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Sample records for monotonically decreasing function

  1. Monotone Boolean functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korshunov, A D [S.L. Sobolev Institute for Mathematics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2003-10-31

    Monotone Boolean functions are an important object in discrete mathematics and mathematical cybernetics. Topics related to these functions have been actively studied for several decades. Many results have been obtained, and many papers published. However, until now there has been no sufficiently complete monograph or survey of results of investigations concerning monotone Boolean functions. The object of this survey is to present the main results on monotone Boolean functions obtained during the last 50 years.

  2. Nonparametric estimation for hazard rate monotonously decreasing system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Fengyan; Li Weisong

    2005-01-01

    Estimation of density and hazard rate is very important to the reliability analysis of a system. In order to estimate the density and hazard rate of a hazard rate monotonously decreasing system, a new nonparametric estimator is put forward. The estimator is based on the kernel function method and optimum algorithm. Numerical experiment shows that the method is accurate enough and can be used in many cases.

  3. Version Spaces and Generalized Monotone Boolean Functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Bioch (Cor); T. Ibaraki

    2002-01-01

    textabstractWe consider generalized monotone functions f: X --> {0,1} defined for an arbitrary binary relation <= on X by the property x <= y implies f(x) <= f(y). These include the standard monotone (or positive) Boolean functions, regular Boolean functions and other interesting functions as speci

  4. Version Spaces and Generalized Monotone Boolean Functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Bioch (Cor); T. Ibaraki

    2002-01-01

    textabstractWe consider generalized monotone functions f: X --> {0,1} defined for an arbitrary binary relation <= on X by the property x <= y implies f(x) <= f(y). These include the standard monotone (or positive) Boolean functions, regular Boolean functions and other interesting functions as

  5. Monotonicity and bounds on Bessel functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry Landau

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available survey my recent results on monotonicity with respect to order of general Bessel functions, which follow from a new identity and lead to best possible uniform bounds. Application may be made to the "spreading of the wave packet" for a free quantum particle on a lattice and to estimates for perturbative expansions.

  6. Limit properties of monotone matrix functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behrndt, Jussi; Hassi, Seppo; de Snoo, Henk; Wietsma, Rudi

    2012-01-01

    The basic objects in this paper are monotonically nondecreasing n x n matrix functions D(center dot) defined on some open interval l = (a, b) of R and their limit values D(a) and D(b) at the endpoints a and b which are, in general, selfadjoint relations in C-n. Certain space decompositions induced b

  7. Nonparametric confidence intervals for monotone functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneboom, P.; Jongbloed, G.

    2015-01-01

    We study nonparametric isotonic confidence intervals for monotone functions. In [Ann. Statist. 29 (2001) 1699–1731], pointwise confidence intervals, based on likelihood ratio tests using the restricted and unrestricted MLE in the current status model, are introduced. We extend the method to the trea

  8. Competitive learning of monotone Boolean functions

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    We apply competitive analysis onto the problem of minimizing the number of queries to an oracle to completely reconstruct a given monotone Boolean function. Besides lower and upper bounds on the competitivity we determine optimal deterministic online algorithms for the smallest problem instances.

  9. Nonparametric confidence intervals for monotone functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneboom, P.; Jongbloed, G.

    2015-01-01

    We study nonparametric isotonic confidence intervals for monotone functions. In [Ann. Statist. 29 (2001) 1699–1731], pointwise confidence intervals, based on likelihood ratio tests using the restricted and unrestricted MLE in the current status model, are introduced. We extend the method to the

  10. Convex functions, monotone operators and differentiability

    CERN Document Server

    Phelps, Robert R

    1993-01-01

    The improved and expanded second edition contains expositions of some major results which have been obtained in the years since the 1st edition. Theaffirmative answer by Preiss of the decades old question of whether a Banachspace with an equivalent Gateaux differentiable norm is a weak Asplund space. The startlingly simple proof by Simons of Rockafellar's fundamental maximal monotonicity theorem for subdifferentials of convex functions. The exciting new version of the useful Borwein-Preiss smooth variational principle due to Godefroy, Deville and Zizler. The material is accessible to students who have had a course in Functional Analysis; indeed, the first edition has been used in numerous graduate seminars. Starting with convex functions on the line, it leads to interconnected topics in convexity, differentiability and subdifferentiability of convex functions in Banach spaces, generic continuity of monotone operators, geometry of Banach spaces and the Radon-Nikodym property, convex analysis, variational princ...

  11. Monotone operators and "bigger conjugate" functions

    CERN Document Server

    Bauschke, Heinz H; Wang, Xianfu; Yao, Liangjin

    2011-01-01

    We study a question posed by Stephen Simons in his 2008 monograph involving "bigger conjugate" (BC) functions and the partial infimal convolution. As Simons demonstrated in his monograph, these function have been crucial to the understanding and advancement of the state-of-the-art of harder problems in monotone operator theory, especially the sum problem. In this paper, we provide some tools for further analysis of BC--functions which allow us to answer Simons' problem in the negative. We are also able to refute a similar but much harder conjecture which would have generalized a classical result of Br\\'ezis, Crandall and Pazy. Our work also reinforces the importance of understanding unbounded skew linear relations to construct monotone operators with unexpected properties.

  12. Completely monotonic functions related to logarithmic derivatives of entire functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik Laurberg

    2011-01-01

    The logarithmic derivative l(x) of an entire function of genus p and having only non-positive zeros is represented in terms of a Stieltjes function. As a consequence, (-1)p(xml(x))(m+p) is a completely monotonic function for all m ≥ 0. This generalizes earlier results on complete monotonicity...... of functions related to Euler's psi-function. Applications to Barnes' multiple gamma functions are given....

  13. Convex functions, monotone operators and differentiability

    CERN Document Server

    Phelps, Robert R

    1989-01-01

    These notes start with an introduction to the differentiability of convex functions on Banach spaces, leading to the study of Asplund spaces and their intriguing relationship to monotone operators (and more general set-values maps) and Banach spaces with the Radon-Nikodym property. While much of this is classical, some of it is presented using streamlined proofs which were not available until recently. Considerable attention is paid to contemporary results on variational principles and perturbed optimization in Banach spaces, exhibiting their close connections with Asplund spaces. An introductory course in functional analysis is adequate background for reading these notes which can serve as the basis for a seminar of a one-term graduate course. There are numerous excercises, many of which form an integral part of the exposition.

  14. The Number of Monotone and Self-Dual Boolean Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haviarova L.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper we study properties of pre-complete class of Boolean functions - monotone Boolean functions. We discuss interval graph, the abbreviated d.n.f., a minimal d.n.f. and a shortest d.n.f. of this function. Then we present a d.n.f. with the highest number of conjunctionsand we determinate the exact number of them. We count the number of monotone Boolean functions with some special properties. In the end we estimate the number of Boolean functionthat are monotone and self-dual at the same time.

  15. Layered neural networks with non-monotonic transfer functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Katsuki; Sakata, Yasuo; Horiguchi, Tsuyoshi

    2003-01-01

    We investigate storage capacity and generalization ability for two types of fully connected layered neural networks with non-monotonic transfer functions; random patterns are embedded into the networks by a Hebbian learning rule. One of them is a layered network in which a non-monotonic transfer function of even layers is different from that of odd layers. The other is a layered network with intra-layer connections, in which the non-monotonic transfer function of inter-layer is different from that of intra-layer, and inter-layered neurons and intra-layered neurons are updated alternately. We derive recursion relations for order parameters for those layered networks by the signal-to-noise ratio method. We clarify that the storage capacity and the generalization ability for those layered networks are enhanced in comparison with those with a conventional monotonic transfer function when non-monotonicity of the transfer functions is selected optimally. We also point out that some chaotic behavior appears in the order parameters for the layered networks when non-monotonicity of the transfer functions increases.

  16. Stability of dynamical systems on the role of monotonic and non-monotonic Lyapunov functions

    CERN Document Server

    Michel, Anthony N; Liu, Derong

    2015-01-01

    The second edition of this textbook provides a single source for the analysis of system models represented by continuous-time and discrete-time, finite-dimensional and infinite-dimensional, and continuous and discontinuous dynamical systems.  For these system models, it presents results which comprise the classical Lyapunov stability theory involving monotonic Lyapunov functions, as well as corresponding contemporary stability results involving non-monotonicLyapunov functions.Specific examples from several diverse areas are given to demonstrate the applicability of the developed theory to many important classes of systems, including digital control systems, nonlinear regulator systems, pulse-width-modulated feedback control systems, and artificial neural networks.   The authors cover the following four general topics:   -          Representation and modeling of dynamical systems of the types described above -          Presentation of Lyapunov and Lagrange stability theory for dynamical sy...

  17. Monotone viable trajectories for functional differential inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Georges

    This paper is a study on functional differential inclusions with memory which represent the multivalued version of retarded functional differential equations. The main result gives a necessary and sufficient equations. The main result gives a necessary and sufficient condition ensuring the existence of viable trajectories; that means trajectories remaining in a given nonempty closed convex set defined by given constraints the system must satisfy to be viable. Some motivations for this paper can be found in control theory where F( t, φ) = { f( t, φ, u)} uɛU is the set of possible velocities of the system at time t, depending on the past history represented by the function φ and on a control u ranging over a set U of controls. Other motivations can be found in planning procedures in microeconomics and in biological evolutions where problems with memory do effectively appear in a multivalued version. All these models require viability constraints represented by a closed convex set.

  18. On Uniqueness of Conjugacy of Continuous and Piecewise Monotone Functions

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    Ciepliński Krzysztof

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the existence and uniqueness of solutions of the functional equation , , where are closed intervals, and , are some continuous piecewise monotone functions. A fixed point principle plays a crucial role in the proof of our main result.

  19. Modeling non-monotone risk aversion using SAHARA utility functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Chen; A. Pelsser; M. Vellekoop

    2011-01-01

    We develop a new class of utility functions, SAHARA utility, with the distinguishing feature that it allows absolute risk aversion to be non-monotone and implements the assumption that agents may become less risk averse for very low values of wealth. The class contains the well-known exponential and

  20. Rational functions with maximal radius of absolute monotonicity

    KAUST Repository

    Loczi, Lajos

    2014-05-19

    We study the radius of absolute monotonicity R of rational functions with numerator and denominator of degree s that approximate the exponential function to order p. Such functions arise in the application of implicit s-stage, order p Runge-Kutta methods for initial value problems and the radius of absolute monotonicity governs the numerical preservation of properties like positivity and maximum-norm contractivity. We construct a function with p=2 and R>2s, disproving a conjecture of van de Griend and Kraaijevanger. We determine the maximum attainable radius for functions in several one-parameter families of rational functions. Moreover, we prove earlier conjectured optimal radii in some families with 2 or 3 parameters via uniqueness arguments for systems of polynomial inequalities. Our results also prove the optimality of some strong stability preserving implicit and singly diagonally implicit Runge-Kutta methods. Whereas previous results in this area were primarily numerical, we give all constants as exact algebraic numbers.

  1. On Uniqueness of Conjugacy of Continuous and Piecewise Monotone Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Ciepliński

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the existence and uniqueness of solutions φ:I→J of the functional equation φ(f(x=F(φ(x, x∈I, where I,J are closed intervals, and f:I→I, F:J→J are some continuous piecewise monotone functions. A fixed point principle plays a crucial role in the proof of our main result.

  2. Horizontal Monotonicity of the Modulus of the Riemann Zeta Function and Related Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Matiyasevich, Yuri; Zvengrowski, Peter

    2012-01-01

    It is shown that the absolute values of Riemann's zeta function and two related functions strictly decrease when the imaginary part of the argument is fixed to any number with absolute value at least 8 and the real part of the argument is negative and increases up to 0; extending this monotonicity to the increase of the real part up to 1/2 is shown to be equivalent to the Riemann Hypothesis. Another result is a double inequality relating the real parts of the logarithmic derivatives of the three functions under consideration.

  3. Absolute Monotonicity of Functions Related To Estimates of First Eigenvalue of Laplace Operator on Riemannian Manifolds

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    Feng Qi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors find the absolute monotonicity and complete monotonicity of some functions involving trigonometric functions and related to estimates the lower bounds of the first eigenvalue of Laplace operator on Riemannian manifolds.

  4. Dynamical zeta functions for piecewise monotone maps of the interval

    CERN Document Server

    Ruelle, David

    2004-01-01

    Consider a space M, a map f:M\\to M, and a function g:M \\to {\\mathbb C}. The formal power series \\zeta (z) = \\exp \\sum ^\\infty _{m=1} \\frac {z^m}{m} \\sum _{x \\in \\mathrm {Fix}\\,f^m} \\prod ^{m-1}_{k=0} g (f^kx) yields an example of a dynamical zeta function. Such functions have unexpected analytic properties and interesting relations to the theory of dynamical systems, statistical mechanics, and the spectral theory of certain operators (transfer operators). The first part of this monograph presents a general introduction to this subject. The second part is a detailed study of the zeta functions associated with piecewise monotone maps of the interval [0,1]. In particular, Ruelle gives a proof of a generalized form of the Baladi-Keller theorem relating the poles of \\zeta (z) and the eigenvalues of the transfer operator. He also proves a theorem expressing the largest eigenvalue of the transfer operator in terms of the ergodic properties of (M,f,g).

  5. On a correspondence between regular and non-regular operator monotone functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibilisco, P.; Hansen, Frank; Isola, T.

    2009-01-01

    We prove the existence of a bijection between the regular and the non-regular operator monotone functions satisfying a certain functional equation. As an application we give a new proof of the operator monotonicity of certain functions related to the Wigner-Yanase-Dyson skew information.......We prove the existence of a bijection between the regular and the non-regular operator monotone functions satisfying a certain functional equation. As an application we give a new proof of the operator monotonicity of certain functions related to the Wigner-Yanase-Dyson skew information....

  6. Max-Sum Diversification, Monotone Submodular Functions and Dynamic Updates

    CERN Document Server

    Borodin, Allan; Ye, Yuli

    2012-01-01

    Result diversification has many important applications in databases, operations research, information retrieval, and finance. In this paper, we study and extend a particular version of result diversification, known as max-sum diversification. More specifically, we consider the setting where we are given a set of elements in a metric space and a set valuation function $f$ defined on every subset. For any given subset $S$, the overall objective is a linear combination of $f(S)$ and the sum of the distances induced by $S$. The goal is to find a subset $S$ satisfying some constraints that maximizes the overall objective. This problem is first studied by Gollapudi and Sharma for modular set functions and for sets satisfying a cardinality constraint. We consider an extension of the modular case to the monotone submodular case, for which the previous algorithm no longer applies. Interestingly, we are able to match the 2-approximation using a natural, but different greedy algorithm. We then further extend the problem...

  7. Estimation of a monotone percentile residual life function under random censorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Pereira, Alba M; de Uña-Álvarez, Jacobo

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new estimator of a percentile residual life function with censored data under a monotonicity constraint. Specifically, it is assumed that the percentile residual life is a decreasing function. This assumption is useful when estimating the percentile residual life of units, which degenerate with age. We establish a law of the iterated logarithm for the proposed estimator, and its n-equivalence to the unrestricted estimator. The asymptotic normal distribution of the estimator and its strong approximation to a Gaussian process are also established. We investigate the finite sample performance of the monotone estimator in an extensive simulation study. Finally, data from a clinical trial in primary biliary cirrhosis of the liver are analyzed with the proposed methods. One of the conclusions of our work is that the restricted estimator may be much more efficient than the unrestricted one.

  8. Approximate Representation of a Class of Associative Functions by a Monotone 1-Place Function and Addition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李中夫; 刘应明

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses the problem of simple representation of multi-place functions from the viewpoint of "simple approximation". We prove that a class of associative functions, which have a wide range of applications, can be approximately represented by a monotone 1-place function and addition.

  9. MONOTONIZATION IN GLOBAL OPTIMIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU ZHIYOU; BAI FUSHENG; ZHANG LIANSHENG

    2005-01-01

    A general monotonization method is proposed for converting a constrained programming problem with non-monotone objective function and monotone constraint functions into a monotone programming problem. An equivalent monotone programming problem with only inequality constraints is obtained via this monotonization method. Then the existingconvexification and concavefication methods can be used to convert the monotone programming problem into an equivalent better-structured optimization problem.

  10. Totally Optimal Decision Trees for Monotone Boolean Functions with at Most Five Variables

    KAUST Repository

    Chikalov, Igor

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present the empirical results for relationships between time (depth) and space (number of nodes) complexity of decision trees computing monotone Boolean functions, with at most five variables. We use Dagger (a tool for optimization of decision trees and decision rules) to conduct experiments. We show that, for each monotone Boolean function with at most five variables, there exists a totally optimal decision tree which is optimal with respect to both depth and number of nodes.

  11. Health inequality and non-monotonicity of the health related social welfare function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Indranil

    2007-03-01

    In a recent paper in this journal Abasolo and Tsuchiya [Abasolo, I., Tsuchiya, A., 2004. Exploring social welfare functions and violation of monotonicity: an example from inequalities in health. Journal of Health Economics 23, 313-329] have strongly argued for the use of a non-monotonic health related social welfare function. This note discusses both the limitations of the measure proposed by Abasolo and Tsuchiya [Abasolo, I., Tsuchiya, A., 2004. Exploring social welfare functions and violation of monotonicity: an example from inequalities in health. Journal of Health Economics 23, 313-329] and the problems associated with their empirics. We are able to show how non-monotonicity may lead to paradoxical results and policies. Further we examine the empirics of Abasolo and Tsuchiya [Abasolo, I., Tsuchiya, A., 2004. Exploring social welfare functions and violation of monotonicity: an example from inequalities in health. Journal of Health Economics 23, 313-329] and provide an alternative explanation to the observed patterns in the data that do not violate monotonicity. Finally we briefly mention why the Atkinson-Sen framework may be more appropriate as a way forward.

  12. Enlargements of Monotone Operators Determined by Representing Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rezaei

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study a new enlargement of subdifferential for any proper lower semicontinuous function. We know that ε-subdifferential of any proper lower semicontinuous function is an enlargement of its subfifferential and any point from the graph of ε- subdifferential can be approximated by a point from the graph of sub- fifferential. This nice property, apart from its theoretical importance, gives also the possibility to use the enlargement of subdifferentials in finding approximate solutions of inclusions determined by subdifferentials. We define a new enlargement and observe, in the case subdifferentials, the relation between this new enlargement and the ε- subdifferentia

  13. Complete Monotonicity of a Difference Between the Exponential and Trigamma Functions and Properties Related to a Modified Bessel Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qi, Feng; Berg, Christian

    2013-01-01

    In the paper, the authors find necessary and sufficient conditions for a difference between the exponential function αeβ/t, α, β > 0, and the trigamma function ψ (t) to be completely monotonic on (0,∞). While proving the complete onotonicity, the authors discover some properties related to the fi...... to the first order modified Bessel function of the first kind I1, including inequalities, monotonicity, unimodality, and convexity....

  14. Interior-point algorithm based on general kernel function for monotone linear complementarity problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yong; BAI Yan-qin

    2009-01-01

    A polynomial interior-point algorithm is presented for monotone linear complementarity problem (MLCP) based on:a class of kernel functions with the general barrier term, which are called general kernel functions. Under the mild conditions for the barrier term, the complexity bound of algorithm in terms of such kernel function and its derivatives is obtained. The approach is actually an extension of the existing work which only used the specific kernel functions for the MLCP.

  15. Bifurcations of a predator-prey model with non-monotonic response function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broer, H.W.; Naudot, Vincent; Roussarie, Robert; Saleh, Khairul

    2005-01-01

    A 2-dimensional predator-prey model with five parameters is investigated, adapted from the Volterra-Lotka system by a non-monotonic response function. A description of the various domains of structural stability and their bifurcations is given. The bifurcation structure is reduced to four organising

  16. Computation of non-monotonic Lyapunov functions for continuous-time systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huijuan; Liu, AnPing

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we propose two methods to compute non-monotonic Lyapunov functions for continuous-time systems which are asymptotically stable. The first method is to solve a linear optimization problem on a compact and bounded set. The proposed linear programming based algorithm delivers a CPA1

  17. An analysis of single-index model with monotonic link function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Li-ping; YANG Xiao-yan; YU Zhou; LIU Xiang-rong

    2008-01-01

    The single-index model with monotonic link function is investigated. Firstly,it is showed that the link function h(·) can be viewed by a graphic method. That is,the plot with the fitted response y on the horizontal axis and the observed y on the vertical axis can be used to visualize the link function. It is pointed out that this graphic approach is also applicable even when the link function is not monotonic. Note that many existing nonparametric smoothers can also be used to assess h(·). Therefore,the I-spline approximation of the link function via maximizing the covariance function with a penalty function is investigated in the present work.The consistency of the criterion is constructed. A small simulation is carried out to evidence the efficiency of the approach proposed in the paper.

  18. Monotone Boolean approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulme, B.L.

    1982-12-01

    This report presents a theory of approximation of arbitrary Boolean functions by simpler, monotone functions. Monotone increasing functions can be expressed without the use of complements. Nonconstant monotone increasing functions are important in their own right since they model a special class of systems known as coherent systems. It is shown here that when Boolean expressions for noncoherent systems become too large to treat exactly, then monotone approximations are easily defined. The algorithms proposed here not only provide simpler formulas but also produce best possible upper and lower monotone bounds for any Boolean function. This theory has practical application for the analysis of noncoherent fault trees and event tree sequences.

  19. Monotonically increasing functions of any quantum correlation can make all multiparty states monogamous

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salini, K. [School of Physics, IISER TVM, CET Campus, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 016 (India); Prabhu, R.; Sen, Aditi [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad 211 019 (India); Sen, Ujjwal, E-mail: ujjwal@hri.res.in [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad 211 019 (India)

    2014-09-15

    Monogamy of quantum correlation measures puts restrictions on the sharability of quantum correlations in multiparty quantum states. Multiparty quantum states can satisfy or violate monogamy relations with respect to given quantum correlations. We show that all multiparty quantum states can be made monogamous with respect to all measures. More precisely, given any quantum correlation measure that is non-monogamic for a multiparty quantum state, it is always possible to find a monotonically increasing function of the measure that is monogamous for the same state. The statement holds for all quantum states, whether pure or mixed, in all finite dimensions and for an arbitrary number of parties. The monotonically increasing function of the quantum correlation measure satisfies all the properties that are expected for quantum correlations to follow. We illustrate the concepts by considering a thermodynamic measure of quantum correlation, called the quantum work deficit.

  20. On the Boundary Limits of Monotone Sobolev Functions in Variable Exponent Orlicz Spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Toshihide FUTAMURA; Tetsu SHIMOMURA

    2013-01-01

    Our aim in this note is to deal with boundary limits of monotone Sobolev functions with ▽u ∈ Lp(·) logLq(·)(B) for the unit ball B (C) Rn.Here p(·) and q(·) are variable exponents satisfying the log-H(o)lder and the log log-H(o)lder conditions,respectively.

  1. Monotone Approximations of Minimum and Maximum Functions and Multi-objective Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stipanovic, Dusan M., E-mail: dusan@illinois.edu [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Coordinated Science Laboratory, Department of Industrial and Enterprise Systems Engineering (United States); Tomlin, Claire J., E-mail: tomlin@eecs.berkeley.edu [University of California at Berkeley, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (United States); Leitmann, George, E-mail: gleit@berkeley.edu [University of California at Berkeley, College of Engineering (United States)

    2012-12-15

    In this paper the problem of accomplishing multiple objectives by a number of agents represented as dynamic systems is considered. Each agent is assumed to have a goal which is to accomplish one or more objectives where each objective is mathematically formulated using an appropriate objective function. Sufficient conditions for accomplishing objectives are derived using particular convergent approximations of minimum and maximum functions depending on the formulation of the goals and objectives. These approximations are differentiable functions and they monotonically converge to the corresponding minimum or maximum function. Finally, an illustrative pursuit-evasion game example with two evaders and two pursuers is provided.

  2. Approximating the Influence of a monotone Boolean function in O(\\sqrt{n}) query complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Ron, Dana; Rubinfeld, Ronitt; Safra, Muli; Weinstein, Omri

    2011-01-01

    The {\\em Total Influence} ({\\em Average Sensitivity) of a discrete function is one of its fundamental measures. We study the problem of approximating the total influence of a monotone Boolean function \\ifnum\\plusminus=1 $f: \\{\\pm1\\}^n \\longrightarrow \\{\\pm1\\}$, \\else $f: \\bitset^n \\to \\bitset$, \\fi which we denote by $I[f]$. We present a randomized algorithm that approximates the influence of such functions to within a multiplicative factor of $(1\\pm \\eps)$ by performing $O(\\frac{\\sqrt{n}\\log...

  3. Sharp Thresholds for Monotone Non Boolean Functions and Social Choice Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kalai, Gil

    2010-01-01

    A key fact in the theory of Boolean functions $f : \\{0,1\\}^n \\to \\{0,1\\}$ is that they often undergo sharp thresholds. For example: if the function $f : \\{0,1\\}^n \\to \\{0,1\\}$ is monotone and symmetric under a transitive action with $\\E_p[f] = \\eps$ and $\\E_q[f] = 1-\\eps$ then $q-p \\to 0$ as $n \\to \\infty$. Here $\\E_p$ denotes the product probability measure on $\\{0,1\\}^n$ where each coordinate takes the value $1$ independently with probability $p$. The fact that symmetric functions undergo sharp thresholds is important in the study of random graphs and constraint satisfaction problems as well as in social choice.In this paper we prove sharp thresholds for monotone functions taking values in an arbitrary finite sets. We also provide examples of applications of the results to social choice and to random graph problems. Among the applications is an analog for Condorcet's jury theorem and an indeterminacy result for a large class of social choice functions.

  4. On complete monotonicity of the Prabhakar function and non-Debye relaxation in dielectrics

    CERN Document Server

    Mainardi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    The three parameters Mittag--Leffler function (often referred as the Prabhakar function) has important applications, mainly in physics of dielectrics, in describing anomalous relaxation of non--Debye type. This paper concerns with the investigation of the conditions, on the characteristic parameters, under which the function is locally integrable and completely monotonic; these properties are essential for the physical feasibility of the corresponding models. In particular the classical Havriliak--Negami model is extended to a wider range of the parameters. The problem of the numerical evaluation of the three parameters Mittag--Leffler function is also addressed and three different approaches are discussed and compared. Numerical simulations are hence used to validate the theoretical findings and present some graphs of the function under investigation.

  5. Testing Monotonicity of Pricing Kernels

    OpenAIRE

    Timofeev, Roman

    2007-01-01

    In this master thesis a mechanism to test mononicity of empirical pricing kernels (EPK) is presented. By testing monotonicity of pricing kernel we can determine whether utility function is concave or not. Strictly decreasing pricing kernel corresponds to concave utility function while non-decreasing EPK means that utility function contains some non-concave regions. Risk averse behavior is usually described by concave utility function and considered to be a cornerstone of classical behavioral ...

  6. Ergodic averages for monotone functions using upper and lower dominating processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Mengersen, Kerrie

    2007-01-01

    We show how the mean of a monotone function (defined on a state space equipped with a partial ordering) can be estimated, using ergodic averages calculated from upper and lower dominating processes of a stationary irreducible Markov chain. In particular, we do not need to simulate the stationary ...... methods are studied in detail for three models using Markov chain Monte Carlo methods and we also discuss various types of other models for which our methods apply.......We show how the mean of a monotone function (defined on a state space equipped with a partial ordering) can be estimated, using ergodic averages calculated from upper and lower dominating processes of a stationary irreducible Markov chain. In particular, we do not need to simulate the stationary...... Markov chain and we eliminate the problem of whether an appropriate burn-in is determined or not. Moreover, when a central limit theorem applies, we show how confidence intervals for the mean can be estimated by bounding the asymptotic variance of the ergodic average based on the equilibrium chain. Our...

  7. Ergodic averages for monotone functions using upper and lower dominating processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Mengersen, Kerrie

    We show how the mean of a monotone function (defined on a state space equipped with a partial ordering) can be estimated, using ergodic averages calculated from upper and lower dominating processes of a stationary irreducible Markov chain. In particular, we do not need to simulate the stationary ...... methods are studied in detail for three models using Markov chain Monte Carlo methods and we also discuss various types of other models for which our methods apply.......We show how the mean of a monotone function (defined on a state space equipped with a partial ordering) can be estimated, using ergodic averages calculated from upper and lower dominating processes of a stationary irreducible Markov chain. In particular, we do not need to simulate the stationary...... Markov chain and we eliminate the problem of whether an appropriate burn-in is determined or not. Moreover, when a central limit theorem applies, we show how confidence intervals for the mean can be estimated by bounding the asymptotic variance of the ergodic average based on the equilibrium chain. Our...

  8. Necessary and sufficient conditions for a class of functions and their reciprocals to be logarithmically completely monotonic

    OpenAIRE

    Lv Yu-Pei; Sun Tian-Chuan; Chu Yu-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We prove that the function F α,β (x) = x α Γ β (x)/Γ(βx) is strictly logarithmically completely monotonic on (0, ∞) if and only if (α, β) ∈ {(α, β) : β > 0, β ≥ 2α + 1, β ≥ α + 1}{(α, β) : α = 0, β = 1} and that [F α,β (x)]-1 is strictly logarithmically completely monotonic on (0, ∞) if and only if (α, β) ∈ {(α, β ...

  9. Necessary and sufficient conditions for a class of functions and their reciprocals to be logarithmically completely monotonic

    OpenAIRE

    Lv Yu-Pei; Sun Tian-Chuan; Chu Yu-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We prove that the function F α,β (x) = x α Γ β (x)/Γ(βx) is strictly logarithmically completely monotonic on (0, ∞) if and only if (α, β) ∈ {(α, β) : β > 0, β ≥ 2α + 1, β ≥ α + 1}{(α, β) : α = 0, β = 1} and that [F α,β (x)]-1 is strictly logarithmically completely monotonic on (0, ∞) if and only if (α, β) ∈ {(α, β ...

  10. Graphical message transmission using the monotonic vibration function of a smart phone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ray F; Rugama, Allan D

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating four vibrotactile capabilities for perceiving graphical information presented on a smart phone. Thirty-two blindfolded college students participated in four experiments to test their capabilities of two-point discrimination, relative and absolute judgments of line thickness, and recognition of basic shapes. All the information was received through the default vibration function of the phone, sensed by their scanning fingers. The results showed a good two-point discrimination accuracy rate, reaching 98.8% when the distance between two points was set at 3.2 mm; the relative judgment of line thickness reached the level of 78.3% accuracy when the two-line width difference ratio was set at 3%; the absolute judgment reached the level of 78.8% when the participants recognised line thickness from one of two. Overall, especially for the shapes judgment, the information transmitted by the various codes may be quite low. These findings should inspire advanced investigations and provide design guidelines. This study tested four vibrotactile capabilities for perception of graphical information when solely using the monotonic vibration function of a smart phone. The results show low information transmission. These findings encourage advanced investigations of new coding systems so that relevant mobile applications could be developed to help the visually impaired.

  11. Sufficient Condition for Monotonicity in Constructing the Distribution Function With Bernoulli Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedenyapin Aleksandr Dmitrievich

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the construction of the distribution function using the Bernoulli scheme, and is also designed to correct some of the mistakes that were made in the article [2]. Namely, a function built in [2] need not be monotonous, and some formulas need to be adjusted. The idea of building as well as in [2], is based on the model of Cox-Ross-Rubinstein "binary market". The essence of the model was to divide time into N steps, and assuming that the price of an asset at each step can move either up to a certain value with probability p, or down also by some certain value with probability q = 1 - p. Prices in step N can take only a finite number of values. "Success" or "failure" was the changing price for some fixed value in the model of Cox-Ross-Rubinstein. Here as a "success" or "failure" at every step we consider the affiliation of changing the index value to the section [r, S] either to the interval [I, r. Further a function P(r was introduced, which at any step gives us the probability of "success". The maximum index value increase for the all period of time [T, 2T] will be equal nS, and the maximum possible reduction will be equal nI. Then let x ∈ [nI, nS]. This segment will reflect every possible total variation that we can get at the end of a period of time [T, 2T]. The further introduced inequality k ≥ (x - nI/(S - I gives us the minimum number of successes that needed for total changing could be in the section [x, nS] if was n - k reductions with the index value to I. Then was introduced the function r(x, kmin which is defined on the interval (nI, nS] and provided us some assurance that the total index changing could be in the section [x, nS] if successful interval is [r(x, kmin, S] and the amount of success is satisfying to our inequality. The probability of k "successes" and n - k "failures" is calculated according to the formula of Bernoulli, where the probability of "success" is determined by the function P(r, and r is determined

  12. Monotonicity of a Key Function Arised in Studies of Nematic Liquid Crystal Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyun Wang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We revisit a key function arised in studies of nematic liquid crystal polymers. Previously, it was conjectured that the function is strictly decreasing and the conjecture was numerically confirmed. Here we prove the conjecture analytically. More specifically, we write the derivative of the function into two parts and prove that each part is strictly negative.

  13. Efficient Minimization of Higher Order Submodular Functions using Monotonic Boolean Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Ramalingam, Srikumar; Ladicky, Lubor; Torr, Philip H S

    2011-01-01

    Submodular function minimization is a key problem in a wide variety of applications in machine learning, economics, game theory, computer vision and many others. The general solver has a complexity of $O(n^6+n^5L)$ where $L$ is the time required to evaluate the function and $n$ is the number of variables \\cite{orlin09}. On the other hand, many useful applications in computer vision and machine learning applications are defined over a special subclasses of submodular functions in which that can be written as the sum of many submodular cost functions defined over cliques containing few variables. In such functions, the pseudo-Boolean (or polynomial) representation \\cite{BorosH02} of these subclasses are of degree (or order, or clique size) $k$ where $k<functions. To do this, we define novel mapping that transform submodular functions of order $k$ into quadratic ones, which can be efficiently minim...

  14. Non-monotonicity of Lyapunov functions for functional differential equations with enlightenments for related research methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xueyan; Deng, Feiqi

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, a particular property of Lyapunov functions for functional differential equations (FDEs) is developed, that is the direct dependence of the signs of the derivatives of the Lyapunov functions on the initial data. This property implies that the derivatives of the Lyapunov functions for FDEs cannot be guaranteed to be negative definite generally, and then makes the FDEs differ from the ordinary differential equations constitutionally. With this property, we give some enlightenments for the research methods for establishing stability theorems or criteria for FDEs, which may help us to form a common view about the choice of the investigation methods on the stability of FDEs. The conclusion is stated in both the deterministic and stochastic versions. Two illustrative examples are given to show and verify our conclusion through the paper.

  15. Fractional calculus, completely monotonic functions, a generalized Mittag-Leffler function and phase-space consistency of separable augmented densities

    CERN Document Server

    An, J

    2012-01-01

    Under the separability assumption on the augmented density, a distribution function can be always constructed for a spherical population with the specified density and anisotropy profile. Then, a question arises, under what conditions the distribution constructed as such is non-negative everywhere in the entire accessible subvolume of the phase-space. We rediscover necessary conditions on the augmented density expressed with fractional calculus. The condition on the radius part R(r^2) -- whose logarithmic derivative is the anisotropy parameter -- is equivalent to R(1/w)/w being a completely monotonic function whereas the condition on the potential part is stated as its derivative up to the order not greater than 3/2-b being non-negative (where b is the central limiting value for the anisotropy parameter). We also derive the set of sufficient conditions on the separable augmented density for the non-negativity of the distribution, which generalizes the condition derived for the generalized Cuddeford system by ...

  16. Multiple periodic solutions of a delayed predator-prey model with non-monotonic functional response and stage structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingyuan; Zhang, Xiaolan; Zhou, Tiejun

    2014-01-01

    The paper studies a periodic and delayed predator-prey system with non-monotonic functional responses and stage structure. In the system, both the predator and prey are divided into immature individuals and mature individuals by two fixed ages. It is assumed that the immature predators cannot attack preys, and the case of the mature predators attacking the immature preys is also ignored. Based on Mawhin's coincidence degree, sufficient conditions are obtained for the existence of two positive periodic solutions of the system. An example is presented to illustrate the feasibility of the main results.

  17. Multistability of neural networks with discontinuous non-monotonic piecewise linear activation functions and time-varying delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xiaobing; Zheng, Wei Xing

    2015-05-01

    This paper is concerned with the problem of coexistence and dynamical behaviors of multiple equilibrium points for neural networks with discontinuous non-monotonic piecewise linear activation functions and time-varying delays. The fixed point theorem and other analytical tools are used to develop certain sufficient conditions that ensure that the n-dimensional discontinuous neural networks with time-varying delays can have at least 5(n) equilibrium points, 3(n) of which are locally stable and the others are unstable. The importance of the derived results is that it reveals that the discontinuous neural networks can have greater storage capacity than the continuous ones. Moreover, different from the existing results on multistability of neural networks with discontinuous activation functions, the 3(n) locally stable equilibrium points obtained in this paper are located in not only saturated regions, but also unsaturated regions, due to the non-monotonic structure of discontinuous activation functions. A numerical simulation study is conducted to illustrate and support the derived theoretical results.

  18. A Characterization of Generalized Monotone Normed Cones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.ROMAGUERA; E.A.S(A)NCHEZ-P(E)REZ; O.VALERO

    2007-01-01

    Let C be a cone and consider a quasi-norm p defined on it. We study the structure of the couple (C, p) as a topological space in the case where the function p is also monotone. We characterize when the topology of a quasi-normed cone can be defined by means of a monotone norm. We also define and study the dual cone of a monotone normed cone and the monotone quotient of a general cone.We provide a decomposition theorem which allows us to write a cone as a direct sum of a monotone subcone that is isomorphic to the monotone quotient and other particular subcone.

  19. Multistability of memristive Cohen-Grossberg neural networks with non-monotonic piecewise linear activation functions and time-varying delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xiaobing; Zheng, Wei Xing; Cao, Jinde

    2015-11-01

    The problem of coexistence and dynamical behaviors of multiple equilibrium points is addressed for a class of memristive Cohen-Grossberg neural networks with non-monotonic piecewise linear activation functions and time-varying delays. By virtue of the fixed point theorem, nonsmooth analysis theory and other analytical tools, some sufficient conditions are established to guarantee that such n-dimensional memristive Cohen-Grossberg neural networks can have 5(n) equilibrium points, among which 3(n) equilibrium points are locally exponentially stable. It is shown that greater storage capacity can be achieved by neural networks with the non-monotonic activation functions introduced herein than the ones with Mexican-hat-type activation function. In addition, unlike most existing multistability results of neural networks with monotonic activation functions, those obtained 3(n) locally stable equilibrium points are located both in saturated regions and unsaturated regions. The theoretical findings are verified by an illustrative example with computer simulations.

  20. Upper Bound and Lower Bound Estimate of Monotone Increasing Fractal Function%单调递增分形函数上、下界的估计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马冠忠; 袁瑰霞; 崔振文

    2008-01-01

    Mass distribution principle is one of important tools in studying Hausdorff dimension and Hausdorff measure.In this paper we will give a numerical approximate method of upper bound and lower bound of mass distribution function f(x)(it is a monotone increasing fractal function)and its some applications.

  1. Optimal investment and indifference pricing when risk aversion is not monotone: SAHARA utility functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Chen; A. Pelsser; M. Vellekoop

    2008-01-01

    Abstract. We develop a new class of utility functions, SAHARA utility, with the dis- tinguishing feature that they implement the assumption that agents may become less risk-averse for very low values of wealth. This means that SAHARA utility can be used to characterize risk gambling behavior of an e

  2. Free Monotone Transport

    CERN Document Server

    Guionnet, A

    2012-01-01

    By solving a free analog of the Monge-Amp\\`ere equation, we prove a non-commutative analog of Brenier's monotone transport theorem: if an $n$-tuple of self-adjoint non-commutative random variables $Z_{1},...,Z_{n}$ satisfies a regularity condition (its conjugate variables $\\xi_{1},...,\\xi_{n}$ should be analytic in $Z_{1},...,Z_{n}$ and $\\xi_{j}$ should be close to $Z_{j}$ in a certain analytic norm), then there exist invertible non-commutative functions $F_{j}$ of an $n$-tuple of semicircular variables $S_{1},...,S_{n}$, so that $Z_{j}=F_{j}(S_{1},...,S_{n})$. Moreover, $F_{j}$ can be chosen to be monotone, in the sense that $F_{j}=\\mathscr{D}_{j}g$ and $g$ is a non-commutative function with a positive definite Hessian. In particular, we can deduce that $C^{*}(Z_{1},...,Z_{n})\\cong C^{*}(S_{1},...,S_{n})$ and $W^{*}(Z_{1},...,Z_{n})\\cong L(\\mathbb{F}(n))$. Thus our condition is a useful way to recognize when an $n$-tuple of operators generate a free group factor. We obtain as a consequence that the q-deforme...

  3. Two Sequences of Operator Monotone Functions and Strictly Chaotic Order%两组算子单调函数序列与严格Chaotic序

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蕾; 姜健飞

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we introduce two sequences of operator functions and their dual functions: fk(t) = (tlogt)k-(t-1)k/logk+1 t (k = 1,2,…), gk(t) = (t-1)k-logkt/logk+1 t (k = 1,2,…) and f*k(t)=tklogk+1 t/(t log t)k-(t-1)k(k=1,2,…),g*k(t)= tk logk+1 t/(t-1)k-logkt(k = 1, 2, …) defined on (0,+∞). We find that they are all operator monotone functions with respect to the strictly chaotic order and some ordinary orders among positive invertible operators. Indeed, we extend the results of the operator monotone function tlog t-t+1/log2t, which is widely used in the theory of heat transfer of the heat engineering and fluid mechanics [1].

  4. Monotonic Allocation Schemes in Clan Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorneveld, M.; Tijs, S.H.; Grahn, S.

    2000-01-01

    Total clan games are characterized using monotonicity, veto power of the clan members, and a concavity condition reflecting the decreasing marginal contribution of non-clan members to growing coalitions.This decreasing marginal contribution is incorporated in the notion of a bi-monotonic allocation

  5. Monotonicity in the Sample Size of the Length of Classical Confidence Intervals

    CERN Document Server

    Kagan, Abram M

    2012-01-01

    It is proved that the average length of standard confidence intervals for parameters of gamma and normal distributions monotonically decrease with the sample size. The proofs are based on fine properties of the classical gamma function.

  6. Monotonicity of social welfare optima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of maximizing social welfare subject to participation constraints. It is shown that for an income allocation method that maximizes a social welfare function there is a monotonic relationship between the incomes allocated to individual agents in a given coalition...... (with at least three members) and its participation constraint if and only if the aggregate income to that coalition is always maximized. An impossibility result demonstrates that there is no welfare maximizing allocation method in which agents' individual incomes monotonically increase in society......'s income. Thus, for any such allocation method, there are situations where some agents have incentives to prevent society in becoming richer....

  7. Monotone Hurwitz numbers in genus zero

    CERN Document Server

    Goulden, I P; Novak, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Hurwitz numbers count branched covers of the Riemann sphere with specified ramification data, or equivalently, transitive permutation factorizations in the symmetric group with specified cycle types. Monotone Hurwitz numbers count a restricted subset of the branched covers counted by the Hurwitz numbers, and have arisen in recent work on the the asymptotic expansion of the Harish-Chandra-Itzykson-Zuber integral. In this paper we begin a detailed study of monotone Hurwitz numbers. We prove two results that are reminiscent of those for classical Hurwitz numbers. The first is the monotone join-cut equation, a partial differential equation with initial conditions that characterizes the generating function for monotone Hurwitz numbers in arbitrary genus. The second is our main result, in which we give an explicit formula for monotone Hurwitz numbers in genus zero.

  8. Autoimmune Response Confers Decreased Cardiac Function in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... interleukin-6 (IL-6), high –sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and echocardiographic indices of heart function in the two .... patients were classified as NYHA class II, fifteen as class III, and ... group were excluded if they had a history of.

  9. Multistability analysis of a general class of recurrent neural networks with non-monotonic activation functions and time-varying delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Zeng, Zhigang; Wang, Jun

    2016-07-01

    This paper addresses the multistability for a general class of recurrent neural networks with time-varying delays. Without assuming the linearity or monotonicity of the activation functions, several new sufficient conditions are obtained to ensure the existence of (2K+1)(n) equilibrium points and the exponential stability of (K+1)(n) equilibrium points among them for n-neuron neural networks, where K is a positive integer and determined by the type of activation functions and the parameters of neural network jointly. The obtained results generalize and improve the earlier publications. Furthermore, the attraction basins of these exponentially stable equilibrium points are estimated. It is revealed that the attraction basins of these exponentially stable equilibrium points can be larger than their originally partitioned subsets. Finally, three illustrative numerical examples show the effectiveness of theoretical results.

  10. A-monotonicity and applications to nonlinear variational inclusion problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram U. Verma

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A new notion of the A-monotonicity is introduced, which generalizes the H-monotonicity. Since the A-monotonicity originates from hemivariational inequalities, and hemivariational inequalities are connected with nonconvex energy functions, it turns out to be a useful tool proving the existence of solutions of nonconvex constrained problems as well.

  11. Testing Manifest Monotonicity Using Order-Constrained Statistical Inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijmstra, Jesper; Hessen, David J.; van der Heijden, Peter G. M.; Sijtsma, Klaas

    2013-01-01

    Most dichotomous item response models share the assumption of latent monotonicity, which states that the probability of a positive response to an item is a nondecreasing function of a latent variable intended to be measured. Latent monotonicity cannot be evaluated directly, but it implies manifest monotonicity across a variety of observed scores,…

  12. Periodontal Disease and Decreased Kidney Function in Japanese Elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iwasaki, Masanori; Taylor, George W.; Nesse, Willem; Vissink, Arjan; Yoshihara, Akihiro; Miyazaki, Hideo

    Background: Early detection of decreased kidney function can help prevent the progression of kidney disease to kidney failure and cardiovascular events. Potentially significant associations between kidney function and periodontal disease have been reported in cross-sectional studies. However, no

  13. Weighted monotonicity inequalities for unbounded operators

    CERN Document Server

    Hoa, Dinh Trung

    2011-01-01

    Let $\\tau$ be a faithful normal semifinite trace on a von Neumann algebra $\\mathcal{M}$. For a continuous nonnegative convex monotone nondecreasing function $f$ on convex subset $\\Omega$ of $\\mathbb{R}$ and weight nonnegative Borel function $w$ we consider weighted monotonicity inequalities of the form {equation*} \\tau(w(A)^{1/2}f(A)w(A)^{1/2}) \\le \\tau (w(A)^{1/2}f(B)w(A)^{1/2}), {equation*} where $A$ and $B$ are unbounded operators affiliated with respect to algebra $\\mathcal{M}$.

  14. Population Monotonic Path Schemes for Simple Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciftci, B.B.; Borm, P.E.M.; Hamers, H.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    A path scheme for a simple game is composed of a path, i.e., a sequence of coalitions that is formed during the coalition formation process and a scheme, i.e., a payoff vector for each coalition in the path.A path scheme is called population monotonic if a player's payoff does not decrease as the pa

  15. Monotone Rank and Separations in Computational Complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yang D

    2011-01-01

    In the paper, we introduce the concept of monotone rank, and using it as a powerful tool, we obtain several important and strong separation results in computational complexity. We show a super-exponential separation between monotone and non-monotone computation in the non-commutative model, and thus give the answer to a longstanding open problem posed by Nisan \\cite{Nis1991} in algebraic complexity. More specifically, we exhibit a homogeneous algebraic function $f$ of degree $d$ ($d$ even) on $n$ variables with the monotone algebraic branching program (ABP) complexity $\\Omega(n^{d/2})$ and the non-monotone ABP complexity $O(d^2)$. We propose a relaxed version of the famous Bell's theorem\\cite{Bel1964}\\cite{CHSH1969}. Bell's theorem basically states that local hidden variable theory cannot predict the correlations produced by quantum mechanics, and therefore is an impossibility result. Bell's theorem heavily relies on the diversity of the measurements. We prove that even if we fix the measurement, infinite amo...

  16. On the sample monotonization problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takhanov, R. S.

    2010-07-01

    The problem of finding a maximal subsample in a training sample consisting of the pairs “object-answer” that does not violate monotonicity constraints is considered. It is proved that this problem is NP-hard and that it is equivalent to the problem of finding a maximum independent set in special directed graphs. Practically important cases in which a partial order specified on the set of answers is a complete order or has dimension two are considered in detail. It is shown that the second case is reduced to the maximization of a quadratic convex function on a convex set. For this case, an approximate polynomial algorithm based on linear programming theory is proposed.

  17. Periodontal Disease and Decreased Kidney Function in Japanese Elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iwasaki, Masanori; Taylor, George W.; Nesse, Willem; Vissink, Arjan; Yoshihara, Akihiro; Miyazaki, Hideo

    2012-01-01

    Background: Early detection of decreased kidney function can help prevent the progression of kidney disease to kidney failure and cardiovascular events. Potentially significant associations between kidney function and periodontal disease have been reported in cross-sectional studies. However, no lon

  18. Decreased frontal lobe function in people with Internet addiction disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Liu; Shunke Zhou; Fatema Esmail; Lingjiang Li; Zhifeng Kou; Weihui Li; Xueping Gao; Zhiyuan Wang; Changlian Tan; Yan Zhang

    2013-01-01

    In our previous studies, we showed that frontal lobe and brainstem functions were abnormal in on-line game addicts. In this study, 14 students with Internet addiction disorder and 14 matched healthy controls underwent proton-magnetic resonance spectroscopy to measure cerebral function. Results demonstrated that the ratio of N-acetylaspartate to creatine decreased, but the ratio of cho-line-containing compounds to creatine increased in the bilateral frontal lobe white matter in people with Internet addiction disorder. However, these ratios were mostly unaltered in the brainstem, suggesting that frontal lobe function decreases in people with Internet addiction disorder.

  19. Robust sampling-sourced numerical retrieval algorithm for optical energy loss function based on log-log mesh optimization and local monotonicity preserving Steffen spline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglevanny, I. I.; Smolar, V. A.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new technique of interpolation of the energy-loss function (ELF) in solids sampled by empirical optical spectra. Finding appropriate interpolation methods for ELFs poses several challenges. The sampled ELFs are usually very heterogeneous, can originate from various sources thus so called "data gaps" can appear, and significant discontinuities and multiple high outliers can be present. As a result an interpolation based on those data may not perform well at predicting reasonable physical results. Reliable interpolation tools, suitable for ELF applications, should therefore satisfy several important demands: accuracy and predictive power, robustness and computational efficiency, and ease of use. We examined the effect on the fitting quality due to different interpolation schemes with emphasis on ELF mesh optimization procedures and we argue that the optimal fitting should be based on preliminary log-log scaling data transforms by which the non-uniformity of sampled data distribution may be considerably reduced. The transformed data are then interpolated by local monotonicity preserving Steffen spline. The result is a piece-wise smooth fitting curve with continuous first-order derivatives that passes through all data points without spurious oscillations. Local extrema can occur only at grid points where they are given by the data, but not in between two adjacent grid points. It is found that proposed technique gives the most accurate results and also that its computational time is short. Thus, it is feasible using this simple method to address practical problems associated with interaction between a bulk material and a moving electron. A compact C++ implementation of our algorithm is also presented.

  20. Non-monotonic effect of confinement on the glass transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnik, Fathollah; Franosch, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The relaxation dynamics of glass forming liquids and their structure are influenced in the vicinity of confining walls. This effect has mostly been observed to be a monotonic function of the slit width. Recently, a qualitatively new behaviour has been uncovered by Mittal and coworkers, who reported that the single particle dynamics in a hard-sphere fluid confined in a planar slit varies in a non-monotonic way as the slit width is decreased from five to roughly two particle diametres (Mittal et al 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 100 145901). In view of the great potential of this effect for applications in those fields of science and industry, where liquids occur under strong confinement (e.g. nano-technology), the number of researchers studying various aspects and consequences of this non-monotonic behaviour has been rapidly growing. This review aims at providing an overview of the research activity in this newly emerging field. We first briefly discuss how competing mechanisms such as packing effects and short-range attraction may lead to a non-monotonic glass transition scenario in the bulk. We then analyse confinement effects on the dynamics of fluids using a thermodynamic route which relates the single particle dynamics to the excess entropy. Moreover, relating the diffusive dynamics to the Widom’s insertion probability, the oscillations of the local dynamics with density at moderate densities are fairly well described. At high densities belonging to the supercooled regime, however, this approach breaks down signaling the onset of strongly collective effects. Indeed, confinement introduces a new length scale which in the limit of high densities and small pore sizes competes with the short-range local order of the fluid. This gives rise to a non-monotonic dependence of the packing structure on confinement, with a corresponding effect on the dynamics of structural relaxation. This non-monotonic effect occurs also in the case of a cone-plate type channel, where the degree

  1. Measuring Upper Limb Capacity in Poststroke Patients : Development, Fit of the Monotone Homogeneity Model, Unidimensionality, Fit of the Double Monotonicity Model, Differential Item Functioning, Internal Consistency, and Feasibility of the Stroke Upper Limb Capacity Scale, SULCS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roorda, Leo D.; Houwink, Annemieke; Smits, Wendy; Molenaar, Ivo W.; Geurts, Alexander C.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To develop an easy-to-use scale that measures upper limb capacity, according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health definition, in patients after stroke, and to investigate certain psychometric properties of this scale. Design: Cohort study. Setting: In

  2. Persistent Postconcussive Symptoms Are Accompanied by Decreased Functional Brain Oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmich, Ingo; Saluja, Rajeet S; Lausberg, Hedda; Kempe, Mathias; Furley, Philip; Berger, Alisa; Chen, Jen-Kai; Ptito, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Diagnostic methods are considered a major concern in the determination of mild traumatic brain injury. The authors examined brain oxygenation patterns in subjects with severe and minor persistent postconcussive difficulties and a healthy control group during working memory tasks in prefrontal brain regions using functional near-infrared spectroscopy. The results demonstrated decreased working memory performances among concussed subjects with severe postconcussive symptoms that were accompanied by decreased brain oxygenation patterns. An association appears to exist between decreased brain oxygenation, poor performance of working memory tasks, and increased symptom severity scores in subjects suffering from persistent postconcussive symptoms.

  3. LIMITED MEMORY BFGS METHOD FOR NONLINEAR MONOTONE EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weijun Zhou; Donghui Li

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an algorithm for solving nonlinear monotone equations by combining the limited memory BFGS method (L-BFGS) with a projection method. We show that the method is globally convergent if the equation involves a Lipschitz continuous monotone function. We also present some preliminary numerical results.

  4. Monotone partitions and almost partitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonanzinga, M.; Cammaroto, F.; van Mill, J.; Pansera, B.A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we are interested in monotone versions of partitionability of topological spaces and weak versions thereof. We identify several classes of spaces with these properties by constructing trees of open sets with various properties.

  5. Decreased functional brain connectivity in adolescents with internet addiction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon-Beom Hong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Internet addiction has become increasingly recognized as a mental disorder, though its neurobiological basis is unknown. This study used functional neuroimaging to investigate whole-brain functional connectivity in adolescents diagnosed with internet addiction. Based on neurobiological changes seen in other addiction related disorders, it was predicted that connectivity disruptions in adolescents with internet addiction would be most prominent in cortico-striatal circuitry. METHODS: Participants were 12 adolescents diagnosed with internet addiction and 11 healthy comparison subjects. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance images were acquired, and group differences in brain functional connectivity were analyzed using the network-based statistic. We also analyzed network topology, testing for between-group differences in key graph-based network measures. RESULTS: Adolescents with internet addiction showed reduced functional connectivity spanning a distributed network. The majority of impaired connections involved cortico-subcortical circuits (∼24% with prefrontal and ∼27% with parietal cortex. Bilateral putamen was the most extensively involved subcortical brain region. No between-group difference was observed in network topological measures, including the clustering coefficient, characteristic path length, or the small-worldness ratio. CONCLUSIONS: Internet addiction is associated with a widespread and significant decrease of functional connectivity in cortico-striatal circuits, in the absence of global changes in brain functional network topology.

  6. Monotone complete C*-algebras and generic dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Saitô, Kazuyuki

    2015-01-01

    This monograph is about monotone complete C*-algebras, their properties and the new classification theory. A self-contained introduction to generic dynamics is also included because of its important connections to these algebras. Our knowledge and understanding of monotone complete C*-algebras has been transformed in recent years. This is a very exciting stage in their development, with much discovered but with many mysteries to unravel. This book is intended to encourage graduate students and working mathematicians to attack some of these difficult questions. Each bounded, upward directed net of real numbers has a limit. Monotone complete algebras of operators have a similar property. In particular, every von Neumann algebra is monotone complete but the converse is false. Written by major contributors to this field, Monotone Complete C*-algebras and Generic Dynamics takes readers from the basics to recent advances. The prerequisites are a grounding in functional analysis, some point set topology and an eleme...

  7. Task-related signal decrease on functional magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, Yoshie; Nakamura, Mitsugu; Tamaki, Norihiko; Tamura, Shogo [Kobe Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Kitamura, Junji

    2001-10-01

    An atypical pattern of signal change was identified on functional magnetic resonance (fMR) imaging in pathologic patients. Three normal volunteers and 34 patients with pathologic lesions near the primary motor cortex underwent fMR imaging with echo-planar imaging while performing a hand motor task. Signal intensities were evaluated with the z-score method, and the time course and changes of the signal intensity were calculated. Nine of the 34 patients with pathologic lesions displayed a significant task-related signal reduction in motor-related areas. They also presented a conventional task-related signal increase in other motor-related areas. The time courses of the increase and decrease were the inverse of each other. There was no significant difference between rates of signal increase and decrease. Our findings suggest that this atypical signal decrease is clinically significant, and that impaired vascular reactivity and altered oxygen metabolism could contribute to the task-related signal reduction. Brain areas showing such task-related signal decrease should be preserved at surgery. (author)

  8. Why Monotonous Repetition is Unsatisfying

    CERN Document Server

    Salingaros, Nikos A

    2011-01-01

    Human beings prefer ordered complexity and not randomness in their environment, a result of our perceptual system evolving to interpret natural forms. We also recognize monotonously repeating forms as unnatural. Although widespread in today's built environment, such forms generate reactions ranging from boredom to unease. Christopher Alexander has introduced rules for generating forms adapted to natural geometries, which show structured variation with multiple symmetries in a hierarchy of scales. It turns out to be impossible to generate monotonously repeating forms by following those rules. As it is highly probable that traditional artifacts, buildings, and cities were created instinctively using a version of the same rules, this is the reason we never find monotonously repeating forms in traditional cultures.

  9. Edit Distance to Monotonicity in Sliding Windows

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, Ho-Leung; Lee, Lap-Kei; Pan, Jiangwei; Ting, Hing-Fung; Zhang, Qin

    2011-01-01

    Given a stream of items each associated with a numerical value, its edit distance to monotonicity is the minimum number of items to remove so that the remaining items are non-decreasing with respect to the numerical value. The space complexity of estimating the edit distance to monotonicity of a data stream is becoming well-understood over the past few years. Motivated by applications on network quality monitoring, we extend the study to estimating the edit distance to monotonicity of a sliding window covering the $w$ most recent items in the stream for any $w \\ge 1$. We give a deterministic algorithm which can return an estimate within a factor of $(4+\\eps)$ using $O(\\frac{1}{\\eps^2} \\log^2(\\eps w))$ space. We also extend the study in two directions. First, we consider a stream where each item is associated with a value from a partial ordered set. We give a randomized $(4+\\epsilon)$-approximate algorithm using $O(\\frac{1}{\\epsilon^2} \\log \\epsilon^2 w \\log w)$ space. Second, we consider an out-of-order strea...

  10. Non-monotonic relationships between emotional arousal and memory for color and location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boywitt, C Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Recent research points to the decreased diagnostic value of subjective retrieval experience for memory accuracy for emotional stimuli. While for neutral stimuli rich recollective experiences are associated with better context memory than merely familiar memories this association appears questionable for emotional stimuli. The present research tested the implicit assumption that the effect of emotional arousal on memory is monotonic, that is, steadily increasing (or decreasing) with increasing arousal. In two experiments emotional arousal was manipulated in three steps using emotional pictures and subjective retrieval experience as well as context memory were assessed. The results show an inverted U-shape relationship between arousal and recognition memory but for context memory and retrieval experience the relationship was more complex. For frame colour, context memory decreased linearly while for spatial location it followed the inverted U-shape function. The complex, non-monotonic relationships between arousal and memory are discussed as possible explanations for earlier divergent findings.

  11. Use of empirical likelihood to calibrate auxiliary information in partly linear monotone regression models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Baojiang; Qin, Jing

    2014-05-10

    In statistical analysis, a regression model is needed if one is interested in finding the relationship between a response variable and covariates. When the response depends on the covariate, then it may also depend on the function of this covariate. If one has no knowledge of this functional form but expect for monotonic increasing or decreasing, then the isotonic regression model is preferable. Estimation of parameters for isotonic regression models is based on the pool-adjacent-violators algorithm (PAVA), where the monotonicity constraints are built in. With missing data, people often employ the augmented estimating method to improve estimation efficiency by incorporating auxiliary information through a working regression model. However, under the framework of the isotonic regression model, the PAVA does not work as the monotonicity constraints are violated. In this paper, we develop an empirical likelihood-based method for isotonic regression model to incorporate the auxiliary information. Because the monotonicity constraints still hold, the PAVA can be used for parameter estimation. Simulation studies demonstrate that the proposed method can yield more efficient estimates, and in some situations, the efficiency improvement is substantial. We apply this method to a dementia study.

  12. Decreased kidney function among agricultural workers in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peraza, Sandra; Wesseling, Catharina; Aragon, Aurora; Leiva, Ricardo; García-Trabanino, Ramón Antonio; Torres, Cecilia; Jakobsson, Kristina; Elinder, Carl Gustaf; Hogstedt, Christer

    2012-04-01

    An epidemic of chronic kidney disease of unknown cause has emerged along the Pacific coast of Central America, particularly in relatively young male sugarcane workers. In El Salvador, we examined residence and occupations at different altitudes as surrogate risk factors for heat stress. Cross-sectional population-based survey. Populations aged 20-60 years of 5 communities in El Salvador, 256 men and 408 women (participation, 73%): 2 coastal communities with current sugarcane and past cotton production and 3 communities above 500 m with sugarcane, coffee, and service-oriented economies. Participant sex, age, residence, occupation, agricultural history by crop and altitude, and traditional risk factors for CKD. Serum creatinine (SCr) level greater than the normal laboratory range for sex, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2, and proteinuria categorized as low (protein excretion ≥ 30-< 300 mg/dL) and high grade (≥ 300 mg/dL). Of the men in the coastal communities, 30% had elevated SCr levels and 18% had eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 compared with 4% and 1%, respectively, in the communities above 500 m. For agricultural workers, prevalences of elevated SCr levels and eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 were highest for coastal sugarcane and cotton plantation workers, but were not increased in sugarcane workers at 500 m or subsistence farmers. Women followed a weaker but similar pattern. Proteinuria was infrequent, of low grade, and not different among communities, occupations, or sexes. The adjusted ORs of decreased kidney function for 10-year increments of coastal sugarcane or cotton plantation work were 3.1 (95% CI, 2.0-5.0) in men and 2.3 (95% CI, 1.4-3.7) in women. The cross-sectional nature of the study limits etiologic interpretations. Agricultural work on lowland sugarcane and cotton plantations was associated with decreased kidney function in men and women, possibly related to strenuous work in hot environments with repeated volume depletion

  13. Precipitous Dehydroepiandrosterone Declines Reflect Decreased Physical Vitality and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendina, Danielle N; Ryff, Carol D; Coe, Christopher L

    2017-06-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfated form, DHEA-S, peak in young adulthood and then decrease dramatically with age. However, there is extensive variation in this age-related hormone decline, suggesting an early decrement may be associated with lower vitality and be prognostic of poor health in old age. To determine whether DHEA-S and DHEA are correlated with physical indices of vitality, hormone levels were analyzed with respect to clinical health histories, physical functioning including grip strength, gait speed and repetitive standing, and self-reported chronic pain. The participants (N = 1,214) were 35-86 years of age from a nationally representative survey, Midlife Development in the United States. DHEA-S and DHEA below age-expected levels were associated with more chronic illness conditions and self-reported persistent pain and pain sensitivity upon manual palpation. Additionally, lower DHEA-S and DHEA correlated with poorer performance on tests of physical functioning by middle age suggesting a more precipitous decline is already indicative of reduced vigor and physical strength. When considered with respect to age- and gender-typical norms, larger decrements in DHEA-S and DHEA may be causally related to the loss of physical vitality. Conversely, when hormone secretion is sustained in older adults, it conveys reduced risk for the physical weakness and ailments that precede frailty. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Monotonicity of chi-square test statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Ryu, Keunkwan

    2003-01-01

    This paper establishes monotonicity of the chi-square test statistic. As the more efficient parameter estimator is plugged into the test statistic, the degrees of freedom of the resulting chi-square test statistic monotonically increase.

  15. Generalized convexity, generalized monotonicity recent results

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez-Legaz, Juan-Enrique; Volle, Michel

    1998-01-01

    A function is convex if its epigraph is convex. This geometrical structure has very strong implications in terms of continuity and differentiability. Separation theorems lead to optimality conditions and duality for convex problems. A function is quasiconvex if its lower level sets are convex. Here again, the geo­ metrical structure of the level sets implies some continuity and differentiability properties for quasiconvex functions. Optimality conditions and duality can be derived for optimization problems involving such functions as well. Over a period of about fifty years, quasiconvex and other generalized convex functions have been considered in a variety of fields including economies, man­ agement science, engineering, probability and applied sciences in accordance with the need of particular applications. During the last twenty-five years, an increase of research activities in this field has been witnessed. More recently generalized monotonicity of maps has been studied. It relates to generalized conve...

  16. Some Generalizations of Monotonicity Condition and Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    虞旦盛; 周颂平

    2006-01-01

    @@ O Introduction It is well known that there are a great number of interesting results in Fourier analysis established by assuming monotonicity of coefficients, and many of them have been generalized by loosing the condition to quasi-monotonicity, O-regularly varying quasi-monotonicity, etc..

  17. MINLIP for the Identification of Monotone Wiener Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Pelckmans, Kristiaan

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the MINLIP estimator for the identification of Wiener systems consisting of a sequence of a linear FIR dynamical model, and a monotonically increasing (or decreasing) static function. Given $T$ observations, this algorithm boils down to solving a convex quadratic program with $O(T)$ variables and inequality constraints, implementing an inference technique which is based entirely on model complexity control. The resulting estimates of the linear submodel are found to be almost consistent when no noise is present in the data, under a condition of smoothness of the true nonlinearity and local Persistency of Excitation (local PE) of the data. This result is novel as it does not rely on classical tools as a 'linearization' using a Taylor decomposition, nor exploits stochastic properties of the data. It is indicated how to extend the method to cope with noisy data, and empirical evidence contrasts performance of the estimator against other recently proposed techniques.

  18. A monotone framework for CCS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    2009-01-01

    The calculus of communicating systems, CCS, was introduced by Robin Milner as a calculus for modelling concurrent systems. Subsequently several techniques have been developed for analysing such models in order to get further insight into their dynamic behaviour. In this paper we present a static...... analysis for approximating the control structure embedded within the models. We formulate the analysis as an instance of a monotone framework and thus draw on techniques that often are associated with the efficient implementation of classical imperative programming languages. We show how to construct...

  19. Monotone data visualization using rational trigonometric spline interpolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibraheem, Farheen; Hussain, Maria; Hussain, Malik Zawwar

    2014-01-01

    Rational cubic and bicubic trigonometric schemes are developed to conserve monotonicity of curve and surface data, respectively. The rational cubic function has four parameters in each subinterval, while the rational bicubic partially blended function has eight parameters in each rectangular patch. The monotonicity of curve and surface data is retained by developing constraints on some of these parameters in description of rational cubic and bicubic trigonometric functions. The remaining parameters are kept free to modify the shape of curve and surface if required. The developed algorithm is verified mathematically and demonstrated graphically.

  20. Monotone Data Visualization Using Rational Trigonometric Spline Interpolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farheen Ibraheem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rational cubic and bicubic trigonometric schemes are developed to conserve monotonicity of curve and surface data, respectively. The rational cubic function has four parameters in each subinterval, while the rational bicubic partially blended function has eight parameters in each rectangular patch. The monotonicity of curve and surface data is retained by developing constraints on some of these parameters in description of rational cubic and bicubic trigonometric functions. The remaining parameters are kept free to modify the shape of curve and surface if required. The developed algorithm is verified mathematically and demonstrated graphically.

  1. Driving performance impairments due to hypovigilance on monotonous roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larue, Grégoire S; Rakotonirainy, Andry; Pettitt, Anthony N

    2011-11-01

    Drivers' ability to react to unpredictable events deteriorates when exposed to highly predictable and uneventful driving tasks. Highway design reduces the driving task mainly to a lane-keeping manoeuvre. Such a task is monotonous, providing little stimulation and this contributes to crashes due to inattention. Research has shown that driver's hypovigilance can be assessed with EEG measurements and that driving performance is impaired during prolonged monotonous driving tasks. This paper aims to show that two dimensions of monotony - namely road design and road side variability - decrease vigilance and impair driving performance. This is the first study correlating hypovigilance and driver performance in varied monotonous conditions, particularly on a short time scale (a few seconds). We induced vigilance decrement as assessed with an EEG during a monotonous driving simulator experiment. Road monotony was varied through both road design and road side variability. The driver's decrease in vigilance occurred due to both road design and road scenery monotony and almost independently of the driver's sensation seeking level. Such impairment was also correlated to observable measurements from the driver, the car and the environment. During periods of hypovigilance, the driving performance impairment affected lane positioning, time to lane crossing, blink frequency, heart rate variability and non-specific electrodermal response rates. This work lays the foundation for the development of an in-vehicle device preventing hypovigilance crashes on monotonous roads.

  2. Decreasing the Functioning Consumptions of Plastics Injection Moulding Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilache, V.; Vasilache, M.; Vasilache, A.

    2017-06-01

    A share of about 75% in the cost of a plastic moulded part is held by the energy consumption of the injection machine. It is the heating system of the plasticising unit which is responsible for the energophague character of the process. The transfer rate from the heating elements to the plasticising cylinder depends hardly on the geometry of the system. A new heating system is designed, replacing the classical systems which are applied on the exterior of the cylinder with an “engrooved system”. Proposed heating system leads to decreasing of energy consumption up to 30 % and maintenance costs up to 10 %. A supplementary possibility to decrease the maintenance costs is to modify the geometry of the injection torpedo. The proposed geometry eliminates the possibility of any breaking or gripping related to the injection torpedo.

  3. The Early Indicators of Functional Decrease in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubicki, Alexandre; Fautrelle, Lilian; Bourrelier, Julien; Rouaud, Olivier; Mourey, France

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Motor deficiency is associated with cognitive frailty in patients with Mild Cognitive Impairments (MCI). In this study we aimed to test the integrity in muscle synergies involved in an arm-pointing movement in functionally unimpaired MCI patients. We hypothesized that early motor indicators exist in this population at a preclinical level. Methods: Electromyographic signals were collected for 11 muscles in 3 groups: Young Adults (YA), Older Adults (OA), and MCI patients. The OA and MCI groups presented the same functional status. Each subject performed 20 arm-pointing movements from a standing position. Results: The main differences were (1) an earlier activation of the left Obliquus internus in MCI compared with OA group, (2) an earlier activation for the MCI compared with both OA and YA. The temporal differences in muscle synergies between MCI and OA groups were linked with executive functions of MCI patients, assessed by the trail making test. Moreover, the results show a delayed activation of the right Biceps Femoris and the right Erector Spinae at l3 in MCI and OA compared with YA. Interpretation: The motor program changes highlighted in our patient MCI group suggest that discrete modifications of the motor command seem to exist even in the absence of functional impairment. Instead of showing an indication of delayed muscle activation in the MCI patients, our results highlight some early activation of several trunk muscles. PMID:27570509

  4. Correlation between accelerated presbycusis and decreased immune functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, Hiroshi; Lee, Shinryu; Inaba, Muneo; Sugiura, Kikuya; Baba, Susumu; Tomoda, Koichi; Yamashita, Toshio; Ikehara, Susumu

    2003-03-01

    The aim of the current study is to analyze the relationship between presbycusis and the immune system, which is affected by pathogenic environments, and to devise a strategy for the prevention of presbycusis using the SAMP1 mouse, an animal model for accelerated senescence that shows both immunological dysfunction and hearing loss caused by the impairment of spiral ganglion cells in the cochlea. When these mice were bred in different pathogenic environments, we found that the development of age-related diseases such as presbycusis was delayed in the mice bred under clean conditions. Prednisolone administration showed no significant prevention of the development of presbycusis in the mice, suggesting that autoimmune mechanisms are not involved in the acceleration of presbycusis. It is conceivable that pathogen-induced infections impose a severe stress on the host, impairing the host's immune functions. A reduction in the number of pathogens may therefore prevent the acceleration of the aging process. These findings suggest that not only the gene backgrounds but also immune functions affect the development of presbycusis in SAMP1 mice. Further studies into the relationship between systemic immune functions and the neuro-generation system may provide additional information about the treatment for age-related diseases.

  5. Generalized monotone method and numerical approach for coupled reaction diffusion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowmya, M.; Vatsala, Aghalaya S.

    2017-01-01

    Study of coupled reaction diffusion systems are very useful in various branches of science and engineering. In this paper, we provide a methodology to construct the solution for the coupled reaction diffusion systems, with initial and boundary conditions, where the forcing function is the sum of an increasing and decreasing function. It is known that the generalized monotone method coupled with coupled lower and upper solutions yield monotone sequences which converges uniformly and monotonically to coupled minimal and maximal solutions. In addition, the interval of existence is guaranteed by the lower and upper solutions, which are relatively easy to compute. Using the lower and upper solutions as the initial approximation, we develop a method to compute the sequence of coupled lower and upper solutions on the interval or on the desired interval of existence. Further, if the uniqueness conditions are satisfied, the coupled minimal and maximal solutions converge to the unique solution of the reaction diffusion systems. We will provide some numerical results as an application of our numerical methodology.

  6. Vector optimization and monotone operators via convex duality recent advances

    CERN Document Server

    Grad, Sorin-Mihai

    2014-01-01

    This book investigates several duality approaches for vector optimization problems, while also comparing them. Special attention is paid to duality for linear vector optimization problems, for which a vector dual that avoids the shortcomings of the classical ones is proposed. Moreover, the book addresses different efficiency concepts for vector optimization problems. Among the problems that appear when the framework is generalized by considering set-valued functions, an increasing interest is generated by those involving monotone operators, especially now that new methods for approaching them by means of convex analysis have been developed. Following this path, the book provides several results on different properties of sums of monotone operators.

  7. Monotone models for prediction in data mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velikova, M.V.

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation studies the incorporation of monotonicity constraints as a type of domain knowledge into a data mining process. Monotonicity constraints are enforced at two stages¿data preparation and data modeling. The main contributions of the research are a novel procedure to test the degree of

  8. Monotonic Stable Solutions for Minimum Coloring Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamers, H.J.M.; Miquel, S.; Norde, H.W.

    2011-01-01

    For the class of minimum coloring games (introduced by Deng et al. (1999)) we investigate the existence of population monotonic allocation schemes (introduced by Sprumont (1990)). We show that a minimum coloring game on a graph G has a population monotonic allocation scheme if and only if G is (P4,

  9. Monotonicity-preserving linear multistep methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hundsdorfer, W.; Ruuth, S.J.; Spiteri, R.J.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we provide an analysis of monotonicity properties for linear multistep methods. These monotonicity properties include positivity and the diminishing of total variation. We also pay particular attention to related boundedness properties such as the total-variation-bounded (TVB) property

  10. Non-monotonic dynamics and crosstalk in signaling pathways and their implications for pharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Roeland; Tans, Sander J.; Wolde, Pieter Rein Ten; Mashaghi, Alireza

    2015-06-01

    Currently, drug discovery approaches commonly assume a monotonic dose-response relationship. However, the assumption of monotonicity is increasingly being challenged. Here we show that for two simple interacting linear signaling pathways that carry two different signals with different physiological responses, a non-monotonic input-output relation can arise with simple network topologies including coherent and incoherent feed-forward loops. We show that non-monotonicity of the response functions has severe implications for pharmacological treatment. Fundamental constraints are imposed on the effectiveness and toxicity of any drug independent of its chemical nature and selectivity due to the specific network structure.

  11. Monotone Semiflows Generated by Functional Differential Equations,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    These results have been applied to ordinary differential equations in Rn (see e.g. [10,23]) where the well-known Kamke theorem applies and to nonlinear...sufficient condition (H) Whenever 0 - 0 and ,i(0) = i( 0) it follows that fi(0) ( fi(O). For those familiar with the Kamke (quasimonotone) condition for...ordinary differential equations, (H) will seem quite natural, it reduces to the Kamke condition. The order preserving property of a semiflow is not

  12. Approximations for Monotone and Non-monotone Submodular Maximization with Knapsack Constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Kulik, Ariel; Tamir, Tami

    2011-01-01

    Submodular maximization generalizes many fundamental problems in discrete optimization, including Max-Cut in directed/undirected graphs, maximum coverage, maximum facility location and marketing over social networks. In this paper we consider the problem of maximizing any submodular function subject to $d$ knapsack constraints, where $d$ is a fixed constant. We establish a strong relation between the discrete problem and its continuous relaxation, obtained through {\\em extension by expectation} of the submodular function. Formally, we show that, for any non-negative submodular function, an $\\alpha$-approximation algorithm for the continuous relaxation implies a randomized $(\\alpha - \\eps)$-approximation algorithm for the discrete problem. We use this relation to improve the best known approximation ratio for the problem to $1/4- \\eps$, for any $\\eps > 0$, and to obtain a nearly optimal $(1-e^{-1}-\\eps)-$approximation ratio for the monotone case, for any $\\eps>0$. We further show that the probabilistic domain ...

  13. The global convergence of the non-quasi-Newton methods with non-monotone line search

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The non-quasi-Newton methods for unconstrained optimization was investigated. Non-monotone line search procedure is introduced, which is combined with the non-quasi-Newton family. Under the uniform convexity assumption on objective function, the global convergence of the non-quasi-Newton family was proved.Numerical experiments showed that the non-monotone line search was more effective.

  14. Effects of temperature on monotonic and fatigue properties of carbon fibre epoxy cross ply laminates

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuhisa, Y.; King, J.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of test temperature on damage accumulation behaviour has been studied using "Torayca" T800H / #3631 in conditions of monotonic and fatigue loading. The damage accumulation behaviour was found to vary as a function of the test temperature, with the effect of temperature on the damage behaviour being different between monotonic and fatigue loading.

  15. Effects of temperature on monotonic and fatigue properties of carbon fibre epoxy cross ply laminates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuhisa, Y. (Composite Materials Research Labs., Toray Industries Inc., Ehime (Japan)); King, J.E. (Composite Materials Research Labs., Toray Industries Inc., Ehime (Japan) Dept. of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom))

    1993-11-01

    The effects of test temperature on damage accumulation behaviour has been studied using ''Torayca'' T800H/[3631] in conditions of monotonic and fatigue loading. The damage accumulation behaviour was found to vary as a function of the test temperature, with the effect of temperature on the damage behaviour being different between monotonic and fatigue loading. (orig.).

  16. Viable harvest of monotone bioeconomic models

    CERN Document Server

    De Lara, Michel; Cabrera, Hector Ramirez

    2009-01-01

    Some monospecies age class models, as well as specific multi-species models (with so-called technical interactions), exhibit useful monotonicity properties. This paper deals with discrete time monotone bioeconomics dynamics in the presence of state and control constraints. In practice, these latter ``acceptable configurations'' represent production and preservation requirements to be satisfied for all time, and they also possess monotonicity properties. A state $\\state$ is said to belong to the viability kernel if there exists a trajectory, of states and controls, starting from $\\state$ and satisfying the constraints. Under monotonicity assumptions, we present upper and lower estimates of the viability kernel. This helps delineating domains where a viable management is possible. Numerical examples, in the context of fisheries management, for the Chilean sea bass (\\emph{Dissostichus eleginoides}) and Alfonsino (\\emph{Beryx splendens}) are given.

  17. Hyperbolic monotonicity in the Hilbert ball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reich Simeon

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We first characterize -monotone mappings on the Hilbert ball by using their resolvents and then study the asymptotic behavior of compositions and convex combinations of these resolvents.

  18. Regional trends in short-duration precipitation extremes: a flexible multivariate monotone quantile regression approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Alex

    2017-04-01

    Estimating historical trends in short-duration rainfall extremes at regional and local scales is challenging due to low signal-to-noise ratios and the limited availability of homogenized observational data. In addition to being of scientific interest, trends in rainfall extremes are of practical importance, as their presence calls into question the stationarity assumptions that underpin traditional engineering and infrastructure design practice. Even with these fundamental challenges, increasingly complex questions are being asked about time series of extremes. For instance, users may not only want to know whether or not rainfall extremes have changed over time, they may also want information on the modulation of trends by large-scale climate modes or on the nonstationarity of trends (e.g., identifying hiatus periods or periods of accelerating positive trends). Efforts have thus been devoted to the development and application of more robust and powerful statistical estimators for regional and local scale trends. While a standard nonparametric method like the regional Mann-Kendall test, which tests for the presence of monotonic trends (i.e., strictly non-decreasing or non-increasing changes), makes fewer assumptions than parametric methods and pools information from stations within a region, it is not designed to visualize detected trends, include information from covariates, or answer questions about the rate of change in trends. As a remedy, monotone quantile regression (MQR) has been developed as a nonparametric alternative that can be used to estimate a common monotonic trend in extremes at multiple stations. Quantile regression makes efficient use of data by directly estimating conditional quantiles based on information from all rainfall data in a region, i.e., without having to precompute the sample quantiles. The MQR method is also flexible and can be used to visualize and analyze the nonlinearity of the detected trend. However, it is fundamentally a

  19. Functional Diversity of Boreal Bog Plant Species Decreases Seasonal Variation of Ecosystem Carbon Sink Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korrensalo, A.

    2015-12-01

    Species diversity has been found to decrease the temporal variance of productivity of a plant community, and diversity in species responses to environmental factors seems to make a plant community more stable in changing conditions. Boreal bogs are nutrient poor peatland ecosystems where the number of plant species is low but the species differ greatly in their growth form. In here we aim to assess the role of the variation in photosynthesis between species for the temporal variation in ecosystem carbon sink function. To quantify the photosynthetic properties and their seasonal variation for different bog plant species we measured photosynthetic parameters and stress-inducing chlorophyll fluorescence of vascular plant and Sphagnum moss species in a boreal bog over a growing season. We estimated monthly gross photosynthesis (PG) of the whole study site based on species level light response curves and leaf area development. The estimated PG was further compared with a gross primary production (GPP) estimate measured by eddy covariance (EC) technique. The sum of upscaled PG estimates agreed well with the GPP estimate measured by the EC technique. The contributions of the species and species groups to the ecosystem level PG changed over the growing season. The sharp mid-summer peak in sedge PG was balanced by more stable PG of evergreen shrubs and Sphagna. Species abundance rather than differences in photosynthetic properties between species and growth forms determined the most productive plants on the ecosystem scale. Sphagna had lower photosynthesis and clorophyll fluorescence than vascular plants but were more productive on the ecosystem scale throughout the growing season due to their high areal coverage. These results show that the diversity of growth forms stabilizes the seasonal variation of the ecosystem level PG in an ombrotrophic bog ecosystem. This may increase the resilience of the ecosystem to changing environmental conditions.

  20. Decreasing Disruptive Vocalizations of a Student with High-Functioning Autism across Three General Education Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banda, Devender R.; Hart, Stephanie L.; Kercood, Suneeta

    2012-01-01

    The authors conducted this study to decrease disruptive vocalizations in a 3rd-grade student with high-functioning autism across 3 general education classrooms. They used direct and indirect approaches of functional behavior assessment to determine the function of the disruptive behavior. Results indicated that the behavior was maintained by…

  1. The monotonic and fatigue behavior of CFCCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miriyala, N.; Liaw, P.K.; McHargue, C.J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Snead, L.L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Flexure tests were performed to study the fabric orientation effects on the monotonic and fatigue behavior of two commercially available continuous fiber reinforced ceramic composites (CFCCs), namely (i) Nicalon fiber fabric reinforced alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) matrix composite fabricated by a direct molten metal oxidation (DIMOX) process and, (ii) Nicalon fiber fabric reinforced silicon carbide (SiC) matrix composite fabricated by an isothermal chemical vapor infiltration (ICVI) process. The fabric orientation effects on the monotonic and fatigue behavior were strong in the Nicalon/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite, while they were relatively weak in the Nicalon/SiC composite.

  2. Universal, non-monotonic structure in the saturation curves of a linear Paul trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, James; Kwolek, Jonathan; Goodman, Douglas; Blümel, Reinhold; Smith, Winthrop

    2016-05-01

    A common technique to measure ion-atom collision rates in a hybrid trap if the ions have no optical transitions (e.g. alkalis) is to monitor the fluorescence of the neutrals in the presence of a saturated linear Paul trap (LPT). We present numerical simulations, analytical calculations, and experimental results that show that the steady-state ion capacity of an LPT, Ns, exhibits nonlinear, nonmonotonic behavior as a function of ion loading rate, Λ. The steady state as a function of loading rate, Ns(Λ) , shows four distinct regions. In Region I, at the lowest Λ, Ns(Λ) increases monotonically. Then, Ns(Λ) reaches a plateau in Region II, before decreasing to a local minimum in Region III. Finally, in Region IV, Ns(Λ) once again increases monotonically. This behavior appears universal to any Paul trap, regardless of geometry or species trapped. We examine this behavior experimentally as a function of the q stability parameter of the Paul trap and simulate numerically the effect of the particular trap geometry on the onset of each of the four regions. Funding from NSF Grant PHY-1307874.

  3. Bird functional diversity decreases with time since disturbance: Does patchy prescribed fire enhance ecosystem function?.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitters, Holly; Di Stefano, Julian; Christie, Fiona; Swan, Matthew; York, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Animal species diversity is often associated with time since disturbance, but the effects of disturbances such as fire on functional diversity are unknown. Functional diversity measures the range, abundance, and distribution of trait values in a community, and links changes in species composition with the consequences for ecosystem function. Improved understanding of the relationship between time since fire (TSF) and functional diversity is critical given that the frequency of both prescribed fire and wildfire is expected to increase. To address this knowledge gap, we examined responses of avian functional diversity to TSF and two direct measures of environmental heterogeneity, plant diversity, and structural heterogeneity. We surveyed birds across a 70-year chronosequence spanning four vegetation types in southeast Australia. Six bird functional traits were used to derive four functional diversity indices (richness, evenness, divergence, and dispersion) and the effects of TSF, plant diversity and structural heterogeneity on species richness and the functional diversity indices were examined using mixed models. We used a regression tree method to identify traits associated with species more common in young vegetation. Functional richness and dispersion were negatively associated with TSF in all vegetation types, suggesting that recent prescribed fire generates heterogeneous vegetation and provides greater opportunities for resource partitioning. Species richness was not significantly associated with TSF, and is probably an unreliable surrogate for functional diversity in fire-prone systems. A positive, relationship between functional evenness and structural heterogeneity was comnon to all vegetation types, suggesting that fine-scale (tens of meters) structural variation can enhance ecosystem function. Species more common in young vegetation were primarily linked by their specialist diets, indicating that ecosystem services such as seed dispersal and insect control

  4. Monotone Comparative Statics for the Industry Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Anders Rosenstand

    2015-01-01

    We let heterogeneous firms face decisions on a number of complementary activities in a monopolistically-competitive industry. The endogenous level of competition and selection regarding entry and exit of firms introduces a wedge between monotone comparative statics (MCS) at the firm level and MCS...

  5. On a Monotone Ill-posed Problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nguyen BUONG

    2005-01-01

    A class of a posteriori parameter choice strategies for the operator version of Tikhonovregularization (including variants of Morozov's and Arcangeli's methods) is proposed and used in investigating the rate of convergence of the regularized solution for ill-posed nonlinear equation involving a monotone operator in Banach space.

  6. Monotone method for nonlinear nonlocal hyperbolic problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmy S. Ackleh

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available We present recent results concerning the application of the monotone method for studying existence and uniqueness of solutions to general first-order nonlinear nonlocal hyperbolic problems. The limitations of comparison principles for such nonlocal problems are discussed. To overcome these limitations, we introduce new definitions for upper and lower solutions.

  7. Limit points of the monotonic schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Salomon, J

    2005-01-01

    Many numerical simulations in quantum (bilinear) control use the monotonically convergent algorithms of Krotov (introduced by Tannor), Zhu & Rabitz or the general form of Maday & Turinici. This paper presents an analysis of the limit set of controls provided by these algorithms and a proof of convergence in a particular case.

  8. REGULAR RELATIONS AND MONOTONE NORMAL ORDERED SPACES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU XIAOQUAN; LIU YINGMING

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the classical theorem of Zareckii about regular relations is generalized and an intrinsic characterization of regularity is obtained. Based on the generalized Zareckii theorem and the intrinsic characterization of regularity, the authors give a characterization of monotone normality of ordered spaces. A new proof of the UrysohnNachbin lemma is presented which is quite different from the classical one.

  9. Strong monotonicity for analytic ordinary differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Walcher

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a necessary and sufficient criterion for the flow of an analytic ordinary differential equation to be strongly monotone; equivalently, strongly order-preserving. The criterion is given in terms of the reducibility set of the derivative of the right-hand side. Some applications to systems relevant in biology and ecology, including nonlinear compartmental systems, are discussed.

  10. A monotonic archive for pareto-coevolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Edwin D

    2007-01-01

    Coevolution has already produced promising results, but its dynamic evaluation can lead to a variety of problems that prevent most algorithms from progressing monotonically. An important open question therefore is how progress towards a chosen solution concept can be achieved. A general solution concept for coevolution is obtained by viewing opponents or tests as objectives. In this setup known as Pareto-coevolution, the desired solution is the Pareto-optimal set. We present an archive that guarantees monotonicity for this solution concept. The algorithm is called the Incremental Pareto-Coevolution Archive (IPCA), and is based on Evolutionary Multi-Objective Optimization (EMOO). By virtue of its monotonicity, IPCA avoids regress even when combined with a highly explorative generator. This capacity is demonstrated on a challenging test problem requiring both exploration and reliability. IPCA maintains a highly specific selection of tests, but the size of the test archive nonetheless grows unboundedly. We therefore furthermore investigate how archive sizes may be limited while still providing approximate reliability. The LAyered Pareto-Coevolution Archive (LAPCA) maintains a limited number of layers of candidate solutions and tests, and thereby permits a trade-off between archive size and reliability. The algorithm is compared in experiments, and found to be more efficient than IPCA. The work demonstrates how the approximation of a monotonic algorithm can lead to algorithms that are sufficiently reliable in practice while offering better efficiency.

  11. Concerns on Monotonic Imbalance Bounding Matching Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Yatracos, Yannis G.

    2013-01-01

    Concerns are expressed for the Monotonic Imbalance Bounding (MIB) property (Iacus et al. 2011) and for MIB matching because i) the definition of the MIB property leads to inconsistencies and the nature of the imbalance measure is not clearly defined, ii) MIB property does not generalize Equal Percent Bias Reducing (EPBR) property, iii) MIB matching does not provide statistical information available with EPBR matching.

  12. Edit Distance to Monotonicity in Sliding Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Ho-Leung; Lam, Tak-Wah; Lee, Lap Kei

    2011-01-01

    of a data stream is becoming well-understood over the past few years. Motivated by applications on network quality monitoring, we extend the study to estimating the edit distance to monotonicity of a sliding window covering the w most recent items in the stream for any w ≥ 1. We give a deterministic...

  13. New concurrent iterative methods with monotonic convergence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Qingchuan [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper proposes the new concurrent iterative methods without using any derivatives for finding all zeros of polynomials simultaneously. The new methods are of monotonic convergence for both simple and multiple real-zeros of polynomials and are quadratically convergent. The corresponding accelerated concurrent iterative methods are obtained too. The new methods are good candidates for the application in solving symmetric eigenproblems.

  14. Classification Trees for Problems with Monotonicity Constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Potharst (Rob); A.J. Feelders

    2002-01-01

    textabstractFor classification problems with ordinal attributes very often the class attribute should increase with each or some of the explaining attributes. These are called classification problems with monotonicity constraints. Classical decision tree algorithms such as CART or C4.5 generally do

  15. Decreased Renal Function Is a Risk Factor for Subclinical Coronary Atherosclerosis in Korean Postmenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Bo Hyon; Chon, Seung Joo; Cho, Si Hyun; Choi, Young Sik; Lee, Byung Seok

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Decreased renal function is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Our study was planned to verify the association of decreased renal function and subclinical coronary atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women. Methods We performed a retrospective review of 251 Korean postmenopausal women who visited the health promotion center for a routine health checkup. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was used to show renal function, which was estimated by calculated using the Cockcroft-Gault (CG) and the modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD) formulas. Coronary atherosclerosis was assessed by 64-row multidetector computed tomography. Results Women with reduced eGFR (menopausal hormone therapy before atherosclerosis development. PMID:28119897

  16. Stability of generalized monotonicity with respect to their characterizations

    CERN Document Server

    An, P T

    2002-01-01

    We show that known types of generalized monotone maps are not stable with respect to their characterizations (i.e., the characterizations are not maintained during an arbitrary map of this type is disturbed by an element with sufficiently small norm) then introduce s-quasimonotone maps, which are stable with respect to their characterization. For gradient maps, s-quasimonotonicity is related to s-quasiconvexity of the underlying function. A necessary and sufficient condition for a univariate polynomial to be s-quasimonotone is given. Furthermore, some stability properties of a-quasiconvex functions are presented.

  17. On the rate of convergence of the maximum likelihood estimator of a k-monotone density

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WELLNER; Jon; A

    2009-01-01

    Bounds for the bracketing entropy of the classes of bounded k-monotone functions on [0,A] are obtained under both the Hellinger distance and the Lp(Q) distance,where 1 p < ∞ and Q is a probability measure on [0,A].The result is then applied to obtain the rate of convergence of the maximum likelihood estimator of a k-monotone density.

  18. On the rate of convergence of the maximum likelihood estimator of a K-monotone density

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO FuChang; WELLNER Jon A

    2009-01-01

    Bounds for the bracketing entropy of the classes of bounded K-monotone functions on [0, A] are obtained under both the Hellinger distance and the LP(Q) distance, where 1 ≤ p < ∞ and Q is a probability measure on [0, A]. The result is then applied to obtain the rate of convergence of the maximum likelihood estimator of a K-monotone density.

  19. Complexity of Non-Monotonic Logics

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Over the past few decades, non-monotonic reasoning has developed to be one of the most important topics in computational logic and artificial intelligence. Different ways to introduce non-monotonic aspects to classical logic have been considered, e.g., extension with default rules, extension with modal belief operators, or modification of the semantics. In this survey we consider a logical formalism from each of the above possibilities, namely Reiter's default logic, Moore's autoepistemic logic and McCarthy's circumscription. Additionally, we consider abduction, where one is not interested in inferences from a given knowledge base but in computing possible explanations for an observation with respect to a given knowledge base. Complexity results for different reasoning tasks for propositional variants of these logics have been studied already in the nineties. In recent years, however, a renewed interest in complexity issues can be observed. One current focal approach is to consider parameterized problems and ...

  20. Linear Inviscid Damping for Monotone Shear Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Zillinger, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In this article we prove linear stability, inviscid damping and scattering of the 2D Euler equations around regular, strictly monotone shear flows $(U(y),0)$ in a periodic channel under Sobolev perturbations. We treat the settings of an infinite channel, $\\mathbb{T} \\times \\mathbb{R}$, as well as a finite channel, $\\mathbb{T} \\times [0,1]$, with impermeable boundary. We first prove inviscid damping with optimal algebraic rates for strictly monotone shear flows under the assumption of controlling the regularity of the scattered vorticity. Subsequently, we establish linear stability of the scattering equation in Sobolev spaces under perturbations which are of not too large wave-length with respect to $x$, depending on $U''$.

  1. Detection of Decreasing Vegetation Cover Based on Empirical Orthogonal Function and Temporal Unmixing Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation plays an important role in the energy exchange of the land surface, biogeochemical cycles, and hydrological cycles. MODIS (MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer EVI (Enhanced Vegetation Index is considered as a quantitative indicator for examining dynamic vegetation changes. This paper applied a new method of integrated empirical orthogonal function (EOF and temporal unmixing analysis (TUA to detect the vegetation decreasing cover in Jiangsu Province of China. The empirical orthogonal function (EOF statistical results provide vegetation decreasing/increasing trend as prior information for temporal unmixing analysis. Temporal unmixing analysis (TUA results could reveal the dominant spatial distribution of decreasing vegetation. The results showed that decreasing vegetation areas in Jiangsu are distributed in the suburbs and newly constructed areas. For validation, the vegetation’s decreasing cover is revealed by linear spectral mixture from Landsat data in three selected cities. Vegetation decreasing areas pixels are also calculated from land use maps in 2000 and 2010. The accuracy of integrated empirical orthogonal function and temporal unmixing analysis method is about 83.14%. This method can be applied to detect vegetation change in large rapidly urbanizing areas.

  2. Improved selection in totally monotone arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansour, Y. (Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Aiken Computation Lab.); Park, J.K. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Schieber, B. (International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, NY (United States). Thomas J. Watson Research Center); Sen, S. (AT and T Bell Labs., Murray Hill, NJ (United States))

    1991-01-01

    This paper's main result is an O(({radical}{bar m}lgm)(n lg n) + mlg n)-time algorithm for computing the kth smallest entry in each row of an m {times} n totally monotone array. (A two-dimensional A = a(i,j) is totally monotone if for all i{sub 1} < i{sub 2} and j{sub 1} < j{sup 2}, < a(i{sub 1},j{sub 2}) implies a(i{sub 2},j{sub 1})). For large values of k (in particular, for k=(n/2)), this algorithm is significantly faster than the O(k(m+n))-time algorithm for the same problem due to Kravets and Park. An immediate consequence of this result is an O(n{sup 3/2} lg{sup 2}n)-time algorithm for computing the kth nearest neighbor of each vertex of a convex n-gon. In addition to the main result, we also give an O(n lg m)-time algorithm for computing an approximate median in each row of an m {times} n totally monotone array; this approximate median is an entry whose rank in its row lies between (n/4) and (3n/4) {minus} 1. 20 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Biodiversity increases functional and compositional resistance, but decreases resilience in phytoplankton communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baert, Jan M; De Laender, Frederik; Sabbe, Koen; Janssen, Colin R

    2016-12-01

    There is now ample evidence that biodiversity stabilizes aggregated ecosystem functions, such as primary production, in changing environments. In primary producer systems, this stabilizing effect is found to be driven by higher functional resistance (i.e., reduced changes in functions by environmental changes) rather than through higher functional resilience (i.e., rapid recovery following environmental changes) in more diverse systems. The stability of aggregated ecosystem functions directly depends on changes in species composition and by consequence their functional contributions to ecosystem functions. Still, it remains only theoretically explored how biodiversity can stabilize ecosystem functions by affecting compositional stability. Here, we demonstrate how biodiversity effects on compositional stability drive biodiversity effects on functional stability in diatom communities. In a microcosm experiment, we exposed 39 communities of five different levels of species richness (1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 species) to three concentrations of a chemical stressor (0, 25, and 250 μg/L atrazine) for four weeks, after which all communities were transferred to atrazine-free medium for three more weeks. Biodiversity simultaneously increased, increasing functional and compositional resistance, but decreased functional and compositional resilience. These results confirm the theoretically proposed link between biodiversity effects on functional and compositional stability in primary producer systems, and provide a mechanistic underpinning for observed biodiversity-stability relationships. Finally, we discuss how higher compositional stability can be expected to become increasingly important in stabilizing ecosystem functions under field conditions when multiple environmental stressors fluctuate simultaneously. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  4. Weak monotonicity inequality and partial regularity for harmonic maps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈尧天; 严树森

    1999-01-01

    The notion of locally weak monotonicity inequality for weakly harmonic maps is introduced and various results on this class of maps are obtained. For example, the locally weak monotonicity inequality is nearly equivalent to the ε-regularity.

  5. Monotonic Loading of Circular Surface Footings on Clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Barari, Amin

    2011-01-01

    Appropriate modeling of offshore foundations under monotonic loading is a significant challenge in geotechnical engineering. This paper reports experimental and numerical analyses, specifically investigating the response of circular surface footings during monotonic loading and elastoplastic beha...

  6. Monotonicity Formula and Regularity for General Free Discontinuity Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucur, Dorin; Luckhaus, Stephan

    2014-02-01

    We give a general monotonicity formula for local minimizers of free discontinuity problems which have a critical deviation from minimality, of order d - 1. This result allows us to prove partial regularity results (that is closure and density estimates for the jump set) for a large class of free discontinuity problems involving general energies associated to the jump set, as for example free boundary problems with Robin conditions. In particular, we give a short proof to the De Giorgi-Carriero-Leaci result for the Mumford-Shah functional.

  7. Decreased thalamocortical functional connectivity after 36 hours of total sleep deprivation: evidence from resting state FMRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongcong Shao

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The thalamus and cerebral cortex are connected via topographically organized, reciprocal connections, which hold a key function in segregating internally and externally directed awareness information. Previous task-related studies have revealed altered activities of the thalamus after total sleep deprivation (TSD. However, it is still unclear how TSD impacts on the communication between the thalamus and cerebral cortex. In this study, we examined changes of thalamocortical functional connectivity after 36 hours of total sleep deprivation by using resting state function MRI (fMRI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fourteen healthy volunteers were recruited and performed fMRI scans before and after 36 hours of TSD. Seed-based functional connectivity analysis was employed and differences of thalamocortical functional connectivity were tested between the rested wakefulness (RW and TSD conditions. RESULTS: We found that the right thalamus showed decreased functional connectivity with the right parahippocampal gyrus, right middle temporal gyrus and right superior frontal gyrus in the resting brain after TSD when compared with that after normal sleep. As to the left thalamus, decreased connectivity was found with the right medial frontal gyrus, bilateral middle temporal gyri and left superior frontal gyrus. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest disruptive changes of the thalamocortical functional connectivity after TSD, which may lead to the decline of the arousal level and information integration, and subsequently, influence the human cognitive functions.

  8. Ethambutol induces testicular damage and decreases the sperm functional competence in Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Arpitha; Nayak, Guruprasad; Kumari, Sandhya; Prabhu, Amratha D; Khandige, Nalini; Kalthur, Sneha Guruprasad; Mutalik, Srinivas; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Adiga, Satish Kumar

    2016-10-01

    The present study reports the effect of ethambutol (EMB) on testicular function. Prepubertal and adult male Swiss albino mice were treated with 40, 80, 160mg/kg body weight of EMB, intraperitoneally, every alternate day for 4 weeks. After 2 weeks gap, mice were sacrificed to collect caudal spermatozoa. EMB treatment resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in the testicular weight, sperm count and motility while the percentage of sperm with head abnormalities, immature chromatin (Pglutathione (Ptesticular function and impairs the sperm functional competence.

  9. On the strong monotonicity of the CABARET scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostapenko, V. V.

    2012-03-01

    The strong monotonicity of the CABARET scheme with single flux correction is analyzed as applied to the linear advection equation. It is shown that the scheme is strongly monotone (has the NED property) at Courant numbers r ∈ (0,0,5), for which it is monotone. Test computations illustrating this property of the CABARET scheme are presented.

  10. Kyphoplasty increases vertebral height, decreases both pain score and opiate requirements while improving functional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolba, Reda; Bolash, Robert B; Shroll, Joshua; Costandi, Shrif; Dalton, Jarrod E; Sanghvi, Chirag; Mekhail, Nagy

    2014-03-01

    Vertebral compression fractures can result from advanced osteoporosis, or less commonly from metastatic or traumatic insults to the vertebral column, and result in disabling pain and decreased functional capacity. Various vertebral augmentation options including kyphoplasty aim at preventing the sequelae of pain and immobility that can develop as the result of the vertebral fractures. The mechanism for pain relief following kyphoplasty is not entirely understood, and the restoration of a portion of the lost vertebral height is a subject of debate. We retrospectively reviewed radiographic imaging, pain relief, analgesic intake and functional outcomes in 67 consecutive patients who underwent single- or multilevel kyphoplasty with the primary goal of quantifying the restoration of lost vertebral height. We observed a mean of 45% of the lost vertebral height restored postprocedurally. Secondarily, kyphoplasty was associated with significant decreases in pain scores, daily morphine consumption and improvement in patient-reported functional measures.

  11. Escitalopram Decreases Cross-Regional Functional Connectivity within the Default-Mode Network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent van de Ven

    Full Text Available The default-mode network (DMN, which comprises medial frontal, temporal and parietal regions, is part of the brain's intrinsic organization. The serotonergic (5-HT neurotransmitter system projects to DMN regions from midbrain efferents, and manipulation of this system could thus reveal insights into the neurobiological mechanisms of DMN functioning. Here, we investigate intrinsic functional connectivity of the DMN as a function of activity of the serotonergic system, through the administration of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI escitalopram. We quantified DMN functional connectivity using an approach based on dual-regression. Specifically, we decomposed group data of a subset of the functional time series using spatial independent component analysis, and projected the group spatial modes to the same and an independent resting state time series of individual participants. We found no effects of escitalopram on global functional connectivity of the DMN at the map-level; that is, escitalopram did not alter the global functional architecture of the DMN. However, we found that escitalopram decreased DMN regional pairwise connectivity, which included anterior and posterior cingulate cortex, hippocampal complex and lateral parietal regions. Further, regional DMN connectivity covaried with alertness ratings across participants. Our findings show that escitalopram altered intrinsic regional DMN connectivity, which suggests that the serotonergic system plays an important role in DMN connectivity and its contribution to cognition. Pharmacological challenge designs may be a useful addition to resting-state functional MRI to investigate intrinsic brain functional organization.

  12. Wehrl entropy, Lieb conjecture and entanglement monotones

    CERN Document Server

    Mintert, F; Mintert, Florian; Zyczkowski, Karol

    2004-01-01

    We propose to quantify the entanglement of pure states of $N \\times N$ bipartite quantum system by defining its Husimi distribution with respect to $SU(N)\\times SU(N)$ coherent states. The Wehrl entropy is minimal if and only if the pure state analyzed is separable. The excess of the Wehrl entropy is shown to be equal to the subentropy of the mixed state obtained by partial trace of the bipartite pure state. This quantity, as well as the generalized (R{\\'e}nyi) subentropies, are proved to be Schur--convex, so they are entanglement monotones and may be used as alternative measures of entanglement.

  13. Topological recursion and a quantum curve for monotone Hurwitz numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Norman; Dyer, Alastair; Mathews, Daniel V.

    2017-10-01

    Classical Hurwitz numbers count branched covers of the Riemann sphere with prescribed ramification data, or equivalently, factorisations in the symmetric group with prescribed cycle structure data. Monotone Hurwitz numbers restrict the enumeration by imposing a further monotonicity condition on such factorisations. In this paper, we prove that monotone Hurwitz numbers arise from the topological recursion of Eynard and Orantin applied to a particular spectral curve. We furthermore derive a quantum curve for monotone Hurwitz numbers. These results extend the collection of enumerative problems known to be governed by the paradigm of topological recursion and quantum curves, as well as the list of analogues between monotone Hurwitz numbers and their classical counterparts.

  14. Kernel-based interior-point methods for monotone linear complementarity problems over symmetric cones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lesaja, G.; Roos, C.

    2011-01-01

    We present an interior-point method for monotone linear complementarity problems over symmetric cones (SCLCP) that is based on barrier functions which are defined by a large class of univariate functions, called eligible kernel functions. This class is fairly general and includes the classical logar

  15. Testing monotonicity of a hazard: asymptotic distribution theory

    CERN Document Server

    Groeneboom, Piet

    2011-01-01

    Two new test statistics are introduced to test the null hypotheses that the sampling distribution has an increasing hazard rate on a specified interval [0,a]. These statistics are empirical L_1-type distances between the isotonic estimates, which use the monotonicity constraint, and either the empirical distribution function or the empirical cumulative hazard. They measure the excursions of the empirical estimates with respect to the isotonic estimates, due to local non-monotonicity. Asymptotic normality of the test statistics, if the hazard is strictly increasing on [0,a], is established under mild conditions. This is done by first approximating the global empirical distance by an distance with respect to the underlying distribution function. The resulting integral is treated as sum of increasingly many local integrals to which a CLT can be applied. The behavior of the local integrals is determined by a canonical process: the difference between the stochastic process x -> W(x)+x^2 where W is standard two-sid...

  16. Whole brain resting-state analysis reveals decreased functional connectivity in major depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya M. Veer

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, both increases and decreases in resting-state functional connectivity have been found in major depression. However, these studies only assessed functional connectivity within a specific network or between a few regions of interest, while comorbidity and use of medication was not always controlled for. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to investigate whole-brain functional connectivity, unbiased by a priori definition of regions or networks of interest, in medication-free depressive patients without comorbidity. We analyzed resting-state fMRI data of 19 medication-free patients with a recent diagnosis of major depression (within six months before inclusion and no comorbidity, and 19 age- and gender-matched controls. Independent component analysis was employed on the concatenated data sets of all participants. Thirteen functionally relevant networks were identified, describing the entire study sample. Next, individual representations of the networks were created using a dual regression method. Statistical inference was subsequently done on these spatial maps using voxelwise permutation tests. Abnormal functional connectivity was found within three resting-state networks in depression: 1 decreased bilateral amygdala and left anterior insula connectivity in an affective network, 2 reduced connectivity of the left frontal pole in a network associated with attention and working memory, and 3 decreased bilateral lingual gyrus connectivity within ventromedial visual regions. None of these effects were associated with symptom severity or grey matter density. We found abnormal resting-state functional connectivity not previously associated with major depression, which might relate to abnormal affect regulation and mild cognitive deficits, both associated with the symptomatology of the disorder.

  17. Avocado Oil Improves Mitochondrial Function and Decreases Oxidative Stress in Brain of Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Avila, Omar; Esquivel-Martínez, Mauricio; Olmos-Orizaba, Berenice Eridani; Saavedra-Molina, Alfredo; Rodriguez-Orozco, Alain R.; Cortés-Rojo, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic encephalopathy is a diabetic complication related to the metabolic alterations featuring diabetes. Diabetes is characterized by increased lipid peroxidation, altered glutathione redox status, exacerbated levels of ROS, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Although the pathophysiology of diabetic encephalopathy remains to be clarified, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of chronic diabetic complications. Taking this into consideration, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of 90-day avocado oil intake in brain mitochondrial function and oxidative status in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ rats). Avocado oil improves brain mitochondrial function in diabetic rats preventing impairment of mitochondrial respiration and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), besides increasing complex III activity. Avocado oil also decreased ROS levels and lipid peroxidation and improved the GSH/GSSG ratio as well. These results demonstrate that avocado oil supplementation prevents brain mitochondrial dysfunction induced by diabetes in association with decreased oxidative stress. PMID:26180820

  18. Avocado Oil Improves Mitochondrial Function and Decreases Oxidative Stress in Brain of Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Avila, Omar; Esquivel-Martínez, Mauricio; Olmos-Orizaba, Berenice Eridani; Saavedra-Molina, Alfredo; Rodriguez-Orozco, Alain R; Cortés-Rojo, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic encephalopathy is a diabetic complication related to the metabolic alterations featuring diabetes. Diabetes is characterized by increased lipid peroxidation, altered glutathione redox status, exacerbated levels of ROS, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Although the pathophysiology of diabetic encephalopathy remains to be clarified, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of chronic diabetic complications. Taking this into consideration, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of 90-day avocado oil intake in brain mitochondrial function and oxidative status in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ rats). Avocado oil improves brain mitochondrial function in diabetic rats preventing impairment of mitochondrial respiration and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ m ), besides increasing complex III activity. Avocado oil also decreased ROS levels and lipid peroxidation and improved the GSH/GSSG ratio as well. These results demonstrate that avocado oil supplementation prevents brain mitochondrial dysfunction induced by diabetes in association with decreased oxidative stress.

  19. Consequences of Decreased Light Harvesting Capability on Photosystem II Function in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, Aparna; Page, Lawrence E.; Liberton, Michelle; Pakrasi, Himadri B.

    2014-01-01

    Cyanobacteria use large pigment-protein complexes called phycobilisomes to harvest light energy primarily for photosystem II (PSII). We used a series of mutants with partial to complete reduction of phycobilisomes to examine the effects of antenna truncation on photosystem function in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. The antenna mutants CB, CK, and PAL expressed increasing levels of functional PSII centers to compensate for the loss of phycobilisomes, with a concomitant decrease in photosystem I (PSI). This increased PSII titer led to progressively higher oxygen evolution rates on a per chlorophyll basis. The mutants also exhibited impaired S-state transition profiles for oxygen evolution. Additionally, P700+ re-reduction rates were impacted by antenna reduction. Thus, a decrease in antenna size resulted in overall physiological changes in light harvesting and delivery to PSII as well as changes in downstream electron transfer to PSI. PMID:25513759

  20. Avocado Oil Improves Mitochondrial Function and Decreases Oxidative Stress in Brain of Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Ortiz-Avila

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic encephalopathy is a diabetic complication related to the metabolic alterations featuring diabetes. Diabetes is characterized by increased lipid peroxidation, altered glutathione redox status, exacerbated levels of ROS, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Although the pathophysiology of diabetic encephalopathy remains to be clarified, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of chronic diabetic complications. Taking this into consideration, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of 90-day avocado oil intake in brain mitochondrial function and oxidative status in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ rats. Avocado oil improves brain mitochondrial function in diabetic rats preventing impairment of mitochondrial respiration and mitochondrial membrane potential ΔΨm, besides increasing complex III activity. Avocado oil also decreased ROS levels and lipid peroxidation and improved the GSH/GSSG ratio as well. These results demonstrate that avocado oil supplementation prevents brain mitochondrial dysfunction induced by diabetes in association with decreased oxidative stress.

  1. Decreased functional connectivity of insula-based network in young adults with internet gaming disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanzhen; Mei, Wei; Zhang, John X; Wu, Qiulin; Zhang, Wei

    2016-09-01

    The insula is a region that integrates interoception and drug urges, but little is known about its role in behavioral addiction such as internet addiction. We investigated insula-based functional connectivity in participants with internet gaming disorder (IGD) and healthy controls (HC) using resting-state functional MRI. The right and left insula subregions (posterior, ventroanterior, and dorsoanterior) were used as seed regions in a connectivity analysis. Compared with the HC group, the IGD group showed decreased functional connectivity between left posterior insula and bilateral supplementary motor area and middle cingulated cortex, between right posterior insula and right superior frontal gyrus, and decreased functional integration between insular subregions. The finding of reduced functional connectivity between the interoception and the motor/executive control regions is interpreted to reflect reduced ability to inhibit motor responses to internet gaming or diminished executive control over craving for internet gaming in IGD. The results support the hypothesis that IGD is associated with altered insula-based network, similar to substance addiction such as smoking.

  2. The Monotonicity Puzzle: An Experimental Investigation of Incentive Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannette Brosig

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Non-monotone incentive structures, which - according to theory - are able to induce optimal behavior, are often regarded as empirically less relevant for labor relationships. We compare the performance of a theoretically optimal non-monotone contract with a monotone one under controlled laboratory conditions. Implementing some features relevant to real-world employment relationships, our paper demonstrates that, in fact, the frequency of income-maximizing decisions made by agents is higher under the monotone contract. Although this observed behavior does not change the superiority of the non-monotone contract for principals, they do not choose this contract type in a significant way. This is what we call the monotonicity puzzle. Detailed investigations of decisions provide a clue for solving the puzzle and a possible explanation for the popularity of monotone contracts.

  3. Detection of Decreasing Vegetation Cover Based on Empirical Orthogonal Function and Temporal Unmixing Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Di Xu; Ruishan Chen; Xiaoshi Xing; Wenpeng Lin

    2017-01-01

    Vegetation plays an important role in the energy exchange of the land surface, biogeochemical cycles, and hydrological cycles. MODIS (MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) EVI (Enhanced Vegetation Index) is considered as a quantitative indicator for examining dynamic vegetation changes. This paper applied a new method of integrated empirical orthogonal function (EOF) and temporal unmixing analysis (TUA) to detect the vegetation decreasing cover in Jiangsu Province of China. The empir...

  4. Decreased connectivity of the default mode network in pathological gambling: a resting state functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Myung Hun; Kim, Jae-Hun; Shin, Young-Chul; Jung, Wi Hoon; Jang, Joon Hwan; Choi, Jung-Seok; Kang, Do-Hyung; Yi, Jung-Seo; Choi, Chi-Hoon; Kwon, Jun Soo

    2014-11-01

    The default mode network (DMN) represents neuronal activity that is intrinsically generated during a resting state. The present study used resting-state fMRI to investigate whether functional connectivity is altered in pathological gambling (PG). Fifteen drug-naive male patients with PG and 15 age-matched male control subjects participated in the present study. The pathological gambling modification of the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (PG-YBOCS), the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Beck Anxiety Inventory were used to determine symptom severity in all participants. Participants were instructed to keep their eyes closed and not to focus on any particular thoughts during the 4.68-min resting-state functional scan. The patients with PG displayed decreased default mode connectivity in the left superior frontal gyrus, right middle temporal gyrus, and precuneus compared with healthy controls. The severity of PG symptoms in patients with PG was negatively associated with connectivity between the posterior cingulate cortex seed region and the precuneus (r=-0.599, p=0.018). Decreased functional connectivity within DMN suggests that PG may share similar neurobiological abnormalities with other addictive disorders. Moreover, the severity of PG symptoms was correlated with decreased connectivity in the precuneus, which may be important in the response to treatment in patients with PG.

  5. PPA BASED PREDICTION-CORRECTION METHODS FOR MONOTONE VARIATIONAL INEQUALITIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Bingsheng; Jiang Jianlin; Qian Maijian; Xu Ya

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we study the proximal point algorithm (PPA) based predictioncorrection (PC) methods for monotone variational inequalities. Each iteration of these methods consists of a prediction and a correction. The predictors are produced by inexact PPA steps. The new iterates are then updated by a correction using the PPA formula. We present two profit functions which serve two purposes: First we show that the profit functions are tight lower bounds of the improvements obtained in each iteration. Based on this conclusion we obtain the convergence inexactness restrictions for the prediction step. Second we show that the profit functions are quadratically dependent upon the step lengths, thus the optimal step lengths are obtained in the correction step. In the last part of the paper we compare the strengths of different methods based on their inexactness restrictions.

  6. A new non-monotone fitness scaling for genetic algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The properties of selection operators in the genetic algorithm (GA) are studied in detail. It is indicated that the selection of operations is significant for both improving the general fitness of a population and leading to the schema deceptiveness. The stochastic searching characteristics of GA are compared with those of heuristic methods. The influence of selection operators on the GA' s exploration and exploitation is discussed, and the performance of selection operators is evaluated with the premature convergence of the GA taken as an example based on One-Max function. In order to overcome the schema deceptiveness of the GA, a new type of fitness scaling, non monotone scaling, is advanced to enhance the evolutionary ability of a population. The effectiveness of the new scaling method is tested by a trap function and a needle-in-haystack (NiH) function.

  7. Globus Pallidus Interna in Tourette Syndrome: Decreased Local Activity and Disrupted Functional Connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Gong-Jun; Liao, Wei; Yu, Yang; Miao, Huan-Huan; Feng, Yi-Xuan; Wang, Kai; Feng, Jian-Hua; Zang, Yu-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Globus pallidus interna (GPi) is an effective deep brain stimulation site for the treatment of Tourette syndrome (TS), and plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of TS. To investigate the functional network feature of GPi in TS patients, we retrospectively studied 24 boys with ‘pure’ TS and 32 age-/education-matched healthy boys by resting state functional magnetic resonance images. Amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and functional connectivity were used to estimate the local activity in GPi and its functional coordinate with the whole brain regions, respectively. We found decreased ALFF in patients’ bilateral GPi, which was also negatively correlated with clinical symptoms. Functional connectivity analysis indicated abnormal regions within motor and motor-control networks in patients (inferior part of sensorimotor area, cerebellum, prefrontal cortex, cingulate gyrus, caudate nucleus, and brain stem). Transcranial magnetic stimulation sites defined by previous studies (“hand knob” area, premotor area, and supplementary motor area) did not show significantly different functional connectivity with GPi between groups. In summary, this study characterized the disrupted functional network of GPi and provided potential regions-of-interest for further basic and clinical studies on TS. PMID:27799898

  8. Decreased serum level of NGF in alcohol-dependent patients with declined executive function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bae H

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Hwallip Bae,1 Youngsun Ra,1 Changwoo Han,2 Dai-Jin Kim3 1Department of Psychiatry, Myongji Hospital, Goyang, 2Department of Psychiatry, Keyo Hospital, Uiwang, 3Department of Psychiatry, Seoul St Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, South Korea Abstract: The role of neurotrophic factors has been highlighted as a cause of decline in the cognitive function of alcohol-dependent patients. It is known that nerve-growth factor (NGF, one of the neurotrophins, is related to the growth and differentiation of nerve cells, as well as to a decline in cognitive function. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between decreased NGF levels and cognitive decline in alcohol-dependent patients. The serum concentration of NGF was measured in 38 patients with chronic alcohol dependence, and several neuropsychological tests were also performed for cognitive function assessment. The results indicated a significant correlation between serum NGF level and the trail-making test part B, which evaluates executive function, but did not show a significant correlation with other cognitive function tests. An increased serum level of NGF was associated with a decreased completion time in the trail-making test B, and this finding indicates that a high serum level of NGF is related to greater executive function. This finding may imply a protective role of NGF in preventing neuron damage among patients with alcohol dependence. Larger controlled studies will be necessary in the future to investigate this issue further. Keywords: nerve-growth factor, alcohol dependence, executive function, trail-making test

  9. Subacute stress and chronic stress interact to decrease intestinal barrier function in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauffer, Adriana; Vanuytsel, Tim; Vanormelingen, Christophe; Vanheel, Hanne; Salim Rasoel, Shadea; Tóth, Joran; Tack, Jan; Fornari, Fernando; Farré, Ricard

    2016-01-01

    Psychological stress increases intestinal permeability, potentially leading to low-grade inflammation and symptoms in functional gastrointestinal disorders. We assessed the effect of subacute, chronic and combined stress on intestinal barrier function and mast cell density. Male Wistar rats were allocated to four experimental groups (n = 8/group): 1/sham; 2/subacute stress (isolation and limited movement for 24 h); 3/chronic crowding stress for 14 days and 4/combined subacute and chronic stress. Jejunum and colon were collected to measure: transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER; a measure of epithelial barrier function); gene expression of tight junction molecules; mast cell density. Plasma corticosterone concentration was increased in all three stress conditions versus sham, with highest concentrations in the combined stress condition. TEER in the jejunum was decreased in all stress conditions, but was significantly lower in the combined stress condition than in the other groups. TEER in the jejunum correlated negatively with corticosterone concentration. Increased expression of claudin 1, 5 and 8, occludin and zonula occludens 1 mRNAs was detected after subacute stress in the jejunum. In contrast, colonic TEER was decreased only after combined stress, and the expression of tight junction molecules was unaltered. Increased mast cell density was observed in the chronic and combined stress condition in the colon only. In conclusion, our data show that chronic stress sensitizes the gastrointestinal tract to the effects of subacute stress on intestinal barrier function; different underlying cellular and molecular alterations are indicated in the small intestine versus the colon.

  10. Decreased resting functional connectivity after traumatic brain injury in the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asht Mangal Mishra

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI contributes to about 10% of acquired epilepsy. Even though the mechanisms of post-traumatic epileptogenesis are poorly known, a disruption of neuronal networks predisposing to altered neuronal synchrony remains a viable candidate mechanism. We tested a hypothesis that resting state BOLD-fMRI functional connectivity can reveal network abnormalities in brain regions that are connected to the lesioned cortex, and that these changes associate with functional impairment, particularly epileptogenesis. TBI was induced using lateral fluid-percussion injury in seven adult male Sprague-Dawley rats followed by functional imaging at 9.4T 4 months later. As controls we used six sham-operated animals that underwent all surgical operations but were not injured. Electroencephalogram (EEG-functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI was performed to measure resting functional connectivity. A week after functional imaging, rats were implanted with bipolar skull electrodes. After recovery, rats underwent pentyleneterazol (PTZ seizure-susceptibility test under EEG. For image analysis, four pairs of regions of interests were analyzed in each hemisphere: ipsilateral and contralateral frontal and parietal cortex, hippocampus, and thalamus. High-pass and low-pass filters were applied to functional imaging data. Group statistics comparing injured and sham-operated rats and correlations over time between each region were calculated. In the end, rats were perfused for histology. None of the rats had epileptiform discharges during functional imaging. PTZ-test, however revealed increased seizure susceptibility in injured rats as compared to controls. Group statistics revealed decreased connectivity between the ipsilateral and contralateral parietal cortex and between the parietal cortex and hippocampus on the side of injury as compared to sham-operated animals. Injured animals also had abnormal negative connectivity between the ipsilateral and

  11. Decreased resting functional connectivity after traumatic brain injury in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Asht Mangal; Bai, Xiaoxiao; Sanganahalli, Basavaraju G; Waxman, Stephen G; Shatillo, Olena; Grohn, Olli; Hyder, Fahmeed; Pitkänen, Asla; Blumenfeld, Hal

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) contributes to about 10% of acquired epilepsy. Even though the mechanisms of post-traumatic epileptogenesis are poorly known, a disruption of neuronal networks predisposing to altered neuronal synchrony remains a viable candidate mechanism. We tested a hypothesis that resting state BOLD-fMRI functional connectivity can reveal network abnormalities in brain regions that are connected to the lesioned cortex, and that these changes associate with functional impairment, particularly epileptogenesis. TBI was induced using lateral fluid-percussion injury in seven adult male Sprague-Dawley rats followed by functional imaging at 9.4T 4 months later. As controls we used six sham-operated animals that underwent all surgical operations but were not injured. Electroencephalogram (EEG)-functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed to measure resting functional connectivity. A week after functional imaging, rats were implanted with bipolar skull electrodes. After recovery, rats underwent pentyleneterazol (PTZ) seizure-susceptibility test under EEG. For image analysis, four pairs of regions of interests were analyzed in each hemisphere: ipsilateral and contralateral frontal and parietal cortex, hippocampus, and thalamus. High-pass and low-pass filters were applied to functional imaging data. Group statistics comparing injured and sham-operated rats and correlations over time between each region were calculated. In the end, rats were perfused for histology. None of the rats had epileptiform discharges during functional imaging. PTZ-test, however revealed increased seizure susceptibility in injured rats as compared to controls. Group statistics revealed decreased connectivity between the ipsilateral and contralateral parietal cortex and between the parietal cortex and hippocampus on the side of injury as compared to sham-operated animals. Injured animals also had abnormal negative connectivity between the ipsilateral and contralateral

  12. Methyl-parathion decreases sperm function and fertilization capacity after targeting spermatocytes and maturing spermatozoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pina-Guzman, Belem; Sanchez-Gutierrez, M.; Marchetti, Francesco; Hernandez-Ochoa, I.; Solis-Heredia, M.J .; Quintanilla-Vega, B.

    2009-05-03

    Paternal germline exposure to organophosphorous pesticides (OP) has been associated with reproductive failures and adverse effects in the offspring. Methyl parathion (Me-Pa), a worldwide-used OP, has reproductive adverse effects and is genotoxic to sperm. Oxidative damage has been involved in the genotoxic and reproductive effects of OP. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of Me-Pa on spermatozoa function and ability to fertilize. Male mice were exposed to Me-Pa (20 mg/kg bw, i.p.) and spermatozoa from epididymis-vas deferens were collected at 7 or 28 days post-treatment (dpt) to assess the effects on maturing spermatozoa and spermatocytes, respectively. DNA damage was evaluated by nick translation (NT-positive cells) and SCSA (percentDFI); lipoperoxidation (LPO) by malondialdehyde production; sperm function by spontaneous- and induced-acrosome reactions (AR); mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) by using the JC-1 flurochrome; and, fertilization ability by an in vitro assay and in vivo mating. Results showed alterations in DNA integrity (percentDFI and NT-positive cells) at 7 and 28 dpt, in addition to decreased sperm quality and a decrease in induced-AR; reduced MMP and LPO was observed only at 7 dpt. We found negative correlations between LPO and all sperm alterations. Altered sperm functional parameters were associated with reduced fertilization rates at both times, evaluated either in vitro or in vivo. These results show that Me-Pa exposure of maturing spermatozoa and spermatocytes affects many sperm functional parameters that result in a decreased fertilizing capacity. Oxidative stress seems to be a likely mechanism ofthe detrimental effects of Me-Pa in male germ cells.

  13. Decrease in work function of transparent conducting ZnO tin films by phosphorus ion implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Gi-Seok; Hong, Sang-Jin; Park, Jong-Woon; Choi, Bum-Ho; Lee, Jong-Ho; Shin, Dong-Chan

    2008-09-01

    To confirm the possibility of engineering the work function of ZnO thin films, we have implanted phosphorus ions into ZnO thin films deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. The fabricated films show n-type characteristics. It is shown that the electrical and optical properties of those thin films vary depending sensitively on the ion dose and rapid thermal annealing time. Compared to as-deposited ZnO films, the work-function of phosphorus ion-implanted ZnO thin films is observed to be lower and decreases with increasing ion doses. It is likely that the zinc or oxygen vacancies are firstly filled with the implanted phosphorus ions. With further increased ions, free electrons are generated as Zn2+ sites are replaced by those ions or interstitial phosphorus ions increase at the lattice sites, the fermi level by which approaches the conduction band and thus the work function decreases. Those films exhibit the optical transmittance higher than 85% within the visible wavelength range (up to 800 nm).

  14. Methyl-parathion decreases sperm function and fertilization capacity after targeting spermatocytes and maturing spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piña-Guzmán, B; Sánchez-Gutiérrez, M; Marchetti, F; Hernández-Ochoa, I; Solís-Heredia, M J; Quintanilla-Vega, B

    2009-07-15

    Paternal germline exposure to organophosphorous pesticides (OP) has been associated with reproductive failures and adverse effects in the offspring. Methyl-parathion (Me-Pa), a worldwide-used OP, has reproductive adverse effects and is genotoxic to sperm, possibly via oxidative damage. This study investigated the stages of spermatogenesis susceptible to be targeted by Me-Pa exposure that impact on spermatozoa function and their ability to fertilize. Male mice were exposed to Me-Pa (20 mg/kg bw, i.p.) and spermatozoa from epididymis-vas deferens were collected at 7 or 28 days post-treatment (dpt) to assess the effects on maturing spermatozoa and spermatocytes, respectively. Spermatozoa were examined for DNA damage by nick translation (NT-positive cells) and SCSA (%DFI), lipoperoxidation (LPO) by malondialdehyde production, sperm function by spontaneous- and induced-acrosome reactions (AR), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) by using the JC-1 fluorochrome, and fertilization ability by an in vitro assay and in vivo mating. Alterations on DNA integrity (%DFI and NT-positive cells) in spermatozoa collected at 7 and 28 dpt, and decreases in sperm quality and induced-AR were observed; reduced MMP and LPO were observed at 7 dpt only. Negative correlations between LPO and sperm alterations were found. Altered sperm functional parameters evaluated either in vitro or in vivo were associated with reduced fertilization rates at both times. These results show that Me-Pa exposure of maturing spermatozoa and spermatocytes affects many sperm functional parameters that result in a decreased fertilizing capacity. Oxidative stress seems to be a likely mechanism of the detrimental effects of Me-Pa exposure in male germ cells.

  15. Normal Parathyroid Function with Decreased Bone Mineral Density in Treated Celiac Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Lemieux

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Decreased bone mineral density (BMD has been reported in patients with celiac disease in association with secondary hyperparathyroidism. The present study investigated whether basal parathyroid hormone (PTH remained elevated and whether abnormalities of parathyroid function were still present in celiac disease patients treated with a gluten-free diet. Basal seric measurements of calcium and phosphate homeostasis and BMD were obtained in 17 biopsy-proven patients under treatment for a mean period of 5.7±3.7 years (range 1.1 to 15.9. In addition, parathyroid function was studied with calcium chloride and sodium citrate infusions in seven patients. Basal measurements of patients were compared with those of 26 normal individuals, while parathyroid function results were compared with those of seven sex- and age-matched controls. Basal results were similar in patients and controls except for intact PTH (I-PTH (3.77±0.88 pmol/L versus 2.28±0.63 pmol/L, P<0.001, which was higher in the former group but still within normal limits. Mean 25-hydroxy vitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D values were normal in patients. Parathyroid function results were also found to be similar in both groups. Compared with a reference population of the same age (Z score, patients had significantly lower BMDs of the hip (-0.60±0.96 SDs, P<0.05 and lumbar spine (-0.76±1.15 SDs, P<0.05. T scores were also decreased for the hip (-1.3±0.9 SDs, P<0.0001 and lumbar spine (-1.4±1.35 SDs, P<0.0001, with two to three patients being osteoporotic (T score less than -2.5 SDs and seven to eight osteopenic (T score less than -1 SDs but greater than or equal to -2.5 SDs in at least one site. Height and weight were the only important determinants of BMD values by multivariate or logistical regression analysis in these patients. The results show higher basal I-PTH values with normal parathyroid function in treated celiac disease. Height and weight values are, but I-PTH values are not

  16. Decreased centrality of subcortical regions during the transition to adolescence: a functional connectivity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, João Ricardo; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Gadelha, Ary; Vieira, Gilson; Zugman, André; Picon, Felipe Almeida; Pan, Pedro Mario; Hoexter, Marcelo Queiroz; Anés, Mauricio; Moura, Luciana Monteiro; Del'Aquilla, Marco Antonio Gomes; Crossley, Nicolas; Amaro Junior, Edson; Mcguire, Philip; Lacerda, Acioly L T; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Miguel, Euripedes Constantino; Jackowski, Andrea Parolin; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca

    2015-01-01

    Investigations of brain maturation processes are a key step to understand the cognitive and emotional changes of adolescence. Although structural imaging findings have delineated clear brain developmental trajectories for typically developing individuals, less is known about the functional changes of this sensitive development period. Developmental changes, such as abstract thought, complex reasoning, and emotional and inhibitory control, have been associated with more prominent cortical control. The aim of this study is to assess brain networks connectivity changes in a large sample of 7- to 15-year-old subjects, testing the hypothesis that cortical regions will present an increasing relevance in commanding the global network. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were collected in a sample of 447 typically developing children from a Brazilian community sample who were submitted to a resting state acquisition protocol. The fMRI data were used to build a functional weighted graph from which eigenvector centrality (EVC) was extracted. For each brain region (a node of the graph), the age-dependent effect on EVC was statistically tested and the developmental trajectories were estimated using polynomial functions. Our findings show that angular gyrus become more central during this maturation period, while the caudate; cerebellar tonsils, pyramis, thalamus; fusiform, parahippocampal and inferior semilunar lobe become less central. In conclusion, we report a novel finding of an increasing centrality of the angular gyrus during the transition to adolescence, with a decreasing centrality of many subcortical and cerebellar regions.

  17. Compromised Diet Quality is Associated with Decreased Renal Function in Children with Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyerang; Lim, Hyunjung; Choue, Ryowon

    2014-07-01

    Nutritional status of children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is important since it affects growth and development. This study was to investigate overall diet quality measured by nutrient intake adequacy, nutrient density, and several dietary habits in children with CKD and its relationship with clinical parameters according to glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Assessment of nutritional status and diet quality was conducted in nineteen children with CKD. Average Z-scores of height, weight and body mass index (BMI) in the participants were less than standard growth rate. Nutritional status, such as Z-scores of height (p children with GFR children with GFR appetite and avoidance of food were observed in the children with higher blood urea nitrogen (BUN). Intakes of iron, zinc, thiamin, niacin, and vitamin B6 were positively correlated with GFR. Intakes of calcium, potassium and folate were positively correlated with BUN, while protein intakes were negatively correlated. Overall nutrient intakes were inadequate and diet quality was decreased as kidney function was decreased. Dietary habit and appetite were also related with kidney function in this study subjects. Systemic efforts of nutritional intervention are imperative to prevent deteriorating growth and development and improve the nutritional status in children with CKD.

  18. Stepsize Restrictions for Boundedness and Monotonicity of Multistep Methods

    KAUST Repository

    Hundsdorfer, W.

    2011-04-29

    In this paper nonlinear monotonicity and boundedness properties are analyzed for linear multistep methods. We focus on methods which satisfy a weaker boundedness condition than strict monotonicity for arbitrary starting values. In this way, many linear multistep methods of practical interest are included in the theory. Moreover, it will be shown that for such methods monotonicity can still be valid with suitable Runge-Kutta starting procedures. Restrictions on the stepsizes are derived that are not only sufficient but also necessary for these boundedness and monotonicity properties. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  19. On the monotonicity of multidimensional finite difference schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovyrkina, O.; Ostapenko, V.

    2016-10-01

    The classical concept of monotonicity, introduced by Godunov for linear one-dimensional difference schemes, is extended to multidimensional case. Necessary and sufficient conditions of monotonicity are obtained for linear multidimensional difference schemes of first order. The constraints on the numerical viscosity are given that ensure the monotonicity of a difference scheme in the multidimensional case. It is proposed a modification of the second order multidimensional CABARET scheme that preserves the monotonicity of one-dimensional discrete solutions and, as a result, ensures higher smoothness in the computation of multidimensional discontinuous solutions. The results of two-dimensional test computations illustrating the advantages of the modified CABARET scheme are presented.

  20. Ketamine Decreases Resting State Functional Network Connectivity in Healthy Subjects: Implications for Antidepressant Drug Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Martin; Lehmann, Mick; Metzger, Coraline; Grimm, Simone; Boeker, Heinz; Boesiger, Peter; Henning, Anke; Seifritz, Erich

    2012-01-01

    Increasing preclinical and clinical evidence underscores the strong and rapid antidepressant properties of the glutamate-modulating NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine. Targeting the glutamatergic system might thus provide a novel molecular strategy for antidepressant treatment. Since glutamate is the most abundant and major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, pathophysiological changes in glutamatergic signaling are likely to affect neurobehavioral plasticity, information processing and large-scale changes in functional brain connectivity underlying certain symptoms of major depressive disorder. Using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI), the „dorsal nexus “(DN) was recently identified as a bilateral dorsal medial prefrontal cortex region showing dramatically increased depression-associated functional connectivity with large portions of a cognitive control network (CCN), the default mode network (DMN), and a rostral affective network (AN). Hence, Sheline and colleagues (2010) proposed that reducing increased connectivity of the DN might play a critical role in reducing depression symptomatology and thus represent a potential therapy target for affective disorders. Here, using a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover rsfMRI challenge in healthy subjects we demonstrate that ketamine decreases functional connectivity of the DMN to the DN and to the pregenual anterior cingulate (PACC) and medioprefrontal cortex (MPFC) via its representative hub, the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). These findings in healthy subjects may serve as a model to elucidate potential biomechanisms that are addressed by successful treatment of major depression. This notion is further supported by the temporal overlap of our observation of subacute functional network modulation after 24 hours with the peak of efficacy following an intravenous ketamine administration in treatment-resistant depression. PMID:23049758

  1. Decreased functional connectivity density in pain-related brain regions of female migraine patients without aura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qing; Xu, Fei; Jiang, Cui; Chen, Zhifeng; Chen, Huafu; Liao, Huaqiang; Zhao, Ling

    2016-02-01

    Migraine is one of the most prevalent neurological disorders which is suggested to be associated with dysfunctions of the central nervous system. The purpose of the present study was to detect the altered functional connectivity architecture in the large-scale network of the whole brain in migraine without aura (MWoA). Meanwhile, the brain functional hubs which are targeted by MWoA could be identified. A new voxel-based method named functional connectivity density (FCD) mapping was applied to resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data of 55 female MWoA patients and 44 age-matched female healthy controls (HC). Comparing to HC, MWoA patients showed abnormal short-range FCD values in bilateral hippocampus, bilateral insula, right amygdale, right anterior cingulate cortex, bilateral putamen, bilateral caudate nucleus and the prefrontal cortex. The results suggested decreased intraregional connectivity of these pain-related brain regions in female MWoA. In addition, short-range FCD values in left prefrontal cortex, putamen and caudate nucleus were significantly negatively correlated with duration of disease in MWoA group, implying the repeated migraine attacks over time may consistently affect the resting-state functional connectivity architecture of these brain hubs. Our findings revealed the dysfunction of brain hubs in female MWoA, and suggested the left prefrontal cortex, putamen and caudate nucleus served as sensitive neuroimaging markers for reflecting the disease duration of female MWoA. This may provide us new insights into the changes in the organization of the large-scale brain network in MWoA.

  2. Ketamine decreases resting state functional network connectivity in healthy subjects: implications for antidepressant drug action.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Scheidegger

    Full Text Available Increasing preclinical and clinical evidence underscores the strong and rapid antidepressant properties of the glutamate-modulating NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine. Targeting the glutamatergic system might thus provide a novel molecular strategy for antidepressant treatment. Since glutamate is the most abundant and major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, pathophysiological changes in glutamatergic signaling are likely to affect neurobehavioral plasticity, information processing and large-scale changes in functional brain connectivity underlying certain symptoms of major depressive disorder. Using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI, the "dorsal nexus "(DN was recently identified as a bilateral dorsal medial prefrontal cortex region showing dramatically increased depression-associated functional connectivity with large portions of a cognitive control network (CCN, the default mode network (DMN, and a rostral affective network (AN. Hence, Sheline and colleagues (2010 proposed that reducing increased connectivity of the DN might play a critical role in reducing depression symptomatology and thus represent a potential therapy target for affective disorders. Here, using a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover rsfMRI challenge in healthy subjects we demonstrate that ketamine decreases functional connectivity of the DMN to the DN and to the pregenual anterior cingulate (PACC and medioprefrontal cortex (MPFC via its representative hub, the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC. These findings in healthy subjects may serve as a model to elucidate potential biomechanisms that are addressed by successful treatment of major depression. This notion is further supported by the temporal overlap of our observation of subacute functional network modulation after 24 hours with the peak of efficacy following an intravenous ketamine administration in treatment-resistant depression.

  3. Scaling Effect of Area-Averaged NDVI: Monotonicity along the Spatial Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Yoshioka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the spatial distributions of vegetation across the globe are routinely monitored by satellite remote sensing, in which the reflectance spectra over land surface areas are measured with spatial and temporal resolutions that depend on the satellite instrumentation. The use of multiple synchronized satellite sensors permits long-term monitoring with high spatial and temporal resolutions. However, differences in the spatial resolution of images collected by different sensors can introduce systematic biases, called scaling effects, into the biophysical retrievals. This study investigates the mechanism by which the scaling effects distort normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI. This study focused on the monotonicity of the area-averaged NDVI as a function of the spatial resolution. A monotonic relationship was proved analytically by using the resolution transform model proposed in this study in combination with a two-endmember linear mixture model. The monotonicity allowed the inherent uncertainties introduced by the scaling effects (error bounds to be explicitly determined by averaging the retrievals at the extrema of theresolutions. Error bounds could not be estimated, on the other hand, for non-monotonic relationships. Numerical simulations were conducted to demonstrate the monotonicity of the averaged NDVI along spatial resolution. This study provides a theoretical basis for the scaling effects and develops techniques for rectifying the scaling effects in biophysical retrievals to facilitate cross-sensor calibration for the long-term monitoring of vegetation dynamics.

  4. Elevated urine heparanase levels are associated with proteinuria and decreased renal allograft function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itay Shafat

    Full Text Available Heparanase is an endo-β-glucuronidase that cleaves heparan sulfate side chains, leading to structural modifications that loosen the extracellular matrix barrier and associated with tumor metastasis, inflammation and angiogenesis. In addition, the highly sulfated heparan sulfate proteoglycans are important constituents of the glomerular basement membrane and its permselective properties. Recent studies suggest a role for heparanase in several experimental and human glomerular diseases associated with proteinuria such as diabetes, minimal change disease, and membranous nephropathy. Here, we quantified blood and urine heparanase levels in renal transplant recipients and patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD, and assessed whether alterations in heparanase levels correlate with proteinuria and renal function. We report that in transplanted patients, urinary heparanase was markedly elevated, inversely associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, suggesting a relationship between heparanase and graft function. In CKD patients, urinary heparanase was markedly elevated and associated with proteinuria, but not with eGFR. In addition, urinary heparanase correlated significantly with plasma heparanase in transplanted patients. Such a systemic spread of heparanase may lead to damage of cells and tissues alongside the kidney.The newly described association between heparanase, proteinuria and decreased renal function is expected to pave the way for new therapeutic options aimed at attenuating chronic renal allograft nephropathy, leading to improved graft survival and patient outcome.

  5. Variable selection in monotone single-index models via the adaptive LASSO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Jared C; Taylor, Jeremy M G; Nan, Bin

    2013-09-30

    We consider the problem of variable selection for monotone single-index models. A single-index model assumes that the expectation of the outcome is an unknown function of a linear combination of covariates. Assuming monotonicity of the unknown function is often reasonable and allows for more straightforward inference. We present an adaptive LASSO penalized least squares approach to estimating the index parameter and the unknown function in these models for continuous outcome. Monotone function estimates are achieved using the pooled adjacent violators algorithm, followed by kernel regression. In the iterative estimation process, a linear approximation to the unknown function is used, therefore reducing the situation to that of linear regression and allowing for the use of standard LASSO algorithms, such as coordinate descent. Results of a simulation study indicate that the proposed methods perform well under a variety of circumstances and that an assumption of monotonicity, when appropriate, noticeably improves performance. The proposed methods are applied to data from a randomized clinical trial for the treatment of a critical illness in the intensive care unit.

  6. Stochastic Monotone Markov Integrated Semigroups%随机单调Markov积分半群

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文兴易; 李扬荣

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the relationship between monotone of Markov integrated semigroups and transition functions,which are closely linked with each other for continuous time Markov chains.By this a necessary and sufficient condition for the minimal q-semigroup to be stochastic monotone is given in terms of their q-matrix only.%讨论了Markov积分半群的单调性和转移函数的单调性的等价性,并得到最小的Q半群是单调的充要条件.

  7. The first and second monotone integral principles for fundamental solutions of uniformly elliptic equations

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, Jie

    2009-01-01

    Two optimal monotone integral principles (equivalently for the Laplacian, two sharp iso-weighted-volume inequalities) are established through extending the first and second integral bounds of H. Weinberger for the Green functions (i.e., fundamental solutions) of uniformly elliptic equations in terms of the layer-cake formula, a one-dimensional monotone integral principle, and the isoperimetric and Jenson's inequalities with sharp constants. Surprisingly, a special setting of the first principle can be used to not only verify the low-dimensional P\\'olya conjecture for the principal eigenvalue of the Laplacian but also to characterize the geometry of the Nash inequality for a strong uniform elliptic equation.

  8. Comparison of boundedness and monotonicity properties of one-leg and linear multistep methods

    KAUST Repository

    Mozartova, A.

    2015-05-01

    © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. One-leg multistep methods have some advantage over linear multistep methods with respect to storage of the past results. In this paper boundedness and monotonicity properties with arbitrary (semi-)norms or convex functionals are analyzed for such multistep methods. The maximal stepsize coefficient for boundedness and monotonicity of a one-leg method is the same as for the associated linear multistep method when arbitrary starting values are considered. It will be shown, however, that combinations of one-leg methods and Runge-Kutta starting procedures may give very different stepsize coefficients for monotonicity than the linear multistep methods with the same starting procedures. Detailed results are presented for explicit two-step methods.

  9. The Effect of Dexamethasone Iontophoresis on Decreasing Pain and Improving Function in Patients With Musculoskeletal Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christopher D; Lauber, Christine A; Cappaert, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    Clinical Scenario: Iontophoresis is a method of local transfer of ionized medicated and nonmedicated substances through the skin and into the target tissues using magnetic polarization. The anti-inflammatory properties exhibited by dexamethasone sodium phosphate (DEX) combined with iontophoresis make it a potentially desirable treatment for clinicians wishing to administer a noninvasive localized drug concentration without having a large systemic concentration of that drug. Since concurrent treatments are commonly used in clinical practice, many of the published studies that included the use of DEX also used concurrent treatments. However, this may make it difficult for clinicians to determine the individual effectiveness of DEX iontophoresis in treating musculoskeletal conditions. Focused Clinical Question: Does DEX iontophoresis, alone, decrease pain and improve function in patients with musculoskeletal conditions when compared with placebo or control?

  10. Monotone measures of ergodicity for Markov chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Keilson

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The following paper, first written in 1974, was never published other than as part of an internal research series. Its lack of publication is unrelated to the merits of the paper and the paper is of current importance by virtue of its relation to the relaxation time. A systematic discussion is provided of the approach of a finite Markov chain to ergodicity by proving the monotonicity of an important set of norms, each measures of egodicity, whether or not time reversibility is present. The paper is of particular interest because the discussion of the relaxation time of a finite Markov chain [2] has only been clean for time reversible chains, a small subset of the chains of interest. This restriction is not present here. Indeed, a new relaxation time quoted quantifies the relaxation time for all finite ergodic chains (cf. the discussion of Q1(t below Equation (1.7]. This relaxation time was developed by Keilson with A. Roy in his thesis [6], yet to be published.

  11. Remarks on a monotone Markov chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Todorovic

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available In applications, considerations on stochastic models often involve a Markov chain {ζn}0∞ with state space in R+, and a transition probability Q. For each x  R+ the support of Q(x,. is [0,x]. This implies that ζ0≥ζ1≥…. Under certain regularity assumptions on Q we show that Qn(x,Bu→1 as n→∞ for all u>0 and that 1−Qn(x,Bu≤[1−Q(x,Bu]n where Bu=[0,u. Set τ0=max{k;ζk=ζ0}, τn=max{k;ζk=ζτn−1+1} and write Xn=ζτn−1+1, Tn=τn−τn−1. We investigate some properties of the imbedded Markov chain {Xn}0∞ and of {Tn}0∞. We determine all the marginal distributions of {Tn}0∞ and show that it is asymptotically stationary and that it possesses a monotonicity property. We also prove that under some mild regularity assumptions on β(x=1−Q(x,Bx, ∑1n(Ti−a/bn→dZ∼N(0,1.

  12. Robust Monotone Iterates for Nonlinear Singularly Perturbed Boundary Value Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boglaev Igor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with solving nonlinear singularly perturbed boundary value problems. Robust monotone iterates for solving nonlinear difference scheme are constructed. Uniform convergence of the monotone methods is investigated, and convergence rates are estimated. Numerical experiments complement the theoretical results.

  13. Regularization and Iterative Methods for Monotone Variational Inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiubin Xu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We provide a general regularization method for monotone variational inequalities, where the regularizer is a Lipschitz continuous and strongly monotone operator. We also introduce an iterative method as discretization of the regularization method. We prove that both regularization and iterative methods converge in norm.

  14. Positivity and Monotonicity Preserving Biquartic Rational Interpolation Spline Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinru Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A biquartic rational interpolation spline surface over rectangular domain is constructed in this paper, which includes the classical bicubic Coons surface as a special case. Sufficient conditions for generating shape preserving interpolation splines for positive or monotonic surface data are deduced. The given numeric experiments show our method can deal with surface construction from positive or monotonic data effectively.

  15. Decreased regional homogeneity in major depression as revealed by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Dai-hui; JIANG Kai-da; FANG Yi-ru; XU Yi-feng; SHEN Ting; LONG Xiang-yu; LIU Jun; ZANG Yu-feng

    2011-01-01

    Backgroud Functional imaging studies indicate abnormal activities in cortico-limbic network in depression during either task or resting state. The present work was to explore the abnormal spontaneous activity shown with regional homogeneity (ReHo) in depression by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).Methods Using fMRI, the differences of regional brain activity were measured in resting state in depressed vs. healthy participants. Sixteen participants firstly diagnosed with major depressive disorder and 16 controls were scanned during resting state. A novel method based on ReHo was used to detect spontaneous hemodynamic responses across the whole brain.Results ReHo in the left thalamus, left temporal lobe, left cerebellar posterior lobe, and the bilateral occipital lobe was found to be significantly decreased in depression compared to healthy controls in resting state of depression.Conclusions Abnormal spontaneous activity exists in the left thalamus, left temporal lobe, left cerebellar posterior lobe,and the bilateral occipital lobe. And the ReHo may be a potential reference in understanding the distinct brain activity in resting state of depression.

  16. Sulfmyoglobin Conformational Change: A Role in the Decrease of Oxy-Myoglobin Functionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román-Morales, Elddie; López-Alfonzo, Erika; Pietri, Ruth; López-Garriga, Juan

    2016-01-01

    This work is focused at understanding the interaction of H2S with Myoglobin (Mb), in particular the Sulfmyoglobin (SMb) product, whose physiological role is controversial and not well understood. The scattering curves, Guinier, Kratky, Porod and P(r) plots were analyzed for oxy-Mb and oxy-Hemoglobin I (oxyHbI) in the absence and presence of H2S, using Small and Wide Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS/WAXS) technique. Three dimensional models were also generated from the SAXS/WAXS data. The results show that SMb formation, produced by oxyMb and H2S interaction, induces a change in the protein conformation where its envelope has a very small cleft and the protein is more flexible, less rigid and compact. Based on the direct relationship between Mb’s structural conformation and its functionality, we suggest that the conformational change observed upon SMb formation plays a contribution to the protein decrease in O2 affinity and, therefore, on its functionality. PMID:28138567

  17. Decreased hydrocortisone sensitivity of T cell function in multiple sclerosis-associated major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Anja; Otte, Christian; Krieger, Thorsten; Nicholls, Robert A; Krüger, Schulamith; Ziegler, Kristin J; Schulz, Karl-Heinz; Heesen, Christoph; Gold, Stefan M

    2012-10-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the CNS with a high prevalence of depression. Both MS and depression have been linked to elevated cortisol levels and inflammation, indicating disturbed endocrine-immune regulation. An imbalance in mineralocorticoid versus glucocorticoid signaling in the CNS has been proposed as a pathogenetic mechanism of depression. Intriguingly, both receptors are also expressed in lymphocytes, but their role for 'escape' of the immune system from endocrine control is unknown. Using steroid sensitivity of T cell function as a read-out system, we here investigate a potential role of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) versus glucocorticoid receptor (GR) regulation in the immune system as a biological mechanism underlying MS-associated major depression. Twelve female MS patients meeting diagnostic criteria for current major depressive disorder (MDD) were compared to twelve carefully matched MS patients without depression. We performed lymphocyte phenotyping by flow cytometry. In addition, steroid sensitivity of T cell proliferation was tested using hydrocortisone as well as MR (aldosterone) and GR (dexamethasone) agonists. Sensitivity to hydrocortisone was decreased in T cells from depressed MS patients. Experiments with agonists suggested disturbed MR regulation, but intact GR function. Importantly, there were no differences in lymphocyte composition and frequency of T cell subsets, indicating that the differences in steroid sensitivity are unlikely to be secondary to shifts in the immune compartment. To our knowledge, this study provides first evidence for altered steroid sensitivity of T cells from MS patients with comorbid MDD possibly due to MR dysregulation.

  18. Decreased Fibroblast and Increased Osteoblast Functions on Ionic Plasma Deposited Nanostructured Ti Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Storey Dan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBioactive coatings are in high demand to control cellular functions for numerous medical devices. The objective of this in vitro study was to characterize for the first time fibroblast (fibrous scar tissue forming cells adhesion and proliferation on an important polymeric biomaterial (silicone coated with titanium using a novel ionic plasma deposition (IPD process. Fibroblasts are one of the first anchorage-dependent cells to arrive at an implant surface during the wound healing process. Persistent excessive functions of fibroblasts have been linked to detrimental fibrous tissue formation which may cause implant failure. The IPD process creates a surface-engineered nanostructure (with features usually below 100 nm by first using a vacuum to remove all contaminants, then guiding charged metallic ions or plasma to the surface of a medical device at ambient temperature. Results demonstrated that compared to currently used titanium and uncoated silicone, silicone coated with titanium using IPD significantly decreased fibroblast adhesion and proliferation. Results also showed competitively increased osteoblast (bone-forming cells over fibroblast adhesion on silicone coated with titanium; in contrast, osteoblast adhesion was not competitively increased over fibroblast adhesion on uncoated silicone or titanium controls. In this manner, this study strongly suggests that IPD should be further studied for biomaterial applications in which fibrous tissue encapsulation is undesirable (such as for orthopedic implants, cardiovascular components, etc..

  19. Evaluation of postoperative cardiac function in severe ischemic heart disease associated with decreased ejection fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natsuaki, Masafumi; Itoh, Tsuyoshi; Norita, Hiroaki; Naitoh, Kouzou; Suda, Hisao [Saga Medical School (Japan)

    1997-09-01

    This clinical study was performed to clarify the postoperative cardiac functions after coronary artery bypass graft surgery in the cases associated with decreased left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) or increased end-diastolic volume index (EDVI). The patients were divided into two groups by preoperative EF. The EF of Group I ranged from 31 to 39% in 42 cases, and the EF of Group II was below 30% in 27 cases. Several parameters of cardiac function such as EF, peak ejection rate (PER), peak filling rate (PFR) or early diastolic peak filling rate were evaluated with radionuclide ventriculography. Postoperative mean values of these parameters significantly improved in both Group I and Group II compared to preoperative values. Although these parameters and left ventricular wall motion did not improve in the 7 cases with an EDVI over 140 ml/m{sup 2} in Group II, the clinical results of these 7 cases were good during the follow-up period except one case which preoperatively had frequent ventricular arrythmia. The clinical condition improved remarkably in the 3 patients who had preoperative angina pectoris among these 7 cases. Surgical indications must be carefully determined in cases with increased EDVI and frequent ventricular arrythmia. (author)

  20. Permanence of a general discrete-time two-species-interaction model with non-monotonic per capita growth rates

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, Yun

    2011-01-01

    Combined with all density-dependent factors, the per capita growth rate of a species may be non-monotonic. One important consequence is that species may suffer from weak Allee effects or strong Allee effects. In this paper, we study the permanence of a discrete-time two-species-interaction model with non-monotonic per capita growth rates for the first time. By using the average Lyapunov functions and extending the ecological concept of the relative nonlinearity, we find a simple sufficient condition for guaranteeing the permanence of systems that can model complicated two-species interactions. The extended relative nonlinearity allows us to fully characterize the effects of nonlinearities in the per capita growth functions with non-monotonicity. These results are illustrated with specific two species competition and predator-prey models of generic forms with non-monotone per capita growth rates.

  1. Organophosphorus pesticides decrease M2 muscarinic receptor function in guinea pig airway nerves via indirect mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becky J Proskocil

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies link organophosphorus pesticide (OP exposures to asthma, and we have shown that the OPs chlorpyrifos, diazinon and parathion cause airway hyperreactivity in guinea pigs 24 hr after a single subcutaneous injection. OP-induced airway hyperreactivity involves M2 muscarinic receptor dysfunction on airway nerves independent of acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibition, but how OPs inhibit neuronal M2 receptors in airways is not known. In the central nervous system, OPs interact directly with neurons to alter muscarinic receptor function or expression; therefore, in this study we tested whether the OP parathion or its oxon metabolite, paraoxon, might decrease M2 receptor function on peripheral neurons via similar direct mechanisms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Intravenous administration of paraoxon, but not parathion, caused acute frequency-dependent potentiation of vagally-induced bronchoconstriction and increased electrical field stimulation (EFS-induced contractions in isolated trachea independent of AChE inhibition. However, paraoxon had no effect on vagally-induced bradycardia in intact guinea pigs or EFS-induced contractions in isolated ileum, suggesting mechanisms other than pharmacologic antagonism of M2 receptors. Paraoxon did not alter M2 receptor expression in cultured cells at the mRNA or protein level as determined by quantitative RT-PCR and radio-ligand binding assays, respectively. Additionally, a biotin-labeled fluorophosphonate, which was used as a probe to identify molecular targets phosphorylated by OPs, did not phosphorylate proteins in guinea pig cardiac membranes that were recognized by M2 receptor antibodies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data indicate that neither direct pharmacologic antagonism nor downregulated expression of M2 receptors contributes to OP inhibition of M2 function in airway nerves, adding to the growing evidence of non-cholinergic mechanisms of OP neurotoxicity.

  2. Payoff-monotonic game dynamics and the maximum clique problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelillo, Marcello; Torsello, Andrea

    2006-05-01

    Evolutionary game-theoretic models and, in particular, the so-called replicator equations have recently proven to be remarkably effective at approximately solving the maximum clique and related problems. The approach is centered around a classic result from graph theory that formulates the maximum clique problem as a standard (continuous) quadratic program and exploits the dynamical properties of these models, which, under a certain symmetry assumption, possess a Lyapunov function. In this letter, we generalize previous work along these lines in several respects. We introduce a wide family of game-dynamic equations known as payoff-monotonic dynamics, of which replicator dynamics are a special instance, and show that they enjoy precisely the same dynamical properties as standard replicator equations. These properties make any member of this family a potential heuristic for solving standard quadratic programs and, in particular, the maximum clique problem. Extensive simulations, performed on random as well as DIMACS benchmark graphs, show that this class contains dynamics that are considerably faster than and at least as accurate as replicator equations. One problem associated with these models, however, relates to their inability to escape from poor local solutions. To overcome this drawback, we focus on a particular subclass of payoff-monotonic dynamics used to model the evolution of behavior via imitation processes and study the stability of their equilibria when a regularization parameter is allowed to take on negative values. A detailed analysis of these properties suggests a whole class of annealed imitation heuristics for the maximum clique problem, which are based on the idea of varying the parameter during the imitation optimization process in a principled way, so as to avoid unwanted inefficient solutions. Experiments show that the proposed annealing procedure does help to avoid poor local optima by initially driving the dynamics toward promising regions in

  3. Chronic ethanol exposure decreases CB1 receptor function at GABAergic synapses in the rat central amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varodayan, Florence P; Soni, Neeraj; Bajo, Michal; Luu, George; Madamba, Samuel G; Schweitzer, Paul; Parsons, Loren H; Roberto, Marisa

    2016-07-01

    The endogenous cannabinoids (eCBs) influence the acute response to ethanol and the development of tolerance, dependence and relapse. Chronic alcohol exposure alters eCB levels and Type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1 ) expression and function in brain regions associated with addiction. CB1 inhibits GABA release, and GABAergic dysregulation in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) is critical in the transition to alcohol dependence. We investigated possible disruptions in CB1 signaling of rat CeA GABAergic transmission following intermittent ethanol exposure. In the CeA of alcohol-naive rats, CB1 agonist WIN 55,212-2 (WIN) decreased the frequency of spontaneous and miniature GABAA receptor-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic currents (s/mIPSCs). This effect was prevented by CB1 antagonism, but not Type 2 cannabinoid receptor (CB2 ) antagonism. After 2-3 weeks of intermittent ethanol exposure, these WIN inhibitory effects were attenuated, suggesting ethanol-induced impairments in CB1 function. The CB1 antagonist AM251 revealed a tonic eCB/CB1 control of GABAergic transmission in the alcohol-naive CeA that was occluded by calcium chelation in the postsynaptic cell. Chronic ethanol exposure abolished this tonic CB1 influence on mIPSC, but not sIPSC, frequency. Finally, acute ethanol increased CeA GABA release in both naive and ethanol-exposed rats. Although CB1 activation prevented this effect, the AM251- and ethanol-induced GABA release were additive, ruling out a direct participation of CB1 signaling in the ethanol effect. Collectively, these observations demonstrate an important CB1 influence on CeA GABAergic transmission and indicate that the CeA is particularly sensitive to alcohol-induced disruptions of CB1 signaling.

  4. Hydroxyapatite nanocrystals functionalized with alendronate as bioactive components for bone implant coatings to decrease osteoclastic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco, Ruggero; Iafisco, Michele; Tampieri, Anna; Jansen, John A.; Leeuwenburgh, Sander C. G.; van den Beucken, Jeroen J. J. P.

    2015-02-01

    The integration of bone implants within native bone tissue depends on periprosthetic bone quality, which is severely decreased in osteoporotic patients. In this work, we have synthesized bone-like hydroxyapatite nanocrystals (nHA) using an acid-base neutralization reaction and analysed their physicochemical properties. Subsequently, we have functionalized the nHA with alendronate (nHAALE), a well-known bisphosphonate drug used for the treatment of osteoporosis. An in vitro osteoclastogenesis test was carried out to evaluate the effect of nHAALE on the formation of osteoclast-like cells from monocytic precursor cells (i.e. RAW264.7 cell line) showing that nHAALE significantly promoted apoptosis of osteoclast-like cells. Subsequently, nHA and nHAALE were deposited on titanium disks using electrospray deposition (ESD), for which characterisation of the deposited coatings confirmed the presence of alendronate in nHAALE coatings with nanoscale thickness of about 700 nm. These results indicate that alendronate linked to hydroxyapatite nanocrystals has therapeutic potential and nHAALE can be considered as an appealing coating constituent material for orthopaedic and oral implants for application in osteoporotic patients.

  5. Ratio Monotonicity of Polynomials Derived from Nondecreasing Sequences

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, William Y C; Zhou, Elaine L F

    2010-01-01

    The ratio monotonicity of a polynomial is a stronger property than log-concavity. Let P(x) be a polynomial with nonnegative and nondecreasing coefficients. We prove the ratio monotone property of P(x+1), which leads to the log-concavity of P(x+c) for any $c\\geq 1$ due to Llamas and Mart\\'{\\i}nez-Bernal. As a consequence, we obtain the ratio monotonicity of the Boros-Moll polynomials obtained by Chen and Xia without resorting to the recurrence relations of the coefficients.

  6. An Extragradient Method and Proximal Point Algorithm for Inverse Strongly Monotone Operators and Maximal Monotone Operators in Banach Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plubtieng Somyot

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We introduce an iterative scheme for finding a common element of the solution set of a maximal monotone operator and the solution set of the variational inequality problem for an inverse strongly-monotone operator in a uniformly smooth and uniformly convex Banach space, and then we prove weak and strong convergence theorems by using the notion of generalized projection. The result presented in this paper extend and improve the corresponding results of Kamimura et al. (2004, and Iiduka and Takahashi (2008. Finally, we apply our convergence theorem to the convex minimization problem, the problem of finding a zero point of a maximal monotone operator and the complementary problem.

  7. An Extragradient Method and Proximal Point Algorithm for Inverse Strongly Monotone Operators and Maximal Monotone Operators in Banach Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somyot Plubtieng

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce an iterative scheme for finding a common element of the solution set of a maximal monotone operator and the solution set of the variational inequality problem for an inverse strongly-monotone operator in a uniformly smooth and uniformly convex Banach space, and then we prove weak and strong convergence theorems by using the notion of generalized projection. The result presented in this paper extend and improve the corresponding results of Kamimura et al. (2004, and Iiduka and Takahashi (2008. Finally, we apply our convergence theorem to the convex minimization problem, the problem of finding a zero point of a maximal monotone operator and the complementary problem.

  8. On the Monotone Iterative Method for Set Valued Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper deals with the monotone iterative method for set- valued operator equation in ordered normed space. Some results for the case of single valued operator are generalized here, as an application, a discontinuous nonlinear differential equation problem is discussed.

  9. Monotone method for initial value problem for fractional diffusion equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shuqin

    2006-01-01

    Using the method of upper and lower solutions and its associated monotone iterative, consider the existence and uniqueness of solution of an initial value problem for the nonlinear fractional diffusion equation.

  10. Action-Maslov Homomorphism for Monotone Symplectic Manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Branson, Mark

    2009-01-01

    We explore conditions under which the action-Maslov homomorphism vanishes on monotone symplectic manifolds. Our strategy involves showing that the units in the quantum homology, and thus the Seidel element, have a very specific form. Then we use induction to show that other relevant Gromov-Witten invariants vanish. We prove that these conditions hold for monotone products of projective spaces and for the Grassmannian of 2-planes in $\\C^4$.

  11. Isotonicity of the projection onto the monotone cone

    CERN Document Server

    Németh, A B

    2012-01-01

    A wedge (i.e., a closed nonempty set in the Euclidean space stable under addition and multiplication with non-negative scalars) induces by a standard way a semi-order (a reflexive and transitive binary relation) in the space. The wedges admitting isotone metric projection with respect to the semi-order induced by them are characterized. The obtained result is used to show that the monotone wedge (called monotone cone in regression theory) admits isotone projection.

  12. Monotonic loading of circular surface footings on clay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Barari, Amin [Aalborg University, Aalborg (Denmark)

    2011-12-15

    Appropriate modeling of offshore foundations under monotonic loading is a significant challenge in geotechnical engineering. This paper reports experimental and numerical analyses, specifically investigating the response of circular surface footings during monotonic loading and elastoplastic behavior during reloading. By using the findings presented in this paper, it is possible to extend the model to simulate the vertical-load displacement response of offshore bucket foundations.

  13. Convergence for pseudo monotone semiflows on product ordered topological spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Taishan; Huang, Lihong

    In this paper, we consider a class of pseudo monotone semiflows, which only enjoy some weak monotonicity properties and are defined on product-ordered topological spaces. Under certain conditions, several convergence principles are established for each precompact orbit of such a class of semiflows to tend to an equilibrium, which improve and extend some corresponding results already known. Some applications to delay differential equations are presented.

  14. Non-monotonicity of trace distance under tensor products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maziero, Jonas, E-mail: jonas.maziero@ufsm.br [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), RS (Brazil). Departamento de Fisica

    2015-10-15

    The trace distance (TD) possesses several of the good properties required for a faithful distance measure in the quantum state space. Despite its importance and ubiquitous use in quantum information science, one of its questionable features, its possible non-monotonicity under taking tensor products of its arguments (NMuTP), has been hitherto unexplored. In this article, we advance analytical and numerical investigations of this issue considering different classes of states living in a discrete and finite dimensional Hilbert space. Our results reveal that although this property of TD does not show up for pure states and for some particular classes of mixed states, it is present in a non-negligible fraction of the regarded density operators. Hence, even though the percentage of quartets of states leading to the NMuTP drawback of TD and its strength decrease as the system's dimension grows, this property of TD must be taken into account before using it as a figure of merit for distinguishing mixed quantum states. (author)

  15. Functional diversity of macrobenthic assemblages decreases in response to sewage discharges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gusmao, Joao B.; Brauko, Kalina M.; Eriksson, Britas K.; Lana, Paulo C.

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed the effects of sewage discharge on a subtropical estuary by comparing the functional diversity of intertidal macroinvertebrate assemblages in contaminated with non-contaminated reference areas. Functional structure was assessed using biological traits analysis (BTA) and four multivariate

  16. Non-monotonic size dependence of diffusion and levitation effect: a mode-coupling theory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Manoj Kumar; Banerjee, Atreyee; Bhattacharyya, Sarika Maitra

    2013-03-28

    We present a study of diffusion of small tagged particles in a solvent, using mode coupling theory (MCT) analysis and computer simulations. The study is carried out for various interaction potentials. For the first time, using MCT, it is shown that only for strongly attractive interaction potential with allowing interpenetration between the solute-solvent pair the diffusion exhibits a non-monotonic solute size dependence which has earlier been reported in simulation studies [P. K. Ghorai and S. Yashonath, J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 5824-5835 (2005)]. For weak attractive and repulsive potential the solute size dependence of diffusion shows monotonic behaviour. It is also found that for systems where the interaction potential does not allow solute-solvent interpenetration, the solute cannot explore the neck of the solvent cage. Thus these systems even with strong attractive interaction will never show any non-monotonic size dependence of diffusion. This non-monotonic size dependence of diffusion has earlier been connected to levitation effect [S. Yashonath and P. Santikary, J. Phys. Chem. 98, 6368 (1994)]. We also show that although levitation is a dynamic phenomena, the effect of levitation can be obtained in the static radial distribution function.

  17. Decreased blood-brain barrier P-glycoprotein function in the progression of Parkinson's disease, PSP and MSA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, A. L.; Willemsen, A. T. M.; Kortekaas, R.; de Jong, B. M.; de Vries, R.; de Klerk, O.; van Oostrom, J. C. H.; Portman, A.; Leenders, K. L.

    2008-01-01

    Decreased blood-brain barrier (BBB) efflux function of the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) transport system could facilitate the accumulation of toxic compounds in the brain, increasing the risk of neurodegenerative pathology such as Parkinson's disease (PD). This study investigated in vivo BBB P-gp function

  18. Postoperative Decrease in Platelet Counts Is Associated with Delayed Liver Function Recovery and Complications after Partial Hepatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Kurokawa, Tomohiro; Oshiro, Yukio; Fukunaga, Kiyoshi; Sakashita, Shingo; Ohkohchi, Nobuhiro

    2016-05-01

    Peripheral platelet counts decrease after partial hepatectomy; however, the implications of this phenomenon are unclear. We assessed if the observed decrease in platelet counts was associated with postoperative liver function and morbidity (complications grade ≤ II according to the Clavien-Dindo classification). We enrolled 216 consecutive patients who underwent partial hepatectomy for primary liver cancers, metastatic liver cancers, benign tumors, and donor hepatectomy. We classified patients as either low or high platelet percentage (postoperative platelet count/preoperative platelet count) using the optimal cutoff value calculated by a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, and analyzed risk factors for delayed liver functional recovery and morbidity after hepatectomy. Delayed liver function recovery and morbidity were significantly correlated with the lowest value of platelet percentage based on ROC analysis. Using a cutoff value of 60% acquired by ROC analysis, univariate and multivariate analysis determined that postoperative lowest platelet percentage ≤ 60% was identified as an independent risk factor of delayed liver function recovery (odds ratio (OR) 6.85; P decreased postoperative prothrombin time ratio and serum albumin level and increased serum bilirubin level when compared with patients with platelet percentage ≥ 61%. A greater than 40% decrease in platelet count after partial hepatectomy was an independent risk factor for delayed liver function recovery and postoperative morbidity. In conclusion, the decrease in platelet counts is an early marker to predict the liver function recovery and complications after hepatectomy.

  19. A Function-Based Intervention to Decrease Disruptive Behavior and Increase Academic Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Smither, Rachel; Huseman, Rachel; Guffey, Jennifer; Fox, James

    2007-01-01

    A range of interventions exist to prevent and respond to disruptive classroom behavior. This study documents the efficacy of a function-based intervention conducted using a multiple baseline across settings design. Despite moderately variable levels of treatment fidelity, results suggest a functional relation between the introduction of a package…

  20. Decreased Functional Brain Activation in Friedreich Ataxia Using the Simon Effect Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou-Karistianis, N.; Akhlaghi, H.; Corben, L. A.; Delatycki, M. B.; Storey, E.; Bradshaw, J. L.; Egan, G. F.

    2012-01-01

    The present study applied the Simon effect task to examine the pattern of functional brain reorganization in individuals with Friedreich ataxia (FRDA), using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Thirteen individuals with FRDA and 14 age and sex matched controls participated, and were required to respond to either congruent or incongruent…

  1. Blending Functional Communication Training and Choice Making to Improve Task Engagement and Decrease Problem Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Stephanie M. Peck; Caniglia, Cyndi; Royster, Amy Jo; Macfarlane, Emily; Plowman, Kristen; Baird, Sally Jo; Wu, Nadia

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of choice making within functional communication training (FCT) to increase the task engagement of two participants with inappropriate behaviour. Pretreatment functional analyses indicated that both participants' inappropriate behaviour was maintained by escape. For one of the participants, inappropriate behaviour…

  2. Increased LCAT activity and hyperglycaemia decrease the antioxidative functionality of HDL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappelle, Paul J.W.H.; de Boer, Jan Freark; Perton, Frank G.; Annema, Wijtske; de Vries, Rindert; Dullaart, Robin P. F.; Tietge, Uwe J. F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus increases the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Antioxidative properties of high density lipoprotein (HDL) are important for atheroprotection. This study investigated whether the antioxidative functionality of HDL is altered in type 2 diabetes mellit

  3. Increased LCAT activity and hyperglycaemia decrease the antioxidative functionality of HDL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappelle, Paul J.W.H.; de Boer, Jan Freark; Perton, Frank G.; Annema, Wijtske; de Vries, Rindert; Dullaart, Robin P. F.; Tietge, Uwe J. F.

    Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus increases the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Antioxidative properties of high density lipoprotein (HDL) are important for atheroprotection. This study investigated whether the antioxidative functionality of HDL is altered in type 2 diabetes

  4. Functional diversity exhibits a diverse relationship with area, even a decreasing one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadimou, Elpida K; Kallimanis, Athanasios S; Tsiripidis, Ioannis; Dimopoulos, Panayotis

    2016-10-18

    The relationship between species richness and area is one of the few well-established laws in ecology, and one might expect a similar relationship with functional diversity (FD). However, only a few studies investigate the relationship between trait-based FD and area, the Functional Diversity - Area Relationship (FDAR). To examine FDAR, we constructed the species accumulation curve and the corresponding FD curve. We used plant diversity data from nested plots (1-128 m(2)), recorded on the Volcanic islands of Santorini Archipelagos, Greece. Six multidimensional FD indices were calculated using 26 traits. We identified a typology of FDARs depending on the facet of FD analyzed: (A) strongly positive for indices quantifying the range of functional traits in the community, (B) negative correlation for indices quantifying the evenness in the distribution of abundance in the trait space, (C) no clear pattern for indices reflecting the functional similarity of species and (D) idiosyncratic patterns with area for functional divergence. As area increases, the range of traits observed in the community increases, but the abundance of traits does not increase proportionally and some traits become dominant, implying a reliance on some functions that may be located in either the center or the periphery of the trait space.

  5. Adipose Tissue Inflammation Induces B Cell Inflammation and Decreases B Cell Function in Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Frasca

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Aging is the greatest risk factor for developing chronic diseases. Inflamm-aging, the age-related increase in low-grade chronic inflammation, may be a common link in age-related diseases. This review summarizes recent published data on potential cellular and molecular mechanisms of the age-related increase in inflammation, and how these contribute to decreased humoral immune responses in aged mice and humans. Briefly, we cover how aging and related inflammation decrease antibody responses in mice and humans, and how obesity contributes to the mechanisms for aging through increased inflammation. We also report data in the literature showing adipose tissue infiltration with immune cells and how these cells are recruited and contribute to local and systemic inflammation. We show that several types of immune cells infiltrate the adipose tissue and these include macrophages, neutrophils, NK cells, innate lymphoid cells, eosinophils, T cells, B1, and B2 cells. Our main focus is how the adipose tissue affects immune responses, in particular B cell responses and antibody production. The role of leptin in generating inflammation and decreased B cell responses is also discussed. We report data published by us and by other groups showing that the adipose tissue generates pro-inflammatory B cell subsets which induce pro-inflammatory T cells, promote insulin resistance, and secrete pathogenic autoimmune antibodies.

  6. Elevated triglycerides are associated with decreased executive function among adolescents with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naiberg, M R; Newton, D F; Collins, J E; Dickstein, D P; Bowie, C R; Goldstein, B I

    2016-09-01

    Cardiovascular risk factors that comprise metabolic syndrome (MetS) have been linked with cognition in adults with bipolar disorder (BD). This study examines the association between MetS components and executive function in adolescents with BD. A total of 34 adolescents with BD and 35 healthy control (HC) adolescents were enrolled. MetS components included triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, glucose, waist circumference, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Executive functioning was measured using the intra-extra-dimensional (IED) set-shifting task from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Tests Automated Battery. Adolescents with BD were more likely to have ≥1 MetS components (64.7%) as compared to HC participants (22.9%, χ(2) = 12.29, P = triglyceride levels (ρ = -0.358, P = 0.041 and ρ = -0.396, P = 0.020 respectively). The association of triglycerides with executive function remained significant after controlling for age, IQ, and current use of second-generation antipsychotics. Elevated triglycerides are associated with poorer executive function among adolescents with BD. Studies of behavioural and pharmacological interventions targeting MetS components for the purpose of improving executive function among adolescents with BD are warranted. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Coloring intersection graphs of x-monotone curves in the plane

    CERN Document Server

    Suk, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    A class of graphs G is \\chi-bounded if the chromatic number of the graphs in G is bounded by some function of their clique number. We show that the class of intersection graphs of simple x-monotone curves in the plane intersecting a vertical line is \\chi-bounded. As a corollary, the class of intersection graphs of rays in the plane is \\chi-bounded.

  8. A projected gradient method with nonmonotonic backtracking technique for solving convex constrained monotone variational inequality problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Based on a differentiable merit function proposed by Taji,et al in "Mathematical Programming,1993,58: 369-383",a projected gradient trust region method for the monotone variational inequality problem with convex constraints is presented.Theoretical analysis is given which proves that the proposed algorithm is globally convergent and has a local quadratic convergence rate under some reasonable conditions.The results of numerical experiments are reported to show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  9. Diagnosis of constant faults in iteration-free circuits over monotone basis

    KAUST Repository

    Alrawaf, Saad Abdullah

    2014-03-01

    We show that for each iteration-free combinatorial circuit S over a basis B containing only monotone Boolean functions with at most five variables, there exists a decision tree for diagnosis of constant faults on inputs of gates with depth at most 7L(S) where L(S) is the number of gates in S. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Decreased functional connectivity in an executive control network is related to impaired executive function in Internet gaming disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Guangheng; Lin, Xiao; Potenza, Marc N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Resting brain spontaneous neural activities across cortical regions have been correlated with specific functional properties in psychiatric groups. Individuals with Internet gaming disorder (IGD) demonstrate impaired executive control. Thus, it is important to examine executive control networks (ECNs) during resting states and their relationships to executive control during task performance. Methods Thirty-five IGD and 36 healthy control participants underwent a resting-state fMRI scan and performed a Stroop task inside and outside of the MRI scanner. Correlations between Stroop effect and functional connectivity among ECN regions of interest (ROIs) were calculated within and between groups. Results IGD subjects show lower functional connectivity in ECNs than do HC participants during resting state; functional-connectivity measures in ECNs were negatively correlated with Stroop effect and positively correlated with brain activations in executive-control regions across groups. Within groups, negative trends were found between Stroop effect and functional connectivity in ECNs in IGD and HC groups, separately; positive trends were found between functional connectivity in ECNs and brain activations in Stroop task in IGD and HC groups, separately. Conclusions Higher functional connectivity in ECNs may underlie better executive control and may provide resilience with respect to IGD. Lower functional connectivity in ECNs may represent an important feature in understanding and treating IGD. PMID:25445475

  11. Executive and Attentional Functions in Chronic Pain: Does Performance Decrease with Increasing Task Load?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joukje M Oosterman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diminished executive function and attentional control has been reported in chronic pain patients. However, the precise pattern of impairment in these aspects of cognition in chronic pain remains unclear. Moreover, a decline in psychomotor speed could potentially influence executive and attentional control performance in pain patients.

  12. Decreased Resting-State Interhemispheric Functional Connectivity in Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ChunYan Luo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Abnormalities in white matter integrity and specific functional network alterations have been increasingly reported in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD. However, little is known about the inter-hemispheric interaction in PD. Methods. Fifty-one drug naive patients with PD and 51 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI scans. We compared the inter-hemispheric resting-state functional connectivity between patients with PD and healthy controls, using the voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC approach. Then, we correlated the results from VMHC and clinical features in PD patients. Results. Relative to healthy subject, patients exhibited significantly lower VMHC in putamen and cortical regions associated with sensory processing and motor control (involving sensorimotor and supramarginal cortex, which have been verified to play a critical role in PD. In addition, there were inverse relationships between the UPDRS motor scores and VMHC in the sensorimotor, and between the illness duration and VMHC in the supramarginal gyrus in PD patients. Conclusions. Our results suggest that the functional coordination between homotopic brain regions is impaired in PD patients, extending previous notions about the disconnection of corticostriatal circuit by providing new evidence supporting a disturbance in inter-hemispheric connections in PD.

  13. Increased risk of wheeze and decreased lung function after respiratory syncytial virus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zomer-Kooijker, K.; Ent, C.K. van der; Ermers, M.J.; Uiterwaal, C.S.; Rovers, M.M.; Bont, L.J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A relationship between hospitalization for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis and asthma development has been suggested in case-control studies. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the risk of current wheeze, asthma, and lung function at school age in infants

  14. Dualisation, decision lists and identification of monotone discrete functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Bioch (Cor)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractMany data-analysis algorithms in machine learning, datamining and a variety of other disciplines essentially operate on discrete multi-attribute data sets. By means of discretisation or binarisation also numerical data sets can be successfully analysed. Therefore, in this paper we view/i

  15. Dualisation, decision lists and identification of monotone discrete functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Bioch (Cor)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractMany data-analysis algorithms in machine learning, datamining and a variety of other disciplines essentially operate on discrete multi-attribute data sets. By means of discretisation or binarisation also numerical data sets can be successfully analysed. Therefore, in this paper we

  16. High IP-10 levels decrease T cell function in HIV-1-infected individuals on ART

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, L. A.; Arango, T. A.; Thompson, E.; Naji, M.; Tebas, P.; Boyer, J. D.

    2014-01-01

    HIV-1-infected subjects, despite control of viral replication with ART, have an altered immune cytokine/chemokine milieu. Changes in systemic cytokines and chemokines can alter immune responses. IP-10, in particular, has been associated with pathogenesis in a number of conditions, and we found that IP-10 is increased in serum in subjects who are HIV-1 infected and on stable ART compared with HIV-1-uninfected individuals. In a series of in vitro studies, we found that PBMCs exposed to IP-10 showed a significant decrease in the number of cells capable of secreting IFN-γ, as well as other cytokines, when stimulated with recall antigens. Furthermore, treatment with IP-10 led to decreased antigen-specific calcium signaling and MAPK38 phosphorylation. Importantly, the cytokines, as well as proliferative responses, could be enhanced with an IP-10 Nab. Our findings suggest that IP-10-modulating drugs may potentially enhance T cell responses to vaccination and HIV-1 in HIV+ subjects on ART. PMID:25157027

  17. Estimating monotonic rates from biological data using local linear regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olito, Colin; White, Craig R; Marshall, Dustin J; Barneche, Diego R

    2017-03-01

    Accessing many fundamental questions in biology begins with empirical estimation of simple monotonic rates of underlying biological processes. Across a variety of disciplines, ranging from physiology to biogeochemistry, these rates are routinely estimated from non-linear and noisy time series data using linear regression and ad hoc manual truncation of non-linearities. Here, we introduce the R package LoLinR, a flexible toolkit to implement local linear regression techniques to objectively and reproducibly estimate monotonic biological rates from non-linear time series data, and demonstrate possible applications using metabolic rate data. LoLinR provides methods to easily and reliably estimate monotonic rates from time series data in a way that is statistically robust, facilitates reproducible research and is applicable to a wide variety of research disciplines in the biological sciences. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. Monotone traveling wavefronts of the KPP-Fisher delayed equation

    CERN Document Server

    Gomez, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    In the early 2000's, Gourley (2000), Wu et al. (2001), Ashwin et al. (2002) initiated the study of the positive wavefronts in the delayed Kolmogorov-Petrovskii-Piskunov-Fisher equation. Since then, this model has become one of the most popular objects in the studies of traveling waves for the monostable delayed reaction-diffusion equations. In this paper, we give a complete solution to the problem of existence and uniqueness of monotone waves in the KPP-Fisher equation. We show that each monotone traveling wave can be found via an iteration procedure. The proposed approach is based on the use of special monotone integral operators (which are different from the usual Wu-Zou operator) and appropriate upper and lower solutions associated to them. The analysis of the asymptotic expansions of the eventual traveling fronts at infinity is another key ingredient of our approach.

  19. Cardiac mass and function decrease in bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome after lung transplantation: relationship to physical activity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan B Hinrichs

    Full Text Available RATIONALE: There is a need to expand knowledge on cardio-pulmonary pathophysiology of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS following lung transplantation (LTx. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess MRI-derived biventricular cardiac mass and function parameters as well as flow hemodynamics in patients with and without BOS after LTx. METHODS: Using 1.5T cardiac MRI, measurements of myocardial structure and function as well as measurements of flow in the main pulmonary artery and ascending aorta were performed in 56 lung transplant patients. The patients were dichotomized into two gender matched groups of comparable age range: one with BOS (BOS stages 1-3 and one without BOS (BOS 0/0p. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Significantly lower biventricular cardiac mass, right and left ventricular end-diastolic volume, biventricular stroke volume, flow hemodynamics and significant higher heart rate but preserved cardiac output were observed in patients with BOS 1-3 compared to the BOS 0/0p group (p < 0.05. In a stepwise logistic regression analysis global cardiac mass (p = 0.046 and days after LTx (p = 0.0001 remained independent parameters to predict BOS. In a second model an indicator for the physical fitness level - walking number of stairs - was added to the logistic regression model. In this second model, time after LTx (p = 0.005 and physical fitness (p = 0.01 remained independent predictors for BOS. CONCLUSION: The observed changes in biventricular cardiac mass and function as well as changes in hemodynamic flow parameters in the pulmonary trunk and ascending aorta are likely attributed to the physical fitness level of patients after lung transplantation, which in turn is strongly related to lung function.

  20. Amyloid-beta peptide decreases expression and function of glutamate transporters in nervous system cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Huichun; Zhang, Xiuping; Meng, Xingjun; Xu, Pingyi; Zou, Xiaoming; Qu, Shaogang

    2017-02-08

    Glutamate is an essential excitatory neurotransmitter that regulates brain functions, and its activity is tightly regulated by glutamate transporters. Excess glutamate in the synaptic cleft and dysfunction of excitatory amino acid transporters have been shown to be involved in development of Alzheimer's disease, but the precise regulatory mechanism is poorly understood. Using a D-[(3)H]-aspartic acid uptake assay, we found that Aβ1-42 oligomers impaired glutamate uptake in astrocytes and neurons. In astrocytes, this process was accompanied by reduced expression of GLT-1 and GLAST as detected by Western blot and immunocytofluorescence. However, mRNA levels of EAATs detected by qPCR in astrocytes and neurons were not altered, which suggests that this process is post-translational. Co-localization analysis using immunocytofluorescence showed that ubiquitylation of GLT-1 significantly increased. Therefore, we hypothesized that Aβ1-42 oligomers-induced endocytosis of astrocytic GLT-1 may be involved in ubiquitylation. In addition, Aβ1-42 oligomers enhanced secretion of IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 into culture supernatant, which may be correlated with an inflammatory response and altered EAATs expression or function in Alzheimer's disease. These findings support the idea that dysregulation of the glutamatergic system may play a significant role in pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Furthermore, enhancing expression or function of EAATs in astrocytes and neurons might be a new therapeutic approach in treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

  1. Functional Connectivity of the Caudal Anterior Cingulate Cortex Is Decreased in Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuanyue; Shi, Lijuan; Cui, Xilong; Wang, Suhong; Luo, Xuerong

    2016-01-01

    The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is frequently reported to have functionally distinct sub-regions that play key roles in different intrinsic networks. However, the contribution of the ACC, which is connected to several cortical areas and the limbic system, to autism is not clearly understood, although it may be involved in dysfunctions across several distinct but related functional domains. By comparing resting-state fMRI data from persons with autism and healthy controls, we sought to identify the abnormalities in the functional connectivity (FC) of ACC sub-regions in autism. The analyses found autism-related reductions in FC between the left caudal ACC and the right rolandic operculum, insula, postcentral gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, and the middle temporal gyrus. The FC (z-scores) between the left caudal ACC and the right insula was negatively correlated with the Stereotyped Behaviors and Restricted Interests scores of the autism group. These findings suggest that the caudal ACC is recruited selectively in the pathomechanism of autism.

  2. On the formation of localized peaks and non-monotonic tailing of breakthrough curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siirila, Erica R.; Sanchez-Vila, Xavier; Fernàndez-Garcia, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    While breakthrough curve (BTC) analysis is a traditional tool in hydrogeology to obtain hydraulic parameters, in recent years emphasis has been placed on analyzing the shape of the receding portion of the curve. A number of field and laboratory observations have found a constant BTC slope in log-log space, and thus it has been hypothesized that a power law behavior is representative of real aquifers. Usually, monotonicity of the late-time BTC slope is just assumed, meaning that local peaks in the BTC are not considered, and that a local (in time) increase or decrease of BTC slope is also not considered. We contend that local peaks may exist but are sometimes not reported for a number of reasons. For example, when BTCs are obtained from actual measurements, sub-sampling may mask non-monotonicity, or small peaks may be reported as measurement errors and thus smoothed out or removed. When numerical analyses of synthetic aquifers are performed, the simulation method may yield artificially monotonous curves as a consequence of the methods used. For example, Eulerian methods may suffer from numerical dispersion, where curves tend to become over-smoothed while Lagrangian methods may suffer from artificial BTC oscillations stemming from the reconstruction of concentrations from a limited number of particles. A paradigm shift in terms of the BTC shape must also accompany two major advancements within the hydrogeology field: 1) the increase of high frequency data and progression of data collection techniques that diminish the problems of under-sampling BTCs and 2) advancements in supercomputing and numerical simulation allowing for higher resolution of flow and transport problems. As more information is incorporated into BTCs and/or they are obtained in more spatial locations, it is likely that classical definitions of BTC shapes will no longer be adequate descriptors for future treatment of contaminant transport problems. For example, the presence of localized peaks in BTCs

  3. Signs of divided differences yield least squares data fitting with constrained monotonicity or convexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetriou, I. C.

    2002-09-01

    Methods are presented for least squares data smoothing by using the signs of divided differences of the smoothed values. Professor M.J.D. Powell initiated the subject in the early 1980s and since then, theory, algorithms and FORTRAN software make it applicable to several disciplines in various ways. Let us consider n data measurements of a univariate function which have been altered by random errors. Then it is usual for the divided differences of the measurements to show sign alterations, which are probably due to data errors. We make the least sum of squares change to the measurements, by requiring the sequence of divided differences of order m to have at most q sign changes for some prescribed integer q. The positions of the sign changes are integer variables of the optimization calculation, which implies a combinatorial problem whose solution can require about O(nq) quadratic programming calculations in n variables and n-m constraints. Suitable methods have been developed for the following cases. It has been found that a dynamic programming procedure can calculate the global minimum for the important cases of piecewise monotonicity m=1,q[greater-or-equal, slanted]1 and piecewise convexity/concavity m=2,q[greater-or-equal, slanted]1 of the smoothed values. The complexity of the procedure in the case of m=1 is O(n2+qn log2 n) computer operations, while it is reduced to only O(n) when q=0 (monotonicity) and q=1 (increasing/decreasing monotonicity). The case m=2,q[greater-or-equal, slanted]1 requires O(qn2) computer operations and n2 quadratic programming calculations, which is reduced to one and n-2 quadratic programming calculations when m=2,q=0, i.e. convexity, and m=2,q=1, i.e. convexity/concavity, respectively. Unfortunately, the technique that receives this efficiency cannot generalize for the highly nonlinear case m[greater-or-equal, slanted]3,q[greater-or-equal, slanted]2. However, the case m[greater-or-equal, slanted]3,q=0 is solved by a special strictly

  4. Ultimate generalization to monotonicity for uniform convergence of trigonometric series

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Chaundy and Jolliffe proved that if {a n } is a non-increasing (monotonic) real sequence with lim n →∞ a n = 0, then a necessary and sufficient condition for the uniform convergence of the series ∑∞ n=1 a n sin nx is lim n →∞ na n = 0. We generalize (or weaken) the monotonic condition on the coefficient sequence {a n } in this classical result to the so-called mean value bounded variation condition and prove that the generalized condition cannot be weakened further. We also establish an analogue to the generalized Chaundy-Jolliffe theorem in the complex space.

  5. MS Non-Pharmacological Countermeasure to Decrease Landing Sickness and Improve Functional Performance While Disorientad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, M. J. F.; Kreutzberg, G. A.; Galvan-Garza, R. C.; Mulavara, A. P.; Reschke, M. F.

    2017-01-01

    Upon return from spaceflight, a majority of crewmembers experience motion sickness (MS) symptoms. The interactions between crewmembers' adaptation to a gravitational transition, the performance decrements resulting from MS and/or use of promethazine (PMZ), and the constraints imposed by mission task demands could significantly challenge and limit an astronaut's ability to perform functional tasks during gravitational transitions. No operational countermeasure currently exists to mitigate the risks associated with these sensorimotor disturbances. Stochastic resonance (SR) can be thought of simply as "noise benefit" or an increase in information transfer by a system when in the presence of a non-zero level of noise. We have shown that low levels of stochastic vestibular stimulation (SVS) improve balance and locomotor performance due to SR (Goel et al. 2015, Mulavara et al. 2011, 2015). Additionally, a study in a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) hemi-lesioned rat model of Parkinson's disease demonstrated improvements in locomotor activity after low-level SVS delivery possibly due to an increase in nigral gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) release in a dopamine independent way (Samoudi et al. 2012). SVS specifically increased GABA release on the lesioned, but not the intact side. These results suggest that SVS can cause targeted alterations of GABA release to affect performance of functional tasks. Activation of the GABA pathway is important in modulating MS and promoting adaptability (Cohen 2008). Magnusson et al. (2000) supported this finding by showing that the administration of a GABAB agonist caused a reversal of the symptoms that is normally seen after unilateral labyrinthectomy. Thus, GABA could play a significant role in reducing MS and promoting adaptability. We have taken advantage of the SR mechanism as a modulator of neurotransmitters to develop a unique SVS countermeasure system to mitigate MS symptoms and improve functional performance after landing. Healthy

  6. Increased risk of wheeze and decreased lung function after respiratory syncytial virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Zomer-Kooijker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A relationship between hospitalization for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV bronchiolitis and asthma development has been suggested in case-control studies. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the risk of current wheeze, asthma, and lung function at school age in infants previously hospitalized for RSV bronchiolitis compared to non-hospitalized children. METHODS: For this study, data from a prospective birth cohort of unselected, term-born infants (n = 553, of whom 4 (0.7% were hospitalized for RSV bronchiolitis, and a prospective patient cohort of 155 term infants hospitalized for RSV bronchiolitis were used. Respiratory outcomes at age 6 in children hospitalized for RSV bronchiolitis were compared to non-hospitalized children. RESULTS: The risk of current wheeze was higher in hospitalized patients (n = 159 compared to non-hospitalized children (n = 549 (adjusted odds ratio (OR 3.2 (95% CI 1.2-8.1. Similarly, the risk of current asthma, defined as a doctor's diagnosis of asthma plus current symptoms or medication use, was higher in hospitalized patients (adjusted OR 3.1 (95% CI 1.3-7.5. Compared to non-hospitalized children, RSV bronchiolitis hospitalization was associated with lower lung function (mean difference FEV1% predicted -6.8 l (95% CI (-10.2 to -3.4. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This is the first study showing that hospitalization for RSV bronchiolitis during infancy is associated with increased risk of wheezing, current asthma, and impaired lung function as compared to an unselected birth cohort at age 6.

  7. The Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Inhibitor AR9281 Decreases Blood Pressure, Ameliorates Renal Injury and Improves Vascular Function in Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Shaw

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitors (sEHIs are demonstrating promise as potential pharmaceutical agents for the treatment of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, inflammation, and kidney disease. The present study determined the ability of a first-inclass sEHI, AR9281, to decrease blood pressure, improve vascular function, and decrease renal inflammation and injury in angiotensin hypertension. Rats were infused with angiotensin and AR9281 was given orally during the 14-day infusion period. Systolic blood pressure averaged 180 ± 5 mmHg in vehicle treated and AR9281 treatment significantly lowered blood pressure to 142 ± 7 mmHg in angiotensin hypertension. Histological analysis demonstrated decreased injury to the juxtamedullary glomeruli. Renal expression of inflammatory genes was increased in angiotensin hypertension and two weeks of AR9281 treatment decreased this index of renal inflammation. Vascular function in angiotensin hypertension was also improved by AR9281 treatment. Decreased afferent arteriolar and mesenteric resistance endothelial dependent dilator responses were ameliorated by AR9281 treatment of angiotensin hypertensive rats. These data demonstrate that the first-in-class sEHI, AR9281, lowers blood pressure, improves vascular function and reduces renal damage in angiotensin hypertension.

  8. Risks of Decreased Renal Function and Increased Albuminuria for Glycemic Status and Metabolic Syndrome Components: Taichung Community Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chieh Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The objective of this study was to assess the association of glycemic status and decreased renal function as determined by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR and albuminuria in an adult Taiwanese metropolitan population. Methods. We did a cross-sectional survey in a representative sample of 2,350 Taiwanese adults aged 40 years and over living in a metropolitan city in Taiwan from 2004 to 2005. Glycemic status was classified as normal glycemia, hyperglycemia, and type 2 diabetes (T2D. Renal function was assessed with eGFR using modified Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study equation for Chinese. Albuminuria was determined by the urinary albumin-creatinine ratio. Decreased renal function was defined as eGFR 30 mg g−1 creatinine. Results. 593 (25.23% had hyperglycemia and 287 (12.21% had T2D. As glycemia level increased, the prevalence of albuminuria and decreased eGFR increased. After adjustment, T2D was associated with an OR of 2.93 (95% CI: 2.11–4.07 for albuminuria, and an OR of 2.05 (95% CI: 1.18–3.58 for decreased eGFR. Conclusions. In a representative sample from a metropolitan city in Taiwan, T2D was associated with albuminuria and decreased eGFR.

  9. Cholesterol remnants and triglycerides are associated with decreased myocardial function in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Godsk; Jensen, Magnus Thorsten; Biering-Sørensen, Tor

    2016-01-01

    echocardiographic measures in a population of patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Comprehensive echocardiography including 2D-speckle tracking echocardiography was performed on a representative sample of 924 patients with type 2 diabetes-730 of whom were treated with statins. These were recruited from two large...... secondary care centers. RESULTS: In multivariable analyses, triglycerides and cholesterol remnants were not associated with left ventricular ejection fraction, but with subtle measures of systolic function, including global longitudinal strain by speckle tracking and longitudinal displacement by tissue...

  10. Decreased Cognitive/CNS Function in Young Adults at Risk for Hypertension: Effects of Sleep Deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. McCubbin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension has been linked to impaired cognitive/CNS function, and some of these changes may precede development of frank essential hypertension. The stress and fatigue of sleep deprivation may exacerbate these cognitive changes in young adults at risk. We hypothesize that individuals at risk for hypertension will show significant declines in cognitive function during a night of sleep deprivation. Fifty-one young adults were recruited for 28-hour total sleep deprivation studies. Hypertension risk was assessed by mildly elevated resting blood pressure and by family history of hypertension. A series of cognitive memory tasks was given at four test sessions across the sleep deprivation period. Although initially comparable in cognitive performance, persons at risk showed larger declines across the night for several indices of working memory, including code substitution, category, and order recall. These results suggest that cognitive/CNS changes may parallel or precede blood pressure dysregulation in the early stages of hypertension development. The role of CNS changes in the etiology of essential hypertension is discussed.

  11. Relationships between brain metabolism decrease in normal aging and changes in structural and functional connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chételat, Gaël; Landeau, Brigitte; Salmon, Eric; Yakushev, Igor; Bahri, Mohamed Ali; Mézenge, Florence; Perrotin, Audrey; Bastin, Christine; Manrique, Alain; Scheurich, Armin; Scheckenberger, Mathias; Desgranges, Béatrice; Eustache, Francis; Fellgiebel, Andreas

    2013-08-01

    Normal aging is characterized by brain glucose metabolism decline predominantly in the prefrontal cortex. The goal of the present study was to assess whether this change was associated with age-related alteration of white matter (WM) structural integrity and/or functional connectivity. FDG-PET data from 40 young and 57 elderly healthy participants from two research centers (n=49/48 in Center 1/2) were analyzed. WM volume from T1-weighted MRI (Center 1), fractional anisotropy from diffusion-tensor imaging (Center 2), and resting-state fMRI data (Center 1) were also obtained. Group comparisons were performed within each imaging modality. Then, positive correlations were assessed, within the elderly, between metabolism in the most affected region and the other neuroimaging modalities. Metabolism decline in the elderly predominated in the left inferior frontal junction (LIFJ). LIFJ hypometabolism was significantly associated with macrostructural and microstructural WM disturbances in long association fronto-temporo-occipital fibers, while no relationship was found with functional connectivity. The findings offer new perspectives to understand normal aging processes and open avenues for future studies to explore causality between age-related metabolism and connectivity changes.

  12. Decreased Modulation of EEG Oscillations in High-Functioning Autism during a Motor Control Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewen, Joshua B.; Lakshmanan, Balaji M.; Pillai, Ajay S.; McAuliffe, Danielle; Nettles, Carrie; Hallett, Mark; Crone, Nathan E.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are thought to result in part from altered cortical excitatory-inhibitory balance; this pathophysiology may impact the generation of oscillations on electroencephalogram (EEG). We investigated premotor-parietal cortical physiology associated with praxis, which has strong theoretical and empirical associations with ASD symptomatology. Twenty five children with high-functioning ASD (HFA) and 33 controls performed a praxis task involving the pantomiming of tool use, while EEG was recorded. We assessed task-related modulation of signal power in alpha and beta frequency bands. Compared with controls, subjects with HFA showed 27% less left central (motor/premotor) beta (18–22 Hz) event-related desynchronization (ERD; p = 0.030), as well as 24% less left parietal alpha (7–13 Hz) ERD (p = 0.046). Within the HFA group, blunting of central ERD attenuation was associated with impairments in clinical measures of praxis imitation (r = −0.4; p = 0.04) and increased autism severity (r = 0.48; p = 0.016). The modulation of central beta activity is associated, among other things, with motor imagery, which may be necessary for imitation. Impaired imitation has been associated with core features of ASD. Altered modulation of oscillatory activity may be mechanistically involved in those aspects of motor network function that relate to the core symptoms of ASD. PMID:27199719

  13. Decreased Modulation of EEG Oscillations in High-Functioning Autism During a Motor Control Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Benjamin Ewen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASD are thought to result in part from altered cortical excitatory-inhibitory balance; this pathophysiology may impact the generation of oscillations on EEG. We investigated premotor-parietal cortical physiology associated with praxis, which has strong theoretical and empirical associations with ASD symptomatology. 25 children with high-functioning ASD (HFA and 33 controls performed a praxis task involving the pantomiming of tool use, while EEG was recorded. We assessed task-related modulation of signal power in alpha and beta frequency bands. Compared with controls, subjects with HFA showed 27% less left central (motor/premotor beta (18-22 Hz event-related desynchronization (ERD (p = 0.030, as well as 24% less left parietal alpha (7-13 Hz ERD (p = 0.046. Within the HFA group, blunting of central ERD attenuation was associated with impairments in clinical measures of praxis imitation (r = -0.4; p = 0.04 and increased autism severity (r = 0.48; p = 0.016. The modulation of central beta activity is associated, among other things, with motor imagery, which may be necessary for imitation. Impaired imitation has been associated with core features of ASD. Altered modulation of oscillatory activity may be mechanistically involved in those aspects of motor network function that relate to the core symptoms of ASD.

  14. Clinical features of development of chronic cerebral ischemia against background of pronounced decrease of cognitive functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zalisna Yu.D.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of analyses of cognitive failure in chronic cerebral ischemia (CCI with lesion of deep divisions of the brain white matter and basal ganglia, leading to disruption of communication of frontal and subcortical brain structures (the phenomenon of separation. Mechanism of separation primarily is associated with hypertension, which leads to secondary changes of the vascular wall microvasculature. For cerebral vascular insufficiency and for diseases, primarily involving basal ganglia, intellectual inertia, bradyphreniya and decreased concentration are more common. According to studies, chronic cerebral ischemia (CCI is recorded in 20-30% of people of working age. The main etiological forms of CCI are considered to be hypertensive, atherosclerotic and mixed. For CCI of the second stage formation of neurological syndromes (pseu¬dobulbar, pyramidal, extrapyramidal, atactic, increased cognitive disorder that causes temporary or permanent disa¬bility of patients, reduction of their quality of life are characteristic. The aim of the study was to determine the cha¬racteristics of cognitive impairment in patients with CCI (hypertonic and mixed origin and their relationship to clinical and neurological manifestations of the disease. Based on the data obtained through clinical examination and neu¬ropsychological testing, marked processes of attention exhaustion and a higher risk of progression of cognitive impairment in the group with a mixed form (hypertension and atherosclerotic were revealed.

  15. Decreased functional capacity and muscle strength in elderly women with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieira DCL

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Denis Cesar Leite Vieira,1 Ramires Alsamir Tibana,1 Vitor Tajra,1 Dahan da Cunha Nascimento,1 Darlan Lopes de Farias,1 Alessandro de Oliveira Silva,1 Tatiane Gomes Teixeira,1 Romulo Maia Carlos Fonseca,2 Ricardo Jacó de Oliveira,2 Felipe Augusto dos Santos Mendes,2 Wagner Rodrigues Martins,2 Silvana Schwerz Funghetto,2 Margo Gomes de Oliveira Karnikowski,2 James Wilfred Navalta,3 Jonato Prestes11Graduate Program on Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasilia, Brasilia, Brazil; 2University of Brasilia, UnB, Brasilia, Brazil; 3Department of Kinesiology and Nutrition Sciences of the University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV, USAPurpose: To compare the metabolic parameters, flexibility, muscle strength, functional capacity, and lower limb muscle power of elderly women with and without the metabolic syndrome (MetS.Methods: This cross-sectional study included 28 older women divided into two groups: with the MetS (n = 14; 67.3 ± 5.5 years; 67.5 ± 16.7 kg; 1.45 ± 0.35 m; 28.0 ± 7.6 kg/m2, and without the MetS (n = 14; 68.7 ± 5.3 years; 58.2 ± 9.9 kg; 1.55 ± 0.10 m; 24.3 ± 3.8 kg/m2. Body composition was evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and dynamic muscle strength was assessed by one-maximum repetition (1RM tests in leg press, bench press and biceps curl exercises. Six-minute walk test, Timed Up and Go (TUG; 30-second sitting-rising; arm curl using a 2-kg dumbbell, sit-and-reach (flexibility, and vertical jump tests were performed.Results: There was no difference between groups regarding age (P = 0.49, height (P = 0.46, body fat (% (P = 0.19, systolic (P = 0.64, diastolic (P = 0.41 and mean blood pressure (P = 0.86, 30-second sitting-rising (P = 0.57, 30-s arm curl (P = 0.73, leg press 1RM (P = 0.51, bench press 1RM (P = 0.77, and biceps curl 1RM (P = 0.85. However, women without the MetS presented lower body mass (P = 0.001, body mass index (BMI (P = 0.0001, waist circumference (P = 0.02, waist-to-height ratio (P = 0.02, fat body

  16. Enhanced effects of bleomycin on pulmonary function disturbances in patients with decreased renal function due to cisplatin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleijfer, S; vanderMark, TW; Mulder, NH; Schraffordt Koops, H.

    1996-01-01

    We examined whether cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity augmented bleomycin-induced pulmonary toxicity in patients with testicular cancer treated with etoposide and cisplatin with (BEP) or without bleomycin (EP). Before and at 3-week intervals during chemotherapy, creatinine clearance and lung function

  17. Early exposure to ultraviolet-B radiation decreases immune function later in life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccato, Emma; Cramp, Rebecca L.; Seebacher, Frank; Franklin, Craig E.

    2016-01-01

    Amphibians have declined dramatically worldwide. Many of these declines are occurring in areas where no obvious anthropogenic stressors are present. It is proposed that in these areas, environmental factors such as elevated solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation could be responsible. Ultraviolet-B levels have increased in many parts of the world as a consequence of the anthropogenic destruction of the ozone layer. Amphibian tadpoles are particularly sensitive to the damaging effects of UV-B radiation, with exposure disrupting growth and fitness in many species. Given that UV-B can disrupt immune function in other animals, we tested the hypothesis that early UV-B exposure suppresses the immune responses of amphibian tadpoles and subsequent juvenile frogs. We exposed Limnodynastes peronii tadpoles to sublethal levels of UV-B radiation for 6 weeks after hatching, then examined indices of immune function in both the tadpoles and the subsequent metamorphs. There was no significant effect of UV-B on tadpole leucocyte counts or on their response to an acute antigen (phytohaemagglutinin) challenge. However, early UV-B exposure resulted in a significant reduction in both metamorph leucocyte abundance and their response to an acute phytohaemagglutinin challenge. These data demonstrate that early UV-B exposure can have carry-over effects on later life-history traits even if the applied stressor has no immediately discernible effect. These findings have important implications for our understanding of the effects of UV-B exposure on amphibian health and susceptibility to diseases such as chytridiomycosis. PMID:27668081

  18. Early exposure to ultraviolet-B radiation decreases immune function later in life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccato, Emma; Cramp, Rebecca L; Seebacher, Frank; Franklin, Craig E

    2016-01-01

    Amphibians have declined dramatically worldwide. Many of these declines are occurring in areas where no obvious anthropogenic stressors are present. It is proposed that in these areas, environmental factors such as elevated solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation could be responsible. Ultraviolet-B levels have increased in many parts of the world as a consequence of the anthropogenic destruction of the ozone layer. Amphibian tadpoles are particularly sensitive to the damaging effects of UV-B radiation, with exposure disrupting growth and fitness in many species. Given that UV-B can disrupt immune function in other animals, we tested the hypothesis that early UV-B exposure suppresses the immune responses of amphibian tadpoles and subsequent juvenile frogs. We exposed Limnodynastes peronii tadpoles to sublethal levels of UV-B radiation for 6 weeks after hatching, then examined indices of immune function in both the tadpoles and the subsequent metamorphs. There was no significant effect of UV-B on tadpole leucocyte counts or on their response to an acute antigen (phytohaemagglutinin) challenge. However, early UV-B exposure resulted in a significant reduction in both metamorph leucocyte abundance and their response to an acute phytohaemagglutinin challenge. These data demonstrate that early UV-B exposure can have carry-over effects on later life-history traits even if the applied stressor has no immediately discernible effect. These findings have important implications for our understanding of the effects of UV-B exposure on amphibian health and susceptibility to diseases such as chytridiomycosis.

  19. Canonical single field slow-roll inflation with a non-monotonic tensor

    CERN Document Server

    German, Gabriel; Hidalgo, Juan Carlos; Sussman, Roberto A

    2015-01-01

    We take a pragmatic, model independent approach to single field slow-roll canonical inflation by imposing conditions, not on the potential, but on the slow-roll parameter $\\epsilon$ and its derivatives $\\epsilon^{\\prime }$ and $\\epsilon^{\\prime\\prime }$, thereby extracting general conditions on the tensor $r$ and the running $n_{sk}$. Of particular interest is a non-monotonic $\\epsilon$ with a maximum where universality conditions are found among the observables. In models with a monotonically increasing $\\epsilon$ the running is expected to be always negative for positive $\\epsilon^{\\prime\\prime }$. To accommodate a large tensor that meets the limiting values allowed by the Planck data, we study a non-monotonic $\\epsilon$ decreasing during most part of inflation. Since at $\\phi_{H}$, at which the perturbations are produced, some $50$ $-$ $60$ $e$-folds before the end of inflation, $\\epsilon$ is increasing, we thus require that $\\epsilon$ develops a maximum for $\\phi > \\phi_{H}$ after which $\\epsilon$ decreas...

  20. Non-monotonic effect of growth temperature on carrier collection in SnS solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, R.; Steinmann, V.; Mangan, N. M.; Brandt, R. E.; Poindexter, J. R.; Jaramillo, R.; Mailoa, J. P.; Hartman, K.; Polizzotti, A.; Buonassisi, T. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Yang, C.; Gordon, R. G. [Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

    2015-05-18

    We quantify the effects of growth temperature on material and device properties of thermally evaporated SnS thin-films and test structures. Grain size, Hall mobility, and majority-carrier concentration monotonically increase with growth temperature. However, the charge collection as measured by the long-wavelength contribution to short-circuit current exhibits a non-monotonic behavior: the collection decreases with increased growth temperature from 150 °C to 240 °C and then recovers at 285 °C. Fits to the experimental internal quantum efficiency using an opto-electronic model indicate that the non-monotonic behavior of charge-carrier collection can be explained by a transition from drift- to diffusion-assisted components of carrier collection. The results show a promising increase in the extracted minority-carrier diffusion length at the highest growth temperature of 285 °C. These findings illustrate how coupled mechanisms can affect early stage device development, highlighting the critical role of direct materials property measurements and simulation.

  1. Erythropoietin improved cognitive function and decreased hippocampal caspase activity in rat pups after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Michelle E; Requena, Daniela F; Block, Benjamin; Davis, Lizeth J; Rodesch, Christopher; Casper, T Charles; Juul, Sandra E; Kesner, Raymond P; Lane, Robert H

    2014-02-15

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of acquired neurologic disability in children. Erythropoietin (EPO), an anti-apoptotic cytokine, improved cognitive outcome in adult rats after TBI. To our knowledge, EPO has not been studied in a developmental TBI model. We hypothesized that EPO would improve cognitive outcome and increase neuron fraction in the hippocampus in 17-day-old (P17) rat pups after controlled cortical impact (CCI). EPO or vehicle was given at 1, 24, and 48 h after CCI and at post injury day (PID) 7. Cognitive outcome at PID14 was assessed using Novel Object Recognition (NOR). Hippocampal EPO levels, caspase activity, and mRNA levels of the apoptosis factors Bcl2, Bax, Bcl-xL, and Bad were measured during the first 14 days after injury. Neuron fraction and caspase activation in CA1, CA3, and DG were studied at PID2. EPO normalized recognition memory after CCI. EPO blunted the increased hippocampal caspase activity induced by CCI at PID1, but not at PID2. EPO increased neuron fraction in CA3 at PID2. Brain levels of exogenous EPO appeared low relative to endogenous. Timing of EPO administration was associated with temporal changes in hippocampal mRNA levels of EPO and pro-apoptotic factors. Conclusion/Speculation: EPO improved recognition memory, increased regional hippocampal neuron fraction, and decreased caspase activity in P17 rats after CCI. We speculate that EPO improved cognitive outcome in rat pups after CCI as a result of improved neuronal survival via inhibition of caspase-dependent apoptosis early after injury.

  2. Probabilistic Analysis of Pattern Formation in Monotonic Self-Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Tyler G; Garzon, Max H; Deaton, Russell J

    2015-01-01

    Inspired by biological systems, self-assembly aims to construct complex structures. It functions through piece-wise, local interactions among component parts and has the potential to produce novel materials and devices at the nanoscale. Algorithmic self-assembly models the product of self-assembly as the output of some computational process, and attempts to control the process of assembly algorithmically. Though providing fundamental insights, these computational models have yet to fully account for the randomness that is inherent in experimental realizations, which tend to be based on trial and error methods. In order to develop a method of analysis that addresses experimental parameters, such as error and yield, this work focuses on the capability of assembly systems to produce a pre-determined set of target patterns, either accurately or perhaps only approximately. Self-assembly systems that assemble patterns that are similar to the targets in a significant percentage are "strong" assemblers. In addition, assemblers should predominantly produce target patterns, with a small percentage of errors or junk. These definitions approximate notions of yield and purity in chemistry and manufacturing. By combining these definitions, a criterion for efficient assembly is developed that can be used to compare the ability of different assembly systems to produce a given target set. Efficiency is a composite measure of the accuracy and purity of an assembler. Typical examples in algorithmic assembly are assessed in the context of these metrics. In addition to validating the method, they also provide some insight that might be used to guide experimentation. Finally, some general results are established that, for efficient assembly, imply that every target pattern is guaranteed to be assembled with a minimum common positive probability, regardless of its size, and that a trichotomy exists to characterize the global behavior of typical efficient, monotonic self-assembly systems

  3. Probabilistic Analysis of Pattern Formation in Monotonic Self-Assembly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler G Moore

    Full Text Available Inspired by biological systems, self-assembly aims to construct complex structures. It functions through piece-wise, local interactions among component parts and has the potential to produce novel materials and devices at the nanoscale. Algorithmic self-assembly models the product of self-assembly as the output of some computational process, and attempts to control the process of assembly algorithmically. Though providing fundamental insights, these computational models have yet to fully account for the randomness that is inherent in experimental realizations, which tend to be based on trial and error methods. In order to develop a method of analysis that addresses experimental parameters, such as error and yield, this work focuses on the capability of assembly systems to produce a pre-determined set of target patterns, either accurately or perhaps only approximately. Self-assembly systems that assemble patterns that are similar to the targets in a significant percentage are "strong" assemblers. In addition, assemblers should predominantly produce target patterns, with a small percentage of errors or junk. These definitions approximate notions of yield and purity in chemistry and manufacturing. By combining these definitions, a criterion for efficient assembly is developed that can be used to compare the ability of different assembly systems to produce a given target set. Efficiency is a composite measure of the accuracy and purity of an assembler. Typical examples in algorithmic assembly are assessed in the context of these metrics. In addition to validating the method, they also provide some insight that might be used to guide experimentation. Finally, some general results are established that, for efficient assembly, imply that every target pattern is guaranteed to be assembled with a minimum common positive probability, regardless of its size, and that a trichotomy exists to characterize the global behavior of typical efficient, monotonic

  4. Decreased functional connectivity of the amygdala in Alzheimer's disease revealed by resting-state fMRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Hongxiang [Department of Radiology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, 100853 (China); Liu, Yong, E-mail: yliu@nlpr.ia.ac.cn [Brainnetome Center, Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190 (China); National Laboratory of Pattern Recognition, Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190 (China); Zhou, Bo; Zhang, Zengqiang [Department of Neurology, Institute of Geriatrics and Gerontology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, 100853 (China); An, Ningyu [Department of Radiology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, 100853 (China); Wang, Pan; Wang, Luning [Department of Neurology, Institute of Geriatrics and Gerontology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, 100853 (China); Zhang, Xi, E-mail: zhangxi@301hospital.com.cn [Department of Neurology, Institute of Geriatrics and Gerontology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, 100853 (China); Jiang, Tianzi [Brainnetome Center, Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190 (China); National Laboratory of Pattern Recognition, Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190 (China); Key Laboratory for NeuroInformation of Ministry of Education, School of Life Science and Technology, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, 610054 (China); The Queensland Brain Institute, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia)

    2013-09-15

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common cause of dementia, is thought to be a progressive neurodegenerative disease that is clinically characterised by a decline of memory and other cognitive functions. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is considered to be the prodromal stage of AD. However, the relationship between AD and MCI and the development process remains unclear. The amygdala is one of the most vulnerable structures in the early stages of AD. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the alteration of the functional connectivity of the amygdala in AD and MCI subjects. We hypothesised that the amygdala-cortical loop is impaired in AD and that these alterations relate to the disease severity. In our study, we used resting-state functional MRIs to investigate the altered amygdala connectivity patterns in 35 AD patients, 27 MCI patients and 27 age- and gender-matched normal controls (NC). Compared with the NC, the decreased functional connectivity found in the AD patients was mainly located between the amygdala and the regions that are included in the default mode, context conditioning and extinction networks. Importantly, the decreased functional connectivity between the amygdala and some of the identified regions was positively correlated with MMSE, which indicated that the cognitive function impairment is related to an altered functional connectivity pattern.

  5. Non-Pharmacological Countermeasure to Decrease Landing Sickness and Improve Functional Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, M. J. F.; Kreutzberg, G. A.; Galvan-Garza, R. C.; Mulavara, A. P.; Reschke, M. F.

    2017-01-01

    Upon return from long-duration spaceflight, 100% of crewmembers experience motion sickness (MS) symptoms. The interactions between crewmembers' adaptation to a gravitational transition, the performance decrements resulting from MS and/or use of promethazine (PMZ), and the constraints imposed by mission task demands could significantly challenge and limit an astronaut's ability to perform functional tasks during gravitational transitions. Stochastic resonance (SR) is "noise benefit": adding noise to a system might increase the information (examples to the left and above). Stochastic vestibular stimulation (SVS), or low levels of noise applied to the vestibular system, improves balance and locomotor performance (Goel et al. 2015, Mulavara et al. 2011, 2015). In hemi-lesioned rat models, Samoudi et al. 2012 found that SVS increased GABA release on the lesioned, but not the intact side. Activation of the GABA pathway is important in modulating MS and promoting adaptability (Cohen 2008) and was seen to reverse MS symptoms in rats after unilateral labyrinthectomy (Magnusson et al. 2000). Thus, SVS could be used to promote GABA pathways to reduce MS and promote adaptability, eliminate the need for PMZ or other performance-inhibiting drugs.

  6. Unani Treatment Decreased Fibrosis and Improved Liver Functions in Decompensated Cirrhosis of Liver: A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhtar Siddiqui

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available At present, liver transplantation remains the only curative option for the patients with cirrhosis and end-stage liver diseases. The survival rate and recurrent diseases remain the major issues in the patient post-transplantation. Unani medicine is one of the oldest traditional systems of medicine which has been treating chronic liver diseases and cirrhosis (Talayyaful-Kabid for centuries. The current study aimed to assess the impact of Unani treatment on decompensated cirrhosis and collect data to warrant further clinical trials. Authors conducted a case series on five patients with decompensated cirrhosis and portal hypertension. The disease was confirmed through FibroScan and ultrasound and treated with Unani treatment orally for seven months. Results were evaluated based on FibroScan, liver function test (LFT, EuroQol-5D (EQ5D, Child-Pugh and TTO-TIME (trade-off question. Significant improvements in LFT, fibrosis and quality of life were achieved in the studied patients. The literature related to the herbal constituents of chief medicines used to treat in this case was reviewed. The herbs proved their potential anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, hepato-protective, immuno-modulator and antiviral activities, suggesting plausible mechanisms of action in the cases. The preliminary findings indicated the potential therapeutic role of Unani treatment in decompensated cirrhosis. Clinical trials should be conducted to explore further therapeutic potential of Unani treatment in decompensated cirrhosis.

  7. Improvement of motor function and decreased need for postnatal shunting in children who had undergone intrauterine myelomeningocele repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Cristina Carbonari de Faria

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To compare neuromotor development between patients who did and those who did not undergo intrauterine myelomeningocele repair. Methods Children with myelomeningocele aged between 3.5 and 6 years who did undergo intrauterine repair (Group A, n=6 or not (Group B; n=7 were assessed for neuromotor development at both anatomical and functional levels, need for orthoses, and cognitive function. Results Intrauterine myelomeningocele repair significantly improved motor function. The functional level was higher than the anatomical level by 2 or more spinal segments in all children in Group A and 2 children in Group B, with a significant statistical difference between groups (p<0.05. Five children in Group A and one in Group B were community ambulators. Conclusion Despite the small sample, it was observed that an improvement of motor function and decreased need for postnatal shunting in the 6 children who had undergone intrauterine myelomeningocele repair.

  8. Decreased functional diversity and biological pest control in conventional compared to organic crop fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Jochen; Gallenberger, Iris; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2011-01-01

    Organic farming is one of the most successful agri-environmental schemes, as humans benefit from high quality food, farmers from higher prices for their products and it often successfully protects biodiversity. However there is little knowledge if organic farming also increases ecosystem services like pest control. We assessed 30 triticale fields (15 organic vs. 15 conventional) and recorded vascular plants, pollinators, aphids and their predators. Further, five conventional fields which were treated with insecticides were compared with 10 non-treated conventional fields. Organic fields had five times higher plant species richness and about twenty times higher pollinator species richness compared to conventional fields. Abundance of pollinators was even more than one-hundred times higher on organic fields. In contrast, the abundance of cereal aphids was five times lower in organic fields, while predator abundances were three times higher and predator-prey ratios twenty times higher in organic fields, indicating a significantly higher potential for biological pest control in organic fields. Insecticide treatment in conventional fields had only a short-term effect on aphid densities while later in the season aphid abundances were even higher and predator abundances lower in treated compared to untreated conventional fields. Our data indicate that insecticide treatment kept aphid predators at low abundances throughout the season, thereby significantly reducing top-down control of aphid populations. Plant and pollinator species richness as well as predator abundances and predator-prey ratios were higher at field edges compared to field centres, highlighting the importance of field edges for ecosystem services. In conclusion organic farming increases biodiversity, including important functional groups like plants, pollinators and predators which enhance natural pest control. Preventative insecticide application in conventional fields has only short-term effects on aphid

  9. MONOTONE ITERATION FOR ELLIPTIC PDEs WITH DISCONTINUOUS NONLINEAR TERMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zou Qingsong

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we use monotone iterative techniques to show the existence of maximal or minimal solutions of some elliptic PDEs with nonlinear discontinuous terms. As the numerical analysis of this PDEs is concerned, we prove the convergence of discrete extremal solutions.

  10. L^p solutions of reflected BSDEs under monotonicity condition

    CERN Document Server

    Rozkosz, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    We prove existence and uniqueness of L^p solutions of reflected backward stochastic differential equations with p-integrable data and generators satisfying the monotonicity condition. We also show that the solution may be approximated by the penalization method. Our results are new even in the classical case p=2.

  11. A monotonic method for solving nonlinear optimal control problems

    CERN Document Server

    Salomon, Julien

    2009-01-01

    Initially introduced in the framework of quantum control, the so-called monotonic algorithms have shown excellent numerical results when dealing with various bilinear optimal control problems. This paper aims at presenting a unified formulation of such procedures and the intrinsic assumptions they require. In this framework, we prove the feasibility of the general algorithm. Finally, we explain how these assumptions can be relaxed.

  12. On Some Conjectures on the Monotonicity of Some Arithmetical Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    THE MONOTONICITY OF SOME ARITHMETICAL SEQUENCES ∗ Florian Luca † Centro de Ciencias Matemáticas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de México, C.P. 58089...visit of P. S. to the Centro de Ciencias Matemáticas de la UNAM in Morelia in August 2012. During the preparation of this paper, F. L. was supported in

  13. Interval Routing and Minor-Monotone Graph Parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, E.M.; Bodlaender, H.L.; Tan, R.B.; Leeuwen, J. van

    2006-01-01

    We survey a number of minor-monotone graph parameters and their relationship to the complexity of routing on graphs. In particular we compare the interval routing parameters κslir(G) and κsir(G) with Colin de Verdi`ere’s graph invariant μ(G) and its variants λ(G) and κ(G). We show that for all the k

  14. Multivariate Regression with Monotone Missing Observation of the Dependent Variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raats, V.M.; van der Genugten, B.B.; Moors, J.J.A.

    2002-01-01

    Multivariate regression is discussed, where the observations of the dependent variables are (monotone) missing completely at random; the explanatory variables are assumed to be completely observed.We discuss OLS-, GLS- and a certain form of E(stimated) GLS-estimation.It turns out that

  15. Minimum Cost Spanning Tree Games and Population Monotonic Allocation Schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norde, H.W.; Moretti, S.; Tijs, S.H.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we present the Subtraction Algorithm that computes for every classical minimum cost spanning tree game a population monotonic allocation scheme.As a basis for this algorithm serves a decomposition theorem that shows that every minimum cost spanning tree game can be written as nonnegati

  16. Size monotonicity and stability of the core in hedonic games

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrov, Dinko; Sung, Shao Chin

    2011-01-01

    We show that the core of each strongly size monotonic hedonic game is not empty and is externally stable. This is in sharp contrast to other sufficient conditions for core non-emptiness which do not even guarantee the existence of a stable set in such games.

  17. Monotone missing data and repeated controls of fallible authors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raats, V.M.

    2004-01-01

    Chapters 2 and 3 focus on repeated audit controls with categorical variables. Chapter 4 and 5 introduce and analyse a very general multivariate regression model for (monotone) missing data. In the final Chapter 6 the previous chapters are combined into a more realistic model for repeated audit contr

  18. A POTENTIAL REDUCTION ALGORITHM FOR MONOTONE VARIATIONAL INEQUALITY PROBLEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A potential reduction algorithm is proposed for the solution of monotone variational inequality problems. At each step of the algorithm, a system of linear equations is solved to get the search direction and the Armijo's rule is used to determine the stepsize.It is proved that the algorithm is globally convergent. Computational results are reported.

  19. Relaxing monotonicity in the identification of local average treatment effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Martin; Mellace, Giovanni

    In heterogeneous treatment effect models with endogeneity, the identification of the local average treatment effect (LATE) typically relies on an instrument that satisfies two conditions: (i) joint independence of the potential post-instrument variables and the instrument and (ii) monotonicity...

  20. Incorporating "Unconscious Reanalysis" into an Incremental, Monotonic Parser

    CERN Document Server

    Sturt, P

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes an implementation based on a recent model in the psycholinguistic literature. We define a parsing operation which allows the reanalysis of dependencies within an incremental and monotonic processing architecture, and discuss search strategies for its application in a head-initial language (English) and a head-final language (Japanese).

  1. Interval Routing and Minor-Monotone Graph Parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, E.M.; Bodlaender, H.L.; Tan, R.B.; Leeuwen, J. van

    2006-01-01

    We survey a number of minor-monotone graph parameters and their relationship to the complexity of routing on graphs. In particular we compare the interval routing parameters κslir(G) and κsir(G) with Colin de Verdi`ere’s graph invariant μ(G) and its variants λ(G) and κ(G). We show that for all the

  2. Reasoning Biases, Non-Monotonic Logics, and Belief Revision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutilh Novaes, Catarina; Veluwenkamp, Herman

    2017-01-01

    A range of formal models of human reasoning have been proposed in a number of fields such as philosophy, logic, artificial intelligence, computer science, psychology, cognitive science etc.: various logics (epistemic logics; non-monotonic logics), probabilistic systems (most notably, but not exclusi

  3. Long-Term Moderate Oxidative Stress Decreased Ovarian Reproductive Function by Reducing Follicle Quality and Progesterone Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Zhiwen; Tian, Yong; Fang, Li; Wu, Meng; Xiong, Jiaqiang; Qin, Xian; Luo, Aiyue; Wang, Shixuan

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian aging is a long-term and complex process associated with a decrease in follicular quantity and quality. The damaging effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in ovarian aging and ovarian aging-associated disorders have received relatively little attention. Thus, we assessed if the oxidative stress induced by long-term (defined by the Environmental Protection Agency as at least 30 days in duration) moderate ozone inhalation reduced ovarian reserves, decreased ovarian function and induced ovarian aging-associated disorders. The expression of oxidative stress markers and antioxidant enzymes was used to determine the degree of oxidative stress. Ultrastructural changes in ovarian cells were examined via electron microscopy. The ovarian reserve was assessed by measuring multiple parameters, such as the size of the primordial follicle pool and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) expression. The estrous cycle, hormone levels and fertility status were investigated to assess ovarian function. To investigate ovarian aging-associated disorders, we utilized bone density and cardiovascular ultrasonography in mice. The levels of oxidized metabolites, such as 8-hydroxy-2´-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and nitrotyrosine (NTY), significantly increased in ovarian cells in response to increased oxidative stress. The ultrastructural analysis indicated that lipid droplet formation and the proportion of mitochondria with damaged membranes in granulosa cells were markedly increased in ozone-exposed mice when compared with the control group. Ozone exposure did not change the size of the primordial follicle pool or anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) expression. The estrogen concentration remained normal; however, progesterone and testosterone levels decreased. The mice exposed to ozone inhalation exhibited a substantial decrease in fertility and fecundity. No differences were revealed by the bone density or cardiovascular ultrasounds. These findings suggest that the

  4. Sonographic decreased echogenicity of thyroid parenchyma in asymptomatic population: Correction with thyroid function and thyroid autoimmune activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ji Yeon; Park, Noh Hyuck; Park, Chan Sub; Lee, Ji Ye [Dept. of Radiology, Myongji Hospital, Seonam University College of Medicine, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Chun, Kyung Ah [Dept. of Radiology, Catholic Kwandong University School of Medicine, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Seong Yoon [Div. of Hematology-Oncology, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Inje University Ilsan Paik Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hee Jin [Dept. of of Radiology, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the correlation between decreased echogenicity of thyroid and thyroid hormones or autoantibodies. From January 2009 to December 2011, 543 patients with decreased parenchymal echogenicity [M:F = 133:410, median age: 42 years (range: 9-82 years)], who did not have solid nodule, symptom or medication related to thyroid and underwent thyroid function test were retrospectively reviewed. Images were classified based on the degree of hypoechogenicity, heterogenicity or thyroid size. 1) Group A: mild decreased echogenicity, group B: marked decreased echogenicity, 2) group Ho: homogeneous echogenicity, group He: heterogeneous echogenicity, 3) group 1: decreased size, group 2: normal size, group 3: increased size. Differences in triiodiothyronyne (T3), free-thyroxine (fT4), thyrotropin (TSH), anti-thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb), thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), and anti-TSH receptor antibody (TSH-rAb) were evaluated among groups. T3, fT4, and TSH levels differed between groups A and B (p < 0.001, p = 0.001, p < 0.001). TgAb and TPOAb of group B were higher than group A (p = 0.006, p < 0.001). TPOAb of group He was higher than group Ho (p < 0.001). TSH-rAb and TPOAb of group 3 were higher than group 2 (p = 0.017, p < 0.001). The patients with findings of markedly decreased, heterogeneous echogenicity or thyroid enlargement may have abnormal thyroid function and autoantibodies. These may facilitate the physicians' decision to order tests for thyroid function and autoimmune activity.

  5. INHIBITION OF BILE ACID ACCUMULATION DECREASED THE EXCESSIVE HEPATOCYTE APOPTOSIS AND IMPROVED THE LIVER SECRETION FUNCTIONS ON OBSTRUCTIVE JAUNDICE PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akmal Taher

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Excessive hepatocyte apoptosis induced by bile acid accumulation occurred in severe obstructive jaundice, and impair the liver secretion function. The objective of this study is to determine whether the inhibition of bile acid accumulation through bile duct decompression affect the excessive hepatocyte apoptosis and caused improvement the liver secretion functions on human model. In this study we use a before and after study on severe obstructive jaundice patients due to extra hepatic bile duct tumor was decompressed. Bile duct decompression was performed as a model of the role of inhibition of bile acid accumulation inhibition bile acid accumulation and excessive hepatocyte apoptosis. Bile acid and marker of liver secretion functions were serially measured. Liver biopsy pre and post decompression was performed for Hepatocyte apoptosis pathologic examination by TUNEL fluorescing, which measured by 2 people in double blinded system. Total bile acid, and liver secretion functions were measured by automated chemistry analyzer. The result of this study shows that twenty one severe obstructive jaundice patients were included. After decompression the hepatocyte apoptosis index decreased from an average of 53.1 (SD 105 to 11.7 (SD 13.6 (p < 0.05. Average of bile acid serum decreased from 96.4 (SD 53.8 to 19.9 (SD 39.5 until 13.0 (SD 12.6 μmol/L (p < 0.05 Total ilirubin decreased from 20.0 (SD 8.9 to 13.3 (SD 5.0 until 6.2 (SD 4.0 mg/dL (p < 0.05, while the phosphates alkaline (ALP and γ-glutamil transpeptidase (γ-GT activities also decreased ignificantly. In conclusion, bile acids accumulation and excessive hepatocyte poptosis through bile duct decompression improve the liver secretion functions by inhibition mechanism.

  6. Decreased β-Cell Function Is Associated with Reduced Skeletal Muscle Mass in Japanese Subjects without Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Satoshi; Tanimoto, Keiji; Imbe, Ayumi; Inaba, Yuiko; Shishikura, Kanako; Tanimoto, Yoshimi; Ushiroyama, Takahisa; Terasaki, Jungo; Hanafusa, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Background Decreased insulin secretion has a great impact on the incidence of type 2 diabetes in Japanese subjects. It is not clear whether β-cell function is related to muscle mass in subjects without diabetes. We investigated the relationship between β-cell function and skeletal muscle mass in Japanese subjects without diabetes. Methods The study included 1098 subjects (538 men and 560 women) aged 40 to 79 years, without diabetes (fasting glucose lower than 126 mg/dL and glycosylated hemoglobin lower than 6.5%), who consulted Osaka Medical College Health Science Clinic for a medical examination. Appendicular muscle mass was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Appendicular muscle mass index was calculated as appendicular muscle mass divided by height squared (kg/m2). The homeostatic model assessment of β-cell function was used to assess β-cell function. The homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance was used as a measure of insulin resistance. The association between appendicular muscle mass index and clinical parameters of β-cell function and insulin resistance was examined. Results Log-transformed homeostatic model assessment of β-cell function and Log-transformed homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance showed a normal distribution. In both men and women, there was a significant positive correlation between appendicular muscle mass index and clinical parameters of β-cell function and insulin resistance. Tertile analysis, following stratification according to appendicular muscle mass index, found that low appendicular muscle mass index was significantly associated with the Log homeostatic model assessment of β-cell function and Log-transformed homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance. Conclusion This study shows that decreased β cell function is associated with reduced skeletal muscle mass in Japanese subjects without diabetes. PMID:27612202

  7. On the Non-Monotonic Variation of the Opposition Surge Morphology with Albedo Exhibited by Satellites' Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deau, E. A.; Spilker, L. J.; Flandes, A.

    2011-01-01

    We used well know phase functions of satellites and rings around the giant planets of our Solar System to study the morphology of the opposition effect (at phase angles alpha morphological model to retrieve the morphological parameters of the surge (A and HWHM). These parameters are found to have a non-monotonic variation with the single scattering albedo, similar to that observed in asteroids, which is unexplained so far. The non-monotonic variation is discussed in the framework of the coherent backscattering and shadow hiding mechanisms.

  8. Almost monotonicity formulas for elliptic and parabolic operators with variable coefficients

    KAUST Repository

    Matevosyan, Norayr

    2010-10-21

    In this paper we extend the results of Caffarelli, Jerison, and Kenig [Ann. of Math. (2)155 (2002)] and Caffarelli and Kenig [Amer. J. Math.120 (1998)] by establishing an almost monotonicity estimate for pairs of continuous functions satisfying u± ≥ 0 Lu± ≥ -1, u+ · u_ = 0 ;in an infinite strip (global version) or a finite parabolic cylinder (localized version), where L is a uniformly parabolic operator Lu = LA,b,cu := div(A(x, s)∇u) + b(x,s) · ∇u + c(x,s)u - δsu with double Dini continuous A and uniformly bounded b and c. We also prove the elliptic counterpart of this estimate.This closes the gap between the known conditions in the literature (both in the elliptic and parabolic case) imposed on u± in order to obtain an almost monotonicity estimate.At the end of the paper, we demonstrate how to use this new almost monotonicity formula to prove the optimal C1,1-regularity in a fairly general class of quasi-linear obstacle-type free boundary problems. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Deacetylase inhibition increases regulatory T cell function and decreases incidence and severity of collagen-induced arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saouaf, Sandra J; Li, Bin; Zhang, Geng; Shen, Yuan; Furuuchi, Narumi; Hancock, Wayne W; Greene, Mark I

    2009-10-01

    Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) is an established mouse model of disease with hallmarks of clinical rheumatoid arthritis. Histone/protein deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) are known to inhibit the pathogenesis of CIA and other models of autoimmune disease, although the mechanisms responsible are unclear. Regulatory T cell (Treg) function is defective in rheumatoid arthritis. FOXP3 proteins in Tregs are present in a dynamic protein complex containing histone acetyltransferase and HDAC enzymes, and FOXP3 itself is acetylated on lysine residues. We therefore investigated the effects of HDACi therapy on regulatory T cell function in the CIA model. Administration of an HDACi, valproic acid (VPA), significantly decreased disease incidence (pincreased both the suppressive function of CD4(+)CD25(+) Tregs (pTregs in vivo. Hence, clinically approved HDACi such as VPA may limit autoimmune disease in vivo through effects on the production and function of FOXP3(+) Treg cells.

  10. Influence of Compaction Temperature on Resistance Under Monotonic Loading of Crumb-Rubber Modified Hot-Mix Asphalts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo A. Rondón-Quintana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of compaction temperature on resistance under monotonic loading (Marshall of Crumb-Rubber Modified (CRM Hot-Mix Asphalt (HMA was evaluated. The emphasis of this study was the application in Bogotá D.C. (Colombia. In this city the compaction temperature of HMA mixtures decreases, compared to the optimum, in about 30°C. Two asphalt cements (AC 60-70 and AC 80-100 were modified. Two particle sizes distribution curve were used. The compaction temperatures used were 120, 130, 140 and 150°C. The decrease of the compaction temperature produces a small decrease in resistance under monotonic loading of the modified mixtures tested. Mixtures without CRM undergo a lineal decrease in its resistance of up to 34%.

  11. Decreased blood-brain barrier P-glycoprotein function in the progression of Parkinson's disease, PSP and MSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, A L; Willemsen, A T M; Kortekaas, R; de Jong, B M; de Vries, R; de Klerk, O; van Oostrom, J C H; Portman, A; Leenders, K L

    2008-07-01

    Decreased blood-brain barrier (BBB) efflux function of the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) transport system could facilitate the accumulation of toxic compounds in the brain, increasing the risk of neurodegenerative pathology such as Parkinson's disease (PD). This study investigated in vivo BBB P-gp function in patients with parkinsonian neurodegenerative syndromes, using [11C]-verapamil PET in PD, PSP and MSA patients. Regional differences in distribution volume were studied using SPM with higher uptake interpreted as reduced P-gp function. Advanced PD patients and PSP patients had increased [11C]-verapamil uptake in frontal white matter regions compared to controls; while de novo PD patients showed lower uptake in midbrain and frontal regions. PSP and MSA patients had increased uptake in the basal ganglia. Decreased BBB P-gp function seems a late event in neurodegenerative disorders, and could enhance continuous neurodegeneration. Lower [11C]-verapamil uptake in midbrain and frontal regions of de novo PD patients could indicate a regional up-regulation of P-gp function.

  12. Capturing age-related changes in functional contrast sensitivity with decreasing light levels in monocular and binocular vision

    OpenAIRE

    Gillespie-Gallery, H.; Konstantakopoulou, E.; HARLOW, J.A.; Barbur, J. L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: It is challenging to separate the effects of normal aging of the retina and visual pathways independently from optical factors, decreased retinal illuminance and early stage disease. This study determined limits to describe the effect of light level on normal, age-related changes in monocular and binocular functional contrast sensitivity. Methods: 95 participants aged 20 to 85 were recruited. Contrast thresholds for correct orientation discrimination of the gap in a Landolt C opt...

  13. Function of Treg Cells Decreased in Patients With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Due To the Effect of Prolactin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legorreta-Haquet, María Victoria; Chávez-Rueda, Karina; Chávez-Sánchez, Luis; Cervera-Castillo, Hernando; Zenteno-Galindo, Edgar; Barile-Fabris, Leonor; Burgos-Vargas, Rubén; Álvarez-Hernández, Everardo; Blanco-Favela, Francisco

    2016-02-01

    Prolactin has different functions, including cytokine secretion and inhibition of the suppressor effect of regulatory T (Treg) cells in healthy individuals. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease characterized by defects in the functions of B, T, and Treg cells. Prolactin plays an important role in the physiopathology of SLE. Our objective was to establish the participation of prolactin in the regulation of the immune response mediated by Treg cells from patients with SLE. CD4CD25CD127 cells were purified using magnetic beads and the relative expression of prolactin receptor was measured. The functional activity was evaluated by proliferation assay and cytokine secretion in activated cells, in the presence and absence of prolactin. We found that both percentage and function of Treg cells decrease in SLE patients compared to healthy individuals with statistical significance. The prolactin receptor is constitutively expressed on Treg and effector T (Teff) cells in SLE patients, and this expression is higher than in healthy individuals. The expression of this receptor differs in inactive and active patients: in the former, the expression is higher in Treg cells than in Teff cells, similar to healthy individuals, whereas there is no difference in the expression between Treg and Teff cells from active patients. In Treg:Teff cell cocultures, addition of prolactin decreases the suppressor effect exerted by Treg cells and increases IFNγ secretion. Our results suggest that prolactin plays an important role in the activation of the disease in inactive patients by decreasing the suppressor function exerted by Treg cells over Teff cells, thereby favoring an inflammatory microenvironment.

  14. Function of Treg Cells Decreased in Patients With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Due To the Effect of Prolactin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legorreta-Haquet, María Victoria; Chávez-Rueda, Karina; Chávez-Sánchez, Luis; Cervera-Castillo, Hernando; Zenteno-Galindo, Edgar; Barile-Fabris, Leonor; Burgos-Vargas, Rubén; Álvarez-Hernández, Everardo; Blanco-Favela, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Prolactin has different functions, including cytokine secretion and inhibition of the suppressor effect of regulatory T (Treg) cells in healthy individuals. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease characterized by defects in the functions of B, T, and Treg cells. Prolactin plays an important role in the physiopathology of SLE. Our objective was to establish the participation of prolactin in the regulation of the immune response mediated by Treg cells from patients with SLE. CD4+CD25hiCD127−/low cells were purified using magnetic beads and the relative expression of prolactin receptor was measured. The functional activity was evaluated by proliferation assay and cytokine secretion in activated cells, in the presence and absence of prolactin. We found that both percentage and function of Treg cells decrease in SLE patients compared to healthy individuals with statistical significance. The prolactin receptor is constitutively expressed on Treg and effector T (Teff) cells in SLE patients, and this expression is higher than in healthy individuals. The expression of this receptor differs in inactive and active patients: in the former, the expression is higher in Treg cells than in Teff cells, similar to healthy individuals, whereas there is no difference in the expression between Treg and Teff cells from active patients. In Treg:Teff cell cocultures, addition of prolactin decreases the suppressor effect exerted by Treg cells and increases IFNγ secretion. Our results suggest that prolactin plays an important role in the activation of the disease in inactive patients by decreasing the suppressor function exerted by Treg cells over Teff cells, thereby favoring an inflammatory microenvironment. PMID:26844452

  15. Fasting serum levels of ferritin are associated with impaired pancreatic beta cell function and decreased insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonfils, Linéa; Ellervik, Christina; Friedrich, Nele

    2015-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis: Elevated serum ferritin levels are associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes, but the nature of this association remains elusive. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that an elevated fasting serum ferritin level is associated with an increased risk of type 2...... diabetes due to its association with impaired beta cell function and decreased insulin sensitivity. Methods: We investigated 6,392 individuals from the Danish general population. Surrogate measures of beta cell function and insulin sensitivity were calculated for approximately 6,100 individuals based...... glucose levels at 0, 30 and 120 min (p beta cell function estimated as the insulinogenic index and corrected insulin response (p 

  16. A Hybrid Approach to Proving Memory Reference Monotonicity

    KAUST Repository

    Oancea, Cosmin E.

    2013-01-01

    Array references indexed by non-linear expressions or subscript arrays represent a major obstacle to compiler analysis and to automatic parallelization. Most previous proposed solutions either enhance the static analysis repertoire to recognize more patterns, to infer array-value properties, and to refine the mathematical support, or apply expensive run time analysis of memory reference traces to disambiguate these accesses. This paper presents an automated solution based on static construction of access summaries, in which the reference non-linearity problem can be solved for a large number of reference patterns by extracting arbitrarily-shaped predicates that can (in)validate the reference monotonicity property and thus (dis)prove loop independence. Experiments on six benchmarks show that our general technique for dynamic validation of the monotonicity property can cover a large class of codes, incurs minimal run-time overhead and obtains good speedups. © 2013 Springer-Verlag.

  17. Measurement of non-monotonic Casimir forces between silicon nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, L.; Wang, M.; Ng, C. Y.; Nikolic, M.; Chan, C. T.; Rodriguez, A. W.; Chan, H. B.

    2017-01-01

    Casimir forces are of fundamental interest because they originate from quantum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field. Apart from controlling this force via the optical properties of materials, a number of novel geometries have been proposed to generate repulsive and/or non-monotonic Casimir forces between bodies separated by vacuum gaps. Experimental realization of these geometries, however, is hindered by the difficulties in alignment when the bodies are brought into close proximity. Here, using an on-chip platform with integrated force sensors and actuators, we circumvent the alignment problem and measure the Casimir force between two surfaces with nanoscale protrusions. We demonstrate that the force depends non-monotonically on the displacement. At some displacements, the Casimir force leads to an effective stiffening of the nanomechanical spring. Our findings pave the way for exploiting the Casimir force in nanomechanical systems using structures of complex and non-conventional shapes.

  18. A Monotonic Precise Current DAC for Sensor Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Horsky

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a 17 bit monotonic precise current DAC for sensor applications is described. It is working in a harsh automotive environment in a wide temperature range with high output voltage swing and low current consumption. To guarantee monotonicity current division and segmentation techniques are used. To improve the output impedance, the accuracy and the voltage compliance of the DAC, two active cascoding loops and one follower loop are used. The resolution of the DAC is further increased by applying pulse width modulation to one fine LSB current. To achieve low power consumption unused coarse current sources are switched off. Several second order technological effects influencing final performance and circuits dealing with them are discussed.

  19. Computation of Optimal Monotonicity Preserving General Linear Methods

    KAUST Repository

    Ketcheson, David I.

    2009-07-01

    Monotonicity preserving numerical methods for ordinary differential equations prevent the growth of propagated errors and preserve convex boundedness properties of the solution. We formulate the problem of finding optimal monotonicity preserving general linear methods for linear autonomous equations, and propose an efficient algorithm for its solution. This algorithm reliably finds optimal methods even among classes involving very high order accuracy and that use many steps and/or stages. The optimality of some recently proposed methods is verified, and many more efficient methods are found. We use similar algorithms to find optimal strong stability preserving linear multistep methods of both explicit and implicit type, including methods for hyperbolic PDEs that use downwind-biased operators.

  20. Block Monotone Iterative Algorithms for Variational Inequalities with Nonlinear Operators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-hui Ren; Jin-ping Zeng

    2008-01-01

    Some block iterative methods for solving variational inequalities with nonlinear operators are proposed. Monotone convergence of the algorithms is obtained. Some comparison theorems are also established.Compared with the research work in given by Pao in 1995 for nonlinear equations and research work in given by Zeng and Zhou in 2002 for elliptic variational inequalities, the algorithms proposed in this paper are independent of the boundedness of the derivatives of the nonlinear operator.

  1. Monotonic Property in Field Algebra of G-Spin Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋立宁

    2003-01-01

    Let F be the field algebra of G-spin model, D(G) the double algebra of a finite group G and D(H) the sub-Hopf algerba of D(G) determined by the subgroup H of G. The paper builds a correspondence between D(H) and the D(H)-invariant sub-C*-algebra AH in F, and proves that the correspondence is strictly monotonic.

  2. Modeling argumentation based semantics using non-monotonic reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Argumentation theory is an alternative style of formalizing non-monotonic reasoning. It seems, argumentation theory is a suitable framework for practical and uncertain reasoning, where arguments support conclusions. Dung's approach is an unifying framework which has played an influential role on argumentation research and Artificial Intelligence. Even though the success of the argumentation theory, it seems that argumentation theory is so far from being efficiently implemented like the logic ...

  3. Stability and monotonicity of Lotka-Volterra type operators

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhamedov, Farrukh

    2009-01-01

    In the present paper, we study Lotka-Volterra (LV) type operators defined in finite dimensional simplex. We prove that any LV type operator is a surjection of the simplex. After, we introduce a new class of LV-type operators, called $M$LV type. We prove convergence of their trajectories and study certain its properties. Moreover, we show that such kind of operators have totaly different behavior than ${\\mathbf{f}}$-monotone LV type operators.

  4. Monotone traveling wavefronts of the KPP-Fisher delayed equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Adrian; Trofimchuk, Sergei

    In the early 2000's, Gourley (2000), Wu et al. (2001), Ashwin et al. (2002) initiated the study of the positive wavefronts in the delayed Kolmogorov-Petrovskii-Piskunov-Fisher equation u(t,x)=Δu(t,x)+u(t,x)(1-u(t-h,x)), u⩾0, x∈R. Since then, this model has become one of the most popular objects in the studies of traveling waves for the monostable delayed reaction-diffusion equations. In this paper, we give a complete solution to the problem of existence and uniqueness of monotone waves in Eq. (*). We show that each monotone traveling wave can be found via an iteration procedure. The proposed approach is based on the use of special monotone integral operators (which are different from the usual Wu-Zou operator) and appropriate upper and lower solutions associated to them. The analysis of the asymptotic expansions of the eventual traveling fronts at infinity is another key ingredient of our approach.

  5. Solving the power flow equations: a monotone operator approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvijotham, Krishnamurthy [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Low, Steven [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-07-21

    The AC power flow equations underlie all operational aspects of power systems. They are solved routinely in operational practice using the Newton-Raphson method and its variants. These methods work well given a good initial “guess” for the solution, which is always available in normal system operations. However, with the increase in levels of intermittent generation, the assumption of a good initial guess always being available is no longer valid. In this paper, we solve this problem using the theory of monotone operators. We show that it is possible to compute (using an offline optimization) a “monotonicity domain” in the space of voltage phasors. Given this domain, there is a simple efficient algorithm that will either find a solution in the domain, or provably certify that no solutions exist in it. We validate the approach on several IEEE test cases and demonstrate that the offline optimization can be performed tractably and the computed “monotonicity domain” includes all practically relevant power flow solutions.

  6. Drinking and driving: a decrease in executive frontal functions in young drivers with high blood alcohol concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Simone Cristina Aires; Mendonça, Josidéia Barreto; Laranjeira, Ronaldo; Nakamura-Palacios, Ester Miyuki

    2009-12-01

    This study correlated the executive frontal functions with blood alcohol concentration (BAC) in night drivers in a Brazilian city. Of 592 drivers randomly recruited between December 17, 2005 and May 5, 2006, during nighttime hours on main streets or avenues with intense vehicle traffic in Vitória, Brazil, 444 had the BAC determined by a portable digital breath alcohol analyzer and 389 were submitted to a frontal function examination by a frontal assessment battery (FAB). A high percentage (24.4%) of drivers presented alcohol in their blood. Most of these drivers were male (82%), and nearly half (43.7%) were young adults (aged between 20 and 30 years). The results showed an inverse relationship between the BAC and FAB total scores, with a higher BAC corresponding to a smaller FAB total score, delineating a progressive decrease in frontal function with increasing concentrations of alcohol. The most intriguing result was that alcohol-induced impairment on frontal executive function was particularly important in young adults, and more specifically in the motor programming subset of FAB, an executive function highly involved in driving skills. Considering the worldwide evidence of the high-risk involvement of youth in automobile crashes, the effects of alcohol in young adults need to be more thoroughly examined by cognitive studies, and more direct preventive solutions need to be taken focusing on this age range.

  7. Endogenous pancreatic polypeptide in different vascular beds: relationship to release and degradation in subjects with normal and decreased kidney function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Schwartz, T W; Bülow, J B

    1986-01-01

    The plasma concentration of pancreatic polypeptide (PP-like immunoreactivity) was measured in different vascular beds in order to determine regional kinetics of endogenous PP in fasting, supine subjects with normal or moderately decreased kidney function. Patients with kidney disease (n = 10) had...... a progressively increasing rate of PP secretion in subjects with raised circulating PP. No statistically significant difference could be detected between systemic and renal venous PP or across the lung, left adrenal gland, or lower limb. Assuming steady state between secretion and biodegradation, the metabolic...

  8. Inhibitory properties underlying non-monotonic input-output relationship in low-frequency spherical bushy neurons of the gerbil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuenzel, Thomas; Nerlich, Jana; Wagner, Hermann; Rübsamen, Rudolf; Milenkovic, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Spherical bushy cells (SBCs) of the anteroventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN) receive input from large excitatory auditory nerve (AN) terminals, the endbulbs of Held, and mixed glycinergic/GABAergic inhibitory inputs. The latter have sufficient potency to block action potential firing in vivo and in slice recordings. However, it is not clear how well the data from slice recordings match the inhibition in the intact brain and how it contributes to complex phenomena such as non-monotonic rate-level functions (RLF). Therefore, we determined the input-output relationship of a model SBC with simulated endbulb inputs and a dynamic inhibitory conductance constrained by recordings in brain slice preparations of hearing gerbils. Event arrival times from in vivo single-unit recordings in gerbils, where 70% of SBC showed non-monotonic RLF, were used as input for the model. Model output RLFs systematically changed from monotonic to non-monotonic shape with increasing strength of tonic inhibition. A limited range of inhibitory synaptic properties consistent with the slice data generated a good match between the model and recorded RLF. Moreover, tonic inhibition elevated the action potentials (AP) threshold and improved the temporal precision of output functions in a SBC model with phase-dependent input conductance. We conclude that activity-dependent, summating inhibition contributes to high temporal precision of SBC spiking by filtering out weak and poorly timed EPSP. Moreover, inhibitory parameters determined in slice recordings provide a good estimate of inhibitory mechanisms apparently active in vivo.

  9. Decreased functional connectivity between ventral tegmental area and nucleus accumbens in Internet gaming disorder: evidence from resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin-Tao; Ma, Shan-Shan; Yip, Sarah W; Wang, Ling-Jiao; Chen, Chao; Yan, Chao-Gan; Liu, Lu; Liu, Ben; Deng, Lin-Yuan; Liu, Qin-Xue; Fang, Xiao-Yi

    2015-11-18

    Internet gaming disorder (IGD) has become an increasing mental health problem worldwide. Decreased resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) between the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) has been found in substance use and is thought to play an important role in the development of substance addiction. However, rsFC between the VTA and NAcc in a non-substance addiction, such as IGD, has not been assessed previously. The current study aimed to investigate: (1) if individuals with IGD exhibit alterations in VTA-NAcc functional connectivity; and (2) whether VTA-NAcc functional connectivity is associated with subjective Internet craving. Thirty-five male participants with IGD and 24 healthy control (HC) individuals participated in resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Regions of interest (left NAcc, right NAcc and VTA) were selected based on the literature and were defined by placing spheres centered on Talairach Daemon coordinates. In comparison with HCs, individuals with IGD had significantly decreased rsFC between the VTA and right NAcc. Resting-state functional connectivity strength between the VTA and right NAcc was negatively correlated with self-reported subjective craving for the Internet. These results suggest possible neural functional similarities between individuals with IGD and individuals with substance addictions.

  10. Non-monotonic reasoning in conceptual modeling and ontology design: A proposal

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Casini, G

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available and modeling of defeasible information and non-monotonic reasoning services. Here we formalize a possible way of introducing non-monotonic reasoning into ORM2 schemas, enriching the language with special set of new constraints....

  11. GroEL1, a heat shock protein 60 of Chlamydia pneumoniae, impairs neovascularization by decreasing endothelial progenitor cell function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Wen Lin

    Full Text Available The number and function of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs are sensitive to hyperglycemia, hypertension, and smoking in humans, which are also associated with the development of atherosclerosis. GroEL1 from Chlamydia pneumoniae has been found in atherosclerotic lesions and is related to atherosclerotic pathogenesis. However, the actual effects of GroEL1 on EPC function are unclear. In this study, we investigate the EPC function in GroEL1-administered hind limb-ischemic C57BL/B6 and C57BL/10ScNJ (a toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 mutation mice and human EPCs. In mice, laser Doppler imaging, flow cytometry, and immunohistochemistry were used to evaluate the degree of neo-vasculogenesis, circulating level of EPCs, and expression of CD34, vWF, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS in vessels. Blood flow in the ischemic limb was significantly impaired in C57BL/B6 but not C57BL/10ScNJ mice treated with GroEL1. Circulating EPCs were also decreased after GroEL1 administration in C57BL/B6 mice. Additionally, GroEL1 inhibited the expression of CD34 and eNOS in C57BL/B6 ischemic muscle. In vitro, GroEL1 impaired the capacity of differentiation, mobilization, tube formation, and migration of EPCs. GroEL1 increased senescence, which was mediated by caspases, p38 MAPK, and ERK1/2 signaling in EPCs. Furthermore, GroEL1 decreased integrin and E-selectin expression and induced inflammatory responses in EPCs. In conclusion, these findings suggest that TLR4 and impaired NO-related mechanisms could contribute to the reduced number and functional activity of EPCs in the presence of GroEL1 from C. pneumoniae.

  12. Time-optimal monotonic convergent algorithms for the control of quantum systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lapert, M; Sugny, D

    2012-01-01

    We present a new formulation of monotonically convergent algorithms which allows to optimize both the control duration and the field fluence. A standard algorithm designs a control field of fixed duration which both brings the system close to the target state and minimizes its fluence, whereas here we include in addition the optimization of the duration in the cost functional. We apply this new algorithm to the control of spin systems in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. We show how to implement CNOT gates in systems of two and four coupled spins.

  13. Mixed Monotonicity of Partial First-In-First-Out Traffic Flow Models

    OpenAIRE

    Coogan, Samuel; Arcak, Murat; Kurzhanskiy, Alexander A.

    2015-01-01

    In vehicle traffic networks, congestion on one outgoing link of a diverging junction often impedes flow to other outgoing links, a phenomenon known as the first-in-first-out (FIFO) property. Simplified traffic models that do not account for the FIFO property result in monotone dynamics for which powerful analysis techniques exist. FIFO models are in general not monotone, but have been shown to be mixed monotone - a generalization of monotonicity that enables similarly powerful analysis techni...

  14. Resveratrol Decreases TXNIP mRNA and Protein Nuclear Expressions With an Arterial Function Improvement in Old Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedarida, Tatiana; Baron, Stephanie; Vibert, Françoise; Ayer, Audrey; Henrion, Daniel; Thioulouse, Elizabeth; Marchiol, Carmen; Beaudeux, Jean-Louis; Cottart, Charles-Henry; Nivet-Antoine, Valerie

    2016-06-01

    Aging leads to a high prevalence of glucose intolerance and cardiovascular diseases, with oxidative stress playing a potential role. Resveratrol has shown promising effects on glucose tolerance and tends to improve endothelial function in elderly patients. Thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) was recently proposed as a potential link connecting glucose metabolism to oxidative stress. Here, we investigated the resveratrol-induced improvement of arterial aging phenotype in old mice and the expression of aortic TXNIP. Using an in vivo model of old mice with or without 3-month resveratrol treatment, we investigated the effects of resveratrol on age-related impairments from a cardiovascular Doppler analysis, to a molecular level, by studying inflammation and oxidative stress factors. We found a dual effect of resveratrol, with a decrease of age-related glucose intolerance and oxidative stress imbalance leading to reduced matrix remodeling that forestalls arterial aging phenotype in terms of intima-media thickness and arterial distensibility. These results provide the first evidence that aortic TXNIP mRNA and protein nuclear expressions are increased in the arterial aging and decreased by resveratrol treatment. In conclusion, we demonstrated that resveratrol helped to restore several aging impaired processes in old mice, with a decrease of aortic TXNIP mRNA and protein nuclear expressions.

  15. Apigenin Protects Endothelial Cells from Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-Induced Inflammation by Decreasing Caspase-3 Activation and Modulating Mitochondrial Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Silvia; Arango, Daniel; Parihar, Arti; Hamel, Patrice; Yasmeen, Rumana; Doseff, Andrea I.

    2013-01-01

    Acute and chronic inflammation is characterized by increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, dysregulation of mitochondrial metabolism and abnormal immune function contributing to cardiovascular diseases and sepsis. Clinical and epidemiological studies suggest potential beneficial effects of dietary interventions in inflammatory diseases but understanding of how nutrients work remains insufficient. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of apigenin, an anti-inflammatory flavonoid abundantly found in our diet, in endothelial cells during inflammation. Here, we show that apigenin reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced apoptosis by decreasing ROS production and the activity of caspase-3 in endothelial cells. Apigenin conferred protection against LPS-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and reestablished normal mitochondrial complex I activity, a major site of electron leakage and superoxide production, suggesting its ability to modulate endothelial cell metabolic function during inflammation. Collectively, these findings indicate that the dietary compound apigenin stabilizes mitochondrial function during inflammation preventing endothelial cell damage and thus provide new translational opportunities for the use of dietary components in the prevention and treatment of inflammatory diseases. PMID:23989609

  16. Decreased prefrontal lobe interhemispheric functional connectivity in adolescents with internet gaming disorder: a primary study using resting-state FMRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Wang

    Full Text Available Recent neuroimaging studies have shown that people with Internet gaming disorder (IGD have structural and functional abnormalities in specific brain areas and connections. However, little is known about the alterations of the interhemispheric resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC in participants with IGD. In the present study, we used a newly developed voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC method to investigate the interhemispheric rsFC of the whole brain in participants with IGD.We compared interhemispheric rsFC between 17 participants with IGD and 24 healthy controls, group-matched on age, gender, and education status. All participants were provided written informed consent. Resting-state functional and structural magnetic resonance images were acquired for all participants. The rsFC between bilateral homotopic voxels was calculated. Regions showing abnormal VMHC in IGD participants were adopted as regions of interest for correlation analyses.Compared to healthy controls, IGD participants showed decreased VMHC between the left and right superior frontal gyrus (orbital part, inferior frontal gyrus (orbital part, middle frontal gyrus and superior frontal gyrus. Further analyses showed Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS-related VMHC in superior frontal gyrus (orbital part and CIAS (r = -0.55, p = 0.02, uncorrected.Our findings implicate the important role of altered interhemispheric rsFC in the bilateral prefrontal lobe in the neuropathological mechanism of IGD, and provide further supportive evidence for the reclassification of IGD as a behavioral addiction.

  17. The Non-Monotonic Effect of Financing Constraints on Investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirth, Stefan; Viswanatha, Marc

    We analyze investment timing in a discrete-time framework with two possible investment dates, which is an extension of the model by Lyandres (2007). While Lyandres could only show non-monotonicity of investment in market frictions, we derive an investment threshold that is U-shaped in the firm's ......'s liquid funds, a result similar to the infinite-horizon model by Boyle and Guthrie (2003). However, due to the tractability of our model, we can more clearly explain the relevant trade-offs leading to the U-shape....

  18. Contribution to the ergodic theory of piecewise monotone continuous maps

    OpenAIRE

    Faller, Bastien

    2008-01-01

    This thesis is devoted to the ergodic theory of the piecewise monotone continuous maps of the interval. The coding is a classical approach for these maps. Thanks to the coding, we get a symbolic dynamical system which is almost isomorphic to the initial dynamical system. The principle of the coding is very similar to the one of expansion of real numbers. We first define the coding in a perspective similar to the one of the expansions of real numbers; this perspective was already adopted by Ré...

  19. Deterministic homogenization of parabolic monotone operators with time dependent coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Nguetseng

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available We study, beyond the classical periodic setting, the homogenization of linear and nonlinear parabolic differential equations associated with monotone operators. The usual periodicity hypothesis is here substituted by an abstract deterministic assumption characterized by a great relaxation of the time behaviour. Our main tool is the recent theory of homogenization structures by the first author, and our homogenization approach falls under the two-scale convergence method. Various concrete examples are worked out with a view to pointing out the wide scope of our approach and bringing the role of homogenization structures to light.

  20. Decreases in urine specific gravity and urinary creatinine in dogs with different diseases but with normal renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fojut-Pałka, B; Winnicka, A

    2008-01-01

    The subject of this study was to determine urine specific gravity (USg) and urinary creatinine (UCrn) in dogs with different diseases but with normal renal function. Sick dogs with different diseases were divided into nine groups. Dogs suffering from polyuria/polydipsia, vomits, diarrhoea and females in oestrus or pregnant were excluded from the studies. The healthy dogs served as a control group. Over a three-year period, a total of 267 dogs were examined clinically as well as using imaging and laboratory diagnostics methods. In sick dogs, USg and UCrn were found to be essentially decreased (except animals with neurological and uterine diseases, and neurological diseases, respectively), as compared with normal dogs. In clinically healthy animals of the control group, UCrn and USg did not significantly differ between the females and males. As for the control group, no correlation between UCrn/USg and the body weight/age was found, either.

  1. Decreased muscle strength is associated with impaired long-term functional outcome after intramedullary nailing of femoral shaft fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Peter; Elsøe, Rasmus; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas;

    2015-01-01

    -up with clinical examination of 48 patients treated with intramedullary nailing after femoral shaft fracture between 2007 and 2010. The patients underwent a clinical examination and assessment of walking ability, maximal muscle strength during knee flexion and extension and hip abduction. Hip disability...... strength of knee flexion with the injured leg (226.0 N) was significantly lower then knee flexion with the non-injured leg (259.5 N, P abduction (129.2 vs 156.0 N, P ... in the difference in muscle strength were observed as well as between worse HOOS outcome and increasing body mass index. CONCLUSION:This study showed that decreased muscle strength for knee flexion, knee extension and hip abduction was associated with worse long-term functional outcome measured with a disease...

  2. Association of nsv823469 copy number loss with decreased risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pulmonary function in Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoliang; Lu, Xiaoxiao; Chen, Jiansong; Wu, Di; Qiu, Fuman; Xiong, Huali; Pan, Zihua; Yang, Lei; Yang, Binyao; Xie, Chenli; Zhou, Yifeng; Huang, Dongsheng; Zhou, Yumin; Lu, Jiachun

    2017-01-12

    It is highly possible that copy number variations (CNVs) in susceptible regions have effects on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) development, while long noncoding RNA (lncRNAs) have been shown to cause COPD. We hypothesized that the common CNV, named nsv823469 located on 6p22.1, and covering lncRNAs (major histocompatibility complex, class I, A (HLA-A) and HLA complex group 4B (HCG4B)) has an effect on COPD risk. This association was assessed through a two-stage case-control study, and was further confirmed with COPD and pulmonary function-based family analyses, respectively. The copy number loss (0-copy/1-copy) of nsv823469 significantly decreased risk of COPD compared with normal (2-copy) (OR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.69-0.85). The loss allele, inducing copy number loss of nsv823469, has a tendency to transmit to offspring or siblings (P = 0.010) and is associated with forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) (P = 0.030). Furthermore, the copy number loss of nsv823469 in normal pulmonary tissue decreases the expression levels of HCG4B (r = 0.315, P = 0.031) and HLA-A (r = 0.296, P = 0.044). Our data demonstrates that nsv823469 plays a role in COPD and pulmonary function inheritance by potentially altering expression of HCG4B.

  3. A Neurodynamic Model to Solve Nonlinear Pseudo-Monotone Projection Equation and Its Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshaghnezhad, Mohammad; Effati, Sohrab; Mansoori, Amin

    2016-09-29

    In this paper, a neurodynamic model is given to solve nonlinear pseudo-monotone projection equation. Under pseudo-monotonicity condition and Lipschitz continuous condition, the projection neurodynamic model is proved to be stable in the sense of Lyapunov, globally convergent, globally asymptotically stable, and globally exponentially stable. Also, we show that, our new neurodynamic model is effective to solve the nonconvex optimization problems. Moreover, since monotonicity is a special case of pseudo-monotonicity and also since a co-coercive mapping is Lipschitz continuous and monotone, and a strongly pseudo-monotone mapping is pseudo-monotone, the neurodynamic model can be applied to solve a broader classes of constrained optimization problems related to variational inequalities, pseudo-convex optimization problem, linear and nonlinear complementarity problems, and linear and convex quadratic programming problems. Finally, several illustrative examples are stated to demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our new neurodynamic model.

  4. Non-Monotonicity of Excited State Populations Observed in a Cu-He Hollow Cathode Discharge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Xu-Tao

    2005-01-01

    @@ An interesting non-monotonic structure in the distribution of excited state populations is observed in a Cu-He hollow cathode discharge, and this is explained by l-changing collisions of the excited states with background gas atoms. At helium pressure of 0.1 Torr and cathode current of 200-300mA, relative populations of He I 1snp 1p (n = 2-16) states are measured with the corresponding VUV radiation intensities, and are plotted against excitation energies. As energy levels increase, populations of high-n (n > 10) states are found to decrease much more quickly than low-n (n < 7) populations. For intermediate states (n = 7-10), the declining tendency is interfered by population transfers from 1sns 1 S states due to l-changing collisions, and an obvious non-monotonic structure is formed at relatively low electric current. Measurements have also been carried out for He Ⅱ np 2 p (n = 2-14) series, in which the l-changing collisions are overwhelmed by Stark quenching of the n2S states and thus population interference does not occur.

  5. Increase in short-chain ceramides correlates with an altered lipid organization and decreased barrier function in atopic eczema patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Michelle; van Smeden, Jeroen; Gooris, Gert S; Bras, Wim; Portale, Guiseppe; Caspers, Peter J; Vreeken, Rob J; Hankemeier, Thomas; Kezic, Sanja; Wolterbeek, Ron; Lavrijsen, Adriana P; Bouwstra, Joke A

    2012-12-01

    A hallmark of atopic eczema (AE) is skin barrier dysfunction. Lipids in the stratum corneum (SC), primarily ceramides, fatty acids, and cholesterol, are crucial for the barrier function, but their role in relation to AE is indistinct. Filaggrin is an epithelial barrier protein with a central role in the pathogenesis of AE. Nevertheless, the precise causes of AE-associated barrier dysfunction are largely unknown. In this study, a comprehensive analysis of ceramide composition and lipid organization in nonlesional SC of AE patients and control subjects was performed by means of mass spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. In addition, the skin barrier and clinical state of the disease were examined. The level of ceramides with an extreme short chain length is drastically increased in SC of AE patients, which leads to an aberrant lipid organization and a decreased skin barrier function. Changes in SC lipid properties correlate with disease severity but are independent of filaggrin mutations. We demonstrate for the first time that changes in ceramide chain length and lipid organization are directly correlated with the skin barrier defects in nonlesional skin of AE patients. We envisage that these insights will provide a new therapeutic entry in therapy and prevention of AE.

  6. Pulmonary rehabilitation coupled with negative pressure ventilation decreases decline in lung function, hospitalizations, and medical cost in COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hung-Yu; Chou, Pai-Chien; Joa, Wen-Ching; Chen, Li-Fei; Sheng, Te-Fang; Lin, Horng-Chyuan; Yang, Lan-Yan; Pan, Yu-Bin; Chung, Fu-Tsai; Wang, Chun-Hua; Kuo, Han-Pin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) brings benefits to patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Negative pressure ventilation (NPV) increases ventilation and decreases hyperinflation as well as breathing work in COPD. We evaluated the long-term effects of a hospital-based PR program coupled with NPV support in patients with COPD on clinical outcomes. One hundred twenty-nine patients with COPD were followed up for more than 5 years, with the NPV group (n = 63) receiving the support of NPV (20–30 cm H2O delivery pressure for 60 min) and unsupervised home exercise program of 20 to 30 min daily walk, while the control group (n = 6) only received unsupervised home exercise program. Pulmonary function tests and 6 min walk tests (6MWT) were performed every 3 to 6 months. Emergency room (ER) visits and hospitalization with medical costs were recorded. A significant time-by-group interaction in the yearly decline of forced expiratory volume in 1 s in the control group analyzed by mixed-model repeated-measure analysis was found (P = 0.048). The 6MWT distance of the NPV group was significantly increased during the first 4 years, with the interaction of time and group (P = 0.003), the time alone (P = 0.014), and the quadratic time (P lung function, exacerbations, and hospitalization rates, and improved walking distance and medical costs in patients with COPD during a 5-year observation PMID:27741132

  7. DATA PREORDERING IN GENERALIZED PAV ALGORITHM FOR MONOTONIC REGRESSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oleg Burdakov; Anders Grimvall; Oleg Sysoev

    2006-01-01

    Monotonic regression (MR) is a least distance problem with monotonicity constraints induced by a partially ordered data set of observations. In our recent publication [In Ser.Nonconvex Optimization and Its Applications, Springer-Verlag, (2006) 83, pp. 25-33],the Pool-Adjacent-Violators algorithm (PAV) was generalized from completely to partially ordered data sets (posets). The new algorithm, called GPAV, is characterized by the very low computational complexity, which is of second order in the number of observations.It treats the observations in a consecutive order, and it can follow any arbitrarily chosen topological order of the poset of observations. The GPAV algorithm produces a sufficiently accurate solution to the MR problem, but the accuracy depends on the chosen topological order. Here we prove that there exists a topological order for which the resulted GPAV solution is optimal. Furthermore, we present results of extensive numerical experiments,from which we draw conclusions about the most and the least preferable topological orders.

  8. Isolated pulmonary regurgitation causes decreased right ventricular longitudinal function and compensatory increased septal pumping in a porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopic, S; Stephensen, S S; Heiberg, E; Arheden, H; Bonhoeffer, P; Ersbøll, M; Vejlstrup, N; Søndergaard, L; Carlsson, M

    2017-06-05

    Longitudinal ventricular contraction is a parameter of cardiac performance with predictive power. Right ventricular (RV) longitudinal function is impaired in patients with free pulmonary regurgitation (PR) following corrective surgery for Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). It remains unclear whether this is a consequence of the surgical repair, or whether it is inherent to PR. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between longitudinal, lateral and septal pumping in a porcine model of isolated PR. Piglets were divided into a control (n = 8) group and a treatment (n = 12) group, which received a stent in the pulmonary valve orifice, inducing PR. After 2-3 months, animals were subjected to cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. A subset of animals (n = 6) then underwent percutaneous pulmonary valve replacement (PPVR) with follow-up 1 month later. Longitudinal, lateral and septal contributions to stroke volume (SV) were quantified by measuring volumetric displacements from end-diastole to end-systole in the cardiac short axis and long axis. PR resulted in a lower longitudinal contribution to RV stroke volume, compared to controls (60.0 ± 2.6% vs. 73.6 ± 3.8%; P = 0.012). Furthermore, a compensatory increase in septal contribution to RVSV was observed (11.0 ± 1.6% vs. -3.1 ± 1.5%; P function were reversed by PPVR. These findings suggest that PR contributes to decreased RV longitudinal function in the absence of scarring from cardiac surgery. Measurement of longitudinal RVSV may aid risk stratification and timing for interventional correction of PR in TOF patients. © 2017 The Authors. Acta Physiologica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Scandinavian Physiological Society.

  9. Strong asymptotic convergence of evolution equations governed by maximal monotone operators with Tikhonov regularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cominetti, R.; Peypouquet, J.; Sorin, S.

    We consider the Tikhonov-like dynamics -u˙(t)∈A(u(t))+ɛ(t)u(t) where A is a maximal monotone operator on a Hilbert space and the parameter function ɛ(t) tends to 0 as t→∞ with ∫0∞ɛ(t) dt=∞. When A is the subdifferential of a closed proper convex function f, we establish strong convergence of u(t) towards the least-norm minimizer of f. In the general case we prove strong convergence towards the least-norm point in A(0) provided that the function ɛ(t) has bounded variation, and provide a counterexample when this property fails.

  10. The Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor‐γ Pioglitazone Improves Vascular Function and Decreases Disease Activity in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marder, Wendy; Khalatbari, Shokoufeh; Myles, James D.; Hench, Rita; Lustig, Susan; Yalavarthi, Srilakshmi; Parameswaran, Aishwarya; Brook, Robert D.; Kaplan, Mariana J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with heightened mortality due to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). Inflammatory pathways in RA negatively affect vascular physiology and promote metabolic disturbances that contribute to CVD. We hypothesized that the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor‐γ (PPAR‐γ) pioglitazone could promote potent vasculoprotective and anti‐inflammatory effects in RA. Methods and Results One hundred forty‐three non‐diabetic adult RA patients (76.2% female, age 55.2±12.1 [mean±SD]) on stable RA standard of care treatment were enrolled in a randomized, double‐blind placebo controlled crossover trial of 45 mg daily pioglitazone versus placebo, with a 3‐month duration/arm and a 2‐month washout period. Pulse wave velocity of the aorta (PWV), brachial artery flow mediated dilatation (FMD), nitroglycerin mediated dilatation (NMD), microvascular endothelial function (reactive hyperemia index [RHI]), and circulating biomarkers of inflammation, insulin resistance, and atherosclerosis risk all were quantified. RA disease activity was assessed with the 28‐Joint Count Disease Activity Score (DAS‐28) C‐reactive protein (CRP) and the Short Form (36) Health Survey quality of life questionnaire. When added to standard of care RA treatment, pioglitazone significantly decreased pulse wave velocity (ie, aortic stiffness) (P=0.01), while FMD and RHI remained unchanged when compared to treatment with placebo. Further, pioglitazone significantly reduced RA disease activity (P=0.02) and CRP levels (P=0.001), while improving lipid profiles. The drug was well tolerated. Conclusions Addition of pioglitazone to RA standard of care significantly improves aortic elasticity and decreases inflammation and disease activity with minimal safety issues. The clinical implications of these findings remain to be established. Clinical Trial Registration URL: ClinicalTrials.gov Unique Identifier: NCT00554853. PMID:24252844

  11. Cyclosporine restores hematopoietic function by compensating for decreased Tregs in patients with pure red cell aplasia and acquired aplastic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, An T T; Yamazaki, Hirohito; Takamatsu, Hiroyuki; Sugimori, Chiharu; Katagiri, Takamasa; Maruyama, Hiroyuki; Zaimoku, Yoshitaka; Maruyama, Kana; Ly, Trung Q; Espinoza, Luis; Nakao, Shinji

    2016-04-01

    Most patients with acquired pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) and some with acquired aplastic anemia (AA) respond well to cyclosporine (CsA), but thereafter often show CsA dependency. The mechanism underlying this dependency remains unknown. We established a reliable method for measuring the regulatory T cell (Treg) count using FoxP3 and Helios expression as markers and determined the balance between Tregs and other helper T cell subsets in 16 PRCA and 29 AA patients. The ratios of interferon-γ-producing CD4(+) (Th1) T cells to Tregs in untreated patients and CsA-dependent patients were significantly higher (PRCA 5.77 ± 1.47 and 7.38 ± 2.58; AA 6.18 ± 2.35 and 8.94 ± 4.06) than in healthy volunteers (HVs; 3.33 ± 0.90) due to the profound decrease in the percentage of Tregs. In contrast, the ratios were comparable to HVs in convalescent CsA-treated AA patients (4.74 ± 2.10) and AA patients in remission after the cessation of CsA treatment (4.24 ± 1.67). Low-dose CsA (100 ng/ml) inhibited the proliferation of conventional T cells (Tconv) to a similar degree to the inhibition by Tregs in a co-culture with a 1:1 Treg/Tconv ratio. The data suggest that CsA may reverse the hematopoietic suppression in PRCA and AA patients by compensating for the inadequate immune regulatory function that occurs due to a profound decrease in the Treg count.

  12. 单调q矩阵的Feller性质%The Feller Property for the Monotone q-Matrix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秀珍; 李扬荣

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a necessary and sufficient condition for a monotone q-matrix Q to be Feller is given in terms of (Q), where (Q) is the dual of 2. Then, the authors further point out that the minimal (Q)-function (P)(t) is the dual for the minimal Q-function P(t) if Q is monotone and zero-exit.%给出了单调q-矩阵Q是Feller的充分必要条件,进一步指出:若q-矩阵Q是单调零流出的且(Q)是Q的对偶,则最小(Q)-函数(Q)(t)是最小(Q)-函数P(t)的对偶.

  13. Towards a Unified Recurrent Neural Network Theory:The Uniformly Pseudo-Projection-Anti-Monotone Net

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zong Ben XU; Chen QIAO

    2011-01-01

    In the past decades, various neural network models have been developed for modeling the behavior of human brain or performing problem-solving through simulating the behavior of human brain. The recurrent neural networks are the type of neural networks to model or simulate associative memory behavior of human being. A recurrent neural network (RNN) can be generally formalized as a dynamic system associated with two fundamental operators: one is the nonlinear activation operator deduced from the input-output properties of the involved neurons, and the other is the synaptic connections (a matrix) among the neurons. Through carefully examining properties of various activation functions used, we introduce a novel type of monotone operators, the uniformly pseudo-projectionanti-monotone (UPPAM) operators, to unify the various RNN models appeared in the literature. We develop a unified encoding and stability theory for the UPPAM network model when the time is discrete.The established model and theory not only unify but also jointly generalize the most known results of RNNs. The approach has lunched a visible step towards establishment of a unified mathematical theory of recurrent neural networks.

  14. On stability and monotonicity requirements of finite difference approximations of stochastic conservation laws with random viscosity

    KAUST Repository

    Pettersson, Per

    2013-05-01

    The stochastic Galerkin and collocation methods are used to solve an advection-diffusion equation with uncertain and spatially varying viscosity. We investigate well-posedness, monotonicity and stability for the extended system resulting from the Galerkin projection of the advection-diffusion equation onto the stochastic basis functions. High-order summation-by-parts operators and weak imposition of boundary conditions are used to prove stability of the semi-discrete system.It is essential that the eigenvalues of the resulting viscosity matrix of the stochastic Galerkin system are positive and we investigate conditions for this to hold. When the viscosity matrix is diagonalizable, stochastic Galerkin and stochastic collocation are similar in terms of computational cost, and for some cases the accuracy is higher for stochastic Galerkin provided that monotonicity requirements are met. We also investigate the total spatial operator of the semi-discretized system and its impact on the convergence to steady-state. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  15. A note on monotone likelihood ratio of the total score variable in unidimensional item response theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unlü, Ali

    2008-05-01

    This note provides a direct, elementary proof of the fundamental result on monotone likelihood ratio of the total score variable in unidimensional item response theory (IRT). This result is very important for practical measurement in IRT, because it justifies the use of the total score variable to order participants on the latent trait. The proof relies on a basic inequality for elementary symmetric functions which is proved by means of few purely algebraic, straightforward transformations. In particular, flaws in a proof of this result by Huynh [(1994). A new proof for monotone likelihood ratio for the sum of independent Bernoulli random variables. Psychometrika, 59, 77-79] are pointed out and corrected, and a natural generalization of the fundamental result to non-linear (quasi-ordered) latent trait spaces is presented. This may be useful for multidimensional IRT or knowledge space theory, in which the latent 'ability' spaces are partially ordered with respect to, for instance, coordinate-wise vector-ordering or set-inclusion, respectively.

  16. Iterative Schemes for Zero Points of Maximal Monotone Operators and Fixed Points of Nonexpansive Mappings and Their Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeol Je Cho

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Two iterative schemes for finding a common element of the set of zero points of maximal monotone operators and the set of fixed points of nonexpansive mappings in the sense of Lyapunov functional in a real uniformly smooth and uniformly convex Banach space are obtained. Two strong convergence theorems are obtained which extend some previous work. Moreover, the applications of the iterative schemes are demonstrated.

  17. Iterative Schemes for Zero Points of Maximal Monotone Operators and Fixed Points of Nonexpansive Mappings and Their Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho YeolJe

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Two iterative schemes for finding a common element of the set of zero points of maximal monotone operators and the set of fixed points of nonexpansive mappings in the sense of Lyapunov functional in a real uniformly smooth and uniformly convex Banach space are obtained. Two strong convergence theorems are obtained which extend some previous work. Moreover, the applications of the iterative schemes are demonstrated.

  18. Extended lifespan, reduced body size and leg skeletal muscle mass, and decreased mitochondrial function in clk-1 transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kazuhide; Noda, Yoshihiro; Ohsawa, Ikuroh; Shirasawa, Takuji; Takahashi, Mayumi

    2014-10-01

    Mutational inactivation of clk-1, which encodes an enzyme necessary for the biosynthesis of coenzyme Q (CoQ), extends the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans. However, whether mammalian clk-1 regulates the lifespan of mice is not known because clk-1-deficiencies are embryonic lethal. Here, we investigated the lifespan of clk-1 transgenic mice (Tg96/I), which were rescued from embryonic lethality via the transgenic expression of mouse clk-1. Tg96/I mice lived longer and had smaller bodies than wild-type mice, but Tg96/I mice had CoQ levels equivalent to wild-type mice. The small-sized Tg96/I mice exhibited reduced whole-body oxygen consumption (VO2) during the dark period, and lean leg skeletal muscles with reduced mitochondrial VO2 and ATP content compared with wild-type mice. These findings indicate a close relationship between lifespan extension and decreased mitochondrial function, which was induced by the transgenic expression of clk-1, in leg skeletal muscles that exhibit high metabolic activity.

  19. Environmental enrichment and social interaction improve cognitive function and decrease reactive oxidative species in normal adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doulames, Vanessa; Lee, Sangmook; Shea, Thomas B

    2014-05-01

    Environmental stimulation and increased social interactions stimulate cognitive performance, while decrease in these parameters can exacerbate cognitive decline as a function of illness, injury, or age. We examined the impact of environmental stimulation and social interactions on cognitive performance in healthy adult C57B1/6J mice. Mice were housed for 1 month individually or in groups of three (to prevent or allow social interaction) in either a standard environment (SE) or an enlarged cage containing nesting material and items classically utilized to stimulate exploration and activity ("enriched environment"; EE). Cognitive performance was tested by Y maze navigation and Novel Object Recognition (NOR; which compares the relative amount of time mice spent investigating a novel vs. a familiar object). Mice maintained for 1 month under isolated conditions in the SE statistically declined in performance versus baseline in the Y maze (p species (ROS/RNS) in brain. Environmental enrichment did not influence ROS/RNS. These findings indicate that environmental and social enrichment can positively influence cognitive performance in healthy adult mice, and support the notion that proactive approaches may delay age-related cognitive decline.

  20. The regularized monotonicity method: detecting irregular indefinite inclusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Henrik; Staboulis, Stratos

    2017-01-01

    In inclusion detection in electrical impedance tomography, the support of perturbations (inclusion) from a known background conductivity is typically reconstructed from idealized continuum data modelled by a Neumann-to-Dirichlet map. Only few reconstruction methods apply when detecting indefinite...... of approximative measurement models, including the Complete Electrode Model, hence making the method robust against modelling error and noise. In particular, we demonstrate that for a convergent family of approximative models there exists a sequence of regularization parameters such that the outer shape...... of the inclusions is asymptotically exactly characterized. Finally, a peeling-type reconstruction algorithm is presented and, for the first time in literature, numerical examples of monotonicity reconstructions for indefinite inclusions are presented....

  1. Convex analysis and monotone operator theory in Hilbert spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Bauschke, Heinz H

    2017-01-01

    This reference text, now in its second edition, offers a modern unifying presentation of three basic areas of nonlinear analysis: convex analysis, monotone operator theory, and the fixed point theory of nonexpansive operators. Taking a unique comprehensive approach, the theory is developed from the ground up, with the rich connections and interactions between the areas as the central focus, and it is illustrated by a large number of examples. The Hilbert space setting of the material offers a wide range of applications while avoiding the technical difficulties of general Banach spaces. The authors have also drawn upon recent advances and modern tools to simplify the proofs of key results making the book more accessible to a broader range of scholars and users. Combining a strong emphasis on applications with exceptionally lucid writing and an abundance of exercises, this text is of great value to a large audience including pure and applied mathematicians as well as researchers in engineering, data science, ma...

  2. Monotonic childhoods: representations of otherness in research writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Marcos Bussoletti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is part of a doctoral thesis entitled “Monotonic childhoods – a rhapsody of hope”. It follows the perspective of a critical psychosocial and cultural study, and aims at discussing the other’s representation in research writing, electing childhood as an allegorical and refl ective place. It takes into consideration, by means of analysis, the drawings and poems of children from the Terezin ghetto during the Second World War. The work is mostly based on Serge Moscovici’s Social Representation Theory, but it is also in constant dialogue with other theories and knowledge fi elds, especially Walter Benjamin’s and Mikhail Bakhtin’s contributions. At the end, the paper supports the thesis that conceives poetics as one of the translation axes of childhood cultures.

  3. Strong convergence theorems for maximal monotone mappings in Banach spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegeye, Habtu

    2008-07-01

    Let E be a uniformly convex and 2-uniformly smooth real Banach space with dual E*. Let be a Lipschitz continuous monotone mapping with A-1(0)[not equal to][empty set]. For given u,x1[set membership, variant]E, let {xn} be generated by the algorithm xn+1:=[beta]nu+(1-[beta]n)(xn-[alpha]nAJxn), n[greater-or-equal, slanted]1, where J is the normalized duality mapping from E into E* and {[lambda]n} and {[theta]n} are real sequences in (0,1) satisfying certain conditions. Then it is proved that, under some mild conditions, {xn} converges strongly to x*[set membership, variant]E where Jx*[set membership, variant]A-1(0). Finally, we apply our convergence theorems to the convex minimization problems.

  4. Convergence of the natural approximations of piecewise monotone interval maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haydn, Nicolai

    2004-06-01

    We consider piecewise monotone interval mappings which are topologically mixing and satisfy the Markov property. It has previously been shown that the invariant densities of the natural approximations converge exponentially fast in uniform pointwise topology to the invariant density of the given map provided its derivative is piecewise Lipshitz continuous. We provide an example of a map which is Lipshitz continuous and for which the densities converge in the bounded variation norm at a logarithmic rate. This shows that in general one cannot expect exponential convergence in the bounded variation norm. Here we prove that if the derivative of the interval map is Holder continuous and its variation is well approximable (gamma-uniform variation for gamma>0), then the densities converge exponentially fast in the norm.

  5. A COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT CONTRACTION METHODS FOR MONOTONE VARIATIONAL INEQUALITIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bingsheng He; Xiang Wang; Junfeng Yang

    2009-01-01

    It is interesting to compare the efficiency of two methods when their computational loads in each iteration are equal. In this paper, two classes of contraction methods for monotone variational inequalities are studied in a unified framework. The methods of both classes can be viewed as prediction-correction methods, which generate the same test vector in the prediction step and adopt the same step-size rule in the correction step. The only difference is that they use different search directions. The computational loads of each iteration of the different classes are equal. Our analysis explains theoretically why one class of the contraction methods usually outperforms the other class. It is demonstrated that many known methods belong to these two classes of methods. Finally, the presented numerical results demonstrate the validity of our analysis.

  6. A new approximate proximal point algorithm for maximal monotone operator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE; Bingsheng(何炳生); LIAO; Lizhi(廖立志); YANG; Zhenhua(杨振华)

    2003-01-01

    The problem concerned in this paper is the set-valued equation 0 ∈ T(z) where T is a maximal monotone operator. For given xk and βk > 0, some existing approximate proximal point algorithms take xk+1 = xk such that xk +ek∈ xk + βkT(xk) and||ek|| ≤ηk||xk - xk||, where {ηk} is a non-negative summable sequence. Instead of xk+1 = xk, the new iterate of the proposing method is given by xk+1 = PΩ[xk - ek], where Ω is the domain of T and PΩ(@) denotes the projection on Ω. The convergence is proved under a significantly relaxed restriction supk>0 ηk < 1.

  7. Decreased frequencies and impaired functions of the CD31(+) subpopulation in Treg cells associated with decreased FoxP3 expression and enhanced Treg cell defects in patients with coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, L; Zheng, Y; Yuan, X; Ma, Y; Xie, G; Wang, W; Chen, H; Shen, L

    2017-03-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is one of the most common types of organ lesions caused by atherosclerosis, in which CD4(+) CD25(+) forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3(+) ) regulatory T cells (Treg ) play an atheroprotective role. However, Treg cell numbers are decreased and their functions are impaired in atherosclerosis; the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. CD31 plays an important part in T cell response and contributes to maintaining T cell tolerance. The immunomodulatory effects of CD31 are also implicated in atherosclerosis. In this study, we found that decreased frequencies of the CD31(+) subpopulation in Treg cells (CD31(+) Tr cells) correlated positively with decreased FoxP3 expression in CHD patients. Cell culture in vitro demonstrated CD31(+) Tr cells maintaining stable FoxP3 expression after activation and exhibited enhanced proliferation and immunosuppression compared with the CD31(-) subpopulation in Treg cells (CD31(-) Tr cells). We also confirmed impaired secretion of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and interleukin (IL)-10 in CD31(+) Tr cells of CHD patients. Further analysis revealed reduced phospho-SHP2 (associated with CD31 activation) and phospho-signal transducer and activator of transcription-5 (STAT-5) (associated with FoxP3 transcription) levels in CD31(+) Tr cells of CHD patients, suggesting that decreased FoxP3 expression in CD31(+) Tr cells might be because of attenuated SHP2 and STAT-5 activation. These data indicate that decreased frequencies and impaired functions of the CD31(+) Tr subpopulation associated with decreased FoxP3 expression give rise, at least in part, to Treg cell defects in CHD patients. Our findings emphasize the important role of the CD31(+) Tr subpopulation in maintaining Treg cell normal function and may provide a novel explanation for impaired immunoregulation of Treg cells in CHD.

  8. Oxidative stress induces imbalance of adipogenic/osteoblastic lineage commitment in mesenchymal stem cells through decreasing SIRT1 functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Hua; Li, Nan-Ting; Cheng, Hui-Shan; Yen, Men-Luh

    2017-10-03

    With rapidly ageing populations worldwide, the incidence of osteoporosis has reached epidemic proportions. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), a by-product of oxidative stress and ageing, has been thought to induce osteoporosis by inhibiting osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). However, specific mechanisms of how ROS results in alterations on MSC differentiation capacity have been inconsistently reported. We found that H2 O2 , an ROS, simultaneously induced MSC lineage commitment towards adipogenesis and away from osteogenesis at the functional as well as transcriptional level. In addition, H2 O2 decreased the activities of SIRT1, a histone deacetylase and longevity gene. By silencing and reconstituting SIRT1 in MSCs, we demonstrated that H2 O2 exerted its disparate effects on adipogenic/osteoblastic lineage commitment mainly through modulating SIRT1 expression levels. Treatment with resveratrol, a SIRT1 agonist, can also reverse this ROS-induced adipogenesis/osteogenesis lineage imbalance. Moreover, SIRT1 regulation of RUNX2 transcriptional activity was mediated through deacetylation of the ROS-sensitive transcription factor FOXO3a. Taken together, our data implicate SIRT1 as playing a vital role in ROS-directed lineage commitment of MSCs by modulating two lineages simultaneously. Our findings on the critical role of SIRT1 in ROS/age-related perturbations of MSC differentiation capacity highlight this molecule as a target for maintenance of MSC stemness as well as a potential anabolic target in osteoporosis. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  9. Non-Monotonic Survival of Staphylococcus aureus with Respect to Ciprofloxacin Concentration Arises from Prophage-Dependent Killing of Persisters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth L. Sandvik

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a notorious pathogen with a propensity to cause chronic, non-healing wounds. Bacterial persisters have been implicated in the recalcitrance of S. aureus infections, and this motivated us to examine the persistence of S. aureus to ciprofloxacin, a quinolone antibiotic. Upon treatment of exponential phase S. aureus with ciprofloxacin, we observed that survival was a non-monotonic function of ciprofloxacin concentration. Maximal killing occurred at 1 µg/mL ciprofloxacin, which corresponded to survival that was up to ~40-fold lower than that obtained with concentrations ≥ 5 µg/mL. Investigation of this phenomenon revealed that the non-monotonic response was associated with prophage induction, which facilitated killing of S. aureus persisters. Elimination of prophage induction with tetracycline was found to prevent cell lysis and persister killing. We anticipate that these findings may be useful for the design of quinolone treatments.

  10. Non-Monotonic Survival of Staphylococcus aureus with Respect to Ciprofloxacin Concentration Arises from Prophage-Dependent Killing of Persisters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandvik, Elizabeth L.; Fazen, Christopher H.; Henry, Theresa C.; Mok, Wendy W.K.; Brynildsen, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a notorious pathogen with a propensity to cause chronic, non-healing wounds. Bacterial persisters have been implicated in the recalcitrance of S. aureus infections, and this motivated us to examine the persistence of S. aureus to ciprofloxacin, a quinolone antibiotic. Upon treatment of exponential phase S. aureus with ciprofloxacin, we observed that survival was a non-monotonic function of ciprofloxacin concentration. Maximal killing occurred at 1 µg/mL ciprofloxacin, which corresponded to survival that was up to ~40-fold lower than that obtained with concentrations ≥ 5 µg/mL. Investigation of this phenomenon revealed that the non-monotonic response was associated with prophage induction, which facilitated killing of S. aureus persisters. Elimination of prophage induction with tetracycline was found to prevent cell lysis and persister killing. We anticipate that these findings may be useful for the design of quinolone treatments. PMID:26593926

  11. Strong Stationary Duality for M\\"obius Monotone Markov Chains: Unreliable Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Lorek, Pawel

    2011-01-01

    For Markov chains with a partially ordered finite state space we show strong stationary duality under the condition of M\\"obius monotonicity of the chain. We show relations of M\\"obius monotonicity to other definitions of monotone chains. We give examples of dual chains in this context which have transitions only upwards. We illustrate general theory by an analysis of nonsymmetric random walks on the cube with an application to networks of queues.

  12. QSAR study on the non-monotonic dose-response curve of PCBs in chicken embryo hepatocyte bioassay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MU YunSong; ZHANG AiQian; GAO ChangAn; PENG SuFen; WANG LianSheng

    2009-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in the natural environment exhibit a unique non-monotonic dose-response curve and it is impossible to select one simple index to characterize the bilogogical activity of these compounds. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study on non-monotonic dose-response curve has become a real challenge presently. In order to explore the possible mechanism for the non-monotonic dose-response curve of polychlorinated biphenyls con-geners (PCBs) in chicken embryo hepatocyte bioassay, AM1 method of ChemOffice was adopted to calculate necessary structure descriptors for PCBs, while the interactions between PCBs and simulated AhR ligand binding domain (LBD) were analyzed by using FlexX in SYBYL7.0. Different binding modes for PCBs have been distinguished not only from aligned conformation but also from free binding energy. Some QSAR models were established separately for both low and high doses ranges, revealing that receptor binding may predominate in the interference of the physiological function of cytochrome P4501A-P4501A in the low doses range. But with the higher doses range, the EROD suppression might he related to acute toxicity owing to molecular polarity or distribution of charges and consequently damage structure and function of chicken embryo hepatocyte.

  13. QSAR study on the non-monotonic dose-response curve of PCBs in chicken embryo hepatocyte bioassay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in the natural environment exhibit a unique non-monotonic dose-response curve and it is impossible to select one simple index to characterize the bilogogical activity of these compounds. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study on non-monotonic dose-response curve has become a real challenge presently. In order to explore the possible mechanism for the non-monotonic dose-response curve of polychlorinated biphenyls congeners (PCBs) in chicken embryo hepatocyte bioassay, AM1 method of ChemOffice was adopted to calculate necessary structure descriptors for PCBs, while the interactions between PCBs and simulated AhR ligand binding domain (LBD) were analyzed by using FlexX in SYBYL7.0. Different binding modes for PCBs have been distinguished not only from aligned conformation but also from free binding energy. Some QSAR models were established separately for both low and high doses ranges, revealing that receptor binding may predominate in the interference of the physiological function of cytochrome P4501A-P4501A in the low doses range. But with the higher doses range, the EROD suppression might be related to acute toxicity owing to molecular polarity or distribution of charges and consequently damage structure and function of chicken embryo hepatocyte.

  14. A MONOTONE DOMAIN DECOMPOSITION ALGORITHM FOR SOLVING WEIGHTED AVERAGE APPROXIMATIONS TO NONLINEAR SINGULARLY PERTURBED PARABOLIC PROBLEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Igor Boglaev; Matthew Hardy

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents and analyzes a monotone domain decomposition algorithm for solving nonlinear singularly perturbed reaction-diffusion problems of parabolic type.To solve the nonlinear weighted average finite difference scheme for the partial differential equation,we construct a monotone domain decomposition algorithm based on a Schwarz alternating method and a box-domain decomposition.This algorithm needs only to solve linear discrete systems at each iterative step and converges monotonically to the exact solution of the nonlinear discrete problem. The rate of convergence of the monotone domain decomposition algorithm is estimated.Numerical experiments are presented.

  15. Functions of bounded variation

    OpenAIRE

    Lind, Martin

    2006-01-01

    The paper begins with a short survey of monotone functions. The functions of bounded variation are introduced and some basic properties of these functions are given. Finally the jump function of a function of bounded variation is defined.

  16. Non-monotonic resonance in a spatially forced Lengyel-Epstein model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haim, Lev [Physics Department, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Department of Oncology, Soroka University Medical Center, Beer-Sheva 84101 (Israel); Hagberg, Aric [Center for Nonlinear Studies, Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Meron, Ehud [Physics Department, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Department of Solar Energy and Environmental Physics, BIDR, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Sede Boqer Campus, Midreshet Ben-Gurion 84990 (Israel)

    2015-06-15

    We study resonant spatially periodic solutions of the Lengyel-Epstein model modified to describe the chlorine dioxide-iodine-malonic acid reaction under spatially periodic illumination. Using multiple-scale analysis and numerical simulations, we obtain the stability ranges of 2:1 resonant solutions, i.e., solutions with wavenumbers that are exactly half of the forcing wavenumber. We show that the width of resonant wavenumber response is a non-monotonic function of the forcing strength, and diminishes to zero at sufficiently strong forcing. We further show that strong forcing may result in a π/2 phase shift of the resonant solutions, and argue that the nonequilibrium Ising-Bloch front bifurcation can be reversed. We attribute these behaviors to an inherent property of forcing by periodic illumination, namely, the increase of the mean spatial illumination as the forcing amplitude is increased.

  17. Quantitative non-monotonic modeling of economic uncertainty by probability and possibility distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans

    2012-01-01

    to the understanding of similarities and differences of the two approaches as well as practical applications. The probability approach offers a good framework for representation of randomness and variability. Once the probability distributions of uncertain parameters and their correlations are known the resulting...... uncertainty can be calculated. The possibility approach is particular well suited for representation of uncertainty of a non-statistical nature due to lack of knowledge and requires less information than the probability approach. Based on the kind of uncertainty and knowledge present, these aspects...... by probability distributions is readily done by means of Monte Carlo simulation. Calculation of non-monotonic functions of possibility distributions is done within the theoretical framework of fuzzy intervals, but straight forward application of fuzzy arithmetic in general results in overestimation of interval...

  18. Dealing with non-unique and non-monotonic response in particle sizing instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Phil

    2017-04-01

    A number of instruments used as de-facto standards for measuring particle size distributions are actually incapable of uniquely determining the size of an individual particle. This is due to non-unique or non-monotonic response functions. Optical particle counters have non monotonic response due to oscillations in the Mie response curves, especially for large aerosol and small cloud droplets. Scanning mobility particle sizers respond identically to two particles where the ratio of particle size to particle charge is approximately the same. Images of two differently sized cloud or precipitation particles taken by an optical array probe can have similar dimensions or shadowed area depending upon where they are in the imaging plane. A number of methods exist to deal with these issues, including assuming that positive and negative errors cancel, smoothing response curves, integrating regions in measurement space before conversion to size space and matrix inversion. Matrix inversion (also called kernel inversion) has the advantage that it determines the size distribution which best matches the observations, given specific information about the instrument (a matrix which specifies the probability that a particle of a given size will be measured in a given instrument size bin). In this way it maximises use of the information in the measurements. However this technique can be confused by poor counting statistics which can cause erroneous results and negative concentrations. Also an effective method for propagating uncertainties is yet to be published or routinely implemented. Her we present a new alternative which overcomes these issues. We use Bayesian methods to determine the probability that a given size distribution is correct given a set of instrument data and then we use Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods to sample this many dimensional probability distribution function to determine the expectation and (co)variances - hence providing a best guess and an uncertainty for

  19. Completely Monotone Multisequences, Symmetric Probabilities and a Normal Limit Theorem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J C Gupta

    2000-11-01

    Let G, be the set of all partial completely monotone multisequences of order and degree , i.e., multisequences (1, 2,$\\ldots$ ,k), 1, 2,$\\ldots$ , = 0, 1, 2,$\\ldots$ ,1 + 2 + \\$cdots$ + ≤ n, (0,0,$\\ldots$ ,0) = 1 and $(-1)^{_0}^{_0}$ (1, 2,$\\ldots$ ,)≥ 0 whenever 0 ≤ -(1 + 2 +$\\cdots$ +) where (1, 2,$\\ldots$ ,)=(1+1, 2,$\\ldots$ ,)+ (1,2+1,$\\ldots$ ,)+$\\cdots$ + (1, 2,$\\ldots$ ,+1)-(1,2,$\\ldots$ ,)$. Further, let $\\prod_{n,k}$ be the set of all symmetric probabilities on ${0, 1, 2,\\ldots ,k}^{n}$. We establish a one-to-one correspondence between the sets G, and $\\prod_{n, k}$ and use it to formulate and answer interesting questions about both. Assigning to G, the uniform probability measure, we show that, as → ∞ , any fixed section {(1, 2,$\\ldots$ ,), 1 ≤ $\\sum ≤ }, properly centered and normalized, is asymptotically multivariate normal. That is, $\\left\\{\\sqrt{\\left(\\binom{n+k}{k}\\right)}((1, 2,\\ldots ,)-c_0(1, 2,\\ldots ,), 1≤ _1+2+\\cdots +_k≤ m\\right\\}$ converges weakly to MVN[0,]; the centering constants 0(1, 2,$\\ldots$ ,) and the asymptotic covariances depend on the moments of the Dirichlet $(1, 1,\\ldots ,1; 1)$ distribution on the standard simplex in .

  20. Ketamine alters behavior and decreases BDNF levels in the rat brain as a function of time after drug administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane B. Fraga

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate behavioral changes and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF levels in rats subjected to ketamine administration (25 mg/kg for 7 days. Method: Behavioral evaluation was undertaken at 1 and 6 hours after the last injection. Results: We observed hyperlocomotion 1 hour after the last injection and a decrease in locomotion after 6 hours. Immobility time was decreased and climbing time was increased 6 hours after the last injection. BDNF levels were decreased in the prefrontal cortex and amygdala when rats were killed 6 hours after the last injection, compared to the saline group and to rats killed 1 hour after the last injection. BDNF levels in the striatum were decreased in rats killed 6 hours after the last ketamine injection, and BDNF levels in the hippocampus were decreased in the groups that were killed 1 and 6 hours after the last injection. Conclusion: These results suggest that the effects of ketamine on behavior and BDNF levels are related to the time at which they were evaluated after administration of the drug.

  1. How to project onto the monotone nonnegative cone using Pool Adjacent Violators type algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Németh, A B

    2012-01-01

    The metric projection onto an order nonnegative cone from the metric projection onto the corresponding order cone is derived. Particularly, we can use Pool Adjacent Violators-type algorithms developed for projecting onto the monotone cone for projecting onto the monotone nonnegative cone too.

  2. An analysis of the stability and monotonicity of a kind of control models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LU Yifa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The stability and monotonicity of control systems with parameters are considered.By the iterative relationship of the coefficients of characteristic polynomials and the Mathematica software,some sufficient conditions for the monotonicity and stability of systems are given.

  3. The Bird Core for Minimum Cost Spanning Tree problems Revisited : Monotonicity and Additivity Aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijs, S.H.; Moretti, S.; Brânzei, R.; Norde, H.W.

    2005-01-01

    A new way is presented to define for minimum cost spanning tree (mcst-) games the irreducible core, which is introduced by Bird in 1976.The Bird core correspondence turns out to have interesting monotonicity and additivity properties and each stable cost monotonic allocation rule for mcst-problems i

  4. A novel complex-system-view-based method for system effectiveness analysis: Monotonic indexes space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Based on the characteristics of the complex system, this paper presents a novel method, the monotonic indexes space method, for the effectiveness analysis of the complex system. First, it presents some basic concepts and assumption such as the monotonic indexes space, monotonic indexes requirement locus, etc. Second, based on the assumption that indexes are monotonic for the requirements, an algorithm is proposed and applied to numerical approximation of monotonic indexes requirement locus with hyperboxes. Third, this paper proposes two algorithms for acquiring intersection of several monotonic indexes requirement locus. Fourth, this paper proposes the monotonic-index- space based system analysis model such as the system evaluation model, the sensitivity analysis model for indexes. Based on the practical requirement, the concept of fuzzy monotonic indexes requirement locus and the corresponding analysis model are introduced. Finally, this paper applies the above-mentioned models to analyze the effectiveness of a notional anti-stealth-air-defense information system. And the outputs show that the method is promising.

  5. The Bird Core for Minimum Cost Spanning Tree problems Revisited : Monotonicity and Additivity Aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijs, S.H.; Moretti, S.; Brânzei, R.; Norde, H.W.

    2005-01-01

    A new way is presented to define for minimum cost spanning tree (mcst-) games the irreducible core, which is introduced by Bird in 1976.The Bird core correspondence turns out to have interesting monotonicity and additivity properties and each stable cost monotonic allocation rule for mcst-problems

  6. Monotonicity of the CABARET scheme approximating a hyperbolic equation with a sign-changing characteristic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovyrkina, O. A.; Ostapenko, V. V.

    2016-05-01

    The monotonicity of the CABARET scheme approximating a hyperbolic differential equation with a sign-changing characteristic field is analyzed. Monotonicity conditions for this scheme are obtained in domains where the characteristics have a sign-definite propagation velocity and near sonic lines, on which the propagation velocity changes its sign. These properties of the CABARET scheme are illustrated by test computations.

  7. The Bird Core for Minimum Cost Spanning Tree problems Revisited : Monotonicity and Additivity Aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijs, S.H.; Moretti, S.; Brânzei, R.; Norde, H.W.

    2005-01-01

    A new way is presented to define for minimum cost spanning tree (mcst-) games the irreducible core, which is introduced by Bird in 1976.The Bird core correspondence turns out to have interesting monotonicity and additivity properties and each stable cost monotonic allocation rule for mcst-problems i

  8. Computation of displacements for nonlinear elastic beam models using monotone iterations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Korman

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available We study displacement of a uniform elastic beam subject to various physically important boundary conditions. Using monotone methods, we discuss stability and instability of solutions. We present computations, which suggest efficiency of monotone methods for fourth order boundary value problems.

  9. Analyzing the impact of direct subsidies on the performance of the Greek olive farms with a non-monotonic efficiency effects model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, X.; Karagiannis, G.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    We analyse the impacts of the CAP reforms on technical efficiency of Greek olive farms. We use a production frontier function and a non-monotonic inefficiency effects model which incorporates the influences of exogenous variables on the mean and the variances of farm efficiency. We formulate policy

  10. Decreased serum hepcidin, inflammation, and improved functional iron status six-months post-restrictive bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excess adiposity is associated with low-grade inflammation and decreased iron status. Iron depletion (ID) in obesity is thought to be mediated by an inflammation-induced increase in the body’s main regulator of iron homeostasis, hepcidin. Elevated hepcidin can result in ID as it prevents the release...

  11. Effect of tributyltin (TBT) on ATP levels in human natural killer (NK) cells: relationship to TBT-induced decreases in NK function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudimah, Fred D; Odman-Ghazi, Sabah O; Hatcher, Frank; Whalen, Margaret M

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role that tributyltin (TBT)-induced decreases in ATP levels may play in TBT-induced decreases in the tumor lysing (lytic) function of natural killer (NK) cells. NK cells are a subset of lymphocytes that act as an initial immune defense against tumor cells and virally infected cells. TBT is an environmental contaminant that has been detected in human blood, which has been shown to interfere with ATP synthesis. Previous studies have shown that TBT is able to decrease very significantly the lytic function of NK cells. In this study NK cells were exposed to various concentrations of TBT and to two other compounds that interfere with ATP synthesis (rotenone a complex I inhibitor and oligomycin an ATP synthase inhibitor) for various lengths of time before determining the levels of ATP and lytic function. Exposures of NK cells to 10, 25, 50 and 100 nm TBT did not significantly reduce ATP levels after 24 h. However, these same exposures caused significant decreases in cytotoxic function. Studies of brief 1 h exposures to a range of TBT, rotenone and oligomycin concentrations followed by 24 h, 48 h and 6 day periods in compound-free media prior to assaying for ATP levels or cytotoxic function showed that each of the compounds caused persistent decreases in ATP levels and lytic function of NK cells. Exposures to 0.05-5 microm rotenone or oligomycin for 1 h reduced ATP levels by 20-25% but did not have any measurable effect on the ability of NK cells to lyse tumor cells. ATP levels were also decreased by about 20-25% after 24 h or 48 h exposures to rotenone or oligomycin (0.5 microm ), and the lytic function was decreased by about 50%. The results suggest that TBT-induced decreases in ATP levels were not responsible for the loss of cytotoxic function seen at 1 h and 24 h. However, TBT-induced decreases of NK-ATP levels may be at least in part responsible for losses of NK-cytotoxic function seen after 48 h and 6 day exposures.

  12. Patients with autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxia have more risk of falls, important balance impairment, and decreased ability to function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Yuri P. Aizawa

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess balance and ability to function in patients with spinocerebellar ataxia. METHODS: A total of 44 patients with different spinocerebellar ataxia types 1, 2, 3, and 6 were evaluated using the Tinetti balance and gait assessment and the functional independence measure. The scale for the assessment and rating of ataxia and the international cooperative ataxia rating scale were used to evaluate disease severity. RESULTS: Most patients showed significant risk of falls. The balance scores were significantly different in spinocerebellar ataxia types. A significant positive correlation between balance and disease severity was found. CONCLUSION: Patients with spinocerebellar ataxia have important balance impairment and risk of falls that influence the ability to function such as self-care, transfers, and locomotion. Furthermore, the more severe ataxia is, the more compromised are postural balance, risk of falls, and ability to function.

  13. Profiling of the Tox21 Chemical Collection for Mitochondrial Function: I. Compounds that Decrease Mitochondrial Membrane Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of disorders including cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. Understanding how different environmental chemicals and drug-like molecules impact mitochondrial function rep...

  14. Negative BOLD signal changes in ipsilateral primary somatosensory cortex are associated with perfusion decreases and behavioral evidence for functional inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäfer, Katharina; Blankenburg, Felix; Kupers, Ron

    2012-01-01

    -increase for the finger is due to functional inhibition (Kastrup et al., 2008) than to changes in selective attention. In conclusion, our data provide evidence that stimulus-induced reductions in relative rCBF may underlie the negative BOLD signal, which in turn may reflect increments in functional inhibition.......We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) to study the negative blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal and its underlying blood flow changes in healthy human subjects. This was combined with psychophysiological measurements to test...... that the negative BOLD signal is associated with functional inhibition. Electrical stimulation of the median nerve at 7Hz evoked robust negative BOLD signals in the primary somatosensory cortex (SI) ipsilateral to stimulation, and positive BOLD signals in contralateral SI. The negative BOLD signal in ipsilateral SI...

  15. Fused Lasso Screening Rules via the Monotonicity of Subdifferentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Fan, Wei; Ye, Jieping

    2015-09-01

    Fused Lasso is a popular regression technique that encodes the smoothness of the data. It has been applied successfully to many applications with a smooth feature structure. However, the computational cost of the existing solvers for fused Lasso is prohibitive when the feature dimension is extremely large. In this paper, we propose novel screening rules that are able to quickly identity the adjacent features with the same coefficients. As a result, the number of variables to be estimated can be significantly reduced, leading to substantial savings in computational cost and memory usage. To the best of our knowledge, the proposed approach is the first attempt to develop screening methods for the fused Lasso problem with general data matrix. Our major contributions are: 1) we derive a new dual formulation of fused Lasso that comes with several desirable properties; 2) we show that the new dual formulation of fused Lasso is equivalent to that of the standard Lasso by two affine transformations; 3) we propose a novel framework for developing effective and efficient screening rules for fused Lasso via the monotonicity of the subdifferentials (FLAMS). Some appealing features of FLAMS are: 1) our methods are safe in the sense that the detected adjacent features are guaranteed to have the same coefficients; 2) the dataset needs to be scanned only once to run the screening, whose computational cost is negligible compared to that of solving the fused Lasso; (3) FLAMS is independent of the solvers and can be integrated with any existing solvers. We have evaluated the proposed FLAMS rules on both synthetic and real datasets. The experiments indicate that FLAMS is very effective in identifying the adjacent features with the same coefficients. The speedup gained by FLAMS can be orders of magnitude.

  16. Local Monotonicity and Isoperimetric Inequality on Hypersurfaces in Carnot groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Paolo Montefalcone

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Let G be a k-step Carnot group of homogeneous dimension Q. Later on we shall present some of the results recently obtained in [32] and, in particular, an intrinsic isoperimetric inequality for a C2-smooth compact hypersurface S with boundary @S. We stress that S and @S are endowed with the homogeneous measures n????1 H and n????2 H , respectively, which are actually equivalent to the intrinsic (Q - 1-dimensional and (Q - 2-dimensional Hausdor measures with respect to a given homogeneous metric % on G. This result generalizes a classical inequality, involving the mean curvature of the hypersurface, proven by Michael and Simon [29] and Allard [1], independently. One may also deduce some related Sobolev-type inequalities. The strategy of the proof is inspired by the classical one and will be discussed at the rst section. After reminding some preliminary notions about Carnot groups, we shall begin by proving a linear isoperimetric inequality. The second step is a local monotonicity formula. Then we may achieve the proof by a covering argument.We stress however that there are many dierences, due to our non-Euclidean setting.Some of the tools developed ad hoc are, in order, a \\blow-up" theorem, which holds true also for characteristic points, and a smooth Coarea Formula for the HS-gradient. Other tools are the horizontal integration by parts formula and the 1st variation formula for the H-perimeter n????1H already developed in [30, 31] and then generalized to hypersurfaces having non-empty characteristic set in [32]. These results can be useful in the study of minimal and constant horizontal mean curvature hypersurfaces in Carnot groups.

  17. Behavioral deficit and decreased GABA receptor functional regulation in the hippocampus of epileptic rats: effect of Bacopa monnieri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Jobin; Gangadharan, Gireesh; Kuruvilla, Korah P; Paulose, C S

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, alterations of the General GABA and GABA(A) receptors in the hippocampus of pilocarpine-induced temporal lobe epileptic rats and the therapeutic application of Bacopa monnieri and its active component Bacoside-A were investigated. Bacopa monnieri (Linn.) is a herbaceous plant belonging to the family Scrophulariaceae. Hippocampus is the major region of the brain belonging to the limbic system and plays an important role in epileptogenesis, memory and learning. Scatchard analysis of [³H]GABA and [³H]bicuculline in the hippocampus of the epileptic rat showed significant decrease in B(max) (P Bacoside-A treatment reverses all these changes near to control. Our results suggest that decreased GABA receptors in the hippocampus have an important role in epilepsy associated behavioral deficit, Bacopa monnieri and Bacoside-A have clinical significance in the management of epilepsy.

  18. Decreasing but still significant facilitation effect of cold-season macrophytes on wetlands purification function during cold winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiangxu; Zhang, Hui; Zuo, Jie; Wang, Penghe; Zhao, Dehua; An, Shuqing

    2016-06-01

    To identify the facilitation effect of a cool-season aquatic macrophyte (FEam) for use in effluent purification via constructed floating wetlands (CFWs) and to determine the possible pathways used during a winter period with an average temperature of less than 5 °C, pilot-scale CFWs were planted with the cold-season macrophyte Oenanthe clecumbens and were operated as batch systems. Although some leaves withered, the roots retained relatively high levels of activity during the winter, which had average air and water temperatures of 3.63 and 5.04 °C, respectively. The N and P removal efficiencies in CFWs decreased significantly in winter relative to those in late autumn. The presence of cool-season plants resulted in significant improvements in N and P removal, with a FEam of 15.23-25.86% in winter. Microbial N removal accounted for 71.57% of the total N removed in winter, and the decrease in plant uptake was the dominant factor in the wintertime decrease in N removal relative to that in late autumn. These results demonstrate the importance of cold-season plants in CFWs for the treatment of secondary effluent during cold winters.

  19. Decreasing but still significant facilitation effect of cold-season macrophytes on wetlands purification function during cold winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiangxu; Zhang, Hui; Zuo, Jie; Wang, Penghe; Zhao, Dehua; An, Shuqing

    2016-06-01

    To identify the facilitation effect of a cool-season aquatic macrophyte (FEam) for use in effluent purification via constructed floating wetlands (CFWs) and to determine the possible pathways used during a winter period with an average temperature of less than 5 °C, pilot-scale CFWs were planted with the cold-season macrophyte Oenanthe clecumbens and were operated as batch systems. Although some leaves withered, the roots retained relatively high levels of activity during the winter, which had average air and water temperatures of 3.63 and 5.04 °C, respectively. The N and P removal efficiencies in CFWs decreased significantly in winter relative to those in late autumn. The presence of cool-season plants resulted in significant improvements in N and P removal, with a FEam of 15.23-25.86% in winter. Microbial N removal accounted for 71.57% of the total N removed in winter, and the decrease in plant uptake was the dominant factor in the wintertime decrease in N removal relative to that in late autumn. These results demonstrate the importance of cold-season plants in CFWs for the treatment of secondary effluent during cold winters.

  20. Decreasing relative risk premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    2007-01-01

    such that the corresponding relative risk premium is a decreasing function of present wealth, and we determine the set of associated utility functions. We find a new characterization of risk vulnerability and determine a large set of utility functions, closed under summation and composition, which are both risk vulnerable...... and have decreasing relative risk premium. We finally introduce the notion of partial risk neutral preferences on binary lotteries and show that partial risk neutrality is equivalent to preferences with decreasing relative risk premium...

  1. Decrease in sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium content, not myofilament function, contributes to muscle twitch force decline in isolated cardiac trabeculae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani-Nejad, Nima; Brunello, Lucia; Gyorke, Sándor; Janssen, Paul M.L.

    2014-01-01

    We set out to determine the factors responsible for twitch force decline in isolated intact rat cardiac trabeculae. The contractile force of trabeculae declined over extended periods of isometric twitch contractions. The force-frequency relationship within the frequency range of 4–8 Hz, at 37 °C, became more positive and the frequency optimum shifted to higher rates with this decline in baseline twitch tensions. The post-rest potentiation (37 °C), a phenomenon highly dependent on calcium handling mechanisms, became more pronounced with decrease in twitch tensions. We show that the main abnormality during muscle run-down was not due to a deficit in the myofilaments; maximal tension achieved using a K+ contracture protocol was either unaffected or only slightly decreased. Conversely, the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) calcium content, as assessed by rapid cooling contractures (from 27 °C to 0 °C), decreased, and had a close association with the declining twitch tensions (R2 ~ 0.76). SR Ca2+-ATPase, relative to Na+/Ca2+ exchanger activity, was not altered as there was no significant change in paired rapid cooling contracture ratios. Furthermore, confocal microscopy detected no abnormalities in the overall structure of the cardiomyocytes and t-tubules in the cardiac trabeculae (~23 °C). Overall, the data indicates that the primary mechanism responsible for force run-down in multi-cellular cardiac preparations is a decline in the SR calcium content and not the maximal tension generation capability of the myofilaments. PMID:25056841

  2. DECREASE IN PULMONARY-FUNCTION DURING BLEOMYCIN-CONTAINING COMBINATION CHEMOTHERAPY FOR TESTICULAR CANCER - NOT ONLY A BLEOMYCIN EFFECT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SLEIJFER, S; VANDERMARK, TW; KOOPS, HS; MULDER, NH

    1995-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the changes in pulmonary function in patients randomised to receive treatment with four cycles of bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin (BEP) (27 patients) or with four cycles of etoposide and cisplatin (EP) (27 patients) for disseminated non-seminomatous testicula

  3. Increase in short-chain ceramides correlates with an altered lipid organization and decreased barrier function in atopic eczema patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Janssens (Michelle); J. van Smeden (Jeroen); G.S. Gooris (Gert); W. Bras (Wim); G. Portale (Guiseppe); P.J. Caspers (Peter); R. Vreeken (Rob); T. Hankemeier (Thomas); S. Kezic (Sanja); R. Wolterbeek (Ron); A.P.M. Lavrijsen (Adriana); J.A. Bouwstra (Joke)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractA hallmark of atopic eczema (AE) is skin barrier dysfunction. Lipids in the stratum corneum (SC), primarily ceramides, fatty acids, and cholesterol, are crucial for the barrier function, but their role in relation to AE is indistinct. Filaggrin is an epithelial barrier protein with a

  4. Chronic ethanol exposure decreases CB1 receptor function at GABAergic synapses in the rat central amygdala

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varodayan, Florence P.; Soni, Neeraj; Bajo, Michal

    2016-01-01

    The endogenous cannabinoids (eCBs) influence the acute response to ethanol and the development of tolerance, dependence and relapse. Chronic alcohol exposure alters eCB levels and Type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1) expression and function in brain regions associated with addiction. CB1 inhibits GABA...

  5. Cannabis and cocaine decrease cognitive impulse control and functional corticostriatal connectivity in drug users with low activity DBH genotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramaekers, J.G.; van Wel, J.H.; Spronk, D.; Franke, B.; Kenis, G.; Toennes, S.W.; Kuypers, K.P.; Theunissen, E.L.; Stiers, P.; Verkes, R.J.

    2016-01-01

    The dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DbetaH) enzyme transforms dopamine into noradrenaline. We hypothesized that individuals with low activity DBH genotypes (rs1611115 CT/TT) are more sensitive to the influence of cannabis and cocaine on cognitive impulse control and functional connectivity in the limbic

  6. Cortical and subcortical connectivity changes during decreasing levels of consciousness in humans: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study using propofol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhuircheartaigh, Róisín Ní; Rosenorn-Lanng, Debbie; Wise, Richard; Jbabdi, Saad; Rogers, Richard; Tracey, Irene

    2010-07-07

    While ubiquitous, pharmacological manipulation of consciousness remains poorly defined and incompletely understood (Prys-Roberts, 1987). This retards anesthetic drug development, confounds interpretation of animal studies conducted under anesthesia, and limits the sensitivity of clinical monitors of cerebral function to intact perception. Animal and human studies propose a functional "switch" at the level of the thalamus, with inhibition of thalamo-cortical transmission characterizing loss of consciousness (Alkire et al., 2000; Mashour, 2006). We investigated the effects of propofol, widely used for anesthesia and sedation, on spontaneous and evoked cerebral activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). A series of auditory and noxious stimuli was presented to eight healthy volunteers at three behavioral states: awake, "sedated" and "unresponsive." Performance in a verbal task and the absence of a response to verbal stimulation, rather than propofol concentrations, were used to define these states clinically. Analysis of stimulus-related blood oxygenation level-dependent signal changes identified reductions in cortical and subcortical responses to auditory and noxious stimuli in sedated and unresponsive states. A specific reduction in activity within the putamen was noted and further investigated with functional connectivity analysis. Progressive failure to perceive or respond to auditory or noxious stimuli was associated with a reduction in the functional connectivity between the putamen and other brain regions, while thalamo-cortical connectivity was relatively preserved. This result has not been previously described and suggests that disruption of subcortical thalamo-regulatory systems may occur before, or even precipitate, failure of thalamo-cortical transmission with the induction of unconsciousness.

  7. Absence of system xc- in mice decreases anxiety and depressive-like behavior without affecting sensorimotor function or spatial vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentea, Eduard; Demuyser, Thomas; Van Liefferinge, Joeri; Albertini, Giulia; Deneyer, Lauren; Nys, Julie; Merckx, Ellen; Michotte, Yvette; Sato, Hideyo; Arckens, Lutgarde; Massie, Ann; Smolders, Ilse

    2015-06-01

    There is considerable preclinical and clinical evidence indicating that abnormal changes in glutamatergic signaling underlie the development of mood disorders. Astrocytic glutamate dysfunction, in particular, has been recently linked with the pathogenesis and treatment of mood disorders, including anxiety and depression. System xc- is a glial cystine/glutamate antiporter that is responsible for nonvesicular glutamate release in various regions of the brain. Although system xc- is involved in glutamate signal transduction, its possible role in mediating anxiety or depressive-like behaviors is currently unknown. In the present study, we phenotyped adult and aged system xc- deficient mice in a battery of tests for anxiety and depressive-like behavior (open field, light/dark test, elevated plus maze, novelty suppressed feeding, forced swim test, tail suspension test). Concomitantly, we evaluated the sensorimotor function of system xc- deficient mice, using motor and sensorimotor based tests (rotarod, adhesive removal test, nest building test). Finally, due to the presence and potential functional relevance of system xc- in the eye, we investigated the visual acuity of system xc- deficient mice (optomotor test). Our results indicate that loss of system xc- does not affect motor or sensorimotor function, in either adult or aged mice, in any of the paradigms investigated. Similarly, loss of system xc- does not affect basic visual acuity, in either adult or aged mice. On the other hand, in the open field and light/dark tests, and forced swim and tail suspension tests respectively, we could observe significant anxiolytic and antidepressive-like effects in system xc- deficient mice that in certain cases (light/dark, forced swim) were age-dependent. These findings indicate that, under physiological conditions, nonvesicular glutamate release via system xc- mediates aspects of higher brain function related to anxiety and depression, but does not influence sensorimotor function

  8. The performance of monotonic and new non-monotonic gradient ascent reconstruction algorithms for high-resolution neuroreceptor PET imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelis, G I; Kotasidis, F A; Matthews, J C [Imaging, Proteomics and Genomics, MAHSC, University of Manchester, Wolfson Molecular Imaging Centre, Manchester (United Kingdom); Reader, A J [Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal (Canada); Lionheart, W R, E-mail: georgios.angelis@mmic.man.ac.uk [School of Mathematics, University of Manchester, Alan Turing Building, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-07

    Iterative expectation maximization (EM) techniques have been extensively used to solve maximum likelihood (ML) problems in positron emission tomography (PET) image reconstruction. Although EM methods offer a robust approach to solving ML problems, they usually suffer from slow convergence rates. The ordered subsets EM (OSEM) algorithm provides significant improvements in the convergence rate, but it can cycle between estimates converging towards the ML solution of each subset. In contrast, gradient-based methods, such as the recently proposed non-monotonic maximum likelihood (NMML) and the more established preconditioned conjugate gradient (PCG), offer a globally convergent, yet equally fast, alternative to OSEM. Reported results showed that NMML provides faster convergence compared to OSEM; however, it has never been compared to other fast gradient-based methods, like PCG. Therefore, in this work we evaluate the performance of two gradient-based methods (NMML and PCG) and investigate their potential as an alternative to the fast and widely used OSEM. All algorithms were evaluated using 2D simulations, as well as a single [{sup 11}C]DASB clinical brain dataset. Results on simulated 2D data show that both PCG and NMML achieve orders of magnitude faster convergence to the ML solution compared to MLEM and exhibit comparable performance to OSEM. Equally fast performance is observed between OSEM and PCG for clinical 3D data, but NMML seems to perform poorly. However, with the addition of a preconditioner term to the gradient direction, the convergence behaviour of NMML can be substantially improved. Although PCG is a fast convergent algorithm, the use of a (bent) line search increases the complexity of the implementation, as well as the computational time involved per iteration. Contrary to previous reports, NMML offers no clear advantage over OSEM or PCG, for noisy PET data. Therefore, we conclude that there is little evidence to replace OSEM as the algorithm of choice

  9. Loss of forebrain MTCH2 decreases mitochondria motility and calcium handling and impairs hippocampal-dependent cognitive functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiero, Antonella; Aloni, Etay; Korkotian, Eduard; Zaltsman, Yehudit; Oni-Biton, Efrat; Kuperman, Yael; Tsoory, Michael; Shachnai, Liat; Levin-Zaidman, Smadar; Brenner, Ori; Segal, Menahem; Gross, Atan

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondrial Carrier Homolog 2 (MTCH2) is a novel regulator of mitochondria metabolism, which was recently associated with Alzheimer’s disease. Here we demonstrate that deletion of forebrain MTCH2 increases mitochondria and whole-body energy metabolism, increases locomotor activity, but impairs motor coordination and balance. Importantly, mice deficient in forebrain MTCH2 display a deficit in hippocampus-dependent cognitive functions, including spatial memory, long term potentiation (LTP) and rates of spontaneous excitatory synaptic currents. Moreover, MTCH2-deficient hippocampal neurons display a deficit in mitochondria motility and calcium handling. Thus, MTCH2 is a critical player in neuronal cell biology, controlling mitochondria metabolism, motility and calcium buffering to regulate hippocampal-dependent cognitive functions. PMID:28276496

  10. Loss‐of‐function mutation of rice SLAC7 decreases chloroplast stability and induces a photoprotection mechanism in rice

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Xiaolei; Wu, Jiemin; Chen, Taiyu; Tie, Weiwei; Chen, Hao; ZHOU, Fei; Lin, Yongjun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Plants absorb sunlight to power the photochemical reactions of photosynthesis, which can potentially damage the photosynthetic machinery. However, the mechanism that protects chloroplasts from the damage remains unclear. In this work, we demonstrated that rice (Oryza sativa L.) SLAC7 is a generally expressed membrane protein. Loss‐of‐function of SLAC7 caused continuous damage to the chloroplasts of mutant leaves under normal light conditions. Ion leakage indicators related to leaf da...

  11. Diabetes reduces the cognitive function with the decrease of the visual perception and visual motor integration in male older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Hyo-Soon; Kim, Eunhwi; Suh, Soon-Rim; Kim, Mi-Han; Kim, Hong

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of diabetes on cognitive decline between the diabetes and non- diabetes patients and identified the associations between diabetes and cognitive function, visual perception (VP), and visual motor integration (VMI). Sixty elderly men (67.10± 1.65 yr) with and without diabetes (n= 30 in each group) who were surveyed by interview and questionnaire in South Korea were enrolled in this study. The score of Mini-Mental State Examination of Korean version (MMSE-KC), Motor-free Visual Perception Test-Vertical Format (MVPT-V), and Visual-Motor Integration 3rd Revision (VMI-3R) were assessed in all of the participants to evaluate cognitive function, VP, and VMI in each. The score of MMSE-KC in the diabetic group was significantly lower than that of the non-diabetes group (PVMI-3R scores than those in the non-diabetes group (PVMI. In conclusion, we propose that VP and VMI will be helpful to monitor the change of cognitive function in older adults with diabetes as part of the routine management of diabetes-induced cognitive declines.

  12. Decreased ovarian function is associated with obesity in very long-term female survivors of childhood cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dorp, W; Blijdorp, K; Laven, J S E; Pieters, R; Visser, J A; van der Lely, A J; Neggers, S J C M M; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, M M

    2013-06-01

    Obesity and gonadal dysfunction are known major side effects of treatment in adult childhood cancer survivors (CCS). In the general population, obesity has a negative influence on female fertility. We aimed to evaluate whether obesity and serum insulin are associated with decreased ovarian reserve markers in CCS. Retrospective single-center cohort study. Data of 191 female survivors of childhood cancer were analyzed. Median follow-up time was 18.8 (2.348.8) years. Outcome measures were serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and total follicle count (FC). Potential risk factors were: BMI; body composition measures, determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (total fat percentage, lean body mass, and visceral fat percentage); and fasting insulin. Lower serum AMH was found in obese subjects (β (%) -49, P=0.007) and in subjects with fasting insulin in the highest tertile (β (%) -43, P=0.039). Total fat percentage tends to be associated with serum AMH (β (%) -2.1, P=0.06). Survivors in the highest tertile of insulin had significantly lower FC than survivors in the lowest tertile (β -6.3, P=0.013). BMI and other measures of body composition were not associated with FC. Correlation between serum AMH and antral follicle count (AFC) was ρ=0.32 (P=0.08). Obesity and insulin resistance are associated with gonadal damage, as reflected by decreased AMH and reduced FC in adult survivors of childhood cancer. In contrast to its highly predictive value for AFC in the healthy female population, serum AMH does not seem to correlate as well with AFC in CCS.

  13. Monotone switching networks for directed connectivity are strictly more powerful than certain-knowledge switching networks

    CERN Document Server

    Potechin, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    L (Logarithmic space) versus NL (Non-deterministic logarithmic space) is one of the great open problems in computational complexity theory. In the paper "Bounds on monotone switching networks for directed connectivity", we separated monotone analogues of L and NL using a model called the switching network model. In particular, by considering inputs consisting of just a path and isolated vertices, we proved that any monotone switching network solving directed connectivity on $N$ vertices must have size at least $N^{\\Omega(\\lg(N))}$ and this bound is tight. If we could show a similar result for general switching networks solving directed connectivity, then this would prove that $L \

  14. An Affine Scaling Interior Trust Region Method via Optimal Path for Solving Monotone Variational Inequality Problem with Linear Constraints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunjuan WANG; Detong ZHU

    2008-01-01

    Based on a differentiable merit function proposed by Taji et al.in "Math.Prog. Stud.,58,1993,369-383",the authors propose an affine scaling interior trust region strategy via optimal path to modify Newton method for the strictly monotone variational inequality problem subject to linear equality and inequality constraints.By using the eigensystem decomposition and affine scaling mapping,the authors form an affine scaling optimal curvilinear path very easily in order to approximately solve the trust region subproblem.Theoretical analysis is given which shows that the proposed algorithm is globally convergent and has a local quadratic convergence rate under some reasonable conditions.

  15. Graphene Functionalized with Arginine Decreases the Development of Glioblastoma Multiforme Tumor in a Gene-Dependent Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Sawosz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Our previous studies revealed that graphene had anticancer properties in experiments in vitro with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM cells and in tumors cultured in vivo. We hypothesized that the addition of arginine or proline to graphene solutions might counteract graphene agglomeration and increase the activity of graphene. Experiments were performed in vitro with GBM U87 cells and in vivo with GBM tumors cultured on chicken embryo chorioallantoic membranes. The measurements included cell morphology, mortality, viability, tumor morphology, histology, and gene expression. The cells and tumors were treated with reduced graphene oxide (rGO and rGO functionalized with arginine (rGO + Arg or proline (rGO + Pro. The results confirmed the anticancer effect of graphene on GBM cells and tumor tissue. After functionalization with amino acids, nanoparticles were distributed more specifically, and the flakes of graphene were less agglomerated. The molecule of rGO + Arg did not increase the expression of TP53 in comparison to rGO, but did not increase the expression of MDM2 or the MDM2/TP53 ratio in the tumor, suggesting that arginine may block MDM2 expression. The expression of NQO1, known to be a strong protector of p53 protein in tumor tissue, was greatly increased. The results indicate that the complex of rGO + Arg has potential in GBM therapy.

  16. Graphene Functionalized with Arginine Decreases the Development of Glioblastoma Multiforme Tumor in a Gene-Dependent Manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawosz, Ewa; Jaworski, Sławomir; Kutwin, Marta; Vadalasetty, Krishna Prasad; Grodzik, Marta; Wierzbicki, Mateusz; Kurantowicz, Natalia; Strojny, Barbara; Hotowy, Anna; Lipińska, Ludwika; Jagiełło, Joanna; Chwalibog, André

    2015-01-01

    Our previous studies revealed that graphene had anticancer properties in experiments in vitro with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells and in tumors cultured in vivo. We hypothesized that the addition of arginine or proline to graphene solutions might counteract graphene agglomeration and increase the activity of graphene. Experiments were performed in vitro with GBM U87 cells and in vivo with GBM tumors cultured on chicken embryo chorioallantoic membranes. The measurements included cell morphology, mortality, viability, tumor morphology, histology, and gene expression. The cells and tumors were treated with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and rGO functionalized with arginine (rGO + Arg) or proline (rGO + Pro). The results confirmed the anticancer effect of graphene on GBM cells and tumor tissue. After functionalization with amino acids, nanoparticles were distributed more specifically, and the flakes of graphene were less agglomerated. The molecule of rGO + Arg did not increase the expression of TP53 in comparison to rGO, but did not increase the expression of MDM2 or the MDM2/TP53 ratio in the tumor, suggesting that arginine may block MDM2 expression. The expression of NQO1, known to be a strong protector of p53 protein in tumor tissue, was greatly increased. The results indicate that the complex of rGO + Arg has potential in GBM therapy. PMID:26512645

  17. Graphene Functionalized with Arginine Decreases the Development of Glioblastoma Multiforme Tumor in a Gene-Dependent Manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawosz, Ewa; Jaworski, Sławomir; Kutwin, Marta; Vadalasetty, Krishna Prasad; Grodzik, Marta; Wierzbicki, Mateusz; Kurantowicz, Natalia; Strojny, Barbara; Hotowy, Anna; Lipińska, Ludwika; Jagiełło, Joanna; Chwalibog, André

    2015-10-23

    Our previous studies revealed that graphene had anticancer properties in experiments in vitro with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells and in tumors cultured in vivo. We hypothesized that the addition of arginine or proline to graphene solutions might counteract graphene agglomeration and increase the activity of graphene. Experiments were performed in vitro with GBM U87 cells and in vivo with GBM tumors cultured on chicken embryo chorioallantoic membranes. The measurements included cell morphology, mortality, viability, tumor morphology, histology, and gene expression. The cells and tumors were treated with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and rGO functionalized with arginine (rGO + Arg) or proline (rGO + Pro). The results confirmed the anticancer effect of graphene on GBM cells and tumor tissue. After functionalization with amino acids, nanoparticles were distributed more specifically, and the flakes of graphene were less agglomerated. The molecule of rGO + Arg did not increase the expression of TP53 in comparison to rGO, but did not increase the expression of MDM2 or the MDM2/TP53 ratio in the tumor, suggesting that arginine may block MDM2 expression. The expression of NQO1, known to be a strong protector of p53 protein in tumor tissue, was greatly increased. The results indicate that the complex of rGO + Arg has potential in GBM therapy.

  18. Rewiring yeast acetate metabolism through MPC1 loss of function leads to mitochondrial damage and decreases chronological lifespan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Orlandi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available During growth on fermentable substrates, such as glucose, pyruvate, which is the end-product of glycolysis, can be used to generate acetyl-CoA in the cytosol via acetaldehyde and acetate, or in mitochondria by direct oxidative decarboxylation. In the latter case, the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC is responsible for pyruvate transport into mitochondrial matrix space. During chronological aging, yeast cells which lack the major structural subunit Mpc1 display a reduced lifespan accompanied by an age-dependent loss of autophagy. Here, we show that the impairment of pyruvate import into mitochondria linked to Mpc1 loss is compensated by a flux redirection of TCA cycle intermediates through the malic enzyme-dependent alternative route. In such a way, the TCA cycle operates in a “branched” fashion to generate pyruvate and is depleted of intermediates. Mutant cells cope with this depletion by increasing the activity of glyoxylate cycle and of the pathway which provides the nucleocytosolic acetyl-CoA. Moreover, cellular respiration decreases and ROS accumulate in the mitochondria which, in turn, undergo severe damage. These acquired traits in concert with the reduced autophagy restrict cell survival of the mpc1∆ mutant during chronological aging. Conversely, the activation of the carnitine shuttle by supplying acetyl-CoA to the mitochondria is sufficient to abrogate the short-lived phenotype of the mutant.

  19. Decreased Functional Connectivity of Homotopic Brain Regions in Chronic Stroke Patients: A Resting State fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuang; Zheng, Xiaohui; Sun, Fenfen; Zhang, Xiaoli; Tian, Jing; Fan, Mingxia; Wu, Yi; Jia, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The recovery of motor functions is accompanied by brain reorganization, and identifying the inter-hemispheric interaction post stroke will conduce to more targeted treatments. However, the alterations of bi-hemispheric coordination pattern between homologous areas in the whole brain for chronic stroke patients were still unclear. The present study focuses on the functional connectivity (FC) of mirror regions of the whole brain to investigate the inter-hemispheric interaction using a new fMRI method named voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC). Thirty left subcortical chronic stroke patients with pure motor deficits and 37 well-matched healthy controls (HCs) underwent resting-state fMRI scans. We employed a VMHC analysis to determine the brain areas showed significant differences between groups in FC between homologous regions, and we explored the relationships between the mean VMHC of each survived area and clinical tests within patient group using Pearson correlation. In addition, the brain areas showed significant correlations between the mean VMHC and clinical tests were defined as the seed regions for whole brain FC analysis. Relative to HCs, patients group displayed lower VMHC in the precentral gyrus, postcentral gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, calcarine gyrus, thalamus, cerebellum anterior lobe, and cerebellum posterior lobe (CPL). Moreover, the VMHC of CPL was positively correlated with the Fugl–Meyer Score of hand (FMA-H), while a negative correlation between illness duration and the VMHC of this region was also detected. Furthermore, we found that when compared with HCs, the right CPL exhibited reduced FC with the left precentral gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, middle temporal gyrus, thalamus and hippocampus. Our results suggest that the functional coordination across hemispheres is impaired in chronic stroke patients, and increased VMHC of the CPL is significantly associated with higher FMA-H scores

  20. Sabiporide improves cardiovascular function, decreases the inflammatory response and reduces mortality in acute metabolic acidosis in pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmei Wu

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Acute metabolic acidosis impairs cardiovascular function and increases the mortality of critically ill patients. However, the precise mechanism(s underlying these effects remain unclear. We hypothesized that targeting pH-regulatory protein, Na(+/H(+ exchanger (NHE1 could be a novel approach for the treatment of acute metabolic acidosis. The aim of the present study was to examine the impact of a novel NHE1 inhibitor, sabiporide, on cardiovascular function, blood oxygen transportation, and inflammatory response in an experimental model of metabolic acidosis produced by hemorrhage-induced hypovolemia followed by an infusion of lactic acid. METHODS AND RESULTS: Anesthetized pigs were subjected to hypovolemia for 30 minutes. The animals then received a bolus infusion of sabiporide (3 mg/kg or vehicle, followed by an infusion of lactic acid for 2 hours. The animals were continuously monitored for additional 3 hours. Hypovolemia followed by a lactic acid infusion resulted in a severe metabolic acidosis with blood pH falling to 6.8. In association with production of the acidemia, there was an excessive increase in pulmonary artery pressure (PAP and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR. Treatment with sabiporide significantly attenuated the increase in PAP by 38% and PVR by 67%, as well as significantly improved cardiac output by 51%. Sabiporide treatment also improved mixed venous blood oxygen saturation (55% in sabiporide group vs. 28% in control group, and improved systemic blood oxygen delivery by 36%. In addition, sabiporide treatment reduced plasma levels of TNF-α (by 33%, IL-6 (by 63%, troponin-I (by 54%, ALT (by 34%, AST (by 35%, and urea (by 40%. CONCLUSION: These findings support the possible beneficial effects of sabiporide in the treatment of acute metabolic acidosis and could have implications for the treatment of metabolic acidosis in man.

  1. A Selective Corrective Exercise to Decrease Falling and Improve Functional Balance in Idiopathic Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedaghati

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Posture instability and unsteady gait disorders in Parkinson’s Disease (PD usually contribute to fall-related fractures. Fall-related trauma in PD is the most common reason for injury. Despite providing modern care for PD patients (PP in the recent years, anti-PD drugs have no effect on falling. There is an urgent need to administer exercise interventions to reduce falls and related injuries in the rehabilitation program of PP. Objectives To explore the effect of a selective 10-week corrective exercise with an emphasis on gait training activities (GTA on the number of falls (NOFs, fear of falling, functional balance, timed up and go (TUG test among PD patients. Patients and Methods A purposeful sampling was performed on PP who had fallen or were at risk of falling in 2014. The study intervention consisted of a 10-week (3 sessions each week, each lasting 60 min corrective exercise program. Participants were randomly allocated to control and two exercise groups; the exercise group with balance pad (EGBP or exercise group with no balance pad (EGNBP. The analysis of variance (ANOVA and paired t-test were used for comparison between the groups (P ≤ 0.05. Results Administrating a selective corrective exercise in exercise group with balance pad (EGBP showed a significant difference in number of falls (NOF, Fall Efficacy Scale-international (FES-I, Berg balance scale (BBS (and timed up and go TUG (P = 0.001; while administrating the same exercise in exercise group with no balance pad (EGNBP showed no significant difference in NOF (P = 0.225 and a significant difference in FES-I (P = 0.031, BBS (P = 0.047 and TUG (P = 0.012. The control group showed no significant difference in each of the dependent variables. Conclusions Performing a selective corrective exercise on balance pad improves falling and functional balance in idiopathic PD.

  2. The intensity recovery of Forbush-type decreases as a function of heliocentric distance and its relationship to the 11-year variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, J. A.; Webber, W. R.; Jokipii, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    Recent data indicating that the solar modulation effects are propagated outward in the heliospheric cavity suggest that the 11-year cosmic ray modulation can best be described by a dynamic time dependent model. In this context an understanding of the recovery characteristics of large transient Forbush type decreases is important. This includes the typical recovery time at a fixed energy at 1 AU as well as at large heliocentric radial distances, the energy dependence of the recovery time at 1 Au, and the dependence of the time for the intensity to decrease to the minimum in the transient decreases as a function of distance. These transient decreases are characterized by their asymmetrical decrease and recovery times, generally 1 to 2 days and 3 to 10 days respectively at approx. 1 AU. Near earth these are referred to as Forbush decreases, associated witha shock or blast wave passage. At R equal to or greater than + or - 10 AU, these transient decreases may represent the combined effects of several shock waves that have merged together.

  3. Active Hexose Correlated Compound Activates Immune Function to Decrease Chlamydia trachomatis Shedding in a Murine Stress Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belay, Tesfaye; Fu, Chih-Lung; Woart, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    A cold-induced stress mouse model for investigating chlamydia genital infection and immune response analysis was established in our laboratory. Previous results showed that cold-induced stress results in suppression of the immune response and increased intensity of chlamydia genital infection in the mouse model. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the potential therapeutic value of active hexose correlated compound (AHCC) against chlamydia genital infection in mice. AHCC is an extract of mushroom commonly used as a dietary supplement is known to boost the immune system. Mice were infected intravaginally with Chlamydia trachomatis after a 24-day cold-stress application. Oral administration of AHCC to stressed or non-stressed mice was carried out seven days before infection and during the course of infection along with cervicovaginal swabbing. Cytokine production by peritoneal and splenic T cells isolated from AHCC-fed stressed mice and non-stressed mice was measured ELISA. Splenic T cells from both animal groups were co-cultured with mouse monocyte J774.2 cell line or cultured by addition of supernatants of AHCC-treated J774.2 cell line for 24 hours. Infection studies showed that AHCC-feeding compared to phosphate buffered saline (PBS)-feeding to stressed mice resulted in reduced Chlamydia trachomatis shedding from the genital tract. Levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) were significantly increased in stressed mice receiving AHCC compared to stressed mice receiving PBS. Production of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin 2 (IL-2) in the AHCC group was significantly high compared to production in PBS-fed group. Splenic T cells from stressed and non-stressed cultured with supernatants of AHCC-treated J774.2 cell line resulted in significantly increased TNF-α or IFN-γ production. Results obtained in this study show that AHCC improves the function of immune cells as indicated by the restoration of levels of cytokines

  4. Decreased renal function and associated factors in cities, towns and rural areas of Tanzania: a community-based population survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Robert; Baisley, Kathy; Kavishe, Bazil; Were, Jackson; Mghamba, Janneth; Smeeth, Liam; Grosskurth, Heiner; Kapiga, Saidi

    2016-03-01

    Data on renal dysfunction in sub-Saharan Africa, comparing urban and rural areas, have not yet been reported. Therefore, we aimed to determine the distribution of low estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) in urban and rural Tanzania, to describe factors associated with low eGFR and to quantify fractions attributable to common risk factors. We conducted a community-based survey of 1095 randomly selected Tanzanian adults (≥18 years). A structured questionnaire and examinations were used to document sociodemographic characteristics, diet, physical activity, anthropomorphic measurements and blood pressure. Blood tests were performed for HIV infection, diabetes mellitus and creatinine. eGFR was calculated using two equations recommended for African adults. Serum creatinine was available for 1043 participants: 170 in Mwanza city, 326 in district towns and 547 in rural areas. Mean age was 35.5 years and 54% were females. The prevalence of eGFR renal function is common in Tanzania, particularly in district towns, and unique risk factors for kidney disease may exist in this population. Population-specific strategies for prevention, early diagnosis and treatment of kidney disease are needed for Africa. © 2015 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Prenatal malnutrition leads to deficits in attentional set shifting and decreases metabolic activity in prefrontal subregions that control executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaughy, Jill A; Amaral, Ana C; Rushmore, R Jarrett; Mokler, David J; Morgane, Peter J; Rosene, Douglas L; Galler, Janina R

    2014-01-01

    Globally, over 25% of all children under the age of 5 years experience malnutrition leading to cognitive and emotional impairments that can persist into adulthood and beyond. We use a rodent model to determine the impact of prenatal protein malnutrition on executive functions in an attentional set-shifting task and metabolic activity in prefrontal cortex (PFC) subregions critical to these behaviors. Long-Evans dams were provided with a low (6% casein) or adequate (25% casein) protein diet 5 weeks before mating and during pregnancy. At birth, the litters were culled to 8 pups and fostered to control dams on the 25% casein diet. At postnatal day 90, prenatally malnourished rats were less able to shift attentional set and reverse reward contingencies than controls, demonstrating cognitive rigidity. Naive same-sexed littermates were assessed for regional brain activity using the metabolic marker (14)C-2-deoxyglucose (2DG). The prenatally malnourished rats had lower metabolic activity than controls in prelimbic, infralimbic, anterior cingulate, and orbitofrontal cortices, but had comparable activity in the nearby piriform cortex and superior colliculus. This study demonstrates that prenatal protein malnutrition in a well-described animal model produces cognitive deficits in tests of attentional set shifting and reversal learning, similar to findings of cognitive inflexibility reported in humans exposed to early childhood malnutrition. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. New-onset microalbuminuria following allogeneic myeloablative SCT is a sign of near-term decrease in renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morito, T; Ando, M; Kobayashi, T; Kakihana, K; Ohashi, K; Akiyama, H; Tsuchiya, K; Nitta, K; Sakamaki, H

    2013-07-01

    The emergence of microalbuminuria following conditioning chemotherapy may predict the development of renal dysfunction. To confirm this, a 1-year retrospective cohort study was conducted in 31 myeloablative allogeneic SCT patients who received five consecutive measurements of albuminuria before conditioning therapy and on days 0, 7, 14 and 28 following SCT. The cohort had neither microalbuminuria nor renal dysfunction at baseline. Microalbuminuria was defined as an albumin-creatinine (Cr) ratio over 30 mg/g, and renal dysfunction was as an estimated glomerular filtration rate microalbuminuria with the incidence of renal dysfunction. In all, 16 patients (52%) developed microalbuminuria that was positive at least two times among the four measurements after SCT. The actuarial occurrence of chronic kidney disease was significantly higher in patients who developed microalbuminuria than in those who did not. Incidence of microalbuminuria had a significant risk of subsequent renal dysfunction (hazard ratio (95% confidence interval), 7.3 (1.2-140)). In conclusion, de novo microalbuminuria following conditioning therapy is a warning of near-term loss of renal function.

  7. Monotone Iterative Technique for Duffie-Epstein Type Backward Stochastic Differential Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Xiao-jun; WU Yue

    2005-01-01

    For Duffle-Epstein type Backward Stochastic Differential Equations, the comparison theorem is proved. Based on the comparison theorem, by monotone iterative technique, the existence of the minimal and maximal solutions of the equations are proved.

  8. Criteria for Response Monotonicity Preserving in Approximation of Fractional Order Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Saleh Tavazoei

    2016-01-01

    In approximation of fractional order systems,a significant objective is to preserve the important properties of the original system.The monotonicity of time/frequency responses is one of these properties whose preservation is of great importance in approximation process.Considering this importance,the issues of monotonicity preservation of the step response and monotonicity preservation of the magnitude-frequency response are independently investigated in this paper.In these investigations,some conditions on approximating filters of fractional operators are found to guarantee the preservation of step/magnitude-frequency response monotonicity in approximation process.These conditions are also simplified in some special cases.In addition,numerical simulation results are presented to show the usefulness of the obtained conditions.

  9. Stability and monotone convergence of generalised policy iteration for discrete-time linear quadratic regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Tae Yoon; Lee, Jae Young; Park, Jin Bae; Choi, Yoon Ho

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we analyse the convergence and stability properties of generalised policy iteration (GPI) applied to discrete-time linear quadratic regulation problems. GPI is one kind of the generalised adaptive dynamic programming methods used for solving optimal control problems, and is composed of policy evaluation and policy improvement steps. To analyse the convergence and stability of GPI, the dynamic programming (DP) operator is defined. Then, GPI and its equivalent formulas are presented based on the notation of DP operator. The convergence of the approximate value function to the exact one in policy evaluation is proven based on the equivalent formulas. Furthermore, the positive semi-definiteness, stability, and the monotone convergence (PI-mode and VI-mode convergence) of GPI are presented under certain conditions on the initial value function. The online least square method is also presented for the implementation of GPI. Finally, some numerical simulations are carried out to verify the effectiveness of GPI as well as to further investigate the convergence and stability properties.

  10. A C-Function For Non-Supersymmetric Attractors

    CERN Document Server

    Goldstein, K; Mandal, G; Trivedi, S P; Goldstein, Kevin; Jena, Rudra P.; Mandal, Gautam; Trivedi, Sandip P.

    2006-01-01

    We present a c-function for spherically symmetric, static and asymptotically flat solutions in theories of four-dimensional gravity coupled to gauge fields and moduli. The c-function is valid for both extremal and non-extremal black holes. It monotonically decreases from infinity and in the static region acquires its minimum value at the horizon, where it equals the entropy of the black hole. Higher dimensional cases, involving $p$-form gauge fields, and other generalisations are also discussed.

  11. Monotone methods for solving a boundary value problem of second order discrete system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yuan-Ming

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A new concept of a pair of upper and lower solutions is introduced for a boundary value problem of second order discrete system. A comparison result is given. An existence theorem for a solution is established in terms of upper and lower solutions. A monotone iterative scheme is proposed, and the monotone convergence rate of the iteration is compared and analyzed. The numerical results are given.

  12. Monotone Concave Operators: An application to the existence and uniqueness of solutions to the Bellman equation

    OpenAIRE

    Cuong LE VAN; Morhaim, Lisa; Vailakis, Yiannis

    2008-01-01

    We propose a new approach to the issue of existence and uniqueness of solutions to the Bellman equation, exploiting an emerging class of methods, called monotone map methods, pioneered in the work of Krasnosel’skii (1964) and Krasnosel’skii-Zabreiko (1984). The approach is technically simple and intuitive. It is derived from geometric ideas related to the study of fixed points for monotone concave operators defined on partially order spaces.

  13. MIXED MONOTONE ITERATIVE TECHNIQUES FOR SEMILINEAR EVOLUTION EQUATIONS IN BANACH SPACES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王良龙; 王志成

    2004-01-01

    This paper is concerned with initial value problems for semilinear evolution equations in Banach spaces. The abstract iterative schemes are constructed by combining the theory of semigroups of linear operators and the method of mixed monotone iterations. Some existence results on minimal and maximal (quasi)solutions are established for abstract semilinear evolution equations with mixed monotone or mixed quasimonotone nonlinear terms. To illustrate the main results, applications to ordinary differential equations and partial differential equations are also given.

  14. Global Attractivity Results for Mixed-Monotone Mappings in Partially Ordered Complete Metric Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalabušić S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We prove fixed point theorems for mixed-monotone mappings in partially ordered complete metric spaces which satisfy a weaker contraction condition than the classical Banach contraction condition for all points that are related by given ordering. We also give a global attractivity result for all solutions of the difference equation , where satisfies mixed-monotone conditions with respect to the given ordering.

  15. Global Attractivity Results for Mixed-Monotone Mappings in Partially Ordered Complete Metric Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dž. Burgić

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We prove fixed point theorems for mixed-monotone mappings in partially ordered complete metric spaces which satisfy a weaker contraction condition than the classical Banach contraction condition for all points that are related by given ordering. We also give a global attractivity result for all solutions of the difference equation zn+1=F(zn,zn−1, n=2,3,…, where F satisfies mixed-monotone conditions with respect to the given ordering.

  16. Martensitic Transformation in Ultrafine-Grained Stainless Steel AISI 304L Under Monotonic and Cyclic Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz Werner Höppel

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The monotonic and cyclic deformation behavior of ultrafine-grained metastable austenitic steel AISI 304L, produced by severe plastic deformation, was investigated. Under monotonic loading, the martensitic phase transformation in the ultrafine-grained state is strongly favored. Under cyclic loading, the martensitic transformation behavior is similar to the coarse-grained condition, but the cyclic stress response is three times larger for the ultrafine-grained condition.

  17. The Cognitive Social Network in Dreams: Transitivity, Assortativity, and Giant Component Proportion Are Monotonic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hye Joo; Schweickert, Richard; Xi, Zhuangzhuang; Viau-Quesnel, Charles

    2016-04-01

    For five individuals, a social network was constructed from a series of his or her dreams. Three important network measures were calculated for each network: transitivity, assortativity, and giant component proportion. These were monotonically related; over the five networks as transitivity increased, assortativity increased and giant component proportion decreased. The relations indicate that characters appear in dreams systematically. Systematicity likely arises from the dreamer's memory of people and their relations, which is from the dreamer's cognitive social network. But the dream social network is not a copy of the cognitive social network. Waking life social networks tend to have positive assortativity; that is, people tend to be connected to others with similar connectivity. Instead, in our sample of dream social networks assortativity is more often negative or near 0, as in online social networks. We show that if characters appear via a random walk, negative assortativity can result, particularly if the random walk is biased as suggested by remote associations.

  18. Acute starvation in C57BL/6J mice increases myocardial UCP2 and UCP3 protein expression levels and decreases mitochondrial bio-energetic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Ming; Almsherqi, Zakaria A; McLachlan, Craig S; Matthews, Slade; Ramachandran, Malarmathy; Tay, Stacey Kh; Deng, Yuru

    2011-01-01

    Associations between uncoupling protein (UCP) expression and functional changes in myocardial mitochondrial bio-energetics have not been well studied during periods of starvation stress. Our aim was to study the effects of acute starvation, for 24 or 48 h, on combined cardiac mitochondrial function and UCP expression in mice. Isolated heart mitochondria from female mice starved for 48 h compared to that from mice fed revealed a significantly (p bio-energetic functional changes were associated with increases in mitochondrial UCP2 and UCP3 protein expression. In conclusion, our findings suggest that increased UCP2 and UCP3 levels may contribute to decreased myocardial mitochondrial bio-energetic function due to starvation.

  19. Predicting protein concentrations with ELISA microarray assays, monotonic splines and Monte Carlo simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daly, Don S.; Anderson, Kevin K.; White, Amanda M.; Gonzalez, Rachel M.; Varnum, Susan M.; Zangar, Richard C.

    2008-07-14

    Background: A microarray of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, or ELISA microarray, predicts simultaneously the concentrations of numerous proteins in a small sample. These predictions, however, are uncertain due to processing error and biological variability. Making sound biological inferences as well as improving the ELISA microarray process require require both concentration predictions and creditable estimates of their errors. Methods: We present a statistical method based on monotonic spline statistical models, penalized constrained least squares fitting (PCLS) and Monte Carlo simulation (MC) to predict concentrations and estimate prediction errors in ELISA microarray. PCLS restrains the flexible spline to a fit of assay intensity that is a monotone function of protein concentration. With MC, both modeling and measurement errors are combined to estimate prediction error. The spline/PCLS/MC method is compared to a common method using simulated and real ELISA microarray data sets. Results: In contrast to the rigid logistic model, the flexible spline model gave credible fits in almost all test cases including troublesome cases with left and/or right censoring, or other asymmetries. For the real data sets, 61% of the spline predictions were more accurate than their comparable logistic predictions; especially the spline predictions at the extremes of the prediction curve. The relative errors of 50% of comparable spline and logistic predictions differed by less than 20%. Monte Carlo simulation rendered acceptable asymmetric prediction intervals for both spline and logistic models while propagation of error produced symmetric intervals that diverged unrealistically as the standard curves approached horizontal asymptotes. Conclusions: The spline/PCLS/MC method is a flexible, robust alternative to a logistic/NLS/propagation-of-error method to reliably predict protein concentrations and estimate their errors. The spline method simplifies model selection and fitting

  20. Effects of active pause pattern of surface electromyographic activity among subjects performing monotonous tasks: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januario, Leticia Bergamin; Moreira, Roberta de Fátima Carreira; Cid, Marina Machado; Samani, Afshin; Madeleine, Pascal; Oliveira, Ana Beatriz

    2016-10-01

    Active pauses have shown potentially beneficial effects to increase the variability of the electrical activation pattern of muscles. However, there is a lack of consensus as to how to design and implement those pauses and the processing methods of surface electromyography (EMG) data when evaluating low-level monotonous tasks. The aim of this systematic review was to synthesize the evidences regarding the way which active pauses have been applied, and the methods used to investigate the related EMG changes. PubMed-MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, Lilacs, Ebsco, and Scopus databases were searched. Two authors independently extracted data from the primary studies. The methodological quality was assessed using a list from van der Windt et al. (2000), and the level of evidence was synthesized through GRADE. The ISEK guideline for reporting EMG data was also applied as a checklist. Fifteen studies were included - 14 with high methodological quality. In general, active pauses were able to change the level of EMG activity in monotonous tasks. The level of evidence through GRADE was very low for all EMG processing methods, except RMS which was low. A vast heterogeneity concerning the methods applied to analyze EMG data contributed to decrease the quality of evidence synthesis, and the findings need to be carefully considered. The GRADE approach and the ISEK guideline contributed to identify important flaws in the literature. Future studies investigating active pauses in longitudinal studies and following the standard for recording and reporting EMG data care are warranted.

  1. Exploiting Monotonicity Constraints in Active Learning for Ordinal Classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soons, Pieter; Feelders, Adrianus

    2014-01-01

    We consider ordinal classication and instance ranking problems where each attribute is known to have an increasing or decreasing relation with the class label or rank. For example, it stands to reason that the number of query terms occurring in a document has a positive in uence on its relevance to

  2. Accumulation of MRI markers of cerebral small vessel disease is associated with decreased cognitive function. A study in first-ever lacunar stroke and hypertensive patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjolein eHuijts

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background – White matter lesions (WMLs, asymptomatic lacunar infarcts, brain microbleeds (BMBs and enlarged perivascular spaces (EPVS have been identified as silent lesions due to cerebral small vessel disease (cSVD. All these markers have been individually linked to cognitive functioning, but are also strongly correlated with each other. The combined effect of these markers on cognitive function has never been studied and would possibly provide more useful information on the effect on cognitive function. Methods – Brain MRI and extensive neuropsychological assessment were performed in 189 patients at risk for cSVD (112 hypertensive patients and 77 first-ever lacunar stroke patients. We rated the presence of any asymptomatic lacunar infarct, extensive WMLs, any deep BMB, and moderate to extensive EPVS in the basal ganglia. The presence of each marker was summed to an ordinal score between 0 and 4. Associations with domains of cognitive function (memory, executive function, information processing speed and overall cognition were analyzed with correlation analyses. Results – Correlation analyses revealed significant associations between accumulating cSVD burden and decreased performance on all cognitive domains (all p≤.001. Results remained significant for information processing speed (r=-.181, p=.013 and overall cognition (r=-.178, p=.017, after correction for age and sex. Testing of trend using linear regression analyses revealed the same results. Discussion – We tested a new approach to capture total brain damage resulting from cSVD and found that accumulation of MRI burden of cSVD is associated with decreased performance on tests of information processing speed and overall cognition, implying that accumulating brain damage is accompanied by worse cognitive functioning.

  3. Neurogenic detrusor overactivity is associated with decreased expression and function of the large conductance voltage- and Ca(2+-activated K(+ channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiril L Hristov

    Full Text Available Patients suffering from a variety of neurological diseases such as spinal cord injury, Parkinson's disease, and multiple sclerosis often develop neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO, which currently lacks a universally effective therapy. Here, we tested the hypothesis that NDO is associated with changes in detrusor smooth muscle (DSM large conductance Ca(2+-activated K(+ (BK channel expression and function. DSM tissue samples from 33 patients were obtained during open bladder surgeries. NDO patients were clinically characterized preoperatively with pressure-flow urodynamics demonstrating detrusor overactivity, in the setting of a clinically relevant neurological condition. Control patients did not have overactive bladder and did not have a clinically relevant neurological disease. We conducted quantitative polymerase chain reactions (qPCR, perforated patch-clamp electrophysiology on freshly-isolated DSM cells, and functional studies on DSM contractility. qPCR experiments revealed that DSM samples from NDO patients showed decreased BK channel mRNA expression in comparison to controls. Patch-clamp experiments demonstrated reduced whole cell and transient BK currents (TBKCs in freshly-isolated DSM cells from NDO patients. Functional studies on DSM contractility showed that spontaneous phasic contractions had a decreased sensitivity to iberiotoxin, a selective BK channel inhibitor, in DSM strips isolated from NDO patients. These results reveal the novel finding that NDO is associated with decreased DSM BK channel expression and function leading to increased DSM excitability and contractility. BK channel openers or BK channel gene transfer could be an alternative strategy to control NDO. Future clinical trials are needed to evaluate the value of BK channel opening drugs or gene therapies for NDO treatment and to identify any possible adverse effects.

  4. Global stability analysis of two-strain epidemic model with bilinear and non-monotone incidence rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Isa Abdullahi; Hincal, Evren

    2017-05-01

    In this article we studied an epidemic model consisting of two strains with different types of incidence rates; bilinear and non-monotone. The model consists of four equilibrium points: disease-free equilibrium, endemic with respect to strain 1, endemic with respect to strain 2, and endemic with respect to both strains. The global stability analysis of the equilibrium points was carried out through the use of Lyapunov functions. Two basic reproduction ratios R 1 0 and R 2 0 are found, and we have shown that if both are less than one, the disease dies out, and if both are greater than one epidemic occurs. Furthermore, epidemics occur with respect to any strain with a basic reproduction ratio greater than one and disease dies out with respect to any strain with a basic reproduction ratio less than one. It was also shown that any strain with highest basic reproduction ratio will automatically outperform the other strain, thereby eliminating it. Numerical simulations were carried out to support the analytic result and to show the effect of the parameter k in the non-monotone incidence rate, which describes the psychological effect of general public towards infection.

  5. Ornithine and Homocitrulline Impair Mitochondrial Function, Decrease Antioxidant Defenses and Induce Cell Death in Menadione-Stressed Rat Cortical Astrocytes: Potential Mechanisms of Neurological Dysfunction in HHH Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanatta, Ângela; Rodrigues, Marília Danyelle Nunes; Amaral, Alexandre Umpierrez; Souza, Débora Guerini; Quincozes-Santos, André; Wajner, Moacir

    2016-09-01

    Hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria (HHH) syndrome is caused by deficiency of ornithine translocase leading to predominant tissue accumulation and high urinary excretion of ornithine (Orn), homocitrulline (Hcit) and ammonia. Although affected patients commonly present neurological dysfunction manifested by cognitive deficit, spastic paraplegia, pyramidal and extrapyramidal signs, stroke-like episodes, hypotonia and ataxia, its pathogenesis is still poorly known. Although astrocytes are necessary for neuronal protection. Therefore, in the present study we investigated the effects of Orn and Hcit on cell viability (propidium iodide incorporation), mitochondrial function (thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide-MTT-reduction and mitochondrial membrane potential-ΔΨm), antioxidant defenses (GSH) and pro-inflammatory response (NFkB, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α) in unstimulated and menadione-stressed cortical astrocytes that were previously shown to be susceptible to damage by neurotoxins. We first observed that Orn decreased MTT reduction, whereas both amino acids decreased GSH levels, without altering cell viability and the pro-inflammatory factors in unstimulated astrocytes. Furthermore, Orn and Hcit decreased cell viability and ΔΨm in menadione-treated astrocytes. The present data indicate that the major compounds accumulating in HHH syndrome impair mitochondrial function and reduce cell viability and the antioxidant defenses in cultured astrocytes especially when stressed by menadione. It is presumed that these mechanisms may be involved in the neuropathology of this disease.

  6. 改进Gauss-Seide方法的收敛速度的单调性%On the Monotonicity of Convergence Rate of Modified Gauss-Seidel Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄伟芬; 卢琳璋

    2004-01-01

    In this note, we prove that the convergence rate of the modified Gauss-Seidel (MGS) method with preconditional I + Sα is a monotonic function of preconditioning parameter a. Based on this result, to achieve better convergence rate we suggest proforming twice preconditoning when applying the MGS method to solve a linear system whose coefficient matrix is an irreducible non-singular M-matrix.

  7. Secret Sharing and Secure Computing from Monotone Formulae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Kölker, Jonas; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    2012-01-01

    We present a construction of log-depth formulae for various threshold functions based on atomic threshold gates of constant size. From this, we build a new family of linear secret sharing schemes that are multiplicative, scale well as the number of players increases and allows to raise a shared...

  8. Counting permutations with no long monotone subsequence via generating trees

    CERN Document Server

    Bousquet-Mélou, Mireille

    2010-01-01

    We recover Gessel's determinantal formula for the generating function of permutations with no ascending subsequence of length m+1. The starting point of our proof is the recursive construction of these permutations by insertion of the largest entry. This construction is of course extremely simple. The cost of this simplicity is that we need to take into account in the enumeration m-1 additional parameters --- namely, the positions of the leftmost increasing subsequences of length i, for i=2,...,m. This yields for the generating function a functional equation with m-1 "catalytic" variables, and the heart of the paper is the solution of this equation. We perform a similar task for involutions with no descending subsequence of length m+1, constructed recursively by adding a cycle containing the largest entry. We refine this result by keeping track of the number of fixed points. In passing, we prove that the ordinary generating functions of these families of permutations can be expressed as constant terms of rati...

  9. Type 2 Diabetes Risk Alleles Near BCAR1 and in ANK1 Associate With Decreased β-Cell Function Whereas Risk Alleles Near ANKRD55 and GRB14 Associate With Decreased Insulin Sensitivity in the Danish Inter99 Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Marie Neergaard; Ribel-Madsen, Rasmus; Justesen, Johanne Marie

    2013-01-01

    insulinogenic (P = .005) and disposition (P = .002) indexes. The G allele of ANKRD55 rs459193 associated with decreased Matsuda index (P = .02) adjusted for waist circumference. The C allele of GRB14 rs13389219 associated with both increased insulinogenic (P = .04) and decreased Matsuda (P = .05) indexes. All...... insulinogenic, disposition, BIGTT, and Matsuda indexes.Results:We confirmed associations of ZMIZ1, KLHDC5, CILP2, HMG20A, ANK1, ANKRD55, and BCAR1 with T2D. The risk T allele of BCAR1 rs7202877 associated with decreased disposition index (P = .02). The C allele of ANK1 rs516946 associated with decreased...

  10. Fasting serum levels of ferritin are associated with impaired pancreatic beta cell function and decreased insulin sensitivity: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfils, Linéa; Ellervik, Christina; Friedrich, Nele; Linneberg, Allan; Sandholt, Camilla H; Jørgensen, Marit E; Jørgensen, Torben; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Allin, Kristine H

    2015-03-01

    Elevated serum ferritin levels are associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes, but the nature of this association remains elusive. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that an elevated fasting serum ferritin level is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes due to its association with impaired beta cell function and decreased insulin sensitivity. We investigated 6,392 individuals from the Danish general population. Surrogate measures of beta cell function and insulin sensitivity were calculated for approximately 6,100 individuals based on OGTT examinations. The ORs for type 2 diabetes were 4.2 (95% CI 2.4, 7.2) for the highest vs the lowest quintile of serum ferritin, and 17 (95% CI 8.9, 33) for serum ferritin levels ≥97.5th percentile vs serum ferritin levels were associated with elevated plasma glucose levels at 0, 30 and 120 min (p serum insulin levels at 0 and 120 min (p = 0.02 and p serum ferritin levels are associated with surrogate measures of both impaired beta cell function and decreased insulin sensitivity. Menopause seems to modify the association with insulin sensitivity.

  11. Maximum Marginal Likelihood Estimation of a Monotonic Polynomial Generalized Partial Credit Model with Applications to Multiple Group Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Carl F; Cai, Li

    2016-06-01

    We present a semi-parametric approach to estimating item response functions (IRF) useful when the true IRF does not strictly follow commonly used functions. Our approach replaces the linear predictor of the generalized partial credit model with a monotonic polynomial. The model includes the regular generalized partial credit model at the lowest order polynomial. Our approach extends Liang's (A semi-parametric approach to estimate IRFs, Unpublished doctoral dissertation, 2007) method for dichotomous item responses to the case of polytomous data. Furthermore, item parameter estimation is implemented with maximum marginal likelihood using the Bock-Aitkin EM algorithm, thereby facilitating multiple group analyses useful in operational settings. Our approach is demonstrated on both educational and psychological data. We present simulation results comparing our approach to more standard IRF estimation approaches and other non-parametric and semi-parametric alternatives.

  12. Simple utility functions with Giffen demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Norman

    2007-01-01

    Simple utility functions with the Giffen property are presented: locally, the demand curve for a good is upward sloping. The utility functions represent continuous, monotone, convex preferences......Simple utility functions with the Giffen property are presented: locally, the demand curve for a good is upward sloping. The utility functions represent continuous, monotone, convex preferences...

  13. Decreased cerebellar-orbitofrontal connectivity correlates with stuttering severity: Whole-brain functional and structural connectivity associations with persistent developmental stuttering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Richard Sitek

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Persistent developmental stuttering is characterized by speech production disfluency and affects 1% of adults. The degree of impairment varies widely across individuals and the neural mechanisms underlying the disorder and this variability remain poorly understood. Here, we elucidate compensatory mechanisms related to this variability in impairment using whole-brain functional and white matter connectivity analyses in persistent developmental stuttering. We found that people who stutter had stronger functional connectivity between cerebellum and thalamus than people with fluent speech, while stutterers with the least severe symptoms had greater functional connectivity between left cerebellum and left orbitofrontal cortex. Additionally, people who stutter had decreased functional and white matter connectivity among the perisylvian auditory, motor, and speech planning regions compared to typical speakers, but greater functional connectivity between the right basal ganglia and bilateral temporal auditory regions. Structurally, disfluency ratings were negatively correlated with white matter connections to left perisylvian regions and to the brain stem. Overall, we found increased connectivity among subcortical and reward network structures in people who stutter compared to controls. These connections were negatively correlated with stuttering severity, suggesting the involvement of cerebellum and orbitofrontal cortex may underlie successful compensatory mechanisms by more fluent stutterers.

  14. Functional decreases in P2X7 receptors are associated with retinoic acid-induced neuronal differentiation of Neuro-2a neuroblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pei-Yu; Lin, Yu-Chia; Chang, Chia-Ling; Lu, Hsing-Tsen; Chin, Chia-Hsuan; Hsu, Tsan-Ting; Chu, Dachen; Sun, Synthia H

    2009-06-01

    Neuro-2a (N2a) cells are derived from spontaneous neuroblastoma of mouse and capable to differentiate into neuronal-like cells. Recently, P2X7 receptor has been shown to sustain growth of human neuroblastoma cells but its role during neuronal differentiation remains unexamined.We characterized the role of P2X7 receptors in the retinoic acid (RA)-differentiated N2a cells. RA induced N2a cells differentiation into neurite bearing and neuronal specific proteins, microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) and neuronal specific nuclear protein (NeuN), expressing neuronal-like cells. Interestingly, the RA-induced neuronal differentiation was associated with decreases in the expression and function of P2X7 receptors. Functional inhibition of P2X7 receptors by P2X7 receptor selective antagonists, 5'-triphosphate, periodate-oxidized 2',3'-dialdehyde ATP (oATP), brilliant blue G (BBG) or A438079 induced neurite outgrowth. In addition, RA and oATP treatment stimulated the expression of neuron-specific class III beta-tubulin (TuJ1), and knockdown of P2X7 receptor expression by siRNA induced neurite outgrowth. To elucidate the possible mechanism, we found the levels of basal intracellular Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+]i) were decreased in either RA- or oATP-differentiated or P2X7receptor knockdown N2a cells. Simply cultured N2a cells in low Ca2+ medium induced a 2-fold increase in neurite length. Treatment of N2a cells with ATP hydrolase apyrase and the P2X7 receptors selective antagonist oATP or BBG decreased cell viability and cell number. Nevertheless, oATP but not BBG decreased cell proliferation and cell cycle progression. These results suggest for the first time that decreases in expression/function of P2X7 receptors are involved in neuronal differentiation.We provide additional evidence shown that the ATP release-activated P2X7 receptor is important in maintaining cell survival of N2a neuroblastoma cells.

  15. Convergence and regularization for monotonicity-based shape reconstruction in electrical impedance tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Henrik; Staboulis, Stratos

    2016-01-01

    demonstrate that for admissible choices of regularization parameters the inhomogeneities are detected, and under reasonable assumptions, asymptotically exactly characterized. Moreover, we rigorously associate this result with the complete electrode model, and describe how a computationally cheap monotonicity......The inverse problem of electrical impedance tomography is severely ill-posed, meaning that, only limited information about the conductivity can in practice be recovered from boundary measurements of electric current and voltage. Recently it was shown that a simple monotonicity property...... of the related Neumann-to-Dirichlet map can be used to characterize shapes of inhomogeneities in a known background conductivity. In this paper we formulate a monotonicity-based shape reconstruction scheme that applies to approximative measurement models, and regularizes against noise and modelling error. We...

  16. The relation between majorization theory and quantum information from entanglement monotones perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erol, V. [Department of Computer Engineering, Institute of Science, Okan University, Istanbul (Turkey); Netas Telecommunication Inc., Istanbul (Turkey)

    2016-04-21

    Entanglement has been studied extensively for understanding the mysteries of non-classical correlations between quantum systems. In the bipartite case, there are well known monotones for quantifying entanglement such as concurrence, relative entropy of entanglement (REE) and negativity, which cannot be increased via local operations. The study on these monotones has been a hot topic in quantum information [1-7] in order to understand the role of entanglement in this discipline. It can be observed that from any arbitrary quantum pure state a mixed state can obtained. A natural generalization of this observation would be to consider local operations classical communication (LOCC) transformations between general pure states of two parties. Although this question is a little more difficult, a complete solution has been developed using the mathematical framework of the majorization theory [8]. In this work, we analyze the relation between entanglement monotones concurrence and negativity with respect to majorization for general two-level quantum systems of two particles.

  17. The relation between majorization theory and quantum information from entanglement monotones perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erol, V.

    2016-04-01

    Entanglement has been studied extensively for understanding the mysteries of non-classical correlations between quantum systems. In the bipartite case, there are well known monotones for quantifying entanglement such as concurrence, relative entropy of entanglement (REE) and negativity, which cannot be increased via local operations. The study on these monotones has been a hot topic in quantum information [1-7] in order to understand the role of entanglement in this discipline. It can be observed that from any arbitrary quantum pure state a mixed state can obtained. A natural generalization of this observation would be to consider local operations classical communication (LOCC) transformations between general pure states of two parties. Although this question is a little more difficult, a complete solution has been developed using the mathematical framework of the majorization theory [8]. In this work, we analyze the relation between entanglement monotones concurrence and negativity with respect to majorization for general two-level quantum systems of two particles.

  18. STRONG CONVERGENCE OF MONOTONE HYBRID METHOD FOR FIXED POINT ITERATION PROCESSES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongfu SU; Xiaolong QIN

    2008-01-01

    K. Nakajo and W. Takahashi in 2003 proved the strong convergence theorems for nonexpansive mappings, nonexpansive semigroups, and proximal point algorithm for zero point of monotone operators in Hilbert spaces by using the hybrid method in mathematical programming. The purpose of this paper is to modify the hybrid iteration method of K. Nakajo and W. Takahashi through the monotone hybrid method, and to prove strong convergence theorems. The convergence rate of iteration process of the monotone hybrid method is faster than that of the iteration process of the hybrid method of K. Nakajo and W. Takahashi. In the proofs in this article, Cauchy sequence method is used to avoid the use of the demiclosedness principle and Opial's condition.

  19. Impaired progenitor cell function in HIV-negative infants of HIV-positive mothers results in decreased thymic output and low CD4 counts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S D; Jeppesen, D L; Kolte, L

    2001-01-01

    and fetal thymic organ cultures (FTOCs). Lower naive CD4 counts (459.3 +/- 68.9 vs 1128.9 +/- 146.8 cells/microL, P mothers were found (frequency of CD4(+) cells with TRECs was 3.6% +/- 0.7% compared with 14.3% +/- 2.2% in controls, P ...). In combination with lower red blood cell counts in infants of HIV-positive mothers, this finding suggested impairment of progenitor cell function. Indeed, progenitors from infants of HIV-positive mothers had decreased cloning efficiency (15.7% +/- 2.6% vs 55.8% +/- 15.9%, P =.009) and seemed to generate fewer T...... cells in FTOCs. In conclusion, lower numbers of naive CD4(+) cells and reduced thymic output in HIV-negative infants of HIV-positive mothers may be due to impaired progenitor cell function....

  20. 加权分支过程的单调性、对偶性和Feller性质%The Monotonicity, Duality and Feller Property of Weighted Markov Branching Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁水琴; 李扬荣

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the monotonicity, duality and Feller property of weighted Markov branching processes are studied and some necessary and sufficient conditions for the minimal Q-function being an monotone or dual transition function are obtained, where Q is a weighted Markov branching q-matrix. Especially, Feller criteria are obtained when Q is neither dual nor monotone.%研究加权分支过程的单调性, 对偶性以及Feller性质, 并得到了加权分支q矩阵的最小Q函数成为单调或对偶时的充要条件, 特别是得到了当Q既不对偶也不单调时的Feller准则.

  1. Open label smoking cessation with varenicline is associated with decreased glutamate levels and functional changes in anterior cingulate cortex: preliminary findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriah Dawn Wheelock

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rationale: Varenicline, the most effective single agent for smoking cessation, is a partial agonist at α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Increasing evidence implicates glutamate in the pathophysiology of addiction and one of the benefits of treatment for smoking cessation is the ability to regain cognitive control. Objective: To evaluate the effects of 12 week varenicline administration on glutamate levels in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC and functional changes within the cognitive control network.Methods: We used single-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS in the dACC and functional MRI (fMRI during performance of a Stroop color-naming task before and after smoking cessation with varenicline in 11 healthy smokers (open label design. Using the dACC as a seed region, we evaluated functional connectivity changes using a psychophysiological interaction (PPI analysis. Results: We observed a significant decrease in dACC glutamate + glutamine (Glx/Cr levels as well as significant blood oxygen level-dependent signal (BOLD decreases in the rostral ACC/medial orbitofrontal cortex and precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex. These BOLD changes are suggestive of alterations in default mode network (DMN function and are further supported by the results of the PPI analysis that revealed changes in connectivity between the dACC and regions of the DMN. Baseline measures of nicotine dependence and craving positively correlated with baseline Glx/Cr levels.Conclusions: These results suggest possible mechanisms of action for varenicline such as reduction in Glx levels in dACC and shifts in BOLD activities between large scale brain networks. They also suggest a role for ACC Glx in the modulation of behavior. Due to the preliminary nature of this study (lack of control group and small sample size, future studies are needed to replicate these findings.

  2. The Role of Monotonicity in the Epistemic Analysis of Strategic Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A. Zvesper

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available It is well-known that in finite strategic games true common belief (or common knowledge of rationality implies that the players will choose only strategies that survive the iterated elimination of strictly dominated strategies. We establish a general theorem that deals with monotonic rationality notions and arbitrary strategic games and allows to strengthen the above result to arbitrary games, other rationality notions, and transfinite iterations of the elimination process. We also clarify what conclusions one can draw for the customary dominance notions that are not monotonic. The main tool is Tarski’s Fixpoint Theorem.

  3. Comparison of linear and non-linear monotonicity-based shape reconstruction using exact matrix characterizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Detecting inhomogeneities in the electrical conductivity is a special case of the inverse problem in electrical impedance tomography, that leads to fast direct reconstruction methods. One such method can, under reasonable assumptions, exactly characterize the inhomogeneities based on monotonicity....... For a fair comparison, exact matrix characterizations are used when probing the monotonicity relations to avoid errors from numerical solution to PDEs and numerical integration. Using a special factorization of the Neumann-to-Dirichlet map also makes the non-linear method as fast as the linear method...

  4. An inequality for correlations in unidimensional monotone latent variable models for binary variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Jules L

    2014-04-01

    It is shown that a unidimensional monotone latent variable model for binary items implies a restriction on the relative sizes of item correlations: The negative logarithm of the correlations satisfies the triangle inequality. This inequality is not implied by the condition that the correlations are nonnegative, the criterion that coefficient H exceeds 0.30, or manifest monotonicity. The inequality implies both a lower bound and an upper bound for each correlation between two items, based on the correlations of those two items with every possible third item. It is discussed how this can be used in Mokken's (A theory and procedure of scale-analysis, Mouton, The Hague, 1971) scale analysis.

  5. A Mathematical Model for Non-monotonic Deposition Profiles in Deep Bed Filtration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Hao; Shapiro, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    A mathematical model for suspension/colloid flow in porous media and non-monotonic deposition is proposed. It accounts for the migration of particles associated with the pore walls via the second energy minimum (surface associated phase). The surface associated phase migration is characterized...... by advection and diffusion/dispersion. The proposed model is able to produce a nonmonotonic deposition profile. A set of methods for estimating the modeling parameters is provided in the case of minimal particle release. The estimation can be easily performed with available experimental information...... condition for producing non-monotonic deposition profiles. The described physics by the additional equation may be different in different experimental settings....

  6. Inhomogeneous deformation in INCONEL 718 during monotonic and cyclic loadings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthem, D. W.; Robertson, I. M.; Socie, D. F.; Altstetter, C. J.; Leckie, F. A.

    1990-01-01

    The paper concentrates on the relation between microstructural observations of the dislocation structures and the macroscopic deformation responses of both aged and homogenized precipitate-hardened alloys at room temperature. The deformation responses are compared to the cyclic deformation response of an aged precipitate-hardened alloy. Early in the deformation, one deformation band per grain and little evidence of work hardening are observed; with increased deformation, work hardening begins, more bands nucleate, and their spacing becomes similar to that in the aged material. It is pointed out that the degree of coarseness of inhomogeneous deformation is not a result of a softening process within the bands due to precipitate shearing, but it is a function of the amount of work hardening within the bands.

  7. Secret Sharing and Secure Computing from Monotone Formulae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Kölker, Jonas; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    2012-01-01

    We present a construction of log-depth formulae for various threshold functions based on atomic threshold gates of constant size. From this, we build a new family of linear secret sharing schemes that are multiplicative, scale well as the number of players increases and allows to raise a shared...... value to the characteristic of the underlying field without interaction. Some of these schemes are in addition strongly multiplicative. Our formulas can also be used to construct multiparty protocols from protocols for a constant number of parties. In particular we implement black-box multiparty...... computation over non-Abelian groups in a way that is much simpler than previously known and we also show how to get a protocol in this setting that is efficient and actively secure against a constant fraction of corrupted parties, a long standing open problem. Finally, we show a negative result on usage...

  8. Acupuncture Decreases Blood Pressure Related to Hypothalamus Functional Connectivity with Frontal Lobe, Cerebellum, and Insula: A Study of Instantaneous and Short-Term Acupuncture Treatment in Essential Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The therapeutic effects of acupuncture in decreasing blood pressure are ambiguous and underlying acupuncture in hypertension treatment has not been investigated. Our objective was to observe the change of quality of life and compare the differences in brain functional connectivity by investigating instantaneous and short-term acupuncture treatment in essential hypertension patients. A total of 30 patients were randomly divided into the LR3 group and sham acupoint group. Subjects received resting-state fMRI among preacupuncture, postinstantaneous, and short-term acupuncture treatment in two groups. Hypothalamus was selected as the seed point to analyze the changes in connectivity. We found three kinds of results: (1 There was statistical difference in systolic blood pressure in LR3 group after the short-term treatment and before acupuncture. (2 Compared with sham acupoint, acupuncture at LR3 instantaneous effects in the functional connectivity with seed points was more concentrated in the frontal lobe. (3 Compared with instantaneous effects, acupuncture LR3 short-term effects in the functional connectivity with seed points had more regions in frontal lobe, cerebellum, and insula. These brain areas constituted a neural network structure with specific functions that could explain the mechanism of therapy in hypertension patients by LR3 acupoint.

  9. Brain 'talks over' boring quotes: top-down activation of voice-selective areas while listening to monotonous direct speech quotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Bo; Belin, Pascal; Scheepers, Christoph

    2012-04-15

    In human communication, direct speech (e.g., Mary said, "I'm hungry") is perceived as more vivid than indirect speech (e.g., Mary said that she was hungry). This vividness distinction has previously been found to underlie silent reading of quotations: Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we found that direct speech elicited higher brain activity in the temporal voice areas (TVA) of the auditory cortex than indirect speech, consistent with an "inner voice" experience in reading direct speech. Here we show that listening to monotonously spoken direct versus indirect speech quotations also engenders differential TVA activity. This suggests that individuals engage in top-down simulations or imagery of enriched supra-segmental acoustic representations while listening to monotonous direct speech. The findings shed new light on the acoustic nature of the "inner voice" in understanding direct speech.

  10. Picroside Ⅱ inhibits hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis by ameliorating mitochondrial function through a mechanism involving a decrease in reactive oxygen species production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Zhe; Yu, Shu-Yi; Mo, Dan; Tang, Xiu-Neng; Shao, Qing-Rui

    2015-02-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS)‑induced mitochondrial dysfunction plays an important role in cardiomyocyte apoptosis during myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Picroside Ⅱ, isolated from Picrorhiza scrophulariiflora Pennell (Scrophulariaceae), has been reported to protect cardiomyocytes from hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)‑induced apoptosis, but the exact mechanism is not fully clear. The aim of the present study was to explore the protective effects of picroside Ⅱ on H/R‑induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis and the underlying mechanism. In the H9c2 rat cardiomyocyte cell line, picroside Ⅱ (100 µg/ml) was added for 48 h prior to H/R. The results showed that picroside Ⅱ markedly inhibited H/R‑induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. In addition, picroside Ⅱ was also able to decrease the opening degree of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP), increase the mitochondrial membrane potential, inhibit cytochrome c release from mitochondria to cytosol and downregulate caspase‑3 expression and activity concomitantly with the decreased ROS production. These results suggested that picroside Ⅱ inhibited H/R‑induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis by ameliorating mitochondrial function through a mechanism involving a decrease in ROS production.

  11. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells transplantation improves cognitive function in Alzheimer's disease mice by decreasing oxidative stress and promoting hippocampal neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, YuanBo; Ma, ShanShan; Zhang, ChunYan; Cao, Wei; Liu, Min; Li, DongPeng; Lv, PengJu; Xing, Qu; Qu, RuiNa; Yao, Ning; Yang, Bo; Guan, FangXia

    2017-03-01

    Stem cell transplantation represents a promising therapy for central nervous system injuries, but its application to Alzheimer's disease (AD) is still limited and the potential mechanism for cognition improvement remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we used Tg2576 mice which express AD-like pathological forms of amyloid precursor protein (APP) to investigate the effects of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) intravenous transplantation on AD mice. Interestingly, hUC-MSCs transplantation significantly ameliorated cognitive function of AD mice without altering Aβ levels in hippocampus. Remarkably, hUC-MSCs transplantation reduced oxidative stress in hippocampus of AD mice by decreasing the level of malondialdehyde (MDA), increasing the level of nitric oxide (NO), enhancing the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). The mechanisms underlying the improved cognitive function may be linked to hippocampal neurogenesis and an up-regulation of neuronal synaptic plasticity related proteins levels including silent information regulator 1 (Sirt1), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and synaptophysin (SYN). Taken together, our findings suggest that hUC-MSCs can improve cognition of AD mice by decreasing oxidative stress and promoting hippocampal neurogenesis. These results suggest that modulating hUC-MSCs to generate excess neuroprotective factors could provide a viable therapy to treat AD.

  12. Non-Monotonic Relation Between Noise Exposure Severity and Neuronal Hyperactivity in the Auditory Midbrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Li Hesse

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of tinnitus can be linked to hearing loss in the majority of cases, but there is nevertheless a large degree of unexplained heterogeneity in the relation between hearing loss and tinnitus. Part of the problem might be that hearing loss is usually quantified in terms of increased hearing thresholds, which only provides limited information about the underlying cochlear damage. Moreover, noise exposure that does not cause hearing threshold loss can still lead to hidden hearing loss (HHL, i.e. functional deafferentation of auditory nerve fibres (ANFs through loss of synaptic ribbons in inner hair cells. Whilst it is known that increased hearing thresholds can trigger increases in spontaneous neural activity in the central auditory system, i.e. a putative neural correlate of tinnitus, the central effects of HHL have not yet been investigated. Here, we exposed mice to octave-band noise at 100 and 105 dB SPL, to generate HHL and permanent increases of hearing thresholds, respectively. Deafferentation of ANFs was confirmed through measurement of auditory brainstem responses and cochlear immunohistochemistry. Acute extracellular recordings from the auditory midbrain (inferior colliculus demonstrated increases in spontaneous neuronal activity (a putative neural correlate of tinnitus in both groups. Surprisingly the increase in spontaneous activity was most pronounced in the mice with HHL, suggesting that the relation between hearing loss and neuronal hyperactivity might be more complex than currently understood. Our computational model indicated that these differences in neuronal hyperactivity could arise from different degrees of deafferentation of low-threshold ANFs in the two exposure groups.Our results demonstrate that HHL is sufficient to induce changes in central auditory processing, and they also indicate a non-monotonic relationship between cochlear damage and neuronal hyperactivity, suggesting an explanation for why tinnitus might

  13. A functional 12T-insertion polymorphism in the ATP1A1 promoter confers decreased susceptibility to hypertension in a male Sardinian population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria L Herrera

    Full Text Available Identification of susceptibility genes for essential hypertension in humans has been a challenge due to its multifactorial pathogenesis complicated by gene-gene and gene-environment interactions, developmental programing and sex specific differences. These concurrent features make identification of causal hypertension susceptibility genes with a single approach difficult, thus requiring multiple lines of evidence involving genetic, biochemical and biological experimentation to establish causal functional mutations. Here we report experimental evidence encompassing genetic, biochemical and in vivo modeling that altogether support ATP1A1 as a hypertension susceptibility gene in males in Sardinia, Italy. ATP1A1 encodes the α1Na,K-ATPase isoform, the sole sodium pump in vascular endothelial and renal tubular epithelial cells. DNA-sequencing detected a 12-nucleotide long thymidine (12T insertion(ins/deletion(del polymorphism within a poly-T sequence (38T vs 26T in the ATP1A1 5'-regulatory region associated with hypertension in a male Sardinian population. The 12T-insertion allele confers decreased susceptibility to hypertension (P = 0.035; OR = 0.50 [0.28-0.93] accounting for 12.1 mmHg decrease in systolic BP (P = 0.02 and 6.6 mmHg in diastolic BP (P = 0.046. The ATP1A1 promoter containing the 12T-insertion exhibited decreased transcriptional activity in in vitro reporter-assay systems, indicating decreased α1Na,K-ATPase expression with the 12T-insertion, compared with the 12T-deletion ATP1A1 promoter. To test the effects of decreased α1Na,K-ATPase expression on blood pressure, we measured blood pressure by radiotelemetry in three month-old, highly inbred heterozygous knockout ATP1A1+/- male mice with resultant 58% reduction in ATP1A1 protein levels. Male ATP1A1+/- mice showed significantly lower blood pressure (P < 0.03 than age-matched male wild-type littermate controls. Concordantly, lower ATP1A1 expression is expected to lower Na

  14. Physical chemistry of polyglutamine: intriguing tales of a monotonous sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, Ronald

    2012-08-24

    Polyglutamine (polyQ) sequences of unknown normal function are present in a significant number of proteins, and their repeat expansion is associated with a number of genetic neurodegenerative diseases. PolyQ solution structure and properties are important not only because of the normal and abnormal biology associated with these sequences but also because they represent an interesting case of a biologically relevant homopolymer. As the common thread in expanded polyQ repeat diseases, it is important to understand the structure and properties of simple polyQ sequences. At the same time, experience has shown that sequences attached to polyQ, whether in artificial constructs or in disease proteins, can influence structure and properties. The two major contenders for the molecular source of the neurotoxicity implicit in polyQ expansion within disease proteins are a populated toxic conformation in the monomer ensemble and a toxic aggregated species. This review summarizes experimental and computational studies on the solution structure and aggregation properties of both simple and complex polyQ sequences, and their repeat-length dependence. As a representative of complex polyQ proteins, the behavior of huntingtin N-terminal fragments, such as exon-1, receives special attention. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The effect of pain on physical functioning after breast cancer treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kenneth G.; Christensen, Karl B.; Kehlet, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Persistent postsurgical pain, musculoskeletal pain, sensory disturbances, and lymphedema are major clinical problems after treatment for breast cancer. However, there is little evidence on how these sequelae affects physical function. The aim this study was to develop and validate...... disturbances, lymphedema, and other causes. Convergent validity was assessed using the Quick-Dsability of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand Scale (Q-DASH). Results: About half of the patients reported decreased physical function. All 5 scales displayed good fit, unidimensionality, monotonicity, local independence...

  16. Mathematical Modeling of Column-Base Connections under Monotonic Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Abdollahzadeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Some considerable damage to steel structures during the Hyogo-ken Nanbu Earthquake occurred. Among them, many exposed-type column bases failed in several consistent patterns, such as brittle base plate fracture, excessive bolt elongation, unexpected early bolt failure, and inferior construction work, etc. The lessons from these phenomena led to the need for improved understanding of column base behavior. Joint behavior must be modeled when analyzing semi-rigid frames, which is associated with a mathematical model of the moment–rotation curve. The most accurate model uses continuous nonlinear functions. This article presents three areas of steel joint research: (1 analysis methods of semi-rigid joints; (2 prediction methods for the mechanical behavior of joints; (3 mathematical representations of the moment–rotation curve. In the current study, a new exponential model to depict the moment–rotation relationship of column base connection is proposed. The proposed nonlinear model represents an approach to the prediction of M–θ curves, taking into account the possible failure modes and the deformation characteristics of the connection elements. The new model has three physical parameters, along with two curve-fitted factors. These physical parameters are generated from dimensional details of the connection, as well as the material properties. The M–θ curves obtained by the model are compared with published connection tests and 3D FEM research. The proposed mathematical model adequately comes close to characterizing M–θ behavior through the full range of loading/rotations. As a result, modeling of column base connections using the proposed mathematical model can give crucial beforehand information, and overcome the disadvantages of time consuming workmanship and cost of experimental studies.

  17. Decreasing relative risk premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    2007-01-01

    We consider the risk premium demanded by a decision maker in order to be indifferent between obtaining a new level of wealth with certainty, or to participate in a lottery which either results in unchanged wealth or an even higher level than what can be obtained with certainty. We study preferences...... such that the corresponding relative risk premium is a decreasing function of present wealth, and we determine the set of associated utility functions. We find a new characterization of risk vulnerability and determine a large set of utility functions, closed under summation and composition, which are both risk vulnerable...... and have decreasing relative risk premium. We finally introduce the notion of partial risk neutral preferences on binary lotteries and show that partial risk neutrality is equivalent to preferences with decreasing relative risk premium...

  18. The role of monotonicity in the epistemic analysis of strategic games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apt, K.R.; Zvesper, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    It is well-known that in finite strategic games true common belief (or common knowledge) of rationality implies that the players will choose only strategies that survive the iterated elimination of strictly dominated strategies. We establish a general theorem that deals with monotonic rationality no

  19. A Min-max Relation for Monotone Path Systems in Simple Regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cameron, Kathleen

    1996-01-01

    A monotone path system (MPS) is a finite set of pairwise disjointpaths (polygonal arcs) in the plane such that every horizontal line intersectseach of the paths in at most one point. We consider a simple polygon in thexy-plane which bounds the simple polygonal (closed) region D. Let T and B betwo...

  20. On extension results for n-cyclically monotone operators in reflexive Banach spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Bot, Radu Ioan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we provide some extension results for n-cyclically monotone operators in reflexive Banach spaces by making use of the Fenchel duality. In this way we give a positive answer to a question posed by Bauschke and Wang in [4].

  1. Iterative convergence theorems for maximal monotone operators and relatively nonexpansive mappings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Li; SU Yong-fu; ZHOU Hai-yun

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, some iterative schemes for approximating the common element of the set of zero points of maximal monotone operators and the set of fixed points of relatively nonexpansive mappings in a real uniformly smooth and uniformly convex Banach space are proposed. Some strong convergence theorems are obtained, to extend the previous work.

  2. Eigenvalue for Densely Defined Perturbations of Multivalued Maximal Monotone Operators in Reflexive Banach Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boubakari Ibrahimou

    2013-01-01

    maximal monotone with and . Using the topological degree theory developed by Kartsatos and Quarcoo we study the eigenvalue problem where the operator is a single-valued of class . The existence of continuous branches of eigenvectors of infinite length then could be easily extended to the case where the operator is multivalued and is investigated.

  3. Grammatical Complexity of One—Dimensional Maps with Mutiple Monotone Intervals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YiWANG

    1999-01-01

    The piecewise monotonic maps on an interval are studied with the tools from the theory of formal language, A necessary and sufficient condition for the languages being regular is obtained.A result about the relation between languages and maps is proved for the continuous case.

  4. Hausdorff methods for approximating the convex Edgeworth-Pareto hull in integer problems with monotone objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pospelov, A. I.

    2016-08-01

    Adaptive methods for the polyhedral approximation of the convex Edgeworth-Pareto hull in multiobjective monotone integer optimization problems are proposed and studied. For these methods, theoretical convergence rate estimates with respect to the number of vertices are obtained. The estimates coincide in order with those for filling and augmentation H-methods intended for the approximation of nonsmooth convex compact bodies.

  5. On the Monotonicity and Log-Convexity of a Four-Parameter Homogeneous Mean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhen-Hang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A four-parameter homogeneous mean is defined by another approach. The criterion of its monotonicity and logarithmically convexity is presented, and three refined chains of inequalities for two-parameter mean values are deduced which contain many new and classical inequalities for means.

  6. Travelling Wave Solutions in Delayed Reaction Diffusion Systems with Partial Monotonicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-hua Huang; Xing-fu Zou

    2006-01-01

    This paper deals with the existence of travelling wave fronts of delayed reaction diffusion systems with partial quasi-monotonicity. We propose a concept of "desirable pair of upper-lower solutions", through which a subset can be constructed. We then apply the Schauder's fixed point theorem to some appropriate operator in this subset to obtain the existence of the travelling wave fronts.

  7. Generic Form of Bayesian Monte Carlo For Models With Partial Monotonicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajabalinejad, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a generic method for the safety assessments of models with partial monotonicity. For this purpose, a Bayesian interpolation method is developed and implemented in the Monte Carlo process. integrated approach is the generalization of the recently developed techniques used in safet

  8. Generic form of Bayesian Monte Carlo for models with partial monotonicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajabalinejad, M.; Spitas, C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a generic method for the safety assessments of models with partial monotonicity. For this purpose, a Bayesian interpolation method is developed and implemented in the Monte Carlo process. integrated approach is the generalization of the recently developed techniques used in safet

  9. Stochastic Approximations and Monotonicity of a Single Server Feedback Retrial Queue

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on stochastic comparison of the Markov chains to derive some qualitative approximations for an M/G/1 retrial queue with a Bernoulli feedback. The main objective is to use stochastic ordering techniques to establish various monotonicity results with respect to arrival rates, service time distributions, and retrial parameters.

  10. Stochastic Approximations and Monotonicity of a Single Server Feedback Retrial Queue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Boualem

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on stochastic comparison of the Markov chains to derive some qualitative approximations for an M/G/1 retrial queue with a Bernoulli feedback. The main objective is to use stochastic ordering techniques to establish various monotonicity results with respect to arrival rates, service time distributions, and retrial parameters.

  11. A cross-monotonic cost sharing method for the facility location game with service installation costs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU DaChuan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the metric uncapacitated facility location game with service installation costs. Our main result is an 11-approximate cross-monotonic cost-sharing method under the assumption that the installation cost depends only on the service type.

  12. A cross-monotonic cost sharing method for the facility location game with service installation costs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In this paper,we consider the metric uncapacitated facility location game with service installation costs. Our main result is an 11-approximate cross-monotonic cost-sharing method under the assumption that the installation cost depends only on the service type.

  13. Non-Payoff Monotonic Dynamics in an Evolutionary Game of Courtship

    CERN Document Server

    Chacoma, Andrés; Zanette, Damián H

    2015-01-01

    We propose an evolutionary coordination game to formalize a simplified model of the evolution of strategies during human courtship. The dynamics, derived from the consideration of experimental observations on human social behavior driven by self-esteem, turns out to be non-payoff monotonic. This property gives rise to nontrivial evolution in the players' strategies, which we study both numerically and analytically.

  14. The product of capacities and belief functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendon, Ebbe; Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen; Sloth, Birgitte

    1996-01-01

    Capacities (monotone, non-additive set functions) have been suggested to describe situations of uncertainty. We examine the question of how to define the product of two independent capacities. In particular, for the product of two belief functions (totally monotone capacities), there is a unique...... minimal product belief function. This is characterized in several ways....

  15. Behavioral deficit and decreased GABA receptor functional regulation in the cerebellum of epileptic rats: effect of Bacopa monnieri and bacoside A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Jobin; Peeyush Kumar, T; Khan, Reas S; Paulose, C S

    2010-04-01

    In the present study, the effects of Bacopa monnieri and its active component, bacoside A, on motor deficit and alterations of GABA receptor functional regulation in the cerebellum of epileptic rats were investigated. Scatchard analysis of [(3)H]GABA and [(3)H]bicuculline in the cerebellum of epileptic rats revealed a significant decrease in B(max) compared with control. Real-time polymerase chain reaction amplification of GABA(A) receptor subunits-GABA(Aalpha1), GABA(Aalpha5,) and GABA(Adelta)-was downregulated (Pbacoside A reversed these changes to near-control levels. Our results suggest that changes in GABAergic activity, motor learning, and memory deficit are induced by the occurrence of repetitive seizures. Treatment with B. monnieri and bacoside A prevents the occurrence of seizures thereby reducing the impairment of GABAergic activity, motor learning, and memory deficit.

  16. Fresh pomegranate juice ameliorates insulin resistance, enhances β-cell function, and decreases fasting serum glucose in type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banihani, S A; Makahleh, S M; El-Akawi, Z; Al-Fashtaki, R A; Khabour, O F; Gharibeh, M Y; Saadah, N A; Al-Hashimi, F H; Al-Khasieb, N J

    2014-10-01

    Although the effects of pomegranate juice (PJ) on type 2 diabetic (T2D) conditions have been reported, a clinical study focusing on the short-term effects on different diabetic variables is still needed. We hypothesized that PJ consumption by T2D patients could reduce their insulin-resistant state and decrease their fasting serum glucose (FSG) levels, 3 hours after juice ingestion. This study demonstrated the direct effect of fresh PJ on FSG and insulin levels in T2D patients. Blood samples from 85 participants with type 2 diabetes were collected after a 12-hour fast, then 1 and 3 hours after administration of 1.5 mL of PJ, per kg body weight. Serum glucose was measured based on standard methods using the BS-200 Chemistry Analyzer (Shenzhen Mindray Bio-Medical Electronics Co Ltd, Shenzhen, China). Commercially available immunoassay kits were used to measure human insulin. Generally, the results demonstrated decreased FSG, increased β-cell function, and decreased insulin resistance among T2D participants, 3 hours after PJ administration (P < .05). This hypoglycemic response depended on initial FSG levels, as participants with lower FSG levels (7.1-8.7 mmol/L) demonstrated a greater hypoglycemic response (P < .05) compared with those who had higher FSG levels (8.8-15.8 mmol/L). The effect of PJ was also not affected by the sex of the patient and was less potent in elderly patients. In conclusion, this work offers some encouragement for T2D patients regarding PJ consumption as an additional contribution to control glucose levels.

  17. Impaired Functions of Macrophage from Cystic Fibrosis Patients: CD11b, TLR-5 Decrease and sCD14, Inflammatory Cytokines Increase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonin-Le Jeune, Karin; Le Jeune, André; Jouneau, Stéphane; Belleguic, Chantal; Roux, Pierre-François; Jaguin, Marie; Dimanche-Boitre, Marie-Thérèse; Lecureur, Valérie; Leclercq, Caroline; Desrues, Benoît; Brinchault, Graziella; Gangneux, Jean-Pierre; Martin-Chouly, Corinne

    2013-01-01

    Background Early in life, cystic fibrosis (CF) patients are infected with microorganisms. The role of macrophages has largely been underestimated in literature, whereas the focus being mostly on neutrophils and epithelial cells. Macrophages may however play a significant role in the initiating stages of this disease, via an inability to act as a suppressor cell. Yet macrophage dysfunction may be the first step in cascade of events leading to chronic inflammation/infection in CF. Moreover, reports have suggested that CFTR contribute to altered inflammatory response in CF by modification of normal macrophage functions. Objectives In order to highlight possible intrinsic macrophage defects due to impaired CFTR, we have studied inflammatory cytokines secretions, recognition of pathogens and phagocytosis in peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages from stable adult CF patients and healthy subjects (non-CF). Results In CF macrophage supernatants, concentrations of sCD14, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and IL-10 were strongly raised. Furthermore expression of CD11b and TLR-5 were sorely decreased on CF macrophages. Beside, no difference was observed for mCD14, CD16, CD64, TLR-4 and TLR1/TLR-2 expressions. Moreover, a strong inhibition of phagocytosis was observed for CF macrophages. Elsewhere CFTR inhibition in non-CF macrophages also led to alterations of phagocytosis function as well as CD11b expression. Conclusions Altogether, these findings demonstrate excessive inflammation in CF macrophages, characterized by overproduction of sCD14 and inflammatory cytokines, with decreased expression of CD11b and TLR-5, and impaired phagocytosis. This leads to altered clearance of pathogens and non-resolution of infection by CF macrophages, thereby inducing an exaggerated pro-inflammatory response. PMID:24098711

  18. Universal non-monotonic structure in the saturation curves of MOT-loaded Na$^+$ ions stored in an ion-neutral hybrid trap: Prediction and observation

    CERN Document Server

    Blümel, R; Goodman, D S; Kwolek, J M; Smith, W W

    2015-01-01

    We predict that the steady-state ion number $N_s$ for radio-frequency (rf) traps, loaded at a rate of $\\lambda$ particles per unit time, shows universal non-monotonic behavior as a function of loading rate $\\lambda$. The shape of $N_s(\\lambda)$, characterized by four dynamical regions, is universal in the sense that it is predicted to manifest itself in all rf traps independently of the details of their construction. For $\\lambda\\ll$ 1 particles / rf cycle (Region I), as expected, $N_s(\\lambda)$ increases monotonically with $\\lambda$. However, contrary to intuition, at intermediate $\\lambda \\sim 1$ particles / rf cycle (Region II), $N_s(\\lambda)$ reaches a maximum, followed by a minimum of $N_s(\\lambda)$ (Region III). For $\\lambda\\gg 1$ particles / rf cycle (Region IV), $N_s(\\lambda)$ again rises monotonically. In Region IV numerical simulations, analytical calculations, and experiments show $N_s(\\lambda)\\sim \\lambda^{2/3}$. We confirm this prediction experimentally with MOT-loaded Na$^+$ ions stored in a hyb...

  19. Increase in short-chain ceramides correlates with an altered lipid organization and decreased barrier function in atopic eczema patients[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Michelle; van Smeden, Jeroen; Gooris, Gert S.; Bras, Wim; Portale, Guiseppe; Caspers, Peter J.; Vreeken, Rob J.; Hankemeier, Thomas; Kezic, Sanja; Wolterbeek, Ron; Lavrijsen, Adriana P.; Bouwstra, Joke A.

    2012-01-01

    A hallmark of atopic eczema (AE) is skin barrier dysfunction. Lipids in the stratum corneum (SC), primarily ceramides, fatty acids, and cholesterol, are crucial for the barrier function, but their role in relation to AE is indistinct. Filaggrin is an epithelial barrier protein with a central role in the pathogenesis of AE. Nevertheless, the precise causes of AE-associated barrier dysfunction are largely unknown. In this study, a comprehensive analysis of ceramide composition and lipid organization in nonlesional SC of AE patients and control subjects was performed by means of mass spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. In addition, the skin barrier and clinical state of the disease were examined. The level of ceramides with an extreme short chain length is drastically increased in SC of AE patients, which leads to an aberrant lipid organization and a decreased skin barrier function. Changes in SC lipid properties correlate with disease severity but are independent of filaggrin mutations. We demonstrate for the first time that changes in ceramide chain length and lipid organization are directly correlated with the skin barrier defects in nonlesional skin of AE patients. We envisage that these insights will provide a new therapeutic entry in therapy and prevention of AE. PMID:23024286

  20. Impaired progenitor cell function in HIV-negative infants of HIV-positive mothers results in decreased thymic output and low CD4 counts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S D; Jeppesen, D L; Kolte, L

    2001-01-01

    Hematologic and immunologic functions were examined in 19 HIV-negative infants of HIV-positive mothers and 19 control infants of HIV-negative mothers. Control infants were selected to match for gestational age, weight, and mode of delivery. Cord blood was obtained from all infants and used for flow...... and fetal thymic organ cultures (FTOCs). Lower naive CD4 counts (459.3 +/- 68.9 vs 1128.9 +/- 146.8 cells/microL, P HIV-positive mothers were found (frequency of CD4(+) cells with TRECs was 3.6% +/- 0.7% compared with 14.3% +/- 2.2% in controls, P ...). In combination with lower red blood cell counts in infants of HIV-positive mothers, this finding suggested impairment of progenitor cell function. Indeed, progenitors from infants of HIV-positive mothers had decreased cloning efficiency (15.7% +/- 2.6% vs 55.8% +/- 15.9%, P =.009) and seemed to generate fewer T...

  1. Pulmonary rehabilitation coupled with negative pressure ventilation decreases decline in lung function, hospitalizations, and medical cost in COPD: A 5-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hung-Yu; Chou, Pai-Chien; Joa, Wen-Ching; Chen, Li-Fei; Sheng, Te-Fang; Lin, Horng-Chyuan; Yang, Lan-Yan; Pan, Yu-Bin; Chung, Fu-Tsai; Wang, Chun-Hua; Kuo, Han-Pin

    2016-10-01

    Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) brings benefits to patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Negative pressure ventilation (NPV) increases ventilation and decreases hyperinflation as well as breathing work in COPD. We evaluated the long-term effects of a hospital-based PR program coupled with NPV support in patients with COPD on clinical outcomes.One hundred twenty-nine patients with COPD were followed up for more than 5 years, with the NPV group (n = 63) receiving the support of NPV (20-30 cm H2O delivery pressure for 60 min) and unsupervised home exercise program of 20 to 30 min daily walk, while the control group (n = 6) only received unsupervised home exercise program. Pulmonary function tests and 6 min walk tests (6MWT) were performed every 3 to 6 months. Emergency room (ER) visits and hospitalization with medical costs were recorded.A significant time-by-group interaction in the yearly decline of forced expiratory volume in 1 s in the control group analyzed by mixed-model repeated-measure analysis was found (P = 0.048). The 6MWT distance of the NPV group was significantly increased during the first 4 years, with the interaction of time and group (P = 0.003), the time alone (P = 0.014), and the quadratic time (P function, exacerbations, and hospitalization rates, and improved walking distance and medical costs in patients with COPD during a 5-year observation.

  2. Modelling the drained response of bucket foundations for offshore wind turbines under general monotonic and cyclic loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foglia, Aligi; Gottardi, Guido; Govoni, Laura;

    2015-01-01

    The response of bucket foundations on sand subjected to planar monotonic and cyclic loading is investigated in the paper. Thirteen monotonic and cyclic laboratory tests on a skirted footing model having a 0.3 m diameter and embedment ratio equal to 1 are presented. The loading regime reproduces t...

  3. Gain-of-function R225W mutation in human AMPKgamma(3 causing increased glycogen and decreased triglyceride in skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila R Costford

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK is a heterotrimeric enzyme that is evolutionarily conserved from yeast to mammals and functions to maintain cellular and whole body energy homeostasis. Studies in experimental animals demonstrate that activation of AMPK in skeletal muscle protects against insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and obesity. The regulatory gamma(3 subunit of AMPK is expressed exclusively in skeletal muscle; however, its importance in controlling overall AMPK activity is unknown. While evidence is emerging that gamma subunit mutations interfere specifically with AMP activation, there remains some controversy regarding the impact of gamma subunit mutations. Here we report the first gain-of-function mutation in the muscle-specific regulatory gamma(3 subunit in humans. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We sequenced the exons and splice junctions of the AMPK gamma(3 gene (PRKAG3 in 761 obese and 759 lean individuals, identifying 87 sequence variants including a novel R225W mutation in subjects from two unrelated families. The gamma(3 R225W mutation is homologous in location to the gamma(2R302Q mutation in patients with Wolf-Parkinson-White syndrome and to the gamma(3R225Q mutation originally linked to an increase in muscle glycogen content in purebred Hampshire Rendement Napole (RN- pigs. We demonstrate in differentiated muscle satellite cells obtained from the vastus lateralis of R225W carriers that the mutation is associated with an approximate doubling of both basal and AMP-activated AMPK activities. Moreover, subjects bearing the R225W mutation exhibit a approximately 90% increase of skeletal muscle glycogen content and a approximately 30% decrease in intramuscular triglyceride (IMTG. CONCLUSIONS: We have identified for the first time a mutation in the skeletal muscle-specific regulatory gamma(3 subunit of AMPK in humans. The gamma(3R225W mutation has significant functional effects as demonstrated by increases in basal and AMP

  4. The phosphodiesterase type 2 inhibitor BAY 60-7550 reverses functional impairments induced by brain ischemia by decreasing hippocampal neurodegeneration and enhancing hippocampal neuronal plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Ligia Mendes; Meyer, Erika; Milani, Humberto; Steinbusch, Harry W M; Prickaerts, Jos; de Oliveira, Rúbia M Weffort

    2017-02-01

    Cognitive and affective impairments are the most characterized consequences following cerebral ischemia. BAY 60-7550, a selective phosphodiesterase type 2 inhibitor (PDE2-I), presents memory-enhancing and anxiolytic-like properties. The behavioral effects of BAY 60-7550 have been associated with its ability to prevent hydrolysis of both cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) thereby interfering with neuronal plasticity. Here, we hypothesize that PDE2-I treatment could promote functional recovery after brain ischemia. Mice C57Bl/6 were submitted to bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO), an experimental model of transient brain ischemia, for 20 min. During 21 days after reperfusion, the animals were tested in a battery of behavioral tests including the elevated zero maze (EZM), object location task (OLT) and forced swim test (FST). The effects of BAY 60-7550 were evaluated on neuronal nuclei (NeuN), caspase-9, cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), phosphorylated CREB (pCREB) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the hippocampus. BCCAO increased anxiety levels, impaired hippocampus-dependent cognitive function and induced despair-like behavior in mice. Hippocampal neurodegeneration was evidenced by a decrease in NeuN and increase incaspase-9 protein levels in BCCAO mice. Ischemic mice also showed low BDNF protein levels in the hippocampus. Repeated treatment with BAY 60-7550 attenuated the behavioral impairments induced by BCCAO in mice. Concomitantly, BAY 60-7550 enhanced expression of pCREB and BDNF protein levels in the hippocampus of ischemic mice. The present findings suggest that chronic inhibition of PDE2 provides functional recovery in BCCAO mice possibly by augmenting hippocampal neuronal plasticity.

  5. Decreasing Relative Risk Premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    We consider the risk premium demanded by a decision maker with wealth x in order to be indifferent between obtaining a new level of wealth y1 with certainty, or to participate in a lottery which either results in unchanged present wealth or a level of wealth y2 > y1. We define the relative risk...... premium as the quotient between the risk premium and the increase in wealth y1–x which the decision maker puts on the line by choosing the lottery in place of receiving y1 with certainty. We study preferences such that the relative risk premium is a decreasing function of present wealth, and we determine...... relative risk premium in the small implies decreasing relative risk premium in the large, and decreasing relative risk premium everywhere implies risk aversion. We finally show that preferences with decreasing relative risk premium may be equivalently expressed in terms of certain preferences on risky...

  6. Effect of Pulse Polarity on Thresholds and on Non-monotonic Loudness Growth in Cochlear Implant Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macherey, Olivier; Carlyon, Robert P; Chatron, Jacques; Roman, Stéphane

    2017-01-30

    Most cochlear implants (CIs) activate their electrodes non-simultaneously in order to eliminate electrical field interactions. However, the membrane of auditory nerve fibers needs time to return to its resting state, causing the probability of firing to a pulse to be affected by previous pulses. Here, we provide new evidence on the effect of pulse polarity and current level on these interactions. In experiment 1, detection thresholds and most comfortable levels (MCLs) were measured in CI users for 100-Hz pulse trains consisting of two consecutive biphasic pulses of the same or of opposite polarity. All combinations of polarities were studied: anodic-cathodic-anodic-cathodic (ACAC), CACA, ACCA, and CAAC. Thresholds were lower when the adjacent phases of the two pulses had the same polarity (ACCA and CAAC) than when they were different (ACAC and CACA). Some subjects showed a lower threshold for ACCA than for CAAC while others showed the opposite trend demonstrating that polarity sensitivity at threshold is genuine and subject- or electrode-dependent. In contrast, anodic (CAAC) pulses always showed a lower MCL than cathodic (ACCA) pulses, confirming previous reports. In experiments 2 and 3, the subjects compared the loudness of several pulse trains differing in current level separately for ACCA and CAAC. For 40 % of the electrodes tested, loudness grew non-monotonically as a function of current level for ACCA but never for CAAC. This finding may relate to a conduction block of the action potentials along the fibers induced by a strong hyperpolarization of their central processes. Further analysis showed that the electrodes showing a lower threshold for ACCA than for CAAC were more likely to yield a non-monotonic loudness growth. It is proposed that polarity sensitivity at threshold reflects the local neural health and that anodic asymmetric pulses should preferably be used to convey sound information while avoiding abnormal loudness percepts.

  7. Restricted Blood Flow Exercise in Sedentary, Overweight African-American Females May Increase Muscle Strength and Decrease Endothelial Function and Vascular Autoregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon Bond

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Exercise with partially restricted blood flow is a low-load, low-intensity resistance training regimen which may have the potential to increase muscle strength in the obese, elderly and frail who are unable to do high-load training. Restricted blood flow exercise has also been shown to affect blood vessel function variably and can, therefore, contribute to blood vessel dysfunction. This pilot study tests the hypothesis that unilateral resistance training of the leg extensors with partially restricted blood flow increases muscle strength and decreases vascular autoregulation. Methods: The subjects were nine normotensive, overweight, young adult African-Americans with low cardiorespiratory fitness who underwent unilateral training of the quadriceps’ femoris muscles with partially restricted blood flow at 30% of the 1-repetition maximum (1-RM load for 3 weeks. The 1-RM load and post-occlusion blood flow to the lower leg (calf were measured during reactive hyperemia. Results: The 1-RM load increased in the trained legs from 77 ± 3 to 84 ± 4 kg (P 0.1. Post-occlusion blood flow decreased significantly in the trained legs from 19 ± 2 to 13 ± 2 mL· min-1· dL-1 (P < 0.05 and marginally in the contralateral untrained legs from 18 ± 2 to 16 ± 1 mL· min-1· dL-1 (P = 0.09. Changes in post-occlusion blood flow to the skin overlying the trained and the contralateral untrained muscles were not significant. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that restricted blood flow exercise, which results in significant gains in muscle strength, may produce decrements in endothelial dysfunction and vascular autoregulation. Future studies should determine whether pharmacopuncture plays a role in treatments for such blood vessel dysfunction.

  8. Raptor ablation in skeletal muscle decreases Cav1.1 expression and affects the function of the excitation–contraction coupling supramolecular complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Rubén J.; Mosca, Barbara; Treves, Susan; Maj, Marcin; Bergamelli, Leda; Calderon, Juan C.; Bentzinger, C. Florian; Romanino, Klaas; Hall, Michael N.; Rüegg, Markus A.; Delbono, Osvaldo; Caputo, Carlo; Zorzato, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    The protein mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine/threonine kinase regulating a number of biochemical pathways controlling cell growth. mTOR exists in two complexes termed mTORC1 and mTORC2. Regulatory associated protein of mTOR (raptor) is associated with mTORC1 and is essential for its function. Ablation of raptor in skeletal muscle results in several phenotypic changes including decreased life expectancy, increased glycogen deposits and alterations of the twitch kinetics of slow fibres. In the present paper, we show that in muscle-specific raptor knockout (RamKO), the bulk of glycogen phosphorylase (GP) is mainly associated in its cAMP-non-stimulated form with sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) membranes. In addition, 3[H]–ryanodine and 3[H]–PN200-110 equilibrium binding show a ryanodine to dihydropyridine receptors (DHPRs) ratio of 0.79 and 1.35 for wild-type (WT) and raptor KO skeletal muscle membranes respectively. Peak amplitude and time to peak of the global calcium transients evoked by supramaximal field stimulation were not different between WT and raptor KO. However, the increase in the voltage sensor-uncoupled RyRs leads to an increase of both frequency and mass of elementary calcium release events (ECRE) induced by hyper-osmotic shock in flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) fibres from raptor KO. The present study shows that the protein composition and function of the molecular machinery involved in skeletal muscle excitation–contraction (E–C) coupling is affected by mTORC1 signalling. PMID:25431931

  9. Monotonic and Cyclic Behavior of DIN 34CrNiMo6 Tempered Alloy Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Branco

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at studying the monotonic and cyclic plastic deformation behavior of DIN 34CrNiMo6 high strength steel. Monotonic and low-cycle fatigue tests are conducted in ambient air, at room temperature, using standard 8-mm diameter specimens. The former tests are carried out under position control with constant displacement rate. The latter are performed under fully-reversed strain-controlled conditions, using the single-step test method, with strain amplitudes lying between ±0.4% and ±2.0%. After the tests, the fracture surfaces are examined by scanning electron microscopy in order to characterize the surface morphologies and identify the main failure mechanisms. Regardless of the strain amplitude, a softening behavior was observed throughout the entire life. Total strain energy density, defined as the sum of both tensile elastic and plastic strain energies, was revealed to be an adequate fatigue damage parameter for short and long lives.

  10. Characterisation of steel components under monotonic loading by means of image-based methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, J.; Pereira, J. C. R.; de Jesus, A. M. P.

    2014-02-01

    Ductile damage behaviour of S185 structural steel is determined by coupling numerical and experimental analyses. Monotonic experimental tests are carried out in five different specimen configurations. These mechanical tests are coupled with image-based methods for assessing displacement and strain fields over the gauge section. Three different ductile damage models proposed in the literature for monotonic loading are analysed. Their governing parameters are determined by comparing experimental and numerical mechanical responses. Measurements provided by digital image correlation and feature-tracking methods are used for calibrating and validating non-linear finite element modelling. Numerical analyses built in ANSYS are carried out to compute the necessary parameters (stress-strain and triaxiality histories) to calibrate Johnson-Cook (JC) and Kanvinde-Deierlein (KD) fracture criteria. Also, a calibration of the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman (GTN) model is performed based on an explicit finite element analysis in ABAQUS.

  11. Bounding and estimating an exceedance probability in output from monotonous time-consuming computer codes

    CERN Document Server

    Bousquet, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    This article deals with the estimation of a probability p of an undesirable event. Its occurence is formalized by the exceedance of a threshold reliability value by the unidimensional output of a time-consuming computer code G with multivariate probabilistic input X. When G is assumed monotonous with respect to X, the Monotonous Reliability Method was proposed by de Rocquigny (2009) in an engineering context to provide sequentially narrowing 100%-confidence bounds and a crude estimate of p, via deterministic or stochastic designs of experiments. The present article consists in a formalization and technical deepening of this idea, as a large basis for future theoretical and applied studies. Three kinds of results are especially emphasized. First, the bounds themselves remain too crude and conservative estimators of p for a dimension of X upper than 2. Second, a maximum-likelihood estimator of p can be easily built, presenting a high variance reduction with respect to a standard Monte Carlo case, but suffering ...

  12. Reverse estimation theory, Complementality between RLD and SLD, and monotone distances

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumoto, K

    2005-01-01

    Many problems in quantum information theory can be vied as interconversion between resources. In this talk, we apply this view point to state estimation theory, motivated by the following observations. First, a monotone metric takes value between SLD and RLD Fisher metric. This is quite analogous to the fact that entanglement measures are sandwiched by distillable entanglement and entanglement cost. Second, SLD add RLD are mutually complement via purification of density matrices, but its operational meaning was not clear. To find a link between these observations, we define reverse estimation problem, or simulation of quantum state family by probability distribution family, proving that RLD Fisher metric is a solution to local reverse estimation problem of quantum state family with 1-dim parameter. This result gives new proofs of some known facts and proves one new fact about monotone distances. We also investigate information geometry of RLD, and reverse estimation theory of a multi-dimensional parameter fam...

  13. On the geometry of a class of N-qubit entanglement monotones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levay, Peter [Department of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Physics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budafoki u. 8, H-1111 Budapest (Hungary)

    2005-10-14

    A family of N-qubit entanglement monotones invariant under stochastic local operations and classical communication (SLOCC) is defined. This class of entanglement monotones includes the well-known examples of the concurrence, the 3-tangle and some of the four-, five- and N-qubit SLOCC invariants introduced recently. The construction of these invariants is based on bipartite partitions of the Hilbert space in the form C{sup 2{sup }}N {approx_equal} C{sup L} x C{sup l} with L = 2{sup N-n} {>=} l = 2{sup n}. Such partitions can be given a nice geometrical interpretation in terms of Grassmannians Gr(L, l) of l-planes in C{sup L} that can be realized as the zero locus of quadratic polynomials in the complex projective space of suitable dimension via the Pluecker embedding. The invariants are neatly expressed in terms of the Pluecker coordinates of the Grassmannians.

  14. On the geometry of a class of N-qubit entanglement monotones

    CERN Document Server

    Levay, P

    2005-01-01

    A family of N-qubit entanglement monotones invariant under stochastic local operations and classical communication (SLOCC) is defined. This class of entanglement monotones includes the well-known examples of the concurrence, the three-tangle, and some of the four, five and N-qubit SLOCC invariants introduced recently. The construction of these invariants is based on bipartite partitions of the Hilbert space in the form ${\\bf C}^{2^N}\\simeq{\\bf C}^L\\otimes{\\bf C}^l$ with $L=2^{N-n}\\geq l=2^n$. Such partitions can be given a nice geometrical interpretation in terms of Grassmannians Gr(L,l) of l-planes in ${\\bf C}^L$ that can be realized as the zero locus of quadratic polinomials in the complex projective space of suitable dimension via the Plucker embedding. The invariants are neatly expressed in terms of the Plucker coordinates of the Grassmannian.

  15. Robust Monotonically Convergent Iterative Learning Control for Discrete-Time Systems via Generalized KYP Lemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Ding

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of P-type iterative learning control for a class of multiple-input multiple-output linear discrete-time systems, whose aim is to develop robust monotonically convergent control law design over a finite frequency range. It is shown that the 2 D iterative learning control processes can be taken as 1 D state space model regardless of relative degree. With the generalized Kalman-Yakubovich-Popov lemma applied, it is feasible to describe the monotonically convergent conditions with the help of linear matrix inequality technique and to develop formulas for the control gain matrices design. An extension to robust control law design against systems with structured and polytopic-type uncertainties is also considered. Two numerical examples are provided to validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  16. Reaching unanimous agreements within agent-based negotiation teams with linear and monotonic utility functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Anguix, Victor; Julian, Vicente; Botti, Vicente; García-Fornes, Ana

    2012-06-01

    In this article, an agent-based negotiation model for negotiation teams that negotiate a deal with an opponent is presented. Agent-based negotiation teams are groups of agents that join together as a single negotiation party because they share an interest that is related to the negotiation process. The model relies on a trusted mediator that coordinates and helps team members in the decisions that they have to take during the negotiation process: which offer is sent to the opponent, and whether the offers received from the opponent are accepted. The main strength of the proposed negotiation model is the fact that it guarantees unanimity within team decisions since decisions report a utility to team members that is greater than or equal to their aspiration levels at each negotiation round. This work analyzes how unanimous decisions are taken within the team and the robustness of the model against different types of manipulations. An empirical evaluation is also performed to study the impact of the different parameters of the model.

  17. Dynamics of a predator-prey model with non-monotonic response function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broer, H.W.; Saleh, K.; Naudot, V.; Roussarie, R.

    2007-01-01

    A five-parameter family of planar vector fields, which models the dynamics of certain populations of predators and their prey, is discussed. The family is a variation of the classical Volterra-Lotka system by taking into account group defense strategy, competition between prey and competition betwee

  18. A Predator-Prey Model with Non-Monotonic Response Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broer, H.W.; Naudot, V.; Roussarie, R.; Saleh, K.

    2006-01-01

    We study the dynamics of a family of planar vector fields that models certain populations of predators and their prey. This model is adapted from the standard Volterra-Lotka system by taking into account group defense, competition between prey and competition between predators. Also we initiate comp

  19. Boundary monotonicity formulae and applications to free boundary problems I: The elliptic case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg S. Weiss

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available We derive a monotonicity formula at boundary points for a class of nonlinear elliptic partial differential equations, including the obstacle problem case, quenching, a free boundary problem with Bernoulli-type free boundary condition as well as the blow-up case. As application model we prove - for Dirichlet boundary data satisfying certain assumptions - the global existence of a classical solution of the free boundary problem with Bernoulli-type free boundary condition in two and three dimensions.

  20. Asian Option Pricing with Monotonous Transaction Costs under Fractional Brownian Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Pan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Geometric-average Asian option pricing model with monotonous transaction cost rate under fractional Brownian motion was established. The method of partial differential equations was used to solve this model and the analytical expressions of the Asian option value were obtained. The numerical experiments show that Hurst exponent of the fractional Brownian motion and transaction cost rate have a significant impact on the option value.