for genus-two curves.

  19. Genus of total graphs from rings: A survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Tamizh Chelvam

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Let R be a commutative ring. The total graph T Γ ( R of R is the undirected graph with vertex set R and two distinct vertices x and y are adjacent if x + y is a zero divisor in R . In this paper, we present a survey of results on the genus of T Γ ( R and three of its generalizations. Keywords: Commutative ring, Total graph, Cayley graph, Genus, Planar

  20. A taxonomic revision of the genus Rafnia Thunb. (Fabaceae, Crotalarieae)

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.Sc. A taxonomic revision of the genus Rafnia Thunb. (= Oedmannia Thunb., Vascoa DC., Pelecynthis E. Mey), a relatively poorly known papilionoid legume genus, is presented. Rafnia (family Fabaceae, tribe Crotalarieae) is subendemic to the fynbos region of the Western and Eastern Cape Provinces of South Africa, with one species having a distribution area reaching into KwaZulu-Natal. The species delimitation has been unsatisfactory, and the relationships among the taxa uncertain. Rafnia is ...