WorldWideScience

Sample records for monotypic genus endemic

  1. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of an endemic monotypic genus Hagenia (Rosaceae): structural comparative analysis, gene content and microsatellite detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gichira, Andrew W; Li, Zhizhong; Saina, Josphat K; Long, Zhicheng; Hu, Guangwan; Gituru, Robert W; Wang, Qingfeng; Chen, Jinming

    2017-01-01

    Hagenia is an endangered monotypic genus endemic to the topical mountains of Africa. The only species, Hagenia abyssinica (Bruce) J.F. Gmel, is an important medicinal plant producing bioactive compounds that have been traditionally used by African communities as a remedy for gastrointestinal ailments in both humans and animals. Complete chloroplast genomes have been applied in resolving phylogenetic relationships within plant families. We employed high-throughput sequencing technologies to determine the complete chloroplast genome sequence of H. abyssinica. The genome is a circular molecule of 154,961 base pairs (bp), with a pair of Inverted Repeats (IR) 25,971 bp each, separated by two single copies; a large (LSC, 84,320 bp) and a small single copy (SSC, 18,696). H. abyssinica's chloroplast genome has a 37.1% GC content and encodes 112 unique genes, 78 of which code for proteins, 30 are tRNA genes and four are rRNA genes. A comparative analysis with twenty other species, sequenced to-date from the family Rosaceae, revealed similarities in structural organization, gene content and arrangement. The observed size differences are attributed to the contraction/expansion of the inverted repeats. The translational initiation factor gene (infA) which had been previously reported in other chloroplast genomes was conspicuously missing in H. abyssinica. A total of 172 microsatellites and 49 large repeat sequences were detected in the chloroplast genome. A Maximum Likelihood analyses of 71 protein-coding genes placed Hagenia in Rosoideae. The availability of a complete chloroplast genome, the first in the Sanguisorbeae tribe, is beneficial for further molecular studies on taxonomic and phylogenomic resolution within the Rosaceae family.

  2. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of an endemic monotypic genus Hagenia (Rosaceae: structural comparative analysis, gene content and microsatellite detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew W. Gichira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hagenia is an endangered monotypic genus endemic to the topical mountains of Africa. The only species, Hagenia abyssinica (Bruce J.F. Gmel, is an important medicinal plant producing bioactive compounds that have been traditionally used by African communities as a remedy for gastrointestinal ailments in both humans and animals. Complete chloroplast genomes have been applied in resolving phylogenetic relationships within plant families. We employed high-throughput sequencing technologies to determine the complete chloroplast genome sequence of H. abyssinica. The genome is a circular molecule of 154,961 base pairs (bp, with a pair of Inverted Repeats (IR 25,971 bp each, separated by two single copies; a large (LSC, 84,320 bp and a small single copy (SSC, 18,696. H. abyssinica’s chloroplast genome has a 37.1% GC content and encodes 112 unique genes, 78 of which code for proteins, 30 are tRNA genes and four are rRNA genes. A comparative analysis with twenty other species, sequenced to-date from the family Rosaceae, revealed similarities in structural organization, gene content and arrangement. The observed size differences are attributed to the contraction/expansion of the inverted repeats. The translational initiation factor gene (infA which had been previously reported in other chloroplast genomes was conspicuously missing in H. abyssinica. A total of 172 microsatellites and 49 large repeat sequences were detected in the chloroplast genome. A Maximum Likelihood analyses of 71 protein-coding genes placed Hagenia in Rosoideae. The availability of a complete chloroplast genome, the first in the Sanguisorbeae tribe, is beneficial for further molecular studies on taxonomic and phylogenomic resolution within the Rosaceae family.

  3. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of an endemic monotypic genus Hagenia (Rosaceae): structural comparative analysis, gene content and microsatellite detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saina, Josphat K.; Long, Zhicheng; Hu, Guangwan; Gituru, Robert W.

    2017-01-01

    Hagenia is an endangered monotypic genus endemic to the topical mountains of Africa. The only species, Hagenia abyssinica (Bruce) J.F. Gmel, is an important medicinal plant producing bioactive compounds that have been traditionally used by African communities as a remedy for gastrointestinal ailments in both humans and animals. Complete chloroplast genomes have been applied in resolving phylogenetic relationships within plant families. We employed high-throughput sequencing technologies to determine the complete chloroplast genome sequence of H. abyssinica. The genome is a circular molecule of 154,961 base pairs (bp), with a pair of Inverted Repeats (IR) 25,971 bp each, separated by two single copies; a large (LSC, 84,320 bp) and a small single copy (SSC, 18,696). H. abyssinica’s chloroplast genome has a 37.1% GC content and encodes 112 unique genes, 78 of which code for proteins, 30 are tRNA genes and four are rRNA genes. A comparative analysis with twenty other species, sequenced to-date from the family Rosaceae, revealed similarities in structural organization, gene content and arrangement. The observed size differences are attributed to the contraction/expansion of the inverted repeats. The translational initiation factor gene (infA) which had been previously reported in other chloroplast genomes was conspicuously missing in H. abyssinica. A total of 172 microsatellites and 49 large repeat sequences were detected in the chloroplast genome. A Maximum Likelihood analyses of 71 protein-coding genes placed Hagenia in Rosoideae. The availability of a complete chloroplast genome, the first in the Sanguisorbeae tribe, is beneficial for further molecular studies on taxonomic and phylogenomic resolution within the Rosaceae family.

  4. Anangia, a new monotypic genus of Cucurbitaceae from East Moluccas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.J.J.O. De Wilde

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available DE WILDE, W.J.J.O; DUYFEES, B.E.E. & VAN DER HAM, R.W.J.M. 2006. Anangia, a new monotypic genus of Cucurbitaceae from East Moluccas. Reinwardtia 12(3: 219 – 222.– A new monotypic genus of Cucurbitaceae from Morotai (Indonesia is described. The genus is defined by unique characters, including large sepals, much longer than the petals, and it has distinctly cucurbitoid pollen features. The only species is Anangia macrosepala W.J. de Wilde & Duyfjes. 

  5. Anangia, a new monotypic genus of Cucurbitaceae from East Moluccas

    OpenAIRE

    W.J.J.O. De Wilde; Brigitta E. E. Duyfjes; RWJM Van Der Ham

    2006-01-01

    DE WILDE, W.J.J.O; DUYFEES, B.E.E. & VAN DER HAM, R.W.J.M. 2006. Anangia, a new monotypic genus of Cucurbitaceae from East Moluccas. Reinwardtia 12(3): 219 – 222.– A new monotypic genus of Cucurbitaceae from Morotai (Indonesia) is described. The genus is defined by unique characters, including large sepals, much longer than the petals, and it has distinctly cucurbitoid pollen features. The only species is Anangia macrosepala W.J. de Wilde & Duyfjes. 

  6. Revision of monotypic genus Llavea (Cryptogrammoideae: Pteridaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Palacios-Rios

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Llavea Lag. is a genus of Cryptogrammoideae (Pteridaceae, whose only species is distributed from southern United States and Mexico to Guatemala and Costa Rica, although it lives mainly in Mesoamerica, inhabiting preferably calcicolous habitats associated with forests and mountains. The genus is easily recognized by the presence of fertile leaves hemi-dimorphic, with the fertile apical portion with longer and narrower segments than the sterile ones, with strongly revolute margin, and rhizome scales bicolorous, shiny, and black. This paper presents a revision of the genus, nomenclatural issues are resolved, and and palynological morphological diversity are reviewed, as well as its distribution, phenology, ecology, and applications, based on field and herbarium specimens studies. In addition, two names related to Llavea, Allosorus karwinskii Kunze and Ceratodactylis osmundioides J. Sm., were lectotypified.

  7. Oberholzeria (Fabaceae subfam. Faboideae), a new monotypic legume genus from Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanepoel, Wessel; le Roux, M Marianne; Wojciechowski, Martin F; van Wyk, Abraham E

    2015-01-01

    Oberholzeria etendekaensis, a succulent biennial or short-lived perennial shrublet is described as a new species, and a new monotypic genus. Discovered in 2012, it is a rare species known only from a single locality in the Kaokoveld Centre of Plant Endemism, north-western Namibia. Phylogenetic analyses of molecular sequence data from the plastid matK gene resolves Oberholzeria as the sister group to the Genisteae clade while data from the nuclear rDNA ITS region showed that it is sister to a clade comprising both the Crotalarieae and Genisteae clades. Morphological characters diagnostic of the new genus include: 1) succulent stems with woody remains; 2) pinnately trifoliolate, fleshy leaves; 3) monadelphous stamens in a sheath that is fused above; 4) dimorphic anthers with five long, basifixed anthers alternating with five short, dorsifixed anthers, and 5) pendent, membranous, one-seeded, laterally flattened, slightly inflated but indehiscent fruits.

  8. Oberholzeria (Fabaceae subfam. Faboideae, a new monotypic legume genus from Namibia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessel Swanepoel

    Full Text Available Oberholzeria etendekaensis, a succulent biennial or short-lived perennial shrublet is described as a new species, and a new monotypic genus. Discovered in 2012, it is a rare species known only from a single locality in the Kaokoveld Centre of Plant Endemism, north-western Namibia. Phylogenetic analyses of molecular sequence data from the plastid matK gene resolves Oberholzeria as the sister group to the Genisteae clade while data from the nuclear rDNA ITS region showed that it is sister to a clade comprising both the Crotalarieae and Genisteae clades. Morphological characters diagnostic of the new genus include: 1 succulent stems with woody remains; 2 pinnately trifoliolate, fleshy leaves; 3 monadelphous stamens in a sheath that is fused above; 4 dimorphic anthers with five long, basifixed anthers alternating with five short, dorsifixed anthers, and 5 pendent, membranous, one-seeded, laterally flattened, slightly inflated but indehiscent fruits.

  9. Obrieniolus, a new monotypic genus of Naupactini (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Entiminae from the Peruvian Andes and its phylogenetic placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Rio

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A new monotypic genus of Naupactini (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Obrieniolus del Río is described based on the new species Obrieniolus robustus del Río, endemic to Peru. This genus is easily recognized by the black, denuded and shiny integument, with imbricate microsculpture and the rounded body, with short, cordiform and moderately convex elytra. According to a cladistic analysis based on 69 continuous and discrete morphological characters, the new genus is the sister taxon of a group formed by Amitrus Schoenherr, Trichocyphus Heller, Amphideritus Schoenherr, Asymmathetes Wibmer & O’Brien and Galapaganus Lanteri. The paper includes habitus photographs, line drawings of genitalia, mouthparts, and other external features of taxonomic value, and a dichotomous key to the genera of Naupactini distributed in the South American Transition Zone.

  10. Eithea lagopaivae, a new critically endangered species in the previously monotypic genus Eithea (Amaryllidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eithea lagopaivae Campos-Rocha & Dutilh, sp. nov. is described as the second species of the formerly monotypic genus Eithea. It is characterized by a uniflorous inflorescence, completely hollow scape, white or lightly magenta-striated flower that is enclosed by spathe bracts fused at least at the lo...

  11. Taxonomic review of Gallio Evans, 1955 (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae, Hesperiinae: one less monotypic genus of Moncini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Carneiro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Moncini is the tribe of Hesperiidae that comprises the greatest diversity of small, brown, hard to identify skippers. The group is peculiarly classified as having many monotypic genera, thus offering low informative value to its systematics. This study presents a review of the genus Gallio Evans, 1955, a genus formerly recognized as monotypic, and describes three new species, Gallio imperatriz sp. nov. from Maranhão, Brazil, Gallio furtadoi sp. nov. from Mato Grosso, Brazil and Gallio eti sp. nov. from Madre de Díos, Peru and Acre, Brazil (type locality. A lectotype for Vehilius carasta Schaus, 1902 is designated. Gallio is therefore redescribed and illustrations and diagnosis to its species are provided.

  12. On the new monotypic wolf spider genus Ovia gen. nov. (Araneae: Lycosidae, Lycosinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, Pradeep M; Malamel, Jobi J; Sebastian, Pothalil A

    2017-01-17

    A new monotypic wolf spider genus, Ovia gen. nov. is proposed to accommodate a misplaced species: Pardosa procurva Yu & Song, 1988. Ovia procurva comb. nov. is redescribed, illustrated and designated as the type species for the genus. The subfamily placement of the new genus is discussed and it is considered as a member of Lycosinae Sundevall, 1833 and possibly closely related to Alopecosa Simon, 1885. The presence of an apical process (spur) on the median apophysis is proposed as the putative synapomorphy of Ovia gen. nov. The possible sister-taxon relationship of Ovia gen. nov. with Alopecosa is discussed and evidence on the occurrence of sexual dimorphism and mating plug within the genus are presented. Ovia gen. nov. is assumed to be of Holarctic origin, from which it has migrated to the Indomalayan region. Additionally, a current distribution map for the genus is provided.

  13. Lectotypification of three Iberian endemic species belonging to monotypic genera described by Cosson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buira, Antoni

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Three lectotypes are here designated for Euzomodendron bourgaeanum Coss., Guiraoa arvensis Coss. and Laserpitium scabrum Cav. (Guillonea scabra (Cav. Coss., whose genera are monospecific and endemic to the Iberian Peninsula. The selected types of the two former species are kept at P and belong to Cosson’s personal herbarium, whilst the last one is kept at MA and belongs to the historical herbarium of Cavanilles.Se designan los lectótipos de Euzomodendron bourgaeanum Coss., Guiraoa arvensis Coss. y Laserpitium scabrum Cav. (Guillonea scabra (Cav. Coss., cuyos géneros son monoespecíficos y endémicos de la Península Ibérica. Los tipos seleccionados para las dos primeras especies se encuentran en P y pertenecen al herbario personal de Cosson, mientras que el de la última se encuentra en MA y pertenece al herbario histórico de Cavanilles.

  14. Pseudolimia n. gen., a new monotypic genus for Limia heterandria Regan, 1913 (Teleostei: Poeciliidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poeser, Fred N.

    2002-01-01

    A new genus, Pseudolimia n. gen. is established for the South American Limia heterandria Regan, 1913. It is compared in an anatomical analysis with several nominal taxa of the tribe Poeciliini. Based on number and shape of the gonapophyses, Pseudolimia n. gen. is assigned to the tribe Poeciliini.

  15. Notes on the genus Mama Belokobylskij (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Euphorinae), and on the use of monotype taxa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simbolotti, G.; Villemant, C.; Achterberg, van C.

    2004-01-01

    The genus Mama Belokobylskij, 2000 (Braconidae; Euphorinae) is re-assessed and the type species is compared with three similar species: Microctonus cephalicus Provancher, 1886, Microctonus reclinator Ruthe, 1856, and Euphorus spiniscapus Muesebeck, 1936. The results are discussed in relation to the

  16. A new freshwater snail genus (Hydrobiidae, Gastropoda from Montenegro, with a discussion on gastropod diversity and endemism in Skadar Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Pesic

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Karucia sublacustrina a new species of freshwater snails (Hydrobiidae, Gastropoda is described based on material collected from Skadar Lake (Montenegro, Albania. The new species belongs to monotypic genus Karucia gen. n. The shell morphology and body shape of the new genus resembles Radomaniola Szarowska, 2006 and Grossuana Radoman, 1973, from which it differs in the larger shells with relatively slim and a slightly, but clearly shouldered body whorl. The number of gastropods from Skadar Lake basin tallies now 50 species. The adjusted rate of gastropod endemicity for Skadar Lake basin is estimated to be 38%. By compiling faunal and taxonomic data we also aim to provide information of relevance as to conservation efforts.

  17. Integrative taxonomy reveals the first record and a new species for the previously monotypic genus Tethytimea (Tethyida: Tethyidae) in the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Barraza, José Antonio; Vega, Cristina; Ávila, Enrique; Vázquez-Maldonado, Laura Elena

    2017-01-25

    The first record of the previous monotypic genus Tethytimea and the description of a new species from cryptic habitats of Gulf of Mexico are presented. Tethytimea carmelita sp. nov., is a red orange cushion shaped sponge (about 5 mm thick) with a tuberculate to granular surface. The spicular complement is formed by tylostyles (200-1120 µm length), smooth spheres (12.5-55 µm in diameter); megasters-spheroxyasters (12.5-90 µm in diameter); and micrasters in two categories: oxy-strongylasters (12.5-27.5 µm in diameter) and spherotylasters (2.5-25 µm in diameter). The new species differs from the only species known T. tylota (Hentschel, 1912) mainly by differences in the size and shape of spicules. T. tylota possesses tylostyles in two size categories; megasters include giant oxyspherasters up 250 µm and micrasters in a single category. Additionally, to the morphological characteristics, we integrated partial sequences of a large sub-unit ribosomal 28S rDNA gene region (D1-D2 domains), in order to establish the molecular taxonomic position of our new species (and genus). Tree topologies (Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference) were congruent in phylogenetic hypothesis, retrieving the Order Tethyida as monophyletic. In this clade, the family Timeidae was separated from the other families Tethyidae + Hemiastrellidae. Inside this latter group and according to the taxonomic hypothesis based on morphology, Tethytimea carmelita sp. nov. was included in Tethyidae clade, together with a sequence of Tethya sp. (AY626300), forming a sister group with representatives of genera Xenospongia and Thectitethya. Our new species constitutes the second valid known species for the genus Tethytimea and the first record of genus for the Atlantic Ocean.

  18. A molecular-dated phylogeny and biogeography of the monotypic legume genus Haplormosia, a missing African branch of the otherwise American-Australian Brongniartieae clade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Domingos; Harris, David J; Wieringa, Jan J; São-Mateus, Wallace M B; Batalha-Filho, Henrique; Torke, Benjamin M; Prenner, Gerhard; Queiroz, Luciano Paganucci de

    2017-02-01

    A comprehensively sampled reassessment of the molecular phylogeny of the genistoid legumes questions the traditional placement of Haplormosia, an African monotypic genus traditionally classified within tribe Sophoreae close to the Asian-American geographically disjunct genus Ormosia. Plastid matK sequences placed Haplormosia as sister to the American-Australian tribe Brongniartieae. Despite a superficial resemblance between Haplormosia and Ormosia, a re-examination of the morphology of Haplormosia corroborates the new phylogenetic result. The reciprocally monophyletic deep divergence of the Haplormosia stem lineage from the remaining Brongniartieae is dated to ca. 52Mya, thus supporting a signature of an old single long-distance dispersal during the early Eocene. Conversely, we estimated a relatively recent long-distance dispersal rooted in the Early Miocene for the Australian Brongniartieae clade emerging from within a grade of American Brongniartieae. The Bayesian ancestral area reconstruction revealed the coming and going of neotropical ancestors during the diversification history of the Brongniartieae legumes in Africa and all over the Americas and Australia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A redescription of the monotypic felt scale insect genus Pedroniopsis Green (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Eriococcidae) from India and Burma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Chris J; Williams, Douglas J

    2016-01-01

    Here we redescribe the felt scale genus Pedroniopsis Green and its type species Pedroniopsis beesoni Green for the first time since it was described 90 years ago. We consider that the genus belongs to the family Eriococcidae as presently understood but realise that the family may not be monophyletic. The species was collected in crevices and pits on the bark of Shorea robusta (Dipterocarpaceae) from Odisha State, India, which is its only known locality in India. We also record the species from Burma (Myanmar) for the first time living in galls on Dipterocarpus tuberculatus (Dipterocarpaceae) and, therefore, the species may have a wider distribution but has not been observed because of its cryptic habit. The adult females of the genus and species have some unusual features such as truncate-conical marginal and dorsal setae that are mostly bifid at the tip. We suggest that the genus may be similar in some respects to the genus Sangicoccus Reyne known from farther east in southern Asia.

  20. Transferência do gênero monotípico Parodizia Medina de Bithyniidae (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia para Pyramidellidae (Gastropoda, Heterobranchia Transference of the monotypic genus Parodizia Medina from Bithyniidae Gray (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia to Pyramidellidae Gray (Gastropoda, Heterobranchia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Pons da Silva

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Propõe-se a transferência do gênero monitípico Parodizia Medina, 1959 de Bithyniidae (Prosobranchia para Pyramidellidae (Heterobranchia. A proposta está baseada em dados morfológicos de espécimens de P. uruguayensis Medina, 1959 procedentes da bacia do rio Tramandaí, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil.The transference of the monotypic genus Parodizia Medina, 1959 from Bithyniidae (Prosobranchia to Pyramidellidae (Heterobranchia is proposed. The proposal is based on some morphological data of P. uruguayensis Medina, 1959 from Tramandaí river basin, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

  1. Remarkable range extension of the previously monotypic braconid genus Wushenia Zettel (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Cheloninae), with description of a second species from Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittel, Rebecca N; Austin, Andrew D

    2013-01-01

    The apparently rare chelonine wasp genus Wushenia Zettel was previously known only from a single species Wushenia nana Zettel, collected by Townes at 1150 m from Wushe, Taiwan in 1983. Here we describe a second species, Wushenia australiensis sp. nov. from coastal New South Wales, Australia. This second species extends the known distribution of the genus from the Oriental into the Australasian region, indicating either an extreme disjunct distribution or that Wushenia may also occur on the landmasses inbetween, e.g. the Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia and/or Papua New Guinea. In addition to a detailed description of the new species, a re-diagnosis of the genus and type species, and a key to species are presented.

  2. The Australian endemic woodwasp genus Austrocyrta Riek (Hymenoptera: Xiphydriidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.T. Jennings; A.D. Austin; N.M. Schiff

    2009-01-01

    The Australian xiphydriid woodwasp genus, previously known only from a single species, A. australiensis Riek, is revised. A second distinctive species from Carnarvon National Park in southcentral Queensland, A. fasciculata Jennings & Austin, sp. nov., is described, and a key to separate the males of the two species is provided.

  3. A redescription of the endemic Madagascan genus Tricompastes (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kment, Petr; Baena, Manuel

    2015-11-17

    The endemic Madagascan genus Tricompastes Cachan, 1952 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae: Pentatominae: Triplatygini), containing a single species-Tricompastes gigas Cachan, 1952, is redescribed and illustrated, including first descriptions of male and female genitalia. First exact localities of the species are provided. Lectotype of T. gigas is designated.

  4. Acronymolpus, a new genus of Eumolpinae, endemic to New Caledonia (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, G Allan

    2015-01-01

    The genus Acronymolpus is proposed as new. It is represented by four new species, all of which are endemic to New Caledonia. Proposed are: Acronymolpus joliveti sp. n. (type species), Acronymolpus gressitti sp. n., Acronymolpus meteorus sp. n., and Acronymolpus turbo sp. n.

  5. A new species of fern of the genus Pteris (Filicales: Pteridaceae) endemic to Costa Rica.

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas Alvarado, Alexander Fco.; Palacios Ríos, Mónica

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: A new species of fern of the genus Pteris (Filicales: Pteridaceae) endemic to Costa Rica. The new fern species Pteris herrerae A. Rojas & M. Palacios, endemic to Costa Rica, is described. It differs from P. decurrens C. Presl in basal segments reduced to 1/5-1/2 of the next segment (vs. 2/3-3/4), basal pinnae not bifurcated (vs. bifurcated), pinnae apex mucronate (vs. acuminate) and segment apex undulate (vs. dentate). It differs from Pteris consanguinea in the elliptic pinnae (vs. ...

  6. High endemism at cave entrances: a case study of spiders of the genus Uthina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhiyuan; Dong, Tingting; Zheng, Guo; Fu, Jinzhong; Li, Shuqiang

    2016-01-01

    Endemism, which is typically high on islands and in caves, has rarely been studied in the cave entrance ecotone. We investigated the endemism of the spider genus Uthina at cave entrances. Totally 212 spiders were sampled from 46 localities, from Seychelles across Southeast Asia to Fiji. They mostly occur at cave entrances but occasionally appear at various epigean environments. Phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequence data from COI and 28S genes suggested that Uthina was grouped into 13 well-supported clades. We used three methods, the Bayesian Poisson Tree Processes (bPTP) model, the Bayesian Phylogenetics and Phylogeography (BPP) method, and the general mixed Yule coalescent (GMYC) model, to investigate species boundaries. Both bPTP and BPP identified the 13 clades as 13 separate species, while GMYC identified 19 species. Furthermore, our results revealed high endemism at cave entrances. Of the 13 provisional species, twelve (one known and eleven new) are endemic to one or a cluster of caves, and all of them occurred only at cave entrances except for one population of one species. The only widely distributed species, U. luzonica, mostly occurred in epigean environments while three populations were found at cave entrances. Additionally, eleven new species of the genus are described. PMID:27775081

  7. A third species of Polyspatha, an endemic African genus of Commelinaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Faden

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Polyspatha oligospatha Faden, the third species in a small African endemic genus of Commelinaceae, is described.  It is widespread but has been overlooked because of its small stature and resemblance to small plants of P. paniculata.  It differs from both P. paniculata and P. hirsuta, the two other species, by its leaf pubescence, fewer, more widely spaced and usually patent spathes, deeply ridged seeds with numerous knobby, transversely interrupted ridges, and morning anthesis.  It occurs throughout the Congolian forests from Cameroon to Uganda, but it is also disjunct in Ivory Coast, across the Dahomey gap.

  8. Narrow endemics on coastal plains: Miocene divergence of the critically endangered genus Avellara (Compositae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Mazuecos, M; Jiménez-Mejías, P; Martín-Bravo, S; Buide, M L; Álvarez, I; Vargas, P

    2016-07-01

    Critically endangered species representing ancient, evolutionarily isolated lineages must be given priority when allocating resources for conservation projects. Sound phylogenetic analyses and divergence time estimations are required to detect them, and studies on their population genetics, ecological requirements and breeding system are needed to understand their evolutionary history and to design efficient conservation strategies. Here we present the paradigmatic case of Avellara, a critically endangered monotypic genus of Compositae inhabiting a few swamps in the west-southwest Iberian coastal plains. Our phylogenetic and dating analyses based on nuclear (ITS) and plastid (matK) DNA sequences support a Miocene (>8.6 Ma) divergence between Avellara and closely related genera, resulting in marked morphological and ecological differentiation. We found alarmingly low levels of genetic diversity, based on AFLPs and plastid DNA sequences, and confirmed the prevalence of clonal reproduction. Species distribution modelling suggested a large macroclimatically suitable area for Avellara in the western Iberian Peninsula, but its apparently narrow microecological requirements restrict its distribution to peatlands with low-mineralised waters. Although five populations have been recorded from Spain and Portugal in the past, its current distribution may be reduced to only one population, recurrently found in the last decade but threatened by herbivory and habitat degradation. All this confirms the consideration of Avellara as a threatened species with high phylogenetic singularity, and makes it a flagship species for plant conservation in both Spain and Portugal that should be given priority in the design of in situ and ex situ conservation programmes.

  9. Mitochondrial introgression via ancient hybridization, and systematics of the Australian endemic pygopodid gecko genus Delma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Ian G; Bauer, Aaron M; Jackman, Todd R

    2016-01-01

    Of the more than 1500 species of geckos found across six continents, few remain as unfamiliar as the pygopodids - Family Pygopodidae (Gray, 1845). These gekkotans are limited to Australia (44 species) and New Guinea (2 species), but have diverged extensively into the most ecologically diverse limbless radiation save Serpentes. Current phylogenetic understanding of the family has relied almost exclusively on two works, which have produced and synthesized an immense amount of morphological, geographical, and molecular data. However, current interspecific relationships within the largest genus Delma Gray 1831 are based chiefly upon data from two mitochondrial loci (16s, ND2). Here, we reevaluate the interspecific relationships within the genus Delma using two mitochondrial and four nuclear loci (RAG1, MXRA5, MOS, DYNLL1), and identify points of strong conflict between nuclear and mitochondrial genomic data. We address mito-nuclear discordance, and remedy this conflict by recognizing several points of mitochondrial introgression as the result of ancient hybridization events. Owing to the legacy value and intraspecific informativeness, we suggest the continued use of ND2 as a phylogenetic marker. Results identify strong support for species groups, but relationships among these clades, and the placement of several enigmatic taxa remain uncertain. We suggest a more careful review of Delma australis and the 'northwest Australia' clade. Accurately assessing and addressing species richness and relationships within this endemic Australian Gekkotan genus is relevant for understanding patterns of squamate speciation across the region.

  10. The role of peripheral endemism in species diversification: evidence from the coral reef fish genus Anampses (Family: Labridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Jennifer R; Read, Charmaine I; van Herwerden, Lynne; Bellwood, David R

    2012-02-01

    We examined how peripherally isolated endemic species may have contributed to the biodiversity of the Indo-Australian Archipelago biodiversity hotspot by reconstructing the evolutionary history of the wrasse genus Anampses. We identified three alternate models of diversification: the vicariance-based 'successive division' model, and the dispersal-based 'successive colonisation' and 'peripheral budding' models. The genus was well suited for this study given its relatively high proportion (42%) of endemic species, its reasonably low diversity (12 species), which permitted complete taxon sampling, and its widespread tropical Indo-Pacific distribution. Monophyly of the genus was strongly supported by three phylogenetic analyses: maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference based on mitochondrial CO1 and 12S rRNA and nuclear S7 sequences. Estimates of species divergence times from fossil-calibrated Bayesian inference suggest that Anampses arose in the mid-Eocene and subsequently diversified throughout the Miocene. Evolutionary relationships within the genus, combined with limited spatial and temporal concordance among endemics, offer support for all three alternate models of diversification. Our findings emphasise the importance of peripherally isolated locations in creating and maintaining endemic species and their contribution to the biodiversity of the Indo-Australian Archipelago. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Molecular adaptation during adaptive radiation in the Hawaiian endemic genus Schiedea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim V Kapralov

    Full Text Available "Explosive" adaptive radiations on islands remain one of the most puzzling evolutionary phenomena. The rate of phenotypic and ecological adaptations is extremely fast during such events, suggesting that many genes may be under fairly strong selection. However, no evidence for adaptation at the level of protein coding genes was found, so it has been suggested that selection may work mainly on regulatory elements. Here we report the first evidence that positive selection does operate at the level of protein coding genes during rapid adaptive radiations. We studied molecular adaptation in Hawaiian endemic plant genus Schiedea (Caryophyllaceae, which includes closely related species with a striking range of morphological and ecological forms, varying from rainforest vines to woody shrubs growing in desert-like conditions on cliffs. Given the remarkable difference in photosynthetic performance between Schiedea species from different habitats, we focused on the "photosynthetic" Rubisco enzyme, the efficiency of which is known to be a limiting step in plant photosynthesis.We demonstrate that the chloroplast rbcL gene, encoding the large subunit of Rubisco enzyme, evolved under strong positive selection in Schiedea. Adaptive amino acid changes occurred in functionally important regions of Rubisco that interact with Rubisco activase, a chaperone which promotes and maintains the catalytic activity of Rubisco. Interestingly, positive selection acting on the rbcL might have caused favorable cytotypes to spread across several Schiedea species.We report the first evidence for adaptive changes at the DNA and protein sequence level that may have been associated with the evolution of photosynthetic performance and colonization of new habitats during a recent adaptive radiation in an island plant genus. This illustrates how small changes at the molecular level may change ecological species performance and helps us to understand the molecular bases of extremely

  12. A review of the genus Curtisia (Curtisiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. YU Yembaturova

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A review of the monotypic southern African endemic genus Curtisia Aiton is presented. Detailed studies of the fruit and seed structure provided new evidence in support of a close relationship between the family Curtisiaceae and Comaceae. Comparisons with several other members of the Comales revealed carpological similarities to certain species of Comus s.I., sometimes treated as segregate genera Dendrobenthamia Hutch, and Benthamidia Spach. We also provide information on the history of the assegai tree, Curtisia dentata (Burm.f. C.A.Sm. and its uses, as well as a formal taxonomic revision, including nomenclature, typification, detailed description and geographical distribution.

  13. A review of the genus Curtisia (Curtisiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. YU Yembaturova

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A review of the monotypic southern African endemic genus Curtisia Aiton is presented. Detailed studies of the fruit and seed structure provided new evidence in support of a close relationship between the family Curtisiaceae and Comaceae. Comparisons with several other members of the Comales revealed carpological similarities to certain species of Comus s.I., sometimes treated as segregate genera Dendrobenthamia Hutch, and Benthamidia Spach. We also provide information on the history of the assegai tree, Curtisia dentata (Burm.f. C.A.Sm. and its uses, as well as a formal taxonomic revision, including nomenclature, typification, detailed description and geographical distribution.

  14. Biogeography of the Lizard Genus Tropidurus Wied-Neuwied, 1825 (Squamata: Tropiduridae): Distribution, Endemism, and Area Relationships in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, André Luiz Gomes; de Britto, Marcelo Ribeiro; Fernandes, Daniel Silva

    2013-01-01

    Based on comprehensive distributional records of the 23 species currently assigned to the lizard genus Tropidurus, we investigated patterns of endemism and area relationships in South America. Two biogeographic methods were applied, Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity (PAE) and Brooks Parsimony Analysis (BPA). Two areas of endemism were detected by PAE: the first within the domains of the semiarid Brazilian Caatinga, which includes seven endemic species, and the second in the region of the Serranía de Huanchaca, eastern Bolivia, in which three endemic species are present. The area cladograms recovered a close relationship between the Atlantic Forest and areas of the South American open corridor. The results revealed a close relationship among the provinces Caatinga (Cerrado, Parana Forest (Pantanal+Chaco)). The uplift of the Brazilian Central Plateau in the Late Pliocene-Early Pleistocene (4-2 Myr BP) has been interpreted as a major event responsible for isolation and differentiation of biotas along these areas. However, we emphasize that without the establishment of a temporal framework concerning the diversification history of Tropidurus it is premature to correlate cladogenetic events with specific time periods or putative vicariant scenarios. The limiting factors hampering the understanding of the biogeographic history of this genus include (1) the absence of temporal references in relation to the diversification of distinct clades within Tropidurus; (2) the lack of an appropriate taxonomic resolution of the species complexes currently represented by widely distributed forms; and (3) the need for a comprehensive phylogenetic hypothesis. We suggest that these three important aspects should be prioritized in future investigations. PMID:23527261

  15. Back from the dead! Resurrection and revalidation of the Indian endemic snake genus Wallophis Werner, 1929 (Squamata: Colubridae) insights from molecular data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Zeeshan A; Patel, Harshil

    2017-01-27

    The monotypic colubrid snake genus Wallophis is revalidated and rediagnosed. Partial sequence for nuclear gene Oocyte maturation factor Mos (c-mos), mitochondrial Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4) and cytochrome b (cyt b) were used to assess phylogenetic relationship. Wallophis brachyura type species for the genus was found to be a member of the Western Palearctic clade of Colubrinae and is recovered as a sister taxa to Wallaceophis gujaratensis. Wallophis differs from Wallaceophis in an uncorrected pairwise p-distance of 17% for mitochondrial ND4 gene. Wallaceophis gujaratensis was described in three different spellings in the literature hence we here propose Wallaceophis gujaratensis as the correct spelling for the species based on provisions in the article 24.2.3. of the International Code for Zoological Nomenclature.

  16. A New Species of the Bay Goby Genus Eucyclogobius, Endemic to Southern California: Evolution, Conservation, and Decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Camm C.; Spies, Brenton; Ellingson, Ryan A.; Jacobs, David K.

    2016-01-01

    A geographically isolated set of southern localities of the formerly monotypic goby genus Eucyclogobius is known to be reciprocally monophyletic and substantially divergent in mitochondrial sequence and nuclear microsatellite-based phylogenies relative to populations to the north along the California coast. To clarify taxonomic and conservation status, we conducted a suite of analyses on a comprehensive set of morphological counts and measures from across the range of Eucyclogobius and describe the southern populations as a new species, the Southern Tidewater Goby, Eucyclogobius kristinae, now separate from the Northern Tidewater Goby Eucyclogobius newberryi (Girard 1856). In addition to molecular distinction, adults of E. kristinae are diagnosed by: 1) loss of the anterior supratemporal lateral-line canals resulting in higher neuromast counts, 2) lower pectoral and branched caudal ray counts, and 3) sets of measurements identified via discriminant analysis. These differences suggest ecological distinction of the two species. Previous studies estimated lineage separation at 2–4 million years ago, and mitochondrial sequence divergence exceeds that of other recognized fish species. Fish from Santa Monica Artesian Springs (Los Angeles County) northward belong to E. newberryi; those from Aliso Creek (Orange County) southward constitute E. kristinae. The lagoonal habitat of Eucyclogobius has been diminished or degraded, leading to special conservation status at state and federal levels beginning in 1980. Habitat of the newly described species has been impacted by a range of anthropogenic activities, including the conversion of closing lagoons to open tidal systems in the name of restoration. In the last 30 years, E. kristinae has only been observed in nine intermittently occupied lagoonal systems in northern San Diego County; it currently persists in only three sites. Thus, the new species is in imminent danger of extinction and will require ongoing active management

  17. Cytological study on the genus Syncalathium (Asteraceae-Lactuceae), an endemic taxon to alpine scree of the Sino-Himalayas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Wen ZHANG; Ze-Long NIE; Hang SUN

    2009-01-01

    Cytological characters of four species in Syncalathium (Asteraceae: Lactuceae), a small genus with six identified species endemic to alpine scree of the Sino-Himalayan region, are surveyed in this report. Three species ( Syncalathium pilosum, Syncalathium chrysocephalum, and Syncalathium disciforme ) are examined for the first time. Combined with our previous counts, five species have been cytologically investigated from the genus and the results indicated that all species are diploid with the basic somatic chromosome number of x=8. The karyotype asymmetry of Syncalathium souliei is 2A, distinct from the other four species of 1 A, and the remaining species are divided into two subgroups with different karyotypes, consistent with their morphological features. The significance of the cytological evolution of Syncalathium is briefly discussed.

  18. Phylogeny of the island archipelago frog genus Sanguirana: Another endemic Philippine radiation that diversified 'Out-of-Palawan'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rafe M; Su, Yong-Chao; Barger, Brenna; Siler, Cameron D; Sanguila, Marites B; Diesmos, Arvin C; Blackburn, David C

    2016-01-01

    Recent higher-level frog phylogenetic analyses have included a few members of the endemic Philippine frog genus Sanguirana. Although the monophyly of the group has never been disputed, the recent phylogenetically-supported inclusion of the Palawan Wood Frog (Sanguirana sanguinea) in this clade was highly unexpected. In addition, species boundaries and relationships remain unclear and new species continue to be discovered. We estimate the phylogeny for this endemic Philippine genus using two mitochondrial gene regions and six nuclear loci and complete sampling for all known species. We use a time-calibrated Bayesian estimate of phylogeny and model-testing approach to biogeographic inference to infer ancestral areas and probable means of diversification. These analyses identify Sanguirana as an additional clade for which the 'Out-of-Palawan' biogeographic scenario is unambiguously preferred. This study lends additional support to recent work suggesting that a substantial portion of Philippine vertebrate megadiversity originated via colonization of the archipelago from the Palawan microcontinent, with subsequent invasion of oceanic islands (e.g., range expansion over Huxley's Modification of Wallace's Line), numerous instances of overwater dispersal, and geographic radiation across the archipelago.

  19. Taxonomic revision of Plesianthidium Cameron (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae: Anthidiini), an endemic southern African bee genus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The southern African bee genus Plesianthidium Cameron is revised. It comprises twelve species. Two new species are described, namely Plesianthidium (Spinanthidium) richtersveldensis and Plesianthidium (Spinanthidium) namaquaensis. Two species names are removed from synonymy with volkmanni; namely ca...

  20. Enhypnon Carter: a taxonomic revision of an endemic Australian genus of ground-dwelling beetles (Coleoptera: Zopheridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turco, Federica; Slipiński, Adam; Lambkin, Christine L

    2013-01-01

    The Australian endemic genus Enhypnon Carter (Coleoptera, Zopheridae) is revised, including the description of six new species: E. cordicollis sp. n., E. kosciuszko sp. n., E. simplex sp. n., E. squamosum sp. n., E. latitarsis sp. n., and E. tuberculatum sp. n., and the re-description of four species: E. costatum (Carter, 1919) comb. n. (from Mnionophilus), E. horridum (Carter, 1919), E. laticeps Carter, 1919 and E. punctatum Carter, 1927. A lectotype and paralectotype are herein designated for E. laticeps. A key to species is provided. All species are illustrated with line-drawings and high-resolution photographs. Detailed locality records are given for each species and distribution maps are provided. Distribution and habitat preference data are discussed.

  1. [A new species of fern of the genus Pteris (Filicales: Pteridaceae) endemic to Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas Alvarado, Alexander Fco; Palacios Ríos, Mónica

    2006-09-01

    The new fern species Pteris herrerae A. Rojas & M. Palacios, endemic to Costa Rica, is described. It differs from P. decurrens C. Presl in basal segments reduced to 1/5-1/2 of the next segment (vs. 2/3-3/4), basal pinnae not bifurcated (vs. bifurcated), pinnae apex mucronate (vs. acuminate) and segment apex undulate (vs. dentate). It differs from Pteris consanguinea in the elliptic pinnae (vs. oblong), two segments reduced on the base (vs. lack), segments entire to undulate (vs. dentate), basal pinnae without basiscopic lobes (vs. with basiscopic lobes) and segment apex entire to undulate (vs. dentate).

  2. A review of the endemic southern African soft coral genus Pieterfaurea Verseveldt & Bayer, 1988 (Octocorallia: Nidaliidae), with descriptions of three new species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, G.C.

    2000-01-01

    The soft coral genus Pieterfaurea Verseveldt & Bayer, 1988, endemic to the south and east coasts of South Africa, is reviewed. Five species are recognized as valid, including three new species described here as new. A dichotomous key and a table of comparative characters are included to aid in the d

  3. A review of the endemic southern African soft coral genus Pieterfaurea Verseveldt & Bayer, 1988 (Octocorallia: Nidaliidae), with descriptions of three new species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, G.C.

    2000-01-01

    The soft coral genus Pieterfaurea Verseveldt & Bayer, 1988, endemic to the south and east coasts of South Africa, is reviewed. Five species are recognized as valid, including three new species described here as new. A dichotomous key and a table of comparative characters are included to aid in the d

  4. Range extension of two poorly known endemic species of the genus Orophea Blume (Annonaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sankararao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Orophea malabarica Sasidh. & Sivar. and Orophea sivarajanii Sasidh., of the family Annonaceae were found growing in close proximity as undergrowth with restricted distribution in the evergreen forest of Makutta Ghat, Kodagu District, Karnataka State, India.  Earlier reports suggest that these are endemic to Kerala state of the Western Ghats and found distributed only in their type localities viz., Thrissur and Wayanad districts respectively. However, the present article reports extension of their range to new locations in Karnataka state and therefore become addition to the floral wealth of the state, as they were neither previously collected nor recorded from this region. The updated nomenclature, detailed description, flowering-fruiting seasons, distribution map, scanned herbarium specimens, field photographs, proposed conservation status and other relevant notes are provided in this communication. 

  5. Redescription of the Monotypic Neotropical Genus Crepititermes Emerson (Termitidae: Termitinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, M M; Cuezzo, C

    2015-10-01

    Based on a reexamination of specimens of Crepititermes Emerson deposited in the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brasil (MZUSP), we characterize the morphology and coiling in situ of the digestive tube of workers of Crepititermes verruculosus Emerson for the first time. We provide additional notes on the imago and soldier and present digital images and illustrations for all castes. We also update the currently known geographical distribution of C. verruculosus, adding some biological remarks.

  6. Two new giant pill-millipede species of the genus Zoosphaerium endemic to the Bemanevika area in northern Madagascar (Diplopoda, Sphaerotheriida, Arthrosphaeridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagorny, Christina; Wesener, Thomas

    2017-05-09

    Madagascar is one of the world's most important hotspots of biodiversity and a center for localized endemism. Among the highly endemic faunal elements are the giant pill-millipedes, order Sphaerotheriida, which are severely understudied in Madagascar. Here we provide descriptions of two new species of endemic giant-pill millipedes of the genus Zoosphaerium Pocock, 1895: Zoosphaerium bemanevika n. sp. and Zoosphaerium minutus n. sp.. Zoosphaerium bemanevika n. sp. belongs to the Z. coquerelianum species-group, while Z. minutus n. sp. is not assignable to a species-group. An updated key to the 19 species of the Z. coquerelianum group is provided. Zoosphaerium minutus n. sp. has a body length of Madagascar, an only recently protected area that represents a Malagasy center of endemism.

  7. Rostral horn evolution among agamid lizards of the genus ceratophora endemic to Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulte II, James A.; Macey, J. Robert; Pethiyagoda, Rohan; Larson, Allan

    2001-07-10

    The first phylogenetic hypothesis for the Sri Lankan agamid lizard genus Ceratophora is presented based on 1670 aligned base positions (472 parsimony informative) of mitochondrial DNA sequences, representing coding regions for eight tRNAs, ND2, and portions of ND1 and COI. Phylogenetic analysis reveals multiple origins and possibly losses of rostral horns in the evolutionary history of Ceratophora. Our data suggest a middle Miocene origin of Ceratophora with the most recent branching of recognized species occurring at the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary. Haplotype divergence suggests that an outgroup species, Lyriocephalus scutatus, dates at least to the Pliocene. These phylogenetic results provide a framework for comparative studies of the behavioral ecological importance of horn evolution in this group.

  8. Sirdavidia, an extraordinary new genus of Annonaceae from Gabon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couvreur, Thomas L P; Niangadouma, Raoul; Sonké, Bonaventure; Sauquet, Hervé

    2015-01-01

    A distinctive new monotypic genus from Gabon is described in the tropical plant family Annonaceae: Sirdavidia, in honor to Sir David Attenborough. Molecular phylogenetic analyses confirm that Sirdavidia, which is very distinct from a morphological standpoint, is not nested in any existing genus of Annonaceae and belongs to tribe Piptostigmateae (subfamily Malmeoideae), which now contains a total of six genera. The genus is characterized by long acuminate leaves, fully reflexed red petals, 16-19 bright yellow, loosely arranged stamens forming a cone, and a single carpel topped by a conspicuous stigma. With just three known collections, a preliminary IUCN conservation status assessment is provided as "endangered" as well as a distribution map. The discovery of Sirdavidia is remarkable at several levels. First, it was collected near the road in one of the botanically best-known regions of Gabon: Monts de Cristal National Park. Second, its sister group is the genus Mwasumbia, also monotypic, endemic to a small area in a forest in Tanzania, some 3000 km away. Finally, the floral morphology is highly suggestive of a buzz pollination syndrome. If confirmed, this would be the first documentation of such a pollination syndrome in Magnoliidae and early-diverging angiosperms in general.

  9. “Darwin’s butterflies”? DNA barcoding and the radiation of the endemic Caribbean butterfly genus Calisto (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Sourakov

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The genus Calisto Hübner, 1823 is the only member of the diverse, global subfamily Satyrinae found in the West Indies, and by far the richest endemic Caribbean butterfly radiation. Calisto species occupy an extremely diverse array of habitats, suggestive of adaptive radiation on the scale of other classic examples such as the Galápagos or Darwin’s finches. However, a reliable species classification is a key requisite before further evolutionary or ecological research. An analysis of 111 DNA ‘barcodes’ (655 bp of the mitochondrial gene COI from 29 putative Calisto species represented by 31 putative taxa was therefore conducted to elucidate taxonomic relationships among these often highly cryptic and confusing taxa. The sympatric, morphologically and ecologically similar taxa C. confusa Lathy, 1899 and C. confusa debarriera Clench, 1943 proved to be extremely divergent, and we therefore recognize Calisto debarriera stat. n. as a distinct species, with Calisto neiba Schwartz et Gali, 1984 as a junior synonym syn. n. Species status of certain allopatric, morphologically similar sister species has been confirmed: Calisto hysius (Godart, 1824 (including its subspecies C. hysius aleucosticha Correa et Schwartz, 1986, stat. n., and its former subspecies C. batesi Michener, 1943 showed a high degree of divergence (above 6% and should be considered separate species. Calisto lyceius Bates, 1935/C. crypta Gali, 1985/C. franciscoi Gali, 1985 complex, also showed a high degree of divergence (above 6%, confirming the species status of these taxa. In contrast, our data suggest that the Calisto grannus Bates, 1939 species complex (including Calisto grannus dilemma González, 1987, C. grannus amazona González, 1987, stat. n., C. grannus micrommata Schwartz et Gali, 1984, stat. n., C. grannus dystacta González, 1987, stat. n., C. grannus phoinix González, 1987, stat. n., C. grannus sommeri Schwartz et Gali, 1984, stat. n., and C. grannus micheneri

  10. "Darwin's butterflies"? DNA barcoding and the radiation of the endemic Caribbean butterfly genus Calisto (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sourakov, Andrei; Zakharov, Evgeny V

    2011-01-01

    The genus Calisto Hübner, 1823 is the only member of the diverse, global subfamily Satyrinae found in the West Indies, and by far the richest endemic Caribbean butterfly radiation. Calisto species occupy an extremely diverse array of habitats, suggestive of adaptive radiation on the scale of other classic examples such as the Galápagos or Darwin's finches. However, a reliable species classification is a key requisite before further evolutionary or ecological research. An analysis of 111 DNA 'barcodes' (655 bp of the mitochondrial gene COI) from 29 putative Calisto species represented by 31 putative taxa was therefore conducted to elucidate taxonomic relationships among these often highly cryptic and confusing taxa. The sympatric, morphologically and ecologically similar taxa Calisto confusa Lathy, 1899 and Calisto confusa debarriera Clench, 1943 proved to be extremely divergent, and we therefore recognize Calisto debarriera stat. n. as a distinct species, with Calisto neiba Schwartz & Gali, 1984 as a junior synonym syn. n. Species status of certain allopatric, morphologically similar sister species has been confirmed: Calisto hysius (Godart, 1824) (including its subspecies Calisto hysius aleucosticha Correa et Schwartz, 1986, stat. n.), and its former subspecies Calisto batesi Michener, 1943 showed a high degree of divergence (above 6%) and should be considered separate species. Calisto lyceius Bates, 1935/Calisto crypta Gali, 1985/Calisto franciscoi Gali, 1985 complex, also showed a high degree of divergence (above 6%), confirming the species status of these taxa. In contrast, our data suggest that the Calisto grannus Bates, 1939 species complex (including Calisto grannus dilemma González, 1987, Calisto grannus amazona González, 1987, stat. n., Calisto grannus micrommata Schwartz & Gali, 1984, stat. n., Calisto grannus dystacta González, 1987, stat. n., Calisto grannus phoinix González, 1987, stat. n., Calisto grannus sommeri Schwartz & Gali, 1984, stat. n

  11. Origin and differentiation of endemism in the flora of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Zhengyi; SUN Hang; ZHOU Zhekun; PENG Hua; LI Dezhu

    2007-01-01

    The present paper analyzed 239 endemic genera in 67 families in the flora of seed plants in China.The results showed that there are five families containing more than ten endemic genera,namely,Gesneriaceae (27),which hereafter refers to the number of endemic genera in China,Composite (20),Labiatae (12),Cruciferae (11),and Umbelliferae (10),15 families with two endemic genera,and another 30 families with only one endemic genus.Four monotypic families (Ginkgoaceae,Davidiaceae,Eucommiaceae and Acanthochlamydaceae)are the most ancient,relict and characteristic in the flora of seed plants in China.Based on integrative data of systematics,fossil history,and morphological and molecular evidence of these genera,their origin,evolution and relationships were discussed.In gymnosperms,all endemic genera are relicts of the Arctic-Tertiary flora,having earlier evolutionary history,and can be traced back to the Cretaceous or to the Jurassic and even earlier.In angiosperms,the endemic genera are mostly relicts,and are represented in all lineages in the"Eight-Class System ofClassification of Angiosperms",and endemism can be found in almost every evolutionary stage of extant angiosperms.The relict genera once occupied huge areas in the northern hemisphere in the Tertiary or the late Cretaceous,while neo-endemism mostly originated in the late Tertiary.They came from Arctic-Tertiary,Paleo-tropical-Tertiary and Tethys-Tertiary florisitic elements,and the blend of the three elements with many genera of autochthonous origin.The endemism was formed when some dispersal routes such as the North Atlantic Land Bridge,and the Bering Bridge became discontinuous during the Tertiary,as well as the climate change and glaciations in the late Tertiary and the Quaternary.Therefore,the late Tertiary is the starting point of extant endemism of the flora in China.

  12. Patterns of diversity, areas of endemism, and multiple glacial refuges for freshwater crabs of the genus Sinopotamon in China (Decapoda: Brachyura: Potamidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Fang; Sun, Hongying; Zhao, Qiang; Lin, Congtian; Sun, Yufang; Gao, Wei; Xu, Juanjuan; Zhou, Junying; Ge, Feng; Liu, Naifa

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown that the geographical distribution patterns of freshwater fishes and amphibians have been influenced by past climatic oscillations in China resulting from Pleistocene glacial activity. However, it remains unknown how these past changes have impacted the present-day distribution of Chinese freshwater crabs. This work describes the diversity and endemism of freshwater crabs belonging to Sinopotamon, a highly speciose genus endemic to China, and evaluates its distribution in terms of topography and past climatic fluctuations. Species diversity within Sinopotamon was found to be concentrated in an area from the northeastern edge of the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau to the Jiangnan Hills, and three areas of endemism were identified. Multiple regression analysis between current climatic variables and Sinopotamon diversity suggested that regional annual precipitation, minimum temperature in the coldest month, and annual temperature range significantly influenced species diversity and may explain the diversity patterns of Sinopotamon. A comparison of ecological niche models (ENMs) between current conditions and the last glacial maximum (LGM) showed that suitable habitat for Sinopotamon in China severely contracted during the LGM. The coincidence of ENMs and the areas of endemism indicated that southeast of the Daba Mountains, and central and southeastern China, are potential Pleistocene refuges for Sinopotamon. The presence of multiple Pleistocene refuges within the range of this genus could further promote inter- and intraspecific differentiations, and may have led to high Sinopotamon species diversity, a high endemism rate and widespread distribution.

  13. Transcriptome Sequencing and Development of Genic SSR Markers of an Endangered Chinese Endemic Genus Dipteronia Oliver (Aceraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhou

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Dipteronia Oliver (Aceraceae is an endangered Chinese endemic genus consisting of two living species, Dipteronia sinensis and Dipteronia dyeriana. However, studies on the population genetics and evolutionary analyses of Dipteronia have been hindered by limited genomic resources and genetic markers. Here, the generation, de novo assembly and annotation of transcriptome datasets, and a large set of microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR markers derived from Dipteronia have been described. After Illumina pair-end sequencing, approximately 93.2 million reads were generated and assembled to yield a total of 99,358 unigenes. A majority of these unigenes (53%, 52,789 had at least one blast hit against the public protein databases. Further, 12,377 SSR loci were detected and 4179 primer pairs were designed for experimental validation. Of these 4179 primer pairs, 435 primer pairs were randomly selected to test polymorphism. Our results show that products from 132 primer pairs were polymorphic, in which 97 polymorphic SSR markers were further selected to analyze the genetic diversity of 10 natural populations of Dipteronia. The identification of SSR markers during our research will provide the much valuable data for population genetic analyses and evolutionary studies in Dipteronia.

  14. Phylogenetic analyses place the monotypic Dryopolystichum within Lomariopsidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Wei Chen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The monotypic fern genus Dryopolystichum Copel. combines a unique assortment of characters that obscures its relationship to other ferns. Its thin-walled sporangium with a vertical and interrupted annulus, round sorus with peltate indusium, and petiole with several vascular bundles place it in suborder Polypodiineae, but more precise placement has eluded previous authors. Here we investigate its phylogenetic position using three plastid DNA markers, rbcL, rps4-trnS, and trnL-F, and a broad sampling of Polypodiineae. We also provide new data on Dryopolystichum including spore number counts, reproductive mode, spore SEM images, and chromosome counts. Our maximum-likelihood and Bayesian-inference phylogenetic analyses unambiguously place Dryopolystichum within Lomariopsidaceae, a position not previously suggested. Dryopolystichum was resolved as sister to a clade comprising Dracoglossum and Lomariopsis, with Cyclopeltis as sister to these, but clade support is not robust. All examined sporangia of Dryopolystichum produced 32 spores, and the chromosome number of sporophyte somatic cells is ca. 164. Flow cytometric results indicated that the genome size in the spore nuclei is approximately half the size of those from sporophyte leaf tissues, suggesting that Dryopolystichum reproduces sexually. Our findings render Lomariopsidaceae as one of the most morphologically heterogeneous fern families. A recircumscription is provided for both Lomariopsidaceae and Dryopolystichum, and selected characters are briefly discussed considering the newly generated data.

  15. Local Hotspots of Endemism or Artifacts of Incorrect Taxonomy? The Status of Microendemic Pill Millipede Species of the Genus Glomeris in Northern Italy (Diplopoda, Glomerida)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesener, Thomas; Conrad, Cathrin

    2016-01-01

    Local endemic species with their unique evolutionary history always stirred the interest of scientists. One such area especially rich in endemics is northern Italy. In case of pill millipedes of the genus Glomeris Latreille, 1803, only a single species is found in northern Europe, while 22 country-endemics alone are known from Italy. Many of these endemics, however, have not been studied in several decades; therefore we aimed to determine whether this diversity is the result of overlooked synonymies or natural processes. A focus was placed on the local endemics that are in some aspects morphologically similar to the widespread and variable G. klugii Brandt, 1833. The local endemics Glomeris larii Verhoeff, 1921, G. primordialis Verhoeff, 1930, G. oblongoguttata Verhoeff, 1894, G. oropensis Verhoeff, 1936, G. transalpina Koch, 1836, G. romana Verhoeff, 1900, G. ligurica Latzel, 1884 and G. apuana Verhoeff, 1911 were included in a molecular analysis incorporating ribosomal nuclear (28S) and mitochondrial (COI) genes. Individuals were sequenced and compared to 31 specimens from 18 localities of G. klugii. The final dataset included 657 base pairs for 56 terminals in the COI, and 14 terminals with 1068 base pairs in the combined 28S and COI analysis. Our analysis shows intraspecific distances of up to 5% in the COI gene in G. klugii that are not strictly correlated to geography or color pattern. G. larii is discovered to be genetically and morphologically identical to G. klugii and is synonymised with the latter. Interspecific distances in our dataset vary between 6.7 to 15.9%, with the lowest (6.7–9.0%) between G. primordialis and G. klugii. Our analysis confirms the species status of the local endemics G. primordialis, G. oblongoguttata, G. oropensis, G. transalpina, G. ligurica and G. apuana. We also confirm the synonymy of G. undulata Koch, 1844 under G. klugii. G. genuensis Latzel, 1886 is indistinguishable from G. ligurica. PMID:27632210

  16. Two species of Southeast Asian cats in the genus Catopuma with diverging histories: an island endemic forest specialist and a widespread habitat generalist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, Daniel W.; Kitchener, Andrew C.; Rayan, Mark D.; Mohamed, Shariff W.; Werner, Laura; Lenz, Dorina; Pfestorf, Hans; Kramer-Schadt, Stephanie; Radchuk, Viktoriia; Fickel, Jörns; Wilting, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Background. The bay cat Catopuma badia is endemic to Borneo, whereas its sister species the Asian golden cat Catopuma temminckii is distributed from the Himalayas and southern China through Indochina, Peninsular Malaysia and Sumatra. Based on morphological data, up to five subspecies of the Asian golden cat have been recognized, but a taxonomic assessment, including molecular data and morphological characters, is still lacking. Results. We combined molecular data (whole mitochondrial genomes), morphological data (pelage) and species distribution projections (up to the Late Pleistocene) to infer how environmental changes may have influenced the distribution of these sister species over the past 120 000 years. The molecular analysis was based on sequenced mitogenomes of 3 bay cats and 40 Asian golden cats derived mainly from archival samples. Our molecular data suggested a time of split between the two species approximately 3.16 Ma and revealed very low nucleotide diversity within the Asian golden cat population, which supports recent expansion of the population. Discussion. The low nucleotide diversity suggested a population bottleneck in the Asian golden cat, possibly caused by the eruption of the Toba volcano in Northern Sumatra (approx. 74 kya), followed by a continuous population expansion in the Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene. Species distribution projections, the reconstruction of the demographic history, a genetic isolation-by-distance pattern and a gradual variation of pelage pattern support the hypothesis of a post-Toba population expansion of the Asian golden cat from south China/Indochina to Peninsular Malaysia and Sumatra. Our findings reject the current classification of five subspecies for the Asian golden cat, but instead support either a monotypic species or one comprising two subspecies: (i) the Sunda golden cat, distributed south of the Isthmus of Kra: C. t. temminckii and (ii) Indochinese, Indian, Himalayan and Chinese golden cats

  17. Phylogeographic analysis of the true lemurs (genus Eulemur) underlines the role of river catchments for the evolution of micro-endemism in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markolf, Matthias; Kappeler, Peter M

    2013-11-14

    Due to its remarkable species diversity and micro-endemism, Madagascar has recently been suggested to serve as a biogeographic model region. However, hypothesis-based tests of various diversification mechanisms that have been proposed for the evolution of the island's micro-endemic lineages are still limited. Here, we test the fit of several diversification hypotheses with new data on the broadly distributed genus Eulemur using coalescent-based phylogeographic analyses. Time-calibrated species tree analyses and population genetic clustering resolved the previously polytomic species relationships among eulemurs. The most recent common ancestor of eulemurs was estimated to have lived about 4.45 million years ago (mya). Divergence date estimates furthermore suggested a very recent diversification among the members of the "brown lemur complex", i.e. former subspecies of E. fulvus, during the Pleistocene (0.33-1.43 mya). Phylogeographic model comparisons of past migration rates showed significant levels of gene flow between lineages of neighboring river catchments as well as between eastern and western populations of the redfronted lemur (E. rufifrons). Together, our results are concordant with the centers of endemism hypothesis (Wilmé et al. 2006, Science 312:1063-1065), highlight the importance of river catchments for the evolution of Madagascar's micro-endemic biota, and they underline the usefulness of testing diversification mechanisms using coalescent-based phylogeographic methods.

  18. Development of Microsatellite Loci for Cyclocarya paliurus (Juglandaceae, A Monotypic Species in Subtropical China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng-Mei Fan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Microsatellite loci were developed for a monotypic species endemic to subtropical China, Cyclocarya paliurus, to help infer the evolutionary histories of ancient monotypic genera in subtropical China. Methods and Results: Using the Fast Isolation by AFLP of Sequences Containing repeats (FIASCO protocol, 28 primer sets were identified in two wild populations. All loci were polymorphic, with the number of alleles per locus ranging from two to eight. The expected and observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.153 to 0.802 and from 0 to 0.750, respectively. The transferability of the 28 primer pairs was tested on Juglans regia, Pterocarya stenoptera, and Platycarya strobilacea. Twenty-one (75.0%, 22 (78.6%, and 15 (53.6% markers were successfully amplified in J. regia, P. stenoptera, and P. strobilacea, respectively. Conclusions: These loci will be useful for in-depth analysis of genetic diversity and phylogeographical variation throughout the distribution range of C. paliurus.

  19. A new Neotropical genus of Blastini (Psocodea: 'Psocoptera': Psocidae: Amphigerontiinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrete, Alfonso N García; Román-P, Cristian

    2015-08-17

    A monotypic genus of Psocidae (Amphigerontiinae: Blastini) from Santiago de Cali, Colombia, is here described and illustrated. It differs from Chaetopsocidus Badonnel, from the Páramo de Monserrate, near Bogotá, in having setae on the forewing veins.

  20. A new scorpion species of genus Diplocentrus Peters, 1861 (Scorpiones: Diplocentridae) endemic to Islas de la Bahia, Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagastume-Espinoza, Kevin O; Longhorn, Stuart J; Santibáñez-López, Carlos E

    2015-07-01

    Three species of genus Diplocentrus are found in north-northwestern Honduras. These species represent the southern east limits of Diplocentrus' distribution. In recent years, a broad survey of arachnids in Honduras has yielded a collection of several specimens of an undescribed species from two islands in northern Honduras. This new species represents the second species of the genus inhabiting an island. The present contribution describes this new species, and compares it against its most similar relatives. A dichotomous key for the identification of the species of Diplocentrus in Honduras is also included.

  1. High Genetic Diversity and Insignificant Interspecific Differentiation in Opisthopappus Shih, an Endangered Cliff Genus Endemic to the Taihang Mountains of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongmin Guo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Opisthopappus Shih is endemic to the Taihang Mountains, China. It grows in the crevice of cliffs and is in fragmented distribution. This genus consists of two species, namely, O. taihangensis (Ling Shih and O. longilobus Shih, which are both endangered plants in China. This study adopted intersimple sequence repeat markers (ISSR to analyze the genetic diversity and genetic structure from different levels (genus, species, and population in this genus. A total of 253 loci were obtained from 27 primers, 230 of which were polymorphic loci with a proportion of polymorphic bands (PPB of up to 90.91% at genus level. At species level, both O. taihangensis (PPB=90.12%, H=0.1842, and I=0.289 and O. longilobus (PPB=95.21%, H=0.2226, and I=0.3542 have high genetic diversity. Their respective genetic variation mostly existed within the population. And genetic variation in O. longilobus (84.95% was higher than that in O. taihangensis (80.45%. A certain genetic differentiation among populations in O. taihangensis was found (Gst=0.2740, Φst=0.196 and genetic differentiation in O. longilobus was very small (Gst=0.1034, Φst=0.151. Gene flow in different degrees (Nm=1.325 and 4.336, resp. and mating system can form the existing genetic structures of these two species. Furthermore, genetic differentiation coefficient (Gst=0.0453 between species and the clustering result based on the genetic distance showed that interspecific differentiation between O. taihangensis and O. longilobus was not significant and could occur lately.

  2. Development and characterization of microsatellite markers for Brazilian four-eyed frogs (genus Pleurodema) endemic to the Caatinga biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomé, M T C; Alexandrino, J; Lopes, S; Haddad, C F B; Sequeira, F

    2014-03-12

    We used pyrosequencing to develop microsatellite markers for the Brazilian four-eyed frog Pleurodema diplolister and tested the microsatellite markers for cross-amplification in its sister Pleurodema alium, which are both endemic species of the Caatinga biome in northeastern Brazil. We used multiplex sets to amplify and genotype 30 individuals of P. diplolister from three different populations and 10 individuals of P. alium from a single population. We successfully amplified 24 loci for P. diplolister, 13 of which we were able to amplify in P. alium. All loci were polymorphic. Significant deviations from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and the presence of null alleles were only consistently detected at one locus (Pleu9). These markers will enable the study of geographic genetic diversity and evolutionary processes in these two Caatinga endemics, and the inclusion of genetic data for conservation planning of the Caatinga biome.

  3. Phylogenetic position of Schnabelia, a genus endemic to China: Evidence from sequences of cpDNA matK gene and nrDNA ITS regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Suhua; DU Yaqing; D. E. Boufford; GONG Xun; HUANG Yelin; HE Hanghang; ZHONG Yang

    2003-01-01

    The chloroplast gene matK and the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA from Schnabelia, a genus endemic to China, and 6 genera of Verbenaceae and 13 genera of Lamiaceae were sequenced. The phylogenetic signal and validity outgroups were measured and evaluated by means of the relatively apparent synapomorphy analysis (RASA). Independent and combined phylogenetic analyses for the matK and ITS sequences were performed using the maximum parsimony (MP), neighbor- joining (NJ) and maximum likelihood (ML) methods, indicating that Schnabelia oligophylla and Caryopteris terniflora form a sister-group relationship. The Caryopteris complex is not shown to be a monophyly because Trichostema, C. paniculata and C. forrestii are paraphyletic to the clade containing the remaining members of the complex. A monophyly of Ajugoideae proposed by Cantino et al., including 8 genera in this study, is strongly supported and the closest relatives of Schnabelia are in the Ajugoideae (Lamiaceae), especially near Caryopteris terniflora. The polygenetic analyses also showed that the genera of Lamiaceae and Verbenaceae sampled in this tudy are phylogenetically mixed and the genus Avicennia is distant to other genera of Verbenaceae. RASA and combined analysis can be used as effective approaches to determining the relationships among phylogenetically complex groups.

  4. Multilocus sequence analysis of the marine bacterial genus Tenacibaculum suggests parallel evolution of fish pathogenicity and endemic colonization of aquaculture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Christophe; Houel, Armel; Lunazzi, Aurélie; Bernardet, Jean-François; Olsen, Anne Berit; Nilsen, Hanne; Toranzo, Alicia E; Castro, Nuria; Nicolas, Pierre; Duchaud, Eric

    2014-09-01

    The genus Tenacibaculum, a member of the family Flavobacteriaceae, is an abundant component of marine bacterial ecosystems that also hosts several fish pathogens, some of which are of serious concern for marine aquaculture. Here, we applied multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) to 114 representatives of most known species in the genus and of the worldwide diversity of the major fish pathogen Tenacibaculum maritimum. Recombination hampers precise phylogenetic reconstruction, but the data indicate intertwined environmental and pathogenic lineages, which suggests that pathogenicity evolved independently in several species. At lower phylogenetic levels recombination is also important, and the species T. maritimum constitutes a cohesive group of isolates. Importantly, the data reveal no trace of long-distance dissemination that could be linked to international fish movements. Instead, the high number of distinct genotypes suggests an endemic distribution of strains. The MLSA scheme and the data described in this study will help in monitoring Tenacibaculum infections in marine aquaculture; we show, for instance, that isolates from tenacibaculosis outbreaks in Norwegian salmon farms are related to T. dicentrarchi, a recently described species.

  5. Molecular phylogenetics and comparative anatomy of Kimberleytrachia Köhler, 2011 - a genus of land snail endemic to the coastal Kimberley, Western Australia with description of new taxa (Gastropoda, Camaenidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Criscione, F.; Köhler, F.

    2014-01-01

    Kimberleytrachia Köhler, 2011 is a genus of camaenid land snail endemic to the Western Australian Kimberley region. It comprises twelve previously recognised species, all of which occur within the high precipitation zone along the north-western coast between the Admiralty Gulf and King Sound and wit

  6. Mountain refugia play a role in soil arthropod speciation on Madagascar: a case study of the endemic giant fire-millipede genus Aphistogoniulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesener, Thomas; Raupach, Michael J; Decker, Peter

    2011-01-01

    To elucidate the speciation mechanisms prevalent within hotspots of biodiversity, and the evolutionary processes behind the rise of their species-rich and endemic biota, we investigated the phylogeny of the giant fire-millipede genus Aphistogoniulus Silvestri, 1897, a Malagasy endemic. This study is the first comprehensive (molecular and morphological) phylogenetic study focusing on millipede (class Diplopoda) speciation on Madagascar. The morphological analysis is based on 35 morphological characters and incorporates ten described as well as two newly described species (A. rubrodorsalisn. sp. and A. jeekelin. sp.) of Aphistogoniulus. The molecular analysis is based on both mitochondrial (COI and 16S), and nuclear genes (complete 18S rDNA), together comprised of 3031 base pairs, which were successfully sequenced for 31 individual specimens and eight species of Aphistogoniulus. In addition to the null-model (speciation by distance), two diversification models, mountain refugia and ecotone shift, were discovered to play a role in the speciation of soil arthropods on Madagascar. Mountain refugia were important in the speciation of the A. cowani clade, with three species occurring in the Andringitra and Ranomafana Mountains in the southeast (A. cowani), the Ambohijanahary and Ambohitantely Mountains in the mid-west (A. sanguineus), and the Marojejy Mountain in the northeast (A. rubrodorsalisn. sp.). An ecotone shift from the eastern rainforest to the unique subarid spiny forest of Mahavelo was discovered in the A. vampyrus-A. aridus species-pair. In the monophyletic A. diabolicus clade, evidence for divergent evolution of sexual morphology was detected: species with greatly enlarged gonopods are sister-taxa to species with normal sized gonopods. Among the large-bodied Spirobolida genera of Madagascar, Colossobolus and Sanguinobolus were found to be close sister-genera to Aphistogoniulus. Forest destruction has caused forest corridors between populations to disappear

  7. Niche shifts and range expansions along cordilleras drove diversification in a high-elevation endemic plant genus in the tropical Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolář, Filip; Dušková, Eva; Sklenář, Petr

    2016-09-01

    The tropical Andes represent one of the world's biodiversity hot spots, but the evolutionary drivers generating their striking species diversity still remain poorly understood. In the treeless high-elevation Andean environments, Pleistocene glacial oscillations and niche differentiation are frequently hypothesized diversification mechanisms; however, sufficiently densely sampled population genetic data supporting this are still lacking. Here, we reconstruct the evolutionary history of Loricaria (Asteraceae), a plant genus endemic to the Andean treeless alpine zone, based on comprehensive population-level sampling of 289 individuals from 67 populations across the entire distribution ranges of its northern Andean species. Partly incongruent AFLP and plastid DNA markers reveal that the distinct genetic structure was shaped by a complex interplay of biogeography (spread along and across the cordilleras), history (Pleistocene glacial oscillations) and local ecological conditions. While plastid variation documents an early split or colonization of the northern Andes by at least two lineages, one of which further diversified, a major split in the AFLP data correlate with altitudinal ecological differentiation. This suggests that niche shifts may be important drivers of Andean diversification not only in forest-alpine transitions, but also within the treeless alpine zone itself. The patterns of genetic differentiation at the intraspecific level reject the hypothesized separation in spatially isolated cordilleras and instead suggest extensive gene flow among populations from distinct mountain chains. Our study highlights that leveraging highly variable markers against extensive population-level sampling is a promising approach to address mechanisms of rapid species diversifications.

  8. High diversity and endemism in the genus Cautires Waterhouse, 1879 (Coleoptera: Lycidae from the Malay mountain forests, with the descriptions of fourteen new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Jiruskova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We identified a high diversity in the net-winged beetles of the genus Cautires in Peninsular Malaysia. Fourteen new species are described: Cautires alexae sp. nov., C. andujari sp. nov., C. arribasae sp. nov., C. berembanensis sp. nov., C. campestris sp. nov., C. communis sp. nov., C. jasarensis sp. nov., C. katarinae sp. nov., C. kirstenae sp. nov., C. kotatinggensis sp. nov., C. linardi sp. nov., C. maseki sp. nov., C. pahangensis sp. nov. and C. renatae sp. nov. Seven previously described species are discussed, illustrated and differential diagnoses provided; all species are keyed. The Cautires species differ in a limited number of diagnostic characters, namely in the shape of male antennae, the relative size of eyes and in the shape of the male genitalia. The females are difficult to assign to a conspecific male due to high intraspecific variability. The characteristically low dispersal propensity of net-winged beetles lead to the evolution of the unique fauna in the Malay mountains and despite an extensive study of the type material we recorded only a single species of Cautires occurring simultaneously in Sumatra. We suggest that the Malay mountain fauna is highly endemic and evolved in situ.

  9. Molecular phylogeny, species limits, and biogeography of the Brazilian endemic lizard genus Enyalius (Squamata: Leiosauridae): an example of the historical relationship between Atlantic Forests and Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut; Bertolotto, Carolina Elena Viña; Amaro, Renata Cecília; Yonenaga-Yassuda, Yatiyo; Freire, Eliza Maria Xavier; Pellegrino, Katia Cristina Machado

    2014-12-01

    The endemic Brazilian Enyalius encompasses a diverse group of forest lizards with most species restricted to the Atlantic Forest (AF). Their taxonomy is problematic due to extensive variation in color pattern and external morphology. We present the first phylogenetic hypothesis for the genus based on 2102 bp of the mtDNA (cyt-b, ND4, and 16S) and nuclear (c-mos) regions, uncovering all previously admitted taxa (9 spp). Different methods of tree reconstruction were explored with Urostrophus vautieri, Anisolepis grilli and A. longicauda as outgroups. The monophyly of Enyalius and its split into two deeply divergent clades (late Oligocene and early Miocene) is strongly supported. Clade A assembles most lineages restricted to south and southeastern Brazil, and within it Enyalius brasiliensis is polyphyletic; herein full species status of E. brasiliensis and E. boulengeri is resurrected. Clade B unites the Amazonian E. leechii as sister-group to a major clade containing E. bilineatus as sister-group to all remaining species from northeastern Brazil. We detected unrecognized diversity in several populations suggesting putative species. Biogeographical analyses indicate that Enyalius keeps fidelity to shadowed forests, with few cases of dispersal into open regions. Ancient dispersal into the Amazon from an AF ancestor may have occurred through northeastern Brazil.

  10. Endosymbiotic bacteria nodulating a new endemic lupine Lupinus mariae-josephi from alkaline soils in Eastern Spain represent a new lineage within the Bradyrhizobium genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Cañizares, Carmen; Rey, Luis; Durán, David; Temprano, Francisco; Sánchez-Jiménez, Paloma; Navarro, Albert; Polajnar, Mira; Imperial, Juan; Ruiz-Argüeso, Tomás

    2011-05-01

    Lupinus mariae-josephi is a recently described endemic Lupinus species from a small area in Eastern Spain where it thrives in soils with active lime and high pH. The L. mariae-josephi root symbionts were shown to be very slow-growing bacteria with different phenotypic and symbiotic characteristics from those of Bradyrhizobium strains nodulating other Lupinus. Their phylogenetic status was examined by multilocus sequence analyses of four housekeeping genes (16S rRNA, glnII, recA, and atpD) and showed the existence of a distinct evolutionary lineage for L. mariae-josephi that also included Bradyrhizobium jicamae. Within this lineage, the tested isolates clustered in three different sub-groups that might correspond to novel sister Bradyrhizobium species. These core gene analyses consistently showed that all the endosymbiotic bacteria isolated from other Lupinus species of the Iberian Peninsula were related to strains of the B. canariense or B. japonicum lineages and were separate from the L. mariae-josephi isolates. Phylogenetic analysis based on nodC symbiotic gene sequences showed that L. mariae-josephi bacteria also constituted a new symbiotic lineage distant from those previously defined in the genus Bradyrhizobium. In contrast, the nodC genes of isolates from other Lupinus spp. from the Iberian Peninsula were again clearly related to the B. canariense and B. japonicum bv. genistearum lineages. Speciation of L. mariae-josephi bradyrhizobia may result from the colonization of a singular habitat by their unique legume host. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. The upper reaches of the largest river in Southern China as an “evolutionary front” of tropical plants: Evidences from Asia-endemic genus Hiptage (Malpighiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren, M. X.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The biodiversity hotspot at the Guizhou–Yunnan–Guangxi borders is a distribution centre of tropical plants in China. It spans the whole upper reaches of Zhujiang River, the largest river in Southern China. In this paper, I aimed to explore the roles of the river in the spread and diversification of tropical plants in this area, using the Asia-endemic genus Hiptage Gaertn. (Malpighiaceae as an example. Two diversity and endemism centres of Hiptage are recognized: Indo-China Peninsula and upper reaches of Zhujiang River (UZJ. The area-adjusted endemism index further indicates UZJ as the most important distribution region of endemic species since UZJ has a very small area (~210,000 km2 but six out of the total seven species are narrow endemics. UZJ is located at the northern edge of distribution ranges of Hiptage, which resulted mainly from the north-west–south-east river systems of UZJ promoting northward spreads of this tropical genus. The highly-fragmented limestone landscapes in this region may promote habitat isolation and tends to be the main driving factor for origins of these endemic species. Hiptage is also distinctive for its highly-specialized pollination system, mirror-image flowers, which probably facilitates species diversification via floral and pollination isolation. Other studies also found UZJ as a major diversification centre of the tropical plant families Gesneriaceae and Begoniaceae. Thereafter, it is concluded that UZJ is an “evolutionary front” of tropical plants in China, which contributes significantly to the origin and maintenance of the unique biodiversity in the area.El hotspot de biodiversidad en las fronteras de las provincias Guizhou-Yunnan- Guangxi es un centro de distribución de plantas tropicales en China. Se extiende por toda la cuenca alta del río Zhujiang, el mayor río del sur de China. En este artículo, se explora el papel del río en la propagación y la diversificación de las plantas tropicales

  12. A note on the genus Liocranium Ogilby (Pisces, Scorpaenidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mees, G.F.

    1964-01-01

    The genus Liocranium was established by Ogilby (1903) to contain a new species of scorpion-fish from the east coast of Queensland: L. praepositum. The genus remained monotypic until McCulloch (1921) placed Paracentropogan scorpio Ogilby in it, a species also described from the Queensland coast. Whit

  13. Aristofolia Ayala-Landa, a valid genus of Asilinae (Diptera, Asilidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Vieira; José Manuel Ayala Landa

    2014-01-01

    Aristofolia Ayala-Landa, a valid genus of Asilinae (Diptera, Asilidae). The robber fly genus Aristofolia Ayala-Landa, 1978 is a monotypic taxon of Asilinae. The status of Aristofolia is revalidated, and addenda to the original description of the genus is provided. The habitus, wings, male and female terminalia are described and illustrated.

  14. Aristofolia Ayala-Landa, a valid genus of Asilinae (Diptera, Asilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Vieira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aristofolia Ayala-Landa, a valid genus of Asilinae (Diptera, Asilidae. The robber fly genus Aristofolia Ayala-Landa, 1978 is a monotypic taxon of Asilinae. The status of Aristofolia is revalidated, and addenda to the original description of the genus is provided. The habitus, wings, male and female terminalia are described and illustrated.

  15. Mountain refugia play a role in soil arthropod speciation on Madagascar: a case study of the endemic giant fire-millipede genus Aphistogoniulus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wesener, Thomas; Raupach, Michael J; Decker, Peter

    2011-01-01

    To elucidate the speciation mechanisms prevalent within hotspots of biodiversity, and the evolutionary processes behind the rise of their species-rich and endemic biota, we investigated the phylogeny...

  16. A two-gene phylogeny shows the lichen genus Niebla (Lecanorales) is endemic to the New World and does not occur in Macaronesia nor in the Mediterranean basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sérusiaux, Emmanuël; van den Boom, Pieter; Ertz, Damien

    2010-07-01

    The generic segregates of the widespread fruticose genus Ramalina (mostly based on empirical data on morphology, cortex anatomy and secondary metabolites) are studied using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses of nuclear LSU and ITS sequences. The species examined include the three species aggregates within Niebla from the western coasts of North America, all species except one assumed to belong to the same genus from Macaronesia and the Mediterranean basin, the type species of Dievernia and Ramalina, and representatives of the genus Fistulariella. The genus Niebla is strongly supported when restricted to species from the New World, and all species referred to it from Macaronesia and the Mediterranean basin belong to Ramalina (R. bourgeana, R. crispatula, R. cupularis, R. hamulosa, R. portosantana, R. rosacea, R. subwebbiana and R. webbii). No support is found for the genera Dievernia and Fistulariella. The internal topology of the large genus Ramalina is unresolved and needs further studies.

  17. Epiverta Dieke (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae: Epilachnini): A Complex of Species, Not a Monotypic Genus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Lizhi; Szawaryn, Karol; Wang, Xingmin

    2017-01-01

    Rich sampling and modern research techniques, including SEM, revealed that rarely collected epilachnine species Epiverta chelonia is a complex of four closely related species: E. chelonia (Mader, 1933), E. albopilosa, E. angusta, and E. supinata spp. nov. All Epiverta species are described and illustrated, a key to the species and a distribution map are provided. Lectotype of Solanophila cheloniaMader, 1933 is designated and its type locality delimited to Yunnan Province, Deqin County (China).

  18. A review of the hispaniolan colubrid snake Genus Ialtris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwartz, Albert; Rossman, Douglas A.

    1976-01-01

    Of the four endemic Hispaniolan genera of colubrid snakes, the least known is Ialtris Cope. Two species of Ialtris are recognized, each monotypic – dorsalis Günther and parishi Cochran. Neither has been commonly collected. COCHRAN (1941 : 375) listed 12 specimens of I. dorsalis in American collectio

  19. A review of the hispaniolan colubrid snake Genus Ialtris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwartz, Albert; Rossman, Douglas A.

    1976-01-01

    Of the four endemic Hispaniolan genera of colubrid snakes, the least known is Ialtris Cope. Two species of Ialtris are recognized, each monotypic – dorsalis Günther and parishi Cochran. Neither has been commonly collected. COCHRAN (1941 : 375) listed 12 specimens of I. dorsalis in American

  20. Taxonomic revision of the afrotropical genus Megatrigon Johnson, 1898 (Diptera: Syrphidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doczkal, Dieter; Radenković, Snežana; Lyneborg, Leif

    2016-01-01

    The genus-group taxon Megatrigon Johnson, 1898, stat. nov., is revised and treated as a valid genus within the Merodontini (= Eumerini). Extensive diagnoses are given for the genus and for its three constituent species groups: argenteus group [11 spp.], nivalis group [monotypic], sexfasciatus gro...

  1. 青藏高原一新特有属——异型株属及其传粉模式%A New Qinghai-Tibet Plateau Endemic Genus Sinoswertia and Its Pollination Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何廷农; 刘尚武; 刘建全

    2013-01-01

    胚胎学和分子证据表明广义獐牙菜属的异形花组应该独立为一个新属.在重新检查该属唯一种在各居群的形态变化时,发现该物种具有异形植株和异形花;前一性状在以前的研究中被忽略了,同时还发现该物种主要是采用闭花受精结实,这一繁殖特点可能是对青藏高原极端环境生存适应的结果.这些特征明显不同于獐牙菜属的其余种和相关属.综合其它证据讨论了该种的系统位置,认为其与花锚属有最近的亲缘关系,这一物种独特的形态性状和系统位置支持其独立为属,并正式描述和发表这一新属——异型株属.但是必需指出的是,广义獐牙菜属排除这一物种后,分子证据表明其还是一个复系属.分类上处理这种由于快速物种多样化和性状趋同进化导致的复系属仍面临巨大的挑战,还有待今后更详细的研究.%Available data from both embryological and molecular studies of the monotypic section Heteranthos within the genus Swertia s.l.suggested that this taxon should be erected as a separate genus.We examined morphological variations of the only species across multiple populations and found that it has two types of individuals and one type contains both large and small flowers while the other only small flowers.However,all small and most large flowers set seeds through a cleistogamous pollination mode,which may have evolved in response to the reproductive adaptation to the arid habitats of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.However,this pollination mode is different from the outcrossing breeding system observed for the other Swertia species.Dimorphic plants and flowers distinguish this species from the other Swertia species and related genera.We further discussed the systematic position of this species based on the comprehensive data and the current data support its close relationship with Halenia.The morphological distinctness and systematic position of this species from all

  2. A new genus for the Lesser Moorhen Gallinula angulata Sundevall, 1850 (Aves, Rallidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Sangster

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Molecular phylogenetic analysis has demonstrated that the genus Gallinula is not monophyletic and comprises four major lineages. A review of the nomenclature of Gallinula shows that generic names are available for three lineages but that a fourth is as yet unnamed. A new monotypic genus, Paragallinula gen. nov., is described for Lesser Moorhen (Gallinula angulata Sundevall, 1850.

  3. Uncovering the diversity of the neotropical genus Elaphopsocus ('Psocoptera': Psocidae: Amphigerontiinae): from one to ten species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román-Palacios, Cristian; Obando, Ranulfo González; Aldrete, Alfonso N García

    2016-09-09

    For 75 years, the genus Elaphopsocus was considered a monotypic lineage of neotropical psocids. As a result of recent work in South America, this genus presently includes seven species from Brazil and Colombia. We here describe three new species from the East Colombian high Andes.

  4. Ecological niche models and patterns of richness and endemism of the southern Andean genus Eurymetopum (Coleoptera, Cleridae Modelos de nicho ecológico y patrones de riqueza y endemismo del género andino austral Eurymetopum (Coleoptera, Cleridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Escalante

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Eurymetopum is an Andean clerid genus with 22 species. We modeled the ecological niches of 19 species with Maxent and used them as potential distributional maps to identify patterns of richness and endemicity. All modeled species maps were overlapped in a single map in order to determine richness. We performed an optimality analysis with NDM/VNDM in a grid of 1º latitude-longitude in order to identify endemism. We found a highly rich area, located between 32º and 41º south latitude, where the richest pixels have 16 species. One area of endemism was identified, located in the Maule and Valdivian Forest biogeographic provinces, which extends also to the Santiago province of the Central Chilean subregion, and contains four endemic species (E. parallelum, E. prasinum, E. proteus, and E. viride, as well as 16 non-endemic species. The sympatry of these phylogenetically unrelated species might indicate ancient vicariance processes, followed by episodes of dispersal. Based on our results, we suggest a close relationship between these provinces, with the Maule representing a complex area.Eurymetopum es un género de cléridos andinos con 22 especies. Modelamos los nichos ecológicos de 19 especies con Maxent y los utilizamos como mapas de distribución potencial para identificar patrones de riqueza y endemismo. Todos los mapas de las especies se superpusieron en un mapa único para determinar la riqueza. Realizamos un análisis de optimalidad con NDM/VNDM en una cuadrícula de 1º de latitud-longitud para identificar el endemismo. Hallamos un área de mayor riqueza, localizada entre los 32º y 41º de latitud sur, donde los pixeles más ricos poseen 16 especies. Se identificó un área de endemismo en las provincias biogeográficas del Maule y el Bosque Valdiviano, la cual se extiende también a la provincia de Santiago de la subregión Chilena Central, y que contiene cuatro especies endémicas (E. parallelum, E. prasinum, E. proteus y E. viride, as

  5. Suitability of monotypic and mixed diets for Anopheles hermsi larval development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, Donald A; Walton, William E

    2016-06-01

    The developmental time and survival to eclosion of Anopheles hermsi Barr & Guptavanij fed monotypic and mixed diets of ten food types were examined in laboratory studies. Larvae fed monotypic diets containing animal detritus (freeze-dried rotifers, freeze-dried Daphnia pulicaria, and TetraMin® fish food flakes) and the mixotrophic protistan Cryptomonas ovata developed faster and survived better than larvae that were fed other monotypic diets. Survival to adulthood of larvae fed several concentrations of the diatom Planothidium (=Achnanthes) lanceolatum was poor (1% C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids as total fat, but regardless of essential fatty acid content, algae that produced mucilage and filaments that sank out of the feeding zone were poor quality diets.

  6. Phylogeny, morphological evolution, and speciation of endemic brassicaceae genera in the cape flora of southern Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mummenhoff, K.; Al-Shehbaz, I.A.; Bakker, F.T.; Linder, H.P.; Mühlhausen, A.

    2005-01-01

    Heliophila (ca. 73 spp.), the ditypic Cycloptychis and Thlaspeocarpa, and the monotypic Schlechteria, Silicularia, Brachycarpaea, and Chamira are endemic to the Cape region of South Africa, where they are the dominant genera of Brassicaceae. They may be regarded as the most diversified Brassicaceae

  7. Phylogeny, morphological evolution, and speciation of endemic brassicaceae genera in the cape flora of southern Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mummenhoff, K.; Al-Shehbaz, I.A.; Bakker, F.T.; Linder, H.P.; Mühlhausen, A.

    2005-01-01

    Heliophila (ca. 73 spp.), the ditypic Cycloptychis and Thlaspeocarpa, and the monotypic Schlechteria, Silicularia, Brachycarpaea, and Chamira are endemic to the Cape region of South Africa, where they are the dominant genera of Brassicaceae. They may be regarded as the most diversified Brassicaceae

  8. A nuclear DNA based phylogeny of endemic sand dune ants of the genus Mycetophylax (Emery, 1913): how morphology is reflected in molecular data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Danon Clemes; Cristiano, Maykon Passos; Heinze, Jürgen; Tavares, Mara Garcia

    2014-01-01

    Molecular methods have substantially advanced our knowledge about ant systematics in the past few years. Here, we infer the molecular phylogeny of sand dune ants of the genus Mycetophylax, Emery 1913 (Formicidae: Myrmicinae: Attini) using 730 base pairs of DNA sequences of the two nuclear genes longwave rhodopsin and wingless. Our analyses indicate that Mycetophylax is monophyletic, as suggested by its morphological characters. M. morschi, previously considered a species of Cyphomyrmex due to a scrobe-like impressed area on the head, forms a well-supported cluster with the two other species of Mycetophylax, M. conformis and M. simplex. Our analysis yields the first comprehensive phylogeny of Mycetophylax based on molecular data and includes specimens from localities within a wide distributional range as well as all species belonging to the genus following the recent taxonomic revision.

  9. COMPARING THE BODY MASS VARIATIONS IN ENDEMIC INSULAR SPECIES OF THE GENUS PROLAGUS (OCHOTONIDAE, LAGOMORPHA IN THE PLEISTOCENE OF SARDINIA (ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BLANCA MONCUNILL-SOLÉ

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Prolagus figaro and P. sardus are part of an endemic insular anagenetic lineage that populated Sardinia since the earliest Late Pliocene to Holocene. BM of some populations of these two species was calculated using regression models. The best BM proxies for Prolagus are: femur length, zeugopod measurements and distal humerus diameter. The anagenetic lineage show a BM increase of ca 20% from the populations of P. figaro (398−436 g to P. sardus (504−525 g. The trend shown by the size of lower third premolar, even if not directly comparable with BM, is opposite (ca -30% at the transition P. figaro−P. sardus. Compared to P. cf. calpensis, a continental species of similar age, BM of P. figaro is ca +25%. The comparison with the insular endemic P. apricenicus evidenced differences in BM range and timespan required to attain it, due to the different size and palaeogeographical situation of the islands. Insular endemic Prolagus follow the small mammal pattern of Island Rule. Mein’s (1983 biphasic model seems applicable to the evolution of P. figaro. A tachytelic phase followed by a bradytelic one seems to characterize also the appearance of P. sardus, at least for dental traits, a process probably triggered by important variations of abiotic and biotic traits of the environment, as indicated by the turnover that marks the onset of the Dragonara subcomplex. The prediction of life history traits and other biological attributes of Sardinian Prolagus using BM should be considered with caution due to the complexity of ecological selective regimes of Sardinia.

  10. Species composition and relative abundance of sand flies of the genus Lutzomyia (Diptera: Psychodidae) at an endemic focus of visceral leishmaniasis in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, C; Morrison, A C; Torres, M; Pardo, R; Wilson, M L; Tesh, R B

    1995-07-01

    Ecological studies on the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) were conducted during 1990-1993 at a small rural community in Colombia where American visceral leishmaniasis is endemic. Weekly sand fly collections were made from pigpens, houses, and natural resting sites, using hand-held aspirators, sticky (oiled) paper traps, and opossum-baited Disney traps. In total, 263,094 sand flies were collected; L. longipalpis predominated (86.1%), followed by L. trinidadensis (11.0%), L. cayennensis (2.7%), and 8 other Lutzomyia species. The species composition and sex ratio of these sand flies varied among sites and by collection method. L. longipalpis were captured most efficiently by direct aspiration from animal bait. Conversely, sticky paper traps, especially inside houses and at rock resting sites, collected a greater diversity of species, but a lower relative abundance of L. longipalpis.

  11. Phylogenetic analyses place the Australian monotypic Revwattsia in Dryopteris (Dryopteridaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown, Meghan; Sundue, Michael; Barrington, David S

    2012-01-01

    Revwattsia fragilis (Watts) D.L. Jones (Dryopteridaceae), originally described as a Polystichum Roth by the pioneer Australian botanist Reverend W.W. Watts in 1914, is a rare epiphytic fern endemic to northeastern Queensland, Australia. Known from only a few populations, it is restricted to tropical rainforests in the Atherton Tablelands. We used the cpDNA markers psbA-trnH, rbcL, rbcL-accD, rps4-trnS, trnG-trnR, trnL-trnF, and trnP-petG to infer the relationships of Revwattsia fragilis within Dryopteridaceae. Based on our molecular analysis, we were able to reject Watts's 1914 hypothesis of a close relationship to Polystichum. Its closest allies are a suite of Asian Dryopteris Adans. species including Dryopteris labordei, Dryopteris gymnosora, Dryopteris erythrosora and Dryopteris cystolepidota; maintaining Revwattsia renders Dryopteris paraphyletic. The epiphytic habit and distinctive long-creeping rhizome of Revwattsia appear to be autapomorphies and do not warrant its generic status. In the course of our investigation we confirmed that polyphyly of Dryopteris is also sustained by the inclusion of Acrorumohra (H.Itô) H.Itô, Acrophorus C.Presl, Arachniodes Blume, Diacalpe Blume, Dryopsis Holttum & P.J.Edwards, and Peranema D.Don. The epithet fragilis is occupied in Dryopteris, therefore we provide the name Dryopteris wattsiinom. nov. to accommodate Revwattsia fragilis in Dryopteris.

  12. Phylogenetic analyses place the Australian monotypic Revwattsia in Dryopteris (Dryopteridaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan McKeown

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Revwattsia fragilis (Watts D.L. Jones (Dryopteridaceae, originally described as a Polystichum Roth by the pioneer Australian botanist Reverend W.W. Watts in 1914, is a rare epiphytic fern endemic to northeastern Queensland, Australia. Known from only a few populations, it is restricted to tropical rainforests in the Atherton Tablelands. We used the cpDNA markers psbA-trnH, rbcL, rbcL-accD, rps4-trnS, trnG-trnR, trnL-trnF, and trnP-petG to infer the relationships of Revwattsia fragilis within Dryopteridaceae. Based on our molecular analysis, we were able to reject Watts’s 1914 hypothesis of a close relationship to Polystichum. Its closest allies are a suite of Asian Dryopteris Adans. species including D. labordei, D. gymnosora, D. erythrosora and D. cystolepidota; maintaining Revwattsia renders Dryopteris paraphyletic. The epiphytic habit and distinctive long-creeping rhizome of Revwattsia appear to be autapomorphies and do not warrant its generic status. In the course of our investigation we confirmed that polyphyly of Dryopteris is also sustained by the inclusion of Acrorumohra (H.ItôH.Itô, Acrophorus C.Presl, Arachniodes Blume, Diacalpe Blume, Dryopsis Holttum & P.J.Edwards, and Peranema D.Don. The epithet fragilis is occupied in Dryopteris, therefore we provide the name Dryopteris wattsii nom. nov. to accommodate R. fragilis in Dryopteris.

  13. Revision of the rare centipede genus Sterropristes Attems, 1934, with description of a new species from Thailand (Chilopoda: Scolopendromorpha: Scolopendridae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muadsub, S.; Sutcharit, C.; Enghoff, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    The genus Sterropristes Attems, 1934, currently classified in the scolopendrid subfamily Otostigminae and tribe Sterropristini, is revised. The monotypic genus Malaccolabis Verhoeff, 1937, is synonymized with Sterropristes. Sterropristes sarasinorum Attems, 1934 from Tomohon, Celebes, Indonesia (...... on islands in the Andaman Sea, south-western Thailand, is described....

  14. Systematics of the genus Daubenya (Hyacinthaceae: Massonieae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Manning

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Daubenya Lindl. was until recently thought to comprise the single species D. aurea Lindl. but is now considered to include the monotypic genera Androsiphon Schltr. and Amphisiphon W.F.Barker. as well as the species previously referred to the genus Neobakeria Schltr. Eight species are now recognized in the genus, including the new combinations Daubenya comata (Burch, ex Baker J.C.Manning & A.M.van der Merwe and D. zeyheri (Kunth J.C.Manning & A.M.van der Merwe. Each species is fully described and illustrated in black-and-white and in colour. A key to the species, and distribution maps are provided.

  15. A palynotaxonomic study of the genus Filipendula (Rosaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sangtae LEE; Meekyung KANG; Kyeong-In HEO; Wen-Li CHEN; Chunghee LEE

    2009-01-01

    Pollen grains from 15 species (18 taxa) of the genus Filipendula were examined with light and scan-ning electron microscopy. It was revealed that the pollen grains are isopolar, tricolporate, with scabrate or scabrate-microechinate surface. The pollen morphology was compared with the conventional classification sys-tems of the genus by different authors, and supported Shimizu's system (1961), in which the genus was divided into three subgenera. The monotypic subgen. Hypogyna is characterized by pollen lacking fastigium and thickened costae colpi. The other monotypic subgen. Filipendula differs from others by pollen having larger grain, larger pore size, longitudinally elliptic fastigium and thickened costae colpi. The largest subgen. Ulmaria is distinguished by pollen having rounded or latitudinally elliptic fastigium and thickened costae colpi. Sectional classification was not supported by the pollen morphology due to insufficient variability.

  16. Taxonomy of the ant genus Nesomyrmex Wheeler (Formicidae, Myrmicinae in the Afrotropical region, with a review of current species groups and description of a new species of the N. angulatus group from Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Hita Garcia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reviews the taxonomy of the ant genus Nesomyrmex Wheeler, 1910 in the Afrotropical region. Previous revisionary studies are discussed and four species groups are proposed on the basis of external morphology. The N. angulatus group contains seven species that are widely distributed throughout the whole Afrotropical region, with one species also occurring in the Palaearctic and Malagasy regions. The N. cataulacoides group is monotypic, with one morphologically bizarre species found in Equatorial rain forests. The N. humerosus group is also monotypic and occurs in East Africa. The last and by far most species-rich group is the N. simoni group that contains 17 species, all of which are endemic to South Africa. The four groups are defined for the first time for the region, and an illustrated identification key is provided. Furthermore, the N. angulatus group is more thoroughly reviewed. One new species from Mozambique is described, N. inhaca sp. nov., and species accounts for the other six are provided. Also, an illustrated identification key to the species of the N. angulatus group is presented.

  17. A revision of the genus Mecistostethus Marseul (Histeridae, Histerinae, Exosternini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Caterino

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We revise the genus Mecistostethus Marseul, sinking the monotypic genus Tarsilister Bruch as a junior synonym. Mecistostethus contains six valid species: M. pilifer Marseul, M. loretoensis (Bruch, comb. n., M. seagorum sp. n., M. carltoni sp. n., M. marseuli sp. n., and M. flechtmanni sp. n. The few existing records show the genus to be widespread in tropical and subtropical South America, from northern Argentina to western Amazonian Ecuador and French Guiana. Only a single host record associates one species with the ant Pachycondyla striata Smith (Formicidae: Ponerinae, but it is possible that related ants host all the species.

  18. Meringodes Wappes and Lingafelter (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae), a new genus of Rhopalophorini from Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meringodes Wappes and Lingafelter, a monotypic new genus of Rhopalophorini, is described from Santa Cruz Department, Bolivia. Meringodes is most similar to Disaulax Audinet-Serville, although it also possesses characters of Thalusia Thomson and Cosmisoma Audinet-Serville. A diagnosis and descripti...

  19. Notes on Myxomycetes I. Some remarks on the genus Reticularia Bull. Emend. Rost

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nannenga-Bremekamp, N.E.

    1959-01-01

    On account of the reticulate spores with their large area of dehiscence and because of the structure of the pseudo-capillitium the monotypic genus Liceopsis and Enteridium splendens (syn. E. rozeanum) are returned to Reticularia. It is argued that R.? rozeana can not with certainty be identified, bu

  20. Renius cornutus, a new genus and species of Chilocorini from Tibet, China (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjing; Huo, Lizhi; Ahrens, Dirk; Ren, Shunxiang; Wang, Xingmin

    2017-01-01

    A new monotypic genus of Chilocorini, Renius Li & Wang, gen. n., with a new species R. cornutus Li et Wang, sp. n. is described from Tibet, China. All diagnostic features are illustrated. The relationships with other genera of Chilocorini are discussed and a key to Chinese genera of Chilocorini is provided.

  1. THE GENUS CULLENIA Wight * (Bombacaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. G. H. KOSTERMANS

    1956-12-01

    Full Text Available The monotypic genus Cullenia was established by Wight (IconesPI. Ind. or. 5 (1 : pi. 1761—62 & text, 1851, who differentiated it fromDurio Adans. mainly by the lack of a corolla and the position and shapeof the anthers. The only species, originally described as Durio ceylanicusby Gardner, was cited by Wight as Cullenia excelsa Wight. K. Schumanncorrected the specific epithet rather casually and atributed it (wronglyto Wight. Bentham (in Benth. & Hook., Gen. pi. 1: 212. 1867; Baillon(Hist. pi. 4: 159. 1872, Masters (in Hook, f., Fl. Br. Ind. 1: 350. 1874and Beccari (Malesia 3: 219. 1889 accepted the genus.Bakhuizen van den Brink (in Bull. Jard. bot. Buitenzorg III, 6: 228.1924 incorporated the genus in Durio.In my opinion Cullenia represents a "good" genus by its lack ofcorolla. Alston, although accepting Bakhuizen's reduction, informed mepersonally, that he, too, is inclined to consider Cullenia different fromDurio.The pollen were described as being naked and pedicellate by Gardner;this wrong statement was corrected by Wight; the anthers are pedicellateand one-celled.In this paper a new Cullenia species is described, which strengthensthe position of the genus; both species are restricted to the rain forestregion of Ceylon and the Southern Indian Peninsula.

  2. Revision of the genus Pseudeurybata Hennig (Diptera, Micropezidae, Taeniapterinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, S A

    2016-06-29

    The previously monotypic genus Pseudeurybata Hennig is revised to include seven species from Central America and Mexico and one species from South America. Pseudeurybata rufilabris (Enderlein) and Pseudeurybata compeditus (Hennig) are given as new combinations and a lectotype is designated for P. rufilabris (Enderlein). Pseudeurybata browni and P. alces from Costa Rica, P. guatemalensis from Guatemala, P. dasypogon from Mexico, and P. zeta from Colombia and Ecuador are described as new. All species are keyed and illustrated.

  3. Three New Monotypic Genera of the Caloplacoid Lichens (Teloschistaceae, Lichen-Forming Ascomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondratyuk, Sergii Y; Lőkös, Lászlo; Kim, Jung A; Kondratiuk, Anna S; Jeong, Min Hye; Jang, Seol Hwa; Oh, Soon-Ok; Hur, Jae-Seoun

    2015-09-01

    Three monophyletic branches are strongly supported in a phylogenetic analysis of the Teloschistaceae based on combined data sets of internal transcribed spacer and large subunit nrDNA and 12S small subunit mtDNA sequences. These are described as new monotypic genera: Jasonhuria S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et S. -O. Oh, Loekoesia S. Y. Kondr., S. -O. Oh et J. -S. Hur and Olegblumia S. Y. Kondr., L. Lőkös et J. -S. Hur. Three new combinations for the type species of these genera are proposed.

  4. Chloroplast DNA evidence for the origin of the genus Heterogaura from a species of Clarkia (Onagraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    Restriction-site variation in chloroplast DNA was examined in the morphologically distinct and monotypic genus Heterogaura and the related speciose genus Clarkia (Onagraceae), both native to California. Of the 605 restriction sites surveyed, a total of 119 mutations were identified. Of these, 55 were shared by at least two species and were used to construct a most parsimonious phylogenetic tree. This analysis, as well as one based on a distance metric, provided evidence that Heterogaura and C...

  5. Recognition of the tick genus Anocentor Schulze, 1937 (Acari: Ixodidae) by numerical taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, L M; Labruna, M B; Linardi, P M; Ribeiro, M F

    1998-09-01

    We report on an evaluation of the systematic position of the tick Anocentor nitens (Neumann), examining particularly whether Anocentor should be regarded as a subgenus of Dermacentor or as a separate genus. Twelve species of Ixodidae were analyzed phenetically by using 24 characters of adult ticks. A phenogram indicated 3 clusters, with Anocentor more closely related to Rhipicephalus than to Dermacentor. The results of this study endorse the validity of the monotypic genus Anocentor.

  6. Gadigaleyrodes froggatti, a new genus and species of whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) from Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, John W; Gillespie, Peter

    2013-01-17

    A new monotypic genus of whiteflies (Aleyrodidae), Gadigaleyrodes gen.n., is described and illustrated for G. froggatti sp.n. from New South Wales, Australia. Specimens were collected by W. W. Froggatt in 1899 on Syncarpia glomulifera, and subsequently by P. S. Gillespie on an unknown climbing plant. The genus has unusual morphological features with traits common to both Aleurodicinae and Aleyrodinae. The subfamily placement is discussed, and a key provided to discriminate this taxon from similar whitefly genera in Australia.

  7. Remote sensing to monitor monotypic weed patches in semi-arid grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planck, Laura

    Remote sensing technology has great potential for mapping weed distributions. Fine-scale weed distribution maps can provide means to evaluate the success of weed control methods, to guide selection of future control methods, and to examine factors that influence the creation and persistence of monotypic weed patches. Here I examined the effectiveness of different classification approaches in detecting dense monotypic patches of the late-phenology weeds Taeniatherum caput-medusae (medusahead) and Aegilops triuncialis (barbed goatgrass), among cool-season forage grasses (Bromus spp. and Avena spp.) across multiple years in semi-arid rangelands in northern California (USA). I found that color infrared photographs acquired at two key phenological periods produced more accurate classifications than those based on one image alone, and that inclusion of training sites did not improve the overall accuracy of a classification. I also examined the association of remnant litter with transitions in species dominance in medusahead, goatgrass or forage patches. Persistence of goatgrass-dominated patches was correlated with the amount of remnant litter present, but surprisingly that of medusahead was not, suggesting a potential need for different strategies in control of these two noxious species. Overall, this study shows that remote sensing can be used to create weed distribution maps of phenologically distinct species, and help us further understand community response to invasion and evaluate the effectiveness of management treatments.

  8. ENDEMIC CULTIVARS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Africa is one of the secondary centers of diversity for the genus Musa. There is a wide ... culti vars by farmers could lead to genetic erosion of landraces. However, studies in ... Both Ex-situ (off-site) and In-situ (on-site) conservation methods are ...

  9. Taxonomic novelties in the genus Campylospermum (Ochnaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Bissiengou, P.; Chatrou, L.W.; Wieringa, J. J.; Sosef, M.S.M.

    2013-01-01

    Four new species, one with two subspecies, of the genus Campylospermum are described, all endemic or sub-endemic to Gabon. These are C. auriculatum, C. gabonensis, C. gabonensis subsp. australis, C. glaucifolium and C. occidentalis. Distribution maps and scans of the holotypes are provided as well as preliminary IUCN Red List assessments. New combinations for nine species formerly assigned to the genus Ouratea and/or Gomphia are proposed: C. andongensis, C. glomeratum, C. longestipulatum, C. ...

  10. The clinicopathologic characteristics of kidney diseases related to monotypic IgA deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignon, Marguerite; Cohen, Camille; Faguer, Stanislas; Noel, Laure-Hélène; Guilbeau, Celine; Rabant, Marion; Higgins, Sarah; Hummel, Aurélie; Hertig, Alexandre; Francois, Hélène; Lequintrec, Moglie; Vilaine, Eve; Knebelmann, Bertrand; Pourrat, Jacques; Chauveau, Dominique; Goujon, Jean-Michel; Javaugue, Vincent; Touchard, Guy; El Karoui, Khalil; Bridoux, Frank

    2017-03-01

    Monoclonal gammopathy of renal significance (MGRS) regroups renal disorders caused by a monoclonal immunoglobulin without overt hematological malignancy. MGRS includes tubular disorders, glomerular disorders with organized deposits, and glomerular disorders with non-organized deposits, such as proliferative glomerulonephritis with monoclonal IgG deposits. Since glomerular involvement related to monotypic IgA deposits is poorly described we performed retrospective analysis and defined clinico-biological characteristics, renal pathology, and outcome in 19 referred patients. This analysis allowed distinction between 2 types of glomerulopathies, α-heavy chain deposition disease (5 patients) and glomerulonephritis with monotypic IgA deposits (14 patients) suggestive of IgA-proliferative glomerulonephritis with monoclonal immunoglobulin deposits in 12 cases. Clinicopathologic characteristics of α-heavy chain deposition disease resemble those of the γ-heavy chain disease, except for a higher frequency of extra-capillary proliferation and extra-renal involvement. IgA-proliferative glomerulonephritis with monoclonal immunoglobulin deposits should be differentiated from diseases with polytypic IgA deposits, given distinct clinical, histological, and pathophysiological features. Similarly to IgG-proliferative glomerulonephritis with monoclonal immunoglobulin deposits, overt hematological malignancy was infrequent, but sensitive serum and bone marrow studies revealed a subtle plasma cell proliferation in most patients with IgA-proliferative glomerulonephritis with monoclonal immunoglobulin deposits. Anti-myeloma agents appeared to favorably influence renal prognosis. Thus, potential progression towards symptomatic IgA multiple myeloma suggests that careful hematological follow-up is mandatory. This series expands the spectrum of renal disease in MGRS.

  11. The genus Alocasia (Araceae) in Australasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hay, A.; Wise, Rosemary

    1991-01-01

    The genus Alocasia (Araceae) is revised for Australasia. Thirteen species are recognised and keyed; eleven are endemic to and one is thought to be introduced to and escaped in Papuasia; A. brisbanensis (F.M. Bailey) Domin is endemic to Australia, and is redescribed; five are new to science. The

  12. The genus Alocasia (Araceae) in Australasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hay, A.; Wise, Rosemary

    1991-01-01

    The genus Alocasia (Araceae) is revised for Australasia. Thirteen species are recognised and keyed; eleven are endemic to and one is thought to be introduced to and escaped in Papuasia; A. brisbanensis (F.M. Bailey) Domin is endemic to Australia, and is redescribed; five are new to science. The genu

  13. Taxonomic novelties in the genus Campylospermum (Ochnaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bissiengou, P.; Chatrou, L.W.; Wieringa, J.J.; Sosef, M.S.M.

    2013-01-01

    Four new species, one with two subspecies, of the genus Campylospermum are described, all endemic or sub-endemic to Gabon. These are C. auriculatum, C. gabonensis, C. gabonensis subsp. australis, C. glaucifolium and C. occidentalis. Distribution maps and scans of the holotypes are provided as well a

  14. Description of a new species of the genus Arganiella Giusti & Pezzoli, 1980 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Hydrobiidae from the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramos, M.ª A.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Arganiella Giusti & Pezzoli, 1980, up to now a monotypic genus, thought to be endemic to the Italian Central Apennines, is described from the Iberian Peninsula. This new species, named Arganiella tartessica, is located in southwestern Spain, provinces of Huelva and Badajoz. In this paper, a detailed description of its morphological characters is given and new data of nervous system and ciliated areas in the cephalic region are provided.Se describe una especie ibérica de Arganiella Giusti y Pezzoli, 1980, un género que hasta ahora se consideraba monotípico y endémico de los Apeninos centrales italianos. Esta nueva especie, denominada Arganiella tartessica, ha sido localizada en el sureste español, en las provincias de Huelva y Badajoz. En este artículo se describen en detalle sus caracteres morfológicos y se presentan datos, hasta la fecha desconocidos en el género Arganiella, del sistema nervioso y de áreas ciliadas en la región cefálica.

  15. Aspidonepsis (Asclepiadaceae, a new southern African genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nicholas

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Aspidonepsis, an endemic southern African genus, is described and compared to the closely allied genus Aspidoglossum. This newly described genus is composed of two subgenera, Aspidonepsis and Unguilobium. consisting of three and two species respectively.  Asclepias diploglossa, A. flava, A. cognata and A. reneensis are transferred to Aspidonepsis. and A. shebae is newly described. All species are discussed, illustrated and a key is given to aid in their identification.

  16. Endemic taxa of vascular plants in the Polish Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Piękoś-Mirkowa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Carpathians, particularly their highest massif, the Tatra Mountains, exhibit the greatest richness of endemics in Poland. The present paper is a critical recapitulation of existing knowledge of endemism among the vascular plants of the Polish part of the Carpathians. It comprises a list of all 110 taxa (49 species, 26 microspecies of the genus Alchemilla and 35 conspicuous subspecies that can be considered Carpathian endemics or subendemics. Their distribution, vertical ranges and habitats are characterized.

  17. VP4 monotype specificities among porcine rotavirus strains of the same VP4 serotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liprandi, F; Rodriguez, I; Piña, C; Larralde, G; Gorziglia, M

    1991-01-01

    The porcine rotavirus OSU strain was used to produce monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against the outer capsid protein VP4. From two separate fusions, eight MAbs that inhibited hemagglutination activity of the OSU strain were selected. All MAbs immunoprecipitated both the OSU VP4 protein derived from a lysate of infected MA104 cells and the OSU VP4 protein expressed in Sf9 cells by a recombinant baculovirus. By immunoprecipitation of in vitro-translated OSU gene 4 transcripts of different length, the eight MAbs were found to be specific for the VP8 subunit of VP4. All MAbs neutralized the OSU strain but failed to neutralize human, bovine, and simian rotavirus strains. Antiserum to the expressed OSU VP4 protein was used to study the distribution of VP4 antigenicity among porcine rotaviruses. At least two distinct specificities were identified among 14 rotavirus strains that had been previously assigned to four distinct VP7 serotypes. Five groups of monotype specificities of the VP4 protein were identified by the eight anti-VP4 MAbs among 11 porcine strains that share the same VP4 serotype. Images PMID:1847483

  18. New record of the genus Phycocaris Kemp, 1916 (Decapoda: Caridea: Hippolytidae) from Hainan Island, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Zhibin; Li, Xinzheng

    2017-05-01

    The monotypic genus Phycocaris Kemp, 1916, which was established based on material from the Indian Ocean and previously only known from the type localities, Australia and Japan, is now newly recorded from the South China Sea. A detailed description of Phycocaris simulans Kemp, 1916 based on the specimen collected from Hainan Island is presented. Specific features and the differences between the Indian Ocean and the present material are described.

  19. Etiological factors of carpal tunnel syndrome in subjects occupationally exposed to monotype wrist movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Lewańska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS is the most common neuropathy of upper limbs and a leading cause of upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders, in terms of work exposure, repetitive and forceful exertions of the hand and use of vibrating hand tools. The aim of the study was to evaluate etiological factors of carpal tunnel syndrome in subjects occupationally exposed to monotype movements in wrist. Material and Methods: We conducted the retrospective analysis of 300 patients (261 women, 39 men, mean age 52 years (standard deviation: ±6.93 hospitalized with the suspicion of occupational CTS. Results: The study revealed high percentage (68.7% of diseases and systemic factors involved in the pathogenesis of CTS in the analyzed population, especially obesity (32%, thyroid diseases (28.7%, hormone replacement therapy and/or oophorectomy (16.3% and diabetes mellitus (12%. In 111 patients the coexistence of at least a couple of potential etiological factors of the neuropathy was recognized. Clinical analysis and occupational exposure allowed to diagnose occupational carpal tunnel syndrome in 18 (6% patients only. The undeniable long-term (20.2±9.3 years occupational exposure to repetitive, forceful movements in the wrist was observed in this group. Conclusion: The results of our study indicated that non-occupational etiological factors of CTS predominated and in 37% of patients at least several factors were found. The analysis showed the high prevalence of CTS in workers employed in various sectors of industry, including so called "blue collar" workers. Our study confirmed the multifactorial etiology of carpal tunnel syndrome, however, occupational agents contributed to only 6% of cases. Med Pr 2014;65(2:261–270

  20. A NEW GENUS OF EPIPSOCIDAE (PSOCODEA:'PSOCOPTERA', FROM VALLE DEL CAUCA, COLOMBIA, AND ARE-APPRAISAL OF GOJA NAVÁS, 1927

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALFONSO N GARCÍA-ALDRETE

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A monotypic genus of Epipsocidae is here described and illustrated. It belongs in the clade Phallofractus-Goja-Rogojiella-Ianthorntonia and shows several striking autapomorphic characters. Goja Navás is divided in two genera on basis of the male wing venation. The type of the Colombian new genus is deposited in the Entomological Museum of the Universidad del Valle, Santiago de Cali, Colombia.

  1. The lectotypification of two names referred by Linnaeus to the genus Illecebrum (Caryophyllales)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iamonico, Duilio; Friis, Ib

    2017-01-01

    . javanicum. Illecebrum bengalense is here lectotypified with a specimen preserved at LINN and is placed in synonymy with Nothosaerva brachiata. Illecebrum javanicum, based on Iresine javanica, is lectotypified with a Burman illustration. The name Aerva tomentosa is placed in synonymy of Iresine javanica. ......Linnaeus had a broad concept of Illecebrum and, based on the current circumscription wherein the genus is considered  monotypic, only one out of the seventeen names Linnaeus treated in combination with Illecebrum – I. verticillatum – remains in the genus. The other sixteen names are now referred...

  2. A new genus and new species of felt scales (Homoptera: Coccinea: Eriococcidae from Tierra del Fuego (Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya A. Gavrilov-Zimin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Telmatococcus igniumterrae gen. nov. et sp. nov. is described and illustrated based on the material collected from a sphagnum bog in the extreme southern part of South America (Tierra del Fuego. The new monotypic genus differs from all known genera of Eriococcidae in having short cylindrical truncated setae of the anal apparatus and pouches with numerous quinquelocular pores near the anal apparatus. The habitat of the new taxon is characterized.

  3. Taxithelium juruense (Broth. Broth. (Pylaisiadelphaceae an endangered Brazilian endemic, with notes on the genus Taxithelium in Brazil Taxithelium juruense (Broth. Broth.(Pylaisiadelphaceae, uma espécie brasileira ameaçada e notas sobre o gênero Taxithelium no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Eduardo Aguiar Saraiva Câmara

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available (Taxithelium juruense (Broth. Broth. (Pylaisiadelphaceae an endangered Brazilian endemic, with notes on the genus Taxithelium in Brazil. Since its original description, several collections of this species were reported in different states of Brazil. During a revision of the genus, it was confirmed that the geographic range of this species is restricted to the state of Acre, all other reports being based on misidentifications due mostly to the highly polymorphic nature of Taxithelium planum (Brid. Mitt. Here, we present a more detailed study of T. juruense with characters that will help to distinguish it from T. planum. The misidentifications have obscured the real conservation status of this species, which should be endangered (EN. Key and illustrations of the Brazilian species of Taxithelium are provided.Desde a sua descrição original diversas coletas têm sido reportadas para este táxon em diferentes estados brasileiros. Durante a revisão do gênero Taxithelium e o estudo do material tipo, comprovou-se que o táxon, é restrito ao estado do Acre, sendo as demais ocorrências baseadas em identificações errôneas, em especial, devido à natureza altamente polimórfica de Taxithelium planum (Brid. Mitt. Neste trabalho, apresentamos um estudo mais detalhado de T. juruense com as características que o diferenciam de T. planum. As citações equivocadas têm ocultado o verdadeiro estado de conservação desta espécie que deveria ser de espécie ameaçada (EN. Chave e ilustrações para as espécies de Taxithelium do Brasil são apresentadas.

  4. Notes on the genus Pirdana Distant, 1886 (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de R.; Treadaway, C.G.

    1993-01-01

    In the Oriental genus Pirdana Distant, 1886, the new species P. fusca is described from Samar (E Philippines). The phylogeny of the genus is discussed and as a consequence the endemic Sulawesi taxon P. hyela ismene (Felder & Felder, [1867]) is given back its species rank, bringing the total number o

  5. Nanohystricidae n. fam., an unusual, plesiomorphic enarthronote mite family endemic to New Zealand (Acari, Oribatida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Roy A; Fuangarworn, Marut

    2015-10-02

    Nanohystrix hammerae n. gen., n. sp.--proposed on the basis of numerous adults and a few juveniles--is a new oribatid mite of the infraorder Enarthronota that appears to be phylogenetically relictual and endemic to northern New Zealand, in habitats ranging from native shrublands to native and semi-native forests. With an adult body length of 1-1.2 mm, the species is the largest known enarthronote mite outside Lohmanniidae, and it has an unusual combination of plesiomorphic and apomorphic traits. Plesiomorphies include: a well-formed median (naso) eye and pigmented lateral eyes; a bothridial seta with a simple, straight base; a vertically-oriented gnathosoma; a peranal segment; adanal sclerites partially incorporated in notogaster (uncertain polarity); three genu I solenidia and a famulus on tarsus II. Autapomorphies include: five pairs of pale cuticular disks on the notogaster, with unknown function; six pairs of long, erectile notogastral setae, including pair h2 incorporated in the second transverse scissure along with the f-row, and pair h1 in a third scissure; chelicerae that are unusually broad, creating a flat-faced appearance; legs I that are inferred to have an unusually wide range of motion. Further, it is the only enarthronote species known to have an elongated ovipositor, and one of few to have glassy, luminous notogastral setae. The gastronotum of juveniles lacks transverse scissures, but has isolated sclerites supporting setae, including erectile setae. The large character gaps between N. hammerae and other enarthronote taxa justifies proposal of a monotypic new family--Nanohystricidae n. fam.--which is tentatively grouped with several other relictual families in the paraphyletic Heterochthonioidea. Small muscles appear to be involved in the operation of all erectile setae, but seem to be only depressors, with erection effected by hysterosomal distension. Based on gut contents, its food is primarily fungal hyphae and spores, though ingestion of small

  6. Heterotypic Dengue Infection with Live Attenuated Monotypic Dengue Virus Vaccines: Implications for Vaccination of Populations in Areas Where Dengue Is Endemic

    OpenAIRE

    Anna P Durbin; Schmidt, Alexander; Elwood, Dan; Wanionek, Kimberli A.; Lovchik, Janece; Thumar, Bhavin; Murphy, Brian R.; Whitehead, Stephen S.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Because infection with any of the 4 Dengue virus serotypes may elicit both protective neutralizing antibodies and nonneutralizing antibodies capable of enhancing subsequent heterotypic Dengue virus infections, the greatest risk for severe dengue occurs during a second, heterotypic Dengue virus infection. It remains unclear whether the replication of live attenuated vaccine viruses will be similarly enhanced when administered to Dengue-immune individuals.

  7. The enigmatic monotypic crab plover Dromas ardeola is closely related to pratincoles and coursers (Aves, Charadriiformes, Glareolidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio L. Pereira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The phylogenetic placement of the monotypic crab plover Dromas ardeola (Aves, Charadriiformes remains controversial. Phylogenetic analysis of anatomical and behavioral traits using phenetic and cladistic methods of tree inference have resulted in conflicting tree topologies, suggesting a close association of Dromas to members of different suborders and lineages within Charadriiformes. Here, we revisited the issue by applying Bayesian and parsimony methods of tree inference to 2,012 anatomical and 5,183 molecular characters to a set of 22 shorebird genera (including Turnix. Our results suggest that Bayesian analysis of anatomical characters does not resolve the phylogenetic relationship of shorebirds with strong statistical support. In contrast, Bayesian and parsimony tree inference from molecular data provided much stronger support for the phylogenetic relationships within shorebirds, and support a sister relationship of Dromas to Glareolidae (pratincoles and coursers, in agreement with previously published DNA-DNA hybridization studies.

  8. The Stable Concordance Genus

    OpenAIRE

    Kearney, M. Kate

    2013-01-01

    The concordance genus of a knot is the least genus of any knot in its concordance class. Although difficult to compute, it is a useful invariant that highlights the distinction between the three-genus and four-genus. In this paper we define and discuss the stable concordance genus of a knot, which describes the behavior of the concordance genus under connected sum.

  9. Plant endemics to Sierra de Gredos (central Spain: taxonomic, distributional, and evolutionary aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García, Bernardo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Causes related to a low number of endemics to Sierra de Gredos (central Iberian Peninsula are poorly understood. Taxonomic, distributional and genetic aspects of the 12 endemic taxa (species and subspecies are herein discussed. New populations found in the last years provide new chorological reports and taxa to science. As a result, we extend the distribution range of Pseudomisopates rivas-martinezii and describe a new subspecies (Teucrium oxylepis subsp. Gredense. Genetic variation was investigated by sequencing the ITS (Internal Transcribed Sequence region, which is a widespread nuclear DNA region used to detect significant sequence divergence at the species and population levels. At the species level, only eight endemics to this large mountain range (c. 4,800 km2 indicates both limited speciation events coupled with their persistence, despite the high species richness of the flora of Sierra de Gredos (>2,500. According to the levels of ITS sequence divergence, significant isolation processes may have predated the Quaternary in Sierra de Gredos to account for divergence of the monotypic genus Pseudomisopates from its closest relatives (Misopates, Acanthorrhinum. Isolation of the other seven endemic species from their closest relatives has been a more recent process, as revealed by the limited ITS sequence variation obtained in this study. At the population level, no net nucleotide substitutions were observed between distant populations of the endemic species: Antirrhinum grosii, Astragalus devesae, Centaurea avilae, Dianthus gredensis, Echinospartum barnadesii, Pseudomisopates rivas-martinezii, Santolina oblongifolia. In contrast, the three populations of Sedum lagascae displayed a relatively high number (4 of nucleotide substitutions. These results, together with limited morphological differentiation, may reflect insufficient population isolation of seven of the eight endemic species of Sierra de Gredos in the Quaternary. Recurrent population

  10. Two new species of Platypona DeLong (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Iassinae: Gyponini) from Peru and key to the species of the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Clayton Corrêa; Takiya, Daniela Maeda; Mejdalani, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Two new species of the previously monotypic genus Platypona DeLong, 1982 from Peru are described and illustrated: P. furcata sp. nov. (Cusco Department) and P. inca sp. nov. (Pasco Department). These two species can be distinguished from each other, as well as from the type-species, P. sinverda DeLong, 1982, mainly by features of the style and aedeagus. A key to the three known species of Platypona is provided.

  11. Neglected and endemic zoonoses

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Endemic zoonoses are found throughout the developing world, wherever people live in close proximity to their animals, affecting not only the health of poor people but often also their livelihoods through the health of their livestock. Unlike newly emerging zoonoses that attract the attention of the developed world, these endemic zoonoses are by comparison neglected. This is, in part, a consequence of under-reporting, resulting in underestimation of their global burden, which in turn artificia...

  12. Neglected and endemic zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maudlin, Ian; Eisler, Mark Charles; Welburn, Susan Christina

    2009-09-27

    Endemic zoonoses are found throughout the developing world, wherever people live in close proximity to their animals, affecting not only the health of poor people but often also their livelihoods through the health of their livestock. Unlike newly emerging zoonoses that attract the attention of the developed world, these endemic zoonoses are by comparison neglected. This is, in part, a consequence of under-reporting, resulting in underestimation of their global burden, which in turn artificially downgrades their importance in the eyes of administrators and funding agencies. The development of cheap and effective vaccines is no guarantee that these endemic diseases will be eliminated in the near future. However, simply increasing awareness about their causes and how they may be prevented-often with very simple technologies-could reduce the incidence of many endemic zoonoses. Sustainable control of zoonoses is reliant on surveillance, but, as with other public-sector animal health services, this is rarely implemented in the developing world, not least because of the lack of sufficiently cheap diagnostics. Public-private partnerships have already provided advocacy for human disease control and could be equally effective in addressing endemic zoonoses.

  13. THE GENUS DURIO Adans. (Bombac.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. G. H. KOSTERMANS

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The genus Durio comprises, as far as known, 27 species. The centre ofdistribution is Borneo with 19 species, followed by Malaya with 11 spe-cies and Sumatra with 7 species. It is likely, when Sumatra will be betterexplored, that this island will prove to have many more species. An exclave of the area of distribution is found in Burma, where one endemic species occurs. The common Durio zibethinus Murr. probably originated in Borneo or in Sumatra. It is now widely cultivated outside of its former area and in many places it has become spontaneous.The genus Durio is subdivided into two subgenera: Durio and BoschiaKosterm. & Soegeng, according to the way of dehiscence of the anthers(with a longitudinal slit in the former, with an apical pore in the latter.A key to the species is proposed. A map is added, to show distribution and endemism. Each species is amply described and provided with a drawing . Economic and ecological data are given.

  14. A MONOGRAPH OF THE GENUS SCHOUTENIA* Korth. (Tiliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROEKMOWATI ROEKMOWATI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The genus consists of 8 species in Siam, Indochina, the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra,Borneo, Java, and the Lesser Sunda Islands. It is here divided into 2 subgenera,the monotypic Schoutevia with S. cvata Korth. and Chartacalyx with S. accres-cens (Mast. Curtis as type species. Chartacalyx is divided into 2 sections, Char-tacalyx and A disci flora with S. kuiistleri King as type spscies.Three species, S. curtisii, corneri, and kostermansii are considered new.S. hypoleuca Pierre is reduced to synonymy of S. ovata Korth. S. peregrines Craib is reduced to a subspecies of S. glomerata King. The varieties of S. accrescens (Mast. Curtis are deleted. The species is dividedinto 3 subspecies: accrescens, stellata, and borneensis. A forma lepidota is reeog-nized for subspecies accrescens.. S. buurmanii K. et V. and S. kunstleri King- are considered to be differentspecies.

  15. Revision of the genus Macropsobrycon Eigenmann, 1915 (Characidae: Cheirodontinae: Compsurini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando C. Jerep

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The cheirodontine genus Macropsobrycon is redefined and considered monotypic. The type species, M. uruguayanae, is redescribed based on samples from the entire known geographical distribution of the species. Sexually dimorphic characters of M. uruguayanae are further described and the relationships of the species with the remaining Compsurini are discussed.O gênero Macropsobrycon de Cheirodontinae é redefinido e considerado monotípico. A espécie-tipo, M. uruguayanae, é redescrita com base em amostras de toda a distribuição geográfica conhecida da espécie. Caracteres de dimorfismo sexual secundário de M. uruguayanae são descritos e as relações da espécie com outros Compsurini são discutidas.

  16. Ginger and the beetle: Evidence of primitive pollination system in a Himalayan endemic alpine ginger (Roscoea alpina, Zingiberaceae)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Babu Ram Paudel; Mani Shrestha; Adrian G Dyer; Qing-Jun Li

    2017-01-01

    The Himalayan endemic alpine genus Roscoea, like other members of ginger family, exhibits the combination of floral traits that would fit pollination by long distant foragers such as bees, birds or flies...

  17. Notes on the genus Libellulosoma Martin, 1906, and related genera (Odonata: Anisoptera: Corduliidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, Günther; Legrand, Jean

    2013-12-09

    The holotype of Libellulosoma minuta, until now regarded as the unique specimen of this monotypic genus and considered lost for half a century, was found again in the dragonfly collection of the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris. A second specimen, also from Madagascar (probably East Madagascar) was found in the collection René Martin together with the holotype. A redescription, including the structure of the secondary copulatory apparatus, is provided. The genus Libellulosoma is closely related to the genera Pentathemis and Aeschnosoma, and its membership in the clade Aeschnosomata is well supported. Evidence from biogeography, the fossil record, and phylogeny indicates that this group, possible sister group of remaining Corduliidae s.s., was probably already present in the Early Cretaceous.

  18. Isolation, Identification and Antiproliferative Activity of Triterpenes from the Genus Monotheca A. DC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabnam Javed

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Monotheca A. DC. is a monotypic genus of the family Sapotaceae, which is widely distributed in Afghanistan, Djbouti, Northern Somalia, Oman, Pakistan and Southern Ethiopia. North-west Pakistan is the main region where Monotheca buxifolia (Falc. A. DC., the only species of this genus, locally known as “Gurgura”, grows abundantly. It is an evergreen, fruit-producing medicinal tree. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the aerial parts of M. buxifolia afforded lupeol (1, lupeol acetate (2, betulin (3, oleanolic acid (4 andβ-amyrin (5 from the n-hexane and the chloroform fractions. This is the first report on the isolation, and identification of triterpenes (1-5 as the major compounds in the active fractions with antiproliferative property, and also on the antiproliferative activity of M. buxifolia extract and fractions against the human lung cancer cell line NCI-H460 in vitro.

  19. A new genus and species of cyclopoid (Crustacea, Copepoda, Cyclopinidae) from a coastal system in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Almeyda-Artigas, Roberto Javier

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new, monotypic genus of the interstitial marine cyclopoid copepod family Cyclopinidae G.O. Sars, 1913 is described from male and female specimens collected at Laguna de Términos, a large coastal lagoon system in the southern Gulf of Mexico. Mexiclopina campechana gen. et sp. n. cannot be adequately placed in any extant genus within the family. It differs from other cyclopinid genera in having a unique combination of characters including: 1) absence of modified brush-like seta on the mandibular exopod; 2) maxillule exopod with stout setal elements and brush-like setae absent; 3) basis of mandible with one seta; 4) presence of a modified seta on endopod of fourth leg; 5) fifth leg exopod unsegmented, armed with three elements in the female and five in the male; 6) intercoxal sclerite of first swimming leg with two medial spiniform processes on distal margin. The new genus is monotypic and appears to be most closely related to Cyclopina Claus, 1863 and Heptnerina Ivanenko & Defaye, 2004; the new species was compared with species of Cyclopina and it resembles Cyclopina americana Herbst, 1982 and Cyclopina caissara Lotufo, 1994. This is the second record of a species of Cyclopinidae in Mexico and the first in the Gulf of Mexico; the number of cyclopinid species recorded from the Americas is now 13. PMID:26668545

  20. A new genus and species of cyclopoid (Crustacea, Copepoda, Cyclopinidae) from a coastal system in the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Almeyda-Artigas, Roberto Javier

    2015-01-01

    A new, monotypic genus of the interstitial marine cyclopoid copepod family Cyclopinidae G.O. Sars, 1913 is described from male and female specimens collected at Laguna de Términos, a large coastal lagoon system in the southern Gulf of Mexico. Mexiclopina campechana gen. et sp. n. cannot be adequately placed in any extant genus within the family. It differs from other cyclopinid genera in having a unique combination of characters including: 1) absence of modified brush-like seta on the mandibular exopod; 2) maxillule exopod with stout setal elements and brush-like setae absent; 3) basis of mandible with one seta; 4) presence of a modified seta on endopod of fourth leg; 5) fifth leg exopod unsegmented, armed with three elements in the female and five in the male; 6) intercoxal sclerite of first swimming leg with two medial spiniform processes on distal margin. The new genus is monotypic and appears to be most closely related to Cyclopina Claus, 1863 and Heptnerina Ivanenko & Defaye, 2004; the new species was compared with species of Cyclopina and it resembles Cyclopina americana Herbst, 1982 and Cyclopina caissara Lotufo, 1994. This is the second record of a species of Cyclopinidae in Mexico and the first in the Gulf of Mexico; the number of cyclopinid species recorded from the Americas is now 13.

  1. Sucinolivolia torpida--a new genus and species of flea-beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae) from Baltic amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukejs, Andris; Biondi, Maurizio; Alekseev, Vitalii I

    2015-12-15

    Sucinolivolia torpida gen. nov. et sp. nov. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini) is described and illustrated from Eocene Baltic amber. The new monotypic genus is compared with fossil and extant flea-beetle genera. Sucinolivolia gen. nov. is similar to the extant Livolia Jacoby and Orthaltica Crotch, but difference include the absence of an antebasal pronotal sulcus, not crenulate lateral pronotal margins, possessing very short genae, more robust legs, and the shape of tibiae. Including this new record, six described species of Alticini are known from Baltic amber.

  2. Synchronous transperitoneal laparoscopic resection of right retroperitoneal schwannoma and left kidney monotypic PEComa in the presence of a duplicated inferior vena cava (IVC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Wang, Linhui; Wu, Zhenjie; Li, Mingmin; Wang, Huiqing; Sheng, Jing; Huang, Jun; Liao, Songbai; Sun, Yinghao

    2012-07-01

    A 21-year-old female presented with a retroperitoneal mass in the right side and a centrally located renal mass in the left kidney with an aberrant vascular anatomy of a double inferior vena cava. The 2 tumors were radically excised by a transperitoneal laparoscopic approach in one session. Histopathologic examination revealed the right retroperitoneal lesion to be a schwannoma and the renal mass to be a cluster of monotypic neoplasms with perivascular epithelioid cell differentiation (PEComas). The latter is a rare tumor.

  3. A Systematic Review of the Hispaniolan Snake Genus Hypsirhynchus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwartz, Albert

    1971-01-01

    One of the least known of the endemic Hispaniolan colubrid snake genera is Hypsirhynchus. The genus was proposed by GUNTHER (1858) for one specimen of a new snake, purportedly from the island of Barbados, to which he gave the name H. ferox. COPE (1862) later described H. scalaris from Hispaniola (ty

  4. ANALYSIS OF ENDEMISM OF THE XEROPHILOUS FLORA IN THE RUSSIAN CAUCASUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Taysumov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our research is to study the endemics of the xerophilous flora of the Russian Caucasus in connection with the matter of knowing the genesis.Methods. The study is based on the field research expeditions.Findings. The presence of endemic species in flora is an indicator of its originality, and the degree of originality is determined by the extent of the endemic species. In general, according to our geographic analysis, the number of endemic species in xerophilous flora of the Russian Caucasus accounts for 32% (326 species, of which 25% of all endemic species have natural habitats within entire Caucasus, 66% are widespread in the Greater Caucasus, and 9% in the Pre-Caucasian region.Conclusion. Endemic species of xerophytes of the flora, in their overwhelming majority, are euxerophytes, and most steno-endemics also belong to this group of xerophytes. In a systematic aspect, the leading family, containing the largest number of endemic species, is Asteraceae (in percentage terms - Lamiaceae and Jurinea is a leading genus (in percentage terms - Psephellus. In relation to the substrate, calcixerophytes are the dominants and most saturated endemics in quantitative terms are the belt of mountain xerophytes. The predominant biomes are hemicryptophytes; as compared with the number of biomorphes, among chamaephytes there is the biggest quantity of endemics

  5. An Ancient Divide in a Contiguous Rainforest: Endemic Earthworms in the Australian Wet Tropics

    OpenAIRE

    Moreau, Corrie S.; Andrew F Hugall; McDonald, Keith R.; Jamieson, Barrie G. M.; Craig Moritz

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the factors that shape current species diversity is a fundamental aim of ecology and evolutionary biology. The Australian Wet Tropics (AWT) are a system in which much is known about how the rainforests and the rainforest-dependent organisms reacted to late Pleistocene climate changes, but less is known about how events deeper in time shaped speciation and extinction in this highly endemic biota. We estimate the phylogeny of a species-rich endemic genus of earthworms (Terrisswalk...

  6. Endemic human fasciolosis in the Bolivian Altiplano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, M; O'Neill, S M; Dalton, J P

    2007-05-01

    Fasciolosis, caused by trematodes of the genus Fasciola, is an emerging disease of humans. One of the highest levels of human fasciolosis hepatica is found amongst the indigenous Aymaran people of the Northern Bolivian Altiplano. A meta-analysis of epidemiological surveys from 38 communities in the region demonstrates that fasciolosis has been endemic in the region since at least 1984 and is a zoonosis of rural communities. Human and bovine fasciolosis is associated with the communities lying in the plain from Lake Titicaca to La Paz, predominantly in the Los Andes province. In Los Andes incidences of up to 67% of population cohorts were found, and prevalence is age-related with the highest infection rate in children aged 8-11 years.

  7. The genus Bipolaris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manamgoda, D.S.; Rossman, A.Y.; Castlebury, L.A.; Crous, P.W.; Madrid, H.; Chukeatirote, E.; Hyde, K.D.

    2014-01-01

    The genus Bipolaris includes important plant pathogens with worldwide distribution. Species recognition in the genus has been uncertain due to the lack of molecular data from ex-type cultures as well as overlapping morphological characteristics. In this study, we revise the genus Bipolaris based on

  8. The endemic flora of Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit

    2007-01-01

    The Balkan Peninsula has a rich endemic flora estimated as between 2600 and 2700 taxa; c. 750 are restricted to Greece. Conservationists consider the endemic flora of a country needs protection for all time; there is a tendency to paint an alarming picture. However, unless one knows something...... or quite a lot about the plants, no intelligent steps can be taken towards protecting them. 520 of the c. 750 endemics are listed on the Red Data "endangered list" by the Council of Europe in 1986 but few know the nature or extent of the threat. Work is currently in preparation on an Endemic Flora...

  9. Genomic diversity within the haloalkaliphilic genus Thioalkalivibrio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Anne-Catherine; Meier-Kolthoff, Jan P.; Overmars, Lex; Richter, Michael; Woyke, Tanja; Sorokin, Dimitry Y.

    2017-01-01

    Thioalkalivibrio is a genus of obligate chemolithoautotrophic haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Their habitat are soda lakes which are dual extreme environments with a pH range from 9.5 to 11 and salt concentrations up to saturation. More than 100 strains of this genus have been isolated from various soda lakes all over the world, but only ten species have been effectively described yet. Therefore, the assignment of the remaining strains to either existing or novel species is important and will further elucidate their genomic diversity as well as give a better general understanding of this genus. Recently, the genomes of 76 Thioalkalivibrio strains were sequenced. On these, we applied different methods including (i) 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, (ii) Multilocus Sequence Analysis (MLSA) based on eight housekeeping genes, (iii) Average Nucleotide Identity based on BLAST (ANIb) and MUMmer (ANIm), (iv) Tetranucleotide frequency correlation coefficients (TETRA), (v) digital DNA:DNA hybridization (dDDH) as well as (vi) nucleotide- and amino acid-based Genome BLAST Distance Phylogeny (GBDP) analyses. We detected a high genomic diversity by revealing 15 new “genomic” species and 16 new “genomic” subspecies in addition to the ten already described species. Phylogenetic and phylogenomic analyses showed that the genus is not monophyletic, because four strains were clearly separated from the other Thioalkalivibrio by type strains from other genera. Therefore, it is recommended to classify the latter group as a novel genus. The biogeographic distribution of Thioalkalivibrio suggested that the different “genomic” species can be classified as candidate disjunct or candidate endemic species. This study is a detailed genome-based classification and identification of members within the genus Thioalkalivibrio. However, future phenotypical and chemotaxonomical studies will be needed for a full species description of this genus. PMID:28282461

  10. Genomic diversity within the haloalkaliphilic genus Thioalkalivibrio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Anne-Catherine; Meier-Kolthoff, Jan P; Overmars, Lex; Richter, Michael; Woyke, Tanja; Sorokin, Dimitry Y; Muyzer, Gerard

    2017-01-01

    Thioalkalivibrio is a genus of obligate chemolithoautotrophic haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Their habitat are soda lakes which are dual extreme environments with a pH range from 9.5 to 11 and salt concentrations up to saturation. More than 100 strains of this genus have been isolated from various soda lakes all over the world, but only ten species have been effectively described yet. Therefore, the assignment of the remaining strains to either existing or novel species is important and will further elucidate their genomic diversity as well as give a better general understanding of this genus. Recently, the genomes of 76 Thioalkalivibrio strains were sequenced. On these, we applied different methods including (i) 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, (ii) Multilocus Sequence Analysis (MLSA) based on eight housekeeping genes, (iii) Average Nucleotide Identity based on BLAST (ANIb) and MUMmer (ANIm), (iv) Tetranucleotide frequency correlation coefficients (TETRA), (v) digital DNA:DNA hybridization (dDDH) as well as (vi) nucleotide- and amino acid-based Genome BLAST Distance Phylogeny (GBDP) analyses. We detected a high genomic diversity by revealing 15 new "genomic" species and 16 new "genomic" subspecies in addition to the ten already described species. Phylogenetic and phylogenomic analyses showed that the genus is not monophyletic, because four strains were clearly separated from the other Thioalkalivibrio by type strains from other genera. Therefore, it is recommended to classify the latter group as a novel genus. The biogeographic distribution of Thioalkalivibrio suggested that the different "genomic" species can be classified as candidate disjunct or candidate endemic species. This study is a detailed genome-based classification and identification of members within the genus Thioalkalivibrio. However, future phenotypical and chemotaxonomical studies will be needed for a full species description of this genus.

  11. Multilocus and multiregional phylogeny reconstruction of the genus Sarcophaga (Diptera, Sarcophagidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buenaventura, Eliana; Pape, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    The flesh-fly genus Sarcophaga is extremely diverse and contains ca. 30% of the species in the family Sarcophagidae (∼3000 species). The phylogenetic position of the genus-group taxa Helicobia, Lipoptilocnema, and Peckia remains uncertain with respect to the hyperdiverse Sarcophaga, due to conflicting phylogenetic trees and insufficient sampling in recent studies. We present maximum-likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses of 145 species of 48 subgenera of the genus Sarcophaga from all biogeographic regions based on the molecular markers COI, 28 D1-D3 expansion regions, EF1α, and white. Our analyses find (Lipoptilocnema+Peckia) as the sister group of the monophyletic Sarcophaga. The genus Helicobia is placed outside Sarcophaga. Our hypotheses suggest that the ancestor shared by Sarcophaga and its sister clade originated in the Neotropical region, and the subsequent range expansion might be related to the formation of the Isthmus of Panama. This study supports the monophyly of most of the subgenera of Sarcophaga included here, and it shows the evolution of this genus to be a rapid radiation occurring in the Nearctic region with a subsequent dispersal into the Old World. The subgeneric clusters within Sarcophaga are in agreement with the current classification, with only Mauritiella, Rosellea, Helicophagella, Liosarcophaga, and Sarcorohdendorfia being non-monophyletic. We also validate the monotypic condition of 10 subgenera. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Calongea, a new genus of truffles in the Pezizaceae (Pezizales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trappe, James M.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic analysis of the ITS and LSU rDNA of Pachyphloeus species from Europe and North America revealed a new truffle genus. These molecular analyses plus sequences downloaded from a BLAST search in GenBank indicated that Pachyphloeus prieguensis is within the Pezizaceae but well outside of the genus Pachyphloeus. Morphological differences in the peridial and glebal hyphae and spores distinguish this genus from Pachyphloeus. We here propose the monotypic new genus Calongea, with the type species C. prieguensis comb. nov., in honor of Prof. Francisco de Diego Calonge, who has long studied the truffle fungi of Spain and participated in describing the type species of Calongea.El análisis filogenético del ITS y LSU rDNA de especies europeas y norteamericanas de Pachyphloeus revelan un género nuevo de trufa. Los datos moleculares de este estudio, además de las secuencias obtenidas de una búsqueda BLAST en GenBank, indican que Pachyphloeus prieguensis es un miembro de la familia Pezizaceae pero no está relacionado con ninguna otra especie hipogea o epigea de dicha familia. Encontramos diferencias morfológicas en las hifas del peridio y gleba así como en las esporas que morfológicamente distinguen éste de Pachyphloeus. Proponemos el nuevo género monotípico Calongea, con C. prieguensis comb. nov. como la especie tipo, en honor a uno de los descubridores originales, Prof. Francisco de Diego Calonge.

  13. Genus Microsporum dermatophytes in Eastern Bohemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorák, J; Otcenásek, M

    1976-01-01

    The authors presented a taxonomic survey of dermatophytes of the genus Microsporum. From the 19 species described so far, they isolated ten species in the region of Eastern Bohemia. Only the species Microsporum cookei and M. gypsem are considered to be endemic species. The remaining are regarded as imported dermatophytes which are not able to maintain their existence permanently in the conditions of the mentioned region. Data on the findings of the individual species were completed by the authors' remarks on their primary hosts and/or substrates of heterotrophy, frequency of occurrence and geographical distribution.

  14. Molecular phylogenetics of the bat genus Scotophilus (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae): Perspectives from paternally and maternally iInherited genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert G. Trujillo; John C. Patton; Duane A. Schlitter; John W. Bickham

    2009-01-01

    The genus Scotophilusis composed of 15 recognized species with 7 species distributed throughout sub-Saharan Africa, 4 distributed across southern and southeastern Asia, 3 endemic to Madagascar, and 1 endemic to Reunion Island. Scotophilusis plagued with problems in species definition, and systematic relationships among members of...

  15. Novitates Gabonenses 69. A new endemic species of and a new combination in campylospermum (Ochnaceae).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bissiengou, P.; Sosef, M.S.M.

    2008-01-01

    A new species of Campylospermum endemic to the Crystal Mountains, Gabon, and belonging to sect. Notocampylum is described. Besides that, a West-Central African species of Ouratea, nowadays a strictly South American genus, is transferred to Campylospermum and the necessary new combination made

  16. Novitates Gabonenses 69. A new endemic species of and a new combination in Campylospermum (Ochnaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bissiengou, P.; Sosef, M.S.M.

    2008-01-01

    A new species of Campylospermum endemic to the Crystal Mountains, Gabon, and belonging to sect. Notocampylum is described. Besides that, a West-Central African species of Ouratea, nowadays a strictly South American genus, is transferred to Campylospermum and the necessary new combination made.

  17. Population genetics of Phaedranassa cuencana Minga, C. Ulloa & Oleas (Amaryllidaceae), an endemic species of Southern Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phaedranassa is a genus of Amaryllidaceae mostly endemic to the Northern Andes. Six out of the eight species described in Ecuador are endangered or vulnerable to extinction. Phaedranassa cuencana was first described in 2015. This species is restricted to the southern part of Ecuador, around the city...

  18. The endemic flora of Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit

    2007-01-01

    The Balkan Peninsula has a rich endemic flora estimated as between 2600 and 2700 taxa; c. 750 are restricted to Greece. Conservationists consider the endemic flora of a country needs protection for all time; there is a tendency to paint an alarming picture. However, unless one knows something...... of Greece. Three volumes are envisaged: the first deals with the Peloponnese; the second will cover Crete and the islands and the third, the rest of mainland Greece. It is planned to have a sound and scientific basis for plant conservation and education. Within the Balkans more than 60% of the endemic taxa...

  19. The millipede genus Caucasodesmus Golovatch, 1985, with the description of a new species from the Crimea, Ukraine (Polydesmida, Diplopoda, Trichopolydesmidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Golovatch

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The hitherto monotypic genus Caucasodesmus is new to the Ukrainian list due to the discovery of C. tauricus sp. n. in a cave in the Crimea. The new species is easily distinguished from C. inexpectatus Golovatch, 1985, the type, and only other, known species of this genus, in the abundantly setose collum and following metaterga, and more elaborate gonopods. The status of Caucasodesmus, which shows in the superfamily Trichopolydesmoidea where it definitely belongs such evident generic-level apomorphies as the absence of bacilliform sensilla on antennomeres 5 and 7, of a cannula on the gonocoxite, and of a seminal groove on a biramous gononod telopodite (apparently, both latter characters are functionally correlated to each other, is refined by formally reassigning it to the family Trichopolydesmidae.

  20. The millipede genus Caucasodesmus Golovatch, 1985, with the description of a new species from the Crimea, Ukraine (Polydesmida, Diplopoda, Trichopolydesmidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovatch, Sergei I

    2011-04-29

    The hitherto monotypic genus Caucasodesmus is new to the Ukrainian list due to the discovery of Caucasodesmus tauricussp. n. in a cave in the Crimea. The new species is easily distinguished from Caucasodesmus inexpectatus Golovatch, 1985, the type, and only other, known species of this genus, in the abundantly setose collum and following metaterga, and more elaborate gonopods. The status of Caucasodesmus, which shows in the superfamily Trichopolydesmoidea where it definitely belongs such evident generic-level apomorphies as the absence of bacilliform sensilla on antennomeres 5 and 7, of a cannula on the gonocoxite, and of a seminal groove on a biramous gononod telopodite (apparently, both latter characters are functionally correlated to each other), is refined by formally reassigning it to the family Trichopolydesmidae.

  1. Neurology of endemic skeletal fluorosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reddy D

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Endemic skeletal fluorosis is widely prevalent in India and is a major public health problem. The first ever report of endemic skeletal fluorosis and neurological manifestation was from Prakasam district in Andhra Pradesh in the year 1937. Epidemiological and experimental studies in the endemic areas suggest the role of temperate climate, hard physical labor, nutritional status, presence of abnormal concentrations of trace elements like strontium, uranium, silica in water supplies, high fluoride levels in foods and presence of kidney disease in the development of skeletal fluorosis. Neurological complications of endemic skeletal fluorosis, namely radiculopathy, myelopathy or both are mechanical in nature and till date the evidence for direct neurotoxicity of fluoride is lacking. Prevention of the disease should be the aim, knowing the pathogenesis of fluorosis. Surgery has a limited role in alleviating the neurological disability and should be tailored to the individual based on the imaging findings.

  2. Balechina and the new genus Cucumeridinium gen. nov. (Dinophyceae), unarmored dinoflagellates with thick cell coverings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Fernando; López-García, Purificación; Takayama, Haruyoshi; Moreira, David

    2015-12-01

    The genus Balechina (=subgenus Pachydinium) was established for heterotrophic gymnodinioid dinoflagellates with a thick cell covering. The type species, B. pachydermata (=Gymnodinium pachyderm-atum), showed numerous fine longitudinal striae, whereas B. coerulea (=G. coeruleum) showed ~24 prominent longitudinal surface ridges or furrows and a distinctive blue pigmentation. We have investigated the morphology and molecular phylogeny of these taxa and the species Gymnodinium cucumis, G. lira and G. amphora from the western Mediterranean, Brazil and Japan. Sudden contractions at the cingulum level were seen in B. pachydermata, which also showed a high morphological variability which included morphotypes that have been described as Amphidinium vasculum, G. amphora, G. dogielii and G. gracile sensu Kofoid and Swezy. Molecular phylogeny based on small subunit rRNA gene sequences revealed that Balechina coerulea, G. cucumis and G. lira formed a clade distantly related to the clade of the type species, B. pachydermata, and G. amphora. We propose the new genus Cucumeridinium for the species with longitudinal ridges and a circular apical groove (Cucumeridinium coeruleum comb. nov., C. lira comb. nov. and C. cucumis comb. nov.), and Gymnodinium canus and G. costatum are considered synonyms of C. coeruleum. The genus Balechina remains for the species with a double-layer cell covering, bossed surface with fine striae, and an elongated elliptical apical groove. At present, the genus is monotypic containing only B. pachydermata. © 2015 Phycological Society of America.

  3. Balechina and the New Genus Cucumeridinium Gen. Nov. (Dinophyceae), Unarmored Dinoflagellates with Thick Cell Coverings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Fernando; López-García, Purificación; Takayama, Haruyoshi; Moreira, David

    2016-01-01

    The genus Balechina (=subgenus Pachydinium) was established for heterotrophic gymnodinioid dinoflagellates with a thick cell covering. The type species, B. pachydermata (=Gymnodinium pachydermatum), showed numerous fine longitudinal striae, whereas B. coerulea (=G. coeruleum) showed ~24 prominent longitudinal surface ridges or furrows and a distinctive blue pigmentation. We have investigated the morphology and molecular phylogeny of these taxa and the species Gymnodinium cucumis, G. lira and G. amphora from the western Mediterranean, Brazil and Japan. Sudden contractions at the cingulum level were seen in B. pachydermata, which also showed a high morphological variability which included morphotypes that have been described as Amphidinium vasculum, G. amphora, G. dogielii and G. gracile sensu Kofoid and Swezy. Molecular phylogeny based on small subunit rRNA gene sequences revealed that Balechina coerulea, G. cucumis and G. lira formed a clade distantly related to the clade of the type species, B. pachydermata, and G. amphora. We propose the new genus Cucumeridinium for the species with longitudinal ridges and a circular apical groove (Cucumeridinium coeruleum comb. nov., C. lira comb. nov. and C. cucumis comb. nov.), and Gymnodinium canus and G. costatum are considered synonyms of C. coeruleum. The genus Balechina remains for the species with a double-layer cell covering, bossed surface with fine striae, and an elongated elliptical apical groove. At present, the genus is monotypic containing only B. pachydermata. PMID:26987004

  4. The genus Squamanita

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bas, C.

    1965-01-01

    By transferring Cystoderma paradoxum Smith & Sing. and Vaginata umbonata Sumst. to the genus Squamanita and the description of the new species, S. pearsonii, the number of species of that genus is raised from two to five. In addition two more species of Squamanita are provisionally described. An

  5. The genus Bipolaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manamgoda, D S; Rossman, A Y; Castlebury, L A; Crous, P W; Madrid, H; Chukeatirote, E; Hyde, K D

    2014-09-01

    The genus Bipolaris includes important plant pathogens with worldwide distribution. Species recognition in the genus has been uncertain due to the lack of molecular data from ex-type cultures as well as overlapping morphological characteristics. In this study, we revise the genus Bipolaris based on DNA sequence data derived from living cultures of fresh isolates, available ex-type cultures from worldwide collections and observation of type and additional specimens. Combined analyses of ITS, GPDH and TEF gene sequences were used to reconstruct the molecular phylogeny of the genus Bipolaris for species with living cultures. The GPDH gene is determined to be the best single marker for species of Bipolaris. Generic boundaries between Bipolaris and Curvularia are revised and presented in an updated combined ITS and GPDH phylogenetic tree. We accept 47 species in the genus Bipolaris and clarify the taxonomy, host associations, geographic distributions and species' synonymies. Modern descriptions and illustrations are provided for 38 species in the genus with notes provided for the other taxa when recent descriptions are available. Bipolaris cynodontis, B. oryzae, B. victoriae, B. yamadae and B. zeicola are epi- or neotypified and a lectotype is designated for B. stenospila. Excluded and doubtful species are listed with notes on taxonomy and phylogeny. Seven new combinations are introduced in the genus Curvularia to accomodate the species of Bipolaris transferred based on the phylogenetic analysis. A taxonomic key is provided for the morphological identification of species within the genus.

  6. The genus Idertia (Ochnaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sosef, M.S.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims - The genus Idertia belongs to the subfamily Ochnoideae, tribe Ochneae, subtribe Ouratinae. This paper aims at a full taxonomic revision and a critical evaluation of the taxonomic position of the genus along with its diagnostic characters. Methods - All characters are studied usi

  7. Endemism in the Cladocera (Crustacea: Branchiopoda of Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay Van Damme

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We review the current state of knowledge and patterns of distribution in the endemic Cladocera (Crustacea: Branchiopoda of Southern Africa and describe two species of the Western Cape, of which one is new to science. Frey (1993, Korovchinsky (2006 and Smirnov (2008 previously suggested that South Africa harbours few endemics in the Cladocera. In the current study, we show that so-called low endemism in this region is mainly attributed to our limited state of knowledge of the local cladoceran fauna. Many of the South African taxa are ignored and revisions are lacking, as we briefly discuss for the genus Daphnia. We list known Southern African endemic Cladocera with notes on their status, map the distributions of well-studied taxa, and discuss the importance of temporary freshwater rockpools. We confirm that Southern Africa is a region of endemism for the group. We recognise three categories of endemics: i Montane endemics in the East (e.g. Drakensberg mountains; ii endemics of the Western Cape (lowlands; iii South African endemics, widely distributed in the region, both in the mountains and the lowlands. South African endemics have previously been regarded as relicts (Korovchinsky 2006, yet for the two taxa explored in detail in this study, there are no specific primitive morphological characters in comparison to congeners (within their respective genus/species group and the morphology mainly suggests strong isolation. The two species belong to the Chydoridae and the Eurycercidae, respectively, and are used here as case studies for the investigation of Western Cape endemics. The first, Alona capensis Rühe, 1914 (Anomopoda: Chydoridae: Aloninae, is redescribed based on the type material. We discuss the affinities of this enigmatic species for the first time. Morphology of the habitus and the postabdomen parallel that of members of the Alona affinis-complex. The disconnected head pores and limb characters, on the other hand, place A. capensis in

  8. Revision of the genus Endochilus Weise (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae: Chilocorini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łączyński, Piotr; Tomaszewska, Wioletta

    2014-05-20

    The members of the endemic African genus Endochilus Weise, 1898 (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae: Chilocorini) are redescribed, diagnosed, and illustrated. Lectotypes are designated for Endochilus compater Weise, Endochilus minor Weise, Endochilus plagiatus Sicard, Endochilus rubicundus Weise, and Endochilus styx Sicard. One new species is described: Endochilus abdominalis sp nov. Notes on the genus and nomenclatural history for each species are provided. A key for identification of all species is presented. Adult characters concerning similarities of Endochilus to other genera of African Chilocorini are discussed. This is an open access paper. We use the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license that permits unrestricted use, provided that the paper is properly attributed.

  9. Mitogenomic analysis of the genus Panthera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lei; Wu, Xiaobing; Zhu, Lixin; Jiang, Zhigang

    2011-10-01

    The complete sequences of the mitochondrial DNA genomes of Panthera tigris, Panthera pardus, and Panthera uncia were determined using the polymerase chain reaction method. The lengths of the complete mitochondrial DNA sequences of the three species were 16990, 16964, and 16773 bp, respectively. Each of the three mitochondrial DNA genomes included 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA, two rRNA, one O(L)R, and one control region. The structures of the genomes were highly similar to those of Felis catus, Acinonyx jubatus, and Neofelis nebulosa. The phylogenies of the genus Panthera were inferred from two combined mitochondrial sequence data sets and the complete mitochondrial genome sequences, by MP (maximum parsimony), ML (maximum likelihood), and Bayesian analysis. The results showed that Panthera was composed of Panthera leo, P. uncia, P. pardus, Panthera onca, P. tigris, and N. nebulosa, which was included as the most basal member. The phylogeny within Panthera genus was N. nebulosa (P. tigris (P. onca (P. pardus, (P. leo, P. uncia)))). The divergence times for Panthera genus were estimated based on the ML branch lengths and four well-established calibration points. The results showed that at about 11.3 MYA, the Panthera genus separated from other felid species and then evolved into the several species of the genus. In detail, N. nebulosa was estimated to be founded about 8.66 MYA, P. tigris about 6.55 MYA, P. uncia about 4.63 MYA, and P. pardus about 4.35 MYA. All these estimated times were older than those estimated from the fossil records. The divergence event, evolutionary process, speciation, and distribution pattern of P. uncia, a species endemic to the central Asia with core habitats on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and surrounding highlands, mostly correlated with the geological tectonic events and intensive climate shifts that happened at 8, 3.6, 2.5, and 1.7 MYA on the plateau during the late Cenozoic period.

  10. The distribution of the dwarf succulent genus Conophytum N.E.Br. (Aizoaceae in southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Young

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The dwarf succulent genus Conophytum N.E.Br. is one of the most species rich in the Aizoceae. The genus is most closely associated with a region of high floral endemism and biodiversity, the Succulent Karoo biome in south-western Africa.Objectives: To examine the distribution of Conophytum in south-western Namibia and in the Northern and Western Cape Provinces of South Africa.Method: A database comprising 2798 locality records representing all known species and subspecies of the genus Conophytum has been constructed.Results: The genus is primarily restricted to the arid winter-rainfall region of the Northern and Western Cape Provinces of South Africa and south-western Namibia, within the Greater Cape Floristic Region. Whilst taxa are found across all the main biomes in the region (the Succulent Karoo, Nama Karoo, Desert and Fynbos biomes, 94% of Conophytum taxa are found only in the Succulent Karoo biome and predominantly (88% of taxa within South Africa. Endemism within specific bioregions is a feature of the genus and ~60% of taxa are endemic to the Succulent Karoo. Approximately 28% of all taxa could be considered point endemics. Whilst the genus has a relatively wide geographical range, we identify a pronounced centre of endemism in the southern Richtersveld.Conclusion: The genus Conophytum can be used as a good botanical model for studying patterns of diversity and speciation in the Succulent Karoo biome, the effects of climate change on dwarf succulents, and for informing conservation planning efforts.

  11. A CRITICAL STUDY IN THE COMPLEX-POLYMORPHOUS GENUS SCHIMA (THEACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. BLOEMBERGEN

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available 1. The author considers the genus Schima monotypic. Its only species, Schimaviallichii (DC. Korth., is subdivided into nine geographically separated subspecies andthree varieties. These may be recognised sometimes by one dominating character,mostly, however, by a complex of characters. Several new combinations are made.2. Yet the variability of most of the subspecies is still often enormous and atfirst sight appears complex. Thus we may often encounter the polymorphy of the wholespecies in its subspecies again. It was the striking different percentage-numbers of(phenotypically about the same characters which turned the scale in favour ofthe recognition of the subspecies, besides their geographic separation.The attempts made by the author to divide certain resulting complex-polymorphoussubspecies into units of still lower rank and to trace correlations with peculiaritiesof environment such as different heights above sealevel, or with different stages inthe age of the trees, failed.3. On account of these negative results and the above mentioned different per-centage-numbers for phenotypically about the same characters, the author came tothe conclusion that the most probable explanation is that the variability within thesubspecies is just due to Mendel-segregation and nothing else. It looks very muchas if one is dealing here with the inheriting of striking characters, each caused byone or only a few polymeric factors, characters which hold their own, just as inpanmictically propagated populations (by cross-pollination. This explanation, too,makes the striking fact that in some subspecies we find back phenotypically thewhole, or part, of the polymorphy of the entire species more understandable, as wellas the fact that individuals of different subspecies may agree phenotypically, whereasgenotypically they belong to different races (subspecies. Moreover, all these phenomenastrongly support the monotypic conception of the genus.

  12. Phenotypic and Genotypic Characteristics of Members of the Genus Streptobacillus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Eisenberg

    Full Text Available The genus Streptobacillus (S. remained monotypic for almost 90 years until two new species were recently described. The type species, S. moniliformis, is one of the two etiological agents of rat bite fever, an under-diagnosed, worldwide occurring zoonosis. In a polyphasic approach field isolates and reference strains of S. moniliformis, S. hongkongensis, S. felis as well as divergent isolates were characterized by comparison of molecular data (n = 29 and from the majority also by their physiological as well as proteomic properties (n = 22. Based on growth-independent physiological profiling using VITEK2-compact, API ZYM and the Micronaut system fastidious growth-related difficulties could be overcome and streptobacilli could definitively be typed despite generally few differences. While differing in their isolation sites and dates, S. moniliformis isolates were found to possess almost identical spectra in matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Spectroscopic methods facilitated differentiation of S. moniliformis, S. hongkongensis and S. felis as well as one divergent isolate. Sequencing of 16S rRNA gene as well as functional genes groEL, recA and gyrB revealed only little intraspecific variability, but generally proved suitable for interspecies discrimination between all three taxa and two groups of divergent isolates.

  13. Recent and rapid radiation of the lichen genus Sticta in the Western Indian Ocean islands

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, Antoine; Magain, Nicolas; Goffinet, Bernard; Sérusiaux, Emmanuël

    2016-01-01

    In the framework of a global project on the phylogeny of the lichen genus Sticta (Lobariaceae), extensive sampling was performed on the islands of Reunion and Mauritius as well as in several parts of Madagascar (mainly in two National Parks : Marojejy and Amber Mountain). The aim of this study is to provide the first comprehensive molecular phylogeny of the genus in the Western Indian Ocean islands (and more specifically of a presumably local endemic lineage), and to date its local radiation....

  14. Catalogue of the sub-Saharan species of the genus Seladonia Robertson, 1918, with description of two new species (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Halictidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pauly, A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper is a synonymic catalogue of the 18 species of the genus Seladonia Robertson, 1918 (Apoidea: Halictidae) from sub-Saharan Africa. Two new species are described: S. cyanella spec. nov., a small blue endemic species of the Yemeno-Erythrean area^S. kuhlmanni spec. nov., an endemic species of

  15. Phylogeny of the paleotropical fern genus Lepisorus (Polypodiaceae, Polypodiopsida) inferred from four chloroplast DNA regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Qi, Xin-ping; Xiang, Qiao-ping; Heinrichs, Jochen; Schneider, Harald; Zhang, Xian-chun

    2010-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships within the paleotropical genus Lepisorus (Polypodiaceae) were investigated using plastid DNA sequences from four regions: rbcL, rps4 and rps4-trnS IGS, trnL intron plus trnL-F IGS, rbcL-atpB IGS. Over 4000 nucleotides were sequenced for 77 specimens belonging to 54 species. Each cpDNA region was analyzed separately and combined into a single dataset. All phylogenetic analyses, maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian Inference of phylogeny, revealed the paraphyly of Lepisorus with the monotypic Drymotaenium miyoshianum and of the paleotropical genus Belvisia nested within the Lepisorus clade. Nine well-supported major clades were found. The phylogenetic results provided new evidence for the sectional classification of Lepisorus. The evolution of three morphological characters, clathrateness of rhizome scales, margin of rhizome scales and defoliated leaves, and the evolution of the karyotype, were reconstructed to identify lineage specific phenotypic character states or combination of characters. Unique character combinations, rather than synapomorphies, were found to be of systematic value in sectional delimitation. The variation of chromosome numbers is largely due to a single aneuploidy event instead of a stepwise reduction during the evolutionary history of this genus.

  16. Genetic variability assessment in the genus Passiflora by SSR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Lougon Paiva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The genus Passiflora encompasses many species that are endemic to the Brazilian territory, including some with economic value. Studies on genetic diversity in this genus are fundamental because they allow understanding genetic variability and distance. The present study aimed to determine the genetic variability and distances among 10 species of the genus Passiflora by using microsatellite markers (Simple Sequence Repeat, SSR. Twenty-eight heterologous microsatellite markers were tested, but only 12 were used in the diversity analysis because they amplified in at least 80% of the species. A clear separation was observed among the subgenuses studied, as well as wide variation among the accessions of Passiflora. This knowledge enables breeders to explore diversity and transfer favorable alleles found in wild species.

  17. Two new species of the genus Centromacronema Ulmer 1905 (Hydropsychidae: Macronematinae) from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Everton S; Calor, Adolfo R

    2016-07-08

    Centromacronema is an endemic genus from the Neotropics, with distribution ranging from Mexico to southern Brazil. The genus comprises 15 described species, but only two of them have been recorded in Brazil: Centromacronema               auripenne (Rambur 1842) and C. obscurum (Ulmer 1905). Two new species are herein described and illustrated from   Brazil, C. pioneira n. sp. from Serra da Jiboia, Bahia state, including the first description of a female for the genus, and C. poyanawa n. sp. from Serra do Divisor, Acre state.

  18. A new species of the genus Interphasma Chen & He, 2008 (Phasmida: Clitumninae: Medaurini) from Sichuan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, George Waichun; Shi, Fuming

    2013-11-07

    Chen and He erected the genus Interphasma in 2008 (Chen & He, 2008). Thirteen species are recognized in this Chinese endemic genus which is distributed in eastern to south-western China (Chen & He, 2008; Chen & Zhang, 2008; Xu et al., 2010). In this paper, a new species, I. lizipingense sp. nov., is described and illustrated from Sichuan, China. A key to the species of the genus is given. The types are deposited in the Museum of Hebei University (HBU) and Hong Kong Entomological Society (HKEM). Full measurements are given to all the types in millimeter (mm.).

  19. Systematics and biology of the new genus Macrosaccus with descriptions of two new species (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Davis

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The new genus Macrosaccus Davis & De Prins is proposed for three species formerly assigned to the genus Phyllonorycter: M. robiniella (Clemens, M. morrisella (Fitch, and M. uhlerella (Fitch; two new, closely related species: M. neomexicanus Davis and M. gliricidius Davis, are also proposed. Descriptions of the adults, pupae, larvae, life histories, and distributions are supplemented with photographs, line drawings, and scanning electron micrographs. Larvae of all species are serpentine/blotch leaf miners on various genera of the plant family Fabaceae. The genus is endemic to the New World, with the invasive species M. robiniella now widely established in Europe.

  20. The first species of Aplastodiscus endemic to the Brazilian Cerrado (Anura, Hylidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berneck, Bianca V. M.; Giaretta, Ariovaldo A.; Brandão, Reuber A.; Cruz, Carlos A. G.; Haddad, Célio F. B.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The genus Aplastodiscus includes 14 nominal species in four monophyletic groups with occurrence in the Atlantic Forest and Brazilian Cerrado (Brazilian Savanna) of South America. A recent study reviewed the taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships of the genus and suggested a third species for the Aplastodiscus perviridis Group. Herein, on the basis of morphology and advertisement call, we describe this species and test its monophyly. The new species is the only Aplastodiscus with endemic occurrence in the Cerrado Biome. In addition, its geographical distribution and conservation status are discussed. PMID:28138301

  1. Notes on the genus Frithia (Mesembryanthemaceae and the descrip­tion of a new species, E humilis, in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. Burgoyne

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Frithia N.E.Br (Mesembryanthemaceae, formerly thought to be a monotypic genus, has been found to comprise two species. Populations from the eastern parts of the distribution range of Frithia pulchra N.E.Br. are recognised as a distinct species,  Frithia humilis PM Burgoyne The genus has a limited distribution, although present in three provinces of South Africa, namely Gauteng, North-West and Mpumalanga. The two window-leaved species are allopatnc and morphological differences between the roots, leaves, flowers, pollen, capsules and seeds are discussed. A formal description of the new species, an identification key and a distribution map of the two species are provided.

  2. Revisions of the genera Lurama Schaus, 1928 and Ulmara Schaus, 1928 (Lepidoptera, Mimallonoidea, Mimallonidae) with the descriptions of three new Ulmara species and a new genus

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Laurent, Ryan A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Andean genera Lurama Schaus, 1928 and Ulmara Schaus, 1928 are revised. Lurama poses difficulty for revision due to lost male genitalia of the types of both described species. Ulmara conjuncta sp. n., Ulmara azurula sp. n., and Ulmara dombroskiei sp. n. are described as new in the genus Ulmara. A lectotype is designated for Lurama quindiuna Schaus, 1928 and Ulmara rotunda (Dognin, 1916). A new monotypic genus, Cunicumara gen. n., which is externally similar to Ulmara, is described to include the new species Cunicumara anae sp. n. from low elevations of Bolivia and Paraguay. Male genital morphology does not support a close association of Cunicumara with Lurama or Ulmara. The latter two genera, however, are closely related based on similarities of male genitalia and biogeography. PMID:27594799

  3. A taxonomic revision of the genus Grammitis Swartz (Grammitidaceae: Filicales) in New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parris, B.S.

    1983-01-01

    A taxonomic revision of the fern genus Grammitis Swartz (Grammitidaceae) in New Guinea has been made, in which 64 species belonging to 14 species groups are recognised. Forty-five species are endemic to New Guinea and 21 species are hitherto undescribed. Problems in generic classification are outlin

  4. A new genus and species of felt scale (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Eriococcidae) from New Caledonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Chris; Mille, Christian; Cazères, Sylvie

    2014-03-05

    A new genus of Eriococcidae, Choneochiton Hodgson, is introduced to take a new species, Choneochiton casuarinae     Hodgson, Mille & Cazères, off Casuarina collina (Casuarinaceae) from New Caledonia.  All stages except the pupa and prepupa are described and illustrated.  The new species is thought to be endemic to New Caledonia.

  5. A taxonomic revision of the Malesian genus Trigonopleura Hook.f. (Euphorbiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welzen, van Peter C.; Bulalacao, Lolita J.; Ôn, van Tran

    1995-01-01

    Trigonopleura, a genus from W Malesia, has three species, the widespread T. malayana (Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo, Sulawesi) and the two endemic species T. dubia (Philippines) and T. macrocarpa (Sarawak, Kuching). The species differ slightly from each other in leaf size, colour, and margin, flo

  6. A taxonomic revision of the Malesian genus Trigonopleura Hook.f. (Euphorbiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welzen, van Peter C.; Bulalacao, Lolita J.; Ôn, van Tran

    1995-01-01

    Trigonopleura, a genus from W Malesia, has three species, the widespread T. malayana (Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo, Sulawesi) and the two endemic species T. dubia (Philippines) and T. macrocarpa (Sarawak, Kuching). The species differ slightly from each other in leaf size, colour, and margin,

  7. Biogeographical note on Antarctic microflorae: Endemism and cosmopolitanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waqar Azeem Jadoon

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the biogeography of Antarctic microflora (Antarctica acts as best model to study microbial biogeography such as cyanobacteria and selected halophiles with special emphasis on Halomonas variabilis and Bacillus licheniformis. Halophiles are known to be resistant not only to salt stress, but also to extreme temperature, pressure, and aridity and they are capable of surviving in harsh environments such as polar regions, deep-sea habitats, and deserts. Many microbes are known to be resistant to hostile environmental conditions, and are capable of surviving in harsh environments. Our group has isolated 444 strains belonging to 28 genera of halophiles from various environments around the world. The 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that many of the isolated strains from geographically distant habitats having different environmental conditions, were closely related to each other, with some strains possessing 100% identical sequences. Organisms possessing survival mechanism such as spore formation are usually ubiquitous. The genus Halomonas is represented by potentially endemic strains and the ubiquitous H. variabilis, while spore-forming B. licheniformis showed cosmopolitan distribution. One potentially endemic (moderate endemicity that is regional and/or continental distribution strain was reported from Syowa station, East Antarctica, and Mario Zucchelli station, West Antarctica, which are geographically separated by 3000 km. Moreover, 15 strains having 100% similarity with B. licheniformis were considered cosmopolitans. The results of this work provide support for the middle-ground model that some microbes have moderate endemicity and others have cosmopolitan distribution. These results will contribute to a greater understanding of microbial biogeography with special emphasis on Antarctica.

  8. Disentangling Phylogenetic Relationships in a Hotspot of Diversity: The Butterworts (Pinguicula L., Lentibulariaceae) Endemic to Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Maio, Antonietta; Menale, Bruno; Bacchetta, Gianluigi; Pires, Mathias; Noble, Virgile; Gestri, Giovanni; Conti, Fabio; Peruzzi, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    The genus Pinguicula (Lentibulariaceae) consists of about 100 carnivorous species, also known as butterworts. Eleven taxa are endemic to Italy, which represents a biodiversity hotspot for butterworts in Europe. The aim of our study was to provide a phylogenetic framework for the Italian endemics, in order to: a) investigate the relationships between species in this group; b) evaluate their actual taxonomic value. To achieve this, we analysed all the taxa endemic to Italy, along with several other species, by means of ITS nrDNA analysis. Our results clarify the relationships between Italian endemics and other Pinguicula taxa identifying a basal polytomy defined by five clades. All of the Italian endemics (with the exception of P. lavalvae) fall within a single large clade, which includes P. vulgaris and allied species. Among them, P. poldinii represents the most isolated lineage. Other taxa show strong molecular similarities and form a single subclade, although their taxonomic ranks can be retained. Pinguicula lattanziae sp. nov., seemingly endemic to Liguria (NW Italy), is also described. PMID:28030566

  9. Comparative studies on monotypic IgMlambda and IgGkappa from an inividual patient. IV. Immunofluorescent evidence for a common clonal synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopper, J.E.

    1977-08-01

    Previous studies have presented evidence of shared idiotypic antigenic determinants located within the variable (V/sub H/) region of the heavy chains of monotypic IgMlambda and IgGkappa isolated from the serum of an individual patient, Bro, with Waldenstroem macroglobulinemia. Comparative N-terminal V/sub H/ sequence analyses have demonstrated that the respective ..mu.. and ..gamma.. chains belong to separate V/sub H/ subgroups. The entire V/sub H/ sequence of the Bro ..mu.. chain has been reported, but the V/sub H/ sequence of the Bro ..gamma.. chain still awaits completion. Reported are the results of an immunofluorescent analysis of cytoplasmic lg of lymphoid cells isolated from the patient's peripheral blood and bone marrow. Between 6% and 9% of the cytoplasmic Ig-positive lymphoid cells exhibited fluorescent evidence for the dual presence of kappa and lambda chains as well as ..mu.. and ..gamma.. chains. These results strongly suggest that the idiotypically related Bro IgMlambda and IgGkappa paraproteins are derived from a common clonal origin. Moreover, these findings extend the results of a previous study that has demonstrated the dual presence of IgGkappa and IgGlambda paraproteins within individual myeloma plasma cells. Collectively, these studies suggest that a single neoplastic lymphoid clone may not necessarily be restricted to the synthesis of lg proteins of the identical light chain class. These findings may have a broad implication for the understanding of surface and cytoplasmic lg markers of neoplastic lymphoid cells in certain other lymphoproliferative disorders.

  10. Endemic Nephropathy Around the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Fiona J; Gifford, Robert M; Eddleston, Michael; Dhaun, Neeraj

    2017-03-01

    There have been several global epidemics of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu). Some, such as Itai-Itai disease in Japan and Balkan endemic nephropathy, have been explained, whereas the etiology of others remains unclear. In countries such as Sri Lanka, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and India, CKDu is a major public health problem and causes significant morbidity and mortality. Despite their geographical separation, however, there are striking similarities between these endemic nephropathies. Young male agricultural workers who perform strenuous labor in extreme conditions are the worst affected. Patients remain asymptomatic until end-stage renal failure. Biomarkers of tubular injury are raised, and kidney biopsy shows chronic interstitial nephritis with associated tubular atrophy. In many of these places access to dialysis and transplantation is limited, leaving few treatment options. In this review we briefly describe the major historic endemic nephropathies. We then summarize the epidemiology, clinical features, histology and clinical course of CKDu in Mesoamerica, Sri Lanka, India, Egypt, and Tunisia. We draw comparisons between the proposed etiologies and supporting research. Recognition of the similarities may reinforce the international drive to establish causality and to effect prevention.

  11. Endemic Nephropathy Around the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona J. Gifford

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available There have been several global epidemics of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu. Some, such as Itai-Itai disease in Japan and Balkan endemic nephropathy, have been explained, whereas the etiology of others remains unclear. In countries such as Sri Lanka, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and India, CKDu is a major public health problem and causes significant morbidity and mortality. Despite their geographical separation, however, there are striking similarities between these endemic nephropathies. Young male agricultural workers who perform strenuous labor in extreme conditions are the worst affected. Patients remain asymptomatic until end-stage renal failure. Biomarkers of tubular injury are raised, and kidney biopsy shows chronic interstitial nephritis with associated tubular atrophy. In many of these places access to dialysis and transplantation is limited, leaving few treatment options. In this review we briefly describe the major historic endemic nephropathies. We then summarize the epidemiology, clinical features, histology and clinical course of CKDu in Mesoamerica, Sri Lanka, India, Egypt, and Tunisia. We draw comparisons between the proposed etiologies and supporting research. Recognition of the similarities may reinforce the international drive to establish causality and to effect prevention.

  12. CARPATHIANS ENDEMIC TAXA IN ARGEŞ COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriu Alexiu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Endemic plant species are the biogeographic elements why use the delimitation of biogeographical regions. Their presence explains, in the context of identifying phyto-historical factors, distribution of species and certain distribution patterns. Endemic areas, with pronounced as the basic unit of biogeography, indicates those particular geographic region, both in the growth areas and the evolutionary biological processes of speciation.In this study we proposed the following objectives: knowing the list Carpathian endemic species and endemic centers present in Argeş, also, areas of endemism in the Carpathians Mountains of the Argeş County.

  13. The genus Cladosporium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bench, K.; Braun, U.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    A monographic revision of the hyphomycete genus Cladosporium s. lat. (Cladosporiaceae, Capnodiales) is presented. It includes a detailed historic overview of Cladosporium and allied genera, with notes on their phylogeny, systematics and ecology. True species of Cladosporium s. str. (anamorphs of Dav

  14. The genus Lagenophora (Compositae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cabrera, Angel L.

    1966-01-01

    The genus Lagenophora was first described by Cassini under the name Lagenifera (in Bull. Soc. Philomat. 12, 1816, 199) with the following diagnosis: ‘Ce genre, de la tribus des astérées, comprend le calendula magellanicá, Willd. et le bellis stipitata, Labill. Son principal caractère reside dans la

  15. The genus Cladosporium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bench, K.; Braun, U.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    A monographic revision of the hyphomycete genus Cladosporium s. lat. (Cladosporiaceae, Capnodiales) is presented. It includes a detailed historic overview of Cladosporium and allied genera, with notes on their phylogeny, systematics and ecology. True species of Cladosporium s. str. (anamorphs of

  16. The genus Lagenophora (Compositae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cabrera, Angel L.

    1966-01-01

    The genus Lagenophora was first described by Cassini under the name Lagenifera (in Bull. Soc. Philomat. 12, 1816, 199) with the following diagnosis: ‘Ce genre, de la tribus des astérées, comprend le calendula magellanicá, Willd. et le bellis stipitata, Labill. Son principal caractère reside dans la

  17. The genus Faradaya (Labiatae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, de R.P.J.; Mabberley, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    A revision of the genus Faradaya F. Muell. (Labiatae) is presented with taxonomic history, keys, full descriptions, distribution maps and ecological and ethnobotanical notes. Only three species are recognised: F. amicorum (Seem.) Seem., F. lehuntei (Home ex Baker) A.C. Sm. and F. splendida F. Muell.

  18. The amphipod genus Acidostoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dahl, E.

    1964-01-01

    The genus Acidostoma was established by Lilljeborg (1865, p. 24) to receive Anonyx obesus Sp. Bate (1862, p. 74). Afterwards two further species have been added, viz. A. laticorne G. O. Sars (1879, p. 440) and A. nodiferum Stephensen (1923, p. 40). In the present paper it will be shown that A. latic

  19. Pollination Ecology and Pollination System of Impatiens reptans (Balsaminaceae) Endemic to China

    OpenAIRE

    TIAN, JIANPING; Liu, Keming; HU, GUANGWAN

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims China is one of the centres of geographical distribution of Impatiens L. Studies of the pollination ecology of this genus in China have, until now, been unreported. Impatiens reptans, a species endemic to China, was studied. The aims were to examine the pollination ecology and pollination system of this species, to compare its pollination ecology with other Impatiens species growing in Sumatra and Japan, and to discuss possible reasons for its limited distribution.

  20. SURVIVAL STRATEGIES OF STEM FRAGMENTS IN NARROW ENDEMIC AND WIDESPREAD PLANTS OF THE AQUATIC GENUS MYRIOPHYLLUM%狐尾藻属狭域种和广布种断枝的生长与再生能力比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周洁; 王东

    2012-01-01

    For some aquatic macrophytes, stem fragment formed by disturbance plays a key role in the dispersal and establishment of the species. Previous studies have been focused on the regeneration abilities of sterm fragments of a range of aquatic species. However, the information on regeneration ability of fragments between narrow endemic and its congeneric widespread species is lacking. Our study examined the combined effects of fragment length and fragment location on regeneration performances of narrow endemic (Myriophyllum oguraense Miki subsp. Yangtzense Wang) and widespread (M. Spicatum L.) species, two submerged macrophytes in shallow lakes of the lower Yangtze River basin of China, by an outdoor experiment. Stem fragments from one genotype of population were planted separately in plastic pots by three fragment lengths (5 cm, 10 cm and 15 cm) and three fragment locations (apex, midstem and bottom). The objective of this study were to determine (1) whether fragment length and location correlate with the growth and regeneration abilities of the studied species, and (2) whether the growth and regeneration abilities of fragments differ between the narrow endemic and its congenetic widespread species. The results showed that total plant biomass, total branch biomass and branch number increased significantly with increasing fragment length between all treatments at the fragment level for both species. Total plant biomass, total branch biomass and branch number were greatly different between three length treatments, which were the greatest for fragments of 15 cm in length compared with the other two fragment length treatments. Additionally, the growth and regeneration performance of the studied species were significantly affected by fragment location. There were remarkable differences between the growth of sterm fragments with apices and those without apices. Plant from apical fragments had the largest plant biomass, and midstem fragments regenerated the largest branch

  1. Old fossils–young species: evolutionary history of an endemic gastropod assemblage in Lake Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultheiß, Roland; Van Bocxlaer, Bert; Wilke, Thomas; Albrecht, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Studies on environmental changes provide important insights into modes of speciation, into the (adaptive) reoccupation of ecological niches and into species turnover. Against this background, we here examine the history of the gastropod genus Lanistes in the African Rift Lake Malawi, guided by four general evolutionary scenarios, and compare it with patterns reported from other endemic Malawian rift taxa. Based on an integrated approach using a mitochondrial DNA phylogeny and a trait-specific molecular clock in combination with insights from the fossil record and palaeoenvironmental data, we demonstrate that the accumulation of extant molecular diversity in the endemic group did not start before approximately 600 000 years ago from a single lineage. Fossils of the genus from the Malawi Rift, however, are over one million years older. We argue that severe drops in the lake level of Lake Malawi in the Pleistocene offer a potential explanation for this pattern. Our results also challenge previously established phylogenetic relationships within the genus by revealing parallel evolution and providing evidence that the endemic Lanistes species are not restricted to the lake proper but are present throughout the Malawi Rift. PMID:19439440

  2. Single origin and subsequent diversification of central Andean endemic Umbilicaria species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hestmark, Geir; Miadlikowska, Jolanta; Kauff, Frank; Fraker, Emily; Molnar, Katalin; Lutzoni, François

    2011-01-01

    We studied an Andean endemic group of species of the lichen-forming fungal genus Umbilicaria from the subalpine and low-alpine zone, with their biogeographic center in Bolivia and Peru. A number of species and varieties have been described from this element, but apparent instability in several morphological traits has made it difficult to precisely delimit taxa. Based on DNA sequences of nuclear ITS, LSU and mitochondrial SSU from extensive collections from Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru, we present here a molecular phylogenetic analysis of this Andean endemic element within genus Umbilicaria. All analyses (MP, ML and Bayesian) support a single origin for the element and a division into two major groups characterized by different apothecium types: the Umbilicaria dichroa group and U. calvescens group. Taxa U. krempelhuberi, U. peruviana and U. subcalvescens are nested withinn U. calvescens and are treated as conspecific with the latter species. The endemic element shares a most recent common ancestor with the Umbilicaria vellea group, which has a worldwide distribution and contains several asexually reproducing (sorediate) species. Independent reversals to sexual reproduction might explain the evolution of two types of apothecia in this monophyletic endemic lineage. A number of cosmopolitan, mostly high-alpine, species of Umbilicaria also present in the central Andes are related only remotely to the endemic element and do not exhibit speciation into endemics. Because the An-dean element dominates the Umbilicaria habitats of the low- and subalpine zones we propose that the founder colonized the Andes at a time when the mountains had not yet reached their current elevation while the high-alpine species arrived more recently.

  3. Phylogenetic placement and taxonomy of the genus Hederorkis (Orchidaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Mytnik-Ejsmont

    Full Text Available Three plastid regions, matK, rpl32-trnL and rpl16 intron and the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 nuclear ribosomal DNA were used to demonstrate a phylogenetic placement of the genus Hederorkis (Orchidaceae for the first time. The taxonomic position of this genus has been unclear thus far. The phylogenetic and morphological relations of Hederorkis to the most closely related genera Sirhookera, Adrorhizon, Bromheadia and Polystachya are also discussed. A hypothesis concerning an origin and evolution of Hederorkis is proposed. Hederorkis is an epiphytic two-leaved orchid genus with lateral inflorescence, non-resupinate flowers, elongate gynostemium and rudimentary column foot. It is native to the Indian Ocean Islands. Two species of Hederorkis are recognized worldwide, H. scandens endemic to Mauritius and Réunion and H. seychellensis endemic to Seychelles. For each of the species treated a full synonymy, detailed description and illustration are included. The distribution map and dichotomous keys to the species have also been provided.

  4. What is the genus?

    CERN Document Server

    Popescu-Pampu, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Exploring several of the evolutionary branches of the mathematical notion of genus, this book traces the idea from its prehistory in problems of integration, through algebraic curves and their associated Riemann surfaces, into algebraic surfaces, and finally into higher dimensions. Its importance in analysis, algebraic geometry, number theory and topology is emphasized through many theorems. Almost every chapter is organized around excerpts from a research paper in which a new perspective was brought on the genus or on one of the objects to which this notion applies. The author was motivated by the belief that a subject may best be understood and communicated by studying its broad lines of development, feeling the way one arrives at the definitions of its fundamental notions, and appreciating the amount of effort spent in order to explore its phenomena.

  5. Morphology and molecules reveal unexpected cryptic diversity in the enigmatic genus Sinobirma Bryk, 1944 (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolphe Rougerie

    Full Text Available The wild silkmoth genus Sinobirma Bryk, 1944 is a poorly known monotypic taxon from the eastern end of the Himalaya Range. It was convincingly proposed to be closely related to some members of an exclusively Afro-tropical group of Saturniidae, but its biogeographical and evolutionary history remains enigmatic. After examining recently collected material from Tibet, northern India, and northeastern Myanmar, we realized that this unique species, S. malaisei Bryk, 1944 only known so far from a few specimens and from a very restricted area near the border between north-eastern Myanmar and the Yunnan province of China, may in fact belong to a group of closely related cryptic species. In this work, we combined morphological comparative study, DNA barcoding, and the sequences of a nuclear marker (D2 expansion segment of the 28S rRNA gene to unequivocally delimit three distinct species in the genus Sinobirma, of which two are described as new to science: S. myanmarensis sp. n. and S. bouyeri sp. n. An informative DNA barcode sequence was obtained from the female holotype of S. malaisei--collected in 1934--ensuring the proper assignation of this name to the newly collected and studied specimens. Our findings represent another example of the potential of coupling traditional taxonomy and DNA barcoding for revealing and solving difficult cases of cryptic diversity. This approach is now being generalized to the world fauna of Saturniidae, with the participation of most of the taxonomists studying these moths.

  6. Glacial refugia and migration routes of the Neotropical genus Trizeuxis (Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Kolanowska

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The morphology and anatomy of the monotypic genus Trizeuxis make this taxon almost impossible to recognize in fossil material and hereby difficult object of historical geographic studies. To estimate the distribution of potential refugia during the last glacial maximum and migration routes for Trizeuxis the ecological niche modeling was performed. The potential niche modeling was done using maximum entropy method implemented in Maxent application based on the species presence-only observations. As input data climatic variables and the digital elevation model were used. Two models of suitable glacial habitats distribution were prepared – for the studied species and for its host. The compiled map of the suitable habitats distribution of T. falcata and P. guajava during the last glacial maximum (LGM indicate two possible refugia for the studied orchid genus. The first one was located in the Madre de Dios region and the other one in the Mosquito Coast. The models suggest the existence of two migration routes of Trizeuxis species. The results indicate that the ecological niche modeling (ENM is a useful tool for analyzing not only the possible past distribution of the species, but may be also applied to determine the migration routes of the organisms not found in the fossil material.

  7. Rust fungi on Annonaceae II: the genus Dasyspora Berk. & M.A. Curtis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beenken, Ludwig; Zoller, Stefan; Berndt, Reinhard

    2012-01-01

    Dasyspora gregaria, the single species of the allegedly monotypic rust genus Dasyspora (Basidiomycota, Pucciniales), was investigated by light microscopy and DNA sequencing (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region, partial LSU and SSU of the nuclear rDNA, mt cytochrome oxidase subunit 3). Both methods indicated that D. gregaria is not a single species but can be split in 11 distinct taxa, each of which appear confined to a single Xylopia species (Annonaceae) host. Herein nine of these are described as new. Both the phylogenetic analyses and morphology show that the species are grouped into two main clades designated Dasyspora gregaria and D. winteri. The first comprises D. gregaria, the type species of the genus, which is restricted to X. cayennensis, two new species on X. aromatica, D. segregaria from northern South America and D. echinata from Brazil. The second clade is formed by D. winteri, recombined from Puccinia winteri on X. sericea, and the new species D. amazonica on X. amazonica, D. emarginatae on X. emarginata, D. frutescentis on X. frutescens, D. ferrugineae on X. frutescens var. ferruginea, D. guianensis on X. benthamii, D. mesoamericana on X. frutescens, and D. nitidae on X. nitida. Dasyspora frutescentis and D. mesoamericana were not clearly distinguishable by their morphology and host associations but differed from another in their sequences and geographic distributions. They are considered cryptic species. An identification key and the distributions are given for all recognized species. Along with molecular data we discuss the systematic position of Dasyspora in the Pucciniales.

  8. Genus Ranges of Chord Diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jonathan; Jonoska, Nataša; Saito, Masahico

    2015-04-01

    A chord diagram consists of a circle, called the backbone, with line segments, called chords, whose endpoints are attached to distinct points on the circle. The genus of a chord diagram is the genus of the orientable surface obtained by thickening the backbone to an annulus and attaching bands to the inner boundary circle at the ends of each chord. Variations of this construction are considered here, where bands are possibly attached to the outer boundary circle of the annulus. The genus range of a chord diagram is the genus values over all such variations of surfaces thus obtained from a given chord diagram. Genus ranges of chord diagrams for a fixed number of chords are studied. Integer intervals that can be, and those that cannot be, realized as genus ranges are investigated. Computer calculations are presented, and play a key role in discovering and proving the properties of genus ranges.

  9. Scorpions from the Mitaraka Massif in French Guiana: Description of one new genus and species (Scorpiones: Chactidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Wilson R

    2016-01-01

    A new genus and species, Spinochactas mitaraka gen. n., sp. n. (Chactidae) are described from the Mitaraka Massif in French Guiana, a site located near the borders of French Guiana, Brazil, and Suriname. The description of the new genus and species brings further evidence of the biogeographic pattern of distribution presented by some elements of the family Chactidae endemic to the Tepuys or to the Inselberg formations of South America.

  10. A karyomorphological study in the monotypic genus Lamiophlomis and five species in Phlomis (Lamiaceae)%唇形科独一味属和五种糙苏属植物的核形态研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房丽琴; 潘跃芝; 龚洵

    2007-01-01

    首次报道了唇形科Lamiaceae独一味属Lamiophlomis和五种糙苏属Phlomis植物的染色体数目和核型.它们的间期核均属球状前染色体型, 有丝分裂前期染色体均为中间型.中期染色体核型公式如下: 独一味L. rotata, 2n=2x=22=18m+4sm;糙苏P. umbrosa, 2n=2x=22=22m;裂萼糙苏P. ruptilis, 2n=2x=22=22m;假秦艽P. betonicoides, 2n=2x=22=22m;黑花糙苏P. melanantha, 2n=2x=22=22m(2sat);糙毛糙苏P. strigosa, 2n=6x=66=60m+6sm;染色体基数均为x=11.这表明独一味与糙苏属的糙苏组sect. Phlomoides植物具有相同的染色体基数, 反映出两者较为密切的系统演化关系, 推断独一味很可能是糙苏属的一个种.

  11. Associated with Balkan Endemic Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubinka Jankovic-Velickovic

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of aristolochic acid in the etiology of Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN and associated upper-tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC has been recently confirmed. The aim of this study was to determine apoptosis-related marker(s specific for BEN-associated UTUC. Present investigation included 105 patients with UTUC, 44 from BEN region and 61 control tumors. Altered expression of Survivin was more often present in BEN UTUC with high grade and solid growth (P<0.005; P<0.05 than in control tumors. Significantly lower expression of proapoptotic marker Bax was found in BEN tumors with high grade, high stage, necrosis, and without metaplastic change (P<0.05; 0.05; 0.05; 0.05 compared to control tumors with the same features. Group (BEN-related/control, stage, growth pattern, and caspase 3 activity were significantly associated with the expression of Bax (P=0.002, 0.034, 0.047, 0.028, resp.,. This investigation identifies Bax as specific marker of BEN-associated UTUC. Decrease of pro-apoptotic protein Bax together with alteration of Survivin may be indicative for specific disturbances of intrinsic apoptotic pathway in UTUC arising in endemic areas.

  12. Microsporidian Parasites Found in the Hemolymph of Four Baikalian Endemic Amphipods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina V Madyarova

    Full Text Available At present, approximately 187 genera and over 1300 species of Microsporidia have been described, among which almost half infect aquatic species and approximately 50 genera potentially infect aquatic arthropods. Lake Baikal is the deepest and one of the oldest lakes in the world, and it has a rich endemic fauna with a predominance of arthropods. Among the arthropods living in this lake, amphipods (Crustacea are the most dominant group and are represented by more than 350 endemic species. Baikalian amphipods inhabit almost all depths and all types of substrates. The age and geographical isolation of this group creates excellent opportunities for studying the diversity, evolution and genetics of host-parasite relationships. However, despite more than 150 years of study, data investigating the microsporidia of Lake Baikal remain incomplete. In this study, we used molecular genetic analyses to detect microsporidia in the hemolymph of several endemic species of amphipods from Lake Baikal. We provide the first evidence that microsporidian species belonging to three genera (Microsporidium, Dictyocoela and Nosema are present in the hemolymph of Baikalian endemic amphipods. In the hemolymph of Eulimnogammarus verrucosus, we detected SSU rDNA of microsporidia belonging to the genus Nozema. In the hemolymph of Pallasea cancellous, we found the DNA of Microsporidium sp. similar to that in other Baikalian endemic amphipods; Dictyocoela sp. was found in the hemolymph of Eulimnogammarus marituji and Acanthogammarus lappaceus longispinus.

  13. Two new species of Bebearia Hemming, 1960, as further evidence of centre of endemism of butterflies in Western Nigeria (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Limenitinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáfián, Szabolcs; Pyrcz, Tomasz; Brattström, Oskar

    2016-10-17

    Two new endemic butterfly species from the genus Bebearia: B. oshogbo sp. nov. and B. wojtusiaki sp. nov., are described from western Nigeria; B. oshogbo is most closely related to the Guineo-Congolian B. tentyris (Hewitson) and the Upper Guinean B. osyris (Schultze), whereas B. wojtusiaki constitutes a morphological and biogeographic link between the Central African B. plistonax (Hewitson) and the Upper Guinean endemic B. arcadius (Fabricius). The finding of these new species gives further strong evidence that western Nigeria should be recognized as a distinct biogeographic sub-region of West Africa, as the area hosts a substantial number of endemic taxa (listed in the discussion).

  14. A taxonomic revision of the Asian keelback snakes, genus Amphiesma (Serpentes: Colubridae: Natricinae), with description of a new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Peng; Zhu, Fei; Liu, Qin; Zhang, Liang; Li, Jian X; Huang, Yu Y; Pyron, R Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The Asian keelback snakes (genus Amphiesma) are a widely distributed group of Old World natricines, inhabiting a variety of niches and exhibiting significant morphological variation. Recent molecular phylogenies suggest that this genus is not monophyletic, and that additional cryptic diversity is also likely present. We conducted a phylogenetic analysis of the group based on 3162 bp of one mitochondrial gene (Cyt. b) and three nuclear genes (C-mos, Rag1, NT3), sampling 18 species in addition to those sequenced in previous works. All analyses consistently show that Amphiesma consists of three distinct, monophyletic lineages with strong support. We divide Amphiesma into three genera, Amphiesma, Hebius, and Herpetoreas. The genus Amphiesma is monotypic, Herpetoreas contains three species, and Hebius comprises the remaining 39 species. On the basis of a combination of molecular analyses and external morphological comparisons, we describe a new species in the Herpetoreas group from China as H. burbrinki sp. nov. Several other species are shown to be non-monophyletic or contain significant levels of intraspecific genetic diversity. Another Old World natricine genera, Xenochrophis is also found to be non-monophyletic. Our results indicate that further taxonomic revisions are needed in Natricinae, at multiple levels. 

  15. Molecular assessment of the phylogeny and biogeography of a recently diversified endemic group of South American canids (Mammalia: Carnivora: Canidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Tchaicka

    Full Text Available Abstract To investigate the evolution and biogeography of an endemic group of South American foxes, we examined mitochondrial DNA control region sequences for 118 individuals belonging to all six extant species of the genus Lycalopex. Phylogenetic and molecular dating analyses supported the inference that this genus has undergone a very recent and rapid radiation, stemming from a common ancestor that lived ca. 1 million years ago. The Brazilian endemic L. vetulus was supported as the most basal species in this genus, whereas the most internal group is comprised by the recently diverged (ca. 350,000 years ago Andean/Patagonian species L. griseus and L. culpaeus. We discuss the inferred phylogenetic relationships and divergence times in the context of the current geographic distributions of these species, and the likely effects of Pleistocene climatic changes on the biogeography of this group. Furthermore, a remarkable finding was the identification of multiple individuals classified as L. gymnocercus bearing mtDNA haplotypes clearly belonging to L. griseus, sampled in regions where the latter is not known to occur. At a minimum, this result implies the need to clarify the present-day geographic distribution of each of these fox species, while it may also indicate an ongoing hybridization process between them. Future testing of this hypothesis with in-depth analyses of these populations is thus a priority for understanding the history, evolutionary dynamics and present-day composition of this endemic Neotropical genus.

  16. Endemism analysis of Neotropical Pentatomidae (Hemiptera, Heteroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Ferrari

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The definition of areas of endemism is central to studies of historical biogeography, and their interrelationships are fundamental questions. Consistent hypotheses for the evolution of Pentatomidae in the Neotropical region depend on the accuracy of the units employed in the analyses, which in the case of studies of historical biogeography, may be areas of endemism. In this study, the distribution patterns of 222 species, belonging to 14 Pentatomidae (Hemiptera genera, predominantly neotropical, were studied with the Analysis of Endemicity (NDM to identify possible areas of endemism and to correlate them to previously delimited areas. The search by areas of endemism was carried out using grid-cell units of 2.5° and 5° latitude-longitude. The analysis based on groupings of grid-cells of 2.5° of latitude-longitude allowed the identification of 51 areas of endemism, the consensus of these areas resulted in four clusters of grid-cells. The second analysis, with grid-cells units of 5° latitude-longitude, resulted in 109 areas of endemism. The flexible consensus employed resulted in 17 areas of endemism. The analyses were sensitive to the identification of areas of endemism in different scales in the Atlantic Forest. The Amazonian region was identified as a single area in the area of consensus, and its southeastern portion shares elements with the Chacoan and Paraná subregions. The distribution data of the taxa studied, with different units of analysis, did not allow the identification of individual areas of endemism for the Cerrado and Caatinga. The areas of endemism identified here should be seen as primary biogeographic hypotheses.

  17. Snakes of Sulawesi: checklist, key and additional Biogeographical remarks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, in den H.A.J.

    1985-01-01

    A checklist with concise synonymy and a key to the snakes of Sulawesi is presented, comprising 63 species in 38 genera; 3 subspecies and 15 species, of which one constitutes a monotypic genus, are considered endemic. There is a strong Indo-Malayan relationship. Sea-snakes and Candoia carinata exclud

  18. Snakes of Sulawesi: checklist, key and additional Biogeographical remarks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, in den H.A.J.

    1985-01-01

    A checklist with concise synonymy and a key to the snakes of Sulawesi is presented, comprising 63 species in 38 genera; 3 subspecies and 15 species, of which one constitutes a monotypic genus, are considered endemic. There is a strong Indo-Malayan relationship. Sea-snakes and Candoia carinata

  19. Fossil history and modern distribution of the genus Abies (Pinaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG Xiaoguo; CAO Ming; ZHOU Zhekun

    2007-01-01

    The plants of the genus Abies are dominant and key species in the dark coniferous forest in the Northern Hemisphere.There are 52 species,one subspecies and 12 varieties in the genus Abies in the world.The history and modern distribution of Abies were discussed.The genus has three modern distribution centers:South Europe,North America and East Asia.These areas are also rich in fossil records.The vertical distribution regions of Abies are from sea level to an elevation of 4,700 m,concentrated in 1,000-2,000 m(15 species).In China,the genus distributes in 20 provinces,especially abundant in the Hengduan Mountains.Meanwhile,endemic and relic phenomena are obvious in this genus.There are seven relic species with both limited individuals and limited distributed regions.Based on the fossil records and the latest phylogenetic data,the following hypothesis was proposed:Abies originated from the middle and high altitudes of the Northern Hemisphere in the middle Cretaceous and it was dispersed southward in the Eocene due to global climate cooling down.The distribution of Abies was deeply influenced by geological events such as the uplift of Himalaya,the Alps,the Rocky Mountains,the occurrence of the Asian Monsoon as well as the Quaternary glaciers.Finally,the current distribution pattern appeared in the Quaternary.The genus Abies has a fossil history and modern distribution pattern similar to that of Cathaya and Pseudolarix.

  20. New genus of diminutive microhylid frogs from Papua New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Kraus

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A new genus of diminutive (10.1-11.3 mm microhylid frogs is described from New Guinea that is unique in its combination ofonly seven presacral vertebrae, a reduced phalangeal formula that leaves the first fingers and first toes as vestigial nubs, and reduction of the prepollex and prehallux to single elements. Relationships to other genera are unknown, but overall similarity suggests some relationship to Cophixalus, although that genus also differs in some muscle characters and likely remains paraphyletic. The new genus contains two species, which are among the smallest known frogs in the world. Their miniaturization may be related to their inhabiting leaf litter, exploitation of which may for small size. The new genus is currently known only from one mountaintop in the southeasternmost portion of New Guinea and another on a nearby island. This region is part of the East Papuan Composite Terrane and, should this lineage prove endemic to that region, it may suggest that it originated prior to that geological unit’s docking with mainland New Guinea at 23–29 MY.

  1. Comparative phylogeography of endemic Azorean arthropods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parmakelis, Aristeidis; Rigal, François; Mourikis, Thanos

    2015-01-01

    Background: For a remote oceanic archipelago of up to 8 Myr age, the Azores have a comparatively low level of endemism. We present an analysis of phylogeographic patterns of endemic Azorean island arthropods aimed at testing patterns of diversification in relation to the ontogeny of the archipelago...

  2. A review of the Western Australian keeled millipede genus Boreohesperus (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Paradoxosomatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Car

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A taxonomic review of the endemic Western Australian millipede genus Boreohesperus Shear is presented in which six species are recognized: the type species, B. capensis Shear, 1992, from North-West Cape, one new species, B. dubitalis, from Barrow Island and four more new species from the Pilbara region, B. curiosus, B. delicatus, B. furcosus and B. undulatus. All six species have highly localized distributions, consistent with being short-range endemics. The nomenclature of the branches of the male gonopod is revised.

  3. 重庆分布中国种子植物特有属区系特征研究%Study on Genera Endemic to China in the Spermatophytic Flora of Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁博; 操梦帆; 邓洪平; 丁醒; 文海军; 郭金

    2013-01-01

    重庆分布中国种子植物特有属66属,包含100种,隶属于40科.其基本特征为:①种子植物主要科的特有成分分化程度不同;单种和寡种特有属所占比例较大.珍稀濒危植物丰富;重庆分布草本特有属所占比例低于全国草本特有属比例;以古老和孑遗性为主,存在一定年轻成分.②落叶木本22属,占木本植物的73.33%;主要垂直分布于海拔1 000~3 000 m,表明特有属具有明显的温带性质.③地理水平分布以中国东部和中部特有分布变型为主,也有中国南部特有分布变型;重庆东南部和西北部是中国种子植物特有属在重庆的主要分布中心,中西部也有一定数量分布.%66 genera endemic to China were found in the spermatophyte flora of Chongqing, including 100 species of 40 families. The floristic characters are as follows: (1) The differentiation degree of endemic elements varies in different major families of the seed plants. It has a large number of monotypic and oligo-typic genera, and riches in rare and endangered plants. Proportion of herbaceous endemic genera in Chongqing is lower than that in the whole nation. Most of the 66 endemic genera are ancient and relic, but a certain number of young genera can also be found. (2) 22 endemic genera are deciduous woody plants, occupying 73. 33% of the total endemic woody plants in Chongqing. A majority of the endemic genera distribute in an area of 1 000- 3 000 m alt. , showing an obvious temperate nature. (3) Areal-type analysis showed that the 66 endemic genera could be divided into two subtypes, most of which were restricted in eastern to central China, while others were mainly endemic to southern China. Southeast and northwest Chongqing are two main distribution centers of the Chinese endemic genera in Chong-qing, while the midwest part also has a certain amount of endemic genera distributed.

  4. Phylogeny of the Asian Eutropis (Squamata: Scincidae) reveals an 'into India' endemic Indian radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta-Roy, Aniruddha; Singh, Mewa; Srinivasulu, C; Karanth, K Praveen

    2012-06-01

    Recent generic rearrangement of the circumtropical distributed skink genus 'Mabuya' has raised a lot of debate. According to this molecular phylogeny based rearrangement, the tropical Asian members of this genus have been assigned to Eutropis. However, in these studies the Asian members of 'Mabuya' were largely sampled from Southeast (SE) Asia with very few species from Indian subcontinent. To test the validity of this assignment and to determine the evolutionary origin of Indian members of this group we sequenced one nuclear and two mitochondrial genes from most of the species from the Indian subregion. The nuclear and mitochondrial trees generated from these sequences confirmed the monophyly of the tropical Asian Eutropis. Furthermore, in the tree based on the combined mitochondrial and nuclear dataset an endemic Indian radiation was revealed that was nested within a larger Asian clade. Results of dispersal-vicariance analysis and molecular dating suggested an initial dispersal of Eutropis from SE Asia into India around 5.5-17 million years ago, giving rise to the extant members of the endemic Indian radiation. This initial dispersal was followed by two back dispersals from India into SE Asia. We also discuss the relationships within the endemic Indian radiation and its taxonomic implications.

  5. A new species of Paramunida Baba, 1988 from the Central Pacific Ocean and a new genus to accommodate P. granulata (Henderson, 1885)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezas, Patricia; Macpherson, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The genus Paramunida belongs to the most diverse family of galatheoids and it is commonly reported from the continental slope across the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Examination of material collected by the NOAA RV Townsend Cromwell Cruise near Christmas (Kiritimati) Island, Kiribati, revealed the existence of a new species of Paramunida (P. haigae), which represents the fourth record of the genus for the Central Pacific. Furthermore, recent efforts to unravel phylogenetic relationships and diversification patterns in Paramunida revealed P. granulata (Henderson, 1885) to be the most basally diverging taxon within the genus. This species is clearly distinguished from other species of Paramunida by the spinulation of the carapace and the length of the distomesial spine of the second antennal peduncle article, which in combination with a high level of genetic divergence suggest that this species represents a separate monotypic lineage. A new genus, Hendersonida gen. n., is proposed to accommodate this species based on morphological and molecular evidence. An updated dichotomous identification key for all species of Paramunida is presented. PMID:25147446

  6. A new species of Paramunida Baba, 1988 from the Central Pacific Ocean and a new genus to accommodate P. granulata (Henderson, 1885

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Cabezas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The genus Paramunida belongs to the most diverse family of galatheoids and it is commonly reported from the continental slope across the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Examination of material collected by the NOAA RV Townsend Cromwell Cruise near Christmas (Kiritimati Island, Kiribati, revealed the existence of a new species of Paramunida (P. haigae, which represents the fourth record of the genus for the Central Pacific. Furthermore, recent efforts to unravel phylogenetic relationships and diversification patterns in Paramunida revealed P. granulata (Henderson, 1885 to be the most basally diverging taxon within the genus. This species is clearly distinguished from other species of Paramunida by the spinulation of the carapace and the length of the distomesial spine of the second antennal peduncle article, which in combination with a high level of genetic divergence suggest that this species represents a separate monotypic lineage. A new genus, Hendersonida gen. n., is proposed to accommodate this species based on morphological and molecular evidence. An updated dichotomous identification key for all species of Paramunida is presented.

  7. [Schistosomiasis endemic in Burkina Faso].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poda, J N; Traoré, A; Sondo, B K

    2004-02-01

    Burkina Faso, through the works of many teams of the OCCGE based in Bobo-Dioulasso, has signi-ficant data on several tropical endemics of which schistosomiasis. With the complementary works, it appears to be possible to establish a distribution of the schistosomiasis which reveals its importance. It will be the first stage of the planned national control program. The parasitologic data-gathering which covers the period of 1951 to 2000, used all the standard techniques. It is about Kato-Kartz and MIF for the intestinal schistosomiasis, centrifugation, filtration, serology reagent strips, macroscopy of urines and echography of the urinary system for the urinary schistosomiasis. All the eleven medical areas of the country have many sites submitted to parasitologic investigation. As regard the distribution of the two parasites involved with man (Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni), the data of prevalence (1% to 100%) and their distribution confirm their endemicity and the focal transmission. S. mansoni is located in eight medical areas particularly in the South and the West. S. haematobium is present in all the eleven medical areas of the country. In hydraulic planning as Sourou where the prevalences went from 23% to 70% for S. haematobium and from 0% to 69% for S. mansoni between 1987 and 1998. The situation requires a continuous monitoring. The spatial distribution of the six species of intermediate hosts shows that Bulinus truncatus and B. senegalensis Soudano-Sahelian species are present in all the ecological zones. B. globosus and Biomphalaria pfeifferi meet preferentially in the southern half of the country which reinforces the observation according to which the 14th northern parallel is often considered as the limit of septentrional extension of these two species. The other species Bulinus forskalii and B umbilicatus could have preference areas. All the species show a certain affinity with a type of biotope. The rarity and temporary aquatic systems lead to a

  8. New narrow-range endemic land snails from the sky islands of northern South Africa (Gastropoda: Streptaxidae and Urocyclidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Herbert

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available One new genus and five new species of land snails are described from high altitude, insular, Afrotemperate forest habitats in northern South Africa. The distribution of these species is discussed in relation to other narrowly endemic land snails occurring in this and neighbouring regions. The new genus is Ptilototheca gen. nov.; the five new species are: Gulella davisae sp. nov., G. hadroglossa sp. nov., Ptilototheca soutpansbergensis gen. et sp. nov., Sheldonia monsmaripi sp. nov. and S. wolkbergensis sp. nov.

  9. Biodiversity of the genus Cladophialophora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badali, H.; Gueidan, C.; Najafzadeh, M.J.; Bonifaz, A.; Gerrits van den Ende, A.H.G.; de Hoog, G.S.

    2008-01-01

    Cladophialophora is a genus of black yeast-like fungi comprising a number of clinically highly significant species in addition to environmental taxa. The genus has previously been characterized by branched chains of ellipsoidal to fusiform conidia. However, this character was shown to have evolved s

  10. Biodiversity of the genus Cladophialophora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badali, H.; Gueidan, C.; Najafzadeh, M.J.; Bonifaz, A.; Gerrits van den Ende, A.H.G.; de Hoog, G.S.

    2008-01-01

    Cladophialophora is a genus of black yeast-like fungi comprising a number of clinically highly significant species in addition to environmental taxa. The genus has previously been characterized by branched chains of ellipsoidal to fusiform conidia. However, this character was shown to have evolved s

  11. Genus Distributions of Moebius Ladders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德明

    2005-01-01

    The genus distribution of a graph is a polynomial whose coefficients are the partition of the number of embeddings with respect to the genera. In this paper,the genus distribution of Moebius ladders is provided which is an infinite class of 3-connected simple graphs.

  12. A new species of genus Nishada Moore, 1878 (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae) from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Rahul; Kirti, Jagbir S; Singh, Navneet

    2016-10-28

    Genus Nishada Moore (1878) was proposed as a monotypic genus, under subfamily Lithosiinae, family Lithosiidae (now Lithosiini), including only Nishada flabrifera Moore (1878) from Calcutta (now as Kolkata), India. The genus is distributed from China to India, Thailand, Malaysia and up to Australia. The Indian fauna of Nishada is reported from North-East Himalayas, West Bengal (Kolkata) and South India. Members of this genus are unmarked, yellow to brown with short and broad wings. Genus Nishada has been taxonomically dealt by many authors but awaits thorough revision. Hampson (1900) included a total of ten species: Nishada niveola Hampson, 1900, Nishada syntomioides (Walker, 1862), Nishada impervia (Walker, 1865), Nishada marginalis (Felder 1875), Nishada tula Swinhoe, 1900, Nishada nodicornis (Walker 1862), Nishada rotundipennis (Walker 1862), Nishada flabrifera Moore, 1878, Nishada sambara (Moore 1859) and Nishada xantholoma (Snellen 1879). Swinhoe (1902) and Hampson (1911) then described two new species, Nishada melanistis and Nishada brunneipennis, respectively, followed by Rothschild (1912, 1913) who described a further seven new species, Nishada brunnea, Nishada flavens, Nishada testacea, Nishada griseoflava, Nishada fuscofascia, Nishada louisiadensis and Nishada aurantiaca, bringing the total to 19 species. Strand (1922) catalogued only 13 of these species in Nishada, transferring N. brunnea and N. fuscofascia to genus Scoliacma Meyrick (1886); N. testacea, N.griseoflava and N. louisiadensis Rothschild to Eilema Hübner (1819) and synonymising N. flavens with N. sambara. Next, Matsumura (1927) described N. formosibia, followed by two more species, N. aureocincta Debauche, 1938 and N. benjaminea Roepke, 1946. Holloway (2001) synonymised N. nodicornis with N. rotundipennis and added the description of a new subspecies, Nishada chilomorpha adunca Holloway, 2001 from Borneo, indicating a distributional range as far as North East India. The nominotypical

  13. The section Atlanticae of the genus Luzula (Juncaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boratyński, A.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The section Atlanticae of the genus Luzula (Juncaceae.- Luzula atlantica Braun-Blanq. and Luzula tibestica (Quézel Zarhan ex Romo & Boratyński are the only representatives of the section Atlanticae Kirschner of the genus Luzula. Luzula atlantica is an endemic plant from the High Atlas Mountains and Luzula tibestica is endemic to the Tibesti massif. Both taxa are studied from a nomenclatural, morphological, chorological and biogeographical point of view. These taxa, owing to their low dispersion capacity, have probably diversified in situ.La sección Atlanticae del género Luzula (Juncaceae.- Luzula atlantica Braun-Blanq. y Luzula tibestica (Quézel Zarhan ex Romo & Boratynski son los únicos representantes de la sección Atlanticae Kirschner del género Luzula. Luzula atlantica es un endemismo del Alto Atlas y Luzula tibestica es una planta endémica del macizo de Tibesti. Ambos taxones son estudiados desde el punto de vista morfológico, nomenclatural, corológico y biogeográfico. Estos taxones, por su baja tasa de dispersión, se han diversificado probablemente in situ.

  14. Environmental Monitoring of Endemic Cholera

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElNemr, W.; Jutla, A. S.; Constantin de Magny, G.; Hasan, N. A.; Islam, M.; Sack, R.; Huq, A.; Hashem, F.; Colwell, R.

    2012-12-01

    Cholera remains a major public health threat. Since Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the disease, is autochthonous to riverine, estuarine, and coastal waters, it is unlikely the bacteria can be eradicated from its natural habitat. Prediction of disease, in conjunction with preventive vaccination can reduce the prevalence rate of a disease. Understanding the influence of environmental parameters on growth and proliferation of bacteria is an essential first step in developing prediction methods for outbreaks. Large scale geophysical variables, such as SST and coastal chlorophyll, are often associated with conditions favoring growth of V. cholerae. However, local environmental factors, meaning biological activity in ponds from where the bulk of populations in endemic regions derive water for daily usage, are either neglected or oversimplified. Using data collected from several sites in two geographically distinct locations in South Asia, we have identified critical local environmental factors associated with cholera outbreak. Of 18 environmental variables monitored for water sources in Mathbaria (a coastal site near the Bay of Bengal) and Bakergonj (an inland site) of Bangladesh, water depth and chlorophyll were found to be important factors associated with initiation of cholera outbreaks. Cholera in coastal regions appears to be related to intrusion. However, monsoonal flooding creates conditions for cholera epidemics in inland regions. This may be one of the first attempts to relate in-situ environmental observations with cholera. We anticipate that it will be useful for further development of prediction models in the resource constrained regions.

  15. A new genus, Atlanteuptychia gen. nov., for Euptychia ernestina (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André V. L. Freitas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Atlanteuptychia Freitas, Barbosa & Mielke, gen. nov. is proposed for Euptychia ernestina Weymer, 1911 and illustrated. This taxon lacks the posterior projection of the tegumen, a synapomorphy of Euptychia Hübner, 1818, and does not share morphological synapomorphies with Cyllopsis R. Felder, 1869 and Paramacera Butler, 1868, two Central American genera apparently closely related to Euptychia ernestina, based on molecular data. This evidence supports the proposition of a new genus endemic to the Atlantic Forest, A. ernestina stat. nov.

  16. Leaf anatomy of the genus Passerina (Thymelaeaceae): taxonomic and ecological significance

    OpenAIRE

    C. L. Bredenkamp; A. E. van Wyk

    2001-01-01

    A comparative anatomical study was made of the genus Passerina comprising 20 species and four subspecies, most of which are endemic to southern Africa. It showed that anatomical variation is useful in species recognition and classification. Anatomical characters typical of Thymelaeaceae and displayed in Passerina include isobilateral leaves, a papillate cuticular membrane, mucilaginous epidermal cell walls, a parenchymatous bundle sheath and extraxylary sclerenchyma fibres. Vascular bundles o...

  17. Phylogeography and local endemism of the native Mediterranean brine shrimp Artemia salina (Branchiopoda: Anostraca)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz, Joaquin; Gómez, Africa; Green, Andy J.;

    2008-01-01

    There has been a recent appreciation of the ecological impacts of zooplanktonic species invasions. The North American brine shrimp Artemia franciscana is one such alien invader in hyper-saline water ecosystems at a global scale. It has been shown to outcompete native Artemia species, leading...... to their local extinction. We used partial sequences of the mitochondrial Cytochrome c Oxidase Subunit 1 (COI or cox1) gene to investigate the genetic diversity and phylogeography of A. salina, an extreme halophilic sexual brine shrimp, over its known distribution range (Mediterranean Basin and South Africa......) and to assess the extent of local endemism, the degree of population structure and the potential impact of traditional human saltpan management on this species. We also examined the phylogenetic relationships in the genus Artemia using COI sequences. Our results show extensive regional endemism and indicate...

  18. Diversity and levels of endemism of the Bromeliaceae of Costa Rica – an updated checklist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Caceres Gonzalez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available An updated inventory of the Bromeliaceae for Costa Rica is presented including citations of representative specimens for each species. The family comprises 18 genera and 198 species in Costa Rica, 32 species being endemic to the country. Additional 36 species are endemic to Costa Rica and Panama. Only 4 of the 8 bromeliad subfamilies occur in Costa Rica, with a strong predominance of Tillandsioideae (7 genera/150 spp.; 75.7% of all bromeliad species in Costa Rica. 124 species (62.6% grow exclusively epiphytic, additional 59 spp. (29.8% are facultative epiphytes. The most diverse genus is Werauhia, with 59 species (29.8% of the Costa Rican bromeliad flora, followed by Tillandsia with 40 species (20.2% and Guzmania with 28 spp. (8.6%.

  19. Composite Genus One Belyi Maps

    CERN Document Server

    Vidunas, Raimundas

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by a demand for explicit genus 1 Belyi maps from physics, we give an efficient method of explicitly computing genus one Belyi maps by (1) composing covering maps from elliptic curves to the Riemann surface with the simpler, univariate, genus zero Belyi maps as well as by (2) composing further with isogenies of the elliptic curve. This gives many new explicit dessins on the doubly periodic plane, including several which have been realized in the physics literature as so-called brane-tilings in the context of quiver gauge theories.

  20. Chemodiversity in the genus Aspergillus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2015-01-01

    to be characterized. The genus Aspergillus is cladistically holophyletic but phenotypically polythetic and very diverse and is associated to quite different sexual states. Following the one fungus one name system, the genus Aspergillus is restricted to a holophyletic clade that include the morphologically different...... biosynthetic family isoextrolites. However, it appears that secondary metabolites from one Aspergillus section have analogous metabolites in other sections (here also called heteroisoextrolites). In this review, we give a genus-wide overview of secondary metabolite production in Aspergillus species. Extrolites...

  1. Origin and intra-island diversification of Sulawesi endemic Adrianichthyidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokodongan, Daniel F; Yamahira, Kazunori

    2015-12-01

    Although the family Adrianichthyidae is broadly distributed throughout East and Southeast Asia, 19 endemic species, over half of the family, are distributed in Sulawesi, which is an island in Wallacea. However, it remains unclear how this Adrianichthyidae biodiversity hotspot was shaped. In this study, we reconstructed molecular phylogenies for the Sulawesi adrianichthyids and estimated the divergence times of major lineages to infer the detailed history of their origin and subsequent intra-island diversification. The mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenies revealed that Sulawesi adrianichthyids are monophyletic, which indicates that they diverged from a single common ancestor. Species in the earliest branching lineages are currently distributed in the central and southeastern parts of the island, indicating that the common ancestor colonized Sula Spur, which is a large promontory that projects from the Australian continental margin, from Asia by oversea dispersal c.a. 20Mya. The first diversification event on Sulawesi, the split of the genus Adrianichthys, occurred c.a. 16Mya, and resulted in the nesting of Adrianichthys within Oryzias. Strong geographic structure was evident in the phylogeny; many species in the lineages branching off early are riverine and widely distributed in the southeastern and southwestern arms of Sulawesi, which suggests that oversea dispersal between tectonic subdivisions of this island during the late Miocene (7-5Mya) contributed to the distributions and diversification of the early branching lineages. In contrast, most species in the lineages branched off later are endemic to a single tectonic lake or lake system in the central Sulawesi, suggesting that habitat fragmentation due to the Pliocene collisions (c.a. 4Mya) among the tectonic subdivisions was the primary factor for diversification of the late branching, lacustrine lineages. Adrianichthys and some Oryzias in a certain late branching lineage are sympatric in Lake Poso, which

  2. Comparative Root and Stem Anatomy of Four Rare Onobrychis Mill. (Fabaceae Taxa Endemic in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet TEKİN

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Four endemic taxa of Onobrychis Mill. genus, some of them being classified in the endangered threat category, were investigated for root and stem anatomy. Onobrychis quadrijuga, O. argyrea subsp. argyrea, O. tournefortii and O. albiflora were studied in regard to specific anatomy for the first time within the hereby study. Anatomical characters as the size and shape of the periderm, cortex, cambium cells in root and epidermis, collenchyma, cortex, cambium and pith cells in stem belonging to these four Onobrychis taxa were determined in detail. Based on the roots and stems measurements and analysis, specific anatomical differences between species were revealed.

  3. The genus Vitex: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Rani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The review includes 161 references on the genus Vitex, and comprises ethnopharmacology, morphology and microscopy, phytoconstituents, pharmacological reports, clinical studies, and toxicology of the prominent species of Vitex. Essential oils, flavonoids, iridoid glycosides, diterpenoides and ligans constitute major classes of phytoconstituents of the genus. A few species of this genus have medicinal value, among these, leaves and fruits of V. agnus-castus Linn. (Verbenaceae has been traditionally used in treatment of women complaints. V. agnus-castus has also been included in herbal remedies, which are in clinical use to regulate the menstrual cycle, reduce premenstrual symptom tension and anxiety, treat some menopausal symptoms as well as to treat hormonally induced acne. Despite a long tradition of use of some species, the genus has not been explored properly. In the concluding part, the future scope of Vitex species has been emphasized with a view to establish their multifarious biological activities and mode of action.

  4. The genus Cladosporium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensch, K; Braun, U; Groenewald, J Z; Crous, P W

    2012-06-15

    A monographic revision of the hyphomycete genus Cladosporium s. lat. (Cladosporiaceae, Capnodiales) is presented. It includes a detailed historic overview of Cladosporium and allied genera, with notes on their phylogeny, systematics and ecology. True species of Cladosporium s. str. (anamorphs of Davidiella), are characterised by having coronate conidiogenous loci and conidial hila, i.e., with a convex central dome surrounded by a raised periclinal rim. Recognised species are treated and illustrated with line drawings and photomicrographs (light as well as scanning electron microscopy). Species known from culture are described in vivo as well as in vitro on standardised media and under controlled conditions. Details on host range/substrates and the geographic distribution are given based on published accounts, and a re-examination of numerous herbarium specimens. Various keys are provided to support the identification of Cladosporium species in vivo and in vitro. Morphological datasets are supplemented by DNA barcodes (nuclear ribosomal RNA gene operon, including the internal transcribed spacer regions ITS1 and ITS2, the 5.8S nrDNA, as well as partial actin and translation elongation factor 1-α gene sequences) diagnostic for individual species. In total 993 names assigned to Cladosporium s. lat., including Heterosporium (854 in Cladosporium and 139 in Heterosporium), are treated, of which 169 are recognized in Cladosporium s. str. The other taxa are doubtful, insufficiently known or have been excluded from Cladosporium in its current circumscription and re-allocated to other genera by the authors of this monograph or previous authors. Cladosporium allicinum (Fr.: Fr.) Bensch, U. Braun & Crous, comb. nov., C. astroideum var. catalinense U. Braun, var. nov., Fusicladium tectonicola (Yong H. He & Z.Y. Zhang) U. Braun & Bensch, comb. nov., Septoidium uleanum (Henn.) U. Braun, comb. nov., Zasmidium adeniae (Hansf.) U. Braun, comb. nov., Zasmidium dianellae (Sawada

  5. The genus Cladosporium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensch, K.; Braun, U.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    A monographic revision of the hyphomycete genus Cladosporium s. lat. (Cladosporiaceae, Capnodiales) is presented. It includes a detailed historic overview of Cladosporium and allied genera, with notes on their phylogeny, systematics and ecology. True species of Cladosporium s. str. (anamorphs of Davidiella), are characterised by having coronate conidiogenous loci and conidial hila, i.e., with a convex central dome surrounded by a raised periclinal rim. Recognised species are treated and illustrated with line drawings and photomicrographs (light as well as scanning electron microscopy). Species known from culture are described in vivo as well as in vitro on standardised media and under controlled conditions. Details on host range/substrates and the geographic distribution are given based on published accounts, and a re-examination of numerous herbarium specimens. Various keys are provided to support the identification of Cladosporium species in vivo and in vitro. Morphological datasets are supplemented by DNA barcodes (nuclear ribosomal RNA gene operon, including the internal transcribed spacer regions ITS1 and ITS2, the 5.8S nrDNA, as well as partial actin and translation elongation factor 1-α gene sequences) diagnostic for individual species. In total 993 names assigned to Cladosporium s. lat., including Heterosporium (854 in Cladosporium and 139 in Heterosporium), are treated, of which 169 are recognized in Cladosporium s. str. The other taxa are doubtful, insufficiently known or have been excluded from Cladosporium in its current circumscription and re-allocated to other genera by the authors of this monograph or previous authors. Taxonomic novelties: Cladosporium allicinum (Fr.: Fr.) Bensch, U. Braun & Crous, comb. nov., C. astroideum var. catalinense U. Braun, var. nov., Fusicladium tectonicola (Yong H. He & Z.Y. Zhang) U. Braun & Bensch, comb. nov., Septoidium uleanum (Henn.) U. Braun, comb. nov., Zasmidium adeniae (Hansf.) U. Braun, comb. nov., Zasmidium

  6. Strong spatial genetic structure reduces reproductive success in the critically endangered plant genus Pseudomisopates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amat, María E; Silvertown, Jonathan; Vargas, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Clonal growth can be a double-edged sword for endangered species, because the short-term insurance against extinction may incur a longer-term hazard of creating small inbred populations with low fecundity. In the present study, we quantify the advantages and disadvantages of clonal growth regarding the fitness of the central Iberian monotypic endangered genus Pseudomisopates. Preliminary studies showed that the species is self-incompatible and exhibits extensive clonal growth with plants flowering profusely. However, seeds at many sites seemed to be unviable, and no seedlings have been observed in the field. A fully replicated nested sampling design (n = 100) was conducted to explore genetic (using seven SSR loci) and environmental factors potentially affecting seed viability, such as: 1) clonal and genetic diversity, 2) spatial genetic structure, and 3) environmental factors (shrub cover and grazing). Generalized Linear Mixed Models were fitted relating genetic and environmental variables to reproductive variables (seed viability and flower display). Our results indicate that the relatively low genotypic diversity of the population (PD = 0.23), as quantified by SSRs, and the strong spatial genetic structure observed are congruent with intense clonal growth. This clonal growth is enhanced by unfavorable environmental conditions, such as canopy closure and grazing. Under these circumstances, both flower display and mate availability decrease, thus hindering sexual reproduction. Indeed, a mixed reproductive system (clonal and sexual) to escape environmental stochasticity is crucial for the survival of Pseudomisopates, a species inhabiting a disturbance-prone ecosystem.

  7. The Cape genus Micranthus (Iridaceae: Crocoideae, nomenclature and taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Goldblatt

    2013-01-01

    species, Micranthus remains endemic to the Cape flora region, extending from its extreme northern limit in the Bokkeveld Mtns south-eastwards to Port Elizabeth. We also deal with the genera Paulomagnusia Kuntze and Beilia Kuntze with which Micranthus has sometimes been associated, although both are nomenclatural synonyms of Thereianthus G.J.Lewis, a genus close allied to Micranthus.

  8. Revision of the genus Phaeanthus (Annonaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mols, J.B.; Keßler, P.J.A.

    2000-01-01

    A revision of the genus Phaeanthus Hook.f. & Thomson (Annonaceae) is presented. The genus comprises 8 species. A key to the fruiting and/or flowering specimens of the genus is included. The genus consists of shrubs to small-sized trees from Malesia and Vietnam. It is characterised by sepals and

  9. Plant endemism in the Sierras of Córdoba and San Luis (Argentina: understanding links between phylogeny and regional biogeographical patterns1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge O. Chiapella

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We compiled a checklist with all known endemic plants occurring in the Sierras of Córdoba and San Luis, an isolated mountainous range located in central Argentina. In order to obtain a better understanding of the evolutionary history, relationships and age of the regional flora, we gathered basic information on the biogeographical and floristic affinities of the endemics, and documented the inclusion of each taxon in molecular phylogenies. We listed 89 taxa (including 69 species and 20 infraspecific taxa belonging to 53 genera and 29 families. The endemics are not distributed evenly, being more abundant in the lower than in the middle and upper vegetation belts. Thirty-two genera (60.3% have been included in phylogenetic analyses, but only ten (18.8% included local endemic taxa. A total of 28 endemic taxa of the Sierras CSL have a clear relationship with a widespread species of the same genus, or with one found close to the area. Available phylogenies for some taxa show divergence times between 7.0 – 1.8 Ma; all endemic taxa are most probably neoendemics sensu Stebbins and Major. Our analysis was specifically aimed at a particular geographic area, but the approach of analyzing phylogenetic patterns together with floristic or biogeographical relationships of the endemic taxa of an area, delimited by clear geomorphological features, could reveal evolutionary trends shaping the area.

  10. Plant endemism in the Sierras of Córdoba and San Luis (Argentina): understanding links between phylogeny and regional biogeographical patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiapella, Jorge O; Demaio, Pablo H

    2015-01-01

    We compiled a checklist with all known endemic plants occurring in the Sierras of Córdoba and San Luis, an isolated mountainous range located in central Argentina. In order to obtain a better understanding of the evolutionary history, relationships and age of the regional flora, we gathered basic information on the biogeographical and floristic affinities of the endemics, and documented the inclusion of each taxon in molecular phylogenies. We listed 89 taxa (including 69 species and 20 infraspecific taxa) belonging to 53 genera and 29 families. The endemics are not distributed evenly, being more abundant in the lower than in the middle and upper vegetation belts. Thirty-two genera (60.3%) have been included in phylogenetic analyses, but only ten (18.8%) included local endemic taxa. A total of 28 endemic taxa of the Sierras CSL have a clear relationship with a widespread species of the same genus, or with one found close to the area. Available phylogenies for some taxa show divergence times between 7.0 - 1.8 Ma; all endemic taxa are most probably neoendemics sensu Stebbins and Major. Our analysis was specifically aimed at a particular geographic area, but the approach of analyzing phylogenetic patterns together with floristic or biogeographical relationships of the endemic taxa of an area, delimited by clear geomorphological features, could reveal evolutionary trends shaping the area.

  11. The genus Cyclidiopsis: an obituary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Matthew S; Triemer, Richard E

    2014-01-01

    Since its creation in 1917 the genus Cyclidiopsis, and its validity, has been a source of debate among euglenid taxonomists. While many authors have supported its legitimacy, various other authors have considered it to be a subgenus of Astasia or even promoted its complete dissolution. In this study, we have sequenced the small subunit and large subunit ribosomal DNA of Cyclidiopsis acus, the type species for the genus. Subsequent phylogenetic analyses showed that C. acus grouped with taxa from the genus Lepocinclis, which necessitated the removal of this taxon from Cyclidiopsis and into Lepocinclis as Lepocinclis cyclidiopsis nom. nov. After an extensive literature search it was determined that only two other previously described Cyclidiopsis taxa were morphologically distinct, and the rest were reassigned as synonyms of L. cyclidiopsis. These findings prompted a re-examination of the initial description of Cyclidiopsis, and it was determined that the morphological characters establishing the genus as a distinct group were no longer valid in light of current phylogenetic analyses and the emended generic description for Lepocinclis. Therefore, the remaining two taxa were formally moved to the genus Lepocinclis as L. crescentia comb. nov. and L. pseudomermis comb. nov.

  12. Corticolous myxobiota of the Pernambuco Center of Endemism, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ítallo Barbosa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Situated within the Atlantic Forest domain, the Centro de Endemismo Pernambuco (Pernambuco Center of Endemism - CEPE is regarded as a priority for biodiversity conservation worldwide. Covering an area of approximately 56,000 km2, it encompasses part of the states of Alagoas, Pernambuco, Paraíba and Rio Grande do Norte in northeastern Brazil. Here we present an identification key to 73 species of Myxomycetes that compose the known corticolous myxobiota of the Dense Ombrofilous Lowland Forest, Semideciduous Lowland Forest, Restinga Forest and Mangrove environments of CEPE. Specimens included here were found developed in natural conditions in the field or obtained through moist chamber culture. Among the species found, Arcyria cinerea, Clastoderma debaryanum, Cribraria confusa, C. violacea and Echinostelium minutum were the most common; and Comatricha longipila, Licea pedicellata, Paradiachaeopsis longipes, Perichaena calongei and Stemonaria fuscoides were the most rare. Our data indicates that the species richness of corticolous myxomycetes in rainforests is lower than that of temperate forests. These same data also suggest that taxonomic diversity (mean number of species per genus is similar to, or higher than, that found in temperate regions of the world.

  13. Taxonomy of an endemic Aristolochia (Aristolochiaceae from the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa, Andrea

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomy of an Iberian endemic Aristolochia is treated, based on morphological and cytological characters. A brief description of its main diagnostic characters, distribution and habitat is included, as well as a distribution map and a few comments on its possible phylogenetic relationships. A new combination is proposed, raising this taxon from subspecies to a species proper: A. castellana (Nardi Costa. A revised dichotomous key for the Iberian taxa of the genus is proposed.El presente trabajo trata la taxonomía de una Aristolochia endémica de la Península Ibérica, basándose en caracteres morfológicos y citológicos. Se incluye una breve descripción de los caracteres diagnósticos principales, de su distribución y hábitat, así como un mapa de su distribución y algunos comentarios sobre sus posibles relaciones filogenéticas. Se propone una nueva combinación, ascendiendo el taxon de subespecie a especie: A. castellana (Nardi Costa. Se propone una nueva clave dicotómica para los táxones del género presentes en la Península Ibérica.

  14. Prevention of endemic goitre with iodized salt*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sooch, S. S.; Deo, M. G.; Karmarkar, M. G.; Kochupillai, N.; Ramachandran, K.; Ramalingaswami, V.

    1973-01-01

    The paper describes a study, carried out over 16 years, of the use of iodized salt for the control of endemic goitre in a valley of the Himalayan foothills. From 1956, salt was fortified with either potassium iodide or potassium iodate to provide an estimated daily intake of 200 μg per head. There was a progressive and significant decline in goitre prevalence, together with a return of the pattern of iodine metabolism to within normal limits. It is concluded that endemic goitre can be successfully controlled by iodization of domestic salt. PMID:4546523

  15. Prevention of endemic goitre with iodized salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sooch, S S; Deo, M G; Karmarkar, M G; Kochupillai, N; Ramachandran, K; Ramalingaswami, V

    1973-01-01

    The paper describes a study, carried out over 16 years, of the use of iodized salt for the control of endemic goitre in a valley of the Himalayan foothills. From 1956, salt was fortified with either potassium iodide or potassium iodate to provide an estimated daily intake of 200 mug per head. There was a progressive and significant decline in goitre prevalence, together with a return of the pattern of iodine metabolism to within normal limits. It is concluded that endemic goitre can be successfully controlled by iodization of domestic salt.

  16. Cytogenetic characterization of Rhomboplites aurorubens and Ocyurus chrysurus, two monotypic genera of Lutjaninae from Cubagua Island, Venezuela, with a review of the cytogenetics of Lutjanidae (Teleostei: Perciformes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Nirchio

    Full Text Available Lutjanidae, commonly known as snappers, includes 105 species, grouped in four subfamilies. In spite of the high number of species and of its worldwide distribution, the family has been little investigated and the phylogenetic relationships among some of its genera and species are still cause for debate. Only a small number of the species has been cytogenetically analysed. This study reports the first description of the karyotype of Rhomboplites aurorubens as well as data concerning the distribution of the constitutive heterochromatin and the location of the 18S rRNA and the 5S rRNA genes. Specimens of Ocyurus chrysurus from Venezuela were also investigated for the same cytogenetic features. Both species have a 48 uniarmed karyotype, but R. aurorubens has a single subtelocentric chromosome pair, the smallest of the chromosome complement, among the other acrocentric chromosomes. The C-positive heterochromatin is limited to the pericentromeric regions of all chromosomes. Both species show a single chromosome pair bearing the Nucleolus Organizer Regions, but NORs are differently located, in a terminal position on the short arms of the smallest chromosomes in R. aurorubens and in a paracentromeric position in a chromosome pair of large size in O. chrysurus. In O. chrysurus, the 5S rDNA gene cluster is located on a medium-sized chromosome pair, whereas in R. aurorubens it is syntenic with the 18S rDNA gene cluster on chromosome pair number 24. The obtained cytogenetic data, along with previous cytogenetic, morphological and molecular data for the family, reinforce the proposal to synonymize genus Ocyurus with Lutjanus. A review of Lutjanidae cytogenetics is also included.

  17. Tracing the temporal and spatial origins of island endemics in the Mediterranean region: a case study from the citrus family (Ruta L., Rutaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvo, Gabriele; Ho, Simon Y W; Rosenbaum, Gideon; Ree, Richard; Conti, Elena

    2010-12-01

    Understanding the origin of island endemics is a central task of historical biogeography. Recent methodological advances provide a rigorous framework to determine the relative contribution of different biogeographic processes (e.g., vicariance, land migration, long-distance dispersal) to the origin of island endemics. With its complex but well-known history of microplate movements and climatic oscillations, the Mediterranean region (including the Mediterranean basin and Macaronesia) provides the geographic backdrop for the diversification of Ruta L., the type genus of Rutaceae (citrus family). Phylogenetic, molecular dating, and ancestral range reconstruction analyses were carried out to investigate the extent to which past geological connections and climatic history of the Mediterranean region explain the current distribution of species in Ruta, with emphasis on its island endemics. The analyses showed that Ruta invaded the region from the north well before the onset of the Mediterranean climate and diversified in situ as the climate became Mediterranean. The continental fragment island endemics of the genus originated via processes of land migration/vicariance driven by connections/disconnections between microplates, whereas the oceanic island endemics were the product of a single colonization event from the mainland followed by in situ diversification. This study emphasizes the need for an integrative, hypothesis-based approach to historical biogeography and stresses the importance of temporary land connections and colonization opportunity in the biotic assembly of continental fragment and oceanic islands, respectively.

  18. On genus expansion of superpolynomials

    CERN Document Server

    Mironov, A; Sleptsov, A; Smirnov, A

    2013-01-01

    Recently it was shown that the (Ooguri-Vafa) generating function of HOMFLY polynomials is the Hurwitz partition function, i.e. that the dependence of the HOMFLY polynomials on representation is naturally captured by symmetric group characters (cut-and-join eigenvalues). The genus expansion and expansion through Vassiliev invariants explicitly demonstrate this phenomenon. In the present letter we claim that the superpolynomials are not functions of such a type: symmetric group characters do not provide an adequate linear basis for their expansions. Deformation to superpolynomials is, however, straightforward in the multiplicative basis:the Casimir operators are beta-deformed to Hamiltonians of the Calogero-Moser-Sutherland system. Applying this trick to the genus and Vassiliev expansions, we observe that the deformation is rather straightforward only for the thin knots. Beyond this family additional algebraically independent terms appear in the Vassiliev and genus expansions. This can suggest that the superpol...

  19. Strong embeddings of minimum genus

    CERN Document Server

    Mohar, Bojan

    2009-01-01

    A "folklore conjecture, probably due to Tutte" (as described in [P.D. Seymour, Sums of circuits, Graph theory and related topics (Proc. Conf., Univ. Waterloo, 1977), pp. 341-355, Academic Press, 1979]) asserts that every bridgeless cubic graph can be embedded on a surface of its own genus in such a way that the face boundaries are cycles of the graph. In this paper we consider closed 2-cell embeddings of graphs and show that certain (cubic) graphs (of any fixed genus) have closed 2-cell embedding only in surfaces whose genus is very large (proportional to the order of these graphs), thus providing plethora of strong counterexamples to the above conjecture. The main result yielding such counterexamples may be of independent interest.

  20. Revision of the Neotropical genus Eschatocerus Mayr (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae, Eschatocerini) with biological notes and the first description of the terminal larva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieves-Aldrey, José Luis; San Blas, Germán

    2015-09-02

    The gall wasp genus Eschatocerus (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae, Eschatocerini), a cynipid genus of gall inducers on Prosopis and Acacia species (Fabaceae), endemic to southern South America, is revised. Complete descriptions of the external morphology of the genus and its three known species, illustrated with scanning electron photographs, are given for the first time, and an updated key for the identification of the species is provided. The biology of the species of Eschatocerus and their galls is described. Host plant associations are given, and the terminal larva of Eschatocerus niger is described for the first time. Preliminary notes on the inquiline and parasitoid community associated with the galls of Eschatocerus species are also given.

  1. Arbutoid mycorrhizas of the genus Cortinarius from Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühdorf, K; Münzenberger, B; Begerow, D; Gómez-Laurito, J; Hüttl, R F

    2016-08-01

    Arbutoid mycorrhizas of Comarostaphylis arbutoides (Arbutoidea, Ericaceae) from neotropical montane forests are rarely described. To date, only mycorrhizal associations with the fungal species Leccinum monticola, Leotia lubrica and Sebacina sp. are known from literature. The genus Cortinarius is one of the most species-rich ectomycorrhizal taxa with over 2000 assumed species. In this study, two sites in the Cordillera de Talamanca of Costa Rica were sampled, where Com. arbutoides is endemic and grows together with Quercus costaricensis. Using a combined method of rDNA sequence analysis and morphotyping, 33 sampled mycorrhizal systems of Cortinarius were assigned to the subgenera Dermocybe, Phlegmacium and Telamonia. Specific plant primers were used to identify the host plant. Here, we present the phylogenetic data of all found Cortinarii and describe four of the arbutoid mycorrhizal systems morphologically and anatomically.

  2. Patterns of flower microstructural variation within the genus Bromus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romuald Kosina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty five species from four sections of the genus Bromus were evaluated by means of numerical analyses of characters of flower microstructures (lodicule, lemma, palea. Special development of lodicules (lobe and hairiness and both glumellae (lemma and palea similar in grasses evolutionarily close (Bromeae, Brachypodieae, Triticeae was discovered. For most of the characters the original interspecific and intersectional relations were observed in a space of minimum spanning tree (MST. The evolutionary old section Pnigma occupies the largest space. Species of Pnigma having small chromosomes can be distinguished from those having large ones. The section Ceratochloa is scattered through the smallest space. The above points to the endemic evolution of high polyploids of the section. The sections Bromus and Genea are evolutionarily close and they distinctly overlap each other in the MST space. Bromus sterilis, B. catharticus and B. riparius are extremes in their own sections.

  3. The medicinal chemistry of genus Aralia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Jason A; Clement, Ella S H

    2015-01-01

    The genus Aralia contains many plants used medicinally in Asia and the Americas. Although many members of this genus are used medicinally, the vast majority of this genus has not been explored chemically. The species of Aralia that have been explored chemically have yielded compounds of several classes, including triterpenoid saponins, sterols, diterpenoids, and acetylenic lipids. Many of the biologically active components found in genus Aralia have been evaluated for their potential as lead compounds for drug discovery. This review will explore the medicinal chemistry of compounds reported from genus Aralia, and future prospects for this genus will be considered.

  4. An Ancient Divide in a Contiguous Rainforest: Endemic Earthworms in the Australian Wet Tropics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrie S Moreau

    Full Text Available Understanding the factors that shape current species diversity is a fundamental aim of ecology and evolutionary biology. The Australian Wet Tropics (AWT are a system in which much is known about how the rainforests and the rainforest-dependent organisms reacted to late Pleistocene climate changes, but less is known about how events deeper in time shaped speciation and extinction in this highly endemic biota. We estimate the phylogeny of a species-rich endemic genus of earthworms (Terrisswalkerius from the region. Using DEC and DIVA historical biogeography methods we find a strong signal of vicariance among known biogeographical sub-regions across the whole phylogeny, congruent with the phylogeography of less diverse vertebrate groups. Absolute dating estimates, in conjunction with relative ages of major biogeographic disjunctions across Australia, indicate that diversification in Terrisswalkerius dates back before the mid-Miocene shift towards aridification, into the Paleogene era of isolation of mesothermal Gondwanan Australia. For the Queensland endemic Terrisswalkerius earthworms, the AWT have acted as both a museum of biological diversity and as the setting for continuing geographically structured diversification. These results suggest that past events affecting organismal diversification can be concordant across phylogeographic to phylogenetic levels and emphasize the value of multi-scale analysis, from intra- to interspecies, for understanding the broad-scale processes that have shaped geographic diversity.

  5. An Ancient Divide in a Contiguous Rainforest: Endemic Earthworms in the Australian Wet Tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Corrie S; Hugall, Andrew F; McDonald, Keith R; Jamieson, Barrie G M; Moritz, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the factors that shape current species diversity is a fundamental aim of ecology and evolutionary biology. The Australian Wet Tropics (AWT) are a system in which much is known about how the rainforests and the rainforest-dependent organisms reacted to late Pleistocene climate changes, but less is known about how events deeper in time shaped speciation and extinction in this highly endemic biota. We estimate the phylogeny of a species-rich endemic genus of earthworms (Terrisswalkerius) from the region. Using DEC and DIVA historical biogeography methods we find a strong signal of vicariance among known biogeographical sub-regions across the whole phylogeny, congruent with the phylogeography of less diverse vertebrate groups. Absolute dating estimates, in conjunction with relative ages of major biogeographic disjunctions across Australia, indicate that diversification in Terrisswalkerius dates back before the mid-Miocene shift towards aridification, into the Paleogene era of isolation of mesothermal Gondwanan Australia. For the Queensland endemic Terrisswalkerius earthworms, the AWT have acted as both a museum of biological diversity and as the setting for continuing geographically structured diversification. These results suggest that past events affecting organismal diversification can be concordant across phylogeographic to phylogenetic levels and emphasize the value of multi-scale analysis, from intra- to interspecies, for understanding the broad-scale processes that have shaped geographic diversity.

  6. Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau endemic Nannoglottis (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian-Quan; Gao, Tian-Gang; Chen, Zhi-Duan; Lu, An-Ming

    2002-06-01

    All taxa endemic to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau are hypothesized to have originated in situ or from immediately adjacent areas because of the relatively recent formation of the plateau since the Pliocene, followed by the large-scaled biota extinction and recession caused by the Quaternary ice sheet. However, identification of specific progenitors remains difficult for some endemics, especially some endemic genera. Nannoglottis, with about eight species endemic to this region, is one such genus. Past taxonomic treatments have suggested its relationships with four different tribes of Asteraceae. We intend to identify the closest relatives of Nannoglottis by evaluating the level of monophyly, tribal delimitation, and systematic position of the genus by using molecular data from ndhF gene, trnL-F, and ITS region sequences. We find that all sampled species of Nannoglottis are a well-defined monophyly. This supports all recent taxonomic treatments of Nannoglottis, in which all sampled species were placed in one broadly re-circumscribed genus. Nannoglottis is most closely related to the Astereae, but stands as an isolated genus as the first diverging lineage of the tribe, without close relatives. A tentative relationship was suggested for Nannoglottis and the next lineage of the tribe was based on the ITS topology, the "basal group," which consists of seven genera from the Southern Hemisphere. Such a relationship is supported by some commonly shared plesiomorphic morphological characters. Despite the very early divergence of Nannoglottis in the Astereae, the tribe must be regarded to have its origin in Southern Hemisphere rather than in Asia, because based on all morphological, molecular, biogeographical, and fossil data, the Asteraceae and its major lineages (tribes) are supposed to have originated in the former area. Long-distance dispersal using Southeast Asia as a steppingstone from Southern Hemisphere to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is the most likely explanation for this

  7. THE GENUS BURRETIODENDRON* Rehder (Tiliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AJGH Kostermans

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven species of Burretwdendron are recognized, of which B. siamensis and B. yunnanensis are new to science. The distributional area of the genus covers Siam (one species, Yunnan (two species, Kweichow (one species;  Kwangsi (three species  and Tonkin (two species. B. tonkinensis is reduced to the synonymy of B. hsienmu. A key to the species is presented.

  8. Additions to the genus Acoridium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ames, Oakes

    1937-01-01

    The genus Acoridium is characterized by an extraordinary history. The original species, A. tenellum, a native of the Philippine Islands, was described at length from a fruiting specimen in 1843 by Nees von Esenbeck and referred to the Philydraceae. This treatment was prompted by the aspect of the pl

  9. Global distribution of ciguatera causing dinoflagellates in the genus Gambierdiscus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litaker, R Wayne; Vandersea, Mark W; Faust, Maria A; Kibler, Steven R; Nau, Amy W; Holland, William C; Chinain, Mireille; Holmes, Michael J; Tester, Patricia A

    2010-10-01

    Dinoflagellates in the genus Gambierdiscus produce toxins that bioaccumulate in tropical and sub-tropical fishes causing ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP). Little is known about the diversity and distribution of Gambierdiscus species, the degree to which individual species vary in toxicity, and the role each plays in causing CFP. This paper presents the first global distribution of Gambierdiscus species. Phylogenetic analyses of the existing isolates indicate that five species are endemic to the Atlantic (including the Caribbean/West Indies and Gulf of Mexico), five are endemic to the tropical Pacific, and that two species, Gambierdiscus carpenteri and Gambierdiscus caribaeus are globally distributed. The differences in Gambierdiscus species composition in the Atlantic and Pacific correlated with structural differences in the ciguatoxins reported from Atlantic and Pacific fish. This correlation supports the hypothesis that Gambierdiscus species in each region produce different toxin suites. A literature survey indicated a >100-fold variation in toxicity among species compared with a 2 to 9-fold within species variation due to changing growth conditions. These observations suggest that CFP events are driven more by inherent differences in species toxicity than by environmental modulation. How variations in species toxicity may affect the development of an early warning system for CFP is discussed.

  10. A new genus and species of gekkonid lizard (Squamata: Gekkota: Gekkonidae) from Hormozgan Province with a revised key to gekkonid genera of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei-Mahroo, Barbod; Ghaffari, Hanyeh; Anderson, Steven C

    2016-05-10

    We describe a new genus and species of gekkonid from two gravid specimens which were found within Koh-e Homag Protected Area, Hormozgan Province, southern Iran. The genus Parsigecko gen. nov. can be distinguished from other genera of Middle East Gekkonidae by a combination of the following characteristics: digits not dilated, dorsal tail covered with small scales without any tubercles or keels, having two strong keeled and pointed scales on each side of each annulus. Parsigecko ziaiei sp. nov. is a ground-dwelling lizard. The new species was found in the Zagros Mountain forest steppe patch with scattered wild pistachio trees and mountain almond shrubs surrounded by South Iran Nubo-Sindian desert and semi-desert habitat in the south of Iran. The genus is the 13th gekkonid genus known from Iran, and the only gekkonid genus endemic to the Zagros Mountains. A key to the genera of the Gekkonidae in Iran is provided.

  11. Distribution of Mycobacterium ulcerans in buruli ulcer endemic and non-endemic aquatic sites in Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather R Williamson

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium ulcerans, the causative agent of Buruli ulcer, is an emerging environmental bacterium in Australia and West Africa. The primary risk factor associated with Buruli ulcer is proximity to slow moving water. Environmental constraints for disease are shown by the absence of infection in arid regions of infected countries. A particularly mysterious aspect of Buruli ulcer is the fact that endemic and non-endemic villages may be only a few kilometers apart within the same watershed. Recent studies suggest that aquatic invertebrate species may serve as reservoirs for M. ulcerans, although transmission pathways remain unknown. Systematic studies of the distribution of M. ulcerans in the environment using standard ecological methods have not been reported. Here we present results from the first study based on random sampling of endemic and non-endemic sites. In this study PCR-based methods, along with biofilm collections, have been used to map the presence of M. ulcerans within 26 aquatic sites in Ghana. Results suggest that M. ulcerans is present in both endemic and non-endemic sites and that variable number tandem repeat (VNTR profiling can be used to follow chains of transmission from the environment to humans. Our results suggesting that the distribution of M. ulcerans is far broader than the distribution of human disease is characteristic of environmental pathogens. These findings imply that focal demography, along with patterns of human water contact, may play a major role in transmission of Buruli ulcer.

  12. Geographic patterns of endemic seed plant genera diversity in China

    OpenAIRE

    Shengbin Chen; Zhiyun Ouyang; Yu Fang; Zhenji Li

    2011-01-01

    Endemism describes the phenomenon that the distribution of individual species/taxa is critically restricted to a specific region. Seed plant genera endemic to China (endemic genera) are those with their main geographic distribution range within the borders of China. The geographic patterns of endemic genera can not only guide conservation planning, but these organisms are also important biological resources. We gath-ered data of 173 localities on environmental and spatial factors, and regiona...

  13. Features and distribution patterns of Chinese endemic seed plant species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji-Hong HUANG; Jian-Hua CHEN; Jun-Sheng YING; Ke-Ping MA

    2011-01-01

    We compiled and identified a list of Chinese. endemic seed plant species based on a large number of published References and expert reviews. The characters of these seed plant species and their distribution patterns were described at length. China is rich in endemic seed plants, with a total of 14 939 species (accounting for 52.1%of its total seed plant species) belonging to 1584 genera and 191 families. Temperate families and genera have a significantly higher proportion of endemism than cosmopolitan and tropical ones. The most primitive and derived groups have significantly higher endemism than the other groups. The endemism of tree, shrub, and liana or vine is higher than that of total species; in contrast, the endemism of herb is lower than that of total species. Geographically,these Chinese endemic plants are mainly distributed in Yunnan and Sichuan provinces, southwest China. Species richness and proportion of these endemic plants decrease with increased latitude and have a unimodal response to altitude. The peak value of proportion of endemism is at higher altitudes than that of total species and endemic species richness. The proportions of endemic shrub, liana or vine, and herb increase with altitude and have a clear unimodal curve. In contrast, the proportion of tree increases with altitude, with a sudden increase at~4000 m and has a completely different model. To date, our study provides the most comprehensive list of Chinese endemic seed plant species and their basic composition and distribution features.

  14. A new species of Leposphilus Hesse, 1866 (Copepoda: Philichthyidae) parasitic in the interorbital canals of the whitemouth croaker Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest) (Sciaenidae) off Brazil with an amended diagnosis of the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschoal, Fabiano; Nagasawa, Kazuya; Luque, José Luis

    2016-06-01

    A new species of the monotypic genus Leposphilus Hesse, 1866 (Cyclopoida: Philichthyidae), Leposphilus vogti n. sp., is described based on adult female and male specimens from the interorbital canals of Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest) (Sciaenidae) in Sepetiba Bay, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The new species differs from its only congener, L. labrei Hesse, 1866, by the following combination of characters in the adult female: a globular cephalosome, a two-segmented maxilla, and fourth abdominal somite fused to caudal ramus; and in the adult male: presence of maxilliped, leg 3 with five setae, and caudal rami tipped with six setae. In addition, an amendment of diagnosis of Leposphilus is provided based on the characters of the new species. Previous records of philichthyid copepods from actinopterygians in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans off the American continent are also given.

  15. Conservation genetics of a critically endangered limpet genus and rediscovery of an extinct species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diarmaid Ó Foighil

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A third of all known freshwater mollusk extinctions worldwide have occurred within a single medium-sized American drainage. The Mobile River Basin (MRB of Alabama, a global hotspot of temperate freshwater biodiversity, was intensively industrialized during the 20(th century, driving 47 of its 139 endemic mollusk species to extinction. These include the ancylinid limpet Rhodacmea filosa, currently classified as extinct (IUCN Red List, a member of a critically endangered southeastern North American genus reduced to a single known extant population (of R. elatior in the MRB. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We document here the tripling of known extant populations of this North American limpet genus with the rediscovery of enduring Rhodacmea filosa in a MRB tributary and of R. elatior in its type locality: the Green River, Kentucky, an Ohio River Basin (ORB tributary. Rhodacmea species are diagnosed using untested conchological traits and we reassessed their systematic and conservation status across both basins using morphometric and genetic characters. Our data corroborated the taxonomic validity of Rhodacmea filosa and we inferred a within-MRB cladogenic origin from a common ancestor bearing the R. elatior shell phenotype. The geographically-isolated MRB and ORB R. elatior populations formed a cryptic species complex: although overlapping morphometrically, they exhibited a pronounced phylogenetic disjunction that greatly exceeded that of within-MRB R. elatior and R. filosa sister species. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Rhodacmea filosa, the type species of the genus, is not extinct. It persists in a Coosa River tributary and morphometric and phylogenetic analyses confirm its taxonomic validity. All three surviving populations of the genus Rhodacmea merit specific status. They collectively contain all known survivors of a phylogenetically highly distinctive North American endemic genus and therefore represent a concentrated fraction of

  16. Symbiotic diversity in the cosmopolitan genus Acacia

    Science.gov (United States)

    James K. Leary; Paul W. Singleton; Paul G. Scowcroft; Dulal Borthakur

    2006-01-01

    Acacia is the second largest genus within the Leguminosae, with 1352 species identified. This genus is now known to be polyphyletic and the international scientific community will presumably split Acacia into five new genera. This review examines the diversity of biological nitrogen fixation symbiosis within Acacia as a single genus. Due to its global importance, an...

  17. Rank and genus of 3-manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Tao

    2011-01-01

    We construct a counterexample to the Rank versus Genus Conjecture, i.e. a closed orientable hyperbolic 3-manifold with rank of its fundamental group smaller than its Heegaard genus. Moreover, we show that the discrepancy between rank and Heegaard genus can be arbitrarily large for hyperbolic 3-manifolds. We also construct toroidal such examples containing hyperbolic JSJ pieces.

  18. The genus Stixis (Capparaceae). A census

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, M.

    1963-01-01

    For a long time, the genus Stixis has been known in the Indian Floras under the name Roydsia, until Pierre monographed it in 1887. Several of Pierre’s species have in the present paper been reduced, leaving Stixis a genus comprising 7 species and 1 subspecies. The genus, which is very uniform, exten

  19. The cone snails of Cape Verde: Marine endemism at a terrestrial scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Peters

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cape Verde in the Eastern Atlantic is typical of many island groups in supporting a wealth of endemic species both terrestrial and marine. Marine gastropod molluscs of the genus Conus, commonly known as cone snails, occur in coastal tropical waters throughout the globe, but in Cape Verde their endemism reaches its apogee with 53 out of 56 species occurring nowhere else, the majority of which are restricted to single islands and frequently to single bays. However, Cape Verde is rapidly moving to a tourism-based economy with a projected boom in infrastructure development often coincidental with the shallow-water habitat of many range-restricted Conus. The conservation assessment of Conus to standards of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN Red List of Endangered Species, found that 45.3% of 53 species assessed from Cape Verde are threatened or near-threatened with extinction compared to 7.4% of 579 species in the rest of the world. The only three Conus species globally assessed as Critically Endangered and on the cusp of extinction are all endemic to Cape Verde. Our analysis of Conus species distribution, together with spatial data of coastal protected areas and tourism development zones, identify important areas for future research and new marine protection. Our findings show that endemism with its associated risks for Conus in Cape Verde has worldwide parallels with many non-marine taxa, while our proposed strategy for Conus conservation extends beyond the confines of the country and this taxonomic group.

  20. Variation in habitat preference and population structure among three species of the Lake Malawi cichlid genus Protomelas

    OpenAIRE

    Pereyra, R.; Taylor, Martin I.; Turner, George F.; Rico, Ciro

    2004-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated strong population structuring over small distances in the rocky-shore mbuna cichlid fishes from Lake Malawi, suggesting the potential for allopatric speciation. However, many endemic Lake Malawi cichlids are neither mbuna, nor confined to rocky shores. Using microsatellites, we investigated the population structure in three species of the non-mbuna genus Protomelas. The rocky-shore P. taeniolatus showed high levels of population structure even over distances ...

  1. Taenia solium in Europe: Still endemic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Allepuz, Alberto; Dermauw, Veronique; Johansen, Maria V; Laranjo-González, Minerva; Smit, G Suzanne A; Sotiraki, Smaragda; Trevisan, Chiara; Wardrop, Nicola A; Dorny, Pierre; Gabriël, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    The pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, causes an important economic and health burden, mainly in rural or marginalized communities of sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and Latin-America. Although improved pig rearing conditions seem to have eliminated the parasite in most Western European countries, little is known about the true endemicity status of T. solium throughout Europe. Three recent reviews indicate that autochthonous human T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis may be possible in Europe, but that current peer-reviewed literature is biased towards Western Europe. Officially reported data on porcine cysticercosis are highly insufficient. Favourable conditions for local T. solium transmission still exist in eastern parts of Europe, although the ongoing integration of the European Union is speeding up modernisation and intensification of the pig sector. Further evidence is urgently needed to fill the gaps on the European T. solium endemicity map. We urge to make human cysticercosis notifiable and to improve the reporting of porcine cysticercosis.

  2. Controlling endemic cholera with oral vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira M Longini

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although advances in rehydration therapy have made cholera a treatable disease with low case-fatality in settings with appropriate medical care, cholera continues to impose considerable mortality in the world's most impoverished populations. Internationally licensed, killed whole-cell based oral cholera vaccines (OCVs have been available for over a decade, but have not been used for the control of cholera. Recently, these vaccines were shown to confer significant levels of herd protection, suggesting that the protective potential of these vaccines has been underestimated and that these vaccines may be highly effective in cholera control when deployed in mass immunization programs. We used a large-scale stochastic simulation model to investigate the possibility of controlling endemic cholera with OCVs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We construct a large-scale, stochastic cholera transmission model of Matlab, Bangladesh. We find that cholera transmission could be controlled in endemic areas with 50% coverage with OCVs. At this level of coverage, the model predicts that there would be an 89% (95% confidence interval [CI] 72%-98% reduction in cholera cases among the unvaccinated, and a 93% (95% CI 82%-99% reduction overall in the entire population. Even a more modest coverage of 30% would result in a 76% (95% CI 44%-95% reduction in cholera incidence for the population area covered. For populations that have less natural immunity than the population of Matlab, 70% coverage would probably be necessary for cholera control, i.e., an annual incidence rate of < or = 1 case per 1,000 people in the population. CONCLUSIONS: Endemic cholera could be reduced to an annual incidence rate of < or = 1 case per 1,000 people in endemic areas with biennial vaccination with OCVs if coverage could reach 50%-70% depending on the level of prior immunity in the population. These vaccination efforts could be targeted with careful use of ecological data.

  3. The genus Phytophthora anno 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroon, Laurens P N M; Brouwer, Henk; de Cock, Arthur W A M; Govers, Francine

    2012-04-01

    Plant diseases caused by Phytophthora species will remain an ever increasing threat to agriculture and natural ecosystems. Phytophthora literally means plant destroyer, a name coined in the 19th century by Anton de Bary when he investigated the potato disease that set the stage for the Great Irish Famine. Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of potato late blight, was the first species in a genus that at present has over 100 recognized members. In the last decade, the number of recognized Phytophthora species has nearly doubled and new species are added almost on a monthly basis. Here we present an overview of the 10 clades that are currently distinguished within the genus Phytophthora with special emphasis on new species that have been described since 1996 when Erwin and Ribeiro published the valuable monograph 'Phytophthora diseases worldwide' (35).

  4. Maximum Genus of Strong Embeddings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Er-ling Wei; Yan-pei Liu; Han Ren

    2003-01-01

    The strong embedding conjecture states that any 2-connected graph has a strong embedding on some surface. It implies the circuit double cover conjecture: Any 2-connected graph has a circuit double cover.Conversely, it is not true. But for a 3-regular graph, the two conjectures are equivalent. In this paper, a characterization of graphs having a strong embedding with exactly 3 faces, which is the strong embedding of maximum genus, is given. In addition, some graphs with the property are provided. More generally, an upper bound of the maximum genus of strong embeddings of a graph is presented too. Lastly, it is shown that the interpolation theorem is true to planar Halin graph.

  5. THE HYPHOMYCETE GENUS DACTYLARIA SACC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIEN A. RIFAI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available An emended delimitation of the genus Dactylaria Sacc. is proposed andthe two accepted species, which are non-predaceous and dematiaceous,are redescribed and illustrated. The affinity of many nematode-trappingspecies currently classified in Dactylaria with the didymosporous generaArthrobotrys Corda, Candelabrella Rifai & R. C. Cooke and Genicularia,Rifai & R. C. Cooke is discussed and the scopes of the latter genera areenlarged, and consequently several new combinations are made.

  6. Biodiversity of the genus Cladophialophora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badali, H.; Gueidan, C.; Najafzadeh, M.J.; Bonifaz, A.; van den Ende, A.H.G. Gerrits; de Hoog, G.S.

    2008-01-01

    Cladophialophora is a genus of black yeast-like fungi comprising a number of clinically highly significant species in addition to environmental taxa. The genus has previously been characterized by branched chains of ellipsoidal to fusiform conidia. However, this character was shown to have evolved several times independently in the order Chaetothyriales. On the basis of a multigene phylogeny (nucLSU, nucSSU, RPB1), most of the species of Cladophialophora (including its generic type C. carrionii) belong to a monophyletic group comprising two main clades (carrionii- and bantiana-clades). The genus includes species causing chromoblastomycosis and other skin infections, as well as disseminated and cerebral infections, often in immunocompetent individuals. In the present study, multilocus phylogenetic analyses were combined to a morphological study to characterize phenetically similar Cladophialophora strains. Sequences of the ITS region, partial Translation Elongation Factor 1-α and β-Tubulin genes were analysed for a set of 48 strains. Four novel species were discovered, originating from soft drinks, alkylbenzene-polluted soil, and infected patients. Membership of the both carrionii and bantiana clades might be indicative of potential virulence to humans. PMID:19287540

  7. Biodiversity of the genus Cladophialophora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badali, H; Gueidan, C; Najafzadeh, M J; Bonifaz, A; van den Ende, A H G Gerrits; de Hoog, G S

    2008-01-01

    Cladophialophora is a genus of black yeast-like fungi comprising a number of clinically highly significant species in addition to environmental taxa. The genus has previously been characterized by branched chains of ellipsoidal to fusiform conidia. However, this character was shown to have evolved several times independently in the order Chaetothyriales. On the basis of a multigene phylogeny (nucLSU, nucSSU, RPB1), most of the species of Cladophialophora (including its generic type C. carrionii) belong to a monophyletic group comprising two main clades (carrionii- and bantiana-clades). The genus includes species causing chromoblastomycosis and other skin infections, as well as disseminated and cerebral infections, often in immunocompetent individuals. In the present study, multilocus phylogenetic analyses were combined to a morphological study to characterize phenetically similar Cladophialophora strains. Sequences of the ITS region, partial Translation Elongation Factor 1-alpha and beta-Tubulin genes were analysed for a set of 48 strains. Four novel species were discovered, originating from soft drinks, alkylbenzene-polluted soil, and infected patients. Membership of the both carrionii and bantiana clades might be indicative of potential virulence to humans.

  8. Population Genetics of the Endemic Hawaiian Species Chrysodracon hawaiiensis and Chrysodracon auwahiensis (Asparagaceae: Insights from RAPD and ISSR Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Luen Lu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The genus Chrysodracon has six endemic species in the Hawaii Islands. Chrysodracon hawaiiensis is endemic to Hawaii Island and was described as a distinct species in 1980. It was listed as an endangered species on the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN Red List in 1997. This woody plant species was, at one time, common in exposed dry forests, but it became very rare due to grazing pressure and human development. The tree species Chrysodracon auwahiensis (C. auwahiensis, endemic to Maui and Molokai, still has large adult populations in dry lands of the islands, but unfortunately no regeneration from seed has been reported in those areas for many years. The two endemic species were examined using the molecular technique of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD and inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR to determine the genetic structure of the populations and the amount of variation. Both species possess similar genetic structure. Larger and smaller populations of both species contain similar levels of genetic diversity as determined by the number of polymorphic loci, estimated heterozygosity, and Shannon’s index of genetic diversity. Although population diversity of Chrysodracon hawaiiensis (C. hawaiiensis is thought to have remained near pre-disturbance levels, population size continues to decline as recruitment is either absent or does not keep pace with senescence of mature plants. Conservation recommendations for both species are suggested.

  9. On the concordance genus of topologically slice knots

    OpenAIRE

    Hom, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The concordance genus of a knot K is the minimum Seifert genus of all knots smoothly concordant to K. Concordance genus is bounded below by the 4-ball genus and above by the Seifert genus. We give a lower bound for the concordance genus of K coming from the knot Floer complex of K. As an application, we prove that there are topologically slice knots with 4-ball genus equal to one and arbitrarily large concordance genus.

  10. A re-evaluation of the genus Myceliophthora (Sordariales, Ascomycota): its segregation into four genera and description of Corynascus fumimontanus sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin-Felix, Yasmina; Stchigel, Alberto M; Miller, Andrew N; Guarro, Josep; Cano-Lira, José F

    2015-01-01

    Based on a number of isolates of Myceliophthora (Chaetomiaceae, Sordariales, Ascomycota) recently isolated from soil samples collected in USA, the taxonomy of the genus was re-evaluated through phylogenetic analyses of sequences from the nuc rDNA internal transcribed spacer region and genes for the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II and translation elongation factor 1α. Members of Myceliophthora were split into four monophyletic clades strongly supported by molecular and phenotypic data. Such clades correspond with Myceliophthora, now restricted only to the type species of the genus Corynascus, which is re-established with five species, the new monotypic genus Crassicarpon and also the new genus Thermothelomyces (comprising four species). Myceliophthora lutea is mesophilic and a permanently asexual morph compared to the members of the other three mentioned genera, which also are able to sexually reproduce morphs with experimentally proven links to their asexual morphs. The asexual morph of M. lutea is characterized by broadly ellipsoidal, smooth-walled conidia with a wide, truncate base. Crassicarpon thermophilum is thermophilic and heterothallic and produces spherical to cuneiform, smooth-walled conidia and cleistothecial ascomata of smooth-walled, angular cells and ascospores with a germ pore at each end. Corynascus spp. are homothallic and mesophilic and produce spherical, mostly ornamented conidia and cleistothecial ascomata with textura epidermoidea composed of ornamented wall cells, and ascospores with one germ pore at each end. Thermothelomyces spp. are thermophilic, heterothallic and characterized by similar ascomata and conidia as Corynascus spp., but its ascospores exhibit only a single germ pore. A dichotomous key to distinguish Myceliophthora from the other mentioned genera are provided, as well as dichotomous keys to identify the species of Corynascus and Thermothelomyces. A new species, namely Corynascus fumimontanus, characterized by

  11. A review of the genus Berosus Leach of Cuba (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deler-Hernández, Albert; Fikáček, Martin; Cala-Riquelme, Franklyn

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The Cuban fauna of the genus Berosus Leach, 1817 is reviewed based on newly collected material as well as historical and type specimens. Nine species are recognized, including three recorded from Cuba for the first time: Berosus infuscatus LeConte, 1855, Berosus interstitialis Knisch, 1924 (= Berosus stribalus Orchymont, 1946 syn. n.) and Berosus metalliceps Sharp, 1882. Only one of the nine Cuban species, Berosus chevrolati, remains endemic to Cuba, as two other species previously considered as endemic to Cuba are recorded from elsewhere: Berosus quadridens from Mexico and Central America and Berosus trilobus from the Dominican Republic. Notes on biology and Cuban distribution are provided for all nine species. Berosus quadridens Chevrolat, 1863, stat. restit. is removed from synonym with Berosus truncatipennis and considered a valid species. PMID:23794806

  12. Revision of the ant genus Proceratium Roger (Hymenoptera, Proceratiinae in Fiji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Hita Garcia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Fiji archipelago harbours a surprisingly diverse and endemic ant fauna, despite its isolated and remote location in the South Pacific. The ant genus Proceratium is present on Fiji with three endemic species, of which P. oceanicum De Andrade, 2003 and P. relictum Mann, 1921 were previously known. In this study we describe the third species: P. vinaka sp. n. All three species are members of the widespread and species-rich P. silaceum clade. In order to integrate the new species into the current taxonomic system, we present an illustrated identification key to the worker caste of the three Fijian species. In addition, we provide a detailed description of P. vinaka, as well as species accounts for the other two species, which include diagnoses, taxonomic discussions, specimen photographs, and a distribution map.

  13. Description of a new species of the stag beetle genus Auxicerus Waterhouse, 1883 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea: Lucanidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Perger

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the Andean stag beetle genus Auxicerus Waterhouse, 1883 is described from the humid Tucuman-Bolivian forest in the southern Bolivian Andes. Auxicerus magnipunctatus sp. nov. is distinguished from all congeners by the distinctly larger punctures of the mesosternum; antennomeres 2–6 subquadrate, last two joints of club wider than long; lamellae not widely separated; posterior end of ocular canthus rounded and anterior edge of canthus moderately developed into an obtuse triangle. Auxicerus magnipunctatus sp. nov. is possibly endemic to the Tucuman-Bolivian forest. Along with the presence of other endemic beetle species with tropical congeners, the discovery of A. magnipunctatus sp. nov. supports the idea that the persistence of rather tropical taxa in the subtropical realm is fostered by increased humidity at orographic rain barriers and climatic stability in the Tucuman-Bolivian forest.

  14. A review of the genus Berosus Leach of Cuba (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Deler-Hernandez

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The Cuban fauna of the genus Berosus Leach, 1817 is reviewed based on newly collected material as well as historical and type specimens. Nine species are recognized, including three recorded from Cuba for the first time: B. infuscatus LeConte, 1855, B. interstitialis Knisch, 1924 (= B. stribalus Orchymont, 1946 syn.n. and B. metalliceps Sharp, 1882. Only one of the nine Cuban species, B. chevrolati, remains endemic to Cuba, as two other species previously considered as endemic to Cuba are recorded from elsewhere: B. quadridens from Mexico and Central America and B. trilobus from the Dominican Republic. Notes on biology and Cuban distribution are provided for all nine species. Berosus quadridens Chevrolat, 1863, stat. restit. is removed from synonym with B. truncatipennis and considered a valid species.

  15. Kankuamo, a new theraphosid genus from Colombia (Araneae, Mygalomorphae), with a new type of urticating setae and divergent male genitalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perafán, Carlos; Galvis, William; Gutiérrez, Miguel; Pérez-Miles, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new monotypic Theraphosidae genus, Kankuamo Perafán, Galvis & Pérez-Miles, gen. n., is described from Colombia, with a new type of urticating setae. These setae differ from others principally by having a small distal oval patch of lanceolate reversed barbs. Males of Kankuamo gen. n. additionally differ by having a palpal bulb organ very divergent from all known species, with many conspicuous keels dispersed across the median tegulum to the tip, mostly with serrated edges. Females differ by having spermathecae with a single notched receptacle, with two granulated lobes and several irregular sclerotized longitudinal striations. The new urticating setae, type VII, is characterized, illustrated and its releasing mechanism is discussed. It is hypothesized that these setae are the first in Theraphosinae subfamily whose release mechanism is by direct contact. Kankuamo gen. n. is described and illustrated on the basis of the type species Kankuamo marquezi Perafán, Galvis & Gutiérrez, sp. n., and their remarkable characteristics, morphological affinities and cladistic relationship are analyzed. PMID:27551189

  16. Revision of the genus Vanenga Schaus, 1928 (Lepidoptera, Mimallonoidea, Mimallonidae with the description of a new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan St. Laurent

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vanenga Schaus, 1928, like many other Mimallonidae genera being revised in recent years, has not been studied since Schaus (1928 in his revision of the family. This currently monotypic genus is entirely restricted to South America, with no known representatives in Central or North America. Prior to this work, Schaus (1928 and subsequent lists of the family (Gaede 1931, Becker 1996 have mentioned the single species V. mera (Dognin, 1924 described from the Brazilian Amazon (Pará state. In Schaus (1928 this species is listed as occurring in both Amazonia and southeastern Brazil. In completing the present article, numerous “type” specimens have been discovered bearing three different manuscript names associated with the populations of southeastern Brazil and adjacent areas. Despite the fact that these names were written on various labels, the absence of any published descriptions results in them being unavailable (ICZN 1999. Therefore, this distinct southern South American species is now officially recognized and formally described, as well as providing a much more thorough distribution for both Vanenga species, including many new records for V. mera.

  17. Subgeneric division of the genus Orcula Held 1837 with remarks on Romanian orculid data (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Orculidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barna Pall-Gergely

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The genital anatomy of Orcula jetschini (Romania, O. zilchi (Bulgaria and O. wagneri (Albania is described. Based on anatomical features (morphology of the penial caecum, shell characters (sculpture and shape and unpublished molecular data, the genus Orcula is subdivided into three subgenera. O. zilchi was classified within the monotypic subgenus Orcula (Hausdorfia subgen. n.; O. jetschini, O. wagneri and O. schmidtii were classified to Orcula (Illyriobanatica subgen. n. (type species: Pupa Schmidtii, whereas the other Orcula species remain in the nominotypical subgenus. Orcula (Hausdorfia is known from South-Eastern Bulgaria and North-Western Turkey, Orcula (Illyriobanatica inhabits Western Romania, North-Western Greece, Albania, Macedonia, Kosovo and Montenegro. The nine species of Orcula (Orcula are known mainly from the Alps and the Western Carpathians (from Eastern France to Eastern Hungary and Slovakia.The occurrence of only one Orcula species, namely O. jetschini is verified from Romania. Available information suggests that data on the Romanian occurrence of Orcula dolium and O. gularis were based on wrongly identified specimens. Sphyradium dobrogicum (=Orcula dobrogica is considered as a synonym of S. doliolum.

  18. Revision of the genus Vanenga Schaus, 1928 (Lepidoptera, Mimallonoidea, Mimallonidae) with the description of a new species

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Laurent, Ryan A.; Herbin, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Vanenga Schaus, 1928, like many other Mimallonidae genera being revised in recent years, has not been studied since Schaus (1928) in his revision of the family. This currently monotypic genus is entirely restricted to South America, with no known representatives in Central or North America. Prior to this work, Schaus (1928) and subsequent lists of the family (Gaede 1931, Becker 1996) have mentioned the single species Vanenga mera (Dognin, 1924) described from the Brazilian Amazon (Pará state). In Schaus (1928) this species is listed as occurring in both Amazonia and southeastern Brazil. In completing the present article, numerous “type” specimens have been discovered bearing three different manuscript names associated with the populations of southeastern Brazil and adjacent areas. Despite the fact that these names were written on various labels, the absence of any published descriptions results in them being unavailable (ICZN 1999). Therefore, this distinct southern South American species is now officially recognized and formally described, as well as providing a much more thorough distribution for both Vanenga species, including many new records for Vanenga mera. PMID:28144186

  19. Karyotypic analyses and morphological comments on the endemic and endangered Brazilian painted tree rat Callistomys pictus (Rodentia, Echimyidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Ventura

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Callistomys belongs to the rodent family Echimyidae, subfamily Echimyinae, and its only living representative is Callistomys pictus, a rare and vulnerable endemic species of the state of Bahia, Brazil. Callistomys has been previously classified as Nelomys, Loncheres, Isothrix and Echimys. In this paper we present the karyotype of Callistomys pictus, including CBG and GTG-banding patterns and silver staining of the nucleolus organizer regions (Ag-NORs. Comments on Callistomys pictus morphological traits and a compilation of Echimyinae chromosomal data are also included. Our analyses revealed that Callistomys can be recognized both by its distintinctive morphology and by its karyotype.

  20. Warionia (Asteraceae: a relict genus of Cichorieae?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katinas, Liliana

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Warionia, with its only species W. saharae, is endemic to the northwestern edge of the African Sahara desert. This is a somewhat thistle-like aromatic plant, with white latex, and fleshy, pinnately- partite leaves. Warionia is in many respects so different from any other genus of Asteraceae, that it has been tentatively placed in the tribes Cardueae, Cichorieae, Gundelieae, and Mutisieae. Until now, a comprehensive study of Warionia to have a complete context for discussing its taxonomic position is lacking. The general morphology, anatomy, palynology and chromosome number of W. saharae are investigated here, and the species is described and illustrated. Laticifers in leaves and stems indicate a relationship with Cichorieae, and are associated with the phloem, in contact with it or with the surrounding sclerenchyma sheath. The pollen features indicate a strong relation with Cardueae, namely the structure with Anthemoid pattern where the columellae are joined to the foot layer, the ectosexine with thin columellae, the endosexine with stout and ramified columellae, the conspicuous spines with globose bases and conspicuous apical channels, and the tectum surface very perforate. Chromosomal counts resulted in 2n = 34. The morphological and palynological evidence positions Warionia between the tribes Cardueae and Cichorieae suggesting that it could be a remnant of the ancestral stock that gave rise to both tribes.El género Warionia, y su única especie, W. saharae, es endémico del noroeste del desierto africano del Sahara. Es una planta semejante a un cardo, aromática, con látex blanco y hojas carnosas, pinnatipartidas. Warionia es tan diferente de otros géneros de Asteraceae que fue ubicada en las tribus Cardueae, Cichorieae, Gundelieae y Mutisieae. Hasta ahora, no existía un estudio global de Warionia como contexto para discutir su posición taxonómica. Se ha investigado aquí su morfología, anatomía, palinología y n

  1. Chemodiversity in the genus Aspergillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisvad, Jens C; Larsen, Thomas O

    2015-10-01

    Isolates of Aspergillus species are able to produce a large number of secondary metabolites. The profiles of biosynthetic families of secondary metabolites are species specific, whereas individual secondary metabolite families can occur in other species, even those phylogenetically and ecologically unrelated to Aspergillus. Furthermore, there is a high degree of chemo-consistency from isolate to isolate in a species even though certain metabolite gene clusters are silenced in some isolates. Genome sequencing projects have shown that the diversity of secondary metabolites is much larger in each species than previously thought. The potential of finding even further new bioactive drug candidates in Aspergillus is evident, despite the fact that many secondary metabolites have already been structure elucidated and chemotaxonomic studies have shown that many new secondary metabolites have yet to be characterized. The genus Aspergillus is cladistically holophyletic but phenotypically polythetic and very diverse and is associated to quite different sexual states. Following the one fungus one name system, the genus Aspergillus is restricted to a holophyletic clade that include the morphologically different genera Aspergillus, Dichotomomyces, Phialosimplex, Polypaecilum and Cristaspora. Secondary metabolites common between the subgenera and sections of Aspergillus are surprisingly few, but many metabolites are common to a majority of species within the sections. We call small molecule extrolites in the same biosynthetic family isoextrolites. However, it appears that secondary metabolites from one Aspergillus section have analogous metabolites in other sections (here also called heteroisoextrolites). In this review, we give a genus-wide overview of secondary metabolite production in Aspergillus species. Extrolites appear to have evolved because of ecological challenges rather than being inherited from ancestral species, at least when comparing the species in the different

  2. Iridoids and phenylethanoid glycosides from the aerial parts of Ajuga tenorei, an endemic Italian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frezza, Claudio; Venditti, Alessandro; Di Cecco, Mirella; Ciaschetti, Giampiero; Serafini, Mauro; Bianco, Armandodoriano

    2017-01-01

    We report the first analysis in absolute, and in particular, concerning the phytochemical pattern, about an endemic Italian species, Ajuga tenorei C. Presl. The analysis, performed by means of techniques such as Column Chromatography and NMR spectroscopy and Mass spectrometry, led to the isolation and the identification of five compounds namely verbascoside (1), echinacoside (2), ajugoside (3), harpagide (4) and 8-O-acetylharpagide (5). The presence of these compounds is important from both chemotaxonomic and ethno-pharmacological point of view. For what concerns the first point is confirmed the correct botanical classification of the species. The isolated compounds are also known to exert peculiar pharmacological activities and their presence may give a rationale to the historical medicinal properties associated to the Ajuga genus in general, since these plants have a long traditional use in many parts of the world. Such fact might suggest the use of also this species in this sense.

  3. Two new species of Trichuris (Nematoda: Trichuridae) collected from endemic murines of Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Hideo; Dewi, Kartika

    2017-04-12

    Two new species of the genus Trichuris (Nematoda: Trichuridae) parasitic in the old endemic murids of Indonesia are described: T. musseri sp. nov. from Echiothrix centrosa (Murinae: Rattini) in Sulawesi and T. mallomyos sp. nov. from Mallomys rothschildi (Murinae: Hydromyini) in Papua Indonesia. Both species are characterized by having a gradually tapered and sharply pointed distal end of the spicule, being readily distinguished from most of the congeners known from murid rodents. Trichuris musseri is readily distinguished from T. mallomyos by having a much smaller body and large number of nuclei per subdivision of stichosome. The resemblance in spicule morphology between the two new species is of special interest because both hosts belong to different tribes and have different habitats and habits. It remains to be elucidated whether the resemblance is merely homoplasy or actually reflects close phylogenetic relationship of the parasites.

  4. Description of three new troglobiontic species of Cybaeodes (Araneae, Liocranidae) endemic to the Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribera, Carles; De Mas, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Three new troglobiontic species of the spider genus Cybaeodes Simon endemic to caves in the southeastern Iberian Peninsula are described and illustrated: Cybaeodes indalo sp. n. from Almería, C. dosaguas sp. n. from València and C. magnus sp. n. from Alacant. The new species confirm the presence of Cybaeodes on the Iberian Peninsula and its wide distribution throughout the Western Mediterranean including Algeria, Tunisia, Italy, France, Spain and the islands of Sardinia, Sicily and Mallorca. A record of C. liocraninus (Simon), from an Iberian cave was probably based on misidentified specimens of C. magnus sp. n. C. liocraninus is known only from Algeria and should be removed from lists of the Iberian fauna. In addition, the three new species are clear candidates for protection: they have highly restricted ranges and show a high degree of adaptation to the subterranean environment.

  5. Spatial segregation of the endemic versus non-endemic hummingbird on Robinson Crusoe Island, Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vizentin-Bugoni, Jeferson; Sonne, Jesper; Hodum, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Competitive pressure from invasive species tends to have a particularly strong impact on remote islands, and knowledge of such phenomena can be crucial to the conservation of endemic biodiversity. Of the two hummingbird species inhabiting Robinson Crusoe Island, Juan Fernández Archipelago, Chile...

  6. Cosmopolitanism and Biogeography of the Genus Manganonema (Nematoda: Monhysterida in the Deep Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Danovaro

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Spatial patterns of species diversity provide information about the mechanisms that regulate biodiversity and are important for setting conservation priorities. Present knowledge of the biogeography of meiofauna in the deep sea is scarce. This investigation focuses on the distribution of the deep-sea nematode genus Manganonema, which is typically extremely rare in deep-sea sediment samples. Forty-four specimens of eight different species of this genus were recorded from different Atlantic and Mediterranean regions. Four out of the eight species encountered are new to science. We report here that this genus is widespread both in the Atlantic and in the Mediterranean Sea. These new findings together with literature information indicate that Manganonema is a cosmopolitan genus, inhabiting a variety of deep-sea habitats and oceans. Manganonema shows the highest diversity at water depths >4,000 m. Our data, therefore, indicate that this is preferentially an abyssal genus that is able, at the same time, to colonize specific habitats at depths shallower than 1,000 m. The analysis of the distribution of the genus Manganonema indicates the presence of large differences in dispersal strategies among different species, ranging from locally endemic to cosmopolitan. Lacking meroplanktonic larvae and having limited dispersal ability due to their small size, it has been hypothesized that nematodes have limited dispersal potential. However, the investigated deep-sea nematodes were present across different oceans covering macro-scale distances. Among the possible explanations (hydrological conditions, geographical and geological pathways, long-term processes, specific historical events, their apparent preference of colonizing highly hydrodynamic systems, could suggest that these infaunal organisms are transported by means of deep-sea benthic storms and turbidity currents over long distances.

  7. Distributional patterns of the Neotropical genus Thecomyia Perty (Diptera, Sciomyzidae and phylogenetic support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Ciprandi Pires

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Distributional patterns of the Neotropical genus Thecomyia Perty (Diptera, Sciomyzidae and phylogenetic support. The distributional pattern of the genus Thecomyia Perty, 1833 was defined using panbiogeographic tools, and analyzed based on the phylogeny of the group. This study sought to establish biogeographical homologies in the Neotropical region between different species of the genus, based on their distribution pattern and later corroboration through its phylogeny. Eight individual tracks and 16 generalized tracks were identified, established along nearly the entire swath of the Neotropics. Individual tracks are the basic units of a panbiogeographic study, and correspond to the hypothesis of minimum distribution of the organisms involved. The generalized tracks, obtained from the spatial congruence between two or more individual tracks, are important in the identification of smaller areas of endemism. Thus, we found evidence from the generalized tracks in support of previous classification for the Neotropical region. The Amazon domain is indicated as an area of outstanding importance in the diversification of the group, by the confluence of generalized tracks and biogeographic nodes in the region. Most of the generalized tracks and biogeographical nodes were congruent with the phylogenetic hypothesis of the genus, indicating support of the primary biogeographical homologies originally defined by the track analysis.

  8. Systematics, phylogeny and biology of a new genus of Lithocolletinae (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) associated with Cistaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Prins, Jurate; Davis, Donald R; De Coninck, Eliane; Sohn, Jae-Cheon; Triberti, Paolo

    2013-10-27

    The gracillariid genus Triberta gen. nov. (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae: Lithocolletinae Stainton, 1854) is described to accommodate two species formerly assigned to the genus Phyllonorycter Hübner, 1822: Triberta helianthemella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1861) comb. nov. and T. cistifoliella (Groschke, 1944) comb. nov. Triberta cistifoliella bona sp. is restored from synonymy based on morphological characters. The new genus is biologically associated with the plant family Cistaceae of the order Malvales and is endemic to the Palaearctics. Our molecular analysis of eleven nuclear genes failed to unambiguously place Triberta in the lithocolletine phylogeny, but revealed that this genus is distinct from either clade Phyllonorycter + Cremastobombycia and Cameraria. The distinctiveness of Triberta is also supported by inferred traits in wing venation, micro morphology of the last instar larva, pupa, genital morphology of the adult and life history. A key to the species of Triberta is provided. The interspecific homogeneity in external morphology, coupled with minor differences in genital traits, an apparent narrow specialization on Cistaceae host plants, restricted geographical range and molecular evidence based on multi-nuclear genes jointly suggest that the generic diversification of Triberta is a relatively old phenomenon and driven strongly by host selection.

  9. Molecular phylogeny and phylogeography of genus Pseudois (Bovidae, Cetartiodactyla): New insights into the contrasting phylogeographic structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shuai; Wang, Zhihong; Jiang, Lichun; Peng, Rui; Zhang, Tao; Peng, Quekun; Zou, Fangdong

    2017-09-01

    Blue sheep, Pseudois nayaur, is endemic to the Tibetan Plateau and the surrounding mountains, which are the highest-elevation areas in the world. Classical morphological taxonomy suggests that there are two subspecies in genus Pseudois (Bovidae, Artiodactyla), namely Pseudois nayaur nayaur and Pseudois nayaur szechuanensis. However, the validity and geographic characteristics of these subspecies have never been carefully discussed and analyzed. This may be partially because previous studies have mainly focused on the vague taxonomic status of Pseudois schaeferi (dwarf blue sheep). Thus, there is an urgent need to investigate the evolutionary relationship and taxonomy system of this genus. This study enriches a previous dataset by providing a large number of new samples, based on a total of 225 samples covering almost the entire distribution of blue sheep. Molecular data from cytochrome b and the mitochondrial control region sequences were used to reconstruct the phylogeny of this species. The phylogenetic inferences show that vicariance plays an important role in diversification within this genus. In terms of molecular dating results and biogeographic analyses, the striking biogeographic pattern coincides significantly with major geophysical events. Although the results raise doubt about the present recognized distribution range of blue sheep, they have corroborated the validity of the identified subspecies in genus Pseudois. Meanwhile, these results demonstrate that the two geographically distinct populations, the Helan Mountains and Pamir Plateau populations, have been significantly differentiated from the identified subspecies, a finding that challenges the conventional taxonomy of blue sheep.

  10. The endemic gastropod fauna of Lake Titicaca: correlation between molecular evolution and hydrographic history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Oliver; Hershler, Robert; Albrecht, Christian; Terrazas, Edmundo M; Apaza, Roberto; Fuentealba, Carmen; Wolff, Christian; Wilke, Thomas

    2012-07-01

    Lake Titicaca, situated in the Altiplano high plateau, is the only ancient lake in South America. This 2- to 3-My-old (where My is million years) water body has had a complex history that included at least five major hydrological phases during the Pleistocene. It is generally assumed that these physical events helped shape the evolutionary history of the lake's biota. Herein, we study an endemic species assemblage in Lake Titicaca, composed of members of the microgastropod genus Heleobia, to determine whether the lake has functioned as a reservoir of relic species or the site of local diversification, to evaluate congruence of the regional paleohydrology and the evolutionary history of this assemblage, and to assess whether the geographic distributions of endemic lineages are hierarchical. Our phylogenetic analyses indicate that the Titicaca/Altiplano Heleobia fauna (together with few extralimital taxa) forms a species flock. A molecular clock analysis suggests that the most recent common ancestor (MRCAs) of the Altiplano taxa evolved 0.53 (0.28-0.80) My ago and the MRCAs of the Altiplano taxa and their extralimital sister group 0.92 (0.46-1.52) My ago. The endemic species of Lake Titicaca are younger than the lake itself, implying primarily intralacustrine speciation. Moreover, the timing of evolutionary branching events and the ages of two precursors of Lake Titicaca, lakes Cabana and Ballivián, is congruent. Although Lake Titicaca appears to have been the principal site of speciation for the regional Heleobia fauna, the contemporary spatial patterns of endemism have been masked by immigration and/or emigration events of local riverine taxa, which we attribute to the unstable hydrographic history of the Altiplano. Thus, a hierarchical distribution of endemism is not evident, but instead there is a single genetic break between two regional clades. We also discuss our findings in relation to studies of other regional biota and suggest that salinity tolerance was

  11. The genus Lolium; taxonomy and genetic resources.

    OpenAIRE

    Loos, B.P.

    1994-01-01

    Several aspects of variation within the genus Lolium, and more in detail within Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass) have been highlighted. As the results are extensively discussed in each chapter, the general discussion is focused on two aspects of the research.SpeciationIt is clear that the genus Lolium is a very variable genus. The variation within the species reduces the clarity of separation of the species. Stebbins (1956) found the differences between Lolium and Festuca not sufficient to...

  12. The Stochastic Modelling of Endemic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susvitasari, Kurnia; Siswantining, Titin

    2017-01-01

    A study about epidemic has been conducted since a long time ago, but genuine progress was hardly forthcoming until the end of the 19th century (Bailey, 1975). Both deterministic and stochastic models were used to describe these. Then, from 1927 to 1939 Kermack and McKendrick introduced a generality of this model, including some variables to consider such as rate of infection and recovery. The purpose of this project is to investigate the behaviour of the models when we set the basic reproduction number, R0. This quantity is defined as the expected number of contacts made by a typical infective to susceptibles in the population. According to the epidemic threshold theory, when R0 ≤ 1, minor epidemic occurs with probability one in both approaches, but when R0 > 1, the deterministic and stochastic models have different interpretation. In the deterministic approach, major epidemic occurs with probability one when R0 > 1 and predicts that the disease will settle down to an endemic equilibrium. Stochastic models, on the other hand, identify that the minor epidemic can possibly occur. If it does, then the epidemic will die out quickly. Moreover, if we let the population size be large and the major epidemic occurs, then it will take off and then reach the endemic level and move randomly around the deterministic’s equilibrium.

  13. Diversity and endemism of Peruvian mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Pacheco

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We present an annotated list for all land, aquatic and marine mammals known to occur in Peru and their distribution by ecoregions. We also present species conservation status according to international organizations and the legal conservation status in Peru. At present, we record 508 species, in 13 orders, 50 families, and 218 genera, making Peru the third most diverse country with regards to mammals in the New World, after Brazil and Mexico, and the fifth most diverse country for mammals in the World. This diversity includes 40 didelphimorphs, 2 paucituberculates, 1 manatee, 6 cingulates, 7 pilosa, 39 primates, 162 rodents, 1 rabbit, 2 soricomorphs, 165 bats, 34 carnivores, 2 perissodactyls, and 47 cetartiodactyls. Bats and rodents (327 species represent almost two thirds of total diversity (64% for Peru. Five genera and 65 species (12.8% are endemics to Peru, with the majority of these being rodents (45 species, 69,2%. Most of the endemic species are restricted to the Yungas of the eastern slope of the Andes (39 species, 60% followed by Selva Baja (14 species, 21.5%. The taxonomic status of some species is commented on, when those depart from accepted taxonomy. The marsupial Marmosa phaea; the rodents Melanomys caliginosus, M. robustulus, and Echinoprocta rufescens; the shrew Cryptotis equatoris; the bats Anoura fistulata, Phyllostomus latifolius, Artibeus ravus, Cynomops greenhalli, Eumops maurus, and Rhogeessa velilla; and the carnivore Nasuella olivacea are first records of species occurrence in Peru. Finally, we also include a list of 15 non-native species.

  14. Endemism in the Cladocera (Crustacea: Branchiopoda) of Southern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    We review the current state of knowledge and patterns of distribution in the endemic Cladocera (Crustacea: Branchiopoda) of Southern Africa and describe two species of the Western Cape, of which one is new to science. Frey (1993), Korovchinsky (2006) and Smirnov (2008) previously suggested that South Africa harbours few endemics in the Cladocera. In the current study, we show that so-called low endemism in this region is mainly attributed to our limited state of knowledge of the local clado...

  15. Hydroclimatological Controls of Endemic and Non-endemic Cholera of the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutla, A. S.; Whitcombe, E.; Colwell, R.

    2012-12-01

    Cholera remains a major public health threat for the developing countries. Since the causative agent, Vibrio cholerae, is autochthonous to aquatic environment, it is not possible to eradicate the agent of the disease. Hydroclimatology based prediction and prevention strategies can be implemented in disease susceptible regions for reducing incidence rates. However, the precise role of hydrological and climatological processes, which will further aid in development of suitable prediction models, in creating spatial and temporal environmental conditions favorable for disease outbreak has not been adequately quantified. Here, we show distinction between seasonality and occurrence of cholera in epidemic and non-endemic regions. Using historical cholera mortality data, from the late 1800s for 27 locations in the Indian subcontinent, we show that non-endemic regions are generally located close to regional river systems but away from the coasts and are characterized by single sporadic outbreak in a given year. Increase in air temperature during the low river flow season increases evaporation, leading to an optimal salinity and pH required for bacterial growth. Thereafter, monsoonal rainfall, leads to interactions of contaminated river waters via human activity resulting in cholera epidemics. Endemic regions are located close to coasts where cholera outbreak occurs twice (spring and fall) in a year. Spring outbreak is generally associated with intrusion of bacterial seawater to inland whereas the fall peak is correlated with widespread flooding and cross-contamination of water resources via increased precipitation. This may be one of the first studies to hydroclimatologically quantitatively the seasonality of cholera in both endemic and non-endemic regions. Our results prompt the need of region and cause-specific prediction models for cholera, employing appropriate environmental determinants.

  16. Estimating the global burden of endemic canine rabies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hampson, Katie; Coudeville, Laurent; Lembo, Tiziana; Sambo, Maganga; Kieffer, Alexia; Attlan, Michaël; Barrat, Jacques; Blanton, Jesse D; Briggs, Deborah J; Cleaveland, Sarah; Costa, Peter; Freuling, Conrad M; Hiby, Elly; Knopf, Lea; Leanes, Fernando; Meslin, François-Xavier; Metlin, Artem; Miranda, Mary Elizabeth; Müller, Thomas; Nel, Louis H; Recuenco, Sergio; Rupprecht, Charles E; Schumacher, Carolin; Taylor, Louise; Vigilato, Marco Antonio Natal; Zinsstag, Jakob; Dushoff, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    ... of how much this preventable disease costs endemic countries. We established relationships between rabies mortality and rabies prevention and control measures, which we incorporated into a model framework...

  17. Comparison of immune responses to a killed bivalent whole cell oral cholera vaccine between endemic and less endemic settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Sachin N; Akalu, Zenebe; Teferi, Mekonnen; Manna, Byomkesh; Teshome, Samuel; Park, Ju Yeon; Yang, Jae Seung; Kim, Deok Ryun; Kanungo, Suman; Digilio, Laura

    2016-02-01

    Studies on safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of the killed, bivalent whole cell oral cholera vaccine (Shanchol) have been conducted in historically endemic settings of Asia. Recent cholera vaccination campaigns in Haiti and Guinea have also demonstrated favourable immunogenicity and effectiveness in nonendemic outbreak settings. We performed a secondary analysis, comparing immune responses of Shanchol from two randomised controlled trials performed in an endemic and a less endemic area (Addis Ababa) during a nonoutbreak setting. While Shanchol may offer some degree of immediate protection in primed populations living in cholera endemic areas, as well as being highly immunogenic in less endemic settings, understanding the characteristics of immune responses in each of these areas is vital in determining ideal dosing strategies that offer the greatest public health impact to populations from areas with varying degrees of cholera endemicity. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Diversity, endemism and conservation of the freshwater crabs of China (Brachyura: Potamidae and Gecarcinucidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumberlidge, Neil; Ng, Peter K L; Yeo, Darren C J; Naruse, Tohru; Meyer, Kirstin S; Esser, Lara J

    2011-03-01

    China lies at the heart of the global center of freshwater crab diversity in tropical Asia, where the 2 most diverse families occur: Potamidae (505 species, 95 genera) and Gecarcinucidae (344 species, 59 genera). China stands out as the country with the highest species richness of freshwater crabs globally. Its fauna comprises 243 species in 37 genera and in 2 families, and species discovery is still progressing at a rapid pace. The vast majority of the species are distributed in southwest, south central and eastern China in the Oriental zoogeographical region. China also stands out as having a highly endemic freshwater crab fauna at the species level (96%) and at the genus level (78%). Although the recent International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) red list conservation assessment found only 6 out of 228 species (2%) to be threatened (5 potamids and 1 gecarcinucid), the majority (more than 75%) of Chinese species are regarded as data deficient, so the number of threatened species is likely to be a serious underestimate. Threats from increasing habitat destruction and pollution are a major concern due to the rapidly growing economy and massive developments taking place in China. There is therefore an urgent need for increased species exploration and for the development of a conservation strategy for China's threatened (and potentially threatened) endemic freshwater crab species.

  19. Desert springs: deep phylogeographic structure in an ancient endemic crustacean (Phreatomerus latipes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle T Guzik

    Full Text Available Desert mound springs of the Great Artesian Basin in central Australia maintain an endemic fauna that have historically been considered ubiquitous throughout all of the springs. Recent studies, however, have shown that several endemic invertebrate species are genetically highly structured and contain previously unrecognised species, suggesting that individuals may be geographically 'stranded in desert islands'. Here we further tested the generality of this hypothesis by conducting genetic analyses of the obligate aquatic phreatoicid isopod Phreatomerus latipes. Phylogenetic and phylogeographic relationships amongst P. latipes individuals were examined using a multilocus approach comprising allozymes and mtDNA sequence data. From the Lake Eyre region in South Australia we collected data for 476 individuals from 69 springs for the mtDNA gene COI; in addition, allozyme electrophoresis was conducted on 331 individuals from 19 sites for 25 putative loci. Phylogenetic and population genetic analyses showed three major clades in both allozyme and mtDNA data, with a further nine mtDNA sub-clades, largely supported by the allozymes. Generally, each of these sub-clades was concordant with a traditional geographic grouping known as spring complexes. We observed a coalescent time between ∼2-15 million years ago for haplotypes within each of the nine mtDNA sub-clades, whilst an older total time to coalescence (>15 mya was observed for the three major clades. Overall we observed that multiple layers of phylogeographic history are exemplified by Phreatomerus, suggesting that major climate events and their impact on the landscape have shaped the observed high levels of diversity and endemism. Our results show that this genus reflects a diverse fauna that existed during the early Miocene and appears to have been regionally restricted. Subsequent aridification events have led to substantial contraction of the original habitat, possibly over repeated Pleistocene

  20. Genetic consequences of cladogenetic vs. anagenetic speciation in endemic plants of oceanic islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Koji; López-Sepúlveda, Patricio; Greimler, Josef; Crawford, Daniel J; Peñailillo, Patricio; Baeza, Marcelo; Ruiz, Eduardo; Kohl, Gudrun; Tremetsberger, Karin; Gatica, Alejandro; Letelier, Luis; Novoa, Patricio; Novak, Johannes; Stuessy, Tod F

    2015-08-26

    Adaptive radiation is a common mode of speciation among plants endemic to oceanic islands. This pattern is one of cladogenesis, or splitting of the founder population, into diverse lineages in divergent habitats. In contrast, endemic species have also evolved primarily by simple transformations from progenitors in source regions. This is anagenesis, whereby the founding population changes genetically and morphologically over time primarily through mutation and recombination. Gene flow among populations is maintained in a homogeneous environment with no splitting events. Genetic consequences of these modes of speciation have been examined in the Juan Fernández Archipelago, which contains two principal islands of differing geological ages. This article summarizes population genetic results (nearly 4000 analyses) from examination of 15 endemic species, involving 1716 and 1870 individuals in 162 and 163 populations (with amplified fragment length polymorphisms and simple sequence repeats, respectively) in the following genera: Drimys (Winteraceae), Myrceugenia (Myrtaceae), Rhaphithamnus (Verbenaceae), Robinsonia (Asteraceae, Senecioneae) and Erigeron (Asteraceae, Astereae). The results indicate that species originating anagenetically show high levels of genetic variation within the island population and no geographic genetic partitioning. This contrasts with cladogenetic species that show less genetic diversity within and among populations. Species that have been derived anagenetically on the younger island (1-2 Ma) contain less genetic variation than those that have anagenetically speciated on the older island (4 Ma). Genetic distinctness among cladogenetically derived species on the older island is greater than among similarly derived species on the younger island. An important point is that the total genetic variation within each genus analysed is comparable, regardless of whether adaptive divergence occurs. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the

  1. The role of porcine teschovirus in causing diseases in endemically infected pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Shu-Chun; Hu, Shu-Chia; Chang, Chih-Cheng; Chang, Chia-Yi; Huang, Chin-Cheng; Pang, Victor F; Wang, Fun-In

    2012-12-28

    Porcine teschoviruses (PTVs) belong to the genus Teschovirus within the family Picornaviridae. Hitherto, PTVs have had 13 serotypes associated with a variety of clinical diseases. The virulent PTV-1 strains were associated with highly fatal, nonsuppurative encephalomyelitis of pigs (Teschen disease) in the 1930-1950s. Today, less virulent Talfan strains of PTV-1 are more widespread, and PTVs have contaminated swine herds worldwide (endemic or enzootic) together with a variety of common swine pathogens (multi-infection status). The aim of this study was to investigate the extent to which PTVs play a role in causing diseases in the field, under the endemic and multi-infection situation, when most pigs in the herds are infected and immune. Based on the fecal-oral model of pathogenesis, a set of 15 organs were collected from 30 culled post-weanling piglets of 4-8 weeks old. For nested RT-PCR targeted on the 5'-NTR, the PTV detection rate was 96.7% (by heads), confirming the endemic status, and infection was most commonly detected in the intestines (averaged 61%) and lymphoid organs (averaged 59%), followed by visceral organs (averaged 37%) and the CNS (different parts varied from 17 to 47%). The correlation of PTVs detected by nested RT-PCR and a histological lesion were analyzed by Chi-square test showing that in the field situation only non-suppurative encephalitis in the caudal part of the brain (P=0.054) may be marginal significantly attributed to infection by PTVs. By genotyping based on partial VP1 sequences, 5 serotypes, namely PTV-1, -4, -6, -7, and -11, were identified, with some animals having two serotypes co-existed in different organs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Dragonflies (Odonata) of Mulanje, Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    Dijkstra, Klaas-Douwe B.

    2004-01-01

    65 species of Odonata are recorded from Mulanje and its slopes. Only eight species dominate on the high plateau. Among them are two relict species of conservation concern: The endemic Oreocnemis phoenix (monotypic genus) and the restricted-range species Chlorolestes elegans. The absence of mountain marsh specialists on the plateau is noteworthy. Mulanje’s valleys, of which Likabula and Ruo are best known, have a rich dragonfly fauna. The Eastern Arc relict Nepogomphoides stuhlmanni is common ...

  3. A morphological re-evaluation of the taxonomic status of the genus Pellegriniodendron (Harms) J. Léonard (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae-Detarieae) and its inclusion in Gilbertiodendron J. Léonard.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Estrella, de la M.; Devesa, J.A.; Wieringa, J.J.

    2012-01-01

    The taxonomic status of the genus Pellegriniodendron J. Léonard (Leguminosae, Caesalpinioideae), which consists in one tree species endemic to West Central tropical Africa, is re-evaluated. Based on our morphological comparison and on published phylogenetic studies, we conclude that P. diphyllum sho

  4. Taxonomic revision of the tarantula genus Aphonopelma Pocock, 1901 (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Theraphosidae) within the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Chris A; Hendrixson, Brent E; Bond, Jason E

    2016-01-01

    , Aphonopelma mordax, Aphonopelma radinum, Aphonopelma rusticum, Aphonopelma texense). Our proposed species tree based on Anchored Enrichment data delimits five major lineages: a monotypic group confined to California, a western group, an eastern group, a group primarily distributed in high-elevation areas, and a group that comprises several miniaturized species. Multiple species are distributed throughout two biodiversity hotspots in the United States (i.e., California Floristic Province and Madrean Pine-Oak Woodlands). Keys are provided for identification of both males and females. By conducting the most comprehensive sampling of a single theraphosid genus to date, this research significantly broadens the scope of prior molecular and morphological investigations, finally bringing a modern understanding of species delimitation in this dynamic and charismatic group of spiders.

  5. Phytochemistry and pharmacology of the genus Drypetes: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wansi, Jean Duplex; Wandji, Jean; Sewald, Norbert; Nahar, Lutfun; Martin, Claire; Sarker, Satyajit Dey

    2016-08-22

    Traditional medicinal use of species of the genus Drypetes is widespread in the tropical regions. The aim of this review is to systematically appraise the literature available to date on phytochemistry, ethnopharmacology, toxicology and bioactivity (in vitro and in vivo) of crude extracts and purified compounds. Plants of the genus Drypetes (Putranjivaceae) are used in the Subsaharan African and Asian traditional medicines to treat a multitude of disorders, like dysentery, gonorrhoea, malaria, rheumatism, sinusitis, tumours, as well as for the treatment of wounds, headache, urethral problems, fever in young children, typhoid and several other ailments. Some Drypetes species are used to protect food against pests, as an aphrodisiac, a stimulant/depressant, a rodenticide and a fish poison, against insect bites, to induce conception and for general healing. This review deals with updated information on the ethnobotany, phytochemistry, and biological activities of ethnomedicinally important Drypetes species, in order to provide an input for the future research opportunities. An extensive review of the literature available in various recognized databases e.g., Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, SciFinder, Web of Science, www.theplantlist.org and www.gbif.org, as well as the Herbier National du Cameroun (Yaoundé) and Botanic Gardens of Limbe databases on the uses and bioactivity of various species of the Drypetes was undertaken. The literature provided information on ethnopharmacological uses of the Subsaharan African and Asian species of the genus Drypetes, e.g., Drypetes aubrévillii, D. capillipes, D. chevalieri, D. gerrardii, D. gossweileri, D. ivorensis, D. klainei, D. natalensis, D. pellegrini (all endemic to Africa) and D. roxburghii (Asian species), for the treatment of multiple disorders. From a total of 19 species, more than 140 compounds including diterpenes, sesquiterpenes, triterpenes (friedelane, oleanane, lupane and hopane-type), flavonoids, lignans

  6. Are Iberian endemics Iberian? A case-study using water beetles of family Dytiscidae (Coleoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribera, Ignacio

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The phylogenetic relationships and the geographical origin of 27 of the 34 species and of 3 of the 9 subspecies of Iberian endemic Dytiscidae are studied, based on species level phylogenies constructed with two mitochondrial gene fragments (16S rRNA and Cytochrome Oxidase I. All Iberian endemic species for which more than one specimen was included were monophyletic with the exception of the complex Deronectes aubei sanfilippoi Fery & Brancucci, 1997-D. delarouzei (Jac. Du Val, 1857. The genus Stictotarsus as presently defined is polyphyletic, containing three different lineages: the S. duodecimpustulatus group —including the Iberian endemic S. bertrandi (Legros, 1956—, Trichonectes otini (Guignot, 1941 (new combination and the S. griseostriatus and S. roffii groups, which are in need of a new generic name. The genus Oreodytes is found to be paraphyletic, although with low bootstrap support. The species Nebrioporus (Nebrioporus martinii (Fairmaire, 1858 (new combination is transferred from the subgenus Zimmermannius to Nebrioporus. The Iberian populations of Stictotarsus griseostriatus (De Geer, 1774 and the endemic subspecies Oreodytes davisii rhianae Carr, 2001, O. sanmarkii alienus (Sharp, 1872 and Hydroporus normandi normandi Régimbart, 1903 do not form well characterised lineages, as measured with the mitochondrial markers used in this study. The Iberian endemic species of Dytiscidae are divided in three groups according to the type of vicariant origin: 1 within-Iberian species, when the sister species (or clade of the Iberian endemic is also and Iberian endemic; 2 Iberian/European, when the sister occurs in Europe north of the Pyrenees; and 3 Iberian/North African, when the sister occurs in North Africa. Within-Iberian endemics are found to be on average older than Iberian/European and Iberian/North African species, they have

  7. Evolution of the Genus Homo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattersall, Ian; Schwartz, Jeffrey H.

    2009-05-01

    Definition of the genus Homo is almost as fraught as the definition of Homo sapiens. We look at the evidence for “early Homo,” finding little morphological basis for extending our genus to any of the 2.5-1.6-myr-old fossil forms assigned to “early Homo” or Homo habilis/rudolfensis. We also point to heterogeneity among “early African Homo erectus,” and the lack of apomorphies linking these fossils to the Asian Homo erectus group, a cohesive regional clade that shows some internal variation, including brain size increase over time. The first truly cosmopolitan Homo species is Homo heidelbergensis, known from Africa, Europe, and China following 600 kyr ago. One species sympatric with it included the >500-kyr-old Sima de los Huesos fossils from Spain, clearly distinct from Homo heidelbergensis and the oldest hominids assignable to the clade additionally containing Homo neanderthalensis. This clade also shows evidence of brain size expansion with time; but although Homo neanderthalensis had a large brain, it left no unequivocal evidence of the symbolic consciousness that makes our species unique. Homo sapiens clearly originated in Africa, where it existed as a physical entity before it began (also in that continent) to show the first stirrings of symbolism. Most likely, the biological underpinnings of symbolic consciousness were exaptively acquired in the radical developmental reorganization that gave rise to the highly characteristic osteological structure of Homo sapiens, but lay fallow for tens of thousands of years before being “discovered” by a cultural stimulus, plausibly the invention of language.

  8. The genus Allium. Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenwick, G R; Hanley, A B

    1985-01-01

    Allium is a genus of some 500 species belonging to the family Liliaceae. However only a few of these are important as food plants, notably onion, garlic, chive, leek, and rakkyo. Such plants have been used for many centuries for the pungency and flavoring value, for their medicinal properties, and, in some parts of the world, their use also has religious connotations. The flavors of members of the genus Alliums, in addition to having certain characteristics, are also complex, being derived enzymically from a number of involatile precursors. In addition to there being variation of flavor between different alliums, there are also considerable changes that occur as a result of cooking and processing. Of course, these are of importance to the consumer and food technologist-processor. The review will introduce the subject by an historical perspective and will set this against data on the present cultivation and usage of commercially cultivated alliums. The chemical composition of these plants will be discussed, emphasis being given to nonvolatile constituents which are, perhaps, less often considered. Discussion of the volatile constituents, which will include mention of the methods currently used for their analysis and for the determination of "flavor strength", will be mainly concerned with literature taken from the last 5 years. In considering the extent and nature of allium cultivation and processing, factors affecting the nutritional value and quality will be highlighted. The medicinal properties of garlic and onion oils have been much studied over the last decade and the review will include critical assessment of this area and also will touch on the more general properties (antimicrobial, antifungal, antibacterial, and insecticidal) of these oils. Finally mention will be made of the antinutritional, toxic, or otherwise undesirable effects of alliums, for example, as inadvertent components of animal diets, tainting of milk and other food products. It is our

  9. [The endemic goitre in figurative arts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampalmo, A

    1996-01-01

    For the past fifteen years the author has been collecting photografic documentation of works of figurative arts (graffiti, mosiac, engravings, paintings and sculptures) made at different times and places, in which he found mostly unintentional display of diseases or deformities that would be clearly identified in nosography in the light of today's knowledge. In this study the author intends to illustrate briefly different cases on endemic goitre - whose representation is particularly frequent in figurative arts - in chronological order, beginning with the most ancient ones and focussing on Italian portraying of the Nativity and the Passion of Christ, where the most striking infirmities and disabilities were mirrored and commonly accepted. This study whose interest lies between a scientific and a humanistic one has also importance in the field of art, and especially in relevant philological research which is of particular importance to us pathologists. At last it contribute to establish the epidemiology of some diseases and the knowledge of historical and geographical pathology.

  10. Cytotoxic compounds from endemic Arnebia purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuzbasioglu, Merve; Kuruuzum-Uz, Ayse; Guvenalp, Zuhal; Simon, András; Tóth, Gabór; Harput, U Sebnem; Kazaz, Cavit; Bilgili, Bilgehan; Duman, Hayri; Saracoglu, Iclal; Demirezer, L Omur

    2015-04-01

    Phytochemical studies of the roots and aerial parts of endemic Arnebia purpurea S. Erik & H. Sumbul resulted in the isolation and characterization of four naphthoquinones [isovalerylalkannin (1), α-methyl-n-butanoyl alkannin (2), acetylalkannin (3), and alkannin (4)], a triterpene derivative [3-O-acetyl-oleanolic acid (5)], a steroid [β-sitosterol (6)], three flavonoid glycosides [isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside (7), kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (8), kaempferol 3-O-(5"-acetyl) apiofuranoside 7-O-rhamnopyranoside (9)] and a phenolic acid [rosmarinic acid (10)]. 3-O-Acetyl-oleanolic acid, isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside, kaempferol-3-O-mrutinoside, and kaempferol 3-O-(5"-acetyl) apiofuranoside 7-O-rhamnopyranoside are reported from an Arnebia species for the first time. Cytotoxic activities on L929 murine fibrosarcoma cell line of the isolated compounds were investigated using MTT assay. Naphthoquinones (1-4) showed intermediate cytotoxic activity in comparison with the standard, doxorubicin.

  11. Resurrection of the genus Haplanthus (Acanthaceae: Andrographinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gnanasekaran, G.; Murthy, G.V.S.; Deng, Y.F.

    2016-01-01

    A systematic morphological study of Andrographis (Acanthaceae: Andrographinae) in India has revealed that the genus Haplanthus is distinct from Andrographis. We resurrect the genus Haplanthus here with four species, one of which contains three varieties. Five new combinations are proposed: H. laxifl

  12. A monograph of the genus Evolvulus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooststroom, van S.J.

    1934-01-01

    The great difficulties arising in the identification of a number of plants belonging to the genus Evolvulus, which plants were found in several recent collections of Convolvulaceae and were kindly entrusted to me for study, induced me to submit this genus to a further examination. It soon proved how

  13. A new genus of Lindsaeoid ferns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, K.U.

    1957-01-01

    In revising the New World representatives of the genus Lindsaea, the author came across a fern specimen from Borneo preserved in the Rijksherbarium, Leiden, that did not seem to fit into any described genus. It had been described as Schizoloma stortii v. A. v. R., but in the author’s opinion the gen

  14. A monograph of the Genus Aristida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrard, J.Th.

    1929-01-01

    In a preliminary work: „A critical Revision of the genus Aristida”, I have given a review of all the hitherto described species of this genus with the citation of the literature, the exact copies of the authentic descriptions and the figures of the spikelet-characters, taken from the type specimens

  15. New Forms in the genus Erebia (Lepidoptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisner, C.

    1946-01-01

    A revision of the material belonging to the genus Erebia Dalman in the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie at Leiden, mainly based on the "Monograph of the genus Erebia" by B. C. S. Warren (London, 1936), induced me to describe a number of new subspecies and aberrations, and to make some remarks on

  16. New Forms in the genus Erebia (Lepidoptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisner, C.

    1946-01-01

    A revision of the material belonging to the genus Erebia Dalman in the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie at Leiden, mainly based on the "Monograph of the genus Erebia" by B. C. S. Warren (London, 1936), induced me to describe a number of new subspecies and aberrations, and to make some remarks on

  17. Cytotaxonomic studies in the genus Campanula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gadella, Th.W.J.

    1964-01-01

    De Candolle (1830) divided the genus Campanula into two large sections on basis of the presence or absence of calyx-appendages between the calyx-lobes. Boissier (1875) attached great value to the mode of dehiscence of the capsule, and divided the genus into two sections. None of the existing classif

  18. A monograph of the Genus Aristida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrard, J.Th.

    1929-01-01

    In a preliminary work: „A critical Revision of the genus Aristida”, I have given a review of all the hitherto described species of this genus with the citation of the literature, the exact copies of the authentic descriptions and the figures of the spikelet-characters, taken from the type specimens

  19. A taxonomic revision of the genus Podocarpus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laubenfels, de D.J.

    1985-01-01

    In connection with the forthcoming revision of the Coniferae for the Flora Malesiana, the author thought it necessary to revise the genus Podocarpus. Although this genus has a substantial representation in Malesia (30 species), the revision is too involved to be appropriate with the Flora Malesiana

  20. Miocene Fossils Reveal Ancient Roots for New Zealand's Endemic Mystacina (Chiroptera) and Its Rainforest Habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Suzanne J; Lee, Daphne E; Worthy, Trevor H; Archer, Michael; Worthy, Jennifer P; Tennyson, Alan J D; Salisbury, Steven W; Scofield, R Paul; Mildenhall, Dallas C; Kennedy, Elizabeth M; Lindqvist, Jon K

    2015-01-01

    The New Zealand endemic bat family Mystacinidae comprises just two Recent species referred to a single genus, Mystacina. The family was once more diverse and widespread, with an additional six extinct taxa recorded from Australia and New Zealand. Here, a new mystacinid is described from the early Miocene (19-16 Ma) St Bathans Fauna of Central Otago, South Island, New Zealand. It is the first pre-Pleistocene record of the modern genus and it extends the evolutionary history of Mystacina back at least 16 million years. Extant Mystacina species occupy old-growth rainforest and are semi-terrestrial with an exceptionally broad omnivorous diet. The majority of the plants inhabited, pollinated, dispersed or eaten by modern Mystacina were well-established in southern New Zealand in the early Miocene, based on the fossil record from sites at or near where the bat fossils are found. Similarly, many of the arthropod prey of living Mystacina are recorded as fossils in the same area. Although none of the Miocene plant and arthropod species is extant, most are closely related to modern taxa, demonstrating potentially long-standing ecological associations with Mystacina.

  1. Species delimitation in the Grayling genus Pseudochazara (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae) supported by DNA barcodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verovnik, Rudi; Wiemers, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Palaearctic Grayling genus Pseudochazara encompasses a number of petrophilous butterfly species, most of which are local endemics especially in their centre of radiation in SW Asia and the Balkans. Due to a lack of consistent morphological characters, coupled with habitat induced variability, their taxonomy is poorly understood and species delimitation is hampered. We employed a DNA barcoding approach to address the question of separate species status for several European taxa and provide first insight into the phylogeny of the genus. Unexpectedly we found conflicting patterns with deep divergences between presumably conspecific taxa and lack of divergence among well-defined species. We propose separate species status for Pseudochazara tisiphone, Pseudochazara amalthea, Pseudochazara amymone, and Pseudochazara kermana all of which have separate well supported clades, with the majority of them becoming local endemics. Lack of resolution in the ‘Mamurra’ species group with well-defined species (in terms of wing pattern and coloration) such as Pseudochazara geyeri, Pseudochazara daghestana and Pseudochazara alpina should be further explored using nuclear molecular markers with higher genetic resolution. PMID:27408604

  2. Revision of the genus Metallesthes Kraatz and description of Metallesthes anneliesae, a new species of Cetoniinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) from Queensland and New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeseneder, Christian H; Hutchinson, Paul M; Lambkin, Christine L

    2014-11-06

    The endemic Australian flower chafer genus Metallesthes Kraatz, 1880 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae) is revised. Metallesthes anneliesae Moeseneder & Hutchinson new species is described from southern Queensland and New South Wales. Metallesthes unicolor (Macleay, 1863) revised status is raised from synonymy with Metallesthes metallescens (White, 1859). Metallesthes metallescens and Metallesthes unicolor are redescribed and their holotypes are figured. A specimen bearing a Nonfried type label is designated as the lectotype of Metallesthes subpilosa Nonfried, 1891. Metallesthes subpilosa new synonymy is synonymised with Pseudoclithria ruficornis (Westwood, 1874). A key to the species of the genus is provided. Distribution maps are shown and known host plants are listed.

  3. CEPF Western Ghats Special Series: First record of the genus Tigidia Simon, 1892 (Araneae: Barychelidae from India with description of three new species from the Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Siliwal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Prior to this study the genus Tigidia Simon, 1892 of the Brush-footed Spider family Barychelidae was represented by eight species endemic to Madagascar and Mauritius Islands. The first occurrence of Tigidia in India is reported here with the description of three new species from the Western Ghats, T. sahyadri sp. nov. from Uttara Kannada District, Karnataka; T. nilgiriensis sp. nov. from Kotagiri, Nilgiri District, Tamil Nadu and T. rutilofronis sp. nov. from Maruthamalai, Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu. This genus is probably a Gondwana relict. Natural history information is provided for all the species.

  4. Sugawara construction for higher genus Riemann surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichenmaier, Martin

    1999-04-01

    By the classical genus zero Sugawara construction one obtains representations of the Virasoro algebra from admissible representations of affine Lie algebras (Kac-Moody algebras of affine type). In this lecture, the classical construction is recalled first. Then, after giving a review on the global multi-point algebras of Krichever-Novikov type for compact Riemann surfaces of arbitrary genus, the higher genus Sugawara construction is introduced. Finally, the lecture reports on results obtained in a joint work with O. K. Sheinman. We were able to show that also in the higher genus, multi-point situation one obtains (from representations of the global algebras of affine type) representations of a centrally extended algebra of meromorphic vector fields on Riemann surfaces. The latter algebra is a generalization of the Virasoro algebra to higher genus.

  5. Evidence for endemic chikungunya virus infections in Bandung, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosasih, H.; Mast, Q. de; Widjaja, S.; Sudjana, P.; Antonjaya, U.; Ma'roef, C.; Riswari, S.F.; Porter, K.R.; Burgess, T.H.; Alisjahbana, B.; Ven, A. van der; Williams, M.

    2013-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is known to cause sporadic or explosive outbreaks. However, little is known about the endemic transmission of CHIKV. To ascertain the endemic occurrence of CHIKV transmission, we tested blood samples from patients with a non-dengue febrile illness who participated in a pros

  6. [Endemic goiter in Nepal. Comparisons with endemic goiter in the Piedmont].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortara, M; Cenderelli, G; Reposi, G; Migiardi, M; Costa, A

    1976-11-10

    Comparison of certain features of endemic goitre in the Khumbu district of Nepal and Piedmont is reported. Cases in the younger generations were observed in both areas. In Khumbu, the incidence of goitre in schoolchildren was 75% and cases were even noted in children who had been receiving iodine prophylactic management (injections of iodised oil: 500-1000 mg/yr) for at least three years. The iodine content of drinking water and the most commonly eaten foods was determined. Values were very low and a daily intake of not more than 30 mug was calculated. The findings are in line with metabolic studies carried out by other workers in Upper Khumbu. While it is clear that ambiental iodine deficiency is much higher in Khumbu than in those areas of Piedmont where goitre is most markedly endemic, the inadequacy of preventive iodine administration measures, and environmental features common to both areas, suggest that iodine deficiency is a concomitant factor and not the prime cause of endemic goitre.

  7. Modeling Extinction Risk of Endemic Birds of Mainland China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youhua Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The extinction risk of endemic birds of mainland China was modeled over evolutionary time. Results showed that extinction risk of endemic birds in mainland China always tended to be similar within subclades over the evolutionary time of species divergence, and the overall evolution of extinction risk of species presented a conservatism pattern, as evidenced by the disparity-through-time plot. A constant-rate evolutionary model was the best one to quantify the evolution of extinction risk of endemic birds of mainland China. Thus, there was no rate shifting pattern for the evolution of extinction risk of Chinese endemic birds over time. In a summary, extinction risk of endemic birds of mainland China is systematically quantified under the evolutionary framework in the present work.

  8. A new species of Homonota (Reptilia: Squamata: Gekkota: Phyllodactylidae) endemic to the hills of Paraje Tres Cerros, Corrientes Province, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cajade, Rodrigo; Etchepare, Eduardo Gabriel; Falcione, Camila; Barrasso, Diego Andrés; Alvarez, Blanca Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    The genus Homonota comprises nine South American species of terrestrial and nocturnal lizards. Homonota lizards lack the femoral pores typical of other South American Phyllodactylidae, and their infradigital lamellas are not expanded. We here describe a new species, Homonota taragui sp. nov., exclusively found on a small group of three hills up to 179 meters above sea level in central eastern Corrientes Province, Argentina. The new species differs from other Homonota species by a combination of characters, including: a well-marked dorsal, reticulate, dark pattern contrasting with a lighter colored background; small, star-shaped chromatophores on the abdomen; the post-orbital region of the head covered by granular scales; the dorsal and anterior regions of the thighs covered by keeled scales interspersed with cycloid scales; and the internasal scale in contact with rostral scales. The conservation status of Homonota taragui sp. nov. may be vulnerable, due to its localized endemism with populations on three small hills surrounded by intense agricultural and livestock activity. Two endemic plant species are known from these hills, and this new lizard represents the first endemic animal species.

  9. The Research of Antioxidant Activity of the Endemic Species of Onopordum Anatolicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. TAŞDELEN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As is the case elsewhere in the world, Turkish people have long utilized plants as remedies, food, fuel, and dye, as well as for furniture, ornamentation, agricultural tools, and construction materials. Onopordum is a valuable medicinal plant that is widely used in traditional medicine in Europe. The application of Onopordum as food is limited and its main importance is due to medicine utilization. Because of having flavonoid compositions, Onopordum is an important plant. The Genus Onopordum L. (Asteraceae includes about 38 species. The representatives of the genus are native to Europe, Northern Africa, the Canary Island, the Caucasus, Southwest and Central Asia. In Turkey, this genus is represented with 20 species, 6 of which are endemic. Onopordum (cotton thistle, also known as Scots or Scotch thistle species are biennials herbaceous plants with branched, spinose winged stems. They have application in medical practice as a bactericide, cardiotonic, and hemostatic agent and are used against hypotonicity. In this study antioxidant activities of ethanol, methanol, acetone and benzen extracts of some endemic Onopordum anatolicum (Boiss. Boiss. & Heldr. ex Eig seeds which are in Denizli were examined. DPPH and β-carotene-Linoleic acid methods were used in order to determinethe antioxidant activity. The highest antioxidant activity (77% was seenin the extract which is obtained by using methanol catalyst. The lowest activity of antioxidant of the extracts is acetone (5%. In terms of impact, the strenght of antioxidant depends on the phenolic amount of it. For that purpose, O. anatolicum total fenolic content was calculated in terms of mg/ml gallic acid in the experiment performed by using Folin-Ciocaltaeu medhod. According to these values, the highest amount of phenolic compounds are in methanol and the lowest amount of phenolic compounds are in benzen. According to the results of the experiment performed by using DPPH method, it is obvious that the

  10. The role of climatic and geological events in generating diversity in Ethiopian grass frogs (genus Ptychadena).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Megan L; Noonan, Brice P; Colston, Timothy J

    2017-08-01

    Ethiopia is a world biodiversity hotspot and harbours levels of biotic endemism unmatched in the Horn of Africa, largely due to topographic-and thus habitat-complexity, which results from a very active geological and climatic history. Among Ethiopian vertebrate fauna, amphibians harbour the highest levels of endemism, making amphibians a compelling system for the exploration of the impacts of Ethiopia's complex abiotic history on biotic diversification. Grass frogs of the genus Ptychadena are notably diverse in Ethiopia, where they have undergone an evolutionary radiation. We used molecular data and expanded taxon sampling to test for cryptic diversity and to explore diversification patterns in both the highland radiation and two widespread lowland Ptychadena. Species delimitation results support the presence of nine highland species and four lowland species in our dataset, and divergence dating suggests that both geologic events and climatic fluctuations played a complex and confounded role in the diversification of Ptychadena in Ethiopia. We rectify the taxonomy of the endemic P. neumanni species complex, elevating one formally synonymized name and describing three novel taxa. Finally, we describe two novel lowland Ptychadena species that occur in Ethiopia and may be more broadly distributed.

  11. Can migrants from high-endemic countries cause new HIV outbreaks among heterosexuals in low-endemic countries?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Xiridou; M. van der Veen; R. Coutinho; M. Prins

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate how the sexual behaviour of migrants originating from HIV-endemic countries affects the spread of HIV among heterosexuals in low-endemic countries. Methods: A mathematical model is developed describing the transmission of HIV in heterosexual partnerships between African mi

  12. Syphilis and the endemic treponematoses : clinical, (histo-) pathological and laboratory studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J.H. Engelkens (Herman)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractTreponemal diseases important to mankind are sexually transmitted syphilis and the endemic nonvenereally transmitted treponematoses (yaws, pinta, and endemic syphilis). Historically, the most important disease caused by treponemes is syphilis. During the last few decades, yaws, endemic s

  13. Phytochemistry and Pharmacology of the Genus Tovomita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epifano, Francesco; Specchiulli, Maria Carmela; Taddeo, Vito Alessandro; Fiorito, Serena; Genovese, Salvatore

    2015-06-01

    The genus Tovomita (Fam. Clusiaceae) comprises 45 species mainly found in tropical regions of Central and South America. Most of the species of the title genus have been used for centuries as natural remedies. Phytochemicals isolated from Tovomita spp. include prenylated and unprenylated benzophenones and xanthones. The aim of this review is to examine in detail from a phytochemical and pharmacological point of view what is reported in the past and current literature about the properties of phytopreparations and individual active principles obtained from plants belonging to the Tovomita genus.

  14. Keanekaragaman metabolit sekunder Genus Artocarpus (Moraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALIEFMAN HAKIM

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Hakim A. 2011. Keanekaragaman metabolit sekunder Genus Artocarpus (Moraceae. Bioteknologi 8: 86-98. Beberaapa spesies dari genus Artocarpus (Moraceae telah diteliti kandungan bahan alamnya. Metabolit sekunder yang berhasil diisolasi dari genus Artocarpus terdiri dari terpenoid, flavonoid, stilbenoid, arilbenzofuran, neolignan, dan adduct Diels-Alder. Kelompok flavonoid merupakan senyawa yang paling banyak ditemukan dari tumbuhan Artocarpus. Senyawa flavonoid yang telah berhasil diisolasi dari tumbuhan Artocarpus memiliki kerangka yang beragam seperti calkon, flavanon, flavan-3-ol, flavon sederhana, prenilflavon, oksepinoflavon, piranoflavon, dihidrobenzosanton, furanodi hidrobenzosanton, piranodihidrobenzosanton, kuinonosanton, siklolopentenosanton, santonolid, dihidrosanton.

  15. Genus llex L.: Phytochemistry, Ethnopharmacology, and Pharmacology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Yi; Xiao-ling Zhao; Yong Peng; Pei-gen Xiao

    2016-01-01

    The genus llex L. has been used as remedies in traditional Chinese medicine in Aquifoliaceae and beverages for thousands of years due to abundant pharmaceutical bioactivities. There are 600 species in genus llex L. containing various compounds such as terpenoids, saponins, glycosides, etc. Three species, I. cornuta, I. chinensis, and I. rotunda have been admitted in Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2015 to treat dyspepsia, stomatitis, and hyperactivity cough and protect the liver and kidney. Recent studies showed that several species have been daily drunk to promote human health and prevent cardiovascular diseases in the folk. Here we reviewed the genus llex L. in phytochemistry, ethnopharmacology, and pharmacology.

  16. Beta genus papillomaviruses and skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howley, Peter M; Pfister, Herbert J

    2015-05-01

    A role for the beta genus HPVs in keratinocyte carcinoma (KC) remains to be established. In this article we examine the potential role of the beta HPVs in cancer revealed by the epidemiology associating these viruses with KC and supported by oncogenic properties of the beta HPV proteins. Unlike the cancer associated alpha genus HPVs, in which transcriptionally active viral genomes are invariably found associated with the cancers, that is not the case for the beta genus HPVs and keratinocyte carcinomas. Thus a role for the beta HPVs in KC would necessarily be in the carcinogenesis initiation and not in the maintenance of the tumor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The genus of a type of graph

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Based on the joint tree model introduced by Liu, the genera of further types of graphs not necessary to have certain symmetry can be obtained. In this paper, we obtain the genus of a new type of graph with weak symmetry. As a corollary, the genus of complete tripartite graph K n,n,l (l≥n≥2) is also derived. The method used here is more direct than those methods, such as current graph, used to calculate the genus of a graph and can be realized in polynomial time.

  18. Value of routine dengue diagnosis in endemic countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayukekbong, James Ayukepi; Oyero, Olufunmilayo G; Nnukwu, Samuel Ekpesu; Mesumbe, Henry Nzike; Fobisong, Cajetang Nkong

    2017-01-01

    Dengue is one of the most common arthropod-borne viral diseases in humans and it is a leading cause of illness and death in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. It is thought to account for 400 million cases annually among approximately 3.97 billion people at risk of infection in 128 endemic countries. Despite the global prevalence of the disease, the availability of a vaccine is limited in most countries in the endemic areas. Most endemic countries in South America, South East Asia and Africa serve as attractive touristic sites for people from non-endemic countries who become infected and export the virus to dengue-free regions. Dengue fever typically resembles malaria and in endemic countries most cases of dengue are treated as presumptive malaria. Consequently, routine dengue diagnosis among persons with fever will offer early treatment and reduce the burden of the disease. Also, routine testing among travellers from endemic countries will reduce importation and prevent the geographical expansion of dengue. In this essay, we seek to highlight the usefulness of routine dengue testing in endemic countries. PMID:28239567

  19. Costs of Illness Due to Endemic Cholera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulos, C.; Riewpaiboon, A.; Stewart, J.F.; Clemens, J.; Guh, S.; Agtini, M.; Sur, D.; Islam, Z.; Lucas, M.; Whittington, D.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Economic analyses of cholera immunization programmes require estimates of the costs of cholera. The Diseases of the Most Impoverished programme measured the public, provider, and patient costs of culture-confirmed cholera in four study sites with endemic cholera using a combination of hospital- and community-based studies. Families with culture-proven cases were surveyed at home 7 and 14 days after confirmation of illness. Public costs were measured at local health facilities using a micro-costing methodology. Hospital-based studies found that the costs of severe cholera were USD 32 and 47 in Matlab and Beira. Community-based studies in North Jakarta and Kolkata found that cholera cases cost between USD 28 and USD 206, depending on hospitalization. Patient costs of illness as a percentage of average monthly income were 21% and 65% for hospitalized cases in Kolkata and North Jakarta, respectively. This burden on families is not captured by studies that adopt a provider perspective. PMID:21554781

  20. Updated Global Burden of Cholera in Endemic Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammad; Nelson, Allyson R.; Lopez, Anna Lena; Sack, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The global burden of cholera is largely unknown because the majority of cases are not reported. The low reporting can be attributed to limited capacity of epidemiological surveillance and laboratories, as well as social, political, and economic disincentives for reporting. We previously estimated 2.8 million cases and 91,000 deaths annually due to cholera in 51 endemic countries. A major limitation in our previous estimate was that the endemic and non-endemic countries were defined based on the countries’ reported cholera cases. We overcame the limitation with the use of a spatial modelling technique in defining endemic countries, and accordingly updated the estimates of the global burden of cholera. Methods/Principal Findings Countries were classified as cholera endemic, cholera non-endemic, or cholera-free based on whether a spatial regression model predicted an incidence rate over a certain threshold in at least three of five years (2008-2012). The at-risk populations were calculated for each country based on the percent of the country without sustainable access to improved sanitation facilities. Incidence rates from population-based published studies were used to calculate the estimated annual number of cases in endemic countries. The number of annual cholera deaths was calculated using inverse variance-weighted average case-fatality rate (CFRs) from literature-based CFR estimates. We found that approximately 1.3 billion people are at risk for cholera in endemic countries. An estimated 2.86 million cholera cases (uncertainty range: 1.3m-4.0m) occur annually in endemic countries. Among these cases, there are an estimated 95,000 deaths (uncertainty range: 21,000-143,000). Conclusion/Significance The global burden of cholera remains high. Sub-Saharan Africa accounts for the majority of this burden. Our findings can inform programmatic decision-making for cholera control. PMID:26043000

  1. Contrasting patterns of connectivity among endemic and widespread fire coral species ( Millepora spp.) in the tropical Southwestern Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Júlia N.; Nunes, Flávia L. D.; Zilberberg, Carla; Sanchez, Juan A.; Migotto, Alvaro E.; Hoeksema, Bert W.; Serrano, Xaymara M.; Baker, Andrew C.; Lindner, Alberto

    2017-09-01

    Fire corals are the only branching corals in the South Atlantic and provide an important ecological role as habitat-builders in the region. With three endemic species ( Millepora brazilensis, M. nitida and M. laboreli) and one amphi-Atlantic species ( M. alcicornis), fire coral diversity in the Brazilian Province rivals that of the Caribbean Province. Phylogenetic relationships and patterns of population genetic structure and diversity were investigated in all four fire coral species occurring in the Brazilian Province to understand patterns of speciation and biogeography in the genus. A total of 273 colonies from the four species were collected from 17 locations spanning their geographic ranges. Sequences from the 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) were used to evaluate phylogenetic relationships. Patterns in genetic diversity and connectivity were inferred by measures of molecular diversity, analyses of molecular variance, pairwise differentiation, and by spatial analyses of molecular variance. Morphometrics of the endemic species M. braziliensis and M. nitida were evaluated by discriminant function analysis; macro-morphological characters were not sufficient to distinguish the two species. Genetic analyses showed that, although they are closely related, each species forms a well-supported clade. Furthermore, the endemic species characterized a distinct biogeographic barrier: M. braziliensis is restricted to the north of the São Francisco River, whereas M. nitida occurs only to the south. Millepora laboreli is restricted to a single location and has low genetic diversity. In contrast, the amphi-Atlantic species M. alcicornis shows high genetic connectivity within the Brazilian Province, and within the Caribbean Province (including Bermuda), despite low levels of gene flow between these populations and across the tropical Atlantic. These patterns reflect the importance of the Amazon-Orinoco Plume and the Mid-Atlantic Barrier as biogeographic barriers, and suggest that

  2. THE SYSTEM AND CONSPECTUS OF THE GENUS PEDICULARIS (OROBANCHACEAE OF ALTAY MOUNTAINS AND TIAN SHAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Kosachev

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The system and conspectus of the genus Pedicularis L. (Orobanchaceae of Altai and Tien Shan is presented. The system is based of molecular genetic studies of the genus (Ree, 2005; Tkach et al., 2014; own data and is represented by series that are grouped into sections. The building of the higher taxonomic categories is not possible at the moment due to the para- or polyphyletic origin genus of weak support for clads in the phylogenetic tree. Conspectus includes 61 species of the 32 series and 7 sections. 16 species and 1 subspecies of endemic for the territory of the Altai and Tien Shan. For the first time described in one section and 10 series. Three sections published of the lectotypes: Schizocalyx Li, Botryantha Li, Rhizophyllum Li. Clarified the amount and distribution of species, series, sections. Displaying Altai and Tien Shan origin some series (ser. Abrotanifoliae, Amoenae, Achilleifolia, Uliginosae, Physocalyces, Macrochilae, Platyrhynchae, the Tien-Shan (Semenowianae, Pycnanthae, Maximowiczianae, Pubiflorae, Altai (Brachystaches, Elatae.

  3. Montane and coastal species diversification in the economically important Mexican grasshopper genus Sphenarium (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedraza-Lara, Carlos; Barrientos-Lozano, Ludivina; Rocha-Sánchez, Aurora Y; Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro

    2015-03-01

    The genus Sphenarium (Pyrgomorphidae) is a small group of grasshoppers endemic to México and Guatemala that are economically and culturally important both as a food source and as agricultural pests. However, its taxonomy has been largely neglected mainly due to its conserved interspecific external morphology and the considerable intraspecific variation in colour pattern of some taxa. Here we examined morphological as well as mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data to assess the species boundaries and evolutionary history in Sphenarium. Our morphological identification and DNA sequence-based species delimitation, carried out with three different approaches (DNA barcoding, general mixed Yule-coalescent model, Bayesian species delimitation), all recovered a higher number of putative species of Sphenarium than previously recognised. We unambiguously delimit seven species, and between five and ten additional species depending on the data/method analysed. Phylogenetic relationships within the genus strongly support two main clades, one exclusively montane, the other coastal. Divergence time estimates suggest late Miocene to Pliocene ages for the origin and most of the early diversification events in the genus, which were probably influenced by the formation of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. A series of Pleistocene events could have led to the current species diversification in both montane and coastal regions. This study not only reveals an overlooked species richness for the most popular edible insect in Mexico, but also highlights the influence of the dynamic geological and climatic history of the region in shaping its current diversity.

  4. Séries monotípicas da bacia de Taubaté 1: pinhão e pinda Monotypical series of Taubate basin 1: pinhão and pinda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco da Costa Verdade

    1962-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, foram estudados as séries monotípicas Pinhão e Pinda, para definição das características necessárias à sua identificação no campo, as propriedades químicos e morfológicas, visando a sua classificação. A série Pinhão, origina-se de sedimento terciário com estratificação horizontal, ocorrendo em profundidade e exposto pela erosão. Aparece, em geral, na meia encosto de zona ondulada. Além dos solos associados com drenagem moderada e imperfeita, surgem outros formando litossequência de distribuição constante. O perfil, tem um horizonte A profundo e pequeno horizonte B, ambos apresentando pouca variação de côr dentro da respectiva camada. A textura, de barrenta, nas superfície, passa a argilosa em profundidade. O solo, tem pequeno teor em nutrientes das plantas, quer na forma assimilável, quer na forma total. A fração coloidal apresenta-se com caulinita, goethita e gibbsita. A análise espectrográfica ondica, que êste solo pode apresentar deficiências de micronutrientes para as culturas e também para os animais. A série Pinda, tem as mesmas características da série Pinhão quanto ao material original, porém ambas são sedimentos argilosos. Distribui-se mais pelos altos dos morros, por ser derivada de sedimentos que cobrem os primeiros. Apresenta a mesma sucessão de horizontes que a anterior, com uma distribuição de matéria orgânica mais profunda. Quimicamente, são solos semelhantes ao primeiro, porém de maior produtividade. A fração argila, também é caulinita associada à goethita, estando ausente a gibbsita. Êsses solos são clossificados na subordem Latossolo, mas, apesar de se definir a morfologia e a gênese assinalando-se os pontos de contacto entre as séries, não se procurou definir um Grande Grupo.Both monotypical series were studied to determine the most important characteristics for their field determination and chemical, physical and morphological properties necessary for

  5. Taxonomy of the genus Passerina (Thymelaeaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Bredenkamp

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Passerina L. is mainly a southern African genus, comprising 20 species and four subspecies. A few species occur along the Great Escarpment, two extend into Zimbabwe and Mozambique, but most are concentrated in the Cape Floristic Region. Palynological. macromorphological and anatomical evidence was used in the delimitation of the genus and its infrageneric taxa. A cladistic study supports Passerina as a monophyletic genus. A genus treatment, key to species and a full species treatment are given. Each species treatment includes a taxonomic diagnosis, description and notes on taxonomy, etymology, economic value and distribution. Illustrations of representative species are provided and distribution maps are included for each species.  P. esterhuyseniae Bredenk. & A.E.van Wyk is newly described. A list of excluded species names highlights the previous cosmopolitan taxonomic interpretation of Passerina. as many names are now in synony my under other genera of the Thymelaeaceae.

  6. Synaptospory in the fern genus Pyrrosia (Polypodiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uffelen, van Gerda A.

    1985-01-01

    The correlation between sporoderm sculpture and life form of the sporophyte as postulated by Kramer (1977) is investigated for the fern genus Pyrrosia. This correlation is not found in Pyrrosia but may be present in other fern groups.

  7. Synaptospory in the fern genus Pyrrosia (Polypodiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uffelen, van Gerda A.

    1983-01-01

    The correlation between sporoderm sculpture and life form of the sporophyte as postulated by Kramer (1977) is investigated for the fern genus Pyrrosia. This correlation is not found in Pyrrosia but may be present in other fern groups.

  8. Phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Gliocephalotrichum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombard, L.; Serrato-Diaz, L.M.; Cheewangkoon, R.; French-Monar, R.D.; Decock, C.; Crous, P.W.

    2014-01-01

    Species in the genus Gliocephalotrichum (= Leuconectria) (Hypocreales, Nectriaceae) are soilborne fungi, associated with post-harvest fruit spoilage of several important tropical fruit crops. Contemporary taxonomic studies of these fungi have relied on morphology and DNA sequence comparisons of the

  9. Phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Gliocephalotrichum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombard, L.; Serrato-Diaz, L. M.; Cheewangkoon, R.; French-Monar, R. D.; Decock, C.; Crous, P. W.

    Species in the genus Gliocephalotrichum (= Leuconectria) (Hypocreales, Nectriaceae) are soilborne fungi, associated with post-harvest fruit spoilage of several important tropical fruit crops. Contemporary taxonomic studies of these fungi have relied on morphology and DNA sequence comparisons of the

  10. Monograph of the genus Phylacium (Leguminosae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bresser, Mirjam

    1978-01-01

    In the genus Phylacium 2 species are recognized. Special attention is paid to the morphology of the inflorescence; full descriptions are given with plates and a map, showing the distribution of both species.

  11. Taxonomic revision of the genus Acanthephippium (Orchidaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, S.A.

    1997-01-01

    This is a revision of the genus Acanthephippium Blume. Eleven species are recognised. Seven names are here for the first time reduced to synonymy (A. lycaste, A. odoratum, A. papuanum, A. pictum, A. simplex, A. sinense, and A. thailandicum).

  12. Taxonomy of the genus Passerina (Thymelaeaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Bredenkamp

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Passerina L. is mainly a southern African genus, comprising 20 species and four subspecies. A few species occur along the Great Escarpment, two extend into Zimbabwe and Mozambique, but most are concentrated in the Cape Floristic Region. Palynological. macromorphological and anatomical evidence was used in the delimitation of the genus and its infrageneric taxa. A cladistic study supports Passerina as a monophyletic genus. A genus treatment, key to species and a full species treatment are given. Each species treatment includes a taxonomic diagnosis, description and notes on taxonomy, etymology, economic value and distribution. Illustrations of representative species are provided and distribution maps are included for each species.  P. esterhuyseniae Bredenk. & A.E.van Wyk is newly described. A list of excluded species names highlights the previous cosmopolitan taxonomic interpretation of Passerina. as many names are now in synony my under other genera of the Thymelaeaceae.

  13. Phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Gliocephalotrichum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombard, L.; Serrato-Diaz, L.M.; Cheewangkoon, R.; French-Monar, R.D.; Decock, C.; Crous, P.W.

    2014-01-01

    Species in the genus Gliocephalotrichum (= Leuconectria) (Hypocreales, Nectriaceae) are soilborne fungi, associated with post-harvest fruit spoilage of several important tropical fruit crops. Contemporary taxonomic studies of these fungi have relied on morphology and DNA sequence comparisons of the

  14. Cosmetic crossings of genus one knots

    CERN Document Server

    Balm, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    We show that for genus one knots the Alexander polynomial and the homology of the double cover branching over the knot provide obstructions to cosmetic crossings. As an application we prove the nugatory crossing conjecture for the negatively twisted, positive Whitehead doubles of all knots. We also verify the conjecture for several families of pretzel knots and all genus one knots with up to 10 crossings.

  15. Kops genus - en værkstedsrapport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudiksen, Asgerd

    2008-01-01

     Inden for Ømålsområdet optræder ordet kop både i genus femininum, masku­linum og neutrum. På Sjælland, hvor trekønssystemet er under af­vikling, kan ordet desuden være genus commune. Der kan konstateres en vis dialektgeografisk fordeling af de tre (fire) genera, men især på Sjælland er...

  16. Assessing the risk of dengue virus transmission in a non-endemic city surrounded by endemic and hyperendemic areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsz Ho Kwan

    2017-02-01

    Conclusions: The cumulative exposure of Hong Kong residents to dengue has so far been low. Coupled with the lack of a spatial relationship between exposed cases and vector intensities, a high risk of local transmission of DENV is not supported. The apparently higher exposure likelihood of females could be explained by past infection in workers from dengue endemic countries, while frequent travel could have exposed older adults to DENV. Continued surveillance, risk assessment, and intensive vector control remain essential to prevent the transformation of a non-endemic to an endemic city.

  17. Bird pollination of Canary Island endemic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollerton, Jeff; Cranmer, Louise; Stelzer, Ralph J.; Sullivan, Steve; Chittka, Lars

    2009-02-01

    The Canary Islands are home to a guild of endemic, threatened bird-pollinated plants. Previous work has suggested that these plants evolved floral traits as adaptations to pollination by flower specialist sunbirds, but subsequently, they appear to have co-opted generalist passerine birds as sub-optimal pollinators. To test this idea, we carried out a quantitative study of the pollination biology of three of the bird-pollinated plants, Canarina canariensis (Campanulaceae), Isoplexis canariensis (Veronicaceae) and Lotus berthelotii (Fabaceae), on the island of Tenerife. Using colour vision models, we predicted the detectability of flowers to bird and bee pollinators. We measured pollinator visitation rates, nectar standing crops as well as seed-set and pollen removal and deposition. These data showed that the plants are effectively pollinated by non-flower specialist passerine birds that only occasionally visit flowers. The large nectar standing crops and extended flower longevities (>10 days) of Canarina and Isoplexis suggests that they have evolved a bird pollination system that effectively exploits these low frequency non-specialist pollen vectors and is in no way sub-optimal. Seed set in two of the three species was high and was significantly reduced or zero in flowers where pollinator access was restricted. In L. berthelotii, however, no fruit set was observed, probably because the plants were self-incompatible horticultural clones of a single genet. We also show that, while all three species are easily detectable for birds, the orange Canarina and the red Lotus (but less so the yellow-orange Isoplexis) should be difficult to detect for insect pollinators without specialised red receptors, such as bumblebees. Contrary to expectations if we accept that the flowers are primarily adapted to sunbird pollination, the chiffchaff ( Phylloscopus canariensis) was an effective pollinator of these species.

  18. Difilobotriosis humana: Un caso en área no endémica de la Argentina Human diphyllobothriosis: A case in a non-endemic area of Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego E. Cargnelutti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available La difilobotriosis es una parasitosis intestinal causada por la infección de cestodos del genero Diphyllobothrium. En la Argentina, la Patagonia Andina es considerada una zona endémica para esta parasitosis. La infección por Diphyllobothrium latum no ha sido previamente notificada en la provincia de Mendoza; en este trabajo comunicamos un caso de esta parasitosis que fue confirmada por el análisis de las características morfológicas de los huevos eliminados con la materia fecal de un paciente infectado. Se destaca la necesidad de información y capacitación de los profesionales de la salud en el diagnóstico y tratamiento de parasitosis no endémicas.Diphyllobothriosis is an intestinal parasitosis caused by cestodes infection of the genus Diphyllobothrium. In Argentina, the Andean Patagonia is considered an endemic area for this parasitosis. Diphyllobothrium latum infection has not been previously reported in the province of Mendoza, Argentina. We are now reporting then the first case. Diphyllobothriosis was confirmed by examination of morphologic characteristics of the eggs eliminated in the patients' feces. These results suggest the requirement of a more specific training of health workers in the diagnosis and treatment of non endemic parasitosis. We want to emphasize the need of health workers' education on diagnosis and treatment of endemic and non-endemic parasitosis.

  19. Spatial distribution of Madeira Island Laurisilva endemic spiders (Arachnida: Araneae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Madeira island presents a unique spider diversity with a high number of endemic species, many of which are still poorly known. A recent biodiversity survey on the terrestrial arthropods of the native forest, Laurisilva, provided a large set of standardized samples from various patches throughout the island. Out of the fifty two species recorded, approximately 33.3% are Madeiran endemics, many of which had not been collected since their original description. Two new species to science are reported – Ceratinopsis n. sp. and Theridion n. sp. – and the first records of Poeciloneta variegata (Blackwall, 1841) and Tetragnatha intermedia Kulczynski, 1891 are reported for the first time for Madeira island. Considerations on species richness and abundance from different Laurisilva locations are presented, together with distribution maps for endemic species. These results contribute to a better understanding of spider diversity patterns and endemic species distribution in the native forest of Madeira island. PMID:24855443

  20. Spatial distribution of Madeira Island Laurisilva endemic spiders (Arachnida: Araneae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Crespo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Madeira island presents a unique spider diversity with a high number of endemic species, many of which are still poorly known. A recent biodiversity survey on the terrestrial arthropods of the native forest, Laurisilva, provided a large set of standardized samples from various patches throughout the island. Out of the fifty two species recorded, approximately 33.3% are Madeiran endemics, many of which had not been collected since their original description. Two new species to science are reported – Ceratinopsis n. sp. and Theridion n. sp. – and the first records of Poeciloneta variegata (Blackwall, 1841 and Tetragnatha intermedia Kulczynski, 1891 are reported for the first time for Madeira island. Considerations on species richness and abundance from different Laurisilva locations are presented, together with distribution maps for endemic species. These results contribute to a better understanding of spider diversity patterns and endemic species distribution in the native forest of Madeira island.

  1. Cotrimoxazole for childhood febrile illness in Malaria-endemic regions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of Plasmodium falcipanlm parasitaemia in child- ren younger than 5 ... an effective single treatment for febrile illness in young children in ... highly endemic areas all young children with fever should be treated ... parental consent. Children who ...

  2. [Endemic goiter in Latium: environmental and genetic factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paggi, A

    1998-01-01

    Most studies on the pathogenesis of endemic goiter focus above all on iodine deficiency. In some endemic goiter areas (i.e. Nigeria) there is no evidence of iodine deficiency; therefore, we suggest the taking into account of various factors, both environmental and non-environmental. We report the results of two studies carried out in three different areas in Latium: one of them (Cerveteri, RM) could be classified as high prevalence of goiter area, while the two others (Roccasecca dei Volsci, LT and Castel San Pietro Romano, RM) are true endemic goiter areas. The role of environmental factors, radioactivity and electromagnetism, foodstuff, the hydrogeological and chemical composition of natural water and the importance of genetics are here discussed, assuming that the endemic goiter could have a multifactorial pathogenesis.

  3. Some observations on endemic macroalgae of the Southern Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dhargalkar, V.K.; Abidi, S.A.H.

    The paper summarises current level of knowledge on the endemic Antarctic macroalgae. The macroalgal adaptation to low temperature, response to different photoperiod during the season, animal-macroalgal interaction and reproductive strategies...

  4. Aristolochic Acid and the Etiology of Endemic (Balkan) Nephropathy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arthur P. Grollman; Shinya Shibutani; Masaaki Moriya; Frederick Miller; Lin Wu; Ute Moll; Naomi Suzuki; Andrea Fernandes; Thomas Rosenquist; Zvonimir Medverec; Krunoslav Jakovina; Branko Brdar; Neda Slade; Robert J. Turesky; Angela K. Goodenough; Robert Rieger; Mato Vukelić; Bojan Jelaković

    2007-01-01

    Endemic (Balkan) nephropathy (EN), a devastating renal disease affecting men and women living in rural areas of Bosnia, Bulgaria, Croatia, Romania, and Serbia, is characterized by its insidious onset, invariable progression...

  5. New host/parasite record for very rare chewing louse Cuculotogaster arabicus (Clay, 1938) (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera) on endemic mountain partridges of Arabian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser, Mohamed Gamal El-Den; Alahmed, Azzam; Shobrak, Mohamed

    2016-11-01

    The endemic avifauna of Arabia is unique and characteristic through the whole region. Little is known about these birds and their ectoparasites. The Arabian partridge Alectoris melanocephala (Rüppell, 1835) and Philby's partridge Alectoris philbyi Lowe, 1934 are two endemic species which are distributed through the Sarawat Mountains in Saudi Arabia and Yemen. Captive breeding population of these birds were examined for chewing lice at the National Wildlife Research Center (NWRC) near Ta'if. Only one rare species of louse, Cuculotogaster arabicus (Clay 1938), was found to infest these birds. The occurrence of such species is considered a first record of the genus Cuculotogaster from Saudi Arabia, and the association of C. arabicus with Philby's partridge is considered a new host/parasite association. The clear diagnostic characters, high definition photos, and drawing of male genitalia are available through this paper.

  6. Genus distribution of ladder type and cross type graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a method is given to calculate the explicit expressions of embedding genus distribution for ladder type graphs and cross type graphs. As an example, we refind the genus distri- bution of the graph Jn which is the first class of graphs studied for genus distribution where its genus depends on n.

  7. Genus distribution of ladder type and cross type graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN LiangXia; FENG KeQin; LIU YanPei; WANG DianJun

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a method is given to calculate the explicit expressions of embedding genus distribution for ladder type graphs and cross type graphs.As an example,we refind the genus distribution of the graph Jn which is the first class of graphs studied for genus distribution where its genus depends on n.

  8. Endangered, rare and endemic medicinal plants of the Kopetdag

    OpenAIRE

    AKMURADOV ALLAMURAD; SHAIYMOV BABAGULY; HALMEDOV BAZAR; YAKUBOV ATABEG; HALLIYEVA GULYAIYM

    2016-01-01

    The article presents some information of the place of growing of the endangered, rare and endemic medicinal plants of the Kopetdag. A monitoring has been carried out and the bioecological peculiarities, resource characteristics and modern state of the natural population of the most important species have been studied. Some scientifically based ways of protection and introduction into culture have been worked out to preserve the endangered, rare and endemic medicinal plants of the region.

  9. Control and eradication of endemic infectious diseases in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houe, Hans; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    "Control and eradication of endemic infectious diseases in cattle" provides the key elements that should be addressed in the establishment of bovine disease control and eradication programmes. The book aims to reach a broad group of readers, including: students; professionals in veterinary practi......, industry and governmental institutions; researchers; and others involved in control and eradication of endemic diseases in livestock. Key elements range from socioeconomic aspects such as motivation; veterinary science (including assessment of biosecurity and establishment of test...

  10. Revision of the genus Eadmuna Schaus, 1928 (Lepidoptera, Mimallonidae) with a description of a new species from French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Laurent, Ryan A; Dombroskie, Jason J

    2015-01-01

    The genus Eadmuna Schaus, 1928 is revised to include four species. Eadmunaguianensis sp. n., is described from French Guiana and Guyana. The holotype of Perophorapulverula Schaus, 1896, currently placed in Cicinnus Blanchard, 1852, is determined to be a previously unrecognized female Eadmuna, and is transferred accordingly as Eadmunapulverula comb. n.. Eadmunapaloa Schaus, 1933, rev. status, is removed from synonymy with the type species Eadmunaesperans (Schaus, 1905). Eadmunaesperans, Eadmunapaloa, and Eadmunapulverula may be of conservation concern due to their limited extent of occurrence and endemicity to the highly imperiled Brazilian Atlantic forest.

  11. Revision of the genus Eadmuna Schaus, 1928 (Lepidoptera, Mimallonidae with a description of a new species from French Guiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan A. St. Laurent

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The genus Eadmuna Schaus, 1928 is revised to include four species. Eadmuna guianensis sp. n., is described from French Guiana and Guyana. The holotype of Perophora pulverula Schaus, 1896, currently placed in Cicinnus Blanchard, 1852, is determined to be a previously unrecognized female Eadmuna, and is transferred accordingly as E. pulverula comb. n.. Eadmuna paloa Schaus, 1933, rev. status, is removed from synonymy with the type species E. esperans (Schaus, 1905. Eadmuna esperans, E. paloa, and E. pulverula may be of conservation concern due to their limited extent of occurrence and endemicity to the highly imperiled Brazilian Atlantic forest.

  12. Richness and endemism of the freshwater fishes of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Contreras-MacBeath

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A study of richness and endemism of the freshwater fishes of Mexico, was carried out in order to identify hotspots and inform conservation efforts. This was done by mapping and overlaying individual species distributions by means of geographical information systems based on museum data. The study was able to confirm several previously proposed centres of freshwater fish richness (Southeastern Mexico, the Mesa Central, the Bravo-Conchos river system and the Panuco and Tuxpan-Nautla rivers. Seven areas with high ‘Corrected Weighted Endemism’ Index values were identified, with the valley of Cuatrociénegas recognized as a true centre. An alarming result was the identification of a “Ghost” centre of endemism (Llanos El Salado in southwestern Nuevo León, where six endemic cyprinodont species are all ‘extinct’ or ‘extinct in the wild’. Forty-nine single site endemics that are distributed all over Mexico were identified. The Chichancanab lagoon in the border between Yucatan and Quintana Roo, where a flock composed of six endemic cyprinodonts is present needs special mention. Three hotspots of richness plus endemism were found in Mexico, the most important of which is the Mesa Central where impacts by human activities have had a detrimental effect on fish populations.

  13. Prediction of phylogeographic endemism in an environmentally complex biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnaval, Ana Carolina; Waltari, Eric; Rodrigues, Miguel T; Rosauer, Dan; VanDerWal, Jeremy; Damasceno, Roberta; Prates, Ivan; Strangas, Maria; Spanos, Zoe; Rivera, Danielle; Pie, Marcio R; Firkowski, Carina R; Bornschein, Marcos R; Ribeiro, Luiz F; Moritz, Craig

    2014-10-07

    Phylogeographic endemism, the degree to which the history of recently evolved lineages is spatially restricted, reflects fundamental evolutionary processes such as cryptic divergence, adaptation and biological responses to environmental heterogeneity. Attempts to explain the extraordinary diversity of the tropics, which often includes deep phylogeographic structure, frequently invoke interactions of climate variability across space, time and topography. To evaluate historical versus contemporary drivers of phylogeographic endemism in a tropical system, we analyse the effects of current and past climatic variation on the genetic diversity of 25 vertebrates in the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest. We identify two divergent bioclimatic domains within the forest and high turnover around the Rio Doce. Independent modelling of these domains demonstrates that endemism patterns are subject to different climatic drivers. Past climate dynamics, specifically areas of relative stability, predict phylogeographic endemism in the north. Conversely, contemporary climatic heterogeneity better explains endemism in the south. These results accord with recent speleothem and fossil pollen studies, suggesting that climatic variability through the last 250 kyr impacted the northern and the southern forests differently. Incorporating sub-regional differences in climate dynamics will enhance our ability to understand those processes shaping high phylogeographic and species endemism, in the Neotropics and beyond.

  14. Endemic harvestmen and spiders of Austria (Arachnida: Opiliones, Araneae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komposch, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive overview of plant, fungus and animal species of Austria revealed a total of 748 endemic and subendemic species, including, 11 harvestman and 46 spider species. Altogether two endemic harvestmen (Nemastoma bidentatum relictum, Nemastoma schuelleri and 8 endemic spiders (Abacoproeces molestus, Collinsia (caliginosa nemenziana, Mughiphantes severus, Mughiphantes styriacus, Pelecopsis alpica, Scotophaeus nanus, Troglohyphantes novicordis, Troglohyphantes tauriscus, beside 9 subendemic harvestman and 38 subendemic spider species have been recorded from Austria. Hot-spots of endemism in the Eastern Alps are the north-eastern (Ennstaler Alps and southern Calcareous Alps (Karawanken, Karnische Alps and the Central Alps (Hohe Tauern, Gurktaler Alps, Ötztaler and Stubaier Alps. Most of the endemic arachnid species occur from the nival down to the montane zone. Important habitats are rocky areas, caves and woodlands. High absolute numbers and percentages of endemics can be found within the harvestman families Cladonychiidae, Ischyropsalididae and Nemastomatidae and in the spider genera Lepthyphantes s. l. and Troglohyphantes. The conservation status of these highly endangered taxa – 85 % of the spider species and 100 % of the harvestman taxa are endangered in Austria – is poor.

  15. Pattern of association between endemic Hawaiian fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae) and their symbiotic bacteria: Evidence of cospeciation events and proposal of "Candidatus Stammerula trupaneae".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viale, E; Martinez-Sañudo, I; Brown, J M; Simonato, M; Girolami, V; Squartini, A; Bressan, A; Faccoli, M; Mazzon, L

    2015-09-01

    Several insect lineages have evolved mutualistic association with symbiotic bacteria. This is the case of some species of mealybugs, whiteflies, weevils, tsetse flies, cockroaches, termites, carpenter ants, aphids and fruit flies. Some species of Tephritinae, the most specialized subfamily of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae), harbour co-evolved vertically transmitted, bacterial symbionts in their midgut, known as "Candidatus Stammerula spp.". The 25 described endemic species of Hawaiian tephritids, plus at least three undescribed species, are taxonomically distributed among three genera: the cosmopolitan genus Trupanea (21 described spp.), the endemic genus Phaeogramma (2 spp.) and the Nearctic genus Neotephritis (2 spp.). We examined the presence of symbiotic bacteria in the endemic tephritids of the Hawaiian Islands, which represent a spectacular example of adaptive radiation, and tested the concordant evolution between host and symbiont phylogenies. We detected through PCR assays the presence of specific symbiotic bacteria, designated as "Candidatus Stammerula trupaneae", from 35 individuals of 15 species. The phylogeny of the insect host was reconstructed based on two regions of the mitochondrial DNA (16S rDNA and COI-tRNALeu-COII), while the bacterial 16S rRNA was used for the symbiont analysis. Host and symbiont phylogenies were then compared and evaluated for patterns of cophylogeny and strict cospeciation. Topological congruence between Hawaiian Tephritinae and their symbiotic bacteria phylogenies suggests a limited, but significant degree of host-symbiont cospeciation. We also explored the character reconstruction of three host traits, as island location, host lineage, and host tissue attacked, based on the symbiont phylogenies under the hypothesis of cospeciation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The genus Ophiocolea H. Perrier in northern Madagascar with description of four new species and two lectotypifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callmander, Martin W; Phillipson, Peter B; Razanajatovo, Mialy; Nusbaumer, Louis

    2011-01-01

    A recent review of Bignoniaceae for the "Catalogue of the vascular plants of Madagascar" has revealed new species in most of the genera present on the island. We provide descriptions of four new species in the genus Ophiocolea H. Perrier, a genus that is endemic to the Malagasy region: Ophiocolea ambrensis Callm. & Phillipson, Ophiocolea darainensis Callm., Phillipson & Nusb., Ophiocolea pauciflora Callm., Phillipson & Razan. and Ophiocolea ratovosonii Callm. & Phillipson. Field photographs and line drawings are provided for each of these four new species. Two species described previously, Ophiocolea decaryi H. Perrier and Ophiocolea velutina H. Perrier, are lectotypified. For all six treated species, we provide a short discussion on morphological affinities and eco-geography, and perform a conservation threat analysis based on the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria.

  17. Phylogeography and local endemism of the native Mediterranean brine shrimp Artemia salina (Branchiopoda: Anostraca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Joaquín; Gómez, Africa; Green, Andy J; Figuerola, Jordi; Amat, Francisco; Rico, Ciro

    2008-07-01

    There has been a recent appreciation of the ecological impacts of zooplanktonic species invasions. The North American brine shrimp Artemia franciscana is one such alien invader in hyper-saline water ecosystems at a global scale. It has been shown to outcompete native Artemia species, leading to their local extinction. We used partial sequences of the mitochondrial Cytochrome c Oxidase Subunit 1 (COI or cox1) gene to investigate the genetic diversity and phylogeography of A. salina, an extreme halophilic sexual brine shrimp, over its known distribution range (Mediterranean Basin and South Africa) and to assess the extent of local endemism, the degree of population structure and the potential impact of traditional human saltpan management on this species. We also examined the phylogenetic relationships in the genus Artemia using COI sequences. Our results show extensive regional endemism and indicate an early Pleistocene expansion of A. salina in the Mediterranean Basin. Subsequent population isolation in a mosaic of Pleistocene refugia is suggested, with two or three refugia located in the Iberian Peninsula. Two instances of long-distance colonization were also observed. Surprisingly, given its strong phylogeographical structure, A. salina showed a signature of correlation between geographical and genetic distance. Owing to strong 'priority effects', extensive population differentiation is retained, despite dispersal via migrant birds and human management of saltpans. The foreseeable expansion of A. franciscana is likely to be followed by substantial loss of genetic diversity in Mediterranean A. salina. Large genetic divergences between Mediterranean and South African A. salina suggest that the latter deserves species status.

  18. Detection of new genetic variants of Betacoronaviruses in Endemic Frugivorous Bats of Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razanajatovo, Norosoa H; Nomenjanahary, Lalaina A; Wilkinson, David A; Razafimanahaka, Julie H; Goodman, Steven M; Jenkins, Richard K; Jones, Julia P G; Heraud, Jean-Michel

    2015-03-12

    Bats are amongst the natural reservoirs of many coronaviruses (CoVs) of which some can lead to severe infection in human. African bats are known to harbor a range of pathogens (e.g., Ebola and Marburg viruses) that can infect humans and cause disease outbreaks. A recent study in South Africa isolated a genetic variant closely related to MERS-CoV from an insectivorous bat. Though Madagascar is home to 44 bat species (41 insectivorous and 3 frugivorous) of which 34 are endemic, no data exists concerning the circulation of CoVs in the island's chiropteran fauna. Certain Malagasy bats can be frequently found in close contact with humans and frugivorous bats feed in the same trees where people collect and consume fruits and are hunted and consumed as bush meat. The purpose of our study is to detect and identify CoVs from frugivorous bats in Madagascar to evaluate the risk of human infection from infected bats. Frugivorous bats belonging to three species were captured in four different regions of Madagascar. We analyzed fecal and throat swabs to detect the presence of virus through amplification of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene, which is highly conserved in all known coronaviruses. Phylogenetic analyses were performed from positive specimens. From 351 frugivorous bats, we detected 14 coronaviruses from two endemic bats species, of which 13 viruses were identified from Pteropus rufus and one from Eidolon dupreanum, giving an overall prevalence of 4.5%. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the Malagasy strains belong to the genus Betacoronavirus but form three distinct clusters, which seem to represent previously undescribed genetic lineages. Our findings suggest that CoVs circulate in frugivorous bats of Madagascar, demonstrating the needs to evaluate spillover risk to human populations especially for individuals that hunt and consume infected bats. Possible dispersal mechanisms as to how coronaviruses arrived on Madagascar are discussed.

  19. The genus Isodon (Schrad. ex Benth. Spach in Africa and a new genus Rabdosiella Codd (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Codd

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available The typification of the genus Isodon (Schrad. ex Benth. Spach and its occurrence in Africa are discussed; an allied genus Rabdosiella Codd is described and the combinations R. calycina (Benth. Codd and R. ternifolia (D.Don Codd (the latter an Indian species are effected.

  20. The genus Isodon (Schrad. ex Benth. Spach in Africa and a new genus Rabdosiella Codd (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Codd

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available The typification of the genus Isodon (Schrad. ex Benth. Spach and its occurrence in Africa are discussed; an allied genus Rabdosiella Codd is described and the combinations R. calycina (Benth. Codd and R. ternifolia (D.Don Codd (the latter an Indian species are effected.

  1. Therapy of endemic goitre; Therapie der Jodmangelstruma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leisner, B. [Allg. Krankenhaus St. Georg, Hamburg (Germany). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin

    1995-12-01

    1. In childhood the first line treatment of endemic goitre is Kl (100-150 {mu}g/day). Once the goitre volume has shrinked during L-thyroxine treatment in older patients, this effect is to be maintained by Kl ({proportional_to}200 {mu}g/day). The same holds true after surgery in cases with normal TSH responsiveness to TRH. 2. TSH suppressive L-thyroxine therapy is indicated in goitre patients older than 40 years. However, the effectiveness will be limited by the nodularity of the thyroid. So prevention of further growth prevails over true tissue reduction. 3. Obviously thyroid surgery yields the best cosmetic results with an acceptably low complication rate. When euthyroidism is established, a lifelong iodine prophylaxy (200 {mu}g/day) of recurrent goitre is mandatory. In cases with latent or overt hypothyroidism an appropriate therapy with thyroid hormone should be given. 4. By radiodine it is possible to realize a short term volume loss of 30-40% which may increase further on up to 60%. Relief of symptoms is usually even more impressive than actual volume loss. (orig./MG) [Deutsch] 1. Kaliumjodid ist heute das Mittel der Wahl zur Behandlung der Jodmangelstruma von Kindern (100 {mu}g) und Jugendlichen (150 {mu}g). Lebenslange Einnahme von Jodid (200 {mu}g) dient der Erhaltung einer Organverkleinerung, die durch L-Thyroxin bei aelteren Patienten erreicht wurde, und postoperativ bei gesicherter Euthyreose (TSH). In der Schwangerschaft ist eine Jodid-Medikation fuer Mutter und Kind erforderlich. 2. L-Thyroxin in TSH-suppressiver Dosierung sollte eingesetzt werden, wenn mit Jodid kein Verkleinerungseffekt erreichbar ist. Primaer ist es indiziert bei Patienten ueber 40 Jahren. Postoperativ muss L-Thyroxin dann verordnet werden, wenn eine latente oder manifeste Hypothyreose gesichert ist. Damit behandelt es sich aber nicht um eine Rezidiv-Prophylaxe im engeren Sinn. 3. Eine wirkliche Substanzverminderung des Kropfes gelingt durch die operative Resektion. Eine konsequente

  2. Testament's ability in Balkan endemic nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novaković Milan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Testament is a solemn, authentic instrument in writing, by which a person declares his or her will as to disposal of his or her estate, and it has a psychopathological, lawful and ethical importance to a person, family and society. The aim of the study was to assess if the ability to make a testament was more damaged in patients with Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN than in patients with other diseases that resulted in Chronic Renal Failure in Bosnia and Herzegovina in the period from the 1st January 2001 to 31st December 2006. Material and methods The 753 respondents were divided into two groups in the study: BEN group (n=150 and control group made of patients with other diseases resulting in CRF (n=150. In a multicentric longitudinal study we used: adapted questionnaire from the Renal Register of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and Mini-Mental State Examination. Descriptive analysis, discriminative function and regression model have been done statistically. Results In BEN group, heirs are mostly mentioned - 84.0% (t=14.391; P=0.001, and in control group: heirs - 66.6%, relatives - 43.3% (t=7.751; P=0.003, carers - 44.0% (t= 6.678 P=0.032, and institutions 10.0% (t=5.147, P=0.061. The discriminative function shows differences between BEN and control group: canonical correlation (rc =0.827, Wilkinson lambda (lnj =0.871, Chi-square test =141.575 and significance (P=0.001. The regression course of the analysis can be used for prediction of the ability to make testament for the patients on dialysis: [y=-0.95x + 15.715, and OR = 0.785, (95% for CI = -0.997 - -0.375; Can Fanc r2=0.861; Significance is P=0.002]. Conclusion The ability to make a testament is more damaged in patients from the nephropathy group than in the patients from the control group who are on dialysis in Bosnia and Herzegovina. This has been confirmed by socio-demographic and psychological parameters, and it is very important for preservation

  3. The genus Syzygium (Myrtaceae) in Vanuatu

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuiwawa, S.H.; Craven, L.A.; Sam, C.; Crisp, M.D.

    2013-01-01

    Twenty species of Syzygium occur in Vanuatu of which eighteen are indigenous (six being endemic and one being an ancient introduction) and two are recently introduced. Three species are newly described: S. chanelii, S. flabellum and S. vanuatuense. The Syzygium flora of Vanuatu has strong links at s

  4. Genus-level taxonomic changes implied by the mitochondrial phylogeny of grey mullets (Teleostei: Mugilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Jean-Dominique; Chen, Wei-Jen; Shen, Kang-Ning; Fu, Cuizhang; Borsa, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive mitochondrial phylogeny of the family Mugilidae (Durand et al., Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 64 (2012) 73-92) demonstrated the polyphyly or paraphyly of a proportion of the 20 genera in the family. Based on these results, here we propose a revised classification with 25 genera, including 15 genera currently recognized as valid (Agonostomus, Aldrichetta, Cestraeus, Chaenomugil, Chelon, Crenimugil, Ellochelon, Joturus, Mugil, Myxus, Neomyxus, Oedalechilus, Rhinomugil, Sicamugil and Trachystoma), 7 resurrected genera [Dajaus (for Agonostomus monticola), Gracilimugil (for Liza argentea), Minimugil (for Sicamugil cascasia), Osteomugil (for several species currently under Moolgarda and Valamugil, including M. cunnesius, M. engeli, M. perusii, and V. robustus), Planiliza (for Indo-Pacific Chelon spp., Indo-Pacific Liza spp., and Paramugil parmatus), Plicomugil (for Oedalechilus labiosus), and Squalomugil (for Rhinomugil nasutus)] and 3 new genera: Neochelon gen. nov. (for Liza falcipinnis), Parachelon gen. nov. (for L. grandisquamis) and Pseudomyxus gen. nov. (for Myxus capensis). Genus Chelon was shown to include exclusively Chelon spp. and Liza spp. from the Atlantic and the Mediterranean, and Liza spp. species endemic to eastern southern Africa. Genus Crenimugil should now include C. crenilabis, Moolgarda seheli and V. buchanani. Genus names Liza, Moolgarda, Paramugil, Valamugil and Xenomugil should be abandoned because they are no longer valid. Further genetic evidence is required to confirm or infirm the validity of the genus Paracrenimugil Senou 1988. The mitochondrial phylogeny of the 25 genera from the present revision is the following: [(Sicamugil, (Minimugil, Rhinomugil)); Trachystoma; ((Myxus, Neomyxus), (Cestraeus, Chaenomugil, (Agonostomus, Dajaus, Joturus), Mugil)); (Aldrichetta, Gracilimugil); Neochelon gen. nov.; (Pseudomyxus gen. nov., (Chelon, Oedalechilus, Planiliza, Parachelon gen. nov.)); ((Squalomugil, (Ellochelon, Plicomugil)), (Crenimugil

  5. Abrocomaphthirus hoplai, a new genus and species of sucking louse from Chile and its relevance to zoogeography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durden, L A; Webb, J P

    1999-10-01

    Both sexes of Abrocomaphthirus hoplai, new genus and new species (Anoplura: Polyplacidae), are described and illustrated. The endemic Chilean chinchilla rat Abrocoma bennetti Waterhouse (Rodentia: Abrocomidae) is the type host. The definition of the family Polyplacidae is amended to accommodate the new genus. Polyplax longa (Werneck), also referred to in the literature as Neohaematopinus longus Werneck, is reassigned to Abrocomaphthirus. The host of A. longus comb.n., is Abrocoma cinerea Thomas, another chinchilla rat, which inhabits parts of Argentina, Bolivia, Chile and Peru. The erection of Abrocomaphthirus as a distinct genus has important zoogeographical and evolutionary implications. The tenuous anomaly of P. longa being the sole native representative of the genus Polyplax in South America, possibly with African affinities, is now refuted. Instead, partial colonization of the neotropics by native species of both Polyplax and Neohaematopinus appears to have been relatively recent and from North America. The phylogenetic affinities of Abrocomaphthirus are unknown, but it appears to be closely related to other, more ancient, native South American polyplacid louse genera, such as Cuyana, Eulinognathus, Galeophthirus, and Lagidiophthirus. Arguments are presented in support of an ancestral zoogeographical link to Africa for these louse genera.

  6. The genus Hymenocrater: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morteza-Semnani, Katayoun; Ahadi, Hamideh; Hashemi, Zahra

    2016-12-01

    The genus Hymenocrater Fisch. et Mey. (Lamiaceae) contains over 21 species in the world. Some species have been used in folk medicine around the world. The present review comprises the ethnopharmacological, phytochemical and therapeutic potential of various species of Hymenocrater. This review brings together most of the available scientific research regarding the genus Hymenocrater. Through this review, the authors hope to attract the attention of natural product researchers throughout the world to focus on the unexplored potential of Hymenocrater species. This review has been compiled using references from major databases such as Chemical Abstracts, Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Abstracts, ScienceDirect, SciFinder, Google Scholar, Scopus, PubMed, Springer Link and books, without limiting the dates of publication. General web searches were also carried out using Google and Yahoo search engines by applying some related search terms (e.g., Hymenocrater spp., phytochemical, pharmacological, extract, essential oil and traditional uses). The articles related to agriculture, ecology, and synthetic works and those using languages other than English or Persian have been excluded. The genus Hymenocrater contains essential oil. Flavonoids, phenolic acids and terpenoids are important constituents of this genus. The pharmacological studies confirmed that the species of the genus Hymenocrater showed antimicrobial, antiparasitic, antioxidant, anticancer and antidiabetic activities. This review discusses the current knowledge of Hymenocrater species that review therapeutic potential, especially their effects on the cancer cells and gaps offering opportunities for future research.

  7. Identification and nomenclature of the genus Penicillium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visagie, C M; Houbraken, J; Frisvad, J C; Hong, S-B; Klaassen, C H W; Perrone, G; Seifert, K A; Varga, J; Yaguchi, T; Samson, R A

    2014-06-01

    Penicillium is a diverse genus occurring worldwide and its species play important roles as decomposers of organic materials and cause destructive rots in the food industry where they produce a wide range of mycotoxins. Other species are considered enzyme factories or are common indoor air allergens. Although DNA sequences are essential for robust identification of Penicillium species, there is currently no comprehensive, verified reference database for the genus. To coincide with the move to one fungus one name in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants, the generic concept of Penicillium was re-defined to accommodate species from other genera, such as Chromocleista, Eladia, Eupenicillium, Torulomyces and Thysanophora, which together comprise a large monophyletic clade. As a result of this, and the many new species described in recent years, it was necessary to update the list of accepted species in Penicillium. The genus currently contains 354 accepted species, including new combinations for Aspergillus crystallinus, A. malodoratus and A. paradoxus, which belong to Penicillium section Paradoxa. To add to the taxonomic value of the list, we also provide information on each accepted species MycoBank number, living ex-type strains and provide GenBank accession numbers to ITS, β-tubulin, calmodulin and RPB2 sequences, thereby supplying a verified set of sequences for each species of the genus. In addition to the nomenclatural list, we recommend a standard working method for species descriptions and identifications to be adopted by laboratories working on this genus.

  8. A World Malaria Map: Plasmodium falciparum Endemicity in 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Simon I; Guerra, Carlos A; Gething, Peter W; Patil, Anand P; Tatem, Andrew J; Noor, Abdisalan M; Kabaria, Caroline W; Manh, Bui H; Elyazar, Iqbal R. F; Brooker, Simon; Smith, David L; Moyeed, Rana A; Snow, Robert W

    2009-01-01

    Background Efficient allocation of resources to intervene against malaria requires a detailed understanding of the contemporary spatial distribution of malaria risk. It is exactly 40 y since the last global map of malaria endemicity was published. This paper describes the generation of a new world map of Plasmodium falciparum malaria endemicity for the year 2007. Methods and Findings A total of 8,938 P. falciparum parasite rate (PfPR) surveys were identified using a variety of exhaustive search strategies. Of these, 7,953 passed strict data fidelity tests for inclusion into a global database of PfPR data, age-standardized to 2–10 y for endemicity mapping. A model-based geostatistical procedure was used to create a continuous surface of malaria endemicity within previously defined stable spatial limits of P. falciparum transmission. These procedures were implemented within a Bayesian statistical framework so that the uncertainty of these predictions could be evaluated robustly. The uncertainty was expressed as the probability of predicting correctly one of three endemicity classes; previously stratified to be an informative guide for malaria control. Population at risk estimates, adjusted for the transmission modifying effects of urbanization in Africa, were then derived with reference to human population surfaces in 2007. Of the 1.38 billion people at risk of stable P. falciparum malaria, 0.69 billion were found in Central and South East Asia (CSE Asia), 0.66 billion in Africa, Yemen, and Saudi Arabia (Africa+), and 0.04 billion in the Americas. All those exposed to stable risk in the Americas were in the lowest endemicity class (PfPR2−10 ≤ 5%). The vast majority (88%) of those living under stable risk in CSE Asia were also in this low endemicity class; a small remainder (11%) were in the intermediate endemicity class (PfPR2−10 > 5 to < 40%); and the remaining fraction (1%) in high endemicity (PfPR2−10 ≥ 40%) areas. High endemicity was widespread in the

  9. Diversification of the yellow-shouldered bats, genus Sturnira (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae), in the New World tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazco, Paúl M; Patterson, Bruce D

    2013-09-01

    The Yellow-shouldered bats, Genus Sturnira, are widespread, diverse, and abundant throughout the Neotropical Region, but little is known of their phylogeny and biogeography. We collected 4409 bp of DNA from three mitochondrial (cyt-b, ND2, D-loop) and two nuclear (RAG1, RAG2) sequences from 138 individuals representing all but two recognized species of Sturnira and five other phyllostomid bats used as outgroups. The sequence data were subjected to maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference analyses. Results overwhelmingly support the monophyly of the genus Sturnira but not continued recognition of Corvira as a subgenus; the two species (bidens and nana) allocated to that group constitute separate, basal branches on the phylogeny. A total of 21 monophyletic putatively species-level groups were recovered; pairs were separated by an average 7.09% (SD=1.61) pairwise genetic distance in cyt-b, and three of these groups are apparently unnamed. Several well-supported clades are evident, including a complex of seven species formerly confused with S. lilium, a species that is actually limited to the Brazilian Shield. We used four calibration points to construct a time-tree for Sturnira, using BEAST. Sturnira diverged from other stenodermatines in the mid-Miocene, and by the end of that epoch (5.3 Ma), three basal lineages were present. Most living species belong to one of two clades, A and B, which appeared and diversified shortly afterwards, during the Pliocene. Both parsimony (DIVA) and likelihood (Lagrange) methods for reconstructing ancestral ranges indicate that the radiation of Sturnira is rooted in the Andes; all three basal lineages (in order, bidens, nana, and aratathomasi) have strictly or mainly Andean distributions. Only later did Sturnira colonize the Pacific lowlands (Chocó) and thence Central America. Sturnira species that are endemic to Central America appeared after the final emergence of the Panamanian landbridge ~3 Ma. Despite its

  10. A Genus Oblivious Approach to Cross Parameterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, J C; Pascucci, V; Joy, K I

    2008-06-16

    In this paper we present a robust approach to construct a map between two triangulated meshes, M and M{prime} of arbitrary and possibly unequal genus. We introduce a novel initial alignment scheme that allows the user to identify 'landmark tunnels' and/or a 'constrained silhouette' in addition to the standard landmark vertices. To describe the evolution of non-landmark tunnels we automatically derive a continuous deformation from M to M{prime} using a variational implicit approach. Overall, we achieve a cross parameterization scheme that is provably robust in the sense that it can map M to M{prime} without constraints on their relative genus. We provide a number of examples to demonstrate the practical effectiveness of our scheme between meshes of different genus and shape.

  11. The genus Craterium (Myxomycetes in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda Stojanowska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an extended list of species of the genus Craterium, hitherto found in Poland.In the monograph on Polish slime moulds Krzemieniewska (1960 3 species and 1 variety of that genus were mentioned. Lately, the following two new species have been recorded: Craterium concinnum Rex. and C. brunneum Nann.-Bremek. Craterium muscorum Ing, reported earlier under the name of Badhamia rubiginosa (Chevall Rostaf. is also included in the present paper. All together, with Cratoium aureum (Schumach. Rostaf. rarely occurring in Poland, and widespread C. minutum (Leers Fr., C. leucocephalum (Pers. Ditmar with its variety scyphoides (Cooke et Balf. G. Lister, the number of taxa of the genus Craterium in Poland increased up to 7.

  12. The genus curve of the Abell clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, James E.; Gott, J. Richard, III; Postman, Marc

    1994-01-01

    We study the topology of large-scale structure through a genus curve measurement of the recent Abell catalog redshift survey of Postman, Huchra, and Geller (1992). The structure is found to be spongelike near median density and to exhibit isolated superclusters and voids at high and low densities, respectively. The genus curve shows a slight shift toward 'meatball' topology, but remains consistent with the hypothesis of Gaussian random phase initial conditions. The amplitude of the genus curve corresponds to a power-law spectrum with index n = 0.21(sub -0.47 sup +0.43) on scales of 48/h Mpc or to a cold dark matter power spectrum with omega h = 0.36(sub -0.17 sup +0.46).

  13. The genus Gymnospermium (Berberidaceae) in the Balkans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Shuka, Lulezim; Siljak-Yakovlev, Sonja

    2011-01-01

    A revision of the genus Gymnospermium (Berberidaceae) in the Balkan Peninsula is carried out. Three species are recognised. Gymnospermium maloi is described as a new species from Mt. Picari in Gjirokastra district, southern Albania. It is compared with the closely related G. scipetarum which has...... has been reported for other members of the genus. The nuclear DNA content (2C-value) of all three species was determined. The genome size of G. maloi is 29.44 (± 0.47) pg, for G. scipetarum (chromosome number still unknown) 29.55 (± 1.35) pg, and for G. peloponnesiacum (2n = 2x = 16) 31.93 (± 2.38) pg....... These values are the first genome size measurements for the genus. All three species are mapped and fully illustrated. A key to the European species is also presented....

  14. A new species of Dactylogyrus (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) parasitic on an endangered freshwater fish, Rhodeus atremius atremius, endemic to Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, Masato; Nagasawa, Kazuya

    2016-10-01

    A new dactylogyrid monogenean Dactylogyrus bicorniculus sp. nov. is described from the gills of the kazetoge bitterling, Rhodeus atremius atremius (Jordan and Thompson, 1914), an endemic species in Japan, from Saga Prefecture, northern Kyūshū. D. bicorniculus sp. nov. resembles Dactylogyrus bicornis Malevitskaja, 1941 and Dactylogyrus lophogonus Zhang and Ji, 1980 because they have two common features, a large V-shaped ventral bar and well-developed second marginal hooks. However, the new species is distinguished from these congeners by a shorter penis and an accessory piece. A phylogenetic analysis of 28S rDNA shows that D. bicorniculus sp. nov. is a basal species with the T-shaped ventral bar in the genus. The new species has strict host-specificity to R. a. atremius, one of the endangered freshwater fishes in Japan, and may face the danger of co-extinction with its host.

  15. Slope equalities for genus 5 surface fibrations

    CERN Document Server

    Tenni, Elisa

    2010-01-01

    K. Konno proved a slope equality for fibred surfaces with fibres of odd genus and general fibre of maximal gonality. More precisely he found a relation between the invariants of the fibration and certain weights of special fibres (called the Horikawa numbers). We give an alternative and more geometric proof in the case of a genus 5 fibration, under generality assumptions. In our setting we are able to prove that the fibre with positive Horikawa numbers are precisely the trigonal ones, we compute their weights explicitly and thus we exhibit explicit examples of regular surfaces with assigned invariants and Horikawa numbers.

  16. Leaf anatomy of the genus Passerina (Thymelaeaceae: taxonomic and ecological significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Bredenkamp

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A comparative anatomical study was made of the genus Passerina comprising 20 species and four subspecies, most of which are endemic to southern Africa. It showed that anatomical variation is useful in species recognition and classification. Anatomical characters typical of Thymelaeaceae and displayed in Passerina include isobilateral leaves, a papillate cuticular membrane, mucilaginous epidermal cell walls, a parenchymatous bundle sheath and extraxylary sclerenchyma fibres. Vascular bundles of the leaf lack intraxylary phloem. Characters common to  Passerina are inverse-dorsiventral and epis- tomatic leaves, inverted palisade parenchyma and an abaxial hvpodermal sclerenchymatous sheath. Orientation of the main vascular bundle in relation to the epidermis and mesophyll allows the recognition of four leaf structural types and ten states, according to which all species can be characterized and grouped. Functionally many anatomical features of the leaf in Passerina are interpreted as adaptations to the Mediterranean climate of the Cape Floristic Region, where most species occur.

  17. A new genus and species of cavernicolous Pomatiopsidae (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda in Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Ricardo L. Simone

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Spiripockia punctatais a new genus and species of Pomatiopsidae found in a cave from Serra Ramalho, SW Bahia, Brazil. The taxon is troglobiont (restricted to subterranean realm, and is characterized by the shell weakly elongated, fragile, translucent, normally sculptured by pustules with periostracum hair on tip of pustules; peristome highly expanded; umbilicus opened; radular rachidian with 6 apical and 3 pairs of lateral cusps; osphradium short, arched; gill filaments with rounded tip; prostate flattened, with vas deferens inserting subterminally; penis duct narrow and weakly sinuous; pallial oviduct simple anteriorly, possessing convoluted bypass connecting base of bulged portion of transition between visceral and pallial oviducts with base of seminal receptacle; spermathecal duct complete, originated from albumen gland. The description of this endemic species may raise protective environmental actions to that cave and to the Serra Ramalho Karst area.

  18. The endemic plants of Micronesia: a geographical checklist and commentary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorence, D.H.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Micronesia-Polynesia bioregion is recognized as a global biodiversity hotspot. However, until now estimates regarding the number of endemic plant species for the region were not supported by any comprehensive published work for the region. The results of this study indicate that Micronesia has the world’s highest percentage of plant endemism per square kilometer out of all globally recognized insular biodiversity hotspots. A checklist of all endemic plant species for Micronesia is presented here with their corresponding geographical limits within the region. A summary of previous work and estimates is also provided noting the degree of taxonomic progress in the past several decades. A total of 364 vascular plant species are considered endemic to Micronesia, most of them being restricted to the Caroline Islands with a large percentage restricted to Palau. The checklist includes seven new combinations, one new name, and two unverified names that require additional study to verify endemic status. Overviews of each respective botanical family represented in the list are given including additional information on the Micronesian taxa. Recommendations for future work and potential projects are alluded to throughout the text highlighting major data gaps and very poorly known taxa. The following new combinations and names are made: Cyclosorus carolinensis (Hosokawa Lorence, comb. nov. , Cyclosorusgretheri (W. H. Wagner Lorence, comb. nov., Cyclosorusguamensis (Holttum Lorence, comb. nov., Cyclosorus palauensis (Hosokawa Lorence, comb. nov. , Cyclosorus rupiinsularis (Fosberg Lorence, comb. nov., Dalbergia hosokawae (Hosokawa Costion nom. nov., Syzygium trukensis (Hosokawa Costion & E. Lucas comb. nov.

  19. Environmental renal disease: Lead, cadmium and Balkan endemic nephropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedeen, R.P. (VA Medical Center, East Orange, NJ (United States))

    1991-11-01

    The similarity of lead and cadmium nephropathy to Balkan endemic nephropathy warrants careful reevaluation of the possibility that these nephrotoxic metals contribute to the production of the endemic renal disease. Low-level environmental exposure may result in a relationship between the concentration of the metals in tissue storage sites and biological fluids that differs from that encountered after occupational exposure. Urine and blood concentrations may therefore be inadequate measures of exposure. Lead is accumulated in the skeleton and cadmium in the liver and kidneys with biological half lives approximating a decade. Non-invasive in vivo x-ray fluorescence or neutron activation analysis can therefore be used to measure cumulative tissue stores. Multiple regression analysis of epidemiologic data could reveal the relative contribution of causal factors, including lead and cadmium, and help to distinguish Balkan endemic nephropathy from other renal diseases using rigorous diagnostic criteria. As long as Balkan endemic nephropathy remains a diagnosis of exclusion, the accuracy of the diagnosis of other renal disease determines the reliability of identification of the endemic disease.31 references.

  20. Exponentially many maximum genus embeddings and genus embeddings for complete graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Han; BAI Yun

    2008-01-01

    There are many results on the maximum genus,among which most are written for the existence of values of such embeddings,and few attention has been paid to the estimation of such embeddings and their applications.In this paper we study the number of maximum genus embeddings for a graph and find an exponential lower bound for such numbers.Our results show that in general case,a simple connected graph has exponentially many distinct maximum genus embeddings.In particular,a connected cubie graph G of order n always has at least (√2)m+n+α/2 distinct maximum genus embeddings,where α and m denote,respectively,the number of inner vertices and odd compo-nents of an optimal tree T.What surprise us most is that such two extremal embeddings (i.e.,the maximum genus embeddings and the genus embeddings) are sometimes closely related with each other.In fact,as applications,we show that for a sufficient large natural number n,there are at least C2n/4 many genus embeddings for complete graph Kn with n=4,7,10 (mod12),where C is a constance depending on the Value of n of residue 12.These results improve the bounds obtained by Korzhik and Voss and the methods used here are much simpler and straight.

  1. Elevational plant species richness patterns and their drivers across non-endemics, endemics and growth forms in the Eastern Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manish, Kumar; Pandit, Maharaj K; Telwala, Yasmeen; Nautiyal, Dinesh C; Koh, Lian Pin; Tiwari, Sudha

    2017-09-01

    Despite decades of research, ecologists continue to debate how spatial patterns of species richness arise across elevational gradients on the Earth. The equivocal results of these studies could emanate from variations in study design, sampling effort and data analysis. In this study, we demonstrate that the richness patterns of 2,781 (2,197 non-endemic and 584 endemic) angiosperm species along an elevational gradient of 300-5,300 m in the Eastern Himalaya are hump-shaped, spatial scale of extent (the proportion of elevational gradient studied) dependent and growth form specific. Endemics peaked at higher elevations than non-endemics across all growth forms (trees, shrubs, climbers, and herbs). Richness patterns were influenced by the proportional representation of the largest physiognomic group (herbs). We show that with increasing spatial scale of extent, the richness patterns change from a monotonic to a hump-shaped pattern and richness maxima shift toward higher elevations across all growth forms. Our investigations revealed that the combination of ambient energy (air temperature, solar radiation, and potential evapo-transpiration) and water availability (soil water content and precipitation) were the main drivers of elevational plant species richness patterns in the Himalaya. This study highlights the importance of factoring in endemism, growth forms, and spatial scale when investigating elevational gradients of plant species distributions and advances our understanding of how macroecological patterns arise.

  2. New species of Iridaceae from the Hantam-Roggeveld Centre of Endemism, and the Bokkeveld, Northern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Manning

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of Iridaceae are described from the Bokkeveld and Roggeveld Escarpments.  Ixia amethystina. a member of section Dichone, is endemic to the edge of the Roggeveld Escarpment. It shares an unusual, inclined spike that is nodding in bud with  I. trifolia but is distinguished by its blackish purple (not yellow anthers, narrower leaves 1.5-2.0 mm wide, medium-textured corm tunics that form a distinct neck at the base of the stem, and short style branches 2.0-2.5 mm long.Moraea marginata. another Roggeveld endemic, is a member of section Polvanthes and florally similar to M. fistulosa and M. monticola but differs in its linear, channelled leaves 5-7 mm wide, with unusual, thickened margins. Romulea singularis. from the edge of the Kobee River Valley in the Bokkeveld Mountains, is a member of section  Ciliatae. It is unique in the genus in its narrowly funnel-shaped, mauve to purple flowers with slender perianth tube 10-11 mm long, and unusually long filaments, 8-9 mm long, inserted in the lower half of the tube.

  3. Reef endemism, host specificity and temporal stability in populations of symbiotic dinoflagellates from two ecologically dominant Caribbean corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornhill, Daniel J; Xiang, Yu; Fitt, William K; Santos, Scott R

    2009-07-15

    The dinoflagellate genus Symbiodinium forms symbioses with numerous protistan and invertebrate metazoan hosts. However, few data on symbiont genetic structure are available, hindering predictions of how these populations and their host associations will fair in the face of global climate change. Here, Symbiodinium population structure from two of the Caribbean's ecologically dominant scleractinian corals, Montastraea faveolata and M. annularis, was examined. Tagged colonies on Florida Keys and Bahamian (i.e., Exuma Cays) reefs were sampled from 2003-2005 and their Symbiodinium diversity assessed via internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) rDNA and three Symbiodinium Clade B-specific microsatellite loci. Generally, the majority of host individuals at a site harbored an identical Symbiodinium ITS2 "type" B1 microsatellite genotype. Notably, symbiont genotypes were largely reef endemic, suggesting a near absence of dispersal between populations. Relative to the Bahamas, sympatric M. faveolata and M. annularis in the Florida Keys harbored unique Symbiodinium populations, implying regional host specificity in these relationships. Furthermore, within-colony Symbiodinium population structure remained stable through time and environmental perturbation, including a prolonged bleaching event in 2005. Taken together, the population-level endemism, specificity and stability exhibited by Symbiodinium raises concerns about the long-term adaptive capacity and persistence of these symbioses in an uncertain future of climate change.

  4. Reef endemism, host specificity and temporal stability in populations of symbiotic dinoflagellates from two ecologically dominant Caribbean corals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Thornhill

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The dinoflagellate genus Symbiodinium forms symbioses with numerous protistan and invertebrate metazoan hosts. However, few data on symbiont genetic structure are available, hindering predictions of how these populations and their host associations will fair in the face of global climate change. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, Symbiodinium population structure from two of the Caribbean's ecologically dominant scleractinian corals, Montastraea faveolata and M. annularis, was examined. Tagged colonies on Florida Keys and Bahamian (i.e., Exuma Cays reefs were sampled from 2003-2005 and their Symbiodinium diversity assessed via internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2 rDNA and three Symbiodinium Clade B-specific microsatellite loci. Generally, the majority of host individuals at a site harbored an identical Symbiodinium ITS2 "type" B1 microsatellite genotype. Notably, symbiont genotypes were largely reef endemic, suggesting a near absence of dispersal between populations. Relative to the Bahamas, sympatric M. faveolata and M. annularis in the Florida Keys harbored unique Symbiodinium populations, implying regional host specificity in these relationships. Furthermore, within-colony Symbiodinium population structure remained stable through time and environmental perturbation, including a prolonged bleaching event in 2005. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, the population-level endemism, specificity and stability exhibited by Symbiodinium raises concerns about the long-term adaptive capacity and persistence of these symbioses in an uncertain future of climate change.

  5. New species of Iridaceae from the Hantam-Roggeveld Centre of Endemism, and the Bokkeveld, Northern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Manning

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of Iridaceae are described from the Bokkeveld and Roggeveld Escarpments.  Ixia amethystina. a member of section Dichone, is endemic to the edge of the Roggeveld Escarpment. It shares an unusual, inclined spike that is nodding in bud with  I. trifolia but is distinguished by its blackish purple (not yellow anthers, narrower leaves 1.5-2.0 mm wide, medium-textured corm tunics that form a distinct neck at the base of the stem, and short style branches 2.0-2.5 mm long.Moraea marginata. another Roggeveld endemic, is a member of section Polvanthes and florally similar to M. fistulosa and M. monticola but differs in its linear, channelled leaves 5-7 mm wide, with unusual, thickened margins. Romulea singularis. from the edge of the Kobee River Valley in the Bokkeveld Mountains, is a member of section  Ciliatae. It is unique in the genus in its narrowly funnel-shaped, mauve to purple flowers with slender perianth tube 10-11 mm long, and unusually long filaments, 8-9 mm long, inserted in the lower half of the tube.

  6. Genetic structure and diversity in an isolated population of an endemic mole salamander (Ambystoma rivulare Taylor, 1940) of central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia-Bobadilla, Rosa-Laura; Monroy-Vilchis, Octavio; Zarco-González, Martha M; Martínez-Gómez, Daniel; Mendoza-Martínez, Germán David; Sunny, Armando

    2016-12-01

    Human activities are affecting the distribution of species worldwide by causing fragmentation and isolation of populations. Isolation and fragmentation lead to populations with lower genetic variability and an increased chance of inbreeding and genetic drift, which results in a loss of biological fitness over time. Studies of the genetic structure of small and isolated populations are critically important for management and conservation decisions. Ambystoma rivulare is a micro-endemic Mexican mole salamander from central Mexico. It is found in the most ecologically disturbed region in Mexico, the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. The goal of this study of the population genetics of the micro-endemic mole salamander was to provide information to be used as a basis for future research and conservation planning of this species and other species of the Ambystoma genus in Mexico. The structural analysis found two subpopulations, one for each river sampled, with no signs of admixture and very high levels of genetic differentiation. Medium to high levels of heterozygosity and few alleles and genotypes were observed. Evidence of an ancestral genetic bottleneck, low values of effective population size, small inbreeding coefficients, and low gene flow were also found.

  7. Complex phylogeographic patterns in the freshwater alga Synura provide new insights into ubiquity vs. endemism in microbial eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boo, Sung Min; Kim, Han Soon; Shin, Woongghi; Boo, Ga Hun; Cho, Sung Mi; Jo, Bok Yeon; Kim, Jee-Hwan; Kim, Jin Hee; Yang, Eun Chan; Siver, Peter A; Wolfe, Alexander P; Bhattacharya, Debashish; Andersen, Robert A; Yoon, Hwan Su

    2010-10-01

    The global distribution, abundance, and diversity of microscopic freshwater algae demonstrate an ability to overcome significant barriers such as dry land and oceans by exploiting a range of biotic and abiotic colonization vectors. If these vectors are considered unlimited and colonization occurs in proportion to population size, then globally ubiquitous distributions are predicted to arise. This model contrasts with observations that many freshwater microalgal taxa possess true biogeographies. Here, using a concatenated multigene data set, we study the phylogeography of the freshwater heterokont alga Synura petersenii sensu lato. Our results suggest that this Synura morphotaxon contains both cosmopolitan and regionally endemic cryptic species, co-occurring in some cases, and masked by a common ultrastructural morphology. Phylogenies based on both proteins (seven protein-coding plastid and mitochondrial genes) and DNA (nine genes including ITS and 18S rDNA) reveal pronounced biogeographic delineations within phylotypes of this cryptic species complex while retaining one clade that is globally distributed. Relaxed molecular clock calculations, constrained by fossil records, suggest that the genus Synura is considerably older than currently proposed. The availability of tectonically relevant geological time (10⁷-10⁸ years) has enabled the development of the observed, complex biogeographic patterns. Our comprehensive analysis of freshwater algal biogeography suggests that neither ubiquity nor endemism wholly explains global patterns of microbial eukaryote distribution and that processes of dispersal remain poorly understood.

  8. Identification and nomenclature of the genus Penicillium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visagie, C.M.; Houbraken, J.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2014-01-01

    . Although DNA sequences are essential for robust identification of Penicillium species, there is currently no comprehensive, verified reference database for the genus. To coincide with the move to one fungus one name in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants, the generic concept...

  9. The position of the genus Thomandersia Bail

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremekamp, C.E.B.

    1942-01-01

    Among the most aberrant types of pollen grains found in plants which have been referred to the family Acanthaceae, are those of the genera Meyenia N. ab E. and Thomandersia Baill. Although the pollen grains were described by LINDAU under different names, those of the first genus as cogwheel-shaped

  10. Paramyristica, a new genus of Myristicaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Wilde, de, J.G.S.

    1994-01-01

    The new genus Paramyristica from New Guinea, based on Myristica sepicana Foreman, is described and discussed, and included in keys to the Asian genera of Myristicaceae. Detailed drawings of the androecia of Paramyristica sepicana and of Myristica hooglandii and M. hollrungii are presented for comparison.

  11. Endocomia, a new genus of Myristicaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, de W.J.J.O.

    1984-01-01

    The new genus Endocomia, ranging from South China to New Guinea, is described, keyed out and discussed among the other four Southeast Asiatic genera of Myristicaceae, viz. Knema, Myristica, Gymnacranthera, and Horsfieldia. Endocomia was formerly included in Horsfieldia under the name H. macrocoma, a

  12. Revision of the genus Gymnacranthera (Myristicaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, R.T.A.

    1986-01-01

    In Gymnacranthera, a small genus of Southeast Asian Myristicaceae, at present 7 species have been accepted, one (G. forbesii) with 2 and another ( G. farquhariana) with 4 varieties. One species, G. canarica, occurs in S. India, the remainder of the species is distributed in the area from S. Thailand

  13. Paramyristica, a new genus of Myristicaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, de W.J.J.O.

    1994-01-01

    The new genus Paramyristica from New Guinea, based on Myristica sepicana Foreman, is described and discussed, and included in keys to the Asian genera of Myristicaceae. Detailed drawings of the androecia of Paramyristica sepicana and of Myristica hooglandii and M. hollrungii are presented for compar

  14. The composite genus Blumea, a taxonomic revision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randeria, Aban J.

    1960-01-01

    My first acquaintance with the genus Blumea was made in December of 1949. On one of my taxonomy field trips then, and many more subsequently, I encountered these weedy, yellow-flowered composites. Perhaps what most helped to attract my attention was their relative abundance and their characteristic

  15. The genus Malassezia and human disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inamadar A

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Sabouraud's Pityrosporum is now recognized as Malassezia. With taxonomic revision of the genus, newer species have been included. The role of this member of the normal human skin flora in different cutaneous and systemic disorders is becoming clearer. The immunological responses it induces in the human body are conflicting and their relevance to clinical features is yet to be explored.

  16. A conspectus of the genus Bhesa (Celastraceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Ding

    1958-01-01

    In his Numerical List Wallich inserted four specific epithets in the genus Kurrimia, viz 4334 K. pulcherrima Wall., 4335 K. calophylla Wall., 4336 K. paniculata Wall., and later 7200 K.? macrophylla Wall. The latter one was provided with a question mark; it was a new combination for Itea macrophylla

  17. The genus Lophopyxis Hook. f. (Lophopyxidaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleumer, H.

    1968-01-01

    When revising the Icacinaceae from SE. Asia and Malesia recently, my interest was drawn again to the genus Lophopyxis Hook. f. Designated by its author (1887) tentatively as a member of the Euphorbiaceae, it was rejected from this family by Pax as early as 1890. Engler (1893) transferred Lophopyxis

  18. The genus Lolium; taxonomy and genetic resources.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loos, B.P.

    1994-01-01

    Several aspects of variation within the genus Lolium, and more in detail within Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass) have been highlighted. As the results are extensively discussed in each chapter, the general discussion is focused on two aspects of the research.SpeciationIt is clear that the

  19. The genus Echinostelium (Myxomycetes in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gražina Adamonytė

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Seven species of the genus – Echinostelium apitectum, E. arboreum, E. brooksii, E. colliculosum, E. corynophorum, E. aff. elachiston, E. minutum – are reported from Lithuania. Their morphological peculiarities are discussed; a key to the species, pictures and distribution maps are given.

  20. The genus Alfonsiella Waterston (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Agaonidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiebes, J.T.

    1972-01-01

    This paper is a tribute to Prof. Dr. L. D. Brongersma, in remembrance of the years I served as his deputy in the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie. The genus Alfonsiella was described by Waterston (1920) for A. fimbriata, a series of females of which were collected at Dar es Salaam, Tanganyika. I

  1. Phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Gliocladiopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombard, L.; Crous, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    Using a global set of isolates and a phylogenetic approach employing DNA sequence data from five genes (ß-tubulin, histone H3, internal transcribed spacer region, 28S large subunit region and translation elongation factor 1-a), the taxonomic status of the genus Gliocladiopsis (Glionectria)

  2. Phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Gliocladiopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombard, L.; Crous, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    Using a global set of isolates and a phylogenetic approach employing DNA sequence data from five genes (β-tubulin, histone H3, internal transcribed spacer region, 28S large subunit region and translation elongation factor 1-α), the taxonomic status of the genus Gliocladiopsis (Glionectria)

  3. A revision of the genus Podococcus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkenburg, van J.L.C.H.; Sunderland, T.

    2008-01-01

    A taxonomic revision of the palm genus Podococcus (Arecaceae) is presented. Two species are recognised: P. barteri, a species relatively widespread in a coastal band from Nigeria to the D. R. Congo and P. acaulis, a species previously considered conspecific to P. barteri, almost exclusively confined

  4. Palynology of the Genus Stachytarpheta Vahl. (Verbenaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olubukola ADEDEJI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The exine morphology of pollen grains of Stachytarpheta indica (Linn. Vahl, Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich. Vahl and Stachytarpheta angustifolia (Mill. Vahl is reported. This study was carried out with a light microscope. Pollen grains from fresh anthers were collected and aceolysed. Statistical analysis used to analyse the data collected include cluster analysis, correlation analysis, similarity and distance indices. The pollen grains are spheroidal to oblate to sub-oblate in shape. They are aperturate, both colpate and porate. Tricolpate types occur most frequently, acolpate, monocolpate, bicolpate and tetracolpate types less frequently. The multicolpate and multiporate attributes in all the species indicate that the genus is not primitive in evolutionary history and this species probably, evolved around in the same time. According to the size, the pollen grains of the genus falls into groups permagna (pollen diameter 100-200 ?m and giganta (pollen diameter greater than 200 ?m. S. cayennensis and S. anguistifolia belong to group permagna and S. indica only in the group giganta. This separates S. indica from the other two species. The large pollen grain size in the genus clearly supports the fact that the flowers in the genus are more insect-and-bird pollinated than wind pollinated. The similarity and distance indices of the species showed that S. cayennensis and S. angustifolia are the closest. S. indica is closer to S. angustifolia but farther from S. cayennensis.

  5. Note on the Genus Microsicydium Bleeker

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koumans, F.P.

    1929-01-01

    This genus was established by Dr. P. BLEEKER in 1874 1) for fishes belonging to the phalanx Sicydiini having the caracteristics: „Dentes intermaxillares stipitati apice clavati obtusi, inframaxillares serie interna parvi aequales, serie externa aciculares. Maxilla inferior cirris nullis. Squamae cap

  6. Phylogeny of the plant genus Pachypodium (Apocynaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan O. Burge

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. The genus Pachypodium contains 21 species of succulent, generally spinescent shrubs and trees found in southern Africa and Madagascar. Pachypodium has diversified mostly into arid and semi-arid habitats of Madagascar, and has been cited as an example of a plant group that links the highly diverse arid-adapted floras of Africa and Madagascar. However, a lack of knowledge about phylogenetic relationships within the genus has prevented testing of this and other hypotheses about the group. Methodology/Principal Findings. We use DNA sequence data from the nuclear ribosomal ITS and chloroplast trnL-F region for all 21 Pachypodium species to reconstruct evolutionary relationships within the genus. We compare phylogenetic results to previous taxonomic classifications and geography. Results support three infrageneric taxa from the most recent classification of Pachypodium, and suggest that a group of African species (P. namaquanum, P. succulentum and P. bispinosum may deserve taxonomic recognition as an infrageneric taxon. However, our results do not resolve relationships among major African and Malagasy lineages of the genus. Conclusions/Significance. We present the first molecular phylogenetic analysis of Pachypodium. Our work has revealed five distinct lineages, most of which correspond to groups recognized in past taxonomic classifications. Our work also suggests that there is a complex biogeographic relationship between Pachypodium of Africa and Madagascar.

  7. A new genus of Blacinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester P. Gibson

    1977-01-01

    A new genus, Canalicephalus, of the subfamily Blacinae is described along with 4 new species, C. orientalis from Borneo, C. novus from New Guinea, and C. bakeri and C. mindanao, both from the Philippines. Keys are included to separate these 2 genera and the 4...

  8. The genus Kochia (Chenopodiaceae) in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge-Lin Chu; Stewart Sanderson

    2008-01-01

    The genus Kochia and Bassia with which it has been combined, of Chenopodiaceae tribe Camphorosmeae, were at one time considered to include plants native to Eurasia, Australia, and North America, and included species of both C3 and C4 photosynthetic types. This aggregate has been reduced in size by removal of a large group of C3 Australian genera and species. Because of...

  9. Bark beetles in the genus Dendroctonus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara J. Bentz

    2008-01-01

    The genus Dendroctonus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), originally described by Erichson in 1836, currently includes 19 species that are widely distributed. Seventeen species occur between Arctic North America and northwestern Nicaragua, and an additional two species are in northern Europe and Asia. Dendroctonus species attack and infest conifer hosts (Pinaceae...

  10. Chemotaxonomy of the genus Nuxia (Buddlejaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Rosendal

    1999-01-01

    An investigation of two species of Nuxia (Buddlejaceae) showed that this genus is characterised by the presence of the eight-carbon iridoid glucoside unedoside and/or its derivatives. From N. floribunda was isolated unedoside, nuxioside (6-O-a-L-rhamnopyranosyl-unedoside) and 2''-acetyl-3...

  11. Genome Evolution in the Genus Sorghum (Poaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Price, H. James; Dillon, Sally L.; HODNETT, GEORGE; Rooney, William L.; Ross, Larry; Johnston, J Spencer

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims The roles of variation in DNA content in plant evolution and adaptation remain a major biological enigma. Chromosome number and 2C DNA content were determined for 21 of the 25 species of the genus Sorghum and analysed from a phylogenetic perspective.

  12. Interspecific hybridization in the genus Tulipa L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creij, van M.G.M.

    1997-01-01

    The genus Tulipa L. comprises about 55 species. The tulip species are classified in two subgenera, Tulipa and Eriostemones, which are subdivided into five and three sections respectively. Commercial tulips are mainly cultivars of T. gesneriana L . and of Darwin hybrids, the latter of which are obtai

  13. Sarawakodendron, a new genus of Celastraceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Ding

    1967-01-01

    During my trip to Malaysia in 1966, sponsored by the Netherlands Foundation for the Advancement of Tropical Research (WOTRO), for doing field work on Anacardiaceae, a new tree genus was found in Sarawak belonging to the family Celastraceae which I have revised for the Flora Malesiana series I, volum

  14. The genus Lolium : taxonomy and genetic resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loos, B.P.

    1994-01-01

    Several aspects of variation within the genus Lolium, and more in detail within Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass) have been highlighted. As the results are extensively discussed in each chapter, the general discussion is focused on two aspects of

  15. Farrowia, a new genus in the Chaetomiaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hawksworth, D.L.

    1975-01-01

    The new genus Farrowia D. Hawksw. is described to accommodate Chaetomium longicolleum Krzem. & Badura and C. longirostre (Farrow) L. Ames, species formerly incorrectly referred to Chaetoceratostoma Turc. & Maffei. These two species are united under the name F. longicollea (Krzem. & Badura) D. Hawksw

  16. Nomenclatural changes in the genus Bremeria (Rubiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davis, A.P.; Razafimandimbison, S.G.; Andriambololonera, S.

    2011-01-01

    Five new combinations are made in the genus Bremeria: B. arachnocarpa, B. eriantha, B. scabrella, B. landia var. holosericea, and B. landia var. stadmanii. Bremeria gerrardii is conspecific with Gaertnera phanerophlebia, and thus excluded from Bremeria. Lectotypes are designated for Mussaenda erecti

  17. Fayochytriomyces, a new genus within Chytridiales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, William J; Letcher, Peter M; Longcore, Joyce E; Powell, Martha J

    2015-01-01

    Chytriomyces is a complex genus in Chytridiales. The morphological concept of the genus expanded as new taxa were added, and studies of zoospore ultrastructure and molecular phylogenies have revealed the genus to be polyphyletic. One problematic taxon is C. spinosus Fay, a distinctive species characterized by whorls of spines on the zoosporangium and a large accumulation of vesicle material beneath the operculum. With light-, scanning-electron and transmission-electron microscopy, we examined a culture (WJD186) isolated from a muck sample collected from a temporary forest pond. We also analyzed the D1-D2 variable domains of the nuc 28S rDNA (28S) sequences to confirm the phylogenetic placement of the species relative to the type of Chytriomyces, C. hyalinus Karling. The morphology of culture WJD186 is consistent with features Fay described for C. spinosus, and the zoospore ultrastructure is consistent with the Group I-type zoospore characters of Chytriomycetaceae (Chytridiales). In our molecular phylogeny C. spinosus does not group with the type of Chytriomyces. Consequently, we erect a new genus in Chytriomycetaceae and present the new combination Fayochytriomyces spinosus. © 2015 by The Mycological Society of America.

  18. NSR superstring measures in genus 5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunin-Barkovskiy, P.; Sleptsov, A.; Stern, A.

    2013-01-01

    Currently there are two proposed ansätze for NSR superstring measures: the Grushevsky ansatz and the OPSMY ansatz, which for genera g⩽4g⩽4 are known to coincide. However, neither the Grushevsky nor the OPSMY ansatz leads to a vanishing two-point function in genus four, which can be constructed from

  19. The Mesozoic megafossil genus Linguifolium Arber 1917

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pattemore Gary A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The plant megafossil genus Linguifolium Arber 1917 is chiefly known from the Middle and Upper Triassic of Gondwana. The range of Linguifolium extended beyond Gondwana by the Late Triassic, persisting there through the earliest Jurassic (Hettangian. The parent plants probably grew in a well-watered, canopied environment.

  20. The position of the genus Thomandersia Bail

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremekamp, C.E.B.

    1942-01-01

    Among the most aberrant types of pollen grains found in plants which have been referred to the family Acanthaceae, are those of the genera Meyenia N. ab E. and Thomandersia Baill. Although the pollen grains were described by LINDAU under different names, those of the first genus as cogwheel-shaped a

  1. Biodiversity and endemism of the Silurian vertebrates in the Siberian palaeocraton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žigaitä-, Živilä--

    2010-05-01

    Tuvaella Fauna as a cold-water one (Cocks & Torsvik, 2007). Yet, the results of present study tend to contradict this assumption. References: Afanasieva, O.B., Janvier, P., 1985. Tannuaspis, Tuvaspis, and Ilemoraspis, endemic osteostracan genera from the Silurian and Devonian of Tuva and Khakassia (USSR). Geobios 18 (4): 493 - 506. Cocks, L.R.M., Torsvik, T.H., 2007. Siberia, the wandering northern terrane, and its changing geography through the Palaeozoic. Earth-Science Reviews 82 : 29-74. Karatajūtė-Talimaa, V. N., 1978. Silurian and Devonian Thelodonts of the USSR and Spitsbergen. "Mokslas", Vilnius. 334 p. [in Russian]. Karatajūtė-Talimaa, V., Smith, M. M., 2003. Early acanthodians from the Lower Silurian of Asia. Transactions of the Royal society of Edinburgh: Earth Sciences, 93 : 277 - 299. Karatajūtė-Talimaa, V., Smith, M.M., 2004. Tesakoviaspis concentrica: microskeletal remains of a new order of vertebrate from the Upper Ordovician and Lower Silurian of Siberia. In: G. Arraratia, M.V.H. Wilson, R. Cloutier (eds.), Recent Advantages in the Origin and Early Radiation of Vertebrates, 53-64, 6 figs. Karatajūtė-Talimaa, V., Žigaitė, Ž., 2005. Tesserae of a new early vertebrate genus from Lower Silurian (Llandovery) of South Siberia - the exoskeleton of Galeaspida? . In: V. Hairapetian, M. Ginter (eds.) IGCP 491 meeting, Yerevan, "Ichthyolith Issues" Special Publication 8 :18. Karatajūtė-Talimaa, V.N., Novitskaya, L.I., Rozman, K.S., Sodov, I., 1990. Mongolepis - a new Lower Silurian elasmobranch genus from Mongolia. Paleontologicheskiy Zhurnal 1: 76-86. [In Russian]. Žigaitė, Ž., in press. Endemic thelodonts (Agnathan vertebrates) from the Lower Silurian of Central Asia and the Siberian Platform. Palaeontology. Žigaitė, Ž., Blieck, A., 2006. Palaeobiogeographical significance of Early Silurian thelodonts from central Asia and southern Siberia. GFF, 128 : 203-206. Žigaitė, Ž., Karatajūtė-Talimaa, V., 2008. New genus of chondrichthyans from the

  2. Differentially-expressed opsin genes identified in Sinocyclocheilus cavefish endemic to China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fanwei MENG; Yahui ZHAO; John H.POSTLETHWAIT; Chunguang ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    Eye degeneration is a common troglomorphic character of cave-dwelling organisms.Comparing the morphology and molecular biology of cave species and their close surface relatives is a powerful tool for studying regressive eye evolution and other adaptive phenotypes.We compared two co-occurring and closely-related species of the fish genus Sinocyclocheilus,which is endemic to China and includes both surface-and cave-dwelling species.Sinocyclocheilus tileihornes,a cave species,had smaller eyes than Sinocyclocheilus angustiporus,a surface species.Histological and immunohistochemical analyses revealed that the cavefish had shorter cones and more disorderly rods than did the surface-dwelling species.Using quantitative PCR and in situ hybridization,we found that rhodopsin and a long-wavelength sensitive opsin had significantly lower expression levels in the cavefish.Furthermore,one of two short-wavelength-sensitive opsins was expressed at significantly higher levels in the cavefish.Changes in the expression ofopsin genes may have played a role in the degeneration of cavefish eyes.

  3. Natural history of the narrow endemics Ipomoea cavalcantei and I. marabaensis from Amazon Canga savannahs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiychuk, Elena; Kushnir, Sergei; Vasconcelos, Santelmo; Dias, Mariana Costa; Carvalho-Filho, Nelson; Nunes, Gisele Lopes; Dos Santos, Jorge Filipe; Tyski, Lourival; da Silva, Delmo Fonseca; Castilho, Alexandre; Fonseca, Vera Lucia Imperatriz; Oliveira, Guilherme

    2017-08-08

    Amazon comprises a vast variety of ecosystems, including savannah-like Canga barrens that evolved on iron-lateritic rock plateaus of the Carajás Mountain range. Individual Cangas are enclosed by the rain forest, indicating insular isolation that enables speciation and plant community differentiation. To establish a framework for the research on natural history and conservation management of endemic Canga species, seven chloroplast DNA loci and an ITS2 nuclear DNA locus were used to study natural molecular variation of the red flowered Ipomoea cavalcantei and the lilac flowered I. marabaensis. Partitioning of the nuclear and chloroplast gene alleles strongly suggested that the species share the most recent common ancestor, pointing a new independent event of the red flower origin in the genus. Chloroplast gene allele analysis showed strong genetic differentiation between Canga populations, implying a limited role of seed dispersal in exchange of individuals between Cangas. Closed haplotype network topology indicated a requirement for the paternal inheritance in generation of cytoplasmic genetic variation. Tenfold higher nucleotide diversity in the nuclear ITS2 sequences distinguished I. cavalcantei from I. marabaensis, implying a different pace of evolutionary changes. Thus, Canga ecosystems offer powerful venues for the study of speciation, multitrait adaptation and the origins of genetic variation.

  4. Endemism and long distance dispersal in the waterfleas of Easter Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damme, Kay Van

    2016-08-22

    Easter Island is known for a depauperate terrestrial and aquatic biota. The discovery of new taxa is unusual, even among the island's micro-invertebrates. A new cladoceran, Ovalona pascua sp. nov. (Crustacea: Cladocera: Anomopoda: Chydoridae), is described from freshwater environments. The chydorid, the only known extant cladoceran on the island, is the dominant aquatic invertebrate in the surface waters. Based on detailed morphological comparison, including a character similarity matrix applied across the species in the genus (12 characters/17 spp), the new taxon is proposed here as an insular endemic with affinities in the East (New World). The revision challenges the theory that invasive zooplankton species were introduced from the subantarctic islands during the 18th century. Human introduction is not the main mechanism through which cladocerans could have arrived on Easter Island. Late Pleistocene - Early Holocene fossils in Cañellas-Boltà et al. (2012) from cores in Rano Raraku Lake are identified here as Daphnia O.F. Müller, 1785 (subgenus Ctenodaphnia Dybowski & Grochowski, 1895). The establishment of Daphnia before human colonization on Easter Island provides strong proof of successful long distance dispersal by ephippia over thousands of kilometers of open sea.

  5. Glacial refugia, recolonization patterns and diversification forces in Alpine-endemic Megabunus harvestmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachter, Gregor A; Papadopoulou, Anna; Muster, Christoph; Arthofer, Wolfgang; Knowles, L Lacey; Steiner, Florian M; Schlick-Steiner, Birgit C

    2016-06-01

    The Pleistocene climatic fluctuations had a huge impact on all life forms, and various hypotheses regarding the survival of organisms during glacial periods have been postulated. In the European Alps, evidence has been found in support of refugia outside the ice shield (massifs de refuge) acting as sources for postglacial recolonization of inner-Alpine areas. In contrast, evidence for survival on nunataks, ice-free areas above the glacier, remains scarce. Here, we combine multivariate genetic analyses with ecological niche models (ENMs) through multiple timescales to elucidate the history of Alpine Megabunus harvestmen throughout the ice ages, a genus that comprises eight high-altitude endemics. ENMs suggest two types of refugia throughout the last glacial maximum, inner-Alpine survival on nunataks for four species and peripheral refugia for further four species. In some geographic regions, the patterns of genetic variation are consistent with long-distance dispersal out of massifs de refuge, repeatedly coupled with geographic parthenogenesis. In other regions, long-term persistence in nunataks may dominate the patterns of genetic divergence. Overall, our results suggest that glacial cycles contributed to allopatric diversification in Alpine Megabunus, both within and at the margins of the ice shield. These findings exemplify the power of ENM projections coupled with genetic analyses to identify hypotheses about the position and the number of glacial refugia and thus to evaluate the role of Pleistocene glaciations in driving species-specific responses of recolonization or persistence that may have contributed to observed patterns of biodiversity.

  6. Clutch size in the tropical scincid lizard Emoia sanfordi, a species endemic to the Vanuatu Archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Alison Madeline; Eckstut, Mallory Elizabeth; Klein, Elaine Renee; Austin, Christopher Cowell

    2008-08-01

    The majority of species in the scincid genus Emoia (Squamata: Scincidae) have a fixed clutch size of two eggs per clutch and produce between two and four clutches per year. One lineage within Emoia, the Emoia samoensis species group, consists of 13 species occurring in Melanesia and the islands of the southwestern Pacific Ocean, and exhibits variation in clutch size, with previously reported clutch sizes of two to five eggs. Little is known about reproduction in several members of this lineage including Emoia sanfordi, a large-bodied lizard endemic to the archipelago of Vanuatu in the South Pacific. We analyzed reproduction and clutch size in E. sanfordi females and discovered that there is a substantial amount of intraspecific variation, with clutch size ranging from two to seven eggs, with a modal clutch size of five eggs. Females were reproductively active throughout the study period of June through October and appear to be laying multiple clutches. The variation in clutch size seen in E. sanfordi is congruent with the variation previously reported within other closely related species.

  7. Investigating the pollination syndrome of the Hawaiian lobeliad genus Clermontia (Campanulaceae) using floral nectar traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pender, Richard J; Morden, Clifford W; Paull, Robert E

    2014-01-01

    Floral nectar sugar compositions have, for several decades, been used to predict a plant species' pollinator guild. Plants possessing a generalist ornithophilous pollination syndrome produce nectar that is dilute (8-12% w/v sugars) with a low sucrose to hexose (glucose and fructose) ratio. The Hawaiian lobeliad genus Clermontia contains 22 endemic species of shrubs and small trees that are believed to have evolved flowers adapted for pollination by now mostly extinct or endangered endemic passerines in the Drepanidinae and Mohoidae. We analyzed the nectar sugar compositions, concentration, and nectar standing crop of 23 taxa to test the assumption that Clermontia taxa have evolved floral traits in response to selection pressures from these avian pollinators. All Clermontia taxa produced nectar with sugar concentrations (mean: 9.2% w/v ± 1.8 SD) comparable to the nectar of other plant species with a generalized bird pollination system. Nectar sugars were overwhelmingly composed of hexoses in all taxa (mean sucrose/hexose ratio: 0.02 ± 0.02). Nectar standing crop volumes varied widely among taxa, ranging from 9.7 µL ± 7.1 to 430.5 µL ± 401.8 (mean volume: 177.8 ± 112.0). Collectively, the nectar traits indicate that Clermontia species possess a generalist passerine pollination syndrome.

  8. The genus Erechthias Meyrick of Ascension Island, including discovery of a new brachypterous species (Lepidoptera, Tineidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Davis

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available One previously named and two new species of the tineid genus Erechthias Meyrick are described and illustrated from the small, remote, mid-Atlantic Ascension Island. With these additions the Lepidoptera fauna of Ascension now totals 38 known species. Little is known regarding the biology of the two new species of Erechthias, and none of the species has been reared from larvae from Ascension. Erechthias minuscula (Walsingham is a widespread, largely pantropical species first described from the West Indies. Larvae of E. minuscula are known to be scavengers on a wide variety of dead plant material. Erechthias ascensionae, new species, is one of two species of Erechthias now known to be endemic to the island. The other endemic species, Erechthias grayi, new species, is further remarkable inwing reduction occurring in both sexes. It is one of the few species of Lepidoptera known where this extreme of brachyptery involving both sexes has evolved. The larvae of E. grayi are believed to be lichenivorous, and larval cases suspected to represent this species are illustrated.

  9. A review of the genus Oosternum Sharp of the West Indies (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae: Sphaeridiinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Deler-Hernández

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The representatives of the genus Oosternum Sharp, 1882 occurring in the West Indies are revised. Ten species are recorded, of which seven are here described as new: Oosternum andersoni sp. n. (Cuba, O. bacharenge sp. n. (Dominican Republic, O. cercyonoides sp. n. (Jamaica, O. insulare sp. n. (Jamaica, O. luciae sp. n. (Saint Lucia, O. megnai sp. n. (Cuba and O. pecki sp. n. (Dominican Republic. Diagnoses and detailed distributional data are also provided for O. sharpi Hansen, 1999 (widespread throughout both Greater and Lesser Antilles, O. latum Fikáček, Hebauer & Hansen, 2009 (endemic to St. Vincent and an undescribed species from the Bahamas. A key to the West Indian Oosternum is provided and important diagnostic characters are illustrated. The West Indian fauna of Oosternum contains representatives of five different species groups and likely originated by multiple independent colonizations from the American continent. Within the study region, the highest diversity is known from the Greater Antilles, where two endemic species each in Cuba, Jamaica, and Hispaniola. The populations of O. sharpi were found to consist exclusively of females on all islands with the exception Puerto Rico.

  10. The mammalian faunas endemic to the Cerrado and the Caatinga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Eliécer E.; Marinho-Filho, Jader

    2017-01-01

    Abstract We undertook a comprehensive, critical review of literature concerning the distribution, conservation status, and taxonomy of species of mammals endemic to the Cerrado and the Caatinga, the two largest biomes of the South American Dry-Diagonal. We present species accounts and lists of species, which we built with criteria that, in our opinion, yielded results with increased scientific rigor relative to previously published lists – e.g., excluding nominal taxa whose statuses as species have been claimed only on the basis of unpublished data, incomplete taxonomic work, or weak evidence. For various taxa, we provided arguments regarding species distributions, conservation and taxonomic statuses previously lacking in the literature. Two major findings are worth highlighting. First, we unveil the existence of a group of species endemic to both the Cerrado and the Caatinga (i.e., present in both biomes and absent in all other biomes). From the biogeographic point of view, this group, herein referred to as Caatinga-Cerrado endemics, deserves attention as a unit – just as in case of the Caatinga-only and the Cerrado-only endemics. We present preliminary hypotheses on the origin of these three endemic faunas (Cerrado-only, Caatinga-only, and Caatinga-Cerrado endemics). Secondly, we discovered that a substantial portion of the endemic mammalian faunas of the Caatinga and the Cerrado faces risks of extinction that are unrecognized in the highly influential Red List of Threatened Species published by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). “Data deficient” is a category that misrepresents the real risks of extinction of these species considering that (a) some of these species are known only from a handful of specimens collected in a single or a few localities long ago; (b) the Cerrado and the Caatinga have been sufficiently sampled to guarantee collection of additional specimens of these species if they were abundant; (c) natural habitats of

  11. The mammalian faunas endemic to the Cerrado and the Caatinga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Eliécer E; Marinho-Filho, Jader

    2017-01-01

    We undertook a comprehensive, critical review of literature concerning the distribution, conservation status, and taxonomy of species of mammals endemic to the Cerrado and the Caatinga, the two largest biomes of the South American Dry-Diagonal. We present species accounts and lists of species, which we built with criteria that, in our opinion, yielded results with increased scientific rigor relative to previously published lists - e.g., excluding nominal taxa whose statuses as species have been claimed only on the basis of unpublished data, incomplete taxonomic work, or weak evidence. For various taxa, we provided arguments regarding species distributions, conservation and taxonomic statuses previously lacking in the literature. Two major findings are worth highlighting. First, we unveil the existence of a group of species endemic to both the Cerrado and the Caatinga (i.e., present in both biomes and absent in all other biomes). From the biogeographic point of view, this group, herein referred to as Caatinga-Cerrado endemics, deserves attention as a unit - just as in case of the Caatinga-only and the Cerrado-only endemics. We present preliminary hypotheses on the origin of these three endemic faunas (Cerrado-only, Caatinga-only, and Caatinga-Cerrado endemics). Secondly, we discovered that a substantial portion of the endemic mammalian faunas of the Caatinga and the Cerrado faces risks of extinction that are unrecognized in the highly influential Red List of Threatened Species published by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). "Data deficient" is a category that misrepresents the real risks of extinction of these species considering that (a) some of these species are known only from a handful of specimens collected in a single or a few localities long ago; (b) the Cerrado and the Caatinga have been sufficiently sampled to guarantee collection of additional specimens of these species if they were abundant; (c) natural habitats of the Cerrado and

  12. Certhiasomus, a new genus of woodcreeper (Aves: Passeriformes: Dendrocolaptidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derryberry, Elizabeth; Claramunt, Santiago; Chesser, R. Terry; Aleixo, Alexandre; Cracraft, Joel; Moyle, Robert G.; Brumfield, Robb T.

    2010-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of the family Dendrocolaptidae (Aves: Passeriformes) indicates that the two species traditionally placed in the genus Deconychura are not sister taxa. Certhiasomus, a new genus of woodcreeper, is described for one of these species, C. stictolaemus.

  13. An account of the fern genus Belvisia Mirbel (Polypodiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovenkamp, P.H.; Franken, N.A.P.

    1993-01-01

    The genus Belvisia is revised. Two species are transferred from Lemmaphyllum to Belvisia, and two species are reduced to varieties. The genus now includes eight species, reaching from tropical Africa to China, Polynesia, and Australia.

  14. A preliminary survey of the genus Buchwaldoboletus (Boletales: Boletaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatriz Ortiz-Santana; Ernst E. Both

    2011-01-01

    Buchwaldoboletus is a small genus of about a dozen species with a world-wide distribution. The boletes of this genus are non-mycorrhizal, saprophytic and lignicolous. A preliminary survey is provided and seven new combinations are proposed.

  15. A New Genus of Macropsinae (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) From Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liyuan; Dietrich, C H; Zhang, Yalin

    2016-01-01

    Paragalboa acuta GEN & SP N: is described and illustrated from Madagascar. The new genus shows morphological affinities to the Macropsini genus Galboa Distant recorded from Seychelles. A checklist of all known genera of Macropsinae is provided.

  16. Genus Phyllanthus for chronic hepatitis B virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, J; Lin, Haili; McIntosh, H

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of genus Phyllanthus for chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection we performed a systematic review of randomized clinical trials. Randomized trials comparing genus Phyllanthus vs. placebo, no intervention, general nonspecific treatment, other herbal medicine...

  17. Ensifer meliloti bv. lancerottense establishes nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with Lotus endemic to the Canary Islands and shows distinctive symbiotic genotypes and host range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Barrios, Milagros; Lorite, María José; Donate-Correa, Javier; Sanjuán, Juan

    2009-09-01

    Eleven strains were isolated from root nodules of Lotus endemic to the Canary Islands and they belonged to the genus Ensifer, a genus never previously described as a symbiont of Lotus. According to their 16S rRNA and atpD gene sequences, two isolates represented minority genotypes that could belong to previously undescribed Ensifer species, but most of the isolates were classified within the species Ensifer meliloti. These isolates nodulated Lotus lancerottensis, Lotus corniculatus and Lotus japonicus, whereas Lotus tenuis and Lotus uliginosus were more restrictive hosts. However, effective nitrogen fixation only occurred with the endemic L. lancerottensis. The E. meliloti strains did not nodulate Medicago sativa, Medicago laciniata Glycine max or Glycine soja, but induced non-fixing nodules on Phaseolus vulgaris roots. nodC and nifH symbiotic gene phylogenies showed that the E. meliloti symbionts of Lotus markedly diverged from strains of Mesorhizobium loti, the usual symbionts of Lotus, as well as from the three biovars (bv. meliloti, bv. medicaginis, and bv. mediterranense) so far described within E. meliloti. Indeed, the nodC and nifH genes from the E. meliloti isolates from Lotus represented unique symbiotic genotypes. According to their symbiotic gene sequences and host range, the Lotus symbionts would represent a new biovar of E. meliloti for which bv. lancerottense is proposed.

  18. Multilocus sequence data reveal dozens of putative cryptic species in a radiation of endemic Californian mygalomorph spiders (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Nemesiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, Dean H; Starrett, James; Westphal, Michael F; Hedin, Marshal

    2015-10-01

    We use mitochondrial and multi-locus nuclear DNA sequence data to infer both species boundaries and species relationships within California nemesiid spiders. Higher-level phylogenetic data show that the California radiation is monophyletic and distantly related to European members of the genus Brachythele. As such, we consider all California nemesiid taxa to belong to the genus Calisoga Chamberlin, 1937. Rather than find support for one or two taxa as previously hypothesized, genetic data reveal Calisoga to be a species-rich radiation of spiders, including perhaps dozens of species. This conclusion is supported by multiple mitochondrial barcoding analyses, and also independent analyses of nuclear data that reveal general genealogical congruence. We discovered three instances of sympatry, and genetic data indicate reproductive isolation when in sympatry. An examination of female reproductive morphology does not reveal species-specific characters, and observed male morphological differences for a subset of putative species are subtle. Our coalescent species tree analysis of putative species lays the groundwork for future research on the taxonomy and biogeographic history of this remarkable endemic radiation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Exponentially many maximum genus embeddings and genus embeddings for complete graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    There are many results on the maximum genus, among which most are written for the existence of values of such embeddings, and few attention has been paid to the estimation of such embeddings and their applications. In this paper we study the number of maximum genus embeddings for a graph and find an exponential lower bound for such numbers. Our results show that in gen-eral case, a simple connected graph has exponentially many distinct maximum genus embeddings. In particular, a connected cubic graph G of order n always has at least 2~1/2m+n+ α2 distinct maximum genus embeddings, where α and m denote, respectively, the number of inner vertices and odd compo-nents of an optimal tree T . What surprise us most is that such two extremal embeddings (i.e., the maximum genus embeddings and the genus embeddings) are sometimes closely related with each other. In fact, as applications, we show that for a suffcient large natural number n, there are at least C2 n4 dmeapneyn dgienngu os ne mthbee vdadliuneg soffonrocf ormespidleutee 1g2r.a pThh eKsen rwesiuthlt sn i m≡p r4o,v 7e, 1th0e ( mbooudn1d2)s, owbthaeirnee dC b iys Ka ocroznhsikta anncde Voss and the methods used here are much simpler and straight.

  20. Taxonomy of the genus Passerina (Thymelaeaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    C. L. Bredenkamp; A. E. van Wyk

    2003-01-01

    Passerina L. is mainly a southern African genus, comprising 20 species and four subspecies. A few species occur along the Great Escarpment, two extend into Zimbabwe and Mozambique, but most are concentrated in the Cape Floristic Region. Palynological. macromorphological and anatomical evidence was used in the delimitation of the genus and its infrageneric taxa. A cladistic study supports Passerina as a monophyletic genus. A genus treatment, key to species and a full species treatment are give...

  1. Comparative phylogeography of bamboo bats of the genus Tylonycteris (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae in Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuong Tan Tu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In Southeast Asia, bats of the genus Tylonycteris Peters, 1872 have traditionally been classified into two wide-ranging species, T. pachypus (Temminck, 1840 and T. robustula Thomas, 1915. Our comparative phylogeographic analyses based on two mitochondrial and seven nuclear genes, combined with our multivariate morphological analyses, show that these species actually represent cryptic species complexes that share a similar biogeographic history in three major regions, i.e., Sundaland, southern Indochina, and northern Indochina. Our molecular dating estimates suggest that Pleistocene climatic oscillations and sea level changes have repeatedly isolated ancestral populations of Tylonycteris spp. in distant bamboo forest refugia. The analyses indicate, however, that populations of the T. pachypus complex were less affected by forest fragmentation in mainland Southeast Asia than those of the T. robustula complex. Accordingly, we propose several taxonomic changes within the genus Tylonycteris: the species T. fulvida and T. malayana are revalidated, and a new species, T. tonkinensis Tu, Csorba, Ruedi & Hassanin sp. nov., endemic to northern Indochina, is described.

  2. Morphological and molecular diversity of Lake Baikal candonid ostracods, with description of a new genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Karanovic

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Uncoupling between molecular and morphological evolution is common in many animal and plant lineages. This is especially frequent among groups living in ancient deep lakes, because these ecosystems promote rapid morphological diversification, and has already been demonstrated for Tanganyika cychlid fishes and Baikal amphipods. Ostracods are also very diverse in these ecosystems, with 107 candonid species described so far from Baikal, majority of them in the genera Candona Baird, 1845 and Pseudocandona Kaufmann, 1900. Here we study their morphological and molecular diversity based on four genes (two nuclear and two mitochondrial, 10 species from the lake, and 28 other species from around the world. The results of our phylogenetic analysis based on a concatenated data set, along with sequence diversity, support only two genetic lineages in the lake and indicate that a majority of the Baikal Candona and Pseudocandona species should be excluded from these genera. We describe a new genus, Mazepovacandona gen. n., to include five Baikal species, all redescribed here. We also amend the diagnosis for the endemic genus Baicalocandona Mazepova, 1972 and redescribe two species. Our study confirms an exceptional morphological diversity of Lake Baikal candonids and shows that both Baikal lineages are closely related to Candona, but only distantly to Pseudocandona.

  3. Molecular phylogeny of the Neotropical fish genus Tetragonopterus (Teleostei: Characiformes: Characidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Bruno F; Benine, Ricardo C; Silva, Gabriel S C; Avelino, Gleisy S; Oliveira, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Tetragonopterinae encompasses characid species of the genus Tetragonopterus, which are widely distributed throughout east of the Andes in South America. While taxonomy has recently clarified the species diversity and molecular evidence strongly supports the monophyly of Tetragonopterus, no interspecific relationship studies are currently available. Here we used a large molecular dataset composed of two mitochondrial and three nuclear loci containing an extensive taxon sampling within the family Characidae and included eleven species of Tetragonopterus to generate the first time-calibrated phylogeny for Tetragonopterinae. Our results support monophyly of the subfamily represented solely by Tetragonopterus and corroborate previous molecular hypothesis of close relationship with Exodon plus Roeboexodon and the subfamily Characinae. Internally, we found Moenkhausia georgiae as sister species to all remaining species followed by T. rarus, being both species endemic to the Guiana Shield drainages. Species-level relationships are first hypothesized and putative morphological apomorphies are discussed as support to monophyletic clades. Our time-calibrated phylogeny suggested an origin of the genus during the Late Oligocene-Early Miocene. We hypothesized that the Andean geological activity followed by transformations in the Amazonian hydrographic scenario during the Miocene may have promoted most of the lineage diversification within the Tetragonopterus.

  4. Taxonomic revision of Parasarus (Hymenoptera: Apidae s.l.: Protandrenini, a South American genus of bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelli dos Santos Ramos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Parasarus Ruz, 1993 comprises small black bees (3-5 mm long endemic to xeric regions of South America, mainly along of the Andean Cordillera. Prior to this study, the genus included only the type-species P. atacamensis Ruz, 1993 (from northern Chile which has mesoscutum strongly reticulated and inner hind tibial spur curved apically. In this paper, a taxonomic revision of Parasarus is presented and two new species are described: P. specularis sp. nov. (from central to northwest Argentina diagnosed mainly by pygidial plate of female extremely acute apically and labral plate yellow in male; and P. spiniventris sp. nov. (only recorded from central portion of Chile diagnosed by antennal socket below middle of face, subantennal area as long as broad, metapostnotum smooth, and sternum 3 of male with a tuft of stiff hairs. The morphological variation related to the type-species was studied and not considered sufficiently to recognized distinct species into P. atacamensis. Distribution maps, floral associations, key to species of the genus, and illustrations of general external morphology and genitalia are also provided.

  5. Population genetic divergence corresponds with species-level biodiversity patterns in the large genus Begonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, M; Hollingsworth, P M

    2008-06-01

    Begonia is one of the largest angiosperm genera, containing over 1500 species. Some aspects of the distribution of biodiversity in the genus, such as the geographical restrictions of monophyletic groups, the rarity and morphological variability of widespread species, and a preponderance of narrow endemics, suggest that restricted gene flow may have been a factor in the formation of so many species. In order to investigate whether this inference based on large-scale patterns is supported by data at the population level, we examined the distribution of genetic variation within Begonia sutherlandii in the indigenous forests of Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa, using microsatellite markers. Despite the species being predominantly outbreeding, we found high and significant levels of population structure (standardized =F'ST= 0.896). Even within individual populations, there was evidence for clear differentiation of subpopulations. There is thus congruence in evolutionary patterns ranging from interspecific phylogeny, the distribution of individual species, to the levels of population differentiation. Despite this species-rich genus showing a pan-tropical distribution, these combined observations suggest that differentiation occurs over very local scales. Although strongly selected allelic variants can maintain species cohesion with only low levels of gene flow, we hypothesize that in Begonia, gene flow levels are often so low, that divergence in allopatry is likely to be a frequent occurrence, and the lack of widespread species may in part be attributable to a lack of a mechanism for holding them together.

  6. DNA Barcoding Reveals High Cryptic Diversity of the Freshwater Halfbeak Genus Hemirhamphodon from Sundaland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainal Abidin, Muchlisin; Pulungan, Chaidir Parlindungan

    2016-01-01

    DNA barcoding of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene was utilized to assess the species diversity of the freshwater halfbeak genus Hemirhamphodon. A total of 201 individuals from 46 locations in Peninsular Malaysia, north Borneo (Sarawak) and Sumatra were successfully amplified for 616 base pairs of the COI gene revealing 231 variable and 213 parsimony informative sites. COI gene trees showed that most recognized species form monophyletic clades with high bootstrap support. Pairwise within species comparisons exhibited a wide range of intraspecific diversity from 0.0% to 14.8%, suggesting presence of cryptic diversity. This finding was further supported by barcode gap analysis, ABGD and the constructed COI gene trees. In particular, H. pogonognathus from Kelantan (northeast Peninsular Malaysia) diverged from the other H. pogonognathus groups with distances ranging from 7.8 to 11.8%, exceeding the nearest neighbor taxon. High intraspecific diversity was also observed in H. byssus and H. kuekanthali, but of a lower magnitude. This study also provides insights into endemism and phylogeographic structuring, and limited support for the Paleo-drainage divergence hypothesis as a driver of speciation in the genus Hemirhamphodon. PMID:27657915

  7. Real-time Leishmania genus master mix: a platform compatibility and stability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanson, Vanessa R; Scheirer, Jessica L; Kalina, Warren V; Wagar, Eric J

    2014-10-01

    Performing diagnostics and vector-pathogen surveillance in austere environments is challenging. On-site diagnostic/detection mitigates vector-borne disease complications during military or humanitarian deployments to disease endemic locals. The mobile molecular diagnostic platform, Joint Biological Agent Identification and Diagnostic System (JBAIDS; BioFire Diagnostics Inc., Salt Lake City, UT, USA), rapidly identifies biothreat pathogens. Although ideal for remote diagnostics, the platform was validated for specific pathogens of insignificant epidemiological consequence. Recognizing the JBAIDS's remote diagnostic/detection versatility, we tested a Leishmania genus real-time PCR master mix validated for use on the SmartCycler® (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) for concomitant use on the JBAIDS. We evaluated assay sensitivity, precision, and specificity of one or more Leishmania spp. on the JBAIDS and found that the JBAIDS produces superior detection sensitivity and specificity compared to the SmartCycler®. We also examined the storage stability of a bulk lot preparation of the Leishmania genus real-time PCR master mix on the SmartCycler® to ensure that long periods of frozen storage that would translate to a field environment with the JBAIDS were not detrimental to the reagent. We found that the bulk master mix maintains its stability over a 13-month time period. Overall, these studies confirm JBAIDS's versatility and demonstrate a streamlined assay development approach where reagents are compatible with both platforms. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Global phylogeny and biogeography of the fern genus Ctenitis (Dryopteridaceae), with a focus on the Indian Ocean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennequin, Sabine; Rouhan, Germinal; Salino, Alexandre; Duan, Yi-Fan; Lepeigneux, Marie-Capucine; Guillou, Marguerite; Ansell, Steve; Almeida, Thaís Elias; Zhang, Li-Bing; Schneider, Harald

    2017-07-01

    The diverse and pantropical genus Ctenitis, in the Dryopteridaceae, has been largely ignored in phylogenetic studies until now. In this study, we fill in this gap by reconstructing the first comprehensive phylogeny of the genus including 53 species currently recognized in the genus Ctenitis, among which seven species formerly were assigned to the genus Pseudotectaria and one to Heterogonium. Special emphasis was given to the sampling of species occurring in the African-Indian Ocean region. The presented results include reconstruction of a biogeographic scenario based on estimated divergence times and ancestral area reconstruction. Our findings confirm the inclusion, within Ctenitis, of the Indian Ocean species formerly placed in Pseudotectaria and Heterogonium. The crown group divergence was estimated to date back to the Oligocene or Early Miocene. The biogeographical scenario indicates an initial divergence of the Asian-Pacific ranges and the neotropical ranges, and a subsequent colonization of the Afro-Madagascan region by a lineage with neotropical ancestors. The Afro-Madagascan lineage splits into a lineage endemic to the Mascarene islands and a lineage occurring in Madagascar, the Comoros and Africa. The range expansion towards Africa and Madagascar was estimated to date back to the late Miocene, whereas the estimated ages for the onset of the diversification of the Mascarene diversity is consistent with the ages of these young, volcanic islands. The absence of any extant species of Ctenitis with a multi-continental distribution range and the rarity of inter-island dispersal and speciation in the Indian Ocean region suggest a limited contribution of long distance dispersal to the biogeographical history of this fern genus, versus a high contribution of local speciation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Pseudasthenes, a new genus of ovenbird (Aves: Passeriformes: Furnariidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derryberry, Elizabeth; Claramunt, Santiago; O'Quin, Kelly E.; Aleixo, Alexandre; Chesser, R. Terry; Remsen, J.V.; Brumfield, Robb T.

    2010-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of the family Furnariidae (Aves: Passeriformes) indicates that the genus Asthenes is polyphyletic, consisting of two groups that are not sister taxa. Pseudasthenes, a new genus of ovenbird, is described for one of these groups. The four species included in the new genus, formerly placed in Asthenes, are P. humicola, P. patagonica, P. steinbachi, and P. cactorum.

  10. Notes on the genus Digitaria, with descriptions of new species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrard, J.Th.

    1934-01-01

    Some years ago I had the opportunity to study more extensively a very interesting group of grasses, belonging to what is now accepted as a distinct genus, the genus Digitaria, formerly belonging as a subgenus to the genus Panicum. As to living plants of this group I was familiar with two european sp

  11. Topological classification and enumeration of RNA structures by genus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Penner, Robert; Reidys, C. M.

    2013-01-01

    To an RNA pseudoknot structure is naturally associated a topological surface, which has its associated genus, and structures can thus be classified by the genus. Based on earlier work of Harer-Zagier, we compute the generating function for the number of those structures of fixed genus and minimum...

  12. Modular functors are determined by their genus zero data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Ueno, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    We prove in this paper that the genus zero data of a modular functor determines the modular functor. We do this by establishing that the S-matrix in genus one with one point labeled arbitrarily can be expressed in terms of the genus zero information and we give an explicit formula. We do not assu...

  13. The strong symmetric genus of the finite Coxeter groups

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    The strong symmetric genus of a finite group G is the smallest genus of a closed orientable topological surface on which G acts faithfully as a group of orientation preserving automorphisms. In this paper we complete the calculation of the strong symmetric genus for each finite Coxeter group excluding the group E8.

  14. A taxonomic revision of the genus Ixonanthes (Linaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kool, R.

    1980-01-01

    In this revision 3 species are recognized for the Southeast Asian, mainly Malesian, genus Ixonanthes Jack (Linaceae). No new species are described, while 29 names have been placed into synonymy. It is proposed to unite the African genus Phyllocosmus Klotzsch with the American genus Ochthocosmus

  15. Redefinition of the genus Triophtydeus Thor, 1932 (Acari: Actinedida)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    André, H.M.

    1985-01-01

    The genus Triophtydeus Thor, 1932 is redefined from the study of the type-species, T. triophthalmus (Oudemans, 1929). The genus Metatriophtydeus André, 1980 is a junior synonym of Triophtydeus. Species belonging or likely to belong to the genus Triophtydeus are listed and generic and specific

  16. Remarks on the Lower Bounds for the Average Genus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-chao Chen

    2011-01-01

    Let G be a graph of maximum degree at most four. By using the overlap matrix method which is introduced by B. Mohar, we show that the average genus of G is not less than 1/3 of its maximum genus, and the bound is best possible. Also, a new lower bound of average genus in terms of girth is derived.

  17. Evolution of endemism on a young tropical mountain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merckx, V.; Hendriks, K.; Beentjes, K.; Mennes, C.B.; Becking, L.E.; Geurts, R.

    2015-01-01

    Tropical mountains are hot spots of biodiversity and endemism1–3, but the evolutionary origins of their unique biotas are poorly understood4. In varying degrees, local and regional extinction, long-distance colonization, and local recruitment may all contribute to the exceptional character of these

  18. Late endemic syphilis: case report of bejel with gummatous laryngitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Pace, J. L.; Csonka, G. W.

    1988-01-01

    An elderly Bedouin woman originally thought, on clinical and histological grounds, to have tuberculosis of the larynx was found to have gummatous laryngitis due to late endemic syphilis (bejel). This disease is highly prevalent in the Bedouin tribes of the Middle East. Doctors dealing with Arab patients, either in the Middle East or elsewhere, should be aware of this possibility.

  19. Rediscovery of Curcuma sumatrana (Zingiberaceae) endemic to West Sumatra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ardiyani, M.; Anggara, A.; Leong-Škorničková, J.

    2011-01-01

    A recent exploration of Sumatra resulted in the re-collection of Curcuma sumatrana, an endemic Zingiberaceae species of unclear identity that was first described by Miquel nearly 150 years ago. The history of this species is discussed, a detailed description with a colour plate is provided and a

  20. Global patterns in endemism explained by past climatic change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Roland

    2003-03-22

    I propose that global patterns in numbers of range-restricted endemic species are caused by variation in the amplitude of climatic change occurring on time-scales of 10-100 thousand years (Milankovitch oscillations). The smaller the climatic shifts, the more probable it is that palaeoendemics survive and that diverging gene pools persist without going extinct or merging, favouring the evolution of neoendemics. Using the change in mean annual temperature since the last glacial maximum, estimated from global circulation models, I show that the higher the temperature change in an area, the fewer endemic species of mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and vascular plants it harbours. This relationship was robust to variation in area (for areas greater than 10(4) km2), latitudinal position, extent of former glaciation and whether or not areas are oceanic islands. Past climatic change was a better predictor of endemism than annual temperature range in all phylads except amphibians, suggesting that Rapoport's rule (i.e. species range sizes increase with latitude) is best explained by the increase in the amplitude of climatic oscillations towards the poles. Globally, endemic-rich areas are predicted to warm less in response to greenhouse-gas emissions, but the predicted warming would cause many habitats to disappear regionally, leading to species extinctions.